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  1. Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Program Shows Potential in Reducing Symptoms of Depression and Stress among Young People with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillivray, J. A.; Evert, H. T.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the efficacy of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) delivered in groups on the reduction of symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress in young people on the autism spectrum. Utilising a quasi-experimental design, comparisons were made between individuals allocated to a group intervention program and individuals allocated to a…

  2. Acculturation and psychosocial stress show differential relationships to insulin resistance (HOMA) and body fat distribution in two groups of blacks living in the US Virgin Islands.

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    Tull, Eugene S.; Thurland, Anne; LaPorte, Ronald E.; Chambers, Earle C.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether acculturation and psychosocial stress exert differential effects on body fat distribution and insulin resistance among native-born African Americans and African-Caribbean immigrants living in the US Virgin Islands (USVI). Data collected from a non-diabetic sample of 183 USVI-born African Americans and 296 African-Caribbean immigrants age > 20 on the island of St. Croix, USVI were studied. Information on demographic characteristics, acculturation and psychosocial stress was collected by questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements were taken, and serum glucose and insulin were measured from fasting blood samples. Insulin resistance was estimated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) method. The results showed that in multivariate regression analyses, controlling for age, education, gender, BMI, waist circumference, family history of diabetes, smoking and alcohol consumption, acculturation was independently related to logarithm of HOMA (InHOMA) scores among USVI-born African Americans, but not among African-Caribbean immigrants. In contrast, among USVI-born African Americans psychosocial stress was not significantly related to InHOMA, while among African-Caribbean immigrants psychosocial stress was independently related to InHOMA in models that included BMI, but not in those which included waist circumference. This study suggests that acculturation and psychosocial stress may have a differential effect on body fat distribution and insulin resistance among native-born and immigrant blacks living in the US Virgin Islands. PMID:12911254

  3. Ovalbumin with Glycated Carboxyl Groups Shows Membrane-Damaging Activity

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    Ching-Chia Tang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate whether glycated ovalbumin (OVA showed novel activity at the lipid-water interface. Mannosylated OVA (Man-OVA was prepared by modification of the carboxyl groups with p-aminophenyl α-dextro (d-mannopyranoside. An increase in the number of modified carboxyl groups increased the membrane-damaging activity of Man-OVA on cell membrane-mimicking vesicles, whereas OVA did not induce membrane permeability in the tested phospholipid vesicles. The glycation of carboxyl groups caused a notable change in the gross conformation of OVA. Moreover, owing to their spatial positions, the Trp residues in Man-OVA were more exposed, unlike those in OVA. Fluorescence quenching studies suggested that the Trp residues in Man-OVA were located on the interface binds with the lipid vesicles, and their microenvironment was abundant in positively charged residues. Although OVA and Man-OVA showed a similar binding affinity for lipid vesicles, the lipid-interacting feature of Man-OVA was distinct from that of OVA. Chemical modification studies revealed that Lys and Arg residues, but not Trp residues, played a crucial role in the membrane-damaging activity of Man-OVA. Taken together, our data suggest that glycation of carboxyl groups causes changes in the structural properties and membrane-interacting features of OVA, generating OVA with membrane-perturbing activities at the lipid-water interface.

  4. OGJ group earnings show big gain for 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.J.; Sanders, V.

    1994-01-01

    Earnings for Oil and Gas Journal's group of 22 large US oil companies advanced sharply last year, increasing 70.9% from 1992. Group profits totaled $16.1 billion, with the gain stemming largely from lack of one time charges that depressed earnings in 1992. Adoption of new accounting rules associated with future postretirement costs caused the 1992 charges. US exploration and production earnings were mixed, tied in part to oil and gas production volumes. Higher gas prices and production helped boost earnings for a number of companies. But the earnings improvement from gas was offset by reduced oil production and prices. Results from non-U.S. E and P also were mixed. Average worldwide crude oil export prices were down from year earlier levels. However, for some companies this was offset by higher production levels and lower exploration costs. Earnings from refining and marketing were improved from 1992 levels, particularly for non-US operations. Lower feedstock costs, especially in the fourth quarter, helped boost earnings in this sector. Refining earnings gains also flowed from lower costs due to restructuring and an accompanying improvement in operating efficiency. The paper discusses world trends, operations and prices, US exploration and production, non-US E and P, US and non-US refining and marketing, petrochemicals, and the forecast for future demand

  5. I won't tell: Young children show loyalty to their group by keeping group secrets.

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    Misch, Antonia; Over, Harriet; Carpenter, Malinda

    2016-02-01

    Group loyalty is highly valued. However, little is known about young children's loyal behavior. This study tested whether 4- and 5-year-olds (N=96) remain loyal to their group even when betraying it would be materially advantageous. Children and four puppets were allocated to novel groups. Two of these puppets (either in-group or out-group members) then told children a group secret and urged them not to disclose the secret. Another puppet (not assigned to either group) then bribed children with stickers to tell the secret. Across ages, children were significantly less likely to reveal the secret in the in-group condition than in the out-group condition. Thus, even young children are willing to pay a cost to be loyal to their group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Stress and nurses' horizontal mobbing: moderating effects of group identity and group support.

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    Topa, Gabriela; Moriano, Juan A

    2013-01-01

    Horizontal mobbing is a process of systematic and repeated aggression towards a worker by coworkers. Among others, stress has been pointed out as one of the antecedents that favors the onset of horizontal mobbing, whereas group support to the target could act as a buffer. Moreover, the social identity approach emphasizes that group identity is an antecedent of group support. This study explores the interaction of group support and group identity in the explanation of horizontal mobbing in a sample (N = 388) of registered nurses and licensed practical nurses employed at two large hospitals in Madrid and Navarre (Spain). The results show that stress is positively associated to horizontal mobbing, whereas group support and group identity were negative predictors of horizontal mobbing. Furthermore, the combination of low group identity and low group support precipitated HM among nurses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Fish can show emotional fever: stress-induced hyperthermia in zebrafish.

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    Rey, Sonia; Huntingford, Felicity A; Boltaña, Sebastian; Vargas, Reynaldo; Knowles, Toby G; Mackenzie, Simon

    2015-11-22

    Whether fishes are sentient beings remains an unresolved and controversial question. Among characteristics thought to reflect a low level of sentience in fishes is an inability to show stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH), a transient rise in body temperature shown in response to a variety of stressors. This is a real fever response, so is often referred to as 'emotional fever'. It has been suggested that the capacity for emotional fever evolved only in amniotes (mammals, birds and reptiles), in association with the evolution of consciousness in these groups. According to this view, lack of emotional fever in fishes reflects a lack of consciousness. We report here on a study in which six zebrafish groups with access to a temperature gradient were either left as undisturbed controls or subjected to a short period of confinement. The results were striking: compared to controls, stressed zebrafish spent significantly more time at higher temperatures, achieving an estimated rise in body temperature of about 2-4°C. Thus, zebrafish clearly have the capacity to show emotional fever. While the link between emotion and consciousness is still debated, this finding removes a key argument for lack of consciousness in fishes. © 2015 The Authors.

  8. Competition in human groups-Impact on group cohesion, perceived stress and outcome satisfaction.

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    Boos, Margarete; Franiel, Xaver; Belz, Michael

    2015-11-01

    This study on competition in human groups was performed within the context of the competitive outcome interdependence concept: the degree to which personal outcomes among group members are affected by the consequences of task performance of others, e.g. when one group member gains a high reward for a task, this lowers the available reward for other group members. Our computer-based multi-participant game empirically assessed how competitive versus neutral conditions influenced the reward-maximising behaviour of 200 undergraduate students functioning in ten-person groups - each playing two games (1 neutral and 1 competitive), their perceived pay satisfaction as well as perceived stress levels and sense of calmness within the games' task to search for coins. Participants were represented by black dots moving on a virtual playground. Results showed that competition led to reward-maximising but fellow group member disadvantaging behaviour, and all participants experienced lower pay satisfaction, higher stress levels and less calmness. We conclude that short-term behavioural consequences of positive individual competitive behaviour were gained at the above-mentioned potential long-term negative costs for all group members. This implies group paradigms aimed at sustainability should avoid introducing competitive factors that at best result in short-lived gains and at worst cause widespread dissatisfaction, stress and a pervasive lack of calmness. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Sex and stress: Men and women show different cortisol responses to psychological stress induced by the Trier social stress test and the Iowa singing social stress test.

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    Reschke-Hernández, Alaine E; Okerstrom, Katrina L; Bowles Edwards, Angela; Tranel, Daniel

    2017-01-02

    Acute psychological stress affects each of us in our daily lives and is increasingly a topic of discussion for its role in mental illness, aging, cognition, and overall health. A better understanding of how such stress affects the body and mind could contribute to the development of more effective clinical interventions and prevention practices. Over the past 3 decades, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) has been widely used to induce acute stress in a laboratory setting based on the principles of social evaluative threat, namely, a judged speech-making task. A comparable alternative task may expand options for examining acute stress in a controlled laboratory setting. This study uses a within-subjects design to examine healthy adult participants' (n = 20 men, n = 20 women) subjective stress and salivary cortisol responses to the standard TSST (involving public speaking and math) and the newly created Iowa Singing Social Stress Test (I-SSST). The I-SSST is similar to the TSST but with a new twist: public singing. Results indicated that men and women reported similarly high levels of subjective stress in response to both tasks. However, men and women demonstrated different cortisol responses; men showed a robust response to both tasks, and women displayed a lesser response. These findings are in line with previous literature and further underscore the importance of examining possible sex differences throughout various phases of research, including design, analysis, and interpretation of results. Furthermore, this nascent examination of the I-SSST suggests a possible alternative for inducing stress in the laboratory. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A zebrafish model of glucocorticoid resistance shows serotonergic modulation of the stress response

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    Brian eGriffiths

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available One function of glucocorticoids is to restore homeostasis after an acute stress response by providing negative feedback to stress circuits in the brain. Loss of this negative feedback leads to elevated physiological stress and may contribute to depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. We investigated the early, developmental effects of glucocorticoid signaling deficits on stress physiology and related behaviors using a mutant zebrafish, grs357, with non-functional glucocorticoid receptors. These mutants are morphologically inconspicuous and adult-viable. A previous study of adult grs357 mutants showed loss of glucocorticoid-mediated negative feedback and elevated physiological and behavioral stress markers. Already at five days post-fertilization, mutant larvae had elevated whole body cortisol, increased expression of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC, the precursor of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, and failed to show normal suppression of stress markers after dexamethasone treatment. Mutant larvae had larger auditory-evoked startle responses compared to wildtype sibling controls (grwt, despite having lower spontaneous activity levels. Fluoxetine (Prozac treatment in mutants decreased startle responding and increased spontaneous activity, making them behaviorally similar to wildtype. This result mirrors known effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs in modifying glucocorticoid signaling and alleviating stress disorders in human patients. Our results suggest that larval grs357 zebrafish can be used to study behavioral, physiological and molecular aspects of stress disorders. Most importantly, interactions between glucocorticoid and serotonin signaling appear to be highly conserved among vertebrates, suggesting deep homologies at the neural circuit level and opening up new avenues for research into psychiatric conditions.

  11. Physical Stress Echocardiography: Prediction of Mortality and Cardiac Events in Patients with Exercise Test showing Ischemia

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    Ana Carla Pereira de Araujo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have demonstrated the diagnostic accuracy and prognostic value of physical stress echocardiography in coronary artery disease. However, the prediction of mortality and major cardiac events in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia is limited. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of physical stress echocardiography in the prediction of mortality and major cardiac events in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort in which 866 consecutive patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia, and who underwent physical stress echocardiography were studied. Patients were divided into two groups: with physical stress echocardiography negative (G1 or positive (G2 for myocardial ischemia. The endpoints analyzed were all-cause mortality and major cardiac events, defined as cardiac death and non-fatal acute myocardial infarction. Results: G2 comprised 205 patients (23.7%. During the mean 85.6 ± 15.0-month follow-up, there were 26 deaths, of which six were cardiac deaths, and 25 non-fatal myocardial infarction cases. The independent predictors of mortality were: age, diabetes mellitus, and positive physical stress echocardiography (hazard ratio: 2.69; 95% confidence interval: 1.20 - 6.01; p = 0.016. The independent predictors of major cardiac events were: age, previous coronary artery disease, positive physical stress echocardiography (hazard ratio: 2.75; 95% confidence interval: 1.15 - 6.53; p = 0.022 and absence of a 10% increase in ejection fraction. All-cause mortality and the incidence of major cardiac events were significantly higher in G2 (p < 0. 001 and p = 0.001, respectively. Conclusion: Physical stress echocardiography provides additional prognostic information in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia.

  12. Violent extremist group ecologies under stress.

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    Cebrian, Manuel; Torres, Manuel R; Huerta, Ramon; Fowler, James H

    2013-01-01

    Violent extremist groups are currently making intensive use of Internet fora for recruitment to terrorism. These fora are under constant scrutiny by security agencies, private vigilante groups, and hackers, who sometimes shut them down with cybernetic attacks. However, there is a lack of experimental and formal understanding of the recruitment dynamics of online extremist fora and the effect of strategies to control them. Here, we utilize data on ten extremist fora that we collected for four years to develop a data-driven mathematical model that is the first attempt to measure whether (and how) these external attacks induce extremist fora to self-regulate. The results suggest that an increase in the number of groups targeted for attack causes an exponential increase in the cost of enforcement and an exponential decrease in its effectiveness. Thus, a policy to occasionally attack large groups can be very efficient for limiting violent output from these fora.

  13. Group Cohesiveness, Deviation, Stress, and Conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-11

    Cola number of cups, __ Chocolate, cocoa, wine, beer/ alcohol , decaffeinated coffee. Breads containing raisins, prunes, orange peel , banana , or...conforming in order to get the group to accept them. In a study using a similar procedure, Kiesler and Corbin (1965) found that commitment to continue as...second lession, we’ll have subjects actually interact in a group problem solving task , so you’ll get a first hand view of each other’s ways of

  14. The effect of continuous grouping of pigs in large groups on stress response and haematological parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Birthe Marie; Studnitz, Merete; Jensen, Karin Hjelholt

    2009-01-01

    The consequences of an ‘all in-all out' static group of uniform age vs. a continuously dynamic group with litter introduction and exit every third week were examined with respect to stress response and haematological parameters in large groups of 60 pigs. The experiment included a total of 480 pigs...... from weaning at the age of 4 weeks to the age of 18 weeks after weaning. Limited differences were found in stress and haematological parameters between pigs in dynamic and static groups. The cortisol response to the stress test was increasing with the duration of the stress test in pigs from...... the dynamic group while it was decreasing in the static group. The health condition and the growth performance were reduced in the dynamic groups compared with the static groups. In the dynamic groups the haematological parameters indicated an activation of the immune system characterised by an increased...

  15. Stress Associated With Habitat Quality And Group Living In Ravens

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Thomas; Selva, Nuria; Cortes-Avizanda, Ainara; Lemus, Jesús Angel; Blanco, Guillermo; Heinrich, Bernd; Pugacewicz, Eugeniuz; Prins, Erik; Donázar, José A.

    2011-01-01

    Many long-lived avian species adopt life strategies that involve a gregarious way of life at juvenile and sub-adult stages and territoriality during adulthood. However, the potential associated costs of these life styles, such as stress, are poorly understood. Likewise the effects of habitat quality on stress are not well understood. We examined the effects of group living, habitat quality, sex, and parasite load on the baseline concentration of faecal stress hormone (corticosterone) metaboli...

  16. Satellite III non-coding RNAs show distinct and stress-specific patterns of induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, Sonali; Parihar, Rashmi; Ganesh, Subramaniam

    2009-01-01

    The heat shock response in human cells is associated with the transcription of satellite III repeats (SatIII) located in the 9q12 locus. Upon induction, the SatIII transcripts remain associated with the locus and recruit several transcription and splicing factors to form the nuclear stress bodies (nSBs). The nSBs are thought to modulate epigenetic changes during the heat shock response. We demonstrate here that the nSBs are induced by a variety of stressors and show stress-specific patterns of induction. While the transcription factor HSF1 is required for the induction of SatIII locus by the stressors tested, its specific role in the transcriptional process appears to be stress dependent. Our results suggest the existence of multiple transcriptional loci for the SatIII transcripts and that their activation might depend upon the type of stressors. Thus, induction of SatIII transcripts appears to be a generic response to a variety of stress conditions.

  17. The Lcn2-engineered HEK-293 cells show senescence under stressful condition

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    Bahareh Bahmani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Lipocalin2 (Lcn2 gene is highly expressed in response to various types of cellular stresses. The precise role of Lcn2 has not been fully understood yet. However, it plays a key role in controlling vital cellular processes such as proliferation, apoptosis and metabolism. Recently it was shown that Lcn2 decreases senescence and increases proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC with finite life span under either normal or oxidative stress conditions. However, Lcn2 effects on immortal cell line with infinite proliferation are not defined completely.  Materials and Material and Methods: HEK-293 cells were transfected with recombinant pcDNA3.1 containing Lcn2 fragment (pcDNA3.1-Lcn2. Expression of lipocalin2 in transfected cells was evaluated by RT-PCR, real time RT-PCR, and ELISA. Different cell groups were treated with H2O2 and WST-1 assay was performed to determine their proliferation rate. Senescence was studied by β-galactosidase and gimsa staining methods as well as evaluation of the expression of senescence-related genes by real time RT-PCR. Results: Lcn2 increased cell proliferation under normal culture condition, while the proliferation slightly decreased under oxidative stress.  This decrease was further found to be attributed to senescence. Conclusion: Our findings indicated that under harmful conditions, Lcn2 gene is responsible for the regulation of cell survival through senescence.

  18. Self-compassionate young adults show lower salivary alpha-amylase responses to repeated psychosocial stress.

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    Breines, Juliana G; McInnis, Christine M; Kuras, Yuliya I; Thoma, Myriam V; Gianferante, Danielle; Hanlin, Luke; Chen, Xuejie; Rohleder, Nicolas

    2015-10-01

    In this study we tested the hypothesis that participants higher in dispositional self-compassion would show lower stress-induced reactivity of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), a marker of sympathetic nervous system activation. Thirty-three healthy participants (18-34 years old) were exposed to a standardized laboratory stressor on two consecutive days. Self-compassion, self-esteem, and demographic factors were assessed by questionnaire and sAA was assessed at baseline and at 1, 10, 30, and 60 minutes following each stressor. Self-compassion was a significant negative predictor of sAA responses on both days. This relationship remained significant when controlling for self-esteem, subjective distress, age, gender, ethnicity, and Body Mass Index (BMI). These results suggest that self-compassion may serve as a protective factor against stress-induced physiological changes that have implications for health.

  19. The effectiveness of stress inoculation group training (SIT on reducing job stress of employees of RAZAK pharmaceutical company in Tehran

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    M. Soudani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims Despite the fact that work is the major part of human life and the source of satisfying the sense of idealism, innovation and the feeling of consent in the individual, but it is one of the most important factors of creating stress in today's societies. One of the most efficient methods of interfering in stress inoculation group training (SIT. The aim of the present research is the investigation of the efficacy of the stress inoculation group training (SIT on reducing career stress of employees of Razak Co.'s employees.     Methodsthis study is an intermediary study and the research method is experimental of pretest and posttest type with control group. 46 of subjects whose score in career stress test was above the average score were selected as sample, and were replaced in simple random way in two groups of test and control. 8-session test group of 1.5 hours each received team immunity training against stress. Both groups were tested and evaluated three times at the same time (pretest, posttest and follow up.   Resultsafter adjusting the posttest scores based on pretest scores, the results of one-way covariance pretest showed that stress inoculation group training (SIT had a meaningful influence on reduction of career stress on employees. Also the results of multivariable covariance analysis (Mankoa showed that this effect existed in every component of career stress, i.e. exceeding accountability, responsibility of others, very high working pressure, decision making that influences the others, and understanding of self as an individual not quite competent and qualified. In follow up studies after one month, the results showed that stress inoculation group training (SIT has a stable influence on reduction of career stress and it components.   Conclusion on the base of the obtained findings from research and effectiveness from the stress inoculation group training (SIT , it is recommended to apply this therapeutic

  20. BnNHL18A shows a localization change by stress-inducing chemical treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Suk-Bae; Ham, Byung-Kook; Park, Jeong Mee; Kim, Young Jin; Paek, Kyung-Hee

    2006-01-01

    The two genes, named BnNHL18A and BnNHL18B, showing sequence homology with Arabidopsis NDR1/HIN1-like (NHL) genes, were isolated from cDNA library prepared with oilseed rape (Brassica napus) seedlings treated with NaCl. The transcript level of BnNHL18A was increased by sodium chloride, ethephon, hydrogen peroxide, methyl jasmonate, or salicylic acid treatment. The coding regions of BnNHL18A and BnNHL18B contain a sarcolipin (SLN)-like sequence. Analysis of the localization of smGFP fusion proteins showed that BnNHL18A is mainly localized to endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This result suggests that the SLN-like sequence plays a role in retaining proteins in ER membrane in plants. In response to NaCl, hydrogen peroxide, ethephon, and salicylic acid treatments, the protein localization of BnNHL18A was changed. Our findings suggest a common function of BnNHL18A in biotic and abiotic stresses, and demonstrate the presence of the shared mechanism of protein translocalization between the responses to plant pathogen and to osmotic stress

  1. [Appraisal of occupational stress in different gender, age, work duration, educational level and marital status groups].

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    Yang, Xin-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Ming; Jin, Tai-Yi

    2006-05-01

    This study was conducted to assess occupational stress in different gender, age, work duration, educational level and marital status group. A test of occupational stress in different gender, age, work duration, educational level and marital status group, was carried out with revised occupational stress inventory (OSI-R) for 4278 participants. The results of gender show that there are heavier occupational role, stronger interpersonal and physical strain in male than that in female, and the differences are statistically significant (P 0.05). The occupational stress so as to improve the work ability of different groups. Different measure should be taken to reduce the occupational stress so as to improve the work ability of different groups.

  2. Group and Individual Variability in Mouse Pup Isolation Calls Recorded on the Same Day Show Stability

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    Terra D. Barnes

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mice produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs in a variety of social situations, and USVs have been leveraged to study many neurological diseases including verbal dyspraxia, depression, autism and stuttering. Pups produce isolation calls, a common USV, spontaneously when they are isolated from their mother during the first 2 weeks of life. Several genetic manipulations affect (and often reduce pup isolation calls in mice. To facilitate the use of this assay as a means of testing whether significant functional differences in genotypes exist instead of contextual differences, we test the variability inherent in many commons measures of mouse vocalizations. Here we use biological consistency as a way of determining which are reproducible in mouse pup vocalizations. We present a comprehensive analysis of the normal variability of these vocalizations in groups of mice, individual mice and different strains of mice. To control for maturation effects, we recorded pup isolation calls in the same group of C57BL/6J 5 days old mice twice, with 1 h of rest in between recordings. In almost all cases, the group averages between the first and second recordings were the same. We also found that there were high correlations in some parameters in individual mice across recording while others were not well correlated. These findings could be replicated for the majority of features in a separate group of C57BL/6J mice and a group of 129/SvEvBrd-C57BL/6J mice. The averages of these mouse USV features are highly consistent and represent a robust assay to test the effects of genetic and other interventions in the experimental setting.

  3. Profits for OGJ group show big gain in 1993; revenues dip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.J.; Sanders, V.

    1994-01-01

    Earnings for Oil ampersand Gas Journal's group of 22 large US oil companies jumped sharply last year, increasing 78.6% from 1992. Profits totaled $16.2 billion in 1993, compared with $9.1 billion in 1992. This is in sharp contrast to performance in 1992, when group net income fell 47%. That was due mainly to costs related to restructuring, staff reductions, and adoption of new accounting rules. The new rules moved forward some charges stemming from future retirement benefits and caused a substantial slide in 1992 profits for a number of companies. The absence of similar charges last year was a major reason for the increase in earnings. The paper describes the earnings by sector, oil and gas prices, financial indicators, exploration and production activities, refining and marketing activities, earnings from petrochemicals, capital spending, and the outlook for 1994 performance

  4. RELATIONAL GROUP PSYCHOTHERAPY: THE HEALING OF STRESS, NEGLECT AND TRAUMA

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    Richard G. Erskine

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is the Keynote Address given at the 4th International Integrative Psychotherapy Association Conference, April 17, 2009. In speaking to the conference theme of “Acute Trauma, Cumulative Neglect, and Chronic Stress” the article describes some of the principles of Relational Group Psychotherapy. The theory of methods is based on the concept that the healing of trauma, neglect and stress occurs through a contactful therapeutic relationship. Relational group psychotherapy draws from several developments in group therapy, particularly the cybernetic feedback and other-centered models. It emphasizes the healing power of relationships between group members and the importance of phenomenological inquiry, affective attunement, identification, and relational-needs. The leader’s tasks are to stimulate the flow of contactful dialogue and to teach about human needs and healthy relationships.

  5. Show what you know and deal with stress yourself: a qualitative interview study of medical interns' perceptions of stress and gender.

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    Verdonk, Petra; Räntzsch, Viktoria; de Vries, Remko; Houkes, Inge

    2014-05-17

    Medical students report high stress levels and in particular, the clinical phase is a demanding one. The field of medicine is still described as having a patriarchal culture which favors aspects like a physicians' perceived certainty and rationalism. Also, the Effort-Recovery Model explains stress as coming from a discrepancy between job demands, job control, and perceived work potential. Gendered differences in stress are reported, but not much is known about medical interns' perceptions of how gender plays in relation to stress. The aim of this study is to explore how medical interns experience and cope with stress, as well as how they reflect on the gendered aspects of stress. In order to do this, we have performed a qualitative study. In 2010-2011, semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with seventeen medical interns across all three years of the Masters programme (6 male, 11 female) at a Dutch medical school. The interview guide is based on gender theory, the Effort-Recovery Model, and empirical literature. Transcribed interviews have been analyzed thematically. First, stress mainly evolves from having to prove one's self and show off competencies and motivation ("Show What You Know…"). Second, interns seek own solutions for handling stress because it is not open for discussion (… "And Deal With Stress Yourself"). Patient encounters are a source of pride and satisfaction rather than a source of stress. But interns report having to present themselves as 'professional and self-confident', remaining silent about experiencing stress. Female students are perceived to have more stress and to study harder in order to live up to expectations. The implicit message interns hear is to remain silent about insecurities and stress, and, in particular, female students might face disadvantages. Students who feel less able to manifest the 'masculine protest' may benefit from a culture that embraces more collaborative styles, such as having open conversation

  6. Boys with Oppositional Defiant Disorder/Conduct Disorder Show Impaired Adaptation During Stress: An Executive Functioning Study.

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    Schoorl, Jantiene; van Rijn, Sophie; de Wied, Minet; van Goozen, Stephanie; Swaab, Hanna

    2018-04-01

    Evidence for problems in executive functioning (EF) in children with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) is mixed and the impact stress may have on EF is understudied. Working memory, sustained attention, inhibition and cognitive flexibility of boys with ODD/CD (n = 65) and non-clinical controls (n = 32) were examined under typical and stressful test conditions. Boys with ODD/CD showed impaired working memory under typical testing conditions, and impairments in working memory and sustained attention under stressful conditions. In contrast to controls, performance on sustained attention, cognitive flexibility and inhibition was less influenced by stress in boys with ODD/CD. These results suggest that boys with ODD/CD show impairments in adaptation to the environment whereas typically developing boys show adaptive changes in EF.

  7. [Which occupational groups in a hospital are particularly stressed?].

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    Schmid, K; Drexler, H; Fischmann, W; Uter, W; Kiesel, J

    2011-07-01

    Increasing workload in health professionals and resulting health consequences have frequently been reported. We analysed the results from an employee attitude survey within a network of workplace health promotion and compared three occupational groups of a university hospital with two samples of employees of other industries. The survey was conducted in the years 2005, 2006 and 2007 using a standardized method, addressing 1748 employees of six companies. In order to compare specific occupational groups, both within the hospital and amongst different companies, five occupational groups were selected (medical profession, nursing service and administration of the hospital, academics of another company and employees of a financial service provider). Some results were specific for an occupational group, such as lower back pain and skin diseases in nurses and exhaustion in clinicians. Regarding several items the responses of employees of the hospital's administration were similar to that of the medical professionals and differed significantly from the responses of administrative and related employees in other companies. Employees of all occupational groups of the hospital were often frustrated and felt their work was not appreciated. Frequent demands included improved work atmosphere, better appreciation of work and better information regarding innovations. The analysis of standardized survey results specific for companies and occupational groups is an appropriate way to identify targets of health promotion. Constant over three surveys, again a high burden of stress was found in health care workers even affecting the administrative staff, regarding several work-related stress factors. According to our results activities to improve the working conditions in hospitals are urgently needed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Mononuclear nonheme iron(III) complexes that show superoxide dismutase-like activity and antioxidant effects against menadione-mediated oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitomi, Yutaka; Iwamoto, Yuji; Kashida, Akihiro; Kodera, Masahito

    2015-05-21

    This communication describes the superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity of mononuclear iron(III) complexes with pentadentate monocarboxylamido ligands. The SOD activity can be controlled by the electronic nature of the substituent group on the ligand. The nitro-substituted complex showed clear cytoprotective activity against menadione-mediated oxidative stress in cultured cells.

  9. MRI Shows that Exhaustion Syndrome Due to Chronic Occupational Stress is Associated with Partially Reversible Cerebral Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, I; Perski, A; Osika, W

    2018-03-01

    The present study investigates the cerebral effects of chronic occupational stress and its possible reversibility. Forty-eight patients with occupational exhaustion syndrome (29 women) and 80 controls (47 women) underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropsychological testing. Forty-four participants (25 patients, 19 controls) also completed a second MRI scan after 1-2 years. Only patients received cognitive therapy. The stressed group at intake had reduced thickness in the right prefrontal cortex (PFC) and left superior temporal gyrus (STG), enlarged amygdala volumes, and reduced caudate volumes. Except for the caudate volume, these abnormalities were more pronounced in females. They were all related to perceived stress, which was similar for both genders. Thickness of the PFC also correlated with an impaired ability to down-modulate negative emotions. Thinning of PFC and reduction of caudate volume normalized in the follow-up. The amygdala enlargement and the left STG thinning remained. Longitudinal changes were not detected among controls. Chronic occupational stress was associated with partially reversible structural abnormalities in key regions for stress processing. These changes were dynamically correlated with the degree of perceived stress, highlighting a possible causal link. They seem more pronounced in women, and could be a substrate for an increased cerebral vulnerability to stress-related psychiatric disorders. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. The Effectiveness of Group Coping Skills Ttraining on Reducing Stress of Mothers with Disabled Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Valizadeh

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the Effectiveness of group Coping Skills training on reducing stress of mothers with mentally retarded children's. Methods: The research method was quasi experimental with pre-test and post-test design with a control group. Population of the study was all of the mothers of mentally retarded children's that referred to welfare organization centers in Tehran. The sample was 44 mothers of mentally retarded children's that randomly selected from participations that had inclusion criteria. They were placed randomly in case group (22 mothers and control group (22 mothers. Case group received 12 session’s of coping skills training, while control group didn’t receive any intervention. Results: The results showed that case group had significantly decreased in stress level after intervention than control group (P<0.001. Discussion: Results of this study indicated that coping skills training for decreasing stress level of mothers with mentally retarded children's is effective. Based on the results, coping skills training can be considered an effective program for prevention of stress and promoting coping skills in mothers with mentally retarded children's.

  11. Intracolleague aggression in a group of Dutch prison workers : Negative affectivity and posttraumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaerts, S.; van der Laan, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined workplace aggression among a Dutch group of 174 prison workers at 10 penitentiaries in the Netherlands. The purpose of the study was to investigate the main and interaction effects of Type D personality and violence on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The results showed a

  12. Heat indicators of oxidative stress, inflammation and metal transport show dependence of cadmium pollution history in the liver of female zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qing-Ling; Guo, Sai-Nan; Yuan, Shuang-Shuang; Lv, Zhen-Ming; Zheng, Jia-Lang; Xia, Hu

    2017-10-01

    Environmental stressors such as high temperature and metal exposure may occur sequentially, simultaneously, previously in aquatic ecosystems. However, information about whether responses to high temperature depend on Cd exposure history is still unknown in fish. Zebrafish were exposed to 0 (group 1), 2.5 (group 2) and 5μg/L (group 3) cadmium (Cd) for 10 weeks, and then each group was subjected to Cd-free water maintained at 26°C and 32°C for 7days respectively. 26 indicators were used to compare differences between 26°C and 32°C in the liver of female zebrafish, including 5 biochemical indicators (activity of Cu/Zn-SOD, CAT and iNOS; LPO; MT protein), 8 molecular indicators of oxidative stress (mRNA levels of Nrf2, Cu/Zn-SOD, CAT, HSF1, HSF2, HSP70, MTF-1 and MT), 5 molecular indicators of inflammation (mRNA levels of IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, iNOS and NF-κB), 8 molecular indicators of metal transport (mRNA levels of, ZnT1, ZnT5, ZIP8, ZIP10, ATP7A, ATP7B and CTR1). All biochemical indicators were unchanged in group 1 and changed in group 2 and 3. Contrarily, differences were observed in almost all of molecular indicators of inflammation and metal transport in group 1, about half in group 2, and few in group 3. We also found that all molecular indicators of oxidative stress in group 2 and fewer in group 1 and 3 were significantly affected by heat. Our data indicated that heat indicators of oxidative stress, inflammation and metal transport showed dependence of previous cadmium exposure in the liver of zebrafish, emphasizing metal pollution history should be carefully considered when evaluating heat stress in fish. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Stress Prevention and Mindfulness: A Psychoeducational and Support Group for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, Jenson E.; Murphy, Susan L.; McCarthy, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    A stress prevention and mindfulness (SPAM) group is described, which is a 6-week psychoeducational and support group for teachers. The group incorporated psychoeducation about stress and utilized elements of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR). The group was implemented in a public charter school in the Southwest. Preliminary evaluation…

  14. Air-adapted Methanosarcina acetivorans shows high methane production and develops resistance against oxygen stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Jasso-Chávez

    Full Text Available Methanosarcina acetivorans, considered a strict anaerobic archaeon, was cultured in the presence of 0.4-1% O2 (atmospheric for at least 6 months to generate air-adapted cells; further, the biochemical mechanisms developed to deal with O2 were characterized. Methane production and protein content, as indicators of cell growth, did not change in air-adapted cells respect to cells cultured under anoxia (control cells. In contrast, growth and methane production significantly decreased in control cells exposed for the first time to O2. Production of reactive oxygen species was 50 times lower in air-adapted cells versus control cells, suggesting enhanced anti-oxidant mechanisms that attenuated the O2 toxicity. In this regard, (i the transcripts and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase significantly increased; and (ii the thiol-molecules (cysteine + coenzyme M-SH + sulfide and polyphosphate contents were respectively 2 and 5 times higher in air-adapted cells versus anaerobic-control cells. Long-term cultures (18 days of air-adapted cells exposed to 2% O2 exhibited the ability to form biofilms. These data indicate that M. acetivorans develops multiple mechanisms to contend with O2 and the associated oxidative stress, as also suggested by genome analyses for some methanogens.

  15. Show what you know and deal with stress yourself: a qualitative interview study of medical interns’ perceptions of stress and gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Medical students report high stress levels and in particular, the clinical phase is a demanding one. The field of medicine is still described as having a patriarchal culture which favors aspects like a physicians’ perceived certainty and rationalism. Also, the Effort-Recovery Model explains stress as coming from a discrepancy between job demands, job control, and perceived work potential. Gendered differences in stress are reported, but not much is known about medical interns’ perceptions of how gender plays in relation to stress. The aim of this study is to explore how medical interns experience and cope with stress, as well as how they reflect on the gendered aspects of stress. Methods In order to do this, we have performed a qualitative study. In 2010–2011, semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with seventeen medical interns across all three years of the Masters programme (6 male, 11 female) at a Dutch medical school. The interview guide is based on gender theory, the Effort-Recovery Model, and empirical literature. Transcribed interviews have been analyzed thematically. Results First, stress mainly evolves from having to prove one’s self and show off competencies and motivation (“Show What You Know…”). Second, interns seek own solutions for handling stress because it is not open for discussion (… “And Deal With Stress Yourself”). Patient encounters are a source of pride and satisfaction rather than a source of stress. But interns report having to present themselves as ‘professional and self-confident’, remaining silent about experiencing stress. Female students are perceived to have more stress and to study harder in order to live up to expectations. Conclusions The implicit message interns hear is to remain silent about insecurities and stress, and, in particular, female students might face disadvantages. Students who feel less able to manifest the ‘masculine protest’ may benefit from a culture that

  16. Acid Stress Response Mechanisms of Group B Streptococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Shabayek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Group B streptococcus (GBS is a leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity in the United States and Europe. It is part of the vaginal microbiota in up to 30% of pregnant women and can be passed on to the newborn through perinatal transmission. GBS has the ability to survive in multiple different host niches. The pathophysiology of this bacterium reveals an outstanding ability to withstand varying pH fluctuations of the surrounding environments inside the human host. GBS host pathogen interations include colonization of the acidic vaginal mucosa, invasion of the neutral human blood or amniotic fluid, breaching of the blood brain barrier as well as survival within the acidic phagolysosomal compartment of macrophages. However, investigations on GBS responses to acid stress are limited. Technologies, such as whole genome sequencing, genome-wide transcription and proteome mapping facilitate large scale identification of genes and proteins. Mechanisms enabling GBS to cope with acid stress have mainly been studied through these techniques and are summarized in the current review

  17. Global catalog of earthquake rupture velocities shows anticorrelation between stress drop and rupture velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chounet, Agnès; Vallée, Martin; Causse, Mathieu; Courboulex, Françoise

    2018-05-01

    Application of the SCARDEC method provides the apparent source time functions together with seismic moment, depth, and focal mechanism, for most of the recent earthquakes with magnitude larger than 5.6-6. Using this large dataset, we have developed a method to systematically invert for the rupture direction and average rupture velocity Vr, when unilateral rupture propagation dominates. The approach is applied to all the shallow (z earthquakes of the catalog over the 1992-2015 time period. After a careful validation process, rupture properties for a catalog of 96 earthquakes are obtained. The subsequent analysis of this catalog provides several insights about the seismic rupture process. We first report that up-dip ruptures are more abundant than down-dip ruptures for shallow subduction interface earthquakes, which can be understood as a consequence of the material contrast between the slab and the overriding crust. Rupture velocities, which are searched without any a-priori up to the maximal P wave velocity (6000-8000 m/s), are found between 1200 m/s and 4500 m/s. This observation indicates that no earthquakes propagate over long distances with rupture velocity approaching the P wave velocity. Among the 23 ruptures faster than 3100 m/s, we observe both documented supershear ruptures (e.g. the 2001 Kunlun earthquake), and undocumented ruptures that very likely include a supershear phase. We also find that the correlation of Vr with the source duration scaled to the seismic moment (Ts) is very weak. This directly implies that both Ts and Vr are anticorrelated with the stress drop Δσ. This result has implications for the assessment of the peak ground acceleration (PGA) variability. As shown by Causse and Song (2015), an anticorrelation between Δσ and Vr significantly reduces the predicted PGA variability, and brings it closer to the observed variability.

  18. [A study of the occupational stress norm and it' s application for the technical group and scientific research group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin-wei; Liu, Ze-jun; Zhao, Pei-qing; Bai, Shao-ying; Pang, Xing-huo; Wang, Zhi-ming; Jin, Tai-yi; Lan, Ya-jia

    2006-11-01

    A study of the occupational stress norm and it' s application for the technical group and scientific research group. In this study, cross-sectional study method is used, and a synthetic way of sorting and randomized sampling is adopted to deal with research targets(235 scientific research group, 857 technical group). Descriptive statistics for OSI-R scale scores for the technical group and scientific research group were modulated. Scale raw score to T-score conversion tables derived from the OSI-R normative sample for technical group and scientific research group were established. OSI-R profile from for technical group and scientific research group were established. For the ORQ and PSQ scales, scores at or above 70T indicate a strong levels of maladaptive stress and strain. Score in the range of 60T to 69T suggest middle levels of maladaptive stress and strain. Score in the range of 40T to 59T indicate normal levels of stress and strain. Score below 40T indicate a relative absence of occupational stress and strain. For the PRQ scales, score below 30T indicate a significant lack of coping resources. Score in the range of 30T to 39T suggest middle deficits in coping resources. Score in the range of 40T to 59T indicate average coping resources. Scores at or above 60T indicate a strong levels of coping resources. Different intervention measure should be take to reduce the occupational stress so as to improve the work ability.

  19. [Study of the occupational stress norm and it's application for the executive group and administrative support group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin-wei; Wang, Zhi-ming; Jin, Tai-yi; Lan, Ya-jia

    2006-07-01

    A study of the occupational stress norm and it's application for the executive group and administrative support group. In this study, cross-sectional study method is used, and a synthetic way of sorting and randomized sampling is adopted to deal with research targets (263 executive group, 569 administrative support group). Descriptive statistics for OSI-R scale scores for the executive group, administrative support group were modulated. Scale raw score to T-score conversion tables derived from the OSI-R normative sample for executive group, administrative support group were established. OSI-R profile from for executive group, administrative support group were established. For the ORQ and PSQ scales, scores at or above 70 indicate a strong levels of maladaptive stress and strain. Score inthe range of 60 to 69 suggest middle levels of maladaptive stress and strain. Score in the range of 40 to 59 indicate normal levels of stress and strain. Score below 40 indicate a relative absence of occupational stress and strain. For the PRQ scales, score below 30 indicate a significant lack of coping resources. Score in the range of 30 to 39 suggest middle deficits in coping resources. Score in the range of 40 to 59 indicate average coping resources. Scores at or above 60 indicate a strong levels of coping resources. Based on occupational Stress norm, raw score to T-score conversion tables, OSI-R profile form and classification criterion, we could estimate the level of occupation stress, stressor, strain and coping resources in different occupation. In addition, we combined subjective and objective environment match model of occupational stress. The various individual and organizational intervention measures should be taken to reduce the occupational stress and to increase coping so as to improve the work ability.

  20. Stress transfer from pile group in saturated and unsaturated soil using theoretical and experimental approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    al-Omari Raid R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Piles are often used in groups, and the behavior of pile groups under the applied loads is generally different from that of single pile due to the interaction of neighboring piles, therefore, one of the main objectives of this paper is to investigate the influence of pile group (bearing capacity, load transfer sharing for pile shaft and tip in comparison to that of single piles. Determination of the influence of load transfer from the pile group to the surrounding soil and the mechanism of this transfer with increasing the load increment on the tip and pile shaft for the soil in saturated and unsaturated state (when there is a negative pore water pressure. Different basic properties are used that is (S = 90%, γd = 15 kN / m3, S = 90%, γd = 17 kN / m3 and S = 60%, γd =15 kN / m3. Seven model piles were tested, these was: single pile (compression and pull out test, 2×1, 3×1, 2×2, 3×2 and 3×3 group. The stress was measured with 5 cm diameter soil pressure transducer positioned at a depth of 5 cm below the pile tip for all pile groups. The measured stresses below the pile tip using a soil pressure transducer positioned at a depth of 0.25L (where L is the pile length below the pile tip are compared with those calculated using theoretical and conventional approaches. These methods are: the conventional 2V:1H method and the method used the theory of elasticity. The results showed that the method of measuring the soil stresses with soil pressure transducer adopted in this study, gives in general, good results of stress transfer compared with the results obtained from the theoretical and conventional approaches.

  1. Stress and burnout in psychiatric professionals when starting to use dialectical behavioural therapy in the work with young self-harming women showing borderline personality symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perseius, K-I; Kåver, A; Ekdahl, S; Asberg, M; Samuelsson, M

    2007-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how starting to use dialectical behavioural therapy (DBT) in the work with young self-harming women showing symptoms of borderline personality disorder affected the psychiatric professionals (n = 22) experience of occupational stress and levels of professional burnout. The study was carried out in relation to an 18-month clinical psychiatric development project, and used a mix of quantitative and qualitative research methods [a burnout inventory, the Maslach burnout inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS), free format questionnaires and group interviews]. The result confirms previous reports that psychiatric health professionals experience treatment of self-harming patients as very stressful. DBT was seen as stressful in terms of learning demands, but decreased the experience of stress in the actual treatment of the patients. The teamwork and supervision were felt to be supportive, as was one particular facet of DBT, namely mindfulness training which some therapists felt also improved their handling of other work stressors not related to DBT. The inventory for professional burnout, the MBI-GS, showed no significant changes over the 18-month period, although there was a tendency for increased burnout levels at the 6-month assessment, which had returned to baseline levels at 18 months.

  2. The impact of reduced worktime on sleep and perceived stress - a group randomized intervention study using diary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Helena; Lekander, Mats; Rajaleid, Kristiina; Hellgren, Carina; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn; Barck-Holst, Peter; Kecklund, Göran

    2017-03-01

    Objective Insufficient time for recovery between workdays may cause fatigue and disturbed sleep. This study evaluated the impact of an intervention that reduced weekly working hours by 25% on sleep, sleepiness and perceived stress for employees within the public sector. Method Participating workplaces (N=33) were randomized into intervention and control groups. Participants (N=580, 76% women) worked full-time at baseline. The intervention group (N=354) reduced worktime to 75% with preserved salary during 18 months. Data were collected at baseline and after 9 and 18 months follow-up. Sleep quality, sleep duration, sleepiness, perceived stress,and worries and stress at bedtime were measured with diary during one week per data collection. Result A multilevel mixed model showed that compared with the control group, at the 18-month follow-up, the intervention group had improved sleep quality and sleep duration (+23 minutes) and displayed reduced levels of sleepiness, perceived stress, and worries and stress at bedtime on workdays (Psleep length. Effect sizes were small (Cohen's f2sleep quality and worries and stress at bedtime as additional between-group factors did not influence the results. Conclusion A 25% reduction of weekly work hours with retained salary resulted in beneficial effects on sleep, sleepiness and perceived stress both on workdays and days off. These effects were maintained over an 18-month period. This randomized intervention thus indicates that reduced worktime may improve recovery and perceived stress.

  3. Isolation of baker's yeast mutants with proline accumulation that showed enhanced tolerance to baking-associated stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsolmonbaatar, Ariunzaya; Hashida, Keisuke; Sugimoto, Yukiko; Watanabe, Daisuke; Furukawa, Shuhei; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2016-12-05

    During bread-making processes, yeast cells are exposed to baking-associated stresses such as freeze-thaw, air-drying, and high-sucrose concentrations. Previously, we reported that self-cloning diploid baker's yeast strains that accumulate proline retained higher-level fermentation abilities in both frozen and sweet doughs than the wild-type strain. Although self-cloning yeasts do not have to be treated as genetically modified yeasts, the conventional methods for breeding baker's yeasts are more acceptable to consumers than the use of self-cloning yeasts. In this study, we isolated mutants resistant to the proline analogue azetidine-2-carboxylate (AZC) derived from diploid baker's yeast of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Some of the mutants accumulated a greater amount of intracellular proline, and among them, 5 mutants showed higher cell viability than that observed in the parent wild-type strain under freezing or high-sucrose stress conditions. Two of them carried novel mutations in the PRO1 gene encoding the Pro247Ser or Glu415Lys variant of γ-glutamyl kinase (GK), which is a key enzyme in proline biosynthesis in S. cerevisiae. Interestingly, we found that these mutations resulted in AZC resistance of yeast cells and desensitization to proline feedback inhibition of GK, leading to intracellular proline accumulation. Moreover, baker's yeast cells expressing the PRO1 P247S and PRO1 E415K gene were more tolerant to freezing stress than cells expressing the wild-type PRO1 gene. The approach described here could be a practical method for the breeding of proline-accumulating baker's yeasts with higher tolerance to baking-associated stresses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Stress associated with group living in a long-lived bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selva, Nuria; Cortés-Avizanda, Ainara; Lemus, Jesús A; Blanco, Guillermo; Mueller, Thomas; Heinrich, Bernd; Donázar, José A

    2011-08-23

    Many long-lived avian species adopt life strategies that involve a gregarious way of life at juvenile and sub-adult stages and territoriality during adulthood. However, the potential associated costs of these life styles, such as stress, are poorly understood. We examined the effects of group living, sex and parasite load on the baseline concentration of faecal stress hormone (corticosterone) metabolites in a wild population of common ravens (Corvus corax). Corticosterone concentrations were significantly higher in non-breeding gregarious ravens than in territorial adults. Among territorial birds, males showed higher stress levels than their mates. Parasite burdens did not affect hormone levels. Our results suggest a key role of the social context in the stress profiles of the two population fractions, and that group living may be more energetically demanding than maintaining a territory. These findings have implications for understanding hormonal mechanisms under different life styles and may inspire further research on the link between hormone levels and selective pressures modulating gregarious and territorial strategies in long-lived birds. This journal is © 2011 The Royal Society

  5. [Study on the occupational stress norm and it's application for the marketing group, public service/safety group and production laborer group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Ming; Jin, Tai-Yi; Lan, Ya-Jia

    2006-09-01

    A study of the occupational stress norm and it's application for the marketing group, public service/safety group and production laborer group. In this study, cross-sectional study method is used, and a synthetic way of sorting and randomized sampling is adopted to deal with research targets (36 marketing group, 331 public service/safety group, 903 production laborer group). Descriptive statistics for OSI-R scale scores for the marketing group, public service/safety group and production laborer group were modulated. Scale raw score to T-score conversion tables derived from the OSI-R normative sample for marketing group public service/safety group and production laborer group were established. OSI-R profile from for marketing group, public service/safety group and production laborer group were established. For the ORQ and PSQ scales, scores at or above 70 indicate a strong levels of maladaptive stress and strain. Score in the range of 60 to 69 suggest middle levels of maladaptive stress and strain. Score in the range of 40 to 59 indicate normal levels of stress and strain. Score below 40 indicate a relative absence of occupational stress and strain. For the PRQ scales, score below 30 indicate a significant lack of coping resources. Score in the range of 30 to 39 suggest middle deficits in coping resources. Score in the range of 40 to 59 indicate average coping resources. Scores at or above 60 indicate a strong levels of coping resources. The authors combined subjective and objective environment match model of occupational stress. Different intervention measure should be take to reduce the occupational stress so as to improve the work ability.

  6. Preliminary Investigation of a Stress Prevention and Mindfulness Group for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, Jenson E.; McCarthy, Christopher J.

    2018-01-01

    This exploratory study evaluated a short-term (6-8 weeks) psychoeducation and support group for teachers focused on stress prevention and mindfulness (labeled SPAM group). A total of 4 groups were implemented in different schools, and evaluation was conducted with quantitative (pre- and post-measures of teacher vulnerability to stress, job…

  7. Thermotolerant Yeast Strains Adapted by Laboratory Evolution Show Trade-Off at Ancestral Temperatures and Preadaptation to Other Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspeta, Luis; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-07-21

    A major challenge for the production of ethanol from biomass-derived feedstocks is to develop yeasts that can sustain growth under the variety of inhibitory conditions present in the production process, e.g., high osmolality, high ethanol titers, and/or elevated temperatures (≥ 40 °C). Using adaptive laboratory evolution, we previously isolated seven Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with improved growth at 40 °C. Here, we show that genetic adaptations to high temperature caused a growth trade-off at ancestral temperatures, reduced cellular functions, and improved tolerance of other stresses. Thermotolerant yeast strains showed horizontal displacement of their thermal reaction norms to higher temperatures. Hence, their optimal and maximum growth temperatures increased by about 3 °C, whereas they showed a growth trade-off at temperatures below 34 °C. Computational analysis of the physical properties of proteins showed that the lethal temperature for yeast is around 49 °C, as a large fraction of the yeast proteins denature above this temperature. Our analysis also indicated that the number of functions involved in controlling the growth rate decreased in the thermotolerant strains compared with the number in the ancestral strain. The latter is an advantageous attribute for acquiring thermotolerance and correlates with the reduction of yeast functions associated with loss of respiration capacity. This trait caused glycerol overproduction that was associated with the growth trade-off at ancestral temperatures. In combination with altered sterol composition of cellular membranes, glycerol overproduction was also associated with yeast osmotolerance and improved tolerance of high concentrations of glucose and ethanol. Our study shows that thermal adaptation of yeast is suitable for improving yeast resistance to inhibitory conditions found in industrial ethanol production processes. Yeast thermotolerance can significantly reduce the production costs of biomass

  8. Polymorphism of CRISPR shows separated natural groupings of Shigella subtypes and evidence of horizontal transfer of CRISPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chaojie; Li, Peng; Su, Wenli; Li, Hao; Liu, Hongbo; Yang, Guang; Xie, Jing; Yi, Shengjie; Wang, Jian; Cui, Xianyan; Wu, Zhihao; Wang, Ligui; Hao, Rongzhang; Jia, Leili; Qiu, Shaofu; Song, Hongbin

    2015-01-01

    Clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) act as an adaptive RNA-mediated immune mechanism in bacteria. They can also be used for identification and evolutionary studies based on polymorphisms within the CRISPR locus. We amplified and analyzed 6 CRISPR loci from 237 Shigella strains belonging to the 4 species groups, as well as 13 Escherichia coli strains. The CRISPR-associated (cas) gene sequence arrays of these strains were screened and compared. The CRISPR sequences from Shigella were conserved among subtypes, suggesting that CRISPR may represent a new identification tool for the detection and discrimination of Shigella species. Secondary structure analysis showed a different stem-loop structure at the terminal repeat, suggesting a distinct recognition mechanism in the formation of crRNA. In addition, the presence of “self-target” spacers and polymorphisms within CRISPR in Shigella indicated a selective pressure for inhibition of this system, which has the potential to damage “self DNA.” Homology analysis of spacers showed that CRISPR might be involved in the regulation of virulence transmission. Phylogenetic analysis based on CRISPR sequences from Shigella and E. coli indicated that although phenotypic properties maintain convergent evolution, the 4 Shigella species do not represent natural groupings. Surprisingly, comparative analysis of Shigella repeats with other species provided new evidence for CRISPR horizontal transfer. Our results suggested that CRISPR analysis is applicable for the detection of Shigella species and for investigation of evolutionary relationships. PMID:26327282

  9. Polymorphism of CRISPR shows separated natural groupings of Shigella subtypes and evidence of horizontal transfer of CRISPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chaojie; Li, Peng; Su, Wenli; Li, Hao; Liu, Hongbo; Yang, Guang; Xie, Jing; Yi, Shengjie; Wang, Jian; Cui, Xianyan; Wu, Zhihao; Wang, Ligui; Hao, Rongzhang; Jia, Leili; Qiu, Shaofu; Song, Hongbin

    2015-01-01

    Clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) act as an adaptive RNA-mediated immune mechanism in bacteria. They can also be used for identification and evolutionary studies based on polymorphisms within the CRISPR locus. We amplified and analyzed 6 CRISPR loci from 237 Shigella strains belonging to the 4 species groups, as well as 13 Escherichia coli strains. The CRISPR-associated (cas) gene sequence arrays of these strains were screened and compared. The CRISPR sequences from Shigella were conserved among subtypes, suggesting that CRISPR may represent a new identification tool for the detection and discrimination of Shigella species. Secondary structure analysis showed a different stem-loop structure at the terminal repeat, suggesting a distinct recognition mechanism in the formation of crRNA. In addition, the presence of "self-target" spacers and polymorphisms within CRISPR in Shigella indicated a selective pressure for inhibition of this system, which has the potential to damage "self DNA." Homology analysis of spacers showed that CRISPR might be involved in the regulation of virulence transmission. Phylogenetic analysis based on CRISPR sequences from Shigella and E. coli indicated that although phenotypic properties maintain convergent evolution, the 4 Shigella species do not represent natural groupings. Surprisingly, comparative analysis of Shigella repeats with other species provided new evidence for CRISPR horizontal transfer. Our results suggested that CRISPR analysis is applicable for the detection of Shigella species and for investigation of evolutionary relationships.

  10. Thyroid-specific questions on work ability showed known-groups validity among Danes with thyroid diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nexo, Mette Andersen; Watt, Torquil; Bonnema, Steen Joop; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Bjorner, Jakob Bue

    2015-07-01

    We aimed to identify the best approach to work ability assessment in patients with thyroid disease by evaluating the factor structure, measurement equivalence, known-groups validity, and predictive validity of a broad set of work ability items. Based on the literature and interviews with thyroid patients, 24 work ability items were selected from previous questionnaires, revised, or developed anew. Items were tested among 632 patients with thyroid disease (non-toxic goiter, toxic nodular goiter, Graves' disease (with or without orbitopathy), autoimmune hypothyroidism, and other thyroid diseases), 391 of which had participated in a study 5 years previously. Responses to select items were compared to general population data. We used confirmatory factor analyses for categorical data, logistic regression analyses and tests of differential item function, and head-to-head comparisons of relative validity in distinguishing known groups. Although all work ability items loaded on a common factor, the optimal factor solution included five factors: role physical, role emotional, thyroid-specific limitations, work limitations (without disease attribution), and work performance. The scale on thyroid-specific limitations showed the most power in distinguishing clinical groups and time since diagnosis. A global single item proved useful for comparisons with the general population, and a thyroid-specific item predicted labor market exclusion within the next 5 years (OR 5.0, 95 % CI 2.7-9.1). Items on work limitations with attribution to thyroid disease were most effective in detecting impact on work ability and showed good predictive validity. Generic work ability items remain useful for general population comparisons.

  11. Plant-Adapted Escherichia coli Show Increased Lettuce Colonizing Ability, Resistance to Oxidative Stress and Chemotactic Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dublan, Maria de los Angeles; Ortiz-Marquez, Juan Cesar Federico; Lett, Lina; Curatti, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Background Escherichia coli is a widespread gut commensal and often a versatile pathogen of public health concern. E. coli are also frequently found in different environments and/or alternative secondary hosts, such as plant tissues. The lifestyle of E. coli in plants is poorly understood and has potential implications for food safety. Methods/Principal Findings This work shows that a human commensal strain of E. coli K12 readily colonizes lettuce seedlings and produces large microcolony-like cell aggregates in leaves, especially in young leaves, in proximity to the vascular tissue. Our observations strongly suggest that those cell aggregates arise from multiplication of single bacterial cells that reach those spots. We showed that E. coli isolated from colonized leaves progressively colonize lettuce seedlings to higher titers, suggesting a fast adaptation process. E. coli cells isolated from leaves presented a dramatic rise in tolerance to oxidative stress and became more chemotactic responsive towards lettuce leaf extracts. Mutant strains impaired in their chemotactic response were less efficient lettuce colonizers than the chemotactic isogenic strain. However, acclimation to oxidative stress and/or minimal medium alone failed to prime E. coli cells for enhanced lettuce colonization efficiency. Conclusion/Significance These findings help to understand the physiological adaptation during the alternative lifestyle of E. coli in/on plant tissues. PMID:25313845

  12. Examining Difference in Immigration Stress, Acculturation Stress and Mental Health Outcomes in Six Hispanic/Latino Nativity and Regional Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Richard C; Gattamorta, Karina A; Berger-Cardoso, Jodi

    2018-02-27

    Little is known about the specific behavioral health impact of acculturation stressors that affect Hispanic/Latino immigrant sub-groups. These immigration-related stressors and traumatic events may have differential impact on depression depending on country/region of origin. Using a measure of immigration and acculturation stress, the current study sought to determine differences in the impact of stress on six sub-groups of Hispanic immigrants. Data on stress and depression were examined using a large, representative adult immigrant sample (N = 641). Controlling for age, gender and years in the US, factorial analysis of covariance revealed significant differences on total Hispanic Stress Inventory 2 (HSI2) stress appraisal scores based on country/region of origin. Pair wise comparisons between country/region of origin groups revealed that Mexicans had higher levels of stress compared to Cuban or Dominican immigrants. Several patterns of differential stress were also found within sub-domains of the HSI2. Using regression models, HSI2 stress appraisals and their interaction with country of origin proved to not be significant predictors of depression (PHQ9), while gender and age were significant. Differences in HSI2 stress that are based on nativity may be moderated by cultural resilience that ultimately serves a protective role to prevent the onset of depression.

  13. Thermotolerant Yeast Strains Adapted by Laboratory Evolution Show Trade-Off at Ancestral Temperatures and Preadaptation to Other Stresses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspeta, Luis; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    adaptive laboratory evolution, we previously isolated seven Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with improved growth at 40°C. Here, we show that genetic adaptations to high temperature caused a growth trade-off at ancestral temperatures, reduced cellular functions, and improved tolerance of other stresses...... in the ancestral strain. The latter is an advantageous attribute for acquiring thermotolerance and correlates with the reduction of yeast functions associated with loss of respiration capacity. This trait caused glycerol overproduction that was associated with the growth trade-off at ancestral temperatures....... In combination with altered sterol composition of cellular membranes, glycerol overproduction was also associated with yeast osmotolerance and improved tolerance of high concentrations of glucose and ethanol. Our study shows that thermal adaptation of yeast is suitable for improving yeast resistance...

  14. Black women, work, stress, and perceived discrimination: the focused support group model as an intervention for stress reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, V M

    1995-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the use of two components (small and large groups) of a community-based intervention, the Focused Support Group (FSG) model, to alleviate employment-related stressors in Black women. Participants were assigned to small groups based on occupational status. Groups met for five weekly 3-hr sessions in didactic or small- and large-group formats. Two evaluations following the didactic session and the small and large group sessions elicited information on satisfaction with each of the formats, self-reported change in stress, awareness of interpersonal and sociopolitical issues affecting Black women in the labor force, assessing support networks, and usefulness of specific discussion topics to stress reduction. Results indicated the usefulness of the small- and large-group formats in reduction of self-reported stress and increases in personal and professional sources of support. Discussions on race and sex discrimination in the workplace were effective in overall stress reduction. The study highlights labor force participation as a potential source of stress for Black women, and supports the development of culture- and gender-appropriate community interventions as viable and cost-effective methods for stress reduction.

