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Sample records for stress family functioning

  1. The Role of Stress Exposure and Family Functioning in Internalizing Outcomes of Urban Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheidow, Ashli J; Henry, David B; Tolan, Patrick H; Strachan, Martha K

    2014-11-01

    Although research suggests that stress exposure and family functioning are associated with internalizing problems in adolescents and caregivers, surprisingly few studies have investigated the mechanisms that underlie this association. To determine whether family functioning buffers the development of internalizing problems in stress-exposed families, we assessed the relation between stress exposure, family functioning, and internalizing symptoms among a large sample of inner-city male youth and their caregivers living in poverty across five waves of data collection. We hypothesized that stress exposure and family functioning would predict development of subsequent youth and caregiver internalizing problems and that family functioning would moderate this relation, with higher functioning families demonstrating greater resiliency to stress exposure. We used a longitudinal, prospective design to evaluate whether family functioning (assessed at waves one through four) activated or buffered the effects of stress exposure (assessed at wave one) on subsequent internalizing symptoms (assessed at waves four and five). Stress from Developmental Transitions and family functioning were significant predictors of depressive symptoms and anxiety in youth; however, family functioning did not moderate the relation. Family functioning mediated the relation between stress from Daily Hassles and internalizing outcomes suggesting that poor parenting practices, low structure, and low emotional cohesion activate depression and anxiety in youth exposed to chronic and frequent everyday stressors. Surprisingly, only family functioning predicted depressive symptoms in caregivers. Results validate the use of a comprehensive, multi-informant assessment of stress when investigating internalizing outcomes in youth and support using family-based interventions in the treatment and prevention of internalizing.

  2. Grandmother Support, Family Functioning, and Parenting Stress in Families with a Child with a Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumbarello, Natasha

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among grandparent support, family functioning, and parental stress on families with children with and without disabilities between the ages of 2 and 12 years. Families are viewed as an ever-changing complex system with reciprocal interactions. One possible stressor on the family system is the birth of a child…

  3. Maternal Parenting Stress and Child Perception of Family Functioning Among Families Affected by HIV.

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    Schulte, Marya T; Armistead, Lisa; Marelich, William D; Payne, Diana L; Goodrum, Nada M; Murphy, Debra A

    Mothers living with HIV (MLWH) experience stressors inherent to parenting, often within a context characterized by poverty, stigma, and/or limited social support. Our study assessed the relationship between parenting stress and child perceptions of family functioning in families with MLWH who have healthy school-age children. MLWH and their children (N = 102 pairs) completed measures addressing parenting stress and perceptions of family functioning (i.e., parent-child communication, family routines, and family cohesion). We used covariance structural modeling to evaluate the relationship between these factors, with results showing greater maternal parenting stress associated with poorer family functioning outcomes (reported by both the child and the mother). Findings offer support for the parenting stress-family functioning relationship by providing the child perspective along with the maternal perspective, and point to the need for interventions aimed at minimizing the impact of maternal parenting stress on family functioning. Copyright © 2017 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Latino parent acculturation stress: Longitudinal effects on family functioning and youth emotional and behavioral health.

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    Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Meca, Alan; Unger, Jennifer B; Romero, Andrea; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda; Piña-Watson, Brandy; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Zamboanga, Byron L; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Soto, Daniel W; Villamar, Juan A; Lizzi, Karina M; Pattarroyo, Monica; Schwartz, Seth J

    2016-12-01

    Latino parents can experience acculturation stressors, and according to the Family Stress Model (FSM), parent stress can influence youth mental health and substance use by negatively affecting family functioning. To understand how acculturation stressors come together and unfold over time to influence youth mental health and substance use outcomes, the current study investigated the trajectory of a latent parent acculturation stress factor and its influence on youth mental health and substance use via parent-and youth-reported family functioning. Data came from a 6-wave, school-based survey with 302 recent (stress loaded onto a latent factor of acculturation stress at each of the first 4 time points. Earlier levels of and increases in parent acculturation stress predicted worse youth-reported family functioning. Additionally, earlier levels of parent acculturation stress predicted worse parent-reported family functioning and increases in parent acculturation stress predicted better parent-reported family functioning. While youth-reported positive family functioning predicted higher self-esteem, lower symptoms of depression, and lower aggressive and rule-breaking behavior in youth, parent-reported family positive functioning predicted lower youth alcohol and cigarette use. Findings highlight the need for Latino youth preventive interventions to target parent acculturation stress and family functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Parental Family Stress during Pregnancy and Cognitive Functioning in Early Childhood: The Generation R Study

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    Henrichs, Jens; Schenk, Jacqueline J.; Kok, Rianne; Ftitache, Bouchra; Schmidt, Henk G.; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether parental family stress during pregnancy is associated with cognitive functioning in early childhood in a population-based cohort (n = 3139). Family stress was assessed using the Family Assessment Device at the 20th week of pregnancy and was reported by mothers and fathers. Mothers completed the MacArthur Communicative…

  6. Family functioning, burden and parenting stress 2 years after very preterm birth.

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    Treyvaud, Karli; Doyle, Lex W; Lee, Katherine J; Roberts, Gehan; Cheong, Jeanie L Y; Inder, Terrie E; Anderson, Peter J

    2011-06-01

    Examining rates of difficulties in family functioning following very preterm birth has been a relatively neglected area of research. To examine family functioning, burden and parenting stress in families with very preterm compared with term born children, and investigate influences of parental mental health problems and child neurodevelopmental disability on family outcomes in families with preterm children. Participants were 184 very preterm and 71 term children and their parents. Parents completed the Family Assessment Device, Parenting Stress Index and Impact on Family questionnaires when their children were 2 years old (corrected for prematurity). Parental mental health and social risk information were also collected. Children were assessed for neurodevelopmental disability. Families with very preterm children reported poorer family functioning (p=.03) compared with families with term born children, with less evidence for differences between families with very preterm and term born children in parenting stress and family burden. Within very preterm families, parental mental health problems were associated with higher levels of parenting stress (p=.001), and parents of children with a neurodevelopmental disability were more likely to report higher family burden (p=.04). For families with very preterm children, parental mental health symptoms and child neurodevelopmental disability may identify families at risk of greater stress and burden who may benefit from additional support. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Family Environments and Children's Executive Function: The Mediating Role of Children's Affective State and Stress.

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    He, Zhong-Hua; Yin, Wen-Gang

    2016-09-01

    There is increasing evidence that inadequate family environments (family material environment and family psychosocial environment) are not only social problems but also factors contributing to adverse neurocognitive outcomes. In the present study, the authors investigated the relationship among family environments, children's naturalistic affective state, self-reported stress, and executive functions in a sample of 157 Chinese families. These findings revealed that in inadequate family material environments, reduced children's cognitive flexibility is associated with increased naturalistic negative affectivity and self-reported stress. In addition, naturalistic negative affectivity mediated the association between family expressiveness and children's cognitive flexibility. The authors used a structural equation model to examine the mediation model hypothesis, and the results confirmed the mediating roles of naturalistic negative affectivity and self-reported stress between family environments and the cognitive flexibility of Chinese children. These findings indicate the importance of reducing stress and negative emotional state for improving cognitive functions in children of low socioeconomic status.

  8. Latino Parent Acculturation Stress: Longitudinal Effects on Family Functioning and Youth Emotional and Behavioral Health

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Meca, Alan; Unger, Jennifer B.; Romero, Andrea; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda; Piña-Watson, Brandy; Cano, Miguel A.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E.; Soto, Daniel W.; Villamar, Juan A.; Lizzi, Karina M.; Pattarroyo, Monica; Schwartz, Seth J.

    2016-01-01

    Latino parents can experience acculturation stressors, and according to the Family Stress Model, parent stress can influence youth mental health and substance use by negatively affecting family functioning. To understand how acculturation stressors come together and unfold over time to influence youth mental health and substance use outcomes, the current study investigated the trajectory of a latent parent acculturation stress factor and its influence on youth mental health and substance use ...

  9. Family functioning and mental health in runaway youth: association with posttraumatic stress symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sanna J; Cochran, Gerald; Barczyk, Amanda N

    2012-10-01

    This study examined the direct effects of physical and sexual abuse, neglect, poor family communication and worries concerning family relationships, depression, anxiety, and dissociation on posttraumatic stress symptoms. Runaway youth were recruited from emergency youth shelters in New York and Texas. Interviews were completed with 350 youth who averaged 15 years of age. Structural equation modeling was used to examine family functioning, maltreatment, depression, dissociation, and anxiety in relation to posttraumatic stress symptoms. Results indicated that direct effects of family relationship worry to dissociation, β = .77, p family communication and youth dissociation, β = .42, p stress symptoms, but depression was not. Findings underscore the critical role of family relationships in mental health symptoms experienced by runaway adolescents. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  10. Parenting stress in pediatric IBD: relations with child psychopathology, family functioning, and disease severity.

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    Gray, Wendy N; Graef, Danielle M; Schuman, Shana S; Janicke, David M; Hommel, Kevin A

    2013-05-01

    Parenting stress in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been under-examined. Data validating use of the Pediatric Inventory for Parents (PIP), a measure of parenting stress associated with caring for a chronically ill child, in chronic diseases with intermittent, unpredictable disease courses, such as IBD, are needed. This study presents validity data in support of the PIP in pediatric IBD and examines relations between parenting stress and important psychosocial and medical outcomes. Adolescents (N = 130) with IBD and their caregivers across 3 sites completed measures of parenting stress, family functioning, and emotional/behavioral functioning. Disease severity was also assessed for each participant. The PIP demonstrates excellent internal consistency. Parenting stress was significantly higher among those with unhealthy general family functioning and those with children with borderline or clinically elevated internalizing symptoms. Caregiving stress was greater among parents of youth with more active Crohn's disease. Results supported the reliability and validity of the PIP for assessing caregiving stress in pediatric IBD. Routine assessment of parenting stress is recommended, particularly among parents reporting unhealthy family functioning and parents of youth with borderline or clinically elevated internalizing symptoms and more active disease.

  11. [Impact of Socioeconomic Risk Exposure on Maternal Sensitivity, Stress and Family Functionality].

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    Sidor, Anna; Köhler, Hubert; Cierpka, Manfred

    2018-03-01

    Impact of Socioeconomic Risk Exposure on Maternal Sensitivity, Stress and Family Functionality Parental stress exposure can influence the parent-child relationship, child development and child wellbeing in negative ways. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of socio-economic risk exposure on the quality of the mother-child-interaction and family functionality. A sample of 294 mother-infant dyads at psychosocial risk was compared with a lower-risk, middle-class sample of 125 mother-infant-dyads in regard to maternal sensitivity/child's cooperation (CARE-Index), maternal stress (PSI-SF) and family functionality (FB-K). Lower levels of maternal sensitivity/child's cooperation and by trend also of the family functionality were found among the mothers from the at-risk sample in comparison to the low-risk sample. The level of maternal stress was similar in both samples. The results underpin the negative effects of a socio-economic risk exposure on the mother-child relationship. An early, sensitivity-focused family support could be encouraged to counteract the negative effects of early socioeconomic stress.

  12. Parents of children with haemophilia at an early age: assessment of perceived stress and family functioning.

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    Torres-Ortuño, A; Cuesta-Barriuso, R; Nieto-Munuera, J

    2014-11-01

    Haemophilia is a chronic disease that requires a multidisciplinary approach for proper management and control of its clinical manifestations. The perception and management of parents of children with haemophilia can be affected by stressful situations as a result of treatment or disease progression. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of stress and family functioning in parents of children with haemophilia 1-7 years. This is an observational clinical study involving 49 parents of children with haemophilia 1-7 years who attended the VIII Workshop for Parents of Children with haemophilia, organized by the Spanish Federation of Hemophilia in La Charca, Murcia (Spain). After obtaining parental consent, the questionnaires was applied to them, FACES III (family functioning) and Pediatric Inventory for Parents (perceived stress), and a record of data on the clinical characteristics and treatment. Significant differences in the perception of stressors by gender of parents were found. A family history of haemophilia, the use of port-a-cath, inhibitor development and gender of the parents were the descriptive variables most correlated with dependents variables. These variables, together with the type of haemophilia affect significantly in the parental stress and family functioning. Parents have difficulty adjusting to disease management, perceiving many stressors. Gender and family history, can hinder the proper compliance with treatments, reducing its effectiveness. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Family Stress and Adolescents’ Cognitive Functioning: Sleep as a Protective Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Tu, Kelly M.; Erath, Stephen A.; Buckhalt, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    We examined two sleep-wake parameters as moderators of the associations between exposure to family stressors and adolescent cognitive functioning. Participants were 252 school-recruited adolescents (M = 15.79 years; 66% European American, 34% African American). Youths reported on three dimensions of family stress: marital conflict, harsh parenting, and parental psychological control. Cognitive functioning was indexed through performance on the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities. Sleep minutes and efficiency were measured objectively using actigraphy. Towards identifying unique effects, path models controlled for two family stress variables while estimating the third. Analyses revealed that sleep efficiency moderated the associations between negative parenting (harsh parenting and parental psychological control) and adolescents’ cognitive functioning. The highest level of cognitive performance was predicted for adolescents with higher levels of sleep efficiency in conjunction with lower levels of either harsh parenting or psychological control. The effects of sleep were more pronounced at lower levels of negative parenting where adolescents with higher sleep efficiency performed better than their counterparts with poorer sleep. At higher levels of either harsh parenting or psychological control, similar levels of cognitive performance were observed regardless of sleep. Results are discussed in comparison to other recent studies on interrelations among family stress, sleep, and cognitive performance in childhood and adolescence. PMID:25329625

  14. Parental alcohol use disorders and child delinquency: the mediating effects of executive functioning and chronic family stress.

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    Grekin, Emily R; Brennan, Patricia A; Hammen, Constance

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between parental alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and child violent and nonviolent delinquency. It also explores the mediating effects of executive functioning and chronic family stress on the parental AUD/child delinquency relationship. Participants were 816 families with children (414 boys and 402 girls) born between 1981 and 1984 at Mater Misericordiae Mother's Hospital in Brisbane, Australia. Parents and children completed semistructured interviews, questionnaires and neuropsychological tests that assessed parental alcohol use, family psychiatric history, chronic family stress, child delinquency and child executive functioning. Paternal (but not maternal) AUDs predicted child violent and nonviolent delinquency. Executive functioning mediated the relationship between paternal AUDs and violent delinquency, whereas family stress mediated the relationship between paternal AUDs and both violent and nonviolent delinquency. Results support a biosocial conceptualization of the paternal AUD/delinquency relationship. They suggest that paternal AUDs may be associated with child executive functioning and family stress, which may in turn lead to child delinquency.

  15. Family functioning, parenting stress and quality of life in mothers and fathers of Polish children with high functioning autism or Asperger syndrome.

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    Pisula, Ewa; Porębowicz-Dörsmann, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the perception of the family functioning in parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with normal-range intelligence and the relationships between family functioning, parenting stress and quality of life. Dyads of parents of children with ASD without intellectual disability and parents of typically developing children (controls) completed a set of self-report questionnaires. Parents of children with ASD reported lower functioning of the family as a whole and their own functioning as family members; they exhibited higher levels of parenting stress and lower quality of life. Mothers of children with ASD experienced more stress in personal domain than fathers. Relationships between family functioning, parenting stress and quality of life have been established. There were also moderate to strong correlations in mother-father dyads between their assessments of family functioning, parenting stress and QoL in social relationships and environmental domains.

  16. Family functioning, parenting stress and quality of life in mothers and fathers of Polish children with high functioning autism or Asperger syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Pisula

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the perception of the family functioning in parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD with normal-range intelligence and the relationships between family functioning, parenting stress and quality of life. Dyads of parents of children with ASD without intellectual disability and parents of typically developing children (controls completed a set of self-report questionnaires. Parents of children with ASD reported lower functioning of the family as a whole and their own functioning as family members; they exhibited higher levels of parenting stress and lower quality of life. Mothers of children with ASD experienced more stress in personal domain than fathers. Relationships between family functioning, parenting stress and quality of life have been established. There were also moderate to strong correlations in mother-father dyads between their assessments of family functioning, parenting stress and QoL in social relationships and environmental domains.

  17. [Study on the correlation among adolescents' family function, negative life events stress amount and suicide ideation].

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    Zhang, Dongdong; Chen, Ling; Yin, Dan; Miao, Jinping; Sun, Yehuan

    2014-07-01

    To explore the correlation between suicide ideation and family function & negative life events, as well as other influential factors in adolescents, thus present a theoretical base for clinicians and school staff to develop intervention for those problems. By adopting current situation random sampling method, Self-Rating Idea of Suicide Scale, Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List and Family APGAR Index were used to assess adolescents at random in a hygiene vocational school in Changzhou City, Jiangsu Province and a collage in Wuhu City, Anhui Province. 3700 questionnaires were granted, 3675 questionnaires were collected, among which 3620 were valid. Chi-square test, t-test, and univariate logistic regression were employed in univariate analysis, multivariate logistic regression was used in multivariate analysis. The detection rate of suicide ideation is 7.0%, and the top five suicide ideation characteristics were: poor academic performance (33.6%), serious family functional impairment (25.8%), lower-middle academic performance (11.7%), bad economic conditions (10.8%) and study in Grade Three (9.9%). Multiple logistic regression showed that the following three high-level stress amount in negative life events are most crucial for suicide ideation. They are "relationships" (OR = 1.135, 95% CI 1.071 - 1. 202), "academic pressure" (OR = 1.169, 95% CI 1.101 - 1.241), and "external events" (OR = 1.278, 95% CI 1.187 - 1.376). What' s more, the stress of attending higher grades (OR = 1.980, 95% CI 1.302 - 3.008), poor academic performance (OR = 7.206, 95% CI 1.745 - 9.789), moderate family functional impairment (OR = 2.562, 95% CI 1.527 - 2.892) and its serious level (OR = 8.287, 95% CI 3.154 - 6.917) are also influential factors for suicide ideation. Severe family functional impairment and high-level stress amount of negative life events produced the main factors of suicide ideation. Therefore, necessary and sufficient support should be given to adolescents by

  18. Examining the Effects of Mexican Serial Migration and Family Separations on Acculturative Stress, Depression, and Family Functioning

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    Rusch, Dana; Reyes, Karina

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the role of parent-child separations during serial migration to the United States in predicting individual- and family-level outcomes in Mexican immigrant families. We assessed parents' subjective appraisals of their family's separation and reunion experiences to explore associations with self-reported acculturative stress,…

  19. Financial stress, parent functioning and adolescent problem behavior: an actor-partner interdependence approach to family stress processes in low-, middle-, and high-income families.

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    Ponnet, Koen

    2014-10-01

    The family stress model proposes that financial stress experienced by parents is associated with problem behavior in adolescents. The present study applied an actor-partner interdependence approach to the family stress model and focused on low-, middle-, and high-income families to broaden our understanding of the pathways by which the financial stress of mothers and fathers are related to adolescent outcomes. The study uses dyadic data (N = 798 heterosexual couples) from the Relationship between Mothers, Fathers and Children study in which two-parent families with an adolescent between 11 and 17 years of age participated. Path-analytic results indicated that in each of the families the association between parents' financial stress and problem behavior in adolescents is mediated through parents' depressive symptoms, interparental conflict, and positive parenting. Family stress processes also appear to operate in different ways for low-, middle-, and high-income families. In addition to a higher absolute level of financial stress in low-income families, financial stress experienced by mothers and fathers in these families had significant direct and indirect effects on problem behavior in adolescents, while in middle- and high-income families only significant indirect effects were found. The financial stress of a low-income mother also had a more detrimental impact on her level of depressive feelings than it had on mothers in middle-income families. Furthermore, the study revealed gender differences in the pathways of mothers and fathers. Implications for research, clinical practice, and policy are also discussed.

  20. The effectiveness of telehealth care on caregiver burden, mastery of stress, and family function among family caregivers of heart failure patients: a quasi-experimental study.

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    Chiang, Li-Chi; Chen, Wan-Chou; Dai, Yu-Tzu; Ho, Yi-Lwun

    2012-10-01

    Telehealth care was developed to provide home-based monitoring and support for patients with chronic disease. The positive effects on physical outcome have been reported; however, more evidence is required concerning the effects on family caregivers and family function for heart failure patients transitioning from the hospital to home. To evaluate the effectiveness of nursing-led transitional care combining discharge plans and telehealth care on family caregiver burden, stress mastery and family function in family caregivers of heart failure patients compared to those receiving traditional discharge planning only. This is a quasi-experimental study design. Sixty-three patients with heart failure were assessed for eligibility and invited to participate in either telehealth care or standard care in a medical centre from May to October 2010. Three families refused to participate in data collection. Thirty families who chose telehealth care after discharge from the hospital to home comprised the experimental group; the others families receiving discharge planning only comprised the comparison group. Telenursing specialist provided the necessary family nursing interventions by 24-h remote monitoring of patients' health condition and counselling by telephone, helping the family caregivers successfully transition from hospital to home. Data on caregiver burden, stress mastery and family function were collected before discharge from the hospital and one month later at home. Effects of group, time, and group×time interaction were analysed using Mixed Model in SPSS (17.0). Family caregivers in both groups had significantly lower burden, higher stress mastery, and better family function at one-month follow-up compared to before discharge. The total score of caregiver burden, stress mastery and family function was significantly improved for the family caregivers in the experimental group compared to the comparison group at posttest. Two subscales of family function

  1. Can reactivity to stress and family environment explain memory and executive function performance in early and middle childhood?

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    Piccolo, Luciane da Rosa; Salles, Jerusa Fumagalli de; Falceto, Olga Garcia; Fernandes, Carmen Luiza; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    According to the literature, children's overall reactivity to stress is associated with their socioeconomic status and family environment. In turn, it has been shown that reactivity to stress is associated with cognitive performance. However, few studies have systematically tested these three constructs together. To investigate the relationship between family environment, salivary cortisol measurements and children's memory and executive function performance. Salivary cortisol levels of 70 children aged 9 or 10 years were measured before and after performing tasks designed to assess memory and executive functions. Questionnaires on socioeconomic issues, family environment and maternal psychopathologies were administered to participants' families during the children's early childhood and again when they reached school age. Data were analyzed by calculating correlations between variables and conducting hierarchical regression. High cortisol levels were associated with poorer working memory and worse performance in tasks involving executive functions, and were also associated with high scores for maternal psychopathology (during early childhood and school age) and family dysfunction. Family environment variables and changes in cortisol levels explain around 20% of the variance in performance of cognitive tasks. Family functioning and maternal psychopathology in early and middle childhood and children's stress levels were associated with children's working memory and executive functioning.

  2. Posttraumatic Stress, Family Functioning, and Externalizing in Adolescents Exposed to Violence: A Moderated Mediation Model.

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    Deane, Kyle; Richards, Maryse; Mozley, Michaela; Scott, Darrick; Rice, Catherine; Garbarino, James

    2016-09-02

    Exposure to community violence disproportionately impacts low-income, minority youth and is associated with posttraumatic stress symptoms and maladaptive adjustment. This study investigates whether posttraumatic stress mediates the relation between exposure to community violence and externalizing symptoms and the moderating role of family cohesion and daily family support in buffering these effects on later externalizing. Low-income, African American 7th-grade students (M age = 12.57 years; N = 254) from high-crime neighborhoods participated in a 2-year longitudinal study measuring the effects of community violence exposure. The students completed questionnaires administered by research staff over 5 consecutive days for each year of the study. Family cohesion and daily family support exhibited a significant buffering effect for several outcomes. Posttraumatic stress significantly mediated the effect of witnessing community violence on subsequent aggression. The strength of these indirect effects depended on level of family cohesion. The findings provide evidence in support of interventions provided at both individual and family levels. Mental health providers working with this population should be aware of the intertwined nature of exposure to community violence, posttraumatic stress, and subsequent maladaptive outcomes.

  3. Family Functioning and Children’s Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms in a Referred Sample Exposed to Interparental Violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telman, M.D.; Overbeek, M.M.; de Schipper, J.C.; Lamers-Winkelman, F.; Finkenauer, C.; Schuengel, C.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between interparental violence (IPV), child abuse and neglect, other traumatic experiences, and children’s post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms and explored the moderating role of family functioning in the aftermath of IPV. One hundred and twenty IPV-exposed

  4. Daily family stress and HPA axis functioning during adolescence: The moderating role of sleep

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    Chiang, Jessica J.; Tsai, Kim M.; Park, Heejung; Bower, Julienne E.; Almeida, David M.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Irwin, Michael R.; Seeman, Teresa E.; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the moderating role of sleep in the association between family demands and conflict and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning in a sample of ethnically diverse adolescents (n = 316). Adolescents completed daily diary reports of family demands and conflict for 15 days, and wore actigraph watches during the first 8 nights to assess sleep. Participants also provided five saliva samples for 3 consecutive days to assess diurnal cortisol rhythms. Regression analyses indicated that sleep latency and efficiency moderated the link between family demands and the cortisol awakening response. Specifically, family demands were related to a smaller cortisol awakening response only among adolescents with longer sleep latency and lower sleep efficiency. These results suggest that certain aspects of HPA axis functioning may be sensitive to family demands primarily in the context of longer sleep latency and lower sleep efficiency. PMID:27235639

  5. Posttraumatic stress, family functioning, and social support in survivors of childhood leukemia and their mothers and fathers.

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    Kazak, A E; Barakat, L P; Meeske, K; Christakis, D; Meadows, A T; Casey, R; Penati, B; Stuber, M L

    1997-02-01

    Psychological sequelae are examined in 130 former childhood leukemia patients and 155 comparison participants and their parents. The major dependent variables are symptoms of anxiety and posttraumatic stress, family functioning, and social support. Multivariate analyses of covariance indicated significantly more posttraumatic stress symptoms in mothers and fathers of childhood leukemia survivors (p impact of childhood cancer treatment on parents. The lack of significant differences for survivors argues for further attention to the relevance of posttraumatic stress disorder for childhood cancer survivors. The clinical implications are that psychological interventions are needed during and after cancer treatment.

  6. Longitudinal Impact of a Randomized Clinical Trial to Improve Family Function, Reduce Maternal Stress and Improve Child Outcomes in Families of Children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Shervin S; Leo, Michael C; Brennan, Eileen M; Sellmaier, Claudia; Kendall, Judy; Houck, Gail M

    2018-02-23

    Objective Evaluate the efficacy of a 12 month nursing case-management intervention over a period of 18 months, 6 months after the end of intervention, for families of children attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods Mother and child dyads were enrolled to participate in a randomized controlled clinical trial. Children were 4-18 years old. Data were collected at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months or 6 months after the termination of direct intervention. Longitudinal analyses, using generalized estimating equations, were conducted to assess change in study outcomes relating to family function, maternal stress, and child behavior over the 18 month period. Results Compared to control families, some family function outcomes were moderately improved in the intervention group. In particular, intervention families demonstrated substantial improvement in implementing family behavior controls (p value = 0.038) and improvement in family satisfaction (not statistically significant p = 0.062). Although there was improvement in the overall family function measure there was not a statistically significant difference between groups. Maternal stress and child behavior outcomes were not significantly different between control and intervention groups by the end of the intervention. Conclusions for Practice Addressing ADHD is complex and requires the assessment of comorbidities that might exacerbate negative behavior. Our findings support the latest American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines to use behavioral therapy as the first line of treatment in young children. Nursing case-management interventions that provide direct family education and improve family function, especially with respect to providing structure and behavior control, may complement and facilitate behavioral therapy for treatment of ADHD and improving child behavior.

  7. The effectiveness of cognitive behavioral stress management training on mental health, social interaction and family function in adolescents of families with one Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV positive member

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Keypour

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study evaluated stress management training to improve mental health, social interaction and family function among adolescents of families with one Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV positive member. Methods: There were 34 adolescents (13-18 years old with at least one family member living with HIV from whom finally 15 attended the study and participated in 8 weekly sessions of stress management training. The tests used in this study were: Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (self and parent report, General Health Questionnare-28 (GHQ-28 and Family Assessment Device (FAD, conducted before, after and three months after the intervention. The collected data were analyzed by repeated measure test using SPSS software (Version 18.0. Results: Adolescents with one HIV positive family member showed high level of emotional problem (40% and conduct problem (33.3%. There was a significant difference between before, after and 3months after intervention based on GHQ-28 mean scores and FAD mean sores (p < 0.001. There was a significant difference between mean scores of peers′ relationship based on SDQ (self report and parents report forms before and after intervention, but there was no significant difference between mean scores of pro social behavior based on SDQ (self report and parents report forms in all three stages (before, after and three months after intervention. Conclusions: Stress management training is effective in improving mental health, family function and social interaction among adolescents living with parents infected with HIV/AIDS.

  8. The effectiveness of cognitive behavioral stress management training on mental health, social interaction and family function in adolescents of families with one Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive member.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keypour, Maryam; Arman, Soroor; Maracy, Mohammad Reza

    2011-06-01

    This study evaluated stress management training to improve mental health, social interaction and family function among adolescents of families with one Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive member. There were 34 adolescents (13-18 years old) with at least one family member living with HIV from whom finally 15 attended the study and participated in 8 weekly sessions of stress management training. The tests used in this study were: Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (self and parent report), General Health Questionnare-28 (GHQ-28) and Family Assessment Device (FAD), conducted before, after and three months after the intervention. The collected data were analyzed by repeated measure test using SPSS software (Version 18.0). Adolescents with one HIV positive family member showed high level of emotional problem (40%) and conduct problem (33.3%). There was a significant difference between before, after and 3months after intervention based on GHQ-28 mean scores and FAD mean sores (p social behavior based on SDQ (self report and parents report forms) in all three stages (before, after and three months after intervention). Stress management training is effective in improving mental health, family function and social interaction among adolescents living with parents infected with HIV/AIDS.

  9. Mechanisms of change: Testing how preventative interventions impact psychological and physiological stress functioning in mothers in neglectful families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Sheree L; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L; Rogosch, Fred A; Cicchetti, Dante

    2015-11-01

    The present study applies a multilevel approach to an examination of the effect of two randomized preventive interventions with mothers in neglectful families who are also contending with elevated levels of impoverishment and ecological risk. Specifically, we examined how participation in either child-parent psychotherapy (CPP) or psychoeducational parenting intervention (PPI) was associated with reductions in maternal psychological parenting stress and in turn physiological stress system functioning when compared to mothers involved in standard community services as well as a demographic comparison group of nonmaltreating mothers. The resulting group sizes in the current investigation were 44 for CPP, 34 for PPI, 27 for community services, and 52 for nonmaltreating mothers. Mothers and their 13-month-old infants were randomly assigned to intervention group at baseline. Mothers completed assessments on stress within the parenting role at baseline and postintervention. Basal cortisol was sampled at postintervention and 1-year follow-up. Latent difference score analyses examined change in these constructs over time. Results suggested that mothers within the CPP intervention experienced significant declines in child-related parenting stress, while mothers in the PPI intervention reported declines in parent-related parenting stress. In turn, significant decreases in stress within the CPP mothers were further associated with adaptive basal cortisol functioning at 1-year postintervention. The results highlight the value of delineating how participation in preventive interventions aimed at ameliorating child maltreatment in neglectful families within the context of poverty may operate through improvements in psychological and physiological stress functioning. Findings are discussed with respect to the importance of multilevel assessments of intervention process and outcome.

  10. Mechanisms of Change: Testing how Preventative Interventions Impact Psychological and Physiological Stress Functioning in Mothers in Neglectful Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Sheree L.; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.; Rogosch, Fred A.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2015-01-01

    The present study applies a multilevel approach to an examination of the effect of two randomized preventative interventions with mothers in neglectful families who are also contending with elevated levels of impoverishment and ecological risk. Specifically, we examined how participation in either Child-Parent Psychotherapy (CPP) or Psychoeducational Parenting (PPI) interventions was associated with reductions in maternal psychological parenting stress and in turn physiological stress system functioning when compared to mothers involved in standard community services (CS) as well as a demographic comparison group of nonmaltreating mothers (NC). The resulting group sizes in the current investigation were: CPP (n = 44), PPI (n = 34), CS (n = 27), and NC (n = 52). Mothers and infants who were 13-months of age were randomly assigned to intervention group at baseline. Mothers completed assessments on stress within the parenting role at baseline and post-intervention. Basal cortisol was sampled at post-intervention and 1-year follow-up. Latent difference score analyses examined change in these constructs over time. Results suggested that mothers within the CPP intervention experienced significant declines in child-related parenting stress while mothers in the PPI intervention reported declines in parent-related parenting stress. In turn, significant decreases in stress within the CPP mothers were further associated with adaptive basal cortisol functioning at 1-year post-intervention. Results highlight the value of delineating how participation in preventtive interventions aimed at ameliorating child maltreatment in neglectful families within the context of poverty may operate through improvements in psychological and physiological stress functioning. Findings are discussed with respect to the importance of multi-level assessments of intervention process and outcome. PMID:26535951

  11. Longitudinal Effects of Latino Parent Cultural Stress, Depressive Symptoms, and Family Functioning on Youth Emotional Well-Being and Health Risk Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Meca, Alan; Unger, Jennifer B; Romero, Andrea; Szapocznik, José; Piña-Watson, Brandy; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Zamboanga, Byron L; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Soto, Daniel W; Villamar, Juan A; Lizzi, Karina M; Pattarroyo, Monica; Schwartz, Seth J

    2017-12-01

    U.S. Latino parents can face cultural stressors in the form of acculturative stress, perceived discrimination, and a negative context of reception. It stands to reason that these cultural stressors may negatively impact Latino youth's emotional well-being and health risk behaviors by increasing parents' depressive symptoms and compromising the overall functioning of the family. To test this possibility, we analyzed data from a six-wave longitudinal study with 302 recently immigrated (stress predicted greater parent depressive symptoms (and not vice versa). Both parent cultural stress and depressive symptoms, in turn, predicted lower parent-reported family functioning, which mediated the links from parent cultural stress and depressive symptoms to youth alcohol and cigarette use. Parent cultural stress also predicted lower youth-reported family functioning, which mediated the link from parent cultural stress to youth self-esteem. Finally, mediation analyses indicated that parent cultural stress predicted youth alcohol use by a way of parent depressive symptoms and parent-reported family functioning. Our findings point to parent depressive symptoms and family functioning as key mediators in the links from parent cultural stress to youth emotional well-being and health risk behaviors. We discuss implications for research and preventive interventions. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  12. Normal Functioning Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Normal Functioning Family Page Content Article Body Is there any way ...

  13. The Arabidopsis thaliana NAC transcription factor family: structure-function relationships and determinants of ANAC019 stress signalling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael K; Kjaersgaard, Trine; Nielsen, Michael M.

    2010-01-01

    -termini. Nine of the ten NAC domains analysed bind a previously identified conserved DNA target sequence with a CGT[GA] core, although with different affinities. Likewise, all but one of the NAC proteins analysed is dependent on the C-terminal region for transactivational activity. In silico analyses show......TFs (transcription factors) are modular proteins minimally containing a DBD (DNA-binding domain) and a TRD (transcription regulatory domain). NAC [for NAM (no apical meristem), ATAF, CUC (cup-shaped cotyledon)] proteins comprise one of the largest plant TF families. They are key regulators...... of stress perception and developmental programmes, and most share an N-terminal NAC domain. On the basis of analyses of gene expression data and the phylogeny of Arabidopsis thaliana NAC TFs we systematically decipher structural and functional specificities of the conserved NAC domains and the divergent C...

  14. Predictors of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Among Adolescent and Young Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer: Importance of Monitoring Survivors' Experiences of Family Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamibeppu, Kiyoko; Murayama, Shiho; Ozono, Shuichi; Sakamoto, Naoko; Iwai, Tsuyako; Asami, Keiko; Maeda, Naoko; Inada, Hiroko; Kakee, Naoko; Okamura, Jun; Horibe, Keizo; Ishida, Yasushi

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) among Japanese long-term childhood cancer survivors (CCSs). Subjects comprised 185 adolescent and young adult (AYA) CCSs who completed anonymous self-report questionnaires. Attending physicians also completed an anonymous disease/treatment data sheet. Mean age of survivors was approximately 8 years at diagnosis and 23 years at participation. Multiple regression analysis showed that family functioning, satisfaction with social support, being female, and interactions between family functioning and gender and age at the time of diagnosis were associated with PTSS among survivors. This study revealed family functioning as the most predictive factor of PTSS among AYA CCSs in Japan. Even when the survivor may have unchangeable risk factors, family functioning can potentially moderate the effects on PTSS. Thus, it is crucial for health professionals to carefully monitor and attend to survivors' experiences of family functioning to mitigate PTSS. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Family roles as family functioning regulators

    OpenAIRE

    STEPANYAN ARMINE

    2015-01-01

    The author examines the problems of formation and functioning of family roles. Having social roots, family roles appear on individual level by performing the social function of the formation of family as a social institute.

  16. Family Functioning, Social Opportunities and Health as Predictors of Stress in Families of Children with Developmental Disability in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukmak, Samir J.; Aburezeq, Ibtehal M.

    2012-01-01

    A significant number of individuals all over the world experience various types of developmental disabilities. Families of these individuals are likely to be impacted by these disabilities in different ways. This research examines the UAE parents' adaptation and stress to the developmental disabilities that their children have as well as examines…

  17. Human Service Employees Coping with Job Stress, Family Stress and Work-Family Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Dominic J.

    The intersection of work and family life has always been a popular topic of discussion among family theorists. This study examined human service employees in direct service positions coping with work stress, family stress, and work-family conflict. The effects of work stress, family stress and work-family conflict on depression were examined.…

  18. The relationships between family functioning and attachment orientations to post-traumatic stress symptoms among young adults who were evacuated from Gaza Strip settlements as adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerach, Gadi; Tam, Elkanor

    2016-01-01

    This study examined post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms among young adults that were evicted from their residences in Gaza settlements ("Gush Katif") as adolescents and actively participated in the resistance events. Furthermore, we examined the moderating role of exposure to forced relocation on the association between attachment orientations and family functioning and PTSD symptoms. We conducted a correlative, cross-sectional study in 2013. Participants were Israeli evicted residents (ER group; N = 102), comparison groups of evicted nonresidents (ENR group; N = 27), and nonevicted nonresidents (NENR group; N = 53). All participants completed a battery of self-reported questionnaires. The ER group reported a higher number of PTSD symptoms as compared to the comparison groups. However, ER participants did not differ from ENR and NENR participants in their perception of family functioning. Importantly, the group (ER vs. NENR) moderated the association between attachment-anxiety and PTSD symptoms and between family adaptability and PTSD symptoms. Nine years after the forced relocation from Gaza settlements, young adults that were evicted from their residences as adolescents suffer from PTSD symptoms that are more related to the relocation itself than the stress entailed in the resistance events.

  19. Effects of Exposure to Community Violence and Family Violence on School Functioning Problems among Urban Youth: The Potential Mediating Role of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Tia M.; Self-Brown, Shannon R.; Lai, Betty S.; Cowart-Osborne, Melissa; Tiwari, Ashwini; LeBlanc, Monique; Kelley, Mary Lou

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents who are exposed to violence during childhood are at an increased risk for developing posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. The literature suggests that violence exposure might also have negative effects on school functioning, and that PTS might serve as a potential mediator in this association. The purpose of the current study was to replicate and extend prior research by examining PTS symptoms as a mediator of the relationship between two types of violence exposure and school functioning problems among adolescent youth from an urban setting. Participants included a sample of 121 junior high and high school students (M = 15 years; range = 13–16 years; 60 males, 61 females) within high-crime neighborhoods. Consistent with our hypotheses, community violence and family violence were associated with PTS symptoms and school functioning problems. Our data suggest that community and family violence were indirectly related to school functioning problems through PTS symptoms. Findings from this study demonstrate that PTS symptoms potentially mediate the relationship between violence exposure and school functioning problems across two settings (community and home). Future research should further examine protective factors that can prevent youth violence exposure as well as negative outcomes related to violence. PMID:24570897

  20. Effects of exposure to community violence and family violence on school functioning problems among urban youth: The potential mediating role of posttraumatic stress symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tia eMcGill

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents who are exposed to violence during childhood are at an increased risk for developing posttraumatic stress (PTS symptoms. The literature suggests that violence exposure might also have negative effects on school functioning, and that PTS might serve as a potential mediator in this association. The purpose of the current study was to replicate and extend prior research by examining PTS symptoms as a mediator of the relationship between two types of violence exposure and school functioning problems among adolescent youth from an urban setting. Participants included a sample of 121 junior high and high school students (M= 15 years; range= 13-16 years; 60 males, 61 females within high-crime neighborhoods. Consistent with our hypotheses, community violence and family violence were associated with PTS symptoms and school functioning problems. Our data suggest that community and family violence were indirectly related to school functioning problems through PTS symptoms. Findings from this study demonstrate that PTS symptoms potentially mediate the relationship between violence exposure and school functioning problems across two settings (community and home. Future research should further examine protective factors that can prevent youth violence exposure as well as negative outcomes related to violence.

  1. Foxtail millet NF-Y families: genome-wide survey and evolution analyses identified two functional genes important in abiotic stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Juan eFeng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It was reported that Nuclear Factor Y (NF-Y genes were involved in abiotic stress in plants. Foxtail millet (Setaria italica, an elite stress tolerant crop, provided an impetus for the investigation of the NF-Y families in abiotic responses. In the present study, a total of 39 NF-Y genes were identified in foxtail millet. Synteny analyses suggested that foxtail millet NF-Y genes had experienced rapid expansion and strong purifying selection during the process of plant evolution. De novo transcriptome assembly of foxtail millet revealed 11 drought up-regulated NF-Y genes. SiNF-YA1 and SiNF-YB8 were highly activated in leaves and/or roots by drought and salt stresses. Abscisic acid (ABA and H2O2 played positive roles in the induction of SiNF-YA1 and SiNF-YB8 under stress treatments. Transient luciferase (LUC expression assays revealed that SiNF-YA1 and SiNF-YB8 could activate the LUC gene driven by the tobacco (Nicotiana tobacam NtERD10, NtLEA5, NtCAT, NtSOD or NtPOD promoter under normal or stress conditions. Overexpression of SiNF-YA1 enhanced drought and salt tolerance by activating stress-related genes NtERD10 and NtCAT1 and by maintaining relatively stable relative water content (RWC and contents of chlorophyll, superoxide dismutase (SOD, peroxidase (POD, catalase (CAT and malondialdehyde (MDA in transgenic lines under stresses. SiNF-YB8 regulated expression of NtSOD, NtPOD, NtLEA5 and NtERD10 and conferred relatively high RWC and chlorophyll contents and low MDA content, resulting in drought and osmotic tolerance in transgenic lines under stresses. Therefore, SiNF-YA1 and SiNF-YB8 could activate stress-related genes and improve physiological traits, resulting in tolerance to abiotic stresses in plants. All these results will facilitate functional characterization of foxtail millet NF-Ys in future studies.

  2. Genome-wide characterization of the WRKY gene family in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) reveals its critical functions under different abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanja, Bernard Kinuthia; Fan, Lianxue; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Xianwen; Tang, Mingjia; Wang, Ronghua; Zhang, Fei; Muleke, Everlyne M'mbone; Liu, Liwang

    2017-11-01

    The radish WRKY gene family was genome-widely identified and played critical roles in response to multiple abiotic stresses. The WRKY is among the largest transcription factors (TFs) associated with multiple biological activities for plant survival, including control response mechanisms against abiotic stresses such as heat, salinity, and heavy metals. Radish is an important root vegetable crop and therefore characterization and expression pattern investigation of WRKY transcription factors in radish is imperative. In the present study, 126 putative WRKY genes were retrieved from radish genome database. Protein sequence and annotation scrutiny confirmed that RsWRKY proteins possessed highly conserved domains and zinc finger motif. Based on phylogenetic analysis results, RsWRKYs candidate genes were divided into three groups (Group I, II and III) with the number 31, 74, and 20, respectively. Additionally, gene structure analysis revealed that intron-exon patterns of the WRKY genes are highly conserved in radish. Linkage map analysis indicated that RsWRKY genes were distributed with varying densities over nine linkage groups. Further, RT-qPCR analysis illustrated the significant variation of 36 RsWRKY genes under one or more abiotic stress treatments, implicating that they might be stress-responsive genes. In total, 126 WRKY TFs were identified from the R. sativus genome wherein, 35 of them showed abiotic stress-induced expression patterns. These results provide a genome-wide characterization of RsWRKY TFs and baseline for further functional dissection and molecular evolution investigation, specifically for improving abiotic stress resistances with an ultimate goal of increasing yield and quality of radish.

  3. Quick Assessment of Family Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Larry B.

    1988-01-01

    Describes five criteria (parental resources, chronicity communication between family members, parental authority, and rapport with professional helpers) of family functioning of an assessment model which can be used to determine which families could benefit from brief interventions by a school counselor. Provides results of 20 case studies with…

  4. Genome-Wide Analysis of the RAV Family in Soybean and Functional Identification of GmRAV-03 Involvement in Salt and Drought Stresses and Exogenous ABA Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Ping Zhao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Transcription factors play vital roles in plant growth and in plant responses to abiotic stresses. The RAV transcription factors contain a B3 DNA binding domain and/or an APETALA2 (AP2 DNA binding domain. Although genome-wide analyses of RAV family genes have been performed in several species, little is known about the family in soybean (Glycine max L.. In this study, a total of 13 RAV genes, named as GmRAVs, were identified in the soybean genome. We predicted and analyzed the amino acid compositions, phylogenetic relationships, and folding states of conserved domain sequences of soybean RAV transcription factors. These soybean RAV transcription factors were phylogenetically clustered into three classes based on their amino acid sequences. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that the soybean RAV proteins were located in the nucleus. The expression patterns of 13 RAV genes were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. Under drought stresses, the RAV genes expressed diversely, up- or down-regulated. Following NaCl treatments, all RAV genes were down-regulated excepting GmRAV-03 which was up-regulated. Under abscisic acid (ABA treatment, the expression of all of the soybean RAV genes increased dramatically. These results suggested that the soybean RAV genes may be involved in diverse signaling pathways and may be responsive to abiotic stresses and exogenous ABA. Further analysis indicated that GmRAV-03 could increase the transgenic lines resistance to high salt and drought and result in the transgenic plants insensitive to exogenous ABA. This present study provides valuable information for understanding the classification and putative functions of the RAV transcription factors in soybean.

  5. Family Stress in Pediatric Critical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagstrom, Sandra

    This mixed methods study explored stress in families whose children were hospitalized in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) for more than one week. The study aim was to describe sources of stress for families whose children require extended hospitalization in the PICU. Data collection included semi-structured interviews and completion of the Family Inventory of Life Events and Family System Stressor Strength Inventory. Themes reported in this paper are separation, not knowing, and the child's illness and distress. Additional research is needed to validate these findings in families of other cultures and structures, and in other PICUs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Negative Affectivity, Role Stress, and Work-Family Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeva, Albena Z.; Chiu, Randy K.; Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.

    2002-01-01

    Measures of job and family stress and negative affectivity were completed by 148 (of 400) Hong Kong civil service employees. Persons with high negative affectivity experience more work and family stress. Job stress was associated with extensive interference of work with family, and family stress with extensive interference of family with work.…

  7. Family Health in an Era of Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    USA Today, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Summarizes major findings of a national survey, "The General Mills American Family Report 1978/79: Family Health in an Era of Stress," conducted by Yankelovich, Skelly and White. Topics covered include attitudes toward medical costs, mental illness, and good health practices, as well as expressed interest in health information. (SJL)

  8. Family Structure Transitions and Maternal Parenting Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Carey E.; McLanahan, Sara S.; Meadows, Sarah O.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,176) are used to examine family structure transitions and maternal parenting stress. Using multilevel modeling, we found that mothers who exit coresidential relationships with biological fathers or enter coresidential relationships with nonbiological fathers reported higher levels of…

  9. Immigration Stress: Families in Crisis. Resource Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon County Schools, Tallahassee, FL.

    This resource guide has been compiled to assist teachers of English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) in meeting the needs of immigrant families. Its purpose is to help reduce immigrant stress by making important information readily available to immigrant families. The guide is divided into the major categories of socialization, education,…

  10. Dental family stress and coping patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevin, R S; Sampson, V M

    1986-10-01

    This exploratory study of 28 married male dentists and their families was designed to gain an understanding about the stressors that dentists and their spouses experience, the life events and family strains they incur, the behavioral coping patterns they utilize, and their psychosocial characteristics. The study found that although stable dental families did encounter a significant number of stressors arising from both the dental practice and the family, they maintained their sense of balance through strong family coping skills and family resources. The effect of the dentist's office-related stress was directly felt in the family, especially by the spouse. Strong coping patterns resulted when dentists and spouses maintained a balance of time and responsibility, satisfaction in work and family activity, regular communication, sharing of decision making, good physical health, and the inclusion of an active exercise program within multiple demands on their time.

  11. A Family of Invariant Stress Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, S.

    A family of invariant stress surfaces with a cubic dependence on the deviatoric stress components is expressed as a linear combination of the second and third deviatori stress invariants. A simple geometric derivation demonstrates the convexity of the contours in the deviatoric plane. An explicit...... representation of the deviatoric contours in terms of a size and a shape parameter is given. The shape parameter effects a continuous transition from a triangle to a circle in the deviatoric plane. An explicit format in terms of the triaxial compresson and tension generators is derived, and the plane stress...

  12. Families overcoming under stress: implementing family-centered prevention for military families facing wartime deployments and combat operational stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Patricia; Mogil, Catherine; Saltzman, William; Woodward, Kirsten; Nash, William; Leskin, Gregory; Bursch, Brenda; Green, Sara; Pynoos, Robert; Beardslee, William

    2011-01-01

    The toll of multiple and prolonged deployments on families has become clearer in recent years as military families have seen an increase in childhood anxiety, parental psychological distress, and marital discord. Families overcoming under stress (FOCUS), a family-centered evidence-informed resiliency training program developed at University of California, Los Angeles and Harvard Medical School, is being implemented at military installations through an initiative from Navy Bureau of Medicine and Surgery. The research foundation for FOCUS includes evidence-based preventive interventions that were adapted to meet the specific needs of military families facing combat operational stress associated with wartime deployments. Using a family narrative approach, FOCUS includes a customized approach utilizing core intervention components, including psychoeducation, emotional regulation skills, goal setting and problem solving skills, traumatic stress reminder management techniques, and family communication skills. The purpose of this study is to describe the development and implementation of FOCUS for military families. A case example is also presented.

  13. Adolescent attachment, family functioning and depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishola Rawatlal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adolescence represents a challenging transitional period where changes in biological, emotional, cognitive and social domains can increase the risk of developing internalised problems including subthreshold depression. Adolescent-parent attachment style, perceived support and family functioning may increase risk for depressive symptoms or may reduce such risk. Adolescent-parent attachment, adolescent-perceived support from parents and family functioning were examined as correlates of depressive symptom presentation within this age group. Methods. Participants included a maternal parent and an adolescent (65.5% female from each family. Adolescents were in Grade 7 (n=175 or Grade 10 (n=31. Data were collected through home interviews. The Self-Report of Family Inventory (SFI, Experiences of Close Relationships Scale (ECR, Network of Relationships Inventory (NRI, Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL were used to assess depression, parental support and attachment.  Results. Two models were examined: one with adolescent report of depressive symptoms as the outcome and a second with parent report of adolescent internalising symptoms as the outcome. The model predicting adolescent-reported depressive symptoms was significant with older age, higher levels of avoidant attachment, and higher levels of youth-reported dysfunctional family interaction associated with more depressive symptomatology. In the model predicting parent report of adolescent internalising symptoms only higher levels of dysfunctional family interaction, as reported by the parent, were associated with higher levels of internalising symptoms. Conclusion. Positive family communication, cohesion and support predictive of a secure parent-adolescent attachment relationship reduced the risk of a depressive symptom outcome. Secure adolescents were able to regulate their emotions, knowing that they could seek out secure base attachment relations

  14. Genome-wide analysis of the Hsp70 family genes in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and functional identification of CaHsp70-2 involvement in heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Meng; Liu, Jin-Hong; Ma, Xiao; Zhai, Yu-Fei; Gong, Zhen-Hui; Lu, Ming-Hui

    2016-11-01

    Hsp70s function as molecular chaperones and are encoded by a multi-gene family whose members play a crucial role in plant response to stress conditions, and in plant growth and development. Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is an important vegetable crop whose genome has been sequenced. Nonetheless, no overall analysis of the Hsp70 gene family is reported in this crop plant to date. To assess the functionality of Capsicum annuum Hsp70 (CaHsp70) genes, pepper genome database was analyzed in this research. A total of 21 CaHsp70 genes were identified and their characteristics were also described. The promoter and transcript expression analysis revealed that CaHsp70s were involved in pepper growth and development, and heat stress response. Ectopic expression of a cytosolic gene, CaHsp70-2, regulated expression of stress-related genes and conferred increased thermotolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis. Taken together, our results provide the basis for further studied to dissect CaHsp70s' function in response to heat stress as well as other environmental stresses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. ZmCPK1, a calcium-independent kinase member of the Zea mays CDPK gene family, functions as a negative regulator in cold stress signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckwerth, Philipp; Ehlert, Britta; Romeis, Tina

    2015-03-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) have been shown to play important roles in plant environmental stress signal transduction. We report on the identification of ZmCPK1 as a member of the maize (Zea mays) CDPK gene family involved in the regulation of the maize cold stress response. Based upon in silico analysis of the Z. mays cv. B73 genome, we identified that the maize CDPK gene family consists of 39 members. Two CDPK members were selected whose gene expression was either increased (Zmcpk1) or decreased (Zmcpk25) in response to cold exposure. Biochemical analysis demonstrated that ZmCPK1 displays calcium-independent protein kinase activity. The C-terminal calcium-binding domain of ZmCPK1 was sufficient to mediate calcium independency of a previously calcium-dependent enzyme in chimeric ZmCPK25-CPK1 proteins. Furthermore, co-transfection of maize mesophyll protoplasts with active full-length ZmCPK1 suppressed the expression of a cold-induced marker gene, Zmerf3 (ZmCOI6.21). In accordance, heterologous overexpression of ZmCPK1 in Arabidopsis thaliana yielded plants with altered acclimation-induced frost tolerance. Our results identify ZmCPK1 as a negative regulator of cold stress signalling in maize. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Stress and Coping: A Comparison of Self-Report Measures of Functioning in Families of Young Children with Cerebral Palsy or No Medical Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britner, Preston A.; Morog, Maria C.; Pianta, Robert C.; Marvin, Robert S.

    2003-01-01

    We analyzed data from 87 mothers of children ages 15 to 44 months with cerebral palsy (CP) or no diagnosis, who completed the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, Parenting Stress Index, Support Functions Scale, and Inventory of Social Support. Principal components analysis of the 15 subscales from the 5 measures revealed few cross-measure loadings. Mothers…

  17. Perceived Stress in Family Caregivers of Individuals With Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masa'Deh, Rami

    2017-06-01

    The current study aimed to measure the stress levels of family caregivers of individuals with mental illness and compare their stress levels according to the diagnosis and other sociodemographic characteristics. The sample comprised 310 family caregivers of individuals with mental illness in Jordan. Family caregivers completed a demographic checklist and the Arabic version of the Perceived Stress Scale 10-Item (PSS-10) questionnaire. A significant difference was found in PSS-10 levels among family caregivers according to gender, diagnosis of their family member, and time since diagnosis. Female caregivers reported significantly higher stress levels than male caregivers. Family members of individuals with schizophrenia reported the highest stress levels (p family caregivers and time since diagnosis. Investigating stress levels in family members of individuals with mental illness may be helpful when designing interventions to reduce such stress. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 55(6), 30-35.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Predictors of Familial Acculturative Stress in Asian American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Linda G.; Zahn, Marion P.; Cano, Miguel A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the predictors of familial acculturative stress in 85 Asian American college students. Participants were primarily 1st- and 2nd-generation U.S. citizens. Results showed that perceived acculturative family conflict and family intragroup marginalization were related to higher levels of familial acculturative stress for…

  19. Parental Stress, Family-Professional Partnerships, and Family Quality of Life: Families of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yun-Ju

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among the quality of life of families that have at least one child with autism spectrum disorder, parental stress level, and partnerships between the family and professionals. Also, parent perceptions of parental stress, family quality of life, and family-professional partnerships were…

  20. Work and Family: Satisfaction, Stress, and Spousal Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips-Miller, Dianne L.; Campbell, N. Jo; Morrison, Charles R.

    2000-01-01

    Married veterinarians were surveyed about work satisfaction, work-related stress, marital-family stress, and spousal support for their career. Female veterinarians reported greater effect of martial/family stress on career and less perceived support than did their male counterparts. Areas of greatest work dissatisfaction for both genders were…

  1. Evaluation of the Stress Adjustment and Adaptation Model among Families Reporting Economic Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandsburger, Etty; Biggerstaff, Marilyn A.

    2004-01-01

    This research evaluates the Stress Adjustment and Adaptation Model (double ABCX model) examining the effects resiliency resources on family functioning when families experience economic pressure. Families (N = 128) with incomes at or below the poverty line from a rural area of a southern state completed measures of perceived economic pressure,…

  2. Narrative Identity of Adolescents and Family Functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cierpka Anna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents research conducted within the narrative psychology paradigm. Its main purpose was to explore the relationships between features of adolescents’ identity narratives and their assessments of family functioning and themselves as family members. The choice of subject was motivated by current reports on identity formation difficulties in adolescence. Adolescents’ narratives were subjected to quantitative and qualitative analysis. Associations between specific aspects of self-narratives and participants’ perceptions of how their families functioned and how they functioned in the family system were evaluated. The results confirm the hypothesized relationships between the features of adolescents’ narratives and evaluations of their families and self-assessments of their own functioning in those families. Multi-thematic, content-rich and positively evaluated self-narratives are associated with positive assessments of selected aspects of family functioning and adolescents’ own functioning within the family. The following aspects of family assessment are significant: affective expression, level of emotional involvement in the family, level of control, family role performance and communication. Important factors in the self-assessment were: sense of competence in family role performance, assessment of one’s communication, behavior control and affective expression.

