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Sample records for stress affects glut4

  1. Glucosamine-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress affects GLUT4 expression via activating transcription factor 6 in rat and human skeletal muscle cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raciti, G A; Iadicicco, C; Ulianich, L

    2010-01-01

    Glucosamine, generated during hyperglycaemia, causes insulin resistance in different cells. Here we sought to evaluate the possible role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the induction of insulin resistance by glucosamine in skeletal muscle cells....

  2. Excessive caloric intake acutely causes oxidative stress, GLUT4 carbonylation, and insulin resistance in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Guenther; Homko, Carol; Barrero, Carlos A; Stein, T Peter; Chen, Xinhua; Cheung, Peter; Fecchio, Chiara; Koller, Sarah; Merali, Salim

    2015-09-09

    Obesity-linked insulin resistance greatly increases the risk for type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, together known as the metabolic or insulin resistance syndrome. How obesity promotes insulin resistance remains incompletely understood. Plasma concentrations of free fatty acids and proinflammatory cytokines, endoplasmic reticulum ( ER) stress, and oxidative stress are all elevated in obesity and have been shown to induce insulin resistance. However, they may be late events that only develop after chronic excessive nutrient intake. The nature of the initial event that produces insulin resistance at the beginning of excess caloric intake and weight gain remains unknown. We show that feeding healthy men with ~6000 kcal/day of the common U.S. diet [~50% carbohydrate (CHO), ~ 35% fat, and ~15% protein] for 1 week produced a rapid weight gain of 3.5 kg and the rapid onset (after 2 to 3 days) of systemic and adipose tissue insulin resistance and oxidative stress but no inflammatory or ER stress. In adipose tissue, the oxidative stress resulted in extensive oxidation and carbonylation of numerous proteins, including carbonylation of GLUT4 near the glucose transport channel, which likely resulted in loss of GLUT4 activity. These results suggest that the initial event caused by overnutrition may be oxidative stress, which produces insulin resistance, at least in part, via carbonylation and oxidation-induced inactivation of GLUT4. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Glut4 Palmitoylation at Cys223 Plays a Critical Role in Glut4 Membrane Trafficking

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Wenying; Sun, Yingmin; Du, Keyong

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we identified Glut4 as a palmitoylated protein in adipocytes. To understand the role of Glut4 palmitoylation in Glut4 membrane trafficking, a process that is essential for maintenance of whole body glucose homeostasis, we have characterized Glut4 palmitoylation. We found that Glut4 is palmitoylated at Cys223 and Glut4 palmitoylation at Cys223 is essential for insulin dependent Glut4 membrane translocation as substitution of Cys223 with a serine residue in Glut4 (C223S Glut4) diminis...

  4. Muscle GLUT4 in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holland-Fischer, Peter; Andersen, Per Heden; Lund, Sten

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: The insulin-dependent glucose transporter GLUT4 mediates 50-80% of whole body glucose uptake, but its relation to the frequent glucose intolerance in patients with liver cirrhosis is unknown. METHODS: Thirty patients and seven healthy controls underwent a 2-h oral glucose tolerance...... test and later a muscle biopsy. Levels of GLUT4 total protein and mRNA content were determined in muscle biopsies by polyclonal antibody labelling and RT-PCR, respectively. RESULTS: GLUT4 protein content in the cirrhosis group was not different from that of the controls, but at variance...... with the control subjects it correlated closely with measures of glucose tolerance (R(2)=0.45; p=0.003). GLUT4 mRNA of the patients with cirrhosis was reduced to 56% of control value (95% ci: 27-86%; p=0.015) and was inversely related to the level of basal hyper-insulinemia (R(2)=0.39; p=0.004). CONCLUSIONS...

  5. Muscle GLUT4 in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holland-Fischer, Peter; Andersen, Per Heden; Lund, Sten

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: The insulin-dependent glucose transporter GLUT4 mediates 50-80% of whole body glucose uptake, but its relation to the frequent glucose intolerance in patients with liver cirrhosis is unknown. METHODS: Thirty patients and seven healthy controls underwent a 2-h oral glucose tolerance...... test and later a muscle biopsy. Levels of GLUT4 total protein and mRNA content were determined in muscle biopsies by polyclonal antibody labelling and RT-PCR, respectively. RESULTS: GLUT4 protein content in the cirrhosis group was not different from that of the controls, but at variance...... with the control subjects it correlated closely with measures of glucose tolerance (R(2)=0.45; p=0.003). GLUT4 mRNA of the cirrhosis patients was reduced to 56% of control value (95% ci: 27-86%; p=0.015) and was inversely related to the level of basal hyper-insulinemia (R(2)=0.39; p=0.004). CONCLUSIONS...

  6. GLUT4 trafficking in a test tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramm, Georg; James, David E

    2005-09-01

    Insulin regulates glucose transport in muscle and fat cells by stimulating the translocation of GLUT4 from intracellular vesicles to the plasma membrane. In this issue of Cell Metabolism, Holman and colleagues reconstitute this process in vitro, providing a system that promises new breakthroughs in our understanding of this important metabolic process.

  7. Regulation of myocardial glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT4 in chronically anemic fetal lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralphe, J Carter; Nau, Peter N; Mascio, Christopher E; Segar, Jeffrey L; Scholz, Thomas D

    2005-10-01

    Little is known about the chronic adaptations that take place in the fetal heart to allow for increased substrate delivery in response to chronic stress. Because glucose is an important fuel for the fetal cardiomyocytes, we hypothesized that myocardial glucose transporters 1 and 4 (GLUT1 and GLUT4, respectively) are up-regulated in the fetal sheep heart that is chronically stressed by anemia. Fetal sheep at 128 d gestation underwent daily isovolumic hemorrhage and determination of myocardial blood flow, oxygen consumption, and substrate utilization. At the end of 3 or 7 d of anemia, myocardial levels of GLUT1 and GLUT4 mRNA and protein were measured and subcellular localization was determined. Despite stable heart rate and blood pressure, anemia caused a nearly 4-fold increase in right and left ventricular (RV and LV) free wall blood flow. No significant change in myocardial glucose uptake was found and serum insulin levels remained stable. Both 3-d RV and LV and 7-d RV mRNA and protein levels of GLUT1 and GLUT4 were unchanged; 7-d LV GLUT1 and GLUT4 mRNA levels were also stable. However, LV GLUT1 protein levels declined significantly, whereas LV GLUT4 protein levels were increased. In the steady state, GLUT4 protein localized to the sarcolemma membrane. These findings suggest that the glucose transporters are post-transcriptionally regulated in myocardium of chronically anemic fetal sheep with changes that mimic normal postnatal development. Unlike the postnatal heart, localization of GLUT4 to the cell membrane suggests the importance of GLUT4 in basal glucose uptake in the stressed fetal heart.

  8. Exploring the whereabouts of GLUT4 in skeletal muscle (review)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Thorkil; Ralston, Evelyn

    2002-01-01

    The glucose transporter GLUT4 is expressed in muscle, fat cells, brain and kidney. In contrast to other glucose transporters, GLUT4 in unstimulated cells is mostly intracellular. Stimuli such as insulin and muscle contractions then cause the translocation of GLUT4 to the cell surface. Questions...... system, and an attempt is made to assess the universality principle....

  9. Exploring the whereabouts of GLUT4 in skeletal muscle (review)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Thorkil; Ralston, Evelyn

    2002-01-01

    The glucose transporter GLUT4 is expressed in muscle, fat cells, brain and kidney. In contrast to other glucose transporters, GLUT4 in unstimulated cells is mostly intracellular. Stimuli such as insulin and muscle contractions then cause the translocation of GLUT4 to the cell surface. Questions...... or brain? Or vice-versa? Can one use cultures to predict GLUT4 behaviour in fully differentiated tissues? This review summarizes the authors' knowledge of GLUT4 biology in skeletal muscle, which is the predominant tissue for glucose homeostasis. The results are compared to those obtained with the fat cell...

  10. Demonstration of differential quantitative requirements for NSF among multiple vesicle fusion pathways of GLUT4 using a dominant-negative ATPase-deficient NSF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaoli; Matsumoto, Hideko; Hinck, Cynthia S.; Al-Hasani, Hadi; St-Denis, Jean-Francois; Whiteheart, Sidney W.; Cushman, Samuel W.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the relative participation of N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) in vivo in a complex multistep vesicle trafficking system, the translocation response of GLUT4 to insulin in rat adipose cells. Transfections of rat adipose cells demonstrate that over-expression of wild-type NSF has no effect on total, or basal and insulin-stimulated cell-surface expression of HA-tagged GLUT4. In contrast, a dominant-negative NSF (NSF-D1EQ) can be expressed at a low enough level that it has little effect on total HA-GLUT4, but does reduce both basal and insulin-stimulated cell-surface HA-GLUT4 by ∼50% without affecting the GLUT4 fold-translocation response to insulin. However, high expression levels of NSF-D1EQ decrease total HA-GLUT4. The inhibitory effect of NSF-D1EQ on cell-surface HA-GLUT4 is reversed when endocytosis is inhibited by co-expression of a dominant-negative dynamin (dynamin-K44A). Moreover, NSF-D1EQ does not affect cell-surface levels of constitutively recycling GLUT1 and TfR, suggesting a predominant effect of low-level NSF-D1EQ on the trafficking of GLUT4 from the endocytic recycling compared to the intracellular GLUT4-specific compartment. Thus, our data demonstrate that the multiple fusion steps in GLUT4 trafficking have differential quantitative requirements for NSF activity. This indicates that the rates of plasma and intracellular membrane fusion reactions vary, leading to differential needs for the turnover of the SNARE proteins

  11. Lack of cyclical fluctuations of endometrial GLUT4 expression in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: Evidence for direct regulation of GLUT4 by steroid hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Cui

    2015-12-01

    We conclude that P4 can induce changes in endometrial GLUT4 expression during the menstrual cycle and that abnormal hormonal conditions such as PCOS disrupt normal patterns of GLUT4 expression in endometrial cells.

  12. Decreased muscle GLUT-4 and contraction-induced glucose transport after eccentric contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, S; Asp, Svend; Richter, Erik

    1996-01-01

    Eccentric exercise causes muscle damage and decreased muscle glycogen and glucose transporter isoform (GLUT-4) protein content. We investigated whether the contraction-induced increase in skeletal muscle glucose transport and muscle performance is affected by prior eccentric contractions. The calf...... muscles from rats were stimulated for eccentric (EC) or concentric (CC) contractions or were passively stretched (ST). Muscles from unstimulated control (CT) rats were also studied. Two days later, all rats had their isolated hindlimbs perfused either at rest or during 15 min of isometric muscle...... than in CT rats. In the GW and GR muscle, prior eccentric exercise decreased contraction-induced stimulation of glucose transport compared with CT, ST, and CC rats despite no difference in tension development and oxygen uptake among the groups. There was no change in total GLUT-4 content and glucose...

  13. Decreased muscle GLUT-4 and contraction-induced glucose transport after eccentric contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, S; Asp, Svend; Richter, Erik

    1996-01-01

    Eccentric exercise causes muscle damage and decreased muscle glycogen and glucose transporter isoform (GLUT-4) protein content. We investigated whether the contraction-induced increase in skeletal muscle glucose transport and muscle performance is affected by prior eccentric contractions. The calf...... muscles from rats were stimulated for eccentric (EC) or concentric (CC) contractions or were passively stretched (ST). Muscles from unstimulated control (CT) rats were also studied. Two days later, all rats had their isolated hindlimbs perfused either at rest or during 15 min of isometric muscle...... contractions. EC rats had a significantly lower total GLUT-4 protein content in the white gastrocnemius (GW) muscle (55%) and red gastrocnemius (GR) muscle (34%) compared with muscle from the CT, ST, and CC rats. In contrast, GLUT-1 protein content was approximately twofold higher in the GW muscle in EC rats...

  14. The effect of intensive insulin therapy on the insulin-regulatable glucose transporter (GLUT4) expression in skeletal muscle in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P H; Vestergaard, H; Lund, S

    1993-01-01

    h given to patients with Type 1 diabetes in poor metabolic control was associated with an adaptive regulation of GLUT4 mRNA and protein levels in vastus lateralis muscle. Nine Type 1 diabetic patients with a mean HbA1c of 10.3% were included in the protocol. After intensified treatment with soluble.......54). These results suggest, that in spite of evidence that high insulin levels affect GLUT4 expression in muscle, changes in serum insulin within the physiological range do not play a major role in the short-term regulation of GLUT4 expression in Type 1 diabetic patients....

  15. Purinergic receptor X7 mediates leptin induced GLUT4 function in stellate cells in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrashekaran, Varun; Das, Suvarthi; Seth, Ratanesh Kumar; Dattaroy, Diptadip; Alhasson, Firas; Michelotti, Gregory; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash; Diehl, Anna Mae; Chatterjee, Saurabh

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic oxidative stress via CYP2E1 can act as a second hit in NASH progression. Our previous studies have shown that oxidative stress in NASH causes higher leptin levels and induces purinergic receptor X7 (P2X7r). We tested the hypothesis that higher circulating leptin due to CYP2E1-mediated oxidative stress induces P2X7r. P2X7r in turn activates stellate cells and causes increased proliferation via modulating Glut4, the glucose transporter, and increased intracellular glucose. Using a hig...

  16. Exercise, GLUT4, and Skeletal Muscle Glucose Uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Hargreaves, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Glucose is an important fuel for contracting muscle, and normal glucose metabolism is vital for health. Glucose enters the muscle cell via facilitated diffusion through the GLUT4 glucose transporter which translocates from intracellular storage depots to the plasma membrane and T-tubules upon...... muscle contraction. Here we discuss the current understanding of how exercise-induced muscle glucose uptake is regulated. We briefly discuss the role of glucose supply and metabolism and concentrate on GLUT4 translocation and the molecular signaling that sets this in motion during muscle contractions....... Contraction-induced molecular signaling is complex and involves a variety of signaling molecules including AMPK, Ca(2+), and NOS in the proximal part of the signaling cascade as well as GTPases, Rab, and SNARE proteins and cytoskeletal components in the distal part. While acute regulation of muscle glucose...

  17. GLUT4, GLUT1, and GLUT8 are the dominant GLUT transcripts expressed in the murine left ventricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerni-Flessner, Lauren; Abi-Jaoude, Melissa; Koenig, Amanda; Payne, Maria; Hruz, Paul W

    2012-06-08

    The heart derives energy from a wide variety of substrates including fatty acids, carbohydrates, ketones, and amino acids. The healthy heart generates up to 30% of its ATP from glucose. Under conditions of cardiac injury or stress, the heart relies even more heavily on glucose as a source of fuel. Glucose is transported into the heart by members of the family of facilitative glucose transporters (GLUTs). While research examining the transport of glucose into the heart has primarily focused on the roles of the classical glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT4, little is known about the functions of more newly identified GLUT isoforms in the myocardium. In this study the presence and relative RNA message abundance of each of the known GLUT isoforms was determined in left ventricular tissue from two commonly used inbred laboratory mouse strains (C57BL/6J and FVB/NJ) by quantitative real time PCR. Relative message abundance was also determined in GLUT4 null mice and in murine models of dilated and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. GLUT4, GLUT1, and GLUT8 were found to be the most abundant GLUT transcripts in the normal heart, while GLUT3, GLUT10, and GLUT12 are present at relatively lower levels. Assessment of relative GLUT expression in left ventricular myocardium from mice with dilated cardiomyopathy revealed increased expression of GLUT1 with reduced levels of GLUT4, GLUT8, and GLUT12. Compensatory increase in the expression of GLUT12 was observed in genetically altered mice lacking GLUT4. Glucose transporter expression varies significantly among murine models of cardiac dysfunction and involves several of the class III GLUT isoforms. Understanding how these more newly identified GLUT isoforms contribute to regulating myocardial glucose transport will enhance our comprehension of the normal physiology and pathophysiology of the heart.

  18. Interactions of PPAR α and GLUT4 in DOCA/salt-induced renal injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ighodaro, Igbe; Eric, Omogbai Kelly; Adebayo, Oyekan

    2013-12-20

    Diminished insulin sensitivity is a characteristic feature of various pathological conditions such as hypertension and activation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) has been shown to enhance insulin resistance and reduce capacity for glucose uptake in muscles. The present study was designed to evaluate the interactions of PPARα and GLUT4 in a model of hypertensive renal injury by studying deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt induced hypertension in wild-type (WT) and PPARα knockout (KO) mice. PPARα WT and KO mice were uninephrectomized (UNx) and implanted subcutaneously DOCA and drank 1% sodium chloride/1% potassium chloride with or without a GLUT4 antagonist, indinavir (20 mg/kg/day, s.c) or PPARα ligand, fenofibrate (100 mg/kg/day, orally). DOCA/salt treatment increased urinary sodium excretion and urine volume (p<0.05) in PPARα KO mice compared to WT littermates. Indinavir increased proteinuria (p<0.01) in DOCA/salt-treated PPARα KO mice compared to WT littermates but did not affect heart and kidney weight index in DOCA/salt KO or WT-treated mice. Urinary sodium excretion (UNaV) and urine volume (UV) were increased by indinavir (p<0.01) and fenofibrate (p<0.05) in DOCA/salt-treated PPARα KO mice compared to WT mice. Urinary nitric oxide was greater in both fenofibrate (p<0.05) and indinavir-treated WT mice (p<0.05) compared to KO mice. These data suggest that in hypertensive nephropathy, GLUT4 probably exerts a renoprotective role that was enhanced with the activation of PPARα receptors by a mechanism that may be related to increased nitric oxide production.

  19. Effects of space flight on GLUT-4 content in rat plantaris muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, I.; Kawanaka, Kentaro; Sekiguchi, Chiharu; Nagaoka, Shunji; Ohira, Yoshinobu

    The effects of 14 days of space flight on the glucose transporter protein (GLUT-4) were studied in the plantaris muscle of growing 9-week-old, male Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were randomly separated into five groups: pre-flight vivarium ground controls (PF-VC) sacrificed approximately 2 h after launch; flight groups sacrificed either approximately 5 h (F-R0) or 9 days (F-R9) after the return from space; and synchronous ground controls (SC-R0 and SC-R9) sacrificed at the same time as the respective flight groups. The flight groups F-R0 and F-R9 were exposed to micro-gravity for 14 days in the Spacelab module located in the cargo bay of the shuttle transport system - 58 of the manned Space Shuttle for the NASA mission named ''Spacelab Life Sciences 2''. Body weight and plantaris weight of SC-R0 and F-R0 were significantly higher than those of PF-VC. Neither body weight nor plantaris muscle weight in either group had changed 9 days after the return from space. As a result, body weight and plantaris muscle weight did not differ between the flight and synchronous control groups at any of the time points investigated. The GLUT-4 content (cpm/µg membrane protein) in the plantaris muscle did not show any significant change in response to 14 days of space flight or 9 days after return. Similarly, citrate synthase activity did not change during the course of the space flight or the recovery period. These results suggest that 14 days of space flight does not affect muscle mass or GLUT-4 content of the fast-twitch plantaris muscle in the rat.

  20. The first intracellular loop of GLUT4 contains a retention motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talantikite, Maya; Berenguer, Marion; Gonzalez, Teresa; Alessi, Marie Christine; Poggi, Marjorie; Peiretti, Franck; Govers, Roland

    2016-06-01

    Glucose transporter GLUT4 (also known as SLC2A4) plays a major role in glucose homeostasis and is efficiently retained intracellularly in adipocytes and myocytes. To simplify the analysis of its retention, here, various intracellular GLUT4 domains were fused individually to reporter molecules. Of the four short cytoplasmic loops of GLUT4, only the first nine-residue-long loop conferred intracellular retention of truncated forms of the transferrin receptor and CD4 in adipocytes. In contrast, the same loop of GLUT1 was without effect. The reporter molecules to which the first loop of GLUT4 was fused localized, unlike GLUT4, to the trans-Golgi network (TGN), possibly explaining why these molecules did not respond to insulin. The retention induced by the GLUT4 loop was specific to adipocytes as it did not induce retention in preadipocytes. Of the SQWLGRKRA sequence that constitutes this loop, mutation of either the tryptophan or lysine residue abrogated reporter retention. Mutation of these residues individually into alanine residues in the full-length GLUT4 molecule resulted in a decreased retention for GLUT4-W105A. We conclude that the first intracellular loop of GLUT4 contains the retention motif WLGRK, in which W105 plays a prominent role. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Abnormal subcellular distribution of GLUT4 protein in obese and insulin-treated diabetic female dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargas A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The GLUT4 transporter plays a key role in insulin-induced glucose uptake, which is impaired in insulin resistance. The objective of the present study was to investigate the tissue content and the subcellular distribution of GLUT4 protein in 4- to 12-year-old control, obese and insulin-treated diabetic mongrel female dogs (4 animals per group. The parametrial white adipose tissue was sampled and processed to obtain both plasma membrane and microsome subcellular fractions for GLUT4 analysis by Western blotting. There was no significant difference in glycemia and insulinemia between control and obese animals. Diabetic dogs showed hyperglycemia (369.9 ± 89.9 mg/dl. Compared to control, the plasma membrane GLUT4, reported per g tissue, was reduced by 55% (P < 0.01 in obese dogs, and increased by 30% (P < 0.05 in diabetic dogs, and the microsomal GLUT4 was increased by ~45% (P < 0.001 in both obese and diabetic animals. Considering the sum of GLUT4 measured in plasma membrane and microsome as total cellular GLUT4, percent GLUT4 present in plasma membrane was reduced by ~65% (P < 0.001 in obese compared to control and diabetic animals. Since insulin stimulates GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane, percent GLUT4 in plasma membrane was divided by the insulinemia at the time of tissue removal and was found to be reduced by 75% (P < 0.01 in obese compared to control dogs. We conclude that the insulin-stimulated translocation of GLUT4 to the cell surface is reduced in obese female dogs. This probably contributes to insulin resistance, which plays an important role in glucose homeostasis in dogs.

  2. Metformin ameliorates diabetes but does not normalize the decreased GLUT 4 content in skeletal muscle of obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, A; Kayser, L; Høyer, P E

    1993-01-01

    resistance in skeletal muscle of these animals. After 4 weeks of treatment with metformin, weight gain was not affected in either the diabetic (fa/fa) rats or the lean (Fa/-) rats. Improvement of glucose homeostasis by metformin was not associated with normalization of the GLUT 4 expression in the skeletal......We studied the expression of the glucose transporter GLUT 4 in the soleus and red gastrocnemius muscles from obese, diabetic (fa/fa) Zucker rats compared to their lean littermates (Fa/-), with and without treatment with the antidiabetic drug metformin. In the untreated groups of rats, the GLUT 4...... content in a crude membrane fraction of both the soleus and the red gastrocnemius muscles were significantly lower in the obese (fa/fa) rats (3.46 +/- 0.28 vs. 6.04 +/- 0.41, p muscle from...

  3. Multiple signalling pathways redundantly control glucose transporter GLUT4 gene transcription in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murgia, Marta; Elbenhardt Jensen, Thomas; Cusinato, Marzia

    2009-01-01

    Increased GLUT4 expression in skeletal muscle is an important benefit of regular exercise, resulting in improved insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. The Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent-kinase II (CaMKII), calcineurin and AMPK pathways have been implicated in GLUT4 gene regulation based...... on pharmacological evidence. Here, we have used a more specific genetic approach to establish the relative role of the three pathways in fast and slow muscles. Plasmids coding for protein inhibitors of CaMKII or calcineurin were co-transfected in vivo with a GLUT4 enhancer-reporter construct either in normal mice...... or in mice expressing a dominant negative AMPK mutant. GLUT4 reporter activity was not inhibited in the slow soleus muscle by blocking either CaMKII or calcineurin alone, but was inhibited by blocking both pathways. GLUT4 reporter activity was likewise unchanged in the soleus of dnAMPK mice...

  4. Effects of DEHP and its metabolite MEHP on insulin signalling and proteins involved in GLUT4 translocation in cultured L6 myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Mangala Priya; Mullainadhan, Vigneswari; Chinnaiyan, Mayilvanan; Karundevi, Balasubramanian

    2017-07-01

    Di-(2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is the plasticizer used in variety of medical and consumer products to impart structural flexibility. DEHP and its primary metabolite mono-(2-ethyl hexyl)phthalate (MEHP) posed a considerable interest because of their contribution to insulin resistance, type-2 diabetes and obesity. Experimental and epidemiological data have shown that DEHP affects blood glucose homeostasis. However, direct effect of DEHP and its metabolite MEHP on insulin signal transduction and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation remain obscure. The present study was delineated to decipher the direct effects of DEHP and MEHP on insulin signal transduction and proteins involved in GLUT4 translocation in cultured L6 myotubes, the rat skeletal muscle model. For this study we have exposed cells with 50 and 100μM DEHP and MEHP for 24h followed by insulin stimulation for 20min. GLUT4 level in both cytosol and plasma membrane fractions were analysed by western blot analysis and found to be significantly decreased. Further, DEHP and MEHP treatment significantly altered the insulin signalling molecules and proteins involved in GLUT4 translocation (Rab8A (Ras related proteins in skeletal muscle), insulin - regulated amino peptidase (IRAP), synaptosomal - associated protein 23 (SNAP23), Syntaxin4, Munc18c) from cytosol to plasma membrane. Impaired GLUT4 in the plasma membrane resulted in decreased 14 C-deoxy glucose uptake. 14 C-glucose oxidation and glycogen content were also significantly decreased in treated groups. In essence, the present study is first of its kind to show the direct adverse effects of DEHP and MEHP on insulin signal transduction and GLUT4 translocation in cultured L6 myotubes. Further, MEHP is found to be more effective than DEHP as a result of its differential structure and physico-chemical properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of denervation or unweighting on GLUT-4 protein in rat soleus muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Erik J.; Rodnick, Kenneth J.; Mondon, Carl E.; James, David E.; Holloszy, John O.

    1991-01-01

    The study is intended to test the hypothesis that the decreased capacity for glucose transport in the denervated rat soleus and the increased capacity for glucose transport in the unweighted rat soleus are related to changes in the expression of the regulatable glucose transporter protein in skeletal muscle (GLUT-4). Results obtained indicate that altered GLUT-4 expression may be a major contributor to the changes in insulin-stimulated glucose transport that are observed with denervation and unweighting. It is concluded that muscle activity is an important factor in the regulation of the GLUT-4 expression in skeletal muscle.

  6. Direct evidence of fiber type-dependent GLUT-4 expression in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, M; Poulsen, P; Handberg, A

    2000-01-01

    GLUT-4 expression in individual fibers of human skeletal muscles in younger and older adults was studied. Furthermore, the dependency of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake on fiber type distribution was investigated. Fiber type distribution was determined in cryosections of muscle biopsies from 8...... younger (29 yr) and 8 older (64 yr) healthy subjects, and estimates of GLUT-4 expression in individual fibers were obtained by combining immunohistochemistry and stereology. GLUT-4 was more abundantly expressed in slow compared with fast muscle fibers in both younger (P ... of slow fibers in the young (r = -0.45, P > 0.25) or in the elderly (r = 0. 11, P > 0.75) subjects. In conclusion, in human skeletal muscle, GLUT-4 expression is fiber type dependent and decreases with age, particularly in fast muscle fibers....

  7. Rac1 signalling towards GLUT4/glucose uptake in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiu, Tim T; Jensen, Thomas Elbenhardt; Sylow, Lykke

    2011-01-01

    Small Rho family GTPases are important regulators of cellular traffic. Emerging evidence now implicates Rac1 and Rac-dependent actin reorganisation in insulin-induced recruitment of glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) to the cell surface of muscle cells and mature skeletal muscle. This review summarises...... the current thinking on the regulation of Rac1 by insulin, the role of Rac-dependent cortical actin remodelling in GLUT4 traffic, and the impact of Rac1 towards insulin resistance in skeletal muscle....

  8. The GLUT4 density in slow fibres is not increased in athletes. How does training increase the GLUT4 pool originating from slow fibres?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, M; Franch, J; Beck-Nielsen, H

    2001-01-01

    The influence of training on GLUT4 expression in slow- and fast-twitch skeletal muscle fibres was studied in male endurance-trained athletes and control subjects. The trained state was ensured by elevated maximal oxygen uptake (29%), as well as citrate synthase (60%) and 3-hydroxy-acyl-CoA dehydr......The influence of training on GLUT4 expression in slow- and fast-twitch skeletal muscle fibres was studied in male endurance-trained athletes and control subjects. The trained state was ensured by elevated maximal oxygen uptake (29%), as well as citrate synthase (60%) and 3-hydroxy......-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (38%) activities in muscle biopsy samples of the vastus lateralis. GLUT4 densities in slow- and fast-twitch fibres were measured by the use of a newly developed, sensitive method combining immunohistochemistry with morphometry, and no effect of training was found. GLUT4 density was higher in slow-twitch...... fibres compared to fast-twitch fibres (Ptwitch fibres. Slow-twitch fibre diameters were 10% larger in the athletes (Ptwitch fibre fractions were 140...

  9. Cycle Training Increased GLUT4 and Activation of mTOR in Fast Twitch Muscle Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Charles A.; Howell, Mary E.A.; Baker, Jonathan D.; Dykes, Rhesa J.; Duffourc, Michelle M.; Ramsey, Michael W.; Stone, Michael H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To determine if cycle training of sedentary subjects would increase the expression of the principle muscle glucose transporters, six volunteers completed six weeks of progressively increasing intensity stationary cycle cycling. Methods In vastus lateralis muscle biopsies, changes in expression of GLUT1, GLUT4, GLUT5, and GLUT12 were compared using quantitative immunoblots with specific protein standards. Regulatory pathway components were evaluated by immunoblots of muscle homogenates and immunohistochemistry of microscopic sections. Results GLUT1 was unchanged, GLUT4 increased 66%, GLUT12 increased 104%, and GLUT5 decreased 72%. A mitochondrial marker (cytochrome c) and regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC-1α and phospho-AMPK) were unchanged, but the muscle hypertrophy pathway component, phospho-mTOR increased 83% after the exercise program. In baseline biopsies, GLUT4 by immunohistochemical techniques was 37% greater in Type I (slow twitch, red) muscle fibers, but the exercise training increased GLUT4 expression in Type II (fast twitch, white) fibers by 50%, achieving parity with the Type I fibers. Baseline phospho-mTOR expression was 50% higher in Type II fibers and increased more in Type II fibers (62%) with training, but also increased in Type I fibers (34%). Conclusion Progressive intensity stationary cycle training of previously sedentary subjects increased muscle insulin-responsive glucose transporters (GLUT4 and GLUT12) and decreased the fructose transporter (GLUT5). The increase in GLUT4 occurred primarily in Type II muscle fibers and this coincided with activation of the mTOR muscle hypertrophy pathway. There was little impact on Type I fiber GLUT4 expression and no evidence of change in mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:20010125

  10. Super-resolution microscopy reveals the insulin-resistance-regulated reorganization of GLUT4 on plasma membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lan; Chen, Junling; Gao, Jing; Wang, Hongda; Xiong, Wenyong

    2017-01-15

    GLUT4 (also known as SLC2A4) is essential for glucose uptake in skeletal muscles and adipocytes, which play central roles in whole-body glucose metabolism. Here, using direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM) to investigate the characteristics of plasma-membrane-fused GLUT4 at the single-molecule level, we have demonstrated that insulin and insulin resistance regulate the spatial organization of GLUT4 in adipocytes. Stimulation with insulin shifted the balance of GLUT4 on the plasma membrane toward a more dispersed configuration. In contrast, insulin resistance induced a more clustered distribution of GLUT4 and increased the mean number of molecules per cluster. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that the F 5 QQI motif and lipid rafts mediate the maintenance of GLUT4 clusters on the plasma membrane. Mutation of F 5 QQI (F 5 QQA-GLUT4) induced a more clustered distribution of GLUT4; moreover, destruction of lipid rafts in adipocytes expressing F 5 QQA-GLUT4 dramatically decreased the percentage of large clusters and the mean number of molecules per cluster. In conclusion, our data clarify the effects of insulin stimulation or insulin resistance on GLUT4 reorganization on the plasma membrane and reveal new pathogenic mechanisms of insulin resistance. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Large GLUT4 vesicles are stationary while locally and reversibly depleted during transient insulin stimulation of skeletal muscle of living mice: imaging analysis of GLUT4-enhanced green fluorescent protein vesicle dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Hans P M M; Galbo, Henrik; Brandauer, Josef

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Insulin stimulates glucose transport in skeletal muscle by GLUT4 translocation from intracellular compartments to sarcolemma and t-tubules. We studied in living animals the recruitment of GLUT4 vesicles in more detail than previously done and, for the first time, analyzed the steady......-state recycling and subsequent re-internalization of GLUT4 on an insulin bolus. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A confocal imaging technique was used in GLUT4-enhanced green fluorescent protein-transfected superficial muscle fibers in living mice. RESULTS: During the first 30 min of insulin stimulation, very few...... superficially or deeply located GLUT4 storage vesicles (>1 microm) moved in toto. Rather, big vesicles were stationary in their original position at sarcolemma or t-tubules and were locally depleted of GLUT4 by budding off of smaller vesicles. Photobleaching experiments revealed that during initial...