  15. Following Musical Shows: A Study with Focal Groups on Satisfaction of Musical Concerts Regular Visitors and Socialization between Them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúmia Massa Garcia Pires

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed to identify which attributes impact more significantly on the satisfaction of concerts’ regular visitors and socialization between them when inserted in these kinds of events. Thus, we used a qualitative methodology, performing focus groups. Among the main results of this study, we found, regarding satisfaction of concerts’ visitors, the attributes that most influence the public are related to services - especially for beverage supply, cleaning of bathrooms and lines formed inside the event - organization, show infrastructure and performance artists. Furthermore, considering the socialization of the visitors, we found that most respondents often go to concerts together with other people, but some did not exclude the possibility to attend the concerts alone when it comes to a familiar artist.

  16. X-ray diffraction stress analysis of interrupted titanium nitride films: Combining the sin2ψ and crystallite group methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinkovits, Theo; Zhao, Yue; O'Brien, Rebecca; Dowey, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Interruptions during film growth have been discussed by researchers to assist in understanding the evolution of stress in physical vapour deposition films. A change in intrinsic stress is directly related to microstructure, hence careful analysis of stress in films can provide valuable structure–stress correlated information. In this study we discuss the use of combining two X-ray diffraction (XRD) stress analysis methods to elucidate the effect of interruptions during growth on the residual stress of TiN films. The sin 2 ψ and crystallite group method (CGM), scanning the (220) peaks from all grains in the film and only (111) oriented crystallites respectively, were used to analyse residual stress in standard and interrupted cathodic arc TiN films 1.5, 3.5 and 6.5 μm thick, grown on high-speed steel substrates. The sin 2 ψ method does not reveal any changes in stress with interruptions, however, measurements using the CGM show increased compressive stress and increased a 0 in the resultant TiN films. A comparison of results from both XRD methods indicates that an increased compressive stress from interruptions could be due to an increased number of defects in (111) oriented grains during the interruptions which would also affect a 0 as evident. In both methods, compressive stresses are found to decrease with increased thickness of films. - Highlights: • Interrupting TiN film growth increases compressive stress in (111) grains. • Increased stress is believed to be caused by defects incorporated into or not annealed out of (111) grains. • A comparison of sin 2 ψ and CGM results reveals differences in stress. • Compressive stress decreases as TiN films increase in thickness from 1.5 μm to 6.5 μm

  17. A 67-Item Stress Resilience item bank showing high content validity was developed in a psychosomatic sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obbarius, Nina; Fischer, Felix; Obbarius, Alexander; Nolte, Sandra; Liegl, Gregor; Rose, Matthias

    2018-04-10

    To develop the first item bank to measure Stress Resilience (SR) in clinical populations. Qualitative item development resulted in an initial pool of 131 items covering a broad theoretical SR concept. These items were tested in n=521 patients at a psychosomatic outpatient clinic. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), as well as other state-of-the-art item analyses and IRT were used for item evaluation and calibration of the final item bank. Out of the initial item pool of 131 items, we excluded 64 items (54 factor loading .3, 2 non-discriminative Item Response Curves, 4 Differential Item Functioning). The final set of 67 items indicated sufficient model fit in CFA and IRT analyses. Additionally, a 10-item short form with high measurement precision (SE≤.32 in a theta range between -1.8 and +1.5) was derived. Both the SR item bank and the SR short form were highly correlated with an existing static legacy tool (Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale). The final SR item bank and 10-item short form showed good psychometric properties. When further validated, they will be ready to be used within a framework of Computer-Adaptive Tests for a comprehensive assessment of the Stress-Construct. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Post-traumatic stress disorder status in a rescue group after the Wenchuan earthquake relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Junhua; Liu, Qunying; Li, Jinliang; Li, Xuejiang; You, Jin; Zhang, Liang; Tian, Changfu; Luan, Rongsheng

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder in earthquake rescue workers is relatively high. Risk factors for this disorder include demographic characteristics, earthquake-related high-risk factors, risk factors in the rescue process, personality, social support and coping style. This study examined the current status of a unit of 1 040 rescue workers who participated in earthquake relief for the Wenchuan earthquake that occurred on May 12th, 2008. Post-traumatic stress disorder was diagnosed primarily using the Clinician-Administered Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Scale during structured interviews. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used to examine major risk factors that contributed to the incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder. Results revealed that the incidence of this disorder in the rescue group was 5.96%. The impact factors in univariate analysis included death of family members, contact with corpses or witnessing of the deceased or seriously injured, near-death experience, severe injury or mental trauma in the rescue process and working at the epicenter of the earthquake. Correlation analysis suggested that post-traumatic stress disorder was positively correlated with psychotic and neurotic personalities, negative coping and low social support. Impact factors in multivariate logistic regression analysis included near-death experience, severe injury or mental trauma, working in the epicenter of the rescue, neurotic personality, negative coping and low social support, among which low social support had the largest odds ratio of 20.42. Findings showed that the occurrence of post-traumatic stress disorder was the result of the interaction of multiple factors. PMID:25206499

  19. Post-traumatic stress disorder status in a rescue group after the Wenchuan earthquake relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Junhua; Liu, Qunying; Li, Jinliang; Li, Xuejiang; You, Jin; Zhang, Liang; Tian, Changfu; Luan, Rongsheng

    2013-07-15

    Previous studies have suggested that the incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder in earthquake rescue workers is relatively high. Risk factors for this disorder include demographic characteristics, earthquake-related high-risk factors, risk factors in the rescue process, personality, social support and coping style. This study examined the current status of a unit of 1 040 rescue workers who participated in earthquake relief for the Wenchuan earthquake that occurred on May 12(th), 2008. Post-traumatic stress disorder was diagnosed primarily using the Clinician-Administered Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Scale during structured interviews. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used to examine major risk factors that contributed to the incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder. Results revealed that the incidence of this disorder in the rescue group was 5.96%. The impact factors in univariate analysis included death of family members, contact with corpses or witnessing of the deceased or seriously injured, near-death experience, severe injury or mental trauma in the rescue process and working at the epicenter of the earthquake. Correlation analysis suggested that post-traumatic stress disorder was positively correlated with psychotic and neurotic personalities, negative coping and low social support. Impact factors in multivariate logistic regression analysis included near-death experience, severe injury or mental trauma, working in the epicenter of the rescue, neurotic personality, negative coping and low social support, among which low social support had the largest odds ratio of 20.42. Findings showed that the occurrence of post-traumatic stress disorder was the result of the interaction of multiple factors.

  20. The Transcriptional Heat Shock Response of Salmonella Typhimurium Shows Hysteresis and Heated Cells Show Increased Resistance to Heat and Acid Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pin, C.; Hansen, Trine; Munoz-Cuevas, M.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated if the transcriptional response of Salmonella Typhimurium to temperature and acid variations was hysteretic, i.e. whether the transcriptional regulation caused by environmental stimuli showed memory and remained after the stimuli ceased. The transcriptional activity of non......, implying that down-regulation was significantly less synchronized than upregulation. The hysteretic transcriptional response to heat shock was accompanied by higher resistance to inactivation at 50uC as well as cross-resistance to inactivation at pH 3; however, growth rates and lag times at 43uC and at p......H 4.5 were not affected. The exposure to pH 5 only caused up-regulation of 12 genes and this response was neither hysteretic nor accompanied of increased resistance to inactivation conditions. Cellular memory at the transcriptional level may represent a mechanism of adaptation to the environment...

  1. The effect of group cognitive behavioral therapy on stress, anxiety, and depression of women with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Pahlavanzadeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the factors that could influence the quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis, which is usually overlooked, is its psychological aspects. Considering the increasing acceptance of complementary medicine in the health system, this study was designed and conducted to determine the effect of group cognitive therapy on the stress, anxiety, and depression of women suffering from multiple sclerosis. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was conducted among 70 women suffering from multiple sclerosis who were referred to the health centers of Isfahan. Participants were randomly allocated into two groups of intervention and control, each containing 35 patients. The intervention group received cognitive behavioral therapy as 8 90-minute group sessions (a session per week, and the control group participated in 4 group sessions to express their feelings and experiences. Data were gathered using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-24. Results: There was a significant difference between the mean score of stress (P = 0.03, anxiety (P = 0.02, and depression (P = 0.03 of the intervention and the control group immediately after and 1 month after the intervention. Least squares difference test showed that the mean score of stress (P = 0.02, anxiety (P = 0.02, and depression (P = 0.03 immediately and 1 month after the intervention was significantly lower in the intervention group. Conclusions: According to the results of the present study, cognitive behavioral therapy could decrease stress, anxiety, and depression in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis.

  2. Acute posttraumatic stress symptoms and depression after exposure to the 2005 Saskatchewan Centennial Air Show disaster: prevalence and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Steven; Asmundson, Gordon J G; Carleton, R Nicholas; Brundin, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of acute distress-that is, clinically significant posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and depression-and to identify predictors of each in a sample of people who witnessed a fatal aircraft collision at the 2005 Saskatchewan Centennial Air Show. Air Show attendees (N = 157) were recruited by advertisements in the local media and completed an Internet-administered battery of questionnaires. Based on previously established cut-offs, 22 percent respondents had clinically significant PTSS and 24 percent had clinically significant depressive symptoms. Clinically significant symptoms were associated with posttrauma impairment in social and occupational functioning. Acute distress was associated with several variables, including aspects of Air Show trauma exposure, severity of prior trauma exposure, low posttrauma social support (ie, negative responses by others), indices of poor coping (eg, intolerance of uncertainty, rumination about the trauma), and elevated scores on anxiety sensitivity, the personality trait of absorption, and dissociative tendencies. Results suggest that clinically significant acute distress is common in the aftermath of witnessed trauma. The statistical predictors (correlates) of acute distress were generally consistent with the results of studies of other forms of trauma. People with elevated scores on theoretical vulnerability factors (eg, elevated anxiety sensitivity) were particularly likely to develop acute distress.

  3. Enhanced Phospholipase A2 Group 3 Expression by Oxidative Stress Decreases the Insulin-Degrading Enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yui, Daishi; Nishida, Yoichiro; Nishina, Tomoko; Mogushi, Kaoru; Tajiri, Mio; Ishibashi, Satoru; Ajioka, Itsuki; Ishikawa, Kinya; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Murayama, Shigeo; Yokota, Takanori

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress has a ubiquitous role in neurodegenerative diseases and oxidative damage in specific regions of the brain is associated with selective neurodegeneration. We previously reported that Alzheimer disease (AD) model mice showed decreased insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) levels in the cerebrum and accelerated phenotypic features of AD when crossbred with alpha-tocopherol transfer protein knockout (Ttpa -/-) mice. To further investigate the role of chronic oxidative stress in AD pathophysiology, we performed DNA microarray analysis using young and aged wild-type mice and aged Ttpa -/- mice. Among the genes whose expression changed dramatically was Phospholipase A2 group 3 (Pla2g3); Pla2g3 was identified because of its expression profile of cerebral specific up-regulation by chronic oxidative stress in silico and in aged Ttpa -/- mice. Immunohistochemical studies also demonstrated that human astrocytic Pla2g3 expression was significantly increased in human AD brains compared with control brains. Moreover, transfection of HEK293 cells with human Pla2g3 decreased endogenous IDE expression in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings show a key role of Pla2g3 on the reduction of IDE, and suggest that cerebrum specific increase of Pla2g3 is involved in the initiation and/or progression of AD. PMID:26637123

  4. Enhanced Phospholipase A2 Group 3 Expression by Oxidative Stress Decreases the Insulin-Degrading Enzyme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daishi Yui

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has a ubiquitous role in neurodegenerative diseases and oxidative damage in specific regions of the brain is associated with selective neurodegeneration. We previously reported that Alzheimer disease (AD model mice showed decreased insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE levels in the cerebrum and accelerated phenotypic features of AD when crossbred with alpha-tocopherol transfer protein knockout (Ttpa-/- mice. To further investigate the role of chronic oxidative stress in AD pathophysiology, we performed DNA microarray analysis using young and aged wild-type mice and aged Ttpa-/- mice. Among the genes whose expression changed dramatically was Phospholipase A2 group 3 (Pla2g3; Pla2g3 was identified because of its expression profile of cerebral specific up-regulation by chronic oxidative stress in silico and in aged Ttpa-/- mice. Immunohistochemical studies also demonstrated that human astrocytic Pla2g3 expression was significantly increased in human AD brains compared with control brains. Moreover, transfection of HEK293 cells with human Pla2g3 decreased endogenous IDE expression in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings show a key role of Pla2g3 on the reduction of IDE, and suggest that cerebrum specific increase of Pla2g3 is involved in the initiation and/or progression of AD.

  5. Use of a student support group to reduce student stress in a nurse anesthesia program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kless, J R

    1989-02-01

    Stress in nurse anesthesia programs may be excessive at times, especially in new students. While some degree of stress is necessary to motivate learning, excessive or prolonged stress can interfere with the normal learning process, thereby prolonging a student's clinical and academic progress. In the extreme, excessive stress may even preclude a student's successful completion of the educational program. Active faculty intervention through a student support group is advocated as a method for controlling stress levels and facilitating student learning. The positive effects of such intervention also increase the overall productivity of a program and better prepare nurse anesthesia students for their future careers.

  6. Hearts of dystonia musculorum mice display normal morphological and histological features but show signs of cardiac stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin G Boyer

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Dystonin is a giant cytoskeletal protein belonging to the plakin protein family and is believed to crosslink the major filament systems in contractile cells. Previous work has demonstrated skeletal muscle defects in dystonin-deficient dystonia musculorum (dt mice. In this study, we show that the dystonin muscle isoform is localized at the Z-disc, the H zone, the sarcolemma and intercalated discs in cardiac tissue. Based on this localization pattern, we tested whether dystonin-deficiency leads to structural defects in cardiac muscle. Desmin intermediate filament, microfilament, and microtubule subcellular organization appeared normal in dt hearts. Nevertheless, increased transcript levels of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF, 66% beta-myosin heavy chain (beta-MHC, 95% and decreased levels of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump isoform 2A (SERCA2a, 26%, all signs of cardiac muscle stress, were noted in dt hearts. Hearts from two-week old dt mice were assessed for the presence of morphological and histological alterations. Heart to body weight ratios as well as left ventricular wall thickness and left chamber volume measurements were similar between dt and wild-type control mice. Hearts from dt mice also displayed no signs of fibrosis or calcification. Taken together, our data provide new insights into the intricate structure of the sarcomere by situating dystonin in cardiac muscle fibers and suggest that dystonin does not significantly influence the structural organization of cardiac muscle fibers during early postnatal development.

  7. Transcriptome analysis shows activation of the arginine deiminase pathway in Lactococcus lactis as a response to ethanol stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Lorena; Solopova, Ana; Fernández-Pérez, Rocío; González, Miriam; Tenorio, Carmen; Kuipers, Oscar P; Ruiz-Larrea, Fernanda

    2017-09-18

    This paper describes the molecular response of Lactococcus lactis NZ9700 to ethanol. This strain is a well-known nisin producer and a lactic acid bacteria (LAB) model strain. Global transcriptome profiling using DNA microarrays demonstrated a bacterial adaptive response to the presence of 2% ethanol in the culture broth and differential expression of 67 genes. The highest up-regulation was detected for those genes involved in arginine degradation through the arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway (20-40 fold up-regulation). The metabolic responses to ethanol of wild type L. lactis strains were studied and compared to those of regulator-deletion mutants MG∆argR and MG∆ahrC. The results showed that in the presence of 2% ethanol those strains with an active ADI pathway reached higher growth rates when arginine was available in the culture broth than in absence of arginine. In a chemically defined medium strains with an active ADI pathway consumed arginine and produced ornithine in the presence of 2% ethanol, hence corroborating that arginine catabolism is involved in the bacterial response to ethanol. This is the first study of the L. lactis response to ethanol stress to demonstrate the relevance of arginine catabolism for bacterial adaptation and survival in an ethanol containing medium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Corticosterone stress response shows long-term repeatability and links to personality in free-living Nazca boobies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Jacquelyn K; Anderson, David J

    2014-11-01

    The concept of "coping styles", or consistently different responses to stressors, is of broad interest in behavioral ecology and biomedicine. Two critical predictions of this concept are individual consistency of neurophysiological and behavioral responses (relative to population variability) and a negative relationship between aggression/proactivity and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity. Recent studies failed to provide strong support for these predictions, especially outside of strictly controlled conditions, and long-term measures to test the first prediction are rare. Here, we demonstrate individual repeatability across 2-3years of maximum circulating corticosterone concentration [CORT] and area under the [CORT] response curve (AUCI) during a standard capture-restraint test in wild, free-living adult Nazca boobies (Sula granti). We also show that the stress response predicts the personality traits aggression and anxiety in these birds (measured in the wild); however, the strength of these results was weak. Maximum [CORT] and AUCI showed higher repeatability between years than baseline [CORT]. After controlling breeding status, sex, mass, date sampled, and their interactions, baseline [CORT] was most closely related to personality traits, followed by AUCI, and then maximum [CORT]. The direction of these relationships depended on whether the testing context was social or non-social. [CORT] parameters had little to no relationship with cross-context plasticity in personality traits. Our results generally affirm two critical predictions of coping styles, but match the emerging trend that these relationships are weak in the wild, and may depend on testing context. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Integrating Art into Group Treatment for Adults with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder from Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Carol-Lynne J.

    2015-01-01

    Current research supports the use of exposure-based treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and integrated treatments show potential for enhanced symptom reduction. This pilot study developed a manualized group treatment integrating art interventions with exposure, grounding, and narrative therapy for five adults with PTSD who were…

  10. Multi-Family Groups for Multi-Stressed Families: Initial Outcomes and Future Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jerrold M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the influence of caregiver stress on attendance among urban families involved in a multiple family group (MFG) intervention, as well as pre/post changes in childhood behavioral difficulties, caregiver stress, caregiver depressive symptoms, caregiver coping by substance use, and caregiver motivation to change. Methods:…

  11. A Case Study: An ACT Stress Management Group in a University Counseling Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daltry, Rachel M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) stress management group in a college counseling center setting. This study explored (a) the effectiveness of ACT in increasing participants' ability to tolerate distress, which directly affects their ability to function in a stressful college…

  12. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Group Leadership Instruction for Rehabilitation Counselors-in-Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Nykeisha; Wadsworth, John; Cory, James

    2009-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety syndrome that can develop after exposure to a traumatic event in which harm occurred or was threatened. PTSD is often treated with group therapy. Rehabilitation counselors need to be aware of the group treatments for PTSD because counselors may be leaders of group therapy, may work with consumers…

  13. White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei That Have Received Gracilaria tenuistipitata Extract Show Early Recovery of Immune Parameters after Ammonia Stressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Yuan Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei immersed in seawater (35‰ containing Gracilaria tenuistipitata extract (GTE at 0 (control, 400, and 600 mg/L for 3 h were exposed to 5 mg/L ammonia-N (ammonia as nitrogen, and immune parameters including hyaline cells (HCs, granular cells (GCs, including semi-granular cells, total hemocyte count (THC, phenoloxidase (PO activity, respiratory bursts (RBs, superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, lysozyme activity, and hemolymph protein level were examined 24~120 h post-stress. The immune parameters of shrimp immersed in 600 mg/L GTE returned to original values earlier, at 96~120 h post-stress, whereas in control shrimp they did not. In another experiment, shrimp were immersed in seawater containing GTE at 0 and 600 mg/L for 3 h and examined for transcript levels of immune-related genes at 24 h post-stress. Transcript levels of lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP, peroxinectin (PX, cytMnSOD, mtMnSOD, and HSP70 were up-regulated at 24 h post-stress in GTE receiving shrimp. We concluded that white shrimp immersed in seawater containing GTE exhibited a capability for maintaining homeostasis by regulating cellular and humoral immunity against ammonia stress as evidenced by up-regulated gene expression and earlier recovery of immune parameters.

  14. White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei That Have Received Gracilaria tenuistipitata Extract Show Early Recovery of Immune Parameters after Ammonia Stressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Yuan; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Lin, Yong-Chin; Yeh, Su-Tuen; Huang, Chien-Lun

    2015-06-05

    White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei immersed in seawater (35‰) containing Gracilaria tenuistipitata extract (GTE) at 0 (control), 400, and 600 mg/L for 3 h were exposed to 5 mg/L ammonia-N (ammonia as nitrogen), and immune parameters including hyaline cells (HCs), granular cells (GCs, including semi-granular cells), total hemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, lysozyme activity, and hemolymph protein level were examined 24~120 h post-stress. The immune parameters of shrimp immersed in 600 mg/L GTE returned to original values earlier, at 96~120 h post-stress, whereas in control shrimp they did not. In another experiment, shrimp were immersed in seawater containing GTE at 0 and 600 mg/L for 3 h and examined for transcript levels of immune-related genes at 24 h post-stress. Transcript levels of lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PX), cytMnSOD, mtMnSOD, and HSP70 were up-regulated at 24 h post-stress in GTE receiving shrimp. We concluded that white shrimp immersed in seawater containing GTE exhibited a capability for maintaining homeostasis by regulating cellular and humoral immunity against ammonia stress as evidenced by up-regulated gene expression and earlier recovery of immune parameters.

  15. Salivary alpha amylase activity in human beings of different age groups subjected to psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Gopal K; Upadhyay, Seema; Panna, Shradha M

    2014-10-01

    Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) has been proposed as a sensitive non-invasive biomarker for stress-induced changes in the body that reflect the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Though several experiments have been conducted to determine the validity of this salivary component as a reliable stress marker in human subjects, the effect of stress induced changes on sAA level in different age groups is least studied. This article reports the activity of sAA in human subjects of different age groups subjected to psychological stress induced through stressful video clip. Differences in sAA level based on sex of different age groups under stress have also been studied. A total of 112 subjects consisting of both the male and female subjects, divided into two groups on basis of age were viewed a video clip of corneal transplant surgery as stressor. Activity of sAA from saliva samples of the stressed subjects were measured and compared with the activity of the samples collected from the subjects before viewing the clip. The age ranges of subjects were 18-25 and 40-60 years. The sAA level increased significantly in both the groups after viewing the stressful video. The increase was more pronounced in the younger subjects. The level of sAA was comparatively more in males than females in the respective groups. No significant change in sAA activity was observed after viewing the soothed video clip. Significant increase of sAA level in response to psychological stress suggests that it might act as a reliable sympathetic activity biochemical marker in different stages of human beings.

  16. Transcriptome profiling of low temperature-treated cassava apical shoots showed dynamic responses of tropical plant to cold stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Dong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cassava is an important tropical root crop adapted to a wide range of environmental stimuli such as drought and acid soils. Nevertheless, it is an extremely cold-sensitive tropical species. Thus far, there is limited information about gene regulation and signalling pathways related to the cold stress response in cassava. The development of microarray technology has accelerated the study of global transcription profiling under certain conditions. Results A 60-mer oligonucleotide microarray representing 20,840 genes was used to perform transcriptome profiling in apical shoots of cassava subjected to cold at 7°C for 0, 4 and 9 h. A total of 508 transcripts were identified as early cold-responsive genes in which 319 sequences had functional descriptions when aligned with Arabidopsis proteins. Gene ontology annotation analysis identified many cold-relevant categories, including 'Response to abiotic and biotic stimulus', 'Response to stress', 'Transcription factor activity', and 'Chloroplast'. Various stress-associated genes with a wide range of biological functions were found, such as signal transduction components (e.g., MAP kinase 4, transcription factors (TFs, e.g., RAP2.11, and reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging enzymes (e.g., catalase 2, as well as photosynthesis-related genes (e.g., PsaL. Seventeen major TF families including many well-studied members (e.g., AP2-EREBP were also involved in the early response to cold stress. Meanwhile, KEGG pathway analysis uncovered many important pathways, such as 'Plant hormone signal transduction' and 'Starch and sucrose metabolism'. Furthermore, the expression changes of 32 genes under cold and other abiotic stress conditions were validated by real-time RT-PCR. Importantly, most of the tested stress-responsive genes were primarily expressed in mature leaves, stem cambia, and fibrous roots rather than apical buds and young leaves. As a response to cold stress in cassava, an increase

  17. Parenting Stress through the Lens of Different Clinical Groups: a Systematic Review & Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Lucybel; Graziano, Paulo A.; Bagner, Daniel M.

    2017-01-01

    Research has demonstrated an association between parenting stress and child behavior problems, and suggested levels of parenting stress are higher among parents of children at risk for behavior problems, such as those with autism and developmental delay (ASD/DD). The goal of the present study was to conduct a systematic review of parenting stress and child behavior problems among different clinical groups (i.e., ASD/DD, chronic illness, with or at-risk for behavioral and/or mood disorders). We also examined demographic and methodological variables as moderators and differences in overall levels of parenting stress between the clinical groups. This systematic review documents a link between parenting stress and child behavior problems with an emphasis on externalizing behavior. One-hundred thirty-three studies were included for quantitative analysis. Parenting stress was more strongly related to child externalizing (weighted ES r = 0.57, d = 1.39) than internalizing (weighted ES r = 0.37, d = 0.79) problems. Moderation analyses indicated that the association between parenting stress and behavior problems was stronger among studies which had mostly male and clinic-recruited samples. Overall, parenting stress levels were higher for parents of children with ASD/DD compared to parents of children from other clinical groups. Findings document the association between parenting stress and child behavior problems and highlight the importance of assessing parenting stress as part of routine care and throughout behavioral intervention programs, especially for groups of children at high risk for behavior problems, such as children with ASD/DD, in order to identify support for both the parent(s) and child. PMID:28555335

  18. Circulating biologically active oxidized phospholipids show on-going and increased oxidative stress in older male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinbo Liu

    2013-01-01

    Significance: Oxidatively modified phospholipids are increased in the circulation during common, mild oxidant stresses of aging, or in male compared to female animals. Turnover of these biologically active phospholipids by rapid transport into liver and kidney is unchanged, so circulating levels reflect continuously increased production.

  19. Effects of stress or infection on rat behavior show robust reversals due to environmental disturbance [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Abdulai-Saiku

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The behavior of animals is intricately linked to the environment; a relationship that is often studied in laboratory conditions by using environmental perturbations to study biological mechanisms underlying the behavioral change.  Methods: This study pertains to two such well-studied and well-replicated perturbations, i.e., stress-induced anxiogenesis and Toxoplasma gondii -induced loss of innate fear. Here, we demonstrate that behavioral outcomes of these experimental manipulations are contingent upon the ambient quality of the wider environment where animal facilities are situated. Results: During late 2014 and early 2015, a building construction project started adjacent to our animal facility. During this phase, we observed that maternal separation stress caused anxiolysis, rather than historically observed anxiogenesis, in laboratory rats. We also found that Toxoplasma gondii infection caused an increase, rather than historically observed decrease, in innate aversion to predator odors in rats. Conclusion: These observations suggest that effects of stress and Toxoplasma gondii are dependent on variables in the environment that often go unreported in the published literature.

  20. The relation between fearfulness in young and stress-response in adult laying hens, on individual and group level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haas, Elske N; Kops, Marjolein S; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Groothuis, Ton G G; Ellen, Esther D; Rodenburg, T Bas

    2012-10-10

    Fearfulness of an individual can affect its sensitivity to stress, while at the same time the social situation in which an animal lives can affect its fear level. It is however unknown what the long-term effects of high fearfulness on sensitivity to stress are, on individual or group level in laying hens. We hypothesize that increased fearfulness at a young age results in increased sensitivity to stress at an adult age, and that this relation can differ between groups, due to differences in group composition. Therefore, we studied the relation between fearfulness in an Open Field (OF) test at six weeks of age and plasma-corticosterone (CORT) levels after a 5-min Manual Restraint test (MR) at 33 weeks of age, and assessed behavior in the home pen. We used birds from a low mortality line, selected for four generations on low mortality due to feather pecking and cannibalism and a control line (n=153 in total, eight pens/line). These lines are known to differ in fearfulness and stress physiology. Chicks from the low mortality line were more active in the OF compared to chicks from the control line. Chicks that showed a fearful response (no walking, no vocalizing) in the OF test had higher CORT at 33 weeks of age than chicks that walked and/or vocalized in the OF test and had higher activity in the home pen as adults. On group level, a passive response in the OF was related to high CORT levels after MR. Presence of at least one fearful bird in a group led to higher CORT in the other group mates compared to birds from groups with no fearful birds present. Birds from groups in which more than 50% of birds had severe comb lesions had higher CORT levels compared to birds from groups with less than 50% of birds affected. High fearfulness of laying hen chicks can on individual level have a long-term effect on stress sensitivity. The presence of fearful birds in a group as well as signs of social instability in a group, indicated by comb lesions, can affect sensitivity to

  1. Stress associated with group living in a long-lived bird

    OpenAIRE

    Selva, Nuria; Cortés-Avizanda, Ainara; Lemus, Jesús A.; Blanco, Guillermo; Mueller, Thomas; Heinrich, Bernd; Donázar, José A.

    2011-01-01

    Many long-lived avian species adopt life strategies that involve a gregarious way of life at juvenile and sub-adult stages and territoriality during adulthood. However, the potential associated costs of these life styles, such as stress, are poorly understood. We examined the effects of group living, sex and parasite load on the baseline concentration of faecal stress hormone (corticosterone) metabolites in a wild population of common ravens (Corvus corax). Corticosterone concentrations were ...

  2. Show what you know and deal with stress yourself: a qualitative interview study of medical interns' perceptions of stress and gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonk, P.; Rantzsch, V.; de Vries, R.; Houkes, I.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Medical students report high stress levels and in particular, the clinical phase is a demanding one. The field of medicine is still described as having a patriarchal culture which favors aspects like a physicians' perceived certainty and rationalism. Also, the Effort-Recovery Model

  3. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Tokgunaydin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to review empirical studies that were used to evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy programs for the treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. Articles in English and Turkish that were published between the years of 2000 and 2015 (February have been searched in national and international databases. The articles that were gathered by the search have been read and the ones that were not therapy effectiveness studies, cognitive behavioral group therapies and that included posttraumatic stress disorder comorbid with alcohol/substance abuse, personality disorders and psychotic disorders were eliminated. The remaining 13 studies that fulfiilrf research criteria were introduced in the context of method and therapy characteristics. It can be seen that the cognitive behavioral group therapies are effective in decreasing the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and/or comorbid disorders. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(Supplement 1: 95-107

  4. The Effect of Participation in Support Groups on Depression, Anxiety and Stress in Family Caregivers of People with Alzheimers: Randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Taati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to determine the effect of participation in support groups on the depression, anxiety and stress level of caregivers of patients with Alzheimer. This study was a single blind randomized clinical controlled trial (RCT with 80 family caregivers of people with Alzheimer’s (per group=40. The intervention group participated in eight sessions 1.5- 2 hours in support groups. The tool used in this study was the DASS-21 questionnaire for measuring depression, anxiety and stress level of the caregivers, analysis of parametric data, using SPSS version 21. Findings showed, participation in support groups showed no significant difference on depression, anxiety and stress in family caregivers of Alzheimer patients in the control group and the intervention group. Given that caring for these patients by their family members are very sensitive and costly issues for policy makers and health service providers, community and families of these patients.

  5. Group therapy for partners of combat veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, M A; Rose, P

    1997-01-01

    An 18-month group-therapy experience with women partners of combat veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). To describe the application of group process and feminist theory to the planning and development of a group of women partners of veterans with PTSD. The authors' clinical work. Using group psychotherapy theory and feminist theory, the group content and process involved the themes of rescuing, dissociation, and individuation. The exploration of transference and countertransference were useful in facilitating individual as well as process.

  6. The 7B-1 mutant in tomato shows blue-light-specific resistance to osmotic stress and abscisic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellner, Martin; Sawhney, Vipen K

    2002-03-01

    Germination of wild-type (WT) tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) seed is inhibited by mannitol (100-140 mM) in light, but not in darkness, suggesting that light amplifies the responsiveness of the seed to osmotic stress (M. Fellner, V.K. Sawhney (2001) Theor Appl Genet 102:215-221). Here we report that white light (W) and especially blue light (B) strongly enhance the mannitol-induced inhibition of seed germination, and that the effect of red light (R) is weak or nil. The inhibitory effect of mannitol could be completely overcome by fluridone, an inhibitor of abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, indicating that mannitol inhibits seed germination via ABA accumulation in seeds. The inhibition of WT seed germination by exogenous ABA was also amplified by W or B, but not by R. In a recessive, ABA-overproducing, 7B-1 mutant of tomato, seed germination and hypocotyl growth were resistant to inhibition by mannitol or exogenous ABA, both in W or B. Experiments with fluridone suggested that inhibition of hypocotyl growth by W or B is also partially via ABA accumulation. De-etiolation in the mutant was especially less in B compared to the WT, and there was no difference in hypocotyl growth between the two genotypes in R. Our data suggest that B amplifies the responsiveness of tomato seeds and hypocotyls to mannitol and ABA, and that W- or B-specific resistance of the 7B-1 mutant to osmotic stress or ABA is a consequence of a defect in B perception or signal transduction.

  7. Group antenatal intervention to reduce perinatal stress and depressive symptoms related to intergenerational conflicts: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Sharron S K; Lam, T H

    2012-11-01

    Intergenerational conflicts are a major source of stress, which might lead to depression in new mothers. The conflict is heightened when grandparents are involved in childcare. To examine the effectiveness of an interpersonal psychotherapy oriented group intervention to reduce stress and depressive symptoms in new mothers and enhance happiness and self-efficacy in managing intergenerational conflict in childcare. This study is one of the intervention projects of FAMILY: A Jockey Club Initiative for a Harmonious Society, funded by The Hong Kong Jockey Club Charities Trust. Multisite randomized controlled trial with two arms: an intervention group attended an additional 4-week program and a control group who received usual care only. Six Maternal and Child Health Centres in Hong Kong From September 2009 to January 2010, 156 pregnant women who would have grandparents involved in childcare were recruited at their 14-32 weeks' gestation. Participants were randomized to groups using computer generated random sequences by blinded recruitment staff. Primary outcomes were stress and depressive symptoms immediately after the intervention and 6-8 weeks after delivery. Secondary outcomes were happiness and self-efficacy in managing conflict. After screening 2870 pregnant women, 156 eligible participants were randomized. Intention-to-treat analysis showed that the intervention group (n=78) had significantly lower perceived stress (p=0.017; Cohen d=0.38) and greater happiness (p=0.004; Cohen d=0.41) than the control group (n=78) immediately after the intervention. However, the effects were not sustained at postnatal follow-up. Subgroup analysis showed that participants with depressive symptoms (EPDS>12) at baseline reported significantly lower stress, greater happiness (p=0.035 and 0.037, respectively; both Cohen d=0.61), greater self-efficacy in managing conflict (p=0.012; Cohen d=0.76) than the control group after the intervention. Also, after delivery, they had significantly

  8. Physiological responses of camel calves to weaning stress with absence of dams under group or individual rearing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farghaly, H.M.A; Abdel-Fattah, M.S.; Hashem, A.L.S.; Azamel, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the effects of weaning stress, rearing system and probiotics supplementation on live body weight, LBW; total feed intake, TFI, water consumption, WC, average daily gain, ADG and growth rate, GR, plasma cortisol and thyroid hormones concentrations during weaning period. This study was carried out at Maryout Research Station of the Desert Research Center, 35 km southwest of Alexandria, Egypt. Ten Maghraby breed camel calves were separated from their dams at 280 days of age with initial LBW of 236.76±0.22 kg. The duration of the study was 35 days and divided into five weeks; first week served as pre-weaning period followed by four weeks served as post-weaning period. Camel calves were weaned using calf-dam contact off system (calves were completely separated from their dams at all times during weaning process) under two rearing systems (6 calves penned in two groups and 4 calves penned in complete isolation, each alone in 4 replicates). Half of calves in each type of rearing system were supplemented with probiotics while the others were not-supplemented with probiotics. The results showed that maternal and milk deprivation affect significantly LBW, TWG, ADG and GR during post-weaning period (28 days), where grouped and isolated calves were different significantly in LBW, TWG and ADG, during the first two weeks post-weaning, but not different significantly in GR (1.66%) at the end of weaning period (28 days). However, grouped calves were more endurance (less responsive) to weaning stress along weaning period. The beneficial effect of probiotics supplementation on TFI was more pronounced from d14 till d28 post-weaning for both grouped and isolated-housed calves. The results showed also that completely social isolation was more pronounced as a stressful condition, this was indicated by the physiological changes which were considered indicative for a higher state of stress, such as an acute release of cortisol hormone and

  9. Overtime work and stress response in a group of Japanese workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yuji; Miyake, Hitoshi; Thériault, Gilles

    2009-01-01

    Working long overtime hours is considered a cause of mental health problems among workers but such a relationship has yet to be empirically confirmed. To clarify the influence of overtime work on response to stress and to assess the role of other stress-related factors on this relationship. The study was conducted among 24 685 employees of a company in Japan. Stress response, job stressors and social supports were assessed by the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire. Participants were divided into five categories of overtime (0-19, 20-39, 40-59, >or=60 h of overtime per month and exempted employees). The nonadjusted odds ratios for stress response for 40-59 and >or=60 overtime hours per month in reference to 0-19 overtime hours were 1.11 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.19] and 1.62 (95% CI 1.50-1.76), respectively. After adjustment for self-assessed amount of work, mental workload and sleeping time, the association between overtime work and stress response disappeared. This large cross-sectional study shows that overtime work appears to influence stress response indirectly through other stress factors such as self-assessed amount of work, mental workload and sleeping time.

  10. Myocardial 201Tl washout after combined dipyridamole submaximal exercise stress: Reference values from different patient groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridrich, L.

    1989-01-01

    Dipyridamole stress is favorable in patients unable to exercise maximally for 201 Tl myocardial scintigraphy. Aside from an analysis of uptake defects, proper washout analysis can be limited by heart rate variations when isolated dipyridamole stress is used. Heart rate standardized 201 Tl washout kinetics after a combined dipyridamole and submaximal exercise stress protocol (CDSE), feasible in elderly patients as well as in patients with peripheral artery disease, were therefore studied to investigate the 201 Tl washout after CDSE in differently defined patient groups: Group I comprised 19 patients with documented heart disease and angiographically excluded coronary artery disease (CAD); group II contained 17 patients with a very low likelihood of CAD determined by both normal exercise radionuclide ventriculography and normal 201 Tl uptake. Group III comprised 56 patients with a 50% pretest likelihood of CAD but normal 201 Tl uptake. Mean washout values were nearly identical in all groups. Despite similar uptake patterns, however, washout standardized by CDSE was significantly lower than the normal washout values after maximal treadmill exercise. Thus an obviously lower 201 Tl washout after CDSE than after maximal treadmill exercise must be considered if washout analysis criteria after dipyridamole are applied to evaluate ischemic heart disease. Nevertheless, heart rate elevation achieved by additional submaximal exercise stress seems necessary, adequate and clinically safe for standardisation of washout analysis in dipyridamole 201 Tl scintigraphy. (orig.)

  11. Understanding Medical Students' Experience with Stress and Its Related Constructs: A Focus Group Study from Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquhar, Julia; Lie, Desiree; Chan, Angelique; Ow, Mandy; Vidyarthi, Arpana

    2018-02-01

    In order to protect medical students from burnout and its untoward psychiatric effects, it is imperative to understand their stress, burnout, coping, and resilience experiences. This study aimed to derive collective definitions from the medical student perspective, to identify common themes of students' experiences, and to distinguish pre-clinical and clinical year students' experiences relating to these four constructs. The authors conducted focus groups of medical students in Singapore across 4 years using a semi-structured question guide. Participants shared their understanding, experiences, and the relationships between stress, burnout, coping, and resilience. Coders independently evaluated construct definitions and derived common themes through an iterative process, and compared transcripts of pre-clinical and clinical year students to determine differences in experience over time. Nine focus groups (54 students, 28 females, mean age 24.3) were conducted. Students identified common definitions for each construct. Nine themes emerged within three domains: (1) relating constructs to personal experience, (2) interrelating stress, burnout, coping, and resilience, and (3) understanding the necessity of stress. Compared to clinical students, pre-clinical students reported theory-based rather than reality-based experiences and exam-induced stress, defined constructs using present rather than future situations, and described constructs as independent rather than interrelated. This sample of medical students in Singapore shares a common understanding of stress, burnout, coping, and resilience, but experiences these uniquely. They perceive a positive role for stress. These findings build upon prior literature, suggesting an interrelationship between stress and its related constructs and adding the novel perspective of students from an Asian country.

  12. Relieving stress. A short-term support group for home attendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaine, M

    2000-01-01

    Home attendants (HAs) work in relative isolation, burdened by conflicting demands. This article details an eight-session support group for HAs, designed to explore its effects on their work life. Meeting for hour-and-a-half sessions with no fixed agenda, the group offered members an opportunity to communicate with others in similar situations. Participants reported that the group experience helped relieve stress and made them feel less alone. Other benefits included gaining strategies for coping with difficult situations and learning to set boundaries. Further investigation into the effectiveness of similar groups is suggested.

  13. Using Focus Groups to Explore the Stressful Life Events of Black College Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Daphne C.; Green, B. Lee; Goodson, Patricia; Guidry, Jeffrey Joseph; Stanley, Christine A.

    2007-01-01

    Black students who attend predominately White institutions (PWI) face many obstacles. This study identified the stressful life events of Black college men via focus group discussions and examined how these events impact their mental health and health behaviors. Forty-six participants from a PWI and a historically Black college/university (HBCU)…

  14. Consensus statement update on posttraumatic stress disorder from the international consensus group on depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballenger, James C; Davidson, Jonathan R T; Lecrubier, Yves; Nutt, David J; Marshall, Randall D; Nemeroff, Charles B; Shalev, Arieh Y; Yehuda, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    To provide an update to the "Consensus Statement on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder From the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety" that was published in a supplement to The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry (2000) by presenting important developments in the field, the latest recommendations for patient care, and suggestions for future research. The 4 members of the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety were James C. Ballenger (chair), Jonathan R. T. Davidson, Yves Lecrubier, and David J. Nutt. Other faculty who were invited by the chair were Randall D. Marshall, Charles B. Nemeroff, Arieh Y. Shalev, and Rachel Yehuda. The consensus statement is based on the 7 review articles in this supplement and the related scientific literature. Group meetings were held over a 2-day period. On day 1, the group discussed topics to be represented by the 7 review articles in this supplement, and the chair identified key issues for further debate. On day 2, the group discussed these issues to arrive at a consensus view. After the group meetings, the consensus statement was drafted by the chair and approved by all faculty. There have been advancements in the science and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder. Attention to this disorder has increased with recent world events; however, continued efforts are needed to improve diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder.

  15. EFFICACY OF A STRUCTURED GROUP PROGRAM IN COPYING STRATEGIES FOR POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER IN ADULTS AND ADOLESCENTS IN DISPLACEMENT SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA CLARA RODRÍGUEZ DÍAZ

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an analysis is made on the efficacy of a structured group program in emotional, cognitiveand social coping skills for the treatment of a sample of adults and adolescents that developedposttraumatic stress disorder after a forced displacement situation. The participants completed a 10-session intervention including pre and post assessments about the severity level of the symptoms usingthe PSD scale (Foa, 1995 and an additional measure one month after. The results showed significantimprovements in symptoms in both groups and in each one of the possible comparisons. Recoveryshows that the decrease in the severity level of symptoms affects the functioning level positively.

  16. Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS-21): psychometric analysis across four racial groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Peter J

    2007-09-01

    Growing cross-cultural awareness has led researchers to examine frequently used research instruments and assessment tools in racially diverse populations. The present study was conducted to assess the psychometric characteristics of the 21-item version of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales (DASS-21) among different racial groups. The DASS-21 was chosen because it appears to be a reliable and easy to administer measure, ideal for both clinical and research purposes. Results suggest that the internal consistency, and convergent and divergent validity of the DASS-21 are similar across racial groups. Multigroup CFA, however, indicated that item loadings were invariant, while scale covariances were not invariant. This suggests that, although the items may load similarly on the depression, anxiety and stress constructs, these constructs may be differentially inter-related across groups. Implications for application in clinical practice are discussed.

  17. Group protocol to mitigate disaster stress and enhance social support in adolescents exposed to Hurricane Hugo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, J B; Hardin, S B; Weinrich, S; McGeorge, S; Lopez, J; Pesut, D

    1992-01-01

    Literature reports that cognitive understanding and social support can mitigate stress in both adults and adolescents. As a subcomponent of the Carolina Adolescent Health Project (CAHP), this research evaluated the efficacy of a Cognitive Social Support (CSS) group protocol designed to mitigate the disaster stress of adolescents who had been exposed seriously to Hurricane Hugo. A purposive sample of 259 students participated in and evaluated the CSS. This article reports the specific structure, content, process, rationale, and cost of the CSS. Evaluations indicated that 82% of the students evaluated the small-group component of the CSS as "very good" or "excellent," while 70% rated the large-group component as "very good" or "excellent."

  18. Pomegranate (Punica granatum Juice Shows Antioxidant Activity against Cutaneous Leishmaniasis-Induced Oxidative Stress in Female BALB/c Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badriah Alkathiri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania species are parasites that multiply within phagocytes and cause several clinical diseases characterized by single or multiple ulcerations. One of the complications that can induce tissue damage and the resulting scars is caused by secondary bacterial infections. Studies to find new, effective, and safe oral drugs for treating leishmaniasis are being conducted since several decades, owing to the problems associated with the use of antimonials available. Previously, the antiparasitic and antioxidant properties of Punica granatum (pomegranate, P. granatum have been reported. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to investigate the antileishmanial activity of pomegranate aqueous juice in vitro and in female BALB/c mice. A 3-(4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay in Leishmania major promastigotes and alterations in the antioxidant status, liver function, and skin histological changes in L. major-infected mice orally treated with pomegranate juice alone and in combination with the antibiotic ciprofloxacin, were used to investigate the in vitro and in vivo antileishmanial activity of pomegranate juice, respectively. Oral P. granatum juice treatment significantly reduced the average size of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions compared with that of the untreated mice. This antileishmanial activity of P. granatum was associated with enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities. Histopathological evaluation proved the antileishmanial activity of P. granatum, but did not reveal changes in the treated animals, compared to the positive control. In conclusion, P. granatum shows high and fast antileishmanial activity probably by boosting the endogenous antioxidant activity.

  19. Pomegranate (Punica granatum) Juice Shows Antioxidant Activity against Cutaneous Leishmaniasis-Induced Oxidative Stress in Female BALB/c Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkathiri, Badriah; El-Khadragy, Manal F; Metwally, Dina M; Al-Olayan, Ebtesam M; Bakhrebah, Muhammed A; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2017-12-18

    Leishmania species are parasites that multiply within phagocytes and cause several clinical diseases characterized by single or multiple ulcerations. One of the complications that can induce tissue damage and the resulting scars is caused by secondary bacterial infections. Studies to find new, effective, and safe oral drugs for treating leishmaniasis are being conducted since several decades, owing to the problems associated with the use of antimonials available. Previously, the antiparasitic and antioxidant properties of Punica granatum (pomegranate, P. granatum ) have been reported. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to investigate the antileishmanial activity of pomegranate aqueous juice in vitro and in female BALB/c mice. A 3-(4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay in Leishmania major promastigotes and alterations in the antioxidant status, liver function, and skin histological changes in L. major -infected mice orally treated with pomegranate juice alone and in combination with the antibiotic ciprofloxacin, were used to investigate the in vitro and in vivo antileishmanial activity of pomegranate juice, respectively. Oral P. granatum juice treatment significantly reduced the average size of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions compared with that of the untreated mice. This antileishmanial activity of P. granatum was associated with enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities. Histopathological evaluation proved the antileishmanial activity of P. granatum , but did not reveal changes in the treated animals, compared to the positive control. In conclusion, P. granatum shows high and fast antileishmanial activity probably by boosting the endogenous antioxidant activity.

  20. The Comparison of the Effects of a Didactic Stress Management Program and Group Counselling on the Coping Strategies of School Counsellors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coban, Aysel Esen; Hamamci, Zeynep

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a didactic stress management program, group counselling, and a control group on school counsellors' stress coping strategies. Thirty-four school counsellors were randomly assigned to either a didactic stress management group, group counselling, or a control group. The didactic stress management…

  1. Group Reality Therapy in Addicts Rehabilitation Process to Reduce Depression, Anxiety and Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Massah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Substance abuse is one of the most outstanding socio-psychological hazards that can easily wreck one’s personal, family and social life. Reality Therapy is a type of Cognitive rehabilitation (known as psychosocial rehabilitation, and the application of this method in the treatment of different disorders has recently been the topic of research. The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of group reality therapy on the reduction of stress, anxiety and depression in addicts. Methods: A quasi-experimental study of pretest-posttest design, with a control group was conducted. The study population consisted of all addicts attending Tehran’s ‘Neda’ Rehab Clinic. First, the DASS-21 questionnaire was administered and then 40 people were selected from those who had scored average and higher. They were then randomly assigned to two test and control groups of 20 each. Analysis of co-variance was used to analyze the data, with which pretest scores were controlled, and the effect of the independent variable on posttest scores was evaluated. Results: Following the intervention, there were significant decreases in the mean scores of all three variables, i.e. stress, anxiety and depression in the test group (P<0.05. Discussion: Psychosocial rehabilitation based on reality therapy can be considered as an effective method for reducing stress, anxiety and depression in addicts and also as an adjunctive therapy in treating other ailments.

  2. Stress axis regulation during social ascension in a group-living cichlid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbert, Brett M; Gilmour, Kathleen M; Balshine, Sigal

    2018-06-19

    Animals living in groups often form social hierarchies, with characteristic behaviours and physiologies associated with rank. However, when social opportunities arise and a subordinate ascends into a dominant position, quick adjustments are necessary to secure this position. Such periods of social transition are typically associated with elevated glucocorticoid production, but the precise regulation of the stress axis during these occasions is not well understood. Using the group-living cichlid, Neolamprologus pulcher, the effects of social ascension on the stress axis were assessed. Ascenders rapidly filled experimentally created vacancies, adopting a dominant behavioural phenotype within 72 h-elevating aggression, activity, and workload, while receiving high rates of affiliative behaviours from their group members. Despite assuming behavioural dominance within their groups, ascenders displayed higher cortisol levels than dominants three days post-ascension. Additionally, compared to subordinates, ascenders had increased transcript abundance of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (star) and cytochrome p450 side-chain cleavage enzyme (p450scc) in the head kidney, indicating activation of the stress axis. Cortisol levels were lowest in ascenders that displayed low rates of aggression, potentially reflecting the reestablishment of social stability in these groups. Increased transcript abundance of both glucocorticoid receptors (gr1 and gr2) in the brain's preoptic area (POA) of ascenders compared to dominants suggested an enhanced capacity for cortisol regulation via negative feedback. Our results reveal a regulatory cascade of behavioural and physiological interactions and highlight the importance of investigating the underlying mechanisms regulating the stress axis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Social group dynamics predict stress variability among children in a New Zealand classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spray, Julie; Floyd, Bruce; Littleton, Judith; Trnka, Susanna; Mattison, Siobhan

    2018-03-27

    Previous research proposes stress as a mechanism for linking social environments and biological bodies. In particular, non-human primate studies investigate relationships between cortisol as a measure of stress response and social hierarchies. Because human social structures often include hierarchies of dominance and social status, humans may exhibit similar patterns. Studies of non-human primates, however, have not reached consistent conclusions with respect to relationships between social position and levels of cortisol. While human studies report associations between cortisol and various aspects of social environments, studies that consider social status as a predictor of stress response also report mixed results. Others have argued that perceptions of social status may have different implications for stress response depending upon social context. We propose here that characteristics of children's social networks may be a better predictor of central tendencies and variability of stress response than their perceptions of social status. This is evaluated among 24 children from 9.4 to 11.3 years of age in one upper middle-class New Zealand primary school classroom, assessed through observation within the classroom, self-reports during semi-structured interviews and 221 serial saliva samples provided daily over 10 consecutive school days. A synthetic assessment of the children's networks and peer-relationships was developed prior to saliva-cortisol analysis. We found that greater stability of peer-relationships within groups significantly predicts lower within-group variation in mid-morning cortisol over the two-week period, but not overall within-group differences in mean cortisol. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Circadian Rhythms of Oxidative Stress Markers and Melatonin Metabolite in Patients with Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Rie; Tanuma, Naoyuki; Sakuma, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Masaharu

    2016-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA) is a genetic disorder in DNA nucleotide excision repair (NER) with severe neurological disorders, in which oxidative stress and disturbed melatonin metabolism may be involved. Herein we confirmed the diurnal variation of melatonin metabolites, oxidative stress markers, and antioxidant power in urine of patients with XPA and age-matched controls, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The peak of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin, a metabolite of melatonin, was seen at 6:00 in both the XPA patients and controls, though the peak value is lower, specifically in the younger age group of XPA patients. The older XPA patients demonstrated an increase in the urinary levels of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and hexanoyl-lysine, a marker of oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation, having a robust peak at 6:00 and 18:00, respectively. In addition, the urinary level of total antioxidant power was decreased in the older XPA patients. Recently, it is speculated that oxidative stress and antioxidant properties may have a diurnal variation, and the circadian rhythm is likely to influence the NER itself. We believe that the administration of melatonin has the possibility of ameliorating the augmented oxidative stress in neurodegeneration, especially in the older XPA patients, modulating the melatonin metabolism and the circadian rhythm.

  5. Circadian Rhythms of Oxidative Stress Markers and Melatonin Metabolite in Patients with Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rie Miyata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA is a genetic disorder in DNA nucleotide excision repair (NER with severe neurological disorders, in which oxidative stress and disturbed melatonin metabolism may be involved. Herein we confirmed the diurnal variation of melatonin metabolites, oxidative stress markers, and antioxidant power in urine of patients with XPA and age-matched controls, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The peak of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin, a metabolite of melatonin, was seen at 6:00 in both the XPA patients and controls, though the peak value is lower, specifically in the younger age group of XPA patients. The older XPA patients demonstrated an increase in the urinary levels of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine and hexanoyl-lysine, a marker of oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation, having a robust peak at 6:00 and 18:00, respectively. In addition, the urinary level of total antioxidant power was decreased in the older XPA patients. Recently, it is speculated that oxidative stress and antioxidant properties may have a diurnal variation, and the circadian rhythm is likely to influence the NER itself. We believe that the administration of melatonin has the possibility of ameliorating the augmented oxidative stress in neurodegeneration, especially in the older XPA patients, modulating the melatonin metabolism and the circadian rhythm.

  6. Microstructuring of thermo-mechanically highly stressed surfaces final report of the DFG research group 576

    CERN Document Server

    Rienäcker, Adrian; Knoll, Gunter; Bach, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Maier, Hans; Reithmeier, Eduard; Dinkelacker, Friedrich

    2015-01-01

    This contributed volume presents the final research results of the DFG Research Group 576, which is a joint initiative of five different institutes of the Leibniz Universität Hannover and the Universität Kassel, Germany. The research of the DFG Research Group 576 focuses on improving the tribological behavior of thermomechanically highly stressed surfaces, particularly on cylinder liner for combustion engines. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students who want to specialize in the field.

  7. Combat-related, chronic posttraumatic stress disorder: implications for group-therapy intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makler, S; Sigal, M; Gelkopf, M; Kochba, B B; Horeb, E

    1990-07-01

    The patient with combat-related chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder suffers from a wide spectrum of maladaptive behaviors. This paper delineates the work that has been done with such a population in group therapy. The plan that is proposed takes into account three interrelated sets of factors: factors important for creating an effective working relation; curative factors; and particular themes. Each of these factors is analyzed in the light of the particularities of group work with such a population. Each of the points discussed is based upon the relevant literature, upon the experience of the therapist, and illustrated with examples.

  8. Use of e-Learning for Stress management – Multi-group moderation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamir Sarwar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to find out the moderating role of type of industry and different levels of management with respect to eLearning perception, eLearning advantages and use of eLearning for Stress Management. Study tried to find out relationship between perceptions of eLearning, eLearning Advantages, perception of using eLearning for corporate training and more specifically for stress management. A cross sectional survey is conducted through structured questionnaire to collect the data from 686 managers working at different levels including 331 from manufacturing sector and 355 from services sector. Results of the study show positive relationship between perception of eLearning and eLearning for stress management and this relationship is significantly stronger for services industry. Positive relationship between eLearning advantages and eLearning for stress management and this relationship is significantly stronger for manufacturing industry. Study also revealed that positive relationship between eLearning perception and eLearning for stress management and this relationship is not significantly stronger for senior management than for middle management.

  9. A study of the relationship between food group recommendations and perceived stress: findings from black women in the Deep South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Tiffany L; Desmond, Renee; Hardy, Sharonda; Townsend, Sh'Nese; Ard, Jamy D; Meneses, Karen; Partridge, Edward E; Baskin, Monica L

    2015-01-01

    Black women in the Deep South experience excess morbidity/mortality from obesity-related diseases, which may be partially attributable to poor diet. One reason for poor dietary intake may be high stress, which has been associated with unhealthy diets in other groups. Limited data are available regarding dietary patterns of black women in the Deep South and to our knowledge no studies have been published exploring relationships between stress and dietary patterns among this group. This cross-sectional study explored the relationship between stress and adherence to food group recommendations among black women in the Deep South. Participants (n = 355) provided demographic, anthropometric, stress (PSS-10), and dietary (NCI ASA-24 hour recall) data. Participants were obese (BMI = 36.5 kg/m(2)) and reported moderate stress (PSS-10 score = 16) and minimal adherence to Dietary Guidelines for Americans food group recommendations (1/3 did not meet recommendations for any food group). Participants reporting higher stress had higher BMIs than those reporting lower stress. There was no observed relationship between stress and dietary intake in this sample. Based on these study findings, which are limited by potential misreporting of dietary intake and limited variability in stress measure outcomes, there is insufficient evidence to support a relationship between stress and dietary intake.

  10. A Study of the Relationship between Food Group Recommendations and Perceived Stress: Findings from Black Women in the Deep South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany L. Carson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Black women in the Deep South experience excess morbidity/mortality from obesity-related diseases, which may be partially attributable to poor diet. One reason for poor dietary intake may be high stress, which has been associated with unhealthy diets in other groups. Limited data are available regarding dietary patterns of black women in the Deep South and to our knowledge no studies have been published exploring relationships between stress and dietary patterns among this group. This cross-sectional study explored the relationship between stress and adherence to food group recommendations among black women in the Deep South. Participants (n=355 provided demographic, anthropometric, stress (PSS-10, and dietary (NCI ASA-24 hour recall data. Participants were obese (BMI = 36.5 kg/m2 and reported moderate stress (PSS-10 score = 16 and minimal adherence to Dietary Guidelines for Americans food group recommendations (1/3 did not meet recommendations for any food group. Participants reporting higher stress had higher BMIs than those reporting lower stress. There was no observed relationship between stress and dietary intake in this sample. Based on these study findings, which are limited by potential misreporting of dietary intake and limited variability in stress measure outcomes, there is insufficient evidence to support a relationship between stress and dietary intake.