  3. Family profiles in eating disorders: family functioning and psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerniglia L

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Luca Cerniglia,1 Silvia Cimino,2 Mimma Tafà,2 Eleonora Marzilli,2 Giulia Ballarotto,2 Fabrizia Bracaglia2 1Faculty of Psychology, International Telematic University UNINETTUNO, 2Department of Dynamic and Clinical Psychology, University of Rome “La Sapienza”, Rome, Italy Abstract: Research has studied family functioning in families of patients suffering from eating disorders (EDs, particularly investigating the associations between mothers’ and daughters’ psychopathological symptoms, but limited studies have examined whether there are specific maladaptive psychological profiles characterizing the family as a whole when it includes adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN, bulimia nervosa (BN, and binge eating disorder (BED. Through the collaboration of a network of public and private consultants, we recruited n=181 adolescents diagnosed for EDs (n=61 with AN, n=60 with BN, and n=60 with BEDs and their parents. Mothers, fathers, and youths were assessed through a self-report measure evaluating family functioning, and adolescents completed a self-report questionnaire assessing psychopathological symptoms. Results showed specific family functioning and psychopathological profiles based on adolescents’ diagnosis. Regression analyses also showed that family functioning characterized by rigidity predicted higher psychopathological symptoms. Our study underlines the importance of involving all members of the family in assessment and intervention programs when adolescent offspring suffer from EDs. Keywords: family functioning, eating disorders, adolescents, psychopathological risk

  4. Stress on the Job: How Family Literacy Program Directors Perceive Occupational Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandlin, Jennifer A.; Chen, Chia-Yin

    2007-01-01

    Little research has examined stress among family literacy administrators, although studies in other contexts reveal occupational stress can lead to illness, distress, and organizational problems. This article presents findings from a recent study of stress among family literacy program directors in Texas. Findings reveal family literacy program…

  5. Family functioning in paediatric obsessive compulsive and related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Yolanda E; Flessner, Christopher A

    2015-11-01

    Research among youths with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) has shown a significant relationship between illness severity, treatment outcome, and the family environment yet little work has been undertaken among the broader class of obsessive compulsive and related disorders (OCRDs) - Trichotillomania, body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), skin picking disorder (SPD), and hoarding. The aim of this study was to (1) review the family functioning literature among paediatric OCRDs, (2) address limitations to previous studies, and (3) highlight areas in need of further research. A review of the literature was conducted using several databases (i.e., Google Scholar, PubMed, ScienceDirect) and employing key search terms (e.g., 'family functioning', 'paediatric OCD'). The resultant articles examined several domains subsumed under the broader heading of family environment including parental mental health, parenting practices, family dynamics, family involvement with symptoms, and family emotional climate. The literature reviewed demonstrated a strong relationship between paediatric OCD and adverse family functioning (e.g., parental symptoms of anxiety and depression, family accommodation, family strain and stress, parental guilt and fear) in all identified domains. While family functioning research in paediatric HPD was relatively scant, research suggested similar familial dysfunction (e.g., limited independence, low family cohesion, family violence). Collectively, only 1 article, examining BDD, assessed family functioning within other OCRDs. This review supports the need for further research in the OCRDs. Limitations to the available literature and targeted suggestions for future research are discussed. The domains of family environment in this study indicate specific family functioning deficits that may serve as aetiological and/or maintenance factors in paediatric OCRDs, possibly contributing to the understanding of these complex disorders. The recognition of family deficits

  6. Family Demands, Social Support and Family Functioning in Taiwanese Families Rearing Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, C-Y.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Down syndrome (DS) affects not only children but also their families. Much remains to be learned about factors that influence how families of children with DS function, especially families in non-Western populations. The purpose of this cross-sectional, correlational study was to examine how family demographics, family demands and…

  7. Stress and its implications for family practice | Spangengberg | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An underlying component of stress that manifests in physical symptoms is present in a high percentage of patients visiting the family practitioner, who is expected to help them cope with stress. In this article the transactional model of stress is briefly explained. Guidelines are given for assessing the role of stress in physical ...

  8. [Family functioning of elderly with depressive symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Rosely Almeida; Desani da Costa, Gislaine; Yamashita, Cintia Hitomi; Amendola, Fernanda; Gaspar, Jaqueline Correa; Alvarenga, Márcia Regina Martins; Faccenda, Odival; Oliveira, Maria Amélia de Campos

    2014-06-01

    To classify families of elderly with depressive symptoms regarding their functioning and to ascertain the presence of an association between these symptoms, family functioning and the characteristics of the elderly. This was an observational, analytical, cross-sectional study performed with 33 teams of the Family Health Strategy in Dourados, MS. The sample consisted of 374 elderly divided into two groups (with and without depressive symptoms). The instruments for data collection were a sociodemographic instrument, the GeriatricDepression Scale (15 items) and the Family Apgar. An association was observed between depressive symptoms and family dysfunction, female gender, four or more people living together, and physical inactivity. The functional family may represent effective support for the elderly with depressive symptoms, because it offers a comfortable environment that ensures the well-being of its members. The dysfunctional family can barely provide necessary care for the elderly, which can exacerbate depressive symptoms.

  9. Family functioning of elderly with depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosely Almeida Souza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To classify families of elderly with depressive symptoms regarding their functioning and to ascertain the presence of an association between these symptoms, family functioning and the characteristics of the elderly. Method: This was an observational, analytical, cross-sectional study performed with 33 teams of the Family Health Strategy in Dourados, MS. The sample consisted of 374 elderly divided into two groups (with and without depressive symptoms. The instruments for data collection were a sociodemographic instrument, the GeriatricDepression Scale (15 items and the Family Apgar. Results: An association was observed between depressive symptoms and family dysfunction, female gender, four or more people living together, and physical inactivity. Conclusion: The functional family may represent effective support for the elderly with depressive symptoms, because it offers a comfortable environment that ensures the well-being of its members. The dysfunctional family can barely provide necessary care for the elderly, which can exacerbate depressive symptoms.

  10. Children's mental health and family functioning in Rhode Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Hanna K; Viner-Brown, Samara I; Garcia, Jorge

    2007-02-01

    Our objectives were to (a) estimate the prevalence of children's mental health problems, (b) assess family functioning, and (c) investigate the relationship between children's mental health and family functioning in Rhode Island. From the 2003 National Survey of Children's Health, Rhode Island data for children 6 to 17 years of age were used for the analyses (N = 1326). Two aspects of family functioning measures, parental stress and parental involvement, were constructed and were examined by children's mental health problems, as well as other child and family characteristics (child's age, gender, race/ethnicity, special needs, parent's education, income, employment, family structure, number of children, and mother's general and mental health). Bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression were used to investigate the relationship. Among Rhode Island children, nearly 1 (19.0%) in 5 had mental health problems, 1 (15.6%) in 6 lived with a highly stressed parent, and one third (32.7%) had parents with low involvement. Bivariate analyses showed that high parental stress and low parental involvement were higher among parents of children with mental health problems than parents of children without those problems (33.2% vs 11.0% and 41.0% vs 30.3%, respectively). In multivariate logistic regression, parents of children with mental health problems had nearly 4 times the odds of high stress compared with parents of children without those problems. When children's mental health problems were severe, the odds of high parental stress were elevated. However, children's mental health was not associated with parental involvement. Children's mental health was strongly associated with parental stress, but it was not associated with parental involvement. The findings indicate that when examining the mental health issues of children, parental mental health and stress must be considered.

  11. Family functioning in the families of psychiatric patients: a comparison with nonclinical families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trangkasombat, Umaporn

    2006-11-01

    To examine family functioning in the families of psychiatric patients. Families of psychiatric patients and nonclinical families were compared. There were 60 families in each group. The instrument included a semistructured interview of family functioning and the Chulalongkorn Family Inventory (CFI), a self-report questionnaire designed to assess the perception of one's family. From the assessment by semistructured interview, 83.3% of psychiatric families and 45.0% of nonclinical families were found to be dysfunctional in at least one dimension. The difference was statistically significant (p dysfunctional dimensions in the psychiatric families was significantly higher than in the nonclinical control group, 3.5 +/- 1.9 and 0.98 +/- 1.5 respectively, p families were significantly lower than the control group, reflecting poor family functioning. The dysfunctions were mostly in the following dimensions: problem-solving, communication, affective responsiveness, affective involvement, and behavior control. Psychiatric families faced more psychosocial stressors and the average number of stressors was higher than the control families, 88.3% vs. 56.7% and 4.2 +/- 2.7 vs. 1.3 +/- 1.47 stressors respectively, p < 0.0001. Family functioning of psychiatric patients was less healthy than the nonclinical control. The present study underlined the significance of family assessment and family intervention in the comprehensive care of psychiatric patients.

  12. The role of social support, family identification, and family constraints in predicting posttraumatic stress after cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartzman, Samantha; Sani, Fabio; Munro, Alastair J

    2017-09-01

    We compared social support with other potential psychosocial predictors of posttraumatic stress after cancer. These included family identification, or a sense of belonging to and commonality with family members, and family constraints, or the extent to which family members are closed, judgmental, or unreceptive in conversations about cancer. We also tested the hypothesis that family constraints mediate the relationship between family identification and cancer-related posttraumatic stress. We used a cross-sectional design. Surveys were collected from 205 colorectal cancer survivors in Tayside, Scotland. Both family identification and family constraints were stronger independent predictors of posttraumatic stress than social support. In multivariate analyses, social support was not a significant independent predictor of posttraumatic stress. In addition, there was a significant indirect effect of family identification on posttraumatic stress through family constraints. Numerous studies demonstrate a link between social support and posttraumatic stress. However, experiences within the family may be more important in predicting posttraumatic stress after cancer. Furthermore, a sense of belonging to and commonality with the family may reduce the extent to which cancer survivors experience constraints on conversations about cancer; this may, in turn, reduce posttraumatic stress. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Families OverComing under Stress (FOCUS) for Early Childhood: Building Resilience for Young Children in High Stress Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogil, Catherine; Paley, Blair; Doud, Tricia; Havens, Linda; Moore-Tyson, Jessica; Beardslee, William R.; Lester, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Parental distress and trauma affects the entire family, including the youngest children. Families OverComing Under Stress (FOCUS) is a targeted prevention program for high-risk families that aims to enhance family cohesion, support the parent-child relationship, and build emotional regulation, communication, and problem-solving skills across the…

  14. Parental stress, family quality of life, and family-teacher partnerships: Families of children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yun-Ju; Higgins, Kyle; Pierce, Tom; Whitby, Peggy J Schaefer; Tandy, Richard D

    2017-11-01

    Reducing parental stress and improving family quality of Life (FQOL) are continuing concerns for families of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Family-teacher partnerships have been identified as a positive factor to help parents reduce their stress and improve their FQOL. However, the interrelations among parental stress, FQOL, and family-teacher partnerships need to be further examined so as to identify the possible paths to help parents reduce their stress and improve their FQOL. The purpose of this study was to examine the interrelations among these three variables. A total of 236 parents of school children with ASD completed questionnaires, which included three measures: (a) the Beach Center Family Quality of Life Scale, (b) the Parental Stress Scale, and (c) the Beach Center Family-Professional Partnerships Scale. The structural equation modeling was used to analyze the interrelations among these three variables. Perceived parental stress had a direct effect on parental satisfaction concerning FQOL and vice versa. Perceived family-teacher partnerships had a direct effect on FQOL, but did not have a direct effect on parental stress. However, family-teacher partnerships had an indirect effect on parental stress through FQOL. Reducing parental stress could improve FQOL for families of children with ASD and vice versa. Strong family-teacher partnerships could help parents of children with ASD improve their FQOL and indirectly reduce their stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Family Stress in Dutch Families with Motor Impaired Toddlers: A Survey in a Dutch Rehabilitation Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibosch, Marijke

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship between family stress and child characteristics in families with motor impaired toddlers. Families of 20 children between 2 1/2 and 5 years old with motor impairments, who visit a therapeutic toddler class in a rehabilitation centre, participated. The study was carried out in the Netherlands. Family stress…

  16. Communication Patterns, Contradictions, and Family Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerby, Janet; Buerkel-Rothfuss, Nancy L.

    Families are rule-governed systems of interdependent individuals whose interaction follows an intricate pattern of behavior. Communication patterns in a family reflect and emerge from contradictions in rules. A function may be defined as something that a system does and must do if it is not to break down. For instance identity and stability…

  17. Socioeconomic status and parenting in ethnic minority families: testing a minority family stress model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmen, Rosanneke A G; Malda, Maike; Mesman, Judi; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Prevoo, Mariëlle J L; Yeniad, Nihal

    2013-12-01

    According to the family stress model (Conger & Donnellan, 2007), low socioeconomic status (SES) predicts less-than-optimal parenting through family stress. Minority families generally come from lower SES backgrounds than majority families, and may experience additional stressors associated with their minority status, such as acculturation stress. The primary goal of this study was to test a minority family stress model with a general family stress pathway, as well as a pathway specific to ethnic minority families. The sample consisted of 107 Turkish-Dutch mothers and their 5- to 6-year-old children, and positive parenting was observed during a 7-min problem-solving task. In addition, mothers reported their daily hassles, psychological distress, and acculturation stress. The relation between SES and positive parenting was partially mediated by both general maternal psychological stress and maternal acculturation stress. Our study contributes to the argument that stressors specific to minority status should be considered in addition to more general demographic and family stressors in understanding parenting behavior in ethnic minority families.

  18. Family functioning in the aftermath of a natural disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDermott Brett M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased understanding of the complex determinants of adverse child mental health outcomes following acute stress such as natural disasters has led to a resurgence of interest in the role of parent psychopathology and parenting. The authors investigated whether family functioning in the post-disaster environment would be impaired relative to a non-exposed sample and potential correlates with family functioning such as disaster-related exposure and child posttraumatic mental health symptoms. Methods Three months after a category 5 tropical cyclone that impacted north Queensland Australia, school-based screening was undertaken to case identify children who may benefit from a mental health intervention. Along with obtaining informed consent, parents completed a measure of family functioning. Results Of 145 families of children aged 8 to 12 years, 28.3% met criteria for dysfunction on the Family Adjustment Device, double the frequency in a community sample. The dysfunction group was significantly more likely to have experienced more internalising (anxiety/depression symptoms. However, in an adjusted logistic regression model this group were not more likely to have elevated disaster-related exposure nor did children in these families validate more PTSD symptoms. Conclusions The implications of post-disaster discordant family functioning and possible different causal pathways for depressive and PTSD-related symptomatic responses to traumatic events are discussed.

  19. Stress and its implications for family practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Guidelines are given for assessing the role of stress in physical symptoms and for consulting with ... mary, secondary and tertiary stress interventions in primary health care are briefly discussed. .... devoted pet.24 Social support enhanc-.

  20. Family Size, Interaction, Affect and Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, F. Ivan; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Synthesizes previous research on relationship of family size to attitudes. Reduces findings to four propositions and submits these propositions to additional tests utilizing secondary data from two large surveys. Substantively, families of three or four children rank lower in all of the analyses than do families with one or two children. Presented…

  1. Family-School Strategies for Responding to the Needs of Children Experiencing Chronic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swick, Kevin J.; Knopf, Herman; Williams, Reginald; Fields, M. Evelyn

    2013-01-01

    Children experience chronic stress in ways that can impair their brain functioning and overall development. This article articulates the unique needs of children experiencing chronic stress and discusses strategies that families and schools can use to support and strengthen children's development across the social, emotional, and cognitive domains.

  2. Multi-Family Groups for Multi-Stressed Families: Initial Outcomes and Future Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jerrold M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the influence of caregiver stress on attendance among urban families involved in a multiple family group (MFG) intervention, as well as pre/post changes in childhood behavioral difficulties, caregiver stress, caregiver depressive symptoms, caregiver coping by substance use, and caregiver motivation to change. Methods:…

  3. Family resources study: part 1: family resources, family function and caregiver strain in childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panganiban-Corales, Avegeille T; Medina, Manuel F

    2011-10-31

    Severe illness can disrupt family life, cause family dysfunction, strain resources, and cause caregiver burden. The family's ability to cope with crises depends on their resources. This study sought to assess families of children with cancer in terms of family function-dysfunction, family caregiver strain and the adequacy of family resources using a new family resources assessment instrument. This is a cross-sectional study involving 90 Filipino family caregivers of children undergoing cancer treatment. This used a self-administered questionnaire composed of a new 12-item family resources questionnaire (SCREEM-RES) based on the SCREEM method of analysis, Family APGAR to assess family function-dysfunction; and Modified Caregiver Strain Index to assess strain in caring for the patient. More than half of families were either moderately or severely dysfunctional. Close to half of caregivers were either predisposed to strain or experienced severe strain, majority disclosed that their families have inadequate economic resources; many also report inaccessibility to medical help in the community and insufficient educational resources to understand and care for their patients. Resources most often reported as adequate were: family's faith and religion; help from within the family and from health providers. SCREEM-RES showed to be reliable with Cronbach's alpha of 0.80. There is good inter-item correlation between items in each domain: 0.24-0.70. Internal consistency reliability for each domain was also good: 0.40-0.92. Using 2-point scoring system, Cronbach's alpha were slightly lower: full scale (0.70) and for each domain 0.26-.82. Results showed evidence of association between family resources and family function based on the family APGAR but none between family resources and caregiver strain and between family function and caregiver strain. Many Filipino families of children with cancer have inadequate resources, especially economic; and are moderately or severely

  4. Family resources study: part 1: family resources, family function and caregiver strain in childhood cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panganiban-Corales Avegeille T

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe illness can disrupt family life, cause family dysfunction, strain resources, and cause caregiver burden. The family's ability to cope with crises depends on their resources. This study sought to assess families of children with cancer in terms of family function-dysfunction, family caregiver strain and the adequacy of family resources using a new family resources assessment instrument. Methods This is a cross-sectional study involving 90 Filipino family caregivers of children undergoing cancer treatment. This used a self-administered questionnaire composed of a new 12-item family resources questionnaire (SCREEM-RES based on the SCREEM method of analysis, Family APGAR to assess family function-dysfunction; and Modified Caregiver Strain Index to assess strain in caring for the patient. Results More than half of families were either moderately or severely dysfunctional. Close to half of caregivers were either predisposed to strain or experienced severe strain, majority disclosed that their families have inadequate economic resources; many also report inaccessibility to medical help in the community and insufficient educational resources to understand and care for their patients. Resources most often reported as adequate were: family's faith and religion; help from within the family and from health providers. SCREEM-RES showed to be reliable with Cronbach's alpha of 0.80. There is good inter-item correlation between items in each domain: 0.24-0.70. Internal consistency reliability for each domain was also good: 0.40-0.92. Using 2-point scoring system, Cronbach's alpha were slightly lower: full scale (0.70 and for each domain 0.26-.82. Results showed evidence of association between family resources and family function based on the family APGAR but none between family resources and caregiver strain and between family function and caregiver strain. Conclusion Many Filipino families of children with cancer have inadequate

  5. Work Experiences and Family Functioning among Employed Fathers with Children of School Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Ulla; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Investigated how 657 fathers' job satisfaction and job stress were related to four domains: individual, parent-child, marital, and child. Results showed that the job affected all four domains. Job stress and job satisfaction were directly related to family functioning. Discusses implications for families with school-age children. (RJM)

  6. Economic Disadvantage in Complex Family Systems: Expansion of Family Stress Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Melissa A.

    2008-01-01

    Economic disadvantage is associated with multiple risks to early socioemotional development. This article reviews research regarding family stress frameworks to model the pathways from economic disadvantage to negative child outcomes via family processes. Future research in this area should expand definitions of family and household to incorporate…

  7. Family Economic Pressure and Adolescent Suicidal Ideation: Application of the Family Stress Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Kevin A.; Hoyt, Dan R.

    2005-01-01

    This study used a sample of 501 families from the Mississippi Delta region to examine the feasibility of the Family Stress Model for understanding adolescent suicidal ideation. The results indicated that family economic pressure was related to parental depressive symptoms, which, in turn, was related to parental hostile behavior and physical…

  8. [Family medicine and functional somatic syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nago, Naoki

    2009-09-01

    Between psychosomatic medicine and psychiatry, FSS (functional somatic syndromes) patients are often visiting a family doctor. For FSS, the role of family physicians is large, but the family physicians are not required for the role of diagnosis and treatment of FSS. Rather, appropriate referral to a specialist to exclude organic disease is important and a role as the coordinator is large to the patient to refuse a psychiatric consultation. To serve as a role for such coordination, a family physician has to response the patient's emotional side and focus on the construction of the doctor-patient relationship and response. I also think of structuralism medicine approach to describe disease from the meta-level as a new procedure to the patient. This approach consists of 4 components, 'entity', 'phenomenon', 'words', and 'I'. This may be a useful approach to family physicians who coordinate the overall for FSS patients' management.

  9. Stress and Support in Family Relationships after Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Megan; Reczek, Corinne

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors merge the study of support, strain, and ambivalence in family relationships with the study of stress to explore the ways family members provide support or contribute to strain in the disaster recovery process. The authors analyze interviews with 71 displaced Hurricane Katrina survivors, and identify three family…

  10. Family stress dynamics, domestic violence and their combined ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study utilized the classical ABCX family crisis model in identifying how families perceive, interpret and react to various sources of stress confronting them and their perceived impact on their health. The study is timely because of the recent upsurge in domestic violence cases in Ghana, which are mainly attributable to ...

  11. The family receiving home care: functional health pattern assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, J I

    1996-01-01

    The winds of change in health care make assessment of the family more important than ever as a tool for health care providers seeking to assist the family move themselves toward high-level wellness. Limited medical care and imposed self-responsibility for health promotion and illness prevention, which are natural consequences of these changes, move the locus of control for health management back to the family. The family's teachings, modeling, and interactions are greater influences than ever on the health of the patient. Gordon's functional health patterns provide a holistic model for assessment of the family because assessment data are classified under 11 headings: health perception and health management, nutritional-metabolic, elimination, activity and exercise, sleep and rest, cognition and perception, self-perception and self-concept, roles and relationships, sexuality and reproduction, coping and stress tolerance, and values and beliefs. Questions posed under each of the health patterns can be varied to reflect the uniqueness of the individual family as well as to inquire about family strengths and weaknesses in all patterns. Data using this model provide a comprehensive base for including the family in designing a plan of care.

  12. Patterns of family management of childhood chronic conditions and their relationship to child and family functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knafl, Kathleen A; Deatrick, Janet A; Knafl, George J; Gallo, Agatha M; Grey, Margaret; Dixon, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Understanding patterns of family response to childhood chronic conditions provides a more comprehensive understanding of their influence on family and child functioning. In this paper, we report the results of a cluster analysis based on the six scales comprising the Family Management Measure (FaMM) and the resulting typology of family management. The sample of 575 parents (414 families) of children with diverse chronic conditions fell into four patterns of response (Family Focused, Somewhat Family Focused, Somewhat Condition Focused, Condition Focused) that differed in the extent family life was focused on usual family routines or the demands of condition management. Most (57%) families were in either the Family Focused or Somewhat Family Focused pattern. Patterns of family management were related significantly to family and child functioning, with families in the Family Focused and Somewhat Family Focused patterns demonstrating significantly better family and child functioning than families in the other two patterns. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Emerging adults' lived experience of formative family stress: the family's lasting influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Carmen R; Chavez, Tom; Woulfe, Julie

    2013-08-01

    In this article, we use a phenomenology framework to explore emerging adults' formative experiences of family stress. Fourteen college students participated in a qualitative interview about their experience of family stress. We analyzed the interviews using the empirical phenomenological psychology method. Participants described a variety of family stressors, including parental conflict and divorce, physical or mental illness, and emotional or sexual abuse by a family member. Two general types of parallel processes were essential to the experience of family stress for participants. First, the family stressor was experienced in shifts and progressions reflecting the young person's attempts to manage the stressor, and second, these shifts and progressions were interdependent with deeply personal psychological meanings of self, sociality, physical and emotional expression, agency, place, space, project, and discourse. We describe each of these parallel processes and their subprocesses, and conclude with implications for mental health practice and research.

  14. Parental Stress, Coping Strategies and Social Support in Families of Children with a Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzocrea, Francesca; Murdaca, Anna Maria; Costa, Sebastiano; Filippello, Pina; Larcan, Rosalba

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to compare parental stress, coping strategies and social support perceived in families of children with low functioning autism (n = 8), high functioning autism (n = 10), Down syndrome (n = 12) and parents of typically developing children (n = 20). Specifically, the objective was to investigate which variables (coping…

  15. Poverty and involuntary engagement stress responses: examining the link to anxiety and aggression within low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Brian C; Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Wadsworth, Martha E

    2009-05-01

    Families living with the burdens of poverty-related stress are at risk for developing a range of psychopathology. The present study examines the year-long prospective relationships among poverty-related stress, involuntary engagement stress response (IESR) levels, and anxiety symptoms and aggression in an ethnically diverse sample of 98 families (300 individual family members) living at or below 150% of the US federal poverty line. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) moderator model analyses provided strong evidence that IESR levels moderated the influence of poverty-related stress on anxiety symptoms and provided mixed evidence for the same interaction effect on aggression. Higher IESR levels, a proxy for physiological stress reactivity, worsened the impact of stress on symptoms. Understanding how poverty-related stress and involuntary stress responses affect psychological functioning has implications for efforts to prevent or reduce psychopathology, particularly anxiety, among individuals and families living in poverty.

  16. Cognitive function in families with exceptional survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barral, Sandra; Cosentino, Stephanie; Costa, Rosann

    2012-01-01

    members in the offspring generation demonstrate significantly better performance on multiple tasks requiring attention, working memory, and semantic processing when compared with individuals without a family history of exceptional survival, suggesting that cognitive performance may serve as an important......The authors investigated whether cognitive function may be used as an endophenotype for longevity by assessing the cognitive performance of a family-based cohort consisting of 1380 individuals from 283 families recruited for exceptional survival in field centers in Boston, New York, Pittsburgh......, and Denmark. Cognitive performance was assessed in the combined offspring of the Long Life Family Study (LLFS) probands and their LLFS siblings as compared with their spouses' cognitive performance. Our results indicate that the combined offspring of the LLFS probands and their siblings achieve significantly...

  17. Socioeconomic Status, Subjective Social Status, and Perceived Stress: Associations with Stress Physiology and Executive Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursache, Alexandra; Noble, Kimberly G; Blair, Clancy

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have investigated associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and indicators of children's physiological and cognitive self-regulation. Although objective measures of family SES may be good proxies for families' experiences of disadvantage, less is known about subjective aspects of families' experiences. We hypothesize that subjective social status (SSS) and perceived stress may be important independent predictors of children's stress physiology and executive functioning (EF). Eighty-two children from diverse SES backgrounds were administered EF measures and provided saliva samples for cortisol assay. Caregivers reported on objective SES, SSS, and perceived stress. Results suggest that SES and SSS are both independently and positively related to EF. In models predicting stress physiology, higher perceived stress was associated with lower baseline cortisol. Moreover, SES and age interacted to predict cortisol levels such that among younger children, lower SES was associated with higher cortisol, whereas among older children, lower SES was associated with lower cortisol. Results highlight the importance of considering both objective and subjective indicators of families' SES and stressful experiences in relation to multiple aspects of children's self-regulation.

  18. Work stress, family stress and asthma: a cross-sectional study among women in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loerbroks, Adrian; Ding, Hui; Han, Wei; Wang, Hong; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Yang, Liu; Angerer, Peter; Li, Jian

    2017-05-01

    Research addressing links of work stress or family stress with asthma is constrained by (1) inconsistent evidence, (2) failure to consider the combined exposure to work stress and family stress, and (3) its primary focus on Western study populations. We aimed to address these knowledge gaps. We used cross-sectional data collected in 2015 among 7816 women from five professional groups in five Chinese cities. Work stress was measured by the 10-item effort-reward imbalance (ERI) questionnaire. Family stress was assessed by a psychometrically evaluated instrument comprising five items on, e.g., familial conflicts or domestic workload. Asthma was operationalized by self-reports of a physician diagnosis. Associations were examined by multivariable logistic regression estimating odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Both high work stress (i.e., ERI score >1) and high family stress (i.e., score above the median) were associated with asthma (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.22-2.27 and OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.10-1.99, respectively). Women with combined exposure (versus none) had somewhat higher odds of asthma (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.42-3.19) than those with sole exposure to either work stress (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.20-2.96) or family stress (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.03-2.84). Interaction terms were significant for continuous variables (p = 0.046), but not for dichotomized variables (p = 0.199). The present study suggests that both work stress and family stress are positively associated with asthma in women in China. Further, the combined exposure may be associated with a further excess of asthma occurrence. Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm our findings and to explore potential temporal relationships.

  19. Four RNA families with functional transient structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jing Yun A; Meyer, Irmtraud M

    2015-01-01

    Protein-coding and non-coding RNA transcripts perform a wide variety of cellular functions in diverse organisms. Several of their functional roles are expressed and modulated via RNA structure. A given transcript, however, can have more than a single functional RNA structure throughout its life, a fact which has been previously overlooked. Transient RNA structures, for example, are only present during specific time intervals and cellular conditions. We here introduce four RNA families with transient RNA structures that play distinct and diverse functional roles. Moreover, we show that these transient RNA structures are structurally well-defined and evolutionarily conserved. Since Rfam annotates one structure for each family, there is either no annotation for these transient structures or no such family. Thus, our alignments either significantly update and extend the existing Rfam families or introduce a new RNA family to Rfam. For each of the four RNA families, we compile a multiple-sequence alignment based on experimentally verified transient and dominant (dominant in terms of either the thermodynamic stability and/or attention received so far) RNA secondary structures using a combination of automated search via covariance model and manual curation. The first alignment is the Trp operon leader which regulates the operon transcription in response to tryptophan abundance through alternative structures. The second alignment is the HDV ribozyme which we extend to the 5' flanking sequence. This flanking sequence is involved in the regulation of the transcript's self-cleavage activity. The third alignment is the 5' UTR of the maturation protein from Levivirus which contains a transient structure that temporarily postpones the formation of the final inhibitory structure to allow translation of maturation protein. The fourth and last alignment is the SAM riboswitch which regulates the downstream gene expression by assuming alternative structures upon binding of SAM. All

  20. Psychological stress and testicular function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordkap, Loa; Jensen, Tina Kold; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the associations between self-reported psychological stress, semen quality, and serum reproductive hormones among young Danish men. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: University hospital-based research center. PARTICIPANT(S): Danish men (median age 19 years) from the gene......OBJECTIVE: To study the associations between self-reported psychological stress, semen quality, and serum reproductive hormones among young Danish men. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: University hospital-based research center. PARTICIPANT(S): Danish men (median age 19 years) from...... the general population were investigated from 2008 to 2012. INTERVENTION(S): Participants completed a questionnaire on health and lifestyle, including a four-item questionnaire about self-rated stress, had a physical examination performed, delivered a semen sample, and had a blood sample drawn. MAIN OUTCOME...

  1. Stress field models from Maxwell stress functions: southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Peter

    2017-08-01

    The lithospheric stress field is formally divided into three components: a standard pressure which is a function of elevation (only), a topographic stress anomaly (3-D tensor field) and a tectonic stress anomaly (3-D tensor field). The boundary between topographic and tectonic stress anomalies is somewhat arbitrary, and here is based on the modeling tools available. The topographic stress anomaly is computed by numerical convolution of density anomalies with three tensor Green's functions provided by Boussinesq, Cerruti and Mindlin. By assuming either a seismically estimated or isostatic Moho depth, and by using Poisson ratio of either 0.25 or 0.5, I obtain four alternative topographic stress models. The tectonic stress field, which satisfies the homogeneous quasi-static momentum equation, is obtained from particular second derivatives of Maxwell vector potential fields which are weighted sums of basis functions representing constant tectonic stress components, linearly varying tectonic stress components and tectonic stress components that vary harmonically in one, two and three dimensions. Boundary conditions include zero traction due to tectonic stress anomaly at sea level, and zero traction due to the total stress anomaly on model boundaries at depths within the asthenosphere. The total stress anomaly is fit by least squares to both World Stress Map data and to a previous faulted-lithosphere, realistic-rheology dynamic model of the region computed with finite-element program Shells. No conflict is seen between the two target data sets, and the best-fitting model (using an isostatic Moho and Poisson ratio 0.5) gives minimum directional misfits relative to both targets. Constraints of computer memory, execution time and ill-conditioning of the linear system (which requires damping) limit harmonically varying tectonic stress to no more than six cycles along each axis of the model. The primary limitation on close fitting is that the Shells model predicts very sharp

  2. Coping with Stress: Supporting the Needs of Military Families and Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Theresa J.; Fallon, Moira A.

    2015-01-01

    Family dynamics and the individual differences of each family member can impact their stress. For families in the military, stress occurs regularly due to factors such a reassignments, deployments, and the frequency of changes. For some families, the stress that occurs over time helps family members to develop resiliency. Learning to cope with…

  3. Exploring the Relationship between Assets and Family Stress among Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, David W.; Han, Chang-Keun

    2010-01-01

    The "hard times" resulting from the 2008 Great Recession represent an opportunity to re-examine the theoretical framework for how families use economic resources to manage stress. M. Sherraden's (1991) theory of assets and H. I. McCubbin and J. Patterson's (1983) family adjustment and adaptation response model informed this study of how assets…

  4. Family Functioning and Child Psychopathology: Individual Versus Composite Family Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathijssen, Jolanda J. J. P.; Koot, Hans M.; Verhulst, Frank C.; De Bruyn, Eric E. J.; Oud, Johan H. L.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the relationship of individual family members' perceptions and family mean and discrepancy scores of cohesion and adaptability with child psychopathology in a sample of 138 families. Results indicate that family mean scores, contrary to family discrepancy scores, explain more of the variance in parent-reported child psychopathology than…

  5. Familial Risk for Insomnia Is Associated With Abnormal Cortisol Response to Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Christopher L; Cheng, Philip; Almeida, David M; Roth, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Abnormalities in the stress system have been implicated in insomnia. However, studies examining physiological stress regulation in insomnia have not consistently detected differences in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis response to stress. One explanation may be that deficits in the stress system are associated specifically with a biological vulnerability to insomnia rather than the phenotypic expression of insomnia. To examine stress response as a function of vulnerability to insomnia, this study tested response to the Trier Social Stress Test in a sample of healthy sleepers with varying familial risks for insomnia. Thirty-five healthy individuals with and without familial risk for insomnia were recruited to complete a laboratory stressor. Participants with one or both biological parents with insomnia were categorized as positive for familial risk, whereas those without biological parents with insomnia were categorized as negative for familial risk. Participants completed the Trier Social Stress Test in the laboratory, and psychological and physiological (autonomic and HPA-axis) responses were compared. Despite self-reported increases in anxiety, those positive for familial risk exhibited a blunted cortisol response relative to those without familial risk for insomnia. Individuals with blunted cortisol also reported heightened reactivity to personal life stressors, including increased sleep disturbances, elevated cognitive intrusions, and more behavioral avoidance. Findings from this study provide initial evidence that abnormal stress regulation may be a biological predisposing factor conferred via familial risk for insomnia. This deficit may also predict negative consequences over time, including insomnia and the associated psychiatric comorbidities. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Family stress and posttraumatic stress: the impact of military operations on military health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Susanne W; Barnett, Scott D; Hickling, Edward J

    2012-08-01

    This study uses data from the 2005 Department of Defense Survey of Health-Related Behaviors Among Military Personnel to examine relationships between family stress and posttraumatic stress symptoms across 4 subgroups of Operation Iraqi Freedom-deployed (i.e., war in Iraq) or Operation Enduring Freedom-deployed (i.e., war in Afghanistan) active-duty military service members. Results suggest the following: (a) the greatest positive correlation of family stressors with posttraumatic stress symptoms was found within the military health care officer group, and (b) these military health care officers differed in family stressors mediating posttraumatic stress with divorce and financial problems accounting for significant and unique portions of the variance. Implications for care of service members and their families are discussed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Link Between Deployment Factors and Parenting Stress in Navy Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-11

    5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N/A Families 5b. GRANT NUMBER HT9404-13-1-TS05 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER N/A 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...Purpose: Many service members today are married, and many also have children; deployments affect all members of the military family . The purpose of this...conducted. Findings: As deployment factors increased, parenting stress increased for fathers in the reintegration period, with a potential mediation

  8. Effects of diabetes-related family stress on glycemic control in young patients with type 1 diabetes: Systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiouli, Elina; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C; Stefanaki, Charikleia; Darviri, Christina; Chrousos, George P

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the way that family stress influences glycemic control among patients with diabetes who are younger than 18 years of age. PubMed and Scopus were searched for relevant studies published since 1990 using the following key words: diabetes type 1, glycemic control, family stress, family conflict, and family function. In total, 1478 papers were identified in the initial search. The final review included 6 cohort studies, 3 cross-sectional studies, and 1 qualitative review in which family stress was assessed using specific diabetes-related conflict measurement instruments, and glycemic control was evaluated by glycosylated hemoglobin measurement. In most studies family stress was negatively correlated with patients' glycemic control. Family function was strongly related to patients' glycemic control, while family conflict was adversely associated with glycemic control. Families of low socioeconomic status, those of adolescents with diabetes, and those of single parents were more prone to diabetes-related stress and thus more susceptible to worse glycemic control. Therapeutic psychological interventions and educational programs can help alleviate family diabetes-related stress and will likely improve glycemic control.

  9. Psychosocial function and health in veteran families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mai Tødsø; Karmsteen, Kirstine; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint

    to the veteran or the mental health of the partner while relatively few publications deal with the veteran family as a whole or its members social relations outside the primary family. Furthermore, there are relatively few publications focusing on relatives to veterans deployed other places than Iraq...... the research field of psychosocial functioning and health among relatives living with a veteran, including potential gaps within this research field. We have found 103 publications. Most of them are American, 7 are from Europe and none from Scandinavia. Most publications focus on the partner’s relationship...... and Afghanistan, publications focusing on relatives of veterans with physical injuries and few publications dealing with relatives to female veterans. The overall conclusion is that there is a potential need for addressing psychosocial functioning and health among these groups of relatives in research to provide...

  10. Parenting and Family Stress as Mediators of the Long-Term Effects of Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, Tiffany Weissmann; Silvern, Louise

    1994-01-01

    Data on child physical/sexual abuse, family stress histories, perceived parental warmth, and current psychological functioning were gathered from 259 working women. Multiple regression analyses showed that parental warmth strongly influenced or mediated the relationship of intrafamilial child abuse to depression and self-esteem levels. However,…

  11. Stress in adolescents with a chronically ill parent: inspiration from Rolland's Family Systems-Illness model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieh, D.S.; Dikkers, A.L.C.; Visser-Meily, J.M.A.; Meijer, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This article was inspired by Rolland’s Family Systems-Illness (FSI) model, aiming to predict adolescent stress as a function of parental illness type. Ninety-nine parents with a chronic medical condition, 82 partners, and 158 adolescent children (51 % girls; mean age = 15.1 years) participated in

  12. Adjustment to College in Nonresidential First-Year Students: The Roles of Stress, Family, and Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gefen, Dalia R.; Fish, Marian C.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored factors related to college adjustment in nonresidential first-year students. It was hypothesized that stress, family functioning, and coping strategies would predict academic, personal-emotional, and social adjustment in addition to institutional attachment. The sample comprised 167 first-year college students (ages 18-23)…

  13. Bioinformatic Analyses of Subgroup-A Members of the Wheat bZIP Transcription Factor Family and Functional Identification of TabZIP174 Involved in Drought Stress Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyin Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Extensive studies in Arabidopsis and rice have demonstrated that Subgroup-A members of the bZIP transcription factor family play important roles in plant responses to multiple abiotic stresses. Although common wheat (Triticum aestivum is one of the most widely cultivated and consumed food crops in the world, there are limited investigations into Subgroup A of the bZIP family in wheat. In this study, we performed bioinformatic analyses of the 41 Subgroup-A members of the wheat bZIP family. Phylogenetic and conserved motif analyses showed that most of the Subgroup-A bZIP proteins involved in abiotic stress responses of wheat, Arabidopsis and rice clustered in Clade A1 of the phylogenetic tree, and shared a majority of conserved motifs, suggesting the potential importance of Clade-A1 members in abiotic stress responses. Gene structure analysis showed that TabZIP genes with close phylogenetic relationships tended to possess similar exon-intron compositions, and the positions of introns in the hinge regions of the bZIP domains were highly conserved, whereas introns in the leucine zipper regions were at variable positions. Additionally, eleven groups of homologs and two groups of tandem paralogs were also identified in Subgroup A of the wheat bZIP family. Expression profiling analysis indicated that most Subgroup-A TabZIP genes were responsive to abscisic acid and various abiotic stress treatments. TabZIP27, TabZIP74, TabZIP138 and TabZIP174 proteins were localized in the nucleus of wheat protoplasts, whereas TabZIP9-GFP fusion protein was simultaneously present in the nucleus, cytoplasm and cell membrane. Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing TabZIP174 displayed increased seed germination rates and primary root lengths under drought treatments. Overexpression of TabZIP174 in transgenic Arabidopsis conferred enhanced drought tolerance, and transgenic plants exhibited lower water loss rates, higher survival rates, higher proline, soluble sugar and leaf

  14. Bioinformatic Analyses of Subgroup-A Members of the Wheat bZIP Transcription Factor Family and Functional Identification of TabZIP174 Involved in Drought Stress Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueyin; Feng, Biane; Zhang, Fengjie; Tang, Yimiao; Zhang, Liping; Ma, Lingjian; Zhao, Changping; Gao, Shiqing

    2016-01-01

    Extensive studies in Arabidopsis and rice have demonstrated that Subgroup-A members of the bZIP transcription factor family play important roles in plant responses to multiple abiotic stresses. Although common wheat (Triticum aestivum) is one of the most widely cultivated and consumed food crops in the world, there are limited investigations into Subgroup A of the bZIP family in wheat. In this study, we performed bioinformatic analyses of the 41 Subgroup-A members of the wheat bZIP family. Phylogenetic and conserved motif analyses showed that most of the Subgroup-A bZIP proteins involved in abiotic stress responses of wheat, Arabidopsis, and rice clustered in Clade A1 of the phylogenetic tree, and shared a majority of conserved motifs, suggesting the potential importance of Clade-A1 members in abiotic stress responses. Gene structure analysis showed that TabZIP genes with close phylogenetic relationships tended to possess similar exon–intron compositions, and the positions of introns in the hinge regions of the bZIP domains were highly conserved, whereas introns in the leucine zipper regions were at variable positions. Additionally, eleven groups of homologs and two groups of tandem paralogs were also identified in Subgroup A of the wheat bZIP family. Expression profiling analysis indicated that most Subgroup-A TabZIP genes were responsive to abscisic acid and various abiotic stress treatments. TabZIP27, TabZIP74, TabZIP138, and TabZIP174 proteins were localized in the nucleus of wheat protoplasts, whereas TabZIP9-GFP fusion protein was simultaneously present in the nucleus, cytoplasm, and cell membrane. Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing TabZIP174 displayed increased seed germination rates and primary root lengths under drought treatments. Overexpression of TabZIP174 in transgenic Arabidopsis conferred enhanced drought tolerance, and transgenic plants exhibited lower water loss rates, higher survival rates, higher proline, soluble sugar, and leaf chlorophyll

  15. Post-traumatic Stress in Children and Adolescents Exposed to Family Violence: I. Overview and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolin, Gayla; Vickerman, Katrina A.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to child physical abuse and parents’ domestic violence can subject youth to pervasive traumatic stress and lead to Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The often repeating and ongoing nature of family violence exposure may result in youth exhibiting problems in multiple domains of functioning and meeting criteria for multiple disorders in addition to PTSD. These characteristics as well as unique factors related to children’s developmental level and symptom presentation complicate a PTSD diagnosis. This paper describes evolving conceptualizations in the burgeoning field of trauma related to family violence exposure, and reviews considerations that inform assessment and treatment planning for this population. PMID:20107623

  16. Family Stress Theory and the Impact of Divorce on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Gary W.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Presents a middle-range theory that describes the potential impact of divorce on children, based on concepts from family stress theory. The proposed theoretical model is concerned especially with variations in the definition of the situation assigned to the crisis of divorce by children and custodial parents. (JAC)

  17. Neuroticism, work demands, work-family conflict and job stress consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusława Halina Lachowska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of the study was to the determine of neuroticism, requirements of the labor market and work-family conflict while exploring consequences of various aspects of job stress in occupationally active parents. Material and Methods: The investigations covered 159 females and 154 males from families where both parents are occupationally active and bring up at least one child aged up to 12 years. The following consequences of occupational stress were analyzed: the state of psychological health self-reported by the employees (symptoms of somatic disorders, anxiety and insomnia, functioning disorders, symptoms of depression, global distress, as well as distress experienced at work, employee intention to turnover, and job satisfaction. Results: The importance of neuroticism, work demands, and work-family conflict varies when explaining individual consequences of job stress. Of all the predictors analyzed, neuroticism is significantly correlated with the majority of consequences. Having considered the importance of work-family conflict, the role of work demands in understanding various consequences of job stress is much lower or even statistically insignificant. Conclusions: The construction of complex theoretical models, taking account of a wide range of factors related with the sphere of occupational activity, the role of work-family conflict and individual factors, allow for a better understanding of the determinants of job stress and its consequences. Med Pr 2014;65(3:387–398

  18. [Neuroticism, work demands, work-family conflict and job stress consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachowska, Bogusława Halina

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to the determine of neuroticism, requirements of the labor market and work-family conflict while exploring consequences of various aspects of job stress in occupationally active parents. The investigations covered 159 females and 154 males from families where both parents are occupationally active and bring up at least one child aged up to 12 years. The following consequences of occupational stress were analyzed: the state of psychological health self-reported by the employees (symptoms of somatic disorders, anxiety and insomnia, functioning disorders, symptoms of depression, global distress), as well as distress experienced at work, employee intention to turnover, and job satisfaction. The importance of neuroticism, work demands, and work-family conflict varies when explaining individual consequences of job stress. Of all the predictors analyzed, neuroticism is significantly correlated with the majority of consequences. Having considered the importance of work-family conflict, the role of work demands in understanding various consequences of job stress is much lower or even statistically insignificant. The construction of complex theoretical models, taking account of a wide range of factors related with the sphere of occupational activity, the role of work-family conflict and individual factors, allow for a better understanding of the determinants of job stress and its consequences.

  19. [Pilot study on stress and resilience in families with premature newborns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escartí, A; Boronat, N; Llopis, R; Torres, R; Vento, M

    2016-01-01

    Prematurity is associated with severe clinical conditions, long hospital stays, and uncertainty about patient outcomes. These circumstances lead to a stressful situation that may affect family functioning. The aim of this study was to study risk and protection factors affecting family functioning in preterm as compared to healthy term infants. Preterm infants with and without pathological conditions (n=40) were recruited at 24 months post-conception age, together with a control group of healthy term newborn infants (n=31). Parents or usual caregivers responded to the Inventory of Family Protection Factors and Parental Stress scales. The results were compared using the Student t test, unidirectional analysis of variance and the Tukey test. Parents of the control group attained higher scores than those of the preterm group for all the items studied; however, parents of preterm infants with pathological conditions perceived significantly less family resilience and more stress related to the upbringing of their child. Prematurity itself is a risk factor for family dysfunction because it causes an elevated degree of parental stress and difficulties in the development of protection factors such as resilience. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Stress experiences of family members of registered sex offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewksbury, Richard; Levenson, Jill

    2009-01-01

    The collateral consequences of sex offender registration and notification (SORN) have been well established, although little evidence has supported the efficacy of SORN. Based on the belief that family members provide some of the most consistent, important, and intense forms of support for criminal offenders in general and registered sex offenders (RSOs) more specifically, the experiences of sanctions, losses, and stresses of these individuals is examined. Using survey responses from 584 individuals known to visit online support and advocacy groups for RSOs and their loved ones, this study identifies the stress levels and stressors experienced by this population. Findings show that family members of RSOs experience high levels of social isolation, fear, shame, property damage, and forced residential relocation. Perceived stress is significantly higher for those who are of lower economic means, feel isolated, have high levels of fear and shame/embarrassment, or were forced to move. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Stress regulated members of the plant organic cation transporter family are localized to the vacuolar membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koch Wolfgang

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Arabidopsis six genes group into the gene family of the organic cation transporters (OCTs. In animals the members of the OCT-family are mostly characterized as polyspecific transporters involved in the homeostasis of solutes, the transport of monoamine neurotransmitters and the transport of choline and carnitine. In plants little is known about function, localisation and regulation of this gene family. Only one protein has been characterized as a carnitine transporter at the plasma membrane so far. Findings We localized the five uncharacterized members of the Arabidopsis OCT family, designated OCT2-OCT6, via GFP fusions and protoplast transformation to the tonoplast. Expression analysis with RNA Gel Blots showed a distinct, organ-specific expression pattern of the individual genes. With reporter gene fusion of four members we analyzed the tissue specific distribution of OCT2, 3, 4, and 6. In experiments with salt, drought and cold stress, we could show that AtOCT4, 5 and 6 are up-regulated during drought stress, AtOCT3 and 5 during cold stress and AtOCT 5 and 6 during salt stress treatments. Conclusion Localisation of the proteins at the tonoplast and regulation of the gene expression under stress conditions suggests a specific role for the transporters in plant adaptation to environmental stress.

  2. Work Family Conflict dan Stress Kerja Perempuan Bekerja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reni Yuliviona

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Perubahan secara demografis pada angkatan kerja di beberapa negara di  antara lain berupa bertambahnya kaum ibu yang bekerja, meningkatknya masalah masalah keluarga – pekerjaan di dalam lingkungan kerja. Walaupun   work family conflict  (konflik keluarga –pekerjaan dikenal sebagai masalah pria dan wanita, namun isu tersebut berlanjut hingga penempatan tanggung jawab bagi wanita karier. Perbedaan tanggung jawab disebabkanoleh peranan wanita secara tradisional, yang semula dianggap harus lebih bertanggung jawab daripada pria dalam masalah-masalah rumah tangga. Tanggung jawab wanita yang besar terhadap pekerjaan dan keluarga menimbulkan apa yang di sebut dengan stress,ketidak puasan kerja, absensi, perputaran kerja. Dengan demikian perusahaan harus serius manangani masalah ini.Kata kunci : konflik keluarga-pekerjaan, wanita-bekerja, stress kerja, kinerja karyawan Change in demography of the work force in American and some countries in Asia, such as the increase number of working mother has increase the work-family issue in work environment. Although work-family conflict is known as a man and women issue, but this issue is continues to place different responsibilities for working women. The different responsibilities is because of the tradisional role of women, who take more responsibilities than man for the domestic matter. Work-family issues forced organizations to adopt some policies in order to solve this issue, such as family-friendly policy. Some research acknowledge that organization abilities to adopt this kind of policy influence employee respon to their work life, such as job stress, job satisfaction/dissatisfaction, absence, and turnover. It is become clear that organizations have to be serious in handling this issue.Key words: Work-family conflict, work-women, work stress,job performance

  3. Posttraumatic stress disorder in women with war missing family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraković, Devla; Avdibegović, Esmina; Sinanović, Osman

    2014-12-01

    Research in crisis areas indicate that survivors' responses to the forced disappearance of family members are similar to reactions to other traumatic events. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women with war missing family members in Bosnia and Herzegovina 18 years after the war in this region (1992-1995). The study included 160 women aged 47.1±14.0 from three regions of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It was carried out in the period from April 2010 to May 2011. Of the 160 participants, 120 women had a war missing family member and 40 women had no war missing family members. The Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA) were used for data collection. Basic socio-demographic data and data concerning the missing family members were also collected. Women with war missing family members experienced significantly more traumatic war experiences (18.43±5.27 vs 6.57±4.34, pfamily members. Women with war missing family members showed significantly more severe PTSD symptoms. Based on the results of this study, it was determined that the forced disappearance of a family member is an ambiguous situation that can be characterized as a traumatic experience.

  4. Stressful Life Events in Children With Functional Defecation Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Elise M; Peeters, Babette; Teeuw, Arianne H; Leenders, Arnold G E; Boluyt, Nicole; Brilleslijper-Kater, Sonja N; Benninga, Marc A

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of stressful life events including (sexual) abuse in children with functional defecation disorders by performing a systematic review. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO for cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies investigating the prevalence of stressful life events, including (sexual) abuse in children with functional defecation disorders. The search yielded 946 articles, of which 8 were included with data from 654 children with functional constipation and 1931 children with (constipation-associated) fecal incontinence (FI). Overall, children with functional defecation disorders had been significantly more exposed to stressful life events than healthy children, with prevalence rates ranging from 1.6% to 90.9%. Being bullied, being a relational victim, interruption of toilet training, punishment by parents during toilet training, and hospitalization were significantly related to FI, whereas separation from the best friend, failure in an examination, severe illness in a close family member, loss of job by a parent, frequent punishment, and living in a war-affected area were significantly related to constipation. Only 1 study measured the prevalence of child abuse, which reported a significantly higher prevalence of child (sexual) abuse in children with FI compared with controls. The prevalence of stressful life events, including (sexual) abuse is significantly higher in children with functional defecation disorders compared with healthy children. To gain more insight into the true prevalence of child (sexual) abuse in children with functional defecation disorders, more studies are clearly needed.

  5. Predictors of responses to stress among families coping with poverty-related stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Etter, Erica Moran; Wadsworth, Martha E; Raviv, Tali

    2012-05-01

    This study tested how poverty-related stress (PRS), psychological distress, and responses to stress predicted future effortful coping and involuntary stress responses one year later. In addition, we explored age, sex, ethnicity, and parental influences on responses to stress over time. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses conducted with 98 low-income families (300 family members: 136 adults, 82 school-aged children, 82 adolescents) revealed that primary control coping, secondary control coping, disengagement, involuntary engagement, and involuntary disengagement each significantly predicted future use of that response. Primary and secondary control coping also predicted less maladaptive future responses to stress, while involuntary responses to stress undermined the development of adaptive responding. Age, sex, and interactions among PRS and prior coping were also found to predict certain responses to stress. In addition, child subgroup analyses demonstrate the importance of parental modeling of coping and involuntary stress responses, and warmth/nurturance and monitoring practices. Results are discussed with regard to the implications for preventive interventions with families in poverty.

  6. Coping with stress: dream interpretation in the Mapuche family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degarrod, L N

    1990-06-01

    Dreams are shared and interpreted daily within the family unit among the Mapuche Indians of Chile. This anthropological study examines the communicative aspect of dream sharing and interpreting among Mapuche families undergoing emotional and physical stress. Specifically, it investigates the ways in which the Mapuche dream interpretation system provides the family members with another means of interaction and a way of solving their problems. It also examines how individuals influence their attitudes towards one another by communally participating in the dream interpretation process, and in its narrative performance. The data used in this research consists of dreams and of their interpretations, collected in the natural setting, from two families with members suffering of witchcraft, and fear of death. This information was collected over a period of 17 months from October 1985 to March 1987 with a Fulbright-Hayes Doctoral Dissertation Grant.

  7. The role of family functioning in childhood dental caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijster, D.; Verrips, G.H.W.; Loveren, C. van

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the relationship between family functioning and childhood dental caries. Further objectives were (i) to explore whether oral hygiene behaviours could account for a possible association between family functioning dimensions and childhood dental caries and (ii) to

  8. The role of family functioning in childhood dental caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijster, D.; Verrips, G.H.W.; van Loveren, C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study investigated the relationship between family functioning and childhood dental caries. Further objectives were (i) to explore whether oral hygiene behaviours could account for a possible association between family functioning dimensions and childhood dental caries and (ii) to

  9. Normal families and isolated singularities of meromorphic functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chee, P.S.; Subramaniam, A.