  12. Effect of curcumin Extract on Ttranslocation of Glut 4 in C2C12 Myotubes

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    J Zavarreza

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Curcumin is a major phenolic compound of Curcuma longa, which has long been used in traditional Indian medicine. Recently, curcumin has been reported to have antihyperglycemic activity in animal models. However, the molecular basis of this action has not been adequatedly described. In the present study the antihyperglycemic effect of curcumin was examined using C2C12 myoblast cells. Methods: The effects of curcumin were investigated in C2C12 myotubes by treating the cells with 40 µM of curcumin for 1.5 h. C2C12 myotubes were homogenized and the subcellular fractionation was prepared using ultracentrifugation; Then protein assay was performed using Bradford method and Glut4 determination was done using SDS-PAGE. Moreover, western immunoblotting techniques were exerted for semi-quantitative measurement. Data analysis was performed via gene tools software of Gel documentation and SPSS. An ANOVA test was used to compare three groups together. Results: Comparison of Glut4 levels in C2C12 myotubes showed that myotubes which were exposed to1.5 hours of 40 µM curcunin had higher Glut4 percentages in both cytosolic and membrane fractions and Glut4 percentages were significant with a confidence interval (CI of 95% ( P<0.05 . Conclusion: The study results showed that curcumin can strongly induce the increase of Glut4 translocation in differentiated C2C12 cells, indicating its possible regulatory role in the glucose metabolism of skeletal muscle cells

  13. Early alterations in soleus GLUT-4, glucose transport, and glycogen in voluntary running rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Erik J.; Halseth, Amy E.

    1994-01-01

    Voluntary wheel running (WR) by juvenile female rats was used as a noninterventional model of soleus muscle functional overload to study the regulation of insulin-stimulated glucose transport activity by the glucose transporter (GLUT-4 isoform) protein level and glycogen concentration. Soleus total protein content was significantly greater (+18%;P greater than 0.05) than in age-matched controls after 1 wk of WR, and this hypertrophic response continued in weeks 2-4 (+24-32%). GLUT-4 protein was 39% greater than in controls in 1-wk WR soleus, and this adaptation was accompanied by a similar increase in in vitro insulin-stimulated glucose transport activity(+29%). After 2 and 4 wk of WR, however, insulin-stimulated glucose transport activity had returned to control levels, despite a continued elevation (+25-28%) of GLUT-4 protein. At these two time points, glycogen concentration was significantly enhanced in WR soleus (+21-42%), which coincided with significant reductions in glycogen synthase activity ratios (-23 to-41%). These results indicate that, in this model of soleus muscle functional overload, the GLUT-4 protein level may initially regulate insulin-stimulated glucose transport activity in the absence of changes in other modifying factors. However,this regulation of glucose transport activity by GLUT-4 protein may be subsequently overridden by elevated glycogen concentration.

  14. Effects of contraction on localization of GLUT4 and v-SNARE isoforms in rat skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Adam John; Jeppesen, Jacob; Kiens, Bente

    2009-01-01

    In skeletal muscle, contractions increase glucose uptake due to a translocation of GLUT4 glucose transporters from intracellular storage sites to the surface membrane. Vesicle associated membrane proteins (VAMPs) are believed to play an important role in docking and fusion of the GLUT4 transporters...... at the surface membrane. However, knowledge about which VAMP isoforms in fact co-localize with GLUT4 vesicles in mature skeletal muscle and whether they translocate during muscle contractions is incomplete. The aim of the present study was to further identify VAMP isoforms which are associated with GLUT4...... vesicles and examine which VAMP isoforms translocate to surface membranes in skeletal muscles undergoing contractions. VAMP2, VAMP3, VAMP5 and VAMP7 were enriched in immuno-precipitated GLUT4 vesicles. In response to 20 min of in situ contractions, there was a redistribution of GLUT4 (+64 +/- 13...

  15. Impaired muscle glycogen resynthesis after a marathon is not caused by decreased muscle GLUT-4 content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asp, S; Rohde, T; Richter, Erik

    1997-01-01

    Our purpose was to investigate whether the slow rate of muscle glycogen resynthesis after a competitive marathon is associated with a decrease in the total muscle content of the muscle glucose transporter (GLUT-4). Seven well-trained marathon runners participated in the study, and muscle biopsies...... were obtained from the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle before, immediately after, and 1, 2, and 7 days after the marathon, as were venous blood samples. Muscle GLUT-4 content was unaltered over the experimental period. Muscle glycogen concentration was 758 +/- 53 mmol/kg dry weight before......-race levels 7 days after the race. We conclude that the total GLUT-4 protein content is unaltered in the lateral gastrocnemius after a competitive marathon and that the slow recovery of muscle glycogen after the race apparently involves factors other than changes in the total content of this protein....

  16. Kinetics of contraction-induced GLUT4 translocation in skeletal muscle fibers from living mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Hans Peter M. Mortensen; Galbo, Henrik; Toyoda, Taro

    2010-01-01

    Exercise is an important strategy for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. This is due in part to an increase in glucose transport that occurs in the working skeletal muscles. Glucose transport is regulated by GLUT4 translocation in muscle, but the molecular machinery mediating this process is poorly...... understood. The purpose of this study was to 1) use a novel imaging system to elucidate the kinetics of contraction-induced GLUT4 translocation in skeletal muscle and 2) determine the function of AMP-activated protein kinase alpha2 (AMPKalpha2) in this process....

  17. EsGLUT4 and CHHBP are involved in the regulation of glucose homeostasis in the crustacean Eriocheir sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Glucose is an essential energy source for both vertebrates and invertebrates. In mammals, glucose uptake is mediated primarily by glucose transporters (GLUTs, members of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS of passive transporters. Among the GLUTs, GLUT4 is the main glucose transporter in muscles and adipocytes. In skeletal muscle cells, GLUT4 interacts with the lipid raft protein flotillin to transport glucose upon stimulation by insulin. Although several studies have examined GLUT4 function in mammals, few have been performed in crustaceans, which also use glucose as their main energy source. Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH is a multifunctional neurohormone found only in arthropods, and one of its roles is to regulate glucose homeostasis. However, the molecular mechanism that underlies CHH regulation and whether GLUT4 is involved in its regulation in crustaceans remain unclear. In the present study, we identified a full-length GLUT4 cDNA sequence (defined herein as EsGLUT4 from the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis and analyzed its tissue distribution and cellular localization. By the ForteBio Octet system, two large hydrophilic regions within EsGLUT4 were found to interact with the CHH binding protein (CHHBP, an E. sinensis flotillin-like protein. Interestingly, live-cell imaging indicated that EsGLUT4 and CHHBP responded simultaneously upon stimulation by CHH, resulting in glucose release. In contrast to insulin-dependent GLUT4, however, EsGLUT4 and CHHBP were present within cytoplasmic vesicles, both translocating to the plasma membrane upon CHH stimulation. In conclusion, our results provide new evidence for the involvement of EsGLUT4 and CHHBP in the regulation of glucose homeostasis in crustacean carbohydrate metabolism.

  18. EsGLUT4 and CHHBP are involved in the regulation of glucose homeostasis in the crustacean Eriocheir sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ran; Tian, Jin-Ze; Wang, Mo-Ran; Zhu, Li-Na; Sun, Jin-Sheng

    2017-09-15

    Glucose is an essential energy source for both vertebrates and invertebrates. In mammals, glucose uptake is mediated primarily by glucose transporters (GLUTs), members of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) of passive transporters. Among the GLUTs, GLUT4 is the main glucose transporter in muscles and adipocytes. In skeletal muscle cells, GLUT4 interacts with the lipid raft protein flotillin to transport glucose upon stimulation by insulin. Although several studies have examined GLUT4 function in mammals, few have been performed in crustaceans, which also use glucose as their main energy source. Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) is a multifunctional neurohormone found only in arthropods, and one of its roles is to regulate glucose homeostasis. However, the molecular mechanism that underlies CHH regulation and whether GLUT4 is involved in its regulation in crustaceans remain unclear. In the present study, we identified a full-length GLUT4 cDNA sequence (defined herein as EsGLUT4) from the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis and analyzed its tissue distribution and cellular localization. By the ForteBio Octet system, two large hydrophilic regions within EsGLUT4 were found to interact with the CHH binding protein (CHHBP), an E. sinensis flotillin-like protein. Interestingly, live-cell imaging indicated that EsGLUT4 and CHHBP responded simultaneously upon stimulation by CHH, resulting in glucose release. In contrast to insulin-dependent GLUT4, however, EsGLUT4 and CHHBP were present within cytoplasmic vesicles, both translocating to the plasma membrane upon CHH stimulation. In conclusion, our results provide new evidence for the involvement of EsGLUT4 and CHHBP in the regulation of glucose homeostasis in crustacean carbohydrate metabolism. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor promotes expression of GLUT4 glucose transporter through MEF2 and Zac1 in cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yeyou; Yuan, Weiwei; Zhu, Wensi; Zhu, Jiening; Lin, Qiuxiong; Zou, Xiao; Deng, Chunyu; Fu, Yongheng; Zheng, Xilong; Yang, Min; Wu, Shulin; Yu, Xiyong; Shan, Zhixin

    2015-12-01

    Evidence shows that both macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and GLUT4 glucose transporter are involved in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM), but it remains largely unknown whether and how MIF regulates GLUT4 expression in cardiomyocytes. The present study aims to investigate the mechanism underlying the modulation of GLUT4 by MIF in cardiomyocytes. Activations of AKT and AMPK signaling, and expressions of MIF, GLUT4 and the candidate GLUT4 regulation associated transcription factors in the diabetic mouse myocardium were determined. The screened transcription factors mediating MIF-promoted GLUT4 expression were verified by RNA interference (RNAi) and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), respectively. MIF was increased, but GLUT4 was decreased in the diabetic mouse myocardium. MIF could enhance glucose uptake and up-regulate GLUT4 expression in NMVCs. Expressions of transcription factor MEF2A, -2C, -2D and Zac1 were significantly up-regulated in MIF-treated neonatal mouse ventricular cardiomyocytes (NMVCs), and markedly reduced in the diabetic myocardium. Knockdown of MEF2A, -2C, -2D and Zac1 could significantly inhibit glucose uptake and GLUT4 expression in cardiomyocytes. Moreover, EMSA results revealed that transcriptional activities of MEF2 and Zac1 were significantly increased in MIF-treated NMVCs. AMPK signaling was activated in MIF-stimulated NMVCs, and AMPK activator AICAR could enhance MEF2A, -2C, -2D, Zac1 and GLUT4 expression. Additionally, MIF effects were inhibited by an AMPK inhibitor compound C and siRNA targeting MIF receptor CD74, suggesting the involvement of CD74-dependent AMPK activation. Transcription factor MEF2 and Zac1 mediate MIF-induced GLUT4 expression through CD74-dependent AMPK activation in cardiomyocytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Dissociation between PGC-1alpha and GLUT-4 expression in skeletal muscle of rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashida, Kazuhiko; Higuchi, Mitsuru; Terada, Shin

    2009-12-01

    It has recently been reported that a 4-wk high-fat diet gradually increases skeletal muscle peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) protein content, which has been suggested to regulate GLUT-4 gene transcription. However, it has not been reported that a high-fat diet enhances GLUT-4 mRNA expression and protein content in skeletal muscle, suggesting that an increase in PGC-1alpha protein content is not sufficient to induce muscle GLUT-4 biogenesis in a high-fat fed animal. Therefore, we first evaluated the relationship between PGC-1alpha and GLUT-4 expression in skeletal muscle of rats fed a high-fat diet for 4 wk. The PGC-1alpha protein content in rat epitrochlearis muscle significantly increased by twofold after the 4-wk high-fat diet feeding. However, the high-fat diet had no effect on GLUT-4 protein content and induced a 30% decrease in GLUT-4 mRNA expression in rat skeletal muscle (pGLUT-4 mRNA expression, we next examined the effect of PPARdelta activation, which is known to occur in response to a high-fat diet, on GLUT-4 mRNA expression in L6 myotubes. Incubation with 500 nM GW501516 (PPARdelta activator) for 24 h significantly decreased GLUT-4 mRNA in L6 myotubes. Taken together, these findings suggest that a high-fat diet downregulates GLUT-4 mRNA, possibly through the activation of PPARdelta, despite an increase in PGC-1alpha protein content in rat skeletal muscle, and that a posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism maintains GLUT-4 protein content in skeletal muscle of rats fed a high-fat diet.

  1. Angiotensin II inhibits insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation and Akt activation through tyrosine nitration-dependent mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Csibi

    Full Text Available Angiotensin II (Ang II plays a major role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and diabetes by inhibiting insulin's metabolic and potentiating its trophic effects. Whereas the precise mechanisms involved remain ill-defined, they appear to be associated with and dependent upon increased oxidative stress. We found Ang II to block insulin-dependent GLUT4 translocation in L6 myotubes in an NO- and O(2(*--dependent fashion suggesting the involvement of peroxynitrite. This hypothesis was confirmed by the ability of Ang II to induce tyrosine nitration of the MAP kinases ERK1/2 and of protein kinase B/Akt (Akt. Tyrosine nitration of ERK1/2 was required for their phosphorylation on Thr and Tyr and their subsequent activation, whereas it completely inhibited Akt phosphorylation on Ser(473 and Thr(308 as well as its activity. The inhibitory effect of nitration on Akt activity was confirmed by the ability of SIN-1 to completely block GSK3alpha phosphorylation in vitro. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase and NAD(PHoxidase and scavenging of free radicals with myricetin restored insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation and GLUT4 translocation in the presence of Ang II. Similar restoration was obtained by inhibiting the ERK activating kinase MEK, indicating that these kinases regulate Akt activation. We found a conserved nitration site of ERK1/2 to be located in their kinase domain on Tyr(156/139, close to their active site Asp(166/149, in agreement with a permissive function of nitration for their activation. Taken together, our data show that Ang II inhibits insulin-mediated GLUT4 translocation in this skeletal muscle model through at least two pathways: first through the transient activation of ERK1/2 which inhibit IRS-1/2 and second through a direct inhibitory nitration of Akt. These observations indicate that not only oxidative but also nitrative stress play a key role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. They underline the role of protein

  2. Direct evidence of fiber type-dependent GLUT-4 expression in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, M; Poulsen, P; Handberg, A

    2000-01-01

    GLUT-4 expression in individual fibers of human skeletal muscles in younger and older adults was studied. Furthermore, the dependency of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake on fiber type distribution was investigated. Fiber type distribution was determined in cryosections of muscle biopsies from 8 ...

  3. Methotrexate increases skeletal muscle GLUT4 expression and improves metabolic control in experimental diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-term administration of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR) mimics the effects of endurance exercise by activating AMP kinase and by increasing skeletal muscle expression of GLUT4 glucose transporter. AICAR is an intermediate in the purine de novo synthesis, and its tissue conc...

  4. Peripheral insulin resistance in ILK-depleted mice by reduction of GLUT4 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatem-Vaquero, Marco; Griera, Mercedes; García-Jerez, Andrea; Luengo, Alicia; Álvarez, Julia; Rubio, José A; Calleros, Laura; Rodríguez-Puyol, Diego; Rodríguez-Puyol, Manuel; De Frutos, Sergio

    2017-08-01

    The development of insulin resistance is characterized by the impairment of glucose uptake mediated by glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4). Extracellular matrix changes are induced when the metabolic dysregulation is sustained. The present work was devoted to analyze the possible link between the extracellular-to-intracellular mediator integrin-linked kinase (ILK) and the peripheral tissue modification that leads to glucose homeostasis impairment. Mice with general depletion of ILK in adulthood (cKD-ILK) maintained in a chow diet exhibited increased glycemia and insulinemia concurrently with a reduction of the expression and membrane presence of GLUT4 in the insulin-sensitive peripheral tissues compared with their wild-type littermates (WT). Tolerance tests and insulin sensitivity indexes confirmed the insulin resistance in cKD-ILK, suggesting a similar stage to prediabetes in humans. Under randomly fed conditions, no differences between cKD-ILK and WT were observed in the expression of insulin receptor (IR-B) and its substrate IRS-1 expressions. The IR-B isoform phosphorylated at tyrosines 1150/1151 was increased, but the AKT phosphorylation in serine 473 was reduced in cKD-ILK tissues. Similarly, ILK-blocked myotubes reduced their GLUT4 promoter activity and GLUT4 expression levels. On the other hand, the glucose uptake capacity in response to exogenous insulin was impaired when ILK was blocked in vivo and in vitro , although IR/IRS/AKT phosphorylation states were increased but not different between groups. We conclude that ILK depletion modifies the transcription of GLUT4, which results in reduced peripheral insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake, suggesting ILK as a molecular target and a prognostic biomarker of insulin resistance. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  5. GLUT4 protein expression in obese and lean 12-month-old rats: insights from different types of data analysis

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    P.M. Seraphim

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available GLUT4 protein expression in white adipose tissue (WAT and skeletal muscle (SM was investigated in 2-month-old, 12-month-old spontaneously obese or 12-month-old calorie-restricted lean Wistar rats, by considering different parameters of analysis, such as tissue and body weight, and total protein yield of the tissue. In WAT, a ~70% decrease was observed in plasma membrane and microsomal GLUT4 protein, expressed as µg protein or g tissue, in both 12-month-old obese and 12-month-old lean rats compared to 2-month-old rats. However, when plasma membrane and microsomal GLUT4 tissue contents were expressed as g body weight, they were the same. In SM, GLUT4 protein content, expressed as µg protein, was similar in 2-month-old and 12-month-old obese rats, whereas it was reduced in 12-month-old obese rats, when expressed as g tissue or g body weight, which may play an important role in insulin resistance. Weight loss did not change the SM GLUT4 content. These results show that altered insulin sensitivity is accompanied by modulation of GLUT4 protein expression. However, the true role of WAT and SM GLUT4 contents in whole-body or tissue insulin sensitivity should be determined considering not only GLUT4 protein expression, but also the strong morphostructural changes in these tissues, which require different types of data analysis.

  6. Effect of vanadate on glucose transporter (GLUT4) intrinsic activity in skeletal muscle plasma membrane giant vesicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, S; Youn, J; Richter, Erik

    1996-01-01

    Maximally effective concentrations of vanadate (a phosphotyrosine phosphatase inhibitor) increase glucose transport in muscle less than maximal insulin stimulation. This might be due to vanadate-induced decreased intrinsic activity of GLUT4 accompanying GLUT4 translocation. Thus, the effect of va...

  7. GLUT4 in cultured skeletal myotubes is segregated from the transferrin receptor and stored in vesicles associated with TGN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ralston, E; Ploug, Thorkil

    1996-01-01

    There is little consensus on the nature of the storage compartment of the glucose transporter GLUT4, in non-stimulated cells of muscle and fat. More specifically, it is not known whether GLUT4 is localized to unique, specialized intracellular storage vesicles, or to vesicles that are part of the ...

  8. GLUT4 expression at the plasma membrane is related to fibre volume in human skeletal muscle fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, M; Vach, W; Beck-Nielsen, H

    2002-01-01

    In this study we examined the relationship between GLUT4 expression at the plasma membrane and muscle fibre size in fibre-typed human muscle fibres by immunocytochemistry and morphometry in order to gain further insight into the regulation of GLUT4 expression. At the site of the plasma membrane...

  9. 3-O-Acyl-epicatechins Increase Glucose Uptake Activity and GLUT4 Translocation through Activation of PI3K Signaling in Skeletal Muscle Cells

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    Manabu Ueda-Wakagi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tea catechins promote glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells. In this study, we investigated whether the addition of an acyl group to the C-3 position of catechins to generate 3-O-acyl-catechins promoted glucose uptake in L6 myotubes. 3-O-Myristoyl-(−-epicatechin (EC-C14 and 3-O-palmitoyl-(−-epicatechin (EC-C16 promoted glucose uptake and translocation of glucose transporter (GLUT 4 in the cells. The effect of 3-O-acyl-(−-epicatechins was stronger than that of (−-epicatechin (EC, whereas neither 3-O-myristoyl-(+-catechin (C-C14 nor 3-O-palmitoyl-(+catechin (C-C16 promoted glucose uptake or GLUT4 translocation as well as (+-catechin (C. We further investigated an affinity of catechins and 3-O-acyl-catechins to the lipid bilayer membrane by using surface plasma resonance analysis. Maximum binding amounts of EC-C16 and C-C16 to the lipid bilayer clearly increased compared with that of (−-EC and (+-C, respectively. We also examined the mechanism of GLUT4 translocation and found EC-C14 and EC-C16 induced the phosphorylation of PI3K, but did not affect phosphorylation of Akt or IR. In conclusion, the addition of an acyl group to the C-3 position of (−-EC increases its affinity for the lipid bilayer membrane and promotes GLUT4 translocation through PI3K-dependent pathways in L6 myotubes.

  10. Anti-Diabetic Activities of Jiaotaiwan in db/db Mice by Augmentation of AMPK Protein Activity and Upregulation of GLUT4 Expression

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    Na Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Jiaotaiwan (JTW, which is composed of Coptis chinensis (CC and cinnamon (CIN, is one of the most well-known traditional Chinese medicines. In this study, we investigated the antidiabetic effects and mechanism of JTW in db/db mice. Results showed that JTW significantly decreased the level of fasting blood glucose and improved glucose and insulin tolerance better than CC or CIN alone. JTW also effectively protected the pancreatic islet shape, augmented the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK in the liver, and increased the expression of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 protein in skeletal muscle and white fat. AMPK and GLUT4 contributed to glucose metabolism regulation and had an essential function in the development of diabetes mellitus (DM. Therefore, the mechanisms of JTW may be related to suppressing gluconeogenesis by activating AMPK in the liver and affecting glucose uptake in surrounding tissues through the upregulation of GLUT4 protein expression. These findings provided a new insight into the antidiabetic clinical applications of JTW and demonstrated the potential of JTW as a new drug candidate for DM treatment.

  11. Impaired muscle glycogen resynthesis after a marathon is not caused by decreased muscle GLUT-4 content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asp, S; Rohde, T; Richter, Erik

    1997-01-01

    the marathon and decreased to 148 +/- 39 mmol/kg dry weight immediately afterward. Despite a carbohydrate-rich diet (containing at least 7 g carbohydrate.kg body mass-1.day-1), the muscle glycogen concentration remained 30% lower than before-race values 2 days after the race, whereas it had returned to before......Our purpose was to investigate whether the slow rate of muscle glycogen resynthesis after a competitive marathon is associated with a decrease in the total muscle content of the muscle glucose transporter (GLUT-4). Seven well-trained marathon runners participated in the study, and muscle biopsies...... were obtained from the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle before, immediately after, and 1, 2, and 7 days after the marathon, as were venous blood samples. Muscle GLUT-4 content was unaltered over the experimental period. Muscle glycogen concentration was 758 +/- 53 mmol/kg dry weight before...

  12. Schisandra polysaccharide increased glucose consumption by up-regulating the expression of GLUT-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Dun; Zhao, Ting; Feng, Wei-Wei; Mao, Guang-Hua; Zou, Ye; Wang, Wei; Li, Qian; Chen, Yao; Wang, Xin-Tong; Yang, Liu-Qing; Wu, Xiang-Yang

    2016-06-01

    In our previous study, a polysaccharide was extracted from Schisandra Chinensis (Trucz.) Baill and found with anti-diabetic effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-diabetic effects of the low weight molecular polysaccharide (SCPP11) purified from crude Schisandra polysaccharide and illustrate the underlying mechanism in buffalo rat liver cells. The insulin resistance model of BRL cells was established by incubating with insulin solution for 24h. The effects of SCPP11 on regulating related protein and mRNA expression in an insulin and AMPK signal pathway were investigated by western blot and RT-PCR analysis. SCPP11 showed no cytotoxicity to BRL cells and could improve the glucose consumption in BRL cells. SCPP11 increased the protein expression of Akt, p-AMPK and GLUT-4 in BRL cells. Moreover, SCPP11 could enhance the mRNA expression levels of IRS-1, PI3K, Akt, GLUT-4, AMPKα and PPAR-γ in BRL cells at the same time. In conclusion, SCPP11 possessed effects in improving glucose consumption by up-regulating the expression of GLUT-4 which might occur via insulin and AMPK signal pathway and could be a potential functional food to prevent and mitigate the insulin resistance condition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Exercise-induced muscle glucose uptake in mice with graded, muscle-specific GLUT-4 deletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, Kirsten F; Andrikopoulos, Sofianos; Proietto, Joseph; Hargreaves, Mark

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the importance of the glucose transporter GLUT-4 for muscle glucose uptake during exercise, transgenic mice with skeletal muscle GLUT-4 expression approximately 30–60% of normal (CON) and approximately 5–10% of normal (KO) were generated using the Cre/Lox system and compared with wild-type (WT) mice during approximately 40 min of treadmill running (KO: 37.7 ± 1.3 min; WT: 40 min; CON: 40 min, P = 0.18). In WT and CON animals, exercise resulted in an overall increase in muscle glucose uptake. More specifically, glucose uptake was increased in red gastrocnemius of WT mice and in the soleus and red gastrocnemius of CON mice. In contrast, the exercise-induced increase in muscle glucose uptake in all muscles was completely abolished in KO mice. Muscle glucose uptake increased during exercise in both red and white quadriceps of WT mice, while the small increases in CON mice were not statistically significant. In KO mice, there was no change at all in quadriceps muscle glucose uptake. No differences in muscle glycogen use during exercise were observed between any of the groups. However, there was a significant increase in plasma glucose levels after exercise in KO mice. The results of this study demonstrated that a reduction in skeletal muscle GLUT-4 expression to approximately 10% of normal levels completely abolished the exercise-induced increase in muscle glucose uptake. PMID:24303141

  14. GLUT-4 content in plasma membrane of muscle from patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, S; Vestergaard, H; Andersen, P H

    1993-01-01

    The abundance of GLUT-4 protein in both total crude membrane and plasma membrane fractions of vastus lateralis muscle from 13 obese non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients and 14 healthy subjects were examined in the fasting state and after supraphysiological hyperinsulinemia....... In the basal state the immunoreactive mass of GLUT-4 protein both in the crude membrane preparation and in the plasma membrane fraction was similar in NIDDM patients and control subjects. Moreover, in vivo insulin exposure neither for 30 min nor for 4 h had any impact on the content of GLUT-4 protein in plasma...... membranes. With the use of the same methodology, antibody, and achieving the same degree of plasma membrane purification and recovery, we found, however, that intraperitoneal administration of insulin to 7-wk-old rats within 30 min increased the content of GLUT-4 protein more than twofold (P

  15. The beneficial effects of exercise in rodents are preserved after detraining: a phenomenon unrelated to GLUT4 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Angelis Kátia

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although exercise training has well-known cardiorespiratory and metabolic benefits, low compliance with exercise training programs is a fact, and the harmful effects of physical detraining regarding these adaptations usually go unnoticed. We investigated the effects of exercise detraining on blood pressure, insulin sensitivity, and GLUT4 expression in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR and normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY. Methods Studied animals were randomized into sedentary, trained (treadmill running/5 days a week, 60 min/day for 10 weeks, 1 week of detraining, and 2 weeks of detraining. Blood pressure (tail-cuff system, insulin sensitivity (kITT, and GLUT4 (Western blot in heart, gastrocnemius and white fat tissue were measured. Results Exercise training reduced blood pressure (19%, improved insulin sensitivity (24%, and increased GLUT4 in the heart (+34%; gastrocnemius (+36% and fat (+22% in SHR. In WKY no change in either blood pressure or insulin sensitivity were observed, but there was an increase in GLUT4 in the heart (+25%, gastrocnemius (+45% and fat (+36% induced by training. Both periods of detraining did not induce any change in neither blood pressure nor insulin sensitivity in SHR and WKY. One-week detraining reduced GLUT4 in SHR (heart: -28%; fat: -23% and WKY (heart: -19%; fat: -22%; GLUT4 in the gastrocnemius was reduced after a 2-week detraining (SHR: -35%; WKY: -25%. There was a positive correlation between GLUT4 (gastrocnemius and the maximal velocity in the exercise test (r = 0.60, p = 0.004. Conclusions The study findings show that in detraining, despite reversion of the enhanced GLUT4 expression, cardiorespiratory and metabolic beneficial effects of exercise are preserved.

  16. PGC-1{alpha} is required for AICAR induced expression of GLUT4 and mitochondrial proteins in mouse skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leick, Lotte; Fentz, Joachim; Biensø, Rasmus S

    2010-01-01

    GLUT4, cytochrome c oxidase (COX)I and cytochrome (cyt) c protein expression ~10-40% relative to saline in white muscles of the WT mice, but not of the PGC-1alpha KO mice. In line, GLUT4 and cyt c mRNA content increased 30-60% 4h after a single AICAR injection relative to saline only in WT mice. One...

  17. Stereospermum tetragonam as an antidiabetic agent by activating PPARγ and GLUT4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bino Kingsley

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Present study evaluates the anti-diabetic activity of S. tetragonam LC-MSMS experiments showed the presence of two novel molecules C1 and C2, which were further taken for in silico study against PPARγ. Cell culture studies with A431 cells in the presence of crude aqueous extract showed the elevated level of PPARγ and GLUT4 and also confirmed using in silico studies. Thus, the present study proves the mecode of action of S. tetragonam as an antidiabetic drug.

  18. Adaptive responses of GLUT-4 and citrate synthase in fast-twitch muscle of voluntary running rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, E. J.; Halseth, A. E.

    1995-01-01

    Glucose transporter (GLUT-4) protein, hexokinase, and citrate synthase (proteins involved in oxidative energy production from blood glucose catabolism) increase in response to chronically elevated neuromuscular activity. It is currently unclear whether these proteins increase in a coordinated manner in response to this stimulus. Therefore, voluntary wheel running (WR) was used to chronically overload the fast-twitch rat plantaris muscle and the myocardium, and the early time courses of adaptative responses of GLUT-4 protein and the activities of hexokinase and citrate synthase were characterized and compared. Plantaris hexokinase activity increased 51% after just 1 wk of WR, whereas GLUT-4 and citrate synthase were increased by 51 and 40%, respectively, only after 2 wk of WR. All three variables remained comparably elevated (+50-64%) through 4 wk of WR. Despite the overload of the myocardium with this protocol, no substantial elevations in these variables were observed. These findings are consistent with a coordinated upregulation of GLUT-4 and citrate synthase in the fast-twitch plantaris, but not in the myocardium, in response to this increased neuromuscular activity. Regulation of hexokinase in fast-twitch muscle appears to be uncoupled from regulation of GLUT-4 and citrate synthase, as increases in the former are detectable well before increases in the latter.

  19. PGC-1α integrates glucose metabolism and angiogenesis in multiple myeloma cells by regulating VEGF and GLUT-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dedong; Zhou, Hao; Zhao, Jikai; Jin, Lu; Yu, Wen; Yan, Han; Hu, Yu; Guo, Tao

    2014-03-01

    Human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) is a key coactivator in the regulation of gene transcriptional activity in normal tissues. However, it is not clear whether it is involved in the angiogenesis and metabolism of multiple myeloma (MM). The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of PGC-1α in MM. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to inhibit PGC-1α expression in RPMI-8226 cells. An endothelial cell migration assay was performed using transwell chambers and the expression of PGC-1α, estrogen-related receptor-α (ERR-α), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4) was tested by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The protein expression of PGC-1α, ERR-α and GLUT-4 was assayed by western blot analysis. Lastly, RPMI-8226 cell proliferation was evaluated using CCK-8 assay. VEGF and GLUT-4 mRNA levels were decreased in cells treated with siRNA targeting PGC-1α, as was the level of GLUT-4 protein. Endothelial cell migration was significantly reduced when these cells were cultured with culture medium from RPMI-8226 cells treated with siPGC-1α. The proliferation rates at 24 and 48 h were suppressed by PGC-1α inhibition. Our results showed that inhibition of PGC-1α suppresses cell proliferation probably by downregulation of VEGF and GLUT-4. The present study suggests that PGC-1α integrates angiogenesis and glucose metabolism in myeloma through regulation of VEGF and GLUT-4.

  20. GLUT4 and glycogen synthase are key players in bed rest-induced insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biensø, Rasmus Sjørup; Jørgensen, Stine Ringholm; Kiilerich, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    To elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind physical inactivity-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, 12 young, healthy male subjects completed 7 days of bed rest with vastus lateralis muscle biopsies obtained before and after. In six of the subjects, muscle biopsies were taken from both...... than before bed rest. This bed rest-induced insulin resistance occurred together with reduced muscle GLUT4, hexokinase II, protein kinase B/Akt1, and Akt2 protein level, and a tendency for reduced 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity. The ability of insulin to phosphorylate Akt and activate....... The present findings demonstrate that physical inactivity-induced insulin resistance in muscle is associated with lower content/activity of key proteins in glucose transport/phosphorylation and storage....

  1. Sulfonylurea therapy improves glucose disposal without changing skeletal muscle GLUT4 levels in noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, H; Weinreb, J E; Rosen, A S

    1995-01-01

    A major pathological feature of noninsulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM) is defective insulin-stimulated glucose transport in skeletal muscle. When NIDDM subjects are assessed as a group, GLUT4 gene expression in skeletal muscle varies widely and is not different from that in controls. Thus, longitu......A major pathological feature of noninsulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM) is defective insulin-stimulated glucose transport in skeletal muscle. When NIDDM subjects are assessed as a group, GLUT4 gene expression in skeletal muscle varies widely and is not different from that in controls. Thus...