  11. Evaluation of ADMA, carbonyl groups, CAT and NKA in depressed patients with and without posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogłodek, Ewa A

    2017-08-01

    It has been shown that asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), carbonyl groups, catalase (CAT) and neurokinin A (NKA) are actively involved in neuronal processes such as depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). One of their roles is to protect the body from oxidative damage. This is done by affecting neuronal growth, development and plasticity. The study aimed at assessing the concentrations of ADMA, carbonyl groups, CAT and NKA in patients with varying levels of depression severity, PTSD, and depression concurrent with PTSD. The study covered 460 people. Out of them, 120 suffered from different types of depression. The study groups comprised: 60 subjects with mild depression (MD), 60 subjects with moderate depression (MOD), 60 subjects with severe depression (SeD), 60 subjects with MD and PTSD (MD+PTSD), 60 subjects with MOD and PTSD (MOD+PTSD), 60 subjects with SeD and PTSD (SeD+PTSD), and 60 subjects with PTSD alone. Each group of 60 participants included 30 males and 30 females. The concentrations of all blood parameters were determined at 7 a.m. using the ELISA method. Depressive episodes became more severe as the concentration levels of studied markers increased. ADMA, carbonyl groups, CAT and NKA can be useful markers of chronic stress in both males and females with depression, PTSD, and depression concurrent with PTSD. They can be utilized when making an initial diagnosis and evaluating the severity of disease. Changes in their concentration levels may show a biological response to oxidative stress characteristic of depression. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  12. Photosystem I shows a higher tolerance to sorbitol-induced osmotic stress than photosystem II in the intertidal macro-algae Ulva prolifera (Chlorophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shan; Zheng, Zhenbing; Gu, Wenhui; Xie, Xiujun; Huan, Li; Pan, Guanghua; Wang, Guangce

    2014-10-01

    The photosynthetic performance of the desiccation-tolerant, intertidal macro-algae Ulva prolifera was significantly affected by sorbitol-induced osmotic stress. Our results showed that photosynthetic activity decreased significantly with increases in sorbitol concentration. Although the partial activity of both photosystem I (PS I) and photosystem II (PS II) was able to recover after 30 min of rehydration, the activity of PS II decreased more rapidly than PS I. At 4 M sorbitol concentration, the activity of PS II was almost 0 while that of PS I was still at about one third of normal levels. Following prolonged treatment with 1 and 2 M sorbitol, the activity of PS I and PS II decreased slowly, suggesting that the effects of moderate concentrations of sorbitol on PS I and PS II were gradual. Interestingly, an increase in non-photochemical quenching occurred under these conditions in response to moderate osmotic stress, whereas it declined significantly under severe osmotic stress. These results suggest that photoprotection in U. prolifera could also be induced by moderate osmotic stress. In addition, the oxidation of PS I was significantly affected by osmotic stress. P700(+) in the thalli treated with high concentrations of sorbitol could still be reduced, as PS II was inhibited by 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU), but it could not be fully oxidized. This observation may be caused by the higher quantum yield of non-photochemical energy dissipation in PS I due to acceptor-side limitation (Y(NA)) during rehydration in seawater containing DCMU. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  13. A pilot videoconference group stress management program in cancer survivors: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Eric S; Partridge, Ann H; Blackmon, Jaime E; Morgan, Evan; Recklitis, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a challenging experience and there is evidence that psychosocial interventions are effective at improving adjustment following treatment. At our cancer center, 14 cancer survivors (breast, prostate and blood cancers) completed a four-session cognitive-behavioral stress program. The first session was delivered at the survivor's local cancer center, where they were provided with a loaner tablet. The three subsequent sessions were delivered through group-based videoconference on the tablet. Session content was supplemented with a tailored ebook, designed specifically for this program. Participants provided feedback about the program as well as a standardized measure of perceived stress. Despite evidence that psychosocial programs are effective, there are significant barriers to dissemination, particularly for those residing in rural areas who do not live near academic medical centers where such programming is more readily available. Our experiences delivering a group-based videoconference program in cancer survivors are described, including positives and challenges associated with its design and implementation. Study participants enrolled from across four different US states, and the majority reported at least a 30-minute commute to their cancer center. This travel burden played a meaningful role in their desire to participate in our videoconference-based program. Although participants reported that session content was well suited to addressing stress management concerns, and session facilitators were able to effectively teach program techniques (eg progressive muscle relaxation, cognitive-reframing) and that the program was helpful overall, only modest improvements in perceived stress were seen. Participants noted challenges of the delivery including feeling disconnected from others, difficulty focusing, technical problems, and a desire for a longer program. Thus, although the novel delivery of a group-based, psychosocial program using tablet

  14. Survival after pathogen exposure in group-living insects: don't forget the stress of social isolation!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlmeier, P; Holländer, K; Meunier, J

    2016-09-01

    A major cost of group-living is its inherent risk of pathogen infection. To limit this risk, many group-living animals have developed the capability to prophylactically boost their immune system in the presence of group members and/or to mount collective defences against pathogens. These two phenomena, called density-dependent prophylaxis and social immunity, respectively, are often used to explain why, in group-living species, individuals survive better in groups than in isolation. However, this survival difference may also reflect an alternative and often overlooked process: a cost of social isolation on individuals' capability to fight against infections. Here, we disentangled the effects of density-dependent prophylaxis, social immunity and stress of social isolation on the survival after pathogen exposure in group-living adults of the European earwig Forficula auricularia. By manipulating the presence of group members both before and after pathogen exposure, we demonstrated that the cost of being isolated after infection, but not the benefits of social immunity or density-dependent prophylaxis, explained the survival of females. Specifically, females kept constantly in groups or constantly isolated had higher survival rates than females that were first in groups and then isolated after infection. Our results also showed that this cost of social isolation was absent in males and that social isolation did not reduce the survival of noninfected individuals. Overall, this study gives a new perspective on the role of pathogens in social evolution, as it suggests that an apparently nonadaptive, personal immune process may promote the maintenance of group-living under pathogenic environments. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  15. Consensus statement on posttraumatic stress disorder from the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballenger, J C; Davidson, J R; Lecrubier, Y; Nutt, D J; Foa, E B; Kessler, R C; McFarlane, A C; Shalev, A Y

    2000-01-01

    To provide primary care clinicians with a better understanding of management issues in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and guide clinical practice with recommendations on the appropriate management strategy. The 4 members of the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety were James C. Ballenger (chair), Jonathan R. T. Davidson, Yves Lecrubier, and David J. Nutt. Other faculty invited by the chair were Edna B. Foa, Ronald C. Kessler, Alexander C. McFarlane, and Arieh Y. Shalev. The consensus statement is based on the 6 review articles that are published in this supplement and the scientific literature relevant to the issues reviewed in these articles. Group meetings were held over a 2-day period. On day 1, the group discussed the review articles and the chair identified key issues for further debate. On day 2, the group discussed these issues to arrive at a consensus view. After the group meetings, the consensus statement was drafted by the chair and approved by all attendees. PTSD is often a chronic and recurring condition associated with an increased risk of developing secondary comorbid disorders, such as depression. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are generally the most appropriate choice of first-line medication for PTSD, and effective therapy should be continued for 12 months or longer. The most appropriate psychotherapy is exposure therapy, and it should be continued for 6 months, with follow-up therapy as needed.

  16. Fish populations in a large group of acid-stressed lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, H H

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of environmental stress on the number and diversity of fish species in a group of acid-stressed lakes. The study area was the La Cloche Mountains, a series of quartzite ridges covering 1,300 km/sup 2/ along the north shore of Georgian Bay and north channel of Lake Huron. Within these ridges are 173 lakes; 68 of the largest of these made up the study sample. The lakes of the La Cloche Mountains are undergoing rapid acidification. Coincident with this there has been the loss of sport fishes from several lakes. Lakes such as Nellie, Lumsden, O.S.A., Acid and Killarney supported good sport fisheries for the lake trout, (Salvelinus namaycush) for many years, but have ceased to do so in the last 5 to 15 years. Other sport fishes, notably the walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) and smallmouth bass (micropterus dolomieu) have disappeared from some of the La Cloche Lakes. Thus recreational fishing alone could not have been the cause of the change. Beamish (1974) recorded the extreme sparcity of the three remaining fish species in O.S.A. Lake. Many of the lakes of the La Cloche mountains are accessible only with difficulty and little or no information exists for these lakes prior to this study. This precluded simple comparison of these lakes before and during acidification. This lack of historic data determined in part the approach taken in this study; a comparison of the fish communities of a group of lakes differing in degree of acid stress.

  17. Relationship between physical attributes and heat stress in dairy cattle from different genetic groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonzo, Evelyn Priscila München; Barbosa da Silva, Marcos Vinicius Gualberto; dos Santos Daltro, Darlene; Stumpf, Marcelo Tempel; Dalcin, Vanessa Calderaro; Kolling, Giovani; Fischer, Vivian; McManus, Concepta Margaret

    2016-02-01

    Dairy cattle raised under harsh conditions have to adapt and prevent heat stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate physical characteristics and their association with heat tolerance in different genetic groups of dairy cattle. Thickness of the skin and coat, length and number of hairs, body measurements, as well as physiological parameters and body temperatures by infrared thermography were determined in 19 Holstein and 19 Girolando (½ and ¾ Holstein) cows. The Holstein cattle were less tolerant to heat stress than Girolando (GH50 and GH75 Holstein), because of the difficulty in dissipating heat due to the larger body size, as well as thicker and longer hairs. The correlations between physical characteristics, physiological parameters, and thermographic measurements prove to be inconsistent among genetic groups and therefore are not predictive of heat tolerance, while the regressions of morphometric characteristics on physiological and thermographic measures were not significant. Thus, the physical characteristics were not good predictors of physiological indices and thermographic temperature and so should not be used.

  18. High-anxious individuals show increased chronic stress burden, decreased protective immunity, and increased cancer progression in a mouse model of squamous cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firdaus S Dhabhar

    Full Text Available In spite of widespread anecdotal and scientific evidence much remains to be understood about the long-suspected connection between psychological factors and susceptibility to cancer. The skin is the most common site of cancer, accounting for nearly half of all cancers in the US, with approximately 2-3 million cases of non-melanoma cancers occurring each year worldwide. We hypothesized that a high-anxious, stress-prone behavioral phenotype would result in a higher chronic stress burden, lower protective-immunity, and increased progression of the immuno-responsive skin cancer, squamous cell carcinoma. SKH1 mice were phenotyped as high- or low-anxious at baseline, and subsequently exposed to ultraviolet-B light (1 minimal erythemal dose (MED, 3 times/week, 10-weeks. The significant strengths of this cancer model are that it uses a normal, immunocompetent, outbred strain, without surgery/injection of exogenous tumor cells/cell lines, and produces lesions that resemble human tumors. Tumors were counted weekly (primary outcome, and tissues collected during early and late phases of tumor development. Chemokine/cytokine gene-expression was quantified by PCR, tumor-infiltrating helper (Th, cytolytic (CTL, and regulatory (Treg T cells by immunohistochemistry, lymph node T and B cells by flow cytometry, adrenal and plasma corticosterone and tissue vascular-endothelial-growth-factor (VEGF by ELISA. High-anxious mice showed a higher tumor burden during all phases of tumor development. They also showed: higher corticosterone levels (indicating greater chronic stress burden, increased CCL22 expression and Treg infiltration (increased tumor-recruited immuno-suppression, lower CTACK/CCL27, IL-12, and IFN-γ gene-expression and lower numbers of tumor infiltrating Th and CTLs (suppressed protective immunity, and higher VEGF concentrations (increased tumor angiogenesis/invasion/metastasis. These results suggest that the deleterious effects of high trait anxiety

  19. Does the Association between Workplace Bullying and Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms differ across Educational Groups?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islamoska, Sabrina; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the level of reported post-traumatic stress (PTSD) symptoms among targets of workplace bullying differ depending on their educational level. Exposure to workplace bullying was assessed by the behavioural experience method and the self-labelling met......The aim of this study was to investigate whether the level of reported post-traumatic stress (PTSD) symptoms among targets of workplace bullying differ depending on their educational level. Exposure to workplace bullying was assessed by the behavioural experience method and the self......-labelling method among 563 Danish employees. PTSD symptoms were assessed by the Impact of Event Scale – Revised. Educational level was measured as years of education. The results showed that workplace bullying was significantly associated with the reporting of PTSD symptoms. However, PTSD symptoms were...... of this study was to investigate whether the level of reported post-traumatic stress (PTSD) symptoms among targets of workplace bullying differ depending on their educational level. Exposure to workplace bullying was assessed by the behavioural experience method and the self-labelling method among 563 Danish...

  20. The relation between fearfulness in young and stress-response in adult laying hens, on individual and group level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, Elske N.; Kops, Marjolein S.; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Ellen, Esther D.; Rodenburg, T. Bas

    2012-01-01

    Fearfulness of an individual can affect its sensitivity to stress, while at the same time the social situation in which an animal lives can affect its fear level. It is however unknown what the long-term effects of high fearfulness on sensitivity to stress are, on individual or group level in laying

  1. Salivary Concentration of Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in a Group of Patients with Peri-Implantitis: A Transversal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Siles, Mariano; Lucas-Azorin, Javier; Salazar-Sánchez, Noemi; Carbonell-Meseguer, Luis; Camacho-Alonso, Fabio

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to know if peri-implantitis causes an increase in the total salivary concentration of oxidative stress markers. Seventy patients, 28 men and 42 women, 60 of them with dental implants, 30 of which had peri-implantitis and 30 were healthy. The remaining 10 were the control group: healthy subjects without implants. The average number of implants per patient was 4.70 ± 2.29 in the peri-implantitis group and 2 70 ± 2.11 in the control group. Periodontal/peri-implant variables were assessed, including bleeding index, gingival index, clinical attachment level, probing depth, presence of pockets larger than 4 and 6 mm, pain to percussion, suppuration, gingival hyperplasia or granuloma, crestal bone loss (both mesially and distally), evaluated through periapical radiography. Saliva samples from the 70 subjects were collected for measurement of malondialdehyde high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and myeloperoxidase (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis) concentrations. Implants affected with peri-implantitis had an average follow-up of 26.40 ± 7.97 months. 4.12% of implants with peri-implantitis had a painful response to percussion. 2.06% showed suppuration; 25.77% had granuloma. The mean crestal bone loss in implants wtih peri-implantitis was 3.78 ± 1.17 mm. Total salivary malondialdehyde concentration in the peri-implantitis group (0.52 ± 0.37 μM/l) was slightly higher than that in the group with healthy implants (0.40 ± 0.16 μM/l) and also slightly higher than that in the group of healthy patients without implants (0.41 ± 0.79 μM/l), although the difference was not statistically significant, p value = .442. Myeloperoxidase concentration was slightly higher in the peri-implantitis group (12.32 ± 2.17 ng/ml) than in the group with healthy implants (11.54 ± 2.80 ng/ml) and the group of healthy patients without implants (11.86 ± 2.67 ng/ml), without

  2. Novel Method To Identify Source-Associated Phylogenetic Clustering Shows that Listeria monocytogenes Includes Niche-Adapted Clonal Groups with Distinct Ecological Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nightingale, K. K.; Lyles, K.; Ayodele, M.

    2006-01-01

    population are identified (TreeStats test). Analysis of sequence data for 120 L. monocytogenes isolates revealed evidence of clustering between isolates from the same source, based on the phylogenies inferred from actA and inlA (P = 0.02 and P = 0.07, respectively; SourceCluster test). Overall, the Tree...... are biologically valid. Overall, our data show that (i) the SourceCluster and TreeStats tests can identify biologically meaningful source-associated phylogenetic clusters and (ii) L. monocytogenes includes clonal groups that have adapted to infect specific host species or colonize nonhost environments......., including humans, animals, and food. If the null hypothesis that the genetic distances for isolates within and between source populations are identical can be rejected (SourceCluster test), then particular clades in the phylogenetic tree with significant overrepresentation of sequences from a given source...

  3. Arabidopsis AtDjA3 null mutant shows increased sensitivity to abscisic acid, salt, and osmotic stress in germination and postgermination stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eSalas-Muñoz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available DnaJ proteins are essential co-chaperones involved in abiotic and biotic stress responses. Arabidopsis AtDjA3 gene encodes a molecular co-chaperone of 420 amino acids, which belongs to the J-protein family. In this study, we report the functional characterization of the AtDjA3 gene using the Arabidopsis knockout line designated j3 and the 35S::AtDjA3 overexpression lines. Loss of AtDjA3 function was associated with small seed production. In fact, j3 mutant seeds showed a reduction of 24% in seed weight compared to Col-0 seeds. Expression analysis showed that the AtDjA3 gene was modulated in response to NaCl, glucose, and abscisic acid. The j3 line had increased sensitivity to NaCl and glucose treatments in the germination and cotyledon development in comparison to parental Col-0. Furthermore, the j3 mutant line exhibited higher abscisic acid sensitivity in comparison to parental Col-0 and 35S::AtDjA3 overexpression lines. In addition, we examined the expression of ABI3 gene, which is a central regulator in ABA signalling, in j3 mutant and 35S::AtDjA3 overexpression lines. Under 5 μM ABA treatment at 24 h, j3 mutant seedlings displayed higher ABI3 expression, whereas in 35S::AtDjA3 overexpression lines, ABI3 gene expression was repressed. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the AtDjA3 gene is involved in seed development and abiotic stress tolerance.

  4. Veteran satisfaction and treatment preferences in response to a posttraumatic stress disorder specialty clinic orientation group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumm, Jeremiah A; Walter, Kristen H; Bartone, Anne S; Chard, Kathleen M

    2015-06-01

    To maximize accessibility to evidence-based treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has widely disseminated cognitive processing therapy (CPT) and prolonged exposure (PE) therapy to VA clinicians. However, there is a lack of research on veteran preferences when presented with a range of psychotherapy and medication options. This study uses a mixed-method approach to explore veteran satisfaction with a VA PTSD specialty clinic pre-treatment orientation group, which provides education about available PTSD treatment options. This study also tested differences in treatment preference in response to the group. Participants were 183 US veterans. Most were White, male, and referred to the clinic by a VA provider. Results indicated high satisfaction with the group in providing an overview of services and helping to inform treatment choice. Most preferred psychotherapy plus medications (63.4%) or psychotherapy only (30.1%). Participants endorsed a significantly stronger preference for CPT versus other psychotherapies. PE was significantly preferred over nightmare resolution therapy and present-centered therapy, and both PE and cognitive-behavioral conjoint therapy were preferred over virtual reality exposure therapy. Results suggest that by informing consumers about evidence-based treatments for PTSD, pre-treatment educational approaches may increase consumer demand for these treatment options. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in postwar Kosovo high school students using mind-body skills groups: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, James S; Staples, Julie K; Blyta, Afrim; Bytyqi, Murat

    2004-04-01

    This preliminary study examined whether the practice of mind-body techniques decreases symptoms of posttraumatic stress in adolescents. Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index questionnaires were collected from 139 high school students in Kosovo who participated in a 6-week program that included meditation, biofeedback, drawings, autogenic training, guided imagery, genograms, movement, and breathing techniques. Three separate programs were held approximately 2 months apart. There was no control group. Posttraumatic stress scores significantly decreased after participation in the programs. These scores remained decreased in the 2 groups that participated in the follow-up study when compared to pretest measures. These data indicate that mind-body skills groups were effective in reducing posttraumatic stress symptoms in war-traumatized high school students.

  6. The effects of a group based stress treatment program (the Kalmia concept) targeting stress reduction and return to work. A randomized, wait-list controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Bo; Friebel, Lene; Ladegaard, Yun Katrine

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a group based multidisciplinary stress treatment program on reductions in symptom levels and the return to work (RTW) rate. Methods General practitioners referred 199 patients with persistent work related stress symptoms...... to the project. The inclusion criteria included being employed and being on sick leave. Using a randomized wait- list control design, the participants were randomized into three groups: the intervention group (IG, 70 participants) was treated using the Stress Therapy Concept of Kalmia, which consists...... to the WLCG . Further, the prevalence of depression declined significantly in the IG and the TAUCG compared to the WLCG. Regarding the RTW rate, 66% of the participants in the IG had returned to full time work after three months. This rate was significantly greater than the percentage in the TAUCG (36...

  7. 'You don't show everyone your weakness': Older adults' views on using Family Group Conferencing to regain control and autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metze, Rosalie N; Kwekkeboom, Rick H; Abma, Tineke A

    2015-08-01

    Family Group Conferencing (FGC), a model in which a person and his or her social network make their own 'care' plan, is used in youth care and might also be useful in elderly care to support older persons living at home. In Amsterdam, the Netherlands, FGC was implemented for older adults but they showed resistance. Reasons for this resistance have been researched and are described in this article. We examine existing views and attitudes of older adults concerning the use of FGC, and report on how older adults see the possibility to regain control over their lives using FGC. To do this, focus group sessions, duo interviews and individual interviews were held with older adults with varying characteristics: living at home, in sheltered housing, or in a home for the elderly; and living in urban, suburban or rural areas. Themes were: views on and contentment with the control and autonomy that they experience in their lives, and the willingness to use FGC to improve this. The main reasons for our respondents to resist FGC were: expecting people to be there for them without a FGC, not feeling ready yet for a FGC, feeling embarrassed when asking for help, being reluctant to open up about their problems, and having the fear of losing control when organizing a FGC. We conclude that, for this generation of older adults, FGC means losing control and autonomy rather than gaining it. To be appealing to older adults, a relational empowerment strengthening model should most likely be focused on reciprocity, peer-to-peer support, and solutions instead of problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Induction of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Unfolded Protein Response Constitutes a Pathogenic Strategy of group A Streptococcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel eHanski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The connection between bacterial pathogens and unfolded protein response (UPR is poorly explored. In this review we highlight the evidence showing that group A streptococcus (GAS induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and UPR through which it captures the amino acid asparagine (ASN from the host. GAS acts extracellularly and during adherence to host cells it delivers the hemolysin toxins; streptolysin O (SLO and streptolysin S (SLS. By poorly understood pathways, these toxins trigger UPR leading to the induction of the transcriptional regulator ATF4 and consequently to the upregulation of asparagine synthetase (ASNS transcription leading to production and release of ASN. GAS senses ASN and alters gene expression profile accordingly, and increases the rate of multiplication. We suggest that induction of UPR by GAS and by other bacterial pathogens represent means through which bacterial pathogens gain nutrients from the host, obviating the need to become internalized or inflict irreversible cell damage.

  9. Surface plasmon resonance analysis shows an IgG-isotype-specific defect in ABO blood group antibody formation in patients with common variable immunodeficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bernhard Fischer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID is the most common clinically severe primary immunodeficiency and comprises a heterogeneous group of patients with recurrent severe bacterial infections due to the failure to produce IgG antibodies after exposure to infectious agents and immunization. Diagnostic recommendations for antibody failure include assessment of isoagglutinins. We have readdressed this four decades old but still accepted recommendation with up to date methodology.Methods: Anti-A/B IgM- and IgG-antibodies were measured by Diamed-ID Micro Typing, surface plasmon resonance (SPR using the Biacore® device and flow cytometry.Results: When Diamed-ID Micro Typing was used, CVID patients (n=34 showed IgG- and IgM-isoagglutinins that were comparable to healthy volunteers (n=28, while all XLA patients (n=8 had none. Anti-A/B IgM-antibodies were present in more than 2/3 of the CVID patients and showed binding kinetics comparable to anti-A/B IgM-antibodies from healthy individuals. A correlation could be found in CVID patients between levels of anti-A/B IgM-antibodies and levels of serum IgM and PnP-IgM-antibodies. In contrast in CVID patients as a group ABO antibodies were significantly decreased when assessed by SPR, which correlated with levels of switched memory, non-switched memory and naïve B cells, but all CVID patients had low/undetectable anti-A/B IgG-antibodies.Conclusion: These results indicate that conventional isoagglutinin assessment and assessment of anti-A/B IgM antibodies are not suited for the diagnosis of impaired antibody production in CVID. Examination of anti-A/B IgG antibodies by SPR provides a useful method for the diagnosis of IgG antibody failure in all CVID patients studied, thus indicating an important additional rationale to start immunoglobulin replacement therapy early in these patients, before post-infectious sequelae develop.

  10. A multi-group path analysis of the relationship between perceived racial discrimination and self-rated stress: how does it vary across racial/ethnic groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tse-Chuan; Chen, Danhong

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to answer three questions: (1) Is perceived discrimination adversely related to self-rated stress via the social capital and health care system distrust pathways? (2) Does the relationship between perceived discrimination and self-rated stress vary across race/ethnicity groups? and (3) Do the two pathways differ by one's race/ethnicity background? Using the Philadelphia Health Management Corporation's Southeastern Pennsylvania Household Survey, we classified 9831 respondents into 4 race/ethnicity groups: non-Hispanic White (n = 6621), non-Hispanic Black (n = 2359), Hispanic (n = 505), and non-Hispanic other races (n = 346). Structural equation modeling was employed to simultaneously estimate five sets of equations, including the confirmatory factor analysis for both social capital and health care distrust and both direct and indirect effects from perceived discrimination to self-rated stress. The key findings drawn from the analysis include the following: (1) in general, people who experienced racial discrimination have higher distrust and weaker social capital than those without perceived discrimination and both distrust and social capital are ultimately related to self-rated stress. (2) The direct relationship between perceived discrimination and self-rated stress is found for all race/ethnicity groups (except non-Hispanic other races) and it does not vary across groups. (3) The two pathways can be applied to non-Hispanic White and Black, but for Hispanic and non-Hispanic other races, we found little evidence for the social capital pathway. For non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic, perceived discrimination is negatively related to self-rated stress. This finding highlights the importance of reducing interpersonal discriminatory behavior even for non-Hispanic White. The health care system distrust pathway can be used to address the racial health disparity in stress as it holds true for all four race

  11. Transgenic mice overexpressing glia maturation factor-β, an oxidative stress inducible gene, show premature aging due to Zmpste24 down-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Rika; Asai, Kanae; Hanai, Jun-ichi; Takenaka, Masaru

    2015-07-01

    Glia Maturation Factor-β (GMF), a brain specific protein, is induced by proteinuria in renal tubules. Ectopic GMF overexpression causes apoptosisin vitro via cellular vulnerability to oxidative stress. In order to examine the roles of GMF in non-brain tissue, we constructed transgenic mice overexpressing GMF (GMF-TG). The GMF-TG mice exhibited appearance phenotypes associated with premature aging. The GMF-TG mice also demonstrated short lifespans and reduced hair regrowth, suggesting an accelerated aging process. The production of an abnormal lamin A, a nuclear envelope protein, plays a causal role in both normal aging and accelerated aging diseases, known as laminopathies. Importantly, we identified the abnormal lamin A (prelamin A), accompanied by a down-regulation of a lamin A processing enzyme (Zmpste24) in the kidney of the GMF-TG mice. The GMF-TG mice showed accelerated aging in the kidney, compared with wild-type mice, showing increased TGF-β1, CTGF gene and serum creatinine. The gene expression of p21/waf1 was increased at an earlier stage of life, at 10 weeks, which was in turn down-regulated at a later stage, at 60 weeks. In conclusion, we propose that GMF-TG mice might be a novel mouse model of accelerated aging, due to the abnormal lamin A.

  12. Stress and Arousal Symptoms in Individuals and Groups - Persian Gulf War Symptoms as a Paradigm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dine, Sarah

    1999-01-01

    ... and other stresses of military life. It is our conclusion that the time has come to move away from the general and only partially meaningful definitions of "stress" to more tightly operational and measurable ones...

  13. Stress and Arousal Symptoms in Individuals and Groups - Persian Gulf War Symptoms as a Paradigm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dine, Sarah

    1999-01-01

    .... This report makes a series of recommendations, some general, and some quasi-specific for future patterns of research into the somatic and other consequences of combat stress, deployment stress...

  14. Stress and Arousal Symptoms in Individuals and Groups - Persian Gulf War Symptoms as a Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    Symptoms." Psychological Medicine, 1991:21: 1029-1045, quotation from pp. 1040-1041. 18Kellner R., "Functional Somatic Symptoms and Hypochondriasis ...quasi-specific for future patterns of research into the somatic and other consequences of combat stress, deployment stress and other stresses of...psychiatric folklore. Much of the earlier research into the somatic consequences of stress and indeed into medicine as a whole, was correlational in

  15. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be life-saving. But chronic stress can cause both physical and mental harm. There are at least three different types of stress: Routine stress related to the pressures of work, family, and other daily responsibilities Stress brought about ...

  16. Does the Association between Workplace Bullying and Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms differ across Educational Groups?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Islamoska

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether the level of reported post-traumatic stress (PTSD symptoms among targets of workplace bullying differ depending on their educational level. Exposure to workplace bullying was assessed by the behavioural experience method and the self-labelling method among 563 Danish employees. PTSD symptoms were assessed by the Impact of Event Scale – Revised. Educational level was measured as years of education. The results showed that workplace bullying was significantly associated with the reporting of PTSD symptoms. However, PTSD symptoms were not reported differently among those with experience of work-place bullying. Implementing bullying policies is an important step in promoting a healthy psychosocial working environment. All targets of workplace bullying would benefit from interventions aiming to reduce progression of PTSD symptoms.

  17. Pathways to suicidality across ethnic groups in Canadian adults: the possible role of social stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, D E; Colantonio, A; Rhodes, A E; Escobar, M

    2008-03-01

    Ethnicity is an important determinant of mental health outcomes including suicidality (i.e. suicidal ideation and suicide attempt). Understanding ethnic differences in the pathways to suicidality is important for suicide prevention efforts in ethnically diverse populations. These pathways can be conceptualized within a social stress framework. The study examines ethnic differences in the pathways to suicidality in Canada within a social stress framework. Using data from the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 1.1 (CCHS 1.1) and path analysis, we examined the hypotheses that variations in (1) socio-economic status (SES), (2) sense of community belonging (SCB), (3) SES and SCB combined, and (4) SES, SCB and clinical factors combined can explain ethnic differences in suicidality. Francophone whites and Aboriginals were more likely to report suicidality compared to Anglophone whites whereas visible minorities and Foreign-born whites were least likely. Disadvantages in income, income and education, income and its combined effect with depression and alcohol dependence/abuse led to high rates even among the low-risk visible minority group. Indirect pathways for Asians differed from that of Blacks and South Asians, specifically through SCB. With the exception of SCB, Aboriginals were most disadvantaged, which exacerbated their risk for suicidality. However, their strong SCB buffered the risk for suicidality across pathways. Disadvantages in education, income and SCB were associated with the high risk for suicidality in Francophone whites. Francophone whites and Aboriginals had higher odds of suicidality compared to Anglophone whites; however, some pathways differed, indicating the need for targeted program planning and prevention efforts.

  18. Extract of Bauhinia vahlii Shows Antihyperglycemic Activity, Reverses Oxidative Stress, and Protects against Liver Damage in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbanna, Ahmed H.; Nooh, Mohammed M.; Mahrous, Engy A.; Khaleel, Amal E.; Elalfy, Taha S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Several studies have affirmed the effectiveness of some Bauhinia plants as antihyperglycemic agents. Objective: We investigated the possible effect of Bauhinia vahlii leaves extract in reducing hyperglycemia and reversing signs of organ damage associated with diabetes in streptozotocin (STZ) rat model. Materials and Methods: Both polar fraction of the B. vahlii leaves (defatted ethanolic extract [DEE]) and nonpolar fraction (n-hexane extract) were evaluated in vitro for α-glucosidase inhibition and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging potential. DEE was selected for further in vivo studies and was administered at two doses, i.e., 150 or 300 mg/kg to STZ-diabetic rats for 4 weeks. Results: Only DEE exhibited in vitro antioxidant and antihyperglycemic activities and its oral administration at both dose levels resulted in significant reduction in fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin. Furthermore, signs of oxidative stress as indicated by hepatic reduced glutathione, nitric oxide, and malondialdehyde levels were completely reversed. In addition, histopathological examination and measurement of serum aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase levels showed that DEE protected the liver from signs of liver pathogenesis when compared to diabetic untreated animals and those treated with metformin. Phytochemical analysis of DEE showed high flavonoids content with quercitrin as the major constituent along with other quercetin glycosides. Conclusion: This study strongly highlights the possible beneficial effect of B. vahlii leaves extract in relieving hyperglycemia and liver damage in STZ-diabetic rats and recommends further investigation of the value of quercetin derivatives in controlling diabetes and ameliorating liver damage associated with it. SUMMARY The polar fraction of the Bauhinia vahlii leaves (defatted ethanolic extract [DEE]) exhibited both in vitro antioxidant activity in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay and

  19. 3D Numerical Modeling of Pile Group Responses to Excavation-Induced Stress Release in Silty Clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Soomro

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Development of underground transportation systems consists of tunnels, basement construction excavations and cut and cover tunnels which may encounter existing pile groups during their construction. Since many previous studies mainly focus on the effects of excavations on single piles, settlement and load transfer mechanism of a pile group subjected to excavation-induced stress release are not well investigated and understood. To address these two issues, three-dimensional coupled-consolidation numerical analysis is conducted by using a hypoplastic model which takes small-strain stiffness into account. A non-linear pile group settlement was induced. This may be attributed to reduction of shaft resistance due to excavation induced stress release, the pile had to settle substantially to further mobilise end-bearing. Compared to the Sp of the pile group, induced settlement of the single pile is larger with similar settlement characteristics. Due to the additional settlement of the pile group, factor of safety for the pile group can be regarded as decreasing from 3.0 to 1.4, based on a displacement-based failure load criterion. Owing to non-uniform stress release, pile group tilted towards the excavation with value of 0.14%. Due to excavation-induced stress release and dragload, head load of rear piles was reduced and transferred to rear piles. This load transfer can increase the axial force in front piles by 94%.

  20. A Study of Effectiveness of Rational, Emotive, Behavior Therapy (REBT) with Group Method on Decrease of Stress among Diabetic Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kianoush Zahrakar

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of the present research was studying the effectiveness of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) with Group method in decreasing stress of diabetic patients. Methods: The population of research consisted of all diabetic patients that are member of diabetic patient’s association 0f karaj city. The sample consisted of 30 diabetic patients (experimental group 15 persons and control group 15 persons) that selected through random sampling. Research design was experiment...

  1. Tianeptine, olanzapine and fluoxetine show similar restoring effects on stress induced molecular changes in mice brain: An FT-IR study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türker-Kaya, Sevgi; Mutlu, Oğuz; Çelikyurt, İpek K.; Akar, Furuzan; Ulak, Güner

    2016-05-01

    Chronic stress which can cause a variety of disorders and illness ranging from metabolic and cardiovascular to mental leads to alterations in content, structure and dynamics of biomolecules in brain. The determination of stress-induced changes along with the effects of antidepressant treatment on these parameters might bring about more effective therapeutic strategies. In the present study, we investigated unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS)-induced changes in biomolecules in mouse brain and the restoring effects of tianeptine (TIA), olanzapine (OLZ) and fluoxetine (FLX) on these variations, by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The results revealed that chronic stress causes different membrane packing and an increase in lipid peroxidation, membrane fluidity. A significant increment for lipid/protein, Cdbnd O/lipid, CH3/lipid, CH2/lipid, PO-2/lipid, COO-/lipid and RNA/protein ratios but a significant decrease for lipid/protein ratios were also obtained. Additionally, altered protein secondary structure components were estimated, such as increment in random coils and beta structures. The administration of TIA, OLZ and FLX drugs restored these stress-induced variations except for alterations in protein structure and RNA/protein ratio. This may suggest that these drugs have similar restoring effects on the consequences of stress activity in brain, in spite of the differences in their action mechanisms. All findings might have importance in understanding molecular mechanisms underlying chronic stress and contribute to studies aimed for drug development.

  2. Glucocorticoid stress responses of lions in relationship to group composition, human land use, and proximity to people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Scott; Christianson, David; Schuette, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Large carnivore populations are in global decline, and conflicts between large carnivores and humans or their livestock contribute to low tolerance of large carnivores outside of protected areas. African lions (Panthera leo) are a conflict-prone species, and their continental range has declined by 75% in the face of human pressures. Nonetheless, large carnivore populations persist (or even grow) in some areas that are occupied by humans. Lions attain locally high density in the Olkiramatian and Shompole Group Ranches of Kenya's South Rift region, despite residence by pastoralist Maasai people and their sheep, goats, and cattle. We have previously found that these lions respond to seasonal movements of people by moving away from occupied settlements, shifting into denser habitats when people are nearby, and moving into a protected conservation area when people move into the adjacent buffer zone. Here, we examined lion stress responses to anthropogenic activities, using enzyme-linked immunoassay to measure the concentration of faecal glucocorticoid metabolites in 136 samples collected from five lion groups over 2 years. Faecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations were significantly lower for lions in the conservation area than for lions in the human-settled buffer zone, and decreased significantly with increasing distance to the nearest occupied human settlement. Faecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations were not detectably related to fine-scaled variation in prey or livestock density, and surprisingly, faecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations were higher in the wet season, when regional prey abundance was high. Lions coexist with people and livestock on this landscape by adjusting their movements, but they nonetheless mount an appreciable stress response when conditions do not allow them to maintain adequate separation. Thus, physiological data confirm inferences from prior data on lion movements and habitat use, showing that access to undisturbed

  3. Posttraumatic stress disorder and art group therapy: Self-expression of traumatic inner world of war veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandić-Gajić Gordana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Art therapy and drawings may serve as alternative means of expression and release from trauma among veterans diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Methods. The retrospective clinical study of drawings of war veterans was performed. A total of 89 war veterans met the Diagnostics and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV PTSD criteria and were consecutively admitted to the Day Hospital during 5 years. Art group therapy as part of integrative treatment was performed once a week. The group was open and heterogeneous. Qualitative analysis of drawings content and group protocols were obtained. The drawings were made by free associations. War related themes were explored and descriptive statistics were applied. Results. The most frequent type of common themes of combat stress presented battle and witnessing wounded and killed combatants. Less frequent were themes of graves, destroyed cities and broken trees. The veterans preferred black and red colors with association to death, blood, wounds and destroyed objects. Conclusion. Drawing could provide a unique, complex, visual illustration of war traumatic experiences and memories of posttraumatic stress disorder veterans. Art group discussion might enhance war veterans’ verbal expression due to group support in safe setting. As adjuvant psychotherapy, art group therapy could enrich awareness and the ability of clinicians to treat hard posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms related to uncovered war trauma.

  4. The Evaluation of Techniques for Overcoming with the Stress in a Physician Group

    OpenAIRE

    Humman Sen; Mehmet Toygar; Turker Turker; Nurhan Ince; Harun Tugcu; Halit Keskin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study was made in order to determine the methods of overcoming with stress of the specialist physicians. Material-Method: Our study is a descriptive study. In the study, the scale of overcoming with stress was applied to the 100 specialist physicians who working in 5 different health care institutions in and around the Istanbul in 2009. Results: The scores that the participants takes from sub-categories of scales of overcoming with stress types were measured respectively as; 2...

  5. Academic stress in master’s students and its modulatory variables: a between-groups design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Barraza Macías

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation tries to establish the descriptive profile of the academic stress of the students of the masters in education and to identify which sociodemographic and situational variables play a modulator role. This investigation is based on the Person-Surroundings Research Program and the systemical cognitive model of academic stress. The study can be characterized as transectional, correlational and non experimental. The collection of the information was made through the SISCO inventory of Academic Stress which was applied to 152 students. The main results suggest that 95% of the master students report having felt academic stress a few times but with medium-high intensity. Variables gender, civil state, attending masters and institutional support of the attending masters act as modulators in academic stress.

  6. Job stress and job satisfaction of physicians, radiographers, nurses and physicists working in radiotherapy: a multicenter analysis by the DEGRO Quality of Life Work Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bölling Tobias

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ongoing changes in cancer care cause an increase in the complexity of cases which is characterized by modern treatment techniques and a higher demand for patient information about the underlying disease and therapeutic options. At the same time, the restructuring of health services and reduced funding have led to the downsizing of hospital care services. These trends strongly influence the workplace environment and are a potential source of stress and burnout among professionals working in radiotherapy. Methods and patients A postal survey was sent to members of the workgroup "Quality of Life" which is part of DEGRO (German Society for Radiooncology. Thus far, 11 departments have answered the survey. 406 (76.1% out of 534 cancer care workers (23% physicians, 35% radiographers, 31% nurses, 11% physicists from 8 university hospitals and 3 general hospitals completed the FBAS form (Stress Questionnaire of Physicians and Nurses; 42 items, 7 scales, and a self-designed questionnaire regarding work situation and one question on global job satisfaction. Furthermore, the participants could make voluntary suggestions about how to improve their situation. Results Nurses and physicians showed the highest level of job stress (total score 2.2 and 2.1. The greatest source of job stress (physicians, nurses and radiographers stemmed from structural conditions (e.g. underpayment, ringing of the telephone a "stress by compassion" (e.g. "long suffering of patients", "patients will be kept alive using all available resources against the conviction of staff". In multivariate analyses professional group (p In multivariate analyses "professional group" (p = 0.006 and "vocational experience" (p = 0.036 were associated with job satisfaction (cancer care workers with Conclusion Current workplace environments have a negative impact on stress levels and the satisfaction of radiotherapy staff. Identification and removal of the above-mentioned critical

  7. 'You don't show everyone your weakness': Older adults' views on using Family Group Conferencing to regain control and autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metze, R.N.; Kwekkeboom, R.H.; Abma, T.A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Family Group Conferencing (FGC), a model in which a person and his or her social network make their own 'care' plan, is used in youth care and might also be useful in elderly care to support older persons living at home. In Amsterdam, the Netherlands, FGC was implemented for older adults but

  8. Comprehensive genotyping for 18 blood group systems using a multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay shows a high degree of accuracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haer-Wigman, Lonneke; Ji, Yanli; Lodén, Martin; de Haas, Masja; van der Schoot, C. Ellen; Veldhuisen, Barbera

    2013-01-01

    In recent years genotyping methods have been implemented in blood banks as alternative to comprehensive serologic typing. We evaluated a newly developed assay for convenient and comprehensive genotyping of blood group alleles based on multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA)

  9. Heat shock and prolonged heat stress attenuate neurotoxin and sporulation gene expression in group I Clostridium botulinum strain ATCC 3502.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, Katja; Mascher, Gerald; Somervuo, Panu; Lindström, Miia; Korkeala, Hannu

    2017-01-01

    Foodborne pathogenic bacteria are exposed to a number of environmental stresses during food processing, storage, and preparation, and in the human body. In order to improve the safety of food, the understanding of molecular stress response mechanisms foodborne pathogens employ is essential. Many response mechanisms that are activated during heat shock may cross-protect bacteria against other environmental stresses. To better understand the molecular mechanisms Clostridium botulinum, the causative agent of botulism, utilizes during acute heat stress and during adaptation to stressfully high temperature, the C. botulinum Group I strain ATCC 3502 was grown in continuous culture at 39°C and exposed to heat shock at 45°C, followed by prolonged heat stress at 45°C to allow adaptation of the culture to the high temperature. Growth in continuous culture was performed to exclude secondary growth phase effects or other environmental impacts on bacterial gene transcription. Changes in global gene expression profiles were studied using DNA microarray hybridization. During acute heat stress, Class I and III heat shock genes as well as members of the SOS regulon were activated. The neurotoxin gene botA and genes encoding the neurotoxin-associated proteins were suppressed throughout the study. Prolonged heat stress led to suppression of the sporulation machinery whereas genes related to chemotaxis and motility were activated. Induced expression of a large proportion of prophage genes was detected, suggesting an important role of acquired genes in the stress resistance of C. botulinum. Finally, changes in the expression of a large number of genes related to carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism indicated remodeling of the cellular metabolism.

  10. Caregiving and Developmental Factors Differentiating Young At-Risk Urban Children Showing Resilient Versus Stress-Affected Outcomes: A Replication and Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Peter A.; And Others

    1999-01-01

    Tested hypotheses from an organizational-developmental model for childhood resilience among 7- to 9-year olds. Found that caregiving factors and early development differentiated children with resilient and stress-affected adaptations. Variables reflecting emotionally responsive, competent parenting were direct, proximal predictors of resilience…

  11. Job stress and job satisfaction of physicians, radiographers, nurses and physicists working in radiotherapy: a multicenter analysis by the DEGRO Quality of Life Work Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehlen, Susanne; Wypior, Hans Joachim; Zehentmayr, Franz; Schulze, Wolfgang; Geinitz, Hans; Vordermark, Dirk; Schäfer, Christof; Herschbach, Peter; Bayerl, Anja; Pigorsch, Steffi; Rittweger, Jutta; Dormin, Claudia; Bölling, Tobias

    2009-01-01

    Ongoing changes in cancer care cause an increase in the complexity of cases which is characterized by modern treatment techniques and a higher demand for patient information about the underlying disease and therapeutic options. At the same time, the restructuring of health services and reduced funding have led to the downsizing of hospital care services. These trends strongly influence the workplace environment and are a potential source of stress and burnout among professionals working in radiotherapy. A postal survey was sent to members of the workgroup 'Quality of Life' which is part of DEGRO (German Society for Radiooncology). Thus far, 11 departments have answered the survey. 406 (76.1%) out of 534 cancer care workers (23% physicians, 35% radiographers, 31% nurses, 11% physicists) from 8 university hospitals and 3 general hospitals completed the FBAS form (Stress Questionnaire of Physicians and Nurses; 42 items, 7 scales), and a self-designed questionnaire regarding work situation and one question on global job satisfaction. Furthermore, the participants could make voluntary suggestions about how to improve their situation. Nurses and physicians showed the highest level of job stress (total score 2.2 and 2.1). The greatest source of job stress (physicians, nurses and radiographers) stemmed from structural conditions (e.g. underpayment, ringing of the telephone) a 'stress by compassion' (e.g. 'long suffering of patients', 'patients will be kept alive using all available resources against the conviction of staff'). In multivariate analyses professional group (p < 0.001), working night shifts (p = 0.001), age group (p = 0.012) and free time compensation (p = 0.024) gained significance for total FBAS score. Global job satisfaction was 4.1 on a 9-point scale (from 1 – very satisfied to 9 – not satisfied). Comparing the total stress scores of the hospitals and job groups we found significant differences in nurses (p = 0

  12. Job stress and job satisfaction of physicians, radiographers, nurses and physicists working in radiotherapy: a multicenter analysis by the DEGRO Quality of Life Work Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehlen, Susanne; Vordermark, Dirk; Schäfer, Christof; Herschbach, Peter; Bayerl, Anja; Pigorsch, Steffi; Rittweger, Jutta; Dormin, Claudia; Bölling, Tobias; Wypior, Hans Joachim; Zehentmayr, Franz; Schulze, Wolfgang; Geinitz, Hans

    2009-02-06

    Ongoing changes in cancer care cause an increase in the complexity of cases which is characterized by modern treatment techniques and a higher demand for patient information about the underlying disease and therapeutic options. At the same time, the restructuring of health services and reduced funding have led to the downsizing of hospital care services. These trends strongly influence the workplace environment and are a potential source of stress and burnout among professionals working in radiotherapy. A postal survey was sent to members of the workgroup "Quality of Life" which is part of DEGRO (German Society for Radiooncology). Thus far, 11 departments have answered the survey. 406 (76.1%) out of 534 cancer care workers (23% physicians, 35% radiographers, 31% nurses, 11% physicists) from 8 university hospitals and 3 general hospitals completed the FBAS form (Stress Questionnaire of Physicians and Nurses; 42 items, 7 scales), and a self-designed questionnaire regarding work situation and one question on global job satisfaction. Furthermore, the participants could make voluntary suggestions about how to improve their situation. Nurses and physicians showed the highest level of job stress (total score 2.2 and 2.1). The greatest source of job stress (physicians, nurses and radiographers) stemmed from structural conditions (e.g. underpayment, ringing of the telephone) a "stress by compassion" (e.g. "long suffering of patients", "patients will be kept alive using all available resources against the conviction of staff"). In multivariate analyses professional group (p working night shifts (p = 0.001), age group (p = 0.012) and free time compensation (p = 0.024) gained significance for total FBAS score. Global job satisfaction was 4.1 on a 9-point scale (from 1 - very satisfied to 9 - not satisfied). Comparing the total stress scores of the hospitals and job groups we found significant differences in nurses (p = 0.005) and physicists (p = 0.042) and a borderline

  13. Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells show increased resistance to hyperthermic stress after differentiation, associated with elevated levels of Hsp72.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lesley; Smith, Danielle J; Anderson, Robin L; Nagley, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    Terminally differentiated neurones in the central nervous system need to be protected from stress. We ask here whether differentiation of progenitor cells to neurones is accompanied by up-regulation of Hsp72, with acquisition of enhanced thermotolerance. Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were propagated in an undifferentiated form and subsequently differentiated into neurone-like cells. Thermotolerance tests were carried out by exposure of cells to various temperatures, monitoring nuclear morphology as index of cell death. Abundance of Hsp72 was measured in cell lysates by western immunoblotting. The differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells was accompanied by increased expression of Hsp72. Further, in both cell states, exposure to mild hyperthermic stress (43°C for 30 min) increased Hsp72 expression. After differentiation, SH-SY5Y cells were more resistant to hyperthermic stress compared to their undifferentiated state, correlating with levels of Hsp72. Stable exogenous expression of Hsp72 in SH-SY5Y cells (transfected line 5YHSP72.1, containing mildly elevated levels of Hsp72), led to enhanced resistance to hyperthermic stress. Hsp72 was found to be inducible in undifferentiated 5YHSP72.1 cells; such heat-treated cells displayed enhanced thermotolerance. Treatment of cells with KNK437, a suppressor of Hsp72 induction, resulted in acute thermosensitisation of all cell types tested here. Hsp72 has a major role in the enhanced hyperthermic resistance acquired during neuronal differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells. These findings model the requirement in intact organisms for highly differentiated neurones to be specially protected against thermal stress.

  14. Stress management and mind-body medicine: a randomized controlled longitudinal evaluation of students' health and effects of a behavioral group intervention at a middle-size German university (SM-MESH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, Tobias; Sonntag, Ulrike; Esch, Sonja Maren; Thees, Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    Student life can be stressful. Hence, we started a regular mind-body medical stress management program in 2006. By today, more than 500 students took part and evaluations showed significant results, especially with regard to a reduction of stress warning signals. For further analysis, we now decided to run a randomized controlled longitudinal trial. Participating students at Coburg University were randomized into an intervention (n = 24) or a waitlist control group (n = 19). The intervention group completed 3 sets (pre/post/follow-up) and the control group 2 sets (pre/post) of self-administered questionnaires. The questionnaires included: SF-12 Health Survey, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Sense of Coherence (SOC-L9), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) concerning stress, and the Stress Warning Signs (SWS) scale. Randomly selected participants of the intervention group were also queried in qualitative interviews. The intervention consisted of an 8 week stress management group program (mind-body medical stress reduction - MBMSR). Follow-up measures were taken after 6 months. Virtually, no drop-out occurred. Our study showed significant effects in the intervention group concerning SF-12 Mental Component Scale (p = 0.05), SF-12 Physical Component Scale (p = 0.001), VAS (in general, p = 0.001) and SWS (emotional reactions, p healthy students could be demonstrated. Findings suggest that stress management might be given importance at universities that care for the performance, the quality of life, and stress-health status of their students, acknowledging and accounting for the challenging circumstances of university life, as well as the specific needs of the modern student population. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Effect of communication skill training using group psychoeducation method on the stress level of psychiatry ward nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazavi, Zahra; Lohrasbi, Fatemeh; Mehrabi, Tayebeh

    2010-12-01

    Nursing is a dynamic and supportive job, with the main role of taking care of patients. Maintaining appropriate communication of the nurse with the patients is particularly known as the main core of care in mental health. However, in spite of the importance of providing communication, one of the main sources of stress in nurses of psychiatry wards is communication with the patients. Some important reasons for inappropriate relationship between the nurse and patient can be lack of necessary skills to communicate with patients because of insufficient training. Although training communication skills is an important part of the education of medical and paramedical students, in recent studies it has been demonstrated that the communication skills learned in theoretical courses would not necessarily be transferred to clinical settings, and proving training in clinical settings is a must. The present study was carried out to determine the effect of training communication skills using psychoeducation method on the stress level of nurses of psychiatry wards in 2010. This is a quasi-experimental study. The participants were 45 nurses; 23 and 22 in the experiment and control groups, respectively, working in psychiatry wards of Noor and Farabi hospitals, Isfahan, Iran. The sampling was carried out by the census method, and then the participants were randomly assigned to the two groups of experiment and control, using random number table. The two groups filled out the demographic data form and also the questionnaire on nurses' occupational stress, designed by the researcher. The questionnaire was filled out three times; before, immediately after, and one month after the training. Training of communication skills was carried out using group psychoeducation method, in six sessions, each lasted for 1.5 hours. The training sessions of the experiment group were held in Farabi Hospital. The findings indicated that before the intervention, the members of the two groups had a high

  16. The Apoplastic Secretome of Trichoderma virens During Interaction With Maize Roots Shows an Inhibition of Plant Defence and Scavenging Oxidative Stress Secreted Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Nogueira-Lopez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In Nature, almost every plant is colonized by fungi. Trichoderma virens is a biocontrol fungus which has the capacity to behave as an opportunistic plant endophyte. Even though many plants are colonized by this symbiont, the exact mechanisms by which Trichoderma masks its entrance into its plant host remain unknown, but likely involve the secretion of different families of proteins into the apoplast that may play crucial roles in the suppression of plant immune responses. In this study, we investigated T. virens colonization of maize roots under hydroponic conditions, evidencing inter- and intracellular colonization by the fungus and modifications in root morphology and coloration. Moreover, we show that upon host penetration, T. virens secretes into the apoplast an arsenal of proteins to facilitate inter- and intracellular colonization of maize root tissues. Using a gel-free shotgun proteomics approach, 95 and 43 secretory proteins were identified from maize and T. virens, respectively. A reduction in the maize secretome (36% was induced by T. virens, including two major groups, glycosyl hydrolases and peroxidases. Furthermore, T. virens secreted proteins were mainly involved in cell wall hydrolysis, scavenging of reactive oxygen species and secondary metabolism, as well as putative effector-like proteins. Levels of peroxidase activity were reduced in the inoculated roots, suggesting a strategy used by T. virens to manipulate host immune responses. The results provide an insight into the crosstalk in the apoplast which is essential to maintain the T. virens-plant interaction.

  17. Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy Reduces Stress and Improves the Quality of Life in Patients with Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadinia, Anousha; Meyer, Antonia; Bruegger, Viviane; Hatz, Florian; Nowak, Karolina; Taub, Ethan; Nyberg, Elisabeth; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter; Fuhr, Peter; Gschwandtner, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to compare a cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBT) with a health enhancement program (HEP) for stress reduction and the impact on quality of life (QoL) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Method : Thirty patients with PD participated in the study: 16 received CBT including stress-reducing elements and 14 took part in a HEP. The two groups did not differ significantly in their baseline demographic characteristics. The patients in both groups underwent weekly sessions of 2 h duration for 9 weeks. The Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire with 39 items (PDQ-39), the Burden Questionnaire for Parkinson's Disease (translated from the original German: Belastungsfragebogen für Parkinsonpatienten (BELA) and the Disease-Related Questionnaire [ Fragebogen zur krankheitsbezogenen Kommunikation (FKK)] were used for assessment. Ratings were completed at baseline and after 9 weeks (immediately after the last treatment session). Results : The patients in the CBT group achieved significantly better BELA, FKK and PDQ-39 scores ( p Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy appears to be an effective way for patients with PD to lessen stress and improve their quality of life.

  18. Effects of Minority Stress, Group-Level Coping, and Social Support on Mental Health of German Gay Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank A Sattler

    Full Text Available According to epidemiological studies, gay men are at a higher risk of mental disorders than heterosexual men. In the current study, the minority stress theory was investigated in German gay men: 1 it was hypothesized that minority stressors would positively predict mental health problems and that 2 group-level coping and social support variables would moderate these predictions negatively.Data from 1,188 German self-identified gay men were collected online. The questionnaire included items about socio-demographics, minority stress (victimization, rejection sensitivity, and internalized homonegativity, group-level coping (disclosure of sexual orientation, homopositivity, gay affirmation, gay rights support, and gay rights activism, and social support (gay social support and non-gay social support. A moderated multiple regression was conducted.Minority stressors positively predicted mental health problems. Group-level coping did not interact with minority stressors, with the exception of disclosure and homopositivity interacting marginally with some minority stressors. Further, only two interactions were found for social support variables and minority stress, one of them marginal. Gay and non-gay social support inversely predicted mental health problems. In addition, disclosure and homopositivity marginally predicted mental health problems.The findings imply that the minority stress theory should be modified. Disclosure does not have a relevant effect on mental health, while social support variables directly influence mental health of gay men. Group-level coping does not interact with minority stressors relevantly, and only one relevant interaction between social support and minority stress was found. Further longitudinal or experimental replication is needed before transferring the results to mental health interventions and prevention strategies for gay men.

  19. Effects of Minority Stress, Group-Level Coping, and Social Support on Mental Health of German Gay Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Frank A; Wagner, Ulrich; Christiansen, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    According to epidemiological studies, gay men are at a higher risk of mental disorders than heterosexual men. In the current study, the minority stress theory was investigated in German gay men: 1) it was hypothesized that minority stressors would positively predict mental health problems and that 2) group-level coping and social support variables would moderate these predictions negatively. Data from 1,188 German self-identified gay men were collected online. The questionnaire included items about socio-demographics, minority stress (victimization, rejection sensitivity, and internalized homonegativity), group-level coping (disclosure of sexual orientation, homopositivity, gay affirmation, gay rights support, and gay rights activism), and social support (gay social support and non-gay social support). A moderated multiple regression was conducted. Minority stressors positively predicted mental health problems. Group-level coping did not interact with minority stressors, with the exception of disclosure and homopositivity interacting marginally with some minority stressors. Further, only two interactions were found for social support variables and minority stress, one of them marginal. Gay and non-gay social support inversely predicted mental health problems. In addition, disclosure and homopositivity marginally predicted mental health problems. The findings imply that the minority stress theory should be modified. Disclosure does not have a relevant effect on mental health, while social support variables directly influence mental health of gay men. Group-level coping does not interact with minority stressors relevantly, and only one relevant interaction between social support and minority stress was found. Further longitudinal or experimental replication is needed before transferring the results to mental health interventions and prevention strategies for gay men.

  20. Use of e-Learning for Stress management – Multi-group moderation analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Aamir Sarwar; Chitapa Ketavan; Nadeem Shafique Butt

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to find out the moderating role of type of industry and different levels of management with respect to eLearning perception, eLearning advantages and use of eLearning for Stress Management. Study tried to find out relationship between perceptions of eLearning, eLearning Advantages, perception of using eLearning for corporate training and more specifically for stress management. A cross sectional survey is conducted through structured questionnaire to collect the data...

  1. Pediatric primary central nervous system germ cell tumors of different prognosis groups show characteristic miRNome traits and chromosome copy number variations

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    Liang Muh-Lii

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intracranial pediatric germ cell tumors (GCTs are rare and heterogeneous neoplasms and vary in histological differentiation, prognosis and clinical behavior. Germinoma and mature teratoma are GCTs that have a good prognosis, while other types of GCTs, termed nongerminomatous malignant germ cell tumors (NGMGCTs, are tumors with an intermediate or poor prognosis. The second group of tumors requires more extensive drug and irradiation treatment regimens. The mechanisms underlying the differences in incidence and prognosis of the various GCT subgroups are unclear. Results We identified a distinct mRNA profile correlating with GCT histological differentiation and prognosis, and also present in this study the first miRNA profile of pediatric primary intracranial GCTs. Most of the differentially expressed miRNAs were downregulated in germinomas, but miR-142-5p and miR-146a were upregulated. Genes responsible for self-renewal (such as POU5F1 (OCT4, NANOG and KLF4 and the immune response were abundant in germinomas, while genes associated with neuron differentiation, Wnt/β-catenin pathway, invasiveness and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (including SNAI2 (SLUG and TWIST2 were abundant in NGMGCTs. Clear transcriptome segregation based on patient survival was observed, with malignant NGMGCTs being closest to embryonic stem cells. Chromosome copy number variations (CNVs at cytobands 4q13.3-4q28.3 and 9p11.2-9q13 correlated with GCT malignancy and clinical risk. Six genes (BANK1, CXCL9, CXCL11, DDIT4L, ELOVL6 and HERC5 within 4q13.3-4q28.3 were more abundant in germinomas. Conclusions Our results integrate molecular profiles with clinical observations and provide insights into the underlying mechanisms causing GCT malignancy. The genes, pathways and microRNAs identified have the potential to be novel therapeutic targets.

  2. The Efficacy of Rational-Emotive-Behavioral versus Relaxation Group Therapies in Treatment of Aggression of Offspring of Veterans with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

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    M Barekatain

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD in war veterans has been linked with symptoms in their children, including symptoms resembling those of the traumatized parents, especially aggression. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy in reducing aggressive behaviors of male adolescents whose fathers have war related PTSD. Method: 36 male children (aged 11 19 years whose fathers had PTSD, were randomly assigned into three groups for Rational-Emotive- Behavioral Therapy (REBT, Relaxation Therapy, and Wait-List control group. Each method had a course of ten therapeutic group sessions of 60 minutes once a week. Rates of aggression were assessed by Aggression Questionnaire (AGQ at baseline, end of intervention, and two months later. Results: The difference between AGQ scores of three groups was statistically significant. The behaviors of the three groups were not homogenous across the time (group × time interaction and showed a statistically significant difference. Conclusion: This study revealed that the intervention groups were superior to control group in reduction of aggressive behaviors in male adolescents of war veterans with PTSD. Further studies with greater sample size, prolonged duration of follow up, and multiple assessment procedures may be needed for better conclusions. Key words: Aggression, offspring, PTSD, Group Therapy

  3. Group versus individual stress management intervention in breast cancer patients for fatigue and emotional reactivity: a randomised intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissanen, Ritva; Arving, Cecilia; Ahlgren, Johan; Nordin, Karin

    2014-09-01

    Fatigue and emotional reactivity are common among women suffering from breast cancer and might detrimentally affect these women's quality of life. This study evaluates if the stress management delivered either in a group or individual setting would improve fatigue and emotional reactivity among women with a newly diagnosed breast cancer. Participants (n = 304) who reported elevated levels of distress at three-month post-inclusion were randomised between stress management in a group (GSM) (n = 77) or individual (ISM) (n = 78) setting. Participation was declined by 149 women. Participants completed the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20) and the Everyday Life Stress Scale (ELSS) at the time of inclusion, 3- and 12-month post-inclusion. Analyses were made according to intention to treat and per-protocol principles. Mann-Whitney tests were used to examine differences between the two intervention groups. No significant differences were detected between the GSM and ISM groups on fatigue or emotional reactivity. In addition, there were no changes over time for these outcomes. There were no differences between the two intervention arms with reference to fatigue or emotional reactivity; however, a clinically interesting finding was the low number of women who were interested in participating in a psychosocial intervention. This finding may have clinical implications when psychosocial support is offered to women with a newly diagnosed breast cancer and also in the planning of future studies.