    1985-06-01

    Based on the criterion of Zalcman for normal families, a generalization of a well-known result relating normal families and isolated essential singularities of meromorphic functions is proved, using a theorem of Lehto and Virtanen on normal functions. (author)

  10. Parental employment and work-family stress: Associations with family food environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Katherine W.; Hearst, Mary O.; Escoto, Kamisha; Berge, Jerica M.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    Parental employment provides many benefits to children's health. However, an increasing number of studies have observed associations between mothers' full-time employment and less healthful family food environments. Few studies have examined other ways in which parental employment may be associated with the family food environment, including the role of fathers' employment and parents' stress balancing work and home obligations. This study utilized data from Project F-EAT, a population-based study of a socio-demographically diverse sample of 3709 parents of adolescents living in a metropolitan area in the Midwestern United States, to examine cross-sectional associations between mothers' and fathers' employment status and parents' work-life stress with multiple aspects of the family food environment. Among parents participating in Project F-EAT, 64% of fathers and 46% of mothers were full-time employed, while 25% of fathers and 37% of mothers were not employed. Results showed that full-time employed mothers reported fewer family meals, less frequent encouragement of their adolescents' healthful eating, lower fruit and vegetable intake, and less time spent on food preparation, compared to part-time and not-employed mothers, after adjusting for socio-demographics. Full-time employed fathers reported significantly fewer hours of food preparation; no other associations were seen between fathers' employment status and characteristics of the family food environment. In contrast, higher work-life stress among both parents was associated with less healthful family food environment characteristics including less frequent family meals and more frequent sugar-sweetened beverage and fast food consumption by parents. Among dual-parent families, taking into account the employment characteristics of the other parent did not substantially alter the relationships between work-life stress and family food environment characteristics. While parental employment is beneficial for many

  11. Parental employment and work-family stress: associations with family food environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Katherine W; Hearst, Mary O; Escoto, Kamisha; Berge, Jerica M; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-08-01

    Parental employment provides many benefits to children's health. However, an increasing number of studies have observed associations between mothers' full-time employment and less healthful family food environments. Few studies have examined other ways in which parental employment may be associated with the family food environment, including the role of fathers' employment and parents' stress balancing work and home obligations. This study utilized data from Project F-EAT, a population-based study of a socio-demographically diverse sample of 3709 parents of adolescents living in a metropolitan area in the Midwestern United States, to examine cross-sectional associations between mothers' and fathers' employment status and parents' work-life stress with multiple aspects of the family food environment. Among parents participating in Project F-EAT, 64% of fathers and 46% of mothers were full-time employed, while 25% of fathers and 37% of mothers were not employed. Results showed that full-time employed mothers reported fewer family meals, less frequent encouragement of their adolescents' healthful eating, lower fruit and vegetable intake, and less time spent on food preparation, compared to part-time and not-employed mothers, after adjusting for socio-demographics. Full-time employed fathers reported significantly fewer hours of food preparation; no other associations were seen between fathers' employment status and characteristics of the family food environment. In contrast, higher work-life stress among both parents was associated with less healthful family food environment characteristics including less frequent family meals and more frequent sugar-sweetened beverage and fast food consumption by parents. Among dual-parent families, taking into account the employment characteristics of the other parent did not substantially alter the relationships between work-life stress and family food environment characteristics. While parental employment is beneficial for many

  12. Existence families, functional calculi and evolution equations

    CERN Document Server

    deLaubenfels, Ralph

    1994-01-01

    This book presents an operator-theoretic approach to ill-posed evolution equations. It presents the basic theory, and the more surprising examples, of generalizations of strongly continuous semigroups known as 'existent families' and 'regularized semigroups'. These families of operators may be used either to produce all initial data for which a solution in the original space exists, or to construct a maximal subspace on which the problem is well-posed. Regularized semigroups are also used to construct functional, or operational, calculi for unbounded operators. The book takes an intuitive and constructive approach by emphasizing the interaction between functional calculus constructions and evolution equations. One thinks of a semigroup generated by A as etA and thinks of a regularized semigroup generated by A as etA g(A), producing solutions of the abstract Cauchy problem for initial data in the image of g(A). Material that is scattered throughout numerous papers is brought together and presented in a fresh, ...

  13. Family Functioning and the Course of Adolescent Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Aimee E.; Judd, Charles M.; Axelson, David A.; Miklowitz, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The symptoms of bipolar disorder affect and are affected by the functioning of family environments. Little is known, however, about the stability of family functioning among youth with bipolar disorder as they cycle in and out of mood episodes. This study examined family functioning and its relationship to symptoms of adolescent bipolar disorder,…

  14. Factors of caregiver burden and family functioning among Taiwanese family caregivers living with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Chiu-Yueh; Tsai, Yun-Fang

    2015-06-01

    To assess the degree of caregiver burden and family functioning among Taiwanese primary family caregivers of people with schizophrenia and to test its association with demographic characteristics, family demands, sense of coherence and family hardiness. Family caregiving is a great concern in mental illness. Yet, the correlates of caregiver burden and family functioning in primary family caregivers of individuals with schizophrenia still remain unclear. A cross-sectional descriptive study. A convenience sample of 137 primary family caregivers was recruited from two psychiatric outpatient clinics in Taiwan. Measures included a demographic information sheet and the Chinese versions of the Family Stressors Index, Family Strains Index, 13-item Sense of Coherence Scale, 18-item Caregiver Burden Scale, Family Hardiness Index and Family Adaptability, Partnership, Growth, Affection, and Resolve Index. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficients, t-test, one-way analysis of variance and a stepwise multiple linear regression. Female caregivers, additional dependent relatives, increased family demands and decreased sense of coherence significantly increased caregiver burden, whereas siblings as caregivers reported lower degrees of burden than parental caregivers. Family caregivers with lower family demands, increased family hardiness and higher educational level had significantly enhanced family functioning. Sense of coherence was significantly correlated with family hardiness. Our findings highlighted the importance of sense of coherence and family hardiness in individual and family adaptation. Special attention needs to focus on therapeutic interventions that enhance sense of coherence and family hardiness, thereby improving the perception of burden of care and family functioning. Given the nature of family caregiving in schizophrenia, understanding of correlates of caregiver burden and family functioning would help

  15. Impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on family functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanervisto, Merja; Paavilainen, Eija; Astedt-Kurki, Päivi

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain family dynamics of Finnish patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on the basis of Barnhill's framework for healthy family functioning. This study used description and comparison and an interview-administered questionnaire and survey. Participants were patients with COPD and their family members (n = 65) living in the Tampere University Hospital catchment area. The sample consisted of families of home oxygen therapy patients (n = 36) and families of inpatients (n = 29). Families consisted of patients and their family members. Data were collected from patients by interview-administered questionnaires and from family members by survey. The instrument used was the Family Dynamics Measure 2, operationalized and tested by the American Family Research Group. Families of home oxygen therapy patients experienced significantly more mutuality (P =.03) and made decisions about their illness and life significantly more independently (P =.05) than families of inpatients. Families of home oxygen therapy patients handled change significantly more flexibly (P =.03) than families of inpatients. For the most part, families of both patient groups functioned well, but overall family functioning was clearly better in families of home oxygen therapy patients. The sample included some dysfunctional and even severely dysfunctional families. The results of this study cannot be generalized beyond the study sample because of the small sample size, but they provide suggestions for developing the care of patients with COPD and their families.

  16. The impact of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) on family functioning: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Marghalara; Goez, Helly R; Mabood, Neelam; Damanhoury, Samah; Yager, Jerome Y; Joyce, Anthony S; Newton, Amanda S

    2014-01-01

    To explore the impact moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in a child has on family functioning. The search was conducted using 9 bibliographic databases for articles published between 1980 and 2013. Two reviewers independently screened for inclusion and assessed study quality. Two reviewers extracted study data and a third checked for completeness and accuracy. Findings are presented by three domains: injury-related burden and stress, family adaptability, and family cohesion. Nine observational studies were included. Across the studies, differences between study groups for family functioning varied, but there was a trend for more dysfunction in families whose child had a severe TBI as compared to families whose child had a moderate TBI or orthopedic injury. In three studies, injury-associated burden was persistent post-injury and was highest in families whose child had a severe TBI followed by families with a child who had a moderate TBI. One study found fathers reported more family dysfunction caused by their child's injury compared to mothers. Two studies found that mothers' adaptability depended on social support and stress levels while fathers' adaptability was independent of these factors and injury severity. Moderate to severe TBI has a significant, long-standing impact on family functioning. Factors associated with family adaptability vary by parental role.

  17. Family-Level Coparenting Processes and Child Gender as Moderators of Family Stress and Toddler Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolak, Amy M.; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this multi-method study was to examine how child gender and coparenting processes influence associations between family stress and toddlers' social adjustment. The participants, 104 dual-earner couples and their 2-year-old children, were videotaped in their home during a freeplay activity. Mothers and fathers completed questionnaires…

  18. The relationship between parental depressive symptoms, family type, and adolescent functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieh, Dominik Sebastian; Sieh, Dominik Sebstian; Visser-Meily, Johanna Maria Augusta; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    It is evident that parental depressive symptoms negatively influence adolescent behavior and various psychosocial outcomes. Certain family types like families with a chronically ill parent and single parent families are more vulnerable to parental depressive symptoms. However, the relationship between these symptoms, family type, and adolescent functioning remains largely unclear. This study examined relations between self-report of parental depressive symptoms and adolescent functioning in 86 two-parent families including a parent with a chronic medical condition, 94 families with healthy single parents, and 69 families with 2 healthy parents (comparison group). Parents completed the Beck Depression Inventory. Adolescents filled in the Youth Self-Report measuring problem behavior, and other instruments measuring psychosocial outcomes (stress, grade point average, school problems, and self-esteem). Multilevel analyses were used to examine the effects of family type, parental depressive symptoms, adolescents' gender and age, and interaction effects on adolescent functioning. The results indicated that adolescents with chronically ill and single parents had a lower grade point average (pfamily types. Parental depressive symptoms were strongly related to child report of stress (pfamily with 2 parents may have less impact on adolescent problem behavior than growing up in a single parent family. Health practitioners are encouraged to be attentive to the unique and combined influence of family type and parental depressive symptoms on adolescent functioning. Older and female adolescents deserve particular attention.

  19. Stress: Personal matter or family affair? Intra- and inter-individual relationships between stress, physical activity, sedentery behavior, and nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Reiner, Miriam; Niermann, Christina; Krapf, Fabian; Woll, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Individual health behavior, which is determined by individual motives, emotions, and cognitive processes, is embedded in a social environment. One of the most important social environments is the family. According to Family Reciprocal Determinism, stress perceived by one family member becomes part of the family environment and may affect interactions within the family, as well as the health behavior of all family members. This study investigated 214 families, each represented by a mother, a f...

  20. Military Stress-Busting Program for Family Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-20

    change, recognized self-worth, recognition of benefits , the timeliness of recruitment strategies, and the support provided by research staff on...made for direct recruitment included speaking at WTB monthly newcomer briefings, monthly SAMMC commander briefings, having a table at weekly bingo ...Project Number: N10-005 it. Family caregivers can definitely benefit from the stress management assistance during the treatment time of the

  1. A comparison of families of children with autism spectrum disorders in family daily routines, service usage, and stress levels by regionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, Tomomi; Vaz, Sharmila; Falkmer, Torbjörn; Cordier, Reinie

    2017-11-01

    To explore whether family routines, service usage, and stress levels in families of children with autism spectrum disorder differ as a function of regionality. Secondary analysis of data was undertaken from 535 surveys. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to investigate differences between families living in densely populated (DP) areas and less densely populated (LDP) areas. Families living in LDP areas were found to: (1) have reduced employment hours (a two-parent household: Exp (B) = 3.48, p single-parent household: Exp (B) = 3.32, p = .011); (2) travel greater distance to access medical facilities (Exp (B) = 1.27, p = .006); and (3) report less severe stress levels (Exp (B) = 0.22, p = .014). There were no differences in family routines; however, flexible employment opportunities and travel distance to medical services need to be considered in families living in LDP areas.

  2. Improving Functioning of the Remarried Family System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, Clifford J.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Presents salient issues for therapists in understanding and treating the remarried (REM, second, blended, reconstituted or step) family. The structure of the remarried family is differentiated from that of the intact family. Specific treatment goals for REM families are elaborated and various treatment modalities advocated. (Author)

  3. Spilling over: Partner parenting stress as a predictor of family cohesion in parents of adolescents with developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Darcy B; Szczerepa, Alexandra; Hauser-Cram, Penny

    2016-01-01

    Family cohesion relates to positive outcomes for both parents and children. Maintaining cohesion may be especially challenging for families of adolescents with developmental disabilities, yet this has been studied infrequently in this group. We investigated cohesion in these families, particularly with respect to partner stress, using the notion of the 'spillover effect' as a model. Adolescents with disabilities and their parents participated. Parents reported on teen adaptive and problem behaviours and on marital satisfaction, parenting stress, and family cohesion. The stress of one partner was tested as a predictor of the quality of family cohesion reported by the other. Adolescent behaviour problems were negative predictors of family cohesion in mothers, and marital satisfaction positively predicted cohesion for both parents. Above other factors, greater partner stress predicted poorer family cohesion for both fathers and mothers. Marital satisfaction acted as a suppressor of this relation. To improve the overall climate of families, care providers should take into consideration individual relationships, including the marital relationship. In addition, the possibility of spillover from one individual to another should be recognized as a factor in family functioning. Family-centred practices are likely to lead to greater feelings of cohesion and overall better individual and family well-being. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Family functioning in two treatments for adolescent anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciao, Anna C; Accurso, Erin C; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Lock, James; Le Grange, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Family functioning impairment is widely reported in the eating disorders literature, yet few studies have examined the role of family functioning in treatment for adolescent anorexia nervosa (AN). This study examined family functioning in two treatments for adolescent AN from multiple family members' perspectives. Participants were 121 adolescents with AN ages 12-18 from a randomized-controlled trial comparing family-based treatment (FBT) to individual adolescent-focused therapy (AFT). Multiple clinical characteristics were assessed at baseline. Family functioning from the perspective of the adolescent and both parents was assessed at baseline and after 1 year of treatment. Full remission from AN was defined as achieving both weight restoration and normalized eating disorder psychopathology. In general, families dealing with AN reported some baseline impairment in family functioning, but average ratings were only slightly elevated compared to published impaired functioning cutoffs. Adolescents' perspectives on family functioning were the most impaired and were generally associated with poorer psychosocial functioning and greater clinical severity. Regardless of initial level of family functioning, improvements in several family functioning domains were uniquely related to full remission at the end of treatment in both FBT and AFT. However, FBT had a more positive impact on several specific aspects of family functioning compared to AFT. Families seeking treatment for adolescent AN report some difficulties in family functioning, with adolescents reporting the greatest impairment. Although FBT may be effective in improving some specific aspects of family dynamics, remission from AN was associated with improved family dynamics, regardless of treatment type. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The Role of Familial Stress in Personality Development of Older Adolescents from Divorced and Non-Divorced Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green-Bailey, Patricia; McCluskey-Fawcett, Kathleen

    This study examined the relationship of overall family conflict and stress to adult personality development in young adult college students from intact families, as compared to young adults who had experienced childhood parental divorce. Seventy-five students from divorced families and 78 students from intact families completed a screening…

  6. The relationship between parental depressive symptoms, family type, and adolescent functioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Sebastian Sieh

    Full Text Available It is evident that parental depressive symptoms negatively influence adolescent behavior and various psychosocial outcomes. Certain family types like families with a chronically ill parent and single parent families are more vulnerable to parental depressive symptoms. However, the relationship between these symptoms, family type, and adolescent functioning remains largely unclear. This study examined relations between self-report of parental depressive symptoms and adolescent functioning in 86 two-parent families including a parent with a chronic medical condition, 94 families with healthy single parents, and 69 families with 2 healthy parents (comparison group. Parents completed the Beck Depression Inventory. Adolescents filled in the Youth Self-Report measuring problem behavior, and other instruments measuring psychosocial outcomes (stress, grade point average, school problems, and self-esteem. Multilevel analyses were used to examine the effects of family type, parental depressive symptoms, adolescents' gender and age, and interaction effects on adolescent functioning. The results indicated that adolescents with chronically ill and single parents had a lower grade point average (p<.01 than the comparison group. Adolescents of single parents reported more internalizing problems (p<.01 and externalizing problems (p<.05 than children from the other family types. Parental depressive symptoms were strongly related to child report of stress (p<.001. Adolescents of depressed chronically ill parents were particularly vulnerable to internalizing problems (interaction effect, p<.05. Older children and girls, and especially older girls, displayed more internalizing problems and stress. It can be concluded that growing up with a chronically ill parent in a family with 2 parents may have less impact on adolescent problem behavior than growing up in a single parent family. Health practitioners are encouraged to be attentive to the unique and combined

  7. Family Functioning of Adolescents Who Parent and Place for Adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Gayle; Resnick, Michael D.

    1988-01-01

    Assessed family environments of 84 pregnant adolescents who recently made decision to parent or to place their babies for adoption. Results showed that adolescent parents or placers described their families as less functional than adolescent norms. Found no significant differences in family functioning between parents and placers. Vast majority of…

  8. The Politics of Functional Family Therapy: A Feminist Critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avis, Judith Myers

    1985-01-01

    Discusses whether the Functional Family Therapy (FFT) model takes a covert political stance which reinforces traditional gender roles in both family and therapist. Examines FFT's affirmation of existing political functions in the family as well as suggested therapist use of self. Discusses implications and recommends changes. (BH)

  9. Effect of family-oriented interviews on family function of young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The outcome of a young person's future is affected by the support received from the family. Support that is received is related to the quality of family functioning of the young person. Family-oriented interview assesses the family of a patient who presents for consultation, through the patient. It diagnoses relationship issues in ...

  10. Dimensions of Family Functioning: Perspectives of Low-Income African American Single Parent Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccreary, Linda L.; Dancy, Barbara L.

    2004-01-01

    Family functioning is influenced by socio-economic status, culture, family structure, and developmental stage, and is assessed primarily using instruments developed for middle-income European American two-parent families. These instruments may not validly assess low-income African American single-parent families. This qualitative study was…

  11. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be life-saving. But chronic stress can cause both physical and mental harm. There are at least three different types of stress: Routine stress related to the pressures of work, family, and other daily responsibilities Stress brought about ...

  12. Family functioning of child-rearing Japanese families on family-accompanied work assignments in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohashi, Naohiro; Honda, Junko

    2011-11-01

    Although the number of employees on overseas assignments accompanied by their families has increased steadily, little is known about the effects of this experience on family functioning. Japanese families on family-accompanied assignments living in Hong Kong were compared with families living in Japan (consisting of 135 and 248 paired partners, respectively). Applying an ecological framework, family functioning was examined using the Feetham Family Functioning Survey-Japanese (FFFS-J). Japanese wives living in Hong Kong rated family functioning lower, particularly in the area of "relationship between family and family members." Between paired marital partners living in Hong Kong, the level of satisfaction in the area of "relationship between family and society" was significantly lower for wives than for husbands. This study provides application of the family ecological framework in families in a multicultural environment and identifies potential areas for family assessment and intervention that may of interest to health care professionals who care for families living away from their home countries.

  13. The PANTHER database of protein families, subfamilies, functions and pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Mi, Huaiyu; Lazareva-Ulitsky, Betty; Loo, Rozina; Kejariwal, Anish; Vandergriff, Jody; Rabkin, Steven; Guo, Nan; Muruganujan, Anushya; Doremieux, Olivier; Campbell, Michael J.; Kitano, Hiroaki; Thomas, Paul D.

    2004-01-01

    PANTHER is a large collection of protein families that have been subdivided into functionally related subfamilies, using human expertise. These subfamilies model the divergence of specific functions within protein families, allowing more accurate association with function (ontology terms and pathways), as well as inference of amino acids important for functional specificity. Hidden Markov models (HMMs) are built for each family and subfamily for classifying additional protein sequences. The l...

  14. The role of family functioning in childhood dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijster, Denise; Verrips, G H W; van Loveren, Cor

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the relationship between family functioning and childhood dental caries. Further objectives were (i) to explore whether oral hygiene behaviours could account for a possible association between family functioning dimensions and childhood dental caries and (ii) to explore whether family functioning could mediate the relationship between sociodemographic factors and childhood dental caries. A random sample of 630 5- to 6-year-old children was recruited from six large paediatric dental centres in the Netherlands. Children's dmft scores were extracted from personal dental records. A parental questionnaire and the Gezinsvragenlijst (translation: Family Questionnaire) were used to collect data on sociodemographic characteristics, oral hygiene behaviours and family functioning. Family functioning was assessed on five dimensions: responsiveness, communication, organization, partner-relation and social network. Associations with dmft were analysed using multilevel modelling. Bivariate analysis showed that children from normal functioning families on the dimensions responsiveness, communication, organization and social network had significantly lower dmft scores compared with children from dysfunctional families. Poorer family functioning on all dimensions was associated with an increased likelihood of engaging in less favourable oral hygiene behaviours. Children with lower educated mothers, immigrant children and children of higher birth order were more likely to come from poorer functioning families. In multivariate analysis, organization remained a significant predictor of dmft after adjusting for the other family functioning dimensions and the mother's education level, but it lost statistical significance after adjustment for oral hygiene behaviours. A relationship between family functioning and childhood dental caries was found, which may have operated via oral hygiene behaviours. Family functioning modestly explained socioeconomic inequalities in

  15. The Stress of Sadness: The Most Stressful Symptoms for Hospice Family Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratkowski, Kristy L; Washington, Karla T; Craig, Kevin W; Albright, David L

    2015-11-01

    A family member or friend is often a hospice patient's primary caregiver and, as such, may face a significant number of stressors, including challenges related to managing patient symptoms. This study investigated the most stressful patient symptoms as reported by 111 hospice family caregivers of cancer (n=66) and cardiopulmonary (n=45) patients. Researchers calculated the mean level of stress caregivers attributed to 32 different patient symptoms commonly encountered at end of life. They found the symptoms perceived as most stressful for caregivers were psychological in nature. Study findings suggest that members of the hospice interdisciplinary team should connect patients and their caregivers to various types of support to address psychological symptoms, benefitting patients and caregivers alike. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Family functioning and the course of adolescent bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Aimee E; Judd, Charles M; Axelson, David A; Miklowitz, David J

    2012-12-01

    The symptoms of bipolar disorder affect and are affected by the functioning of family environments. Little is known, however, about the stability of family functioning among youth with bipolar disorder as they cycle in and out of mood episodes. This study examined family functioning and its relationship to symptoms of adolescent bipolar disorder, using longitudinal measures of family cohesion, adaptability, and conflict. Parent- and adolescent-reported symptom and family functioning data were collected from 58 families of adolescents with bipolar disorder (mean age =14.48±1.60; 33 female, 25 male) who participated in a 2-year randomized trial of family-focused treatment for adolescents (FFT-A). Cohesion and adaptability scores did not significantly change over the course of the study. Parent-reported conflict prior to psychosocial treatment moderated the treatment responses of families, such that high-conflict families participating in FFT-A demonstrated greater reductions in conflict over time than low-conflict families. Moreover, adolescent mania symptoms improved more rapidly in low-conflict than in high-conflict families. For all respondents, cohesion, adaptability, and conflict were longitudinally correlated with adolescents' depression scores. Finally, decreases in parent-reported conflict also predicted decreases in adolescents' manic symptoms over the 2-year study. Findings suggest that family cohesion, adaptability, and conflict may be useful predictors of the course of adolescent mood symptoms. Family conflict may be an important target for family intervention in early onset bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. The family health, functioning, social support and child maltreatment risk of families expecting a baby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepistö, Sari; Ellonen, Noora; Helminen, Mika; Paavilainen, Eija

    2017-08-01

    To describe the family health, functioning, social support and child maltreatment risk and associations between them in families expecting a baby. Finland was one of the first countries in banning corporal punishment against children over 30 years ago. Despite of this, studies have shown that parents physically abuse their children. In addition, professionals struggle in intervention of this phenomenon. Abusive parents should be recognised and helped before actual violent behaviour. A follow-up case-control study, with a supportive intervention in the case group (families with a heightened risk) in maternity and child welfare clinics. The baseline results of families are described here. Child maltreatment risk in families expecting a baby was measured by Child Abuse Potential Inventory. The health and functioning was measured by Family Health, Functioning and Social Support Scale. Data included 380 families. A total of 78 families had increased risk for child maltreatment. Heightened risk was associated with partners' age, mothers' education, partners' father's mental health problems, mothers' worry about partners' drinking and mothers' difficulties in talking about the family's problems. Risk was associated with family functioning and health. Families with risk received a less support from maternity clinics. Families with child maltreatment risk and related factors were found. This knowledge can be applied for supporting families both during pregnancy and after the baby is born. Professionals working with families in maternity clinics need tools to recognise families with risk and aid a discussion with them about the family life situation. The Child Abuse Potential, as a part of evaluating the family life situation, seems to prove a useful tool in identifying families at risk. The results offer a valid and useful tool for recognising families with risk and provide knowledge about high-risk family situations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Family structure, family functioning and adolescent well-being: the transcendent influence of parental style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, A H; Bellissimo, A; Norman, G R

    1995-07-01

    This study assessed the association between parental style, family functioning and adolescent well being, contrasting intact families with those of changed configuration. Eight hundred and one grade 10 general level teenagers in 11 high schools of a single educational system were the subjects. Results indicated that the configuration of the family was not the key determinant of effectiveness of family functioning. Instead the style of parenting turned out to be the main determinant of both family functioning and well being of the adolescents. While both "parents" were judged to have contributed to these outcomes cross gender effects were found.

  19. Family Stress and Coping From Hospitalization of Clients With Severe Alcohol Use Disorder in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gyu-Hee; Choi, Yun-Jung

    The rate of relapse and involuntary hospitalization among clients with alcohol use disorder exceeds 40% in South Korea. As a result, family members of clients experience considerable stress and require the assistance of professional services. This empirical study investigates levels of perceived stress and stress coping styles among family members of clients with severe alcohol use disorder and examines the correlations among these variables. Data were collected from three inpatient alcohol rehabilitation centers and five psychiatric hospitals in South Korea. Family stress levels and stress coping styles for 133 respondents were evaluated using the Hospital Stress Rating Scale for Family Members and the Stress Coping Style Checklist. There were significant differences in stress levels according to whether participants had attended a family educational program in the past or were doing so presently. Furthermore, significant differences in stress were observed among participants who were using the stress coping style of easing strained emotions during the client's hospitalization but who had never attended an educational program. Among the subcategories, stress levels had especially strong relationships with easing strained emotions, seeking advice, and solving problems. The results showed that families with severe alcohol use disorder experience stress from the client's hospitalization and seek advice from neighbors to deal with worries, privacy concerns, and economic problems. Family interventions are needed to provide family members with strategies to cope with stress, which can support recovery of clients with severe alcohol use disorder.

  20. Family Functioning and Adolescent Help-Seeking Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Barry J.; Bowles, Terry V. P.

    2001-01-01

    Examined relationship between help seeking behavior and family functioning. Adolescents who sought help clustered into two groups of families - one high in conflict and low in democratic parenting style, and one low in conflict and high in democratic parenting style. Complex relationships between help seeking behavior, type of family, and type of…

  1. Children on the Autism Spectrum: Grandmother Involvement and Family Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Alison; Winograd, Greta; Verkuilen, Jay; Fish, Marian C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study investigated associations between the presence of a child with autism or Asperger's disorder in the family, family functioning and grandmother experiences with the goal of better understanding grandparent involvement in the lives of grandchildren on the autism spectrum and their families. Methods: Mothers and grandmothers of…

  2. Maternal Depression, Family Functioning, and Child Outcomes: A Narrative Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickstein, Susan; St. Andre, Martin; Sameroff, Arnold; Seifer, Ronald; Schiller, Masha

    1999-01-01

    Investigated differences in family narratives between mothers with and those without current depressive symptoms as an indicator of family functioning. Found that Family Narrative Consortium measures of narrative coherence distinguished level of symptom severity. Found that more coherent narratives were associated with marital satisfaction,…

  3. Work–Family Conflict and Mental Health Among Female Employees: A Sequential Mediation Model via Negative Affect and Perceived Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shiyi; Da, Shu; Guo, Heng; Zhang, Xichao

    2018-01-01

    After the implementation of the universal two-child policy in 2016, more and more working women have found themselves caught in the dilemma of whether to raise a baby or be promoted, which exacerbates work–family conflicts among Chinese women. Few studies have examined the mediating effect of negative affect. The present study combined the conservation of resources model and affective events theory to examine the sequential mediating effect of negative affect and perceived stress in the relationship between work–family conflict and mental health. A valid sample of 351 full-time Chinese female employees was recruited in this study, and participants voluntarily answered online questionnaires. Pearson correlation analysis, structural equation modeling, and multiple mediation analysis were used to examine the relationships between work–family conflict, negative affect, perceived stress, and mental health in full-time female employees. We found that women’s perceptions of both work-to-family conflict and family-to-work conflict were significant negatively related to mental health. Additionally, the results showed that negative affect and perceived stress were negatively correlated with mental health. The 95% confidence intervals indicated the sequential mediating effect of negative affect and stress in the relationship between work–family conflict and mental health was significant, which supported the hypothesized sequential mediation model. The findings suggest that work–family conflicts affected the level of self-reported mental health, and this relationship functioned through the two sequential mediators of negative affect and perceived stress. PMID:29719522

  4. Work-Family Conflict and Mental Health Among Female Employees: A Sequential Mediation Model via Negative Affect and Perceived Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shiyi; Da, Shu; Guo, Heng; Zhang, Xichao

    2018-01-01

    After the implementation of the universal two-child policy in 2016, more and more working women have found themselves caught in the dilemma of whether to raise a baby or be promoted, which exacerbates work-family conflicts among Chinese women. Few studies have examined the mediating effect of negative affect. The present study combined the conservation of resources model and affective events theory to examine the sequential mediating effect of negative affect and perceived stress in the relationship between work-family conflict and mental health. A valid sample of 351 full-time Chinese female employees was recruited in this study, and participants voluntarily answered online questionnaires. Pearson correlation analysis, structural equation modeling, and multiple mediation analysis were used to examine the relationships between work-family conflict, negative affect, perceived stress, and mental health in full-time female employees. We found that women's perceptions of both work-to-family conflict and family-to-work conflict were significant negatively related to mental health. Additionally, the results showed that negative affect and perceived stress were negatively correlated with mental health. The 95% confidence intervals indicated the sequential mediating effect of negative affect and stress in the relationship between work-family conflict and mental health was significant, which supported the hypothesized sequential mediation model. The findings suggest that work-family conflicts affected the level of self-reported mental health, and this relationship functioned through the two sequential mediators of negative affect and perceived stress.

  5. Work–Family Conflict and Mental Health Among Female Employees: A Sequential Mediation Model via Negative Affect and Perceived Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyi Zhou

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available After the implementation of the universal two-child policy in 2016, more and more working women have found themselves caught in the dilemma of whether to raise a baby or be promoted, which exacerbates work–family conflicts among Chinese women. Few studies have examined the mediating effect of negative affect. The present study combined the conservation of resources model and affective events theory to examine the sequential mediating effect of negative affect and perceived stress in the relationship between work–family conflict and mental health. A valid sample of 351 full-time Chinese female employees was recruited in this study, and participants voluntarily answered online questionnaires. Pearson correlation analysis, structural equation modeling, and multiple mediation analysis were used to examine the relationships between work–family conflict, negative affect, perceived stress, and mental health in full-time female employees. We found that women’s perceptions of both work-to-family conflict and family-to-work conflict were significant negatively related to mental health. Additionally, the results showed that negative affect and perceived stress were negatively correlated with mental health. The 95% confidence intervals indicated the sequential mediating effect of negative affect and stress in the relationship between work–family conflict and mental health was significant, which supported the hypothesized sequential mediation model. The findings suggest that work–family conflicts affected the level of self-reported mental health, and this relationship functioned through the two sequential mediators of negative affect and perceived stress.

  6. Heart rate variability associated with posttraumatic stress disorder in victims' families of sewol ferry disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Min; Han, Hyesung; Jang, Kuk-In; Huh, Seung; Huh, Hyu Jung; Joo, Ji-Young; Chae, Jeong-Ho

    2018-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which is caused by a major traumatic event, has been associated with autonomic nervous function. However, there have been few explorations of measuring biological stress in the victims' family members who have been indirectly exposed to the disaster. Therefore, this longitudinal study examined the heart rate variability (HRV) of the family members of victims of the Sewol ferry disaster. We recruited 112 family members of victims 18 months after the disaster. Sixty-seven participants were revisited at the 30 months postdisaster time point. HRV and psychiatric symptoms including PTSD, depression and anxiety were evaluated at each time point. Participants with PTSD had a higher low frequency to high frequency ratio (LF:HF ratio) than those without PTSD. Logistic regression analysis showed that the LF:HF ratio at 18 months postdisaster was associated with a PTSD diagnosis at 30 months postdisaster. These results suggest that disrupted autonomic nervous system functioning for longer than a year after trauma exposure contributes to predicting PTSD vulnerability. Our finding may contribute to understand neurophysiologic mechanisms underlying secondary traumatic stress. Future studies will be needed to clarify the interaction between autonomic regulation and trauma exposure. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Familial social support predicts a reduced cortisol response to stress in sexual minority young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, C L; Bonanno, G A; Hatzenbuehler, M L

    2014-09-01

    Social support has been repeatedly associated with mental and physical health outcomes, with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity posited as a potential mechanism. The influence of social bonds appears particularly important in the face of stigma-related stress; however, there is a dearth of research examining social support and HPA axis response among members of a stigmatized group. To address this gap in the literature, we tested in a sample of 70 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) young adults whether family support or peer support differentially predict cortisol reactivity in response to a laboratory stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test. While greater levels of family support were associated with reduced cortisol reactivity, neither peer support nor overall support satisfaction was associated with cortisol response. These findings suggest that the association between social support and neuroendocrine functioning differs according to the source of support among members of one stigmatized group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Adolescents Coping with Poverty-Related Family Stress: Prospective Predictors of Coping and Psychological Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Martha E.; Berger, Lauren E.

    2006-01-01

    Examined prospective associations among poverty-related family stress, coping, involuntary stress reactivity, and psychological symptoms in a sample of 79 rural, low-income adolescents. Poverty-related family stress predicted adolescents' anxious/depressed and aggressive behavior 8 months later, controlling for prior symptoms. Coping interacted…

  9. Stress, Depression, and Anxiety among Transitioning College Students: The Family as a Protective Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Jeffrey H.; Kasky-Hernández, Lynda M.; Ambrose, Pamm; French, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Stress associated with the college transition can bring about depression and anxiety symptoms, but family relationships can reduce the impact of stress. We hypothesized that secure attachment to parents, comfort with talking about stressors, and family support would reduce the strength of the relationships between transition-related stress and…

  10. Self-Reported Work and Family Stress of Female Primary Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Narelle; Clarke, Valerie; Lavery, Judy

    2003-01-01

    Results of a self-report questionnaire indicated that female primary teachers in Australia report moderate levels of global, work, and family stress. Time and workload pressure was the major work stressor, and responsibility for child rearing the major family stressor. Work stress and home stress both impacted on each other. (EV)

  11. Family Functioning in Suicidal Inpatients With Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heru, Alison M.; Stuart, Gregory L.; Recupero, Patricia Ryan

    2007-01-01

    Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is commonly bidirectional with both partners perpetrating and being victims of aggressive behaviors. In these couples, family dysfunction is reported across a broad range of family functions: communication, intimacy, problem solving, expression or control of anger, and designation of relationship roles. This study reports on the perceived family functioning of suicidal inpatients. Method: In this descriptive, cross-sectional study of adult suicidal inpatients, participants completed assessments of recent IPV and family functioning. Recruited patients were between 18 and 65 years of age and English fluent, had suicidal ideation, and were living with an intimate partner for at least the past 6 months. Intimate partner violence was assessed using the Conflict Tactics Scale-Revised, and family functioning was measured using the McMaster Family Assessment Device. The study was conducted from August 2004 through February 2005. Results: In 110 inpatients with suicidal ideation and IPV, family functioning was perceived as poor across many domains, although patients did report family strengths. Gender differences were not found in the overall prevalence of IPV, but when the sample was divided into good and poor family functioning, women with poorer family functioning reported more psychological abuse by a partner. For both genders, physical and psychological victimization was associated with poorer family functioning. Conclusion: Among psychiatric inpatients with suicidal ideation, IPV occurred in relationships characterized by general dysfunction. Poorer general family functioning was associated with the perception of victimization for both genders. The high prevalence of bidirectional IPV highlights the need for the development of couples treatment for this population of suicidal psychiatric inpatients. PMID:18185819

  12. The Impact of Family Violence, Family Functioning, and Parental Partner Dynamics on Korean Juvenile Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Sil; Kim, Hun-Soo

    2008-01-01

    The present study was aimed at determining the family factors related to juvenile delinquency and identifying the effect of family violence, family functioning, parental partner dynamics, and adolescents' personality on delinquent behavior among Korean adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed using an anonymous, self-reporting…

  13. Family functioning in families with a child with Down syndrome: a mixed methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povee, K; Roberts, L; Bourke, J; Leonard, H

    2012-10-01

    This study aimed to explore the factors that predict functioning in families with a child with Down syndrome using a mixed methods design. The quantitative component examined the effect of maladaptive and autism-spectrum behaviours on the functioning of the family while the qualitative component explored the impact of having a child with Down syndrome on family holidays, family activities and general family functioning. Participants in this study were 224 primary caregivers of children with Down syndrome aged 4-25 years (57.1% male; 42.9% female) currently residing in Western Australia (74.0% in metropolitan Perth and 26.0% in rural Western Australia). Maladaptive and autism-spectrum behaviour were associated with poorer family functioning. Mean total scores on the measures of family functioning and marital adjustment were comparable to that of families of typically developing children. Consistent with the quantitative findings, normality was the most common theme to emerge in the qualitative data. Child problem behaviours were also identified by parents/carers as having a negative impact on the family. This study has implications for the development of programs to support families with a child with Down syndrome and may dispel some of the myths surrounding the impact of intellectual disability on the family. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Work-Family Conflict and Work-Related Attitude: The Mediating Effects of Stress Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Aisyah Binti Panatik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the relationship between work-family conflict (i.e.work-to-family and family-to-work and work-related attitudes (i.e. job satisfaction,affective commitment and turnover intentions among academician in Malaysia.Mediationeffects of stress reactionswhich arebehavioral stress, somatic stress andcognitive stresswere also tested. A survey method using questionnaire was utilizedto obtain the data. A total of 267 respondents were participated, giving the return rateof 20% from the entire ofpopulation. Research data were analyzed using PASW18and AMOS SPSS18.Result indicated that onlywork-to-family conflict wassignificantly related to stress reactions.While, behavioral stress mediates the effectsof work-to-family conflict on job satisfaction, affective commitment and turnoverintentions. Cognitive stress only mediates the effects of work-to-family conflict onaffective commitment. This paper also discusses the implication of this study to theorganization and future research.

  15. Functions and Application of the AP2/ERF Transcription Factor Family in Crop Improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao-Shi Xu; Ming Chen; Lian-Cheng Li; You-Zhi Ma

    2011-01-01

    Plants have acquired sophisticated stress response systems to adapt to changing environments. It is important to understand plants' stress response mechanisms in the effort to improve crop productivity under stressful conditions. The AP2/ERF transcription factors are known to regulate diverse processes of plant development and stress responses.In this study, the molecular characteristics and biological functions of AP2/ERFs in a variety of plant species were analyzed. AP2/ERFs,especially those in DREB and ERF subfamilies, are ideal candidates for crop improvement because their overexpression enhances tolerances to drought, salt, freezing, as well as resistances to multiple diseases in the transgenic plants. The comprehensive analysis of physiological functions is useful in elucidating the biological roles of AP2/ERF family genes in gene interaction, pathway regulation, and defense response under stress environments, which should provide new opportunities for the crop tolerance engineering.

  16. Work-Family Conflict and Work-Related Attitude: The Mediating Effects of Stress Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Aisyah Binti Panatik; Siti Khadijah Binti Zainal Badri; Azizah Binti Rajab; Rosman Bin Mohd. Yusof

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between work-family conflict (i.e.work-to-family and family-to-work) and work-related attitudes (i.e. job satisfaction,affective commitment and turnover intentions) among academician in Malaysia.Mediationeffects of stress reactionswhich arebehavioral stress, somatic stress andcognitive stresswere also tested. A survey method using questionnaire was utilizedto obtain the data. A total of 267 respondents were participated, giving...

  17. Impact of flexible scheduling on employee performance regarding stress and work-family conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Raja Abdul Ghafoor Khan; Furqan Ahmad Khan; Dr. Muhammad Aslam Khan; Mohsin Shakeel

    2011-01-01

    Stress, work-family conflicts and flexible scheduling are three of the most important elements in organizational studies. The focus of current study is to understand the effect of Stress,work family conflicts and flexible scheduling on employee’s performance and also to understand whether flexible scheduling helps in reducing stress and work-family conflicts or not. The back bone of this study is the secondary data comprised of comprehensive literature review. A survey has also been conducted...

  18. Adolescent attachment, family functioning and depressive symptoms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Self-Report of Family Inventory (SFI), Experiences of Close Relationships Scale (ECR), Network of Relationships Inventory (NRI), Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) were used to assess depression, parental support and attachment. Results. Two models were examined: one ...

  19. Identification of wild soybean (Glycine soja) TIFY family genes and their expression profiling analysis under bicarbonate stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dan; Bai, Xi; Luo, Xiao; Chen, Qin; Cai, Hua; Ji, Wei; Zhu, Yanming

    2013-02-01

    Wild soybean (Glycine soja L. G07256) exhibits a greater adaptability to soil bicarbonate stress than cultivated soybean, and recent discoveries show that TIFY family genes are involved in the response to several abiotic stresses. A genomic and transcriptomic analysis of all TIFY genes in G. soja, compared with G. max, will provide insight into the function of this gene family in plant bicarbonate stress response. This article identified and characterized 34 TIFY genes in G. soja. Sequence analyses indicated that most GsTIFY proteins had two conserved domains: TIFY and Jas. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that these GsTIFY genes could be classified into two groups. A clustering analysis of all GsTIFY transcript expression profiles from bicarbonate stress treated G. soja showed that there were five different transcript patterns in leaves and six different transcript patterns in roots when the GsTIFY family responds to bicarbonate stress. Moreover, the expression level changes of all TIFY genes in cultivated soybean, treated with bicarbonate stress, were also verified. The expression comparison analysis of TIFYs between wild and cultivated soybeans confirmed that, different from the cultivated soybean, GsTIFY (10a, 10b, 10c, 10d, 10e, 10f, 11a, and 11b) were dramatically up-regulated at the early stage of stress, while GsTIFY 1c and 2b were significantly up-regulated at the later period of stress. The frequently stress responsive and diverse expression profiles of the GsTIFY gene family suggests that this family may play important roles in plant environmental stress responses and adaptation.

  20. A dyadic analysis of stress processes in Latinas with breast cancer and their family caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segrin, Chris; Badger, Terry A; Sikorskii, Alla; Crane, Tracy E; Pace, Thaddeus W W

    2018-03-01

    Breast cancer diagnosis and treatment negatively affect quality of life for survivors and their family caregivers. The stress process model has been useful for describing the cascade of social and psychological experiences that culminate in degraded quality of life for both survivors and their family caregivers. This study is designed to test theoretically specified predictors of negative psychosocial outcomes in a dyadic context. Participants were 230 dyads composed of Latinas recently diagnosed with breast cancer and their primary family caregiver, who completed measures of socioeconomic status, stress, family conflict, depression, and anxiety. Data were analyzed following the Actor-Partner Interdependence Mediation Model in structural equation modeling. For both survivors and caregivers, there were significant direct and indirect actor effects (through family conflict) of perceived stress on depression and anxiety. Several indirect partner effects were also evident in this sample. Specifically, caregivers' stress was predictive of survivors' depression and anxiety through survivors' increased perceptions of family conflict. As predicted by the stress process model, stress and family conflict were predictive of psychological distress in breast cancer survivors and their family caregivers. Significant partner effects in the Actor-Partner Interdependence Mediation Model suggest that there are some dyadic influences, particularly from caregivers' stress to survivors' perceptions of exacerbated family conflict. These findings show how strained family relationships can aggravate the well-being of cancer survivors and their family caregivers through this challenging experience. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Measurement of residual stresses using fracture mechanics weight functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Y.

    2000-01-01

    A residual stress measurement method has been developed to quantify through-the-thickness residual stresses. Accurate measurement of residual stresses is crucial for many engineering structures. Fabrication processes such as welding and machining generate residual stresses that are difficult to predict. Residual stresses affect the integrity of structures through promoting failures due to brittle fracture, fatigue, stress corrosion cracking, and wear. In this work, the weight function theory of fracture mechanics is used to measure residual stresses. The weight function theory is an important development in computational fracture mechanics. Stress intensity factors for arbitrary stress distribution on the crack faces can be accurately and efficiently computed for predicting crack growth. This paper demonstrates that the weight functions are equally useful in measuring residual stresses. In this method, an artificial crack is created by a thin cut in a structure containing residual stresses. The cut relieves the residual stresses normal to the crack-face and allows the relieved residual stresses to deform the structure. Strain gages placed adjacent to the cut measure the relieved strains corresponding to incrementally increasing depths of the cut. The weight functions of the cracked body relate the measured strains to the residual stresses normal to the cut within the structure. The procedure details, such as numerical integration of the singular functions in applying the weight function method, will be discussed

  2. Measurement of residual stresses using fracture mechanics weight functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Y.

    2001-01-01

    A residual stress measurement method has been developed to quantify through-the-thickness residual stresses. Accurate measurement of residual stresses is crucial for many engineering structures. Fabrication processes such as welding and machining generate residual stresses that are difficult to predict. Residual stresses affect the integrity of structures through promoting failures due to brittle fracture, fatigue, stress corrosion cracking, and wear. In this work, the weight function theory of fracture mechanics is used to measure residual stresses. The weight function theory is an important development in computational fracture mechanics. Stress intensity factors for arbitrary stress distribution on the crack faces can be accurately and efficiently computed for predicting crack growth. This paper demonstrates that the weight functions are equally useful in measuring residual stresses. In this method, an artificial crack is created by a thin cut in a structure containing residual stresses. The cut relieves the residual stresses normal to the crack-face and allows the relieved residual stresses to deform the structure. Strain gages placed adjacent to the cut measure the relieved strains corresponding to incrementally increasing depths of the cut. The weight functions of the cracked body relate the measured strains to the residual stresses normal to the cut within the structure. The procedure details, such as numerical integration of the singular functions in applying the weight function method, will be discussed. (author)

  3. Adolescent culture brokering and family functioning: a study of families from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickett, Edison J; Jones, Curtis J

    2007-04-01

    In immigrant families, culture brokering (CB) refers to the ways in which children and adolescents serve as mediator between their family and aspects of the new culture. This study focused on the debate in the literature about whether CB implies "role reversal" in the family and "adultification" of the adolescent or whether CB is better understood as simply one of the many ways that immigrant children contribute to family functioning. Results indicated a mixed picture with respect to this debate. Greater amounts of adolescent CB were indeed related to higher adolescent reports of family conflict, but also to greater family adaptability. In addition, the amount of CB was unrelated to family satisfaction and family cohesion. Secondary questions centered on the relationship of CB to adolescent and parent demographic and acculturation variables. Here, CB was related to parent acculturation patterns but not those of adolescents. Implications for future research on the CB role are discussed. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Targeting functional motifs of a protein family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadola, Pradeep; Deo, Nivedita

    2016-10-01

    The structural organization of a protein family is investigated by devising a method based on the random matrix theory (RMT), which uses the physiochemical properties of the amino acid with multiple sequence alignment. A graphical method to represent protein sequences using physiochemical properties is devised that gives a fast, easy, and informative way of comparing the evolutionary distances between protein sequences. A correlation matrix associated with each property is calculated, where the noise reduction and information filtering is done using RMT involving an ensemble of Wishart matrices. The analysis of the eigenvalue statistics of the correlation matrix for the β -lactamase family shows the universal features as observed in the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble (GOE). The property-based approach captures the short- as well as the long-range correlation (approximately following GOE) between the eigenvalues, whereas the previous approach (treating amino acids as characters) gives the usual short-range correlations, while the long-range correlations are the same as that of an uncorrelated series. The distribution of the eigenvector components for the eigenvalues outside the bulk (RMT bound) deviates significantly from RMT observations and contains important information about the system. The information content of each eigenvector of the correlation matrix is quantified by introducing an entropic estimate, which shows that for the β -lactamase family the smallest eigenvectors (low eigenmodes) are highly localized as well as informative. These small eigenvectors when processed gives clusters involving positions that have well-defined biological and structural importance matching with experiments. The approach is crucial for the recognition of structural motifs as shown in β -lactamase (and other families) and selectively identifies the important positions for targets to deactivate (activate) the enzymatic actions.

  5. Stress spillover, African Americans' couple and health outcomes, and the stress-buffering effect of family-centered prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Allen W; Beach, Steven R H; Bryant, Chalandra M; Lavner, Justin A; Brody, Gene H

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated (a) the stress spillover pathways linking contextual stressors, changes in couple relationship functioning and depressive symptoms, and changes in individuals' physical health, and (b) the stress-buffering effect of participation in an efficacious, family centered prevention program designed to protect couples from the deleterious effects of stressors. The sample consisted of 346 rural African American couples (63% married) who participated in a randomized controlled trial of the Protecting Strong African American Families (ProSAAF) program. Participants were assessed at three time points across 17 months. Results examining stress spillover within the control group indicated that elevated current, but not prior, financial hardship was associated with decreased effective communication, relationship satisfaction, and relationship confidence as well as increased depressive symptoms; current levels of racial discrimination also predicted greater depressive symptoms. Relationship confidence and relationship satisfaction, but not communication or depressive symptoms, in turn predicted declines in self-reported physical health. Results examining stress-buffering effects suggested that participation in ProSAAF protected individuals' relationship confidence from declines associated with elevated financial hardship. In addition, the indirect effect linking financial hardship to declines in physical health through relationship confidence that emerged among participants in the control group was no longer evident for ProSAAF couples. Results highlight the effect of contextual stressors on African Americans' couple and individual well-being and the potential for the ProSAAF program to provide a constructed resilience resource, protecting couple's confidence in their relationship from the negative effects of financial hardship and, consequently, promoting physical health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Development of an empirical typology of African American family functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandara, Jelani; Murray, Carolyn B

    2002-09-01

    This study empirically identified types of African American families. Adolescents (N = 111) were assessed on family functioning. With cluster analytic methods, 3 types of families were identified. The cohesive-authoritative type was above average on parental education and income, averaged about 2 children, exhibited a high quality of family functioning and high self-esteem in adolescents. The conflictive-authoritarian type had average parental education and income, an average of 2.7 children, exhibited controlling and rigid discipline, and placed a high emphasis on achievement. The defensive-neglectful type was predominately headed by single mothers with below average education and income and averaged about 3 children. Such families displayed chaotic family processes, and adolescents tended to suffer from low self-esteem. The typology exhibited good reliability. The implications of the typology are discussed.

  7. Relationships between quality of life and family function in caregiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez-Marcos Manuel Á

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are caregivers who see their quality of life (QoL impaired due to the demands of their caregiving tasks, while others manage to adapt and overcome the crises successfully. The influence of the family function in the main caregiver's situation has not been the subject of much evaluation. The aim of this study is to analyse the relationship between the functionality of the family and the QoL of caregivers of dependent relatives. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study including 153 caregivers. Setting: Two health centers in the city of Salamanca(Spain. Caregiver variables analysed: demographic characteristics, care recipient features; family functionality (Family APGAR-Q and QoL (Ruiz-Baca-Q perceived by the caregiver. Five multiple regressions are performed considering global QoL and each of the four QoL dimensions as dependent variables. The Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA was used to study the influence of the family function questionnaire on QoL. Results Family function is the only one of the variables evaluated that presented an association both with global QoL and with each of the four individual dimensions (p Conclusion We find an association between family functionality and the caregiver's QoL. This relation holds for both the global measure of QoL and each of its four individual dimensions.

  8. Impact on family and parental stress of prenatal vs postnatal repair of myelomeningocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antiel, Ryan M; Adzick, N Scott; Thom, Elizabeth A; Burrows, Pamela K; Farmer, Diana L; Brock, John W; Howell, Lori J; Farrell, Jody A; Houtrow, Amy J

    2016-10-01

    The Management of Myelomeningocele Study was a multicenter, randomized controlled trial that compared prenatal repair with standard postnatal repair for fetal myelomeningocele. We sought to describe the long-term impact on the families of the women who participated and to evaluate how the timing of repair influenced the impact on families and parental stress. Randomized women completed the 24-item Impact on Family Scale and the 36-item Parenting Stress Index Short Form at 12 and 30 months after delivery. A revised 15-item Impact on Family Scale describing overall impact was also computed. Higher scores reflected more negative impacts or greater stress. In addition, we examined Family Support Scale and Family Resource Scale scores along with various neonatal outcomes. Repeated measures analysis was conducted for each scale and subscale. Of 183 women randomized, 171 women completed the Impact on Family Scale and 172 completed the Parenting Stress Index at both 12 and 30 months. The prenatal surgery group had significantly lower revised 15-item Impact on Family Scale scores as well as familial-social impact subscale scores compared to the postnatal surgery group (P = .02 and .004, respectively). There was no difference in total parental stress between the 2 groups (P = .89) or in any of the Parenting Stress Index Short Form subscales. In addition, walking independently at 30 months and family resources at 12 months were associated with both family impact and parental stress. The overall negative family impact of caring for a child with spina bifida, up to 30 months of age, was significantly lower in the prenatal surgery group compared to the postnatal surgery group. Ambulation status and family resources were predictive of impact on family and parental stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Family Functioning and Low Vision: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambara, Jennifer K.; Wadley, Virginia; Owsley, Cynthia; Martin, Roy C.; Porter, Chebon; Dreer, Laura E.

    2009-01-01

    This review highlights the literature on the function and adjustment process of family members of persons with adult-onset vision loss. The majority of the literature has focused on the unique role that the family plays in providing both instrumental and emotional support to adults with low vision. In contrast, the impact of low vision on the…

  10. Goal Direction and Effectiveness, Emotional Maturity, and Nuclear Family Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klever, Phillip

    2009-01-01

    Differentiation of self, a cornerstone concept in Bowen theory, has a profound influence over time on the functioning of the individual and his or her family unit. This 5-year longitudinal study tested this hypothesis with 50 developing nuclear families. The dimensions of differentiation of self that were examined were goal direction and…

  11. The brief family relationship scale: a brief measure of the relationship dimension in family functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Allen, James; Henry, David

    2014-02-01

    The Relationship dimension of the Family Environment Scale, which consists of the Cohesion, Expressiveness, and Conflict subscales, measures a person's perception of the quality of his or her family relationship functioning. This study investigates an adaptation of the Relationship dimension of the Family Environment Scale for Alaska Native youth. The authors tested the adapted measure, the Brief Family Relationship Scale, for psychometric properties and internal structure with 284 12- to 18-year-old predominately Yup'ik Eskimo Alaska Native adolescents from rural, remote communities. This non-Western cultural group is hypothesized to display higher levels of collectivism traditionally organized around an extended kinship family structure. Results demonstrate a subset of the adapted items function satisfactorily, a three-response alternative format provided meaningful information, and the subscale's underlying structure is best described through three distinct first-order factors, organized under one higher order factor. Convergent and discriminant validity of the Brief Family Relationship Scale was assessed through correlational analysis.

  12. Gay and Lesbian Adoptive Families: An Exploratory Study of Family Functioning, Adoptive Child's Behavior, and Familial Support Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erich, Stephen; Leung, Patrick; Kindle, Peter; Carter, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    Traditional legal and social forces have hindered the adoption of children by gay and lesbian individuals and couples. Using a convenience sample drawn from gay and lesbian support groups and Internet sites, this exploratory study examines adoptive families with gay and lesbian parents in terms of family functioning capabilities, child's behavior,…

  13. Chemical Functionalization of Graphene Family Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacchi, Isabella Anna; Ménard-Moyon, Cécilia; Bianco, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Thanks to their outstanding physicochemical properties, graphene and its derivatives are interesting nanomaterials with a high potential in several fields. Graphene, graphene oxide, and reduced graphene oxide, however, differ partially in their characteristics due to their diverse surface composition. Those differences influence the chemical reactivity of these materials. In the following chapter the reactivity and main functionalization reactions performed on graphene, graphene oxide, and reduced graphene oxide are discussed. A part is also dedicated to the main analytical techniques used for characterization of these materials. Functionalization of graphene and its derivatives is highly important to modulate their characteristics and design graphene-based conjugates with novel properties. Functionalization can be covalent by forming strong and stable bonds with the graphene surface, or non-covalent via π-π, electrostatic, hydrophobic, and/or van der Waals interactions. Both types of functionalization are currently exploited.

  14. Anxiety, Family Functioning and Neuroendocrine Biomarkers in Obese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Pinto

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: These results highlight the importance of taking into account family functioning, parental mental state and gender, when investigating neuroendocrine biomarkers in obese children associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression.

  15. The ALMT Gene Family Performs Multiple Functions in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aluminium activated malate transporter (ALMT gene family is named after the first member of the family identified in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. The product of this gene controls resistance to aluminium (Al toxicity. ALMT genes encode transmembrane proteins that function as anion channels and perform multiple functions involving the transport of organic anions (e.g., carboxylates and inorganic anions in cells. They share a PF11744 domain and are classified in the Fusaric acid resistance protein-like superfamily, CL0307. The proteins typically have five to seven transmembrane regions in the N-terminal half and a long hydrophillic C-terminal tail but predictions of secondary structure vary. Although widely spread in plants, relatively little information is available on the roles performed by other members of this family. In this review, we summarized functions of ALMT gene families, including Al resistance, stomatal function, mineral nutrition, microbe interactions, fruit acidity, light response and seed development.

  16. Poverty and Depressed Mood among Urban African-American Adolescents: A Family Stress Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammack, Phillip L.; Robinson, W. LaVome; Crawford, Isiaah; Li, Susan T.

    2004-01-01

    We examined the role of family stress as a mediator of the relationship between poverty and depressed mood among 1,704 low-income, inner-city African-American adolescents. Nearly half of participants (47%) reported clinically significant levels of depressive symptoms. Being female, reporting higher levels of family stress, and scoring higher on a…

  17. Stress and Depressive Symptoms in Cancer Survivors and Their Family Members: Korea Community Health Survey, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mi Ah

    2017-09-01

    This study examined the prevalence of perceived stress and depressive symptoms in cancer survivors and their family members compared with subjects without cancer and without family members with cancer. The subjects of this cross-sectional study were adults ≥19 years old who participated in the 2012 Korea Community Health Survey. Stress and depressive symptoms in cancer survivors and their family members were assessed and compared to symptoms in control groups by chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analyses. Of the 6783 cancer survivors, 26.9% and 8.7% reported having stress and depressive symptoms, respectively, and 27.7% and 5.9% of family members of cancer survivors reported having stress and depressive symptoms, respectively. Cancer survivors showed higher adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for stress (aOR = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.16-1.37) and depressive symptoms (aOR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.57-2.11) than subjects without cancer history. Family members of cancer survivors showed a higher OR for stress and depressive symptoms than subjects without a family member who survived cancer. Cancer survivors and family members of cancer survivors had more stress and depressive symptoms than controls. Careful management for cancer patients and their family members should include screening for stress and depression to improve mental health associated with cancer survivorship.