  2. Exercise-induced increase in glucose transport, GLUT-4, and VAMP-2 in plasma membrane from human muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, S; Hargreaves, Mark; Richter, Erik

    1996-01-01

    contractions may induce trafficking of GLUT-4-containing vesicles via a mechanism similar to neurotransmitter release. Our results demonstrate for the first time exercise-induced translocation of GLUT-4 and VAMP-2 to the plasma membrane of human muscle and increased sarcolemmal glucose transport.......A major effect of muscle contractions is an increase in sarcolemmal glucose transport. We have used a recently developed technique to produce sarcolemmal giant vesicles from human muscle biopsy samples obtained before and after exercise. Six men exercised for 10 min at 50% maximal O2 uptake (Vo2max...

  3. GLUT4 in cultured skeletal myotubes is segregated from the transferrin receptor and stored in vesicles associated with TGN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ralston, E; Ploug, Thorkil

    1996-01-01

    of the constitutive endosomal-lysosomal pathway. To address this question, we have investigated the localization of the endogenous GLUT4 in non-stimulated skeletal myotubes from the cell line C2, by immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy. We have used a panel of antibodies to markers of the Golgi complex...... (alpha mannosidase II and giantin), of the trans-Golgi network (TGN38), of lysosomes (lgp110), and of early and late endosomes (transferrin receptor and mannose-6-phosphate receptor, respectively), to define the position of their subcellular compartments. By immunofluorescence, GLUT4 appears concentrated...

  4. Rab5 Activity Regulates GLUT4 Sorting Into Insulin-Responsive and Non-Insulin-Responsive Endosomal Compartments: A Potential Mechanism for Development of Insulin Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessneer, Kandice L.; Jackson, Robert M.; Griesel, Beth A.

    2014-01-01

    Glucose transporter isoform 4 (GLUT4) is the insulin-responsive glucose transporter mediating glucose uptake in adipose and skeletal muscle. Reduced GLUT4 translocation from intracellular storage compartments to the plasma membrane is a cause of peripheral insulin resistance. Using a chronic hyperinsulinemia (CHI)-induced cell model of insulin resistance and Rab5 mutant overexpression, we determined these manipulations altered endosomal sorting of GLUT4, thus contributing to the development of insulin resistance. We found that CHI induced insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by retaining GLUT4 in a Rab5-activity-dependent compartment that is unable to equilibrate with the cell surface in response to insulin. Furthermore, CHI-mediated retention of GLUT4 in this non-insulin-responsive compartment impaired filling of the transferrin receptor (TfR)-positive and TfR-negative insulin-responsive storage compartments. Our data suggest that hyperinsulinemia may inhibit GLUT4 by chronically maintaining GLUT4 in the Rab5 activity-dependent endosomal pathway and impairing formation of the TfR-negative and TfR-positive insulin-responsive GLUT4 pools. This model suggests that an early event in the development of insulin-resistant glucose transport in adipose tissue is to alter the intracellular localization of GLUT4 to a compartment that does not efficiently equilibrate with the cell surface when insulin levels are elevated for prolonged periods of time. PMID:24932807

  5. Whey protein hydrolysate increases translocation of GLUT-4 to the plasma membrane independent of insulin in wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morato, Priscila Neder; Lollo, Pablo Christiano Barboza; Moura, Carolina Soares; Batista, Thiago Martins; Camargo, Rafael Ludemann; Carneiro, Everardo Magalhães; Amaya-Farfan, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Whey protein (WP) and whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) have the recognized capacity to increase glycogen stores. The objective of this study was to verify if consuming WP and WPH could also increase the concentration of the glucose transporters GLUT-1 and GLUT-4 in the plasma membrane (PM) of the muscle cells of sedentary and exercised animals. Forty-eight Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups (n = 8 per group), were treated and fed with experimental diets for 9 days as follows: a) control casein (CAS); b) WP; c) WPH; d) CAS exercised; e) WP exercised; and f) WPH exercised. After the experimental period, the animals were sacrificed, muscle GLUT-1 and GLUT-4, p85, Akt and phosphorylated Akt were analyzed by western blotting, and the glycogen, blood amino acids, insulin levels and biochemical health indicators were analyzed using standard methods. Consumption of WPH significantly increased the concentrations of GLUT-4 in the PM and glycogen, whereas the GLUT-1 and insulin levels and the health indicators showed no alterations. The physical exercise associated with consumption of WPH had favorable effects on glucose transport into muscle. These results should encourage new studies dealing with the potential of both WP and WPH for the treatment or prevention of type II diabetes, a disease in which there is reduced translocation of GLUT-4 to the plasma membrane.

  6. Loss of ACE2 Exaggerates High-Calorie Diet–Induced Insulin Resistance by Reduction of GLUT4 in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Masao; Yamamoto, Koichi; Takemura, Yukihiro; Takeshita, Hikari; Hongyo, Kazuhiro; Kawai, Tatsuo; Hanasaki-Yamamoto, Hiroko; Oguro, Ryosuke; Takami, Yoichi; Tatara, Yuji; Takeya, Yasushi; Sugimoto, Ken; Kamide, Kei; Ohishi, Mitsuru; Rakugi, Hiromi

    2013-01-01

    ACE type 2 (ACE2) functions as a negative regulator of the renin-angiotensin system by cleaving angiotensin II (AII) into angiotensin 1–7 (A1–7). This study assessed the role of endogenous ACE2 in maintaining insulin sensitivity. Twelve-week-old male ACE2 knockout (ACE2KO) mice had normal insulin sensitivities when fed a standard diet. AII infusion or a high-fat, high-sucrose (HFHS) diet impaired glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity more severely in ACE2KO mice than in their wild-type (WT) littermates. The strain difference in glucose tolerance was not eliminated by an AII receptor type 1 (AT1) blocker but was eradicated by A1–7 or an AT1 blocker combined with the A1–7 inhibitor (A779). The expression of GLUT4 and a transcriptional factor, myocyte enhancer factor (MEF) 2A, was dramatically reduced in the skeletal muscles of the standard diet–fed ACE2KO mice. The expression of GLUT4 and MEF2A was increased by A1–7 in ACE2KO mice and decreased by A779 in WT mice. A1–7 enhanced upregulation of MEF2A and GLUT4 during differentiation of myoblast cells. In conclusion, ACE2 protects against high-calorie diet–induced insulin resistance in mice. This mechanism may involve the transcriptional regulation of GLUT4 via an A1–7–dependent pathway. PMID:22933108

  7. GLUT-4 content in plasma membrane of muscle from patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, S; Vestergaard, H; Andersen, P H

    1993-01-01

    The abundance of GLUT-4 protein in both total crude membrane and plasma membrane fractions of vastus lateralis muscle from 13 obese non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients and 14 healthy subjects were examined in the fasting state and after supraphysiological hyperinsulinemia. In...

  8. GLUT4 content decreases along with insulin resistance and high levels of inflammatory markers in rats with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leguisamo Natalia M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic syndrome is characterized by insulin resistance, which is closely related to GLUT4 content in insulin-sensitive tissues. Thus, we evaluated the GLUT4 expression, insulin resistance and inflammation, characteristics of the metabolic syndrome, in an experimental model. Methods Spontaneously hypertensive neonate rats (18/group were treated with monosodium glutamate (MetS during 9 days, and compared with Wistar-Kyoto (C and saline-treated SHR (H. Blood pressure (BP and lipid levels, C-reactive protein (CRP, interleukin 6 (IL-6, TNF-α and adiponectin were evaluated. GLUT4 protein was analysed in the heart, white adipose tissue and gastrocnemius. Studies were performed at 3 (3-mo, 6 (6-mo and 9 (9-mo months of age. Results MetS rats were more insulin resistant (pvs H, but adiponectin was lower in MetS at 9 months (MetS: 32 ± 2, H: 42 ± 2, C: 45 ± 2 pg/mL; p Conclusions MSG-treated SHR presented all metabolic syndrome characteristics, as well as reduced GLUT4 content, which must play a key role in the impaired glycemic homeostasis of the metabolic syndrome.

  9. GLUT4 is reduced in slow muscle fibers of type 2 diabetic patients: is insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes a slow, type 1 fiber disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, M; Staehr, P; Beck-Nielsen, H

    2001-01-01

    was reduced to 77% in the obese subjects and to 61% in type 2 diabetic patients compared with the control subjects. We propose that a reduction in the fraction of slow-twitch fibers, combined with a reduction in GLUT4 expression in slow fibers, may reduce the insulin-sensitive GLUT4 pool in type 2 diabetes...

  10. (+-Rutamarin as a dual inducer of both GLUT4 translocation and expression efficiently ameliorates glucose homeostasis in insulin-resistant mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    Full Text Available Glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 is a principal glucose transporter in response to insulin, and impaired translocation or decreased expression of GLUT4 is believed to be one of the major pathological features of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Therefore, induction of GLUT4 translocation or/and expression is a promising strategy for anti-T2DM drug discovery. Here we report that the natural product (+-Rutamarin (Rut functions as an efficient dual inducer on both insulin-induced GLUT4 translocation and expression. Rut-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes exhibit efficiently enhanced insulin-induced glucose uptake, while diet-induced obese (DIO mice based assays further confirm the Rut-induced improvement of glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in vivo. Subsequent investigation of Rut acting targets indicates that as a specific protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B inhibitor Rut induces basal GLUT4 translocation to some extent and largely enhances insulin-induced GLUT4 translocation through PI3 kinase-AKT/PKB pathway, while as an agonist of retinoid X receptor α (RXRα, Rut potently increases GLUT4 expression. Furthermore, by using molecular modeling and crystallographic approaches, the possible binding modes of Rut to these two targets have been also determined at atomic levels. All our results have thus highlighted the potential of Rut as both a valuable lead compound for anti-T2DM drug discovery and a promising chemical probe for GLUT4 associated pathways exploration.

  11. Proteomic analysis of GLUT4 storage vesicles reveals LRP1 to be an important vesicle component and target of insulin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, Mark P; Gartner, Carlos A; Gygi, Steven P; Zhou, Li; Herz, Joachim; Kandror, Konstantin V; Pilch, Paul F

    2010-01-01

    Insulin stimulates the translocation of intracellular GLUT4 to the plasma membrane where it functions in adipose and muscle tissue to clear glucose from circulation. The pathway and regulation of GLUT4 trafficking are complicated and incompletely understood and are likely to be contingent upon the various proteins other than GLUT4 that comprise and interact with GLUT4-containing vesicles. Moreover, not all GLUT4 intracellular pools are insulin-responsive as some represent precursor compartments, thus posing a biochemical challenge to the purification and characterization of their content. To address these issues, we immunodepleted precursor GLUT4-rich vesicles and then immunopurified GLUT4 storage vesicle (GSVs) from primary rat adipocytes and subjected them to semi-quantitative and quantitative proteomic analysis. The purified vesicles translocate to the cell surface almost completely in response to insulin, the expected behavior for bona fide GSVs. In total, over 100 proteins were identified, about 50 of which are novel in this experimental context. LRP1 (low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1) was identified as a major constituent of GSVs, and we show it interacts with the lumenal domains of GLUT4 and other GSV constituents. Its cytoplasmic tail interacts with the insulin-signaling pathway target, AS160 (Akt substrate of 160 kDa). Depletion of LRP1 from 3T3-L1 adipocytes reduces GLUT4 expression and correspondingly results in decreased insulin-stimulated 2-[(3)H]deoxyglucose uptake. Furthermore, adipose-specific LRP1 knock-out mice also exhibit decreased GLUT4 expression. These findings suggest LRP1 is an important component of GSVs, and its expression is needed for the formation of fully functional GSVs.

  12. Rac1 governs exercise-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle through regulation of GLUT4 translocation in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sylow, Lykke; Laurent, Ida; Kleinert, Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    Exercise increase skeletal muscle energy turnover and one of the important substrates for the working muscle is glucose taken up from the blood. Despite extensive efforts, the signaling mechanisms vital for glucose uptake during exercise are not yet fully understood but the GTPase Rac1...... is a candidate molecule. This study investigated the role of Rac1 in muscle glucose uptake and substrate utilization during treadmill exercise in mice in vivo. Exercise-induced uptake of radiolabelled 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) at 65% max running capacity was blocked in soleus and decreased by 80 and 60......% in gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscles, respectively, in muscle-specific inducible Rac1 knockout (mKO) mice compared to wildtype littermates. By developing an assay to quantify endogenous GLUT4 translocation, we observed that GLUT4 content at the sarcolemma in response to exercise was reduced in Rac1 m...

  13. Sulfonylurea therapy improves glucose disposal without changing skeletal muscle GLUT4 levels in noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, H; Weinreb, J E; Rosen, A S

    1995-01-01

    A major pathological feature of noninsulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM) is defective insulin-stimulated glucose transport in skeletal muscle. When NIDDM subjects are assessed as a group, GLUT4 gene expression in skeletal muscle varies widely and is not different from that in controls. Thus, longitu......A major pathological feature of noninsulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM) is defective insulin-stimulated glucose transport in skeletal muscle. When NIDDM subjects are assessed as a group, GLUT4 gene expression in skeletal muscle varies widely and is not different from that in controls. Thus......-maintaining diet. Gliclazide treatment results in increased serum C-peptide, decreased hemoglobin-A1c, decreased glucose excursion on glucose tolerance test, and 35% increased insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. Gliclazide therapy is not associated with any change in DNA or protein content per g muscle or any...

  14. Gene gun bombardment-mediated expression and translocation of EGFP-tagged GLUT4 in skeletal muscle fibres in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Hans P M M; Reynet, Christine; Schjerling, Peter

    2002-01-01

    the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) labelling technique with physical transfection methods in vivo: intramuscular plasmid injection or gene gun bombardment. During optimisation experiments with plasmid coding for the EGFP reporter alone EGFP-positive muscle fibres were counted after collagenase...... treatment of in vivo transfected flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) muscles. In contrast to gene gun bombardment, intramuscular injection produced EGFP expression in only a few fibres. Regardless of the transfection technique, EGFP expression was higher in muscles from 2-week-old rats than in those from 6-week......-old rats and peaked around 1 week after transfection. The gene gun was used subsequently with a plasmid coding for EGFP linked to the C-terminus of GLUT4 (GLUT4-EGFP). Rats were anaesthetised 5 days after transfection and insulin given i.v. with or without accompanying electrical hindleg muscle stimulation...

  15. Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF Binding Protein-2, Independently of IGF-1, Induces GLUT-4 Translocation and Glucose Uptake in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biruhalem Assefa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2 is the predominant IGF binding protein produced during adipogenesis and is known to increase the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (GU in myotubes. We investigated the IGFBP-2-induced changes in basal and insulin-stimulated GU in adipocytes and the underlying mechanisms. We further determined the role of insulin and IGF-1 receptors in mediating the IGFBP-2 and the impact of IGFBP-2 on the IGF-1-induced GU. Fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with IGFBP-2 in the presence and absence of insulin and IGF-1. Insulin, IGF-1, and IGFBP-2 induced a dose-dependent increase in GU. IGFBP-2 increased the insulin-induced GU after long-term incubation. The IGFBP-2-induced impact on GU was neither affected by insulin or IGF-1 receptor blockage nor by insulin receptor knockdown. IGFBP-2 significantly increased the phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, AMPK, TBC1D1, and PKCζ/λ and induced GLUT-4 translocation. Moreover, inhibition of PI3K and AMPK significantly reduced IGFBP-2-stimulated GU. In conclusion, IGFBP-2 stimulates GU in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through activation of PI3K/Akt, AMPK/TBC1D1, and PI3K/PKCζ/λ/GLUT-4 signaling. The stimulatory effect of IGFBP-2 on GU is independent of its binding to IGF-1 and is possibly not mediated through the insulin or IGF-1 receptor. This study highlights the potential role of IGFBP-2 in glucose metabolism.

  16. Fruit extracts of Momordica charantia potentiate glucose uptake and up-regulate Glut-4, PPAR gamma and PI3K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ramadhar; Balaji, S; Uma, T S; Sehgal, P K

    2009-12-10

    Momordica charantia fruit is a widely used traditional medicinal herb as, anti-diabetic, anti-HIV, anti-ulcer, anti-inflammatory, anti-leukemic, anti-microbial, and anti-tumor. The present study is undertaken to investigate the possible mode of action of fruit extracts derived from Momordica charantia (MC) and study its pharmacological effects for controlling diabetic mellitus. Effects of aqueous and chloroform extracts of Momordica charantia fruit on glucose uptake and up-regulation of glucose transporter (Glut-4), peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K), were investigated to show its efficacy as a hypoglycaemic agent. Dose dependent glucose uptake assay was performed on L6 myotubes using 2-deoxy-D-[1-(3)H] glucose. Up-regulatory effects of the extracts on the mRNA expression level of Glut-4, PPAR gamma and PI3K have been studied. The association of Momordica charantia with the aqueous and chloroform extracts of Momordica charantia fruit at 6 microg/ml has shown significant up-regulatory effect, respectively, by 3.6-, 2.8- and 3.8-fold on the battery of targets Glut-4, PPAR gamma and PI3K involved in glucose transport. The up-regulation of glucose uptake was comparable with insulin and rosiglitazone which was approximately 2-fold over the control. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of the cyclohexamide on Momordica charantia fruit extract mediated glucose uptake suggested the requirement of new protein synthesis for the enhanced glucose uptake. This study demonstrated the significance of Glut-4, PPAR gamma and PI3K up-regulation by Momordica charantia in augmenting the glucose uptake and homeostasis.

  17. Rac1 governs exercise‐stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle through regulation of GLUT4 translocation in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Ida L.; Kleinert, Maximilian; Møller, Lisbeth L. V.; Ploug, Thorkil; Schjerling, Peter; Bilan, Philip J.; Klip, Amira; Jensen, Thomas E.; Richter, Erik A.

    2016-01-01

    Key point Exercise increases skeletal muscle energy turnover and one of the important substrates for the working muscle is glucose taken up from the blood.The GTPase Rac1 can be activated by muscle contraction and has been found to be necessary for insulin‐stimulated glucose uptake, although its role in exercise‐stimulated glucose uptake is unknown.We show that Rac1 regulates the translocation of the glucose transporter GLUT4 to the plasma membrane in skeletal muscle during exercise.We find that Rac1 knockout mice display significantly reduced glucose uptake in skeletal muscle during exercise. Abstract Exercise increases skeletal muscle energy turnover and one of the important substrates for the working muscle is glucose taken up from the blood. Despite extensive efforts, the signalling mechanisms vital for glucose uptake during exercise are not yet fully understood, although the GTPase Rac1 is a candidate molecule. The present study investigated the role of Rac1 in muscle glucose uptake and substrate utilization during treadmill exercise in mice in vivo. Exercise‐induced uptake of radiolabelled 2‐deoxyglucose at 65% of maximum running capacity was blocked in soleus muscle and decreased by 80% and 60% in gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscles, respectively, in muscle‐specific inducible Rac1 knockout (mKO) mice compared to wild‐type littermates. By developing an assay to quantify endogenous GLUT4 translocation, we observed that GLUT4 content at the sarcolemma in response to exercise was reduced in Rac1 mKO muscle. Our findings implicate Rac1 as a regulatory element critical for controlling glucose uptake during exercise via regulation of GLUT4 translocation. PMID:27061726

  18. Effects of AICAR and exercise on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, signaling, and GLUT-4 content in rat muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, Niels; Pold, Rasmus; Buhl, Esben S; Jensen, Lasse S; Schmitz, Ole; Lund, Sten

    2003-04-01

    Physical activity is known to increase insulin action in skeletal muscle, and data have indicated that 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is involved in the molecular mechanisms behind this beneficial effect. 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR) can be used as a pharmacological tool to repetitively activate AMPK, and the objective of this study was to explore whether the increase in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake after either long-term exercise or chronic AICAR administration was followed by fiber-type-specific changes in insulin signaling and/or changes in GLUT-4 expression. Wistar rats were allocated into three groups: an exercise group trained on treadmill for 5 days, an AICAR group exposed to daily subcutaneous injections of AICAR, and a sedentary control group. AMPK activity, insulin-stimulated glucose transport, insulin signaling, and GLUT-4 expression were determined in muscles characterized by different fiber type compositions. Both exercised and AICAR-injected animals displayed a fiber-type-specific increase in glucose transport with the most marked increase in muscles with a high content of type IIb fibers. This increase was accompanied by a concomitant increase in GLUT-4 expression. Insulin signaling as assessed by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and PKB/Akt activity was enhanced only after AICAR administration and in a non-fiber-type-specific manner. In conclusion, chronic AICAR administration and long-term exercise both improve insulin-stimulated glucose transport in skeletal muscle in a fiber-type-specific way, and this is associated with an increase in GLUT-4 content.

  19. A potential link between insulin signaling and GLUT4 translocation: Association of Rab10-GTP with the exocyst subunit Exoc6/6b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sano, Hiroyuki; Peck, Grantley R. [Department of Biochemistry, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Blachon, Stephanie [Hybrigenics Services SAS, 3-5 Impasse Reille, 75014 Paris (France); Lienhard, Gustav E., E-mail: gustav.e.lienhard@dartmouth.edu [Department of Biochemistry, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)

    2015-09-25

    Insulin increases glucose transport in fat and muscle cells by stimulating the exocytosis of specialized vesicles containing the glucose transporter GLUT4. This process, which is referred to as GLUT4 translocation, increases the amount of GLUT4 at the cell surface. Previous studies have provided evidence that insulin signaling increases the amount of Rab10-GTP in the GLUT4 vesicles and that GLUT4 translocation requires the exocyst, a complex that functions in the tethering of vesicles to the plasma membrane, leading to exocytosis. In the present study we show that Rab10 in its GTP form binds to Exoc6 and Exoc6b, which are the two highly homologous isotypes of an exocyst subunit, that both isotypes are found in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and that knockdown of Exoc6, Exoc6b, or both inhibits GLUT4 translocation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These results suggest that the association of Rab10-GTP with Exoc6/6b is a molecular link between insulin signaling and the exocytic machinery in GLUT4 translocation. - Highlights: • Insulin stimulates the fusion of vesicles containing GLUT4 with the plasma membrane. • This requires vesicular Rab10-GTP and the exocyst plasma membrane tethering complex. • We find that Rab10-GTP associates with the Exoc6 subunit of the exocyst. • We find that knockdown of Exoc6 inhibits fusion of GLUT4 vesicles with the membrane. • The interaction of Rab10-GTP with Exoc6 potentially links signaling to exocytosis.

  20. Estradiol-induced regulation of GLUT4 in 3T3-L1 cells: involvement of ESR1 and AKT activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campello, Raquel S; Fátima, Luciana A; Barreto-Andrade, João Nilton; Lucas, Thais F; Mori, Rosana C; Porto, Catarina S; Machado, Ubiratan F

    2017-10-01

    Impaired insulin-stimulated glucose uptake involves reduced expression of the GLUT4 (solute carrier family 2 facilitated glucose transporter member 4, SLC2A4 gene). 17β-estradiol (E 2 ) modulates SLC2A4 /GLUT4 expression, but the involved mechanisms are unclear. Although E 2 exerts biological effects by binding to estrogen receptors 1/2 (ESR1/2), which are nuclear transcriptional factors; extranuclear effects have also been proposed. We hypothesize that E 2 regulates GLUT4 through an extranuclear ESR1 mechanism. Thus, we investigated the effects of E 2 upon (1) subcellular distribution of ESRs and the proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinases (SRC) involvement; (2) serine/threonine-protein kinase (AKT) activation; (3) Slc2a4 /GLUT4 expression and (4) GLUT4 subcellular distribution and glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were cultivated or not with E 2 for 24 h, and additionally treated or not with ESR1-selective agonist (PPT), ESR1-selective antagonist (MPP) or selective SRC inhibitor (PP2). Subcellular distribution of ESR1, ESR2 and GLUT4 was analyzed by immunocytochemistry; Slc2a4 mRNA and GLUT4 were quantified by qPCR and Western blotting, respectively; plasma membrane GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake were analyzed under insulin stimulus for 20 min or not. E 2 induced (1) translocation of ESR1, but not of ESR2, from nucleus to plasma membrane and AKT phosphorylation, effects mimicked by PPT and blocked by MPP and PP2; (2) increased Slc2a4 /GLUT4 expression and (3) increased insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake. In conclusion, E 2 treatment promoted a SRC-mediated nucleus-plasma membrane shuttle of ESR1, and increased AKT phosphorylation, Slc2a4 /GLUT4 expression and plasma membrane GLUT4 translocation; consequently, improving insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. These results unravel mechanisms through which estrogen improves insulin sensitivity. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  1. Rice consumption and predisposition to metabolic diseases: The role of PPARγ and GLUT4 dysregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilyaminu Abubakar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic diseases of significant dietary cause have been multiplying since the climax of the Industrial Revolution and are approaching pandemic proportions. Diet has been promulgated as a cornerstone in tackling these diseases. Understanding the long-term molecular modulatory functions of a diet on key metabolic pathways associated with the pathophysiology of these diseases cannot be overemphasised. Since rice is a staple food for more than half of the world's population and has been linked to some metabolic diseases, we assert that understanding the long-term molecular modulatory effect of rice cultivars on PPARγ and GLUT4 gene products could reduce the burden of these diseases. This would be done by harnessing which property of a rice cultivar alters important metabolic pathways necessary for normal body function. Forty-eight nulliparous rats fed for 90 days with differing rice cultivars were mated with male rats raised on standard pellet. The resulting pups and dams were sacrificed (n = 6. Their adipose tissue, hepatic tissue and muscle tissue were investigated for PPARγ and GLUT4 gene expression regulations. Protein was also extracted from the aforementioned tissues, separated on SDS-PAGE and blotted and probed with PPARγ and GLUT4 primary antibodies, followed by a secondary antibody. Global hepatic DNA methylation due to the interventions were quantified using a DNA methylation kit. Our findings showed that germination status and high amylose composition properties in rice cultivars prevented the downregulation of GLUT4 gene products in standard-chow- and high-fat-diet-fed rats. It also prevented the upregulation of PPAR gene products in the same rats. Alterations in mRNA and protein regulations were inherited by the offspring. Furthermore, germinated rice cultivars with high amylose content demonstrated lower hepatic DNA methylation levels compared with low-amylose white rice. Also, a 50% correlation was observed between m

  2. Overexpression of protein tyrosine phosphatase-alpha (PTP-alpha) but not PTP-kappa inhibits translocation of GLUT4 in rat adipose cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, L N; Chen, H; Li, Y

    1999-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases) are likely to play important roles in insulin action. We recently demonstrated that the nontransmembrane PTPase PTP1B can act as a negative modulator of insulin-stimulated translocation of GLUT4. We now examine the role of PTP-alpha and PTP-kappa (two...... transmembrane PTPases) in this metabolic action of insulin. Rat adipose cells were transfected with either PTP-alpha or PTP-kappa and effects of these PTPases on the translocation of a cotransfected epitope-tagged GLUT4 were studied. Cells overexpressing wild-type PTP-alpha had significantly lower levels...... of cell surface GLUT4 in response to insulin and a threefold decrease in insulin sensitivity when compared with control cells expressing only tagged GLUT4. Co-overexpression of PTP-alpha and PTP1B did not have additive effects, suggesting that these PTPases share common substrates. Cells overexpressing...

  3. Metformin ameliorates diabetes but does not normalize the decreased GLUT 4 content in skeletal muscle of obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, A; Kayser, L; Høyer, P E

    1993-01-01

    We studied the expression of the glucose transporter GLUT 4 in the soleus and red gastrocnemius muscles from obese, diabetic (fa/fa) Zucker rats compared to their lean littermates (Fa/-), with and without treatment with the antidiabetic drug metformin. In the untreated groups of rats, the GLUT 4...... content in a crude membrane fraction of both the soleus and the red gastrocnemius muscles were significantly lower in the obese (fa/fa) rats (3.46 +/- 0.28 vs. 6.04 +/- 0.41, p GLUT 4 expression in soleus muscle from...... the same rats were confirmed by quantitative immunofluorescence microscopy, and the results were significantly correlated with the results obtained from quantitative immunoblotting (rho = 0.70, p GLUT 4 in fa/fa rats could contribute to the well-established insulin...

  4. Molecular dynamics simulation studies of GLUT4: substrate-free and substrate-induced dynamics and ATP-mediated glucose transport inhibition.

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    Suma Mohan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 is an insulin facilitated glucose transporter that plays an important role in maintaining blood glucose homeostasis. GLUT4 is sequestered into intracellular vesicles in unstimulated cells and translocated to the plasma membrane by various stimuli. Understanding the structural details of GLUT4 will provide insights into the mechanism of glucose transport and its regulation. To date, a crystal structure for GLUT4 is not available. However, earlier work from our laboratory proposed a well validated homology model for GLUT4 based on the experimental data available on GLUT1 and the crystal structure data obtained from the glycerol 3-phosphate transporter. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, the dynamic behavior of GLUT4 in a membrane environment was analyzed using three forms of GLUT4 (apo, substrate and ATP-substrate bound states. Apo form simulation analysis revealed an extracellular open conformation of GLUT4 in the membrane favoring easy exofacial binding of substrate. Simulation studies with the substrate bound form proposed a stable state of GLUT4 with glucose, which can be a substrate-occluded state of the transporter. Principal component analysis suggested a clockwise movement for the domains in the apo form, whereas ATP substrate-bound form induced an anti-clockwise rotation. Simulation studies suggested distinct conformational changes for the GLUT4 domains in the ATP substrate-bound form and favor a constricted behavior for the transport channel. Various inter-domain hydrogen bonds and switching of a salt-bridge network from E345-R350-E409 to E345-R169-E409 contributed to this ATP-mediated channel constriction favoring substrate occlusion and prevention of its release into cytoplasm. These data are consistent with the biochemical studies, suggesting an inhibitory role for ATP in GLUT-mediated glucose transport. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In the absence of a crystal structure for any

  5. Genetic variants in promoters and coding regions of the muscle glycogen synthase and the insulin-responsive GLUT4 genes in NIDDM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørbaek, C; Echwald, Søren Morgenthaler; Hubricht, P

    1994-01-01

    To examine the hypothesis that variants in the regulatory or coding regions of the glycogen synthase (GS) and insulin-responsive glucose transporter (GLUT4) genes contribute to insulin-resistant glucose processing of muscle from non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients, promoter r...... in the GLUT4 cDNA was a silent polymorphism at codon 130. Southern blotting of both gene loci did not detect any major abnormalities.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  6. GLUT4 expression in human muscle fibres is not correlated with intracellular triglyceride (TG) content. Is TG a maker or a marker of insulin resistance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, M; Ottosen, P D; Vach, W

    2003-01-01

    We have recently reported a progressive decline in the expression of glucose transporter isoform 4 (GLUT4) from control subjects through obese non-diabetics to obese type 2 diabetic subjects, indicating that the reduced GLUT4 in slow twitch fibres could be secondary to obesity. In this study we...... diabetic subjects, and young lean controls. TG density was significantly higher in slow compared to fast fibres in all studied subjects (ptwitch fibres of obese diabetic subjects compared to obese (p

  7. Intervention of rosiglitazone on myocardium Glut-4 mRNA expression during ischemia-reperfusion injury in cardio-pulmonary bypass in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Liang, Guiyou; Xu, Gang; Liu, Daxin; Cai, Qingyong; Gao, Zhenyu

    2013-01-01

    During cardiac pulmonary bypass (CPB), myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) induces heart glucose metabolism impairment. Our previous research showed that the decreased glucose utilization is due to decreased glucose transporter-4 (Glut-4) expression and translocation to myocyte surface membranes. This study further examined whether rosiglitazone, a synthetic agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, could intervene glucose metabolism by regulating Glut-4 mRNA during I/R in dogs. Cardiac ischemia was induced by cardiopulmonary bypass for 30 or 120 min. Plasma insulin and glucose concentrations were measured at pre-bypass (control), aortic cross-clamp off (I/R) at 15, 45, and 75 min. The left ventricle biopsies were taken for the expression of Glut-4 mRNA by real-time RT-PCR. In dogs receiving 120 min ischemia, coronary arterial, venous glucose concentrations, plasma insulin levels, and insulin resistant index (IRI) were increased, but the expression of Glut-4 mRNA was decreased obviously at 15 min of reperfusion, and recovered gradually. On the other hand, these changes were relatively mild in dogs treated with rosiglitazone in cardioplegic solution and expression of Glut-4 mRNA was increased remarkably. It is concluded that the decrease in total amount of Glut-4 mRNA expression could be one of the important molecular mechanisms, which causes the myocardium insulin resistance. The longer the ischemia period, the decrease in amount of Glut-4 mRNA was more dramatic. Adding rosiglitazone into the cardioplegic solution during I/R can increase the amount of Glut-4 mRNA expression, mitigate the myocardium insulin resistance and improve the myocardium I/R injury during CPB.

  8. Effect of Papaya Seed Extract (Carica papaya Linn. on Glucose Transporter 4 (GLUT 4 Expression of Skeletal Muscle Tissue in Diabetic Mice Induced by High Fructose Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devyani Diah Wulansari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ethnobotany surveys show that papaya seeds are widely used as herbs for the management of some diseases such as abdominal discomfort, pain, malaria, diabetes, obesity, and infection. This research was conducted to analyze the effect of papaya seed extract on GLUT4 expression on skeletal muscle tissue of DM type II model induced by high fructose diet. This study used 24 animals, divided into 4 groups of negative control group, treated with papaya seed extract 100 mg / kgBB, 200 mg / kgBW and 300 mg / kgBW, was adapted for 14 days then induced by fructose solution 20% Orally with a dose of 1.86 grams / kgBB for 56 days. The treatment group was given papaya seed extract in accordance with the dose of each group for 14 days. GDP levels was measured using a spectrophotometer. Skeletal muscle tissue is used on the gastrocnemius part. GLUT4 expression was measured through a Immunoreactive Score (IRS method with immunohistochemical staining using GLUT4 polyclonal antibodies. Comparative test results showed that there were significant differences between groups (p <0.05 in final GDP variables and GLUT4 expression. Pearson correlation test results show that the value p = 0.001, meaning there is a significant relationship between GLUT4 expression with final GDP levels. The result of simple linear regression analysis showed that p = 0,000 (<0,05, meaning that dose of papaya seed extract had a significant influence on GLUT4 expression.