  4. Status inconsistency in groups : How discrepancies between instrumental and expressive status result in symptoms of stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Brake, Hendrik; Grow, André; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis

    This study examines whether a mismatch between the positions that individuals hold in different status hierarchies results in symptoms of stress. Prior research has focused on inconsistencies between socioeconomic status dimensions (e.g., education and income) and did not find a significant relation

  5. Qualitative Methods Can Enrich Quantitative Research on Occupational Stress: An Example from One Occupational Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, Irvin Sam; Farrell, Edwin

    2010-01-01

    The chapter examines the ways in which qualitative and quantitative methods support each other in research on occupational stress. Qualitative methods include eliciting from workers unconstrained descriptions of work experiences, careful first-hand observations of the workplace, and participant-observers describing "from the inside" a…

  6. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taking care of an aging parent. With mental stress, the body pumps out hormones to no avail. Neither fighting ... with type 1 diabetes. This difference makes sense. Stress blocks the body from releasing insulin in people with type 2 ...

  7. Effects on pig immunophysiology, PBMC proteome and brain neurotransmitters caused by group mixing stress and human-animal relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valent, Daniel; Arroyo, Laura; Peña, Raquel; Yu, Kuai; Carreras, Ricard; Mainau, Eva; Velarde, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) are an interesting sample for searching for biomarkers with proteomic techniques because they are easy to obtain and do not contain highly abundant, potentially masking proteins. Two groups of pigs (n = 56) were subjected to mixing under farm conditions and afterwards subjected to different management treatments: negative handling (NH) and positive handling (PH). Serum and PBMC samples were collected at the beginning of the experiment one week after mixing (t0) and after two months of different handling (t2). Brain areas were collected after slaughter and neurotransmitters quantified by HPLC. Hair cortisol and serum acute phase proteins decreased and serum glutathione peroxidase increased at t2, indicating a lower degree of stress at t2 after adaptation to the farm. Differential gel electrophoresis (DIGE) was applied to study the effects of time and treatment on the PBMC proteome. A total of 54 differentially expressed proteins were identified, which were involved in immune system modulation, cell adhesion and motility, gene expression, splicing and translation, protein degradation and folding, oxidative stress and metabolism. Thirty-seven protein spots were up-regulated at t2 versus t0 whereas 27 were down-regulated. Many of the identified proteins share the characteristic of being potentially up or down-regulated by cortisol, indicating that changes in protein abundance between t0 and t2 are, at least in part, consequence of lower stress upon adaptation to the farm conditions after group mixing. Only slight changes in brain neurotransmitters and PBMC oxidative stress markers were observed. In conclusion, the variation in hair cortisol and serum APPs as well as the careful analysis of the identified proteins indicate that changes in protein composition in PBMC throughout time is mainly due to a decrease in the stress status of the individuals, following accommodation to the farm and the new group. PMID:28475627

  8. Effects on pig immunophysiology, PBMC proteome and brain neurotransmitters caused by group mixing stress and human-animal relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valent, Daniel; Arroyo, Laura; Peña, Raquel; Yu, Kuai; Carreras, Ricard; Mainau, Eva; Velarde, Antonio; Bassols, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) are an interesting sample for searching for biomarkers with proteomic techniques because they are easy to obtain and do not contain highly abundant, potentially masking proteins. Two groups of pigs (n = 56) were subjected to mixing under farm conditions and afterwards subjected to different management treatments: negative handling (NH) and positive handling (PH). Serum and PBMC samples were collected at the beginning of the experiment one week after mixing (t0) and after two months of different handling (t2). Brain areas were collected after slaughter and neurotransmitters quantified by HPLC. Hair cortisol and serum acute phase proteins decreased and serum glutathione peroxidase increased at t2, indicating a lower degree of stress at t2 after adaptation to the farm. Differential gel electrophoresis (DIGE) was applied to study the effects of time and treatment on the PBMC proteome. A total of 54 differentially expressed proteins were identified, which were involved in immune system modulation, cell adhesion and motility, gene expression, splicing and translation, protein degradation and folding, oxidative stress and metabolism. Thirty-seven protein spots were up-regulated at t2 versus t0 whereas 27 were down-regulated. Many of the identified proteins share the characteristic of being potentially up or down-regulated by cortisol, indicating that changes in protein abundance between t0 and t2 are, at least in part, consequence of lower stress upon adaptation to the farm conditions after group mixing. Only slight changes in brain neurotransmitters and PBMC oxidative stress markers were observed. In conclusion, the variation in hair cortisol and serum APPs as well as the careful analysis of the identified proteins indicate that changes in protein composition in PBMC throughout time is mainly due to a decrease in the stress status of the individuals, following accommodation to the farm and the new group.

  9. Endogenous salicylic acid shows different correlation with baicalin and baicalein in the medicinal plant Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi subjected to stress and exogenous salicylic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Su

    Full Text Available Salicylic acid (SA is synthesized via the phenylalanine lyase (PAL and isochorismate synthase (ICS pathways and can influence the stress response in plants by regulating certain secondary metabolites. However, the association between SA and particular secondary metabolites in the Chinese medicinal plant Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi is unclear. To elucidate the association between SA and the secondary metabolites baicalin and baicalein, which constitute the primary effective components of S. baicalensis, we subjected seedlings to drought and salt stress and exogenous SA treatment in a laboratory setting and tested the expression of PAL and ICS, as well as the content of free SA (FSA, total SA (TSA, baicalin, and baicalein. We also assessed the correlation of FSA and TSA with PAL and ICS, and with baicalin and baicalein accumulation, respectively. The results indicated that both FSA and TSA were positively correlated with PAL, ICS, and baicalin, but negatively correlated with baicalein. The findings of this study improve our understanding of the manner in which SA regulates secondary metabolites in S. baicalensis.

  10. Posttraumatic stress disorder and art group therapy: Self-expression of traumatic inner world of war veterans

    OpenAIRE

    Mandić-Gajić Gordana; Špirić Željko

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim. Art therapy and drawings may serve as alternative means of expression and release from trauma among veterans diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Methods. The retrospective clinical study of drawings of war veterans was performed. A total of 89 war veterans met the Diagnostics and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) PTSD criteria and were consecutively admitted to the Day Hospital during 5 years. Art group therapy...

  11. Formation of the U.S. Air Force Aviator Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Study Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Wood, III, John Heaton, Mark Hubner, Nicole Rhodes 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION... Questionnaire -9 PIQ performance intelligence quotient PTSD post-traumatic stress disorder RPA remotely piloted aircraft USAF U.S. Air Force VIQ verbal intelligence quotient ...Human Performance Wing U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine Aerospace Medicine Department 2510 Fifth St., Bldg. 840 Wright-Patterson AFB, OH

  12. The Evaluation of Techniques for Overcoming with the Stress in a Physician Group

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    Humman Sen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was made in order to determine the methods of overcoming with stress of the specialist physicians. Material-Method: Our study is a descriptive study. In the study, the scale of overcoming with stress was applied to the 100 specialist physicians who working in 5 different health care institutions in and around the Istanbul in 2009. Results: The scores that the participants takes from sub-categories of scales of overcoming with stress types were measured respectively as; 22.4±3.5 point for self-confident approach, 16.3± 3.6 point for helpless, 14.4± 2.6 point for optimistic, 10.8±2.6 point for submissive, 9.9±2.1 point for seeking social support. It is determined that the self-confident approach method was the most used method among the participants in methods of overcoming with stres. It is determined that the submissive method was the least used method. No statistical significant differences were determined between the men and women, marrieds and singles, subgroup and total score, categories composed according to the age range and institutons. (p>0.05 [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(2.000: 211-218

  13. Comparison of the Effect of Noise Levels on Stress Response in Two Different Operation Groups in an Orthopedic Surgery Room

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    Hasibe Baytan Yildiz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this randomized, single-blinded study was to evaluate the effects of noise on hemodynamic and neuroendocrine stress response by measuring the level of noise in the surgery rooms of patients undergoing knee operations under neuroaxial anesthesia. Gerec ve Yontem: We compared patient responses from two groups of patients: those undergoing knee operations in a surgery room where the noise level (measured in decibels is high, and those undergoing meniscus operations in a surgery room with lower noise levels. The STAI, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-1, and the anxiety test (STAI-2wereperformed at preoperative and postoperative periods. 20 ml of blood sample was taken for basal, intraoperative 30th minute, and postoperative 1st hour measurements. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressures were found to be higher in the high noise level group. ACTH levels were increased during the early postoperative period and became normal during the late postoperative period in the high noise level group whereas ACTH levels were significantly decreased in the low-noise level group. Basal cortisol levels were significantly higher in the high noise level group. HCRP, an inflammatory response mediator was found to be decreased in both groups. Early and late blood glucose levels were significantly higher in the high noise group. There was a greater increase in early and late blood glucose levels in the high noise group. In the postoperative period, although the state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI-2 levels being higher in patients subject to noisier environment determines how people feel independent of the conditions and state they are in, this result made us consider that the noise the patients were subjected to in the intraoperative period may cause a stress response. Discussion: As a result we believe that standard noise levels should be achieved by reducing the factors causing high noise levels in the operating room. This will

  14. Mood and autonomic responses to repeated exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups (TSST-G).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, Maria; Sefidan, Sandra; Ehlert, Ulrike; Annen, Hubert; Wyss, Thomas; Steptoe, Andrew; La Marca, Roberto

    2014-05-01

    A group version of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST-G) was introduced as a standardized, economic and efficient tool to induce a psychobiological stress response simultaneously in a group of subjects. The aim of the present study was to examine the efficacy of the TSST-G to repeatedly induce an affective and autonomic stress response while comparing two alternative protocols for the second examination. Healthy young male recruits participated twice in the TSST-G 10 weeks apart. In the first examination, the TSST-G consisted of a combination of mental arithmetic and a fake job interview (TSST-G-1st; n=294). For the second examination, mental arithmetic was combined with either (a) a defensive speech in response to a false shoplifting accusation (TSST-G-2nd-defence; n=105), or (b) a speech on a more neutral topic selected by the investigators (TSST-G-2nd-presentation; n=100). Affect ratings and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) were determined immediately before and after the stress test, while heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) were measured continuously. TSST-G-1st resulted in a significant increase of negative affect, HR, and sAA, and a significant decrease in positive affect and HRV. TSST-G-2nd, overall, resulted in a significant increase of HR and sAA (the latter only in response to TSST-G-2nd-defence) and a decrease in HRV, while no significant affect alterations were found. When comparing both, TSST-G-2nd-defence and -2nd-presentation, the former resulted in a stronger stress response with regard to HR and HRV. The findings reveal that the TSST-G is a useful protocol to repeatedly evoke an affective and autonomic stress response, while repetition leads to affective but not necessarily autonomic habituation. When interested in examining repeated psychosocial stress reactivity, a task that requires an ego-involving effort, such as a defensive speech, seems to be significantly superior to a task using an impersonal speech. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier

  15. South Bellmore Veterinary Group Review: How to relieve your dog's stress and anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Abrha Selam

    2018-01-01

    Many often view our world today in a fast forward motion where everything requires a lot of work and people need to keep up with the changes, which require them to work harder in order to live. With this, other pet owners sometimes don’t have time to better take care of their pets plus the fact that they need to leave their pets alone at home whenever they need to go to school or work. And for this reason, some dogs unwantedly develop stress or anxiety because of loneliness. If your dog a...

  16. Cobalamin Protection against Oxidative Stress in the Acidophilic Iron-oxidizing Bacterium Leptospirillum group II CF-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Paz Levicán

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Leptospirillum are aerobic iron-oxidizing bacteria belonging to the phylum Nitrospira. They are important members of microbial communities that catalyze the biomining of sulfidic ores, thereby solubilizing metal ions. These microorganisms live under extremely acidic and metal-loaded environments and thus must tolerate high concentrations of reactive oxygen species. Cobalamin (vitamin B12 is a cobalt-containing tetrapyrrole cofactor involved in intramolecular rearrangement reactions and has recently been suggested to be an intracellular antioxidant. In this work, we investigated the effect of the exogenous addition of cobalamin on oxidative stress parameters in Leptospirillum group II strain CF-1. Our results revealed that the external supplementation of cobalamin reduces the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species and the damage to biomolecules, and also stimulates the growth and survival of cells exposed to oxidative stress exerted by ferric ion, hydrogen peroxide, chromate and diamide. Furthermore, exposure of strain CF-1 to oxidative stress elicitors resulted in the transcriptional activation of the cbiA gene encoding CbiA of the cobalamin biosynthetic pathway. Altogether, these data suggest that cobalamin plays an important role in redox protection of Leptospirillum strain CF-1, supporting survival of this microorganism under extremely oxidative environmental conditions. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the protective effect of cobalamin against oxidative stress may help to develop strategies to make biomining processes more effective.

  17. TaPP2C1, a Group F2 Protein Phosphatase 2C Gene, Confers Resistance to Salt Stress in Transgenic Tobacco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hu

    Full Text Available Group A protein phosphatases 2Cs (PP2Cs are essential components of abscisic acid (ABA signaling in Arabidopsis; however, the function of group F2 subfamily PP2Cs is currently less known. In this study, TaPP2C1 which belongs to group F2 was isolated and characterized from wheat. Expression of the TaPP2C1-GFP fusion protein suggested its ubiquitous localization within a cell. TaPP2C1 expression was downregulated by abscisic acid (ABA and NaCl treatments, but upregulated by H2O2 treatment. Overexpression of TaPP2C1 in tobacco resulted in reduced ABA sensitivity and increased salt resistance of transgenic seedlings. Additionally, physiological analyses showed that improved resistance to salt stress conferred by TaPP2C1 is due to the reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation, the improved antioxidant system, and the increased transcription of genes in the ABA-independent pathway. Finally, transgenic tobacco showed increased resistance to oxidative stress by maintaining a more effective antioxidant system. Taken together, these results demonstrated that TaPP2C1 negatively regulates ABA signaling, but positively regulates salt resistance. TaPP2C1 confers salt resistance through activating the antioxidant system and ABA-independent gene transcription process.

  18. Group X hybrid histidine kinase Chk1 is dispensable for stress adaptation, host-pathogen interactions and virulence in the opportunistic yeast Candida guilliermondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Arias, María J; Dementhon, Karine; Defosse, Tatiana A; Foureau, Emilien; Courdavault, Vincent; Clastre, Marc; Le Gal, Solène; Nevez, Gilles; Le Govic, Yohann; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe; Giglioli-Guivarc'h, Nathalie; Noël, Thierry; Mora-Montes, Hector M; Papon, Nicolas

    2017-09-01

    Hybrid histidine kinases (HHKs) progressively emerge as prominent sensing proteins in the fungal kingdom and as ideal targets for future therapeutics. The group X HHK is of major interest, since it was demonstrated to play an important role in stress adaptation, host-pathogen interactions and virulence in some yeast and mold models, and particularly Chk1, that corresponds to the sole group X HHK in Candida albicans. In the present work, we investigated the role of Chk1 in the low-virulence species Candida guilliermondii, in order to gain insight into putative conservation of the role of group X HHK in opportunistic yeasts. We demonstrated that disruption of the corresponding gene CHK1 does not influence growth, stress tolerance, drug susceptibility, protein glycosylation or cell wall composition in C. guilliermondii. In addition, we showed that loss of CHK1 does not affect C. guilliermondii ability to interact with macrophages and to stimulate cytokine production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Finally, the C. guilliermondii chk1 null mutant was found to be as virulent as the wild-type strain in the experimental model Galleria mellonella. Taken together, our results demonstrate that group X HHK function is not conserved in Candida species. Copyright © 2017 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Breast Cancer Surgery: Comparing Surgical Groups and Determining Individual Differences in Postoperative Sexuality and Body Change Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurek, Debora; Farrar, William; Andersen, Barbara L.

    2007-01-01

    Women diagnosed and surgically treated for regional breast cancer (N = 190) were studied to determine the sexual and body change sequelae for women receiving modified radical mastectomy (MRM) with breast reconstruction in comparison with the sequelae for women receiving breast-conserving therapy (BCT) or MRM without breast reconstruction. The sexuality pattern for women receiving reconstructive surgery was one that was significantly different—with lower rates of activity and fewer signs of sexual responsiveness—than that for women in either of the other groups. Significantly higher levels of traumatic stress and situational distress regarding the breast changes were reported by the women receiving an MRM in contrast to the women treated with BCT. Using a model to predict sexual morbidity, regression analyses revealed that individual differences in sexual self-schema were related to both sexual and body change stress outcomes. PMID:10965644

  20. Heavy metal and abiotic stress inducible metallothionein isoforms from Prosopis juliflora (SW) D.C. show differences in binding to heavy metals in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usha, B; Venkataraman, Gayatri; Parida, Ajay

    2009-01-01

    Prosopis juliflora is a tree species that grows well in heavy metal laden industrial sites and accumulates heavy metals. To understand the possible contribution of metallothioneins (MTs) in heavy metal accumulation in P. juliflora, we isolated and compared the metal binding ability of three different types of MTs (PjMT1-3). Glutathione S-transferase fusions of PjMTs (GSTMT1-3) were purified from Escherichia coli cells grown in the presence of 0.3 mM cadmium, copper or zinc. Analysis of metal bound fusion proteins using atomic absorption spectrometry showed that PjMT1 bound higher levels of all three heavy metals as compared to PjMT2 and PjMT3. A comparative analysis of the genomic regions (including promoter for all three PjMTs) is also presented. All three PjMTs are induced by H(2)O(2) and ABA applications. PjMT1 and PjMT2 are induced by copper and zinc respectively while PjMT3 is induced by copper, zinc and cadmium. Variation in induction of PjMTs in response to metal exposure and their differential binding to metals suggests that each MT has a specific role in P. juliflora. Of the three MTs analyzed, PjMT1 shows maximum heavy metal sequestration and is thus a potential candidate for use in heavy metal phytoremediation.

  1. Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in postwar Kosovar adolescents using mind-body skills groups: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, James S; Staples, Julie K; Blyta, Afrim; Bytyqi, Murat; Wilson, Amy T

    2008-09-01

    To determine whether participation in a mind-body skills group program based on psychological self-care, mind-body techniques, and self-expression decreases symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Eighty-two adolescents meeting criteria for PTSD according to the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (which corresponds with 16 of the 17 diagnostic criteria for PTSD in DSM-IV) were randomly assigned to a 12-session mind-body group program or a wait-list control group. The program was conducted by high school teachers in consultation with psychiatrists and psychologists and included meditation, guided imagery, and breathing techniques; self-expression through words, drawings, and movement; autogenic training and biofeedback; and genograms. Changes in PTSD symptoms were measured using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. The study was conducted from September 2004 to May 2005 by The Center for Mind-Body Medicine at a high school in the Suhareka region of Kosovo. Students in the immediate intervention group had significantly lower PTSD symptom scores following the intervention than those in the wait-list control group (F = 29.8, df = 1,76; p control group, 2.5 (0.3) and 2.4 (0.4), respectively. The decreased PTSD symptom scores were maintained in the initial intervention group at 3-month follow-up. After the wait-list control group received the intervention, there was a significant decrease (p Mind-body skills groups can reduce PTSD symptoms in war-traumatized high school students and can be effectively led by trained and supervised schoolteachers. Copyright 2008 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  2. Analysis of a support group for children of parents with mental illnesses: managing stressful situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladstone, Brenda M; McKeever, Patricia; Seeman, Mary; Boydell, Katherine M

    2014-09-01

    We report an ethnographic analysis of a psycho-education and peer-support program for school-aged children of parents with mental illnesses. We conducted a critical discourse analysis of the program manual and observed group interactions to understand whether children shared program goals predetermined by adults, and how, or if, the intervention was responsive to their needs. Children were expected to learn mental illness information because "knowledge is power," and to express difficult feelings about being a child of a mentally ill parent that was risky. Participants used humor to manage group expectations, revealing how they made sense of their parents' problems, as well as their own. Suggestions are made for determining good mental health literacy based on children's preferences for explaining circumstances in ways they find relevant, and for supporting children's competencies to manage relationships that are important to them. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Hanne Dauer

    2015-01-01

    Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb.......Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb....

  4. Stress !!!

    OpenAIRE

    Fledderus, M.

    2012-01-01

    Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten. Opvallend is dat mannelijke studenten uit Twente zich veel minder druk lijken te maken over hun studie. Onder vrouwen ligt de stress juist erg hoog ten opzichte van het landelijk gemiddelde.

  5. Community stress and social and technological change: a framework for interpreting the behavior of social movements and community action groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, R.W.; Schuller, C.R.; Lindell, M.K.; Greene, M.R.; Walsh, J.T.; Earle, T.

    1980-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive examination of existing research on community organizations and community political systems. These findings will be integrated into a framework for understanding the variety of social and political responses which may be manifest in small communities facing the prospect of hosting a major nuclear facility. The principal focus is on the formation and behavior of social groups in communities, particularly politically oriented social movements or community action groups. This analysis is set on the context of a community experiencing social stress. Most of the discussion which follows is based on an extrapolation from the large body of reseach literature on the topics in sociology, political science, and psychology. Chapter I examines the community political systems which are the arena in which local action groups will operate. Chapter II focuses on the internal conditions necessary for the formation and maintenance of community action groups. Chapter III reviews the research literature on the social environment of organizations in communities and the external conditions which are necessary to maintain organizations over time. Chapter IV develops a logic whereby the community consensus model can be adopted to particular social movement organizations and community actions groups. Chapter V examines changes in aspects of the environment which can be a function of the operation of movement organizations, and changes in the structure and tactics of movement organizations which appear to be a response to the environment.

  6. Association between diet and polymorphisms in individuals with statin-controlled dyslipidaemia grouped according to oxidative stress biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Borges Botelho

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate whether differences in diet and in single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs found in paraoxonase-1 (PON-1, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR, cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP and apolipoprotein E (APOE genes, are associated with oxidative stress biomarkers and consequently with susceptibility of low-density cholesterol (LDL to oxidation. A multivariate approach was applied to a group of 55 patients according to three biomarkers: plasma antioxidant activity, malondialdehyde and oxidized LDL (oxLDL concentrations. Individuals classified in Cluster III showed the worst prognoses in terms of antioxidant activity and oxidative status. Individuals classified in Cluster I presented the lowest oxidative status, while individuals grouped in Cluster II presented the highest levels of antioxidant activity. No difference in nutrient intake was observed among the clusters. Significantly higher γ- and δ-tocopherol concentrations were observed in those individuals with the highest levels of antioxidant activity. No single linear regression was statistically significant, suggesting that mutant alleles of the SNPs selected did not contribute to the differences observed in oxidative stress response. Although not statistically significant, the p value of the APO E coefficient for oxLDL response was 0.096, indicating that patients who carry the TT allele of the APO E gene tend to present lower plasma oxLDL concentrations. Therefore, the differences in oxidative stress levels observed in this study could not be attributed to diet or to the variant alleles of PON-1, CETP, HMGCR or APO E. This data supports the influence of γ-tocopherol and δ-tocopherol on antioxidant activity, and highlights the need for further studies investigating APO E alleles and LDL oxidation.O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar se diferenças na dieta e em polimorfismos de nucleotídeos únicos (SNPs encontrados no

  7. The Influence of Daily Stress on Sedentary Behavior: Group and Person (N of 1) Level Results of a 1-Year Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Keith M; Thanataveerat, Anusorn; Parsons, Faith E; Yoon, Sunmoo; Cheung, Ying Kuen; Alcantara, Carmela; Duran, Andrea T; Ensari, Ipek; Krupka, David J; Schwartz, Joseph E; Burg, Matthew M; Davidson, Karina W

    2018-05-24

    The purpose of this study, which used mobile technologies to continuously collect data over 1 year, was to examine the association of psychological stress with objectively measured sedentary behavior in adults at both the group (e.g. nomothetic approach) and individual (e.g. idiographic approach) level. Data were collected in an observational study of healthy adults (n=79) residing in the New York City metro area who were studied for 365 days from 2014-2015. Sedentary behavior was objectively measured via accelerometry. A smartphone-based electronic diary was used to assess level of stress ("Overall, how stressful was your day?"; 0-10 scale) and sources of stress. The end-of-day stress rating was not associated with total sedentary time (B= -1.34, p=0.767) at the group-level. When specific sources of stress were evaluated at the group-level, argument-related stress was associated with increased sedentariness; while running late- and work-related stress were associated with decreased sedentariness. There was a substantial degree of inter-individual variability in the relationship of stress with sedentary behavior. Both the level and sources of stress were associated with increased sedentariness for some, decreased sedentariness for others, and had no effect for many (within-person variance p-value stress on sedentary behavior varies by source of stress and from person-to-person. A precision medicine approach may be warranted to target reductions in sedentary time; although further studies are needed to confirm the observed findings in light of study limitations including a small sample size and enrollment of participants from a single, urban metropolitan area.

  8. Does the Association between Workplace Bullying and Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms differ across Educational Groups?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islamoska, Sabrina; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten

    2018-01-01

    not reported differently among those with experience of workplace bullying. Implementing bullying policies is an important step in promoting a healthy psychosocial working environment. All targets of workplace bullying would benefit from interventions aiming to reduce progression of PTSD symptoms.The aim...... with experience of workplace bullying. Implementing bullying policies is an important step in promoting a healthy psychosocial working environment. All targets of workplace bullying would benefit from interventions aiming to reduce progression of PTSD symptoms.......-labelling method among 563 Danish employees. PTSD symptoms were assessed by the Impact of Event Scale – Revised. Educational level was measured as years of education. The results showed that workplace bullying was significantly associated with the reporting of PTSD symptoms. However, PTSD symptoms were...

  9. Stress !!!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fledderus, M.

    2012-01-01

    Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten.

  10. Awareness of Stress-Reduction Interventions on Work Attitudes: The Impact of Tenure and Staff Group in Australian Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignata, Silvia; Winefield, Anthony H; Provis, Chris; Boyd, Carolyn M

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the impact of staff group role and length of organizational tenure in the relationship between the awareness of stress interventions (termed intervention awareness: IA) and the work-related attitudinal outcomes of university employees. A two-wave longitudinal study of a sample of 869 employees from 13 universities completed a psychosocial work factors and health questionnaire. Hierarchical regression analyses examined the contribution of staff role and different lengths of organizational tenure with IA and employees' reports of job satisfaction, affective organizational commitment, trust in senior management, and perceived procedural justice. Employees' length of tenure affected the relation between IA and work attitudes, and there were also differences between academic and non-academic staff groups. For non-academic employees, IA predicted job satisfaction, affective organizational commitment, trust in senior management, and perceived procedural justice. However, for academics, IA only predicted job satisfaction and trust which identifies a need to increase the visibility of organizational interventions. Across the tenure groups, IA predicted: (1) perceived procedural justice for employees with five or less years of tenure; (2) job satisfaction for employees with 0-19 years of tenure; (3) trust in senior management for employees with 6-19 years of tenure; and (4) affective organizational commitment for employees with a tenure length of 6-10 years. Employees working at the university for an intermediate period had the most positive perceptions of their organization in terms of IA, job satisfaction, trust in senior management, and affective organizational commitment, whereas employees with 20-38 years of tenure had the least positive perceptions. Results suggest that employees in the middle of their careers report the most positive perceptions of their university. The findings highlight the need to attend to contextual issues in organizational

  11. Awareness of stress-reduction interventions on work attitudes: the impact of tenure and staff group in Australian universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pignata

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the impact of staff group role and length of organizational tenure in the relationship between the awareness of stress interventions (termed intervention awareness: IA and the work-related attitudinal outcomes of university employees. A two-wave longitudinal study of a sample of 869 employees from 13 universities completed a psychosocial work factors and health questionnaire. Hierarchical regression analyses examined the contribution of staff role and different lengths of organizational tenure with IA and employees’ reports of job satisfaction, affective organizational commitment, trust in senior management, and perceived procedural justice. Employees' length of tenure affected the relation between IA and work attitudes, and there were also differences between academic and non-academic staff groups. For non-academic employees, IA predicted job satisfaction, affective organizational commitment, trust in senior management, and perceived procedural justice. However, for academics, IA only predicted job satisfaction and trust which identifies a need to increase the visibility of organizational interventions. Across the tenure groups, IA predicted: (1 perceived procedural justice for employees with five or less years of tenure; (2 job satisfaction for employees with 0–19 years of tenure; (3 trust in senior management for employees with 6–19 years of tenure; and (4 affective organizational commitment for employees with a tenure length of 6–10 years. Employees working at the university for an intermediate period had the most positive perceptions of their organization in terms of IA, job satisfaction, trust in senior management, and affective organizational commitment, whereas employees with 20–38 years of tenure had the least positive perceptions. Results suggest that employees in the middle of their careers report the most positive perceptions of their university. The findings highlight the need to attend to contextual

  12. Association of Stressful Life Events with Psychological Problems: A Large-Scale Community-Based Study Using Grouped Outcomes Latent Factor Regression with Latent Predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Hassanzadeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The current study is aimed at investigating the association between stressful life events and psychological problems in a large sample of Iranian adults. Method. In a cross-sectional large-scale community-based study, 4763 Iranian adults, living in Isfahan, Iran, were investigated. Grouped outcomes latent factor regression on latent predictors was used for modeling the association of psychological problems (depression, anxiety, and psychological distress, measured by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12, as the grouped outcomes, and stressful life events, measured by a self-administered stressful life events (SLEs questionnaire, as the latent predictors. Results. The results showed that the personal stressors domain has significant positive association with psychological distress (β=0.19, anxiety (β=0.25, depression (β=0.15, and their collective profile score (β=0.20, with greater associations in females (β=0.28 than in males (β=0.13 (all P<0.001. In addition, in the adjusted models, the regression coefficients for the association of social stressors domain and psychological problems profile score were 0.37, 0.35, and 0.46 in total sample, males, and females, respectively (P<0.001. Conclusion. Results of our study indicated that different stressors, particularly those socioeconomic related, have an effective impact on psychological problems. It is important to consider the social and cultural background of a population for managing the stressors as an effective approach for preventing and reducing the destructive burden of psychological problems.

  13. Association of Stressful Life Events with Psychological Problems: A Large-Scale Community-Based Study Using Grouped Outcomes Latent Factor Regression with Latent Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Akbar; Heidari, Zahra; Hassanzadeh Keshteli, Ammar; Afshar, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    Objective The current study is aimed at investigating the association between stressful life events and psychological problems in a large sample of Iranian adults. Method In a cross-sectional large-scale community-based study, 4763 Iranian adults, living in Isfahan, Iran, were investigated. Grouped outcomes latent factor regression on latent predictors was used for modeling the association of psychological problems (depression, anxiety, and psychological distress), measured by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), as the grouped outcomes, and stressful life events, measured by a self-administered stressful life events (SLEs) questionnaire, as the latent predictors. Results The results showed that the personal stressors domain has significant positive association with psychological distress (β = 0.19), anxiety (β = 0.25), depression (β = 0.15), and their collective profile score (β = 0.20), with greater associations in females (β = 0.28) than in males (β = 0.13) (all P < 0.001). In addition, in the adjusted models, the regression coefficients for the association of social stressors domain and psychological problems profile score were 0.37, 0.35, and 0.46 in total sample, males, and females, respectively (P < 0.001). Conclusion Results of our study indicated that different stressors, particularly those socioeconomic related, have an effective impact on psychological problems. It is important to consider the social and cultural background of a population for managing the stressors as an effective approach for preventing and reducing the destructive burden of psychological problems. PMID:29312459

  14. The Effect of Group Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction and Consciousness Yoga Program on Quality of Life and Fatigue Severity in Patients with MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Nejati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The chronic nature of Multiple Sclerosis (MS, have can leave devastating effects on quality of life and fatigue. The present research aimed to study the effect of group Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction (MBSR and conscious yoga program on the quality of life and fatigue severity among patients with MS. Methods: This study was quasi-experimental with intervention and control groups. The statistical population included all members to MS Society of Tehran Province, 24 of whom diagnosed with MS were selected as the sample based on the inclusion criteria. The subjects were randomly assigned into the test group (12 patients and the control group (12 patients. MS Quality of Life-54 (MSQOL-54 and Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS were used for data collection. Subjects in the test group underwent a MBSR and conscious yoga program in 8 two-hour sessions. The data were analyzed using the SPSS ver.13 software. Results: The study findings showed that there was a significant difference between subjects in the experimental and control groups in terms of mean score of some subscales of quality of life including physical health, role limitations due to physical and emotional problems, energy, emotional well-being, health distress, health perception, and satisfaction with sexual function, overall quality of life, and fatigue severity. Conclusion: The results show that the program is effective in reduction of fatigue severity and improving some subscales of quality of life in MS patients. Hence, this supportive method can be used as an effective way for improving quality of life and relieving fatigue in MS patients.

  15. Relation between reproduction performance and indicators of feed intake, fear and social stress in commercial herds with group-housed non-lactating sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anne Grete

    2006-01-01

    Group-housing of non-lactating sows is becomming increasingly widespread in commercial sow herds in European countries as a result of changed legislation. Group-housing may lead to individual variation in feed intake, stress and fear, which may impair the reproduction ferformance. However, whether...... the individual variation in feed intake and the level of stress and fear under commercial conditions is severe enough to impair the reproduction performance is not known. In a detailed farm study including 14 herds with different layouts the relations between various indicators of feed intake, stress and fear...

  16. On the Function of Stress Rhythms in Speech: Evidence of a Link with Grouping Effects on Serial Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Victor J.

    2006-01-01

    Language learning requires a capacity to recall novel series of speech sounds. Research shows that prosodic marks create grouping effects enhancing serial recall. However, any restriction on memory affecting the reproduction of prosody would limit the set of patterns that could be learned and subsequently used in speech. By implication, grouping…

  17. Effectiveness of Group-Based Stress Management Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Improving Quality of Life among the Wives of Addicts Undergoing Treatment with Methadone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shahkarami

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Purpose: Cognitive-behavioral stress management therapy refers to a family of stress management interventions that are based on cognitive-behavioral approach. The stress management increases the ability of people to reduce stress and cope with stress-eliciting situations. The present study tries to explain the effectiveness of group-based stress management cognitive-behavioral therapy in the improvement of life quality among the women whose husbands take methadone in their treatments. Methods: The present study is a semi-empirical intervention that uses a pre- and- post- test design with a control group. The statistical universe in the present study consisted of all the women whose husbands were receiving methadone treatment in Tasmim Addiction Treatment Center in Khoramabad City in 2013. Among the women who came to this center to take weekly classes for instructions useful in family interactions, 24 were selected on the basis of availability sampling and in accordance with the criteria assumed in this study, that is, the women who had the lowest scores on the scale of life quality. They were randomly assigned to the experimental group (N=12 and the control group (N=12. The instrument used in this study was the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire (WHOQOL, 1996, which was completed by subjects in two per-test and post- test phases. The project (the stress management cognitive-behavioral therapy was implemented on the basis of the Antony et al Manual in ten two-hour sessions with a group technique and with an interval of one session per week for the participants in the experimental group, without any intervention for the control group. At the end of therapeutic sessions, the two groups were again evaluated (the post- test phase. The data of the present study were analyzed by means of the univariate covariance analysis test (ANCOVA and the statistical software SPSS18. Results: Results indicated that the life

  18. Soil bacteria show different tolerance ranges to an unprecedented disturbance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunes, Ines Marques; Jurburg, Stephanie; Jacquiod, Samuel Jehan Auguste

    2018-01-01

    stress doses. FRG1, the most sensitive group, was dominated by Actinobacteria. FRG2 and FRG3, with intermediate tolerance, displayed prevalence of Proteobacteria, while FRG4, the most resistant group, was driven by Firmicutes. While the most sensitive FRGs showed predictable responses linked to changes...

  19. Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2008-01-01

    We all experience stress as a regular, and sometimes damaging and sometimes useful, part of our daily lives. In our normal ups and downs, we have our share of exhaustion, despondency, and outrage--matched with their corresponding positive moods. But burnout and workaholism are different. They are chronic, dysfunctional, self-reinforcing, life-shortening habits. Dentists, nurses, teachers, ministers, social workers, and entertainers are especially susceptible to burnout; not because they are hard-working professionals (they tend to be), but because they are caring perfectionists who share control for the success of what they do with others and perform under the scrutiny of their colleagues (they tend to). Workaholics are also trapped in self-sealing cycles, but the elements are ever-receding visions of control and using constant activity as a barrier against facing reality. This essay explores the symptoms, mechanisms, causes, and successful coping strategies for burnout and workaholism. It also takes a look at the general stress response on the physiological level and at some of the damage American society inflicts on itself.

  20. Analysis of MaACS2, a stress-inducible ACC Synthase Gene in Musa acuminata AAA Group Cultivar Pisang Ambon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resnanti Utami Handayani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene has an important function in plant growth and development. Ethylene production generally increases in response to pathogen attacks and other environmental stress conditions. The synthesis of this phytohormone is regulated by two enzymes, ACC synthase (ACS and ACC oxidase (ACO. ACC synthase is encoded by a multigene that regulates the production of ACC, after which this precursor is converted into ethylene by ACO. Pisang Ambon (Musa sp. AAA group, a banana cultivar originating from Indonesia, has nine ACS genes (MaACS 1-9 and one ACO gene (MaACO. One of the banana ACS genes, MaACS2, is stress-inducible. In this research, we have investigated the expression profile of MaACS2 in the roots and leaf tissues of infected tissue culture plants. Quantification of gene expression was analyzed using Real-Time PCR (qPCR using Ma18srRNA and MaGAPDH as reference genes. The results showed nine-to ten fold higher MaACS2 expression levels in the infected roots tissues compared to the uninfected roots tissues. However, MaACS2 expression in the leaves was only detected in infected tissue.

  1. Effect of park prescriptions with and without group visits to parks on stress reduction in low-income parents: SHINE randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razani, Nooshin; Morshed, Saam; Kohn, Michael A; Wells, Nancy M; Thompson, Doug; Alqassari, Maoya; Agodi, Amaka; Rutherford, George W

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to nature may reduce stress in low-income parents. This prospective randomized trial compares the effect of a physician's counseling about nature with or without facilitated group outings on stress and other outcomes among low-income parents. Parents of patients aged 4-18 years at a clinic serving low-income families were randomized to a supported park prescription versus independent park prescription in a 2:1 ratio. Parents in both groups received physician counseling about nature, maps of local parks, a journal, and pedometer. The supported group received additional phone and text reminders to attend three weekly family nature outings with free transportation, food, and programming. Outcomes measured in parents at baseline, one month and three months post-enrollment included: stress (using the 40-point Perceived Stress Scale [PSS10]); park visits per week (self-report and journaling); loneliness (modified UCLA-Loneliness Scale); physical activity (self-report, journaling, pedometry); physiologic stress (salivary cortisol); and nature affinity (validated scale). We enrolled 78 parents, 50 in the supported and 28 in the independent group. One-month follow-up was available for 60 (77%) participants and three-month follow up for 65 (83%). Overall stress decreased by 1.71 points (95% CI, -3.15, -0.26). The improvement in stress did not differ significantly by group assignment, although the independent group had more park visits per week (mean difference 1.75; 95% CI [0.46, 3.04], p = 0.0085). In multivariable analysis, each unit increase in park visits per week was associated with a significant and incremental decrease in stress (change in PSS10-0.53; 95% CI [-0.89, -0.16]; p = 0.005) at three months. While we were unable to demonstrate the additional benefit of group park visits, we observed an overall decrease in parental stress both overall and as a function of numbers of park visits per week. Paradoxically the park prescription without group park visits

  2. Effect of park prescriptions with and without group visits to parks on stress reduction in low-income parents: SHINE randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Razani

    Full Text Available Exposure to nature may reduce stress in low-income parents. This prospective randomized trial compares the effect of a physician's counseling about nature with or without facilitated group outings on stress and other outcomes among low-income parents.Parents of patients aged 4-18 years at a clinic serving low-income families were randomized to a supported park prescription versus independent park prescription in a 2:1 ratio. Parents in both groups received physician counseling about nature, maps of local parks, a journal, and pedometer. The supported group received additional phone and text reminders to attend three weekly family nature outings with free transportation, food, and programming. Outcomes measured in parents at baseline, one month and three months post-enrollment included: stress (using the 40-point Perceived Stress Scale [PSS10]; park visits per week (self-report and journaling; loneliness (modified UCLA-Loneliness Scale; physical activity (self-report, journaling, pedometry; physiologic stress (salivary cortisol; and nature affinity (validated scale.We enrolled 78 parents, 50 in the supported and 28 in the independent group. One-month follow-up was available for 60 (77% participants and three-month follow up for 65 (83%. Overall stress decreased by 1.71 points (95% CI, -3.15, -0.26. The improvement in stress did not differ significantly by group assignment, although the independent group had more park visits per week (mean difference 1.75; 95% CI [0.46, 3.04], p = 0.0085. In multivariable analysis, each unit increase in park visits per week was associated with a significant and incremental decrease in stress (change in PSS10-0.53; 95% CI [-0.89, -0.16]; p = 0.005 at three months.While we were unable to demonstrate the additional benefit of group park visits, we observed an overall decrease in parental stress both overall and as a function of numbers of park visits per week. Paradoxically the park prescription without group park

  3. Role of Social Support in Examining Acculturative Stress and Psychological Distress Among Asian American Immigrants and Three Sub-groups: Results from NLAAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shipra; McBride, Kimberly; Kak, Vivek

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the impact of acculturative stress and social support (family and friend) on psychological distress among Asian American immigrants and three Asian sub-groups (Vietnamese, Filipino and Chinese) immigrants. The National Latino and Asian American Study 2002-2003 dataset was used. The study findings were: (1) among all Asian American immigrants high language barrier and discrimination stress were associated with increased level of psychological distress, but similar association was not present for legal stress; (2) among all Asian American immigrants high family social support decreased the levels of psychological distress, and in addition, friend social support buffered the relationship of discrimination and psychological distress; and (3) among Vietnamese, Filipino, and Chinese, differential association of social support and acculturative stress to psychological distress were observed. These findings highlight the importance of social support among Asian American immigrants, while also paying attention to the variation that may exist between different sub-groups.

  4. Stress Reactivity in Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrman, Philip R; Hall, Martica; Barilla, Holly; Buysse, Daniel; Perlis, Michael; Gooneratne, Nalaka; Ross, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether individuals with primary insomnia (PI) are more reactive to stress than good sleepers (GS). PI and GS (n = 20 per group), matched on gender and age, completed three nights of polysomnography. On the stress night, participants received a mild electric shock and were told they could receive additional shocks during the night. Saliva samples were obtained for analysis of cortisol and alpha amylase along with self-report and visual analog scales (VAS). There was very little evidence of increased stress on the stress night, compared to the baseline night. There was also no evidence of greater stress reactivity in the PI group for any sleep or for salivary measures. In the GS group, stress reactivity measured by VAS scales was positively associated with an increase in sleep latency in the experimental night on exploratory analyses. Individuals with PI did not show greater stress reactivity compared to GS.

  5. Prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression in two groups of children one year after the January 2010 earthquake in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Judite; Bui, Eric; Mouchenik, Yoram; Derivois, Daniel; Birmes, Philippe

    2015-02-01

    More than 500 studies were conducted in Haiti following the January 12 of 2010 earthquake, yet few of them assessed mental health of the population. To our knowledge, none targeted the effectiveness of various methods used to treat survivors, whether adults or children Our study aimed to assess one year after the disaster, the effect of a specific psycho-social support offered to relocated children in Port-au-Prince compared with a control group. The two groups were homogeneous in the intensity of the peritraumatic distress they experienced. We were unable to show a significant difference between both in the average scores for PTSD, nor for depression, nor in three out of the four sub-scales of the Child Behavior Check-List. In case children, 68% and 40.9%, respectively, and 50% and 20.5% of the control group, reported severe levels of the symptoms of PTSD and depression. These surprising results can be explained by the absence of equivalence in the two groups from a socio-demographic point of view and because subjects were not randomly selected in the recruitment process. This study has not made it possible to indicate the effectiveness of a specific psycho-social support offered to children in the aftermath of the disaster. On the other hand, the sample illustrates the high prevalence (more than 50% for PTSD) of severe post-traumatic stress in this group of school-age children, one year after the earthquake. These results indicate that serious attention should be paid to the mental health aspects in reconstruction program for the country. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Individual and Group Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Work-Related Stress Complaints and Sickness Absence: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vente, W.de; Kamphuis, J.H.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Blonk, R.W.B.

    2008-01-01

    Work-related stress is widespread and can lead to long-term absenteeism and work disability. Cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) has demonstrated effectiveness in treating psychopathology but has only rarely been tested in clinical samples with work-related stress. A randomized controlled trial was

  7. The Effectiveness of Group Training of CBT-Based Stress Management on Anxiety, Psychological Hardiness and General Self-Efficacy Among University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla Jafar, Hamdam; Salabifard, Seddigheh; Mousavi, Seyedeh Maryam; Sobhani, Zahra

    2015-09-28

    Admission to university is a very sensitive period of life for efficient, active, and young workforces in any country, and it is mostly associated with many changes in social and human relationships. These changes lead to anxiety in students. Moreover, humans need certain functions in order to adaptively deal with different life situations and challenges. By training stress management, these functions can help human acquire the required abilities. The present study was aimed at investigating the effectiveness of stress management training in anxiety, psychological hardiness, and general self-efficacy among university students. The study was a quasi-experimental intervention (pretest-posttest-follow-up) including a control group, it was a fundamental applied study. The statistical population consisted of all students of Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran. Convenient sampling was employed to select 30 students who were divided into an experimental group (n=15) and a control group (n=15). Before stress management training, both groups filled out Beck Anxiety Inventory, Long and Goulet scale of psychological hardiness, and General Self-efficacy Scale (GSE-10). Afterwards, the experimental group was provided with stress management training. And after the experiment, the abovementioned questionnaires and scales were responded by the two groups. Finally the collected data were analyzed and compared using one-way MANOVA. The results of MANOVA indicated that there was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of anxiety, hardiness, and general self-efficacy (pstress management among university students cause anxiety to drop; moreover, it enhances their psychological hardiness and self-efficacy. In regard with the role and importance of stress management, training this skill should be included in educational plans of university.

  8. Obesity in show cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. GhWRKY25, a group I WRKY gene from cotton, confers differential tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiufang; Song, Yunzhi; Xing, Fangyu; Wang, Ning; Wen, Fujiang; Zhu, Changxiang

    2016-09-01

    WRKY transcription factors are involved in various processes, ranging from plant growth to abiotic and biotic stress responses. Group I WRKY members have been rarely reported compared with group II or III members, particularly in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). In this study, a group I WRKY gene, namely, GhWRKY25, was cloned from cotton and characterized. Expression analysis revealed that GhWRKY25 can be induced or deduced by the treatments of abiotic stresses and multiple defense-related signaling molecules. Overexpression of GhWRKY25 in Nicotiana benthamiana reduced plant tolerance to drought stress but enhanced tolerance to salt stress. Moreover, more MDA and ROS accumulated in transgenic plants after drought treatment with lower activities of SOD, POD, and CAT. Our study further demonstrated that GhWRKY25 overexpression in plants enhanced sensitivity to the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea by reducing the expression of SA or ET signaling related genes and inducing the expression of genes involved in the JA signaling pathway. These results indicated that GhWRKY25 plays negative or positive roles in response to abiotic stresses, and the reduced pathogen resistance may be related to the crosstalk of the SA and JA/ET signaling pathways.

  10. Relation between reproduction performance and indicators of feed intake, fear and social stress in commercial herds with group-housed non-lactating sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anne Grete

    2006-01-01

    Group-housing of non-lactating sows is becomming increasingly widespread in commercial sow herds in European countries as a result of changed legislation. Group-housing may lead to individual variation in feed intake, stress and fear, which may impair the reproduction ferformance. However, whether...... or the outcome of three fear tests were found. The results indicate that the unintended individual variation in feed intake in sows group-housed in commercial herds may be large enough to affect the reproduction performance. This calls for management initiatives to reduce unequal feed intake in group-housed sows....

  11. Stressing fish in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS): Does stress induced in one group of fish affect the feeding motivation of other fish sharing the same RAS?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, C.I.; Eding, E.H.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2011-01-01

    As a consequence of water re-use and high stocking densities, Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS) may lead to an accumulation of substances released by the fish into the water, e.g. cortisol and alarm pheromones. This study investigated the effect of stressing fish on the feeding motivation of

  12. Performance in a blocked versus randomized emotional Stroop task in an aged, early traumatized group with and without posttraumatic stress symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittekind, Charlotte E; Muhtz, Christoph; Moritz, Steffen; Jelinek, Lena

    2017-03-01

    Attentional biases (AB) for trauma-related stimuli have been examined in many studies assessing different trauma samples. In emotional Stroop tasks (EST), blocked and single-trial formats are used almost interchangeably in clinical research. There is reason to believe that different designs yield different results and assess different processes, which, however, has been hardly examined in studies. Furthermore, there is a dearth of information about AB in older trauma survivors with posttraumatic stress symptoms. Older adults with (n = 20) and without PTSD symptoms (n = 26) as well as non-traumatized controls (n = 21) completed an EST, in which words were presented both blocked and randomized. Analyses revealed that individuals with PTSD symptoms showed AB for trauma- and depression-related words; however, mode of administration did not significantly influence reaction times. The emotional Stroop task cannot disentangle the underlying cognitive mechanism (i.e., facilitation, interference, avoidance). PTSD symptoms in older trauma survivors are associated with AB. Overall, participants with PTSD symptoms did not show greater impairment of cognitive control in comparison to both control groups. Results also illustrate that methodological differences between task versions need to be considered more thoroughly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Stabilizing Group Treatment for Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Related to Childhood Abuse Based on Psycho-Education and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrepaal, Ethy; Thomaes, Kathleen; Smit, Johannes H.; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.; van Dyck, Richard; Veltman, Dick J.; Draijer, Nel

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study tests a Stabilizing Group Treatment protocol, designed for the management of the long-term sequelae of child abuse, that is, Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (Complex PTSD). Evidence-based treatment for this subgroup of PTSD patients is largely lacking. This stabilizing treatment aims at improving Complex PTSD using…

  14. The effect of tryptophan supplemented diets on brain serotonergic activity and plasma cortisol under undisturbed and stressed conditions in grouped-housed Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, C.I.M.; Silva, P.I.M.; Costas, B.

    2013-01-01

    -term supplementation with TRP supplemented diets changes brain serotonergic activity and the stress response associated with slaughter handling in grouped-housed Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Adult fish (n. =. 108, 490.6. ±. 4.0. g, 12 individuals per tank) were exposed to one of the three treatments...

  15. Pedagogical Work, Stress Regulation and Work-Related Well-Being among Early Childhood Professionals in Integrated Special Day-Care Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nislin, Mari A.; Sajaniemi, Nina K.; Sims, Margaret; Suhonen, Eira; Maldonado Montero, Enrique F.; Hirvonen, Ari; Hyttinen, Sirpa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between early childhood professionals' (ECPs) stress regulation (using salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase [AA] measurements), work engagement and the quality of their pedagogical work in integrated special day-care groups. Participants were 89 ECPs from 21 integrated special day-care…

  16. Transcripts and MicroRNAs Responding to Salt Stress in Musa acuminata Colla (AAA Group cv. Berangan Roots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Sin Lee

    Full Text Available Physiological responses to stress are controlled by expression of a large number of genes, many of which are regulated by microRNAs. Since most banana cultivars are salt-sensitive, improved understanding of genetic regulation of salt induced stress responses in banana can support future crop management and improvement in the face of increasing soil salinity related to irrigation and climate change. In this study we focused on determining miRNA and their targets that respond to NaCl exposure and used transcriptome sequencing of RNA and small RNA from control and NaCl-treated banana roots to assemble a cultivar-specific reference transcriptome and identify orthologous and Musa-specific miRNA responding to salinity. We observed that, banana roots responded to salinity stress with changes in expression for a large number of genes (9.5% of 31,390 expressed unigenes and reduction in levels of many miRNA, including several novel miRNA and banana-specific miRNA-target pairs. Banana roots expressed a unique set of orthologous and Musa-specific miRNAs of which 59 respond to salt stress in a dose-dependent manner. Gene expression patterns of miRNA compared with those of their predicted mRNA targets indicated that a majority of the differentially expressed miRNAs were down-regulated in response to increased salinity, allowing increased expression of targets involved in diverse biological processes including stress signaling, stress defence, transport, cellular homeostasis, metabolism and other stress-related functions. This study may contribute to the understanding of gene regulation and abiotic stress response of roots and the high-throughput sequencing data sets generated may serve as important resources related to salt tolerance traits for functional genomic studies and genetic improvement in banana.

  17. Correlation Between Stress and Quality of Life Experienced by Caregivers: Perception of a Group of Healthcare Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Bhárbara Karolline Rodrigues; Quaresma, Fernando Rodrigues Peixoto; Maciel, Erika da Silva; Figueiredo, Francisco Winter Dos Santos; Sarraf, Jonathan Souza; Adami, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the relationship between perceived level of stress and quality of life of professionals working in Prompt Service Units in the city of Palmas, Tocantins. A cross-sectional study was performed among 164 professionals from Prompt Service Units. Stress levels were evaluated using the Perceived Stress Scale. The WHOQOL-bref was used to evaluate the perception of quality of life. Quantitative variables distribution was evaluated using Shapiro-Wilk's test. For the analyses of correlations among perceived level of stress, total quality of life score, and the physical health domain of the WHOQOL-bref, Pearson's correlation test was applied. The significance level adopted for this trial was 95%. The study was approved by the Committee of Ethics in Research with Human Beings. When assessing the perceived level of stress with the total quality of life score, there was no significant correlation between those variables. However, there was an association between the perceived level of stress and the physical health domain of quality of life. Perceived quality of life was correlated with the physical health domain, and this result reinforces the importance of the facets that make up this area.

  18. Sex Differences in Stress and Group Housing Effects on the Number of Newly Proliferated Cells and Neuroblasts in Middle-Aged Dentate Gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Wen-Yu; Wu, Hsin-Hua; Wang, Ching-Yi; Chen, Jin-Chung; Yu, Lung; Cherng, Chianfang G

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in stress and coping responses have been frequently documented in aged people, while whether such differences in aged people may appear at the middle age are unknown. This study was undertaken to study the impact of acute stress and social interaction on early neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) and hippocampus-related memory in two sexes of middle-aged mice. The number of newly proliferated cells, neuroblasts in DG, the object recognition and location memory in 9-month-old male and female C57BL/6N mice were assessed under baseline conditions as well as following an acute stressor regimen and group housing. Three conspecific companions, serving as "the housing group," were used to model the social interaction throughout the stressor regimen. Males had lower numbers of newly proliferated cells and neuroblasts under baseline conditions as compared to females. The stressor regimen caused rapid decreases in the number of newly proliferated cells and neuroblasts in female DG but no obvious changes were observed in male DG. Group housing, regardless of companions' age, prevented the stress-induced decreases in the number of newly proliferated cells and neuroblasts in female DG. In contrast, the presence of young or age-matched companions potentiated the stress effect in males by decreasing the number of newly proliferated cells and neuroblasts. Finally, neither the stressor regimen nor group housing affected mouse performances in the object recognition and location memory in either sex. These findings, taken together, provide evidence to support a notion that middle-aged females appear to demonstrate more stress susceptibility on early neurogenesis in DG as compared to middle-aged males, although the hippocampus-related memory performances are comparable and not affected by stress in these males and females. Experiencing stress, middle-aged females are more prone to benefit from social interaction as compared to middle-aged males in this regard. We

  19. The effect of peer support groups on family adaptation from the perspective of wives of war veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagharseyyedin, Seyyed Abolfazl; Gholami, Mojtaba; Hajihoseini, Morteza; Esmaeili, Aliakbar

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of peer group support on family adaptation of wives of war veterans suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this randomized controlled trial, 80 wives of war veterans with PTSD were incorporated, and selected participants were randomly assigned into intervention and control groups (n = 40 per group). The intervention group was divided into four subgroups, with each participating in eight weekly based 1.5-hr peer support group sessions and the control group received no intervention. Demographics form and Family Adaptation Scale (FAS) developed by Antonovsky and Sourani (1988) were applied. The total mean scores of family adaptation increased significantly more in the intervention group than in the control group (p = .033). Furthermore, the time × group interaction effects were significant for internal family fit (p = .013) and a combination of both family fit and family community fit (p = .020) dimensions. Nonetheless family fit dimensions mean scores had no significant increase in the intervention group than the control group over time (p = .948). Peer support group can be a useful tool for health care professionals to enhance family adaptation in spouses of war veterans with PTSD. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. COMPARISON BETWEEN JOB STRESS PREDICTORS BASED ON PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, AGE, GENDER AND SENIORITY IN A GROUP OF ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICERS FROM THE COSTA RICAN PUBLIC SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Alberto Azofeifa Mora

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to relate and compare job stress predictors with physical activity levels, age, seniority, and gender in administrative employees in the Costa Rican public sector. A total of 395 individuals from this sector were surveyed. Subjects answered a socio-demographic questionnaire (age, gender, seniority, and marital status. In order to assess job stress predictors, the Job Stress Survey (JSS was applied, which was comprised of two dimensions (intensity and frequency and including predictors such as pressure at work (PT, lack of social support (FA, lack of organization (FO, and lack of personal accomplishment (FRP. To determine the level of physical activity, a short version of the IPAQ was applied. Results indicate that male subjects have a slightly higher level of physical activity compared to female subjects. In addition, females show higher levels of job pressure as a stress predictor. Subjectively, the higher the physical activity level the lower the stressors, compared to lower levels of physical activity. We conclude that the high levels of physical inactivity exhibited may be associated with higher job stress perceived and that role overload could be an important factor to consider as a source of stress in females.

  1. The impact of reduced worktime on sleep and perceived stress: A group randomized intervention study using diary data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiller, H.; Lekander, M.; Rajaleid, K.; Hellgren, C.; Akerstedt, T.; Barck-Holst, P.; Kecklund, L.G.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Insufficient time for recovery between workdays may cause fatigue and disturbed sleep. This study evaluated the impact of an intervention that reduced weekly working hours by 25% on sleep, sleepiness and perceived stress for employees within the public sector. Method: Participating

  2. Secondary Traumatic Stress and Burnout in Child Welfare Workers: A Comparative Analysis of Occupational Distress across Professional Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprang, Ginny; Craig, Carlton; Clark, James

    2011-01-01

    This study describes predictors of secondary traumatic stress and burnout in a national sample of helping professionals, with a specific focus on the unique responses of child welfare (CW) workers. Specific worker and exposure characteristics are examined as possible predictors of these forms of occupational distress in a sample of 669…

  3. Group Cognitive-Behavior Therapy and Supportive Art and Sport Interventions on Bam Earthquake Related Post Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Children: A Field Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Joshaghani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "n Objective: "n "nThe main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of psychological therapies and art/sport supportive interventions separately,and in combination on post traumatic stress symptoms in children and compare them with a control group . "nMethods: In a field trial, we evaluated the efficacy of group behavioral therapy, art and sport supportive interventions in Bam earthquake children survivors with PTSD symptoms and compared it with a control group. Before and after interventions we evaluated the PTSD symptoms using K-SADS-PL semi-structural interview for each group and compared them using appropriate statistical methods. "nResults: The participants were 200 individuals who were randomized in four groups according to an intervention program including: Group behavioral therapy; Group behavioral therapy plus art and sport interventions; Art and sport interventions; and control group. During the interventions, 39 individuals were excluded. None of the participants had severed PTSD or other psychiatry disorders that needed pharmacological interventions. In interventional groups, the reduction of total PTSD symptoms and the symptoms of re-experience, avoidance and hyper arousal was not statistically significant. However, in the control group, the PTSD symptoms increased during the study which was statistically significant. "nConclusion: Group behavior therapy and supportive interventions (art and sport may have preventive effects on PTSD symptoms.

  4. Diabetes-Induced Oxidative Stress in Endothelial Progenitor Cells May Be Sustained by a Positive Feedback Loop Involving High Mobility Group Box-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is considered to be a critical factor in diabetes-induced endothelial progenitor cell (EPC dysfunction, although the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the role of high mobility group box-1 (HMGB-1 in diabetes-induced oxidative stress. HMGB-1 was upregulated in both serum and bone marrow-derived monocytes from diabetic mice compared with control mice. In vitro, advanced glycation end productions (AGEs induced, expression of HMGB-1 in EPCs and in cell culture supernatants in a dose-dependent manner. However, inhibition of oxidative stress with N-acetylcysteine (NAC partially inhibited the induction of HMGB-1 induced by AGEs. Furthermore, p66shc expression in EPCs induced by AGEs was abrogated by incubation with glycyrrhizin (Gly, while increased superoxide dismutase (SOD activity in cell culture supernatants was observed in the Gly treated group. Thus, HMGB-1 may play an important role in diabetes-induced oxidative stress in EPCs via a positive feedback loop involving the AGE/reactive oxygen species/HMGB-1 pathway.

  5. Stress vulnerability and the effects of moderate daily stress on sleep polysomnography and subjective sleepiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Helena; Kecklund, Göran; D'Onofrio, Paolo; Nilsson, Jens; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if and how sleep physiology is affected by naturally occurring high work stress and identify individual differences in the response of sleep to stress. Probable upcoming stress levels were estimated through weekly web questionnaire ratings. Based on the modified FIRST-scale (Ford insomnia response to stress) participants were grouped into high (n = 9) or low (n = 19) sensitivity to stress related sleep disturbances (Drake et al., 2004). Sleep was recorded in 28 teachers with polysomnography, sleep diaries and actigraphs during one high stress and one low stress condition in the participants home. EEG showed a decrease in sleep efficiency during the high stress condition. Significant interactions between group and condition were seen for REM sleep, arousals and stage transitions. The sensitive group had an increase in arousals and stage transitions during the high stress condition and a decrease in REM, whereas the opposite was seen in the resilient group. Diary ratings during the high stress condition showed higher bedtime stress and lower ratings on the awakening index (insufficient sleep and difficulties awakening). Ratings also showed lower cognitive function and preoccupation with work thoughts in the evening. KSS ratings of sleepiness increased during stress for the sensitive group. Saliva samples of cortisol showed no effect of stress. It was concluded that moderate daily stress is associated with a moderate negative effect on sleep sleep efficiency and fragmentation. A slightly stronger effect was seen in the sensitive group. © 2012 European Sleep Research Society.