  18. Resilience and the Course of Daily Parenting Stress in Families of Young Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstein, E. D.; Crnic, K. A.; Blacher, J.; Baker, B. L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Parenting stresses have consistently been found to be higher in parents of children with intellectual disabilities (ID); yet, some families are able to be resilient and thrive in the face of these challenges. Despite the considerable research on stress in families of ID, there is still little known about the stability and compensatory…

  19. Socioeconomic Stress and Academic Adjustment among Asian American Adolescents: The Protective Role of Family Obligation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Lisa; Andrews, Kandace; Stein, Gabriela L.; Supple, Andrew J.; Gonzalez, Laura M.

    2013-01-01

    Socioeconomic stress has long been found to place youth at risk, with low family income conferring disadvantages in adolescents' school achievement and success. This study investigates the role of socioeconomic stress on academic adjustment, and pinpoints family obligation as a possible buffer of negative associations. We examined direct and…

  20. Coping with Overload and Stress: Men and Women in Dual-Earner Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Chris A.; Duxbury, Linda E.; Lyons, Sean T.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested gender differences in a model positing relationships between work and family demands, overload, 4 coping mechanisms, and stress. The coping mechanisms were hypothesized to moderate the relationship between overload and stress. The sample consisted of 1,404 men and 1,623 women in dual-earner families. Respondents relied on 2…

  1. The role of general and occupational stress in the relationship between workaholism and work-family/family-work conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauk, Mateusz; Chodkiewicz, Jan

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the role of general and occupational stress in the relationship between workaholism (recognized in two ways: as addiction and as behavioral tendency) and the intensity of work-family and family-work conflict. The study included 178 working people. The survey was conducted at three stages - half a year before a holiday, right after the holiday and half a year after the holiday. The Excessive Work Involvement Scale (SZAP) by Golińska for the measurement of workaholism recognized as addiction; The Scale of Workaholism as Behavioral Tendencies (SWBT) by Mudrack and Naughton as adapted by Dudek et al for the measurement of workaholism as behavioral tendency; the Perceived Stress Scale by Cohen et al., as adapted by Juczyński for the measurement of general stress; the Scale of Occupational Stress by Stanton in the adaptation of Dudek and Hauk for measurement of occupational stress; the Scale of Work-Family Conflict WFC/FWC by Netemeyer et al. with the Polish adaptation of A.M. Zalewska. Workaholism was measured once - before a holiday, the explained and intervening variables (the level of conflicts and stress, respectively) were measured at three stages. To test the mediating role of general and occupational stress, hierarchical regression analysis as well as the method of bootstrapping were applied. Our results indicate that general stress is an important mediator of the relationship between workaholism recognized as an addiction and work-family conflicts. Occupational stress turned out to be the only mediator in the relationship between workaholism (recognized as an addiction) and the work-family conflict, noted exclusively in the first stage of the study. Both general and occupational stress were not significant mediators in the relationship between workaholism recognized as a behavioral tendency and the conflicts described.

  2. Racism-Related Stress, General Life Stress, and Psychological Functioning among Black American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterse, Alex L.; Carter, Robert T.; Ray, Kilynda V.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between general life stress, perceived racism, and psychological functioning was explored in a sample of 118 Black American women. Findings indicate that racism-related stress was not a significant predictor of psychological functioning when controlling for general life stress. Perceived racism was positively associated with…

  3. Parental Adjustment, Marital Relationship, and Family Function in Families of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chou, Miao-Churn; Chiang, Huey-Ling; Lee, Ju-Chin; Wong, Ching-Ching; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Wu, Yu-Yu

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the psychopathology, marital relationship, and family function in parents of children with autistic disorder (autism) as compared to parents of typically developing children. We also compared these measures between the mothers and the fathers. We assessed 151 families with at least one child with autistic disorder…

  4. Assessment of family functioning in families of patients on methadone maintenance treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Jasminka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Addiction has multi-factorial etiopathogenesis. Morbidity risk factors include both individual and social factors. Social factors are considered to be very important, especially at the initial stage of taking the substance. Family and the social environment, with their behavior and social norms, are the primary psychosocial determinants. Family functioning has an impact on both the development and the maintenance of addictions, so it is an important research topic. The aim of this study was to determine if families of drug addicts who are on methadone maintenance treatment differ in the level of functionality from families without addiction problems. The study sample included 100 persons divided into two groups - clinical and control. The clinical group consisted of 50 persons - drug addicts who are on methadone maintenance treatment, whereas the control group consisted of 50 persons without addiction problems. FACES IV and General questionnaire were used as instruments for the control group, and POMPIDU questionnaire for the clinical group. The results show that the families of addicts who are in methadone substitution treatment program vary in the level of functionality compared to families in which there is no problem of addiction and in a way that the families of the control group are more functional. These results in our region confirmed earlier results on the connection between family dysfunction and substance abuse, which may have significant implications in the treatment and prevention programs of addictions.

  5. Functional interactome of Aquaporin 1 sub-family reveals new physiological functions in Arabidopsis Thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ragab Abdel Gawwad

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins are channel proteins found in plasma membranes and intercellular membranes of different cellular compartments, facilitate the water flux, solutes and gases across the cellular plasma membranes. The present study highlights the sub-family plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP predicting the 3-D structure and analyzing the functional interactome of it homologs. PIP1 homologs integrate with many proteins with different plant physiological roles in Arabidopsis thaliana including; PIP1A and PIP1B: facilitate the transport of water, diffusion of amino acids and/or peptides from the vacuolar compartment to the cytoplasm, play a role in the control of cell turgor and cell expansion and involved in root water uptake respectively. In addition we found that PIP1B plays a defensive role against Pseudomonas syringae infection through the interaction with the plasma membrane Rps2 protein. Another substantial function of PIP1C via the interaction with PIP2E is the response to nematode infection. Generally, PIP1 sub-family interactome controlling many physiological processes in plant cell like; osmoregulation in plants under high osmotic stress such as under a high salt, response to nematode, facilitate the transport of water across cell membrane and regulation of floral initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

  6. Family Transition, Stress, and Support: Impacts on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberger, Eli H.

    Literature on the American family that is pertinent to pediatrics is reviewed. Family characteristics considered include fertility, family structure, divorce, maternal employment and child care arrangements, family wealth and poverty, governmental assistance, and adolescent sexuality. Other topics of discussion include problematic effects of…

  7. Parental Stress in Families of Children With Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valicenti-McDermott, Maria; Lawson, Katharine; Hottinger, Kathryn; Seijo, Rosa; Schechtman, Merryl; Shulman, Lisa; Shinnar, Shlomo

    2015-11-01

    The level of parental stress in families of children with autism and other developmental disabilities and its association with child comorbid symptoms was studied in an ethnically diverse population, in a cross-sectional study with structured interview. The sample included 50 families of children with autism and 50 families of children with other developmental disabilities, matched by age/gender. Interview included Parenting Stress Index-Short Form, Gastrointestinal Questionnaire, Child Sleep Habits Questionnaire, and Aberrant Behavior Checklist. In this ethnically diverse sample, parental stress was significantly higher for the autism group and for non-Hispanic and US-born mothers. In both study groups, parental stress was related to child irritability. Parental stress was also related to gastrointestinal problems in the autism group and to sleep difficulties in the developmental disabilities group. Targeting child irritability may be particularly important in reducing parental stress for families of children with autism and other developmental disabilities. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. [Weight loss in overweight or obese patients and family functioning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-Sánchez, Rosalba; Espinosa-de Santillana, Irene; Espíndola-Jaramillo, Ilia Angélica

    2012-01-01

    to determine the association between weight loss and family functioning. a cohort of 168 persons with overweight or obesity from 20-49 years, either sex, with no comorbidity was studied at the nutrition department. A sociodemographic data was obtained and FACES III instrument to measure family functioning was applied. At the third month a new assessment of the body mass index was measured. Descriptive statistical analysis and relative risk were done. obesity presented in 50.6 %, 59.53 % of them did not lose weight. Family dysfunction was present in 56.6 % of which 50 % did not lose weight. From 43.4 % of functional families, 9.52 % did not lose weight (p = 0.001). The probability or risk of not losing weight was to belong to a dysfunctional family is 4.03 % (CI = 2.60-6.25). A significant association was found between the variables: weight loss and family functioning. Belonging to a dysfunctional family may be a risk factor for not losing weight.

  9. The CRF Family of Neuropeptides and their Receptors - Mediators of the Central Stress Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedic, Nina; Chen, Alon; Deussing, Jan M.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Dysregulated stress neurocircuits, caused by genetic and/or environmental changes, underlie the development of many neuropsychiatric disorders. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is the major physiological activator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and conse-quently a primary regulator of the mammalian stress response. Together with its three family members, urocortins (UCNs) 1, 2, and 3, CRF integrates the neuroendocrine, autonomic, metabolic and behavioral responses to stress by activating its cognate receptors CRFR1 and CRFR2. Objective: Here we review the past and current state of the CRF/CRFR field, ranging from pharmacologi-cal studies to genetic mouse models and virus-mediated manipulations. Results: Although it is well established that CRF/CRFR1 signaling mediates aversive responses, includ-ing anxiety and depression-like behaviors, a number of recent studies have challenged this viewpoint by revealing anxiolytic and appetitive properties of specific CRF/CRFR1 circuits. In contrast, the UCN/CRFR2 system is less well understood and may possibly also exert divergent functions on physiol-ogy and behavior depending on the brain region, underlying circuit, and/or experienced stress conditions. Conclusion: A plethora of available genetic tools, including conventional and conditional mouse mutants targeting CRF system components, has greatly advanced our understanding about the endogenous mecha-nisms underlying HPA system regulation and CRF/UCN-related neuronal circuits involved in stress-related behaviors. Yet, the detailed pathways and molecular mechanisms by which the CRF/UCN-system translates negative or positive stimuli into the final, integrated biological response are not completely un-derstood. The utilization of future complementary methodologies, such as cell-type specific Cre-driver lines, viral and optogenetic tools will help to further dissect the function of genetically defined CRF/UCN neurocircuits in the context of

  10. Anxiety, stress and depression in family caregivers of the mentally ill

    OpenAIRE

    Lídia Cabral; João Duarte; Manuela Ferreira; Carlos dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Background: The current policy guidelines on mental health aim to keep the mentally ill within the community, with the development of social support, including families, hence the emergence of the role of the family caregiver. Objectives: To identify socio-demographic variables influencing anxiety, depression and stress for the informal caregivers of the mentally ill; to determine the influence of family background variables on caregiver anxiety, depression and stress; to analyse the relat...

  11. A systematic review of the literature on family functioning across all eating disorder diagnoses in comparison to control families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtom-Viesel, Anita; Allan, Steven

    2014-02-01

    The objectives of this review were to systematically identify and evaluate quantitative research comparing family functioning (a) in eating disorder families with control families, (b) in families with different eating disorder diagnoses (c) perceptions of different family members and (d) the relationship between family functioning and recovery. This adds to the findings of previous reviews of family functioning by including data from control families, the range of diagnoses, and focusing on recovery. Findings were considered in relation to models of family functioning. Using specific search criteria, 17 research papers were identified and evaluated. Findings indicated that eating disorder families reported worse family functioning than control families but there was little evidence for a typical pattern of family dysfunction. A consistent pattern of family dysfunction for different diagnoses was not suggested but patients consistently rated their family as more dysfunctional than one or both of their parents. With respect to outcome and recovery, those with more positive perceptions of family functioning generally had more positive outcomes, irrespective of severity of eating disorder. Conclusions were limited by inconsistent findings and methodological issues. Further research is needed into the relationship between family functioning and outcome and the assessment of family functioning beyond self-report. © 2013.

  12. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Reactivity to Acute Stress: an Investigation into the Roles of Perceived Stress and Family Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obasi, Ezemenari M; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Cavanagh, Lucia; Ratliff, Kristen L; Pittman, Delishia M; Brooks, Jessica J

    2017-11-01

    Rurally situated African Americans suffer from chronic exposure to stress that may have a deleterious effect on health outcomes. Unfortunately, research on potential mechanisms that underlie health disparities affecting the African American community has received limited focus in the scientific literature. This study investigated the relationship between perceived stress, family resources, and cortisol reactivity to acute stress. A rural sample of African American emerging adults (N = 60) completed a battery of assessments, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), and provided four samples of salivary cortisol: prior to receiving TSST instructions, prior to conducting the speech task, immediately following the TSST, and 15-20 min following the TSST. As predicted, cortisol levels increased in response to a controlled laboratory inducement of acute stress. Moreover, diminished levels of family resources were associated with blunted cortisol reactivity to acute stress. Of note, higher levels of perceived stress over the past month and being male were independently associated with lower levels of cortisol at baseline. Lack of family resources had a blunting relationship on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity. These findings provide biomarker support for the relationship between family resources-an indicator associated with social determinants of health-and stress physiology within a controlled laboratory experiment. Identifying mechanisms that work toward explanation of within-group differences in African American health disparities is both needed and informative for culturally informed prevention and intervention efforts.

  13. Stress disorders of families of the disappeared: a controlled study in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, G J; Casco, L

    1994-12-01

    The effect of forced disappearance on the physical and psychological health of family members was assessed by interviews carried out in Honduras. Families of the disappeared were compared with two control groups: (1) families who lost a member due to accident or illness; and (2) families where no one had died within the past 10 years. Constellations of stress-related symptoms commonly seen in post-traumatic stress disorder and other anxiety disorders were approx. 2 times more prevalent in families of the disappeared as compared to the other two groups, indicating that families of the disappeared suffer over and above that due to normal grieving. It is suggested that the atmosphere of fear and isolation experienced by families of the disappeared is a causative factor in the prolongation of stress-related disorders years after the traumatic event.

  14. Not Babysitting: Work Stress and Well-Being for Family Child Care Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstenblatt, Paula; Faulkner, Monica; Lee, Ahyoung; Doan, Linh Thy; Travis, Dnika

    2014-01-01

    Family child care providers contend with a number of work stressors related to the dual roles of operating a small business and providing child care in their home. Research has documented many sources of work related stress for family child care providers; however, research examining family child care providers' experiences outside of the…

  15. Family Stress, Parenting Styles, and Behavioral Adjustment in Preschool-Age Adopted Chinese Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tony Xing; Camras, Linda A.; Deng, Huihua; Zhang, Minghao; Lu, Zuhong

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to extend previous research on family stress, parenting, and child adjustment to families with adopted Chinese children. In doing so, we also seek to strengthen inferences regarding the experiential underpinnings of previously obtained relationships among these variables by determining if they also occur in families where parents…

  16. Family Roles as Moderators of the Relationship between Schedule Flexibility and Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Soo Jung; Zippay, Allison; Park, Rhokeun

    2012-01-01

    Employer initiatives that address the spillover of work strain onto family life include flexible work schedules. This study explored the mediating role of negative work-family spillover in the relationship between schedule flexibility and employee stress and the moderating roles of gender, family workload, and single-parent status. Data were drawn…

  17. Economic Crisis and Marital Problems in Turkey: Testing the Family Stress Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytac, Isik A.; Rankin, Bruce H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper applied the family stress model to the case of Turkey in the wake of the 2001 economic crisis. Using structural equation modeling and a nationally representative urban sample of 711 married women and 490 married men, we tested whether economic hardship and the associated family economic strain on families resulted in greater marital…

  18. Child/Adolescent's ADHD and Parenting Stress: The Mediating Role of Family Impact and Conduct Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Silva, Alicia; Lago-Urbano, Rocio; Sanchez-Garcia, Manuel; Carmona-Márquez, José

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The demands of parenting are usually associated with some stress, and elevated levels of stress may affect the parent-child relationships and parenting practices. This is especially the case of families where children have special needs conditions or disorders, like Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Method: This study examined parenting stress among mothers of children and adolescents with ADHD. The sample comprised 126 mothers of girls (36; 29%) and boys (90; 71%) aged 6-17 years old. Results: Mothers reported their own stress levels as well as the children and adolescents' variables (severity of their ADHD symptoms, conduct, and emotional problems) and family-contextual variables (negative impact on family's social life, impact on couple relationship, and perceived social support). Hierarchical multiple regression showed that (a) negative impact on social life and conduct problems were the strongest predictors of mother's stress. Bootstrap mediation analyses revealed that (b) the association between child and adolescent's ADHD and parenting stress was mediated by children's conduct problems and by negative impact on family's social life, and not by children's emotional problems nor by mother's perceived social support. The mediation analysis also suggested (c) a pathway from child/adolescent's ADHD through children's conduct problems and then through their negative impact on family's social life to mother's parenting stress. Conclusion: These results suggest that both child/adolescent's and family factors should be considered in the designing of interventions for reducing parenting stress in families of children and adolescents with ADHD.

  19. Subacute stress and chronic stress interact to decrease intestinal barrier function in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauffer, Adriana; Vanuytsel, Tim; Vanormelingen, Christophe; Vanheel, Hanne; Salim Rasoel, Shadea; Tóth, Joran; Tack, Jan; Fornari, Fernando; Farré, Ricard

    2016-01-01

    Psychological stress increases intestinal permeability, potentially leading to low-grade inflammation and symptoms in functional gastrointestinal disorders. We assessed the effect of subacute, chronic and combined stress on intestinal barrier function and mast cell density. Male Wistar rats were allocated to four experimental groups (n = 8/group): 1/sham; 2/subacute stress (isolation and limited movement for 24 h); 3/chronic crowding stress for 14 days and 4/combined subacute and chronic stress. Jejunum and colon were collected to measure: transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER; a measure of epithelial barrier function); gene expression of tight junction molecules; mast cell density. Plasma corticosterone concentration was increased in all three stress conditions versus sham, with highest concentrations in the combined stress condition. TEER in the jejunum was decreased in all stress conditions, but was significantly lower in the combined stress condition than in the other groups. TEER in the jejunum correlated negatively with corticosterone concentration. Increased expression of claudin 1, 5 and 8, occludin and zonula occludens 1 mRNAs was detected after subacute stress in the jejunum. In contrast, colonic TEER was decreased only after combined stress, and the expression of tight junction molecules was unaltered. Increased mast cell density was observed in the chronic and combined stress condition in the colon only. In conclusion, our data show that chronic stress sensitizes the gastrointestinal tract to the effects of subacute stress on intestinal barrier function; different underlying cellular and molecular alterations are indicated in the small intestine versus the colon.

  20. The role of general and occupational stress in the relationship between workaholism and work-family/family-work conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Hauk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to analyze the role of general and occupational stress in the relationship between workaholism (recognized in two ways: as addiction and as behavioral tendency and the intensity of work-family and familywork conflict. Materials and Methods: The study included 178 working people. The survey was conducted at three stages - half a year before a holiday, right after the holiday and half a year after the holiday. The Excessive Work Involvement Scale (SZAP by Golińska for the measurement of workaholism recognized as addiction; The Scale of Workaholism as Behavioral Tendencies (SWBT by Mudrack and Naughton as adapted by Dudek et al for the measurement of workaholism as behavioral tendency; the Perceived Stress Scale by Cohen et al., as adapted by Juczyński for the measurement of general stress; the Scale of Occupational Stress by Stanton in the adaptation of Dudek and Hauk for measurement of occupational stress; the Scale of Work-Family Conflict WFC/FWC by Netemeyer et al. with the Polish adaptation of A.M. Zalewska. Workaholism was measured once - before a holiday, the explained and intervening variables (the level of conflicts and stress, respectively were measured at three stages. To test the mediating role of general and occupational stress, hierarchical regression analysis as well as the method of bootstrapping were applied. Results and Conclusions: Our results indicate that general stress is an important mediator of the relationship between workaholism recognized as an addiction and work-family conflicts. Occupational stress turned out to be the only mediator in the relationship between workaholism (recognized as an addiction and the work-family conflict, noted exclusively in the first stage of the study. Both general and occupational stress were not significant mediators in the relationship between workaholism recognized as a behavioral tendency and the conflicts described.

  1. Development of the Family Stigma Stress Scale (FSSS) for Detecting Stigma Stress in Caregivers of People With Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Cheng; Su, Jian-An; Chang, Kun-Chia; Lin, Chung-Ying; Koschorke, Mirja; Rüsch, Nicolas; Thornicroft, Graham

    2017-01-01

    People with mental illness and their family caregivers often perceive public stigma, which may lead to stigma-related stress (or stigma stress). However, no instruments have been developed to measure this stress for family caregivers of people with mental illness. We modified an instrument that measures the stigma stress of people with mental illness (i.e., the cognitive appraisal of stigma as a stressor) and examined the psychometric properties of the scores of the newly developed instrument: the Family Stigma Stress Scale (FSSS). Primary family caregivers of people with mental illness in Southern Taiwan ( n = 300; mean age = 53.08 ± 13.80; 136 males) completed the FSSS. An exploratory factor analysis showed that the FSSS score had two factors; both factor scores had excellent internal consistency (α = .913 and .814) and adequate test-retest reliability ( r = .627 and .533; n = 197). Significant correlations between FSSS factor scores and other instruments supported its concurrent validity and the ability of the FSSS to differentiate between clinical characteristics, for example, having been previously hospitalized or not. The FSSS is a brief and effective measure of the stigma stress of family caregivers of people with mental illness.

  2. On a family of Bessel type functions: Estimations, series, overconvergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paneva-Konovska, Jordanka

    2017-12-01

    A family of the Bessel-Maitland functions are considered in this paper and some useful estimations are obtained for them. Series defined by means of these functions are considered and their behaviour on the boundaries of the convergence domains is discussed. Using the obtained estimations, necessary and sufficient conditions for the series overconvergence, as well as Hadamard type theorem are proposed.

  3. Community Violence, Family Conflict, and Preschoolers' Socioemotional Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farver, Jo Ann M.; Xu, Yiyuan; Eppe, Stefanie; Fernandez, Alicia; Schwartz, David

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relations among family conflict, community violence, and young children's socioemotional functioning and explored how children's social cognition and mothers' psychological functioning may mediate the outcomes associated with this exposure. Mothers of 431 Head Start preschoolers completed questionnaires about their family…

  4. Perspectives of family and veterans on family programs to support reintegration of returning veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ellen P; Sherman, Michelle D; McSweeney, Jean C; Pyne, Jeffrey M; Owen, Richard R; Dixon, Lisa B

    2015-08-01

    Combat deployment and reintegration are challenging for service members and their families. Although family involvement in mental health care is increasing in the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) system, little is known about family members' preferences for services. This study elicited the perspectives of returning Afghanistan and Iraq war veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder and their families regarding family involvement in veterans' mental health care. Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 47 veterans receiving care for posttraumatic stress disorder at the Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System or Oklahoma City VA Medical Center and 36 veteran-designated family members. Interviews addressed perceived needs related to veterans' readjustment to civilian life, interest in family involvement in joint veteran/family programs, and desired family program content. Interview data were analyzed using content analysis and constant comparison. Both groups strongly supported inclusion of family members in programs to facilitate veterans' postdeployment readjustment and reintegration into civilian life. Both desired program content focused on information, practical skills, support, and gaining perspective on the other's experience. Although family and veteran perspectives were similar, family members placed greater emphasis on parenting-related issues and the kinds of support they and their children needed during and after deployment. To our knowledge, this is the first published report on preferences regarding VA postdeployment reintegration support that incorporates the perspectives of returning male and female veterans and those of their families. Findings will help VA and community providers working with returning veterans tailor services to the needs and preferences of this important-to-engage population. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. How job and family demands impact change in perceived stress: A dyadic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoktunowicz, Ewelina; Cieślak, Roman

    2018-01-07

    The aim of this two-wave study has been to test the spillover and crossover of job and family demands on changes in perceived stress at work and in the family. Specifically, we proposed that demands from one domain (work or family) spilled over to another domain through interrrole conflict (work-family/family-work conflict) and context-specific self-efficacy. Additionally, we hypothesized that changes in perceived stress were impacted not only by a person's own demands through interrole conflict but also by the demands of one's significant other, in the process of crossover. The study was of dyadic design and it was conducted online, among 130 heterosexual couples, at 2 time points separated by 3 months interval. Hypotheses were verified by means of the path analysis. No support was found for the spillover of job and family demands on changes in perceived stress through interrole conflict and self-efficacy, neither for women nor for men. With regard to the crossover, no support was found for the actor effects, i.e., a person's demands did not impact changes in one's own work- and family-related perceived stress but partial support was found for the partner effects, i.e., women's job demands were associated with men's changes in work and family-related stress through women's work-family conflict, and men's family demands were associated with women's change in family-related perceived stress through men's family-work conflict. The study is a longitudinal test of the Spillover-Crossover model and Work-Home Resources model demonstrating that job and family demands are transmitted across domains and across partners in the intimate relationships through the interrole conflict but the nature of this crossover is different for men and women. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2018;31(2)199-215. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  6. Family cohesion moderates the relationship between acculturative stress and depression in Japanese adolescent temporary residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roley, Michelle E; Kawakami, Ryoko; Baker, Jessica; Hurtado, Gabriela; Chin, Andrew; Hovey, Joseph D

    2014-12-01

    Acculturative stress is a risk factor for depression, and may be important in the risk for depression among acculturating Japanese adolescents. However, little to no research has been published on the mental health of acculturating Japanese adolescents. Further, although family cohesion has been shown to be protective against depression across ethnic groups, no prior research has examined family cohesion as a protective factor for Japanese adolescents. To examine these relationships, 26 Japanese temporary resident adolescents and 76 parents in the Midwest were recruited to participate. Moderate to strong correlations between acculturative stress, depression, likelihood for and seriousness of family conflict were found. A regression analysis found that likelihood for family conflict moderated the relationship between acculturative stress and depression. Findings broaden our understanding of the role of acculturative stress and family conflict on depression risk for Japanese adolescent immigrants.

  7. Parental attitude, depression, anxiety in mothers, family functioning and breath-holding spells: A case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliacik, Kayi; Bolat, Nurullah; Kanik, Ali; Sargin, Enis; Selkie, Ellen; Korkmaz, Nurhan; Baydan, Figen; Akar, Ebru; Sarioglu, Berrak

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to identify differences in the antenatal stressful life events, parenting style, family functioning, depression and anxiety of mothers who have children with breath-holding spells (BHS) compared with controls. This case control study divided 66 children into a group of children with BHS and a control group, with the children's ages ranging between 6 months and 5 years of age. This study explored underlying anxiety and depression in mothers as well as functioning of their families. Socio-demographical data and stressful life events that the mother experienced during pregnancy were analysed. In order to evaluate the effects of family structure, depression and anxiety in mothers on BHS in children, the Family Assessment Device, and both the Parental Attitude Research Instrument and the Beck Depression Inventory as well as the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were used to assess both groups. Exposure to stressful life events during pregnancy (P overprotective maternal characteristics (P = 0.027) and most of the family functioning subscales were found to be significantly different between BHS and control groups. The association of anxiety, depression, prenatal stressful events and poor family functioning in mothers who have children with BHS is significantly higher than controls. An evaluation of these problems may be beneficial in the management of BHS. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  8. Blind adolescents' birth order as a determinant of their perception of family functioning dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanimirović Dragana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available While other theoreticians of personality stressed only the influence of parents in early childhood, Adler paid particular attention to a psychological position of a child among brothers/sisters. There is some empirical evidence that birth order may influence vocational choice, characteristic style of interacting with others, affiliation, anxiety, perception of parents' authority, and even intellectual capabilities. Visual impairment of a family member affects a family system and a sibling subsystem in a specific way. The goal of the research was to determine whether birth order influences perception of dimensions of family functioning in families with a blind adolescent and in families with an adolescent of typical development. The sample included 32 blind (experimental group and 32 subjects of typical development (control group aged 14 to 26, who lived in complete families with two or three children and without serious personal, marrital or family problems. The groups were paired by sex, age, professional status and birth order of adolescents, number of children in the family, type of family (nuclear; extended and environment (rural; urban. A Questionnaire of socio-demographic information and a Questionnaire of situation and family relationships RADIR by Knežević were applied for data collection. First-borns made lower appraisals of each dimension of family functioning than second-born respondents. There were no statistically significant differences in the control group. Differences in the experimental group were statistically significant in the following dimensions: Activity, Democracy and Structuring time and activity. Thus, the results show that first-born child's 'dethronement' has more effect if it is associated with blindness. This can be explained by fact that it is more difficult for a blind first-born child to catch up with a second-born 'rival'.

  9. Perceived family stress, parenting efficacy, and child externalizing behaviors in second-generation immigrant mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Ayşe; Mesman, Judi; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2010-04-01

    Examining family stress and parenting efficacy in relation to child externalizing problems in immigrant families. In this study, we compared the levels of family stress, parenting efficacy, and toddler externalizing behaviors in Dutch (n = 175) and second-generation Turkish immigrant families (n = 175) living in the Netherlands. In addition, the influence of Turkish mothers' acculturation on toddler externalizing behaviors and its association with perceived stress and efficacy were examined. Turkish mothers reported higher levels of daily stress and marital discord than Dutch mothers, but did not differ in perceptions of parenting efficacy and children's externalizing behaviors. The associations between child and family variables were similar in the Dutch and the Turkish groups, as more family stress was related to more externalizing behaviors in toddlers. Low parenting efficacy was the most important predictor of child externalizing behaviors in both groups. Acculturation of Turkish mothers was not associated with family and child variables, and did not moderate the association between family variables and child externalizing behaviors. However, emotional connectedness to the Turkish culture was related to less daily stress and fewer marital problems. The results support the no-group differences hypothesis and also imply that cultural maintenance may be adaptive for parental well-being.

  10. Assessment of Family Functionality Among the Elderly With Chronic Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Balula Chaves

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The family APGAR scale was developed by Smilkstein, Ashworth, and Montano (1982. The satisfaction assessment of the elderly with chronic illness regarding family is essential. This study aims to describe the socio-demographic and clinical profile of elderly people with chronic illness and correlate with perceived family support. This is a cross-sectional, analytical study of 294 elderly people (51.4% female, patients at the Health Centre in the district of Viseu - Portugal, diagnosed with chronic illness (77.9% cardiovascular; Mean age was 72.22 ± 6.13, 70.7% were married and 52% had 4 years of schooling; Data was gathered using a questionnaire and the Family APGAR (Adaptation, Partnership, Growth, Affection and Resolve. In relation to family functionality, 18.7% perceive families as highly functional, 26.9% mildly dysfunctional and 54.4% severely dysfunction. There is a statistically significant relationship between the family APGAR and the presence of chronic illness (p < 0.001. We found no statistical significance between the family APGAR and gender (p = 0.26, age (p = 0.26, marital status (p = 0.32 and educational level (p = 0.28. Economic, political and social changes in our society has an impact on the family and the support they provide which is manifested among vulnerable groups, as is the case of an elderly person with chronic illness. Thus, we propose specialised psychological support for this age group which is more vulnerable and without the needed support from within the family.

  11. Perceptions of Individual and Family Functioning Among Deployed Female National Guard Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patricia J; Cheng, An-Lin; Berkel, LaVerne A; Nilsson, Johanna

    2016-08-01

    Females currently make up 15% of U.S. military service members. Minimal attention has been paid to families of female National Guard members who have been deployed and their subsequent reintegration challenges. This cross-sectional Internet-based survey of female members of four National Guard units compared those who were and were not deployed. Instruments, guided by the variables of the Family Resilience Model, measured individual, family, and deployment-related factors. Bivariate analysis and ordinal logistic regression were done to assess differences between the groups. Of the 239 National Guard members surveyed, deployed women (n = 164) had significantly higher levels of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; p family functioning were higher among deployed when compared with never deployed women. Results indicate community interventions that focus on strengthening coping skills of female Guard members would be useful for this population. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Posttraumatic stress among young urban children exposed to family violence and other potentially traumatic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crusto, Cindy A; Whitson, Melissa L; Walling, Sherry M; Feinn, Richard; Friedman, Stacey R; Reynolds, Jesse; Amer, Mona; Kaufman, Joy S

    2010-12-01

    This study examines the relationship between the number of types of traumatic events experienced by children 3 to 6 years old, parenting stress, and children's posttraumatic stress (PTS). Parents and caregivers provided data for 154 urban children admitted into community-based mental health or developmental services. By parent and caregiver report, children experienced an average of 4.9 different types of potentially traumatic events. Nearly one quarter of the children evidenced clinically significant PTS. Posttraumatic stress was positively and significantly related to family violence and other family-related trauma exposure, nonfamily violence and trauma exposure, and parenting stress. Additionally, parenting stress partially mediated the relationship between family violence and trauma exposure and PTS. This study highlights the need for early violence and trauma exposure screening in help-seeking populations so that appropriate interventions are initiated. Copyright © 2010 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  13. Sex and family history of cardiovascular disease influence heart rate variability during stress among healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Charles F; Stoney, Catherine M; Thayer, Julian F; Williams, DeWayne; Bodine, Andrew

    2018-07-01

    Studies of sex differences in heart rate variability (HRV) typically have not accounted for the influence of family history (FH) of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study evaluated sex differences in HRV response to speech stress among men and women (age range 30-49 years) with and without a documented FH of CVD. Participants were 77 adults (mean age = 39.8 ± 6.2 years; range: 30-49 years; 52% female) with positive FH (FH+, n = 32) and negative FH (FH-, n = 45) of CVD, verified with relatives of participants. Cardiac activity for all participants was recorded via electrocardiogram during a standardized speech stress task with three phases: 5-minute rest, 5-minute speech, and 5-minute recovery. Outcomes included time domain and frequency domain indicators of HRV and heart rate (HR) at rest and during stress. Data were analyzed with repeated measures analysis of variance, with sex and FH as between subject variables and time/phase as a within subject variable. Women exhibited higher HR than did men and greater HR reactivity in response to the speech stress. However, women also exhibited greater HRV in both the time and frequency domains. FH+ women generally exhibited elevated HRV, despite the elevated risk of CVD associated with FH+. Although women participants exhibited higher HR at rest and during stress, women (both FH+ and FH-) also exhibited elevated HRV reactivity, reflecting greater autonomic control. Thus, enhanced autonomic function observed in prior studies of HRV among women is also evident among FH+ women during a standardized stress task. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Stress and coping of Hong Kong Chinese family members during a critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Winter Y-Y; Chan, Sally W-C

    2007-02-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the stress and coping strategies of Hong Kong Chinese families during a critical illness and to examine the relationships between stress and coping. Admissions to intensive care unit are usually an unanticipated event, which imposes stress on the family. Family's wellness is one of the significant factors affecting patient's well-beings. Much work has been conducted in Western societies. Stress and coping in Chinese families of critically ill patients have rarely been discussed. Structured face-to-face interviews were conducted, using the Impact of Events Scale and the Family Crisis Oriented Personal Evaluation Scales. A convenience sample of 133 participants was recruited from a regional hospital in Hong Kong. Many were patients' children with age between 30 and 49. A total of 39.1% (n = 52) of the participants were males and 60.9% (n = 81) were females. The participants experienced high level of stress (mean = 25.1, SD = 8.3). Higher level of stress were experienced by female (t = -4.6; d.f. = 1, 131; P = 0.00), those with lower educational attainment (F = 3.0; d.f. = 2, 130; P = 0.05) and those whose relatives were admitted to the intensive care unit unexpectedly (t = -2.2; d.f. = 1; P = 0.03). Patients' length of stay in the unit was significantly correlated with levels of stress (r = 0.5, P stress had significant correlation with coping strategies utilization (r = 0.5, P stress-coping pattern 'fatalistic voluntarism'. This study contributes to the understanding of Hong Kong Chinese families' stress and coping during a critical illness. Comprehensive assessments of family members' psychosocial needs are important to plan appropriate interventions to alleviate their stress and strengthen their coping skills. The findings will serve as guidance for nurses in delivering culturally sensitive and competent interventions.

  15. Diabetes, child care, and performance of family functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Kobos

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Parents caring for a child with diabetes may experience a burden on both a practical and an emotional level. Aim of the research : Analysis of the correlations between the care burden level and the perceived influence of type 1 diabetes in children on the performance of family functions. Material and methods : The study included 112 caregivers of children with diabetes. The following inclusion criteria were taken into account: full family, direct caregiver of the child, the child’s age 3–16 years, disease duration of at least 6 months, and no chronic diseases in siblings. The study material was collected using an interview questionnaire and the Caregiver Burden Scale. Correlation analysis was performed using the Spearman correlation coefficient. The significance level was defined as p = 0.05. Results : A higher burden level of a caregiver in the individual subscales of the CB Scale was associated with a significant decrease in the intensity of performance of the cultural and social function as well as consumption function, the increased amount of time spent with a sick child, and an increase in parental disagreements. The overall burden level differentiated the performance of the religious function. An increase in the burden level on the overall effort subscale was accompanied by lower interest in sex and less frequent sexual intercourse. The higher level of caregiver burden occurs in families where permanent job income has fallen. The differences were shown in the performance of control-socialisation function due to the sense of burden on the environment subscale. Conclusions : The burden level of a caregiver is important in the perceived influence of the child’s illness on the functioning of the family. Stimulating a caregiver in dealing with the problems that are the consequence of the disease, as well as activating and preparing other family members to participate in the care of a sick child, and financial support may

  16. Factors associated with work-family conflict stress among African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Portia L; Secret, Mary C

    2012-01-01

    Job demands and workplace culture variables associated with work-family conflict stress, in addition to workplace racial bias, were examined for a national sample of 607 African American women in 16 Fortune 1000 companies. Similar to other studies, women in this sample who had dependents were younger, had supervisory responsibilities, and experienced a less positive workplace culture, and those in professional job positions with high job demand were most likely to experience work-family stress. Married women who experienced a more subtle form of workplace racial bias reported more work-family conflict stress. Implications for social work policy, practice, and research are considered.

  17. Structural, functional and evolutionary characterization of major drought transcription factors families in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Shikha; Banduni, Pooja; Mallikarjuna, Mallana G.; Rao, Atmakuri R.; Jain, Prashant A.; Dash, Prasanta K.; Thirunavukkarasu, Nepolean

    2018-05-01

    Drought is one of the major threats to maize production. In order to improve the production and to breed tolerant hybrids, understanding the genes and regulatory mechanisms during drought stress is important. Transcription factors (TFs) play a major role in gene regulation and many TFs have been identified in response to drought stress. In our experiment, a set of 15 major TF families comprising 1436 genes was structurally and functionally characterized using in-silico tools and a gene expression assay. All 1436 genes were mapped on 10 chromosome of maize. The functional annotation indicated the involvement of these genes in ABA signaling, ROS scavenging, photosynthesis, stomatal regulation, and sucrose metabolism. Duplication was identified as the primary force in divergence and expansion of TF families. Phylogenetic relationship was developed individually for each TF family as well as combined TF families. Phylogenetic analysis grouped the TF family of genes into TF-specific and mixed groups. Phylogenetic analysis of genes belonging to various TF families suggested that the origin of TFs occurred in the lineage of maize evolution. Gene structure analysis revealed that more number of genes were intron-rich as compared to intronless genes. Drought-responsive CRE’s such as ABREA, ABREB, DRE1 and DRECRTCOREAT have been identified. Expression and interaction analyses identified leaf-specific bZIP TF, GRMZM2G140355, as a potential contributor toward drought tolerance in maize. We also analyzed protein-protein interaction network of 269 drought-responsive genes belonging to different drought-related TFs. The information generated on structural and functional characteristics, expression and interaction of the drought-related TF families will be useful to decipher the drought tolerance mechanisms and to derive drought-tolerant genotypes in maize.

  18. Family Functioning and Adolescent Alcohol Use: A Moderated Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley; Flannery, Kaitlin M.; Simpson, Emily; Russell, Beth S.

    2016-01-01

    The primary goals of this longitudinal study were to examine the relationship between family functioning and adolescent alcohol use and to examine whether depressed mood mediates this relationship. An additional goal was to explore whether these relations were moderated by gender. The sample included 1,031 high school students from the Mid-Atlantic United States. Participants completed surveys in school during the spring of 2007, 2008, and 2009. Path analysis results indicated that family functioning predicted alcohol use for girls. Moreover, depressed mood mediated this relationship. None of the direct paths between family functioning and adolescent alcohol use were significant for boys. However, similar to girls, depressed mood negatively predicted alcohol use for boys. Taken together, the findings highlight the need for prevention programs targeting adolescent substance use to consider gender-specific trajectories. PMID:26994346

  19. Cross-family translational genomics of abiotic stress-responsive genes between Arabidopsis and Medicago truncatula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daejin Hyung

    Full Text Available Cross-species translation of genomic information may play a pivotal role in applying biological knowledge gained from relatively simple model system to other less studied, but related, genomes. The information of abiotic stress (ABS-responsive genes in Arabidopsis was identified and translated into the legume model system, Medicago truncatula. Various data resources, such as TAIR/AtGI DB, expression profiles and literatures, were used to build a genome-wide list of ABS genes. tBlastX/BlastP similarity search tools and manual inspection of alignments were used to identify orthologous genes between the two genomes. A total of 1,377 genes were finally collected and classified into 18 functional criteria of gene ontology (GO. The data analysis according to the expression cues showed that there was substantial level of interaction among three major types (i.e., drought, salinity and cold stress of abiotic stresses. In an attempt to translate the ABS genes between these two species, genomic locations for each gene were mapped using an in-house-developed comparative analysis platform. The comparative analysis revealed that fragmental colinearity, represented by only 37 synteny blocks, existed between Arabidopsis and M. truncatula. Based on the combination of E-value and alignment remarks, estimated translation rate was 60.2% for this cross-family translation. As a prelude of the functional comparative genomic approaches, in-silico gene network/interactome analyses were conducted to predict key components in the ABS responses, and one of the sub-networks was integrated with corresponding comparative map. The results demonstrated that core members of the sub-network were well aligned with previously reported ABS regulatory networks. Taken together, the results indicate that network-based integrative approaches of comparative and functional genomics are important to interpret and translate genomic information for complex traits such as abiotic stresses.

  20. Changes in family functions in patients with secondary premature ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Arı

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to inverstigate changes in family functions in patients with premature ejaculation.Materials and methods: In the present study, study group were randomly selected from Mustafa Kemal University Medical School Research and Training Hospital Urology Department outpatients clinic. Control group were selected among healthy volunteers. Totally 30 patients were included in the PE group and 30 healthy volunteers were included in the control group. Subjects were examined by the same psychiatrist. Beck Anxiety Inventory and Family Assessment Scale were applied to both groupsResults: Compared with the control group, premature ejaculation patients had significantly higher anxiety scores (p=0.001 and more deterioration in problem solving (p=0.001, communication (p=0.022, affective responsiveness (p=0.011, behavior control (p=0.032, and affective involvement in their families (p=0.011. There were no difference in terms of roles and general functions scores (p>0.05.Conclusion: It can be concluded that there is deterioration in family functions in patients with premature ejaculation, Therefore, approaches targeting family functions may be beneficial in the treatment of these patients.

  1. Psychosocial functioning in pediatric heart transplant recipients and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousino, Melissa K; Schumacher, Kurt R; Rea, Kelly E; Eder, Sally; Zamberlan, Mary; Jordan, Jessica; Fredericks, Emily M

    2018-03-01

    Across pediatric organ transplant populations, patient and family psychosocial functioning is associated with important health-related outcomes. Research has suggested that pediatric heart transplant recipients and their families are at increased risk for adverse psychosocial outcomes; however, recent investigation of psychosocial functioning in this population is lacking. This study aimed to provide a contemporary characterization of psychosocial functioning in pediatric heart transplant recipients and their families. Associations between psychosocial function, demographic variables, and transplant-related variables were investigated. Fifty-six parents/guardians of pediatric heart transplant recipients completed a comprehensive psychosocial screening measure during transplant follow-up clinic visits. Descriptive statistics, correlational analyses, and independent samples t tests were performed. Forty percent of pediatric heart transplant recipients and their families endorsed clinically meaningful levels of total psychosocial risk. One-third of patients presented with clinically significant psychological problems per parent report. Psychosocial risk was unassociated with demographic or transplant-related factors. Despite notable improvements in the survival of pediatric heart transplant recipients over the past decade, patients and families present with sustained psychosocial risks well beyond the immediate post-transplant period, necessitating mental health intervention to mitigate adverse impact on health-related outcomes. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Advanced x-ray stress analysis method for a single crystal using different diffraction plane families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imafuku, Muneyuki; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Sueyoshi, Kazuyuki; Akita, Koichi; Ohya, Shin-ichi

    2008-01-01

    Generalized formula of the x-ray stress analysis for a single crystal with unknown stress-free lattice parameter was proposed. This method enables us to evaluate the plane stress states with any combination of diffraction planes. We can choose and combine the appropriate x-ray sources and diffraction plane families, depending on the sample orientation and the apparatus, whenever diffraction condition is satisfied. The analysis of plane stress distributions in an iron single crystal was demonstrated combining with the diffraction data for Fe{211} and Fe{310} plane families

  3. Daily patterns of stress and conflict in couples: Associations with marital aggression and family-of-origin aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmons, Adela C; Arbel, Reout; Margolin, Gayla

    2017-02-01

    For many married individuals, the ups and downs of daily life are connected such that stressors impacting one person also impact the other person. For example, stress experienced by one individual may "spill over" to negatively impact marital functioning. This study used both partners' daily diary data to examine same-day and cross-day links between stress and marital conflict and tested several factors that make couples vulnerable to spillover. Assessment of 25 wide-ranging sources of daily stress included both paid and unpaid work, health issues, financial concerns, and having to make difficult decisions. Results showed that both husbands' and wives' experiences of total daily stress were associated with greater same-day marital conflict and that conflict was greater on days both spouses experienced high levels of stress. Evidence of cross-day spillover was found only in those couples with high concurrent marital aggression and in couples where wives reported high family-of-origin aggression. These results highlight both the common, anticipated nature of same-day spillover and the potentially problematic aspects of more prolonged patterns representing failure to recover from stressors that occurred the previous day. The discussion focuses on how reactivity in one life domain puts that individual at risk for generating stress in another life domain and how current marital aggression and family-of-origin aggression are associated with difficulty recovering from stressful events. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Daily Patterns of Stress and Conflict in Couples: Associations with Marital Aggression and Family-of-Origin Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmons, Adela C.; Arbel, Reout; Margolin, Gayla

    2016-01-01

    For many married individuals, the ups and downs of daily life are connected such that stressors impacting one person also impact the other person. For example, stress experienced by one individual may “spill over” to negatively impact marital functioning. This study used both partners’ daily diary data to examine same-day and cross-day links between stress and marital conflict and tested several factors that make couples vulnerable to spillover. Assessment of 25 wide-ranging sources of daily stress included both paid and unpaid work, health issues, financial concerns, and having to make difficult decisions. Results showed that both husbands and wives’ experience of total daily stress were associated with greater same-day marital conflict and that conflict was greater on days both spouses experienced high levels of stress. Evidence of cross-day spillover was found only in those couples with high concurrent marital aggression and in couples where wives reported high family-of-origin aggression. These results highlight both the common, anticipated nature of same-day spillover and the potentially problematic aspects of more prolonged patterns representing failure to recover from stressors that occurred the previous day. The discussion focuses on how reactivity in one life domain puts that individual at risk for generating stress in another life domain and how current marital aggression and family-of-origin aggression are associated with difficulty recovering from stressful events. PMID:27504754

  5. Thermal and mechanical stresses in a functionally graded thick sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eslami, M.R.; Babaei, M.H.; Poultangari, R.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a general solution for the one-dimensional steady-state thermal and mechanical stresses in a hollow thick sphere made of functionally graded material is presented. The temperature distribution is assumed to be a function of radius, with general thermal and mechanical boundary conditions on the inside and outside surfaces of the sphere. The material properties, except Poisson's ratio, are assumed to vary along the radius r according to a power law function. The analytical solution of the heat conduction equation and the Navier equation lead to the temperature profile, radial displacement, radial stress, and hoop stress as a function of radial direction

  6. Chronic stress and neural function: accounting for sex and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luine, V N; Beck, K D; Bowman, R E; Frankfurt, M; Maclusky, N J

    2007-10-01

    Cognitive responses to stress follow the temporally dependent pattern originally established by Selye (1) wherein short-term stressors elicit adaptive responses whereas continued stress (chronic) results in maladaptive changes--deleterious effects on physiological systems and impaired cognition. However, this pattern for cognitive effects appears to apply to only half the population (males) and, more specifically, to young, adult males. Females show different cognitive responses to stress. In contrast to impaired cognition in males after chronic stress, female rodents show enhanced performance on the same memory tasks after the same stress. Not only cognition, but anxiety, shows sex-dependent changes following chronic stress--stress is anxiolytic in males and anxiogenic in females. Moreover, behavioral responses to chronic stress are different in developing as well as aging subjects (both sexes) as compared to adults. In aged rats, chronic stress enhances recognition memory in both sexes, does not alter spatial memory, and anxiety effects are opposite to young adults. When pregnant dams are exposed to chronic stress, at adulthood the offspring display yet different consequences of stress on anxiety and cognition, and, in contrast to adulthood when the behavioral effects of stress are reversible, prenatal stress effects appear enduring. Changing levels of estradiol in the sexes over the lifespan appear to contribute to the differences in response to stress. Thus, theories of stress dependent modulations in CNS function--developed solely in male models, focused on peripheral physiological processes and tested in adults--may require revision when applied to a more diverse population (age- and sex-wise) at least in relation to the neural functions of cognition and anxiety. Moreover, these results suggest that other stressors and neural functions should be investigated to determine whether age, sex and gonadal hormones also have an impact.

  7. Mother, father and child traumatic stress reactions after paediatric burn: Within-family co-occurrence and parent-child discrepancies in appraisals of child stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egberts, Marthe R; van de Schoot, Rens; Geenen, Rinie; Van Loey, Nancy E E

    2018-06-01

    The current study examined occurrence and within-family associations of traumatic stress reactions after child burn injury, while in the same model addressing the role of parents' own symptoms in their reports of child symptoms. One-hundred children (8-18 years old), and their mothers (n=90) and fathers (n=74) were assessed within the first month (T1) and three months (T2) after burn. Parents and children rated child traumatic stress reactions on the Children's Responses to Trauma Inventory (CRTI) and parents rated their own reactions on the Impact of Event Scale (IES). Cross-sectional associations at the two occasions were examined using a structural equation model. Occurrence of traumatic stress symptoms in the clinical range was higher in parents (T1: 24-50%; T2: 14-31%) than children (T1: 0-11%; T2: 3-5%, depending on whether children, mothers or fathers reported on symptoms). Traumatic stress symptoms of mothers at T1 and of both parents at T2 were significantly related to child self-reported symptoms. Moreover, mothers who experienced higher stress symptoms themselves gave higher ratings of their child's symptoms at both time points, while for fathers, this was only found at T2. The current study demonstrates the impact of pediatric burn injury on the family level, and shows simultaneous existence of within-family interrelatedness of traumatic stress and an influence of parents' own symptoms on their perception of child symptoms. Findings highlight the need for trauma symptom screening in all family members and for considering informants' symptoms to understand the child's functioning in particular. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  8. [Self-esteem, family function, and school achievement of adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Saldaña, Pedro; Camacho-Calderón, Nicolás; Martínez-Martínez, Martha L

    2007-11-01

    To determine the relationship between academic achievement, self-esteem and family function in adolescents. Descriptive, cross-sectional study. State secondary school in Querétaro state, Mexico. Seventy-four adolescents of both sexes between the ages of 10 and 17, enrolled in a state secondary school. Two groups of 37 pupils were formed, chosen by simple randomized sampling according to high or low academic achievement. Participants were clinically healthy and prior informed consent for their participation was obtained. Self-esteem based on self-concept format A, family function based on FACES III and academic achievement based on the school evaluation scale. A descriptive statistical analysis and the chi2 test were used (P self-esteem, 68% (P = .00007; OR, 7.55; 95% CI, 2.39-24.84); a functional family, 54% (P = .011); were mainly female, 73% (P = .018); age, 13 (60%) (P = .062); school in the morning, 95% (P = .000); and were in second grade, 46% (P = .026). Pupils with low academic achievement had low self-esteem, 78% (P = .00007; OR, 7.55; 95% CI, 2.39-24.84); came from borderline-function families, 43% (P = .47); were male, 54% (P = .018; OR, 3.18; 95% CI, 1.08-9.48); age 13, 38% (P = .062); in afternoon school, 76% (P = .00); and were in first grade, 43% (P = .144). Upon establishing a relationship between academic achievement and family dynamics, it was found that family dysfunction is a risk factor (OR, 6.67; 95% CI, 1.42-34). Low self-esteem and family dysfunction are risk factors for low academic achievement.

  9. Hypothesis: NDL proteins function in stress responses by regulating microtubule organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Nisha; Mudgil, Yashwanti

    2015-01-01

    N-MYC DOWNREGULATED-LIKE proteins (NDL), members of the alpha/beta hydrolase superfamily were recently rediscovered as interactors of G-protein signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana. Although the precise molecular function of NDL proteins is still elusive, in animals these proteins play protective role in hypoxia and expression is induced by hypoxia and nickel, indicating role in stress. Homology of NDL1 with animal counterpart N-MYC DOWNREGULATED GENE (NDRG) suggests similar functions in animals and plants. It is well established that stress responses leads to the microtubule depolymerization and reorganization which is crucial for stress tolerance. NDRG is a microtubule-associated protein which mediates the microtubule organization in animals by causing acetylation and increases the stability of α-tubulin. As NDL1 is highly homologous to NDRG, involvement of NDL1 in the microtubule organization during plant stress can also be expected. Discovery of interaction of NDL with protein kinesin light chain- related 1, enodomembrane family protein 70, syntaxin-23, tubulin alpha-2 chain, as a part of G protein interactome initiative encourages us to postulate microtubule stabilizing functions for NDL family in plants. Our search for NDL interactors in G protein interactome also predicts the role of NDL proteins in abiotic stress tolerance management. Based on published report in animals and predicted interacting partners for NDL in G protein interactome lead us to hypothesize involvement of NDL in the microtubule organization during abiotic stress management in plants.

  10. Impact on Family and Parental Stress of Prenatal versus Postnatal Repair of Myelomeningocele

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antiel, Ryan M.; Adzick, N. Scott; Thom, Elizabeth A.; Burrows, Pamela K.; Farmer, Diana L.; Brock, John W.; Howell, Lori J.; Farrell, Jody A.; Houtrow, Amy J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The Management of Myelomeningocele Study (MOMS) was a multicenter, randomized controlled trial that compared prenatal repair with standard postnatal repair for fetal myelomeningocele. OBJECTIVE We sought to describe the long-term impact on the families of the women who participated and to evaluate how the timing of repair influenced the impact on families and parental stress. STUDY DESIGN Randomized women completed the 24-item Impact on Family Scale (IFS) and the 36-item Parenting Stress Index Short Form (PSI-SF) at 12 and 30 months after delivery. A revised 15-item score of the IFS (RIFS) describing overall impact was also computed. Higher scores reflect more negative impacts or greater stress. In addition, we examined Family Support Scale (FSS) and Family Resource Scale (FRS) scores along with various neonatal outcomes. Repeated measures analysis was conducted for each scale and subscale. RESULTS Of 183 women randomized, 171 women completed the IFS and 172 completed the PSI at both 12 and 30 months. The prenatal surgery group had significantly lower RIFS scores as well as familial-social impact subscale scores compared to the postnatal surgery group (p=0.02 and 0.004, respectively). There was no difference in total parental stress between the two groups (p=0.89) or in any of the PSI-SF subscales. In addition, walking independently at 30 months and family resources at 12 months are associated with both family impact and parental stress. CONCLUSION The overall negative family impact of caring for a child with spina bifida, up to 30 months of age, was significantly lower in the prenatal surgery group compared to the postnatal surgery group. Ambulation status and family resources were predictive of impact on family and parental stress. PMID:27263997

  11. Effects of work stress and home stress on autonomic nervous function in Japanese male workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Eri; Iwata, Toyoto; Murata, Katsuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Autonomic imbalance is one of the important pathways through which psychological stress contributes to cardiovascular diseases/sudden death. Although previous studies have focused mainly on stress at work (work stress), the association between autonomic function and stress at home (home stress) is still poorly understood. The purpose was to clarify the effect of work/home stress on autonomic function in 1,809 Japanese male workers. We measured corrected QT (QTc) interval and QT index on the electrocardiogram along with blood pressure and heart rate. Participants provided self-reported information about the presence/absence of work/home stress and the possible confounders affecting QT indicators. Home stress was related positively to QT index (p=0.040) after adjusting for the possible confounders, though work stress did not show a significant relation to QTc interval or QT index. The odds ratio of home stress to elevated QT index (≥105) was 2.677 (95% CI, 1.050 to 6.822). Work/home stress showed no significant relation to blood pressure or heart rate. These findings suggest that autonomic imbalance, readily assessed by QT indicators, can be induced by home stress in Japanese workers. Additional research is needed to identify different types of home stress that are strongly associated with autonomic imbalance.