  9. Will Stress during Pregnancy Affect My Baby?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... baby? Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print Will stress during pregnancy affect my baby? It is normal ... care provider during your prenatal visits. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Pregnancy PTSD is a more ...

  10. [Contents of the glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT4 in oxidative and glycolytic muscles of goat kids and adult goats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dühlmeier, R; Voigt, J; Breves, G; Sallmann, H P

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this study was to elucidate, whether the impaired insulin sensitivity with regard to glucose utilisation in ruminating goats compared with suckling goat kids may be due to a reduced expression of the glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT4 in skeletal muscle. Muscle samples were removed from red, oxidative muscles (M. masseter, diaphragm) and white, glycolytic muscles (M. longissimus dorsi, and M. semitendinosus) of five goat kids fed with milk exchanger and nine adult goats of different stages of life. Samples were analysed for their GLUT1 and GLUT4 contents. The muscles were characterised metabolically by measuring the activities of isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) and of lactate dehydrogenase. In all four analysed muscles the GLUT4 contents of adult goats were significantly (p kids. Significant differences concerning the GLUT4 contents in skeletal muscles were not detected in adult goats of different stages of life. The GLUT1 contents differed to a lower extend between goat kids and adult goats. The results of this investigation indicate that the impaired insulin sensitivity of adult compared with suckling ruminants is accompanied by or leads to a decreased GLUT4 expression.

  11. Orexin-A stimulates the expression of GLUT4 in a glucose dependent manner in the liver of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cong; Sun, Caiyun; Wang, Bin; Yan, Peipei; Wu, Amin; Yang, Guokun; Li, Wensheng

    2016-09-01

    Orexins are hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in the central regulation of feeding behavior, sleep-wake cycle and other physiological functions. Orexin-A can regulate energy metabolism and increase glucose uptake, suggesting a role in glucose metabolism. In this study, we investigated the effects of orexin-A on GLUT4 mRNA and protein levels and the intracellular signaling mechanisms mediating orexin-A activity in the hepatocytes of grouper. Our results demonstrate that intraperitoneal injection of orexin-A increased the expression of GLUT4 in the liver, and this effect was significantly enhanced by co-injection of glucose. Treatment of primary cultured hepatocytes with either orexin-A or glucose alone had no effect on the expression of GLUT4, while co-treatment with orexin-A and glucose significantly increased the expression of GLUT4. This stimulatory effect was partially blocked by inhibitors to ERK1/2, JNK or p38 MAPK and was further blocked by an orexin receptor antagonist, which indicates that orexin-A could stimulate the expression of GLUT4 in a glucose dependent manner in primary hepatocytes via ERK1/2, JNK and p38 signaling. Our results suggest that orexin-A could play a pivotal role in stimulating glucose utilization in grouper, for a long-term goal, which might be useful in reducing costs in the aquaculture industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. How Psychological Stress Affects Emotional Prosody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulmann, Silke; Furnes, Desire; Bøkenes, Anne Ming; Cozzolino, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    We explored how experimentally induced psychological stress affects the production and recognition of vocal emotions. In Study 1a, we demonstrate that sentences spoken by stressed speakers are judged by naïve listeners as sounding more stressed than sentences uttered by non-stressed speakers. In Study 1b, negative emotions produced by stressed speakers are generally less well recognized than the same emotions produced by non-stressed speakers. Multiple mediation analyses suggest this poorer recognition of negative stimuli was due to a mismatch between the variation of volume voiced by speakers and the range of volume expected by listeners. Together, this suggests that the stress level of the speaker affects judgments made by the receiver. In Study 2, we demonstrate that participants who were induced with a feeling of stress before carrying out an emotional prosody recognition task performed worse than non-stressed participants. Overall, findings suggest detrimental effects of induced stress on interpersonal sensitivity. PMID:27802287

  13. Genetic variants in promoters and coding regions of the muscle glycogen synthase and the insulin-responsive GLUT4 genes in NIDDM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørbaek, C; Echwald, Søren Morgenthaler; Hubricht, P

    1994-01-01

    regions and regions of importance for translation, as well as coding sequences of the two genes, were studied using single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and DNA sequencing. The genetic analyses were performed in subgroups of 52 Caucasian NIDDM patients and 25 age-matched healthy......To examine the hypothesis that variants in the regulatory or coding regions of the glycogen synthase (GS) and insulin-responsive glucose transporter (GLUT4) genes contribute to insulin-resistant glucose processing of muscle from non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients, promoter......'-untranslated region, and the coding region of the GLUT4 gene showed four polymorphisms, all single nucleotide substitutions, positioned at -581, 1, 30, and 582. None of the three changes in the regulatory region of the gene had any major influence on expression of the GLUT4 gene in muscle. The variant at 582...

  14. p38MAPK Signaling Enhances Glycolysis Through the Up-Regulation of the Glucose Transporter GLUT-4 in Gastric Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Wen, Dacheng; Fang, Xuedong; Wang, Xudong; Liu, Tianzhou; Zhu, Jiaming

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that p38MAPK is involved in gastric cancer, yet the underlying mechanism remains unclear. q-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry were used to explore the expression of PP2A and the phosphorylation of p38MAPK in gastric cancer tissues and normal gastric tissues. Activated p38MAPK in the gastric cancer cell line MKN45 using activator, then q-PCR, glucose uptake assay and colony formation assay were performed to determine whether p38MAPK promotes gastric cancer through the enhancement of glycolysis. After transfection of p38MAPK dominant negative mutation (p38DN) into MKN45 cells or MKN45 cells treated with an inhibitor of p38MAPK, Western blot was performed to detect the expression of GLUT-4. The knock down of MEF2α in MKN45 cells by siRNA was followed by Western blot and luciferase reporter assay to investigate the underlying mechanism of the role of p38MAPK in the promotion of gastric cancer. Finally, q-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry were performed to examine GLUT-4 expression in gastric cancer tissues and normal gastric tissues. We found that p38MAPK activation significantly increases GLUT-4 expression and promotes glucose uptake and cell growth in gastric cancer cells. Inhibition of p38MAPK abrogates the up-regulation of GLUT-4. MEF2α knockdown abolishes p38MAPK-mediated GLUT-4 up-regulation. PP2A, an inhibitor of p38MAPK, is down-regulated in gastric cancer tissues, which might contribute to the activation of p38MAPK. Our data indicate that the abnormal activation of p38MAPK promotes glycolysis within gastric cancer cells through the upregulation of GLUT-4 in a MEF2a-dependent manner.

  15. Photoactivation of GLUT4 translocation promotes glucose uptake via PI3-K/Akt2 signaling in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Huang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance is a hallmark of the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Dysfunction of PI-3K/Akt signaling was involved in insulin resistance. Glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 is a key factor for glucose uptake in muscle and adipose tissues, which is closely regulated by PI-3K/Akt signaling in response to insulin treatment. Low-power laser irradiation (LPLI has been shown to regulate various physiological processes and induce the synthesis or release of multiple molecules such as growth factors, which (especially red and near infrared light is mainly through the activation of mitochondrial respiratory chain and the initiation of intracellular signaling pathways. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether LPLI could promote glucose uptake through activation of PI-3K/Akt/GLUT4 signaling in 3T3L-1 adipocytes. In this study, we investigated how LPLI promoted glucose uptake through activation of PI-3K/Akt/GLUT4 signaling pathway. Here, we showed that GLUT4 was localized to the Golgi apparatus and translocated from cytoplasm to cytomembrane upon LPLI treatment in 3T3L-1 adipocytes, which enhanced glucose uptake. Moreover, we found that glucose uptake was mediated by the PI3-K/Akt2 signaling, but not Akt1 upon LPLI treatment with Akt isoforms gene silence and PI3-K/Akt inhibitors. Collectively, our results indicate that PI3-K/Akt2/GLUT4 signaling act as the key regulators for improvement of glucose uptake under LPLI treatment in 3T3L-1 adipocytes. More importantly, our findings suggest that activation of PI3-K/Akt2/GLUT4 signaling by LPLI may provide guidance in practical applications for promotion of glucose uptake in insulin-resistant adipose tissue.

  16. Dehydroepiandrosterone activates AMP kinase and regulates GLUT4 and PGC-1α expression in C2C12 myotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokokawa, Takumi [Laboratory of Sports and Exercise Medicine, Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Sato, Koji [Graduate School of Sport & Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, Shiga (Japan); Iwanaka, Nobumasa [The Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, Shiga (Japan); Honda, Hiroki [Graduate School of Sport & Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, Shiga (Japan); Higashida, Kazuhiko [Faculty of Sport Science, Waseda University, Saitama (Japan); Iemitsu, Motoyuki [Graduate School of Sport & Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, Shiga (Japan); Hayashi, Tatsuya [Laboratory of Sports and Exercise Medicine, Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Hashimoto, Takeshi, E-mail: thashimo@fc.ritsumei.ac.jp [Graduate School of Sport & Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, Shiga (Japan)

    2015-07-17

    Exercise and caloric restriction (CR) have been reported to have anti-ageing, anti-obesity, and health-promoting effects. Both interventions increase the level of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in muscle and blood, suggesting that DHEA might partially mediate these effects. In addition, it is thought that either 5′-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) mediates the beneficial effects of exercise and CR. However, the effects of DHEA on AMPK activity and PGC-1α expression remain unclear. Therefore, we explored whether DHEA in myotubes acts as an activator of AMPK and increases PGC-1α. DHEA exposure increased glucose uptake but not the phosphorylation levels of Akt and PKCζ/λ in C2C12 myotubes. In contrast, the phosphorylation levels of AMPK were elevated by DHEA exposure. Finally, we found that DHEA induced the expression of the genes PGC-1α and GLUT4. Our current results might reveal a previously unrecognized physiological role of DHEA; the activation of AMPK and the induction of PGC-1α by DHEA might mediate its anti-obesity and health-promoting effects in living organisms. - Highlights: • We assessed whether dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) activates AMPK and PGC-1α. • DHEA exposure increased glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes. • The phosphorylation levels of AMPK were elevated by DHEA exposure. • DHEA induced the expression of the genes PGC-1α and GLUT4. • AMPK might mediate the anti-obesity and health-promoting effects of DHEA.

  17. Activation of nuclear receptor NR5A2 increases Glut4 expression and glucose metabolism in muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolado-Carrancio, A. [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Cantabria, IDIVAL, Santander (Spain); Riancho, J.A. [Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital U.M. Valdecilla-IDIVAL, University of Cantabria, RETICEF, Santander (Spain); Sainz, J. [Institute of Biomedicine and Biotechnology of Cantabria (IBBTEC), CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Rodríguez-Rey, J.C., E-mail: rodriguj@unican.es [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Cantabria, IDIVAL, Santander (Spain)

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • NR5A2 expression in C2C12 is associated with myotube differentiation. • DLPC induces an increase in GLUT4 levels and glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes. • In high glucose conditions the activation of NR5A2 inhibits fatty acids oxidation. - Abstract: NR5A2 is a nuclear receptor which regulates the expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism, pluripotency maintenance and cell differentiation. It has been recently shown that DLPC, a NR5A2 ligand, prevents liver steatosis and improves insulin sensitivity in mouse models of insulin resistance, an effect that has been associated with changes in glucose and fatty acids metabolism in liver. Because skeletal muscle is a major tissue in clearing glucose from blood, we studied the effect of the activation of NR5A2 on muscle metabolism by using cultures of C2C12, a mouse-derived cell line widely used as a model of skeletal muscle. Treatment of C2C12 with DLPC resulted in increased levels of expression of GLUT4 and also of several genes related to glycolysis and glycogen metabolism. These changes were accompanied by an increased glucose uptake. In addition, the activation of NR5A2 produced a reduction in the oxidation of fatty acids, an effect which disappeared in low-glucose conditions. Our results suggest that NR5A2, mostly by enhancing glucose uptake, switches muscle cells into a state of glucose preference. The increased use of glucose by muscle might constitute another mechanism by which NR5A2 improves blood glucose levels and restores insulin sensitivity.

  18. Dehydroepiandrosterone activates AMP kinase and regulates GLUT4 and PGC-1α expression in C2C12 myotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokokawa, Takumi; Sato, Koji; Iwanaka, Nobumasa; Honda, Hiroki; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Iemitsu, Motoyuki; Hayashi, Tatsuya; Hashimoto, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Exercise and caloric restriction (CR) have been reported to have anti-ageing, anti-obesity, and health-promoting effects. Both interventions increase the level of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in muscle and blood, suggesting that DHEA might partially mediate these effects. In addition, it is thought that either 5′-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) mediates the beneficial effects of exercise and CR. However, the effects of DHEA on AMPK activity and PGC-1α expression remain unclear. Therefore, we explored whether DHEA in myotubes acts as an activator of AMPK and increases PGC-1α. DHEA exposure increased glucose uptake but not the phosphorylation levels of Akt and PKCζ/λ in C2C12 myotubes. In contrast, the phosphorylation levels of AMPK were elevated by DHEA exposure. Finally, we found that DHEA induced the expression of the genes PGC-1α and GLUT4. Our current results might reveal a previously unrecognized physiological role of DHEA; the activation of AMPK and the induction of PGC-1α by DHEA might mediate its anti-obesity and health-promoting effects in living organisms. - Highlights: • We assessed whether dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) activates AMPK and PGC-1α. • DHEA exposure increased glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes. • The phosphorylation levels of AMPK were elevated by DHEA exposure. • DHEA induced the expression of the genes PGC-1α and GLUT4. • AMPK might mediate the anti-obesity and health-promoting effects of DHEA

  19. PI3K-GLUT4 Signal Pathway Associated with Effects of EX-B3 Electroacupuncture on Hyperglycemia and Insulin Resistance of T2DM Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Yan Cao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To explore electroacupuncture’s (EA’s effects on fasting blood glucose (FBG and insulin resistance of type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM model rats and give a possible explanation for the effects. Method. It takes high fat diet and intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 30 mg/kg for model preparation. Model rats were randomly divided into T2DM Model group, EA weiwanxiashu (EX-B3 group, and sham EA group (n=12/group. EA (2 Hz continuous wave, 2 mA, 20 min/day, 6 days/week, 4 weeks was applied as intervention. FBG, area under curve (AUC of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR, pancreatic B cell function index (HOMA-B, skeletal muscle phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K, glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4, and membrane GLUT4 protein expression were measured. Results. EA weiwanxiashu (EX-B3 can greatly upregulate model rat’s significantly reduced skeletal muscle PI3K (Y607 and membrane GLUT4 protein expression (P<0.01, effectively reducing model rats’ FBG and AUC of OGTT (P<0.01. The effects are far superior to sham EA group. Conclusion. EA weiwanxiashu (EX-B3 can upregulate skeletal muscle phosphorylated PI3K protein expression, to stimulate membrane translocation of GLUT4 and thereby increase skeletal muscle glucose intake to treat T2DM.

  20. GLUT4 is reduced in slow muscle fibers of type 2 diabetic patients: is insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes a slow, type 1 fiber disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, M; Staehr, P; Beck-Nielsen, H

    2001-01-01

    To gain further insight into the mechanisms underlying muscle insulin resistance, the influence of obesity and type 2 diabetes on GLUT4 immunoreactivity in slow and fast skeletal muscle fibers was studied. Through a newly developed, very sensitive method using immunohistochemistry combined...... and thus contribute to skeletal muscle insulin resistance....

  1. Methanolic extract of Momordica cymbalaria enhances glucose uptake in L6 myotubes in vitro by up-regulating PPAR-γ and GLUT-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Puttanarasaiah Mahesh; Venkataranganna, Marikunte V; Manjunath, Kirangadur; Viswanatha, Gollapalle L; Ashok, Godavarthi

    2014-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of the methanolic fruit extract of Momordica cymbalaria (MFMC) on PPARγ (Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor gamma) and GLUT-4 (Glucose transporter-4) with respect to glucose transport. Various concentrations of MFMC ranging from 62.5 to 500 μg·mL(-1) were evaluated for glucose uptake activity in vitro using L6 myotubes, rosiglitazone was used as a reference standard. The MFMC showed significant and dose-dependent increase in glucose uptake at the tested concentrations, further, the glucose uptake activity of MFMC (500 μg·mL(-1)) was comparable with rosigilitazone. Furthermore, MFMC has shown up-regulation of GLUT-4 and PPARγ gene expressions in L6 myotubes. In addition, the MFMC when incubated along with cycloheximide (CHX), which is a protein synthesis inhibitor, has shown complete blockade of glucose uptake. This indicates that new protein synthesis is required for increased GLUT-4 translocation. In conclusion, these findings suggest that MFMC is enhancing the glucose uptake significantly and dose dependently through the enhanced expression of PPARγ and GLUT-4 in vitro. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of intensive insulin therapy on the insulin-regulatable glucose transporter (GLUT4) expression in skeletal muscle in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P H; Vestergaard, H; Lund, S

    1993-01-01

    Studies in normal man and rodents have demonstrated that the expression of the dominant glucose transporter in skeletal muscle, GLUT4, is regulated by insulin at supraphysiological circulating levels. The present study was designed to determine whether intensified insulin replacement therapy for 24...... h given to patients with Type 1 diabetes in poor metabolic control was associated with an adaptive regulation of GLUT4 mRNA and protein levels in vastus lateralis muscle. Nine Type 1 diabetic patients with a mean HbA1c of 10.3% were included in the protocol. After intensified treatment with soluble...... of the plasma glucose concentration for at least 15 h no significant alterations occurred in the amount of GLUT4 protein (0.138 +/- 0.056, poor control vs 0.113 +/- 0.026 arb. units, improved control, p = 0.16) or GLUT4 mRNA (96432 +/- 44985, poor control vs 81395 +/- 25461 arb. units, improved control, p = 0...

  3. The inability of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation to stimulate GLUT4 translocation indicates additional signaling pathways are required for insulin-stimulated glucose uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isakoff, S J; Taha, C; Rose, E; Marcusohn, J; Klip, A; Skolnik, E Y

    1995-10-24

    Recent experimental evidence has focused attention to the role of two molecules, insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase), in linking the insulin receptor to glucose uptake; IRS-1 knockout mice are insulin resistant, and pharmacological inhibitors of PI3-kinase block insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. To investigate the role of PI3-kinase and IRS-1 in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake we examined whether stimulation of insulin-sensitive cells with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) or with interleukin 4 (IL-4) stimulates glucose uptake; the activated PDGF receptor (PDGFR) directly binds and activates PI3-kinase, whereas the IL-4 receptor (IL-4R) activates PI3-kinase via IRS-1 or the IRS-1-related molecule 4PS. We found that stimulation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with PDGF resulted in tyrosine phosphorylation of the PDGFR and activation of PI3-kinase in these cells. To examine whether IL-4 stimulates glucose uptake, L6 myoblasts were engineered to overexpress GLUT4 as well as both chains of the IL-4R (L6/IL-4R/GLUT4); when these L6/IL-4R/GLUT4 myoblasts were stimulated with IL-4, IRS-1 became tyrosine phosphorylated and associated with PI3-kinase. Although PDGF and IL-4 can activate PI3-kinase in the respective cell lines, they do not possess insulin's ability to stimulate glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane. These findings indicate that activation of PI3-kinase is not sufficient to stimulate GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane. We postulate that activation of a second signaling pathway by insulin, distinct from PI3-kinase, is necessary for the stimulation of glucose uptake in insulin-sensitive cells.

  4. A High Fat Diet During Pregnancy and Lactation Induces Cardiac and Renal Abnormalities in GLUT4 +/- Male Mice

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    Michael Kruse

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Altered nutrients during the in utero (IU and/or lactation (L period predispose offspring to cardio-renal diseases in adulthood. This study investigates the effect of a high fat diet (HFD fed to female mice during IU/L on gene expression patterns associated with heart and kidney failure and hypertension in male offspring. Methods: Female wild type (WT mice were fed either a HFD or control chow (C prior to mating with males with a genetic heterozygous deletion of GLUT4 (G4+/-, a model of peripheral insulin resistance and hypertension and throughout IU/L. After weaning male offspring were placed on a standard rodent chow until 24 weeks of age. Results: All offspring exposed to a maternal HFD showed increased heart and kidney weight and reduced cardiac insulin responsiveness. G4+/- offspring on a HFD displayed early hypertension associated with increased renal gene expression of renin and the AT1- receptors compared to G4+/- on a C diet. This group showed decreased cardiac expression of key genes involved in fatty acid oxidation compared to WT on a C diet. Conclusions: These results indicate an interaction between a HFD diet and genotype during early life development that can enhance susceptibility to cardio-renal diseases later in life.

  5. Comparison of GLUT1, GLUT3, and GLUT4 mRNA and the subcellular distribution of their proteins in normal human muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, C. A.; Wen, G.; Gustafson, W. C.; Thompson, E. A.

    2000-01-01

    Basal, "insulin-independent" glucose uptake into skeletal muscle is provided by glucose transporters positioned at the plasma membrane. The relative amount of the three glucose transporters expressed in muscle has not been previously quantified. Using a combination of qualitative and quantitative ribonuclease protection assay (RPA) methods, we found in normal human muscle that GLUT1, GLUT3, and GLUT4 mRNA were expressed at 90 +/- 10, 46 +/- 4, and 156 +/- 12 copies/ng RNA, respectively. Muscle was fractionated by DNase digestion and differential sedimentation into membrane fractions enriched in plasma membranes (PM) or low-density microsomes (LDM). GLUT1 and GLUT4 proteins were distributed 57% to 67% in LDM, whereas GLUT3 protein was at least 88% in the PM-enriched fractions. These data suggest that basal glucose uptake into resting human muscle could be provided in part by each of these three isoforms.

  6. The Transcriptional Effects of PCB118 and PCB153 on the Liver, Adipose Tissue, Muscle and Colon of Mice: Highlighting of Glut4 and Lipin1 as Main Target Genes for PCB Induced Metabolic Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélia Mesnier

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have associated environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes; however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms involved in the metabolic side-effects of PCB. Our study evaluated the transcriptional effects of a subchronic exposure (gavage at Day 0 and Day 15 with 10 or 100 μmol/Kg bw to PCB118 (dioxin-like PCB, PCB153 (non-dioxin-like PCB, or an equimolar mixture of PCB118 and PCB153 on various tissues (liver, visceral adipose tissue, muscle, and colon in mice. Our results showed that a short-term exposure to PCB118 and/or PCB153 enhanced circulating triglyceride levels but did not affect glycemia. Among the studied tissues, we did not observe any modification of the expression of inflammation-related genes, such as cytokines or chemokines. The main transcriptional effects were observed in visceral adipose and liver tissues. We found a downregulation of lipin1 and glut4 expression in these two target organs. In adipose tissue, we also showed a downregulation of Agpat2, Slc25a1, and Fasn. All of these genes are involved in lipid metabolism and insulin resistance. In muscles, we observed an induction of CnR1 and Foxo3 expression, which may be partly involved in PCB metabolic effects. In summary, our results suggest that lipin1 and glut4, notably in adipose tissue, are the main targeted genes in PCB-induced metabolic disorders, however, further studies are required to fully elucidate the mechanisms involved.

  7. The Transcriptional Effects of PCB118 and PCB153 on the Liver, Adipose Tissue, Muscle and Colon of Mice: Highlighting of Glut4 and Lipin1 as Main Target Genes for PCB Induced Metabolic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesnier, Aurélia; Champion, Serge; Louis, Laurence; Sauzet, Christophe; May, Phealay; Portugal, Henri; Benbrahim, Karim; Abraldes, Joelle; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Amiot-Carlin, Marie-Josephe; Peiretti, Franck; Piccerelle, Philippe; Nalbone, Gilles; Villard, Pierre-Henri

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have associated environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes; however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms involved in the metabolic side-effects of PCB. Our study evaluated the transcriptional effects of a subchronic exposure (gavage at Day 0 and Day 15 with 10 or 100 μmol/Kg bw) to PCB118 (dioxin-like PCB), PCB153 (non-dioxin-like PCB), or an equimolar mixture of PCB118 and PCB153 on various tissues (liver, visceral adipose tissue, muscle, and colon) in mice. Our results showed that a short-term exposure to PCB118 and/or PCB153 enhanced circulating triglyceride levels but did not affect glycemia. Among the studied tissues, we did not observe any modification of the expression of inflammation-related genes, such as cytokines or chemokines. The main transcriptional effects were observed in visceral adipose and liver tissues. We found a downregulation of lipin1 and glut4 expression in these two target organs. In adipose tissue, we also showed a downregulation of Agpat2, Slc25a1, and Fasn. All of these genes are involved in lipid metabolism and insulin resistance. In muscles, we observed an induction of CnR1 and Foxo3 expression, which may be partly involved in PCB metabolic effects. In summary, our results suggest that lipin1 and glut4, notably in adipose tissue, are the main targeted genes in PCB-induced metabolic disorders, however, further studies are required to fully elucidate the mechanisms involved.

  8. Effect of Bisphenol-A (BPA) on insulin signal transduction and GLUT4 translocation in gastrocnemius muscle of adult male albino rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullainadhan, Vigneswari; Viswanathan, Mangala Priya; Karundevi, Balasubramanian

    2017-09-01

    Environmental estrogens bind to estrogen receptors, mimic estrogenic actions, and have adverse effects on human health like Bisphenol - A (BPA) which is used as a monomer in the production of polycarbonate plastics (PC) and epoxy resins which are used in variety of canned foods. Skeletal muscle plays an essential role in maintaining systemic glucose metabolism. In the present study, we investigated the possible effects of BPA on insulin signalling molecules and GLUT4 translocation in the gastrocnemius muscle of adult male rat. Rats were divided into four groups - Group I: Control (vehicle-corn oil treated), Group II, III and IV were administered with BPA (10, 100 and 400mg/kg b.wt/day, respectively) through oral gavage. Fasting blood glucose level of BPA treated groups showed a significant increase, oral glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance were also impaired in these animals. BPA significantly decreased the protein levels of insulin signalling molecules like IR, IRS-1, Akt, AS160 and its phosphorylated forms and blunts GLUT4 translocation by altering the levels of v- and t- SNARE proteins that assist the translocation process, thereby decreasing glucose uptake and oxidation in the gastrocnemius muscle. These results suggest that BPA has detrimental effects on insulin signalling molecules and GLUT4 translocation in the gastrocnemius muscle and thus impairs glucose homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of pre-gestational and gestational diabetes mellitus on the expression of glucose transporters GLUT-1, GLUT-4 and GLUT-9 in human term placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanirowski, Paweł Jan; Szukiewicz, Dariusz; Pyzlak, Michał; Abdalla, Nabil; Sawicki, Włodzimierz; Cendrowski, Krzysztof

    2017-03-01

    Various studies in placental tissue suggest that diabetes mellitus alters the expression of glucose transporter (GLUT) proteins, with insulin therapy being a possible modulatory factor. The aim of the present study was quantitative evaluation of the expression of glucose transporters (GLUT-1, GLUT-4, GLUT-9) in the placenta of women in both, uncomplicated and diabetic pregnancy. Additionally, the effect of insulin therapy on the expression of selected glucose transporter isoforms was analyzed. Term placental samples were obtained from healthy control (n = 25) and diabetic pregnancies, including diet-controlled gestational diabetes mellitus (GDMG1) (n = 16), insulin-controlled gestational diabetes mellitus (GDMG2) (n = 6), and pre-gestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM) (n = 6). Computer-assisted quantitative morphometry of stained placental sections was performed to determine the expression of selected glucose transporter proteins. Morphometric analysis revealed a significant increase in the expression of GLUT-4 and GLUT-9 in insulin-dependent diabetic women (GDMG2 + PGDM) as compared to both, control and GDMG1 groups (p diabetic pregnancies. In addition, insulin therapy may increase placental expression of GLUT-4 and GLUT-9, and partially GLUT-1, in women with GDMG2/PGDM.

  10. The In Vivo Antidiabetic Activity of Nigella sativa Is Mediated through Activation of the AMPK Pathway and Increased Muscle Glut4 Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Benhaddou-Andaloussi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The antidiabetic effect of N. sativa seed ethanol extract (NSE was assessed in Meriones shawi after development of diabetes. Meriones shawi were divided randomly into four groups: normal control, diabetic control, diabetic treated with NSE (2 g eq plant/kg or with metformin (300 mg/kg positive control, both administered by daily intragastric gavage for 4 weeks. Glycaemia and body weight were evaluated weekly. At study's end, an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT was performed to estimate insulin sensitivity. Upon sacrifice, plasma lipid profile, insulin, leptin, and adiponectin levels were assessed. ACC phosphorylation and Glut4 protein content were determined in liver and skeletal muscle. NSE animals showed a progressive normalization of glycaemia, albeit slower than that of metformin controls. Moreover, NSE increased insulinemia and HDL-cholesterol, compared to diabetic controls. Leptin and adiponectin were unchanged. NSE treatment decreased OGTT and tended to decrease liver and muscle triglyceride content. NSE stimulated muscle and liver ACC phosphorylation and increased muscle Glut4. These results confirm NSE's previously reported hypoglycaemic and hypolipidemic activity. More significantly, our data demonstrate that in vivo treatment with NSE exerts an insulin-sensitizing action by enhancing ACC phosphorylation, a major component of the insulin-independent AMPK signaling pathway, and by enhancing muscle Glut4 expression.

  11. Fucoidan from sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa exhibits anti-hyperglycemic effects in insulin resistant mice via activating the PI3K/PKB pathway and GLUT4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiming; Wang, Jingfeng; Zhao, Yanlei; Hu, Shiwei; Shi, Di; Xue, Changhu

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the anti-hyperglycemic properties and mechanisms of fucoidan, isolated from Cucumaria frondosa (Cf-FUC), in insulin resistant mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed regular diet or high-fat/high-sucrose diet for 19 weeks. Model animals were dietary administrated either rosiglitazone (RSG, 1 mg/kg·bw), fucoidan (Cf-FUC, 80 mg/kg·bw) or their combinations. Results showed that Cf-FUC significantly reduced fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, and enhanced glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance in insulin-resistant mice. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that Cf-FUC increased the mRNA expressions of insulin receptors (IR), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (PKB), and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4). Western blot assays demonstrated that Cf-FUC showed no effect on total protein expression but nevertheless enhanced the phosphorylation of proteins listed above and increased translocation of GLUT4 to the cell membrane. Furthermore, Cf-FUC enhanced the effects of RSG. These results indicated that Cf-FUC exhibited significant anti-hyperglycemic effects via activating PI3K/PKB pathway and GLUT4 in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The comparison of GLUT-4 and nNOS expression in diabetic and non-diabetic patients with BPH/LUTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otunctemur, Alper; Besiroglu, Huseyin; Dursun, Murat; Ozcan, Levent; Polat, Emre Can; Somay, Adnan; Ozbay, Nurver; Ozer, Kutan; Ozbek, Emin

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) expression in diabetic and non-diabetic patients who underwent TUR-P or transvesical prostatectomy with the diagnosis of BPH. Thirty diabetic patients with an average age of 58 and 30 non-diabetic patients with that of 56 were included in the study. T-PSA, IPSS, Q max value and prostate volume were compared between the two groups. The stromal and glandular staining scores of GLUT-4 and nNOS expression were compared. Student's t test and Mann-Whitney U test were used for statistical analysis. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of age, IPSS, Qmax and PSA. Patients with diabetes had larger prostate volumes (p = 0.02). Mean GLUT-4 glandular total scores in diabetic and non-diabetic patients were 3.36 ± 1.21 and 2.1 ± 1.39, respectively, whereas stromal total scores were 3.63 ± 1.12 and 2.46 ± 1.33, and they were both statistically significant (p = 0.028 and p = 0.032, respectively). Glandular total nNOS scores in diabetic and non-diabetic patients were 4.53 ± 1.0 and 2.80 ± 1.12, while stromal total scores were 1.76 ± 1,0 and 2.30 ± 1.08 and they were found to be statistically significant (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.037, respectively). GLUT-4 expression was found higher in prostatic tissue of the patients with diabetes mellitus. The expression value of nNOS was higher in the glandular area in diabetic patients, while stromal area expression score was higher in non-diabetic patients. Although our findings indicate important results, carefully designed further studies are needed to better comprehend the role of GLUT-4 and NOS pathways in BPH/LUTS pathophysiology.