  6. Effectiveness of Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Strategies for Coping With Stress of Family Caregivers of Patients With Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Mahmoodi

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Based on the results, the group cognitive-behavioral therapy can increase the use of compatible strategies for coping with stress and decrease the use of incompatible strategies. This issue is related to factors such as complete understanding of Alzheimer’s disease and its effects, creating an atmosphere for presentation and an opportunity for social interaction, understanding the importance of sport and allocating time for recreational activities, learning body relaxation in stressful situations, understanding life problems, solving problem techniques, feeling of control, and time management. Thus, we recommend using group cognitivebehavioral therapy as a low-cost treatment for family caregivers of patients with Alzheimer’s and patients with chronic diseases.

  7. Does Stress Result in You Exercising Less? Or Does Exercising Result in You Being Less Stressed? Or Is It Both? Testing the Bi-directional Stress-Exercise Association at the Group and Person (N of 1) Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, Matthew M; Schwartz, Joseph E; Kronish, Ian M; Diaz, Keith M; Alcantara, Carmela; Duer-Hefele, Joan; Davidson, Karina W

    2017-12-01

    Psychosocial stress contributes to heart disease in part by adversely affecting maintenance of health behaviors, while exercise can reduce stress. Assessing the bi-directional relationship between stress and exercise has been limited by lack of real-time data and theoretical and statistical models. This lack may hinder efforts to promote exercise maintenance. We test the bi-directional relationship between stress and exercise using real-time data for the average person and the variability-individual differences-in this relationship. An observational study was conducted within a single cohort randomized controlled experiment. Healthy young adults, (n = 79) who reported only intermittent exercise, completed 12 months of stress monitoring by ecological momentary assessment (at the beginning of, end of, and during the day) and continuous activity monitoring by Fitbit. A random coefficients linear mixed model was used to predict end-of-day stress from the occurrence/non-occurrence of exercise that day; a logistic mixed model was used to predict the occurrence/non-occurrence of exercise from ratings of anticipated stress. Separate regression analyses were also performed for each participant. Sensitivity analysis tested all models, restricted to the first 180 days of observation (prior to randomization). We found a significant average inverse (i.e., negative) effect of exercise on stress and of stress on exercise. There was significant between-person variability. Of N = 69, exercise was associated with a stress reduction for 15, a stress increase for 2, and no change for the remainder. We also found that an increase in anticipated stress reported the previous night or that morning was associated with a significant 20-22% decrease (OR = 0.78-0.80) in the odds of exercising that day. Of N = 69, this increase in stress reduced the likelihood of exercise for 17, increased the odds for 1, and had no effect for the remainder. We were unable to identify psychosocial

  8. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and

  9. 125I-iomazenil binding shows stress- and/or diazepam-induced reductions in mouse brain. Supporting data for 123I-iomazenil SPECT study of anxiety disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Makoto; Odano, Ikuo; Fujita, Shozo; Ohkubo, Masaki.

    1997-01-01

    Effects of repeated swim stress on the binding of 125 I-iomazenil were examined in the brains of diazepam-treated and non-treated mice. The mice were orally administered diazepam or vehicle (0.5% ethylene glycol) and subjected to daily swim stress (at 20degC for 10 min) for seven consecutive days. The distribution and the amount of 125 I-iomazenil binding were analyzed autoradiographically after in vivo and in vitro binding experiments. Repeated swim stress decreased the in vivo binding in the hippocampus (p 125 I-iomazenil binding. These results suggest that we can investigate the pathophysiology of stress and anxiety with 123 I-iomazenil SPECT. Care must be taken concerning the effects of benzodiazepines. (author)

  10. Non-Invasive Assessment of the Interrelationships of Diet, Pregnancy Rate, Group Composition, and Physiological and Nutritional Stress of Barren-Ground Caribou in Late Winter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Joly

    Full Text Available The winter diet of barren-ground caribou may affect adult survival, timing of parturition, neonatal survival, and postpartum mass. We used microhistological analyses and hormone levels in feces to determine sex-specific late-winter diets, pregnancy rates, group composition, and endocrine-based measures of physiological and nutritional stress. Lichens, which are highly digestible but contain little protein, dominated the diet (> 68% but were less prevalent in the diets of pregnant females as compared to non-pregnant females and males. The amount of lichens in the diets of pregnant females decreased at higher latitudes and as winter progressed. Pregnancy rates (82.1%, 95% CI = 76.0 - 88.1% of adult cows were within the expected range for a declining herd, while pregnancy status was not associated with lichen abundance in the diet. Most groups (80% were of mixed sex. Male: female ratios (62:100 were not skewed enough to affect the decline. Levels of hormones indicating nutritional stress were detected in areas of low habitat quality and at higher latitudes. Levels of hormones indicated that physiological stress was greatest for pregnant cows, which faced the increasing demands of gestation in late winter. These fecal-based measures of diet and stress provided contextual information for the potential mechanisms of the ongoing decline. Non-invasive techniques, such as monitoring diets, pregnancy rates, sex ratios and stress levels from fecal samples, will become increasingly important as monitoring tools as the industrial footprint continues to expand in the Arctic.

  11. Savagery, Show and Tell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas, Dan G.

    After 50 grade school children witnessed a violent murder, group therapy and psychodrama sessions were initiated with the children, and parents and teachers were instructed in how to deal with the children's emotions and behavior. (CL)

  12. Show-Bix &

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The anti-reenactment 'Show-Bix &' consists of 5 dias projectors, a dial phone, quintophonic sound, and interactive elements. A responsive interface will enable the Dias projectors to show copies of original dias slides from the Show-Bix piece ”March på Stedet”, 265 images in total. The copies are...

  13. A phase II study with antioxidants, both in the diet and supplemented, pharmaconutritional support, progestagen, and anti-cyclooxygenase-2 showing efficacy and safety in patients with cancer-related anorexia/cachexia and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, Giovanni; Macciò, Antonio; Madeddu, Clelia; Gramignano, Giulia; Lusso, Maria Rita; Serpe, Roberto; Massa, Elena; Astara, Giorgio; Deiana, Laura

    2006-05-01

    To test the efficacy and safety of an integrated treatment based on a pharmaconutritional support, antioxidants, and drugs, all given orally, in a population of advanced cancer patients with cancer-related anorexia/cachexia and oxidative stress. An open early-phase II study was designed according to the Simon two-stage design. The integrated treatment consisted of diet with high polyphenols content (400 mg), antioxidant treatment (300 mg/d alpha-lipoic acid + 2.7 g/d carbocysteine lysine salt + 400 mg/d vitamin E + 30,000 IU/d vitamin A + 500 mg/d vitamin C), and pharmaconutritional support enriched with 2 cans per day (n-3)-PUFA (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid), 500 mg/d medroxyprogesterone acetate, and 200 mg/d selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib. The treatment duration was 4 months. The following variables were evaluated: (a) clinical (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status); (b) nutritional [lean body mass (LBM), appetite, and resting energy expenditure]; (c) laboratory [proinflammatory cytokines and leptin, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant enzymes]; (d) quality of life (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30, Euro QL-5D, and MFSI-SF). From July 2002 to January 2005, 44 patients were enrolled. Of these, 39 completed the treatment and were assessable. Body weight increased significantly from baseline as did LBM and appetite. There was an important decrease of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and a negative relationship worthy of note was only found between LBM and IL-6 changes. As for quality of life evaluation, there was a marked improvement in the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30, Euro QL-5D(VAS), and multidimensional fatigue symptom inventory-short form scores. At the end of the study, 22 of the 39 patients were "responders" or "high responders." The minimum required was 21; therefore, the

  14. School-based mindfulness intervention for stress reduction in adolescents: Design and methodology of an open-label, parallel group, randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette M. Johnstone

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents are in a high-risk period developmentally, in terms of susceptibility to stress. A mindfulness intervention represents a potentially useful strategy for developing cognitive and emotion regulation skills associated with successful stress coping. Mindfulness strategies have been used successfully for emotional coping in adults, but are not as well studied in youth. This article details a novel proposal for the design of an 8-week randomized study to evaluate a high school-based mindfulness curriculum delivered as part of a two semester health class. A wellness education intervention is proposed as an active control, along with a waitlist control condition. All students enrolled in a sophomore (10th grade health class at a private suburban high school will be invited to participate (n = 300. Pre-test assessments will be obtained by youth report, parent ratings, and on-site behavioral testing. The assessments will evaluate baseline stress, mood, emotional coping, controlled attention, and working memory. Participants, divided into 13 classrooms, will be randomized into one of three conditions, by classroom: A mindfulness intervention, an active control (wellness education, and a passive control (waitlist. Waitlisted participants will receive one of the interventions in the following term. Intervention groups will meet weekly for 8 weeks during regularly scheduled health classes. Immediate post-tests will be conducted, followed by a 60-day post-test. It is hypothesized that the mindfulness intervention will outperform the other conditions with regard to the adolescents' mood, attention and response to stress.

  15. Efficacy of interpersonal therapy-group format adapted to post-traumatic stress disorder: an open-label add-on trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanini, Rosaly F B; Schoedl, Aline F; Pupo, Mariana C; Costa, Ana Clara H; Krupnick, Janice L; Mello, Marcelo F

    2010-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a highly prevalent condition, yet available treatments demonstrate only modest efficacy. Exposure therapies, considered by many to be the "gold-standard" therapy for PTSD, are poorly tolerated by many patients and show high attrition. We evaluated interpersonal therapy, in a group format, adapted to PTSD (IPT-G PTSD), as an adjunctive treatment for patients who failed to respond to conventional psychopharmacological treatment. Research participants included 40 patients who sought treatment through a program on violence in the department of psychiatry of Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP). They had received conventional psychopharmacological treatment for at least 12 weeks and failed to have an adequate clinical response. After signing an informed consent, approved earlier by the UNIFESP Ethics Review Board, they received a semi-structured diagnostic interview (SCID-I), administered by a trained mental health worker, to confirm the presence of a PTSD diagnosis according to DSM-IV criteria. Other instruments were administered, and patients completed out self-report instruments at baseline, and endpoint to evaluate clinical outcomes. Thirty-three patients completed the trial, but all had at least one second outcome evaluation. There were significant improvements on all measures, with large effect sizes. IPT-G PTSD was effective not only in decreasing symptoms of PTSD, but also in decreasing symptoms of anxiety and depression. It led to significant improvements in social adjustment and quality of life. It was well tolerated and there were few dropouts. Our results are very preliminary; they need further confirmation through randomized controlled clinical trials.

  16. Genome-wide gene expression profiling and a forward genetic screen show that differential expression of the sodium ion transporter Ena21 contributes to the differential tolerance of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis to osmotic stress.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Enjalbert, Brice

    2009-04-01

    Candida albicans is more pathogenic than Candida dubliniensis. However, this disparity in virulence is surprising given the high level of sequence conservation and the wide range of phenotypic traits shared by these two species. Increased sensitivity to environmental stresses has been suggested to be a possible contributory factor to the lower virulence of C. dubliniensis. In this study, we investigated, in the first comparison of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis by transcriptional profiling, global gene expression in each species when grown under conditions in which the two species exhibit differential stress tolerance. The profiles revealed similar core responses to stresses in both species, but differences in the amplitude of the general transcriptional responses to thermal, salt and oxidative stress. Differences in the regulation of specific stress genes were observed between the two species. In particular, ENA21, encoding a sodium ion transporter, was strongly induced in C. albicans but not in C. dubliniensis. In addition, ENA21 was identified in a forward genetic screen for C. albicans genomic sequences that increase salt tolerance in C. dubliniensis. Introduction of a single copy of CaENA21 was subsequently shown to be sufficient to confer salt tolerance upon C. dubliniensis.

  17. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  18. Policy for home or hospice as the preferred place of death from cancer: Scottish Health and Ethnicity Linkage Study population cohort shows challenges across all ethnic groups in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Katharine H; Cezard, Genevieve; Bansal, Narinder; Bhopal, Raj S; Brewster, David H

    2015-12-01

    Place of cancer death varies ethnically and internationally. Palliative care reviews highlight limited ability to demonstrate equal access due to incomplete or unreliable ethnicity data. To establish place of cancer death by ethnicity and describe patient characteristics. We linked census, hospital episode and mortality data for 117 467 persons dying of cancer, 2001-2009. With White Scottish population as reference, prevalence ratios (PR), 95% CIs and p values of death in hospital, home or hospice adjusted for sex and age were calculated by ethnic group. White Scottish group and minority ethnic groups combined constituted 91% and 0.4% of cancer deaths, respectively. South Asian, Chinese and African Origin patients were youngest at death (66, 66 and 65.9 years). Compared with the Scottish White reference, the White Irish (1.15 (1.10 to 1.22), pScottish White patients were less likely to die in hospital and more likely to die at home or in a hospice regardless of socioeconomic indicator used. Cancer deaths occur most often in hospital (52.3%) for all ethnic groups. Regardless of the socioeconomic indicator used, more affluent Scottish White patients were less likely to die in hospital; existing socioeconomic indicators detected no clear trend for the non-White population. Regardless of ethnic group, significant work is required to achieve more people dying at home or the setting of their choice. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. The feasibility of a group stress management Liver SMART intervention for patients with end-stage liver disease: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutagir, Devika R; Saracino, Rebecca M; Cunningham, Amy; Foran-Tuller, Kelly A; Driscoll, Mary A; Sledge, William H; Emre, Sukru H; Fehon, Dwain C

    2018-06-04

    Structured, empirically supported psychological interventions are lacking for patients who require organ transplantation. This stage IA psychotherapy development project developed and tested the feasibility, acceptability, tolerability, and preliminary efficacy of an 8-week group cognitive behavioral stress management intervention adapted for patients with end-stage liver disease awaiting liver transplantation. Twenty-nine English-speaking United Network for Organ Sharing-registered patients with end-stage liver disease from a single transplantation center enrolled in 8-week, group cognitive-behavioral liver stress management and relaxation training intervention adapted for patients with end-stage liver disease. Patients completed pre- and postintervention surveys that included the Beck Depression Inventory II and the Beck Anxiety Inventory. Feasibility, acceptability, tolerability, and preliminary efficacy were assessed.ResultAttendance rate was 69.40%. The intervention was rated as "good" to "excellent" by 100% of participants who completed the postintervention survey in teaching them new skills to relax and to cope with stress, and by 94.12% of participants in helping them feel supported while waiting for a liver transplant. No adverse events were recorded over the course of treatment. Attrition was 13.79%. Anxious and depressive symptoms were not statistically different after the intervention.Significance of resultsThe liver stress management and relaxation training intervention is feasible, acceptable, and tolerable to end-stage liver disease patients within a transplant clinic setting. Anxious and depressive symptoms remained stable postintervention. Randomized controlled trials are needed to study the intervention's effectiveness in this population.

  20. Talking with TV shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Laursen, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    User interaction with radio and television programmes is not a new thing. However, with new cross-media production concepts such as X Factor and Voice, this is changing dramatically. The second-screen logic of these productions encourages viewers, along with TV’s traditional one-way communication...... mode, to communicate on interactive (dialogue-enabling) devices such as laptops, smartphones and tablets. Using the TV show Voice as our example, this article shows how the technological and situational set-up of the production invites viewers to engage in new ways of interaction and communication...

  1. Talk Show Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  2. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  3. The energy show

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Energy Show is a new look at the problems of world energy, where our supplies come from, now and in the future. The programme looks at how we need energy to maintain our standards of living. Energy supply is shown as the complicated set of problems it is - that Fossil Fuels are both raw materials and energy sources, that some 'alternatives' so readily suggested as practical options are in reality a long way from being effective. (author)

  4. Role of DNA Repair Factor Xeroderma Pigmentosum Protein Group C in Response to Replication Stress As Revealed by DNA Fragile Site Affinity Chromatography and Quantitative Proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresova, Lucie; Vesela, Eva; Chamrad, Ivo; Voller, Jiri; Yamada, Masayuki; Furst, Tomas; Lenobel, Rene; Chroma, Katarina; Gursky, Jan; Krizova, Katerina; Mistrik, Martin; Bartek, Jiri

    2016-12-02

    Replication stress (RS) fuels genomic instability and cancer development and may contribute to aging, raising the need to identify factors involved in cellular responses to such stress. Here, we present a strategy for identification of factors affecting the maintenance of common fragile sites (CFSs), which are genomic loci that are particularly sensitive to RS and suffer from increased breakage and rearrangements in tumors. A DNA probe designed to match the high flexibility island sequence typical for the commonly expressed CFS (FRA16D) was used as specific DNA affinity bait. Proteins significantly enriched at the FRA16D fragment under normal and replication stress conditions were identified using stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture-based quantitative mass spectrometry. The identified proteins interacting with the FRA16D fragment included some known CFS stabilizers, thereby validating this screening approach. Among the hits from our screen so far not implicated in CFS maintenance, we chose Xeroderma pigmentosum protein group C (XPC) for further characterization. XPC is a key factor in the DNA repair pathway known as global genomic nucleotide excision repair (GG-NER), a mechanism whose several components were enriched at the FRA16D fragment in our screen. Functional experiments revealed defective checkpoint signaling and escape of DNA replication intermediates into mitosis and the next generation of XPC-depleted cells exposed to RS. Overall, our results provide insights into an unexpected biological role of XPC in response to replication stress and document the power of proteomics-based screening strategies to elucidate mechanisms of pathophysiological significance.

  5. Reinterpreting the best biomarker of oxidative stress: The 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α/prostaglandin F2α ratio shows complex origins of lipid peroxidation biomarkers in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van't Erve, Thomas J; Lih, Fred B; Jelsema, Casey; Deterding, Leesa J; Eling, Thomas E; Mason, Ronald P; Kadiiska, Maria B

    2016-06-01

    Oxidative stress is elevated in numerous environmental exposures and diseases. Millions of dollars have been spent to try to ameliorate this damaging process using anti-oxidant therapies. Currently, the best accepted biomarker of oxidative stress is the lipid oxidation product 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α), which has been measured in over a thousand human and animal studies. 8-iso-PGF2α generation has been exclusively attributed to nonenzymatic chemical lipid peroxidation (CLP). However, 8-iso-PGF2α can also be produced enzymatically by prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthases (PGHS) in vivo. When failing to account for PGHS-dependent generation, 8-iso-PGF2α cannot be interpreted as a selective biomarker of oxidative stress. We investigated the formation of 8-iso-PGF2α in rats exposed to carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) using the 8-iso-PGF2α/PGF2α ratio to quantitatively determine the source(s) of 8-iso-PGF2α. Upon exposure to a 120mg/kg dose of CCl4, the contribution of CLP accounted for only 55.6±19.4% of measured 8-iso-PGF2α, whereas in the 1200mg/kg dose, CLP was the predominant source of 8-iso-PGF2α (86.6±8.0% of total). In contrast to CCl4, exposure to 0.5mg/kg LPS was characterized by a significant increase in both the contribution of PGHS (59.5±7.0) and CLP (40.5±14.0%). In conclusion, significant generation of 8-iso-PGF2α occurs through enzymatic as well as chemical lipid peroxidation. The distribution of the contribution is dependent on the exposure agent as well as the dose. The 8-iso-PGF2α/PGF2α ratio accurately determines the source of 8-iso-PGF2α and provides an absolute measure of oxidative stress in vivo. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Symposium on teacher stress. Occupational stress among vocational teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pithers, R T; Fogarty, G J

    1995-03-01

    There is a widespread belief that work related stress among teachers is serious, with implications for teachers' health status and performance. The difficulty with interpreting data on teacher stress is that the measuring instruments used are often neither standardised nor sometimes focused on stressors pertinent to the occupational roles of teachers. This study, therefore, uses a recently developed test instrument called the Occupational Stress Inventory (OSI) which concisely measures occupational stress, strain and coping resources. Data were obtained, using the OSI, from a group of vocational teachers and compared to a group of professional non-teachers. Overall the results showed a significantly higher level of teacher stress, although only one of 10 stress and strain measures contributed to this effect. The implications for teachers, in terms of occupational role, are discussed.

  7. Cognitive Behavioral Social Rhythm Group Therapy for Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and sleep disturbance: Results from an open trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Patricia L; Kelly, Monica; Warner, Lesley; Quan, Stuart F; Krakow, Barry; Bootzin, Richard R

    2016-03-01

    Cognitive Behavioral Social Rhythm Therapy (CBSRT) is a group psychotherapy tailored for Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), and sleep disturbances. The aims of this study were to introduce and present initial outcomes of Cognitive Behavioral Social Rhythm Therapy (CBSRT), a 12-week skills group therapy designed to improve sleep and mood by reducing chaotic or isolated lifestyles in Veterans with PTSD. Twenty-four male Veterans with at least moderate PTSD and MDD participated in this open trial. Main outcomes were the daily sleep diary for sleep disturbances, the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) for PTSD, and the Hamilton Depression Rating scale for MDD. Veterans improved on all measures (a) with large within subject effects on PTSD symptoms, MDD symptoms, and sleep quality, and (b) with 46-58% of the sample receiving clinically significant benefits on MDD and PTSD symptoms respectively. The consistency of social rhythms was associated with the average reduction in global CAPS scores over time. Only 13% of participants dropped-out of the group therapy prematurely suggesting that this new group therapy is relatively well-tolerated by Veterans. Future research that employs a control condition is necessary to establish efficacy of CBSRT. Data from this initial pilot study demonstrate that CBSRT may be an effective group treatment option for Veterans presenting with all three symptom complaints. These data also suggest that daily routine may be an important mechanism to consider in the treatment of PTSD symptoms comorbid with depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of the group I metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist, DHPG, and injection stress on striatal cell signaling in food-restricted and ad libitum fed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carr Kenneth D

    2004-12-01

    . Rather, a physiological response to "i.c.v. injection stress" is augmented by food restriction and appears to summate with effects of the group I mGluR agonist in activating ERK1/2 and CREB. While the augmented cellular response of food-restricted rats to i.c.v. injection treatment represents additional evidence of enhanced CNS responsiveness in these subjects, the functional significance and underlying mechanism(s of this effect remain to be elucidated.

  9. Perceived stress at work is associated with attenuated DHEA-S response during acute psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Theorell, Töres; Kushnir, Mark M; Bergquist, Jonas; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H

    2013-09-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) have been suggested to play a protective role during acute psychosocial stress, because they act as antagonists to the effects of the stress hormone cortisol. This study aims to investigate whether prolonged psychosocial stress, measured as perceived stress at work during the past week, is related to the capacity to produce DHEA and DHEA-S during acute psychosocial stress. It also aims to investigate whether prolonged perceived stress affects the balance between production of cortisol and DHEA-S during acute psychosocial stress. Thirty-six healthy subjects (19 men and 17 women, mean age 37 years, SD 5 years), were included. Perceived stress at work during the past week was measured by using the Stress-Energy (SE) Questionnaire. The participants were divided into three groups based on their mean scores; Low stress, Medium stress and High stress. The participants underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and blood samples were collected before, directly after the stress test, and after 30 min of recovery. General Linear Models were used to investigate if the Medium stress group and the High stress group differ regarding stress response compared to the Low stress group. Higher perceived stress at work was associated with attenuated DHEA-S response during acute psychosocial stress. Furthermore, the ratio between the cortisol production and the DHEA-S production during the acute stress test were higher in individuals reporting higher perceived stress at work compared to individuals reporting low perceived stress at work. There was no statistical difference in DHEA response between the groups. This study shows that prolonged stress, measured as perceived stress at work during the past week, seems to negatively affect the capacity to produce DHEA-S during acute stress. Given the protective functions of DHEA-S, attenuated DHEA-S production during acute stress may lead to higher risk for adverse

  10. Drinking behaviors by stress level in Korean university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hye-Kyung; Lee, Hae-Young

    2012-04-01

    The purposes of this study are to estimate the stress level of university students, and to verify the relationships between stress level and drinking behavior. A questionnaire survey was administered to 430 university students in the Gangwon area in Korea from November 5 to November 28, 2008, and data from 391 students were used for the final statistical analysis. The most stressful factor was "Worry about academic achievements" (2.86 by Likert-type 4 point scale). The subjects were divided into two groups, a low stress group (≤ 65.0) and a high stress group (≥ 66.0), by the mean value (65.1) and median value (66.0) of the stress levels. The drinking frequency was not different between the two stress groups, but the amount of alcohol consumption was significantly different (P stress group than in the higher stress group. In addition, factor 6, "Lack of learning ability", was negatively correlated with drinking frequency and the amount of alcohol consumption (P academic achievements", was negatively correlated with the amount of drinking (P stress group showed significantly higher scores on several items in the categories of motives (P stress group. Our results imply that university students at the lower stress level may drink more from social motives in positive drinking environments, while those at the higher stress level may have more problematic-drinking despite their smaller amount of alcohol consumption.

  11. Diferenças entre os Sexos no Aproveitamento Escolar, na Sintomatologia de Stress e na Qualidade do Sono em um Grupo de Adolescentes The Differences between the Gender in School Performance, in the Symptoms of Stress and Sleep Quality in a Group of Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Galgani de Mesquita Duarte

    2014-03-01

    tools were used: 1 Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI; 2 Lipp’s Inventory of Stress Symptoms (LISS; 3 Students' grades and attendance records. Results: Among participants, 65.63% were females. The means of 0.64 for the female group (F and 0.60 for the male group (M were found for school learning. Regarding non-attendance, the means were 28.1 (F and 30.3 (M, with p=0,7440. Concerning stress symptoms, 65,71% (F and 29,09% (M were classified as stressed, while 34,29% (F and 70,91% (M showed no stress symptoms (p < 0.001. Females presented a poorer sleep quality: the means were 6,0 (F and 5,3 (M, with p = 0.27. The sleep classification revealed that 68,57% (F and 61,82% (M are poor sleepers. Conclusion: Females presented a better school learning, with higher grades, higher attendance, more stress symptoms, and poorer sleep quality.

  12. Analysis of group cohesion levels and pre-competitive psychological stress in volleyball athletes.. http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n6p704

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Moraes Balbim

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This descriptive study was designed to analyze the level of group cohesion and pre-competitive psychological stress of adult volleyball athletes. The subjects consisted of 155 male and female athletes from the state of Parana who played in the JAPS/ 1st division (A, and 2nd division (B. The assessment instruments used were the Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ and the Volleyball Psychic Stress Test (V-PST. For data analysis, the following tools were used: Cronbach’s alpha, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Mann-Whitney, one-way Anova, and Tukey’s post hoc (p<0.05. The results revealed that athletes of division A were more negatively influenced by stress factors than the athletes of division B; in terms of individual attraction to the social group (p=0.014 and tasks (p=0016 athletes of division B had higher levels of group cohesion than athletes from division A; athletes with low social cohesion were negatively impacted by factors of "inappropriate physical conditioning" and "excessive nervousness;" athletes with low levels of cohesion for the task were negatively influenced by the factors of "Pressure from other people to win" and positively by the factor "Behavior of the fans in the game outside." It was concluded that group cohesion is demonstrated to be an intervening factor in pre-competitive stress thereby demonstrating that the higher the dispute level, the higher the negative influence of stress.

  13. Protocol: the effect of 12 weeks of Tai Chi practice on anxiety in healthy but stressed people compared to exercise and wait-list comparison groups: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shuai; Lal, Sara; Meier, Peter; Sibbritt, David; Zaslawski, Chris

    2014-06-01

    Stress is a major problem in today's fast-paced society and can lead to serious psychosomatic complications. The ancient Chinese mind-body exercise of Tai Chi may provide an alternative and self-sustaining option to pharmaceutical medication for stressed individuals to improve their coping mechanisms. The protocol of this study is designed to evaluate whether Tai Chi practice is equivalent to standard exercise and whether the Tai Chi group is superior to a wait-list control group in improving stress coping levels. This study is a 6-week, three-arm, parallel, randomized, clinical trial designed to evaluate Tai Chi practice against standard exercise and a Tai Chi group against a nonactive control group over a period of 6 weeks with a 6-week follow-up. A total of 72 healthy adult participants (aged 18-60 years) who are either Tai Chi naïve or have not practiced Tai Chi in the past 12 months will be randomized into a Tai Chi group (n = 24), an exercise group (n = 24) or a wait-list group (n = 24). The primary outcome measure will be the State Trait Anxiety Inventory with secondary outcome measures being the Perceived Stress Scale 14, heart rate variability, blood pressure, Short Form 36 and a visual analog scale. The protocol is reported using the appropriate Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) items. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Subacute stress and chronic stress interact to decrease intestinal barrier function in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauffer, Adriana; Vanuytsel, Tim; Vanormelingen, Christophe; Vanheel, Hanne; Salim Rasoel, Shadea; Tóth, Joran; Tack, Jan; Fornari, Fernando; Farré, Ricard

    2016-01-01

    Psychological stress increases intestinal permeability, potentially leading to low-grade inflammation and symptoms in functional gastrointestinal disorders. We assessed the effect of subacute, chronic and combined stress on intestinal barrier function and mast cell density. Male Wistar rats were allocated to four experimental groups (n = 8/group): 1/sham; 2/subacute stress (isolation and limited movement for 24 h); 3/chronic crowding stress for 14 days and 4/combined subacute and chronic stress. Jejunum and colon were collected to measure: transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER; a measure of epithelial barrier function); gene expression of tight junction molecules; mast cell density. Plasma corticosterone concentration was increased in all three stress conditions versus sham, with highest concentrations in the combined stress condition. TEER in the jejunum was decreased in all stress conditions, but was significantly lower in the combined stress condition than in the other groups. TEER in the jejunum correlated negatively with corticosterone concentration. Increased expression of claudin 1, 5 and 8, occludin and zonula occludens 1 mRNAs was detected after subacute stress in the jejunum. In contrast, colonic TEER was decreased only after combined stress, and the expression of tight junction molecules was unaltered. Increased mast cell density was observed in the chronic and combined stress condition in the colon only. In conclusion, our data show that chronic stress sensitizes the gastrointestinal tract to the effects of subacute stress on intestinal barrier function; different underlying cellular and molecular alterations are indicated in the small intestine versus the colon.

  15. Acute stress does not affect the impairing effect of chronic stress on memory retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbaki, Jamile; Goudarzi, Iran; Salmani, Mahmoud Elahdadi; Rashidy-Pour, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Due to the prevalence and pervasiveness of stress in modern life and exposure to both chronic and acute stresses, it is not clear whether prior exposure to chronic stress can influence the impairing effects of acute stress on memory retrieval. This issue was tested in this study. Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: control, acute, chronic, and chronic + acute stress groups. The rats were trained with six trials per day for 6 consecutive days in the water maze. Following training, the rats were either kept in control conditions or exposed to chronic stress in a restrainer 6 hr/day for 21 days. On day 22, a probe test was done to measure memory retention. Time spent in target and opposite areas, platform location latency, and proximity were used as indices of memory retention. To induce acute stress, 30 min before the probe test, animals received a mild footshock. Results: Stressed animals spent significantly less time in the target quadrant and more time in the opposite quadrant than control animals. Moreover, the stressed animals showed significantly increased platform location latency and proximity as compared with control animals. No significant differences were found in these measures among stress exposure groups. Finally, both chronic and acute stress significantly increased corticosterone levels. Conclusion: Our results indicate that both chronic and acute stress impair memory retrieval similarly. Additionally, the impairing effects of chronic stress on memory retrieval were not influenced by acute stress. PMID:27635201

  16. Acute Cold / Restraint Stress in Castrated Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Zafari Zangeneh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study aimed to determine whether castration altered osmotically stimulated vasopressin (VP release and urinary volume and what is the role of endocrine-stress axis in this process.Materials and methods: Totally 108 mice were studied in two main groups of castrated (n=78 and control (n=30. Each group was extracted by acute cold stress (4◦C for 2h/day, restraint stress (by syringes 60cc 2h/day and cold/restraint stress. The castrated group was treated in sub groups of testosterone, control (sesame oil as vehicle of testosterone. Propranolol as blocker of sympathetic nervous system was given to both groups of castrated mice and main control.Results: Our results showed that, there is interactions between testosterone and sympathetic nervous system on vasopressin, because urine volume was decreased only in testoctomized mice with cold/restraint and cold stress (P<0.001; propranolol as the antagonist of sympathetic nervous system could block and increase urine volume in castrated mice. This increased volume of urine was due to acute cold stress, not restraint stress (p<0.001. The role of testosterone, noradrenalin (NA and Vasopressin (VP in the acute cold stress is confirmed, because testosterone could return the effect of decreased urine volume in control group (P<0.001. Conclusion: Considering the effect of cold/restraint stress on urinary volume in castrated mice shows that there is interaction between sex hormone (testosterone, vasopressin and adrenergic systems.

  17. Emotional clarity and attention to emotions in cognitive behavioral group therapy and mindfulness-based stress reduction for social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Rachel M; Boden, Matthew T; Olino, Thomas M; Morrison, Amanda S; Goldin, Philippe R; Gross, James J; Heimberg, Richard G

    2018-04-01

    We examined (1) differences between controls and patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) in emotional clarity and attention to emotions; (2) changes in emotional clarity and attention to emotions associated with cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBGT), mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), or a waitlist (WL) condition; and (3) whether emotional clarity and attention to emotions moderated changes in social anxiety across treatment. Participants were healthy controls (n = 37) and patients with SAD (n = 108) who were assigned to CBGT, MBSR, or WL in a randomized controlled trial. At pretreatment, posttreatment, and 12-month follow-up, patients with SAD completed measures of social anxiety, emotional clarity, and attention to emotions. Controls completed measures at baseline only. At pretreatment, patients with SAD had lower levels of emotional clarity than controls. Emotional clarity increased significantly among patients receiving CBGT, and changes were maintained at 12-month follow-up. Emotional clarity at posttreatment did not differ between CBGT and MBSR or between MBSR and WL. Changes in emotional clarity predicted changes in social anxiety, but emotional clarity did not moderate treatment outcome. Analyses of attention to emotions were not significant. Implications for the role of emotional clarity in the treatment of SAD are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The optimal exercise intensity for the unbiased comparison of thermoregulatory responses between groups unmatched for body size during uncompensable heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravanelli, Nicholas; Cramer, Matthew; Imbeault, Pascal; Jay, Ollie

    2017-03-01

    We sought to identify the appropriate exercise intensity for unbiased comparisons of changes in rectal temperature (ΔT re ) and local sweat rates (LSR) between groups unmatched for body size during uncompensable heat stress. Sixteen males vastly different in body morphology were separated into two equal groups [small (SM): 65.8 ± 6.2 kg, 1.8 ± 0.1 m 2 ; large (LG): 100.0 ± 13.1 kg, 2.3 ± 0.1 m 2 ], but matched for sudomotor thermosensitivity (SM: 1.3 ± 0.6; LG: 1.1 ± 0.4 mg·cm -2 ·min -1 ·°C -1 ). The maximum potential for evaporation (E max ) for each participant was assessed using an incremental humidity protocol. On separate occasions, participants then completed 60 min of cycling in a 35°C and 70% RH environment at (1) 50% of VO 2max , (2) a heat production (H prod ) of 520 W, (3) H prod relative to mass (6 W·kg -1 ), and (4) H prod relative to mass above E max (3 W·kg -1 >E max ). E max was similar between LG (347 ± 39 W, 154 ± 15 W·m -2 ) and SM (313 ± 63 W, 176 ± 34 W·m -2 , P  >   0.12). ΔT re was greater in SM compared to LG at 520 W (SM: 1.5 ± 0.5; LG 0.8 ± 0.3°C, P  E max (SM: 1.4 ± 0.5; LG 1.3 ± 0.4°C, P  =   0.99). LSR was similar between LG and SM irrespective of condition, suggesting maximum LSR was attained (SM: 1.10 ± 0.23; LG: 1.07 ± 0.35 mg·cm -2 ·min -1 , P  =   0.50). In conclusion, systematic differences in ΔT re and LSR between groups unmatched for body size during uncompensable heat stress can be avoided by a fixed H prod in W·kg -1 or W·kg -1 >E max . © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  19. Relationship between general intelligence, emotional intelligence, stress levels and stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yogesh; Sharma, Ratna

    2012-07-01

    Stressful life events and daily life stresses have both deleterious and cumulative effects on human body. In several studies, stress has been shown to affect various parameter of higher mental function like attention, concentration, learning and memory. Present study was designed to explore the relationship among GI level, EI level, psychological stress levels and acute stress reactivity in young normal healthy subjects. The study was conducted on thirty four healthy male student volunteers to study a) acute stress reactivity in subjects with varying levels of General Intelligence (GI) and Emotional Intelligence (EI) and b) correlation between GI, EI, acute stress and perceived stress. Baseline GI and EI and acute stress and perceived stress scores were measured by standard assessment scales. Using median value of GI and EI scores as cutoff values, subjects were categorized into four groups. Among different GI-EI groups, acute stress reactivity was similar but salivary Cortisol (especially post stressor level) and perceived stress level was a differentiating factor. High level of EI was associated inversely with acute and chronic perceived stress level. Significant correlation was found between acute and chronic perceived stress levels. Level of general intelligence showed no relation to acute or chronic stress levels as well as acute stress reactivity. The differences in various groups of GI and EI had no effect on the baseline and post stress performance on Sternberg memory test and all the three conditions of Stroop test. In conclusion emotional intelligence as an attribute is better suited to handle day to day acute stress and chronic perceived stress.

  20. [Effect of occupational stress on neurotransmitters in petroleum workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu; Lian, Yulong; Tao, Ning; Ge, Hua; Liu, Jiwen

    2015-09-01

    To explore the effects of occupational stress on neurotransmitters in petroleum workers. 178 petroleum workers with the length of service ≥ 1 year were recruited to the subjects by the questionnaire of OSI-R. The levels of 5-hydroxy tryptamine (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and substance P (SP) in serum were measured. The subjects were classified into 3 groups according to the scores of occupational stress. The levels of 5-HT NE and SP for over 15 working years were higher than those of less than 15 years (P occupational stress degree groups, multiple comparison showed high. occupational stress group was higher than those of low occupational stress group. Multivariate correlation analysis showed that the occupational stress and sleep quality component scores correlated positively with the 5-HT, NE and SP (P Occupational stress in petroleum workers is correlated with serum monoamine and neuropeptides neurotransmitters, and it may affect serum levels of monoamine and neuropeptides neurotransmitters.

  1. A Single Group Multiple Base Line Design: Clinical Hypnosis as a Technique in the Reduction of Stress Related Symptomatology in Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Trebatoski, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a hypnosis program with graduate students as a stress management strategy This study identified components of the program that were perceived as beneficial in relieving stress. Additionally, this study determined the amount of time necessary for benefits to be realized. The…

  2. Psychophysiological responses to stress after stress management training in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine J M de Brouwer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stress management interventions may prove useful in preventing the detrimental effects of stress on health. This study assessed the effects of a stress management intervention on the psychophysiological response to stress in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. METHODS: Seventy-four patients with RA, who were randomly assigned to either a control group or a group that received short-term stress management training, performed a standardized psychosocial stress task (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST 1 week after the stress management training and at a 9-week follow-up. Psychological and physical functioning, and the acute psychophysiological response to the stress test were assessed. RESULTS: Patients in the intervention group showed significantly lower psychological distress levels of anxiety after the training than did the controls. While there were no between-group differences in stress-induced tension levels, and autonomic (α-amylase or endocrine (cortisol responses to the stress test 1 week after the intervention, levels of stress-induced tension and cortisol were significantly lower in the intervention group at the 9-week follow-up. Overall, the response to the intervention was particularly evident in a subgroup of patients with a psychological risk profile. CONCLUSION: A relatively short stress management intervention can improve psychological functioning and influences the psychophysiological response to stress in patients with RA, particularly those psychologically at risk. These findings might help understand how stress can affect health and the role of individual differences in stress responsiveness. TRIAL REGISTRATION: TrialRegister.nl NTR1193.

  3. Stress enhances reconsolidation of declarative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Marieke G N; Schuijer, Jantien; Lodestijn, Fleur; Beckers, Tom; Kindt, Merel

    2014-08-01

    Retrieval of negative emotional memories is often accompanied by the experience of stress. Upon retrieval, a memory trace can temporarily return into a labile state, where it is vulnerable to change. An unresolved question is whether post-retrieval stress may affect the strength of declarative memory in humans by modulating the reconsolidation process. Here, we tested in two experiments whether post-reactivation stress may affect the strength of declarative memory in humans. In both experiments, participants were instructed to learn neutral, positive and negative words. Approximately 24h later, participants received a reminder of the word list followed by exposure to the social evaluative cold pressor task (reactivation/stress group, nexp1=20; nexp2=18) or control task (reactivation/no-stress group, nexp1=23; nexp2=18). An additional control group was solely exposed to the stress task, without memory reactivation (no-reactivation/stress group, nexp1=23; nexp2=21). The next day, memory performance was tested using a free recall and a recognition task. In the first experiment we showed that participants in the reactivation/stress group recalled more words than participants in the reactivation/no-stress and no-reactivation/stress group, irrespective of valence of the word stimuli. Furthermore, participants in the reactivation/stress group made more false recognition errors. In the second experiment we replicated our observations on the free recall task for a new set of word stimuli, but we did not find any differences in false recognition. The current findings indicate that post-reactivation stress can improve declarative memory performance by modulating the process of reconsolidation. This finding contributes to our understanding why some memories are more persistent than others. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Character strengths, social anxiety, and physiological stress reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effects of character strengths on the physiological reactivity to social anxiety induced by the Trier Social Stress Task were reported. On the basis of their scores in the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire, 30 college students were assigned to either high- (n = 15 or low-character-strength (n = 15 groups. Their psychological stress and physiological data across three laboratory stages (namely, baseline, stress exposure, and post-stress were collected. Results indicated that individuals with high character strengths exhibited rapid cardiovascular recovery from baseline to post-stress even if high- and low-character-strength groups showed similar patterns of cardiovascular arousal in response to the stress at baseline and stress exposure. These results prove that character strengths are stress-defense factors that allow for psychological and physiological adaptation to stress.

  5. Stress as a factor contributing to obesity in patients qualified for bariatric surgery - studies in a selected group of patients (a pilot study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boniecka, Iwona; Wileńska, Helena; Jeznach-Steinhagen, Anna; Czerwonogrodzka-Senczyna, Aneta; Sekuła, Marzena; Paśnik, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the incidence of obesity, especially extreme obesity, has significantly increased. It is connected with inappropriate lifestyle, including a high calorie diet, psychological and genetic factors, some medications, diseases or infectious factors. Nowadays, the consumption of food is not only to satisfy a physiological need, but also fulfils psychological needs. The most effective method of morbid obesity treatment is metabolic surgery. Moreover, food is considered to be a reward and method of coping with stress. In order to improve the efficiency of the surgical treatment, it seems significant to assess the effects of psychological factors on eating behaviours. To evaluate the effects of stress on eating habits that increase the risk of extreme obesity. The study included 50 subjects qualified for bariatric surgery. The authors' own questionnaire and standardised PSS-10 questionnaire by Cohen, Kamarcki and Mermelstein adapted by Juczyński and Ogińska-Bulik were used. These questionnaires indicated that patients felt a moderate levels of stress but with a tendency for high levels. The majority of respondents declared an increased appetite due to stress-causing factors. Reasons for snacking most frequently included negative emotions and feeling like eating something. Consumption of additional snacks was a way of coping with stress. Most frequently the subjects ate sweets and salty snacks, but also sandwiches, nuts, fruit and alcohol beverages. Psychological support may help morbidly obese people both to change nutritional habits and to cope with stress.

  6. Group devaluation and group identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leach, C.W.; Rodriguez Mosquera, P.M.; Vliek, M.L.W.; Hirt, E.

    2010-01-01

    In three studies, we showed that increased in-group identification after (perceived or actual) group devaluation is an assertion of a (preexisting) positive social identity that counters the negative social identity implied in societal devaluation. Two studies with real-world groups used order

  7. When does stress help or harm? The effects of stress controllability and subjective stress response on Stroop performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselinde Kaiser Henderson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to engage in goal-directed behavior despite exposure to stress is critical to resilience. Questions of how stress can impair or improve behavioral functioning are important in diverse settings, from athletic competitions to academic testing to clinical therapy. Previous research suggests that controllability is a key factor in the impact of stress on behavior: learning how to control stressors buffers people from the negative effects of stress on subsequent cognitively demanding tasks. In addition, research suggests that the impact of stress on cognitive functioning depends on an individual’s response to stressors: moderate responses to stress can lead to improved performance while extreme (high or low responses can lead to impaired performance. The present studies tested the hypothesis that 1 learning to behaviorally control stressors leads to improved performance on a test of general executive functioning, the color-word Stroop, and that 2 this improvement emerges specifically for people who report moderate (subjective responses to stress. Experiment 1: Stroop performance, measured before and after a stress manipulation, was compared across groups of undergraduate participants (n=109. People who learned to control a noise stressor and received accurate performance feedback demonstrated reduced Stroop interference compared with people exposed to uncontrollable noise stress and feedback indicating an exaggerated rate of failure. In the group who learned behavioral control, those who reported moderate levels of stress showed the greatest reduction in Stroop interference. In contrast, in the group exposed to uncontrollable events, self-reported stress failed to predict performance. Experiment 2: In a second sample (n=90, we specifically investigated the role of controllability by keeping the rate of failure feedback constant across groups. In the group who learned behavioral control, those who reported moderate levels of stress

  8. STRESS AMONG SCHOOL GOING ADOLESCENTS

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    Ajitha Cholakottil

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Adolescence is a period when individuals become independent from their parents. The period of adolescence itself is recognized as a period of ‘stress and storm’. Stressful life events of both major and minor magnitude in the lives of adolescents are significantly related to their emotional behavioural problems. Studies on prevalence and pattern of stressors in adolescents using semi structured interview techniques and sound methodology is limited in developing countries. Knowing the magnitude of problem will help us in policy making. MATERIALS AND METHODS Adolescents from 8th, 9th and 10th standards of four schools in two districts of Kerala were selected by random sampling method. Students with Children Behaviour Questionnaire score CBQ more than 9 and their parents were analysed for the level of stress using Checklist of stressful life events CLSLE and were compared with that of control group. RESULTS Out of 720 subjects screened 120 16.6% were found to be disturbed based on CBQ scores. CBQ score was significantly higher in disturbed group compared to undisturbed group. CLSLE scores shows disturbed group had higher stressors in “general”, “school or academic” and “self” areas compared to control group. Stressors that are commonly reported by both the groups are decline in academic performance, breaking up with close friend, argument between father and mother and punishment by parents. CONCLUSION School going adolescents are exposed to stress. The academic pressure is one of the major precursors for the stress. Introduction of stress management techniques in school curriculum can be helpful. This study emphasis that stressed feelings among adolescents should not be neglected, but has to be properly intervened, so as to avoid a larger destruction.

  9. When does stress help or harm? The effects of stress controllability and subjective stress response on stroop performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Roselinde K; Snyder, Hannah R; Gupta, Tina; Banich, Marie T

    2012-01-01

    The ability to engage in goal-directed behavior despite exposure to stress is critical to resilience. Questions of how stress can impair or improve behavioral functioning are important in diverse settings, from athletic competitions to academic testing. Previous research suggests that controllability is a key factor in the impact of stress on behavior: learning how to control stressors buffers people from the negative effects of stress on subsequent cognitively demanding tasks. In addition, research suggests that the impact of stress on cognitive functioning depends on an individual's response to stressors: moderate responses to stress can lead to improved performance while extreme (high or low) responses can lead to impaired performance. The present studies tested the hypothesis that (1) learning to behaviorally control stressors leads to improved performance on a test of general executive functioning, the color-word Stroop, and that (2) this improvement emerges specifically for people who report moderate (subjective) responses to stress. Experiment 1: Stroop performance, measured before and after a stress manipulation, was compared across groups of undergraduate participants (n = 109). People who learned to control a noise stressor and received accurate performance feedback demonstrated reduced Stroop interference compared with people exposed to uncontrollable noise stress and feedback indicating an exaggerated rate of failure. In the group who learned behavioral control, those who reported moderate levels of stress showed the greatest reduction in Stroop interference. In contrast, in the group exposed to uncontrollable events, self-reported stress failed to predict performance. Experiment 2: In a second sample (n = 90), we specifically investigated the role of controllability by keeping the rate of failure feedback constant across groups. In the group who learned behavioral control, those who reported moderate levels of stress showed the greatest Stroop

  10. In stressful company – Changes in stress and work ties over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldstrøm, Christian; Parker, Andrew; Shah, Neha P.

    Recent research on stress and burnout has highlighted the collective aspects of stress symptoms, perceived stress, and coping mechanisms. Much of this work, however, is focused on group and team dynamics rather than how network factors shape individuals’ feelings of stress and burnout. We use...... a stress questionnaire and social network analysis at three time points in a Scandinavian biotechnology company to examine the interactions between stress and relationship development and maintenance over time. We show that individuals tend to form and maintain ties to people who are less stressed than...... they are, indicating that while misery might love company, stress does not. Given the longitudinal nature of the study, we’re able to disentangle the causal effects....

  11. The cortisol awakening response in caregivers of schizophrenic offspring shows sensitivity to patient status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Bono, Esperanza; De Andres-Garcia, Sara; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2011-01-01

    Taking care of offspring during a prolonged period of time is probably one of the most stressful life experiences for parents. The present study compares the cortisol awakening response (CAR) in 38 long-term caregivers (mothers and fathers of schizophrenic relatives) with a control group of 32 non-caregivers. Factors such as general stress, caregiver burden, patient severity, and institutionalization were studied. Although a blunted CAR was observed in caregivers in comparison with controls, this difference was not significant. Among caregivers, the absence of institutionalization for the patient is associated with a lack of CAR in caregivers in comparison with caregivers of institutionally supported patients. General stress, caregiver burden, and patient severity themselves did not favor significant changes in CAR. CAR shows greater sensitivity to institutional support than patient severity and perceived stress. Further research is needed to explain the impact of these factors on health and the psychological factors involved.

  12. A structural model for stress, coping, and psychosocial adjustment: A multi-group analysis by stages of survivorship in Korean women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Miyoung; Kim, Jiyoung

    2018-04-01

    Prospective studies have examined factors directly affecting psychosocial adjustment during breast cancer treatment. Survivorship stage may moderate a direct effect of stress on psychosocial adjustment. This study aimed to examine relationships between stress, social support, self-efficacy, coping, and psychosocial adjustment to construct a model of the effect pathways between those factors, and determine if survivorship stage moderates those effects. Six hundred people with breast cancer completed questionnaires. Examined stages of survivorship after treatment were as follows: acute (i.e., 5 years). Stress (Perceived Stress Scale), social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support), self-efficacy (New General Self Efficacy Scale), coping (Ways of Coping Checklist), and psychosocial adjustment (Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale-Self-Report-Korean Version) were measured. Self-efficacy significantly correlated with psychosocial adjustment in the acute survival stage (γ = -0.37, P psychosocial adjustment was greater in the acute (γ = -0.42, P psychosocial adjustment was stronger in the lasting survival stage (β = 0.42, P psychosocial adjustment of female breast cancer patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Stress and coping in interracial contexts: The influence of race-based rejection sensitivity and cross-group friendship in daily experiences of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page-Gould, Elizabeth; Mendoza-Denton, Rodolfo; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2014-06-01

    We examined the interplay of psychosocial risk and protective factors in daily experiences of health. In Study 1, the tendency to anxiously expect rejection from racial outgroup members, termed race-based rejection sensitivity (RS-race), was cross-sectionally related to greater stress-symptoms among Black adults who reported fewer cross-race friends but not among participants who had more cross-race friends. In Study 2, we experimentally manipulated the development of a same- versus cross-race friendship among Latino/a-White dyads prior to collecting daily experiences of stress-symptoms using a diary methodology. While RS-race predicted more psychosomatic symptoms in the same-race friendship condition, RS-race was unrelated to symptomatology among participants who made a cross-race friend. These findings suggest that experiences of intergroup stress can spill over into everyday life in the absence of positive contact, but cross-race friendships may be a resource that mitigates the expression of interracial stress.

  14. Acute social stress increases biochemical and self report markers of stress without altering spatial learning in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopp, Christine; Garcia, Carlos; Schulman, Allan H; Ward, Christopher P; Tartar, Jaime L

    2012-01-01

    Spatial learning is shown to be influenced by acute stress in both human and other animals. However, the intricacies of this relationship are unclear. Based on prior findings we hypothesized that compared to a control condition, a social stress condition would not affect spatial learning performance despite elevated biochemical markers of stress. The present study tested the effects of social stress in human males and females on a subsequent spatial learning task. Social stress induction consisted of evaluative stress (the Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) compared to a placebo social stress. Compared to the placebo condition, the TSST resulted in significantly elevated cortisol and alpha amylase levels at multiple time points following stress induction. In accord, cognitive appraisal measures also showed that participants in the TSST group experienced greater perceived stress compared to the placebo group. However, there were no group differences in performance on a spatial learning task. Our findings suggest that unlike physiological stress, social stress does not result in alterations in spatial learning in humans. It is possible that moderate social evaluative stress in humans works to prevent acute stress-mediated alterations in hippocampal learning processes..

  15. A multilevel analysis of the demands-control model: Is stress at work determined by factors at the group level or the individual level?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, N.W.; Snijders, T.A.B.

    2000-01-01

    This study explored the extent to which negative health-related outcomes are associated with differences between work groups and with differences between individuals within work groups using R. A. Karasek's (1979) demands-control model. The sample consisted of 260 employees in 31 working groups of a

  16. The effect of academic stress and attachment stress on stress-eaters and stress-undereaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emond, Michael; Ten Eycke, Kayla; Kosmerly, Stacey; Robinson, Adele Lafrance; Stillar, Amanda; Van Blyderveen, Sherry

    2016-05-01

    It is well established that stress is related to changes in eating patterns. Some individuals are more likely to increase their overall food intake under conditions of stress, whereas others are more likely to consume less food when stressed. Attachment style has been linked to disordered eating and eating disorders; however, comparisons of eating behaviors under attachment versus other types of stress have yet to be explored. The present laboratory study examined the eating patterns in self-identified stress-undereaters and stress-eaters under various types of stress. More specifically, the study examined the effects of academic and attachment stress on calorie, carbohydrate and sugar consumption within these two groups. Under the guise of critiquing student films, university students viewed either one of two stress-inducing videos (academic stress or attachment stress, both designed to be emotionally arousing) or a control video (designed to be emotionally neutral), and their food intake was recorded. Results demonstrated that the video manipulations were effective in inducing stress. Differential patterns of eating were noted based on group and stress condition. Specifically, stress-undereaters ate fewer calories, carbohydrates and sugars than stress-eaters in the academic stress condition, but not in the attachment stress or control condition. Findings suggest that specific types of stressors may influence eating behaviors differently. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effectiveness of different strategies to prevent from heat stress in a group of dairy farms located in the Province of Padova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Cozzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat stress during the summer season is an important factor which can impair dairy cows physiology and productivity. A survey was carried out on a sample of 30 dairy farms of the Province of Padova to assess the effectiveness of different strategies for heat stress control. All farms used a fan cooling system but in those were a sprinkler device was also operating an increased milk yield was observed (+5.0%. Cows receiving the diet in two daily distributions (morning and evening increased DM intake (+9.0% and milk yield (+15.0% in comparison to animals fed once a day. No difference, instead, were observed in farms where cows were fed once a day in the morning or in the evening. A positive milk response (+8.1% was recorded in farms equipped with wide waterers at the exit of the milking parlour.

  18. Impact of self-esteem and sex on stress reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogler, Lydia; Seidel, Eva-Maria; Metzler, Hannah; Thaler, Hanna; Boubela, Roland N; Pruessner, Jens C; Kryspin-Exner, Ilse; Gur, Ruben C; Windischberger, Christian; Moser, Ewald; Habel, Ute; Derntl, Birgit

    2017-12-08

    Positive self-evaluation is a major psychological resource modulating stress coping behavior. Sex differences have been reported in self-esteem as well as stress reactions, but so far their interactions have not been investigated. Therefore, we investigated sex-specific associations of self-esteem and stress reaction on behavioral, hormonal and neural levels. We applied a commonly used fMRI-stress task in 80 healthy participants. Men compared to women showed higher activation during stress in hippocampus, precuneus, superior temporal gyrus (STG) and insula. Furthermore, men outperformed women in the stress task and had higher cortisol and testosterone levels than women after stress. Self-esteem had an impact on precuneus, insula and STG activation during stress across the whole group. During stress, men recruit regions associated with emotion and stress regulation, self-referential processing and cognitive control more strongly than women. Self-esteem affects stress processing, however in a sex-independent fashion: participants with lower self-esteem show higher activation of regions involved in emotion and stress regulation, self-referential processing and cognitive control. Taken together, our data suggest that men are more engaged during the applied stress task. Across women and men, lower self-esteem increases the effort in emotion and stress processing and cognitive control, possibly leading to self-related thoughts in stressful situations.

  19. The role of heat shock protein 70 in oxidant stress and inflammatory injury in quail spleen induced by cold stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jiayi; Liu, Chunpeng; Zhao, Dan; Fu, Jing

    2018-05-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in oxidative stress and inflammatory damage in the spleen of quails which were induced by cold stress. One hundred ninety-two 15-day-old male quails were randomly divided into 12 groups and kept at 12 ± 1 °C to examine acute and chronic cold stress. We first detected the changes in activities of antioxidant enzymes in the spleen tissue under acute and chronic cold stress. The activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) fluctuated in acute cold stress groups, while they were significantly decreased (p stress. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and nitric oxide (NO) content were decreased significantly (p stress groups. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content was significantly increased (p stress except the 0.5 h group of acute cold stress. Besides, histopathological analysis showed that quail's spleen tissue was inflammatory injured seriously in both the acute and chronic cold stress groups. Additionally, the inflammatory factors (cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E synthase (PTGES), iNOS, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), and tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-α)) and Hsp70 mRNA levels were increased in both of the acute and chronic cold stress groups compared with the control groups. These results suggest that oxidative stress and inflammatory injury could be induced by cold stress in spleen tissues of quails. Furthermore, the increased expression of Hsp70 may play a role in protecting the spleen against oxidative stress and inflammatory damage caused by cold stress.

  20. Relationship between Occupational Stress and Gastric Disease in Male Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihm, Ho-Seob; Park, Sang-Hyun; Gong, Eun-Hee; Choi, Jong-Soon; Kim, Jung-Won

    2012-09-01

    Physical and mental health of workers is threatened due to various events and chronic occupational stress. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between occupational stress and gastric disease in male workers of the shipbuilding industry. Occupational stress measured among a total of 498 workers of a shipbuilding firm who visited the hospital for health examination using the Korean Occupational Stress Scale (KOSS)-short form, and the relationship between sociodemographic factors, health-related behaviors, occupational stress, and gastric disease, and the distribution of occupational stress by sociodemographic factors in the gastric disease group was examined. There was no significant association between gastric disease and total occupational stress score and its seven sub-factors. The analysis showed that risk of gastric disease was significantly higher in the Q1 group in which the stress caused by occupational discomfort among seven sub-factors was lowest than that in the Q4 group (odds ratio, 2.819; 95% confidence interval, 1.151 to 6.908). Analysis only on the gastric disease group showed that the stress score of laborers was higher in the four sub-factors than that of office workers (P occupational stress in the low-educated and laborers. It is recommended for future studies to confirm the causal relationship between occupational stress and gastric disease by large scale studies using a KOSS which appropriately reflects workplace culture.