  12. Family functioning, resilience, and depression among North Korean refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Boyoung; Kim, Jae Yop; DeVylder, Jordan E; Song, Ahyoung

    2016-11-30

    North Korean refugees in South Korea are at high risk of depression, but there are few studies exploring protective factors in this population. We hypothesized that family functioning (family adaptability and cohesion) and resilience would protect North Korean refugees from developing depressive symptoms. A subsample of 304 adult North Korean refugees drawn from the cross-sectional 2010 Nationwide Survey of Domestic Violence in South Korea was analyzed. Approximately 44% of respondents were identified as having depression, using scores on the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. In models capturing the full spectrum of depressive symptoms (continuous), family cohesion was significantly associated with depression, and the relationship was partially mediated by resilience. In models predicting clinical depression (dichotomous), resilience fully mediated the relationship between family cohesion and clinical depression. In contrast, family adaptability was not associated with depression or resilience in this sample. These findings suggest that assessing and enhancing family cohesion and resilience may be essential for professionals working with refugees, and that refugees without family support may be at particularly high risk for depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Blunted amygdala functional connectivity during a stress task in alcohol dependent individuals: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha E. Wade, M.S.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scant research has been conducted on neural mechanisms underlying stress processing in individuals with alcohol dependence (AD. We examined neural substrates of stress in AD individuals compared with controls using an fMRI task previously shown to induce stress, assessing amygdala functional connectivity to medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC. Materials and methods: For this novel pilot study, 10 abstinent AD individuals and 11 controls completed a modified Trier stress task while undergoing fMRI acquisition. The amygdala was used as a seed region for whole-brain seed-based functional connectivity analysis. Results: After controlling for family-wise error (p = 0.05, there was significantly decreased left and right amygdala connectivity with frontal (specifically mPFC, temporal, parietal, and cerebellar regions. Subjective stress, but not craving, increased from pre-to post-task. Conclusions: This study demonstrated decreased connectivity between the amygdala and regions important for stress and emotional processing in long-term abstinent individuals with AD. These results suggest aberrant stress processing in individuals with AD even after lengthy periods of abstinence. Keywords: Alcohol dependence, fMRI, Stress task, Functional connectivity, Amygdala

  14. Family Stress and Coping for Mexican Origin Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Freda F.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Fernandez, Aida Cristina; Millsap, Roger E.; Dumka, Larry E.

    2011-01-01

    Family-related stressors pose special challenges for adolescents of Mexican origin, given traditional cultural norms that compel youths to get involved with family problems despite their limited ability to effect change. The current study examines the prospective effects of coping strategies (i.e., active, distraction, avoidance, support-seeking,…

  15. Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in Preschool Children in Foster Care: The Influence of Placement and Foster Family Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileva, Mira; Petermann, Franz

    2017-10-01

    Children in foster care often experience traumatic events which increase their risk for posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Until now, no research has investigated the developmentally sensitive PTSS criteria for preschoolers among children in foster care. The current study estimated the prevalence of potentially traumatic experiences and clinical PTSS in German foster care children aged 3 to 7 years. The foster parents of 324 children completed questionnaires about children's PTSS, foster parental stress, parenting, and family functioning. Linear regression models tested trauma-related variables, placement history, and foster family characteristics as predictors of PTSS. Approximately 45.4% of the foster children had experienced at least one traumatic event and 15.4% had clinical PTSS. Physical abuse, β = .34, p < .001; hospitalization, β = -.17, p = .026; witnessing someone being hurt, β = -.15, p = .047; and parental stress, β = .43, p < .001, were significantly associated with PTSS. Results demonstrate the impact the foster family has on children who are coping with trauma, and suggest the necessity of trauma-sensitive trainings for foster parents, with stress management as an important component. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  16. The SULTR gene family in maize (Zea mays L.): Gene cloning and expression analyses under sulfate starvation and abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qin; Wang, Meiping; Xia, Zongliang

    2018-01-01

    Sulfur is an essential macronutrient required for plant growth, development and stress responses. The family of sulfate transporters (SULTRs) mediates the uptake and translocation of sulfate in higher plants. However, basic knowledge of the SULTR gene family in maize (Zea mays L.) is scarce. In this study, a genome-wide bioinformatic analysis of SULTR genes in maize was conducted, and the developmental expression patterns of the genes and their responses to sulfate starvation and abiotic stress were further investigated. The ZmSULTR family includes eight putative members in the maize genome and is clustered into four groups in the phylogenetic tree. These genes displayed differential expression patterns in various organs of maize. For example, expression of ZmSULTR1;1 and ZmSULTR4;1 was high in roots, and transcript levels of ZmSULTR3;1 and ZmSULTR3;3 were high in shoots. Expression of ZmSULTR1;2, ZmSULTR2;1, ZmSULTR3;3, and ZmSULTR4;1 was high in flowers. Also, these eight genes showed differential responses to sulfate deprivation in roots and shoots of maize seedlings. Transcript levels of ZmSULTR1;1, ZmSULTR1;2, and ZmSULTR3;4 were significantly increased in roots during 12-day-sulfate starvation stress, while ZmSULTR3;3 and ZmSULTR3;5 only showed an early response pattern in shoots. In addition, dynamic transcriptional changes determined via qPCR revealed differential expression profiles of these eight ZmSULTR genes in response to environmental stresses such as salt, drought, and heat stresses. Notably, all the genes, except for ZmSULTR3;3, were induced by drought and heat stresses. However, a few genes were induced by salt stress. Physiological determination showed that two important thiol-containing compounds, cysteine and glutathione, increased significantly under these abiotic stresses. The results suggest that members of the SULTR family might function in adaptations to sulfur deficiency stress and adverse growing environments. This study will lay a

  17. Sleep Efficiency Modulates Associations Between Family Stress and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms and Negative Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Jessica J; Kim, Joanna J; Almeida, David M; Bower, Julienne E; Dahl, Ronald E; Irwin, Michael R; McCreath, Heather; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2017-10-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether sleep moderates the associations between family-related stress and depressive symptoms and negative affect outcomes during adolescence. We combined traditional survey measures of stress and depressive symptoms with daily assessments of stress and negative affect to examine whether sleep differentially impacts the link between chronic and acute experiences of stress and affect. Participants were 316 adolescents from ethnically diverse backgrounds. Primary caregivers and adolescents reported on stressful family events during the past 12 and 3 months, respectively. Adolescents also reported on their daily experiences of family demands for 15 days and wore actigraph watches for the assessment of sleep during the first eight nights. Regression analyses revealed that more stressful family events were related to more depressive symptoms. This relation was stronger among adolescents with lower sleep efficiency. The same pattern emerged for the relation between daily family demands and negative affect aggregated across the 15 days. Daily-level analyses indicated that daily negative affect was related to daily family demands when sleep efficiency was higher than usual, but only among European American adolescents. These findings suggest that chronic experiences of lower sleep efficiency, but not sleep duration, may render adolescents more vulnerable to the negative effects of family stress on emotional adjustment. A more complex picture emerged for the role of prior night's sleep in the day-to-day variation in negative affect reactivity to family stress. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Precursors Of Emotional Stability, Stress, And Work-Family Conflict Among Female Bank Employees

    OpenAIRE

    Clifford Kendrick Hlatywayo; Tawanda Zingwe; Tatenda Shaleen Mhlanga; Bukhosi Dumoluhle Mpofu

    2014-01-01

    Women exposure to quality education and equity legislation has accelerated their participation in the workplace. The study investigated the relationship between emotional stability, stress, and work-family conflict among female bank employees in the border region of the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Findings highlighted significant positive relationships between work-family conflict, stress, and neuroticism. The findings support most relationships found in literature. Correlations were also fou...

  19. Genetic liability, prenatal health, stress and family environment: risk factors in the Harvard Adolescent Family High Risk for schizophrenia study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walder, Deborah J; Faraone, Stephen V; Glatt, Stephen J; Tsuang, Ming T; Seidman, Larry J

    2014-08-01

    The familial ("genetic") high-risk (FHR) paradigm enables assessment of individuals at risk for schizophrenia based on a positive family history of schizophrenia in first-degree, biological relatives. This strategy presumes genetic transmission of abnormal traits given high heritability of the illness. It is plausible, however, that adverse environmental factors are also transmitted in these families. Few studies have evaluated both biological and environmental factors within a FHR study of adolescents. We conceptualize four precursors to psychosis pathogenesis: two biological (genetic predisposition, prenatal health issues (PHIs)) and two environmental (family environment, stressful life events (SLEs)). Participants assessed between 1998 and 2007 (ages 13-25) included 40 (20F/20M) adolescents at FHR for schizophrenia (FHRs) and 55 (31F/24M) community controls. 'Genetic load' indexed number of affected family members relative to pedigree size. PHI was significantly greater among FHRs, and family cohesion and expressiveness were less (and family conflict was higher) among FHRs; however, groups did not significantly differ in SLE indices. Among FHRs, genetic liability was significantly associated with PHI and family expressiveness. Prenatal and family environmental disruptions are elevated in families with a first-degree relative with schizophrenia. Findings support our proposed 'polygenic neurodevelopmental diathesis-stress model' whereby psychosis susceptibility (and resilience) involves the independent and synergistic confluence of (temporally-sensitive) biological and environmental factors across development. Recognition of biological and social environmental influences across critical developmental periods points to key issues relevant for enhanced identification of psychosis susceptibility, facilitation of more precise models of illness risk, and development of novel prevention strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Structure, function and networks of transcription factors involved in abiotic stress responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindemose, Søren; O'Shea, Charlotte; Jensen, Michael Krogh

    2013-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are master regulators of abiotic stress responses in plants. This review focuses on TFs from seven major TF families, known to play functional roles in response to abiotic stresses, including drought, high salinity, high osmolarity, temperature extremes...... and the phytohormone ABA. Although ectopic expression of several TFs has improved abiotic stress tolerance in plants, fine-tuning of TF expression and protein levels remains a challenge to avoid crop yield loss. To further our understanding of TFs in abiotic stress responses, emerging gene regulatory networks based...... on TFs and their direct targets genes are presented. These revealed components shared between ABA-dependent and independent signaling as well as abiotic and biotic stress signaling. Protein structure analysis suggested that TFs hubs of large interactomes have extended regions with protein intrinsic...

  1. Childhood poverty and stress reactivity are associated with aberrant functional connectivity in default mode network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripada, Rebecca K; Swain, James E; Evans, Gary W; Welsh, Robert C; Liberzon, Israel

    2014-08-01

    Convergent research suggests that childhood poverty is associated with perturbation in the stress response system. This might extend to aberrations in the connectivity of large-scale brain networks, which subserve key cognitive and emotional functions. Resting-state brain activity was measured in adults with a documented history of childhood poverty (n=26) and matched controls from middle-income families (n=26). Participants also underwent a standard laboratory social stress test and provided saliva samples for cortisol assay. Childhood poverty was associated with reduced default mode network (DMN) connectivity. This, in turn, was associated with higher cortisol levels in anticipation of social stress. These results suggest a possible brain basis for exaggerated stress sensitivity in low-income individuals. Alterations in DMN may be associated with less efficient cognitive processing or greater risk for development of stress-related psychopathology among individuals who experienced the adversity of chronic childhood poverty.

  2. Family and Work Predictors of Parenting Role Stress among Two-Earner Families of Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfield, Marji Erickson

    2005-01-01

    Family resources (i.e. household income and spouse support), parenting challenges (i.e. number of children, difficulty finding reliable child care, and child characteristics), work rewards (i.e. work interest) and work demands (i.e. hours and work overload) were tested as predictors of parenting role stress among mothers and fathers in two-earner…

  3. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Reproductive Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-sheng LIU

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal folding requires that unique conditions should be maintained within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER lumen, and nascent proteins are initially bound to Ca2+dependent chaperone proteins. Proteins synthesized in the ER are properly folded with the assistance of ER chaperones. misfolded proteins are disposed by ER-associated protein degradation. Accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER triggers an adaptive ER stress response, which leads to activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR, a conserved pathway that transmits signals to restore homeostasis or eliminate the irreparably damaged cells. It has been shown that ER stress involves in pathophysiological development of many diseases, including neurological diseases. However, nowadays, a few studies have begun to focus on the possibility that the accumulation of misfolded proteins can also contribute to reproductive diseases. In this article, we mainly introduced the involvement of ER stress response in preimplantation embryos, placental development, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR and testicular germ cells so as to provide important insights for the molecular mechanisms of ER stress-induced apoptosis in reproductive diseases.

  4. Family factors, emotional functioning, and functional impairment in juvenile fibromyalgia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita; Lynch, Anne M; Slater, Shalonda; Graham, T Brent; Swain, Nicole F; Noll, Robert B

    2008-10-15

    Family factors and emotional functioning can play an important role in the ability of adolescents with juvenile primary fibromyalgia syndrome (JPFS) to cope with their condition and function in their everyday lives. The primary objectives of this study were to determine 1) whether adolescents with JPFS and their caregivers differed from healthy age-matched comparison peers and their caregivers in terms of emotional distress and functional impairment; 2) whether there were any differences in the family environment of adolescents with JPFS compared with healthy comparison peers; and 3) which individual-, caregiver-, and family-level variables were associated with functional impairment in adolescents with JPFS. Participants were 47 adolescents with JPFS recruited from a pediatric rheumatology clinic and 46 comparison peers without chronic illness matched for age, sex, and race. Participants and their caregivers (all mothers) completed a battery of standardized measures administered in their homes. Adolescents with JPFS had greater internalizing and externalizing symptoms than healthy comparison peers. Mothers of adolescents with JPFS reported twice as many pain conditions and significantly greater depressive symptoms than mothers of comparison peers. The JPFS group also had poorer overall family functioning and more conflicted family relationships. In adolescents with JPFS, maternal pain history was associated with significantly higher functional impairment. Increased distress and chronic pain are evident in families of adolescents with JPFS, and family relationships are also impacted. Implications for child functional impairment and the need for inclusion of caregivers in treatment are discussed.

  5. The influence of family stress and conflict on depressive symptoms among working married women: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Yeong Jun; Park, Eun-Cheol; Ju, Hyun-Jun; Lee, Sang Ah; Lee, Joo Eun; Kim, Woorim; Chun, Sung-Youn; Kim, Tae Hyun

    2018-03-01

    In the present study, researchers examined the association between depressive symptoms and family stress and conflict from multiple roles, along with the combined effect of family stress and family-work conflict. We used data from the 2008-2012 Korean Welfare Panel Study, consisting of 4,663 baseline participants. We measured depressive symptoms using the 11-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. There was a significant relationship between depressive symptoms and family stress and conflict among working married women. With regard to the combined analysis, working married women who reported both family stress and family-work conflict exhibited the highest odds of depressive symptoms.

  6. Adolescent Perceptions of Overall Family System Functioning and Parental Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Carolyn S.; Robinson, Linda C.; Neal, Rachel A.; Huey, Erron L.

    2006-01-01

    We used a systems perspective to examine relationships between adolescents' perceptions of overall family system functioning and selected parental behaviors. Self-report questionnaire data from 160 ninth and tenth grade students were analyzed using MANCOVA and discriminant analysis. The results showed two parental behaviors, support and monitoring…

  7. Family functioning and psychosocial adjustment in overweight youngsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stradmeijer, M.; Bosch, J; Koops, W; Seidell, J

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship between family functioning and psychosocial adjustment in Dutch overweight children and adolescents. METHOD: Seventy-three overweight (weight-for-height >P90) and 70 normal-weight youngsters between the ages of 10 and 16 years were recruited by school

  8. Lodge Programs Serving Family Functions for People with Psychiatric Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaga, Esther E.; McKinney, Kathleen G.; Pfaff, Judy

    2000-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with people affiliated with lodges, a community program for people with psychiatric disabilities, about their perceptions of promising practices. Responses validated the notion that the lodge serves many of the functions of a family. Provides excerpts from interviews to supplement this theme. Discusses implications for…

  9. [Evolution of stress in families of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerro-Prado, D; Mardomingo-Sanz, M L; Ortiz-Guerra, J J; García-García, P; Soler-López, B

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the evolution of stress in families of children and adolescents who start psychopharmacological treatment after being diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and the ability to detect this change using the FSI (Family Strain Index) questionnaire. Forty eight (48) specialists in child-adolescent psychiatry or neuropediatrics included 429 families of children diagnosed with ADHD, represented by the father, mother or guardian of the child. In the baseline visit, and at two and four months, the intensity of the symptoms of ADHD was evaluated using the abbreviated Conners scale, and family stress was evaluated using the FSI questionnaire. The following was observed: a) an improvement in the overall FSI score and in all its dimensions (Pchildren or adolescents (420) received treatment with modified-release methylphenidate. There was a significant relationship between the positive evolution of symptoms in children with ADHD and the reduction of family stress, as evaluated by the FSI questionnaire, after starting psychopharmacological treatment. This study showed a great sensitivity to change in the clinical situation of patients with ADHD, evaluated through the stress it produces on its families. It is recommended to use this questionnaire as an indirect measurement of the repercussions of the disorder on the environment of the child with ADHD in terms of family stress. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Longitudinal and Integrative Tests of Family Stress Model Effects on Mexican-Origin Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rebecca M. B.; Liu, Yu; Nair, Rajni L.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2015-01-01

    The family stress model represents a common framework through which to examine the effects of environmental stressors on adolescent adjustment. The model suggests that economic and neighborhood stressors influence youth adjustment via disruptions to parenting. Incorporating integrative developmental theory, we examined the degree to which parents’ cultural value orientations mitigated the effects of stressors on parenting disruptions and the degree to which environmental adversity qualified the effect of parenting on adolescent adjustment. We tested the hypothesized Integrative Family Stress Model longitudinally in a sample of mother-youth dyads (N = 749) and father-youth dyads (N = 467) from Mexican origin families, across three times points spanning early to middle adolescence. Providing the first longitudinal evidence of family stress mediated effects, mothers’ perceptions of economic pressure were associated with increases in adolescent externalizing symptoms five years later via intermediate increases in harsh parenting. The remaining findings supported the notion that integrative developmental theory can inform family stress model hypothesis testing that is culturally and contextually relevant for wide range of diverse families and youth. For example, fathers’ perceptions of economic pressure and neighborhood danger had important implications for adolescent internalizing, via reductions in paternal warmth, but only at certain levels of neighborhood adversity. Mothers’ familism value orientations mitigated the effects of economic pressure on maternal warmth, protecting their adolescents from experiencing developmental costs associated with environmental stressors. Results are discussed in terms of identifying how integrative developmental theory intersects with the family stress model to set diverse youth on different developmental pathways. PMID:25751100

  11. Gender disparities among the association between cumulative family-level stress & adolescent weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Daphne C; Pressler, Emily

    2015-04-01

    To investigate precursors to gender-related obesity disparities by examining multiple family-level stress indices. Analyses was based on adolescents born between 1975 and 1991 to women from the 1979 National Longitudinal Study of Youth data set (N=4762). Three types of family-level stressors were captured from birth to age 15: family disruption and conflict, financial strain, and maternal risky health behaviors, along with a total cumulative risk index. Body mass index was constructed on reference criteria for children outlined by the Centers for Disease Control. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted for the three types of family stressors and for the total cumulative index. The accumulation of family disruption and conflict and financial stress was positively related to female adolescents being overweight/obese. Childhood exposure to maternal risky health behaviors was positively associated with higher weight status for male adolescents. Total cumulative stress was related to overweight/obesity for females, but not males. Different family-level stress indices are associated with the weight status of female and male adolescents. Combining types of family-level stress into one cumulative index appears to mask these differences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Surviving a brain tumor in childhood: impact on family functioning in adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, Laura; Schappin, Renske; Gooskens, Rob; Huisman, Jaap; Jongmans, Marian

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate family functioning in families with an adolescent survivor of a pediatric brain tumor. We explored whether adolescent, parent, disease and treatment factors, and demographic characteristics predicted family functioning. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 45 adolescent

  13. Mother-Child Discrepancy in Perceived Family Functioning and Adolescent Developmental Outcomes in Families Experiencing Economic Disadvantage in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Janet T Y; Shek, Daniel T L; Li, Lin

    2016-10-01

    Though growing attention has been devoted to examining informant discrepancies of family attributes in social science research, studies that examine how interactions between mother-reported and adolescent-reported family functioning predict adolescent developmental outcomes in underprivileged families are severely lacking. The current study investigated the difference between mothers and adolescents in their reports of family functioning, as well as the relationships between mother-reported and adolescent-reported family functioning and adolescent developmental outcomes in a sample of 432 Chinese single-mother families (mean age of adolescents = 13.7 years, 51.2 % girls, mean age of mothers = 43.5 years, 69.9 % divorced) experiencing economic disadvantage in Hong Kong. Polynomial regression analyses were conducted to assess whether discrepancy in family functioning between mother reports and adolescent reports predicted resilience, beliefs in the future, cognitive competence, self-efficacy and self-determination of adolescents. The results indicated that adolescents reported family functioning more negatively than did their mothers. Polynomial regression analyses showed that the interaction term between mothers' reports and adolescents' reports of family functioning predicted adolescent developmental outcomes in Chinese single-mother families living in poverty. Basically, under poor adolescent-reported family functioning, adolescent development would be relatively better if their mothers reported more positive family functioning. In contrast, under good adolescent-reported family functioning, adolescents expressed better developmental outcomes when mothers reported lower levels of family functioning than those mothers who reported higher levels of family functioning. The findings provide insights on how congruency and discrepancy between informant reports of family functioning would influence adolescent development. Theoretical and practical implications of

  14. Family Stress Associated with Transition to Adulthood of Young People with Severe Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorin, Elizabeth J.; Irvin, Larry K.

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of concerns expressed by 42 members of 19 families of young adults with severe developmental disabilities indicated concerns in such areas as self-care capabilities, sexuality, and quality of residential services. Concerns in the residential domain were most predictive of overall individual and family stress. Effects of questioning…

  15. Ambiguous Loss, Family Stress, and Infant Attachment during Times of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Lisa A.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the interdependent nature of infants and their parents who are experiencing wartime deployment and reunion. Research supports the contention that the cumulative effects of stress place families at risk; the experience of ambiguous loss changes as family roles change throughout the cycle of deployment; and parental absence has…

  16. Influence of Family Perceptions of Acting White on Acculturative Stress in African American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Keisha V.; Lightfoot, Nicole L.; Castillo, Linda G.; Hurst, Morgan L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined family-oriented stressors on acculturative stress in 83 African American college students attending a predominately White university. Results showed that family pressure for participants not to acculturate, pressure to maintain ethnic group language, perception of Acting White, and acculturation level were related to higher…

  17. Understanding Chinese American Adolescents' Developmental Outcomes: Insights from the Family Stress Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Aprile D.; Kim, Su Yeong

    2010-01-01

    In this brief report, we investigated whether the Family Stress Model could be replicated with a sample of Chinese American families. Path analyses with 444 adolescents and their parents provided support for the model's generalizability. Specifically, mothers' and fathers' reports of economic status (i.e., income, financial, and job instability)…

  18. Demand, Support, and Perception in Family-Related Stress among Protestant Clergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cameron; Iverson-Gilbert, Judith

    2003-01-01

    Studies of clergy have emphasized the effects of stressors inherent to the profession and the impact of these on the minister's personal and family life. A model of family stress was employed to extend the focus to include three classes of variables: demands, social support, and perception. Results indicated that perception variables are more…

  19. Perspectives on Stress, Parenting, and Children's Obesity-Related Behaviors in Black Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Elizabeth P.; Kazak, Anne; Kumanyika, Shiriki; Lewis, Lisa; Barg, Frances K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In an effort to develop targets for childhood obesity interventions in non-Hispanic-Black (Black) families, this study examined parental perceptions of stress and identified potential links among parental stress and children's eating patterns, physical activity, and screen-time. Method: Thirty-three self-identified Black parents or…

  20. Parenting stress among child welfare involved families: Differences by child placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-JenKins, Jessica; Marcenko, Maureen O.

    2014-01-01

    The intersection of parenting stress and maltreatment underscores the importance of understanding the factors associated with parenting stress among child welfare involved families. This study takes advantage of a statewide survey of child welfare involved families to examine parent and child characteristics and concrete resources, in relation to parenting stress. Separate multivariate analyses were conducted by placement status given the difference in day-to-day parenting responsibilities for families receiving in-home supervision compared to those whose children are in out-of-home care. Across both groups, parenting stress was predicted by child mental health, a finding with critical implications for intervention to this vulnerable group of families. Parent mental health also predicted parenting stress for the in-home group and food insecurity predicted parenting stress in the out-of-home group. Findings confirm that stress varies by context and that a multi-dimensional framework, considering both psychosocial and concrete resources, is required to capture contributors to parenting stress. PMID:26170514

  1. Parenting stress among child welfare involved families: Differences by child placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-JenKins, Jessica; Marcenko, Maureen O

    2014-11-01

    The intersection of parenting stress and maltreatment underscores the importance of understanding the factors associated with parenting stress among child welfare involved families. This study takes advantage of a statewide survey of child welfare involved families to examine parent and child characteristics and concrete resources, in relation to parenting stress. Separate multivariate analyses were conducted by placement status given the difference in day-to-day parenting responsibilities for families receiving in-home supervision compared to those whose children are in out-of-home care. Across both groups, parenting stress was predicted by child mental health, a finding with critical implications for intervention to this vulnerable group of families. Parent mental health also predicted parenting stress for the in-home group and food insecurity predicted parenting stress in the out-of-home group. Findings confirm that stress varies by context and that a multi-dimensional framework, considering both psychosocial and concrete resources, is required to capture contributors to parenting stress.

  2. The Child and Family Traumatic Stress Intervention: Secondary Prevention for Youth at Risk of Developing PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Steven J.; Stover, Carla Smith; Marans, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study evaluated the effectiveness of a four-session, caregiver-child Intervention, the Child and Family Traumatic Stress Intervention (CFTSI), to prevent the development of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) provided within 30 days of exposure to a potentially traumatic event (PTE). Method: One-hundred seventy-six 7…

  3. The mediating effects of family functioning on psychosocial outcomes in healthy siblings of children with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Jeffrey I; Treadwell, Marsha; Weissman, Lina; Vichinsky, Elliott

    2011-12-01

    Children with siblings coping with chronic illness experience stresses and disruptions in daily life as families work together to care for the affected child. Research suggests that children and adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD) may be at risk for adjustment problems, impaired psychosocial functioning, and reduced quality of life. These potential stressors affect the child with SCD as well as their caregivers and other family members. This study examined the role of family functioning on the psychosocial functioning of healthy siblings of children with SCD. Participants were 65 healthy African-American siblings of children with SCD with a mean age of 11.19 years (range: 7-16) and their primary caregiver. Caregivers completed questionnaires assessing family functioning and child adjustment including demographic surveys, the Family Relations Scale (FRS), and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Increased number of emergency room visits (β = -0.28, P Family functioning mediated this effect (β = 0.27; P family expressiveness (total score, r = -0.34; P family conflict (total score, r = 0.41; P family expressiveness, support, and conflict are indicated for this population. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Parenting, family functioning and anxiety-disordered children: Comparisons to controls, changes after family versus child CBT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, L.; Bögels, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    We examined (1) whether families of clinic-referred anxiety-disordered children are characterized by anxiety-enhancing parenting and family functioning, compared to control families; (2) whether family cognitive-behavioral therapy (FCBT) for anxiety-disordered children decreases anxiety-enhancing

  5. Increased oxidative stress in patients with familial Mediterranean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0.05) comparing to HC group. However, there were no statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of antioxidant vitamin levels. Conclusions: Our study demonstrated increased oxidative stress in patients with FMF during AP.

  6. Stress-coping morbidity among family members of addiction patients in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kae Meng Thomas; Manning, Victoria; Teoh, Hui Chin; Winslow, Munidasa; Lee, Arthur; Subramaniam, Mythily; Guo, Song; Wong, Kim Eng

    2011-07-01

    INTRODUCTIONS AND AIMS: Research from western countries indicates that family members of addiction patients report heightened stress and psychological morbidity. This current study aimed to examine stress, coping behaviours, related morbidity and subsequent resource utilisation among family members of patients attending a national treatment program in Singapore. The study used a matched case-control design. One hundred family members of addiction patients attending treatment and 100 matched controls completed a semi-structured interview with a researcher. This included the Beck Depression Inventory-II, Short-Form Health Survey-36, General Health Questionnaire-28, Perceived Stress Scale, Family Member Impact Scale and Coping Questionnaire, and also assessed service utilisation. T-tests revealed significantly greater depression, stress and psychiatric morbidity and poorer overall well-being (Short-Form Health Survey-36) among family members compared with controls. Despite the apparent negative impact on mental health, their physical morbidity did not differ from controls and services utilisation was low. Tolerant-inactive coping was found to be most strongly correlated with psychological well-being. Multivariate analysis indicated that perceived stress was the strongest predictor of overall strain (General Health Questionnaire), but this was not moderated by coping style. Subjective appraisal of stress and coping responses are essential factors affecting the morbidity of family members. Family members demonstrated a need and willingness to engage in formal treatment/counselling for their own problems that were attributed to living with an addiction patient. This provides an opportunity for stress management and brief interventions to modify coping styles, thereby minimizing the potential negative mental health impact on family members. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  7. Teacher Stress Predicts Child Executive Function: Moderation by School Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, Regula; Friedman-Krauss, Allison; Raver, Cybele; Blair, Clancy

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: Recent research has explored relations between classroom quality and child executive function (EF), but little is known about how teachers' well-being, including stress, relates to child EF--a crucial component of self-regulation. We hypothesized that teacher stress is negatively or curvilinearly related to child EF and…

  8. Prenatal stress alters amygdala functional connectivity in preterm neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinost, Dustin; Kwon, Soo Hyun; Lacadie, Cheryl; Sze, Gordon; Sinha, Rajita; Constable, R Todd; Ment, Laura R

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to prenatal and early-life stress results in alterations in neural connectivity and an increased risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. In particular, alterations in amygdala connectivity have emerged as a common effect across several recent studies. However, the impact of prenatal stress exposure on the functional organization of the amygdala has yet to be explored in the prematurely-born, a population at high risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. We test the hypothesis that preterm birth and prenatal exposure to maternal stress alter functional connectivity of the amygdala using two independent cohorts. The first cohort is used to establish the effects of preterm birth and consists of 12 very preterm neonates and 25 term controls, all without prenatal stress exposure. The second is analyzed to establish the effects of prenatal stress exposure and consists of 16 extremely preterm neonates with prenatal stress exposure and 10 extremely preterm neonates with no known prenatal stress exposure. Standard resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and seed connectivity methods are used. When compared to term controls, very preterm neonates show significantly reduced connectivity between the amygdala and the thalamus, the hypothalamus, the brainstem, and the insula (p amygdala and the thalamus, the hypothalamus, and the peristriate cortex (p amygdala connectivity associated with preterm birth. Functional connectivity from the amygdala to other subcortical regions is decreased in preterm neonates compared to term controls. In addition, these data, for the first time, suggest that prenatal stress exposure amplifies these decreases.

  9. Under the Threat of Mount Saint Helens: A Study of Chronic Family Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    reported in the buil] It ins and shown in the eruption maps. After each of the 14 messages, the family member- business manager was allowed to choose... Family Stress Robert K. Leik 2 2 19 Sheila A. Leik Knut Ekker I Gregory A. Gifford EI I i University of Minnesota for Federal Emergency Management Agency...activLty. The game was so constructed that if an eruption had covered the geographil area where the family was located, difficulties with the business

  10. Perceived work stress, imbalance between work and family/personal lives, and mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian Li

    2006-07-01

    Occupational mental health research has been focusing on the relationship between work stress and depression. However, the impacts of work stress on anxiety disorders and of imbalance between work and family life on workers' mental health have not been well studied. This analysis investigated the association between levels of perceived work stress and of imbalance between work and family/personal lives and current mood/anxiety disorders. This was a cross-sectional study using data from the Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health and Well-being (CCHS-1.2) (n=36,984). Mood and anxiety disorders were measured using the World Mental Health-Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The 1-month prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders among those with a work stress score at the 75th percentile value and above was 3.6% and 4.0%. Among those who reported that their work and family/personal lives "never" balanced in the past month, the 1-month prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders was 21.2% and 17.9%. In multivariate analyses, work stress and imbalance between work and family/personal lives were independently associated with mood and anxiety disorders. There was no evidence that perceived work stress interacted with imbalance between work and family/personal lives to increase the likelihood of having mental disorders. Gender was associated with anxiety disorders, but not with major depressive disorder and mood disorders. Work stress and imbalance between work and family/personal lives may be part of the etiology of mood and anxiety disorders in the working population. Community based longitudinal studies are needed to delineate the causal relationships among work stress, imbalance between work and family/personal lives and mental disorders.

  11. In Vitro Fertilization and the Family: Quality of Parenting, Family Functioning, and Child Psychosocial Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Chun-Shin; DiPietro, Janet A.

    2001-01-01

    Examined associations between in vitro fertilization (IVF) and parenting quality, family functioning, and emotional/behavioral adjustment of 3- to 7-year-olds. Found that IVF mothers reported greater protectiveness than mothers of naturally conceived children. Teachers rated IVF mothers as displaying greater warmth but not overprotective or…

  12. Perspectives on Stress, Parenting, and Children's Obesity-Related Behaviors in Black Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Elizabeth P; Kazak, Anne; Kumanyika, Shiriki; Lewis, Lisa; Barg, Frances K

    2016-12-01

    Objective In an effort to develop targets for childhood obesity interventions in non-Hispanic-Black (Black) families, this study examined parental perceptions of stress and identified potential links among parental stress and children's eating patterns, physical activity, and screen-time. Method Thirty-three self-identified Black parents or grandparents of a child aged 3 to 7 years were recruited from a large, urban Black church to participate in semistructured interviews. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Parents/grandparents described a pathway between how stress affected them personally and their child's eating, structured (sports/dance) and unstructured (free-play) physical activity, and screen-time usage, as well as strategies to prevent this association. Five themes emerged: stress affects parent behaviors related to food and physical activity variably; try to be healthy even with stress; parent/grandparent stress eating and parenting; stress influences family cooking, food choices, and child free-play; and screen-time use to decrease parent stress. Negative parent/grandparent response to their personal stress adversely influenced food purchases and parenting related to child eating, free-play, and screen-time. Children of parents/grandparents who ate high-fat/high-sugar foods when stressed requested these foods. In addition to structured physical activity, cooking ahead and keeping food in the house were perceived to guard against the effects of stress except during parent cravings. Parent/child screen-time helped decrease parent stress. Conclusion Parents/grandparents responded variably to stress which affected the child eating environment, free-play, and screen-time. Family-based interventions to decrease obesity in Black children should consider how stress influences parents. Targeting parent cravings and coping strategies that utilize structure in eating and physical activity may be useful

  13. Mothers’ Depression and Stress, Severity of Autism among Children and Family Income

    OpenAIRE

    Athari, Pegah; Department of educational psychology, Faculty of Education Universiti Teknologi Malaysia; Ghaedi, Leila; Department of educational psychology, Faculty of Education Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between mothers’ depression and stress compared with severity of autism in children and the effect of family income on the relationship between these two latter variables. Levels of depression and stress among mothers (n=250) were measured based on Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale of 42 items (DASS¬-42). The severity of autism among children was assessed by Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC) according to children’s teachers reports (n=2...

  14. Families with children with diabetes: implications of parent stress for parent and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeson, Vicki S; Becker, Dorothy; Escobar, Oscar; Siminerio, Linda

    2012-05-01

    To examine the relation of parent stress to parent mental health and child mental and physical health. We interviewed children with type 1 diabetes (n = 132; mean age 12 years) annually for 5 years and had one parent complete a questionnaire at each assessment. Parents completed measures of general life stress, stress related to caring for a child with diabetes, benefit finding, and mental health. Child outcomes were depressive symptoms, self-care behavior, and glycemic control. Multilevel modeling was used to examine concurrent and longitudinal relations. Greater parent general stress and greater parent diabetes-specific stress were associated with poorer parent mental health. Overall, greater parent general stress was associated with poorer child outcomes, whereas greater parent diabetes-specific stress was associated with better child outcomes. Families with high levels of general life stress should be identified as they are at risk for both poor parent and child health outcomes.

  15. Parenting stress, coping strategies and risk assessment in mothers from at-risk families assisted by Child and Family Protection Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Pérez Padilla

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study parenting stress and coping strategies in a sample of 109 mothers from at-risk families were analyzed. Results obtained show over half of these women experienced clinical levels of parenting stress, and problem focused coping strategies were the most commonly used. Moreover, the main characteristics of these families and their trajectories in Child and Family Protection Services were correlated with parenting stress and coping strategies. The global valuation of family risk informed by professionals was significantly related to parenting stress.

  16. Over-expression of a Rab family GTPase from phreatophyte Prosopis juliflora confers tolerance to salt stress on transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Suja; Parida, Ajay

    2011-03-01

    Plant growth and productivity are adversely affected by various abiotic and biotic stress factors. In our previous study, we used Prosopis juliflora, an abiotic stress tolerant tree species of Fabaceae, as a model plant system for isolating genes functioning in abiotic stress tolerance. Here we report the isolation and characterization of a Rab family GTPase from P. juliflora (Pj Rab7) and the ability of this gene to confer salt stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco. Northern analysis for Pj Rab7 in P. juliflora leaf tissue revealed up-regulation of this gene under salt stress under the concentrations and time points analyzed. Pj Rab7 transgenic tobacco lines survived better under conditions of 150 mM NaCl stress compared to control un-transformed plants. Pj Rab7 transgenic plants were found to accumulate more sodium than control plants during salt stress. The results of our studies could be used as a starting point for generation of crop plants tolerant to abiotic stress.

  17. [Types of families, living conditions, functioning of family systems and social maladjustment during latency and adolescence in underprivileged milieus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Blanc, M; McDuff, P; Tremblay, R E

    1991-06-01

    Available data on the impact of certain types of families is lacking, and the results are often misleading with respect to maladjustment. Following a description of variations in delinquent activity and behaviour problems according to family type, the authors analyse the difficulties in the operation of family systems. Comparisons of six family types apply to data from 763 boys aged 10, 319 female and 426 male adolescents, aged 14 and 15: intact families, father-based and mother-based single-parent families, father-based and mother-based reconstituted families and substitute families. The article's data show that in the late eighties, nearly 40 per cent of children and adolescents living in low-income districts in Montreal belonged to disunited families. In addition, the data confirm a classic observation: in comparison with intact families, disunited families are underprivileged in relation to living conditions, deficient in relation to psychosocial functioning, and propitious to behaviour problems and delinquent activity. In addition, it has been established that certain disunited family types represent a considerable risk factor. The damaging effect of family structure increases in the following order: intact families, mother-based single-parent families, mother-based reconstituted families, substitute families, father-based reconstituted families and father-based single-parent families. Finally, certain intervention methods are suggested to help prevent behaviour and family problems.

  18. first principles derivation of a stress function for axially symmetric

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    governing partial differential equations of linear isotropic elasticity were reduced to the solution of the biharmonic ... The stress function was then applied to solve the axially symmetric ..... [1] Borg S.K.: Fundamentals of Engineering Elasticity,.

  19. Perceived stress and cognitive function in older adults: which aspect of perceived stress is important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korten, Nicole C M; Comijs, Hannie C; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Deeg, Dorly J H

    2017-04-01

    Few studies examined the association between perceived stress and cognitive function in older adults. This study will examine which aspects of perceived stress especially impact cognitive function. Cross-sectional data of 1099 older adults between 64 and 100 years from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam were used. Perceived stress and its subscales perceived helplessness and perceived self-efficacy were measured with the Perceived Stress Scale. Cognitive function was assessed regarding memory, processing speed and executive function. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed between the stress measures and the domains of cognitive function. Perceived stress was associated with worse processing speed, direct and delayed recall, semantic fluency and digit span backwards (range β = -0.10; -0.11; p cognitive function, also after adjustment for depressive symptoms or sense of mastery (range β = 0.10; 0.18; p cognitive functions. Perceived self-efficacy might be an important factor in reducing stress and the prevention of cognitive decline. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Families with special needs children: family health, functioning, and care burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caicedo, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    There are 11.2 million children with special health care needs in the United States or one in five households caring for a special needs child. A small group of children who need continuous medical, nursing, therapeutic services that enable them to survive is growing in numbers. This study examined physical health (physical functioning), mental health (emotional, social, and cognitive functioning; communication; and worry), family functioning (daily activities, family relationships), and care burden (caregiver employment, caregiving time, travel time, health-related out-of-pocket expenditures) of parent caregivers for medically complex, medical technology-dependent children. Data were collected once a month for 5 months on 84 parents recruited in South Florida using the Pediatric Quality of Life Family Impact Module. Physically, parents were tired when they woke up: too tired to do the things they liked to do and with little energy for chores or social activities. Mentally, they were frustrated, anxious, and angry; felt helpless and hopeless; had cognitive problems remembering and focusing on tasks; were worried about the child's medications, treatments, side effects; and were anxious about child's future and effect of the child's condition on other family members. Socially, they felt isolated and that people did not understand their family situation; they found it hard to talk with others including physicians and nurses. Average weekly hours of direct care was 33.0 (SD = 30.4 hours); average monthly out-of-pocket expenditures was $348.78 (SD = $623.34). It is essential to assess parents' physical and mental health and functioning and to provide interventions to improve health and functioning for both the parents and the children for whom they are caring. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. A Dyadic Perspective on PTSD Symptoms' Associations with Couple Functioning and Parenting Stress in First-Time Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredman, Steffany J; Le, Yunying; Marshall, Amy D; Brick, Timothy R; Feinberg, Mark E

    2017-06-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are associated with disruptions in both couple functioning and parenting, and limited research suggests that, among military couples, perceptions of couple functioning and parenting stress are a function of both one's own and one's partner's mental health symptoms. However, this work has not been generalized to civilian couples, and little is known about the associations between PTSD symptoms and family adjustment in specific family developmental contexts. We examined PTSD symptoms' associations with perceived couple functioning and parenting stress within a dyadic context in civilian couples who had participated in a randomized controlled trial of a universal, couple-based transition to parenthood program and at least one member of the couple reported having experienced a Criterion A1 traumatic event. Results of actor-partner interdependence models revealed that parents' own and partners' PTSD symptoms were negatively associated with perceived couple functioning; contrary to expectation, the association of partners' PTSD symptoms with perceived couple functioning was strongest among men who received the intervention. A parent's own PTSD symptoms were positively associated with parenting stress for both men and women and were unexpectedly strongest for men who received the intervention. Partner PTSD symptoms were also positively associated with increased parenting stress for both men and women. Findings support a dyadic conceptualization of the associations between spouses' PTSD symptoms and family outcomes during the transition to parenthood and suggest that participating in a couple-based, psychoeducational program during this phase in the family life cycle may be particularly salient for men.

  2. Stress of home life and gender role socializations, family cohesion, and symptoms of anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyan, Frederick; Hjemdal, Odin

    2017-04-05

    This cross-sectional study investigated the relation of sociocultural prescriptions of gender role socializations to differences in stress at home and to anxiety and depressive symptoms for adolescent girls and boys, with family cohesion as a mediator. A total of 244 boys and 285 girls aged 13-17 years recruited from Accra, Ghana completed the Short Mood Feeling Questionnaire, Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory, Stress of Home Life and Family Cohesion self-report scales in April 2015. In each sample, two mediation analyses were conducted using Structural Equation Modelling. Exposure to stress at home that was perceived to result from sociocultural prescriptions of gender role norms largely accounted for anxiety and depressive symptoms among girls, whereas this relation was non-significant among boys. Significant indirect relations through low family cohesion to anxiety symptoms were observed for girls and boys but not to depressive symptoms for boys. These findings suggest that differences in gender role socializations at home may account for individual differences in associations between exposure to stress at home and anxiety and depressive symptoms as well as explain the differential indirect relations through low family cohesion. Improving family cohesion while reducing stress at home may contribute to reducing stress and thus anxiety and depressive symptoms.

  3. Posttraumatic Stress among Young Urban Children Exposed to Family Violence and Other Potentially Traumatic Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crusto, Cindy A.; Whitson, Melissa L.; Walling, Sherry N.; Feinn, Richard; Friedman, Stacey R.; Reynolds, Jesse; Amer, Mona; Kaufman, Joy S.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between the number of types of traumatic events experienced by children 3 to 6 years old, parenting stress, and children’s posttraumatic stress (PTS). Parents/caregivers provided data for 154 urban children admitted into community-based mental health and/or developmental services. By parent/caregiver report, children experienced an average of 4.9 different types of potentially traumatic events. Nearly one-quarter of the children evidenced clinically significant PTS. PTS was positively and significantly related to family violence and other family-related trauma exposure, nonfamily violence/trauma exposure, and parenting stress. Additionally, parenting stress partially mediated the relationship between family violence/trauma exposure and PTS. This study highlights the need for early violence/trauma exposure screening in help-seeking populations so that appropriate interventions are initiated. PMID:21171132

  4. Family therapy for children with functional somatic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgaard, Ditte Roth; Dehlholm-Lambertsen, Birgitte; Rask, Charlotte

    Introduction: Functional somatic symptoms (FSS) can be defined as physical symptoms that cannot be fully explained by organic pathology. FSS are prevalent in children worldwide and in all medical settings, and when severe, pose a major burden on those with FSS and on society. In clinical practice...... and current research in child mental health, focus on family factors is increasing. The aim of this systematic review was to explore and describe the current family based approaches used for youngsters with FSS, and to evaluate the quality of the existing research in this area. Method: The review...... on family based CBT. Conclusions and implications: The family’s illness explanations are an important target for intervention and coordination between paediatric and CAMHS is important, when treating youngsters with FSS. Clinical implications of the findings and recommendations for future research...

  5. Microstructural stress relaxation mechanics in functionally different tendons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screen, H R C; Toorani, S; Shelton, J C

    2013-01-01

    Tendons experience widely varying loading conditions in vivo. They may be categorised by their function as either positional tendons, which are used for intricate movements and experience lower stress, or as energy storage tendons which act as highly stressed springs during locomotion. Structural and compositional differences between tendons are thought to enable an optimisation of their properties to suit their functional environment. However, little is known about structure-function relationships in tendon. This study adopts porcine flexor and extensor tendon fascicles as examples of high stress and low stress tendons, comparing their mechanical behaviour at the micro-level in order to understand their stress relaxation response. Stress-relaxation was shown to occur predominantly through sliding between collagen fibres. However, in the more highly stressed flexor tendon fascicles, more fibre reorganisation was evident when the tissue was exposed to low strains. By contrast, the low load extensor tendon fascicles appears to have less capacity for fibre reorganisation or shearing than the energy storage tendon, relying more heavily on fibril level relaxation. The extensor fascicles were also unable to sustain loads without rapid and complete stress relaxation. These findings highlight the need to optimise tendon repair solutions for specific tendons, and match tendon properties when using grafts in tendon repairs. Copyright © 2012 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Interrole conflict and self-efficacy to manage work and family demands mediate the relationships of job and family demands with stress in the job and family domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoktunowicz, Ewelina; Cieslak, Roman; Demerouti, Evangelia

    2017-09-01

    This study derives from Work-Home Resources model (ten Brummelhuis, L. L., & Bakker, A. B. (2012). A resource perspective on the work-home interface: The work-home resources model. American Psychologist, 67(7), 545-556. doi: 10.1037/a0027974 ) and Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, US: Prentice-Hall, Inc.) to investigate mechanisms responsible for the effect of job and family demands on work- and family-related perceived stress. We hypothesized that interrole conflict and self-efficacy to manage work and family demands operate either independently or sequentially transmitting the effects of demands on perceived stress. A sample of 100 employees of various occupations participated in the study conducted online in two waves: Time 1 (T1) and Time 2 (T2) with a three-month interval. Regression analysis with bootstrapping was applied. Interrole conflict (T1) did not mediate the relationships between demands (T1) and perceived stress (T2), whereas self-efficacy (T1) mediated only those between family demands (T1) and stress (T2). However, data supported the sequential mediation hypotheses: Demands (T1) were associated with increased interrole conflict (T1) which in turn decreased self-efficacy (T1) and ultimately resulted in the elevated perceived stress at work and in the family (T2). Demands originating in one domain can impact stress both in the same and other life areas through the sequence of interrole conflict and context-specific self-efficacy.

  7. Disorder and function: a review of the dehydrin protein family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen P Graether

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dehydration proteins (dehydrins are group 2 members of the late embryogenesis abundant (LEA protein family. The protein architecture of dehydrins can be described by the presence of three types of conserved sequence motifs that have been named the K-, Y- and S-segments. By definition, a dehydrin must contain at least one copy of the lysine-rich K-segment. Abiotic stresses such as drought, cold, and salinity cause the upregulation of dehydrin mRNA and protein levels. Despite the large body of genetic and protein evidence of the importance of these proteins in stress response, the in vivo protective mechanism is not fully known. In vitro experimental evidence from biochemical assays and localization experiments suggest multiple roles for dehydrins, including membrane protection, cryoprotection of enzymes, and protection from reactive oxygen species. Membrane binding by dehydrins is likely to be as a peripheral membrane protein, since the protein sequences are highly hydrophilic and contain many charged amino acids. Because of this, dehydrins in solution are intrinsically disordered proteins, that is, they have no well-defined secondary or tertiary structure. Despite their disorder, dehydrins have been shown to gain structure when bound to ligands such as membranes, and to possibly change their oligomeric state when bound to ions. We review what is currently known about dehydrin sequences and their structures, and examine the various ligands that have been shown to bind to this family of proteins.

  8. The impact of family intactness on family functioning, parental control and parent-child relational qualities in a Chinese context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Tan Lei Shek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated the differences between intact and non-intact families in family processes, including systematic family functioning, parental behavioral control, parental psychological control, and parent-child relational qualities. The participants were 3,328 Secondary One students, with a mean age of 12.59 years, recruited from 28 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Four validated scales were used to assess family processes. Results showed that adolescents in non-intact families perceived relatively poorer family functioning, lower level of paternal and maternal behavioral control, lower level of paternal psychological control and poorer parent-child relational qualities than did adolescents in intact families. This generally indicated that family processes were poorer in non-intact families, compared with those in intact families. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings were discussed.

  9. Acute Physiologic Stress and Subsequent Anxiety Among Family Members of ICU Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesley, Sarah J; Hopkins, Ramona O; Holt-Lunstad, Julianne; Wilson, Emily L; Butler, Jorie; Kuttler, Kathryn G; Orme, James; Brown, Samuel M; Hirshberg, Eliotte L

    2018-02-01

    The ICU is a complex and stressful environment and is associated with significant psychologic morbidity for patients and their families. We sought to determine whether salivary cortisol, a physiologic measure of acute stress, was associated with subsequent psychologic distress among family members of ICU patients. This is a prospective, observational study of family members of adult ICU patients. Adult medical and surgical ICU in a tertiary care center. Family members of ICU patients. Participants provided five salivary cortisol samples over 24 hours at the time of the patient ICU admission. The primary measure of cortisol was the area under the curve from ground; the secondary measure was the cortisol awakening response. Outcomes were obtained during a 3-month follow-up telephone call. The primary outcome was anxiety, measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety. Secondary outcomes included depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Among 100 participants, 92 completed follow-up. Twenty-nine participants (32%) reported symptoms of anxiety at 3 months, 15 participants (16%) reported depression symptoms, and 14 participants (15%) reported posttraumatic stress symptoms. In our primary analysis, cortisol level as measured by area under the curve from ground was not significantly associated with anxiety (odds ratio, 0.94; p = 0.70). In our secondary analysis, however, cortisol awakening response was significantly associated with anxiety (odds ratio, 1.08; p = 0.02). Roughly one third of family members experience anxiety after an ICU admission for their loved one, and many family members also experience depression and posttraumatic stress. Cortisol awakening response is associated with anxiety in family members of ICU patients 3 months following the ICU admission. Physiologic measurements of stress among ICU family members may help identify individuals at particular risk of adverse psychologic outcomes.

  10. Executive function in cancer patients with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Guo, Juncheng; Jiang, Xiangling

    2017-03-01

    Background Cancer patients with posttraumatic stress disorder can lead to their noncompliant behaviors. However, less is known about the neurocognitive functioning of posttraumatic stress disorder in general cancer types or patient populations. The current study attempted to examine the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder and their relationships with executive function in individuals with cancer. Methods A total of 285 cancer patients with posttraumatic stress disorder and 150 healthy individuals were recruited for the present study. The Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, Tower of Hanoi, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised Chinese revision were administered to all participants. Results Significant differences in the score of Tower of Hanoi, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised Chinese revision were observed between the posttraumatic stress disorder group and the healthy control group ( p posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and executive function. Conclusions These findings suggest that individuals with cancer-related posttraumatic stress disorder exhibit more severe impairment in executive function than healthy controls do.

  11. Family demographic profiles and their relationship with the quality of executive functioning subcomponents in kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbroucke, Loren; Verschueren, Karine; Ceulemans, Eva; De Smedt, Bert; De Roover, Kim; Baeyens, Dieter

    2016-06-01

    Executive functioning (EF), needed for goal-oriented behaviour, thoughts, and emotions, is important for various life domains. This study examined the relationship between family demographics and EF subcomponents. A kindergarten sample was tested on subcomponents of working memory, inhibition, and cognitive flexibility. Parents provided information on demographic variables. For 78 children both EF and demographic data were available. First, demographic profiles were identified within the sample. Two profiles were found: A low-risk profile of mainly two-biological-parent, high-income families with a highly educated mother who did not smoke during pregnancy and a high-risk profile of low-income families with a young, low-educated mother who more often smoked during pregnancy. Second, children with different demographic profiles were compared on EF subcomponents. Results indicate differential relations between family demographics and EF subcomponents: Whereas for most EF subcomponents no association with family demographics was found, high-risk children performed better on response shifting and tended to perform worse on verbal memory than low-risk children. Parenting stress decreased performance only for high-risk children. Although this study found limited impact of family demographics for EF, further longitudinal research can provide nuanced insights about which factors influence specific EF subcomponents during which developmental periods and guide targeted prevention of EF difficulties. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Sex differences in physical and mental functioning of Japanese civil servants: explanations from work and family characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Michikazu; Chandola, Tarani; Martikainen, Pekka; Marmot, Michael; Kagamimori, Sadanobu

    2010-12-01

    Poor physical and mental functioning are more common among women than men and those with disadvantaged work and family characteristics. This study aims to clarify whether sex differences in health functioning can be explained by sex differences in work and family characteristics. The subjects were 3787 civil servants (2525 men and 1262 women), aged 20-65, working in a local government on the west coast of Japan. A questionnaire survey was conducted in January 2003. Low employment grade, high demands, long work hours, shift work, being unmarried, having no young children, high family-to-work conflict and high work-to-family conflict were more common among women than men and were independently associated with poor physical and mental functioning. The age-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of women for poor health functioning were 1.80 for poor physical functioning and 1.77 for poor mental functioning. When adjusted for employment grade and work characteristics (control, demand, support, work hours, and shift work), the sex differences in health functioning attenuated. When adjusted for family characteristics (family structure and work-family conflicts), the sex differences in health functioning further attenuated and were no longer statistically significant. Sex differences in family characteristics contributed more to sex difference in mental functioning than sex differences in work characteristics. Japan belongs to conservative welfare regimes. In such countries, men are able to concentrate on their work with relative freedom from their family tasks and responsibilities, whereas women feel difficulties in maintaining their work-life balances. Such sex differences in work- and family-related stresses may contribute to sex difference in health. Longitudinal research is necessary to clarify the causal nature of these associations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Reconstituted Family

    OpenAIRE

    Talbot, Yves

    1981-01-01

    The reconstituted or step-family is becoming more prevalent. The physician who cares for families should be acquainted with the different aspects of such family structure and family functioning. This will enable professionals to better understand and assist their patients, by anticipating the different stresses related to the new family formation, and supporting their adaptation.

  14. The Effectiveness of “Bowen’s Family System Therapy” on Differentiation and the Functions of Families with Addicted Child

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Ghaffari; Hasan Rafiey; Mohammad bagher Sanai

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of Bowen’s Family System therapy on increasing of differentiation and improving of family function in families with addicted children. Method: The research design of this research was semi experimental design namely: pre test-post test with witness group. The sample was selected voluntarily among referred bachelor addicts and their family members in 4 therapeutic centers, and divided to experimental (5families with 4 me...