  13. Heme oxygenase-1 deletion affects stress erythropoiesis.

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    Yu-An Cao

    Full Text Available Homeostatic erythropoiesis leads to the formation of mature red blood cells under non-stress conditions, and the production of new erythrocytes occurs as the need arises. In response to environmental stimuli, such as bone marrow transplantation, myelosuppression, or anemia, erythroid progenitors proliferate rapidly in a process referred to as stress erythropoiesis. We have previously demonstrated that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 deficiency leads to disrupted stress hematopoiesis. Here, we describe the specific effects of HO-1 deficiency on stress erythropoiesis.We used a transplant model to induce stress conditions. In irradiated recipients that received hmox(+/- or hmox(+/+ bone marrow cells, we evaluated (i the erythrocyte parameters in the peripheral blood; (ii the staining intensity of CD71-, Ter119-, and CD49d-specific surface markers during erythroblast differentiation; (iii the patterns of histological iron staining; and (iv the number of Mac-1(+-cells expressing TNF-α. In the spleens of mice that received hmox(+/- cells, we show (i decreases in the proerythroblast, basophilic, and polychromatophilic erythroblast populations; (ii increases in the insoluble iron levels and decreases in the soluble iron levels; (iii increased numbers of Mac-1(+-cells expressing TNF-α; and (iv decreased levels of CD49d expression in the basophilic and polychromatophilic erythroblast populations.As reflected by effects on secreted and cell surface proteins, HO-1 deletion likely affects stress erythropoiesis through the retention of erythroblasts in the erythroblastic islands of the spleen. Thus, HO-1 may serve as a therapeutic target for controlling erythropoiesis, and the dysregulation of HO-1 may be a predisposing condition for hematologic diseases.

  14. Hypoglycemic Effects of Three Medicinal Plants in Experimental Diabetes: Inhibition of Rat Intestinal α-glucosidase and Enhanced Pancreatic Insulin and Cardiac Glut-4 mRNAs Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradabadi, Leila; Montasser Kouhsari, Shideh; Fehresti Sani, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L., Alliaceae), Persian shallot (Allium ascalonicum L., Alliaceae ) and Sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) are believed to have hypoglycemic properties and have been used traditionally as antidiabetic herbal medicines in Iran. In this study, diabetes was induced by subcutaneous injection of alloxan monohydrate (100 mg kg(-1)) to male Wistar rats. Antidiabetic effects of methanolic extracts of the above mentioned three plants on alloxan-diabetic rats was investigated in comparison with the effects of antidiabetic drugs such as acarbose, glibenclamide and metformin by measuring postprandial blood glucose (PBG), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), inhibition of rat intestinal α-glucosidase enzymes activities and pancreatic Insulin and cardiac Glut-4 mRNAs expression. In short term period, hypoglycemic effects of A. sativum and A. ascalonicum showed significant reduction of PBG similar to glibenclamide (5 mg kg(-1) bw) while S. officinalis significantly reduced PBG similar to acarbose (20 mg kg(-1) bw). After 3 weeks of treatment by methanolic plant extracts, significant chronic decrease in the PBG was observed similar to metformin (100 mg kg(-1) bw). For OGTT, S. officinalis reduced PBG in a similar way as acarbose (20 mg kg(-1) bw). Intestinal sucrase and maltase activities were inhibited significantly by A. sativum, A. ascalonicum and S. officinalis. In addition, we observed increased expression of Insulin and Glut-4 genes in diabetic rats treated with these plants extracts. Up regulation of Insulin and Glut-4 genes expression and inhibition of α-glucosidaseactivities are the two mechanisms that play a considerable role in hypoglycemic action of garlic, shallot and sage.

  15. Action mechanism of bis(allixinato)oxovanadium(IV) as a novel potent insulin-mimetic complex: regulation of GLUT4 translocation and FoxO1 transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiromura, Makoto; Nakayama, Akihiro; Adachi, Yusuke; Doi, Miyuki; Sakurai, Hiromu

    2007-11-01

    Bis(allixinato)oxovanadium(IV), VO(alx)(2) (alx is 3-hydroxy-5-methoxy-6-methyl-2-pentyl-4-pyrone), has been reported to act as an antidiabetic agent in streptozotocin-induced type-1-like and obesity-linked KKA(y) type 2 diabetic model mice. VO(alx)(2) is also proposed as a candidate agent for treating metabolic syndromes in animals. However, its functional mechanism is yet to be clarified. In this study, we examined whether VO(alx)(2) contributes to both the activation of the insulin signaling cascade that activates glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation and the regulation of the forkhead box O1 (FoxO1) transcription factor that controls the gene transcription of gluconeogenesis genes. The following three important results were obtained: (1) intracellular vanadium concentration in 3T3-L1 adipocytes is higher after treatment with VO(alx)(2) than with VOSO(4); (2) VO(alx)(2) stimulates the translocation of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane following activation of the tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor beta-subunit (IRbeta) and insulin receptor substrate (IRS) as well as Akt kinase in 3T3-L1 adipocytes; and (3) the mechanism of inhibition of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) catalytic subunit gene expression by vanadium is due to disruption of FoxO1 binding with the G6Pase promoter, which indicates that FoxO1 is phosphorylated by VO(alx)(2)-stimulated Akt in HepG2 cells. On the basis of these results, we propose that the critical functions of VO(alx)(2) involve the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt signaling through the enhancement of tyrosine phosphorylation of IRbeta and IRS, which in turn transmits the signal to activate GLUT4 translocation, and the regulation of the DNA binding activity of the FoxO1 transcription factor.

  16. Expression of the major insulin regulatable glucose transporter (GLUT4) in skeletal muscle of noninsulin-dependent diabetic patients and healthy subjects before and after insulin infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P H; Lund, S; Vestergaard, H

    1993-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study we have examined the regulatory effect of insulin in vivo on the major insulin regulatable glucose transporter (GLUT4) in vastus lateralis muscle from 12 noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients and 8 healthy control subjects. Insulin-stimulated glucose...... uptake rate in peripheral tissue was decreased by 41% (P 2 groups in muscle biopsies obtained...... in the basal state. In healthy subjects, 4 h of insulin infusion (2 mU/kg/min) induced a 31% reduction (P

  17. Metformin attenuates hepatic insulin resistance in type-2 diabetic rats through PI3K/Akt/GLUT-4 signalling independent to bicuculline-sensitive GABAAreceptor stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garabadu, Debapriya; Krishnamurthy, Sairam

    2017-12-01

    Metformin attenuates type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)-induced hepatic dysfunction and altered PI3K/Akt/GLUT-4 signalling in experimental studies. However, its effect on bicuculline-sensitive gamma amino butyric acid (GABA)-A receptor (GABA A R)-mediated calcium-dependent PI3K/Akt/GLUT-4 signalling in liver challenged to T2DM has not been established. The effectiveness of metformin on bicuculline-sensitive GABA A R-mediated hepatic insulin signalling was carried out in presence or absence of bicuculline (2.0 mg/kg, i.p.) in experimental T2DM rats. The whole experimental design was divided into three independent sets of experiments. Each set comprised seven groups of six male rats each. T2DM was induced in the animals by administering streptozotocin (45 mg/kg, i.p.) and nicotinamide (110 mg/kg, i.p.) at a time lag of 15 min except control group rats in three experiments. Metformin and/or bicuculline or wortmannin were administered once daily for one week from seventh day of streptozotocin injection in all the experimental sets. Metformin attenuated T2DM-induced hyperglycaemia in glucose (40%) and insulin (50%) tolerance tests in rats. Metformin also attenuated T2DM-induced hyperglycaemia (40%), hyperinsulinaemia (30%), insulin resistance (50%) and β-cell dysfunction (300%) in the animals. Metformin did not attenuate T2DM-induced decrease in rat hepatic intracellular calcium. Further, metformin mitigated T2DM-induced decrease in hepatic phosphorylated Akt and GLUT-4 translocation in the animals. The anti-diabetic activity of metformin was abolished by wortmannin but not with bicuculline co-administration in T2DM animals. These results suggest that metformin ameliorated T2DM-induced hepatic insulin resistance through bicuculline-sensitive GABA A receptor-independent PI3K/Akt/GLUT-4 signalling pathway in animals.

  18. Metabolic and behavioral effects of ractopamine at continuous low levels in rats under stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Lopes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effect of ractopamine (RAC on metabolism, zootechnical performance, body composition, and behavior in Wistar rats submitted to acute and chronic restrain stress. The oral dose of 5 mg/kg of RAC was administered in periods of 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. The elevated plus-maze test (EPMT was used for behavioral assessment. Blood, carcass and viscera characteristics were evaluated. Insulin-dependent glucose transporters (GLUT-4 were semi-quantified by Western Blot in epididymal adipocytes. RAC periods associated with chronic stress increased the GLUT-4 protein expression in adipose tissue in a time-dependent manner (P=0.01, i.e., the longer the RAC addition period, the higher the GLUT-4 concentration in chronically stressed animals (0=1.42; 7=1.19; 14=2.03; 21=1.59; 28=2.35. The stress periods combined with RAC increased the time spent in the opened arms of the maze (Chronic stress: 0=10.6; 7=8.7; 14=5.9; 21=12.3; 28=4.0; Acute stress 0=3.1; 7= 4.7; 14=7.5; 21=0.0; 28=2.8 (P=0.04. Chronic (entries on the closed arms [ECA]=3.60 and acute (ECA=3.80 stress reduced locomotive activity in the maze (P=0.03. The results suggested that stress could negatively affect the possible benefits offered by the RAC, mainly impairing the adipose tissue metabolism and behavior in the animals.

  19. Negative Affectivity, Role Stress, and Work-Family Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeva, Albena Z.; Chiu, Randy K.; Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.

    2002-01-01

    Measures of job and family stress and negative affectivity were completed by 148 (of 400) Hong Kong civil service employees. Persons with high negative affectivity experience more work and family stress. Job stress was associated with extensive interference of work with family, and family stress with extensive interference of family with work.…

  20. α-Mangostin Improves Glucose Uptake and Inhibits Adipocytes Differentiation in 3T3-L1 Cells via PPARγ, GLUT4, and Leptin Expressions

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    Muhammad Taher

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has been often associated with the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, and cancer. The development of obesity is also accompanied by significant differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. In this study, we investigated the activity of α-mangostin, a major xanthone component isolated from the stem bark of G. malaccensis, on glucose uptake and adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells focusing on PPARγ, GLUT4, and leptin expressions. α-Mangostin was found to inhibit cytoplasmic lipid accumulation and adipogenic differentiation. Cells treated with 50 μM of α-mangostin reduced intracellular fat accumulation dose-dependently up to 44.4% relative to MDI-treated cells. Analyses of 2-deoxy-D-[3H] glucose uptake activity showed that α-mangostin significantly improved the glucose uptake (P<0.05 with highest activity found at 25 μM. In addition, α-mangostin increased the amount of free fatty acids (FFA released. The highest glycerol release level was observed at 50 μM of α-mangostin. qRT-PCR analysis showed reduced lipid accumulation via inhibition of PPARγ gene expression. Induction of glucose uptake and free fatty acid release by α-mangostin were accompanied by increasing mRNA expression of GLUT4 and leptin. These evidences propose that α-mangostin might be possible candidate for the effective management of obesity in future.

  1. ACRIN 6665/RTOG 0132 phase II trial of neoadjuvant imatinib mesylate for operable malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor: monitoring with 18F-FDG PET and correlation with genotype and GLUT4 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Abbeele, Annick D; Gatsonis, Constantine; de Vries, Daniel J; Melenevsky, Yulia; Szot-Barnes, Agnieszka; Yap, Jeffrey T; Godwin, Andrew K; Rink, Lori; Huang, Min; Blevins, Meridith; Sicks, Jorean; Eisenberg, Burton; Siegel, Barry A

    2012-04-01

    We investigated the correlation between metabolic response by (18)F-FDG PET and objective response, glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) expression, and KIT/PDGFRA mutation status in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumor undergoing neoadjuvant imatinib mesylate therapy. (18)F-FDG PET was performed at baseline, 1-7 d, and 4 or 8 wk after imatinib mesylate initiation. Best objective response was defined by version 1.0 of the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST). Mutational analysis and tumor GLUT4 expression by immunohistochemistry were done on tissue obtained at baseline or surgery. (18)F-FDG PET showed high baseline tumor glycolytic activity (mean SUV(max), 14.2; range, 1.3-53.2), decreasing after 1 wk of imatinib mesylate (mean, 5.5; range, -0.5-47.7, P imatinib mesylate initiation, metabolic response by (18)F-FDG PET was documented earlier (1-7 d) and was of much greater magnitude (36/44) than that documented by RECIST (2/39). Immunohistochemistry data suggest that GLUT4 may play a role in (18)F-FDG uptake in gastrointestinal stromal tumor, GLUT4 levels decrease after imatinib mesylate therapy in most patients with PMR, and the biologic action of imatinib mesylate interacts with glycolysis and GLUT4 expression. A greater than 85% metabolic response was observed as early as days 1-7 in patients with exon 11 mutations.

  2. Oral chromium picolinate improves carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and enhances skeletal muscle Glut-4 translocation in obese, hyperinsulinemic (JCR-LA corpulent) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cefalu, William T; Wang, Zhong Q; Zhang, Xian H; Baldor, Linda C; Russell, James C

    2002-06-01

    Human studies suggest that chromium picolinate (CrPic) decreases insulin levels and improves glucose disposal in obese and type 2 diabetic populations. To evaluate whether CrPic may aid in treatment of the insulin resistance syndrome, we assessed its effects in JCR:LA-corpulent rats, a model of this syndrome. Male lean and obese hyperinsulinemic rats were randomly assigned to receive oral CrPic [80 microg/(kg. d); n = 5 or 6, respectively) in water or to control conditions (water, n = 5). After 3 mo, a 120-min intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) and a 30-min insulin tolerance test were performed. Obese rats administered CrPic had significantly lower fasting insulin levels (1848 +/- 102 vs. 2688 +/- 234 pmol/L; P < 0.001; mean +/- SEM) and significantly improved glucose disappearance (P < 0.001) compared with obese controls. Glucose and insulin areas under the curve for IPGTT were significantly less for obese CrPic-treated rats than in obese controls (P < 0.001). Obese CrPic-treated rats had lower plasma total cholesterol (3.57 +/- 0.28 vs. 4.11 +/- 0.47 mmol/L, P < 0.05) and higher HDL cholesterol levels (1.92 +/- 0.09 vs. 1.37 +/- 0.36 mmol/L, P < 0.01) than obese controls. CrPic did not alter plasma glucose or cholesterol levels in lean rats. Total skeletal muscle glucose transporter (Glut)-4 did not differ among groups; however, CrPic significantly enhanced membrane-associated Glut-4 in obese rats after insulin stimulation. Thus, CrPic supplementation enhances insulin sensitivity and glucose disappearance, and improves lipids in male obese hyperinsulinemic JCR:LA-corpulent rats.

  3. Nutritional status induces divergent variations of GLUT4 protein content, but not lipoprotein lipase activity, between adipose tissues and muscles in adult cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Muriel; Faulconnier, Yannick; Hocquette, Jean-François; Bocquier, François; Leroux, Christine; Martin, Patrice; Chilliard, Yves

    2004-10-01

    Metabolic adaptations to variations in food supply are incompletely understood in ruminant animal adipose tissue (AT) and muscle. To explore this, we studied lipid metabolism and glucose transport potential in one internal and one external AT, as well as in one oxidative and one glycolytic muscle from control, 7 d underfed and 21 d refed adult cows. Refeeding increased (+79 to +307 %) the activities of enzymes involved in de novo lipogenesis (fatty acid synthase, malic enzyme, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) in perirenal and subcutaneous AT; underfeeding did not modify these variables. Underfeeding decreased the activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in perirenal AT (-70 %) and cardiac muscle (-67 %), but did not modify the activities in subcutaneous AT and longissimus thoracis. Refeeding increased LPL activities in all tissues (+40 to +553 %) to levels comparable with (cardiac muscle) or greater than (AT, longissimus thoracis) those observed in control cows. Such variations in perirenal and cardiac muscle LPL activities did not result from variations in LPL mRNA levels, but suggest a post-transcriptional regulation of LPL in these nutritional conditions. Underfeeding did not modify GLUT4 contents in perirenal AT and muscles, while refeeding increased it only in perirenal AT (+250 %). Our present results contrast with previous results in rats, where LPL is regulated in opposite directions in AT and muscles, and GLUT4 is generally increased by fasting and decreased by refeeding in skeletal muscles. The present results highlight the bovine specificity of the response, which probably arises in part from peculiarities of ruminant animals for nutrient digestion and absorption.

  4. The shape of change in perceived stress, negative affect, and stress sensitivity during mindfulness based stress reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snippe, E.; Dziak, J.J.; Lanza, S.T.; Nyklicek, I.; Wichers, M.

    2017-01-01

    Both daily stress and the tendency to react to stress with heightened levels of negative affect (i.e., stress sensitivity) are important vulnerability factors for adverse mental health outcomes. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) may help to reduce perceived daily stress and stress

  5. The Shape of Change in Perceived Stress, Negative Affect, and Stress Sensitivity During Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snippe, Evelien; Dziak, John J.; Lanza, Stephanie T.; Nykliek, Ivan; Wichers, Marieke

    Both daily stress and the tendency to react to stress with heightened levels of negative affect (i.e., stress sensitivity) are important vulnerability factors for adverse mental health outcomes. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) may help to reduce perceived daily stress and stress

  6. Analysis of correlations between the placental expression of glucose transporters GLUT-1, GLUT-4 and GLUT-9 and selected maternal and fetal parameters in pregnancies complicated by diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanirowski, Paweł Jan; Szukiewicz, Dariusz; Pyzlak, Michał; Abdalla, Nabil; Sawicki, Włodzimierz; Cendrowski, Krzysztof

    2017-10-16

    The aim of the study was to analyze the correlations between the expression of glucose transporters GLUT-1, GLUT-4, and GLUT-9 in human term placenta and selected maternal and fetal parameters in pregnancies complicated by diabetes mellitus (DM). Placental samples were obtained from healthy control (n = 25) and diabetic pregnancies, including diet-controlled gestational diabetes mellitus (GDMG1) (n = 16), insulin-controlled gestational diabetes mellitus (GDMG2) (n = 6), and pregestational DM (PGDM) (n = 6). Computer-assisted quantitative morphometry of stained placental sections was performed to determine the expression of selected glucose transporter proteins. For the purposes of correlation analysis, the following parameters were selected: type of diabetes, gestational age, maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain, third trimester glycated hemoglobin concentration, placental weight, fetal birth weight (FBW) as well as ultrasonographic indicators of fetal adiposity, including subscapular (SSFM), abdominal (AFM), and midthigh (MTFM) fat mass measurements. In the PGDM group, the analysis demonstrated positive correlations between the placental expression of GLUT-1, GLUT-4, and GLUT-9 and FBW, AFM, and SSFM measurements (p GLUT-4 expression, FBW and SSFM were observed (p GLUTs expression (p GLUT-1 expression (p GLUT-1, GLUT-4, and GLUT-9 may be involved in the intensification of the fetal growth in pregnancies complicated by GDM/PGDM.

  7. Two chalcones, 4-hydroxyderricin and xanthoangelol, stimulate GLUT4-dependent glucose uptake through the LKB1/AMP-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Mitsuhiro; Fujinami, Aya; Kobayashi, Norihiro; Amano, Akiko; Ishigami, Akihito; Tokuda, Harukuni; Suzuki, Nobutaka; Ito, Fumitake; Mori, Taisuke; Sawada, Morio; Iwasa, Koichi; Kitawaki, Jo; Ohnishi, Katsunori; Tsujikawa, Muneo; Obayashi, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    4-Hydroxyderricin (4HD) and xanthoangelol (XAG) are major components of n-hexane/ethyl acetate (5:1) extract of the yellow-colored stem juice of Angelica keiskei. 4-Hydroxyderricin and XAG have been reported to increase glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4)-dependent glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, but the detailed mechanism of this phenomenon remains unknown. This present study was aimed at clarifying the detailed mechanism by which 4HD and XAG increase GLUT4-dependent glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Both 4HD and XAG increased glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane. 4-Hydroxyderricin and XAG also stimulated the phosphorylation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase. In addition, phosphorylation of liver kinase B1 (LKB1), which acts upstream of AMPK, was also increased by 4HD and XAG treatment. Small interfering RNA knockdown of LKB1 attenuated 4HD- and XAG-stimulated AMPK phosphorylation and suppressed glucose uptake. These findings demonstrate that 4HD and XAG can increase GLUT4-dependent glucose uptake through the LKB1/AMPK signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Anti-diabetic potential of Catharanthus roseus Linn. and its effect on the glucose transport gene (GLUT-2 and GLUT-4) in streptozotocin induced diabetic wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shaqha, Waleed M; Khan, Mohsin; Salam, Nasir; Azzi, Arezki; Chaudhary, Anis Ahmad

    2015-10-21

    Catharanthus roseus is an important Ayurvedic medication in traditional medicine. It is potentially used in countries like India, South Africa, China and Malaysia for the healing of diabetes mellitus. Although, the molecular mechanisms behind this effect are yet to be exclusively explored. Due to the great antidiabetic and hyperlipidemic potential of c. roseus, we hypothesized that the insulin mimetic effect of ethanolic extract of c. roseus might add to glucose uptake through improvement in the expression of genes of the glucose transporter (GLUT) family messenger RNA (mRNA) in liver. STZ-induced diabetic rats treated by ethanolic extract of c. roseus 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg; and one group treated with Metformin (100 mg/kg). After final administration of treatment of 4 weeks, blood samples were collected under fasting conditions, and the body weights (BWs) were measured. Total RNA from liver was extracted with the Qiagen RNEasy Micro kit (GERMANY) as described in the manufacturer's instructions. First-strand complementary DNA (cDNA) was synthesized at 40 °C by priming with oligo-dT12-18 (Invitrogen, USA) and using Super ScriptII reverse transcriptase according to the protocol provided by the manufacturer (Invitrogen, USA). Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplifications for GLUT-4 (gene ID: 25139) were conducted using Light-Cycler 480 (Roche, USA) with the SyBr® I nucleic acid stain (Invitrogen, USA) according to the manufacturer's instructions. Polymerase chain reaction products of β-actin primer gene were used as an internal standard. The proposed study was framed to look at the antidiabetic efficacy of ethanolic extract of c. roseus and an expression of GLUT-2 and GLUT-4 gene in streptozotocin induced diabetic wistar rats. The doses were administered orally at a rate of 100 and 200 mg/kg and detrain the glucose transport system in liver for 4 weeks. The observed results showed a good positive correlation between intracellular calcium and insulin

  9. Relationships Among Nightly Sleep Quality, Daily Stress, and Daily Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaxton, Jessica M; Bergeman, Cindy S; Whitehead, Brenda R; Braun, Marcia E; Payne, Jessic D

    2017-05-01

    We explored the prospective, microlevel relationship between nightly sleep quality (SQ) and the subsequent day's stress on positive (PA) and negative affect (NA) as well as the moderating relationships between nightly SQ, subsequent stress, and subsequent PA on NA. We investigated whether age moderated these relationships. We collected 56 days of sleep, stress, and affect data using daily diary questionnaires (N = 552). We used multilevel modeling to assess relationships at the between- and within-person levels. Daily increases in SQ and decreases in stress interacted to predict higher daily PA and lower daily NA. Better SQ in older adults enhanced the benefits of PA on the stress-NA relationship more during times of low stress, whereas better sleep in younger adults enhanced the benefits of PA more during times of high stress. Between-person effects were stronger predictors of well-being outcomes than within-person variability. The combination of good SQ and higher PA buffered the impact of stress on NA. The moderating impact of age suggests that sleep and stress play different roles across adulthood. Targeting intervention and prevention strategies to improve SQ and enhance PA could disrupt the detrimental relationship between daily stress and NA. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Acute stress does not affect risky monetary decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Sokol-Hessner

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitous and intense nature of stress responses necessitate that we understand how they affect decision-making. Despite a number of studies examining risky decision-making under stress, it is as yet unclear whether and in what way stress alters the underlying processes that shape our choices. This is in part because previous studies have not separated and quantified dissociable valuation and decision-making processes that can affect choices of risky options, including risk attitudes, loss aversion, and choice consistency, among others. Here, in a large, fully-crossed two-day within-subjects design, we examined how acute stress alters risky decision-making. On each day, 120 participants completed either the cold pressor test or a control manipulation with equal probability, followed by a risky decision-making task. Stress responses were assessed with salivary cortisol. We fit an econometric model to choices that dissociated risk attitudes, loss aversion, and choice consistency using hierarchical Bayesian techniques to both pool data and allow heterogeneity in decision-making. Acute stress was found to have no effect on risk attitudes, loss aversion, or choice consistency, though participants did become more loss averse and more consistent on the second day relative to the first. In the context of an inconsistent previous literature on risk and acute stress, our findings provide strong and specific evidence that acute stress does not affect risk attitudes, loss aversion, or consistency in risky monetary decision-making.

  11. Acute stress affects prospective memory functions via associative memory processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szőllősi, Ágnes; Pajkossy, Péter; Demeter, Gyula; Kéri, Szabolcs; Racsmány, Mihály

    2018-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that acute stress can improve the execution of delayed intentions (prospective memory, PM). However, it is unclear whether this improvement can be explained by altered executive control processes or by altered associative memory functioning. To investigate this issue, we used physical-psychosocial stressors to induce acute stress in laboratory settings. Then participants completed event- and time-based PM tasks requiring the different contribution of control processes and a control task (letter fluency) frequently used to measure executive functions. According to our results, acute stress had no impact on ongoing task performance, time-based PM, and verbal fluency, whereas it enhanced event-based PM as measured by response speed for the prospective cues. Our findings indicate that, here, acute stress did not affect executive control processes. We suggest that stress affected event-based PM via associative memory processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. GLUT4 defects in adipose tissue are early signs of metabolic alterations in Alms1GT/GT, a mouse model for obesity and insulin resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Favaretto

    Full Text Available Dysregulation of signaling pathways in adipose tissue leading to insulin resistance can contribute to the development of obesity-related metabolic disorders. Alström Syndrome, a recessive ciliopathy, caused by mutations in ALMS1, is characterized by progressive metabolic alterations such as childhood obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and type 2 diabetes. Here we investigated the role of Alms1 disruption in AT expansion and insulin responsiveness in a murine model for Alström Syndrome. A gene trap insertion in Alms1 on the insulin sensitive C57BL6/Ei genetic background leads to early hyperinsulinemia and a progressive increase in body weight. At 6 weeks of age, before the onset of the metabolic disease, the mutant mice had enlarged fat depots with hypertrophic adipocytes, but without signs of inflammation. Expression of lipogenic enzymes was increased. Pre-adipocytes isolated from mutant animals demonstrated normal adipogenic differentiation but gave rise to mature adipocytes with reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Assessment of whole body glucose homeostasis revealed glucose intolerance. Insulin stimulation resulted in proper AKT phosphorylation in adipose tissue. However, the total amount of glucose transporter 4 (SLC4A2 and its translocation to the plasma membrane were reduced in mutant adipose depots compared to wildtype littermates. Alterations in insulin stimulated trafficking of glucose transporter 4 are an early sign of metabolic dysfunction in Alström mutant mice, providing a possible explanation for the reduced glucose uptake and the compensatory hyperinsulinemia. The metabolic signaling deficits either reside downstream or are independent of AKT activation and suggest a role for ALMS1 in GLUT4 trafficking. Alström mutant mice represent an interesting model for the development of metabolic disease in which adipose tissue with a reduced glucose uptake can expand by de novo lipogenesis to an obese state.

  13. Septin 7 reduces nonmuscle myosin IIA activity in the SNAP23 complex and hinders GLUT4 storage vesicle docking and fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasik, Anita A.; Dumont, Vincent [Department of Pathology, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Tienari, Jukka [Department of Pathology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, 00290 Helsinki, 05850 Hyvinkää (Finland); Nyman, Tuula A. [Institute of Biotechnology, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Fogarty, Christopher L.; Forsblom, Carol; Lehto, Markku [Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhälsan Research Center, 00290 Helsinki (Finland); Abdominal Center Nephrology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, 000290 Helsinki (Finland); Diabetes& Obesity Research Program, Research Program´s Unit, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Lehtonen, Eero [Department of Pathology, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Laboratory Animal Centre, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Groop, Per-Henrik [Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhälsan Research Center, 00290 Helsinki (Finland); Abdominal Center Nephrology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, 000290 Helsinki (Finland); Diabetes& Obesity Research Program, Research Program´s Unit, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Baker IDI Heart & Diabetes Institute, 3004 Melbourne (Australia); Lehtonen, Sanna, E-mail: sanna.h.lehtonen@helsinki.fi [Department of Pathology, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2017-01-15

    Glomerular epithelial cells, podocytes, are insulin responsive and can develop insulin resistance. Here, we demonstrate that the small GTPase septin 7 forms a complex with nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA (NMHC-IIA; encoded by MYH9), a component of the nonmuscle myosin IIA (NM-IIA) hexameric complex. We observed that knockdown of NMHC-IIA decreases insulin-stimulated glucose uptake into podocytes. Both septin 7 and NM-IIA associate with SNAP23, a SNARE protein involved in GLUT4 storage vesicle (GSV) docking and fusion with the plasma membrane. We observed that insulin decreases the level of septin 7 and increases the activity of NM-IIA in the SNAP23 complex, as visualized by increased phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain. Also knockdown of septin 7 increases the activity of NM-IIA in the complex. The activity of NM-IIA is increased in diabetic rat glomeruli and cultured human podocytes exposed to macroalbuminuric sera from patients with type 1 diabetes. Collectively, the data suggest that the activity of NM-IIA in the SNAP23 complex plays a key role in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake into podocytes. Furthermore, we observed that septin 7 reduces the activity of NM-IIA in the SNAP23 complex and thereby hinders GSV docking and fusion with the plasma membrane. - Highlights: • Septin 7, nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA (NMHC-IIA) and SNAP23 form a complex. • Knockdown of septin 7 increases NM-IIA activity in the SNAP23 complex. • Insulin decreases septin 7 level and increases NM-IIA activity in the SNAP23 complex. • Septin 7 hinders GSV docking/fusion by reducing NM-IIA activity in the SNAP23 complex.

  14. Absence of RIP140 reveals a pathway regulating glut4-dependent glucose uptake in oxidative skeletal muscle through UCP1-mediated activation of AMPK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmaà Fritah

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle constitutes the major site of glucose uptake leading to increased removal of glucose from the circulation in response to insulin. Type 2 diabetes and obesity are often associated with insulin resistance that can be counteracted by exercise or the use of drugs increasing the relative proportion of oxidative fibers. RIP140 is a transcriptional coregulator with a central role in metabolic tissues and we tested the effect of modulating its level of expression on muscle glucose and lipid metabolism in two mice models. Here, we show that although RIP140 protein is expressed at the same level in both oxidative and glycolytic muscles, it inhibits both fatty acid and glucose utilization in a fiber-type dependent manner. In RIP140-null mice, fatty acid utilization increases in the extensor digitorum longus and this is associated with elevated expression of genes implicated in fatty acid binding and transport. In the RIP140-null soleus, depletion of RIP140 leads to increased GLUT4 trafficking and glucose uptake with no change in Akt activity. AMPK phosphorylation/activity is inhibited in the soleus of RIP140 transgenic mice and increased in RIP140-null soleus. This is associated with increased UCP1 expression and mitochondrial uncoupling revealing the existence of a signaling pathway controlling insulin-independent glucose uptake in the soleus of RIP140-null mice. In conclusion, our findings reinforce the participation of RIP140 in the maintenance of energy homeostasis by acting as an inhibitor of energy production and particularly point to RIP140 as a promising therapeutic target in the treatment of insulin resistance.

  15. Modulation of GLUT4 expression by oral administration of Mg(2+) to control sugar levels in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solaimani, Haniah; Soltani, Nepton; MaleKzadeh, Kianoosh; Sohrabipour, Shahla; Zhang, Nina; Nasri, Sema; Wang, Qinghua

    2014-06-01

    It has been previously shown that oral magnesium administration decreases the levels of glucose in the plasma. However, the mechanisms are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to determine the potential role of GLUT4 on plasma glucose levels by orally administering magnesium sulfate to diabetic rats. Animals were distributed among 4 groups (n = 10 rats per group): one group served as the non-diabetic control, while the other groups had diabetes induced by streptozotocin (intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection). The diabetic rats were either given insulin by i.p. injection (2.5 U·(kg body mass)(-1)·day(-1)), or magnesium sulfate in their drinking water (10 g·L(-1)). After 8 weeks of treatment, we conducted an i.p. glucose tolerance test (IPGTT), measured blood glucose and plasma magnesium levels, and performed in-vitro and in-vivo insulin level measurements by radioimmunoassay. Gastrocnemius (leg) muscles were isolated for the measurement of GLU4 mRNA expression using real-time PCR. Administration of magnesium sulfate improved IPGTT and lowered blood glucose levels almost to the normal range. However, the insulin levels were not changed in either of the in-vitro or in-vivo studies. The expression of GLU4 mRNA increased 23% and 10% in diabetic magnesium-treated and insulin-treated groups, respectively. Our findings suggest that magnesium lowers blood glucose levels via increased GLU4 mRNA expression, independent to insulin secretion.

  16. Restraint Stress Impairs Glucose Homeostasis Through Altered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Summary: The study investigated the potential alteration in the level of insulin and adiponectin, as well as the expression of insulin receptors (INSR) and glucose transporter 4 GLUT-4 in chronic restraint stress rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: the control group and stress group in which the ...