  1. Relationship between Occupational Stress and Gastric Disease in Male Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihm, Ho-Seob; Park, Sang-Hyun; Gong, Eun-Hee; Kim, Jung-Won

    2012-01-01

    Background Physical and mental health of workers is threatened due to various events and chronic occupational stress. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between occupational stress and gastric disease in male workers of the shipbuilding industry. Methods Occupational stress measured among a total of 498 workers of a shipbuilding firm who visited the hospital for health examination using the Korean Occupational Stress Scale (KOSS)-short form, and the relationship between sociodemographic factors, health-related behaviors, occupational stress, and gastric disease, and the distribution of occupational stress by sociodemographic factors in the gastric disease group was examined. Results There was no significant association between gastric disease and total occupational stress score and its seven sub-factors. The analysis showed that risk of gastric disease was significantly higher in the Q1 group in which the stress caused by occupational discomfort among seven sub-factors was lowest than that in the Q4 group (odds ratio, 2.819; 95% confidence interval, 1.151 to 6.908). Analysis only on the gastric disease group showed that the stress score of laborers was higher in the four sub-factors than that of office workers (P occupational stress in the low-educated and laborers. It is recommended for future studies to confirm the causal relationship between occupational stress and gastric disease by large scale studies using a KOSS which appropriately reflects workplace culture. PMID:23115706

  2. Group prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, Sara E; Carter, Ebony B

    2017-06-01

    Patients participating in group prenatal care gather together with women of similar gestational ages and 2 providers who cofacilitate an educational session after a brief medical assessment. The model was first described in the 1990s by a midwife for low-risk patients and is now practiced by midwives and physicians for both low-risk patients and some high-risk patients, such as those with diabetes. The majority of literature on group prenatal care uses CenteringPregnancy, the most popular model. The first randomized controlled trial of CenteringPregnancy showed that it reduced the risk of preterm birth in low-risk women. However, recent meta-analyses have shown similar rates of preterm birth, low birthweight, and neonatal intensive care unit admission between women participating in group prenatal care and individual prenatal care. There may be subgroups, such as African Americans, who benefit from this type of prenatal care with significantly lower rates of preterm birth. Group prenatal care seems to result in increased patient satisfaction and knowledge and use of postpartum family planning as well as improved weight gain parameters. The literature is inconclusive regarding breast-feeding, stress, depression, and positive health behaviors, although it is theorized that group prenatal care positively affects these outcomes. It is unclear whether group prenatal care results in cost savings, although it may in large-volume practices if each group consists of approximately 8-10 women. Group prenatal care requires a significant paradigm shift. It can be difficult to implement and sustain. More randomized trials are needed to ascertain the true benefits of the model, best practices for implementation, and subgroups who may benefit most from this innovative way to provide prenatal care. In short, group prenatal care is an innovative and promising model with comparable pregnancy outcomes to individual prenatal care in the general population and improved outcomes in some

  3. A Randomized Controlled Study of Mind-Body Skills Groups for Treatment of War-Zone Stress in Military and Veteran Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    of meditation, guided imagery, and breathing techniques; self-expression through words, drawings and movement; autogenic training and biofeedback...facilitating the mind-body skills group intervention have co-facilitated groups under the supervision of the clinical director and are fully trained ...exclusion criteria by the research coordinator. 2. The clinical director will supervise the trained group leaders who will be facilitating the mind

  4. Bidirectional crosstalk between stress-induced gastric ulcer and depression under chronic stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Zhang

    Full Text Available Stress contributes to a variety of diseases and disorders such as depression and peptic ulcer. The present study aimed to investigate the correlation between stress ulcer and depression in pathogenesis and treatment by using chronic stress depression (CSD, chronic psychological stress ulcer (CPSU and water immersion restrain stress models in rats. Our data showed that the ulcer index of the animals after CSD exposure was significantly higher than that of controls. Depression-like behaviors were observed in rat after CPSU exposure. Fluoxetine hydrochloride significantly reduced the ulcer index of rats exposed to CPSU stress, while ranitidine inhibited depression-like behavior of the animals in CSD group. The ulcer index of rats administered with mifepristone after CPSU stress was markedly reduced compared to CPSU group, although there was no significant difference in the depression-like behavior between mifepristone-treated CSD group and naive controls. We also found that the rats exposed to CPSU or CSD stress displayed a lower level of corticosterone than naive controls, however, the acute stress (AS group showed an opposite result. Additionally, in order to study the relevance of H(2 receptors and depression, we treated the CSD group with cimetidine and famotidine respectively. The data showed that cimetidine inhibited depression-like behavior in CSD rats, and famotidine had no impact on depression. Overall our data suggested that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis dysfunction may be the key role in triggering depression and stress ulcer. Acid-suppressing drugs and antidepressants could be used for treatment of depression and stress ulcer respectively. The occurrence of depression might be inhibited by blocking the central H(2 receptors.

  5. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten I.

    2008-01-01

    We review the use of behavior from television game shows to infer risk attitudes. These shows provide evidence when contestants are making decisions over very large stakes, and in a replicated, structured way. Inferences are generally confounded by the subjective assessment of skill in some games......, and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game shows Card Sharks, Jeopardy!, Lingo, and finally Deal Or No Deal. We provide a detailed case study of the analyses of Deal Or No Deal, since it is suitable for inference about risk attitudes and has attracted considerable attention....

  6. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...

  7. (stress) testing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, maximal HR was significantly higher in all groups during their sporting activities than during stress testing in the laboratory (P < 0.01). Conclusions. Maximal HR in veteran athletes during specific sporting activities was significantly higher than that attained during a routine sECG. This finding was not sport-specific, ...

  8. [Music as adjuvant therapy for coronary heart disease. Therapeutic music lowers anxiety, stress and beta-endorphin concentrations in patients from a coronary sport group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollert, J O; Störk, T; Rose, M; Möckel, M

    2003-12-19

    In a study with coronary patients it was estimated that music is able to lower stress and fear and contributing to relaxation in spite of physical exercise. 15 patients (13 male, two female, mean age 62,2 +/- 7,6 years) of a coronary sport unit were listening to an especially composed relaxation music while training their common heart-frequency adapted exercises. Before the exercises and after listening to music blood pressures were measured and blood was collected for determination of beta-endorphin. Simultaneous to blood collection the participants had to perform two psychometric test: the perceived stress experience questionnaire (PSQ) of Levenstein to measure the graduation of subjective perceived stress and the state-anxiety inquiry (STAI) of Spielberger as an indicator of coping. To practice the trial ("test trial"), the whole protocol was performed one week prior to the mean trial, but without listening to music and without blood collections and blood pressure measurements. In the test trial without music there were no significant changes in PSQ-data. In the mean trial, under the influence of music, values in the section "worries" decreased as a sign of lower worries (26.6 versus 27.6; p = 0.039). STAI-values were significantly lower as a sign of reduced fear after listening to music (31 versus 34; p = 0.045). beta-endorphin concentration (10.91 microg/l versus 15.96 microg/l, p = 0.044) and systolic blood pressure (130 mmHg versus 140 mmHg; p = 0.007) decreased significantly after listening to music. Regarding worries and fear, patients seemed to benefit by the intervention of music. beta-endorphin was lowered significantly after music despite physical activity.

  9. Perceived stress and bruxism in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Pierpaolo; Carpinelli, Luna; Savarese, Giulia

    2016-12-21

    Many studies have shown the correlation between bruxism and stress that affects the quality of life of university students. The present study highlights this correlation-for the first time-in a group of university students in Italy. We have investigated the prevalence of awake and asleep bruxism and its correlation with perceived stress in a group of 278 Italian undergraduate students (117 M). A self report questionnaire was constructed using a socio-demographic test, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the item n. 8 of the Fonseca Questionnaire for presence of bruxism. The perceived stress score using PSS-10 scale was 32.2 (SD 4.6, 95% CL 31.6-32.7) for all the subjects, with significant gender difference: M = 31.2 and F = 32.9 (P = 0.0019). The prevalence for awake bruxism was 37.9% (F = 40.8%; M = 34.2%,), while for sleep bruxism was 31.8% (F = 33.3%; M = 29.1%), both without significant gender difference. A positive correlation, with significant concordance and dependence, between stress score and awake bruxism was present for male students only. University students showed higher bruxism and stress levels compared to the general population, with higher stress for females, but, even if female students show higher stress, a correlation between stress and bruxism exists only for male gender. Further studies should be performed.

  10. Assessment of brain activities during an emotional stress state using fMRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Takuto; Mizuno-Matsumoto, Yuko; Kawasaki, Aika; Kato, Makoto; Murata, Tsutomu

    2011-01-01

    We investigated cerebrum activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging during a mental stress state. Thirty-four healthy adults participated. Before the experiment, we assessed their stress states using the Stress Self-rating Scale and divided the participants into Stress and Non-stress groups. The experiment consisted of 6 trials. Each trial consisted of a 20-s block of emotional audio-visual stimuli (4-s stimulation x 5 slides) and a fixation point. These processes were performed 3 times continuously (Relaxed, Pleasant, Unpleasant stimuli) in a random order. These results showed that the Non-stress group indicated activation of the amygdala and hippocampus in the Pleasant and Unpleasant stimuli while the Stress group indicated activation of the hippocampus in Pleasant stimuli, and the amygdala and hippocampus in Unpleasant stimuli. These findings suggested that the mental stress state engages the reduction of emotional processing. Also, the responsiveness of the memory system remained during and after the emotional stress state. (author)

  11. Work stress, life stress, and smoking among rural–urban migrant workers in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Xiaobo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stimulated by rapid modernization and industrialization, there is massive rural–urban migration in China. The migrants are highly susceptible to smoking and mental health problems. This study examined the association between both perceived work stress and perceived life stress with smoking behavior among this group during the period of migration. Methods Participants (n = 1,595 were identified through stratified, multi-stage, systematic sampling. Smoking status separated non-smokers from daily and occasional smokers, and migration history, work stress, and life stress were also measured. Analyses were conducted using the Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression. Two models were utilized. The first was the full model that comprised sociodemographic and migration-related characteristics, as well as the two stress variables. In addressing potential overlap between life and work stress, the second model eliminated one of the two stress variables as appropriate. Results Overall smoking prevalence was 64.9% (95% CI: 62.4-67.2%. In the regression analysis, under the full model, migrants with high perceived life stress showed a 45% excess likelihood to be current smokers relative to low-stress counterparts (OR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.05 – 2.06. Applying the second model, which excluded the life stress variable, migrants with high perceived work stress had a 75% excess likelihood to be current smokers relative to opposites (OR: 1.75; 95% CI: 1.26–2.45. Conclusions Rural–urban migrant workers manifested a high prevalence of both life stress and work stress. While both forms of stress showed associations with current smoking, life stress appeared to outweigh the impact of work stress. Our findings could inform the design of tobacco control programs that would target Chinese rural–urban migrant workers as a special population.

  12. Adaptogenic potential of royal jelly in liver of rats exposed to chronic stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Carvalho Caixeta

    Full Text Available Restraint and cold stress increase both corticosterone and glycemia, which lead to oxidative damages in hepatic tissue. This study assessed the effect of royal jelly (RJ supplementation on the corticosterone level, glycemia, plasma enzymes and hepatic antioxidant system in restraint and cold stressed rats. Wistar rats were allocated into no-stress, stress, no-stress supplemented with RJ and stress supplemented with RJ groups. Initially, RJ (200mg/Kg was administered for fourteen days and stressed groups were submitted to chronic stress from the seventh day. The results showed that RJ supplementation decreases corticosterone levels and improves glycemia control after stress induction. RJ supplementation also decreased the body weight, AST, ALP and GGT. Moreover, RJ improved total antioxidant capacity, SOD activity and reduced GSH, GR and lipoperoxidation in the liver. Thus, RJ supplementation reestablished the corticosterone levels and the hepatic antioxidant system in stressed rats, indicating an adaptogenic and hepatoprotective potential of RJ.

  13. Social, psychological and psychosomatic disorders in the people with combat stress in their medical histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Gracheva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors examined three groups of patients – military men (40 men in each group with combat stress of different intensity in their medical histories (two main groups and a  control group – without combat stress. The results showed that the military men with a high level combat stress in the past (more than 5 years ago more frequently demonstrated socialmental disadaptation against the background of subclinical chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. The conclusion is that this group of people requires dynamic followup and adequate medicopsychological aid.

  14. Reality show: um paradoxo nietzschiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Feldman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    O fenômeno dos reality shows - e a subseqüente relação entre imagem e verdade - assenta-se sobre uma série de paradoxos. Tais paradoxos podem ser compreendidos à luz do pensamento do filósofo alemão Friedrich Nietzsche, que, através dos usos de formulações paradoxais, concebia a realidade como um mundo de pura aparência e a verdade como um acréscimo ficcional, como um efeito. A ficção é então tomada, na filosofia de Nietzsche, não em seu aspecto falsificante e desrealizador - como sempre pleiteou nossa tradição metafísica -, mas como condição necessária para que certa espécie de invenção possa operar como verdade. Sendo assim, a própria expressão reality show, através de sua formulação paradoxal, engendra explicitamente um mundo de pura aparência, em que a verdade, a parte reality da proposição, é da ordem do suplemento, daquilo que se acrescenta ficcionalmente - como um adjetivo - a show. O ornamento, nesse caso, passa a ocupar o lugar central, apontando para o efeito produzido: o efeito-de-verdade. Seguindo, então, o pensamento nietzschiano e sua atualização na contemporaneidade, investigaremos de que forma os televisivos “shows de realidade” operam paradoxalmente, em consonância com nossas paradoxais práticas culturais.

  15. Cloning and characterization of a novel stress-responsive WRKY transcription factor gene (MusaWRKY71) from Musa spp. cv. Karibale Monthan (ABB group) using transformed banana cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhawat, Upendra K Singh; Ganapathi, Thumballi R; Srinivas, Lingam

    2011-08-01

    WRKY transcription factor proteins play significant roles in plant stress responses. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of a novel WRKY gene, MusaWRKY71 isolated from an edible banana cultivar Musa spp. Karibale Monthan (ABB group). MusaWRKY71, initially identified using in silico approaches from an abiotic stress-related EST library, was later extended towards the 3' end using rapid amplification of cDNA ends technique. The 1299-bp long cDNA of MusaWRKY71 encodes a protein with 280 amino acids and contains a characteristic WRKY domain in the C-terminal half. Although MusaWRKY71 shares good similarity with other monocot WRKY proteins the substantial size difference makes it a unique member of the WRKY family in higher plants. The 918-bp long 5' proximal region determined using thermal asymmetric interlaced-polymerase chain reaction has many putative cis-acting elements and transcription factor binding motifs. Subcellular localization assay of MusaWRKY71 performed using a GFP-fusion platform confirmed its nuclear targeting in transformed banana suspension cells. Importantly, MusaWRKY71 expression in banana plantlets was up-regulated manifold by cold, dehydration, salt, ABA, H2O2, ethylene, salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate treatment indicating its involvement in response to a variety of stress conditions in banana. Further, transient overexpression of MusaWRKY71 in transformed banana cells led to the induction of several genes, homologues of which have been proven to be involved in diverse stress responses in other important plants. The present study is the first report on characterization of a banana stress-related transcription factor using transformed banana cells.

  16. Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR In Stress and Fatigue in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahimi Alisaleh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS disease can lead to creation of mental and behavioral disorders such as stress and fatigue. Controlling the problems in patients is essential. Hence, this study has considered effectiveness of mindfulnessbased stress reduction in stress and fatigue symptoms in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS.this study is in kind of semi-experimental research in form of pretest posttest pattern with control group. Statistical population of the study consists of all patients with multiple sclerosis referred to Iran MS Association by 2016. Sampling method in this study is available sampling and based on having inclusion criteria. among patients who gained point higher than 21.8 in stress inventory and point higher than 5.1 in fatigue inventory, 30 people are selected as sample randomly and are placed in 2 groups with 15 people in each group. The experimental group was placed under mindfulnessbased stress reduction (MBSR training course including 8 sessions with 2hrs per session. k\\however, no intervention was done in control group. All patients in experimental and control groups fulfilled stress and fatigue inventories before and after intervention. obtained data was analyzed using MANCOVA and in SPSS22 software. obtained results show that there is significant difference between the two groups in terms of stress and fatigue after intervention (p<0.001.according to obtained results, it could be found that treatment method of mindfulness-based stress reduction can help reduction of symptoms of stress and fatigue in patients with MS.

  17. Testing the impact of a social skill training versus waiting list control group for the reduction of disruptive behaviors and stress among preschool children in child care: the study protocol for a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Sylvana M; Larose, Marie-Pier; Geoffroy, Marie Claude; Laurin, Julie; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E; Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle

    2017-08-07

    Most preschoolers growing up in western industrialized countries receive child care services (CCS) during the day, while their parents are at work. Meta-analytic data suggest that CCS represent a stressful experience for preschoolers. This may be because preschoolers have not yet developed the social skills necessary to cope with the new and rapidly fluctuating social contexts of CCS. We tested the effectiveness of a child care-based social skill training program aiming to improve children's social behaviors and reduce the stress they experience. We used a cluster randomized control trial (cRCT) to compare children's social behaviors and stress levels in pre- and post-intervention according to whether they received a social skill training intervention or not. Nineteen (n = 19) public CCS (n = 362, 3-years-old preschoolers) of underprivileged neighborhoods (Montreal, Canada) were randomized to one of two conditions: 1) social skills training (n = 10 CCS); or 2) waiting list control group (n = 9 CCS). Educators in the intervention group conducted bi-weekly social skills training sessions over a period of 8 months. The intervention covered four topics: making social contacts, problem solving, emotional self-regulation, as well as emotional expression and recognition. Main outcome measures included preschoolers' disruptive (e.g. aggression, opposition, conflicts) and prosocial behaviors (e.g. sharing toys, helping another child), and stress levels assessed by salivary cortisol sampling at pre and post intervention assessments. Educators' practices will be tested as potential mediators of the expected changes in behaviors and neuroendocrine stress. To our knowledge, this is the first cRCT to test the effectiveness of a child care based social skill training program on the reduction of disruptive behaviors and levels of stress. Significant challenges include the degree of adherence to the intervention protocol as well educators and preschoolers' turnover

  18. Stress Management: Job Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Job stress can be all-consuming — but it doesn't have to be. Address your triggers, keep perspective and ... stress triggers, it's often helpful to improve time management skills — especially if you tend to feel overwhelmed ...

  19. [Intervention of systolic pressure and left ventricular hypertrophy in rats under cold stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, C F; Wang, S G; Peng, Y G; Shi, Y; Du, Y P; Shi, G X; Wen, T; Wang, Y K; Su, H

    2016-06-20

    To investigate the effects of different drugs on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in spontaneously hypertensive rats under cold stress. A total of 40 male spontaneously hypertensive rats aged 10 weeks (160~200 g) were given adaptive feeding for 7 days at a temperature of 20±1°C and then randomly divided into control group, cold stress group, metoprolol group, amlodipine group, and benazepril group, with 8 rats in each group. SBP, body weight, and heart rate were measured once a week. After the rats were sacrificed by exsanguination, left ventricular weight (LVW) was measured, and left ventricular weight index (LVWI; mg/g) was calculated. Radioimmunoassay was used to measure the concentrations of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and angiotensin-II (Ang-II) in plasma and myocardium, and the chemical method was used to measure the concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) in plasma and myocardium. RT-PCR was used to measure the mRNA expression of endothelin-A receptor. Compared with the cold stress group, all medication groups showed significant reductions in SBP since week 5 (Pcold stress group showed a significant increase in LVWI compared with the control group (3.38±0.27 mg/g vs 2.89±0.19 mg/g, Pcold stress group (2.98±0.28 mg/g vs 3.38±0.27 mg/g, Pcold stress group showed a significant reduction in plasma NO concentration compared with the control group (104.9±19.5 μmol/L vs 129.3±17.8 μmol/L, Pcold stress group, all the medication groups showed significant increases in blood NO concentration (Pcold stress group showed a significant increase in myocardial ET-1 concentration compared with the control group (6.3±1.5 pg/100 mg vs 4.5±1.9 pg/100 mg, Pcold stress group, the amlodipine group showed a significant reduction in myocardial ET-1 concentration (4.4±1.0 pg/100 mg vs 6.3±1.5 pg/100 mg, Pcold stress group had significantly higher mRNA expression of endothelin-A receptor than the control group (0.86±0.23 vs 0.45±0.16, Pcold

  20. Childhood Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Childhood Stress KidsHealth / For Parents / Childhood Stress What's in this ... and feel stress to some degree. Sources of Stress Stress is a function of the demands placed ...

  1. Occupational stress and work capacity of nurses of a hospital group Estrés laboral y capacidad para el trabajo de enfermeros de un grupo hospitalario Estresse laboral e capacidade para o trabalho de enfermeiros de um grupo hospitalar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Negeliskii

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the relationship between occupational stress and the work capacity index of 368 nurses (82.1% of the population of a Hospital Group. A questionnaire with socio-occupational questions was used as well as two scales: the Job Stress Scale and the Work Capacity Index. The group of nurses was predominantly female (93.2%, worked in care activities (63.9%, had undertaken at least one Postgraduate course (76% and were satisfied with the unit where they worked (70.5%. Occupational stress was present in 23.6% of the nurses, of these 15.2% presented High Strain work and 8.4% Passive Work. Social Support exercised a significant positive influence on all groups - exposed or not to occupational stress. Regarding the Work Capacity, this was Moderate (28-36 points for 51.4% of the nurses and Good (37-43 points for 47.4%. There was no correlation between stress and work capacity.Se trata de un estudio con objetivo de evaluar la relación entre el estrés laboral y el índice de capacidad para el trabajo de 368 enfermeros (82,1% de la población de un Grupo Hospitalario. Se utilizó un cuestionario con cuestiones socio ocupacionales y dos escalas: la Job Stress Scale y el Índice de Capacidad para el Trabajo. El grupo de enfermeros es predominantemente femenino (93,2%, trabaja en actividades asistenciales (63,9%, posee por lo menos un curso de posgraduación (76% y está satisfecho con la unidad donde trabaja (70,5%. El estrés laboral está presente en 23,6% de los enfermeros, de estos 15,2% presentan Alta Exigencia en el trabajo y 8,4% Trabajo Pasivo. El Apoyo Social ejerce influencia positiva significativa sobre todos los grupos expuestos y no expuestos al estrés laboral. En cuanto a la Capacidad para el Trabajo, está es Moderada (28-36 puntos para 51,4% de los enfermeros y Buena (37-43 puntos para 47,4%. No se encontró correlación entre el estrés y la capacidad para el trabajo.Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a rela

  2. The effect of basolateral amygdala nucleus lesion on memory under acute,mid and chronic stress in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Hoda; Radahmadi, Maryam; Alaei, Hojjatallah; Reisi, Parham; Karimi, Sara

    2016-12-20

    The basolateral amygdala (BLA) modulates memory for emotional events and is involved in both stress and memory. This study investigated different durations of stress and the role of BLA on serum corticosterone level and spatial and cognitive memory. Different durations of stress (acute, mid, and chronic stress), with and without BLA lesion were induced in rats by 6 h/day restraint stress for 1, 7, and 21 days. Memory functions were evaluated by novel object recognition (NOR) and object location test (OLT). The OLT findings showed locomotor activity and spatial memory slightly decreased with different durations of stress. The NOR findings significantly showed locomotor activity impairment in different durations of stress. Cognitive memory deficit was observed in mid stress. The corticosterone level significantly increased in the mid and chronic stress groups. Moreover, the mid stress was the strongest stress condition. There is a possibility that different stress durations act by different mechanisms. The recognition of a novel location decreased in all lesion groups. It was more severe in the NOR. The BLA lesion significantly decreased corticosterone level in the mid and chronic stress groups compared to similar groups without lesion. The BLA lesion caused more damage to cognitive than spatial memory in stressed groups.

  3. Welding stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, J.; Barbe, B.; Jolly, N.

    1976-01-01

    The aim is to show how internal stresses are generated and to fix the orders of magnitude. A realistic case, the vertical welding of thick plates free to move one against the other, is described and the deformations and stresses are analyzed. The mathematical model UEDA, which accounts for the elastic modulus, the yield strength and the expansion coefficient of the metal with temperature, is presented. The hypotheses and results given apply only to the instantaneous welding of a welded plate and to a plate welded by a moving electrode [fr

  4. A community-based group-guided self-help intervention for low mood and stress: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClay, Carrie-Anne; Morrison, Jill; McConnachie, Alex; Williams, Christopher

    2013-11-19

    Depression is a mental health condition which affects millions of people each year, with worldwide rates increasing. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is recommended in the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines for the treatment of depression. However, waiting lists can cause delays for face-to-face therapy. Also a proportion of people decline to present for help through the health service - the so-called treatment gap. Self-referral to CBT using community-based group interventions delivered by a voluntary sector organization may serve to resolve this problem. The aim of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) is to determine the efficacy of such a guided CBT self-help course, the 'Living Life to the Full' (LLTTF) classes delivered by the charity Action on Depression (AOD). The primary outcome is level of depression at 6 months assessed using the patient health questionnaire-9 (PHQ9) depression scale. Secondary measures include levels of anxiety and social functioning. Participants with symptoms of low mood will be recruited from the community through newspaper adverts and also via the AOD website. Participants will receive either immediate or delayed access to guided CBT self-help classes - the eight session LLTTF course. The primary endpoint will be at 6 months at which point the delayed group will be offered the intervention. Levels of depression, anxiety and social functioning will be assessed and an economic analysis will be carried out. This RCT will test whether the LLTTF intervention is effective and/or cost-effective. If the LLTTF community-based classes are found to be cost effective, they may be helpful as both an intervention for those already seeking care in the health service, as well as those seeking help outside that setting, widening access to psychological therapy. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN86292664.

  5. Effect of yoga on academic performance in relation to stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kauts Amit

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Academic performance is concerned with the quantity and quality of learning attained in a subject or group of subjects after a long period of instruction. Excessive stress hampers students′ performance. Improvement in academic performance and alertness has been reported in several yogic studies. Aims and Objectives: The main objective of the study was to assess the effect of yoga on academic performance in relation to stress. Materials and Methods: The study started with 800 adolescent students; 159 high-stress students and 142 low-stress students were selected on the basis of scores obtained through Stress Battery. Experimental group and control group were given pre test in three subjects, i.e., Mathematics, Science, and Social Studies. A yoga module consisting of yoga asanas, pranayama, meditation, and a value orientation program was administered on experimental group for 7 weeks. The experimental and control groups were post-tested for their performance on the three subjects mentioned above. Results: The results show that the students, who practiced yoga performed better in academics. The study further shows that low-stress students performed better than high-stress students, meaning thereby that stress affects the students′ performance.

  6. Assessment the effect of NO inhibition on hippocampal normetanephrine level in stress and non-stress conditions in adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Molahoveizeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nitric oxide (NO has a role in the regulation of neurotransmitters release such as norepinephrine, in the hippocampus.Normetanephrine (NMN is a metabolite of norepinephrine created by action of catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT on norepinephrine. Several studies have shown that various stresses increased release of norepinephrine and its metabolites. Therefore in the present study, the role of Nitric oxide in regulation of norepinephrine release and its metabolism was investigated by administration of L-NAME (NO synthase inhibitor in stressed and non-stressed rats. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, 50 adult rats were divided into 10 groups, of which 5 groups were exposed to restraint stress while another 5 groups were without stress. These two set of groups included intact, saline and L-NAME (20, 40, 80 mg/kg. Thirty minutes after intraperituneal injection of L-NAME, brains removed, the hippocampus dissected, weighed, homogenized and centrifuged then amount of NMN measured by ELISA kit. Results: The results showed that in non-stressed condition amount of NMN were significantly increased in group that received L-NAME (80 mg/kg in comparison with other groups but in stress condition, amount of NMN was significantly decreased in groups that received L-NAME (20,40,80 mg/kg, in comparison with control and saline groups. Comparison between stress and non-stressed groups showed that stress alone cause an increase in amount of NMN in control and saline groups. Conclusion: In conclusion, NO synthesis inhibition produced opposite responses with respect to NMN amount in the presence or absence of stress, and probably L-NAME preventing the effect of stress on increasing NMN levels mediated by nitrergic pathway.

  7. Fish kidney cells show higher tolerance to hyperosmolality than amphibian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang Gui

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to fish, amphibians inhabit both aquatic and terrestrial environments. To better understand osmoregulation in fish and amphibian, we have investigated the morphological changes in kidney cells to osmotic stress. To address this, kidney cell line isolated from the freshwater grass carp (CIK and Chinese giant salamander (GSK were challenged to different mediums with distinct osmotic pressures (100, 300 and 700 mOsm. Morphological alterations of the fish and amphibian cells were compared by optical and electron microscopy. Following hyposmotic treatment (100 mOsm, both CIK and GSK cells became unhealthy and show condensed chromatin, swollen mitochondria and cytoplasmic vacuole. Meanwhile, after hyperosmotic treatment (700 mOsm, shrunken CIK cells with multipolar shape, pale or lightly stained cytoplasm, condensed chromatin, vacuoles and swollen mitochondria were detected. GSK cells were seriously damaged and most were completely lysed. The results suggest that fish kidney cells show a higher degree of tolerance to hyperosmoticity by comparing to amphibians and provide novel insights on the osmoregulatory capacity and adaptability of kidney cells between the two animal groups.

  8. [Association between occupational psychological stress and metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Herong; Song, Hui; Tian, Rulong; Chen, Lijun; Zhang, Wei; Qiang, Yan

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the association between occupational psychological stress and metabolic syndrome (MS) in Hui and Han populations in Ningxia, China. A 1:1 matched case-control study was performed. A total of 600 unrelated patients aged from 20 to 60 years who were clearly diagnosed with MS in General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University and Wuzhong People's Hospital from October 2011 to October 2012 were collected as the case group (MS group). A total of 600 healthy people who underwent a regular health examination in the same hospital during the same period were selected as the control group with matched gender, nationality, and age (≤ ± 3 years). The self-designed questionnaire was used to investigate the general situations and do the physical examination, and the fasting venous blood samples were collected for laboratory biochemical blood tests. The Occupational Stress Inventory (OSI) was used to investigate the subjects' occupational stress factors and stress levels. With the increase in stress levels, the levels of WC, FPG, TG, AST, and UA were increased, WHR, SBP, and DBP first increased and then decreased, and the level of HDL-C increased. There were statistically significant differences in these parameters between the two groups (P occupational psychological stress test results showed that the total score of stress factors (t = 6.676, P 0.05). There were no significant differences in the total score of stress factors and the score of each factor between Hui and Han groups (P>0.05). The relative risks of MS in the people with moderate stress exposure were 2.325 and 2.331 times those in the people with mild stress exposure before and after adjustment for age, gender, education level, marriage status, smoking, and drinking, and the relative risks for MS in the people with severe stress exposure were 3.000 and 3.126 times those in the people with mild stress exposure. There were significant differences in the detection rates of abdominal obesity, high TG

  9. Overall bolt stress optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2013-01-01

    The state of stress in bolts and nuts with International Organization for Standardization metric thread design is examined and optimized. The assumed failure mode is fatigue, so the applied preload and the load amplitude together with the stress concentrations define the connection strength....... Maximum stress in the bolt is found at the fillet under the head, at the thread start, or at the thread root. To minimize the stress concentration, shape optimization is applied. Nut shape optimization also has a positive effect on the maximum stress. The optimization results show that designing a nut......, which results in a more evenly distribution of load along the engaged thread, has a limited influence on the maximum stress due to the stress concentration at the first thread root. To further reduce the maximum stress, the transition from bolt shank to the thread must be optimized. Stress reduction...

  10. The effect of synchronized running activity with chronic stress on passive avoidance learning and body weight in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Radahmadi

    2013-01-01

    Results: Our results showed that: (1 Exercise under no stress provides beneficial effects on memory acquisition and retention time compared to Control group; especially retention time had significantly (P < 0.05 increased in exercised group. (2 Chronic stress with and without synchronized exercise significantly (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, respectively impaired acquisition and retention time. (3 Body weight differences were significantly (P < 0.01, P < 0.001 and P < 0.001 lower than Control group in exercise, stress and synchronized exercise with stress groups, respectively. (4 Adverse effects of restraint stress (psychical stress were probably greater than physical activity effects on learning, memory and weight loss. Conclusions: The data confirmed that synchronized exercise with stress had not significantly protective role in improvement of passive avoidance acquisition and retention time; hence it did not significantly improve learning and memory deficit in stressed rats; whereas exercise alone could improve memory deficit in rats.

  11. Stress Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management By Mayo Clinic Staff Stress basics Stress is a normal psychological and physical reaction to the demands of life. ... some people's alarm systems rarely shut off. Stress management gives you a range of tools to reset ...

  12. Manage Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Manage Stress Print This Topic En español Manage Stress Browse Sections The Basics Overview Signs and Health ... and Health Effects What are the signs of stress? When people are under stress, they may feel: ...

  13. Stress Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stress incontinence Overview Urinary incontinence is the unintentional loss of urine. Stress incontinence happens when physical movement or activity — such ... coughing, sneezing, running or heavy lifting — puts pressure (stress) on your bladder. Stress incontinence is not related ...

  14. Smartphone Applications Utilizing Biofeedback Can Aid Stress Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Alison; Kelly, Mark; Robertson, Ian H.; Robertson, Deirdre A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Stress is one of the leading global causes of disease and premature mortality. Despite this, interventions aimed at reducing stress have low adherence rates. The proliferation of mobile phone devices along with gaming-style applications allows for a unique opportunity to broaden the reach and appeal of stress-reduction interventions in modern society. We assessed the effectiveness of two smartphone applications games combined with biofeedback in reducing stress. Methods: We compared a control game to gaming-style smartphone applications combined with a skin conductance biofeedback device (the Pip). Fifty participants aged between 18 and 35 completed the Trier Social Stress Test. They were then randomly assigned to the intervention (biofeedback game) or control group (a non-biofeedback game) for thirty minutes. Perceived stress, heart rate and mood were measured before and after participants had played the games. Results: A mixed factorial ANOVA showed a significant interaction between time and game type in predicting perceived stress [F(1,48) = 14.19, p biofeedback intervention had significantly reduced stress compared to the control group. There was also a significant interaction between time and game in predicting heart rate [F(1,48) = 6.41, p biofeedback intervention showed significant reductions in heart rate compared to the control group. Discussion: This illustrates the potential for gaming-style smartphone applications combined with biofeedback as stress reduction interventions. PMID:27378963

  15. Protective effects of carnosol against oxidative stress induced brain damage by chronic stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarghandian, Saeed; Azimi-Nezhad, Mohsen; Borji, Abasalt; Samini, Mohammad; Farkhondeh, Tahereh

    2017-05-04

    Oxidative stress through chronic stress destroys the brain function. There are many documents have shown that carnosol may have a therapeutic effect versus free radical induced diseases. The current research focused the protective effect of carnosol against the brain injury induced by the restraint stress. The restraint stress induced by keeping animals in restrainers for 21 consecutive days. Thereafter, the rats were injected carnosol or vehicle for 21 consecutive days. At the end of experiment, all the rats were subjected to his open field test and forced swimming test. Afterwards, the rats were sacrificed for measuring their oxidative stress parameters. To measure the modifications in the biochemical aspects after the experiment, the activities of malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT) were evaluated in the whole brain. Our data showed that the animals received chronic stress had a raised immobility time versus the non-stressed animals (p < 0.01). Furthermore, chronic stress diminished the number of crossing in the animals that were subjected to the chronic stress versus the non-stressed rats (p < 0.01). Carnosol ameliorated this alteration versus the non-treated rats (p < 0.05). In the vehicle treated rats that submitted to the stress, the level of MDA levels was significantly increased (P < 0.001), and the levels of GSH and antioxidant enzymes were significantly decreased versus the non-stressed animals (P < 0.001). Carnosol treatment reduced the modifications in the stressed animals as compared with the control groups (P < 0.001). All of these carnosol effects were nearly similar to those observed with fluoxetine. The current research shows that the protective effects of carnosol may be accompanied with enhanced antioxidant defenses and decreased oxidative injury.

  16. ABI3 mediates dehydration stress recovery response in Arabidopsis thaliana by regulating expression of downstream genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, Sonia; Sengupta, Sourabh; Ray, Anagh; Nag Chaudhuri, Ronita

    2016-09-01

    ABI3, originally discovered as a seed-specific transcription factor is now implicated to act beyond seed physiology, especially during abiotic stress. In non-seed plants, ABI3 is known to act in desiccation stress signaling. Here we show that ABI3 plays a role in dehydration stress response in Arabidopsis. ABI3 gene was upregulated during dehydration stress and its expression was maintained during subsequent stress recovery phases. Comparative gene expression studies in response to dehydration stress and stress recovery were done with genes which had potential ABI3 binding sites in their upstream regulatory regions. Such studies showed that several genes including known seed-specific factors like CRUCIFERIN1, CRUCIFERIN3 and LEA-group of genes like LEA76, LEA6, DEHYDRIN LEA and LEA-LIKE got upregulated in an ABI3-dependent manner, especially during the stress recovery phase. ABI3 got recruited to regions upstream to the transcription start site of these genes during dehydration stress response through direct or indirect DNA binding. Interestingly, ABI3 also binds to its own promoter region during such stress signaling. Nucleosomes covering potential ABI3 binding sites in the upstream sequences of the above-mentioned genes alter positions, and show increased H3 K9 acetylation during stress-induced transcription. ABI3 thus mediates dehydration stress signaling in Arabidopsis through regulation of a group of genes that play a role primarily during stress recovery phase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Anticipatory stress influences decision making under explicit risk conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starcke, Katrin; Wolf, Oliver T; Markowitsch, Hans J; Brand, Matthias

    2008-12-01

    Recent research has suggested that stress may affect memory, executive functioning, and decision making on the basis of emotional feedback processing. The current study examined whether anticipatory stress affects decision making measured with the Game of Dice Task (GDT), a decision-making task with explicit and stable rules that taps both executive functioning and feedback learning. The authors induced stress in 20 participants by having them anticipate giving a public speech and also examined 20 comparison subjects. The authors assessed the level of stress with questionnaires and endocrine markers (salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase), both revealing that speech anticipation led to increased stress. Results of the GDT showed that participants under stress scored significantly lower than the comparison group and that GDT performance was negatively correlated with the increase of cortisol. Our results indicate that stress can lead to disadvantageous decision making even when explicit and stable information about outcome contingencies is provided.

  18. Stress coping style does not determine social status, but influences the consequences of social subordination stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, Gretha J; Smeltzer, Michael D; Scott, Karen A; Scheurink, Anton J; Tamashiro, Kellie L; Sakai, Randall R

    2017-09-01

    Chronic stress exposure may have negative consequences for health. One of the most common sources of chronic stress is stress associated with social interaction. In rodents, the effects of social stress can be studied in a naturalistic way using the visual burrow system (VBS). The way an individual copes with stress, their "stress coping style", may influence the consequences of social stress. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that stress coping style may modulate social status and influence the consequences of having a lower social status. We formed 7 VBS colonies, with 1 proactive coping male, 1 passive coping male, and 4 female rats per colony to assess whether a rat's coping style prior to colony formation could predict whether that individual is more likely to become socially dominant. The rats remained in their respective colonies for 14days and the physiological and behavioral consequences of social stress were assessed. Our study shows that stress coping style does not predict social status. However, stress coping style may influence the consequences of having a lower social status. Subordinate passive and proactive rats had distinctly different wound patterns; proactive rats had more wounds on the front of their bodies. Behavioral analysis confirmed that proactive subordinate rats engaged in more offensive interactions. Furthermore, subordinate rats with a proactive stress coping style had larger adrenals, and increased stress responsivity to a novel acute stressor (restraint stress) compared to passive subordinate rats or dominant rats, suggesting that the allostatic load may have been larger in this group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sex differences in the stress response in SD rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Wu, Xue-Yan; Zhu, Qiong-Bin; Li, Jia; Shi, Li-Gen; Wu, Juan-Li; Zhang, Qi-Jun; Huang, Man-Li; Bao, Ai-Min

    2015-05-01

    Sex differences play an important role in depression, the basis of which is an excessive stress response. We aimed at revealing the neurobiological sex differences in the same study in acute- and chronically-stressed rats. Female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), acute foot shock (FS) and controls, animals in all 3 groups were sacrificed in proestrus or diestrus. Male SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: CUMS, FS and controls. Comparisons were made of behavioral changes in CUMS and control rats, plasma levels of corticosterone (CORT), testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2), and of the hypothalamic mRNA-expression of stress-related molecules, i.e. estrogen receptor α and β, androgen receptor, aromatase, mineralocorticoid receptor, glucocorticoid receptor, corticotropin-releasing hormone, arginine vasopressin and oxytocin. CUMS resulted in disordered estrus cycles, more behavioral and hypothalamic stress-related molecules changes and a stronger CORT response in female rats compared with male rats. Female rats also showed decreased E2 and T levels after FS and CUMS, while male FS rats showed increased E2 and male CUMS rats showed decreased T levels. Stress affects the behavioral, endocrine and the molecular response of the stress systems in the hypothalamus of SD rats in a clear sexual dimorphic way, which has parallels in human data on stress and depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of stress related acute exercise on consolidation of implicit motor memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Ghadiri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Extensive evidence documents arousal modulation of declarative memory in humans. However, little is known about the arousal modulation of implicit motor memory. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a post-acquisition acute exercise stress on implicit motor memory consolidation.Materials and Methods: Forty healthy subjects were randomly divided into stress (10 men and 10 woman and non- stress (10 men and 10 woman groups. Experiment consisted of two phases of acquisition and retention. Serial Color matching (SCM task was used for this study. In acquisition period, all groups practiced the task for six blocks of 150 trials. Following, the stress group performed exercise on a treadmill until the moment of exhaustion while the non stress group did rest. In retention, all groups practiced the SCM task in one block. During the experiment the trends of saliva cortisol changes were measured.Results: Acute exercise stress leads to a significant increase in salivary cortisol level. While the non-stress group did not show enhancement of SCRT learning across the 24 hours delay interval, the stress group showed substantial enhancement across the same time (P<0.05.Conclusion: Our findings indicate that acute stress after acquisition can facilitate the implicit motor memory consolidation.

  1. Risk factors for psychological stress among international business travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striker, J; Luippold, R S; Nagy, L; Liese, B; Bigelow, C; Mundt, K A

    1999-04-01

    This study investigated sources of self reported psychological stress among international business travellers at the World Bank, following up on a previous study showing that travellers submitted more insurance claims for psychological disorders. Hypotheses were that work, personal, family, and health concerns, as well as time zone travel, contribute to travel stress. A travel survey was developed from focus groups and consisted of questions about these potential sources of travel stress. Surveys were sent to a random sample of staff, stratified by number of travel missions, age range, and sex. Canonical correlation analyses estimated the association between key survey items on sources of stress and two measures of travel stress. 498 staff completed the survey. More than a third reported high to very high travel stress. Correlations between predictors and travel stress showed that social and emotional concerns (such as impact of travel on family and sense of isolation) contributed the most to such stress, followed by health concerns, and workload upon return from travel. Surprisingly, time zone travel did not contribute to the self reported stress of these travellers. There were few modifiers of stress, although respondents suggested that a day of rest after travel and reduced workloads would help. The current study confirms clinical impressions about several correlates of travel stress. Similar research with travellers in other organisations could help to determine whether the findings from this study are valid and what measures can be taken to reduce the psychological health risks to travellers.

  2. Risk factors for psychological stress among international business travellers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striker, J.; Luippold, R. S.; Nagy, L.; Liese, B.; Bigelow, C.; Mundt, K. A.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated sources of self reported psychological stress among international business travellers at the World Bank, following up on a previous study showing that travellers submitted more insurance claims for psychological disorders. Hypotheses were that work, personal, family, and health concerns, as well as time zone travel, contribute to travel stress. METHODS: A travel survey was developed from focus groups and consisted of questions about these potential sources of travel stress. Surveys were sent to a random sample of staff, stratified by number of travel missions, age range, and sex. Canonical correlation analyses estimated the association between key survey items on sources of stress and two measures of travel stress. RESULTS: 498 staff completed the survey. More than a third reported high to very high travel stress. Correlations between predictors and travel stress showed that social and emotional concerns (such as impact of travel on family and sense of isolation) contributed the most to such stress, followed by health concerns, and workload upon return from travel. Surprisingly, time zone travel did not contribute to the self reported stress of these travellers. There were few modifiers of stress, although respondents suggested that a day of rest after travel and reduced workloads would help. CONCLUSIONS: The current study confirms clinical impressions about several correlates of travel stress. Similar research with travellers in other organisations could help to determine whether the findings from this study are valid and what measures can be taken to reduce the psychological health risks to travellers.   PMID:10450241

  3. Comfort food is comforting to those most stressed: evidence of the chronic stress response network in high stress women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyama, A Janet; Dallman, Mary F; Epel, Elissa S

    2011-11-01

    Chronically stressed rodents who are allowed to eat calorie-dense "comfort" food develop greater mesenteric fat, which in turn dampens hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity. We tested whether similar relations exist in humans, at least cross-sectionally. Fifty-nine healthy premenopausal women were exposed to a standard laboratory stressor to examine HPA response to acute stress and underwent diurnal saliva sampling for basal cortisol and response to dexamethasone administration. Based on perceived stress scores, women were divided into extreme quartiles of low versus high stress categories. We found as hypothesized that the high stress group had significantly greater BMI and sagittal diameter, and reported greater emotional eating. In response to acute lab stressor, the high stress group showed a blunted cortisol response, lower diurnal cortisol levels, and greater suppression in response to dexamethasone. These cross-sectional findings support the animal model, which suggests that long-term adaptation to chronic stress in the face of dense calories result in greater visceral fat accumulation (via ingestion of calorie-dense food), which in turn modulates HPA axis response, resulting in lower cortisol levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Neuroepigenetics of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, B B; Hunter, R G

    2014-09-05

    Stress, a common if unpredictable life event, can have pronounced effects on physiology and behavior. Individuals show wide variation in stress susceptibility and resilience, which are only partially explained by variations in coding genes. Developmental programing of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress axis provides part of the explanation for this variance. Epigenetic approaches have successfully helped fill the explanatory gaps between the influences of gene and environment on stress responsiveness, and differences in the sequelae of stress across individuals and generations. Stress and the stress axis interacts bi-directionally with epigenetic marks within the brain. It is now clear that exposure to stress, particularly in early life, has both acute and lasting effects on these marks. They in turn influence cognitive function and behavior, as well as the risk for suicide and psychiatric disorders across the lifespan and, in some cases, unto future generations. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Stress and Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej

    2014-01-01

    and behavioral mechanisms. Stress is a complex concept and in order to better understand the relation between stress and health, the dissertation works with a clear distinction between the health consequences of different types of stress including external stressors, perceived stress, and measures of the stress......’s disease patients. Results The combined evidence of this dissertation shows a moderately higher risk of some common chronic disorders including cardiovascular disease and atopic disorders among individuals exposed to work-related stressors and perceived stress. Most empirical studies also report higher...... of pathways. The physiological stress response has the ability to directly affect vital body systems including the cardiovascular, immune, and metabolic systems. Further, stress can lead to unfavorable changes in health-related behavior, impaired sleep and poor mental health. An increasing number of well...

  6. Myopes show increased susceptibility to nearwork aftereffects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuffreda, K J; Wallis, D M

    1998-09-01

    Some aspects of accommodation may be slightly abnormal (or different) in myopes, compared with accommodation in emmetropes and hyperopes. For example, the initial magnitude of accommodative adaptation in the dark after nearwork is greatest in myopes. However, the critical test is to assess this initial accommodative aftereffect and its subsequent decay in the light under more natural viewing conditions with blur-related visual feedback present, if a possible link between this phenomenon and clinical myopia is to be considered. Subjects consisted of adult late- (n = 11) and early-onset (n = 13) myopes, emmetropes (n = 11), and hyperopes (n = 9). The distance-refractive state was assessed objectively using an autorefractor immediately before and after a 10-minute binocular near task at 20 cm (5 diopters [D]). Group results showed that myopes were most susceptible to the nearwork aftereffect. It averaged 0.35 D in initial magnitude, with considerably faster posttask decay to baseline in the early-onset (35 seconds) versus late-onset (63 seconds) myopes. There was no myopic aftereffect in the remaining two refractive groups. The myopes showed particularly striking accommodatively related nearwork aftereffect susceptibility. As has been speculated and found by many others, transient pseudomyopia may cause or be a precursor to permanent myopia or myopic progression. Time-integrated increased retinal defocus causing axial elongation is proposed as a possible mechanism.

  7. Effects of Yoga on Stress, Stress Adaption, and Heart Rate Variability Among Mental Health Professionals--A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Ling; Huang, Ching-Ya; Shiu, Shau-Ping; Yeh, Shu-Hui

    2015-08-01

    Mental health professionals experiencing work-related stress may experience burn out, leading to a negative impact on their organization and patients. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of yoga classes on work-related stress, stress adaptation, and autonomic nerve activity among mental health professionals. A randomized controlled trial was used, which compared the outcomes between the experimental (e.g., yoga program) and the control groups (e.g., no yoga exercise) for 12 weeks. Work-related stress and stress adaptation were assessed before and after the program. Heart rate variability (HRV) was measured at baseline, midpoint through the weekly yoga classes (6 weeks), and postintervention (after 12 weeks of yoga classes). The results showed that the mental health professionals in the yoga group experienced a significant reduction in work-related stress (t = -6.225, p control group revealed no significant changes. Comparing the mean differences in pre- and posttest scores between yoga and control groups, we found the yoga group significantly decreased work-related stress (t = -3.216, p = .002), but there was no significant change in stress adaptation (p = .084). While controlling for the pretest scores of work-related stress, participants in yoga, but not the control group, revealed a significant increase in autonomic nerve activity at midpoint (6 weeks) test (t = -2.799, p = .007), and at posttest (12 weeks; t = -2.099, p = .040). Because mental health professionals experienced a reduction in work-related stress and an increase in autonomic nerve activity in a weekly yoga program for 12 weeks, clinicians, administrators, and educators should offer yoga classes as a strategy to help health professionals reduce their work-related stress and balance autonomic nerve activities. © 2015 The Authors. Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing.

  8. Brain structure in post-traumatic stress disorder: A voxel-based morphometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Liwen; Zhang, Li; Qi, Rongfeng; Lu, Guangming; Li, Lingjiang; Liu, Jun; Li, Weihui

    2013-09-15

    This study compared the difference in brain structure in 12 mine disaster survivors with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder, 7 cases of improved post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, and 14 controls who experienced the same mine disaster but did not suffer post-traumatic stress disorder, using the voxel-based morphometry method. The correlation between differences in brain structure and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms was also investigated. Results showed that the gray matter volume was the highest in the trauma control group, followed by the symptoms-improved group, and the lowest in the chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group. Compared with the symptoms-improved group, the gray matter volume in the lingual gyrus of the right occipital lobe was reduced in the chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group. Compared with the trauma control group, the gray matter volume in the right middle occipital gyrus and left middle frontal gyrus was reduced in the symptoms-improved group. Compared with the trauma control group, the gray matter volume in the left superior parietal lobule and right superior frontal gyrus was reduced in the chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group. The gray matter volume in the left superior parietal lobule was significantly positively correlated with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory subscale score in the symptoms-improved group and chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group (r = 0.477, P = 0.039). Our findings indicate that (1) chronic post-traumatic stress disorder patients have gray matter structural damage in the prefrontal lobe, occipital lobe, and parietal lobe, (2) after post-traumatic stress, the disorder symptoms are improved and gray matter structural damage is reduced, but cannot recover to the trauma-control level, and (3) the superior parietal lobule is possibly associated with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder. Post-traumatic stress disorder patients exhibit gray matter abnormalities.

  9. Brain structure in post-traumatic stress disorder: A voxel-based morphometry analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Liwen; Zhang, Li; Qi, Rongfeng; Lu, Guangming; Li, Lingjiang; Liu, Jun; Li, Weihui

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the difference in brain structure in 12 mine disaster survivors with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder, 7 cases of improved post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, and 14 controls who experienced the same mine disaster but did not suffer post-traumatic stress disorder, using the voxel-based morphometry method. The correlation between differences in brain structure and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms was also investigated. Results showed that the gray matter volume was the highest in the trauma control group, followed by the symptoms-improved group, and the lowest in the chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group. Compared with the symptoms-improved group, the gray matter volume in the lingual gyrus of the right occipital lobe was reduced in the chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group. Compared with the trauma control group, the gray matter volume in the right middle occipital gyrus and left middle frontal gyrus was reduced in the symptoms-improved group. Compared with the trauma control group, the gray matter volume in the left superior parietal lobule and right superior frontal gyrus was reduced in the chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group. The gray matter volume in the left superior parietal lobule was significantly positively correlated with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory subscale score in the symptoms-improved group and chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group (r = 0.477, P = 0.039). Our findings indicate that (1) chronic post-traumatic stress disorder patients have gray matter structural damage in the prefrontal lobe, occipital lobe, and parietal lobe, (2) after post-traumatic stress, the disorder symptoms are improved and gray matter structural damage is reduced, but cannot recover to the trauma-control level, and (3) the superior parietal lobule is possibly associated with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder. Post-traumatic stress disorder patients exhibit gray matter abnormalities. PMID:25206550

  10. The effects of mind-body training on stress reduction, positive affect, and plasma catecholamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ye-Ha; Kang, Do-Hyung; Jang, Joon Hwan; Park, Hye Yoon; Byun, Min Soo; Kwon, Soo Jin; Jang, Go-Eun; Lee, Ul Soon; An, Seung Chan; Kwon, Jun Soo

    2010-07-26

    This study was designed to assess the association between stress, positive affect and catecholamine levels in meditation and control groups. The meditation group consisted of 67 subjects who regularly engaged in mind-body training of "Brain-Wave Vibration" and the control group consisted of 57 healthy subjects. Plasma catecholamine (norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), and dopamine (DA)) levels were measured, and a modified form of the Stress Response Inventory (SRI-MF) and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) were administered. The meditation group showed higher scores on positive affect (p=.019) and lower scores on stress (pmind-body training is associated with lower stress, higher positive affect and higher plasma DA levels when comparing the meditation group with the control group. Thus, mind-body training may influence stress, positive affect and the sympathetic nervous system including DA activity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Nuclear stress test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Persantine stress test; Thallium stress test; Stress test - nuclear; Adenosine stress test; Regadenoson stress test; CAD - nuclear stress; Coronary artery disease - nuclear stress; Angina - nuclear ...

  12. Educational Outreach: The Space Science Road Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, N. L. J.

    2002-01-01

    The poster presented will give an overview of a study towards a "Space Road Show". The topic of this show is space science. The target group is adolescents, aged 12 to 15, at Dutch high schools. The show and its accompanying experiments would be supported with suitable educational material. Science teachers at schools can decide for themselves if they want to use this material in advance, afterwards or not at all. The aims of this outreach effort are: to motivate students for space science and engineering, to help them understand the importance of (space) research, to give them a positive feeling about the possibilities offered by space and in the process give them useful knowledge on space basics. The show revolves around three main themes: applications, science and society. First the students will get some historical background on the importance of space/astronomy to civilization. Secondly they will learn more about novel uses of space. On the one hand they will learn of "Views on Earth" involving technologies like Remote Sensing (or Spying), Communication, Broadcasting, GPS and Telemedicine. On the other hand they will experience "Views on Space" illustrated by past, present and future space research missions, like the space exploration missions (Cassini/Huygens, Mars Express and Rosetta) and the astronomy missions (Soho and XMM). Meanwhile, the students will learn more about the technology of launchers and satellites needed to accomplish these space missions. Throughout the show and especially towards the end attention will be paid to the third theme "Why go to space"? Other reasons for people to get into space will be explored. An important question in this is the commercial (manned) exploration of space. Thus, the questions of benefit of space to society are integrated in the entire show. It raises some fundamental questions about the effects of space travel on our environment, poverty and other moral issues. The show attempts to connect scientific with

  13. Stress alters personal moral decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Farid F; Dookeeram, Karine; Basdeo, Vasant; Francis, Emmanuel; Doman, Mekaeel; Mamed, Danielle; Maloo, Stefan; Degannes, Joel; Dobo, Linda; Ditshotlo, Phatsimo; Legall, George

    2012-04-01

    While early studies of moral decision making highlighted the role of rational, conscious executive processes involving frontal lobe activation more recent work has suggested that emotions and gut reactions have a key part to play in moral reasoning. Given that stress can activate many of the same brain regions that are important for and connected to brain centres involved in emotional processing we sought to evaluate if stress could influence moral decision making. Sixty-five undergraduate volunteers were randomly assigned to control (n=33) and experimental groups (n=32). The latter underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and induction of stress was assessed by measurement of salivary cortisol levels. Subjects were then required to provide a response to thirty moral dilemmas via a computer interface that recorded both their decision and reaction time. Three types of dilemmas were used: non-moral, impersonal moral and personal moral. Using a binary logistic model there were no significant predicators of utilitarian response in non-moral and impersonal moral dilemmas. However the stressed group and females were found to predict utilitarian responses to personal moral dilemmas. When comparing percentage utilitarian responses there were no significant differences noted for the non-moral and impersonal moral dilemmas but the stressed group showed significantly less utilitarian responses compared to control subjects. The stress response was significantly negatively correlated with utilitarian responses. Females also showed significantly less utilitarian responses than males. We conclude that activation of the stress response predisposed participants to less utilitarian responses when faced with high conflict personal moral dilemmas and suggest that this offers further support for dual process theory of moral judgment. We also conclude that females tend to make less utilitarian personal moral decisions compared to males, providing further evidence that there are

  14. Sentence stress in children with dysarthria and cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuschmann, Anja; Lowit, Anja

    2018-03-08

    This study aimed to advance our understanding of how children with dysarthria and cerebral palsy (CP) realise sentence stress acoustically, and how well listeners could identify the position of the stressed word within these utterances. Seven children with CP and eight typically developing children participated in the experiment. Stress on target words in two sentence positions was elicited through a picture-based question-answer paradigm. Acoustic parameters of stress [duration, intensity and fundamental frequency (F0)] were measured and compared between stressed and unstressed target words. For the perception experiment, ten listeners were asked to determine the position of the stressed word in the children's productions. Acoustic measures showed that at group level the typically developing children used all three acoustic parameters to mark sentence stress, whereas the children with CP showed changes in duration only. Individual performance variations were evident in both groups. Perceptually, listeners were significantly better at identifying the stressed words in the utterances produced by the typically developing children than those of the children with CP. The results suggest that children with CP can manipulate temporal speech properties to mark stress. This ability to modulate acoustic-prosodic features could be harnessed in intervention to enhance children's functional communication.

  15. Perceived stress at work is associated with lower levels of DHEA-S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Theorell, Töres; Rockwood, Alan L; Kushnir, Mark M; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H

    2013-01-01

    It is known that long-term psychosocial stress may cause or contribute to different diseases and symptoms and accelerate aging. One of the consequences of prolonged psychosocial stress may be a negative effect on the levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphated metabolite dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S). The aim of this study is to investigate whether levels of DHEA and DHEA-S differ in individuals who report perceived stress at work compared to individuals who report no perceived stress at work. Morning fasting DHEA-S and DHEA levels were measured in serum in a non-stressed group (n = 40) and a stressed group (n = 41). DHEA and DHEA-S levels were compared between the groups using ANCOVA, controlling for age. The mean DHEA-S levels were 23% lower in the subjects who reported stress at work compared to the non-stressed group. Statistical analysis (ANCOVA) showed a significant difference in DHEA-S levels between the groups (p = 0.010). There was no difference in DHEA level between the groups. This study indicates that stressed individual have markedly lower levels of DHEA-S. Given the important and beneficial functions of DHEA and DHEA-S, lower levels of DHEA-S may constitute one link between psychosocial stress, ill health and accelerated ageing.

  16. Stress lowers the detection threshold for foul-smelling 2-mercaptoethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacharra, Marlene; Schäper, Michael; Kleinbeck, Stefan; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Wolf, Oliver T; van Thriel, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have reported enhanced vigilance for threat-related information in response to acute stress. While it is known that acute stress modulates sensory systems in humans, its impact on olfaction and the olfactory detection of potential threats is less clear. Two psychophysical experiments examined, if acute stress lowers the detection threshold for foul-smelling 2-mercaptoethanol. Participants in Experiment 1 (N = 30) and Experiment 2 (N = 32) were randomly allocated to a control group or a stress group. Participants in the stress group underwent a purely psychosocial stressor (public mental arithmetic) in Experiment 1 and a stressor that combined a physically demanding task with social-evaluative threat in Experiment 2 (socially evaluated cold-pressor test). In both experiments, olfactory detection thresholds were repeatedly assessed by means of dynamic dilution olfactometry. Each threshold measurement consisted of three trials conducted using an ascending method of limits. Participants in the stress groups showed the expected changes in heart rate, salivary cortisol, and mood measures in response to stress. About 20 min after the stressor, participants in the stress groups could detect 2-mercaptoethanol at a lower concentration than participants in the corresponding control groups. Our results show that acute stress lowers the detection threshold for a malodor.

  17. The antioxidant effects of dry apricot in the various tissues of rats with induced cold restraint stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uguralp, S; Ozturk, F; Aktay, G; Cetin, A; Gursoy, S

    2012-01-01

    α-Tocopherol and β-carotene are the best known and most widely used natural antioxidant substances. Apricot contains β-carotene, tocopherols and flavonoids. This experimental study was designed to investigate the protective effect of Malatya kabashi apricot in stress-induced injury in various tissues of rats. In total, 32 male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups: control, apricot, stress and apricot-stress groups. Apricot was administrated to rats by gavage for 10 days in the apricot and apricot-stress groups. Then rats were kept at 4°C for 4 h in stress and apricot-stress groups. The rats were killed at the end of the experiment for biochemical and histological examinations. This study shows apricot supplementation decreased oxidative stress injury in both the stomach and intestine.

  18. Group therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    learned my group theory and studied the classification of semi-simple Lie algebras. I found SU(3) and chose the octet for the baryons in October 1960. Showing it to Salam on his return from the Rochester Conference, he told me the group had just been proposed by Ohnuki for the Sakata Model (which tried to explain particles as combinations of protons, neutrons and lambdas). However the octet assignment was new and worth publishing. I also explained to Salam what I had learned about Lie algebras, and immediately other Imperial students were channeled in this direction. From the Spring of 1961 groups were everywhere.'

  19. Effectiveness of a Dental Students Stress Management Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M. Alzahem

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The dental education stress effects and sources were explored thoroughly in the literature, but the effectiveness of stress management programs received less attention. This study introduced a new stress management program, named Dental Education Stress Management (DESM program. It showed its effectiveness in a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest-follow-up-control group design. The new program was based on the principle of psychoeducation and consisted of three 90-min sessions, to teach dental students how to better deal with their stress symptoms and to reduce their general stress level. Two instruments were used to assess the level of stress of the dental students, namely the Dental Environment Stress questionnaire (DES, and the Psychological Stress Measure (PSM-9. Results show that the DESM program has the desired effect of decreasing the stress levels of its participants, and these effects lasted for at least two weeks. Because of several methodological limitations of the study more research is needed to draw more generalizable conclusions.