  15. Infant sleep, parental sleep and parenting stress in families of mothers on maternity leave and in families of working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinai, Dana; Tikotzky, Liat

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the links between infants' sleep and their parents' sleep and to assess the links between infant/parent sleep and parenting stress. Furthermore, we explored whether the links between sleep and parenting stress are moderated by maternal leave status. Participants were 50 families with an infant between the ages of 4-5 months. Half of the mothers were on maternity leave while the others returned to work. Parents completed daily sleep logs about infants' and their own sleep for 4 consecutive nights. Each parent also completed the Parenting Stress Index. Infant sleep was associated with sleep of both mothers and fathers, but the correlations with maternal sleep were stronger. Parental perceptions of their infant's sleep as problematic were associated with higher parenting stress. Poorer infant and maternal sleep patterns were associated with parenting stress only in families with mothers on maternity leave, probably because these mothers need to provide intensive caregiving "around the clock" without sufficient opportunities to rest. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Work Stress in the Family Life of African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broman, Clifford L.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the link between job-related stressors and family life among African Americans. Data from African Americans who participated in the America's Changing Lives survey indicated that job latitude positively affected marital harmony, and physical demands negatively affected marital harmony. Psychosocial demands, job bother, and chronic…

  17. Leaf sodium accumulation facilitates salt stress adaptation and preserves photosystem functionality in salt stressed Ocimum basilicum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mancarella, S.; Orsini, F.; Oosten, van M.J.; Sanoubar, R.; Stanghellini, C.; Kondo, S.; Gianquinto, G.; Maggio, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, plant growth, water relations, ABA levels, ion accumulation patterns and chlorophyll fluorescence were functionally linked to salt stress tolerance of two basil cultivars (Napoletano and Genovese) with different stress sensitivity levels. Plants were treated with salty water at 0,

  18. Consequences of boundary-spanning demands and resources for work-to-family conflict and perceived stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voydanoff, Patricia

    2005-10-01

    Using work-family border theory, this article examines relationships between boundary-spanning demands and resources and work-to-family conflict and perceived stress. The analysis uses data from 2,109 respondents from the 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce. The demands that were positively related to work-to-family conflict and perceived stress were commuting time, bringing work home, job contacts at home, and work-family multitasking. Work-family multitasking partially explained the effects of bringing work home and job contacts at home on conflict and stress. For resources, time off for family responsibilities and a supportive work-family culture showed negative associations with conflict and stress. Work-to-family conflict partially mediated relationships between several demands and resources and perceived stress. Copyright (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. A family history of Type 1 alcoholism differentiates alcohol consumption in high cortisol responders to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brkic, Sejla; Söderpalm, Bo; Söderpalm Gordh, Anna

    2015-03-01

    The differentiation between high and low cortisol responders to stress is of interest in determining the risk factors which may, along with genetic vulnerability, influence alcohol intake. Thirty-two healthy volunteers, family history positive to alcoholism (FHP, n = 16) and family history negative (FHN, n = 16) attended two laboratory sessions during which alcohol or placebo was offered. There were no differences in consumption of alcohol or placebo between FHP and FHN subjects. STUDY 2: Fifty-eight healthy social drinkers, FHP (n = 27) and FHN (n = 31) attended two laboratory sessions. They were administered either alcohol or placebo in both sessions they attended. All subjects underwent either a stress task (the Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) or a stress-free period, at two separate occasions, before being offered beverage. After the salivary cortisol analysis, subjects in each group were divided into high (HCR) or low (LCR) cortisol responders. After stress, subjects who were FHP-HCR consumed more alcohol than FHN-HCR. There were no differences in the placebo intake between FHP and FHN subjects regardless of their cortisol response. This result indicates that stress promotes alcohol consumption only in subjects with a family history of Type 1 alcoholism who show an increase in cortisol response to stress. This behaviour is similar to that previously observed in alcohol dependent individuals after stress and thus could represent an endophenotype posing a risk for future development of alcohol use disorders. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Family structure and posttraumatic stress reactions: a longitudinal study using multilevel analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background There is limited research on the relevance of family structures to the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress following disasters. We longitudinally studied the effects of marital and parental statuses on posttraumatic stress reactions after the 2004 Southeast Asian tsunami and whether persons in the same households had more shared stress reactions than others. Method The study included a tourist population of 641 Norwegian adult citizens, many of them from families with children. We measured posttraumatic stress symptoms with the Impact of Event Scale-Revised at 6 months and 2 years post-disaster. Analyses included multilevel methods with mixed effects models. Results Results showed that neither marital nor parental status was significantly related to posttraumatic stress. At both assessments, adults living in the same household reported levels of posttraumatic stress that were more similar to one another than adults who were not living together. Between households, disaster experiences were closely related to the variance in posttraumatic stress symptom levels at both assessments. Within households, however, disaster experiences were less related to the variance in symptom level at 2 years than at 6 months. Conclusions These results indicate that adult household members may influence one another's posttraumatic stress reactions as well as their interpretations of the disaster experiences over time. Our findings suggest that multilevel methods may provide important information about family processes after disasters. PMID:22171549

  1. Family structure and posttraumatic stress reactions: a longitudinal study using multilevel analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nygaard Egil

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited research on the relevance of family structures to the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress following disasters. We longitudinally studied the effects of marital and parental statuses on posttraumatic stress reactions after the 2004 Southeast Asian tsunami and whether persons in the same households had more shared stress reactions than others. Method The study included a tourist population of 641 Norwegian adult citizens, many of them from families with children. We measured posttraumatic stress symptoms with the Impact of Event Scale-Revised at 6 months and 2 years post-disaster. Analyses included multilevel methods with mixed effects models. Results Results showed that neither marital nor parental status was significantly related to posttraumatic stress. At both assessments, adults living in the same household reported levels of posttraumatic stress that were more similar to one another than adults who were not living together. Between households, disaster experiences were closely related to the variance in posttraumatic stress symptom levels at both assessments. Within households, however, disaster experiences were less related to the variance in symptom level at 2 years than at 6 months. Conclusions These results indicate that adult household members may influence one another's posttraumatic stress reactions as well as their interpretations of the disaster experiences over time. Our findings suggest that multilevel methods may provide important information about family processes after disasters.

  2. Parental Stress in Families of Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yun-Ju

    2018-01-01

    Parents of children with disabilities often experience a higher level of stress than parents of children without disabilities, regardless of categories of disabilities. Understanding parental stressors can lead to appropriate interventions and supports for these parents and their children with disabilities. This article discusses issues of…

  3. Stress generation in a developmental context: the role of youth depressive symptoms, maternal depression, the parent-child relationship, and family stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Priscilla T; Doan, Stacey N; Tompson, Martha C

    2014-02-01

    The present study examined stress generation in a developmental and family context among 171 mothers and their preadolescent children, ages 8-12 years, at baseline (Time 1) and 1-year follow-up (Time 2). In the current study, we examined the bidirectional relationship between children's depressive symptoms and dependent family stress. Results suggest that children's baseline level of depressive symptoms predicted the generation of dependent family stress 1 year later. However, baseline dependent family stress did not predict an increase in children's depressive symptoms 1 year later. In addition, we examined whether a larger context of both child chronic strain (indicated by academic, behavioral, and peer stress) and family factors, including socioeconomic status and parent-child relationship quality, would influence the stress generation process. Although both chronic strain and socioeconomic status were not associated with dependent family stress at Time 2, poorer parent-child relationship quality significantly predicted greater dependent family stress at Time 2. Child chronic strain, but neither socioeconomic status nor parent-child relationship quality, predicted children's depression symptoms at Time 2. Finally, gender, maternal depression history, and current maternal depressive symptoms did not moderate the relationship between level of dependent family stress and depressive symptoms. Overall, findings provide partial support for a developmental stress generation model operating in the preadolescent period.

  4. Food Selectivity, Mealtime Behavior Problems, Spousal Stress, and Family Food Choices in Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, C.; Hubbard, K.; Anderson, S. E.; Mick, E.; Must, A.; Bandini, L. G.

    2015-01-01

    Mealtime behavior problems and family stress occur frequently among families of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, it is unknown whether food selectivity is an associated factor. The associations of high food selectivity with mealtime behavior problems, spousal stress, and influence on family members were assessed among 53…

  5. Parenting Stress, Social Support, and Mother-Child Interactions in Families of Multiple and Singleton Preterm Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Kristin F.; Burnson, Cynthia; Hane, Amanda; Samuelson, Anne; Maleck, Sarah; Poehlmann, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated family support as a buffer of stress in 153 mothers and preterm toddlers. Data were collected regarding maternal depressive symptoms, parenting stress, and family support; infant health; and videotaped mother-child interactions. Although more parenting stress related to less optimal child play, only information support…

  6. Obfuscation Framework Based on Functionally Equivalent Combinatorial Logic Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    of Defense, or the United States Government . AFIT/GCS/ENG/08-12 Obfuscation Framework Based on Functionally Equivalent Combinatorial Logic Families...time, United States policy strongly encourages the sale and transfer of some military equipment to foreign governments and makes it easier for...Proceedings of the International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security, 2007. 14. McDonald, J. Todd and Alec Yasinsac. “Of unicorns and random

  7. Family functioning and perceived support from nurses during cancer treatment among Danish and Australian patients and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieperink, Karin B; Coyne, Elisabeth; Creedy, Debra K; Østergaard, Birte

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to compare family functioning and perceptions of support from nurses among Danish and Australian adult oncology patients and family members. Family can have a strong influence on the health of individuals, providing support during a health crisis such as cancer. However, family functioning and supportive care from nurses may vary across cultures and settings. A descriptive, cross-sectional comparative design with patients and family members from Denmark and Australia. Participants were asked to fill in translated versions of the Iceland-Expressive Family Functioning Questionnaire (ICE-EFFQ) and Iceland-Expressive Family Perceived Support Questionnaire (ICE-FPSQ). In total, 232 participants were recruited. The Danish cohort consisted of 56 patients and 54 family members. The Australian cohort consisted of 83 patients and 39 family members. Mean age was 59 years. No significant differences were found between Danish and Australian families. However, compared to patients, family members reported significantly lower overall family functioning, expressive emotions and communication, as well as less emotional support from nurses. Family functioning was comparable between Denmark and Australia. Family members reported less emotional support than patients. Nurses need to consider the patient and the family as a unit with complex needs that require monitoring and attention during oncology treatment. Families supporting a member with cancer have significant and often unmet needs. Assessment, information-sharing and health education need to include the family. Supportive care information may be shared between Denmark and Australia and inspires the development of common guidelines for optimal family nursing practice. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. How does family functioning effect the outcome of family based treatment for adolescents with severe anorexia nervosa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Andrew; Miskovic-Wheatley, Jane; Madden, Sloane; Rhodes, Paul; Crosby, Ross D; Cao, Li; Touyz, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the relationship between family functioning, adolescent-parent attachment and remission, as well as changes in these variables over time for adolescents with severe anorexia nervosa treated with family based treatment (FBT). Understanding how families respond to treatment is important because the family will be the ongoing context for psychosocial development in the longer term. The relationship between family functioning and outcome is also an important variable because it is potentially modifiable during treatment and this may improve outcome. Fifty-seven female adolescents treated with FBT in a randomised controlled trial were assessed at baseline, FBT session 20 and 12-months post FBT session 20. Data on family functioning and adolescent-parent attachment was collected from patients and their parents at each time point. A series of regression analyses were used to determine the relationship between family functioning and comorbidity at baseline, and the relationship with remission status over time. Repeat measure mixed-effects models were used to assess changes in family functioning and attachment quality over time. Greater adolescent perceived family functioning impairment was positively related to psychiatric comorbidity at the start of treatment. Conversely, better family functioning predicted higher self-esteem and stronger attachment quality. Adolescent's reporting better general family functioning, communication and problem solving were more likely to be remitted at session 20, but not at 12-month follow-up. There was no overall improvement in family functioning for any respondent either during treatment or at follow-up, and no significant relationship between change and remission at either session 20 or follow-up. The adolescent's perspective on family functioning at the start of treatment impacts on a positive outcome. Addressing family issues earlier in FBT may be important for some patients. Further

  9. Perceived Family Functioning Predicts Baseline Psychosocial Characteristics in U.S. Participants of a Family Focused Grief Therapy Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Tammy A; Zaider, Talia I; Li, Yuelin; Masterson, Melissa; McDonnell, Glynnis A; Hichenberg, Shira; Loeb, Rebecca; Kissane, David W

    2017-07-01

    Screening and baseline data on 170 American families (620 individuals), selected by screening from a palliative care population for inclusion in a randomized controlled trial of family-focused grief therapy, were examined to determine whether family dysfunction conferred higher levels of psychosocial morbidity. We hypothesized that greater family dysfunction would, indeed, be associated with poorer psychosocial outcomes among palliative care patients and their family members. Screened families were classified according to their functioning on the Family Relationships Index (FRI) and consented families completed baseline assessments. Mixed-effects modeling with post hoc tests compared individuals' baseline psychosocial outcomes (psychological distress, social functioning, and family functioning on a different measure) according to the classification of their family on the FRI. Covariates were included in all models as appropriate. For those who completed baseline measures, 191 (30.0%) individuals were in low-communicating families, 313 (50.5%) in uninvolved families, and 116 (18.7%) in conflictual families. Family class was significantly associated (at ps ≤ 0.05) with increased psychological distress (Beck Depression Inventory and Brief Symptom Inventory) and poorer social adjustment (Social Adjustment Scale) for individual family members. The family assessment device supported the concurrent accuracy of the FRI. As predicted, significantly greater levels of individual psychosocial morbidity were present in American families whose functioning as a group was poorer. Support was generated for a clinical approach that screens families to identify those at high risk. Overall, these baseline data point to the importance of a family-centered model of care. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Plant ion channels: gene families, physiology, and functional genomics analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, John M; Mäser, Pascal; Schroeder, Julian I

    2009-01-01

    Distinct potassium, anion, and calcium channels in the plasma membrane and vacuolar membrane of plant cells have been identified and characterized by patch clamping. Primarily owing to advances in Arabidopsis genetics and genomics, and yeast functional complementation, many of the corresponding genes have been identified. Recent advances in our understanding of ion channel genes that mediate signal transduction and ion transport are discussed here. Some plant ion channels, for example, ALMT and SLAC anion channel subunits, are unique. The majority of plant ion channel families exhibit homology to animal genes; such families include both hyperpolarization- and depolarization-activated Shaker-type potassium channels, CLC chloride transporters/channels, cyclic nucleotide-gated channels, and ionotropic glutamate receptor homologs. These plant ion channels offer unique opportunities to analyze the structural mechanisms and functions of ion channels. Here we review gene families of selected plant ion channel classes and discuss unique structure-function aspects and their physiological roles in plant cell signaling and transport.

  11. Blunted amygdala functional connectivity during a stress task in alcohol dependent individuals: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Natasha E; Padula, Claudia B; Anthenelli, Robert M; Nelson, Erik; Eliassen, James; Lisdahl, Krista M

    2017-12-01

    Scant research has been conducted on neural mechanisms underlying stress processing in individuals with alcohol dependence (AD). We examined neural substrates of stress in AD individuals compared with controls using an fMRI task previously shown to induce stress, assessing amygdala functional connectivity to medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). For this novel pilot study, 10 abstinent AD individuals and 11 controls completed a modified Trier stress task while undergoing fMRI acquisition. The amygdala was used as a seed region for whole-brain seed-based functional connectivity analysis. After controlling for family-wise error (p = 0.05), there was significantly decreased left and right amygdala connectivity with frontal (specifically mPFC), temporal, parietal, and cerebellar regions. Subjective stress, but not craving, increased from pre-to post-task. This study demonstrated decreased connectivity between the amygdala and regions important for stress and emotional processing in long-term abstinent individuals with AD. These results suggest aberrant stress processing in individuals with AD even after lengthy periods of abstinence.

  12. Military Families In Transition: Stress, Resilience, And Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Health Martha Farnsworth Riche , PhD Farnsworth Riche Associates Trumansburg, NY Lyndon A. Riviere, PhD Research Psychologist, Military Psychiatry...like all families, are capable of becoming more resilient as they face future challenges. Sustaining and enhancing this capacity for resilience is a...The Army will also be more populated with this younger generation. How will a bunch of Generation Xers manage with a bunch of Millennials being in the

  13. Psychological problems and family functioning as risk factors in addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Sajida; Zia, Hamid; Irfan, Syed

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to determine the role of family functioning and psychological problems of drug addicts and non addicts by assessing the difference between the two groups. After detailed literature review it was hypothesized that scores on the variable of communication, affective expression and control among family members of addicts will be higher than non addicts. Furthermore scores on the variables of anger control problems, emotional distress and positive self will also be higher of addicts. This was a cohort study. A cluster sampling method was used. Sample of present research consisted of 240 adolescents divided into two groups of 120 addicts and 120 non-addicts each from different socio-economic status. General scale of Family Assessment Measure-Version III (FAM-III) was administered in order to measure the level of communication, value and norms whereas dyadic Relationship Scale was used to measure affective expression and control among the family members of addicts and non addicts. Renold Adolescent Adjustment Screening Inventory was administered in order to assess anger control problems, emotional distress and positive self in addicts and non addicts. t-test was calculated in order to determine the difference in the level of communication, value and norms, affective expression and control among families of addicts and non addicts. Furthermore difference in anger control problems, emotional distress and positive self between the addicts and non addicts was also determined by calculating t-test. Results showed significant differences in the variables among the family members and there is also a significant difference between addicts and non addicts. Avenues for further research have been suggested.

  14. Anxiety, stress and depression in family caregivers of the mentally ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Lídia; Duarte, João; Ferreira, Manuela; dos Santos, Carlos

    2014-11-01

    The current policy guidelines on mental health aim to keep the mentally ill within the community, with the development of social support, including families, hence the emergence of the role of the family caregiver. To identify socio-demographic variables influencing anxiety, depression and stress for the informal caregivers of the mentally ill; to determine the influence of family background variables on caregiver anxiety, depression and stress; to analyse the relationship between social support and caregiver overload with caregiver anxiety, depression and stress. Cross-sectional, descriptive and correlational study with 104 caregivers, mostly female (62.5%), aged between 22 and 77 years with a mean age of 52.03 years. The following were used as instruments: the Family Apgar Scale; the Satisfaction with Social Support Scale (ESSS); the Caregiver Overload Scale (ESC); the Anxiety, Depression and Stress Scales (EADS-21). We found that females have higher rates (Panxiety, depression and stress; participants with less education have more anxiety than those with higher and secondary education (P=.001); caregivers living in rural areas have higher levels of depression (P=.044) and stress (P=.041); those who perceive belonging to families with marked dysfunctions have higher levels of depression (P=.0.001) and stress (P=.000); the higher the overload, the higher the levels of anxiety (P=.002), depression and stress (P=.000). I tis necessary to develop strategies for local and community intervention to promote mental health and prevent mental illness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. "There is still so much ahead of us"-family functioning in families of palliative cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühne, Franziska; Krattenmacher, Thomas; Bergelt, Corinna; Beierlein, Volker; Herzog, Wolfgang; V Klitzing, Kai; Weschenfelder-Stachwitz, Heike; Romer, Georg; Möller, Birgit

    2013-06-01

    Adopting a systems approach, parental cancer has its impact on patients, spouses, and dependent children. The purpose of the current study was to examine family functioning dependent on parental disease stage and on family member perspective in families of cancer patients with adolescent children. The cross-sectional study was conducted within a German multisite research project of families before their first child-centered counseling encounter. The sample comprised individuals nested within N = 169 families. Analyses performed included analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and intraclass correlation. Open answers were analyzed following quantitative content analysis procedures. Between 15% and 36% of family members reported dysfunctional general functioning scores. Parents indicated more dysfunctional scores on the Family Assessment Device scale Roles, and adolescents more dysfunctional Communication scores. Regarding assessment of family functioning, there was higher agreement in families with parents in a palliative situation. For adolescents with parents in palliation, incidents because of the disease tend to become more dominant, and spending time with the family tends to become even more important. As our study pointed out, parental cancer, and especially parental palliative disease, is associated with both perceived critical and positive aspects in family functioning. Supporting families in these concerns as well as encouraging perceptions of positive aspects are important components of psycho-oncological interventions for families with dependent children. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. A family of tridiagonal pairs and related symmetric functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baseilhac, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    A family of tridiagonal pairs which appear in the context of quantum integrable systems is studied in detail. The corresponding eigenvalue sequences, eigenspaces and the block tridiagonal structure of their matrix realizations with respect the dual eigenbasis are described. The overlap functions between the two dual bases are shown to satisfy a coupled system of recurrence relations and a set of discrete second-order q-difference equations which generalize those associated with the Askey-Wilson orthogonal polynomials with a discrete argument. Normalizing the fundamental solution to unity, the hierarchies of solutions are rational functions of one discrete argument, explicitly derived in some simplest examples. The weight function which ensures the orthogonality of the system of rational functions defined on a discrete real support is given

  17. A family of tridiagonal pairs and related symmetric functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baseilhac, Pascal [Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique CNRS/UMR 6083, Federation Denis Poisson, Universite de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France)

    2006-09-22

    A family of tridiagonal pairs which appear in the context of quantum integrable systems is studied in detail. The corresponding eigenvalue sequences, eigenspaces and the block tridiagonal structure of their matrix realizations with respect the dual eigenbasis are described. The overlap functions between the two dual bases are shown to satisfy a coupled system of recurrence relations and a set of discrete second-order q-difference equations which generalize those associated with the Askey-Wilson orthogonal polynomials with a discrete argument. Normalizing the fundamental solution to unity, the hierarchies of solutions are rational functions of one discrete argument, explicitly derived in some simplest examples. The weight function which ensures the orthogonality of the system of rational functions defined on a discrete real support is given.

  18. The relation between family adversity and social anxiety among adolescents in Taiwan: effects of family function and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Pinchen; Wu, Yu-Yu; Cheng, Chung-Ping

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between three indicators of family adversity (domestic violence, family substance use, and broken parental marriage) and the severity of social anxiety among adolescents in Taiwan, as well as the mediating effects of perceived family function and self-esteem on that relationship, using structural equation modeling (SEM). A total of 5607 adolescents completed the social anxiety subscale of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children; the Family APGAR Index; the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale; and a questionnaire for domestic violence, family substance use, and broken parental marriage. The relation between family adversity and social anxiety, as well as the mediating effects of family function and self-esteem, was examined using SEM. SEM analysis revealed that all three indicators of family adversity reduced the level of family function, that decreased family function compromised the level of self-esteem, and that a low level of self-esteem further increased the severity of social anxiety. The results indicated that, along with intervening to change family adversity, evaluating and improving adolescents' self-esteem and family function are also important clinical issues when helping adolescents reduce their social anxiety.

  19. Reduced host cell invasiveness and oxidative stress tolerance in double and triple csp gene family deletion mutants of Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loepfe, Chantal; Raimann, Eveline; Stephan, Roger; Tasara, Taurai

    2010-07-01

    The cold shock protein (Csp) family comprises small, highly conserved proteins that bind nucleic acids to modulate various bacterial gene expressions. In addition to cold adaptation functions, this group of proteins is thought to facilitate various cellular processes to promote normal growth and stress adaptation responses. Three proteins making up the Listeria monocytogenes Csp family (CspA, CspB, and CspD) promote both cold and osmotic stress adaptation functions in this bacterium. The contribution of these three Csps in the host cell invasion processes of L. monocytogenes was investigated based on human Caco-2 and murine macrophage in vitro cell infection models. The DeltacspB, DeltacspD, DeltacspAB, DeltacspAD, DeltacspBD, and DeltacspABD strains were all significantly impaired in Caco-2 cell invasion compared with the wild-type strain, whereas in the murine macrophage infection assay only, the double (DeltacspBD) and triple (DeltacspABD) csp mutants were also significantly impaired in cell invasion compared with the wild-type strain. The DeltacspBD and DeltacspABD mutants displayed the most severely impaired invasion phenotypes. The invasion ability of these two mutant strains was also further analyzed using cold-stress-exposed organisms. In both cell infection models a significant reduction in invasiveness was observed after cold stress exposure of Listeria organisms. The negative impact of cold stress on subsequent cell invasion ability was, however, more severe in cold-sensitive csp mutants (DeltacspBD and DeltacspABD) compared with the wild type. The impaired macrophage invasion and intracellular growth of DeltacspBD and DeltacspABD also led us to examine oxidative stress resistance capacity in these two mutant strains. Both strains also displayed higher oxidative stress sensitivity relative to the wild-type strain. Our data indicate that besides cold and osmotic stress adaptation roles, Csp family proteins also promote efficient host cell invasion and

  20. The impact of social and family-related factors on women's stress experience in household and family work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperlich, Stefanie; Geyer, Siegfried

    2015-03-01

    This study explores the contribution of social and family-related factors to women's experience of an effort-reward imbalance (ERI) in household and family work. Using a population-based sample of German mothers (n = 3,129), we performed stepwise logistic regression analysis in order to determine the relative impact of social and family-related factors on ERI. All factors investigated showed a significant association with at least one ERI component. Considering all predictors simultaneously in the multivariate analysis resulted in a decrease in significance of socioeconomic status in explaining the effort-reward ratio while the impact on low reward partly remained significant. In addition, age of youngest child, number of children, lower levels of perceived social support, domestic work inequity and negative work-to-family spillover, irrespective of being half- or full-time employed, revealed to be important in predicting ERI. The experience of ERI in domestic work is influenced by the social and family environment. Particularly among socially disadvantaged mothers, lack of social recognition for household and family work proved to be a relevant source of psychosocial stress.

  1. Production of functional proteins: balance of shear stress and gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas John (Inventor); Hammond, Timothy Grant (Inventor); Kaysen, James Howard (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method for the production of functional proteins including hormones by renal cells in a three dimensional culturing process responsive to shear stress uses a rotating wall vessel. Natural mixture of renal cells expresses the enzyme 1-.alpha.-hydroxylase which can be used to generate the active form of vitamin D: 1,25-diOH vitamin D.sub.3. The fibroblast cultures and co-culture of renal cortical cells express the gene for erythropoietin and secrete erythropoietin into the culture supernatant. Other shear stress response genes are also modulated by shear stress, such as toxin receptors megalin and cubulin (gp280). Also provided is a method of treating an in-need individual with the functional proteins produced in a three dimensional co-culture process responsive to shear stress using a rotating wall vessel.

  2. Family Functioning Differences Across the Deployment Cycle in British Army Families: The Perceptions of Wives and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pye, Rachel E; Simpson, Leanne K

    2017-09-01

    Military deployment can have an adverse effect on a soldier's family, though little research has looked at these effects in a British sample. We investigated wives' of U.K.-serving soldiers perceptions of marital and family functioning, across three stages of the deployment cycle: currently deployed, postdeployment and predeployed, plus a nonmilitary comparison group. Uniquely, young (aged 3.5-11 years) children's perceptions of their family were also investigated, using the parent-child alliance (PCA) coding scheme of drawings of the family. Two hundred and twenty British military families of regular service personnel from the British Army's Royal Armoured Corps, were sent survey packs distributed with a monthly welfare office newsletter. Wives were asked to complete a series of self-report items, and the youngest child in the family between the ages of 3.5 and 11 years was asked to draw a picture of their family. Complete data were available for 78 military families, and an additional 34 nonmilitary families were recruited via opportunity sampling. Results indicated wives of currently deployed and recently returned personnel were less satisfied with their family and its communication, and children's pictures indicated higher levels of dysfunctional parent-child alliance, whereas predeployed families responded similarly to nonmilitary families. Marital satisfaction was similar across all groups except predeployed families who were significantly more satisfied. Nonmilitary and predeployed families showed balanced family functioning, and currently and recently deployed families demonstrated poor family functioning. In comparison to nonmilitary families, predeployed families showed a large "spike" in the rigidity subscale of the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale IV. Wives' perceptions of family functioning, but not marital satisfaction, differed between the deployment groups. The results from the coded children's drawings correlated with the self

  3. Relationships between child behavior problems and family functioning: A literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    As, N.M.C. van; Janssens, J.M.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews research examining the relationship between family functioning and child behavior problems. Focuses on parenting styles, intergenerational relationships, family structure, and family interaction patterns. Finds that child behavior problems are related to a lack of parental support, an

  4. Difficulties in social functioning of adolescents with different family and intellectual status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelić Marija M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bearing in mind limited effects of interventions focused on the child and its limitations the attention of researches is more and more directed to immediate and wider ambience factors in the prevention of negative forms of behaviour of children. The aim of the research was to determine the level of connectedness of family and intellectual status of adolescents and different aspects of their social functioning. The sample of 416 adolescents, aged 12 to 18, was divided into two groups. The group without parental care included 210 respondents (130 with typical development - TD and 80 with mild intellectual disability - MID, and the group with parental care (130 TD and 76 MID. We used Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire with subscales: behavioral problems, emotional problems and problems with peers. Family problems were divided in socioeconomic problems, partners' problem, mental health of parents, abuse, and neglect. The results confirmed that the young without parental care showed more problems in behavior than their peers with parental care, and that family status affects behavior more than intellectual status. Family is the protective factor for the development of emotional problems of the young TD students, while it is risky for MID students. Problems with peers are not significantly connected with family or intellectual status. Some implications of the results are stressed.

  5. [Cancer and family: tasks and stress of relatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popek, V; Hönig, K

    2015-03-01

    Relatives are the primary and existential resource of cancer patients, while at the same time experiencing substantial distress themselves. This article presents a description of tasks, roles and distress factors, the prevalence of psychosocial distress, description of risk factors in families contributing to dysfunctional coping, options and empirical evidence for the efficacy of psychosocial support. Evaluation of registry data, analysis of case reports, discussion of basic research findings, meta-analyses and expert judgments. Psychosocial distress in relatives of cancer patients is comparable to the degree of distress experienced by the patients and is sometimes even higher. Distress in relatives is still underrecognized, underreported and undertreated. Hostile interaction patterns, low emotional expression and high conflict tendencies impair coping with cancer and its treatment. Psychosocial support for the family of cancer patients improves coping behavior and the quality of life both in relatives and patients. Professional and lay caregivers need to adopt a social perspective on cancer whereby participation and inclusion of relatives in the treatment, acknowledgment of their engagement and recognition of their distress is beneficial for both patients and their relatives. Screening for psychosocial distress in relatives is recommended, attention should be drawn to psychosocial support services and utilization should be encouraged.

  6. The Effectiveness of “Bowen’s Family System Therapy” on Differentiation and the Functions of Families with Addicted Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ghaffari

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of Bowen’s Family System therapy on increasing of differentiation and improving of family function in families with addicted children. Method: The research design of this research was semi experimental design namely: pre test-post test with witness group. The sample was selected voluntarily among referred bachelor addicts and their family members in 4 therapeutic centers, and divided to experimental (5families with 4 members, and witness groups (5families with 4 members, randomly. The experimental group was under training on the basis of Bowen’s family system therapy in 8 sessions. Each session was done for 2 hours. The witness group was under standard treatment of national protocols of Ministry and Health and Social Welfare Organization. The differentiation questionnaire and family function assessment were administered among two groups. Results: The result showed that Bowen’s Family System therapy increased differentiation and improved the function of addicted persons and their families. Conclusion: The addicted persons and their families have low differentiation that can be caused to family dysfunction. Bowen’s Family System therapy can be useful in this purpose.

  7. The impact of the Family Communication Coordinator (FCC) Protocol on the role stress of hospital chaplains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd-McCue, Diane; Tartaglia, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    The Family Communication Coordinator (FCC) Protocol was implemented to provide early family intervention and to facilitate effective communications during potential organ donation cases. Previous studies found the Protocol associated with improved donor outcome measures and with reduced role stress for ICU nurses caring for potential donors. The present study examines the impact of the Protocol on the perceived role stress of hospital chaplains serving as FCCs. All hospital chaplains serving as FCCs at an academic teaching hospital were surveyed. Their perceptions of job dimensions, role stress, job satisfaction, and commitment were measured; interviews and secondary data supplemented the surveys. The findings demonstrate that the FCC Protocol is associated with improved role stress, specifically role ambiguity and role conflict, among hospital chaplains serving as FCCs. Additionally, the findings suggest that satisfaction with the Protocol may be associated with experience with the Protocol.

  8. Do economic stresses influence child work hours on family farms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadomski, Anne; de Long, Rachel; Burdick, Patrick; Jenkins, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Economic stresses are a frequently cited reason for children doing farm work. To explore the relationship between economic indicators and child agricultural work hours between January 2001 and October 2003. This ecologic study design compares trends in aggregate child work hours with national and regional economic indicators. Child work hours were obtained from quarterly surveillance data from a randomized field trial of agricultural task guidelines for children. 2,360 children living or working on 845 farms in central New York participated in the original study. The relationship between child work hours and three economic indicators: national all farm index (AFI) ratio, national fuel index, and regional milk prices was analyzed using times series plots, correlation, and multiple linear regression. The AFI ratio was positively correlated with child work hours (r = 0.49, p = 0.008) but there was no significant correlation between child work hours and fuel or milk prices. Multiple linear regression demonstrated that the relationship between AFI and child work hours is independent of a seasonal effect. Increased child work hours may be associated with periods of higher farm sector productivity, rather than economic stress per se. Findings are limited by the ecologic study design, use of national economic indicators, and the limited number of cycles of child work hours available for time series analysis. Economic conditions may influence decisions about children's farm work.

  9. Family intervention for children with functional somatic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgaard, Ditte Roth; Dehlholm-Lambertsen, Birgitte; Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka

    lidelser, Århus; Århus universitet Aim & Background: Functional somatic symptoms (FSS) can be defined as physical symptoms that cannot be fully explained by organic pathology. FSS are prevalent in children worldwide and in all medical settings, and when severe, pose a major burden on those with FSS...... and on society. In clinical practice and current research in child mental health, focus on family factors is increasing. The aim of this systematic review was to explore and describe the current family based approaches used for youngsters with FSS, and to evaluate the quality of the existing research...... quality scores on the POMRF. Many different outcome measures were employed, and the outcome measures chosen did not necessarily reflect what was targeted in the therapy. Focus on illness beliefs and shifting focus away from an organic explanation was agreed upon in all studies, with the alternative...

  10. Self-Reported Emotional and Behavioral Problems, Family Functioning and Parental Bonding among Psychiatric Outpatient Adolescent Offspring of Croatian Male Veterans with Partial PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarajlic Vukovic, Iris; Boricevic Maršanic, Vlatka; Aukst Margetic, Branka; Paradžik, Ljubica; Vidovic, Domagoj; Buljan Flander, Gordana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in male veterans has been linked with impaired family relationships and psychopathology in their children. Less is known about symptoms in children of veterans with partial PTSD. Objective: To compare mental health problems, family functioning and parent-child bonding among adolescent offspring of…

  11. Polyamines Function in Stress Tolerance: From Synthesis to Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hong eLiu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants are challenged by a variety of biotic or abiotic stresses, which can affect their growth and development, productivity and geographic distribution. In order to survive adverse environmental conditions, plants have evolved various adaptive strategies, among which is the accumulation of metabolites that play protective roles. A well-established example of the metabolites that are involved in stress responses, or stress tolerance, is the low-molecular-weight aliphatic polyamines, including putrescine,spermidine and spermine. The critical role of polyamines in stress tolerance is suggested by several lines of evidence: firstly, the transcript levels of polyamine biosynthetic genes, as well as the activities of the corresponding enzymes, are induced by stresses; secondly, elevation of endogenous polyamine levels by exogenous supply of polyamines, or overexpression of polyamine biosynthetic genes, results in enhanced stress tolerance; and thirdly, a reduction of endogenous polyamines is accompanied by compromised stress tolerance. A number of studies have demonstrated that polyamines function in stress tolerance largely by modulating the homeostasis of reactive oxygen species (ROS due to their direct, or indirect, roles in regulating antioxidant systems or suppressing ROS production. The transcriptional regulation of polyamine synthesis by transcription factors is also reviewed here. Meanwhile, future perspectives on polyamine research are also suggested.

  12. Effects of heat stress on baroreflex function in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Craig G.; Cui, Jian; Wilson, Thad E.

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Heat stress significantly reduces orthostatic tolerance in humans. The mechanism(s) causing this response remain unknown. The purpose of this review article is to present data pertaining to the hypothesis that reduced orthostatic tolerance in heat stressed individuals is a result of heat stress induced alterations in baroflex function. METHODS: In both normothermic and heat stressed conditions baroreflex responsiveness was assessed via pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods. In addition, the effects of heat stress on post-synaptic vasoconstrictor responsiveness were assessed. RESULTS: Generally, whole body heating did not alter baroreflex sensitivity defined as the gain of the linear portion of the baroreflex curve around the operating point. However, whole body heating shifted the baroreflex curve to the prevailing (i.e. elevated) heart rate and muscle sympathetic nerve activity. Finally, the heat stress impaired vasoconstrictor responses to exogenous administration of adrenergic agonists. CONCLUSION: Current data do not support the hypothesis that reduced orthostatic tolerance associated with heat stress in humans is due to impaired baroreflex responsiveness. This phenomenon may be partially due to the effects of heat stress on reducing vasoconstrictor responsiveness.

  13. Stressful life events predict delayed functional recovery following treatment for mania in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan-Meier, Leslie; Eberhart, Nicole K; Hammen, Constance L; Gitlin, Michael; Sokolski, Kenneth; Altshuler, Lori

    2011-04-30

    Identifying predictors of functional recovery in bipolar disorder is critical to treatment efforts to help patients re-establish premorbid levels of role adjustment following an acute manic episode. The current study examined the role of stressful life events as potential obstacles to recovery of functioning in various roles. 65 patients with bipolar I disorder participated in a longitudinal study of functional recovery following clinical recovery from a manic episode. Stressful life events were assessed as predictors of concurrent vs. delayed recovery of role functioning in 4 domains (friends, family, home duties, work/school). Despite clinical recovery, a subset of patients experienced delayed functional recovery in various role domains. Moreover, delayed functional recovery was significantly associated with presence of one or more stressors in the prior 3 months, even after controlling for mood symptoms. Presence of a stressor predicted longer time to functional recovery in life domains, up to 112 days in work/school. Interventions that provide monitoring, support, and problem-solving may be needed to help prevent or mitigate the effects of stress on functional recovery. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Family Functioning and Mental Health of Transgender and Gender-Nonconforming Youth in the Trans Teen and Family Narratives Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Ehrensaft, Diane; Vetters, Ralph; Forcier, Michelle; Austin, S Bryn

    Transgender and gender-nonconforming (TGN) youth are at increased risk for adverse mental health outcomes, but better family functioning may be protective. This study describes TGN youth's mental health and associations with family functioning in a community-based sample. Participants were from 33 families (96 family members) and included 33 TGN youth, ages 13 to 17 years; 48 cisgender (non-transgender) caregivers; and 15 cisgender siblings. Participants completed a survey with measures of family functioning (family communication, family satisfaction) and mental health of TGN youth (suicidality, self-harm, depression, anxiety, self-esteem, resilience). TGN youth reported a high risk of mental health concerns: suicidality (15% to 30%), self-harm (49%), clinically significant depressive symptoms (61%); and moderate self-esteem (M = 27.55, SD = 7.15) and resiliency (M = 3.67, SD = 0.53). In adjusted models, better family functioning from the TGN youth's perspective was associated with better mental health outcomes among TGN youth (β ranged from -0.40 to -0.65 for self-harm, depressive symptoms, and anxious symptoms, and 0.58 to 0.70 for self-esteem and resiliency). Findings from this study highlight the importance of considering TGN youth's perspectives on the family to inform interventions to improve family functioning in families with TGN youth.

  15. Interior design for ambulatory care facilities: how to reduce stress and anxiety in patients and families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasca-Beaulieu, K

    1999-01-01

    The following article illustrates some important factors to consider when designing ambulatory care facilities (ACFs), and focuses on how wayfinding, noise control, privacy, security, color and lighting, general ambience, textures, and nature can have a profound influence on patient and family stress, consumer satisfaction, health and well-being. Other important design issues: convenience and accessibility, accommodation to various populations, consumer and family focus, patient education, image, as well as current equipment needs and future growth are examined in light of the prevailing trends in health care delivery. In sum, this feature explores the important stress-reducing and health-promoting elements involved in successful ACF design.

  16. Impact of work pressure, work stress and work-family conflict on firefighter burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Todd D; DeJoy, David M; Dyal, Mari-Amanda Aimee; Huang, Gaojian

    2017-10-25

    Little research has explored burnout and its causes in the American fire service. Data were collected from career firefighters in the southeastern United States (n = 208) to explore these relationships. A hierarchical regression model was tested to examine predictors of burnout including sociodemographic characteristics (model 1), work pressure (model 2), work stress and work-family conflict (model 3) and interaction terms (model 4). The main findings suggest that perceived work stress and work-family conflict emerged as the significant predictors of burnout (both p < .001). Interventions and programs aimed at these predictors could potentially curtail burnout among firefighters.

  17. Relationship between the number of family members and stress by gender: Cross-sectional analysis of the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Jin-Won; Kim, Kyoung-Beom; Park, Jumin; Hong, Janghun; Kwon, Young Dae

    2017-01-01

    Due to gendered inequalities in the division of domestic work, women with paid employment and family caregiving responsibilities can feel extremely tired with general distress and depression. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the association between the number of family members and stress level by gender among Korean adults using a nationally representative dataset. We used a sample of 6,293 subjects aged 19 or older (3,629 female and 2,264 male) from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A multivariable logistic regression analysis with sociodemographic and health-related characteristics was conducted. Because there were gender differences, a stratified analysis was performed for each gender. Age, number of family members, education level, occupational status, depression, self-rated health status, and chronic diseases were found to have a significant association with stress level in the study subjects (pstress increased among females from family with two members (OR 1.521), three family members (OR 1.893), or four or more family members without spouse (OR 2.035) compared to those who live alone. We found that unmarried women are more likely to be stressed as the number of family members increases. Gender expectations giving women the main responsibility for domestic and care work may become a source of stress. Reconciliation of family and work remains women's responsibility in Korea. As family problems are recently becoming a big issue, our study shows the importance of considering gender difference in studies on stress according to family roles and functions.

  18. The Effects of a Family Support Program Including Respite Care on Parenting Stress and Family Quality of Life Perceived by Primary Caregivers of Children with Disabilities in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Minjung; Park, Jiyeon

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a family support program was carried out for primary caregivers of children with disabilities. The program included respite care, recreation programs, counseling, and social support coordination based on individual needs of each family. In order to verify the intervention effects, parenting stress and family quality of life were…

  19. Family Economic Stress, Quality of Paternal Relationship, and Depressive Symptoms among African American Adolescent Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Tenah K. A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Assari, Shervin

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the association between perceived family economic stress, quality of father-son relationships, and depressive symptoms among African American adolescent fathers. Data were collected during pregnancy from 65 African American adolescents who were first-time fathers, ages 14-19. Results from multiple regression analyses indicated that higher paternal relationship satisfaction was associated with fewer depressive symptoms among adolescent fathers. Additionally, depressive symptoms were higher among adolescent fathers who reported experiencing higher levels of conflict with their fathers. Further, paternal conflict moderated the effect of perceived family economic stress on depressive symptoms. That is, among adolescent fathers experiencing low levels of conflict with their fathers, high perceived family economic stress was associated with more depressive symptoms. Study findings suggest that the risk for depressive symptoms is highest among adolescent fathers experiencing low family economic stress and highly conflictual relations with their fathers. These results highlight the complexities of paternal relationships and perceived economic stressors on depressive symptoms during pregnancy for African American adolescent fathers. The importance of expanding research on influential familial relationships and economic stressors on adolescent African American fathers is discussed. PMID:26617454

  20. Review of family relational stress and pediatric asthma: the value of biopsychosocial systemic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Beatrice L; Miller, Bruce D; Lehman, Heather K

    2015-06-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease in children. Despite dramatic advances in pharmacological treatments, asthma remains a leading public health problem, especially in socially disadvantaged minority populations. Some experts believe that this health gap is due to the failure to address the impact of stress on the disease. Asthma is a complex disease that is influenced by multilevel factors, but the nature of these factors and their interrelations are not well understood. This paper aims to integrate social, psychological, and biological literatures on relations between family/parental stress and pediatric asthma, and to illustrate the utility of multilevel systemic models for guiding treatment and stimulating future research. We used electronic database searches and conducted an integrated analysis of selected epidemiological, longitudinal, and empirical studies. Evidence is substantial for the effects of family/parental stress on asthma mediated by both disease management and psychobiological stress pathways. However, integrative models containing specific pathways are scarce. We present two multilevel models, with supporting data, as potential prototypes for other such models. We conclude that these multilevel systems models may be of substantial heuristic value in organizing investigations of, and clinical approaches to, the complex social-biological aspects of family stress in pediatric asthma. However, additional systemic models are needed, and the models presented herein could serve as prototypes for model development. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  1. Socioeconomic stress and academic adjustment among Asian American adolescents: the protective role of family obligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Lisa; Andrews, Kandace; Stein, Gabriela L; Supple, Andrew J; Gonzalez, Laura M

    2013-06-01

    Socioeconomic stress has long been found to place youth at risk, with low family income conferring disadvantages in adolescents' school achievement and success. This study investigates the role of socioeconomic stress on academic adjustment, and pinpoints family obligation as a possible buffer of negative associations. We examined direct and interactive effects at two time points in the same sample of Asian American adolescents-early high school (N = 180 9th-10th graders; 60 % female) and 2 years later in late high school (N = 156 11th-12th graders; 87% of original sample). Results suggest that socioeconomic stress is indeed associated with poor academic adjustment, measured broadly through self-reported GPA, importance of academic success, and educational aspirations and expectations. Family obligation was positively related to adjustment, and also was found to buffer the negative effects of socioeconomic stress, but only during adolescents' later high school years. Adolescents reporting more family obligation experienced less of the negative effects of financial stress on academic outcomes than those reporting lower obligation. Cultural and developmental implications are discussed in light of these direct and moderating effects.

  2. Recruiting and retaining family caregivers to a randomized controlled trial on mindfulness-based stress reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitebird, Robin R; Kreitzer, Mary Jo; Lewis, Beth A; Hanson, Leah R; Crain, A Lauren; Enstad, Chris J; Mehta, Adele

    2011-09-01

    Caregivers for a family member with dementia experience chronic long-term stress that may benefit from new complementary therapies such as mindfulness-based stress reduction. Little is known however, about the challenges of recruiting and retaining family caregivers to research on mind-body based complementary therapies. Our pilot study is the first of its kind to successfully recruit caregivers for a family member with dementia to a randomized controlled pilot study of mindfulness-based stress reduction. The study used an array of recruitment strategies and techniques that were tailored to fit the unique features of our recruitment sources and employed retention strategies that placed high value on establishing early and ongoing communication with potential participants. Innovative recruitment methods including conducting outreach to health plan members and generating press coverage were combined with standard methods of community outreach and paid advertising. We were successful in exceeding our recruitment goal and retained 92% of the study participants at post-intervention (2 months) and 90% at 6 months. Recruitment and retention for family caregiver interventions employing mind-body based complementary therapies can be successful despite many challenges. Barriers include cultural perceptions about the use and benefit of complementary therapies, cultural differences with how the role of family caregiver is perceived, the use of group-based designs requiring significant time commitment by participants, and travel and respite care needs for busy family caregivers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Stress Reduction in Postcardiac Surgery Family Members: Implementation of a Postcardiac Surgery Tool Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breisinger, Lauren; Macci Bires, Angela; Cline, Thomas W

    The intensive care unit (ICU) can be a place of stress, anxiety, and emotional instability for both patients and families. Medical and nursing care during this acute time is patient focused, and family members are often left in the dark. Unintentional exclusion from information results in high levels of stress, anxiety, and uncertainty for families. Due to the acuity of illness, family members of cardiac surgery patients experience the highest levels of stress. Spouses may experience intense psychosomatic symptoms such as depression, anxiety, and fear for several months after the surgery. The purpose of this study was aimed at decreasing those feelings of anxiety in family members with postcardiac surgery through the use of a cardiac surgery tool kit. The study was a quality improvement project utilizing a convenience sample of 83 participants 18 years and older. Participants were asked to use the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) Form Y-1 (state anxiety) to rate their anxiety level preintervention and then again postintervention. Data were collected over a 6-month period. Descriptive data including age, education level, ethnicity, relationship, experience in the ICU, and active diagnoses of mental disorders did not affect the changes in the pre- and posttest data. A paired t test was conducted on the sample to assess changes in state anxiety, using the STAI Form Y-1. The results were statistically significant (t = 11.97, df = 81, P family members of postcardiac surgery patients.

  4. The relationship of work stress and family stress to the self-rated health of women employed in the industrial sector in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gwang Suk; Cho, Won Jung; Lee, Chung Yul; Marion, Lucy N; Kim, Mi Ja

    2005-01-01

    To identify the relationship of work stress and family stress to the health of women in Korea. Cross-sectional study. Three hundred and thirty-one married women working in 14 manufacturing companies in Korea. Subjects responded to a questionnaire that included items on work stress, family stress, social support, and general characteristics. Perceived health status (PHS) was assessed with the Short Form-36. There was a significant positive relationship between social support and PHS, but significant negative relationships were found between PHS and work stress as well as family stress. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis explained the health status of married working women by four categories: personal, work related, family related, and social support, and accounted for 45.4% of the variance. When family-related factors were added to the model, the power of explanation was increased by 17.9% compared with the explained variance. Family stress was a major variable not only for explaining the variance but also for correlating with health status. Both work stress and family stress should be considered together when addressing the health of working women in the industrial sector in Korea.

  5. A Yoga and Compassion Meditation Program Reduces Stress in Familial Caregivers of Alzheimer's Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. D. Danucalov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's disease exhibit reduced quality of life and increased stress levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week yoga and compassion meditation program on the perceived stress, anxiety, depression, and salivary cortisol levels in familial caregivers. A total of 46 volunteers were randomly assigned to participate in a stress-reduction program for a 2-month period (yoga and compassion meditation program—YCMP group (n=25 or an untreated group for the same period of time (control group (n=21. The levels of stress, anxiety, depression, and morning salivary cortisol of the participants were measured before and after intervention. The groups were initially homogeneous; however, after intervention, the groups diverged significantly. The YCMP group exhibited a reduction of the stress (P<0.05, anxiety (P<0.000001, and depression (P<0.00001 levels, as well as a reduction in the concentration of salivary cortisol (P<0.05. Our study suggests that an 8-week yoga and compassion meditation program may offer an effective intervention for reducing perceived stress, anxiety, depression, and salivary cortisol in familial caregivers.

  6. Family functioning in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder: A case - control study

    OpenAIRE

    Sateesh R Koujalgi; Raghavendra B Nayak; Adithya A Pandurangi; Nanasahed M Patil

    2015-01-01

    Background: Psychological disorders can have a direct impact on family functioning. Family dysfunction is an indirect factor leading to the relapse of psychological disorders. Literature on family dysfunction in anxiety disorder is limited. Role of family and its functioning in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may help in better understanding of the role of social factors in OCD. Aim: The aim was to compare family functions in patients with OCD and compare with controls. Materials and Meth...

  7. Genome-wide expression analysis of rice ABC transporter family across spatio-temporal samples and in response to abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van Ngoc Tuyet; Moon, Sunok; Jung, Ki-Hong

    2014-09-01

    Although the super family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins plays key roles in the physiology and development of plants, the functions of members of this interesting family mostly remain to be clarified, especially in crop plants. Thus, systematic analysis of this family in rice (Oryza sativa), a major model crop plant, will be helpful in the design of effective strategies for functional analysis. Phylogenomic analysis that integrates anatomy and stress meta-profiling data based on a large collection of rice Affymetrix array data into the phylogenic context provides useful clues into the functions for each of the ABC transporter family members in rice. Using anatomy data, we identified 17 root-preferred and 16-shoot preferred genes at the vegetative stage, and 3 pollen, 2 embryo, 2 ovary, 2 endosperm, and 1 anther-preferred gene at the reproductive stage. The stress data revealed significant up-regulation or down-regulation of 47 genes under heavy metal treatment, 16 genes under nutrient deficient conditions, and 51 genes under abiotic stress conditions. Of these, we confirmed the differential expression patterns of 14 genes in root samples exposed to drought stress using quantitative real-time PCR. Network analysis using RiceNet suggests a functional gene network involving nine rice ABC transporters that are differentially regulated by drought stress in root, further enhancing the prediction of biological function. Our analysis provides a molecular basis for the study of diverse biological phenomena mediated by the ABC family in rice and will contribute to the enhancement of crop yield and stress tolerance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Autobiographical memory functions and posttraumatic stress symptoms across adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Palacio Gonzalez, Adriana; Watson, Lynn Ann; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2018-01-01

    . In this study, we examined the unique relationship between autobiographical memory functions and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and whether such relationships varied with age across adulthood. A representative sample of 1040 adult Danes (20–70 years old) reported the frequency with which they recall......Previous research has documented robust individual differences in the functions served by autobiographical memories, and shown that different autobiographical memory functions are related to both positive and negative indicators of psychological well-being, and that their frequency varies with age...... autobiographical memories for different purposes as well as their level of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Higher reflective and ruminative functions, as well as lower social function, predicted higher levels of PTSS. There were no moderating effects of age. The results suggest that although...

  9. Genome-Wide Analysis of the Musa WRKY Gene Family: Evolution and Differential Expression during Development and Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Ridhi; Pandey, Ashutosh; Trivedi, Prabodh K; Asif, Mehar H

    2016-01-01

    The WRKY gene family plays an important role in the development and stress responses in plants. As information is not available on the WRKY gene family in Musa species, genome-wide analysis has been carried out in this study using available genomic information from two species, Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana. Analysis identified 147 and 132 members of the WRKY gene family in M. acuminata and M. balbisiana, respectively. Evolutionary analysis suggests that the WRKY gene family expanded much before the speciation in both the species. Most of the orthologs retained in two species were from the γ duplication event which occurred prior to α and β genome-wide duplication (GWD) events. Analysis also suggests that subtle changes in nucleotide sequences during the course of evolution have led to the development of new motifs which might be involved in neo-functionalization of different WRKY members in two species. Expression and cis-regulatory motif analysis suggest possible involvement of Group II and Group III WRKY members during various stresses and growth/development including fruit ripening process respectively.

  10. Genome-wide analysis of the Musa WRKY gene family: evolution and differential expression during development and stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridhi eGoel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The WRKY gene family plays an important role in the development and stress responses in plants. As information is not available on the WRKY gene family in Musa species, genome-wide analysis has been carried out in this study using available genomic information from two species, Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana. Analysis identified 147 and 132 members of the WRKY gene family in M. acuminata and M. balbisiana respectively. Evolutionary analysis suggests that the WRKY gene family expanded much before the speciation in both the species. Most of the orthologs retained in two species were from the γ duplication event which occurred prior to α and β genome-wide duplication (GWD events. Analysis also suggests that subtle changes in nucleotide sequences during the course of evolution have led to the development of new motifs which might be involved in neo-functionalization of different WRKY members in two species. Expression and cis-regulatory motif analysis suggest possible involvement of Group II and Group III WRKY members during various stresses and growth/ development including fruit ripening process respectively.

  11. Stepwise Functional Evolution in a Fungal Sugar Transporter Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Carla; Coelho, Marco A; Salema-Oom, Madalena; Gonçalves, Paula

    2016-02-01

    Sugar transport is of the utmost importance for most cells and is central to a wide range of applied fields. However, despite the straightforward in silico assignment of many novel transporters, including sugar porters, to existing families, their exact biological role and evolutionary trajectory often remain unclear, mainly because biochemical characterization of membrane proteins is inherently challenging, but also owing to their uncommonly turbulent evolutionary histories. In addition, many important shifts in membrane carrier function are apparently ancient, which further limits our ability to reconstruct evolutionary trajectories in a reliable manner. Here, we circumvented some of these obstacles by examining the relatively recent emergence of a unique family of fungal sugar facilitators, related to drug antiporters. The former transporters, named Ffz, were previously shown to be required for fructophilic metabolism in yeasts. We first exploited the wealth of fungal genomic data available to define a comprehensive but well-delimited family of Ffz-like transporters, showing that they are only present in Dikarya. Subsequently, a combination of phylogenetic analyses and in vivo functional characterization was used to retrace important changes in function, while highlighting the evolutionary events that are most likely to have determined extant distribution of the gene, such as horizontal gene transfers (HGTs). One such HGT event is proposed to have set the stage for the onset of fructophilic metabolism in yeasts, a trait that according to our results may be the metabolic hallmark of close to 100 yeast species that thrive in sugar rich environments. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Anxiety, Family Functioning and Neuroendocrine Biomarkers in Obese Children

    OpenAIRE

    Inês Pinto; Simon Wilkinson; Daniel Virella; Marta Alves; Conceição Calhau; Rui Coelho

    2017-01-01

    The project was supported by the Research Support Scheme of the FMUP/doctoral program, grant no PEst-OE/SAU/UI0038/2011 and by FCT, SFRH/SINTD/60115/2009, FSE-UE. Introduction: This observational study explores potential links between obese children’s cortisol, and parental mental state, family functioning, and the children’s symptoms of anxiety and depression. Material and Methods: A non-random sample of 104 obese children (55 boys), mean age 10.9 years (standard deviation 1.76), was recr...

  13. Health risk behaviors and depressive symptoms among Hispanic adolescents: Examining acculturation discrepancies and family functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Schwartz, Seth J; Castillo, Linda G; Unger, Jennifer B; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L; Romero, Andrea J; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Córdova, David; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Lizzi, Karina M; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Soto, Daniel W; Villamar, Juan Andres; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José

    2016-03-01

    Drawing from a theory of bicultural family functioning 2 models were tested to examine the longitudinal effects of acculturation-related variables on adolescent health risk behaviors and depressive symptoms (HRB/DS) mediated by caregiver and adolescent reports of family functioning. One model examined the effects of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A second model examined the individual effects of caregiver and adolescent acculturation components in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A sample of 302 recently immigrated Hispanic caregiver-child dyads completed measures of Hispanic and U.S. cultural practices, values, and identities at baseline (predictors); measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement 6 months postbaseline (mediators); and only adolescents completed measures of smoking, binge drinking, inconsistent condom use, and depressive symptoms 1 year postbaseline (outcomes). Measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement were used to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis to estimate the fit of a latent construct for family functioning. Key findings indicate that (a) adolescent acculturation components drove the effect of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning; (b) higher levels of adolescent family functioning were associated with less HRB/DS, whereas higher levels of caregiver family functioning were associated with more adolescent HRB/DS; (c) and only adolescent reports of family functioning mediated the effects of acculturation components and caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies on HRB/DS. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Stress-related IBS | Outhoff | South African Family Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The gastrointestinal tract is exquisitely sensitive to different physical and psychological stressors. Irritable ... but also other potentially important factors such as gut motility, intestinal mucosal permeability and barrier functioning, visceral sensitivity, mucosal blood flow, immune cell reactivity and enteric microbiota composition.