  17. Negative affective stress reactivity: The dampening effect of snacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Saskia; Jacobs, Nele; Duif, Mira; Lechner, Lilian; Thewissen, Viviane

    2017-10-03

    The present study sets out to further elucidate the complex relationship between daily hassles, snacking, and negative affect (NA). The aim of the present study was to examine whether or not moment-to-moment energy intake from snacks moderates the association between momentary stress and NA. And, if so, can this moderating effect be replicated by using the amount of macronutrient intake (i.e., carbohydrates, fat, and protein) as moderator on the association between momentary stress and NA? Adults (N = 269), aged 20-50 years, participated in this study. Stress, NA, and snack intake were assessed 10 times a day for 7 consecutive days in daily life with an experience sampling smartphone application. Multilevel regression analyses were performed to assess the hypothesized associations. Our study revealed a dampening effect of snacking on negative affective stress reactivity. However, this dampening effect could not be replicated by the amount of macronutrient intake from snacks. On the contrary, the amount of carbohydrates has an enhancing effect on negative affective stress reactivity. In the end, our study suggests that the critical question is which mechanisms are decisive in the dampening role of snacking on stress reactivity. A multidisciplinary approach may provide a full perspective. © 2017 The Authors. Stress and Health published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Thoracic radiography and oxidative stress indices in heartworm affected dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Rath

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the pathomorphological changes through thoracic radiography and status of oxidative stress parameters in heartworm affected dogs in Odisha. Materials and Methods: A total of 16 dogs with clinically established diagnosis of dirofilariasis by wet blood smear and modified Knott’s test and equal numbers of dogs as control were included in this study. The present study was conducted in heartworm affected dogs to see the pathomorphological changes through thoracic radiography. Similarly, the evaluation was undertaken for observing any alterations in oxidative stress status in affected as well as non-affected, but healthy control dogs by adopting standard procedure. Results: Thoracic radiography revealed cardiac enlargement, round heart appearance suggestive of right ventricular hypertrophy, tortuous pulmonary artery and darkening of lungs. Alterations in oxidative stress indices showed a significant rise of lipid peroxidase activity, non-significant rise of superoxide dismutase and a significant although reverse trend for catalase levels in affected dogs in comparison to Dirofilaria negative control but apparently healthy dogs. Conclusions: Radiographic changes, as well as alterations in oxidative stress parameters, may not be diagnostic for heartworm infection, but useful for detecting heartworm disease, assessing severity and evaluating cardiopulmonary parenchyma changes and gives a fair idea about the degree of severity of the disease. It aids as contributing factors in disease pathogenesis.

  19. Acute stress affects risk taking but not ambiguity aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckert, Magdalena; Schwieren, Christiane; Kudielka, Brigitte M; Fiebach, Christian J

    2014-01-01

    Economic decisions are often made in stressful situations (e.g., at the trading floor), but the effects of stress on economic decision making have not been systematically investigated so far. The present study examines how acute stress influences economic decision making under uncertainty (risk and ambiguity) using financially incentivized lotteries. We varied the domain of decision making as well as the expected value of the risky prospect. Importantly, no feedback was provided to investigate risk taking and ambiguity aversion independent from learning processes. In a sample of 75 healthy young participants, 55 of whom underwent a stress induction protocol (Trier Social Stress Test for Groups), we observed more risk seeking for gains. This effect was restricted to a subgroup of participants that showed a robust cortisol response to acute stress (n = 26). Gambling under ambiguity, in contrast to gambling under risk, was not influenced by the cortisol response to stress. These results show that acute psychosocial stress affects economic decision making under risk, independent of learning processes. Our results further point to the importance of cortisol as a mediator of this effect.

  20. Psychological or physical prenatal stress differentially affects cognition behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazeri, Masoud; Shabani, Mohammad; Ghotbi Ravandi, Samaneh; Aghaei, Iraj; Nozari, Masoumeh; Mazhari, Shahrzad

    2015-04-01

    Prenatal stress is proposed as a major risk factor in the development of cognitive impairments in the offspring. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of prenatal physical or psychological stress on the motor and cognitive functions of male and female offspring. Adult female rats were stressed during their conception using a novel method to induced whether physical or psychological stress. Animal offspring were then kept until adulthood. Elevated plus maze (EPM) was used to evaluate their anxiety-like behavior. Rotarod and wire grip were used to evaluate muscle strength and balance function. Morris water maze (MWM) and passive avoidance (PA) learning and memory paradigm were used to evaluate the cognitive function of the offspring. Female offspring of both physical and psychological stress had an increased anxiety-like behavior in the EPM test in comparison to female control rats. Balance function was impaired in physical stressed female offspring in comparison to the control and male offspring. Muscle strength was reduced in physical male and female offspring. Both male and female offspring groups that underwent prenatal physical and psychological stress had an impaired spatial learning and memory. PA learning and memory were impaired in both male and female offspring except for the psychological stress female offspring in PA learning. Results of our study revealed that prenatal physical or psychological stress have different effects on motor and cognitive functions of the offspring. Male and female offspring were differentially affected by prenatal stress. We suggest more studies to evaluate the role of sex hormones on the effects of prenatal physical or psychological stress on cognitive and motor functions of the offspring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cognitively and socially induced stress affects postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumas, Michail; Morsanyi, Kinga; Young, William R

    2018-01-01

    Postural control is an adaptive process that can be affected by many aspects of human behavior, including emotional contexts. The main emotional contexts that affect postural control are postural threat and passive viewing of aversive or threatening images, both of which produce a reduction in postural sway. The aim of the present study was to assess whether similar stress-related changes in postural sway can be observed using stress induced by social evaluative threat (SET) while performing arithmetic tasks. Twelve young adults performed an arithmetic and a postural control task separately, concurrently, and concurrently with added time pressure in the arithmetic task. In the final condition, participants were given negative feedback about their performance in the arithmetic task and performed it again while being observed (SET condition). Results showed that stress increased linearly with task demand. Postural sway and reaction times were not affected by the first two conditions; however, when time pressure was introduced, reaction times became faster and sway amplitude increased. Finally, introduction of SET caused the predicted reduction in postural sway and an increase in reaction times relative to the time pressure condition. Our results suggest that stress induced using a combination of arithmetic tasks and social evaluative threat leads to systematic changes in postural control. The paradigm developed in the present study would be very useful in assessing interactions between cognition, stress, and postural control in the context of postural instability and falls in older adults.

  2. The shape of change in perceived stress, negative affect, and stress sensitivity during mindfulness-based stress reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snippe, Evelien; Dziak, John J; Lanza, Stephanie T; Nyklíček, Ivan; Wichers, Marieke

    2017-06-01

    Both daily stress and the tendency to react to stress with heightened levels of negative affect (i.e., stress sensitivity) are important vulnerability factors for adverse mental health outcomes. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) may help to reduce perceived daily stress and stress sensitivity. The purpose of this study was to examine how change in perceived stress, negative affect (NA), and the decoupling between perceived stress and NA evolved over the course of a MBSR program, without making any a priori assumptions on the shape of change. Seventy-one adults from the general population participating in MBSR provided daily diary assessments of perceived stress and NA during MBSR. The time-varying effect model (TVEM) indicated that perceived stress and NA decreased in a linear fashion rather than in a non-linear fashion, both as a function of time and as a function of the cumulative number of days of mindfulness practice. Both TVEM and multilevel growth modeling showed that the association between perceived stress and NA did not decrease over the course of MBSR. The findings support the hypothesis that MBSR reduces NA and also reduces the extent to which individuals perceive their days as stressful. Also, the results suggest that there is a dose-response relationship between the amount of mindfulness practice and reductions in daily stress and NA.

  3. Oxidative stress negatively affects human sperm mitochondrial respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Pinto Provenzano, Sara; Montagna, Daniela Domenica; Coppola, Lamberto; Zara, Vincenzo

    2013-07-01

    To correlate the level of oxidative stress in serum and seminal fluid and the level of sperm deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragmentation with sperm mitochondrial respiratory efficiency. Sperm mitochondrial respiratory activity was evaluated with a polarographic assay of oxygen consumption carried out in hypotonically treated sperm cells. A possible relationship between sperm mitochondrial respiratory efficiency, the level of oxidative stress, and the level of sperm DNA fragmentation was investigated. Sperm motility was positively correlated with mitochondrial respiration but negatively correlated with oxidative stress and DNA fragmentation. Interestingly, sperm mitochondrial respiratory activity was negatively affected by oxidative stress and DNA fragmentation. Our data indicate that sperm mitochondrial respiration is decreased in patients with high levels of reactive oxygen species by an uncoupling between electron transport and adenosine triphosphate synthesis. This reduction in mitochondrial functionality might be 1 of the reasons responsible for the decrease in spermatozoa motility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Stresses of steam generator U-tubes affecting stress corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashima, S.; Ikenaga, H.; Nakamura, K.; Takaba, O.; Uragami, K.; Utsumi, H.

    1982-01-01

    Stress factors affecting U-bend cracking in the steam generators of PWR type reactors are discussed based on the results of stress corrosion cracking tests of Inconel 600 U-bend tube in polythionic acid solution subjected to the actual operating loads

  5. Does student debt affect dental students' and dentists' stress levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyles, J D; Ahmed, B

    2017-10-27

    Introduction Many studies have shown financial worries and debt to induce stress in individuals, this combined with the existing stress of being a dentist raises the question of how student debt affects students' and dentists' stress levels.Objectives Determine whether student debt has had any noticeable effect on student stress levels; investigate whether student debt has any effect on dentists' career choice; investigate whether the increase in tuition fees has influenced the number of applicants to study dentistry at the University of Birmingham.Method Anonymous questionnaires were completed by 70 4th year and 38 5th year BDS and 22 Dental Core Trainees (DCTs). Participants circled the response which best fitted their situation regarding statements on their level of stress and future career path. Ethical approval granted. Application figures to study dentistry obtained from head of admissions.Results Forty-two percent of males and 63% of females strongly agreed with the statement that having no debt would reduce their stress levels. Of those with debt >£40,000, 11% strongly agreed and 42% agreed that their total amount of student debt causes them stress. Whereas, those whose debt is student debt causes them stress. Seventy-seven percent of participants who had parental or family financial support reported this reduced their stress levels. Student debt was found to deter females from undertaking further study more than it deters males (P Students with a higher level of debt were more likely to worry about their total student loan(s) (P students with a higher level of debt were more likely to be stressed about their total student loan(s) (P student expenses reduces student stress (P Student debt has had an impact on student stress; students reporting a higher level of debt also report more stress and concern about paying off their student debt. Having no student debt would reduce stress levels, although to what extent is undetermined. Applications to study

  6. Negative affectivity moderated by BDNF and stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, C S; Paternina, A C; Gomez, Y; Lattig, M C

    2012-02-01

    Gene×environment (G×E) interactions are known to predict susceptibility to disorders such as depression and anxiety. Adverse experiences in childhood and number of stressful life events (SLEs) have been widely studied as environmental risk factors; however, SLE response has not yet been studied. Here we present a first attempt at the analysis of the interaction between the response to personal and academic stressful events during different life stages and the gene polymorphisms 5-HTTLPR, 5-HTTVNTR (STin2), HTR1A C(-1019)G, and BDNF Val66Met in the prediction of negative affectivity (NA). Standardized questionnaires (ST-DEP and STAI) were used to measure negative affectivity derived from depression and anxiety in a sample of 303 undergraduate students. Response to stressful events during childhood, high school and college years was evaluated together with a self-report personal history form. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to perform association and G×E analysis. Negative affectivity is strongly associated with childhood maltreatment and stress response. Gene associations were observed between 5-HTTVNTR allele 12 and the S_12 haplotype with NA derived from high scores in both depression and anxiety. The BDNF gene variant was not associated with NA derived from depression or anxiety alone, but it was associated with the comorbid presentation. A significant G×E interaction was observed between the BDNF Val66Met and stress response during childhood and college years although the risk for negative affectivity conferred by stress response during childhood was only significant among the Met allele carriers, while stress response during college years was a significant risk factor regardless of the BDNF Val66Met genotype. A significant G×E interaction was also found between the HTR1A C(-1019)G variant and childhood maltreatment. The study has two main limitations, sample size is low and retrospective recognition of SLEs is a concern. Altogether, our

  7. Restraint stress impairs glucose homeostasis through altered insulin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the potential alteration in the level of insulin and adiponectin, as well as the expression of insulin receptors (INSR) and glucose transporter 4 GLUT-4 in chronic restraint stress rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: the control group and stress group in which the rats were ...

  8. Erythritol reduces small intestinal glucose absorption, increases muscle glucose uptake, improves glucose metabolic enzymes activities and increases expression of Glut-4 and IRS-1 in type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwuma, Chika Ifeanyi; Mopuri, Ramgopal; Nagiah, Savania; Chuturgoon, Anil Amichund; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2017-08-02

    Studies have reported that erythritol, a low or non-glycemic sugar alcohol possesses anti-hyperglycemic and anti-diabetic potentials but the underlying mode of actions is not clear. This study investigated the underlying mode of actions behind the anti-hyperglycemic and anti-diabetic potentials of erythritol using different experimental models (experiment 1, 2 and 3). Experiment 1 examined the effects of increasing concentrations (2.5-20%) of erythritol on glucose absorption and uptake in isolated rat jejunum and psoas muscle, respectively. Experiments 2 and 3 examined the effects of a single oral dose of erythritol (1 g/kg bw) on intestinal glucose absorption, gastric emptying and postprandial blood glucose increase, glucose tolerance, serum insulin level, muscle/liver hexokinase and liver glucose-6 phosphatase activities, liver and muscle glycogen contents and mRNA and protein expression of muscle Glut-4 and IRS-1 in normal and type 2 diabetic animals. Experiment 1 revealed that erythritol dose dependently enhanced muscle glucose ex vivo. Experiment 2 demonstrated that erythritol feeding delayed gastric emptying and reduced small intestinal glucose absorption as well as postprandial blood glucose rise, especially in diabetic animals. Experiment 3 showed that erythritol feeding improved glucose tolerance, muscle/liver hexokinase and liver glucose-6 phosphatase activities, glycogen storage and also modulated expression of muscle Glut-4 and IRS-1 in diabetic animals. Data suggest that erythritol may exert anti-hyperglycemic effects not only via reducing small intestinal glucose absorption, but also by increasing muscle glucose uptake, improving glucose metabolic enzymes activity and modulating muscle Glut-4 and IRS-1 mRNA and protein expression. Hence, erythritol may be a useful dietary supplement for managing hyperglycemia, particularly for T2D.

  9. Insulin sensitization via partial agonism of PPARγ and glucose uptake through translocation and activation of GLUT4 in PI3K/p-Akt signaling pathway by embelin in type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Gopalsamy Rajiv; Stalin, Antony; Balakrishna, Kedike; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; Vishal, Rajagopal

    2013-01-01

    The present study was aimed at isolating an antidiabetic molecule from a herbal source and assessing its mechanism of action. Embelin, isolated from Embelia ribes Burm. (Myrsinaceae) fruit, was evaluated for its potential to regulate insulin resistance, alter β-cell dysfunction and modulate key markers involved in insulin sensitivity and glucose transport using high-fat diet (HFD) fed-streptozotocin (STZ) (40mg/kg)-induced type 2 diabetic rats. Molecular-dockings were performed to investigate the binding modes of embelin into PPARγ, PI3K, p-Akt and GLUT4 active sites. Embelin (50mg/kg b wt.) reduced body weight gain, blood glucose and plasma insulin in treated diabetic rats. It further modulated the altered lipid profiles and antioxidant enzymes with cytoprotective action on β-cell. Embelin significantly increased the PPARγ expression in epididymal adipose tissue compared to diabetic control group; it also inhibited adipogenic activity; it mildly activated PPARγ levels in the liver and skeletal muscle. It also regulated insulin mediated glucose uptake in epididymal adipose tissue through translocation and activation of GLUT4 in PI3K/p-Akt signaling cascade. Embelin bound to PPARγ; it disclosed stable binding affinities to the active sites of PI3K, p-Akt and GLUT4. These findings show that embelin could improve adipose tissue insulin sensitivity without increasing weight gain, enhance glycemic control, protect β-cell from damage and maintain glucose homeostasis in adipose tissue. Embelin can be used in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus caused due to obesity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Stress in Context: Morpho-Syntactic Properties Affect Lexical Stress Assignment in Reading Aloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Giacomo; Sulpizio, Simone; Primativo, Silvia; Burani, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Recent findings from English and Russian have shown that grammatical category plays a key role in stress assignment. In these languages, some grammatical categories have a typical stress pattern and this information is used by readers. However, whether readers are sensitive to smaller distributional differences and other morpho-syntactic properties (e.g., gender, number, person) remains unclear. We addressed this issue in word and non-word reading in Italian, a language in which: (1) nouns and verbs differ in the proportion of words with a dominant stress pattern; (2) information specified by words sharing morpho-syntactic properties may contrast with other sources of information, such as stress neighborhood. Both aspects were addressed in two experiments in which context words were used to induce the desired morpho-syntactic properties. Experiment 1 showed that the relatively different proportions of stress patterns between grammatical categories do not affect stress processing in word reading. In contrast, Experiment 2 showed that information specified by words sharing morpho-syntactic properties outweighs stress neighborhood in non-word reading. Thus, while general information specified by grammatical categories may not be used by Italian readers, stress neighbors with morpho-syntactic properties congruent with those of the target stimulus have a primary role in stress assignment. These results underscore the importance of expanding investigations of stress assignment beyond single words, as current models of single-word reading seem unable to account for our results. PMID:27445910

  11. Glutamate neurotransmission is affected in prenatally stressed offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrover, Ezequiela; Pallarés, Maria Eugenia; Baier, Carlos Javier

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that male adult offspring of stressed mothers exhibited higher levels of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors than control rats. These offspring also showed long-lasting astroglial hypertrophy and a reduced dendritic arborization with syn......Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that male adult offspring of stressed mothers exhibited higher levels of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors than control rats. These offspring also showed long-lasting astroglial hypertrophy and a reduced dendritic arborization...... with synaptic loss. Since metabolism of glutamate is dependent on interactions between neurons and surrounding astroglia, our results suggest that glutamate neurotransmitter pathways might be impaired in the brain of prenatally stressed rats. To study the effect of prenatal stress on the metabolism...... was not affected it was found that prenatal stress (PS) changed the expression of the transporters, thus, producing a higher level of vesicular vGluT-1 in the frontal cortex (FCx) and elevated levels of GLT1 protein and messenger RNA in the hippocampus (HPC) of adult male PS offspring. We also observed increased...

  12. FACTORS THAT AFFECT SOCIAL WORKERS’ JOB SATISFACTION, STRESS AND BURNOUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calitz, Taetske

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Social work was classified as a scare skill and the retention of social workers is an important aspect that needs urgent attention. The research goal of this study was to determine what degree of work engagement and job satisfaction South African social workers experience in their current positions and how this influences job turnover, burnout and the intention to leave the profession. The purpose was to determine the needs social workers experience that will affect turnover in the profession. The needs/problems social workers experienced were stress, burnout, lower job satisfaction and work engagement.

  13. Crop water stress of tomato as affected by irrigation regimes

    OpenAIRE

    H. Ismail; S. Z. Abubakar; M. A. Oyebode; N. J. Shanono; M. K. Dalhat

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted at the Irrigation Research Station, Kadawa Kano State, Nigeria (located 11o 30’ N, 08o 30’ E and 486 m above mean sea level) during 2012/2013 dry season to evaluate crop water stress index of tomato (lycopersicon enculentum; UC82B) as affected by irrigation regimes. The experiment consisted of four levels of irrigation water application depth of 100%, 75%, 50% and 25%  replacement of moisture depleted and three irrigation intervals (7, 14 and 21 days) com...

  14. Crop water stress of tomato as affected by irrigation regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ismail

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted at the Irrigation Research Station, Kadawa Kano State, Nigeria (located 11o 30’ N, 08o 30’ E and 486 m above mean sea level during 2012/2013 dry season to evaluate crop water stress index of tomato (lycopersicon enculentum; UC82B as affected by irrigation regimes. The experiment consisted of four levels of irrigation water application depth of 100%, 75%, 50% and 25% replacement of moisture depleted and three irrigation intervals (7, 14 and 21 days combined in Randomized Complete Block Design in a Split plot arrangement and laid as treatments in plots (3 m x 3 m basin and replicated three times. Irrigation water was applied to each basin using a calibrated PVC pipe. The soil moisture was monitored throughout the crop growing season with theta probe. The crop canopy temperature (Tc in the experimental plots was measured with a portable hand-held infrared thermometer. The dry and wet bulb temperatures were measured with an aspirated psychrometer in the open area adjacent to the experimental plots. The mean air temperature (Ta was determined from the average of the dry bulb temperature readings during the measurement period. The mean vapor pressure deficit (VPD was computed as the average of the calculated instantaneous VPDs, using the corresponding instantaneous wet and dry bulb temperatures. The Crop water stress index increases with decrease in percentage of moisture depletion replacement from 100% to 25% and increase in the irrigation interval from 7 days to 21 days. The most stressed tomato was at 25% replacement of moisture depleted in 21 days (I21D-25% with stress index of 1.000 and the fully watered (none stressed tomato was when irrigated fully at 7 days (I7D-100% with stress index of 0.003. Hence, a tomato can give a best yield and optimum water management with no stress under high water table condition, when irrigated at 7 days with 25% replacement of its moisture depleted.

  15. Job Stress and Presenteeism among Chinese Healthcare Workers: The Mediating Effects of Affective Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tianan; Guo, Yina; Ma, Mingxu; Li, Yaxin; Tian, Huilin; Deng, Jianwei

    2017-08-29

    Presenteeism affects the performance of healthcare workers. This study examined associations between job stress, affective commitment, and presenteeism among healthcare workers. To investigate the relationship between job stress, affective commitment, and presenteeism, structural equation modeling was used to analyze a sample of 1392 healthcare workers from 11 Class A tertiary hospitals in eastern, central, and western China. The mediating effect of affective commitment on the association between job stress and presenteeism was examined with the Sobel test. Job stress was high and the level of presenteeism was moderate among healthcare workers. Challenge stress and hindrance stress were strongly correlated (β = 0.62; p Challenge stress was significantly positively correlated with affective commitment (β = 0.15; p Hindrance stress was significantly inversely correlated with affective commitment (β = -0.40; p challenge stress and by limiting hindrance stress among healthcare workers in China.

  16. Job Stress and Presenteeism among Chinese Healthcare Workers: The Mediating Effects of Affective Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Mingxu; Li, Yaxin; Tian, Huilin; Deng, Jianwei

    2017-01-01

    Background: Presenteeism affects the performance of healthcare workers. This study examined associations between job stress, affective commitment, and presenteeism among healthcare workers. Methods: To investigate the relationship between job stress, affective commitment, and presenteeism, structural equation modeling was used to analyze a sample of 1392 healthcare workers from 11 Class A tertiary hospitals in eastern, central, and western China. The mediating effect of affective commitment on the association between job stress and presenteeism was examined with the Sobel test. Results: Job stress was high and the level of presenteeism was moderate among healthcare workers. Challenge stress and hindrance stress were strongly correlated (β = 0.62; p stress was significantly positively correlated with affective commitment (β = 0.15; p stress was significantly inversely correlated with affective commitment (β = −0.40; p stress and by limiting hindrance stress among healthcare workers in China. PMID:28850081

  17. Case-control analysis of SNPs in GLUT4, RBP4 and STRA6: association of SNPs in STRA6 with type 2 diabetes in a South Indian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup Kumar Nair

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The inverse relationship between GLUT4 and RBP4 expression is known to play a role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Elevated levels of RBP4 were shown to cause insulin resistance in muscles and liver. Identification of STRA6 as a cell surface receptor for RBP4 provides further link in this axis and hence we analyzed SNPs in these three genes for association with type 2 diabetes in a South Indian population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Selected SNPs in the three genes were analyzed in a total of 2002 individuals belonging to Dravidian ethnicity, South India, by Tetra Primer ARMS PCR or RFLP PCR. Allele frequencies and genotype distribution were calculated in cases and controls and were analyzed for association by Chi-squared test and Logistic regression. Haplotype analysis was carried out for each gene by including all the markers in a single block. We observed a significant association of three SNPs, rs974456, rs736118, and rs4886578 in STRA6 with type 2 diabetes (P = 0.001, OR 0.79[0.69-0.91], P = 0.003, OR 0.81[0.71-0.93], and P = 0.001, OR 0.74[0.62-0.89] respectively. None of the SNPs in RBP4 and GLUT4 showed any association with type 2 diabetes. Haplotype analysis revealed that two common haplotypes H1 (111, P = 0.001, OR 1.23[1.08-1.40] and H2 (222, P = 0.002 OR 0.73[0.59-0.89] in STRA6, H6 (2121, P = 0.006, OR 1.69[1.51-2.48] in RBP4 and H4 (2121, P = 0.01 OR 1.41[1.07-1.85] in GLUT4 were associated with type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSION: SNPs in STRA6, gene coding the cell surface receptor for RBP4, were significantly associated with type 2 diabetes and further genetic and functional studies are required to understand and ascertain its role in the manifestation of type 2 diabetes.

  18. Neural plasticity is affected by stress and heritable variation in stress coping style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Ida B; Sørensen, Christina; Sandvik, Guro K; Nilsson, Göran E; Höglund, Erik; Bakken, Morten; Overli, Oyvind

    2012-06-01

    Here we use a comparative model to investigate how behavioral and physiological traits correlate with neural plasticity. Selection for divergent post-stress cortisol levels in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) has yielded low- (LR) and high responsive (HR) lines. Recent reports show low behavioral flexibility in LR compared to HR fish and we hypothesize that this divergence is caused by differences in neural plasticity. Genes involved in neural plasticity and neurogenesis were investigated by quantitative PCR in brains of LR and HR fish at baseline conditions and in response to two different stress paradigms: short-term confinement (STC) and long-term social (LTS) stress. Expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), neurogenic differentiation factor (NeuroD) and doublecortin (DCX) was generally higher in HR compared to LR fish. STC stress led to increased expression of PCNA and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in both lines, whereas LTS stress generally suppressed PCNA and NeuroD expression while leaving BDNF expression unaltered. These results indicate that the transcription of neuroplasticity-related genes is associated with variation in coping style, while also being affected by STC - and LTS stress in a biphasic manner. A higher degree of neural plasticity in HR fish may provide the substrate for enhanced behavioral flexibility. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms, Underlying Affective Vulnerabilities, and Smoking for Affect Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Amanda R.; Cook, Jessica W.; Japuntich, Sandra J.; Leventhal, Adam M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is overrepresented among cigarette smokers. It has been hypothesized that those with PTSD smoke to alleviate negative affect and counteract deficient positive affect commonly associated with the disorder; however, limited research has examined associations between PTSD symptoms, smoking motives, and affective vulnerability factors. In the current study, we examined (1) whether PTSD symptoms were associated with positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement smoking motives; and (2) whether two affective vulnerability factors implicated in PTSD—anxiety sensitivity and anhedonia—mediated relationships between PTSD symptoms and smoking motives. Methods Data were drawn from a community sample of non-treatment-seeking smokers recruited without regard for trauma history (N = 342; 10+cig/day). We used the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) to assess overall PTSD symptom severity as well as individual PTSD subfactors. Results Overall, PTSD symptom severity was significantly associated with negative reinforcement, but not positive reinforcement, smoking motives. Variation in anxiety sensitivity significantly mediated the relation between PTSD symptom severity and negative reinforcement smoking motives, whereas anhedonia did not. Regarding PTSD subfactors, emotional numbing was the only PTSD subfactor associated with smoking rate, while re-experiencing symptoms were uniquely associated with both positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement smoking motives. Conclusions and Scientific Significance Findings suggest that anxiety sensitivity may be an important feature associated with PTSD that enhances motivation to smoke for negative reinforcement purposes. Smoking cessation interventions that alleviate anxiety sensitivity and enhance coping with negative affect may be useful for smokers with elevated PTSD symptoms. PMID:25823634

  20. Efeito da exposição à fumaça de cigarro sobre a expressão de GLUT4 em ratas prenhes e lactantes e sua prole

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Patricia Rodrigues Lourenço [UNESP

    2010-01-01

    A gravidez é um período de ajustes metabólicos e, quando associado ao tabagismo provoca alterações que trazem malefícios tanto à saúde materna quanto à saúde fetal. Assim, o estudo investigou o efeito da exposição à fumaça de cigarro sobre a expressão do transportador de glicose GLUT4 e parâmetros séricos e morfométricos de ratas prenhes e sua prole. Foram utilizadas ratas Wistar divididas em: CG- controle sacrificadas após a gestação, com prole adotada pelo grupo CL; CL - controle sacrificad...

  1. Photoperiodic modulation of thyroid hormone receptor (TR-α), deiodinase-2 (Dio-2) and glucose transporters (GLUT 1 and GLUT 4) expression in testis of adult golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rakesh; Haldar, Chandana

    2016-12-01

    Phenomenon of seasonal reproduction is being regulated by changes in day length or photoperiod. The molecular mechanism underlying the event of photoperiodic regulation of testis and thyroid functions along with glucose uptake transporters has never been reported for golden hamster, M. auratus. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of photoperiod on the expression of key thyroid hormone receptor (TR-α), deiodinase-2 (Dio-2) and glucose uptake transporters (GLUT-1 & GLUT-4) in testicular germ cell and Leydig cells, and its correlation with the testicular androgen receptor (AR), germ cell proliferation factor (PCNA) and cell survival factor (Bcl-2) in testis of adult golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus. Hamsters were exposed to different photoperiodic regimes i.e. critical photoperiod (CP), short day (SD) and long day (LD) for 10weeks. LD induces upregulation of thyroidal and gonadal activity as evident by active thyroid gland and testicular histoarchitecture, peripheral total thyroid (tT3, tT4) and testosterone hormone profiles when compared with SD exposed hamsters. Further, LD increased the expression of testicular TR-α, Dio-2, GLUT-1, GLUT-4 along with testicular AR and glucose content thereby enhancing germ cell proliferation and survival as reflected by increased PCNA and Bcl-2 expression when compared to SD exposed hamsters. Thus, it can be suggested that testicular thyroid hormone status is being regulated by photoperiod and is possibly involved in seasonal adaptation to reproductive phenomenon of golden hamster. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Animal Model of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus with Pathophysiological Resemblance to the Human Condition Induced by Multiple Factors (Nutritional, Pharmacological, and Stress in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Hajar Abdul Aziz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to develop an experimental gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM animal model in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were fed with high fat sucrose diet, impregnated, and induced with Streptozotocin and Nicotinamide on gestational day 0 (D0. Sleeping patterns of the rats were also manipulated to induce stress, a lifestyle factor that contributes to GDM. Rats were tested for glycemic parameters (glucose, C-peptide, and insulin, lipid profiles (total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, and LDL, genes affecting insulin signaling (IRS-2, AKT-1, and PCK-1, glucose transporters (GLUT-2 and GLUT-4, proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α, and antioxidants (SOD, CAT, and GPX on D6 and D21. GDM rats showed possible insulin resistance as evidenced by high expression of proinflammatory cytokines, PCK-1 and CRP. Furthermore, low levels of IRS-2 and AKT-1 genes and downregulation of GLUT-4 from the initial to final phases indicate possible defect of insulin signaling. GDM rats also showed an impairment of antioxidant status and a hyperlipidemic state. Additionally, GDM rats exhibited significantly higher body weight and blood glucose and lower plasma insulin level and C-peptide than control. Based on the findings outlined, the current GDM animal model closely replicates the disease state in human and can serve as a reference for future investigations.

  3. Frequency of posttraumatic stress disorder (ptsd) among flood affected individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, N.; Kamal, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship of exposure to a traumatic event and the subsequent onset of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in the population exposed to floods in Pakistan. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and duration of study: Individuals exposed to the 2010 flood in district Shadadkot, Sindh from April 2012 to September 2012. Methodology: Sample of the study comprised of 101 individuals from the flood affected areas in Pakistan. Age range of the participants was 15 to 50 years (M=27.73, SD = 7.19), with participation of both males and females. PTSD was assessed by using the self report measure, impact of Event Scale (IES) and the subjective and objective experience to flood was assessed through Flood Related Exposure Scale (FRES) devised by the authors. Results: The prevalence rate of PTSD among the flood affected population was 35.5%. Trauma had significant positive relation with objective flood exposure and subjective flood exposure (r=.27 and r =.38) respectively. Inverse relation appeared between age and PTSD (r=-.20). PTSD was higher among females as compared to males. Conclusion: Understanding the prevalence of PTSD helps the mental health professionals in devising intervention strategies. A longitudinal study design is recommended that may be developed for better understanding of trajectories of trauma response across time span. Our findings may help identify populations at risk for treatment research. (author)

  4. Diurnal gradual heat stress affects antioxidant enzymes, proline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-02-15

    Feb 15, 2010 ... stresses, heat stress influences photosynthesis, cellular and subcellular membrane components, protein content in cell and antioxidant enzyme activity; thereby signifi- cantly limiting crop production (Georgieva, 1999). Heat stress also induces oxidative stress in plants caused by the generation and the ...