  20. EFEKTIVITAS FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSION UNTUK MENGURANGI STRES PADA SISWA SMA YANG AKAN MENGHADAPI UJIAN AKHIR NASIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Aprilia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to find the effectivity of Focus Group Discussion (FGD to decrease the feeling stress for senior high school students (SMA who will face the national final examination (UAN. Stress on SMA students is a circumstance which gets negative assessment. It intimidates and pushes the students, in this case is UAN would appear a reaction such as emotional disorder, cognition, physiology and behavior disorder of SMA students. This research concerned 21 SMA students in grade XII, who had high stress level in facing UAN. The subjects were divided into two groups. First group was the experiment group (include 11 students and it was the group who got the FGD treatment. The second group was control group (include 10 students and this group didn’t get the FGD treatment. Collecting data was done by using Stress Scale in facing UAN. It was given (a before FGD (pre-test and (b after FGD (post-test. The hypothesis is examined by using difference examination (t-test by comparing mean pre-test and post-test. The result showed that there was a significant influence to decrease the stress in SMA students who were in experiment group (t = 6,540, p < 0,01 after they got FGD treatment. Experiment group had decreased the stress score to face UAN (Mean=7,476.

  1. Effects of the Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Stress Management on Executive Function Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Ruiz, Ana; Robles-Ortega, Humbelina; Pérez-García, Miguel; Peralta-Ramírez, María Isabel

    2017-02-13

    This study aims to determine whether it is possible to modify executive function in stressed individuals by means of cognitive-behavioral therapy for stress management. Thirty-one people with high levels of perceived stress were recruited into the study (treatment group = 18; wait-list group = 13). The treatment group received 14 weeks of stress management program. Psychological and executive function variables were evaluated in both groups pre and post-intervention. The treatment group showed improved psychological variables of perceived stress (t = 5.492; p = .001), vulnerability to stress (t = 4.061; p = .001) and superstitious thinking (t = 2.961; p = .009). Likewise, the results showed statistically significant differences in personality variables related to executive function, positive urgency (t = 3.585; p = .002) and sensitivity to reward (t = -2.201; p = .042), which improved after the therapy. These variables showed a moderate to high effect size (oscillates between 1.30 for perceived stress and .566 for sensitivity to reward). The cognitive-behavioral therapy for stress management may be an appropriate strategy for improving personality construct components related to executive function, however effects of the therapy are not showed on performance on the tests of executive function applied, as presented studies previous.

  2. The role of stress in IBS symptom severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda Pletikosic

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome is regarded as a biopsychosocial disorder, the result of a complex combination of predisposing, precipitating and perpetuating factors. Personality traits, affective status and stress are some of the relevant factors contributing to lower quality of life and symptom exacerbation in IBS patients. In order to examine the role of stress in IBS symptom exacerbation, the aims of this study were to explore the relationship of daily stressful events and symptom severity in a prospective manner and to explore the roles of neuroticism, anxiety, depression and stress in the vicious circle of symptom perpetuation. A total of 49 patients with IBS reported their symptom severity and daily stressful events intensity each day for 14 consecutive days. They also completed the Big five personality inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory and the State-trait anxiety inventory. Cross-correlation analyses were performed on the time series data for daily stress and symptom severity for each participant separately. Four different patterns of relationships were found in different subgroups of participants: positive cross-correlations of symptom severity and stress intensity on the same day; higher symptom severity on days following stressful days; lower symptom severity on days following stressful days; and lower stress intensity on days following severe symptoms. Using average scores for daily stress and symptom severity, as well as scores for neuroticism, anxiety and depression, we performed a path analysis to test a model of symptom exacerbation. It showed that, on the group level, average stress intensity predicts average symptom severity. Neuroticism and anxiety were not significant predictors of symptom severity, while depression showed a marginally significant relationship with symptom severity, mediated by stress intensity. In conclusion, depression and daily stress seem to be important contributors to the vicious circle of IBS symptom

  3. Impact of Yoga on Periodontal Disease and Stress Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhanshu, Archika; Sharma, Urvi; Vadiraja, H S; Rana, Rakesh Kumar; Singhal, Richa

    2017-01-01

    Yoga is considered to be one of the most important, effective, and valuable tools available for man to overcome various physical and psychological problems. Stress contributes significantly to the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases; hence, it becomes important to reduce the level of stress for prevention and management of diseases. The present study was aimed: (1) To understand and analyze the possibilities of employing yogic practices in the treatment of periodontal disease along with conventional dental therapy, (2) to understand the effect of stress on periodontal treatment outcome, (3) to evaluate the efficacy of yoga in the management of periodontal disease with reference to stress. An outpatient department-based parallel group randomized study was performed with standard treatment for periodontal disease yoga therapy as Group II and only standard treatment as Group I. Periodontal health status was recorded using indices of modified plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth, and clinical attachment loss (CAL). The Cohen's perceived stress questionnaire was also used to determine stress severity. The yogic intervention consists of lectures and practical sessions on asanas, pranayama, kriyas, and meditation. Repeated measure analysis of variance revealed a significant difference ( P stress scale score also reduced by 18.76 points in Group II as compared to only 2.58 points in Group I, BOP also shows better improvement in Group II with a reduction of 0.68 as compared to reduction of only 0.08 in Group I. The results obtained ascertained the role of yoga in stress reduction in periodontal disease. Although yoga does not play a direct role in improving periodontal disease, it accelerates the treatment outcomes by combating the stress which is a major factor affecting the treatment of periodontal disease.

  4. Effect of perceived stress on depression of Chinese "Ant Tribe" and the moderating role of dispositional optimism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Pu, Jun; Hou, Hanpo

    2015-05-08

    This study examines the moderating role of dispositional optimism on the relationship between perceived stress and depression of the Chinese "Ant Tribe." A total of 427 participants from an Ant Tribe community completed the measures of perceived stress, optimism, and depression. The structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis showed that dispositional optimism moderated the association between perceived stress and depression. The Ant Tribe with high perceived stress reported higher scores in depression than those with low perceived stress at low dispositional optimism level. However, the impact of perceived stress on depression was insignificant in the high dispositional optimism group. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Stress "Deafness" Reveals Absence of Lexical Marking of Stress or Tone in the Adult Grammar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Rahmani

    Full Text Available A Sequence Recall Task with disyllabic stimuli contrasting either for the location of prosodic prominence or for the medial consonant was administered to 150 subjects equally divided over five language groups. Scores showed a significant interaction between type of contrast and language group, such that groups did not differ on their performance on the consonant contrast, while two language groups, Dutch and Japanese, significantly outperformed the three other language groups (French, Indonesian and Persian on the prosodic contrast. Since only Dutch and Japanese words have unpredictable stress or accent locations, the results are interpreted to mean that stress "deafness" is a property of speakers of languages without lexical stress or tone markings, as opposed to the presence of stress or accent contrasts in phrasal (post-lexical constructions. Moreover, the degree of transparency between the locations of stress/tone and word boundaries did not appear to affect our results, despite earlier claims that this should have an effect. This finding is of significance for speech processing, language acquisition and phonological theory.

  6. Stress and Recovery during Simulated Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Michel

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a 60-day head-down tilt long-term bed rest (HDT) on stress and recovery in sixteen healthy female volunteers during the WISE-2005 study (Women International Space Simulation for Exploration). Participants were randomly assigned to either an exercise group (Exe) that followed a training program combining resistive and aerobic exercises, or to a no-exercise control group (Ctl). Psychological states were assessed using the Rest-Q, a validated questionnaire based on stress-recovery responses. A longitudinal analysis revealed significant changes in the general and specific stress scales for all participants throughout the experiment with a critical stage from supine to standing posture leading to a significant decrease in physical recovery. During HDT, Exe reported higher scores in stress subscales, as well as lower recovery scores compared to the Ctl. During the post HDT ambulatory recovery period, the exercisers still reported higher scores than the non-exercisers on the Lack of energy stress related scale, along with lower scores in general well-being and personal accomplishment. The present findings show that simulated weightlessness such as HDT may induce psychological stress and lead to subsequent alterations in perceived recovery. Exercise did not reduce HDT impaired effects on stress and recovery states. In the perspective of spaceflights of long-duration such as the future missions to Mars, there is a need for additional experiments to further investigate spaceflight-induced changes of stress and recovery parameters and the effects of exercise on these parameters. Further studies might determine and analyze the psychological factors involved, but also how to intervene concerning these factors with efficient psychological preparation which, although not yet fully investigated, may reduce stress, promote recovery and support adaptive responses to such extreme environments.

  7. Perceived life stress exposure modulates reward-related medial prefrontal cortex responses to acute stress in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Poornima; Slavich, George M; Berghorst, Lisa H; Treadway, Michael T; Brooks, Nancy H; Dutra, Sunny J; Greve, Douglas N; O'Donovan, Aoife; Bleil, Maria E; Maninger, Nicole; Pizzagalli, Diego A

    2015-07-15

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is often precipitated by life stress and growing evidence suggests that stress-induced alterations in reward processing may contribute to such risk. However, no human imaging studies have examined how recent life stress exposure modulates the neural systems that underlie reward processing in depressed and healthy individuals. In this proof-of-concept study, 12 MDD and 10 psychiatrically healthy individuals were interviewed using the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule (LEDS) to assess their perceived levels of recent acute and chronic life stress exposure. Additionally, each participant performed a monetary incentive delay task under baseline (no-stress) and stress (social-evaluative) conditions during functional MRI. Across groups, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activation to reward feedback was greater during acute stress versus no-stress conditions in individuals with greater perceived stressor severity. Under acute stress, depressed individuals showed a positive correlation between perceived stressor severity levels and reward-related mPFC activation (r=0.79, p=0.004), whereas no effect was found in healthy controls. Moreover, for depressed (but not healthy) individuals, the correlations between the stress (r=0.79) and no-stress (r=-0.48) conditions were significantly different. Finally, relative to controls, depressed participants showed significantly reduced mPFC gray matter, but functional findings remained robust while accounting for structural differences. Small sample size, which warrants replication. Depressed individuals experiencing greater recent life stress recruited the mPFC more under stress when processing rewards. Our results represent an initial step toward elucidating mechanisms underlying stress sensitization and recurrence in depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. genotypes for drought stress adaptation in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwabena Darkwa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress linked with climate change is one of the major constraints faced by common bean farmers in Africa and elsewhere. Mitigating this constraint requires the selection of resilient varieties that withstand drought threats to common bean production. This study assessed the drought response of 64 small red-seeded genotypes of common bean grown in a lattice design replicated twice under contrasting moisture regimes, terminal drought stress and non-stress, in Ethiopia during the dry season from November 2014 to March 2015. Multiple plant traits associated with drought were assessed for their contribution to drought adaptation of the genotypes. Drought stress determined by a drought intensity index was moderate (0.3. All the assessed traits showed significantly different genotypic responses under drought stress and non-stress conditions. Eleven genotypes significantly (P ≤ 0.05 outperformed the drought check cultivar under both drought stress and non-stress conditions in seed yielding potential. Seed yield showed positive and significant correlations with chlorophyll meter reading, vertical root pulling resistance force, number of pods per plant, and seeds per pod under both soil moisture regimes, indicating their potential use in selection of genotypes yielding well under drought stress and non-stress conditions. Clustering analysis using Mahalanobis distance grouped the genotypes into four groups showing high and significant inter-cluster distance, suggesting that hybridization between drought-adapted parents from the groups will provide the maximum genetic recombination for drought tolerance in subsequent generations.

  9. Self-reported stress among adolescent siblings of individuals with autism spectrum disorder and Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivers, Carolyn M; McGregor, Casey; Hough, Ashlea

    2017-11-01

    Despite the prevalence of studies showing increased stress among mothers of individuals with autism spectrum disorders, few studies have examined general stress among typically developing siblings. This study used an online survey to compare the levels of self-reported stress between adolescent siblings of individuals with autism spectrum disorder and Down syndrome. Sibling of individuals with autism reported significantly more overall stress than did siblings of individuals with Down syndrome, as well as more stress specifically attributed to the brother/sister with autism. The two groups did not differ on perceived social support from family and friends. In linear regression models, the disability group (autism vs Down syndrome) was significantly related to sibling stress above and beyond target child behavior problems, perceived social support, and demographic factors. These results help shed light on the daily experiences of adolescent siblings of individuals with autism and call for more research into potential interventions to address increased stress levels.

  10. Neuropeptide Y and Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Gulsun

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The neurobiological aspects of stress and coping skills has been the focus of interest for many researchers. Some of the studies has shown that there is a significant relationship among genetically variables, stress response and life events. Neuropeptide Y is one of the systems regulating the stress response. Under the prolonged or repeated trauma neuropeptide Y is released from the brain's key areas. This system shows different levels of functioning in individuals with different levels of resilience. There is particular interest in the variations of genes that encode stress-sensitive signaling molecules during gene-environment interaction. This condition may contribute to susceptibility of stress or stress resilience. Neuropeptide Y system plays a key role in the adaptation to behavioral stress. The reduced levels of neuropeptide Y have also been observed in treatment-resistant depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Lower level of neuropeptide Y expression and dysfunctional neuropeptide Y system in response to stress and resulting decreased stress resilience could increase susceptibility to stress-related disorders.

  11. Group Cooperation in Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Bruce E.

    1978-01-01

    Utilizing the Beatles' Yellow Submarine fantasy (e.g., the Blue Meanies), this outdoor education program is designed for sixth graders and special education students. Activities developed at the Cortland Resident Outdoor Education Camp include a series of group stress/challenge activities to be accomplished by everyone in the group, as a group.…

  12. The teacher under stress

    OpenAIRE

    Krnjajić Stevan B.

    2003-01-01

    Empirical records consistently point to the fact that the phenomenon of stress is characteristic of service professions, especially of teacher’s. Although stress in teachers is a problem of public interest, it is still a relatively new field of empirical investigations. Data available show that stress in teachers can have negative effects on school as an organization teacher professional achievement, his/her and his/her family psychosocial status. The most frequent symptoms of a prolonged pro...

  13. Stress Management: A Rational Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Cecil

    This workbook was designed for use as the primary resource tool during a l-day participatory stress management seminar in which participants identify stressful situations, conduct analyses, and develop approaches to manage the stressful situations more effectively. Small group warm-up activities designed to introduce participants, encourage…

  14. Memory retrieval of everyday information under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Lisa-Marie; Merz, Christian J

    2018-07-01

    Psychosocial stress is known to crucially influence learning and memory processes. Several studies have already shown an impairing effect of elevated cortisol concentrations on memory retrieval. These studies mainly used learning material consisting of stimuli with a limited ecological validity. When using material with a social contextual component or with educational relevant material both impairing and enhancing stress effects on memory retrieval could be observed. In line with these latter studies, the present experiment also used material with a higher ecological validity (a coherent text consisting of daily relevant numeric, figural and verbal information). After encoding, retrieval took place 24 h later after exposure to psychosocial stress or a control procedure (20 healthy men per group). The stress group was further subdivided into cortisol responders and non-responders. Results showed a significantly impaired retrieval of everyday information in non-responders compared to responders and controls. Altogether, the present findings indicate the need of an appropriate cortisol response for the successful memory retrieval of everyday information. Thus, the present findings suggest that cortisol increases - contrary to a stressful experience per se - seem to play a protective role for retrieving everyday information. Additionally, it could be speculated that the previously reported impairing stress effects on memory retrieval might depend on the used learning material. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Group X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, Susannah

    2007-08-16

    This project is currently under contract for research through the Department of Homeland Security until 2011. The group I was responsible for studying has to remain confidential so as not to affect the current project. All dates, reference links and authors, and other distinguishing characteristics of the original group have been removed from this report. All references to the name of this group or the individual splinter groups has been changed to 'Group X'. I have been collecting texts from a variety of sources intended for the use of recruiting and radicalizing members for Group X splinter groups for the purpose of researching the motivation and intent of leaders of those groups and their influence over the likelihood of group radicalization. This work included visiting many Group X websites to find information on splinter group leaders and finding their statements to new and old members. This proved difficult because the splinter groups of Group X are united in beliefs, but differ in public opinion. They are eager to tear each other down, prove their superiority, and yet remain anonymous. After a few weeks of intense searching, a list of eight recruiting texts and eight radicalizing texts from a variety of Group X leaders were compiled.

  16. Writing about stress: the impact of a stress-management programme on staff accounts of dealing with stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oorsouw, Wietske M W J; Embregts, Petri J C M; Bosman, Anna M T; Jahoda, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Helping staff serving clients with intellectual disability and challenging behaviour to cope with stress has implications for their own well-being and for the lives of those they support. This study examined staff members' views of stress and the effectiveness of a stress-management intervention. Effectiveness was assessed using written assignments regarding stress management, and changes in views presented were tested in a pre- and post-test control group design. In the first phase, a content analysis was conducted across groups, which revealed that participants expressed a broad variety of views about stress and coping mechanisms, with considerable individual differences. In the second phase, a more fine-grained quantitative analysis was conducted to assess training effectiveness. Results showed an increase in the proportion of coping strategies referred to by the experimental group post-training. This positive change remained at follow-up. The results of the content analysis and the outcome data have implications for staff training. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Occupational Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Löblová, Klára

    2011-01-01

    The thesis deals with load, stress and related questions of the working life. Work-related stress brings numerous difficulties not only to affected individuals, but as a result also to organizations. The thesis follows symptoms, impacts, somatic and mental aspects of stress, its types and also types of stressors, which cause this problem. It is concentrated on workload as a specific area of work-related stress, individual resistance to the load, factors of workload and work-related stress and...

  18. Group Flow and Group Genius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Keith Sawyer views the spontaneous collaboration of group creativity and improvisation actions as "group flow," which organizations can use to function at optimum levels. Sawyer establishes ideal conditions for group flow: group goals, close listening, complete concentration, being in control, blending egos, equal participation, knowing…

  19. The effects of propolis extract on ovarian tissue and oxidative stress in rats with maternal separation stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Arabameri

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Stress in infancy has dramatic effects on different systems, including the nervous system, endocrine, immune, reproductive and etc. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of extract of Iranian propolis (EIP on ovarian tissue and oxidative stress in rats with maternal separation stress. Materials and Methods: 48 immature female rats were divided randomly into six groups. 1 Control group, 2 Control group+saline, 3 Stress group, includes infants that were separated from their mothers 6 hr/day, the 4th, 5th and 6th groups consisted of infants who in addition to daily stress received 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of EIP, respectively. Then serum corticosterone, 17-beta-estradiol, malondialdehyde, total superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and ferric reducing antioxidant power levels were measured. The ovarian sections were stained by H&E, PAS, and TUNEL methods and were studied with optical microscopy. Results: Stress increased the blood serum corticosterone levels and 17-beta-estradiol reduced significantly (p<0.001 and EIP prevented from this changes (p<0.01. EIP significantly increased the number of ovarian follicles, oocytes and oocytes diameter in neonatal rat following stress (p<0.01. EIP also significantly decreased the number of atretic follicles, TUNEL+granulosa cells, malondialdehyde levels and increased ferric reducing antioxidant power, total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase serum levels in neonatal rats following stress. The dose of 200 mg/kg EIP was more effective. Conclusion: This Study showed that the Iranian Propolis significantly could prevent oxidative stress and histopathological changes in the ovary of the neonatal rat the following stress.

  20. A cross-language study of perception of lexical stress in English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Vickie Y; Andruski, Jean E

    2010-08-01

    This study investigates the question of whether language background affects the perception of lexical stress in English. Thirty native English speakers and 30 native Chinese learners of English participated in a stressed-syllable identification task and a discrimination task involving three types of stimuli (real words/pseudowords/hums). The results show that both language groups were able to identify and discriminate stress patterns. Lexical and segmental information affected the English and Chinese speakers in varying degrees. English and Chinese speakers showed different response patterns to trochaic vs. iambic stress across the three types of stimuli. An acoustic analysis revealed that two language groups used different acoustic cues to process lexical stress. The findings suggest that the different degrees of lexical and segmental effects can be explained by language background, which in turn supports the hypothesis that language background affects the perception of lexical stress in English.

  1. Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on depression, anxiety, stress and mindfulness in Korean nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yeoungsuk; Lindquist, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Nursing students often experience depression, anxiety, stress and decreased mindfulness which may decrease their patient care effectiveness. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) effectively reduced depression, anxiety and stress, and increased mindfulness in previous research with other populations, but there is sparse evidence regarding its effectiveness for nursing students in Korea. To examine the effects of MBSR on depression, anxiety, stress and mindfulness in Korean nursing students. A randomized controlled trial. Fifty (50) nursing students at KN University College of Nursing in South Korea were randomly assigned to two groups. Data from 44 students, MBSR (n=21) and a wait list (WL) control (n=23) were analyzed. The MBSR group practiced mindfulness meditation for 2 h every week for 8 weeks. The WL group did not receive MBSR intervention. Standardized self-administered questionnaires of depression, anxiety, stress and mindfulness were administered at the baseline prior to the MBSR program and at completion (at 8 weeks). Compared with WL participants, MBSR participants reported significantly greater decreases in depression, anxiety and stress, and greater increase in mindfulness. A program of MBSR was effective when it was used with nursing students in reducing measures of depression, anxiety and stress, and increasing their mindful awareness. MBSR shows promise for use with nursing students to address their experience of mild depression, anxiety and stress, and to increase mindfulness in academic and clinical work, warranting further study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Caracterización de los síntomas de angina en un grupo de mujeres con prueba de esfuerzo positiva Characterization of angina's symptoms in a group of women with positive stress test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Rincón O

    angina’s symptoms in relation to the presentation pattern, the role integration and the perceived effort in a group of women with positive stress test. Design: this is an exploratory descriptive study with quality-quantitative approach. 15 women with pain or thoracic discomfort and positive stress test for coronary disease, were included. Results: Risk factors, characterization in relation with role integration, of perceived effort and presentation pattern were investigated. Different categories such as «oppression», «little important», stabbing sensation», respiratory symptoms, and simultaneous symptoms were found. Most women refer feeling the symptom without consulting or asking for help. Increase in physical activity is the determinant factor in 8 women; most of them confront the situation with rest and breathing, living with the symptom, taking medications and informing their relatives; 3 consult health professionals. 6 relate the event to physical trauma or psychological stress, 5 don’t know and for 3 it is a reflection of a life stage. Conclusions: a categorical expression pattern that contributes to the construction of a female profile in the diagnosis of coronary disease is observed.

  3. Mental stress: Neurophysiology and its regulation by Sudarshan Kriya Yoga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil Chandra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study focuses on analyzing the effects of Sudarshan Kriya yoga (SKY on EEG as well as ECG signals for stress regulation. To envision the regulation of stress Determination Test (DT has been used. We have chosen a control group for contriving a cogent comparison that could be corroborated using statistical tests. Subjects and Methods: A total of 20 subjects were taken in the study, of which 10 were allotted to a control group. Electroencephalograph was taken during a DT task, before and after SKY the sky session with 30 days of SKY session given to the experimental group. No SKY was given to the control group. Results: We quantified mental stress using EEG, ECG and DT synergistically and used SKY to regulate it. We observed that alpha band power decreases in the frontal lobe of the brain with increasing mental stress while frontal brain asymmetry decreases with increasing stress tolerance. Conclusions: These EEG, ECG and DT shows a significant decrement in mental stress and improvement in cognitive performance after SKY, indicating SKY as a good alternative of medication for stress management.

  4. 125I-iomazenil - benzodiazepine receptor binding and serum corticosterone level during psychological stress in a rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi; Ogi, Shigeyuki; Uchiyama, Mayuki; Mori, Yutaka

    2004-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that benzodiazepine receptor density decreases in response to stress, we correlated 125 I-iomazenil ( 125 I-IMZ) binding with serum corticosterone levels in a rat model. Wistar male rats were divided into four groups; control group (CON, 10 rats), no physical or psychological stress; and one-, three-, and five-day stress groups of 12 rats each (1-DAY, 3-DAY, and 5-DAY, respectively), receiving psychological stress for the given number of days. Psychological stress were given to rats with a communication box. The standardized uptake value (SUV) of 125 I-iomazenil of the 3-DAY and 5-DAY showed that 125 I-iomazenil - benzodiazepine receptor binding was significantly reduced in the cortices, accumbens nuclei, amygdala and caudate putamen (p 125 I-IMZ is a useful radioligand to reflect received stress and its binding in the cortices, accumbens nuclei, amygdala and caudate putamen is strongly affected by psychological stress

  5. Stress evaluation in hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas captured for traslocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lavazza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to evaluate the capturing techniques some haematic and physiological parameters were studied to discrim- inate stressed hares from non stressed hares. A total of 66 wild hares (experimental group were sampled in 14 different non-hunting areas, where hares are usually captured for later release in low-density areas. In the same season a total of 30 hares (about 1 year old, reared in cages and thus showing a reduced fear of man, were sampled (control group. In each area the hares were captured by cours- ing with 3-4 dogs (greyhounds or lurches. The dogs were released by the different hunter teams to find and drive into trammel nets any hare that was seen running. After capture, the hares remained inside darkened, wooden capture-boxes for a variable period of time before blood drawing. For blood sample collection all the hares were physically restrained and their eyes immediately covered. Blood, always collected within 1-2 minutes, was drawn from the auricular vein. Blood samples (plasma were analysed for glucose, AST, ALT, CPK and cortisol concentrations. Body temperature, heart and respiratory rate, sex, and age were evaluated in each hare. The effect of origin, sex and age on haematic and physiolog- ical parameters was analysed by ANOVA. Every measured parameter of the hares bearing to the capture group or the control group (reared was then subjected to stepwise and to discriminant analysis, in order to select the groups of stressed (discriminated by the controls and non-stressed hares. CPK, AST and glucose were found to be the best parameters for distinguishing stressed from non-stressed hares. The intensive exercise suffered by the wild hares induced a depletion of energetic reserves, so that most of the captured hares showed lower glucose and higher CPK activity in the plasma, probably due to muscle damage (P< 0.05. After reclassi- fying the hares in the two groups of stressed and non stressed hares, the reference values (means

  6. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Communications Infrastructure The 55 CMS Centres worldwide are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin is particularly busy at the moment, hosting about 50 physicists taking part in the heavy-ion data-taking and analysis. Three new CMS meeting room will be equipped for videoconferencing in early 2012: 40/5B-08, 42/R-031, and 28/S-029. The CMS-TV service showing LHC Page 1, CMS Page 1, etc. (http://cmsdoc.cern.ch/cmscc/projector/index.jsp) is now also available for mobile devices: http://cern.ch/mcmstv. Figure 12: Screenshots of CMS-TV for mobile devices Information Systems CMS has a new web site: (http://cern.ch/cms) using a modern web Content Management System to ensure content and links are managed and updated easily and coherently. It covers all CMS sub-projects and groups, replacing the iCMS internal pages. It also incorporates the existing CMS public web site (http:/...

  7. Allometric trajectories and "stress"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anfodillo, Tommaso; Petit, Giai; Sterck, Frank; Lechthaler, Silvia; Olson, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    The term "stress" is an important but vague term in plant biology. We show situations in which thinking in terms of "stress" is profitably replaced by quantifying distance from functionally optimal scaling relationships between plant parts. These relationships include, for example, the

  8. Permutation groups

    CERN Document Server

    Passman, Donald S

    2012-01-01

    This volume by a prominent authority on permutation groups consists of lecture notes that provide a self-contained account of distinct classification theorems. A ready source of frequently quoted but usually inaccessible theorems, it is ideally suited for professional group theorists as well as students with a solid background in modern algebra.The three-part treatment begins with an introductory chapter and advances to an economical development of the tools of basic group theory, including group extensions, transfer theorems, and group representations and characters. The final chapter feature

  9. Stressing Academia? Stress-as-Offence-to-Self at Danish Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opstrup, Niels; Pihl-Thingvad, Signe

    2016-01-01

    Academic work has traditionally been seen as relatively stress free. However, a growing number of studies have reported increases in occupational stress experienced by university researchers. In order to explain stress among this group, we build on a new perspective in occupational stress research: the so-called stress-as-offence-to-self…

  10. Analysis of primary teacher stress' sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Depolli Steiner

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Teachers are subject to many different work stressors. This study focused on differences in intensity and frequency of potential stressors facing primary schoolteachers and set the goal to identify the most important sources of teacher stress in primary school. The study included 242 primary schoolteachers from different parts of Slovenia. We used Stress Inventory that is designed for identification of intensity and frequency of 49 situations that can play the role of teachers' work stressors. Findings showed that the major sources of stress facing teachers are factors related to work overload, factors stemming from pupils' behaviour and motivation and factors related to school system. Results also showed some small differences in perception of stressors in different groups of teachers (by gender and by teaching level.

  11. Mediating influences of social support on stress at Three Mile Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, R; Baum, A; Gisriel, M M; Gatchel, R J

    1982-09-01

    Symptom reporting, task performance, and urinary catecholamine excretion were studied in a group of people living near the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant and in control populations. More than a year after the accident, living near the damaged reactor was associated with elevations in all indices of stress compared with control levels. Social support mediated these stress indices such that higher levels were associated with fewer psychological and behavioral symptoms of stress. Biochemical measures showed a different pattern of results.

  12. Mediating influences of social support on stress at Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, R.; Baum, A.; Gisriel, M.M.; Gatchel, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    Symptom reporting, task performance, and urinary catecholamine excretion were studied in a group of people living near the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant and in control populations. More than a year after the accident, living near the damaged reactor was associated with elevations in all indices of stress compared with control levels. Social support mediated these stress indices such that higher levels were associated with fewer psychological and behavioral symptoms of stress. Biochemical measures showed a different pattern of results

  13. Effects of a relaxation training programme on immediate and prolonged stress responses in women with preterm labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Li-Lan; Lin, Li-Chan; Cheng, Po-Jen; Chen, Chung-Hey; Wu, Shiao-Chi; Chang, Chuan-Lin

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a report of an experimental study of the effects of relaxation-training programme on immediate and prolonged stress responses in women with preterm labour. Hospitalized pregnant women with preterm labour experience developmental and situational stress. However, few studies have been performed on stress management in such women. An experimental pretest and repeated post-test design was used to compare the outcomes for two groups in northern Taiwan from December 2008, to May 2010. A total of 129 women were randomly assigned to an experimental (n = 68) or control (n = 61) group. The experimental group participants were instructed to listen daily to a 13-minute relaxation programme. Measurements involved the stress visual analogue scale, finger temperatures, State Trait Anxiety Inventory, Perceived Stress Scale and Pregnancy-related Anxiety. Two-way analysis of variance and hierarchical linear modelling were used to analyse the group differences. Compared with those in the control group, participants in the experimental group showed immediate improvements in the stress visual analogue scale scores and finger temperatures. The State Trait Anxiety Inventory-State subscale score for the experimental group was significantly lower than that for the control group (P = 0·03). However, no statistically significant differences for the Perceived Stress Scale and Pregnancy-related Anxiety scores were found between the experimental group and the control group. The relaxation-training programme could improve the stress responses of women with preterm labour. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Stress transmission in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamandé, Mathieu; Schjønning, Per

    We urgently need increased quantitative knowledge on stress transmission in real soils loaded with agricultural machinery. 3D measurements of vertical stresses under tracked wheels were performed in situ in a Stagnic Luvisol (clay content 20 %) continuously cropped with small grain cereals......). Seven load cells were inserted horizontally from a pit with minimal disturbance of soil in each of three depths (0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 m), covering the width of the wheeled area. The position of the wheel relative to the transducers was recorded using a laser sensor. Finally, the vertical stresses near...... the soil-tyre interface were measured in separate tests by 17 stress transducers across the width of the tyres. The results showed that the inflation pressure controlled the level of maximum stresses at 0.3 m depth, while the wheel load was correlated to the measured stresses at 0.9 m depth. This supports...

  15. Chasing as a model of psychogenic stress: characterization of physiological and behavioral responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hye; Kimm, Sunwhi; Han, Jung-Soo; Choi, June-Seek

    2018-03-25

    Being chased by a predator or a dominant conspecific can induce significant stress. However, only a limited number of laboratory studies have employed chasing by itself as a stressor. In this study, we developed a novel stress paradigm in which rats were chased by a fast-moving object in an inescapable maze. In Experiment 1, defensive behaviors and stress hormone changes induced by chasing stress were measured. During the chasing stress, the chasing-stress group (n = 9) froze and emitted 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), but the no-chasing control group (n = 10) did not. Plasma corticosterone levels significantly increased following the chasing and were comparable to those of the restraint-stress group (n = 6). In Experiment 2, the long-lasting memory of the chasing event was tested after three weeks. The chasing-stress group (n = 15) showed higher levels of freezing and USV than the no-chasing group (n = 14) when they were presented with the tone associated with the object's chasing action. Subsequently, the rats were subjected to Pavlovian threat conditioning with a tone as a conditioned stimulus and footshock as an unconditioned stimulus. The chasing-stress group showed higher levels of freezing and USV during the conditioning session than the no-chasing group, indicating sensitized defensive reactions in a different threat situation. Taken together, the current results suggest that chasing stress can induce long-lasting memory and sensitization of defensive responses to a new aversive event as well as immediate, significant stress responses.

  16. Lie groups and algebraic groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We give an exposition of certain topics in Lie groups and algebraic groups. This is not a complete ... of a polynomial equation is equivalent to the solva- bility of the equation ..... to a subgroup of the group of roots of unity in k (in particular, it is a ...

  17. Psychological stress associated with aphthous ulcers and temporomandibular disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, A.; Hassan, S.H.; Khan, D.A.; Chaudhary, M.A.G.

    2017-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of stress as an etiological factor for aphthous ulcers and temporomandibular disorders. Study Design: Cross sectional descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Armed Forces Institute of Dentistry Rawalpindi, from Oct 2015 to May 2016. Material and Methods: Two groups of patients were selected. Group I included 119 patients presenting with Aphthous Ulcers while group II had 64 subjects with complaints of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). After a thorough history, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to assess stress in the patients. AHADS-A score of 7 was taken as significant anxiety while a HADS-D score of 7 depicted significant depression. Both groups were then subjected to laboratory examinations. Serum cortisol levels were assessed for both groups while Serum Folate, Ferritin and Vitamin B12 level for group I only. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21 to calculate descriptive statistics including mean and standard deviations as well as frequencies and percentages. Relationship between HADS score and serum cortisol levels was assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficient. A p-value<0.05 was considered significant. Results: For TMDs, 53 (82.8%) patients were found positive for stress while for aphthous ulcers, 61 (51.3%) were positive for stress. The correlation between HADS score and serum cortisol levels was found significant for both groups at a p=<0.001. Conclusions: Patients showed a high prevalence of stress as an etiological factor for aphthous ulcers and temporomandibular disorders in a local setting. (author)

  18. Perception of academic examination stress: effects on serum leptin, cortisol, appetite and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inam, Qurrat-ul-Aen; Shireen, Erum; Haider, Saida; Haleem, Darakhshan Jabeen

    2011-01-01

    Examination stress is a psychological stress that activate hypothalamic-pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) axis to increase circulating levels of glucocorticoids. The fat derived hormone leptin is also released in response to stress-inducing condition. To workout the role of leptin and cortisol in response to perceived levels of examination stress and their effects on academic performance. The present study was designed to monitor the relationship of self reported perceived levels of examination stress on serum levels of cortisol and leptin in female students going to appear in university examination. Fifty-six female undergraduate students participated in the study. Examination stress, appetite levels were assessed by a questionnaire and blood samples were collected one hour before appearing in the examination. Performance was evaluated from the marks obtained in that particular examination. Serum cortisol levels increased with an increase in the intensity of perceived examination stress. Serum leptin levels increased only in the group under moderate stress while increases in mild and severe stress group were not significant. Mild to moderate stress enhanced performance but severe stress decreased it. The present study shows an inverted U-shaped relationship between self reported different levels of perceived examination stress and academic performance.

  19. Role of perineal ultrasonography in postoperative evaluation of patients with stress incontinence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Seog Wan; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Kang, Heoung Keun; Chung, Tae Woong; Seo, Jeong Jin; Park, Jin Gyoon; Kwon, Dong Deuk

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of perineal ultrasonography in the evaluation of female stress incontinence after surgical management. Perineal ultrasonography was performed in 19 patients who were surgically treated for stress incontinence and this was performed in erect position. Nineteen patients were divided into two groups, group A for 11 patients with resolved incontinent after surgery and group B for 8 patients with persistent incontinence even after surgery. Using a sagittal scan of the anterior pelvis at the level of the symphysis pubis, the posterior urethrovesical angel (PUVA) and descent of the bladder neck were measured at rest and during stress (Valsalva maneuver), and these measured values obtained before and after surgery were compared between two groups, group A and B. Postoperative PUVA and descent of the bladder neck were decreased when compared with preoperative values measured at rest and during stress in both groups. There was a statistically significant difference in the postoperative PUVA between two groups (p< 0.05). The mean increment of PUVA during stress after surgery was 6.3 ± 3.8. deg in group A and 14.6 ± 6.4. deg in group B, respectively, showing statistically significant difference (p< 0.05). There was also a statistically difference in the mean descent of the bladder neck during stress after surgery between the two groups (p<0.05). The measurement and comparison of PUVA and descent of the bladder neck by perineal ultrasonography before and after surgery in patients with stress incontinence offered useful and objective information in evaluating the effectiveness of surgical management in females stress incontinence, the stress effectiveness in the stress incontinence.

  20. Cortisol stress response in post-traumatic stress disorder, panic disorder, and major depressive disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Böhme, Carsten; Petrowski, Katja

    2017-09-01

    Previous research has focussed extensively on the distinction of HPA-axis functioning between patient groups and healthy volunteers, with relatively little emphasis on a direct comparison of patient groups. The current study's aim was to analyse differences in the cortisol stress response as a function of primary diagnosis of panic disorder (PD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and major depressive disorder (MDD). A total of n=30 PD (mean age±SD: 36.07±12.56), n=23 PTSD (41.22±10.17), n=18 MDD patients (39.00±14.93) and n=47 healthy control (HC) individuals (35.51±13.15) participated in this study. All the study participants were female. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was used for reliable laboratory stress induction. Blood sampling accompanied the TSST for cortisol and ACTH assessment. Panic-related, PTSD-specific questionnaires and the Beck Depression Inventory II were handed out for the characterisation of the study groups. Repeated measure ANCOVAs were conducted to test for main effects of time or group and for interaction effects. Regression analyses were conducted to take comorbid depression into account. 26.7% of the PD patients, 43.5% of the PTSD patients, 72.2% of the MDD patients and 80.6% of the HC participants showed a cortisol stress response upon the TSST. ANCOVA revealed a cortisol hypo-responsiveness both in PD and PTSD patients, while no significant group differences were seen in the ACTH concentrations. Additional analyses showed no impact of comorbid depressiveness on the cortisol stress response. MDD patients did not differ in the hormonal stress response neither compared to the HC participants nor to the PD and PTSD patients. Our main findings provide evidence of a dissociation between the cortisol and ACTH concentrations in response to the TSST in PTSD and in PD patients, independent of comorbid depression. Our results further support overall research findings of a cortisol hypo-responsiveness in PD patients. A hypo

  1. Cold Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH COLD STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Workers who ... cold environments may be at risk of cold stress. Extreme cold weather is a dangerous situation that ...

  2. Heat Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH HEAT STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir OSHA-NIOSH ... hot environments may be at risk of heat stress. Exposure to extreme heat can result in occupational ...

  3. Exacerbation of N-nitrosodiethylamine Induced Hepatotoxicity and DNA Damage in Mice Exposed to Chronic Unpredictable Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayeem Bilal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Psychological stress contributes to increased susceptibility to a number of diseases including cancer. The present study was designed to assess the effect of chronic unpredictable stress on N-nitrosodiethylamine induced liver toxicity in terms of in vivo antioxidant status and DNA damage in Swiss albino mice. The animals used in this study were randomized into different groups based on the treatment with N-nitrosodiethylamine or chronic unpredictable stress alone and post-stress administration of N-nitrosodiethylamine. The mice were sacrificed after 12 weeks of treatment, and the status of major enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, liver function markers, lipid peroxidation and the extent of DNA damage were determined in circulation and liver tissues of all the groups. The N-nitrosodiethylamine treated group showed significantly compromised levels of the antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and the liver function markers with enhanced DNA damage as compared to chronic unpredictable stress or control groups. A similar but less typical pattern observed in the chronic unpredictable stress treated mice. All the measured biochemical parameters were significantly altered in the group treated with the combination of chronic unpredictable stress and N-nitrosodiethylamine when compared to controls, or chronic unpredictable stress alone and/or N-nitrosodiethylamine alone treated groups. Thus, exposure to continuous, unpredictable stress conditions even in general life may significantly enhance the hepatotoxic potential of N-nitrosodiethylamine through an increase in the oxidative stress and DNA damage.

  4. Hair and stress: A pilot study of hair and cytokine balance alteration in healthy young women under major exam stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva M J Peters

    Full Text Available Mouse models show that experimental stress mimicking prolonged life-stress exposure enhances neurogenic inflammation, induces adaptive immunity cytokine-imbalance characterized by a shift to Type 1 T-helper cell cytokines and increases apoptosis of epithelial cells. This affects hair growth in otherwise healthy animals. In this study, we investigate whether a prolonged naturalistic life-stress exposure affects cytokine balance and hair parameters in healthy humans. 33 (18 exam, 15 comparison female medical students with comparable sociobiological status were analyzed during a stressful final examination period, at three points in time (T 12 weeks apart. T1 was before start of the learning period, T2 between the three-day written exam and an oral examination, and T3 after a 12 week rest and recovery from the stress of the examination period. Assessments included: self-reported distress and coping strategies (Perceived Stress Questionnaire [PSQ], Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress [TICS], COPE, cytokines in supernatants of stimulated peripheral blood mononucleocytes (PBMCs, and trichogram (hair cycle and pigmentation analysis. Comparison between students participating in the final medical exam at T2 and non-exam students, revealed significantly higher stress perception in exam students. Time-wise comparison revealed that stress level, TH1/TH2 cytokine balance and hair parameters changed significantly from T1 to T2 in the exam group, but not the control. However, no group differences were found for cytokine balance or hair parameters at T2. The study concludes that in humans, naturalistic stress, as perceived during participation in a major medical exam, has the potential to shift the immune response to TH1 and transiently hamper hair growth, but these changes stay within a physiological range. Findings are instructive for patients suffering from hair loss in times of high stress. Replication in larger and more diverse sample

  5. Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kristy J.; Brickman, Peggy; Brame, Cynthia J.

    2018-01-01

    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics faculty are increasingly incorporating both formal and informal group work in their courses. Implementing group work can be improved by an understanding of the extensive body of educational research studies on this topic. This essay describes an online, evidence-based teaching guide published by…

  6. Reflection groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggermont, G.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, PISA organised proactive meetings of reflection groups on involvement in decision making, expert culture and ethical aspects of radiation protection.All reflection group meetings address particular targeted audiences while the output publication in book form is put forward

  7. Neuromuscular Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Timothy P.; Kern, Marialice

    1994-01-01

    Discusses exercise-induced stress that results from motor unit recruitment, the impact of recruitment on selected systemic support systems, and some of the environmental overlays that affect the degree of physiological stress. Adaptations to sustained changes in physical activity and muscle and myotendinous injury induced by stress are examined.…

  8. Stress Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stress fractures Overview Stress fractures are tiny cracks in a bone. They're caused by repetitive force, often from overuse — such as repeatedly jumping up and down or running long distances. Stress fractures can also arise from normal use of ...

  9. [Some peculiarities in the manifestation of oxidative stress and current status of antioxidant system in adolescents of different age groups with obesity, complicated by insulin resistance and without it].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuleshova, D K; Davydov, V V

    2014-01-01

    The study has shown that neuroendocrine obesity in adolescents is associated with the formation of oxidative stress which is more pronounced in early than in late puberty. Obesity with concomitant insulin resistance increases manifestations of oxidative stress accompanied by a compensatory increase in the activity of catabolic enzymes and reduced capacity of the defense antioxidant system in late puberty. These alterations may be caused by age-related changes in hormonal secretion under conditions of insulin resistance in late puberty.

  10. Stress reduction through music in patients undergoing cerebral angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, N.; Becker, H. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Hannover Medical School (Germany); Schedlowski, M. [Dept. of Clinical Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Hannover Medical School (Germany); Schuermeyer, T.H. [Dept. of Endocrinology, Hannover Medical School (Germany)

    2001-06-01

    We studied the influence of music on stress reaction of patients during cerebral angiography. We randomised 30 patients to a music or a control group. We measured stress hormones, blood pressure, heart rate and psychological parameters. Patients examined without music showed rising levels of cortisol in plasma, indicating high stress levels, while cortisol in patients examined with music remained stable. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower listening to music. Patients with a high level of fear did appear to benefit particularly from the music. (orig.)

  11. Stress reduction through music in patients undergoing cerebral angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, N.; Becker, H.; Schedlowski, M.; Schuermeyer, T.H.

    2001-01-01

    We studied the influence of music on stress reaction of patients during cerebral angiography. We randomised 30 patients to a music or a control group. We measured stress hormones, blood pressure, heart rate and psychological parameters. Patients examined without music showed rising levels of cortisol in plasma, indicating high stress levels, while cortisol in patients examined with music remained stable. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower listening to music. Patients with a high level of fear did appear to benefit particularly from the music. (orig.)

  12. A Progress Evaluation of Four Bilingual Children's Television Shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Stephen P.; And Others

    An evaluation of a bilingual education TV series was conducted involving 6-year-old English speaking, Spanish speaking, and bilingual children at four sites. Children were assigned to control and experimental groups with the latter group seeing four 30 minute shows. A pretest-posttest design was employed with the pretest serving as the covariate…

  13. Identification of differentially accumulated proteins involved in regulating independent and combined osmosis and cadmium stress response in Brachypodium seedling roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ziyan; Zhu, Dong; Wu, Jisu; Cheng, Zhiwei; Yan, Xing; Deng, Xiong; Yan, Yueming

    2018-05-17

    In this study, we aimed to identify differentially accumulated proteins (DAPs) involved in PEG mock osmotic stress, cadmium (Cd 2+ ) stress, and their combined stress responses in Brachypodium distachyon seedling roots. The results showed that combined PEG and Cd 2+ stresses had more significant effects on Brachypodium seedling root growth, physiological traits, and ultrastructures when compared with each individual stress. Totally, 106 DAPs were identified that are responsive to individual and combined stresses in roots. These DAPs were mainly involved in energy metabolism, detoxification and stress defense and protein metabolism. Principal component analysis revealed that DAPs from Cd 2+ and combined stress treatments were grouped closer than those from osmotic stress treatment, indicating that Cd 2+ and combined stresses had more severe influences on the root proteome than osmotic stress alone. Protein-protein interaction analyses highlighted a 14-3-3 centered sub-network that synergistically responded to osmotic and Cd 2+ stresses and their combined stresses. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis of 14 key DAP genes revealed that most genes showed consistency between transcriptional and translational expression patterns. A putative pathway of proteome metabolic changes in Brachypodium seedling roots under different stresses was proposed, which revealed a complicated synergetic responsive network of plant roots to adverse environments.

  14. Reduced Cortisol Output during Public Speaking Stress in Ostracized Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weik, Ulrike; Ruhweza, Jennifer; Deinzer, Renate

    2017-01-01

    Ostracism (being excluded or ignored) is experienced as unpleasant and distressing. In previous studies, an immediate pre-stress experience of ostracism induced by Cyberball, a virtual ball-tossing game, was found to inhibit cortisol reactivity to public speaking stress in female students. The present study examines whether the effect will persist when a 15-min time gap between the Cyberball experience and subsequent psychological stress is introduced. N = 84 women were randomly assigned to Cyberball ostracism vs. inclusion. 15 min after playing Cyberball, all women were subjected to public speaking stress. Salivary cortisol and mood were repeatedly assessed during the course of the experiment. These are the main findings of the study: Repeated measures ANCOVA revealed that public speaking stress resulted in a significant increase of cortisol in both groups (inclusion vs. ostracism). However, cortisol levels were significantly lower in the ostracism group. In earlier studies when Cyberball was played immediately before public speaking stress, the cortisol response to public speaking was completely suppressed in ostracized women. By introducing a waiting period between Cyberball and public speaking stress in the present study, the main effect of an ostracism induced reduction of cortisol remained, although both groups showed an increase of cortisol as a response to public speaking. These results again suggest that the experience of ostracism might inhibit hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, thereby confirming previous results. The formerly observed total suppression of HPA axis responsiveness to public speaking, however, seems to be a rather short-term effect.

  15. Macro design effects on stress distribution around implants: A photoelastic stress analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Emre Ozkir

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: As there were observable differences between the implant types, straight placed cylindrical implants showed better stress distribution characteristics, while inclined tapering implants had better stress distribution characteristics.

  16. The teacher under stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjajić Stevan B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Empirical records consistently point to the fact that the phenomenon of stress is characteristic of service professions, especially of teacher’s. Although stress in teachers is a problem of public interest, it is still a relatively new field of empirical investigations. Data available show that stress in teachers can have negative effects on school as an organization teacher professional achievement, his/her and his/her family psychosocial status. The most frequent symptoms of a prolonged professional stress are anxiety, depression, frustration, unfriendly behavior towards students and colleagues, emotional weariness, and extreme tension. Health and psychological problems cause, most frequently, the reduction of self-esteem job dissatisfaction, job resignation, absenteeism, and wrong decision-making. In an attempt to call professional public attention to negative effects of stress on the outcomes of teacher work, we have analyzed four important aspects of stress teachers experience in their everyday work (a definition and measurement of stress, (b distribution and sources of stress (problem behaviors in students, poor working conditions, lack of time, poor school ethos, (c teacher personality traits (sex, age, work experience, locus of control, job satisfaction, intention to resign absenteeism, (d strategies for overcoming and reducing negative effects of stress (direct action techniques, palliative techniques.

  17. Rock stress investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahl, A.; Heusermann, St.; Braeuer, V.; Gloeggler, W.

    1989-04-01

    On the research project 'Rock Stress Mesurements' the BGR has developed and tested several methods for use in boreholes at a depth of 200 m. Indirect stress measurements using overcoring methods with BGR-probes and CSIR-triaxial cells as well as direct stress measurements using the hydraulic-fracturing method were made. To determine in-situ rock deformation behavior borehole deformation tests, using a BGR-dilatometer, were performed. Two types of the BGR-probe were applied: a four-component-probe to determine horizontal stresses and a five-component-probe to determine a quasi three-dimensional stress field. The first time a computer for data processing was installed in the borehole together with the BGR-probe. Laboratory tests on low cylinders were made to study the stress-deformation behavior. To validate and to interprete the measurement results some test methods were modelled using the finite-element method. The dilatometer-tests yielded high values of Young's modulus, whereas laboratory tests showed lower values with a distinct deformation anisotropy. Stress measurements with the BGR-probe yielded horizontal stresses being higher than the theoretical overburden pressure. These results are comparable to the results of the hydraulic fracturing tests, whereas stresses obtained with CSIR-triaxial cells are lower. The detailed geological mapping of the borehole indicated relationships between stress and geology. With regard to borehole depth different zones of rock structure joint frequency, joint orientation, and orientation of microfissures as well as stress magnitude, stress direction, and degree of deformation anisotropy could be distinguished. (author) 4 tabs., 76 figs., 31 refs

  18. Mild mental stress in diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, P; Mehlsen, J; Sestoft, L

    1985-01-01

    A TV-game of tennis of 20 min duration was used to study the influence of mild mental stress on subcutaneous blood-flow (SBF), blood-pressure and heart rate in nine insulin-dependent diabetics and nine healthy subjects. SBF was measured on the thigh by local clearance of xenon-133. Measurements...... were made before, during and after the period of stress. During stress, SBF increased significantly by 26% in the healthy subjects, while SBF remained unchanged in the diabetics. The difference between the two groups was significant (P less than 0.05). Following stress, SBF returned to pre-stress level...... in the healthy subjects, while a significant decrease of 33% was observed in the diabetics. The pre-stress heart rate level was higher and the stress-induced increase in heart rate was less in the diabetics compared with the healthy subjects (P less than 0.05). During the stress a slight--but insignificant...

  19. Construction and preliminary validation of the Barcelona Immigration Stress Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás-Sábado, Joaquín; Qureshi, Adil; Antonin, Montserrat; Collazos, Francisco

    2007-06-01

    In the study of mental health and migration, an increasing number of researchers have shifted the focus away from the concept of acculturation towards the stress present in the migratory experience. The bulk of research on acculturative stress has been carried out in the United States, and thus the definition and measurement of the construct has been predicated on that cultural and demographic context, which is of dubious applicability in Europe in general, and Spain in particular. Further, some scales have focused on international students, which down-played the importance of the migratory process, because it deals with a special subset of people who are not formally immigrating. The Barcelona Immigration Stress Scale was developed to measure acculturative stress appropriate to immigrants in Spain, using expert and focus group review and has 42 items. The scale shows acceptable internal validity, and, consistent with other scales, suggests that immigration stress is a complex construct.

  20. Mangifera indica L. leaf extract alleviates doxorubicin induced cardiac stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Laxit; Joshi, Viraj

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The study was undertaken to evaluate the cardioprotective effect of the alcoholic leaf extract of Mangifera indica L. against cardiac stress caused by doxorubicin (DOX). Materials and Methods: Rats were treated with 100 mg/kg of M. indica leaf extract (MILE) in alone and interactive groups for 21 days. Apart from the normal and MILE control groups, all the groups were subjected to DOX (15 mg/kg, i.p.) toxicity for 21 days and effects of different treatments were analyzed by changes in serum biomarkers, tissue antioxidant levels, electrocardiographic parameters, lipid profile, and histopathological evaluation. Results: The MILE treated group showed decrease in serum biomarker enzyme levels and increase in tissue antioxidants levels. Compared to DOX control group, MILE treated animals showed improvement in lipid profile, electrocardiographic parameters, histological score, and mortality. Conclusion: These findings clearly suggest the protective role of alcoholic leaf extract of M. indica against oxidative stress induced by DOX. PMID:28894627

  1. Relation between sleep status of preterm infants aged 1-2 years and mothers' parenting stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaka, Yoko; Takada, Satoshi

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare infants' sleep measures through an actigraph and maternal parenting stress among preterm and full-term mothers, and to explore the factors affecting maternal parenting stress in relation to infants' sleep. The subjects were 44 pairs of mothers and children. Twenty-one were in the preterm group, and 23 were in the full-term group. Inclusion criteria for preterm infants were born at less than 36 weeks and birthweight of less than 2500 g. The Parenting Stress Index (PSI) Short Form assesses maternal perception of the degree of parenting stress: the children's domain, and the parent's domain. An actigraph was applied to assess the infants' sleep measures. The PSI showed significant differences, with high scores in parenting stress in the preterm group. Also, the number of mothers who complained about their infant's sleep issues was significantly higher in the preterm group. Most of the sleep measures showed improvement by their age in both preterm and full-term infants. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that sleep efficiency, longest sleep duration at nighttime accounted for 71% of stress in the children's domain of the PSI of the preterm group. The parenting stress among mothers of preterm infants was significantly higher than that of mothers of full-term infants. The mothers of preterm infants were concerned about their infant's nocturnal sleep quality. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.

  2. Group theory

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, W R

    2010-01-01

    Here is a clear, well-organized coverage of the most standard theorems, including isomorphism theorems, transformations and subgroups, direct sums, abelian groups, and more. This undergraduate-level text features more than 500 exercises.

  3. Group Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article Karen Adams demonstrates how to incorporate group grammar techniques into a classroom activity. In the activity, students practice using the target grammar to do something they naturally enjoy: learning about each other.

  4. Computer group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, H.; Black, I.; Heusler, A.; Hoeptner, G.; Krafft, F.; Lang, R.; Moellenkamp, R.; Mueller, W.; Mueller, W.F.; Schati, C.; Schmidt, A.; Schwind, D.; Weber, G.

    1983-01-01

    The computer groups has been reorganized to take charge for the general purpose computers DEC10 and VAX and the computer network (Dataswitch, DECnet, IBM - connections to GSI and IPP, preparation for Datex-P). (orig.)

  5. Group learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pimentel, Ricardo; Noguira, Eloy Eros da Silva; Elkjær, Bente

    The article presents a study that aims at the apprehension of the group learning in a top management team composed by teachers in a Brazilian Waldorf school whose management is collective. After deciding to extend the school, they had problems recruiting teachers who were already trained based...... on the Steiner´s ideas, which created practical problems for conducting management activities. The research seeks to understand how that group of teachers collectively manage the school, facing the lack of resources, a significant heterogeneity in the relationships, and the conflicts and contradictions......, and they are interrelated to the group learning as the construction, maintenance and reconstruction of the intelligibility of practices. From this perspective, it can be said that learning is a practice and not an exceptional phenomenon. Building, maintaining and rebuilding the intelligibility is the group learning...

  6. Group technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rome, C.P.

    1976-01-01

    Group Technology has been conceptually applied to the manufacture of batch-lots of 554 machined electromechanical parts which now require 79 different types of metal-removal tools. The products have been grouped into 7 distinct families which require from 8 to 22 machines in each machine-cell. Throughput time can be significantly reduced and savings can be realized from tooling, direct-labor, and indirect-labor costs

  7. The effects of yoga on stress and psychological health among employees: an 8- and 16-week intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddux, Rachel E; Daukantaité, Daiva; Tellhed, Una

    2018-03-01

    The stresses of modern work life necessitate effective coping strategies that are accessible and affordable to the general public. Yoga has been found to reduce stress in clinical samples, but studies are needed to examine standard gym yoga classes among functional individuals. This study investigated the effects of 8- and 16-week gym yoga on stress and psychological health. Ninety individuals reporting moderate-to-high stress were randomly assigned to 16 consecutive weeks of yoga, or to a waitlist crossover group who did not practice yoga for 8 weeks then practiced yoga for 8 weeks. Stress and psychological health variables were assessed at baseline, 8 weeks, and 16 weeks. Significant reductions in stress and all psychological health measures were found within the Yoga group over 16 weeks. When compared to the control group, yoga practitioners showed significant decreases in stress, anxiety, and general psychological health, and significant increases in well-being. The group who did not practice yoga showed significant decreases in stress, anxiety, depression, and insomnia after they crossed over and practiced yoga for 8 weeks. Gym yoga appears to be effective for stress amelioration and promotion of psychological health among workers experiencing stress.

  8. Fingerprinting using extrolite profiles and physiological data shows sub-specific groupings of Penicillium crustosum strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonjak, Silva; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Fingerprinting of Penicillium crustosum strains was performed using different phenotypic characteristics. Seven strains of this extremely homogenous species were selected; of these, five originated from geographical locations characterized by low temperatures, and one from a location with a low w...

  9. Functional groups show distinct differences in nitrogen cycling during early stand development: implications for forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doug P. Aubrey; David R. Coyle; Mark D. Coleman

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Nutrient acquisition of forest stands is controlled by soil resource availability and belowground production, but tree species are rarely compared in this regard. Here, we examine ecological and management implications of nitrogen (N) dynamics during early forest stand development in productive commercial tree species with narrow (Populus...

  10. Abelian groups

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, László

    2015-01-01

    Written by one of the subject’s foremost experts, this book focuses on the central developments and modern methods of the advanced theory of abelian groups, while remaining accessible, as an introduction and reference, to the non-specialist. It provides a coherent source for results scattered throughout the research literature with lots of new proofs. The presentation highlights major trends that have radically changed the modern character of the subject, in particular, the use of homological methods in the structure theory of various classes of abelian groups, and the use of advanced set-theoretical methods in the study of undecidability problems. The treatment of the latter trend includes Shelah’s seminal work on the undecidability in ZFC of Whitehead’s Problem; while the treatment of the former trend includes an extensive (but non-exhaustive) study of p-groups, torsion-free groups, mixed groups, and important classes of groups arising from ring theory. To prepare the reader to tackle these topics, th...

  11. The sex differences in nature of vascular endothelial stress: nitrergic mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindeev, Sergey; Gekaluyk, Artem; Ulanova, Maria; Agranovich, Ilana; Sharref, Ali Esmat; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, Oxana

    2016-04-01

    Here we studied the role of nitric oxide in cardiovascular regulation in male and female hypertensive rats under normal and stress conditions. We found that the severity of hypertension in females was lower than in males. Hypertensive females demonstrated more favorable pattern of cardiovascular responses to stress. Nitric oxide blockade by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) increased the mean arterial pressure and decreased the heart rate more effectively in females than in males. During stress, L-NAME modified the stress-induced cardiovascular responses more significantly in female compared with male groups. Our data show that hypertensive females demonstrated the more effective nitric oxide control of cardiovascular activity under normal and especially stress conditions than male groups. This sex differences may be important mechanism underlying greater in females vs. males stress-resistance of cardiovascular system and hypertension formation.

  12. No effects of psychosocial stress on intertemporal choice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Haushofer

    Full Text Available Intertemporal choices - involving decisions which trade off instant and delayed outcomes - are often made under stress. It remains unknown, however, whether and how stress affects intertemporal choice. We subjected 142 healthy male subjects to a laboratory stress or control protocol, and asked them to make a series of intertemporal choices either directly after stress, or 20 minutes later (resulting in four experimental groups. Based on theory and evidence from behavioral economics and cellular neuroscience, we predicted a bidirectional effect of stress on intertemporal choice, with increases in impatience or present bias immediately after stress, but decreases in present bias or impatience when subjects are tested 20 minutes later. However, our results show no effects of stress on intertemporal choice at either time point, and individual differences in stress reactivity (changes in stress hormone levels over time are not related to individual differences in intertemporal choice. Together, we did not find support for the hypothesis that psychosocial laboratory stressors affect intertemporal choice.