  15. The Interactive Effects of Stressful Family Life Events and Cortisol Reactivity on Adolescent Externalizing and Internalizing Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeger, Christine M.; Cook, Emily C.; Connell, Christian M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the associations between stressful family life events and adolescent externalizing and internalizing behaviors, and the interactive effects of family life events and cortisol reactivity on problem behaviors. In a sample of 100 mothers and their adolescents (M age = 15.09; SD age = 0.98; 68% girls), adolescent cortisol reactivity was measured in response to a mother-adolescent conflict interaction task designed to elicit a stress response. Mothers reported on measures of family life events and adolescent problem behaviors. Results indicated that a heightened adolescent cortisol response moderated the relations between stressful family life events and both externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Results support context-dependent theoretical models, suggesting that for adolescents with higher cortisol reactivity (compared to those with lower cortisol reactivity), higher levels of stressful family life events were associated with greater problem behaviors, whereas lower levels of stressful family life events were related to fewer problem behaviors. PMID:26961703

  16. The Relationship between Family Functioning and Behavior Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Darryn; Moran, Erin; Orlich, Felice; Hall, Trevor A.; Kovacs, Erica A.; Delahaye, Jennifer; Clemons, Traci E.; Kuhlthau, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Although it is well known that families of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at risk for increased stress and other problems, little is known about what child characteristics may mediate that risk. To address the impact of child behavior problems on family health, we examined data collected from 136 families raising children with…

  17. Differences between Mothers' and Fathers' Ratings of Family Functioning with the Family Assessment Device: The Validity of Combined Parent Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Dawson; Marais, Ida; Cavanagh, Robert; Kendall, Garth; Priddis, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the General Functioning subscale of the McMaster Family Assessment Device were examined using the Rasch Model (N = 237 couples). Mothers' and fathers' ratings of the General Functioning subscale of the McMaster Family Assessment Device are recommended, provided these are analyzed separately. More than a quarter of…

  18. The buffering effect of family functioning on the psychological consequences of headache

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammadi, Somayyeh; Zandieh, Sara; Dehghani, Mohsen; Assazadegan, Farhad; Sanderman, Robbert; Hagedoorn, Mariët

    2017-01-01

    The current study aimed to examine whether high family functioning mitigates the association between headache intensity and distress. The sample consisted of 124 patients with chronic or recurrent headache. Patients completed validated questionnaires about headache intensity, family functioning, and

  19. Executive Functions in Students With Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajilchi, Bita; Nejati, Vahid

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate and compare the executive functions of students with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms with those functions in healthy ones. This study was a comparative and non-clinical analysis. The study population comprised all students of Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran. A total of 448 students were recruited using convenience sampling method. They were also screened using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) test comprising 21 items. Of study participants, 30 people were depressed, 27 had anxiety, and 15 suffered from stress. Then, 50 control people were matched with them. Next, both groups were compared using the Stroop test, Wisconsin card sorting, and cognitive ability test. Using MANOVA test, data analysis revealed no significant differences among 4 groups with regard to selective attention and shifting attention. Depressed group reacted rapidly as opposed to the anxiety group with regard to measures of shifting attention and cognitive abilities; it was observed that the memory, inhibition control, planning, and flexibility of the healthy group were better than those of the 3 other groups. The findings of this research raised specific issues in relation to the role of depression, anxiety, and stress in the disruption of the executive functions of sufferers. Selective and shifting attention and cognitive abilities are specifically affected in this regard. Meanwhile, the role of stress in impairing decision making and the major role of anxiety in impairing sustained attention was shown to be considerable.

  20. Do daughters really cause divorce? Stress, pregnancy, and family composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamoudi, Amar; Nobles, Jenna

    2014-08-01

    Provocative studies have reported that in the United States, marriages producing firstborn daughters are more likely to divorce than those producing firstborn sons. The findings have been interpreted as contemporary evidence of fathers' son preference. Our study explores the potential role of another set of dynamics that may drive these patterns: namely, selection into live birth. Epidemiological evidence indicates that the characteristic female survival advantage may begin before birth. If stress accompanying unstable marriages has biological effects on fecundity, a female survival advantage could generate an association between stability and the sex composition of offspring. Combining regression and simulation techniques to analyze real-world data, we ask, How much of the observed association between sex of the firstborn child and risk of divorce could plausibly be accounted for by the joint effects of female survival advantage and reduced fecundity associated with unstable marriage? Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), we find that relationship conflict predicts the sex of children born after conflict was measured; conflict also predicts subsequent divorce. Conservative specification of parameters linking pregnancy characteristics, selection into live birth, and divorce are sufficient to generate a selection-driven association between offspring sex and divorce, which is consequential in magnitude. Our findings illustrate the value of demographic accounting of processes which occur before birth-a period when many outcomes of central interest in the population sciences begin to take shape.

  1. Psychiatric disorders and family functioning in children and adolescents with functional abdominal pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Moaiedy, Farah; Imanieh, Mohammad Hadi; Askani, Hamid; Haghighat, Mahmood; Dehbozorgi, Gholamreza; Dehghani, Seyed Mohsen

    2008-07-01

    Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder. There is a heightened risk when conducting potentially dangerous and unnecessary medical investigations and procedures in children with FAPS. The aim of this study was to survey the rate of the psychiatric disorders and family functioning in children and adolescents with FAPS. The subjects were a consecutive new sample of 45 children and adolescents with FAPS, 45 with an organic abdominal pain, and 45 pain-free comparison subjects aged 5-18 years that were interviewed using the Farsi version of K-SADS. Family functioning and the severity of pain were also studied. About 51.1% of patients with FAPS suffered from at least one psychiatric disorder. Psychiatric disorders in the FAPS patients studied included general anxiety disorder (8.9%), obsessive-compulsive disorder (11.1%), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (15.6%), separation anxiety disorder (24.4%), and major depressive disorder (15.6%). Except for generalized anxiety disorder and tic disorder, the other disorders were significantly more common in the FAPS group than in the two other control groups. Family functioning scores were not significantly different between groups. There is a high rate of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents with FAPS in Iran, but our study found fewer incidences of disorders than previous reports have indicated. Family dysfunction difficulties in FAPS children are not more common than those in the control groups.

  2. Clinical validity of a relocation stress scale for the families of patients transferred from intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, HyunSoo; Lee, Seul; Kim, JiSun; Lee, EunJu; Min, HyoNam; Cho, OkJa; Seo, WhaSook

    2015-07-01

    This study was conducted to develop a family relocation stress scale by modifying the Son's Relocation Stress Syndrome Scale, to examine its clinical validity and reliability and to confirm its suitability for measuring family relocation stress. The transfer of ICU patients to general wards is a significant anxiety-producing event for family members. However, no relocation stress scale has been developed specifically for families. A nonexperimental, correlation design was adopted. The study subjects were 95 family members of 95 ICU patients at a university hospital located in Incheon, South Korea. Face and construct validities of the devised family relocation stress scale were examined. Construct validity was examined using factor analysis and by using a nomological validity test. Reliability was also examined. Face and content validity of the scale were verified by confirming that its items adequately measured family relocation stress. Factor analysis yielded four components, and the total variance explained by these four components was 63·0%, which is acceptable. Nomological validity was well supported by significant relationships between relocation stress and degree of preparation for relocation, patient self-care ability, family burden and satisfaction with the relocation process. The devised scale was also found to have good reliability. The family relocation stress scale devised in this study was found to have good validity and reliability, and thus, is believed to offer a means of assessing family relocation stress. The findings of this study provide a reliable and valid assessment tool when nurses prepare families for patient transfer from an ICU to a ward setting, and may also provide useful information to those developing an intervention programme for family relocation stress management. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The Relationship of Parent Alcoholism and Family Dysfunction to Stress among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Kathy E.; Kittleson, Mark; Ogletree, Roberta; Welshimer, Kathleen; Woehlke, Paula; Benshoff, John

    2000-01-01

    Investigated relationships between collegiate adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and adult children from dysfunctional families (ACDFs) to determine whether they were at greater risk of stress than non-ACOA and non-ACDF students. Evaluations of students indicated that substantial numbers were ACOAs, ACDFs, or both, and the groups overlapped.…

  4. Early Intervention for Families Exposed to Chronic Stress and Trauma: The Attachment Vitamins Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulette, Annmarie C.; Dunham, Mackenzie; Davis, Mindy; Gortney, Jason; Lieberman, Alicia F.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the Attachment Vitamins program, a trauma-informed parent group intervention for families with young children. Attachment Vitamins is a relational psychoeducational intervention based on the principles of Child-Parent Psychotherapy (CPP). Its goal is to repair the impact of chronic stress and trauma through strengthening the…

  5. Managing multiple roles - Personality, stress, and work-family interference in dual-earner couples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierda-Boer, H.H.; Gerris, J.R.M.; Vermulst, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    Today many parents have multiple roles. This study examined how personality, domain-specific stress, and work-family interference are interrelated. Questionnaire data of 276 Dutch dual-earner couples with young children were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Findings demonstrated that job

  6. Secondary traumatic stress and secondary posttraumatic growth in a sample of Dutch police family liaison officers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunst, Maarten; Saan, M.C.; Bollen, Lidewij; Kuijpers, Karlijn

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated secondary traumatic stress (STS) and secondary posttraumatic growth (SPG) in a sample of Dutch police family liaison officers (N = 224). Our study had two aims: (a) to identify potential risk and protective factors for STS and (b) to investigate the association between STS

  7. Prospective community study of family stress and anxiety in (pre)adolescents : the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oort, Floor V. A.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Huizink, Anja C.

    For prevention of anxiety in children and adolescents, it is important to know whether family stress is a predictor of anxiety. We studied this in 1,875 adolescents from the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) who were followed up for 2 years, from age 10-12 to 12-14 years.

  8. The Impact of Childhood Hearing Loss on the Family: Mothers' and Fathers' Stress and Coping Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidman-Zait, Anat; Most, Tova; Tarrasch, Ricardo; Haddad-eid, Eliana; Brand, Devora

    2016-01-01

    Parenting children who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH) presents unique long-term challenges that can place the parents at a greater risk for elevated levels of parenting stress. Adaptation of families to the various challenges presented by childhood hearing loss is influenced by their personal and social coping resources available for managing…

  9. Prospective community study of family stress and anxiety in (pre)adolescents: the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.V.A. van Oort (Floor); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); J. Ormel (Johan Hans); A.C. Huizink (Anja)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractFor prevention of anxiety in children and adolescents, it is important to know whether family stress is a predictor of anxiety. We studied this in 1,875 adolescents from the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) who were followed up for 2 years, from age 10-12 to 12-14

  10. Whose Time Is It? The Effect of Employment and Work/Family Stress on Children's Housework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gager, Constance T.; Sanchez, Laura A.; Demaris, Alfred

    2009-01-01

    Children's time use--and specifically the time they spend on household chores--is an important arena for understanding social change. However, few studies accurately depict the multiple factors influencing children's household labor, including parent's and children's available time and parent's levels of work/family stress. We address these gaps…

  11. Longitudinal and Integrative Tests of Family Stress Model Effects on Mexican Origin Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rebecca M. B.; Liu, Yu; Nair, Rajni L.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2015-01-01

    The family stress model represents a common framework through which to examine the effects of environmental stressors on adolescent adjustment. The model suggests that economic and neighborhood stressors influence youth adjustment via disruptions to parenting. Incorporating integrative developmental theory, we examined the degree to which parents'…

  12. Hopelessness, Family Stress, and Depression among Mexican-Heritage Mothers in the Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Kulis, Stephen; Perez, Hilda Garcia; Bermudez-Parsai, Monica

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of a study conducted with a sample of 136 Mexican-heritage mothers residing in a large southwestern metropolitan area. From a risk-and-resiliency perspective, hopelessness was approached as a culturally specific response to family stress and other challenges encountered by Mexican immigrants. Although…

  13. TSL Family Therapy Followed by Improved Marital Quality and Reduced Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Yop; Kim, Dong Goo; Nam, Seok In

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The current study evaluated the effectiveness of a form of family therapy developed in Korea. The "Thank you--Sorry--Love" (TSL) model was applied to a group of elderly retired men to improve the quality of their marriage and to reduce their stress. Methods: Thirty married retired Korean men were assigned to three groups.…

  14. Racial Socialization in Transracial Adoptive Families: Does It Help Adolescents Deal with Discrimination Stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Leigh A.; Smith, Jocelyn R.; Hrapczynski, Katie M.; Riley, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    Racial socialization protects minority adolescents from stress associated with racial discrimination. The process of racial socialization, however, may be challenging in transracial adoptive families. White parents may struggle with preparing their children for discrimination and fostering the development of racial pride. Thus, transracially…

  15. Prospective community study of family stress and anxiety in (pre)adolescents: the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oort, F.V.; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.; Huizink, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    For prevention of anxiety in children and adolescents, it is important to know whether family stress is a predictor of anxiety. We studied this in 1,875 adolescents from the Tracking Adolescents’ Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) who were followed up for 2 years, from age 10-12 to 12-14 years.

  16. Prospective community study of family stress and anxiety in (pre)adolescents: the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oort, F.V.A.; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.; Huizink, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    For prevention of anxiety in children and adolescents, it is important to know whether family stress is a predictor of anxiety. We studied this in 1,875 adolescents from the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) who were followed up for 2 years, from age 10-12 to 12-14 years.

  17. Stress, Social Support, and Psychosocial Functioning of Ethnically Diverse Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Michelle; Langrehr, Kimberly J.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the stress-buffering role of social support on indicators of psychosocial functioning among a combined and split sample of ethnically diverse college students. Although high social support significantly moderated 2 relationships in the combined sample, high and low levels of social support significantly reduced the effect of…

  18. Chronic stress and pituitary-adrenal function in female pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, C.J.J.G.

    1994-01-01

    Introduction

    The main purpose of the studies described in this thesis was to gain more insight in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocorticaI (HPA) system and the mechanisms underlying adaptation to chronic stress in female pigs. The function of the HPA axis, which

  19. Stressful Life Events in Children With Functional Defecation Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philips, Elise M.; Peeters, Babette; Teeuw, Arianne H.; Leenders, Arnold G. E.; Boluyt, Nicole; Brilleslijper-Kater, Sonja N.; Benninga, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of stressful life events including (sexual) abuse in children with functional defecation disorders by performing a systematic review. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO for cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies investigating the

  20. THE PREVALENCE OF STRESS AND BURNOUT SYNDROME IN HOSPITAL DOCTORS AND FAMILY PHYSICIANS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanetic, Kosana D; Savic, Suzana M; Racic, Maja

    2016-11-01

    Introducti on. Burnout syndrome is the result of chronic emotional stress. It is characterized by high levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, and reduced level of personal accomplishment. The aim of this study was to determine the level of stress and risk ror burnout syndrome in doctors employed in health centers and hospitals, and to investigate the impact of socio-derrdgraphic characteristics on the level of stress and the o ccurrence of burnout syndrome. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the period from October I to December 31, 2015 in three health centers and in the University Clinical Center of the Republic of Srpska. The survey was anonymous. A socio-demographic questionnaire and a questionnaire for self-assessment of the level of stress and Maslach Burnout Inventory were used as research instruments. Out of 151 doctors included in the study, 49% were family physicians, and 51% were hospital doctors. The analysis of responses to questionnaires for self-assessment of stress level revealed that 51.7% of participants had high levels of stress (52.7% of family physicians, 50.6% of doctors working in hospital). A high degree of emotional exhaustion was found in 27.2% of participants (29.7% of fam ily physicians, 24.6% of doctors working in hospital), high depersonalization was found in 23.8% of participants (25.7% of family physicians, 22. 1% of doctors working in hospital), a low level of personal accomplishment was found in 39.7% of participants (37.8% of family physicians. 41.6% of doctors working in hospital). No statistically significant difference regarding stress degree, emotional exhaustion and depersonalizaion and personal accomplishment was found between hospital doctors and family physicians. The physicians aged over 45 years had a significantly (p = 0.030) higher level of emotional exhaustion than their younger colleagues. This study found that there was a high risk of burnout syndrome in physicians in the Republic of Srpska

  1. The QTP family of consistent functionals and potentials in Kohn-Sham density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Yifan; Bartlett, Rodney J., E-mail: bartlett@qtp.ufl.edu [Quantum Theory Project and Departments of Chemistry and Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)

    2016-07-21

    This manuscript presents the second, consistent density functional in the QTP (Quantum Theory Project) family, that is, the CAM-QTP(01). It is a new range-separated exchange-correlation functional in which the non-local exchange contribution is 100% at large separation. It follows the same basic principles of this family that the Kohn-Sham eigenvalues of the occupied orbitals approximately equal the vertical ionization energies, which is not fulfilled by most of the traditional density functional methods. This new CAM-QTP(01) functional significantly improves the accuracy of the vertical excitation energies especially for the Rydberg states in the test set. It also reproduces many other properties such as geometries, reaction barrier heights, and atomization energies.

  2. The relationship between family functioning and caregiving appraisal of dementia family caregivers: caregiving self-efficacy as a mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsin-Yi; Huang, Lian-Hua

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore caregiving self-efficacy as a mediator for the association between family functioning and caregiving appraisal of dementia family caregivers in Taiwan. This study adopted a cross-sectional correlational design. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 115 dyads of dementia patients and family caregivers from the outpatient neurological clinics of two hospitals in northern Taiwan. Data were gathered through interviews with a structured questionnaire, which included demographic characteristics for caregivers and patients, family functioning, caregiving self-efficacy, as well as positive and negative aspects of caregiving appraisal. Family functioning, patients' activities of daily living score, Neuropsychiatric Inventory caregiver distress, and three domains of self-efficacy were significantly associated with caregiver burden. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that self-efficacy for obtaining respite (SE-OR) significantly explained 20.5% of the variance in caregiver esteem. Caregiver perceived worsened health status, family functioning, and SE-OR significantly explained 59% of the variance in caregiver burden. The mediation test only supported the partially mediating role of SE-OR on the relationship between family functioning and caregiver burden, while the mediating effect of self-efficacy for responding to disruptive behaviours and controlling upsetting thoughts were insignificant. Our findings provided preliminary evidence for health professionals recommending that future studies should assess the family dynamic and health problems of caregivers, and develop appropriate family-centred interventions that focus on strengthening interfamily support and respite services to alleviate caregiver burden.

  3. The association of family functioning and psychosis proneness in five countries that differ in cultural values and family structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüsten, Caroline; Lincoln, Tania M

    2017-07-01

    For decades, researchers have attributed the better prognosis of psychosis in developing countries to a host of socio-cultural factors, including family functioning. Nevertheless, it is unknown whether family functioning and its association with symptoms differ across countries. This study assessed family functioning (support, satisfaction with family relations, and criticism) and psychosis proneness in community samples from Chile (n =399), Colombia (n=486), Indonesia (n=115), Germany (n=174) and the USA (n=143). Family functioning was compared between prototypical developing countries (Chile, Columbia, Indonesia) and highly industrialized countries (Germany, USA). Hierarchical regression analysis was used to test for the moderating effect of country on the associations between family functioning and psychosis proneness. Participants from developing countries perceived more support and felt more satisfied. However, they also perceived more criticism than participants from highly industrialized countries. Criticism and family satisfaction were significantly associated with psychosis proneness. Moreover, the relationship between criticism and psychosis proneness was significantly stronger in developing countries compared to highly industrialized countries. Generally, family satisfaction and criticism appear to be more relevant to psychosis proneness than the quantity of family support. Moreover, criticism seems to be more closely related to psychosis proneness in developing countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Coping Strategies and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in Post-ICU Family Decision Makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrinec, Amy B; Mazanec, Polly M; Burant, Christopher J; Hoffer, Alan; Daly, Barbara J

    2015-06-01

    To assess the coping strategies used by family decision makers of adult critical care patients during and after the critical care experience and the relationship of coping strategies to posttraumatic stress symptoms experienced 60 days after hospitalization. A single-group descriptive longitudinal correlational study. Medical, surgical, and neurological ICUs in a large tertiary care university hospital. Consecutive family decision makers of adult critical care patients from August 2012 to November 2013. Study inclusion occurred after the patient's fifth day in the ICU. None. Family decision makers of incapacitated adult ICU patients completed the Brief COPE instrument assessing coping strategy use 5 days after ICU admission and 30 days after hospital discharge or death of the patient and completed the Impact of Event Scale-Revised assessing posttraumatic stress symptoms 60 days after hospital discharge. Seventy-seven family decision makers of the eligible 176 completed all data collection time points of this study. The use of problem-focused (p=0.01) and emotion-focused (pstress symptoms than coping strategies 5 days after ICU admission (R2=0.30, p=0.001) controlling for patient and decision-maker characteristics. The role of decision maker for a parent and patient death were the only noncoping predictors of posttraumatic stress symptoms. Avoidant coping use 30 days after hospitalization mediated the relationship between patient death and later posttraumatic stress symptom severity. Coping strategy use is a significant predictor of posttraumatic stress symptom severity 60 days after hospitalization in family decision makers of ICU patients.

  5. Changes in ventricular function during emotional stress and cold exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiess, M.C.; Moore, R.A.; Dimsdale, J.; Alpert, N.M.; Boucher, C.A.; Strauss, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    Patients with cardiac disease frequently develop symptoms with emotional stress or cold exposure. To investigate the effects of these stresses in normal subjects, an ambulatory ventricular function monitor (VEST) (previously reported to measure EFs which correlate well with gamma camera measurements) was employed to record sequential 2 minute time activity curves from the left ventricles of 6 healthy men (ages 19-24) during a control period and during a 30 minute stress interview with a psychiatrist. Four of the subjects were also monitored in a cold room (1 0 C) for 20 min. In addition to the left ventricular time-activity curve, heart rate (HR), and BP (cuff) were recorded. All subjects had increases in HR, BP and EF during the stress interview. Cold, however, produced decreases in HR and EF and an increase in BP. The results (mean +- SD) are tabulated. End-systolic and end-diastolic counts and hence volume decreased during the interview and increased during cold exposure. The results suggest that (1) ambulatory changes in ventricular function can be measured with the VEST, and (2) significant changes in cardiovascular physiology are seen in normal subjects during a stress interview and exposure to cold

  6. Children's Biological Givens, Stress Responses, Language and Cognitive Abilities and Family Background after Entering Kindergarten in Toddlerhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhonen, Eira; Sajaniemi, Nina K.; Alijoki, Alisa; Nislin, Mari A.

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to investigate stress response regulation, temperament, cognitive and language abilities and family SES in children who entered kindergarten before two years of age. Whilst childrens stress regulatory systems are vulnerable to environmental influences little is known about how temperament and family characteristics impact on stress…

  7. A family study of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder following rape trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, J R; Tupler, L A; Wilson, W H; Connor, K M

    1998-01-01

    There is evidence that familial factors serve as determinants of risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), especially familial anxiety. This study investigates the relationship between chronic PTSD and family psychiatric morbidity. The sample was drawn from 81 female rape survivors with or without lifetime PTSD, 31 major depressive disorder controls, 20 anxiety disorder controls and 39 healthy controls. First-degree family members were directly interviewed (n = 285) and diagnoses assigned of major depressive, anxiety and alcohol or substance use disorder. Information was also available by family history for 639 relatives. In the directly interviewed sample, no consistently increased morbidity risk was observed for anxiety, PTSD, or alcohol/substance abuse in the rape survivor groups, but there was an increase in depression relative to the anxiety in healthy control groups. When comorbid depression in rape survivor probands was taken into account post hoc, an increased risk for depression was noted in family members of PTSD probands with depression, but not in relatives of PTSD probands without lifetime depression. Among rape survivor probands with non-comorbid PTSD, rates by history of familial anxiety and depression were negligible. In a logistic regression analysis, individual vulnerability to depression served as an independent predictor of chronic PTSD, along with specific trauma-related variables. In the family history group, results were consistent with those obtained from the directly interviewed group. Our findings clearly support the view that PTSD following rape is associated with familial vulnerability to major depression, which may thus serve as a risk factor for developing PTSD. The exact nature of this predisposition calls for further inquiry and there is a need to expand this study to include other PTSD populations. PTSD may on occasion represent a form of depression which is induced and/or modified neurobiologically and phenomenologically by

  8. Wheat EST resources for functional genomics of abiotic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Links Matthew G

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wheat is an excellent species to study freezing tolerance and other abiotic stresses. However, the sequence of the wheat genome has not been completely characterized due to its complexity and large size. To circumvent this obstacle and identify genes involved in cold acclimation and associated stresses, a large scale EST sequencing approach was undertaken by the Functional Genomics of Abiotic Stress (FGAS project. Results We generated 73,521 quality-filtered ESTs from eleven cDNA libraries constructed from wheat plants exposed to various abiotic stresses and at different developmental stages. In addition, 196,041 ESTs for which tracefiles were available from the National Science Foundation wheat EST sequencing program and DuPont were also quality-filtered and used in the analysis. Clustering of the combined ESTs with d2_cluster and TGICL yielded a few large clusters containing several thousand ESTs that were refractory to routine clustering techniques. To resolve this problem, the sequence proximity and "bridges" were identified by an e-value distance graph to manually break clusters into smaller groups. Assembly of the resolved ESTs generated a 75,488 unique sequence set (31,580 contigs and 43,908 singletons/singlets. Digital expression analyses indicated that the FGAS dataset is enriched in stress-regulated genes compared to the other public datasets. Over 43% of the unique sequence set was annotated and classified into functional categories according to Gene Ontology. Conclusion We have annotated 29,556 different sequences, an almost 5-fold increase in annotated sequences compared to the available wheat public databases. Digital expression analysis combined with gene annotation helped in the identification of several pathways associated with abiotic stress. The genomic resources and knowledge developed by this project will contribute to a better understanding of the different mechanisms that govern stress tolerance in

  9. bZIPs and WRKYs: two large transcription factor families executing two different functional strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles eMarco Llorca

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available bZIPs and WRKYs are two important plant transcription factor families regulating diverse developmental and stress-related processes. Since a partial overlap in these biological processes is obvious, it can be speculated that they fulfill non-redundant functions in a complex regulatory network. Here, we focus on the regulatory mechanisms that are so far described for bZIPs and WRKYs. bZIP factors need to heterodimerize for DNA-binding and regulation of transcription, and based on a bioinformatics approach, bZIPs can build up more than the double of protein interactions than WRKYs. In contrast, an enrichment of the WRKY DNA-binding motifs can be found in WRKY promoters, a phenomenon which is not observed for the bZIP family. Thus, the two transcription factor families follow two different functional strategies in which WRKYs regulate each other’s transcription in a transcriptional network whereas bZIP action relies on intensive heterodimerization.

  10. Genomic Analysis of Terpene Synthase Family and Functional Characterization of Seven Sesquiterpene Synthases from Citrus sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Alquézar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Citrus aroma and flavor, chief traits of fruit quality, are derived from their high content in essential oils of most plant tissues, including leaves, stems, flowers, and fruits. Accumulated in secretory cavities, most components of these oils are volatile terpenes. They contribute to defense against herbivores and pathogens, and perhaps also protect tissues against abiotic stress. In spite of their importance, our understanding of the physiological, biochemical, and genetic regulation of citrus terpene volatiles is still limited. The availability of the sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck genome sequence allowed us to characterize for the first time the terpene synthase (TPS family in a citrus type. CsTPS is one of the largest angiosperm TPS families characterized so far, formed by 95 loci from which just 55 encode for putative functional TPSs. All TPS angiosperm families, TPS-a, TPS-b, TPS-c, TPS-e/f, and TPS-g were represented in the sweet orange genome, with 28, 18, 2, 2, and 5 putative full length genes each. Additionally, sweet orange β-farnesene synthase, (Z-β-cubebene/α-copaene synthase, two β-caryophyllene synthases, and three multiproduct enzymes yielding β-cadinene/α-copaene, β-elemene, and β-cadinene/ledene/allo-aromandendrene as major products were identified, and functionally characterized via in vivo recombinant Escherichia coli assays.

  11. Stress and brain functional changes in patients with Crohn's disease: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, A; Ballotta, D; Righi, S; Moretti, M; Bertani, A; Scarcelli, A; Sartini, A; Ercolani, M; Nichelli, P; Campieri, M; Benuzzi, F

    2017-10-01

    In Crohn's disease (CD) patients, stress is believed to influence symptoms generation. Stress may act via central nervous system pathways to affect visceral sensitivity and motility thus exacerbating gastrointestinal symptoms. The neural substrate underpinning these mechanisms needs to be investigated in CD. We conducted an explorative functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in order to investigate potential differences in the brain stress response in CD patients compared to controls. 17 CD patients and 17 healthy controls underwent a fMRI scan while performing a stressful task consisting in a Stroop color-word interference task designed to induce mental stress in the fMRI environment. Compared to controls, in CD patients the stress task elicited greater blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signals in the midcingulate cortex (MCC). The MCC integrate "high" emotional processes with afferent sensory information ascending from the gut. In light of these integrative functions, the stress-evoked MCC hyperactivity in CD patients might represent a plausible neural substrate for the association between stress and symptomatic disease. The MCC dysfunction might be involved in mechanisms of central disinhibition of nociceptive inputs leading to amplify the visceral sensitivity. Finally, the stress-evoked MCC hyperactivity might affect the regulation of intestinal motility resulting in exacerbation of disease symptoms and the autonomic and neuroendocrine regulation of inflammation resulting in enhanced inflammatory activity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Economic Stress and Cortisol Among Postpartum Low-Income Mexican American Women: Buffering Influence of Family Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Shannon L; Luecken, Linda J; Gress-Smith, Jenna; Crnic, Keith A; Gonzales, Nancy A

    2015-01-01

    Low-income Mexican American women experience significant health disparities during the postpartum period. Contextual stressors, such as economic stress, are theorized to affect health via dysregulated cortisol output. However, cultural protective factors including strong family support may buffer the impact of stress. In a sample of 322 low-income Mexican American women (mother age 18-42; 82% Spanish-speaking; modal family income $10,000-$15,000), we examined the interactive influence of economic stress and family support at 6 weeks postpartum on maternal cortisol output (AUCg) during a mildly challenging mother-infant interaction task at 12 weeks postpartum, controlling for 6-week maternal cortisol and depressive symptoms. The interaction significantly predicted cortisol output such that higher economic stress predicted higher cortisol only among women reporting low family support. These results suggest that family support is an important protective resource for postpartum Mexican American women experiencing elevated economic stress.

  13. WrpA Is an Atypical Flavodoxin Family Protein under Regulatory Control of the Brucella abortus General Stress Response System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrou, Julien; Czyż, Daniel M; Willett, Jonathan W; Kim, Hye-Sook; Chhor, Gekleng; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Kim, Youngchang; Crosson, Sean

    2016-04-01

    The general stress response (GSR) system of the intracellular pathogen Brucella abortus controls the transcription of approximately 100 genes in response to a range of stress cues. The core genetic regulatory components of the GSR are required for B. abortus survival under nonoptimal growth conditions in vitro and for maintenance of chronic infection in an in vivo mouse model. The functions of the majority of the genes in the GSR transcriptional regulon remain undefined. bab1_1070 is among the most highly regulated genes in this regulon: its transcription is activated 20- to 30-fold by the GSR system under oxidative conditions in vitro. We have solved crystal structures of Bab1_1070 and demonstrate that it forms a homotetrameric complex that resembles those of WrbA-type NADH:quinone oxidoreductases, which are members of the flavodoxin protein family. However, B. abortus WrbA-related protein (WrpA) does not bind flavin cofactors with a high affinity and does not function as an NADH:quinone oxidoreductase in vitro. Soaking crystals with flavin mononucleotide (FMN) revealed a likely low-affinity binding site adjacent to the canonical WrbA flavin binding site. Deletion of wrpA (ΔwrpA) does not compromise cell survival under acute oxidative stress in vitro or attenuate infection in cell-based or mouse models. However, a ΔwrpA strain does elicit increased splenomegaly in a mouse model, suggesting that WrpA modulates B. abortus interaction with its mammalian host. Despite high structural homology with canonical WrbA proteins, we propose that B. abortus WrpA represents a functionally distinct member of the diverse flavodoxin family. Brucella abortus is an etiological agent of brucellosis, which is among the most common zoonotic diseases worldwide. The general stress response (GSR) regulatory system of B. abortus controls the transcription of approximately 100 genes and is required for maintenance of chronic infection in a murine model; the majority of GSR-regulated genes

  14. Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Post-ICU Family Members: Review and Methodological Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrinec, Amy B; Daly, Barbara J

    2016-01-01

    Family members of intensive care unit (ICU) patients are at risk for symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following ICU discharge. The aim of this systematic review is to examine the current literature regarding post-ICU family PTSD symptoms with an emphasis on methodological issues in conducting research on this challenging phenomenon. An extensive review of the literature was performed confining the search to English language studies reporting PTSD symptoms in adult family members of adult ICU patients. Ten studies were identified for review published from 2004 to 2012. Findings demonstrate a significant prevalence of family PTSD symptoms in the months following ICU hospitalization. However, there are several methodological challenges to the interpretation of existing studies and to the conduct of future research including differences in sampling, identification of risk factors and covariates of PTSD, and lack of consensus regarding the most appropriate PTSD symptom measurement tools and timing. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Evaluating family function in caring for a geriatric group: Family APGAR applied for older adults by home care nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei-Wen; Huang, Yi-Yu

    2016-06-01

    Family function is an essential factor affecting older adults' health. However, there has been no appropriate method to assess the family function of most older adults with fragility or poor health status. The present study aimed to explore the differences and relevance of family function estimated by home care nurses and the older adults, and to determine if nurses could represent older adults to provide the estimation. Study participants were 50 older adults who were aged older 65 years and were taken care of at home by well-trained nurses. The present study used the Family APGAR as the questionnaire. We compared the results evaluated by the older adults and their home care nurses. The results included the level of dysfunction and the total scores of the questionnaire. The paired t-test and McNemar-Bowker test were used for the analysis. Family function could be leveled as "good," "moderate dysfunction" and "severe dysfunction" according to the scores. The family function levels estimated by nurses showed no significant differences to the patients' condition (P = 0.123 > 0.05). Comparing the total scores of the older adults with those of their own home care nurses, the results showed a moderate to nearly high correlation (R = 0.689/P older adults' family problems much earlier and to improve the their health status by enhancing family support. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2015; ●●: ●●-●●. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  16. Family Complexity and the Stress Process in Prison: How Sibling Living Arrangements of Minor Children Influence Maternal Role Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Foster

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a life-course stress process perspective on maternal role strain as a ‘pain of imprisonment’ by engaging the concept of ‘family complexity’ in the context of mass incarceration I consider how the living arrangements of minor siblings (i.e., those living apart or together during maternal incarceration functions as a form of family complexity. When minor children live apart from their siblings, they may experience more isolation which may further serve as a stressor for incarcerated mothers. A positive association between siblings living apart and maternal role strain would support a process of ‘stress proliferation’ across the prison-family interface. I investigate these connections using survey-based data on mothers with multiple minor children (n = 80 collected in 2011 from a voluntary sample of respondents housed in a federal minimum security prison in the United States. Multivariate logistic regression results indicate that minor siblings living apart during periods of maternal confinement elevates role strain among mothers (odds ratio = 3.66, p < 0.05. This connection is indicative of an ‘inter-institutional strain.’ Finally, children’s age also increases maternal role strain, but this finding is explained by sibling living arrangements during the mother’s incarceration.

  17. Perceived Workplace Culture as an Antecedent of Job Stress: The Mediating Role of Work-Family Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Aminah Ahmad; Zoharah Omar

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Few studies have tested the mediating effect of work-family conflict on the relationship between workplace culture and job stress. Approach: This study tested a mediation model consisting of job stress as the dependent variable, perceived family-supportive work culture as the independent variable and work-family conflict as the mediator. Data were gathered from 693 employees from private service organizations in the Klang Valley, Malaysia, using self-administered questionna...

  18. Family-related opinions and stressful situations associated with psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaki, Jiro; Hibino, Yuri

    2014-09-02

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how family-related opinions and stressful situations are related to psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment. The subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from female patients undergoing infertility treatment (n = 2540) at 70 infertility treatment institutions in Japan. Because of non-participation or missing data, the number of subjects included in the analysis was 635 (response rate, 25.0%). The family-related opinions and stressful situations were evaluated using the original questions. Psychological distress was assessed using a self-report measure, the Kessler Six-question Psychological Distress Scale (K6). The K6 scores of the following participants were significantly (p women should devote themselves to their household duties" those who had considered stopping treatment, those without the opinion that "married life without children is favorable" and those who had experienced stressful situations such as inadequate explanation by doctors, frustration of multiple failed attempts, differences of opinion with the partner, and lack of knowledge regarding when to stop treatment. Family-related opinions and stressful situations associated with psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment are outlined. The results of this study may contribute to the prevention of and care for psychological distress in female patients undergoing infertility treatment.

  19. Examining the impact of child parent relationship therapy (CPRT) on family functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornett, Nick; Bratton, Sue C

    2014-07-01

    Research supports that child parent relationship therapy (CPRT), a filial therapy approach, has strong effects on participating parents and children. Some speculate that filial therapy improves the family system; however, minimal research exists to support this claim. Using a single-case design, researchers examined CPRT's impact on the functioning of 8 families. Results revealed that 6 families experienced statistically significant improvements in targeted areas of family functioning. Results from self-reported measures indicated that 7 families improved in family satisfaction, 4 in cohesion, 3 in communication, and 1 in flexibility. Observational measures also revealed improvements: 5 families in flexibility, 4 families in cohesion, and 4 families in communication. The results support that the benefits of CPRT may extend to the family system. © 2013 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  20. Resistance of functional Lactobacillus plantarum strains against food stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Verónica; Quiberoni, Andrea; Reinhemer, Jorge; Suárez, Viviana

    2015-06-01

    The survival of three Lactobacillus plantarum strains (Lp 790, Lp 813 and Lp 998) with functional properties was studied taking into account their resistance to thermal, osmotic and oxidative stress factors. Stress treatments applied were: 52 °C-15 min (Phosphate Buffer pH 7, thermal shock), H2O2 0.1% (p/v) - 30 min (oxidative shock) and NaCl aqueous solution at 17, 25 and 30% (p/v) (room temperature - 1 h, osmotic shock). The osmotic stress was also evaluated on cell growth in MRS broth added of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% (p/v) of NaCl, during 20 h at 30 °C. The cell thermal adaptation was performed in MRS broth, selecting 45 °C for 30 min as final conditions for all strains. Two strains (Lp 813 and Lp 998) showed, in general, similar behaviour against the three stress factors, being clearly more resistant than Lp 790. An evident difference in growth kinetics in presence of NaCl was observed between Lp 998 and Lp 813, Lp998 showing a higher optical density (OD570nm) than Lp 813 at the end of the assay. Selected thermal adaptation improved by 2 log orders the thermal resistance of both strains, but cell growth in presence of NaCl was enhanced only in Lp 813. Oxidative resistance was not affected with this thermal pre-treatment. These results demonstrate the relevance of cell technological resistance when selecting presumptive "probiotic" cultures, since different stress factors might considerably affect viability or/and performance of the strains. The incidence of stress conditions on functional properties of the strains used in this work are currently under research in our group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Family (dis)functionality and mental health: Review of atmosphere, emotional relationships and communicational schemes in schizophrenic patients’ families

    OpenAIRE

    Ljubičić Milana

    2005-01-01

    This review summarizes research findings on socio-pathological aspects of life of schizophrenic patients’ families. Instigated on a system theory, and socio-dynamic notion that links the commencement of the schizophrenia to economical circumstance of individual hence: inadequate function of this component is a product of personal pathology of individual. System therapy perceives family as a system as its members play particular roles and form multiple relations. Therapy observes family as a s...

  2. An Analysis of Bronfenbrenner's Bio-Ecological Perspective for Early Childhood Educators: Implications for Working with Families Experiencing Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swick, Kevin James; Williams, Reginald D.

    2006-01-01

    Today's families face many stressors during the early childhood years. Particular stressors like homelessness, violence, and chemical dependence, play havoc with the family system. Urie Bronfenbrenner's bio-ecological perspective offers an insightful lens for understanding and supporting families under stress. This article presents the key…

  3. Overlapping protective roles for glutathione transferase gene family members in chemical and oxidative stress response in Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skopelitou, Katholiki; Muleta, Abdi W; Pavli, Ourania; Skaracis, Georgios N; Flemetakis, Emmanouil; Papageorgiou, Anastassios C; Labrou, Nikolaos E

    2012-03-01

    In the present work, we describe the characterisation of the glutathione transferase (GST) gene family from Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58. A genome survey revealed the presence of eight GST-like proteins in A. tumefaciens (AtuGSTs). Comparison by multiple sequence alignment generated a dendrogram revealing the phylogenetic relationships of AtuGSTs-like proteins. The beta and theta classes identified in other bacterial species are represented by five members in A. tumefaciens C58. In addition, there are three "orphan" sequences that do not fit into any previously recognised GST classes. The eight GST-like genes were cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and their substrate specificity was determined towards 17 different substrates. The results showed that AtuGSTs catalyse a broad range of reactions, with different members of the family exhibiting quite varied substrate specificity. The 3D structures of AtuGSTs were predicted using molecular modelling. The use of comparative sequence and structural analysis of the AtuGST isoenzymes allowed us to identify local sequence and structural characteristics between different GST isoenzymes and classes. Gene expression profiling was conducted under normal culture conditions as well as under abiotic stress conditions (addition of xenobiotics, osmotic stress and cold and heat shock) to induce and monitor early stress-response mechanisms. The results reveal the constitutive expression of GSTs in A. tumefaciens and a modulation of GST activity after treatments, indicating that AtuGSTs presumably participate in a wide range of functions, many of which are important in counteracting stress conditions. These functions may be relevant to maintaining cellular homeostasis as well as in the direct detoxification of toxic compounds.

  4. Force Lines in Plane Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathkjen, Arne

    A state of plane stress is illustrated by means of two families of curves, each family representing constant values of a derivative of Airy's stress function. The two families of curves form a map giving in the first place an overall picture of regions of high and low stress, and in the second...

  5. Interactions between Temperament, Stress, and Immune Function in Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Burdick

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The detrimental effects caused by stressors encountered by animals during routine handling can pose economic problems for the livestock industry due to increased costs ultimately borne by the producer and the consumer. Stress adversely affects key physiological processes of the reproductive and immune systems. In recent years stress responsiveness has been associated with cattle behavior, specifically temperament. Cattle with more excitable temperaments, as measured by chute score, pen score, and exit velocity (flight speed, exhibit greater basal concentrations of glucocorticoids and catecholamines. Similar to stressed cattle, more temperamental cattle (i.e., cattle exhibiting greater exit velocity or pen and chute scores have poorer growth performance, carcass characteristics, and immune responses. Thus, understanding the interrelationship of stress and temperament can help in the development of selection and management practices that reduce the negative influence of temperament on growth and productivity of cattle. This paper discusses the relationship between stress and temperament and the developing evidence of an effect of temperament on immune function of cattle that have been handled or restrained. Specifically, the paper discusses different methodologies used to measure temperament, including chute score, pen score, and exit velocity, and discusses the reaction of cattle to different stressors including handling and restraint.

  6. Caring stress, suicidal attitude and suicide care ability among family caregivers of suicidal individuals: a path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, C-Y; Lu, C-Y; Lin, Y-H; Lin, H-Y; Sun, F-K

    2015-12-01

    What is known on the subject? Suicide is a global mental health issue. Taking care of suicidal individuals is a substantial challenge. Most studies emphasize the suicidal individual. Few studies have emphasized the family caregivers of suicidal individuals. No study has explored the relationship between family caregivers' caring stress with suicidal attitudes and suicide care ability. What this paper adds to existing knowledge? The main results indicated that the older family caregivers tended to have a more negative attitude towards suicidal individuals. Female family caregivers' stress was higher than that of male family caregivers. A mild level of caring stress would help family caregivers have a more positive attitude towards suicidal individuals. Furthermore, a positive attitude would help family caregivers improve their caring ability. What are the implications for practice? Mental health nurses could help family caregivers, especially female family caregivers, reduce their holistic caring burden by looking for support resources and enhancing their coping strategies. Mental health nurses could help family caregivers promote positive attitudes towards suicidal relatives by understanding suicidal individuals' suffering. Suicide is a global mental health issue. Family caregivers play a key role in preventing suicide attempts. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship among stress due to the family caregiver's role, suicidal attitude of the family caregiver and suicide care ability among family caregivers. Additionally, instruments of caring stress, attitudes towards suicidal relatives and caring abilities used in the study were tested to measure construct validity. A cross-sectional correlational study was conducted with 164 family caregivers of people who are suicidal. The following three questionnaires were used: the Caring Stress Scale, the Suicidal Attitudes Scale and the Suicidal Caring Ability Scale. Structural equation modelling was performed

  7. Job stress and family social behavior: the moderating role of neuroticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-wen; Repetti, Rena L; Campos, Belinda

    2011-10-01

    We investigated the role of neuroticism in the associations between job stress and working adults' social behavior during the first hour after work with their spouse and school-age children. Thirty dual-earner families were videotaped in their homes on two weekday afternoons and evenings. An observational coding system was developed to assess behavioral involvement and negative emotion expression. Participants also completed self-report measures of job stressors and trait neuroticism. There were few overall associations between job stress and social behavior during the first hour adults were at home with their spouse and school-age children. However, significant moderator effects indicated that linkages between work experiences and family behavior varied for men who reported different levels of trait neuroticism, which captures a dispositional tendency toward emotional instability. Among men who reported high neuroticism, job stress was linked to more active and more negative social behavior. Conversely, for men reporting low neuroticism, job stress was related to less talking and less negative emotion. These patterns were not found for the women in the study. The findings suggest that when work is stressful, men who are higher on neuroticism (i.e., less emotionally stable) may show a negative spillover effect, whereas men who are lower on neuroticism (i.e., more emotionally stable) may withdraw from social interactions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Influence of Stress Shape Function on Analysis of Contact Problem Using Hybrid Photoelasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Dongchul; Hawong, Jaisug

    2013-01-01

    In this research, a study on stress shape functions was conducted to analyze the contact stress problem by using a hybrid photoelasticity. Because the contact stress problem is generally solved as a half-plane problem, the relationship between two analytical stress functions, which are compositions of the Airy stress function, was similar to one of the crack problem. However, this relationship in itself could not be used to solve the contact stress problem (especially one with singular points). Therefore, to analyze the contact stress problem more correctly, stress shape functions based on the condition of two contact end points had to be considered in the form of these two analytical stress functions. The four types of stress shape functions were related to the stress singularities at the two contact end points. Among them, the primary two types used for the analysis of an O-ring were selected, and their validities were verified in this work

  9. Perceived stress is associated with increased rostral middle frontal gyrus cortical thickness: a family-based and discordant-sibling investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, L J; Demers, C H; Baranger, D A A; Barch, D M; Harms, M P; Burgess, G C; Bogdan, R

    2017-11-01

    Elevated stress perception and depression commonly co-occur, suggesting that they share a common neurobiology. Cortical thickness of the rostral middle frontal gyrus (RMFG), a region critical for executive function, has been associated with depression- and stress-related phenotypes. Here, we examined whether RMFG cortical thickness is associated with these phenotypes in a large family-based community sample. RMFG cortical thickness was estimated using FreeSurfer among participants (n = 879) who completed the ongoing Human Connectome Project. Depression-related phenotypes (i.e. sadness, positive affect) and perceived stress were assessed via self-report. After accounting for sex, age, ethnicity, average whole-brain cortical thickness, twin status and familial structure, RMFG thickness was positively associated with perceived stress and sadness and negatively associated with positive affect at small effect sizes (accounting for 0.2-2.4% of variance; p-fdr: 0.0051-0.1900). Perceived stress was uniquely associated with RMFG thickness after accounting for depression-related phenotypes. Further, among siblings discordant for perceived stress, those reporting higher perceived stress had increased RMFG thickness (P = 4 × 10 -7 ). Lastly, RMFG thickness, perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and positive affect were all significantly heritable, with evidence of shared genetic and environmental contributions between self-report measures. Stress perception and depression share common genetic, environmental, and neural correlates. Variability in RMFG cortical thickness may play a role in stress-related depression, although effects may be small in magnitude. Prospective studies are required to examine whether variability in RMFG thickness may function as a risk factor for stress exposure and/or perception, and/or arises as a consequence of these phenotypes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  10. Family functioning and perceived support from nurses during cancer treatment among Danish and Australian patients and their families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieperink, Karin B; Coyne, Elisabeth; Creedy, Debra K

    2018-01-01

    such as cancer. However, family functioning and supportive care from nurses may vary across cultures and settings. DESIGN AND METHODS: A descriptive, cross sectional comparative design with patients and family members from Denmark and Australia. Participants were asked to fill in translated versions...

  11. Relations between Parent Psychopathology, Family Functioning, and Adolescent Problems in Substance-Abusing Families: Disaggregating the Effects of Parent Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstein, Marcy; Stanger, Catherine; Dumenci, Levent

    2012-01-01

    The present study: (1) examined relations between parent psychopathology and adolescent internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and substance use in substance-abusing families; and (2) tested family functioning problems as mediators of these relations. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate the independent effects of parent…

  12. EARLY HEAD START FAMILIES' EXPERIENCES WITH STRESS: UNDERSTANDING VARIATIONS WITHIN A HIGH-RISK, LOW-INCOME SAMPLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustedt, Jason T; Vu, Jennifer A; Bargreen, Kaitlin N; Hallam, Rena A; Han, Myae

    2017-09-01

    The federal Early Head Start program provides a relevant context to examine families' experiences with stress since participants qualify on the basis of poverty and risk. Building on previous research that has shown variations in demographic and economic risks even among qualifying families, we examined possible variations in families' perceptions of stress. Family, parent, and child data were collected to measure stressors and risk across a variety of domains in families' everyday lives, primarily from self-report measures, but also including assay results from child cortisol samples. A cluster analysis was employed to examine potential differences among groups of Early Head Start families. Results showed that there were three distinct subgroups of families, with some families perceiving that they experienced very high levels of stress while others perceived much lower levels of stress despite also experiencing poverty and heightened risk. These findings have important implications in that they provide an initial step toward distinguishing differences in low-income families' experiences with stress, thereby informing interventions focused on promoting responsive caregiving as a possible mechanism to buffer the effects of family and social stressors on young children. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  13. Child attention deficit hyperactive disorder co morbidities on family stress: effect of medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Desiree; Houghton, Stephen; Hagemann, Erika; Jacoby, Peter; Jongeling, Brad; Bower, Carol

    2015-04-01

    We examined the degree of parental and child mental health in a community sample of children diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder and the effect on family stress prior to and during treatment using a community retrospective questionnaire study. In total 358 questionnaires were returned for analysis where 92 % of children had at least one co-morbid condition and mental health conditions in parents was common. Overall, the Family Strain Index was significantly reduced after commencement of medication (p disorders or autism spectrum disorder.

  14. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in PTSD patients' families of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, C G; Anderson, P E; Gearhart, L P

    1995-10-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients, psychiatric controls, and hospital employee controls rated their father, mother, and oldest sibling of each sex on 14 PTSD Interview (PTSD-I) symptom ratings. The stress disorder patients assigned their relatives significantly higher PTSD-I ratings than the control group members did in 35 of 120 comparisons. The number of significant differences was nearly identical in the fathers, mothers, sisters, and brothers. Differences were particularly frequent on items pertaining to intrusive thoughts, impoverished relationships, and guilt. The results suggest that a trauma survivor's risk for PTSD may be related to his family's history for PTSD-like behaviors.

  15. Developmental Trajectories of Acculturation in Hispanic Adolescents: Associations with Family Functioning and Adolescent Risk Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Knight, George P.; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, Jose

    2013-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal acculturation patterns, and their associations with family functioning and adolescent risk behaviors, in Hispanic immigrant families. A sample of 266 Hispanic adolescents (M[subscript age] = 13.4) and their primary parents completed measures of acculturation, family functioning, and adolescent conduct problems,…

  16. Typologies of Family Functioning and Children's Adjustment during the Early School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.; Davies, Patrick T.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2010-01-01

    Guided by family systems theory, the present study sought to identify patterns of family functioning from observational assessments of interparental, parent-child, and triadic contexts. In addition, it charted the implications for patterns of family functioning for children's developmental trajectories of adjustment in the school context across…

  17. Parental Divorce, Family Functioning, and College Student Development: An Intergenerational Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Patrick; Nelson, Mark D.

    1998-01-01

    Samples college students (N=440) to assess the impact of parental divorce and family functioning on their development. Results indicate that parental divorce and family functioning have unique effects on key developmental tasks associated with a college-age population. Discusses an intergenerational family-systems approach. (Author/MKA)

  18. The Impact of Family Functioning on Caregiver Burden among Caregivers of Veterans with Congestive Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Crystal Dea

    2010-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of 76 family caregivers of older veterans with congestive heart failure utilized the McMaster model of family functioning to examine the impact of family functioning variables (problem solving, communication, roles, affective responsiveness, and affective involvement) on caregiver burden dimensions (relationship burden,…

  19. Surviving a brain tumor in childhood : impact on family functioning in adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, Laura; Schappin, R; Gooskens, Rob; Huisman, Jaap; Jongmans, Marian

    ObjectiveTo investigate family functioning in families with an adolescent survivor of a pediatric brain tumor. We explored whether adolescent, parent, disease and treatment factors, and demographic characteristics predicted family functioning. MethodsIn this cross-sectional study, 45 adolescent

  20. Ethnic Discrimination, Acculturative Stress, and Family Conflict as Predictors of Depressive Symptoms and Cigarette Smoking Among Latina/o Youth: The Mediating Role of Perceived Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Unger, Jennifer B

    2015-10-01

    Latino youth can experience a range of cultural (i.e., ethnic discrimination and acculturative stress) and familial (i.e. family conflict) risk factors that can contribute to their perceived stress, thereby increasing their risk for depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking. To understand the mechanisms by which ethnic discrimination, acculturative stress and family conflict influence the risk for depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking of youth, the current study investigated the mediating role of perceived stress in these associations. The data came from a longitudinal study of acculturation and substance use with 1919 Latino adolescents (52% female; 84% 14 year-olds; 87% U.S. born). Structural equation modeling indicated that discrimination and family conflict (Time 1) related with higher perceived stress (Time 2), which, in turn, related with more depressive symptoms and smoking (Time 3). The results suggest that perceived stress might be one mechanism by which ethnic discrimination and family conflict contribute to Latino youth symptoms of depression and cigarette smoking. The findings highlight the need for prevention and intervention strategies that help youth manage their general perceived stress and/or focus on stress reduction techniques.

  1. A Test of the Family Stress Model on Toddler-Aged Children's Adjustment among Hurricane Katrina Impacted and Nonimpacted Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaramella, Laura V.; Sohr-Preston, Sara L.; Callahan, Kristin L.; Mirabile, Scott P.

    2008-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina dramatically altered the level of social and environmental stressors for the residents of the New Orleans area. The Family Stress Model describes a process whereby felt financial strain undermines parents' mental health, the quality of family relationships, and child adjustment. Our study considered the extent to which the Family…

  2. Group functioning of a collaborative family research team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S K; Halm, M A; Titler, M G; Craft, M; Kleiber, C; Montgomery, L A; Nicholson, A; Buckwalter, K; Cram, E

    1993-07-01

    Collaborative research teams are an attractive means of conducting nursing research in the clinical setting because of the many opportunities that collaboration can supply. These opportunities include a chance to: (1) network with other nurses who have similar interests, (2) share knowledge and expertise for designing clinical studies that directly affect daily practice, (3) develop instruments, (4) write grant proposals, (5) collect and analyze data, and (6) prepare manuscripts for publication. The effectiveness of research teams, however, is strongly influenced by group functioning. This article describes the functioning of a collaborative family interventions research team of nursing faculty members and CNSs at a large Midwestern university setting. The formation of the group and membership characteristics are described, along with strategies used to identify the research focus and individual and group goals. Aspects related to the influence of the group on members and the internal operations of the group are also addressed. Future strategies to be explored will focus on the size of the group and joint authorship issues. The authors also set forth a number of recommendations for development of collaborative research groups.