  5. The importance of physical activity and sleep for affect on stressful days: Two intensive longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flueckiger, Lavinia; Lieb, Roselind; Meyer, Andrea H; Witthauer, Cornelia; Mata, Jutta

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the potential stress-buffering effect of 3 health behaviors-physical activity, sleep quality, and snacking-on affect in the context of everyday life in young adults. In 2 intensive longitudinal studies with up to 65 assessment days over an entire academic year, students (Study 1, N = 292; Study 2, N = 304) reported stress intensity, sleep quality, physical activity, snacking, and positive and negative affect. Data were analyzed using multilevel regression analyses. Stress and positive affect were negatively associated; stress and negative affect were positively associated. The more physically active than usual a person was on a given day, the weaker the association between stress and positive affect (Study 1) and negative affect (Studies 1 and 2). The better than usual a person's sleep quality had been during the previous night, the weaker the association between stress and positive affect (Studies 1 and 2) and negative affect (Study 2). The association between daily stress and positive or negative affect did not differ as a function of daily snacking (Studies 1 and 2). On stressful days, increasing physical activity or ensuring high sleep quality may buffer adverse effects of stress on affect in young adults. These findings suggest potential targets for health-promotion and stress-prevention programs, which could help reduce the negative impact of stress in young adults. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Emotionally Responsive Wearable Technology and Stress Detection for Affective Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillotson, Jenny

    2017-09-01

    As humans, we are born with no knowledge of odour. Our sense of smell is linked directly to the limbic system, the emotional part of our brain responsible for memory and behaviour, and therefore, our individual sense of smell is based purely on life's deep experiences and impressions. The roots of "Aromatherapy" can be traced back more than 3,500 years, to a time when essential oils were first recorded in human history for their therapeutic and medicinal properties. However, in the 21 st century, it remains one of the most controversial complementary therapies applied in medicine because of its pseudoscience connotations and limited available data on health benefits, despite the importance of smell on human health. Here I introduce the concept of "eScent", an emotionally responsive wearable technology that picks up on your emotions and vital signs and sends a personalisable 'scent bubble' to your nose. It combines sensing and dispensing aromatics for immersive experiences and multiple health benefits. It presents an empowering, sensory intervention and resilience builder that emits mood-enhancing aromas in a controllable way, depending on biofeedback. The advantage of essential oils merged with biometric sensors and intelligent tracking devices (e.g. an Apple Watch), could lead to a new palette of scents that are bio-synchronized to an individual's emotional, mental, and/or physical state and in a real-time manner alleviate high levels of stress, thus preventing the risk of a serious mental ill health relapse. Closure of the loop with wearable scent delivery systems requires an innovative, creative and collaborative approach, crossing many disciplines in psychological related sciences, biotechnology and industrial design. Testing such hypotheses in translational human studies is a matter of future research which could not only lead to valuable "prodromal" interventions for psychiatry, but new stress management tools for people suffering from affective disorders.

  7. Does Maternal Prenatal Stress Adversely Affect the Child's Learning and Memory at Age Six?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutteling, Barbara M.; de Weerth, Carolina; Zandbelt, Noortje; Mulder, Eduard J. H.; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2006-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress has been shown to affect postnatal development in animals and humans. In animals, the morphology and function of the offspring's hippocampus is negatively affected by prenatal maternal stress. The present study prospectively investigated the influence of prenatal maternal stress on learning and memory of 112 children (50…

  8. Effects of Humor on Teacher Stress, Affect, and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Jacqueline Dena

    2013-01-01

    Teachers are at high risk for stress, negative emotion, and job dissatisfaction, which has been linked with health problems and early attrition. Humor has been found to relieve various forms of stress. However, there is a gap in the literature regarding humor effects on teacher stress and its related consequences. The purpose of this quantitative,…

  9. Work stress and negative affectivity: a multi-method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, A; Girardi, D; Marcuzzo, G; De Carlo, A; Bartolucci, G B

    2013-07-01

    In the literature negative affectivity (NA) is considered both a confounding variable as well as a predictive variable for work-related stress. However, a common limitation in this line of research relates to the use of self-report measures for determining NA, perceived stressors and psychophysical strain. To test, using a multi-method study, a theoretical model that correlates NA, perceived interpersonal conflict (with co-workers and supervisors), psychophysical strain and medically certified sickness absences. A multi-method prospective study was carried out on a sample of metalworkers. NA and interpersonal conflict were determined using self-report (Time 1), whereas psychophysical strain was determined by an occupational physician (Time 2). Data on medically certified sickness absences were collected from the company's database (Time 3). There were 326 participants. The results showed an association between NA and conflict with co-workers, as well as between NA and conflict with supervisors. Psychophysical strain could be predicted from NA and conflict with co-workers but not from conflict with supervisors. NA had a significant indirect effect on psychophysical strain through conflict with co-workers. Lastly, psychophysical strain predicted sickness absences from work. NA influenced psychophysical strain in the worker, both directly and indirectly, through perceived conflict with co-workers.

  10. Does Leisure Time as a Stress Coping Resource Increase Affective Complexity? Applying the Dynamic Model of Affect (DMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xinyi (Lisa); Yarnal, Careen M.; Almeida, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Affective complexity, a manifestation of psychological well-being, refers to the relative independence between positive and negative affect (PA, NA). According to the Dynamic Model of Affect (DMA), stressful situations lead to highly inverse PA-NA relationship, reducing affective complexity. Meanwhile, positive events can sustain affective complexity by restoring PA-NA independence. Leisure, a type of positive events, has been identified as a coping resource. This study used the DMA to assess whether leisure time helps restore affective complexity on stressful days. We found that on days with more leisure time than usual, an individual experienced less negative PA-NA relationship after daily stressful events. The finding demonstrates the value of leisure time as a coping resource and the DMA’s contribution to coping research. PMID:24659826

  11. Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) affect oxidative stress biomarkers in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielsøe, Maria; Long, Manhai; Ghisari, Mandana; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva C

    2015-06-01

    Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) have been widely used since 1950s and humans are exposed through food, drinking water, consumer products, dust, etc. The long-chained PFAS are persistent in the environment and accumulate in wildlife and humans. They are suspected carcinogens and a potential mode of action is through generation of oxidative stress. Seven long-chained PFAS found in human serum were investigated for the potential to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), induce DNA damage and disturb the total antioxidant capacity (TAC). The tested PFAS were perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluoroctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorodecanoate (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnA), and perfluorododecanoate (PFDoA). Using the human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) and an exposure time of 24h we found that all three endpoints were affected by one or more of the compounds. PFHxS, PFOA, PFOS and PFNA showed a dose dependent increase in DNA damage in the concentration range from 2×10(-7) to 2×10(-5)M determined by the comet assay. Except for PFDoA, all the other PFAS increased ROS generation significantly. For PFHxS and PFUnA the observed ROS increases were dose-dependent. Cells exposed to PFOA were found to have a significant lower TAC compared with the solvent control, whereas a non-significant trend in TAC decrease was observed for PFOS and PFDoA and an increase tendency for PFHxS, PFNA and PFUnA. Our results indicate a possible genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of the PFAS in human liver cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Salt stress affects the redox status of Arabidopsis root meristems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keni eJiang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the redox status (profiles for specific populations of cells that comprise the Arabidopsis root tip. For recently germinated, 3-5-day-old seedlings we show that the region of the root tip with the most reduced redox status includes the root cap initials, the quiescent center and the most distal portion of the proximal meristem, and coincides with (overlays the region of the auxin maximum. As one moves basally, further into the proximal meristem, and depending on the growth conditions, the redox status becomes more oxidized, with a 5-10 mV difference in redox potential between the two borders delimiting the proximal meristem. At the point on the root axis at which cells of the proximal meristem cease division and enter the transition zone, the redox potential levels off and remains more or less unchanged throughout the transition zone. As cells leave the transition zone and enter the zone of elongation the redox potentials become more oxidized. Treating roots with salt (50, 100 and 150 mM NaCl results in marked changes in root meristem structure and development, and is preceded by changes in the redox profile, which flattens, and initially becomes more oxidized, with pronounced changes in the redox potentials of the root cap, the root cap initials and the quiescent center. Roots exposed to relatively mild levels of salt (< 100 mM are able to re-establish a normal, pre-salt treatment redox profile 3-6 days after exposure to salt. Coincident with the salt-associated changes in redox profiles are changes in the distribution of auxin transporters (AUX1, PIN1/2, which become more diffuse in their localization. We conclude that salt stress affects root meristem maintenance, in part, through changes in redox and auxin transport.

  13. Job Stress and Presenteeism among Chinese Healthcare Workers: The Mediating Effects of Affective Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianan Yang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Presenteeism affects the performance of healthcare workers. This study examined associations between job stress, affective commitment, and presenteeism among healthcare workers. Methods: To investigate the relationship between job stress, affective commitment, and presenteeism, structural equation modeling was used to analyze a sample of 1392 healthcare workers from 11 Class A tertiary hospitals in eastern, central, and western China. The mediating effect of affective commitment on the association between job stress and presenteeism was examined with the Sobel test. Results: Job stress was high and the level of presenteeism was moderate among healthcare workers. Challenge stress and hindrance stress were strongly correlated (β = 0.62; p < 0.05. Affective commitment was significantly and directly inversely correlated with presenteeism (β = −0.27; p < 0.001. Challenge stress was significantly positively correlated with affective commitment (β = 0.15; p < 0.001 but not with presenteeism. Hindrance stress was significantly inversely correlated with affective commitment (β = −0.40; p < 0.001 but was significantly positively correlated with presenteeism (β = 0.26; p < 0.001. Conclusions: This study provides important empirical data on presenteeism among healthcare workers. Presenteeism can be addressed by increasing affective commitment and challenge stress and by limiting hindrance stress among healthcare workers in China.

  14. Does the Perception that Stress Affects Health Matter? The Association with Health and Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Abiola; Litzelman, Kristin; Wisk, Lauren E.; Maddox, Torsheika; Cheng, Erika Rose; Creswell, Paul D.; Witt, Whitney P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study sought to examine the relationship among the amount of stress, the perception that stress affects health, and health and mortality outcomes in a nationally-representative sample of U.S. adults. Methods Data from the 1998 National Health Interview Survey were linked to prospective National Death Index mortality data through 2006. Separate logistic regression models were used to examine the factors associated with current health status and psychological distress. Cox proportional hazard models were used to determine the impact of perceiving that stress affects health on all-cause mortality. Each model specifically examined the interaction between the amount of stress and the perception that stress affects health, controlling for sociodemographic, health behavior, and access to healthcare factors. Results 33.7% of nearly 186 million (n=28,753) U.S. adults perceived that stress affected their health a lot or to some extent. Both higher levels of reported stress and the perception that stress affects health were independently associated with an increased likelihood of worse health and mental health outcomes. The amount of stress and the perception that stress affects health interacted such that those who reported a lot of stress and that stress impacted their health a lot had a 43% increased risk of premature death (HR = 1.43, 95% CI [1.20, 1.71]). Conclusions High amounts of stress and the perception that stress impacts health are each associated with poor health and mental health. Individuals who perceived that stress affects their health and reported a large amount of stress had an increased risk of premature death. PMID:22201278

  15. Ecological momentary assessment of stressful events and negative affect in bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crosby, Ross D; Engel, Scott G; Lavender, Jason M; Peterson, Carol B; Crow, Scott J; Cao, Li; Mitchell, James E

    2014-02-01

    Negative affect precedes binge eating and purging in bulimia nervosa (BN), but little is known about factors that precipitate negative affect in relation to these behaviors. We aimed to assess the temporal relation among stressful events, negative affect, and bulimic events in the natural environment using ecological momentary assessment. A total of 133 women with current BN recorded their mood, eating behavior, and the occurrence of stressful events every day for 2 weeks. Multilevel structural equation mediation models evaluated the relations among Time 1 stress measures (i.e., interpersonal stressors, work/environment stressors, general daily hassles, and stress appraisal), Time 2 negative affect, and Time 2 binge eating and purging, controlling for Time 1 negative affect. Increases in negative affect from Time 1 to Time 2 significantly mediated the relations between Time 1 interpersonal stressors, work/environment stressors, general daily hassles, and stress appraisal and Time 2 binge eating and purging. When modeled simultaneously, confidence intervals for interpersonal stressors, general daily hassles, and stress appraisal did not overlap, suggesting that each had a distinct impact on negative affect in relation to binge eating and purging. Our findings indicate that stress precedes the occurrence of bulimic behaviors and that increases in negative affect following stressful events mediate this relation. Results suggest that stress and subsequent negative affect may function as maintenance factors for bulimic behaviors and should be targeted in treatment. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Moisture stress affects germination of longleaf and slash pine seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Barnett

    1969-01-01

    Osmotic stresses greater than 8 atm markedly reduced germination of both Pinus palustris Mill. P. elliotii Engelm. seeds. At stresses of 18 or more atm, no germination occurred. Moisture content at the onset of germination was twice as high in longleaf as in slash pine seeds.

  17. Traumatic Experience in Infancy: How Responses to Stress Affect Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witten, Molly Romer

    2010-01-01

    Responses to traumatic stress during the earliest years of life can change quickly and can be difficult to identify because of the young child's rapid rate of development. The symptoms of traumatic stress will depend on the child's developmental level and individual coping styles, as well as the quality and nature of the child's most important…

  18. Diurnal gradual heat stress affects antioxidant enzymes, proline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even though high temperatures significantly reduce both vegetative growth and yield in cotton, very little is known about the effects of heat stress on cotton antioxidant system. Thus, the effects of gradual heat stress on cotton growth in controlled conditions were investigated in the present study. At squaring stage, cotton ...

  19. Gardening Promotes Neuroendocrine and Affective Restoration from Stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Berg, Agnes E.; Custers, Mariette H. G.

    Stress-relieving effects of gardening were hypothesized and tested in a field experiment. Thirty allotment gardeners performed a stressful Stroop task and were then randomly assigned to 30 minutes of outdoor gardening or indoor reading on their own allotment plot. Salivary cortisol levels and

  20. Gardening promotes neuroendocrine and affective restoration from stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den A.E.; Custers, M.H.G.

    2011-01-01

    Stress-relieving effects of gardening were hypothesized and tested in a field experiment. Thirty allotment gardeners performed a stressful Stroop task and were then randomly assigned to 30 minutes of outdoor gardening or indoor reading on their own allotment plot. Salivary cortisol levels and

  1. Stress factors affecting academic physicians at a university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindfors, Sara; Eintrei, Christina; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2009-01-01

    Research is limited regarding occupational stress in academic physicians; professionals whose work situation includes the three areas of clinical practice, research, and teaching. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge of factors experienced as stressful by academic physicians employed by a university hospital. A questionnaire assessing the frequency and intensity of 36 potentially stressful factors was sent to all 157 academic physicians who were employed at the Linköping University Hospital, Sweden. The response rate was 77%. Both a high frequency and intensity of stress was experienced by 66% of the academic physicians in relation to "time pressure" and by almost 50% in connection with both "find time for research" and having "conflict of interest between different work assignments". Moreover, physicians in the higher age group and those who had attained a higher academic position experienced less stress. The female participants experienced more stress than the males due to gender-related problems and to variables associated with relationships at work. More knowledge is needed to determine the consequences of this finding and to identify coping strategies used for handling such stress.

  2. Job Stress and Presenteeism among Chinese Healthcare Workers: The Mediating Effects of Affective Commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Tianan Yang; Yina Guo; Mingxu Ma; Yaxin Li; Huilin Tian; Jianwei Deng

    2017-01-01

    Background: Presenteeism affects the performance of healthcare workers. This study examined associations between job stress, affective commitment, and presenteeism among healthcare workers. Methods: To investigate the relationship between job stress, affective commitment, and presenteeism, structural equation modeling was used to analyze a sample of 1392 healthcare workers from 11 Class A tertiary hospitals in eastern, central, and western China. The mediating effect of affective commitment o...

  3. Does Maternal Prenatal Stress Adversely Affect the Child's Learning and Memory at Age Six?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutteling, B.M.; Weerth, C. de; Zandbelt, N.; Mulder, E.J.H.; Visser, G.H.A.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2006-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress has been shown to affect postnatal development in animals and humans. In animals, the morphology and function of the offspring's hippocampus is negatively affected by prenatal maternal stress. The present study prospectively investigated the influence of prenatal maternal

  4. Artery buckling affects the mechanical stress in atherosclerotic plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Arnav; Han, Hai-Chao

    2015-01-01

    Tortuous arteries are often seen in patients with hypertension and atherosclerosis. While the mechanical stress in atherosclerotic plaque under lumen pressure has been studied extensively, the mechanical stability of atherosclerotic arteries and subsequent effect on the plaque stress remain unknown. To this end, we investigated the buckling and post-buckling behavior of model stenotic coronary arteries with symmetric and asymmetric plaque. Buckling analysis for a model coronary artery with symmetric and asymmetric plaque was conducted using finite element analysis based on the dimensions and nonlinear anisotropic materials properties reported in the literature. Artery with asymmetric plaque had lower critical buckling pressure compared to the artery with symmetric plaque and control artery. Buckling increased the peak stress in the plaque and led to the development of a high stress concentration in artery with asymmetric plaque. Stiffer calcified tissue and severe stenosis increased the critical buckling pressure of the artery with asymmetric plaque. Arteries with atherosclerotic plaques are prone to mechanical buckling which leads to a high stress concentration in the plaques that can possibly make the plaques prone to rupture.

  5. An Exploratory Study of Factors Affecting Stress Levels Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for work quality; unmanageable number of projects; more work than can be done in one day; and having no time for a break. Implications for these findings are discussed in detail in this paper. Keywords: stress levels, teachers, factors, experience, coping strategies, Zimbabwe Nigerian Journal of Guidance and Counselling ...

  6. Water stress affects the germination, emergence, and growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of water deficit stress on the germination, emergence and seedling growth of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] using Completely Randomised Block Design in four replications. Five sorghum cultivars (Jigurti, Gambella 1107, Meko, 76 T1 #23 and P9403) were ...

  7. Acute stress does not affect the impairing effect of chronic stress on memory retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbaki, Jamile; Goudarzi, Iran; Salmani, Mahmoud Elahdadi; Rashidy-Pour, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Due to the prevalence and pervasiveness of stress in modern life and exposure to both chronic and acute stresses, it is not clear whether prior exposure to chronic stress can influence the impairing effects of acute stress on memory retrieval. This issue was tested in this study. Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: control, acute, chronic, and chronic + acute stress groups. The rats were trained with six trials per day for 6 consecutive days in the water maze. Following training, the rats were either kept in control conditions or exposed to chronic stress in a restrainer 6 hr/day for 21 days. On day 22, a probe test was done to measure memory retention. Time spent in target and opposite areas, platform location latency, and proximity were used as indices of memory retention. To induce acute stress, 30 min before the probe test, animals received a mild footshock. Results: Stressed animals spent significantly less time in the target quadrant and more time in the opposite quadrant than control animals. Moreover, the stressed animals showed significantly increased platform location latency and proximity as compared with control animals. No significant differences were found in these measures among stress exposure groups. Finally, both chronic and acute stress significantly increased corticosterone levels. Conclusion: Our results indicate that both chronic and acute stress impair memory retrieval similarly. Additionally, the impairing effects of chronic stress on memory retrieval were not influenced by acute stress. PMID:27635201

  8. Study of thermal stress in heat affected zones during welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devaux, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    The importance of applications of welding in the nuclear industry leads to the study of the main problem concerning metal welding: sensibility to cracking. The development of computation methods allows the numerical simulation of welding effects. Due to the complexity of this problem, it is divided in three steps: thermal, metallurgical and mechanical calculus. Interactions between the 3 steps are examined. Mathematical models necessary to get residual stress (i.e. stress remaining when welding is completed and structure at ambient temperature) are described. Then parameters for metallurgical structure determination are given and compared to experiments. A508 and A533 type steels of primary coolant circuit of PWR reactors are taken as examples and the numerical simulation of a test is presented [fr

  9. Repeated stressful experiences differently affect brain dopamine receptor subtypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puglisi-Allegra, S.; Cabib, S.; Kempf, E.; Schleef, C.

    1991-01-01

    The binding of tritiated spiperone (D2 antagonist) and tritiated SCH 23390 (D1 antagonist), in vivo, was investigated in the caudatus putamen (CP) and nucleus accumbens septi (NAS) of mice submitted to ten daily restraint stress sessions. Mice sacrificed 24 hr after the last stressful experience presented a 64% decrease of D2 receptor density (Bmax) but no changes in D1 receptor density in the NAS. In the CP a much smaller (11%) reduction of D2 receptor density was accompanied by a 10% increase of D1 receptors. These results show that the two types of dopamine (DA) receptors adapt in different or even opposite ways to environmental pressure, leading to imbalance between them

  10. Emotional stress-reactivity and positive affect among college students: the role of depression history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Ross E; Armeli, Stephen; Boynton, Marcella H; Tennen, Howard

    2014-02-01

    Multiple theories posit that people with a history of depression are at higher risk for a depressive episode than people who have never experienced depression, which may be partly due to differences in stress-reactivity. In addition, both the dynamic model of affect and the broaden-and-build theory suggest that stress and positive affect interact to predict negative affect, but this moderation has never been tested in the context of depression history. The current study used multilevel modeling to examine these issues among 1,549 college students with or without a history of depression. Students completed a 30-day online diary study in which they reported daily their perceived stress, positive affect, and negative affect (including depression, anxiety, and hostility). On days characterized by higher than usual stress, students with a history of depression reported greater decreases in positive affect and greater increases in depressed affect than students with no history. Furthermore, the relations between daily stress and both depressed and anxious affect were moderated by daily positive affect among students with remitted depression. These results indicate that students with a history of depression show greater stress-reactivity even when in remission, which may place them at greater risk for recurrence. These individuals may also benefit more from positive affect on higher stress days despite being less likely to experience positive affect on such days. The current findings have various implications both clinically and for research on stress, mood, and depression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Parenting stress mediates the association between negative affectivity and harsh parenting: A longitudinal dyadic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Yunying; Fredman, Steffany J; Feinberg, Mark E

    2017-09-01

    The current study examined parenting stress (disaggregated into personal distress and child rearing stress) at 12 months postpartum as a mediator of the longitudinal association between parental negative affectivity at 6 months postpartum and harsh parenting at 3 years postpartum for first-time parents with a child transitioning from late toddlerhood to the early preschool years. Analyses were conducted using Mediation for Actor Partner Interdependence Modeling in a sample of 164 couples who participated in a randomized controlled trial of a universal, couple-based transition to parenthood program. There were indirect actor effects of negative affect on a parent's own harsh parenting through both dimensions of parenting stress, with a stronger mediating effect for personal distress than child rearing stress. There were also indirect partner effects of negative affect on one's partner's harsh parenting through the partner's parenting stress, with a stronger indirect partner effect from mothers' negative affect to fathers' harsh parenting than vice versa. Specifically, the mediating effect of personal distress was found for both mothers and fathers, whereas the mediating effect of child rearing stress was found from mothers' negative affect to fathers' harsh parenting only. Findings highlight the importance of a dyadic approach in examining the longitudinal association between negative affect and harsh parenting and suggest that reducing parenting stress in the first year postpartum may decrease the risk of future harsh parenting among couples in which one or both partners experience negative affectivity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. The Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test : Validity and relationship with cardiovascular stress-responses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van, der Ploeg M.M.; Brosschot, J.F.; Thayer, J.F.; Verkuil, B.

    2016-01-01

    Self-report, i.e., explicit, measures of affect cannot fully explain the cardiovascular (CV) responses to stressors. Measuring affect beyond self-report, i.e., using implicit measures, could add to our understanding of stress-related CV activity. The Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test

  13. Anxiety, Affect, Self-Esteem, and Stress: Mediation and Moderation Effects on Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nima, Ali Al; Rosenberg, Patricia; Archer, Trevor; Garcia, Danilo

    2013-01-01

    Background Mediation analysis investigates whether a variable (i.e., mediator) changes in regard to an independent variable, in turn, affecting a dependent variable. Moderation analysis, on the other hand, investigates whether the statistical interaction between independent variables predict a dependent variable. Although this difference between these two types of analysis is explicit in current literature, there is still confusion with regard to the mediating and moderating effects of different variables on depression. The purpose of this study was to assess the mediating and moderating effects of anxiety, stress, positive affect, and negative affect on depression. Methods Two hundred and two university students (males  = 93, females  = 113) completed questionnaires assessing anxiety, stress, self-esteem, positive and negative affect, and depression. Mediation and moderation analyses were conducted using techniques based on standard multiple regression and hierarchical regression analyses. Main Findings The results indicated that (i) anxiety partially mediated the effects of both stress and self-esteem upon depression, (ii) that stress partially mediated the effects of anxiety and positive affect upon depression, (iii) that stress completely mediated the effects of self-esteem on depression, and (iv) that there was a significant interaction between stress and negative affect, and between positive affect and negative affect upon depression. Conclusion The study highlights different research questions that can be investigated depending on whether researchers decide to use the same variables as mediators and/or moderators. PMID:24039896

  14. Oxidative stress in patients affected by primary aldosteronism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petramala, Luigi; Pignatelli, Pasquale; Carnevale, Roberto; Zinnamosca, Laura; Marinelli, Cristiano; Settevendemmie, Amina; Concistrè, Antonio; Tonnarini, Gianfranco; De Toma, Giorgio; Violi, Francesco; Letizia, Claudio

    2014-10-01

    Primary aldosteronism, an important form of secondary hypertension, is associated with significant increase of cardiovascular risk (ischaemic heart, cerebrovascular events, arrhythmias) (relative risk 4.6). The specific treatment of primary aldosteronism significantly reduces cardiovascular risk. In addition to high blood pressure values and direct action of aldosterone, new mechanisms such as increased oxidative stress are involved in the development of organ damage, metabolic, endothelial and coagulation complications. The aim of the study was to evaluate parameters of oxidative stress in 38 patients (21 men, 17 women, mean age 53.3 ± 4.7 years) with primary aldosteronism [11 aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) (4 men, 7 women, mean age 50.2 ± 4.5 years) and 27 idiopathic adrenal hyperplasia (IHA) (17 men, 10 women, mean age 54.5 ± 5.3 years)] at diagnosis and after specific treatment (surgical or pharmacological), with respect to 50 patients with essential hypertension (26 men, 24 women, mean age 49 ± 7.4 years) and 50 healthy individuals (28 men, 22 women, mean age 48.7 ± 4.4 years). Patients with primary aldosteronism showed significant increase of NADPH oxidase (Nox2-dp) plasma levels and urinary isoprostanes (34.9 ± 4.3 μg/dl and 216.3 ± 15.7 ng/mg, respectively; P oxidative stress in primary aldosteronism, characterized by increased serum levels of Nox2-dp and urinary excretion of isoprostanes. After APA removal with laparoscopic adrenalectomy, we found reduction of serum Nox2-dp and urinary isoprostanes.

  15. Trehalose overproduction affects the stress tolerance of Kluyveromyces marxianus ambiguously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdei, Eva; Molnár, Mónika; Gyémánt, Gyöngyi; Antal, Károly; Emri, Tamás; Pócsi, István; Nagy, János

    2011-07-01

    A thermotolerant Kluyveromyces marxianus mutant was developed by exposing yeast cultures repeatedly to 48°C incubation temperature, and the strain was characterized with a significantly increased trehalose content. Unexpectedly, the strain was sensitive to alcohol, osmotic and oxidative stress, which correlated with the increases in the trehalose concentrations. Intracellular glutathione levels declined in both wild-type and mutant cells when exposed to elevating incubation temperatures. Finally, we reached the surprising conclusion that neither trehalose nor glutathione metabolisms should be aimed at in future strain development programs with K. marxianus. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Residual Stress Distribution In Heat Affected Zone Of Welded Steel By Means Of Neutron Diffraction Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajar, Andika; Prasuad; Gunawan; Muslich, M. Rifai

    1996-01-01

    Three dimensional residual stress distribution in the heat affected zone of 10 mm thick welded steel by means of neutron diffraction technique has been measured. The results showed that the residual stress was distributed near the welded metal, namely within about 46,25 mm. The major tensile stresses occurred in the X-direction, and they attained a level greater than 2000 MPa through the position far away fram the weld. The tensile stresses in the Y and Z- directions lied between 500 and 1500 MPa, The results also suggest that the stress in the surface was greater than that in the middle of the sample

  17. Stress response and health affecting compounds in Brassicaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahangir, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    Summary of the Thesis: Vegetables have always been considered as healthy food. So also Brassica vegetables are well known all over the world as a common food due to the presence of health affecting compounds (Chapter 2). A vast amount of data is available for health promoting compounds in

  18. Does Osmotic Stress Affect Natural Product Expression in Fungi?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overy, David; Correa, Hebelin; Roullier, Catherine; Chi, Wei-Chiung; Pang, Ka-Lai; Rateb, Mostafa; Ebel, Rainer; Shang, Zhuo; Capon, Rob; Bills, Gerald; Kerr, Russell

    2017-08-13

    The discovery of new natural products from fungi isolated from the marine environment has increased dramatically over the last few decades, leading to the identification of over 1000 new metabolites. However, most of the reported marine-derived species appear to be terrestrial in origin yet at the same time, facultatively halo- or osmotolerant. An unanswered question regarding the apparent chemical productivity of marine-derived fungi is whether the common practice of fermenting strains in seawater contributes to enhanced secondary metabolism? To answer this question, a terrestrial isolate of Aspergillus aculeatus was fermented in osmotic and saline stress conditions in parallel across multiple sites. The ex-type strain of A. aculeatus was obtained from three different culture collections. Site-to-site variations in metabolite expression were observed, suggesting that subculturing of the same strain and subtle variations in experimental protocols can have pronounced effects upon metabolite expression. Replicated experiments at individual sites indicated that secondary metabolite production was divergent between osmotic and saline treatments. Titers of some metabolites increased or decreased in response to increasing osmolite (salt or glycerol) concentrations. Furthermore, in some cases, the expression of some secondary metabolites in relation to osmotic and saline stress was attributed to specific sources of the ex-type strains.

  19. Subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics affect stress and virulence gene expression in Listeria monocytogenes and cause enhanced stress sensitivity but do not affect Caco‐2 cell invasion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Gitte Maegaard; Holch, Anne; Gram, Lone

    2012-01-01

    with promoter fusions, 14 of 16 antibiotics induced or repressed expression of one or more stress and/or virulence genes. Despite ampicillin‐induced up‐regulation of PinlA‐lacZ expression, Caco‐2 cell invasion was not affected. Subinhibitory concentrations of ampicillin and tetracycline caused up‐ and down...

  20. Chronic stress and social housing differentially affect neurogenesis in male and female rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westenbroek, Christel; Boer, Johan A. den; Veenhuis, Maarten; Horst, Gert J. ter

    2004-01-01

    Stress plays an important role in the development of affective disorders. Women show a higher prevalence for these disorders than men. The course of a depression is thought to be positively influenced by social support. We have used a chronic stress model in which rats received foot-shocks daily for

  1. Negative Affect Mediates Effects of Psychological Stress on Disordered Eating in Young Chinese Women

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jue; Wang, Zhen; Guo, Boliang; Arcelus, Jon; Zhang, Haiyin; Jia, Xiuzhen; Xu, Yong; Qiu, Jianyin; Xiao, Zeping; Yang, Min

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The bi-relationships between psychological stress, negative affect and disordered eating has been well studied in western culture, while tri-relationship among them, i.e. how some of those factors influence these bi-relationships, has rarely been studied. However, there has been little related study in the different Chinese culture. This study was conducted to investigate the bi-relationships and tri-relationship between psychological stress, negative affect, and disordered eating...

  2. Chronic stress affects immunologic but not cardiovascular responsiveness to acute psychological stress in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benschop, R. J.; Brosschot, J. F.; Godaert, G. L.; de Smet, M. B.; Geenen, R.; Olff, M.; Heijnen, C. J.; Ballieux, R. E.