  13. Physiological stress response patterns during a blood donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogerwerf, M D; Veldhuizen, I J T; Tarvainen, M P; Merz, E-M; Huis In 't Veld, E M J; de Kort, W L A M; Sluiter, J K; Frings-Dresen, M H W

    2018-03-24

    Donating blood is associated with increased psychological stress. This study investigates whether a blood donation induces physiological stress and if response patterns differ by gender, donation experience and non-acute stress. In 372 donors, physiological stress [blood pressure, pulse rate, pulse rate variability (PRV)] was measured at seven moments during routine donation. PRV was assessed using time domain [root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD)] and frequency domain [high frequency (HF) and low frequency (LF) power] parameters. Non-acute stress was assessed by questionnaire. Shape and significance of time course patterns were assessed by fitting multilevel models for each stress measure and comparing men and women, first-time and experienced donors, and donors with high and low levels of non-acute stress. Significant response patterns were found for all stress measures, where levels of systolic blood pressure (F(1,1315) = 24·2, P blood pressure (F(1,1326) = 50·9, P blood pressure/pulse rate in women; higher pulse rate in first-time donors; higher RMSSD at arrival and from screening until leaving in first-time donors; and higher LF and HF in first-time donors. This study shows an increase in physiological stress related to needle insertion, followed by a decrease when leaving the donation centre. Some group effects were also found. © 2018 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  14. Decreasing Stress and Burnout in Nurses: Efficacy of Blended Learning With Stress Management and Resilience Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magtibay, Donna L; Chesak, Sherry S; Coughlin, Kevin; Sood, Amit

    The study's purpose was to assess efficacy of blended learning to decrease stress and burnout among nurses through use of the Stress Management and Resiliency Training (SMART) program. Job-related stress in nurses leads to high rates of burnout, compromises patient care, and costs US healthcare organizations billions of dollars annually. Many mindfulness and resiliency programs are taught in a format that limits nurses' attendance. Consistent with blended learning, participants chose the format that met their learning styles and goals; Web-based, independent reading, facilitated discussions. The end points of mindfulness, resilience, anxiety, stress, happiness, and burnout were measured at baseline, postintervention, and 3-month follow-up to examine within-group differences. Findings showed statistically significant, clinically meaningful decreases in anxiety, stress, and burnout and increases in resilience, happiness, and mindfulness. Results support blended learning using SMART as a strategy to increase access to resiliency training for nursing staff.

  15. Underground water stress release models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Dang, Shenjun; Lü, Shaochuan

    2011-08-01

    The accumulation of tectonic stress may cause earthquakes at some epochs. However, in most cases, it leads to crustal deformations. Underground water level is a sensitive indication of the crustal deformations. We incorporate the information of the underground water level into the stress release models (SRM), and obtain the underground water stress release model (USRM). We apply USRM to the earthquakes occurred at Tangshan region. The analysis shows that the underground water stress release model outperforms both Poisson model and stress release model. Monte Carlo simulation shows that the simulated seismicity by USRM is very close to the real seismicity.

  16. Acute stress affects risk taking but not ambiguity aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckert, Magdalena; Schwieren, Christiane; Kudielka, Brigitte M; Fiebach, Christian J

    2014-01-01

    Economic decisions are often made in stressful situations (e.g., at the trading floor), but the effects of stress on economic decision making have not been systematically investigated so far. The present study examines how acute stress influences economic decision making under uncertainty (risk and ambiguity) using financially incentivized lotteries. We varied the domain of decision making as well as the expected value of the risky prospect. Importantly, no feedback was provided to investigate risk taking and ambiguity aversion independent from learning processes. In a sample of 75 healthy young participants, 55 of whom underwent a stress induction protocol (Trier Social Stress Test for Groups), we observed more risk seeking for gains. This effect was restricted to a subgroup of participants that showed a robust cortisol response to acute stress (n = 26). Gambling under ambiguity, in contrast to gambling under risk, was not influenced by the cortisol response to stress. These results show that acute psychosocial stress affects economic decision making under risk, independent of learning processes. Our results further point to the importance of cortisol as a mediator of this effect.

  17. Emotion perception and overconfidence in errors under stress in psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köther, Ulf; Lincoln, Tania M; Moritz, Steffen

    2018-03-21

    Vulnerability stress models are well-accepted in psychosis research, but the mechanisms that link stress to psychotic symptoms remain vague. Little is known about how social cognition and overconfidence in errors, two putative mechanisms for the pathogenesis of delusions, relate to stress. Using a repeated measures design, we tested four groups (N=120) with different liability to psychosis (schizophrenia patients [n=35], first-degree relatives [n=24], participants with attenuated positive symptoms [n=19] and healthy controls [n=28]) and depression patients (n=14) as a clinical control group under three randomized experimental conditions (no stress, noise and social stress). Parallel versions of the Emotion Perception and Confidence Task, which taps both emotion perception and confidence, were used in each condition. We recorded subjective stress, heart rate, skin conductance level and salivary cortisol to assess the stress response across different dimensions. Independent of the stress condition, patients with schizophrenia showed poorer emotion perception performance and higher confidence in emotion perception errors than participants with attenuated positive symptoms and healthy controls. However, they did not differ from patients with depression or first-degree relatives. Stress did not influence emotion perception or the extent of high-confident errors, but patients with schizophrenia showed an increase in high-confident emotion perception errors conditional on higher arousal. A possible clinical implication of our findings is the necessity to provide stress management programs that aim to reduce arousal. Moreover, patients with schizophrenia might benefit from interventions that help them to reduce overconfidence in their social cognition judgements in times in which they feel being under pressure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The interaction of chronic restraint stress and voluntary alcohol intake: effects on spatial memory in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Juan L; Lewis, Michael J; Luine, Victoria N

    2012-08-01

    Alcohol consumption and exposure to stressful life events activate similar neural pathways and thus result in several comparable physiological and behavioral effects. Alcoholics in treatment claim that life stressors are the leading cause of continued drinking or relapse. However, few studies have investigated the interactive effects of stress and alcohol on cognitive behavior. The effects of restraint stress, alcohol, and stress in combination with alcohol were examined on a spatial memory test, the object placement (OP) task. In addition, intake levels were measured to determine if stress altered general consumption of alcohol. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of four conditions: no alcohol/no stress control (CON), stress alone (STR), alcohol alone (ALC), and STR+alcohol (STR+ALC). Following each restraint stress bout, the STR+ALC and the ALC groups were given access to 8% alcohol for 1h using the two-bottle choice limited access paradigm. As predicted, the STR+ALC group significantly increased alcohol consumption, while the ALC group had consistent drinking over the 10-day treatment. On the OP task, STR and ALC groups performed at chance levels, whereas the CON and STR+ALC groups significantly discriminated between objects in the new and old locations. These data show that stress increases alcohol intake and the intake of alcohol is associated with reduction of the stress-induced impairment of spatial memory. The data have important implications for the development of alcohol abuse and its treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of ethanol on social avoidance induced by chronic social defeat stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favoretto, Cristiane A; Macedo, Giovana C; Quadros, Isabel M H

    2017-01-01

    In rodents, chronic social defeat stress promotes deficits in social interest and social interaction. We further explored these antisocial effects by comparing the consequences of two different defeat stress protocols (episodic vs. continuous stress) in a social investigation test. We expected that continuous, but not episodic, stress would induce social deficits in this model. Furthermore, we tested whether a potentially anxiolytic dose of ethanol reverses social deficits induced by defeat stress. Male Swiss mice were exposed to a 10-day social defeat protocol, using daily confrontations with an aggressive resident mouse. Episodic stress consisted of brief defeat episodes, after which the defeated mouse was returned to its home cage, until the next defeat 24 h later (n = 7-11/group). For continuous stress, similar defeat episodes were followed by cohabitation with the aggressive resident for 24 h, separated by a perforated divider, until the following defeat (n = 8-14/group). Eight days after stress termination, defeated and control mice were assessed in a social investigation test, after treatment with ethanol (1.0 g/kg, i.p.) or 0.9% saline. Considering the time spent investigating a social target, mice exposed to episodic or continuous social stress showed less social investigation than controls (p stress or ethanol. Thus, a history of social defeat stress, whether episodic or continuous, promotes deficits in social investigation that were not reversed by acute treatment with ethanol.

  20. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahotra, I.M.

    2006-01-01

    The principal effect of unloading a material strained into the plastic range is to create a permanent set (plastic deformation), which if restricted somehow, gives rise to a system of self-balancing within the same member or reaction balanced by other members of the structure., known as residual stresses. These stresses stay there as locked-in stresses, in the body or a part of it in the absence of any external loading. Residual stresses are induced during hot-rolling and welding differential cooling, cold-forming and extruding: cold straightening and spot heating, fabrication and forced fitting of components constraining the structure to a particular geometry. The areas which cool more quickly develop residual compressive stresses, while the slower cooling areas develop residual tensile stresses, and a self-balancing or reaction balanced system of residual stresses is formed. The phenomenon of residual stresses is the most challenging in its application in surface modification techniques determining endurance mechanism against fracture and fatigue failures. This paper discusses the mechanism of residual stresses, that how the residual stresses are fanned and what their behavior is under the action of external forces. Such as in the case of a circular bar under limit torque, rectangular beam under limt moment, reclaiming of shafts welds and peening etc. (author)

  1. The effect of cognitive–behavioral stress management training on improving psychological symptoms and quality of life in nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Bahmanzadeh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As a stressful profession, nursing deals with different aspects of human health and illness, and stress can threaten nurses’ health and performance. As a result, using preventive stress management programs seems necessary. The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive–behavioral stress management training in improving psychological symptoms (stress, anxiety, and depression and quality of life in nurses. The design of this study was quasi-experimental with pretest-posttest and a control group. The statistical population comprised all nurses working in Bandar Abbas Shari'ati Hospital. The study sample included all 30 nurses selected through convenience sampling method. They equally and randomly were divided into experiment and control groups. Depression, anxiety, and stress scale and the Farsi version of WHOQOL-BREF were used to collect data. The results showed there was a significant difference between pretest and posttest of experimental group in the mean scores of stress, anxiety, and quality of life; however, there was no significant difference in depression. Control group mean scores did not show a significant difference between pretest and posttest. There was no significant difference between the control and experimental groups before intervention in stress, anxiety, depression, and quality of life. The findings of this study suggest that, as a useful clinical intervention, stress management skill training is an effective way to improve mental distress and quality of life.

  2. Group dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandiffio, A L

    1990-12-01

    Group dynamics play a significant role within any organization, culture, or unit. The important thing to remember with any of these structures is that they are made up of people--people with different ideas, motivations, background, and sometimes different agendas. Most groups, formal or informal, look for a leader in an effort to maintain cohesiveness of the unit. At times, that cultural bond must be developed; once developed, it must be nurtured. There are also times that one of the group no longer finds the culture comfortable and begins to act out behaviorally. It is these times that become trying for the leader as she or he attempts to remain objective when that which was once in the building phase of group cohesiveness starts to fall apart. At all times, the manager must continue to view the employee creating the disturbance as an integral part of the group. It is at this time that it is beneficial to perceive the employee exhibiting problem behaviors as a special employee, as one who needs the benefit of your experience and skills, as one who is still part of the group. It is also during this time that the manager should focus upon her or his own views in the area of power, communication, and the corporate culture of the unit that one has established before attempting to understand another's point of view. Once we understand our own motivation and accept ourselves, it is then that we may move on to offer assistance to another. Once we understand our insecurities recognizing staff dysfunction as a symptom of system dysfunction will not be so threatening to the concept of the manager that we perceive ourselves to be. It takes a secure person to admit that she or he favors staff before deciding to do something to change things. The important thing to know is that it can be done. The favored staff can find a new way of relating to others, the special employee can find new modes of behavior (and even find self-esteem in the process), the group can find new ways

  3. Stress and Fatigue Management Using Balneotherapy in a Short-Time Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razbadauskas, Artūras; Sąlyga, Jonas; Martinkėnas, Arvydas

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the influence of high-salinity geothermal mineral water on stress and fatigue. Method. 180 seamen were randomized into three groups: geothermal (65), music (50), and control (65). The geothermal group was administered 108 g/L salinity geothermal water bath for 2 weeks five times a week. Primary outcome was effect on stress and fatigue. Secondary outcomes were the effect on cognitive function, mood, and pain. Results. The improvements after balneotherapy were a reduction in the number and intensity of stress-related symptoms, a reduction in pain and general, physical, and mental fatigue, and an improvement in stress-related symptoms management, mood, activation, motivation, and cognitive functions with effect size from 0.8 to 2.3. In the music therapy group, there were significant positive changes in the number of stress symptoms, intensity, mood, pain, and activity with the effect size of 0.4 to 1.1. The researchers did not observe any significant positive changes in the control group. The comparison between the groups showed that balneotherapy was superior to music therapy and no treatment group. Conclusions. Balneotherapy is beneficial for stress and fatigue reduction in comparison with music or no therapy group. Geothermal water baths have a potential as an efficient approach to diminish stress caused by working or living conditions. PMID:27051455

  4. Stress and Fatigue Management Using Balneotherapy in a Short-Time Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lolita Rapolienė

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the influence of high-salinity geothermal mineral water on stress and fatigue. Method. 180 seamen were randomized into three groups: geothermal (65, music (50, and control (65. The geothermal group was administered 108 g/L salinity geothermal water bath for 2 weeks five times a week. Primary outcome was effect on stress and fatigue. Secondary outcomes were the effect on cognitive function, mood, and pain. Results. The improvements after balneotherapy were a reduction in the number and intensity of stress-related symptoms, a reduction in pain and general, physical, and mental fatigue, and an improvement in stress-related symptoms management, mood, activation, motivation, and cognitive functions with effect size from 0.8 to 2.3. In the music therapy group, there were significant positive changes in the number of stress symptoms, intensity, mood, pain, and activity with the effect size of 0.4 to 1.1. The researchers did not observe any significant positive changes in the control group. The comparison between the groups showed that balneotherapy was superior to music therapy and no treatment group. Conclusions. Balneotherapy is beneficial for stress and fatigue reduction in comparison with music or no therapy group. Geothermal water baths have a potential as an efficient approach to diminish stress caused by working or living conditions.

  5. Authoritative parenting and parental stress in parents of pre-school and older children with developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfson, L; Grant, E

    2006-03-01

    Rearing a child with a developmental disability is associated with increased parental stress. Theories of stress and adjustment and bi-directional theories of child development suggest that parenting could influence these negative outcomes. Relationships between parenting approaches and stress in parents of children with developmental disabilities (DD) (N = 53) were examined across two age groups, 3-5 years and 9-11 years and compared with a contrast group of typically developing children (TD) (N = 60). Measures used were the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form and Rickel and Biasatti's modification of Block's Child Rearing Practices Report, classified into Baumrind's parenting styles using Reitman and Gross's method. Parents in the older DD group used Authoritative parenting less than parents in the younger DD group, while the opposite developmental pattern was seen in the TD group. Multivariate analysis of variance showed a significant group x parenting style interaction for Parental Distress, Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction and Difficult Child. Stress measures were higher for the DD group and seemed to be associated with Authoritative parenting approaches, an effect that was not observed in the TD group. Findings suggest that the well-established effect of group on stress may be moderated by parenting style. Authoritative parenting may be highly stressful for parents of children with DD to implement, resulting in a decrease in its use across the two age groups.

  6. Interactive effects of chronic stress and a high-sucrose diet on nonalcoholic fatty liver in young adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona-Pérez, Adriana; Díaz-Muñoz, Mauricio; Cuevas-Romero, Estela; Luna-Moreno, Dalia; Valente-Godínez, Héctor; Vázquez-Martínez, Olivia; Martínez-Gómez, Margarita; Rodríguez-Antolín, Jorge; Nicolás-Toledo, Leticia

    2017-11-01

    Glucocorticoids have been implicated in nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD). The influence of a palatable diet on the response to stress is controversial. This study explored whether a high-sucrose diet could protect from hepatic steatosis induced by chronic restraint stress in young adult rats. Male Wistar rats aged 21 days were allocated into four groups (n = 6-8 per group): control, chronic restraint stress, 30% sucrose diet, and 30% sucrose diet plus chronic restraint stress. After being exposed to either tap water or sucrose solution during eight weeks, half of the rats belonging to each group were subject or not to repeated restraint stress (1 h per day, 5 days per week) during four weeks. Triacylglycerol (TAG), oxidative stress, activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD-1), infiltration of immune cells, and glycogen amount in the liver were quantified. Serum concentrations of corticosterone and testosterone were also measured. The stressed group showed normal serum concentrations of corticosterone and did not have hepatic steatosis. However, this group showed increased glycogen, inflammation, mild fibrosis, oxidative stress, and a high activity of 11β-HSD-1 in the liver. The group exposed to the high-sucrose diet had lower concentrations of corticosterone, hepatic steatosis and moderate fibrosis. The group subject to high-sucrose diet plus chronic restraint stress showed low concentrations of corticosterone, hepatic steatosis, oxidative stress, and high concentrations of testosterone. Thus, restraint stress and a high-sucrose diet each generate different components of nonalcoholic fatty liver in young adult rats. The combination of both the factors could promote a faster development of NAFLD.

  7. Adverse effect of combination of chronic psychosocial stress and high fat diet on hippocampus-dependent memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzoubi, K H; Abdul-Razzak, K K; Khabour, O F; Al-Tuweiq, G M; Alzubi, M A; Alkadhi, K A

    2009-12-01

    The combined effects of high fat diet (HFD) and chronic stress on the hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory were studied in rats using the radial arm water maze (RAWM). Chronic psychosocial stress and/or HFD were simultaneously administered for 3 months to young adult male Wister rats. In the RAWM, rats were subjected to 12 learning trials as well as short-term and long-term memory tests. This procedure was applied on a daily basis until the animal reaches days to criterion (DTC) in the 12th learning trial and in memory tests. DTC is the number of days that the animal takes to make zero error in two consecutive days. Groups were compared based on the number of errors per trial or test as well as on the DTC. Chronic stress, HFD and chronic stress/HFD animal groups showed impaired learning as indicated by committing significantly (Pchronic stress, HFD and chronic stress/HFD groups showed significantly impaired performance compared to control group. Additionally, the stress/HFD was the only group that showed significantly impaired performance in memory tests on the 5th training day, suggesting more severe memory impairment in that group. Furthermore, DTC value for above groups indicated that chronic stress or HFD, alone, resulted in a mild impairment of spatial memory, but the combination of chronic stress and HFD resulted in a more severe and long-lasting memory impairment. The data indicated that the combination of stress and HFD produced more deleterious effects on hippocampal cognitive function than either chronic stress or HFD alone.

  8. Comparative antistress effect of Vitis vinifera and Withania somnifera using unpredictable chronic mild stress model in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Pal Singh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The human society has become complex. However, our physiological responses designed to cope with the ever-increasing adverse situations have not evolved appreciably during the past thousand years. The failure of successful adaptation during stressful situations has resulted in stress-related illnesses. Methods: The objective of the present study was to carry out a comparative assessment of anti-stress effect of Vitis vinifera and Withania somnifera using unpredictable chronic mild stress model in rats. Long-term exposure to multiple stressors can cause depression. The unpredictable chronic administration of various mild stresses, a procedure known as “unpredictable chronic mild stress”, is one of the best-validated rodent models to study stress in animals, for its good etiological and predictive validity. Result: Diazepam, Withania somnifera, Vitis vinifera administration dose dependently reversed the increase in immobility period in stressed rats. In the study of locomotion activity of rats in elevated plus maze apparatus, Stress treated control group rats showed less no of entries in open arm and also less time spent in open arm. Vitis vinifera treated (p<0.0001, Withania somnifera treated (p<0.0001 and Diazepam treated group showed (p<0.0001 no. of entries in open arms which were more than control group and stressed groups. Stressed group produce less average time spent in open arm as compared to treatment groups as Withania somnifera (p<0.05, Vitis vinifera and diazepam. Withania somnifera group showed significant antistress locomotry behaviour in rats. Administration of Vitis vinifera, Withania somnifera and diazepam during stress period restored the ambulatory behaviour of the rats which can be correlated with restoration of plasma corticosterone level. Finally, the results of the present study justified that Withania somnifera, Vitis vinifera and diazepam exhibited significant antistress activity in rats.

  9. Group representations

    CERN Document Server

    Karpilovsky, G

    1994-01-01

    This third volume can be roughly divided into two parts. The first part is devoted to the investigation of various properties of projective characters. Special attention is drawn to spin representations and their character tables and to various correspondences for projective characters. Among other topics, projective Schur index and projective representations of abelian groups are covered. The last topic is investigated by introducing a symplectic geometry on finite abelian groups. The second part is devoted to Clifford theory for graded algebras and its application to the corresponding theory

  10. Lego Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Pedersen, Torben; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2010-01-01

    The last years’ rather adventurous journey from 2004 to 2009 had taught the fifth-largest toy-maker in the world - the LEGO Group - the importance of managing the global supply chain effectively. In order to survive the largest internal financial crisis in its roughly 70 years of existence......, the management had, among many initiatives, decided to offshore and outsource a major chunk of its production to Flextronics. In this pursuit of rapid cost-cutting sourcing advantages, the LEGO Group planned to license out as much as 80 per cent of its production besides closing down major parts...

  11. Four-month-old infants' long-term memory for a stressful social event.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Montirosso

    Full Text Available Infants clearly show an early capacity for memory for inanimate emotionally neutral events. However, their memory for social stress events has received far less attention. The aim of the study was to investigate infants' memory for a stressful social event (i.e., maternal unresponsiveness during the Still-Face paradigm after a 15-day recall interval using changes in behavioral responses and salivary post-stress cortisol reactivity as measures of memory. Thirty-seven infants were exposed to social stress two times (experimental condition; the first time when they were 4 months of age and second exposure after a 2 week interval. Infants in the control condition (N = 37 were exposed to social stress just one time, at the age corresponding to the second exposure for infants in the experimental condition (4 months plus 2 weeks. Given individual differences in infants' reactivity to social stress events, we categorized infants as increasers or decreasers based on their cortisol reactivity after their initial exposure to the stress of the maternal still-face. Infants in the experimental condition, both increasers and decreasers, showed a significant change in cortisol response after the second exposure to the maternal still-face, though change was different for each reactivity group. In contrast, age-matched infants with no prior exposure to the maternal still-face showed similar post-stress cortisol reactivity to the reactivity of the experimental infants at their first exposure. There were no behavioral differences between increasers and decreasers during the Still-Face paradigm and exposures to the social stress. Thus differences between the experimental and control groups' post-stress cortisol reactivity was associated with the experimental group having previous experience with the social stress. These findings indicate long-term memory for social stress in infants as young as 4 months of age.

  12. Four-month-old infants' long-term memory for a stressful social event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montirosso, Rosario; Tronick, Ed; Morandi, Francesco; Ciceri, Francesca; Borgatti, Renato

    2013-01-01

    Infants clearly show an early capacity for memory for inanimate emotionally neutral events. However, their memory for social stress events has received far less attention. The aim of the study was to investigate infants' memory for a stressful social event (i.e., maternal unresponsiveness during the Still-Face paradigm) after a 15-day recall interval using changes in behavioral responses and salivary post-stress cortisol reactivity as measures of memory. Thirty-seven infants were exposed to social stress two times (experimental condition); the first time when they were 4 months of age and second exposure after a 2 week interval. Infants in the control condition (N = 37) were exposed to social stress just one time, at the age corresponding to the second exposure for infants in the experimental condition (4 months plus 2 weeks). Given individual differences in infants' reactivity to social stress events, we categorized infants as increasers or decreasers based on their cortisol reactivity after their initial exposure to the stress of the maternal still-face. Infants in the experimental condition, both increasers and decreasers, showed a significant change in cortisol response after the second exposure to the maternal still-face, though change was different for each reactivity group. In contrast, age-matched infants with no prior exposure to the maternal still-face showed similar post-stress cortisol reactivity to the reactivity of the experimental infants at their first exposure. There were no behavioral differences between increasers and decreasers during the Still-Face paradigm and exposures to the social stress. Thus differences between the experimental and control groups' post-stress cortisol reactivity was associated with the experimental group having previous experience with the social stress. These findings indicate long-term memory for social stress in infants as young as 4 months of age.

  13. Influence of stress on fear memory processes in an aversive differential conditioning paradigm in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentz, Dorothée; Michael, Tanja; Wilhelm, Frank H; Hartmann, Francina R; Kunz, Sabrina; von Rohr, Isabelle R Rudolf; de Quervain, Dominique J-F

    2013-07-01

    It is widely assumed that learning and memory processes play an important role in the pathogenesis, expression, maintenance and therapy of anxiety disorders, such as phobias or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Memory retrieval is involved in symptom expression and maintenance of these disorders, while memory extinction is believed to be the underlying mechanism of behavioral exposure therapy of anxiety disorders. There is abundant evidence that stress and stress hormones can reduce memory retrieval of emotional information, whereas they enhance memory consolidation of extinction training. In this study we aimed at investigating if stress affects these memory processes in a fear conditioning paradigm in healthy human subjects. On day 1, fear memory was acquired through a standard differential fear conditioning procedure. On day 2 (24h after fear acquisition), participants either underwent a stressful cold pressor test (CPT) or a control condition, 20 min before memory retrieval testing and extinction training. Possible prolonged effects of the stress manipulation were investigated on day 3 (48 h after fear acquisition), when memory retrieval and extinction were tested again. On day 2, men in the stress group showed a robust cortisol response to stress and showed lower unconditioned stimulus (US) expectancy ratings than men in the control group. This reduction in fear memory retrieval was maintained on day 3. In women, who showed a significantly smaller cortisol response to stress than men, no stress effects on fear memory retrieval were observed. No group differences were observed with respect to extinction. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence that stress can reduce memory retrieval of conditioned fear in men. Our findings may contribute to the understanding of the effects of stress and glucocorticoids on fear symptoms in anxiety disorders and suggest that such effects may be sex-specific. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Stress exacerbates infectivity and pathogenicity of Blastocystis hominis: in vitro and in vivo evidences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samudi Chandramathi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stress alters the oxidant-antioxidant state and immune cell responses which disrupts its function to combat infection. Blastocystis hominis, a common intestinal protozoan has been reported to be opportunistic in immunocompromised patients namely cancer. B. hominis infectivity in other altered immune system conditions especially stress is unknown. We aimed to demonstrate the stress effects towards the susceptibility and pathogenicity of B. hominis infection. METHODS/FINDINGS: Three-week-old Wistar rats were divided into four groups: (acontrol; (bstress-induced; (cB. hominis infected; (dstress-induced with B. hominis infection; (n = 20 respectively. Stress was induced for an hour daily (30 days using a Belly Dancer Shaker. Weight gain was monitored, stool samples were collected for B. hominis screening and blood for the determination of differential count, levels of immunoglobulin, oxidative damage, and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC proliferation upon induction with solubilized antigen of B. hominis (Blasto-Ag. Group (b exhibited the highest level of weight gain. Group (d had higher levels of parasite cyst count in stools, serum IgE, oxidized protein and lipid compared to the group (c. Levels of monocyte and antioxidant in group (d were decreased and their PBMCs showed highest inhibition of proliferation level when exposed to Blasto-Ag. Monocyte level in Group (b showed insignificant difference compared to group (a but was significantly lower compared to group (c. Antioxidant levels in group (c were generally lower compared to group (a and (b. Inhibition level exhibited by Blasto-Ag treated PBMCs of group (c was higher compared to group (a and (b. CONCLUSION: The pathogenicity and augmentation of B. hominis infection is enhanced when stress is present. Lifestyles today are becoming increasingly stressed and the present findings suggest that the parasite which has been reported to be one of the most common organisms seen in

  15. Oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osredkar Joško

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The human organism is exposed to the influence of various forms of stress, either physical, psychological or chemical, which all have in common that they may adversely affect our body. A certain amount of stress is always present and somehow directs, promotes or inhibits the functioning of the human body. Unfortunately, we are now too many and too often exposed to excessive stress, which certainly has adverse consequences. This is especially true for a particular type of stress, called oxidative stress. All aerobic organisms are exposed to this type of stress because they produce energy by using oxygen. For this type of stress you could say that it is rather imperceptibly involved in our lives, as it becomes apparent only at the outbreak of certain diseases. Today we are well aware of the adverse impact of radicals, whose surplus is the main cause of oxidative stress. However, the key problem remains the detection of oxidative stress, which would allow us to undertake timely action and prevent outbreak of many diseases of our time. There are many factors that promote oxidative stress, among them are certainly a fast lifestyle and environmental pollution. The increase in oxidative stress can also trigger intense physical activity that is directly associated with an increased oxygen consumption and the resulting formation of free radicals. Considering generally positive attitude to physical activity, this fact may seem at first glance contradictory, but the finding has been confimed by several studies in active athletes. Training of a top athlete daily demands great physical effort, which is also reflected in the oxidative state of the organism. However, it should be noted that the top athletes in comparison with normal individuals have a different defense system, which can counteract the negative effects of oxidative stress. Quite the opposite is true for irregular or excessive physical activity to which the body is not adapted.

  16. Informal groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van den Berg; P. van Houwelingen; J. de Hart

    2011-01-01

    Original title: Informele groepen Going out running with a group of friends, rather than joining an official sports club. Individuals who decide to take action themselves rather than giving money to good causes. Maintaining contact with others not as a member of an association, but through an

  17. The relation of somatotypes and stress response to central serous chorioretinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Roy; Rozenberg, Assaf; Loewenstein, Anat; Goldstein, Michaella

    2017-12-01

    To investigate a possible relationship between central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) and specific body types and compositions (somatotypes), and to examine the cortisol stress response among CSC patients of different somatotypes in comparison with healthy subjects. Prospective case-control study. A group of 28 patients with a previous or current diagnosis of CSC was compared with a group of 26 healthy subjects. Anthropometric measurements were used to estimate somatotype ratings in all subjects. Serum cortisol was measured at rest and following a stress-inducing computerized test in order to estimate response to stress in both groups. The main outcome measures included somatotype categorization and the change in serum cortisol following stress in both groups. No significant difference in somatotype composition was found between the groups. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in the elevation of cortisol following the stress-inducing test. The sample size was too small to exclude or find any significant difference between the different 13 subgroups of somatotype composition in the elevation of cortisol. Our study did not show a typical somatotype related to CSC. While previous studies showed higher cortisol values in CSC patients, we did not see a higher elevation in blood cortisol following a stress response in this group in comparison with healthy subjects.

  18. Psychological Stress Delays Periodontitis Healing in Rats: The Involvement of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Juan Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effects of psychological stress on periodontitis healing in rats and the contribution of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF expression to the healing process. Methods. Ninety-six rats were randomly distributed into control group, periodontitis group, and periodontitis plus stress group. Then, the rats were sacrificed at baseline and week(s 1, 2, and 4. The periodontitis healing condition was assessed, and the expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, and bFGF were tested by immunohistochemistry. Results. The stressed rats showed reduced body weight gain, behavioral changes, and increased serum corticosterone and ACTH levels (. The surface of inflammatory infiltrate, alveolar bone loss, attachment loss, and expression of IL-1β and TNF-α in the stress group were higher than those in the periodontitis group at weeks 2 and 4 (. Rats with experimental periodontitis showed decreased bFGF expression (, and the recovery of bFGF expression in the stress group was slower than that in the periodontitis group (. Negative correlations between inflammatory cytokines and bFGF were detected. Conclusion. Psychological stress could delay periodontitis healing in rats, which may be partly mediated by downregulation of the expression of bFGF in the periodontal ligament.

  19. Heart rate response to post-learning stress predicts memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larra, Mauro F; Schulz, André; Schilling, Thomas M; Ferreira de Sá, Diana S; Best, Daniel; Kozik, Bartlomiej; Schächinger, Hartmut

    2014-03-01

    Stressful experiences are often well remembered, an effect that has been explained by beta-adrenergic influences on memory consolidation. Here, we studied the impact of stress induced heart rate (HR) responses on memory consolidation in a post-learning stress paradigm. 206 male and female participants saw 52 happy and angry faces immediately before being exposed to the Cold Pressor Test or a non-stressful control procedure. Memory for the faces and their respective expression was tested twice, after 30 min and on the next day. High HR responders (in comparison to low HR responders as well as to the non-stressful control group) showed enhanced recognition memory one day after learning. Our results show that beta-adrenergic activation elicited shortly after learning enhances memory consolidation and that the stress induced HR response is a predictor for this effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Work Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Roeters, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Most of us agree that stress is a growing problem within organizations. We hear about the postal workers who had killed fellow employees and supervisors, and then hear that a major cause of tension is at work. Friends tell us that they are stressed due to increased workload and he has to work overtime because the company is restructured. We read the polls that employees complain about the stress in trying to balance family life with the work. Stress is a dynamic condition in which an individu...

  1. The interplay of stress and sleep impacts BDNF level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Maria; Unternaehrer, Eva; Brand, Serge; Calabrese, Pasquale; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Eckert, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Sleep plays a pivotal role in normal biological functions. Sleep loss results in higher stress vulnerability and is often found in mental disorders. There is evidence that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) could be a central player in this relationship. Recently, we could demonstrate that subjects suffering from current symptoms of insomnia exhibited significantly decreased serum BDNF levels compared with sleep-healthy controls. In accordance with the paradigm indicating a link between sleep and BDNF, we aimed to investigate if the stress system influences the association between sleep and BDNF. Participants with current symptoms of insomnia plus a former diagnosis of Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) and/or Periodic Limb Movement (PLM) and sleep healthy controls were included in the study. They completed questionnaires on sleep (ISI, Insomnia Severity Index) and stress (PSS, Perceived Stress Scale) and provided a blood sample for determination of serum BDNF. We found a significant interaction between stress and insomnia with an impact on serum BDNF levels. Moreover, insomnia severity groups and score on the PSS each revealed a significant main effect on serum BDNF levels. Insomnia severity was associated with increased stress experience affecting serum BDNF levels. Of note, the association between stress and BDNF was only observed in subjects without insomnia. Using a mediation model, sleep was revealed as a mediator of the association between stress experience and serum BDNF levels. This is the first study to show that the interplay between stress and sleep impacts BDNF levels, suggesting an important role of this relationship in the pathogenesis of stress-associated mental disorders. Hence, we suggest sleep as a key mediator at the connection between stress and BDNF. Whether sleep is maintained or disturbed might explain why some individuals are able to handle a certain stress load while others develop a mental disorder.

  2. The interplay of stress and sleep impacts BDNF level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Giese

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sleep plays a pivotal role in normal biological functions. Sleep loss results in higher stress vulnerability and is often found in mental disorders. There is evidence that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF could be a central player in this relationship. Recently, we could demonstrate that subjects suffering from current symptoms of insomnia exhibited significantly decreased serum BDNF levels compared with sleep-healthy controls. In accordance with the paradigm indicating a link between sleep and BDNF, we aimed to investigate if the stress system influences the association between sleep and BDNF. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants with current symptoms of insomnia plus a former diagnosis of Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS and/or Periodic Limb Movement (PLM and sleep healthy controls were included in the study. They completed questionnaires on sleep (ISI, Insomnia Severity Index and stress (PSS, Perceived Stress Scale and provided a blood sample for determination of serum BDNF. We found a significant interaction between stress and insomnia with an impact on serum BDNF levels. Moreover, insomnia severity groups and score on the PSS each revealed a significant main effect on serum BDNF levels. Insomnia severity was associated with increased stress experience affecting serum BDNF levels. Of note, the association between stress and BDNF was only observed in subjects without insomnia. Using a mediation model, sleep was revealed as a mediator of the association between stress experience and serum BDNF levels. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to show that the interplay between stress and sleep impacts BDNF levels, suggesting an important role of this relationship in the pathogenesis of stress-associated mental disorders. Hence, we suggest sleep as a key mediator at the connection between stress and BDNF. Whether sleep is maintained or disturbed might explain why some individuals are able to handle a certain stress load while

  3. UV Photography Shows Hidden Sun Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c UV photography shows hidden sun damage A UV photograph gives ... developing skin cancer and prematurely aged skin. Normal photography UV photography 18 months of age: This boy's ...

  4. [Osteoporosis and stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumano, Hiroaki

    2005-09-01

    There may be three ways of relationship between stress and osteoporosis. The first is that stress induces some physiological changes leading to osteoporosis. The second is that stress induces behavioral distortion of eating, drinking, exercise, and sleep habits, which leads to osteoporosis. The third is that osteoporosis, on the other hand, brings about anxiety, depression, loss of social roles, and social isolation, which leads to stress. The susceptible sex and age groups are postmenopausal women and young women. The abrupt decrease of estrogen in postmenopausal women promotes reabsorption of bone, and it was also reported that the increase of interleukin-6 (IL-6) that is downstream of estrogen was related to the production of osteoclast and to the development of disability of the aged. Regarding the association with stress, while it was reported that depression or depressive states directly increased inflammation-induced cytokines including IL-6, it was also pointed out that stress-induced easy infectious may produce chronic infection, which indirectly increases inflammation-induced cytokines. Anorexia Nervosa that is assumed to be associated with adolescent developmental stress is noteworthy in young women. Amenorrhea is always present in this disease, and in addition to bone reabsorption associated with estrogen deficiency, the decrease of bone formation associated with malnutrition may be related to the development of osteoporosis.

  5. Stress at work: development of the Stress Perception Questionnaire of Rome (SPQR), an ad hoc questionnaire for multidimensional assessment of work related stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinti, M E; Cannavò, M; Fioravanti, M

    2017-01-01

    Stress is an emotional condition, mostly experienced as negative, initially identified and defined by Selye in the mid-thirties of the last Century. Since the first definition, stress concerns the adaptation pro- cess mostly related to environmental changes. An application of stress focuses on the evaluation of its interference on work conditions, and the scientific evidence on work related stress is very ample and rich. We are proposing a new ad hoc questionnaire for the multidimensional assessment of work related stress, called Stress Perception Question- naire of Rome (SPQR) composed of 50 items. The development of this questionnaire is based on a multi-step process: a) Identification of all the relevant topics to work related stress and areas in the scientific evidence and their transformation on specific contents of 60 tentative items; b) Exploratory factor analysis aimed to identify the best items (50) which could guarantee the maximum convergence on single scales (8), and the minimum redundancy between scales; c) Validation of the 8 scales' structure by a confirmatory factor analysis (fully achieved); d) Factor analysis for a second level factor resulting in a single factor identified as the questionnaire total score (Stress Score); d) Reliability analysis of the questionnaire total score and the single scale scores (at optimum level); e) Validation by external criteria of work related stress identified in the presence of personal violence episodes experienced by a group of health workers with different professional profiles and from two different hospitals in Rome. Our results show that the SPQR is a useful and sensitive tool for assessing the presence of emotional stress related problems identifiable in a work environment. The advantage of this questionnaire is that it allows for a multidimensional description of the different components of this problematic area besides its ability to quantify the overall stress level of those who have been administered

  6. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group, established at the start of 2010, has been busy in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure There are now 55 CMS Centres worldwide that are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, is the centre of the CMS offline and computing operations, hosting dedicated analysis efforts such as during the CMS Heavy Ion lead-lead running. With a majority of CMS sub-detectors now operating in a “shifterless” mode, many monitoring operations are now routinely performed from there, rather than in the main Control Room at P5. The CMS Communications Group, CERN IT and the EVO team are providing excellent videoconferencing support for the rapidly-increasing number of CMS meetings. In parallel, CERN IT and ...

  7. Association of parental stress and early childhood caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ebrahim Jabbarifar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:Little research has been carried out on whether the parental stress affects children′s oral health in general and dental caries in particular. This study aimed to investigate the association be-tween parental stress and early childhood caries (ECC. Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed that included 250 children of 4-6 year-old; 127 ones attended the pediatric department of Isfahan School of Dentistry who had early childhood caries and a comparison group of 123 caries free children attended five kindergartens and pre-schools in Isfahan city. Clinical examinations were conducted to evaluate the caries status. The parents of the two study groups completed the self-administrated long form of the Parenting Stress Index questionnaire. De-tails of their socio-demographic status were gathered too. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS version 11.5. The nonparametric Mantel-Haenszel test for correlation statistics was used to determine bivariate associations between total parenting stress and their domains scores in the two groups; i.e., those with early childhood caries and the caries free group. Results: Mean score of PSI in the early childhood caries and caries free group were 286.66 ± 66.26 and 273.87 ± 31.03, respectively. There was not any significant relationship between total parental stress and ECC. The scores of the following domains of PSI demonstrated significant differences between ECC and CF groups: child reinforcement, child distractibility, child deficit attention, life stress and relationship with spouse (P = 0.01, 0.01, 0.001, 0.005 respectively. Conclusion: Findings of this study did not show any significant association between total parenting stress score and prevalence of early childhood caries.

  8. Effects of low strength pedaling exercise on stress sensitivity and pain threshold

    OpenAIRE

    坂野, 裕洋

    2017-01-01

     This study conducted a comparative assessment of the effects of low intensity lower limb pedaling exercise on the stress sensitivity and pain threshold in healthy subjects and those with chronic stiff neck or lower back pain. The results showed a reduction in pain threshold depending on the applied mechanical stress in both healthy and chronic pain groups. The individuals with chronic pain felt pain more intensely compared to the healthy individuals, and showed a significant reduction in pai...

  9. STRESS COPING SKILLS IN ADDICTS

    OpenAIRE

    A EBRAHIMI; SG MOOSAVI; R SAMOOEIE; A ,HASAN ZADEH

    2002-01-01

    Introduction. Stress coping skills is one of the most important factors in prediction of addictive behavior. The purpose of this study was to determine this pattern and to compare them with those of non-addicts. Methods. One hundred subjects with substance dependency and 100 non-addict subjects were selected. Both groups were matched on the basis of their socioeconomic state. Stress coping skills of study participants were examined using CS-R scale. Results. Stress coping skills in ...

  10. Presence of a dog reduces subjective but not physiological stress responses to an analog trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Peyk, Peter; Streb, Markus; Holz, Elena; Michael, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Dogs are known to have stress and anxiety reducing effects. Several studies have shown that dogs are able to calm people during cognitive and performance stressors. Recently, therapy dogs have been proposed as a treatment adjunct for post-traumatic stress disorder patients. In this study we aimed to investigate, whether dogs also have anxiety- and stress reducing effect during "traumatic stressors." 80 healthy female participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions. They were exposed to a "traumatic" film clip (trauma-film-paradigm). For one group of participants a friendly dog was present during the film, one group of participants was accompanied by a friendly human, another control group watched the film with a toy animal and the last group watched the film clip alone. Participants that were accompanied by the dog during the film reported lower anxiety ratings and less negative affect after the film clip as compared to the "toy dog group" and the "alone group." Results of the "dog group" were comparable to the group that was accompanied by a friendly human. There were no differences in physiological stress responses between the four conditions. Our results show that dogs are able to lessen subjectively experienced stress and anxiety during a "traumatic" stress situation. This effect was comparable to that of social support by a friendly person. Implications for PTSD patients are discussed.

  11. 2008 LHC Open Days Physics: the show

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    A host of events and activities await visitors to the LHC Open Days on 5 and 6 April. A highlight will be the physics shows funded by the European Physical Society (EPS), which are set to surprise and challenge children and adults alike! School children use their experience of riding a bicycle to understand how planets move around the sun (Copyright : Circus Naturally) Participating in the Circus Naturally show could leave a strange taste in your mouth! (Copyright : Circus Naturally) The Rino Foundation’s experiments with liquid nitrogen can be pretty exciting! (Copyright: The Rino Foundation)What does a bicycle have in common with the solar system? Have you ever tried to weigh air or visualise sound? Ever heard of a vacuum bazooka? If you want to discover the answers to these questions and more then come to the Physics Shows taking place at the CERN O...

  12. Online Italian fandoms of American TV shows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Benecchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has changed media fandom in two main ways: it helps fans connect with each other despite physical distance, leading to the formation of international fan communities; and it helps fans connect with the creators of the TV show, deepening the relationship between TV producers and international fandoms. To assess whether Italian fan communities active online are indeed part of transnational online communities and whether the Internet has actually altered their relationship with the creators of the original text they are devoted to, qualitative analysis and narrative interviews of 26 Italian fans of American TV shows were conducted to explore the fan-producer relationship. Results indicated that the online Italian fans surveyed preferred to stay local, rather than using geography-leveling online tools. Further, the sampled Italian fans' relationships with the show runners were mediated or even absent.

  13. Stress and burnout in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kash, K M; Holland, J C; Breitbart, W; Berenson, S; Dougherty, J; Ouellette-Kobasa, S; Lesko, L

    2000-11-01

    This article identifies the professional stressors experienced by nurses, house staff, and medical oncologists and examines the effect of stress and personality attributes on burnout scores. A survey was conducted of 261 house staff, nurses, and medical oncologists in a cancer research hospital, and oncologists in outside clinical practices. It measured burnout, psychological distress, and physical symptoms. Each participant completed a questionnaire that quantified life stressors, personality attributes, burnout, psychological distress, physical symptoms, coping strategies, and social support. The results showed that house staff experienced the greatest burnout. They also reported greater emotional exhaustion, a feeling of emotional distance from patients, and a poorer sense of personal accomplishment. Negative work events contributed significantly to level of burnout; however, having a "hardy" personality helped to alleviate burnout. Nurses reported more physical symptoms than house staff and oncologists. However, they were less emotionally distant from patients. Women reported a lower sense of accomplishment and greater distress. The four most frequent methods of relaxing were talking to friends, using humor, drinking coffee or eating, and watching television. One unexpected finding was that the greater the perception of oneself as religious, the lower the level of burnout. Thus, while the rewards of working in oncology are usually sufficient to keep nurses and doctors in the field, they also experience burnout symptoms that vary by gender and personal attributes. House staff are most stressed and report the greatest and most severe symptoms of stress. Interventions are needed that address the specific problems of each group.

  14. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macherauch, E.

    1978-01-01

    Residual stresses are stresses which exist in a material without the influence of external powers and moments. They come into existence when the volume of a material constantly changes its form as a consequence of mechanical, thermal, and/or chemical processes and is hindered by neighbouring volumes. Bodies with residual stress are in mechanical balance. These residual stresses can be manifested by means of all mechanical interventions disturbing this balance. Acoustical, optical, radiological, and magnetical methods involving material changes caused by residual stress can also serve for determining residual stress. Residual stresses have an ambivalent character. In technical practice, they are feared and liked at the same time. They cause trouble because they can be the cause for unexpected behaviour of construction elements. They are feared since they can cause failure, in the worst case with catastrophical consequences. They are appreciated, on the other hand, because, in many cases, they can contribute to improvements of the material behaviour under certain circumstances. But they are especially liked for their giving convenient and (this is most important) mostly uncontrollable explanations. For only in very few cases we have enough knowledge and possibilities for the objective evaluation of residual stresses. (orig.) [de

  15. Analysis of Stress-Responsive Gene Expression in Cultivated and Weedy Rice Differing in Cold Stress Tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Borges Bevilacqua

    Full Text Available Rice (Oryza sativa L. cultivars show impairment of growth in response to environmental stresses such as cold at the early seedling stage. Locally adapted weedy rice is able to survive under adverse environmental conditions, and can emerge in fields from greater soil depth. Cold-tolerant weedy rice can be a good genetic source for developing cold-tolerant, weed-competitive rice cultivars. An in-depth analysis is presented here of diverse indica and japonica rice genotypes, mostly weedy rice, for cold stress response to provide an understanding of different stress adaptive mechanisms towards improvement of the rice crop performance in the field. We have tested a collection of weedy rice genotypes to: 1 classify the subspecies (ssp. grouping (japonica or indica of 21 accessions; 2 evaluate their sensitivity to cold stress; and 3 analyze the expression of stress-responsive genes under cold stress and a combination of cold and depth stress. Seeds were germinated at 25°C at 1.5- and 10-cm sowing depth for 10d. Seedlings were then exposed to cold stress at 10°C for 6, 24 and 96h, and the expression of cold-, anoxia-, and submergence-inducible genes was analyzed. Control plants were seeded at 1.5cm depth and kept at 25°C. The analysis revealed that cold stress signaling in indica genotypes is more complex than that of japonica as it operates via both the CBF-dependent and CBF-independent pathways, implicated through induction of transcription factors including OsNAC2, OsMYB46 and OsF-BOX28. When plants were exposed to cold + sowing depth stress, a complex signaling network was induced that involved cross talk between stresses mediated by CBF-dependent and CBF-independent pathways to circumvent the detrimental effects of stresses. The experiments revealed the importance of the CBF regulon for tolerance to both stresses in japonica and indica ssp. The mechanisms for cold tolerance differed among weedy indica genotypes and also between weedy indica and

  16. Possible antidepressant effects of vanillin against experimentally induced chronic mild stress in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira M. Abo-youssef

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vanillin is a flavoring agent widely used in food and beverages such as chocolates and dairy products and it is also used to mask unpleasant tastes in medicine. It has been reported to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic properties. The current study was designed to investigate the protective effects of vanillin against experimentally induced stress in rats. Briefly rats were subdivided into four groups. Three groups were subjected to chronic mild stress and the fourth group served as normal control group. One week before induction of stress drugs or saline was administered daily and continued for another nine weeks. At the end of the experimental period behavioral tests including sucrose preference test, forced swim test and elevated plus maze test were assessed. In addition, brain biochemical parameters including MDA, GSH, NO and serotonin were determined. Vanillin succeeded to restore the behavioral and biochemical changes associated with stress. It significantly increased sucrose consumption in sucrose preference test and time spent in open arm in elevated plus maze test as compared to stress control group. It also reduced immobility time in forced swim test and time spent in closed arm in elevated plus maze test. Additionally, it significantly decreased brain MDA and NO levels and significantly increased brain GSH and Serotonin levels compared to stress control group. It could be concluded that vanillin showed beneficial protective effects against experimentally induced stress in rats.

  17. Group Climate & Individual Functioning in an All-women Antarctic Expedition Team

    OpenAIRE

    Kahn, P. M.; Leon, G. R.

    2000-01-01

    This study focused on four female Antarctic expedition team members who successfully skied to the South Pole in 67 days but did not meet their original objective of traversing the continent. The three phases of data collection included (1) a preexpedition personality assessment, (b) daily self-ratings of mood, task effectiveness, stress, coping, and exertion, and (c) postexpedition interviews about stress and coping. Personality measures showed a group high in confidence and achievement and l...

  18. Geopotential Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Christian; Nielsen, S.B.

    Density heterogeneity in the Earth’s lithosphere causes lateral pressure variations. Horizontal gradients of the vertically integrated lithostatic pressure, the Geopotential Energy (GPE), are a source of stresses (Geopotential Stress) that contribute to the Earth’s Stress Field. In theory the GPE...... is linearly related to the lithospheric part of the Geoid. The Geopotential Stress can be calculated if either the density structure and as a consequence the GPE or the lithospheric contribution to the Geoid is known. The lithospheric Geoid is usually obtained by short pass filtering of satellite Geoid...... are not entirely suitable for the stress calculations but can be compiled and adjusted. We present an approach in which a global lithospheric density model based on CRUST2.0 is obtained by simultaneously fitting topography and surface heat flow in the presence of isostatic compensation and long-wavelength lateral...

  19. Duchenne muscular dystrophy models show their age

    OpenAIRE

    Chamberlain, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    The lack of appropriate animal models has hampered efforts to develop therapies for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). A new mouse model lacking both dystrophin and telomerase (Sacco et al., 2010) closely mimics the pathological progression of human DMD and shows that muscle stem cell activity is a key determinant of disease severity.

  20. Show Them You Really Want the Job

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlmutter, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Showing that one really "wants" the job entails more than just really wanting the job. An interview is part Broadway casting call, part intellectual dating game, part personality test, and part, well, job interview. When there are 300 applicants for a position, many of them will "fit" the required (and even the preferred) skills listed in the job…

  1. A Talk Show from the Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Arlene F.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a two-day activity in which elementary students examine voting rights, the right to assemble, and women's suffrage. Explains the game, "Assemble, Reassemble," and a student-produced talk show with five students playing the roles of leaders of the women's suffrage movement. Profiles Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Susan…

  2. Laser entertainment and light shows in education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaratnam, Andrew T.; Symons, Charles

    2002-05-01

    Laser shows and beam effects have been a source of entertainment since its first public performance May 9, 1969, at Mills College in Oakland, California. Since 1997, the Photonics Center, NgeeAnn Polytechnic, Singapore, has been using laser shows as a teaching tool. Students are able to exhibit their creative skills and learn at the same time how lasers are used in the entertainment industry. Students will acquire a number of skills including handling three- phase power supply, operation of cooling system, and laser alignment. Students also acquire an appreciation of the arts, learning about shapes and contours as they develop graphics for the shows. After holography, laser show animation provides a combination of the arts and technology. This paper aims to briefly describe how a krypton-argon laser, galvanometer scanners, a polychromatic acousto-optic modulator and related electronics are put together to develop a laser projector. The paper also describes how students are trained to make their own laser animation and beam effects with music, and at the same time have an appreciation of the operation of a Class IV laser and the handling of optical components.

  3. The Last Great American Picture Show

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas; King, Noel; Horwath, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The Last Great American Picture Show brings together essays by scholars and writers who chart the changing evaluations of the American cinema of the 1970s, sometimes referred to as the decade of the lost generation, but now more and more recognized as the first New Hollywood, without which the

  4. Influence of training and competitive sessions on peripheral β-endorphin levels in training show jumping horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cravana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the effects of training sessions on circulating β-endorphin changes in sport horses before and after competition and to ascertain whether competition would affect this response. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 trained jumping horses were randomly assigned to one of two training groups: Group A (competing and Group B (not competing. To determined plasma β-endorphin concentrations, two pre- and postcompetition training weeks at aerobic workout and two competitive show jumping event days at anaerobic workout were measured before, 5 and 30 min after exercise. Exercise intensity is described using lactate concentrations and heart rate. The circuit design, intensity, and duration of training sessions were the same for both groups. Results: In Group A, one-way analysis of variance for repeated measures (RM-ANOVA showed significant effects of exercise on β-endorphin changes (F=14.41; p<0.001, only in the post-competition training sessions, while in Group B showed no significant effects. Two-way RM-ANOVA showed, after post-competition training sessions, a significant difference between Group A and Group B (F=6.235; p=0.023, with higher β-endorphin changes in Group A, compared to Group B. During the competitive show jumping sessions, one-way RM ANOVA showed significant effects of exercise on β-endorphin changes (F=51.10; p<0.001. The statistical analysis, in Group A, showed a significant difference between postcompetition training and competitive exercise (F=6.32; p=0.024 with higher β-endorphin values in competitive sessions compared to those of post-competition training. Conclusion: Lactate concentrations seem to be the main factors being correlated with the raise of β-endorphin during anaerobic exercise of competitive events. Exercise of low intensity, as well as that one of training sessions, does not appear to stimulate a significant increased release of β-endorphin and it may depend on the duration of the exercise

  5. The impact of psychological stress on men's judgements of female body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Tovée, Martin J

    2012-01-01

    Previous work has suggested that the experience of psychological stress may influence physical attractiveness ideals, but most evidence in favour of this hypothesis remains archival. The objective of this study was to experimentally investigate the impact of stress on men's judgements of female body size. Men were randomly assigned to either an experimental group, in which they took part in a task that heightened stress (experimental group, n = 41) or in which they did not take part in such a task (control group, n = 40). Both groups rated the attractiveness of female bodies varying in size from emaciated to obese, completed a measure of appetite sensation, and had their body mass indices (BMIs) measured. Between-groups analyses showed that the experimental group was matched with the control group in terms of mean age, BMI, and appetite sensation. Further analyses showed that men in the experimental group rated a significantly heavier female body size as maximally attractive than the control group. Men in the experimental group also rated heavier female bodies as more attractive and idealised a wider range of female figures than did the control group. This study found that the experience of stress was associated with a preference among men for heavier female body sizes. These results indicate that human attractiveness judgements are sensitive to variations in local ecologies and reflect adaptive strategies for dealing with changing environmental conditions.

  6. The impact of psychological stress on men's judgements of female body size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viren Swami

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous work has suggested that the experience of psychological stress may influence physical attractiveness ideals, but most evidence in favour of this hypothesis remains archival. The objective of this study was to experimentally investigate the impact of stress on men's judgements of female body size. METHODS: Men were randomly assigned to either an experimental group, in which they took part in a task that heightened stress (experimental group, n = 41 or in which they did not take part in such a task (control group, n = 40. Both groups rated the attractiveness of female bodies varying in size from emaciated to obese, completed a measure of appetite sensation, and had their body mass indices (BMIs measured. RESULTS: Between-groups analyses showed that the experimental group was matched with the control group in terms of mean age, BMI, and appetite sensation. Further analyses showed that men in the experimental group rated a significantly heavier female body size as maximally attractive than the control group. Men in the experimental group also rated heavier female bodies as more attractive and idealised a wider range of female figures than did the control group. CONCLUSION: This study found that the experience of stress was associated with a preference among men for heavier female body sizes. These results indicate that human attractiveness judgements are sensitive to variations in local ecologies and reflect adaptive strategies for dealing with changing environmental conditions.

  7. Effect of Stress Conditions on Body Composition Parameters of Farmed Rohu (Labeo rohita)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Syed Qaswar Ali; Hussain, Muhammad Zubair; Asif Ali, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Various stressors affect the body composition of fish. The current study was undertaken to investigate the effect of stress conditions on the body composition of farmed Labeo rohita. Sixty fingerlings were subjected to experimentation in aquaria after being acclimatized. The specimens were divided...... into control, starvation stress and double stress (pH 8 and starvation) groups with 20 individuals in each group. Fish samples for the estimation of body composition were taken after 12 days, 24 days, 36 days and 48 days. Standard procedures and protocols were used for analysis. There was a trend of gradual...... increase in ash contents (% dry body weight) in starvation and double stress group with increase in number of days. However, fat contents (% dry body weight) considerably decreased and protein contents remained unchanged. The inter-comparison of three groups showed that there was significant effect...

  8. Morningness, Eveningness And Stress Perception In Physical Education Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Thais de Carvalho Messora

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:  to identify the stress levels and sleeping habits of students from the Physical Education college during the diurnal and nocturnal periods. Method: this is an exploratory and descriptive study with 103 subjects. Data were collected through the Lipp Stress Symptom Inventory and the Horne & Östberg Morningness-Eveningness Identification Questionnaire, and sociodemographic data. Results: The stress indexes showed 53.40% of students without stress and 46.6% with stress. When comparing gender and stress using the chi-square test, one obtained (p=0.0411, indicating that women are more stressed than men. There were 61.1% of students classified with indifferent chronotype. Among the students, 80.4% from the diurnal period were not suitable for the chronotype, as well as 74.5% of the students from the nocturnal period were not either. Conclusion: the majority of the students did not present the chronotype adequate for the study schedule and they presented stress, being more frequent in the female group.

  9. Learn to manage stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stress - managing; Stress - recognizing; Stress - relaxation techniques ... LEARN TO RECOGNIZE STRESS The first step in managing stress is recognizing it in your life. Everyone feels stress in a different way. ...

  10. GroupFinder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Kenneth Sejdenfaden; Skovsgaard, Anders; Jensen, Christian S.

    2013-01-01

    . Such groups are relevant to users who wish to conveniently explore several options before making a decision such as to purchase a specific product. Specifically, we demonstrate a practical proposal for finding top-k PoI groups in response to a query. We show how problem parameter settings can be mapped...

  11. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2010-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group, established at the start of 2010, has been strengthening the activities in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure The Communications Group has invested a lot of effort to support the operations needs of CMS. Hence, the CMS Centres where physicists work on remote CMS shifts, Data Quality Monitoring, and Data Analysis are running very smoothly. There are now 55 CMS Centres worldwide, up from just 16 at the start of CMS data-taking. The latest to join are Imperial College London, the University of Iowa, and the Università di Napoli. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, which is now full repaired after the major flooding at the beginning of the year, has been at the centre of CMS offline and computing operations, most recently hosting a large fraction of the CMS Heavy Ion community during the lead-lead run. A number of sub-detector shifts can now take pla...

  12. Group play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea

    2008-01-01

    Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects of the v......Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects...... of the various formats used by RPGs on the gaming experience. This article presents the results of an empirical study, examining how multi-player tabletop RPGs are affected as they are ported to the digital medium. Issues examined include the use of disposition assessments to predict play experience, the effect...... of group dynamics, the influence of the fictional game characters and the comparative play experience between the two formats. The results indicate that group dynamics and the relationship between the players and their digital characters, are integral to the quality of the gaming experience in multiplayer...

  13. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group has been busy in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure The 55 CMS Centres worldwide are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, is the centre of the CMS Offline and Computing operations, and a number of subdetector shifts can now take place there, rather than in the main Control Room at P5. A new CMS meeting room has been equipped for videoconferencing in building 42, next to building 40. Our building 28 meeting room and the facilities at P5 will be refurbished soon and plans are underway to steadily upgrade the ageing equipment in all 15 CMS meeting rooms at CERN. The CMS evaluation of the Vidyo tool indicates that it is not yet ready to be considered as a potential replacement for EVO. The Communications Group provides the CMS-TV (web) cha...

  14. Competitive ability, stress tolerance and plant interactions along stress