  3. Influence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder of the Fathers on other Family MembersInfluence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder of the Fathers on other Family Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amra Zalihić

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to analyze the frequency of depression and anxiety and children behaviour in families whose heads of the family (father suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. The study was conducted from September 2005 until July 2006, with patients living in Mostar. The frequency of depression and anxiety in family members older than 18 years, and changes of the behaviour in children younger than 18 years of age were measured. The data were collected from 60 men and their families who had been diagnosed with PTSD by their psychiatrist. The control group was formed using matching criteria (age of the head of the family, his education, religion, family income and number of children. In this study, three questionnaires were used: one specially designed for this study, covering general information about family members, and a personal opinion of each family member about the family situation and relations within the family; Hopkins symptoms checklist - 25 (HSCL-25 for evaluation of depression and anxiety for subjects older than 18; and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ for children 5 to 18 years of age, which was completed by their mothers.More wives from the PTSD families had depression than wives from the controlled group (χ2=21,099; df=1; P<0,050. There was no difference between groups in frequency of depression and anxiety (χ2=0,003; df=1; P=0,959 for children older than 18 years. No difference in answers between groups of children younger than 18 years were found in the General Health Questionnaire. However, we found significant differences in separate questions. Mothers, who filled the questionnaire form, reported that children from fathers who had PTSD experienced stomach pain more often (χ2=10,474;df=2; P=0,005, eating problems (χ2=14,204;df=2; P=0,001 and breathing problems (χ2=9,748;df=2; P=0,008, than children from fathers who did not have PTSD. Children from fathers with PTSD were more easily upset (χ2

  4. Analysis of Family Functioning and Parent-Child Relationship between Adolescents with Depression and their Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing; DU, Wenyong; Gao, Yan; Ma, Changlin; Ban, Chunxia; Meng, Fu

    2017-12-25

    Drug therapy combined with family therapy is currently the best treatment for adolescent depression. Nevertheless, family therapy requires an exploration of unresolved problems in the family system, which in practice presents certain difficulties. Previous studies have found that the perceptual differences of family function between parents and children reflect the problems in the family system. To explore the characteristics and role of family functioning and parent-child relationship between adolescents with depressive disorder and their parents. The general information and clinical data of the 93 adolescents with depression were collected. The Family Functioning Assessment Scale and Parent-child Relationship Scale were used to assess adolescents with depressive disorder and their parents. a) The dimensions of family functioning in adolescents with depressive disorder were more negative in communication, emotional response, emotional involvement, roles, and overall functioning than their parents. The differences were statistically significant. Parent-child relationship dimensions: the closeness and parent-child total scores were more negative compared with the parents and the differences were statistically significant. b) All dimensions of parent-child relationship and family functioning in adolescents with depression except the time spent together were negatively correlated or significantly negatively correlated. c) The results of multivariate regression analysis showed: the characteristics of family functioning, emotional involvement, emotional response, family structure, and income of the adolescents with depressive disorder mainly affected the parent-child relationship. There were perceptual differences in partial family functioning and parent-child relationship between adolescents with depressive disorder and their parents. Unclear roles between family members, mutual entanglement, too much or too little emotional investment, negligence of inner feelings

  5. Analysis of Family Functioning and Parent-Child Relationship between Adolescents with Depression and their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHEN, Qing; DU, Wenyong; GAO, Yan; MA, Changlin; BAN, Chunxia; MENG, Fu

    2017-01-01

    Background Drug therapy combined with family therapy is currently the best treatment for adolescent depression. Nevertheless, family therapy requires an exploration of unresolved problems in the family system, which in practice presents certain difficulties. Previous studies have found that the perceptual differences of family function between parents and children reflect the problems in the family system. Aims To explore the characteristics and role of family functioning and parent-child relationship between adolescents with depressive disorder and their parents. Methods The general information and clinical data of the 93 adolescents with depression were collected. The Family Functioning Assessment Scale and Parent-child Relationship Scale were used to assess adolescents with depressive disorder and their parents. Results a) The dimensions of family functioning in adolescents with depressive disorder were more negative in communication, emotional response, emotional involvement, roles, and overall functioning than their parents. The differences were statistically significant. Parent-child relationship dimensions: the closeness and parent-child total scores were more negative compared with the parents and the differences were statistically significant. b) All dimensions of parent-child relationship and family functioning in adolescents with depression except the time spent together were negatively correlated or significantly negatively correlated. c) The results of multivariate regression analysis showed: the characteristics of family functioning, emotional involvement, emotional response, family structure, and income of the adolescents with depressive disorder mainly affected the parent-child relationship. Conclusions There were perceptual differences in partial family functioning and parent-child relationship between adolescents with depressive disorder and their parents. Unclear roles between family members, mutual entanglement, too much or too little emotional

  6. Oxidative stress induced inflammation initiates functional decline of tear production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Uchino

    Full Text Available Oxidative damage and inflammation are proposed to be involved in an age-related functional decline of exocrine glands. However, the molecular mechanism of how oxidative stress affects the secretory function of exocrine glands is unclear. We developed a novel mev-1 conditional transgenic mouse model (Tet-mev-1 using a modified tetracycline system (Tet-On/Off system. This mouse model demonstrated decreased tear production with morphological changes including leukocytic infiltration and fibrosis. We found that the mev-1 gene encodes Cyt-1, which is the cytochrome b(560 large subunit of succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase in complex II of mitochondria (homologous to succinate dehydrogenase C subunit (SDHC in humans. The mev-1 gene induced excessive oxidative stress associated with ocular surface epithelial damage and a decrease in protein and aqueous secretory function. This new model provides evidence that mitochondrial oxidative damage in the lacrimal gland induces lacrimal dysfunction resulting in dry eye disease. Tear volume in Tet-mev-1 mice was lower than in wild type mice and histopathological analyses showed the hallmarks of lacrimal gland inflammation by intense mononuclear leukocytic infiltration and fibrosis in the lacrimal gland of Tet-mev-1 mice. These findings strongly suggest that oxidative stress can be a causative factor for the development of dry eye disease.

  7. Better executive function under stress mitigates the effects of recent life stress exposure on health in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Grant S; Moons, Wesley G; Slavich, George M

    2017-01-01

    Executive function is a neuropsychological construct that enables controlled cognitive processing, which has been hypothesized to enhance individuals' resilience to stress. However, little empirical work has directly examined how executive function under different conditions mitigates the negative effects of stress exposure on health. To address this issue, we recruited 110 healthy young adults and assessed their recent life stress exposure, executive function in either a stressful or non-stressful context, and current health complaints. Based on existing research, we hypothesized that individuals exhibiting better executive function following a laboratory-based stressor (but not a control task) would demonstrate weaker associations between recent stress exposure and health because they perceived recent life stressors as being less severe. Consistent with this hypothesis, better executive function during acute stress, but not in the absence of stress, was associated with an attenuated link between participants' recent life stress exposure and their current health complaints. Moreover, this attenuating effect was mediated by lesser perceptions of stressor severity. Based on these data, we conclude that better executive function under stress is associated with fewer health complaints and that these effects may occur by reducing individuals' perceptions of stressor severity. The data thus suggest the possibility of reducing stress-related health problems by enhancing executive function.

  8. Chronic family stress moderates the association between a TOMM40 variant and triglyceride levels in two independent Caucasian samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Rong; Brummett, Beverly H; Hauser, Elizabeth R

    2013-01-01

    independent Caucasian samples (242 U.S. women and men; 466 Danish men) testing the hypothesis that chronic family stress also moderates the association between rs157580 and triglyceride levels. The interaction of rs157580 and family stress in predicting triglyceride levels was statistically significant...... in the U.S. sample (p=0.004) and marginally significant (p=0.075) in the Danish sample. The G allele of rs157580 was associated with increased triglyceride levels among family stressed cases in both samples compared with A/A cases, but not among controls. Chronic family stress moderates the association......TOMM40 SNP rs157580 has been associated with triglyceride levels in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Chronic caregiving stress moderates the association between triglyceride levels and a nearby SNP rs439401 that is associated with triglyceride levels in GWAS. Here, we report data from two...

  9. Green's Function and Stress Fields in Stochastic Heterogeneous Continua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, Vineet

    Many engineering materials used today are heterogenous in composition e.g. Composites - Polymer Matrix Composites, Metal Matrix Composites. Even, conventional engineering materials - metals, plastics, alloys etc. - may develop heterogeneities, like inclusions and residual stresses, during the manufacturing process. Moreover, these materials may also have intrinsic heterogeneities at a nanoscale in the form of grain boundaries in metals, crystallinity in amorphous polymers etc. While, the homogenized constitutive models for these materials may be satisfactory at a macroscale, recent studies of phenomena like fatigue failure, void nucleation, size-dependent brittle-ductile transition in polymeric nanofibers reveal a major play of micro/nanoscale physics in these phenomena. At this scale, heterogeneities in a material may no longer be ignored. Thus, this demands a study into the effects of various material heterogeneities. In this work, spatial heterogeneities in two material properties - elastic modulus and yield stress - have been investigated separately. The heterogeneity in the elastic modulus is studied in the context of Green's function. The Stochastic Finite Element method is adopted to get the mean statistics of the Green's function defined on a stochastic heterogeneous 2D infinite space. A study of the elastic-plastic transition in a domain having stochastic heterogenous yield stress was done using Mont-Carlo methods. The statistics for various stress and strain fields during the transition were obtained. Further, the effects of size of the domain and the strain-hardening rate on the stress fields during the heterogeneous elastic-plastic transition were investigated. Finally, a case is made for the role of the heterogenous elastic-plastic transition in damage nucleation and growth.

  10. Genome-wide identification and characterization of stress-associated protein (SAP gene family encoding A20/AN1 zinc-finger proteins in Medicago truncatula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Yong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress associated proteins (SAPs play important roles in developmental processes, responses to various stresses and hormone stimulation in plants. However, little is known about the SAP gene family in Medicago truncatula. In this study, a total of 17 MtSAP genes encoding A20/AN1 zinc-finger proteins were characterized. Out of these 17 genes, 15 were distributed over all 8 chromosomes at different densities, and two segmental duplication events were detected. The phylogenetic analysis of these proteins and their orthologs from Arabidopsis and rice suggested that they could be classified into five out of the seven groups of SAP family genes, with genes in the same group showing similar structures and conserved domains. The cis-elements of the MtSAP promoters were studied, and many cis-elements related to stress and plant hormone responses were identified. We also investigated the stress-responsive expression patterns of the MtSAP genes under various stresses, including drought, exposure to NaCl and cold. The qRT-PCR results showed that numerous MtSAP genes exhibited transcriptional responses to multiple abiotic stresses. These results lay the foundation for further functional characterization of SAP genes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a genome-wide analysis of the SAP gene family in M. truncatula.

  11. ICU versus Non-ICU Hospital Death: Family Member Complicated Grief, Posttraumatic Stress, and Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Danielle R; Gustin, Jillian L; Goodman, Lauren F; Lorenz, Amanda; Wells-Di Gregorio, Sharla M

    2016-04-01

    Family members of patients who die in an ICU are at increased risk of psychological sequelae compared to those who experience a death in hospice. This study explored differences in rates and levels of complicated grief (CG), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depression between family members of patients who died in an ICU versus a non-ICU hospital setting. Differences in family members' most distressing experiences at the patient's end of life were also explored. The study was an observational cohort. Subjects were next of kin of 121 patients who died at a large, Midwestern academic hospital; 77 died in the ICU. Family members completed measures of CG, PTSD, depression, and end-of-life experiences. Participants were primarily Caucasian (93%, N = 111), female (81%, N = 98), spouses (60%, N = 73) of the decedent, and were an average of nine months post-bereavement. Forty percent of family members met the Inventory of Complicated Grief CG cut-off, 31% met the Impact of Events Scale-Revised PTSD cut-off, and 51% met the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale depression cut-off. There were no significant differences in rates or levels of CG, PTSD, or depressive symptoms reported by family members between hospital settings. Several distressing experiences were ranked highly by both groups, but each setting presented unique distressing experiences for family members. Psychological distress of family members did not differ by hospital setting, but the most distressing experiences encountered at end of life in each setting highlight potentially unique interventions to reduce distress post-bereavement for family members.

  12. Moderation of genetic factors by parental divorce in adolescents' evaluations of family functioning and subjective wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Aa, Niels; Boomsma, Dorret I; Rebollo-Mesa, Irene; Hudziak, James J; Bartels, Meike

    2010-04-01

    Adolescents' evaluations of family functioning may have a significant impact on their subjective well-being and adjustment. The aim of the study was to investigate the degree to which genetic and environmental influences affect variation in evaluations of general family functioning, family conflict, and quality of life and the overlap between them. We assessed whether genetic and environmental influences are moderated by parental divorce by analyzing self-report data from 6,773 adolescent twins and their non-twin siblings. Genetic, shared, and nonshared environmental influences accounted for variation in general family functioning and family conflict, with genetic influences being relatively more important in girls than boys in general family functioning. Genetic and nonshared environmental influences accounted for variation in quality of life, with genetic influences being relatively more important in girls. Evidence was found for interaction between genetic factors and parental divorce: genetic influence on general family functioning was larger in participants from divorced families. The overlap between general family functioning and quality of life, and family conflict and quality of life was accounted for the largest part by genetic effects, with nonshared environmental effects accounting for the remaining part. By examining the data from monozygotic twins, we found evidence for interaction between genotype and nonshared, non-measured, environmental influences on evaluations of general family functioning, family conflict, and quality of life.

  13. [The relationship between depressive symptoms and family functioning in institutionalized elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Simone Camargo; dos Santos, Ariene Angelini; Pavarini, Sofia Cristina Iost

    2014-02-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between family functioning and depressive symptoms among institutionalized elderly. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study of quantitative character. A total of 107 institutionalized elderly were assessed using a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Geriatric Depression Scale (to track depressive symptoms) and the Family APGAR (to assess family functioning). The correlation coefficient of Pearson's, the chi-square test and the crude and adjusted logistic regression were used in the data analysis with a significance level of 5 %. The institutionalized elderly with depressive symptoms were predominantly women and in the age group of 80 years and older. Regarding family functioning, most elderly had high family dysfunctioning (57 %). Family dysfunctioning was higher among the elderly with depressive symptoms. There was a significant correlation between family functioning and depressive symptoms. The conclusion is that institutionalized elderly with dysfunctional families are more likely to have depressive symptoms.

  14. The relationship between depressive symptoms and family functioning in institutionalized elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Camargo de Oliveira

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between family functioning and depressive symptoms among institutionalized elderly. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study of quantitative character. A total of 107 institutionalized elderly were assessed using a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Geriatric Depression Scale (to track depressive symptoms and the Family APGAR (to assess family functioning. The correlation coefficient of Pearson’s, the chi-square test and the crude and adjusted logistic regression were used in the data analysis with a significance level of 5 %. The institutionalized elderly with depressive symptoms were predominantly women and in the age group of 80 years and older. Regarding family functioning, most elderly had high family dysfunctioning (57 %. Family dysfunctioning was higher among the elderly with depressive symptoms. There was a significant correlation between family functioning and depressive symptoms. The conclusion is that institutionalized elderly with dysfunctional families are more likely to have depressive symptoms.

  15. Work-family conflict as a mediator of the work stress - mental health relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Poelmans, Steven

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between work stressors and mental health outcomes has been demonstrated in a whole range of work stress models and studies. But less has been written about factors outside the work setting that might predict or moderate the relationship between work stressors and strain. In this exploratory study, we suggest a model linking work stressors and "time-based" work-family conflict (TWFC) with mental health, with the intention to contribute to the refinement of the traditional work...

  16. Genome-Wide Identification of the PHD-Finger Family Genes and Their Responses to Environmental Stresses in Oryza sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingzhe; Yang, Junkai; Cui, Na; Zhu, Yanming

    2017-01-01

    The PHD-finger family has been demonstrated to be involved in regulating plant growth and development. However, little information is given for its role in environmental stress responses. Here, we identified a total of 59 PHD family genes in the rice genome. These OsPHDs genes were located on eleven chromosomes and synteny analysis only revealed nine duplicated pairs within the rice PHD family. Phylogenetic analysis of all OsPHDs and PHDs from other species revealed that they could be grouped into two major clusters. Furthermore, OsPHDs were clustered into eight groups and members from different groups displayed a great divergence in terms of gene structure, functional domains and conserved motifs. We also found that with the exception of OsPHD6, all OsPHDs were expressed in at least one of the ten tested tissues and OsPHDs from certain groups were expressed in specific tissues. Moreover, our results also uncovered differential responses of OsPHDs expression to environmental stresses, including ABA (abscisic acid), water deficit, cold and high Cd. By using quantitative real-time PCR, we further confirmed the differential expression of OsPHDs under these stresses. OsPHD1/7/8/13/33 were differentially expressed under water deficit and Cd stresses, while OsPHD5/17 showed altered expression under water deficit and cold stresses. Moreover, OsPHD3/44/28 displayed differential expression under ABA and Cd stresses. In conclusion, our results provide valuable information on the rice PHD family in plant responses to environmental stress, which will be helpful for further characterizing their biological roles in responding to environmental stresses.

  17. High carotenoids content can enhance resistance of selected Pinctada fucata families to high temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zihao; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Baosuo; Li, Haimei; Fan, Sigang; Yu, Dahui

    2017-02-01

    Carotenoids are a class of natural antioxidants widely found in aquatic, and they have significant effects on the growth, survival, and immunity of these organisms. To investigate the mechanisms of carotenoids in high temperature resistance, we observed the immune response of selected pearl oyster Pinctada fucata (Akoya pearl oyster) families with different carotenoids contents to high temperature stress. The results indicated that the survival rate (SR) of P. fucata decreased significantly with increase in temperature from 26 °C to 34 °C and with the decrease of total carotenoids content (TCC); when the TCC was higher, the SR tended to be higher. TCC and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) decreased significantly at 30 °C with increasing stress time. Correlation analysis indicated that TAC was positively and linearly correlated with TCC, and SR was S-type correlated with TCC and TAC. Immune analysis indicated that levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in selected families (with higher TCC) under temperature stress (at 30 °C) were generally significantly lower than in the control group (with lowest TCC) and from 0 to 96 h, the levels of each of these substances varied significantly. Levels of SOD, CAT, and MDA within each family first rose from 0 to 3 h, then decreased to their lowest point after 24 h, and then rose again to their highest levels at 96 h. When TCC was higher, the levels of SOD, CAT, and MDA tended to be lower. These findings indicated that carotenoids play an important role in improving survival rates of P. fucata under high temperature stress by enhancing animals' antioxidant system, and could serve as an index for breeding stress-resistant lines in selective breeding practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Genome-wide identification and expression profiling of tomato Hsp20 gene family in response to biotic and abiotic stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    jiahong yu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Hsp20 genes are involved in the response of plants to environment stresses including heat shock and also play a vital role in plant growth and development. They represent the most abundant small heat shock proteins (sHsps in plants, but little is known about this family in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, an important vegetable crop in the world. Here, we characterized heat shock protein 20 (SlHsp20 gene family in tomato through integration of gene structure, chromosome location, phylogenetic relationship and expression profile. Using bioinformatics-based methods, we identified at least 42 putative SlHsp20 genes in tomato. Sequence analysis revealed that most of SlHsp20 genes possessed no intron or a relatively short intron in length. Chromosome mapping indicated that inter-arm and intra-chromosome duplication events contributed remarkably to the expansion of SlHsp20 genes. Phylogentic tree of Hsp20 genes from tomato and other plant species revealed that SlHsp20 genes were grouped into 13 subfamilies, indicating that these genes may have a common ancestor that generated diverse subfamilies prior to the mono-dicot split. In addition, expression analysis using RNA-seq in various tissues and developmental stages of cultivated tomato and the wild relative Solanum pimpinellifolium revealed that most of these genes (83% were expressed in at least one stage from at least one genotype. Out of 42 genes, 4 genes were expressed constitutively in almost all the tissues analyzed, implying that these genes might have specific housekeeping function in tomato cell under normal growth conditions. Two SlHsp20 genes displayed differential expression levels between cultivated tomato and S. pimpinellifolium in vegetative (leaf and root and reproductive organs (floral bud and flower, suggesting inter-species diversification for functional specialization during the process of domestication. Based on genome-wide microarray analysis, we showed that the transcript

  19. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Profiling of Tomato Hsp20 Gene Family in Response to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiahong; Cheng, Yuan; Feng, Kun; Ruan, Meiying; Ye, Qingjing; Wang, Rongqing; Li, Zhimiao; Zhou, Guozhi; Yao, Zhuping; Yang, Yuejian; Wan, Hongjian

    2016-01-01

    The Hsp20 genes are involved in the response of plants to environment stresses including heat shock and also play a vital role in plant growth and development. They represent the most abundant small heat shock proteins (sHsps) in plants, but little is known about this family in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), an important vegetable crop in the world. Here, we characterized heat shock protein 20 (SlHsp20) gene family in tomato through integration of gene structure, chromosome location, phylogenetic relationship, and expression profile. Using bioinformatics-based methods, we identified at least 42 putative SlHsp20 genes in tomato. Sequence analysis revealed that most of SlHsp20 genes possessed no intron or a relatively short intron in length. Chromosome mapping indicated that inter-arm and intra-chromosome duplication events contributed remarkably to the expansion of SlHsp20 genes. Phylogentic tree of Hsp20 genes from tomato and other plant species revealed that SlHsp20 genes were grouped into 13 subfamilies, indicating that these genes may have a common ancestor that generated diverse subfamilies prior to the mono-dicot split. In addition, expression analysis using RNA-seq in various tissues and developmental stages of cultivated tomato and the wild relative Solanum pimpinellifolium revealed that most of these genes (83%) were expressed in at least one stage from at least one genotype. Out of 42 genes, 4 genes were expressed constitutively in almost all the tissues analyzed, implying that these genes might have specific housekeeping function in tomato cell under normal growth conditions. Two SlHsp20 genes displayed differential expression levels between cultivated tomato and S. pimpinellifolium in vegetative (leaf and root) and reproductive organs (floral bud and flower), suggesting inter-species diversification for functional specialization during the process of domestication. Based on genome-wide microarray analysis, we showed that the transcript levels of SlHsp20

  20. Family Financial Stress and Adolescent Sexual Risk-Taking: The Role of Self-Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, AliceAnn; Magnusson, Brianna M; Novilla, M Lelinneth B; Novilla, Lynneth Kirsten B; Dyer, W Justin

    2017-01-01

    The ability to control one's emotions, thoughts, and behaviors is known as self-regulation. Family stress and low adolescent self-regulation have been linked with increased engagement in risky sexual behaviors, which peak in late adolescence and early adulthood. The purpose of this study was to assess whether adolescent self-regulation, measured by parent and adolescent self-report and respiratory sinus arrhythmia, mediates or moderates the relationship between family financial stress and risky sexual behaviors. We assessed these relationships in a 4-year longitudinal sample of 450 adolescents (52 % female; 70 % white) and their parents using structural equation modeling. Results indicated that high family financial stress predicts engagement in risky sexual behaviors as mediated, but not moderated, by adolescent self-regulation. The results suggest that adolescent self-regulatory capacities are a mechanism through which proximal external forces influence adolescent risk-taking. Promoting adolescent self-regulation, especially in the face of external stressors, may be an important method to reduce risk-taking behaviors as adolescents transition to adulthood.

  1. SELF - EFFICACY, PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS, FAMILY SUPPORT, AND EATING BEHAVIOR ON TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS

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    Kusuma Wijaya Ridi Putra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM is one of the leading causes of death and it is caused by genetics, nutrition, and unhealthy behaviors. Therefore, changes in lifestyle associated with eating behaviors in diabetes mellitus patients greatly impact on their quality of life. There are many factors related with changes in lifestyle of diabetes mellitus patients, especially eating behaviors. Purpose: This study aims to examine the relationships between self-efficacy, psychological stress, family support, and eating behaviors among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients in Sidoarjo, Indonesia. Method: A total of 117 T2DM patients from the Sidoarjo Community Health Center were included in the analysis. Using SPSS IBM 21.0 program, Pearson product moment correlation was performed to analyze data. Results: The findings showed that self-efficacy and family support had positive relationship with eating behaviors (r = .692, p < .001; r = .683, p < .001, respectively. Psychological stress had negative relationship with eating behaviors (r = -.327, p < .001. Conclusion: Self-efficacy, family support, and psychological stress had relationship with eating behaviors. Nurses should pay attention to the factors to make T2DM patients into a long-term commitment toward healthy eating behaviors.

  2. The relationship between family functioning and child and adolescent overweight and obesity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, J A; Palma, C L; Mellor, D; Green, J; Renzaho, A M N

    2014-04-01

    There is mounting evidence that family functioning is linked to childhood overweight and obesity, and that both of these are associated with health-related behaviours and adverse health outcomes in children and adolescents. This paper systematically examines the peer-reviewed evidence regarding the relationship between child and adolescent overweight and obesity and family functioning. Peer-reviewed literature published between 1990 and 2011 hosted in Scopus, Pub Med or Psyc INFO were searched, in addition to the reference lists of included papers. Twenty-one studies met the selection criteria. Of the 17 identified cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, 12 reported significant associations between family functioning and childhood overweight and obesity. The instruments used to measure family functioning in the identified studies were heterogeneous. Poor family functioning was associated with increased risk of obesity and overweight in children and adolescents, and obese children and adolescents were more likely to come from families with poor family functioning. Aspects of family functioning which were associated with increased risk of child and adolescent obesity included poor communication, poor behaviour control, high levels of family conflict and low family hierarchy values. Half (2/4) of the identified intervention studies showed a significant relationship between family functioning and changes in child weight. The results demonstrate that family functioning is linked to obesity; however, higher level evidence and greater understanding of the mechanisms behind this relationship are required. The results indicate a need for a standardised family functioning measure applicable across populations. The results provide evidence of the value of considering family functioning in childhood obesity research and intervention.

  3. Expanding the psychosocial work environment: workplace norms and work-family conflict as correlates of stress and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Tove Helland; Saksvik, Per Øystein; Nytrø, Kjell; Torvatn, Hans; Bayazit, Mahmut

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the contributions of organizational level norms about work requirements and social relations, and work-family conflict, to job stress and subjective health symptoms, controlling for Karasek's job demand-control-support model of the psychosocial work environment, in a sample of 1,346 employees from 56 firms in the Norwegian food and beverage industry. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses showed that organizational norms governing work performance and social relations, and work-to-family and family-to-work conflict, explained significant amounts of variance for job stress. The cross-level interaction between work performance norms and work-to-family conflict was also significantly related to job stress. Work-to-family conflict was significantly related to health symptoms, but family-to-work conflict and organizational norms were not.

  4. The characteristics of family functioning with mentally ill children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Jelkić Milica; Mandić-Gajić Gordana; Stojanović Zvezdana; Đokić Milan; Eror Aleksandar; Kolundžija Ksenija

    2018-01-01

    Background/Aim. The family functioning and characteristics are the major risk factors in the genesis and persistence of mental disorders in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of functioning of family with mentally ill children and adolescents. Methods. This study explored 47 families with a child/adolescent suffering from mental disorders and 47 families of age matched healthy children/adolescents. The socio-demographic questionnaire, Social Adaptation Self-ev...

  5. The evaluation of family functioning by the family assessment device: a systematic review of studies in adult clinical populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staccini, Laura; Tomba, Elena; Grandi, Silvana; Keitner, Gabor I

    2015-03-01

    A large body of research, documenting the impact of a family's functioning on health outcomes, highlights the importance of introducing the evaluation of patients' family dynamics into clinical judgment. The Family Assessment Device (FAD) is a self-report questionnaire designed to assess specific dimensions of family functioning. This qualitative systematic review, which follows PRISMA guidelines, aimed to identify the FAD's clinimetric properties and to report the incremental utility of its inclusion in clinical settings. A thorough literature search was performed, using both computerized and manual searches, yielding a total of 148 studies that were included in this review. The FAD has been extensively used in a variety of research contexts. In the majority of studies it was able to discriminate between clinical populations and controls and among groups of patients with different illnesses. The FAD also showed good test-retest and concurrent reliability, and modest sensitivity to change after treatment. FAD-dysfunctional family functioning was related to several patient clinical outcomes, including lower recovery rates and adherence to treatment, longer recovery time, poorer quality of life, and increased risk of relapse and drop-out. The present review demonstrates that the FAD is a suitable instrument for the evaluation of family functioning both in clinical and research settings. © 2014 Family Process Institute.

  6. Typology of perceived family functioning in an American sample of patients with advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Tammy A; Zaider, Talia I; Li, Yuelin; Hichenberg, Shira; Masterson, Melissa; Kissane, David W

    2014-08-01

    Poor family functioning affects psychosocial adjustment and the occurrence of morbidity following bereavement in the context of a family's coping with advanced cancer. Family functioning typologies assist with targeted family-centered assessment and intervention to offset these complications in the palliative care setting. Our objective was to identify the number and nature of potential types in an American palliative care patient sample. Data from patients with advanced cancer (N = 1809) screened for eligibility for a larger randomized clinical trial were used. Cluster analyses determined whether patients could be classified into clinically meaningful and coherent groups, based on similarities in their perceptions of family functioning across the cohesiveness, expressiveness, and conflict resolution subscales of the Family Relations Index. Patients' reports of perceived family functioning yielded a model containing five meaningful family types. Cohesiveness, expressiveness, and conflict resolution appear to be useful dimensions by which to classify patient perceptions of family functioning. "At risk" American families may include those we have called hostile, low-communicating, and less-involved. Such families may benefit from adjuvant family-centered psychosocial services, such as family therapy. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Perpetual pavement – absorbing stress and functional maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Gao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Perpetual Pavement combines the well documented smoothness and safety advantages of asphalt with an advanced, multi-layer paving design process, that with routine maintenance, extends the useful life of a roadway. Perpetual provides long lasting road and smoothness for the construction purposes. This study has the design key points of perpetual pavement based on the idea of life cycle, which has a new direction for the new highway construction, reconstruction and expansion. First, the structure of long life pavement design is studied to analyze the effect of stress absorbing layer. Second, researches on stress absorbing layer from the aspects of raw materials, mix proportion are implemented. Third, the design index of stress absorbing layer is determined by the shear strength test. The results show that the design idea of composite perpetual pavement can be realized by reasonable design of the stress absorbing layer and carrying out the surface functional maintenance can ensure the pavement to avoid structural damage in the operation stage.

  8. The modified couple stress functionally graded Timoshenko beam formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asghari, M.; Rahaeifard, M.; Kahrobaiyan, M.H.; Ahmadian, M.T.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a size-dependent formulation is presented for Timoshenko beams made of a functionally graded material (FGM). The formulation is developed on the basis of the modified couple stress theory. The modified couple stress theory is a non-classic continuum theory capable to capture the small-scale size effects in the mechanical behavior of structures. The beam properties are assumed to vary through the thickness of the beam. The governing differential equations of motion are derived for the proposed modified couple-stress FG Timoshenko beam. The generally valid closed-form analytic expressions are obtained for the static response parameters. As case studies, the static and free vibration of the new model are respectively investigated for FG cantilever and FG simply supported beams in which properties are varying according to a power law. The results indicate that modeling beams on the basis of the couple stress theory causes more stiffness than modeling based on the classical continuum theory, such that for beams with small thickness, a significant difference between the results of these two theories is observed.

  9. Longitudinal Associations between Maternal Work Stress, Negative Work-Family Spillover, and Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, W Benjamin; Crouter, Ann C

    2009-07-01

    The current study examined associations over an 18-month period between maternal work stressors, negative work-family spillover, and depressive symptoms in a sample of 414 employed mothers with young children living in six predominantly nonmetropolitan counties in the Eastern United States. Results from a one-group mediation model revealed that a less flexible work environment and greater work pressure predicted higher levels of depressive symptoms, and further, that these associations were mediated by perceptions of negative work-family spillover. Additionally, results from a two-group mediation model suggested that work pressure predicted greater perceptions of spillover only for mothers employed full-time. Findings suggest the need for policies that reduce levels of work stress and help mothers manage their work and family responsibilities.

  10. Characterization of the late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins family and their role in drought stress tolerance in upland cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magwanga, Richard Odongo; Lu, Pu; Kirungu, Joy Nyangasi; Lu, Hejun; Wang, Xingxing; Cai, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Zhongli; Zhang, Zhenmei; Salih, Haron; Wang, Kunbo; Liu, Fang

    2018-01-15

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are large groups of hydrophilic proteins with major role in drought and other abiotic stresses tolerance in plants. In-depth study and characterization of LEA protein families have been carried out in other plants, but not in upland cotton. The main aim of this research work was to characterize the late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein families and to carry out gene expression analysis to determine their potential role in drought stress tolerance in upland cotton. Increased cotton production in the face of declining precipitation and availability of fresh water for agriculture use is the focus for breeders, cotton being the backbone of textile industries and a cash crop for many countries globally. In this work, a total of 242, 136 and 142 LEA genes were identified in G. hirsutum, G. arboreum and G. raimondii respectively. The identified genes were classified into eight groups based on their conserved domain and phylogenetic tree analysis. LEA 2 were the most abundant, this could be attributed to their hydrophobic character. Upland cotton LEA genes have fewer introns and are distributed in all chromosomes. Majority of the duplicated LEA genes were segmental. Syntenic analysis showed that greater percentages of LEA genes are conserved. Segmental gene duplication played a key role in the expansion of LEA genes. Sixty three miRNAs were found to target 89 genes, such as miR164, ghr-miR394 among others. Gene ontology analysis revealed that LEA genes are involved in desiccation and defense responses. Almost all the LEA genes in their promoters contained ABRE, MBS, W-Box and TAC-elements, functionally known to be involved in drought stress and other stress responses. Majority of the LEA genes were involved in secretory pathways. Expression profile analysis indicated that most of the LEA genes were highly expressed in drought tolerant cultivars Gossypium tomentosum as opposed to drought susceptible, G. hirsutum. The tolerant

  11. Predictors of posttraumatic stress and quality of life in family members of chronically critically ill patients after intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintermann, Gloria-Beatrice; Weidner, Kerstin; Strauß, Bernhard; Rosendahl, Jenny; Petrowski, Katja

    2016-12-01

    Prolonged mechanical ventilation for acute medical conditions increases the risk of chronic critical illness (CCI). Close family members are confronted with the life-threatening condition of the CCI patients and are prone to develop posttraumatic stress disorder affecting their health-related quality of life (HRQL). Main aim of the present study was to investigate patient- and family-related risk factors for posttraumatic stress and decreased HRQL in family members of CCI patients. In a cross-sectional design nested within a prospective longitudinal cohort study, posttraumatic stress symptoms and quality of life were assessed in family members of CCI patients (n = 83, aged between 18 and 72 years) up to 6 months after transfer from ICU at acute care hospital to post-acute rehabilitation. Patients admitted a large rehabilitation hospital for ventilator weaning. The Posttraumatic Stress Scale-10 and the Euro-Quality of life-5D-3L were applied in both patients and their family members via telephone interview. A significant proportion of CCI patients and their family members (14.5 and 15.7 %, respectively) showed clinically relevant scores of posttraumatic stress. Both CCI patients and family members reported poorer HRQL than a normative sample. Factors independently associated with posttraumatic stress in family members were the time following ICU discharge (β = .256, 95 % confidence interval .053-.470) and the patients' diagnosis of PTSD (β = .264, 95 % confidence interval .045-.453). Perceived satisfaction with the relationship turned out to be a protective factor for posttraumatic stress in family members of CCI patients (β = -.231, 95 % confidence interval -.423 to -.015). Regarding HRQL in family members, patients' acute posttraumatic stress at ICU (β = -.290, 95 % confidence interval -.360 to -.088) and their own posttraumatic stress 3 to 6 months post-transfer (β = -.622, 95 % confidence interval -.640 to -.358) turned out to be

  12. Measurement equivalence and differential item functioning in family psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingenheimer, Jeffrey B; Raudenbush, Stephen W; Leventhal, Tama; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2005-09-01

    Several hypotheses in family psychology involve comparisons of sociocultural groups. Yet the potential for cross-cultural inequivalence in widely used psychological measurement instruments threatens the validity of inferences about group differences. Methods for dealing with these issues have been developed via the framework of item response theory. These methods deal with an important type of measurement inequivalence, called differential item functioning (DIF). The authors introduce DIF analytic methods, linking them to a well-established framework for conceptualizing cross-cultural measurement equivalence in psychology (C.H. Hui and H.C. Triandis, 1985). They illustrate the use of DIF methods using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN). Focusing on the Caregiver Warmth and Environmental Organization scales from the PHDCN's adaptation of the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment Inventory, the authors obtain results that exemplify the range of outcomes that may result when these methods are applied to psychological measurement instruments. (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved

  13. No direct association among respiratory function, disease control and family functioning in a sample of Mexican children with intermittent asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Orozco, Alain Raimundo; Núñez-Tapia, Rosa María; Ramírez-Silva, Armando; Gómez-Alonso, Carlos

    2013-05-15

    Asthma has been linked to family disfunctioning and poor control of the disease.This study was conducted to analyze the interactions between the level of intermittent asthma control, family functioning and respiratory function and between quality of life of asthmatic patients and their caregivers.7 to 15 years old children with intermittent asthma were included. Asthma Control Test Questionnaire, Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ) test, and flowmetry were applied to children and Pediatric Asthma Caregiver´s Quatily of Life Questionnaire (PAQCLQ) and the Family Functioning Perception Test (FF-SIL) were applied to their parents.The most affected areas of family functioning in dysfunctional families were adaptability and permeability. A medium to high strength of association was founded between the emotional function of parents and the emotional function of children, R2=0.552. The most remarkable associations were among parents' limitation of activities and parents' emotional function (r=0.837), parents' limitation of activities and child's emotional function (r=0.722), parents' emotional role and limitation of activities (r=0.837), parents' emotional role and emotional functioning of children with asthma (r=0.743) and the limitation of activities of children with asthma and the emotional function of children with asthma (r=0.870).No direct associations were founded among respiratory function, disease control and family functioning in Mexican children with intermittent asthma and emotional function of parents and children were associated in both groups.

  14. Surviving a brain tumor in childhood: impact on family functioning in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beek, Laura; Schappin, Renske; Gooskens, Rob; Huisman, Jaap; Jongmans, Marian

    2015-01-01

    To investigate family functioning in families with an adolescent survivor of a pediatric brain tumor. We explored whether adolescent, parent, disease and treatment factors, and demographic characteristics predicted family functioning. In this cross-sectional study, 45 adolescent survivors of pediatric brain tumors and their parents completed self-report questionnaires on family functioning, and emotional and behavioral problems. Parents completed questionnaires on their own mental health and the burden of treatment. Compared to general population norms, adolescents reported higher levels of cohesion, expressiveness, organization, control, family values and social orientation, and absence of conflict. Parents reported higher levels of social orientation and lower levels of conflict and family values. The only predictor of family functioning was current age of the adolescent; older adolescents reported less family conflict. No relation was found between family functioning and emotional and behavioral problems, disease- or treatment factors, and demographic variables. In this exploratory study, adolescent survivors of a pediatric brain tumor characterized their families by higher levels of cohesion, expressiveness, organization, control, family values and social orientation, and absence of conflict, which differs from the more normative view held by their parents. A higher adolescent age predicted less family conflict, which may indicate deviant autonomy development in these survivors. Because of limitations of this study, conclusions should be considered provisional; they provide clues for further research in this area. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. The Relationship Between Family Functionning and Psychological Needs with Adolescents’ mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    عباس رحیمی‌نژاد

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The family and its function as a social institution has an important role in children’s psychological development. The Aim of this study is to investigate the relations of family functioning and the level of psychological basic needs of adolescents with their mental health. Research design is descriptive -correlational and the sample has been recruited from four military areas in Tehran city via simple random sampling method. A total number of 200 families with their youth (14 to 22 year old completed three questionnaires: Family Assessment Device (FAD, Psychological Needs Questionnaire (PNQ, and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ. The resultsindicate that there are  significant correlations between family functionig subscales and  mental  health of their adolescences. Other finding show that low family functioning has negative correlation with psychological basic needs (including three subscales: competence, autonomy, and relatednessof adolescents. We discuss the results in the light of previous findings and provide suggestions to improve family function.

  16. Family-Related Opinions and Stressful Situations Associated with Psychological Distress in Women Undergoing Infertility Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiro Takaki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate how family-related opinions and stressful situations are related to psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment. The subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from female patients undergoing infertility treatment (n = 2540 at 70 infertility treatment institutions in Japan. Because of non-participation or missing data, the number of subjects included in the analysis was 635 (response rate, 25.0%. The family-related opinions and stressful situations were evaluated using the original questions. Psychological distress was assessed using a self-report measure, the Kessler Six-question Psychological Distress Scale (K6. The K6 scores of the following participants were significantly (p < 0.05 and independently high: those with more frequent miscarriage/stillbirth/abortions, those with repeated miscarriages as the cause of infertility, those with infertility of unknown causes, those living with no child, those having a low joint income with their partner, those with the opinion that “women should devote themselves to their household duties” those who had considered stopping treatment, those without the opinion that “married life without children is favorable” and those who had experienced stressful situations such as inadequate explanation by doctors, frustration of multiple failed attempts, differences of opinion with the partner, and lack of knowledge regarding when to stop treatment. Family-related opinions and stressful situations associated with psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment are outlined. The results of this study may contribute to the prevention of and care for psychological distress in female patients undergoing infertility treatment.

  17. Pathways between profiles of family functioning, child security in the interparental subsystem, and child psychological problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Patrick T; Cummings, E Mark; Winter, Marcia A

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to delineate pathways between systems profiles of family functioning, children's emotional insecurity in the interparental relationship, and their psychological adjustment in a sample of 221 children and their parents. Consistent with family systems theory, cluster analyses conducted with assessments of marital, coparental, and parent-child functioning indicated that families fit into one of four profiles: (a) cohesive families, characterized by warmth, affection, and flexible well-defined boundaries in family relationships; (b) disengaged families, reflected in high levels of adversity and low levels of support across family subsystems; (c) enmeshed families, evidenced by high levels of discord and weak maintenance of relationship boundaries in the family unit; and (d) adequate families, defined by elevated parental psychological control within a larger family context of low discord and high warmth. In comparison to children in cohesive families, children in enmeshed and disengaged families exhibited greater signs of insecurity in the interparental relationship concurrently and internalizing and externalizing symptoms both concurrently and 1 year later. Structural equation models revealed that a latent, multimethod measure of insecurity in the interparental relationship partially mediated associations between family enmeshment and disengagement and children's psychological symptoms 1 year later. Results are discussed in relation to how they inform and refine a family-wide model of the emotional security hypothesis.

  18. Identification of a novel promoter from banana aquaporin family gene (MaTIP1;2) which responses to drought and salt-stress in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shun; Xu, Yi; Huang, Dongmei; Miao, Hongxia; Liu, Juhua; Jia, Caihong; Hu, Wei; Valarezo, Ana Valeria; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2018-07-01

    Drought and salt stresses often affect plant growth and crop yields. Identification of promoters involved in drought and salt stress responses is of great significance for genetic improvement of crop resistance. Our previous studies showed that aquaporin can respond to drought and salt stresses, but its promoter has not yet been reported in plants. In the present study, cis-acting elements of MaAQP family member promoters were systematically analyzed in banana. Expression of MaTIP1; 2 was induced by drought and salt stresses but not sensitive to cold stress, waterlogging stress, or mechanical damage, and its promoter contained five stress-related cis-acting elements. The MaTIP1; 2 promoter (841 bp upstream of translation initiation site) from banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group cv. Brazilian) was isolated through genome walking polymerase chain reaction, and found to contain a TATA Box, CAAT box, ABRE element, CCGTCC box, CGTCA motif, and TCA element. Transformation of the MaTIP1; 2 promoter into Arabidopsis to assess its function indicated that it responds to both drought and salt stress treatments. These results suggest that MaTIP1; 2 utilization may improve drought and salt stresses resistance of the transgenic plants by promoting banana aquaporin expression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. When play is a family business: adult play, hierarchy, and possible stress reduction in common marmosets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norscia, Ivan; Palagi, Elisabetta

    2011-04-01

    Easy to recognize but not easy to define, animal play is a baffling behavior because it has no obvious immediate benefits for the performers. However, the absence of immediate advantages, if true, would leave adult play (costly but maintained by evolution, spanning lemurs to Homo sapiens) unexplained. Although a commonly held view maintains that play is limited by stress, an emergent hypothesis states that play can regulate stress in the short term. Here we explored this hypothesis in a captive family group of New World monkeys, Callithrix jacchus (common marmoset). We observed six subjects and gathered data on aggressive, play, and scratching behavior via focal (6 h/individual) and all occurrences sampling (115 h). We found that play levels were highest during pre-feeding, the period of maximum anxiety due to the forthcoming competition over food. Scratching (the most reliable indicator of stress in primates) and play showed opposite trends along hierarchy, with dominants scratching more and playing less than subordinates. Finally, scratching decreased after play, whereas play appeared to be unrelated to previous scratching events, symptoms of a potential stressful state. In conclusion, both play timing and hierarchical distribution indicate that play limits stress, more than vice versa, at least in the short term.

  20. An Study on the Relationship Between Gender Believes and Family Function of Kourd and Fars Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    صدیقه خانی مجد

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to study comparatively the relationship between gender beliefs and the family function of Kurdish and Fars students. Correlational research method was employed in order to examine the relationship between variables. 200 students from each ethnicity (100 male 100 female and in total 400 students were selected from university of Kermanshah and Shahid beheshti University based on convenience sampling. Respondents completed Bem Sex Roles Inventory (Bem, 1974 and Family Assessment Device (Epstein, Bishop, Baldwin, 1983. Mean of scores for family function subscales and gender roles were computed and compared for independent samples. Also Pearson Correlation Coefficient between family function components and gender beliefs were measured. Findings revealed that there was not any signifycant relationship between gender roles’ beliefs and family function in Fars students. In Kourd students, significant relationship between androgynous belief and problem solving factor was found. Also we obtained significant relationship between the absolutely feminine belief and problem solving, affective involvement, affective responsiveness, behavior control, and family general function. Comparison of the family function of Kurdish with Fars indicated significant differences between groups in affective involvement factor. Based on the obtained findings, it can be concluded that national and cultural elements are effective elements that can impact the relationship between gender believes and family function. It also can be imagined that Kourds and Fars families are different in affective involvement criterion between their members and showing their interests and sentiments to the other members of the family.

  1. Parental distress, family functioning, and social support in families with and without a child with neurofibromatosis 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Schorry, Elizabeth K; Lovell, Anne M; Vannatta, Kathryn; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Noll, Robert B

    2008-05-01

    To compare parental adjustment, social support, and family functioning between families of children with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) and a group of demographically similar comparison families, and to examine the impact of disease severity. Questionnaires were completed at home by parents of 54 children with NF1 (54 mothers and 42 fathers) and 51 comparison children (49 mothers and 32 fathers). Few differences between groups were identified for parental distress, social support, or family environment. Greater neurological impairment in children with NF1 was associated with greater distress, more family conflict, less positive mealtime interactions, and less social support from the perspectives of mothers. Overall, parents of children with NF1 appear similar to parents of comparison children. Mothers who have children with NF1 characterized by greater neurological impairment may be at risk for more difficulties. Future work exploring long-term adjustment for these mothers as well as interventions to ameliorate any potential difficulties may be appropriate.

  2. "The stress will kill you": prisoner reentry as experienced by family members and the urgent need for support services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieb, Suzanne M; Crawford, Amelia; Fields, Julie; Smith, Horace; Harris, Richard; Matson, Pamela

    2014-08-01

    The role of incarceration and community reentry after incarceration has been studied extensively for individual and community health; however, little attention has been given to the experiences of individuals who provide support to those in reentry. Through a community-academic partnership, seven focus groups were conducted with 39 individuals supporting a family member in reentry in the summer of 2012. The primary objectives of the focus groups were to explore community experiences and perspectives regarding providing support during a family member's reentry from a period of incarceration and any desired support for themselves during this time. Five themes emerged under a metatheme of stress, indicating that family members experience acute stress as a result of family reentry that adds to the chronic stress they already endure. Programs that acknowledge the difficult role of family members as supporters during an individual's reentry and provide support to them are desperately needed.

  3. Differential relationship between depression severity and patients' perceived family functioning in women versus in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febres, Jeniimarie; Rossi, Rita; Gaudiano, Brandon A; Miller, Ivan W

    2011-07-01

    Previous research suggests that depression and family functioning are related and that women and men may differ in how they respond to and cope with depression. Significantly less attention has been paid to whether sex moderates the relationship between family functioning and depression. In the current study, the relationship between depression severity and perceived family functioning, both generally and in specific areas, was examined in women and men (N = 117) hospitalized with major depression. The level of depression severity was not significantly different in men and in women. Correlations between depression severity and most domains of family functioning were significant and positive for men only. Furthermore, sex statistically moderated the associations between depression severity and family functioning in the areas of problem solving, communication, affective responsiveness, and behavior control. The implications for the assessment and treatment of family dysfunction in severely depressed patients are discussed.

  4. Combined thermal and herbicide stress in functionally diverse coral symbionts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam, J.W. van; Uthicke, S.; Beltran, V.H.; Mueller, J.F.; Negri, A.P.

    2015-01-01

    Most reef building corals rely on symbiotic microalgae (genus Symbiodinium) to supply a substantial proportion of their energy requirements. Functional diversity of different Symbiodinium genotypes, endorsing the host with physiological advantages, has been widely reported. Yet, the influence of genotypic specificity on the symbiont's susceptibility to contaminants or cumulative stressors is unknown. Cultured Symbiodinium of presumed thermal-tolerant clade D tested especially vulnerable to the widespread herbicide diuron, suggesting important free-living populations may be at risk in areas subjected to terrestrial runoff. Co-exposure experiments where cultured Symbiodinium were exposed to diuron over a thermal stress gradient demonstrated how fast-growing clade C1 better maintained photosynthetic capability than clade D. The mixture toxicity model of Independent Action, considering combined thermal stress and herbicide contamination, revealed response additivity for inhibition of photosynthetic yield in both tested cultures, emphasizing the need to account for cumulative stressor impacts in ecological risk assessment and resource management. - Highlights: • Water quality influences thermal stress thresholds in different Symbiodinium types. • Photosystem of clade D tested more sensitive than C1 to a common herbicide. • Increased thermal tolerance quickly countered in presence of herbicide. • Mixture toxicity approach demonstrated response additivity for combined stressors. • Symbiotic partnership may be compromised in areas subjected to terrestrial runoff. - Thermal-tolerant Symbiodinium type D tested especially vulnerable to a common herbicide, emphasizing the significance of cumulative stressors in ecological risk management

  5. Family Functioning, Identity Formation, and the Ability of Conflict Resolution among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Behnaz; Hojatkhah, Seyed Mohsen; Torabi-Nami, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Family is perhaps the most influential system in individuals' life in which various behaviors are learnt. Family functioning refers to the ability of family to meet its responsibilities. The present correlation study used a multi-stage cluster sampling method to recruit 686 subjects including 338 males and 348 females from all high school students…

  6. The Relationship between Perceived Family Health and Personality Functioning among Australian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaven, Patrick; Searight, H. Russell; Chastain, Julie; Skitka, Linda J.

    1996-01-01

    Focuses on the relationship between family climate and personality structure, as well as the relationship between family of origin and self-esteem. Results indicate that sociability was positively and moderately related to healthy family functioning. Life satisfaction and self-esteem were much more strongly associated with perceived family…

  7. Family Structure and Functions Identified by Persons Living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong-Wylie, Gina; Doherty-Poirier, Maryanne; Kieren, Dianne

    1999-01-01

    A study looked at the structural and functional aspects of family from the perspective of six people living with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Results showing how HIV/AIDS affects all members of the sufferer's family have implications for family practitioners. (Author/JOW)

  8. The impact of early powered mobility on parental stress, negative emotions, and family social interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefft, Donita; Guerette, Paula; Furumasu, Jan

    2011-02-01

    Powered mobility has been found to have positive effects on young children with severe physical disabilities, but the impact on the family has been less well documented. We evaluated the impact of early powered mobility on parental stress, negative emotions, perceived social interactions, and parental satisfaction with wheelchair characteristics such as size and durability. The participants were parents of 23 children with disabilities-10 with orthopedic disabilities (average age 30.1 months) and 13 with cerebral palsy (average age 47.0 months). Pretest assessments were completed two times: at initial wheelchair evaluation and at wheelchair delivery. A posttest assessment was completed after each child had used the wheelchair for 4-6 months. Parents reported a lower perceived level of stress at the time of wheelchair delivery, although the magnitude of this effect was fairly small, standardized mean difference (δ) = .27. They also reported an increased satisfaction with their child's social and play skills (δ = .38), ability to go where desired (δ = .86), sleep/wake pattern (δ = .61), and belief that the general public accepts their child (δ = .39) after several months using the wheelchair. Parents reported an increase in interactions within the family at the time of wheelchair delivery (δ = .66). There was no decrease in negative emotions. Parents were satisfied with most factors relating to the wheelchair itself, with areas of concern being wheelchair size and difficulty adjusting the wheelchair. The findings suggest that self-initiated powered mobility for a young child had a positive impact on the family.

  9. Self-esteem, stress and self-rated health in family planning clinic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Rodney

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The independent effects of stress on the health of primary care patients might be different for different types of clinic populations. This study examines these relationships in a low-income female population of patients attending a family planning clinic. Methods This study investigated the relevance of different sources of personal stress and social support to self-rated health, adjusting for mental health, health behavior and demographic characteristics of subjects. Five hundred women who attended family planning clinics were surveyed and 345 completed the form for a response rate of 72 percent. Results Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that liking oneself was related to good self-rated health (Odds ratio = 7.11, but stress or support from children, parents, friends, churches or spouses were not significant. White non-Hispanic and non-white non-Hispanic respondents had lower odds of reporting good self-rated health than Hispanic respondents (odds ratios were 2.87 and 2.81, respectively. Exercising five or more days per week also was related to good self-rated health. Smoking 20 or more cigarettes per day, and obese III were negatively related to good self-rated health (odds ratios were .19 and .22, respectively with corresponding p-values equal to .0043 and .0332. Conclusions Among younger low-income women, addressing low self-esteem might improve health status.

  10. Family matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kieffer-Kristensen, Rikke; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Teasdale, Thomas William

    2013-01-01

    brain injury participated. Family and brain injury characteristics were reported by the ill and healthy parents. Children self-reported post-traumatic stress symptoms (PSS) using the Child Impact of Events revised (CRIES). Emotional and behavioural problems among the children were also identified...... by the parents using the Achenbach’s Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL). RESULTS: The family stress variables relating to the healthy spouse in all six comparisons were significant (p... scores for the children. For the adjusted associations, we again found the family stress variables in the healthy spouse to be related to the risk of emotional and behavioral problems in the children. CONCLUSIONS: The present results suggest that in ABI families, the children’s emotional functioning...

  11. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analyses of Aquaporin Gene Family during Development and Abiotic Stress in Banana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Hou, Xiaowan; Huang, Chao; Yan, Yan; Tie, Weiwei; Ding, Zehong; Wei, Yunxie; Liu, Juhua; Miao, Hongxia; Lu, Zhiwei; Li, Meiying; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) function to selectively control the flow of water and other small molecules through biological membranes, playing crucial roles in various biological processes. However, little information is available on the AQP gene family in bananas. In this study, we identified 47 banana AQP genes based on the banana genome sequence. Evolutionary analysis of AQPs from banana, Arabidopsis, poplar, and rice indicated that banana AQPs (MaAQPs) were clustered into four subfamilies. Conserved motif analysis showed that all banana AQPs contained the typical AQP-like or major intrinsic protein (MIP) domain. Gene structure analysis suggested the majority of MaAQPs had two to four introns with a highly specific number and length for each subfamily. Expression analysis of MaAQP genes during fruit development and postharvest ripening showed that some MaAQP genes exhibited high expression levels during these stages, indicating the involvement of MaAQP genes in banana fruit development and ripening. Additionally, some MaAQP genes showed strong induction after stress treatment and therefore, may represent potential candidates for improving banana resistance to abiotic stress. Taken together, this study identified some excellent tissue-specific, fruit development- and ripening-dependent, and abiotic stress-responsive candidate MaAQP genes, which could lay a solid foundation for genetic improvement of banana cultivars. PMID:26307965

  12. Molecular Mechanisms behind Free Radical Scavengers Function against Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Ahmadinejad

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence shows that oxidative stress is involved in a wide variety of human diseases: rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, cancers, etc. Here, we discuss the significance of oxidative conditions in different disease, with the focus on neurodegenerative disease including Parkinson’s disease, which is mainly caused by oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS, respectively, collectively known as RONS, are produced by cellular enzymes such as myeloperoxidase, NADPH-oxidase (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase and nitric oxide synthase (NOS. Natural antioxidant systems are categorized into enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant groups. The former includes a number of enzymes such as catalase and glutathione peroxidase, while the latter contains a number of antioxidants acquired from dietary sources including vitamin C, carotenoids, flavonoids and polyphenols. There are also scavengers used for therapeutic purposes, such as 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA used routinely in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (not as a free radical scavenger, and 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one (Edaravone that acts as a free radical detoxifier frequently used in acute ischemic stroke. The cell surviving properties of L-DOPA and Edaravone against oxidative stress conditions rely on the alteration of a number of stress proteins such as Annexin A1, Peroxiredoxin-6 and PARK7/DJ-1 (Parkinson disease protein 7, also known as Protein deglycase DJ-1. Although they share the targets in reversing the cytotoxic effects of H2O2, they seem to have distinct mechanism of function. Exposure to L-DOPA may result in hypoxia condition and further induction of ORP150 (150-kDa oxygen-regulated protein with its concomitant cytoprotective effects but Edaravone seems to protect cells via direct induction of Peroxiredoxin-2 and inhibition of apoptosis.

  13. How adolescents with anorexia nervosa and their parents perceive family functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laghi, Fiorenzo; Pompili, Sara; Zanna, Valeria; Castiglioni, Maria Chiara; Criscuolo, Michela; Chianello, Ilenia; Mazzoni, Silvia; Baiocco, Roberto

    2017-02-01

    This study aims at examining whether adolescent girls diagnosed with anorexia nervosa and their parents differ in perceiving the different aspects of family functioning. Moreover, the discrepancy between adolescent girls and healthy controls on Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales dimensions, family communication, and family satisfaction is investigated. The study includes 36 female anorexia patients and their parents and 36 healthy controls. The results showed a different view between mothers and their daughters with regard to the dimension of rigidity. In addition, girls with anorexia nervosa were less satisfied about family environment and rated their families as less communicative, flexible, cohesive, and more disengaged, compared to controls.

  14. Family and Work Influences on Stress, Anxiety and Depression Among Bisexual Latino Men in the New York City Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Ripkin, Alexandra; Garcia, Jonathan; Severson, Nicolette

    2015-12-01

    The empirical exploration of mental health problems among bisexual Latino men is scarce. Bisexual men experience stress because of their non-conforming sexuality from multiple-sources. In this study we focus on the family and work environments. We conducted a mixed-methods study to examine the impacts of these social environments among behavioral bisexual Latino men in New York City (N = 142). Using the Brief Symptom Inventory we measured stress, depression, and anxiety, and used specific scales to measure familial and work social environmental stress factors. We also measured four cultural factors to assess their potential influence on our hypothesized stressors. To test our hypothesis we used linear regression with stress, depression and anxiety as the primary outcome variables. Our results indicated that bisexual Latino men experienced negative mental health outcomes due to pressures in their familial and work environments. Stress was the strongest predictor of anxiety and depression among the men in the study. After taking stress into account, familial factors were stronger predictors of negative mental health outcomes than work factors. Cultural factors such as acculturation and length of living in the United States were not associated with negative mental health outcomes in our sample. Our findings suggest the importance of addressing stress, anxiety and depression among behaviorally bisexual men, and suggest that addressing family</