    1994-01-01

    This study deals with the effect of chronic stress on physiological responsiveness to an acute psychological stressor in male high school teachers. Chronic stress was operationalized as the self-reported number of everyday problems. Twenty-seven subjects reporting extremely low or high numbers of

  3. Running away from stress: How regulatory modes prospectively affect athletes' stress through passion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucidi, F; Pica, G; Mallia, L; Castrucci, E; Manganelli, S; Bélanger, J J; Pierro, A

    2016-06-01

    A prospective field study conducted with runners training for an upcoming marathon (Marathon of Rome 2013) examined the relation between regulatory modes, locomotion and assessment, and stress. Integrating regulatory mode theory and the dualistic model of passion, we hypothesized that the relation between regulatory modes (evaluated 3 months before the race) and the experience of stress approaching the marathon, is mediated by the type of passion (harmonious vs obsessive) athletes experience with regard to marathoning. Results revealed that (a) locomotion positively predicted harmonious passion, which in turn reduced athletes' experience of stress; and (b) assessment positively predicted obsessive passion, which in turn enhanced athletes' experience of stress. Overall, the present results suggest that proximal psychological mechanisms such as basic regulatory mode orientations can predict distal outcomes such as stress indirectly through their relation with motivational phenomena such as passion. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. UV-radiation oxidative stress affects eye health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Iliya V; Mappes, Timo; Schaupp, Patrick; Lappe, Christian; Wahl, Siegfried

    2018-03-30

    In the eye ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is not known to contribute to visual perception but to mainly damage multiple structures. UVR carries higher energy than visible light and high dose exposure to UVR causes direct cellular damage, which has an important role in the development of cancer. This review provides an overview on the most recent knowledge on the role of UVR in oxidative stress (OS) in relation to non-cancer ocular pathologies: various corneal pathologies, cataract, glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration. Possible OS signaling streams and mechanisms in the aging eye are discussed. Excessive exposure to UVR through live may seriously contribute to increase in OS of various eye tissues and thus lead to the advancement of serious ocular pathologies. Children are especially vulnerable to UVR because of their larger pupils and more transparent ocular media: up to 80 % of a person's lifetime exposure to UVR is reached before the age of 18. Therefore efficient everyday protection of the sensitive tissues of the eye by wearing of sunglasses, clear UVR-blocking spectacles or contact lenses should be considered from early age on. Many initiatives are taken world-wide to inform and raise the population's awareness about these possible UVR hazards to the eye. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Stress within a Restricted Time Window Selectively Affects the Persistence of Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Qin; Chai, Ning; Zhao, Li-Yan; Xue, Yan-Xue; Luo, Yi-Xiao; Jian, Min; Han, Ying; Shi, Hai-Shui; Lu, Lin; Wu, Ping; Wang, Ji-Shi

    2013-01-01

    The effects of stress on emotional memory are distinct and depend on the stages of memory. Memory undergoes consolidation and reconsolidation after acquisition and retrieval, respectively. Stress facilitates the consolidation but disrupts the reconsolidation of emotional memory. Previous research on the effects of stress on memory have focused on long-term memory (LTM) formation (tested 24 h later), but the effects of stress on the persistence of LTM (tested at least 1 week later) are unclear. Recent findings indicated that the persistence of LTM requires late-phase protein synthesis in the dorsal hippocampus. The present study investigated the effect of stress (i.e., cold water stress) during the late phase after the acquisition and retrieval of contextual fear memory in rats. We found that stress and corticosterone administration during the late phase (12 h) after acquisition, referred to as late consolidation, selectively enhanced the persistence of LTM, whereas stress during the late phase (12 h) after retrieval, referred to as late reconsolidation, selectively disrupted the restabilized persistence of LTM. Moreover, the effects of stress on the persistence of LTM were blocked by the corticosterone synthesis inhibitor metyrapone, which was administered before stress, suggesting that the glucocorticoid system is involved in the effects of stress on the persistence of LTM. We conclude that stress within a restricted time window after acquisition or retrieval selectively affects the persistence of LTM and depends on the glucocorticoid system. PMID:23544051

  6. Stress within a restricted time window selectively affects the persistence of long-term memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Yang

    Full Text Available The effects of stress on emotional memory are distinct and depend on the stages of memory. Memory undergoes consolidation and reconsolidation after acquisition and retrieval, respectively. Stress facilitates the consolidation but disrupts the reconsolidation of emotional memory. Previous research on the effects of stress on memory have focused on long-term memory (LTM formation (tested 24 h later, but the effects of stress on the persistence of LTM (tested at least 1 week later are unclear. Recent findings indicated that the persistence of LTM requires late-phase protein synthesis in the dorsal hippocampus. The present study investigated the effect of stress (i.e., cold water stress during the late phase after the acquisition and retrieval of contextual fear memory in rats. We found that stress and corticosterone administration during the late phase (12 h after acquisition, referred to as late consolidation, selectively enhanced the persistence of LTM, whereas stress during the late phase (12 h after retrieval, referred to as late reconsolidation, selectively disrupted the restabilized persistence of LTM. Moreover, the effects of stress on the persistence of LTM were blocked by the corticosterone synthesis inhibitor metyrapone, which was administered before stress, suggesting that the glucocorticoid system is involved in the effects of stress on the persistence of LTM. We conclude that stress within a restricted time window after acquisition or retrieval selectively affects the persistence of LTM and depends on the glucocorticoid system.

  7. Chronic mild stress affects sucrose intake and sleep in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grønli, Janne; Murison, Robert; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Sørensen, Eli; Portas, Chiara M; Ursin, Reidun

    2004-04-02

    Depression in humans is associated with sleep abnormalities of three types: altered rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, fragmented sleep, and reduced delta sleep. In an animal model of depression, chronic exposure to mild stressors (CMS, e.g. periods of soiled cage, reversed light/dark cycle, grouped housing, food and/or water deprivation) causes behavioral and hormonal changes which, in humans, often are associated with depression. In the CMS model, a reduced sucrose intake has been defined as one of the core symptoms of depression, anhedonia, although this finding is not consistent among various laboratories. In the present study, we investigated if the CMS procedure, in our laboratory, would cause decreased sucrose intake and, also, give sleep changes similar to what is found in depressed patients. Exposure to CMS decreased sucrose intake in our rats. The largest effect was obtained after 2 weeks of the stress protocol. CMS rats spent more time in REM sleep and showed more fragmented sleep compared to their baseline recording, while there were no changes in the control rats. Increased sleep fragmentation in CMS rats was particularly evident by increased number of arousals, and increased REM sleep and slow-wave-sleep-1 (SWS-1) episodes. The duration of sleep stage episodes was decreased. The amount of slow-wave-sleep-2 (SWS-2) was not decreased, however SWS-2 in percent of total SWS was reduced. Correlation analysis showed that animals that had less consumption of sucrose spent more time in REM sleep and had increased number of REM sleep episodes. In this study, CMS appears to be a model of depression.

  8. Parental type of personality, negative affectivity and family stressful events in children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljević, Gordana; Culić, Srđana; Benko, Marta; Jakupcević, Katja Kalebić; Stepan, Jasminka; Sprajc, Mirjana

    2010-09-01

    Psychological interactions between parents,children and social environment are very important for childhood health. The type of personality and stressful events are probably also cancer risk factors. We investigated personality types A/B and D (negative affectivity and social inhibition) in parents of children with cancer (PCC), as well as social environmental factors, and family / children's stressful events before the appearance of cancer. Bortner Type A Scale for evaluating parental type A/B personality, and 14 question personality test (DS14) for parental type D personality (negative affectivity and social inhibition score) were performed. Questionnaire eligible information about stressful events and social environmental factors in children with cancer (CC) were analyzed. Analyzing 127 PCC and 136 parents of healthy children (PHC) we found no significant differences in A/B type personality and social inhibition. There was significant difference in negative affectivity. PCC had more negative affectivity than PHC. We found more stressful events before cancer appearance in the families of children with cancer (FCC) than in healthy families (FHC), and more children's stressful events in CC then in healthy ones (HC). There were more quarrels in FCC, while CC were more "easy good-mannered children" than HC. Our results support the hypothesis that stress is a cancer risk factor and the idea that impaired parental functioning may be a mechanism linking family stress with the aetiology of cancer.

  9. Does maternal prenatal stress adversely affect the child's learning and memory at age six?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutteling, Barbara M; de Weerth, Carolina; Zandbelt, Noortje; Mulder, Eduard J H; Visser, Gerard H A; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2006-12-01

    Prenatal maternal stress has been shown to affect postnatal development in animals and humans. In animals, the morphology and function of the offspring's hippocampus is negatively affected by prenatal maternal stress. The present study prospectively investigated the influence of prenatal maternal stress on learning and memory of 112 children (50 boys, 62 girls, Age: M=6.7 years, SD=8.4 months), with the Test of Memory and Learning (TOMAL). Maternal stress levels were determined three times during pregnancy by self-report questionnaires. Furthermore, maternal saliva cortisol samples were used as a measure of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning. Results of hierarchical multivariate regression analyses showed that maternal life events measured during the first part of pregnancy were negatively associated with the child's attention/concentration index, while controlling for overall IQ, gender, and postnatal stress. No associations were found between prenatal maternal cortisol and the offspring's learning and memory.

  10. Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) affect oxidative stress biomarkers in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wielsøe, Maria; Long, Manhai; Ghisari, Mandana

    2015-01-01

    S), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluoroctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorodecanoate (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnA), and perfluorododecanoate (PFDoA). Using the human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) and an exposure time of 24 h we found that all three endpoints were affected by one...... or more of the compounds. PFHxS, PFOA, PFOS and PFNA showed a dose dependent increase in DNA damage in the concentration range from 2 107 to 2 105 M determined by the comet assay. Except for PFDoA, all the other PFAS increased ROS generation significantly. For PFHxS and PFUnA the observed ROS increases...... were dose-dependent. Cells exposed to PFOA were found to have a significant lower TAC compared with the solvent control, whereas a non-significant trend in TAC decrease was observed for PFOS and PFDoA and an increase tendency for PFHxS, PFNA and PFUnA. Our results indicate a possible genotoxic...

  11. The Role of Neuroticism in the Maintenance of Chronic Baseline Stress Perception and Negative Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Irum Saeed

    2016-03-04

    The influence of neuroticism on stress perception and its associated negative affect is explored in a quasi-experimental repeated measure study. The study involves manipulating the stress perception and affect of high N group (n = 24) and low N group (n = 28) three times; first, through exposure to neutral stimuli; second, through exposure to a laboratory stressor; third, through exposure to positive stimuli. The results reveal that after exposure to neutral stimuli, there is a significant difference in the baseline Perceived Stress Scores (PSS) (p = .005) and Negative Affect (NA) scores (p = .001) of the two groups. During the stress task, however, both groups show a non-significant difference in the PSS (p = .200) and NA scores (p = .367). After exposure to positive stimuli, there is a significant difference in the PSS scores (p = .001), but a non-significant difference in the NA scores (p = .661) of the two groups. When compared across three conditions, the high N group report significantly higher perceived stress (p = .002), but not significantly higher negative affect (p = .123) than the low N group. Finally for both PSS and NA scores, there is no interaction between neuroticism and any of the three treatment conditions (p = .176; p = .338, respectively). This study shows that the high N group may be at risk for health disparities due to maintaining a chronic higher baseline stress perception and negative affect state under neutral conditions, than the low N group. Implications of the study are discussed.

  12. Perceived occupational stress, affective, and physical well-being among telecommunication employees in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazuras, Lambros; Rodafinos, Angelos; Matsiggos, Georgios; Stamatoulakis, Alexander

    2009-03-01

    The present study examined four potential roles of work-related negative affectivity on the associations between self-reported occupational stress and physical well-being among telecommunication employees in Greece. Participants (764, predominantly male) completed a battery of self-report measures on perceived occupational stress, negative affectivity, and illness symptoms. In line with previous research, negative affectivity exerted a nuisance effect, by inflating the association between reported stressors and illness symptoms, and significantly predicted illness symptoms, over and above the effects of stressors. In addition, negative affectivity influenced reported illness symptom indirectly, through the effects of stressors, and moderated the relationship between interpersonal conflict at work and illness symptoms. The findings suggest that negative affectivity can largely explain and influence in different ways the associations between self-reported stress and physical strain. It is recommended that future studies of occupational stress should control for the effects of negative affectivity, and that health professionals should be cautious of its effects when interpreting relationships between self-reported occupational stress and physical well-being.

  13. Negative affect, stress, and smoking in college students: unique associations independent of alcohol and marijuana use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magid, Viktoriya; Colder, Craig R; Stroud, Laura R; Nichter, Mimi; Nichter, Mark

    2009-11-01

    Stress and negative affect (NA) figure prominently in theoretical models of smoking initiation, maintenance and relapse, yet few studies have examined these associations among college students. Further complicating examination of these associations, smoking often occurs in the context of other substance use (e.g., alcohol, marijuana) in college populations. Thus, it remains unclear whether stress and NA are associated with cigarette use among college students, and if so, whether these associations are evident after controlling for effects of other substance use. The goals of this study were: a) to examine whether several aspects of stress (objective events, subjective experiences) and NA (sad mood, general emotional distress) were associated with cigarette smoking among college students and b) whether associations remained after accounting for alcohol and marijuana use. A large sample of college freshmen (N=633) followed longitudinally over 35 weeks via internet assessments. Results of hierarchical linear modeling demonstrated that measures of subjective stress and NA were positively related to cigarette use, whereas measures of objective stressful events were negatively related to cigarette use. When alcohol and marijuana use were added to the models, associations between smoking and stress/NA were diminished. Associations between NA and smoking remained significant; however, associations between subjective stress/stressful events and smoking were no longer significant. This is the first study to comprehensively examine links between subjective and objective measures of stress and smoking behavior among college students while also considering the influence of other substance use. Negative affect was the most robust correlate of smoking among college students. Subjective and objective stress do not appear to be strongly associated with college smoking above and beyond alcohol and marijuana use. Stress may not be an important etiological factor for relatively low

  14. Does Chronic Unpredictable Stress during Adolescence Affect Spatial Cognition in Adulthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaby, Lauren E; Sheriff, Michael J; Hirrlinger, Amy M; Lim, James; Fetherston, Thomas B; Braithwaite, Victoria A

    2015-01-01

    Spatial abilities allow animals to retain and cognitively manipulate information about their spatial environment and are dependent upon neural structures that mature during adolescence. Exposure to stress in adolescence is thought to disrupt neural maturation, possibly compromising cognitive processes later in life. We examined whether exposure to chronic unpredictable stress in adolescence affects spatial ability in late adulthood. We evaluated spatial learning, reference and working memory, as well as long-term retention of visuospatial cues using a radial arm water maze. We found that stress in adolescence decreased the rate of improvement in spatial learning in adulthood. However, we found no overall performance impairments in adult reference memory, working memory, or retention caused by adolescent-stress. Together, these findings suggest that adolescent-stress may alter the strategy used to solve spatial challenges, resulting in performance that is more consistent but is not refined by incorporating available spatial information. Interestingly, we also found that adolescent-stressed rats showed a shorter latency to begin the water maze task when re-exposed to the maze after an overnight delay compared with control rats. This suggests that adolescent exposure to reoccurring stressors may prepare animals for subsequent reoccurring challenges. Overall, our results show that stress in adolescence does not affect all cognitive processes, but may affect cognition in a context-dependent manner.

  15. Affective temperament, job stress and professional burnout in nurses and civil servants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Jaracz

    Full Text Available The risk of professional burnout is constituted by job-related as well as individual factors. The latter involve affective temperament, which influences the perception of job-related stress. The aim of the present study was to assess the affective temperament, the level of job stress and professional burnout, as well as the relationships between these variables, in public servants and nurses.100 civil servants and 100 nurses were enrolled in the study. Affective temperament and burnout were assessed by means of TEMPS-A and MBI questionnaires, respectively. To measure the level of job-related stress, we have designed a 6-item self-reported questionnaire, which considered stressors common for both professions.Compared to the civil servants, nurses showed higher rate of anxious temperament and experienced greater intensity of job-related stress. The groups did not differ in the intensity of burnout symptoms. The rates of cyclothymic and anxious temperaments correlated with the intensity of stress, and burnout symptoms in the group of nurses. Within the civil servants group, the level of stress correlated with intensity of burnout, however no correlations with affective temperament were observed. The regression analysis performed in both groups revealed the significant effect of stress and cyclothymic temperament on burnout, while the effect of anxious temperament was not significant.Cyclothymic and anxious temperaments are related to the level of experienced job stress and the risk of burnout. In professions like nursing, where employees show elevated rates of these temperaments, burnout prevention and stress management education is of particular importance.

  16. Repeated forced swim stress differentially affects formalin-evoked nociceptive behaviour and the endocannabinoid system in stress normo-responsive and stress hyper-responsive rat strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Elaine M; Okine, Bright N; Olango, Weredeselam M; Roche, Michelle; Finn, David P

    2016-01-04

    Repeated exposure to a homotypic stressor such as forced swimming enhances nociceptive responding in rats. However, the influence of genetic background on this stress-induced hyperalgesia is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of repeated forced swim stress on nociceptive responding in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats versus the Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat strain, a genetic background that is susceptible to stress, negative affect and hyperalgesia. Given the well-documented role of the endocannabinoid system in stress and pain, we investigated associated alterations in endocannabinoid signalling in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and amygdala. In SD rats, repeated forced swim stress for 10 days was associated with enhanced late phase formalin-evoked nociceptive behaviour, compared with naive, non-stressed SD controls. In contrast, WKY rats exposed to 10 days of swim stress displayed reduced late phase formalin-evoked nociceptive behaviour. Swim stress increased levels of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) mRNA in the ipsilateral side of the dorsal spinal cord of SD rats, an effect not observed in WKY rats. In the amygdala, swim stress reduced anandamide (AEA) levels in the contralateral amygdala of SD rats, but not WKY rats. Additional within-strain differences in levels of CB1 receptor and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) mRNA and levels of 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) were observed between the ipsilateral and contralateral sides of the dorsal horn and/or amygdala. These data indicate that the effects of repeated stress on inflammatory pain-related behaviour are different in two rat strains that differ with respect to stress responsivity and affective state and implicate the endocannabinoid system in the spinal cord and amygdala in these differences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Maternal stress in pregnancy affects myelination and neurosteroid regulatory pathways in the guinea pig cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Greer A; Palliser, Hannah K; Shaw, Julia C; Palazzi, Kerrin L; Walker, David W; Hirst, Jonathan J

    2017-11-01

    Prenatal stress predisposes offspring to behavioral pathologies. These may be attributed to effects on cerebellar neurosteroids and GABAergic inhibitory signaling, which can be linked to hyperactivity disorders. The aims were to determine the effect of prenatal stress on markers of cerebellar development, a key enzyme in neurosteroid synthesis and the expression of GABA A receptor (GABA A R) subunits involved in neurosteroid signaling. We used a model of prenatal stress (strobe light exposure, 2 h on gestational day 50, 55, 60 and 65) in guinea pigs, in which we have characterized anxiety and neophobic behavioral outcomes. The cerebellum and plasma were collected from control and prenatally stressed offspring at term (control fetus: n = 9 male, n = 7 female; stressed fetus: n = 7 male, n = 8 female) and postnatal day (PND) 21 (control: n = 8 male, n = 8 female; stressed: n = 9 male, n = 6 female). We found that term female offspring exposed to prenatal stress showed decreased expression of mature oligodendrocytes (∼40% reduction) and these deficits improved to control levels by PND21. Reactive astrocyte expression was lower (∼40% reduction) following prenatal stress. GABA A R subunit (δ and α6) expression and circulating allopregnanolone concentrations were not affected by prenatal stress. Prenatal stress increased expression (∼150-250% increase) of 5α-reductase type-1 mRNA in the cerebellum, which may be a neuroprotective response to promote GABAergic inhibition and aid in repair. These observations indicate that prenatal stress exposure has marked effects on the development of the cerebellum. These findings suggest cerebellar changes after prenatal stress may contribute to adverse behavioral outcomes after exposure to these stresses.

  18. Multi-Faceted Emotion Regulation, Stress, and Affect in Mothers of Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Li, Mengjiao; Bell, Martha Ann

    2015-01-01

    We tested a novel multi-component emotion self-regulation (ER) construct that captured physiological (vagal tone), cognitive (reappraisal), and temperament (effortful control) aspects of ER as a moderator of the link between more stressors and greater negative/less positive affectivity. A socioeconomically diverse sample of 151 women with young children completed questionnaires and a laboratory visit (including cognitive and parent-child interaction tasks, and vagal tone measurement). Women with more stressors had more negative affectivity and less positive affectivity. Furthermore, for negative affectivity only, having more stressors was substantially associated with negative affectivity but only among women with the lowest ER. This pattern was evident for the composite as well as individual indicators of ER. Results were not attributable to individual differences in executive function. Findings are discussed in light of the diathesis-stress model of stress and coping. PMID:25759238

  19. Parental bonding during childhood affects stress-coping ability and stress reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtaki, Yuh; Ohi, Yuichi; Suzuki, Shun; Usami, Kazuya; Sasahara, Shinichiro; Matsuzaki, Ichiyo

    2017-07-01

    An online survey examined the effects of parental bonding during childhood on adult workers' stress-coping ability (Sense of Coherence) and stress reactions (General Health Questionnaire and Self-Rating Depression Scale). Participants who completed the questionnaire were grouped into optimal bonding and poor bonding groups. Analyses of covariance by gender with age as a covariate were conducted for the Sense of Coherence, General Health Questionnaire, and Self-Rating Depression Scale scores for 9525 participants. For both genders, the scores of the poor bonding group were significantly lower for the Sense of Coherence and significantly higher for the General Health Questionnaire and Self-Rating Depression Scale compared to those of the optimal bonding group.

  20. The effects of different sources of occupational stress on affective, motivational, and psychosomatic outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovalle, N.K. II.

    1991-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of role conflict, role ambiguity, and five additional potential sources of occupational stress on an affective outcome (job satisfaction), a motivational outcome (intent to quit), and two psychosomatic outcomes (mental and physical anxiety). In addition to role conflict and role ambiguity, the five additional sources of occupational stress centered on job characteristics, work pressures, rewards and opportunities, interaction of the job and home life, and lack of job challenge. Data were collected from 85 technicians and managers in a service organization. The results of correlation and multiple regression analyses indicated that each of the sources of stress have significant yet different effects on the outcomes. Moreover, role conflict and ambiguity did not have as much of an effect across all outcomes as the other five sources of stress. These findings could be used to improve the measurement, understanding, and treatment of occupational stress. Other implications are discussed. 23 refs., 2 tabs.

  1. Responses to positive affect predict mood symptoms in children under conditions of stress: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijttebier, Patricia; Raes, Filip; Vasey, Michael W; Feldman, Gregory C

    2012-04-01

    Rumination to negative affect has been linked to the onset and maintenance of mood disorders in adults as well as children. Responses to positive affect have received far less attention thus far. A few recent studies in adults suggest that responses to positive affect are involved in the development of both depressive and hypomanic symptoms, but thus far no study has investigated their role in childhood mood problems. The purpose of the present study was to validate a child version of the Responses to Positive Affect questionnaire and examine the extent to which responses to positive affect prospectively predict mood symptoms over a 3-month interval. The Responses to Positive Affect questionnaire for Children was found to assess two types of responses to positive affect: Positive Rumination and Dampening. Both subscales showed sufficient internal consistency and moderate stability over a 3-month interval. Low levels of positive rumination and high levels of dampening were concurrently associated with depressive symptoms, over and above responses to negative affect. Importantly, low levels of positive rumination also predicted increases in depressive symptoms over a 3-month interval over and above baseline symptoms in children reporting high levels of stress. Both positive rumination and dampening were positively related to concurrent hypomanic symptoms and high levels of positive rumination predicted increases in hypomanic symptoms over a 3-month interval over and above baseline symptoms in children reporting high levels of stress. The results underscore the added value of assessing responses to positive affect in addition to responses to negative affect.

  2. Smac deficiency affects endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis in human colon cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qin; Shi, Jingxue; Jones, Samantha; An, Jie; Liu, Yuxin; Huang, Ying; Sheikh, M. Saeed

    2009-01-01

    Thapsigargin (TG) is a sesquiterpen lactone that inhibits the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium ATPases to disrupt calcium homeostasis and consequently induces ER stress. We have previously reported that TG induces apoptosis by engaging the death receptor 5 (DR5) and the intrinsic pathways. Second mitochondrial-derived activator (Smac) is an important modulator of apoptosis that induces activation of caspases by antagonizing inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs). In this study, we have utilized Smac-proficient and -deficient human colon cancer cells to investigate the effects of Smac deficiency during ER-stress-induced apoptosis. Our results indicate that Smac deficiency considerably affects ER stress-induced apoptosis in human colon cancer cells. For example, ER stress inducing agent TG upregulates DR5, and activates caspases 3, 9 and 8 in Smac-proficient cells. In Smac-deficient cells, although TG-induced DR5 upregulation is not affected, activation of caspases 3, 9 and 8 is affected. Smac deficiency also affects TG-induced cytochrome c release from mitochondria into cytosol suggesting the existence of a potential cross-talk between Smac and cytochrome c. Thus, our results indicate that ER stress-induced apoptosis also engages Smac for transduction of apoptotic signals in human colon cancer cells and that a potential feedback signaling between Smac and cytochrome c appears to modulate the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. PMID:20209078

  3. Impact of sleep quality on amygdala reactivity, negative affect, and perceived stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Aric A; Bogdan, Ryan; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2013-05-01

    Research demonstrates a negative impact of sleep disturbance on mood and affect; however, the biological mechanisms mediating these links are poorly understood. Amygdala reactivity to negative stimuli has emerged as one potential pathway. Here, we investigate the influence of self-reported sleep quality on associations between threat-related amygdala reactivity and measures of negative affect and perceived stress. Analyses on data from 299 participants (125 men, 50.5% white, mean [standard deviation] age = 19.6 [1.3] years) who completed the Duke Neurogenetics Study were conducted. Participants completed several self-report measures of negative affect and perceived stress. Threat-related (i.e., angry and fearful facial expressions) amygdala reactivity was assayed using blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging. Global sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Amygdala reactivity to fearful facial expressions predicted greater depressive symptoms and higher perceived stress in poor (β values = 0.18-1.86, p values .05). In sex-specific analyses, men reporting poorer global sleep quality showed a significant association between amygdala reactivity and levels of depression and perceived stress (β values = 0.29-0.44, p values sleep quality or in women, irrespective of sleep quality. This study provides novel evidence that self-reported sleep quality moderates the relationships between amygdala reactivity, negative affect, and perceived stress, particularly among men.

  4. Gel-free proteomic analysis of soybean root proteins affected by calcium under flooding stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, MyeongWon; Nanjo, Yohei; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2014-01-01

    Soybean is sensitive to flooding stress and exhibits reduced growth under flooding conditions. To better understand the flooding-responsive mechanisms of soybean, the effect of exogenous calcium on flooding-stressed soybeans was analyzed using proteomic technique. An increase in exogenous calcium levels enhanced soybean root elongation and suppressed the cell death of root tip under flooding stress. Proteins were extracted from the roots of 4-day-old soybean seedlings exposed to flooding stress without or with calcium for 2 days and analyzed using gel-free proteomic technique. Proteins involved in protein degradation/synthesis/posttranslational modification, hormone/cell wall metabolisms, and DNA synthesis were decreased by flooding stress; however, their reductions were recovered by calcium treatment. Development, lipid metabolism, and signaling-related proteins were increased in soybean roots when calcium was supplied under flooding stress. Fermentation and glycolysis-related proteins were increased in response to flooding; however, these proteins were not affected by calcium supplementation. Furthermore, urease and copper chaperone proteins exhibited similar profiles in 4-day-old untreated soybeans and 4-day-old soybeans exposed to flooding for 2 days in the presence of calcium. These results suggest that calcium might affect the cell wall/hormone metabolisms, protein degradation/synthesis, and DNA synthesis in soybean roots under flooding stress. PMID:25368623

  5. Gel-free proteomic analysis of soybean root proteins affected by calcium under flooding stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MyeongWon eOh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is sensitive to flooding stress and exhibits reduced growth under flooding conditions. To better understand the flooding-responsive mechanisms of soybean, the effect of exogenous calcium on flooding-stressed soybeans was analyzed using proteomic technique. An increase in exogenous calcium levels enhanced soybean root elongation and suppressed the cell death of root tip under flooding stress. Proteins were extracted from the roots of 4-day-old soybean seedlings exposed to flooding stress without or with calcium for 2 days and analyzed using gel-free proteomic technique. Proteins involved in protein degradation/synthesis/posttranslational modification, hormone/cell wall metabolisms, and DNA synthesis were decreased by flooding stress; however, their reductions were recovered by calcium treatment. Development, lipid metabolism, and signaling-related proteins were increased in soybean roots when calcium was supplied under flooding stress. Fermentation and glycolysis-related proteins were increased in response to flooding; however, these proteins were not affected by calcium supplementation. Furthermore, urease and copper chaperone proteins exhibited similar profiles in 4-day-old untreated soybeans and 4-day-old soybeans exposed to flooding for 2 days in the presence of calcium. These results suggest that calcium might affect the cell wall/hormone metabolisms, protein degradation/synthesis, and DNA synthesis in soybean roots under flooding stress.

  6. Are adult life history traits in oriental fruit moth affected by a mild pupal heat stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jincheng; Cheng, Xiongbin; Hoffmann, Ary A; Zhang, Bo; Ma, Chun-Sen

    2017-10-01

    Thermal stress at one life stage can affect fitness at a later stage in ectotherms with complex life cycles. Most relevant studies have focused on extreme stress levels, but here we also show substantial fitness effects in a moth when pupae are exposed to a relatively mild and sublethal heat stress. We consider the impact of a 35°C heat stress of 2h in three geographically separate populations of the oriental fruit moth (OFM, Grapholita molesta) from northern, middle and southern China. Heat stress negatively affected fecundity but increased adult heat resistance and adult longevity. Fitness effects were mostly consistent across populations but there were also some population differences. In the Shenyang population from northern China, there was a hormetic effect of heat on female longevity not evident in the other populations. Adults from all populations had higher LT 50 s due to heat stress after pupal exposure to the sublethal stress. These results highlight that the pupal stage is a particularly sensitive window for development and they have implications for seasonal adaptation in uncertain environments as well as changes in pest dynamics under climate warming. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Influence of affectivity trait on relationships between occupational stress and subjective physical health and job satisfaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shan-fa; Zhou, Wen-hui; Gu, Gui-zhen

    2008-09-01

    To explore the influence of affectivity trait on relationships between occupational stress and subjective physical health and job satisfaction. Self-reports for psychosocial work conditions and health and well-being in a sample of 878 workers from a thermal power plant in China were conducted using the job demand-control model, the effort-reward imbalance model, job satisfaction, depression symptom, and physical health complaints questionnaires. Logistic regression analysis was used by controlling for age, sex, and educational level. Negative and positive affectivity were correlated with occupational stressors or strains (Paffectivity or positive affectivity was controlled; Odds ratios decreased greater when negative affectivity and positive affectivity were controlled simultaneously. Furthermore in some equation no variable entered. Affectivity trait has effect on relationships between occupational stress and subjective physical health and job satisfaction. According to the outcome category of study, the possible confounding role of affectivity should be controlled in the study of the relationships between occupational stress and health self-reports.

  8. Narrative centrality and negative affectivity: independent and interactive contributors to stress reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, David C; Boals, Adriel; Hoyle, Rick H

    2014-06-01

    Reactions to stressful negative events have long been studied using approaches based on either the narrative interpretation of the event or the traits of the individual. Here, we integrate these 2 approaches by using individual-differences measures of both the narrative interpretation of the stressful event as central to one's life and the personality characteristic of negative affectivity. We show that they each have independent contributions to stress reactions and that high levels on both produce greater than additive effects. The effects on posttraumatic stress symptoms are substantial for both undergraduates (Study 1, n = 2,296; Study 3, n = 488) and veterans (Study 2, n = 104), with mean levels for participants low on both measures near floor on posttraumatic stress symptoms and those high on both measures scoring at or above diagnostic thresholds. Study 3 included 3 measures of narrative centrality and 3 of negative affectivity to demonstrate that the effects were not limited to a single measure. In Study 4 (n = 987), measures associated with symptoms of posttraumatic stress correlated substantially with either measures of narrative centrality or measures of negative affectivity. The concepts of narrative centrality and negative affectivity and the results are consistent with findings from clinical populations using similar measures and with current approaches to therapy. In broad nonclinical populations, such as those used here, the results suggest that we might be able to substantially increase our ability to account for the severity of stress response by including both concepts. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Factors Affecting Resilience and Development of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Critical Care Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mealer, Meredith; Jones, Jacqueline; Meek, Paula

    2017-05-01

    Job stress and cumulative exposure to traumatic events experienced by critical care nurses can lead to psychological distress and the development of burnout syndrome and posttraumatic stress disorder. Resilience can mitigate symptoms associated with these conditions. To identify factors that affect resilience and to determine if the factors have direct or indirect effects on resilience in development of posttraumatic stress disorder. Data from 744 respondents to a survey mailed to 3500 critical care nurses who were members of the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses were analyzed. Mplus was used to analyze a mediation model. Nurses who worked in any type of intensive care unit other than the medical unit and had high scores for resilience were 18% to 50% less likely to experience post-traumatic stress disorder than were nurses with low scores. Nurses with a graduate degree in nursing were 18% more likely to experience posttraumatic stress disorder than were nurses with a bachelor's degree. Because of their effects on resilience, working in a medical intensive care unit and having a graduate degree may influence the development of posttraumatic stress disorder. Future research is needed to better understand the impact of resilience on health care organizations, development of preventive therapies and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder for critical care nurses, and the most appropriate mechanism to disseminate and implement strategies to address posttraumatic stress disorder. ©2017 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  10. Physical fitness level affects perception of chronic stress in military trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuch, Carolin; Teubel, Thomas; La Marca, Roberto; Roos, Lilian; Annen, Hubert; Wyss, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated whether physical fitness affects the perception of chronic stress in military trainees while controlling for established factors influencing stress perception. The sample consisted of 273 men (20.23 ± 1.12 years, 73.56 ± 10.52 kg, 1.78 ± 0.06 m). Physical fitness was measured by progressive endurance run (maximum oxygen uptake; VO 2 max), standing long jump, seated shot put, trunk muscle strength, and one leg standing test. Perceived stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Questionnaire in Weeks 1 and 11 of basic military training (BMT). VO 2 max and four influencing variables (perceived stress in Week 1, neuroticism, transformational leadership style, and education level) explained 44.44% of the variance of the increase in perceived stress during 10 weeks of BMT (R 2  = 0.444, F = 23.334, p stress. We conclude that it is advisable to provide conscripts with a specific endurance training program prior to BMT for stress prevention reasons. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. MATERNAL TRAUMA AFFECTS PRENATAL MENTAL HEALTH AND INFANT STRESS REGULATION AMONG PALESTINIAN DYADS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isosävi, Sanna; Diab, Safwat Y; Kangaslampi, Samuli; Qouta, Samir; Kankaanpää, Saija; Puura, Kaija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2017-09-01

    We examined how diverse and cumulated traumatic experiences predicted maternal prenatal mental health and infant stress regulation in war conditions and whether maternal mental health mediated the association between trauma and infant stress regulation. Participants were 511 Palestinian mothers from the Gaza Strip who reported exposure to current war trauma (WT), past childhood emotional (CEA) and physical abuse, socioeconomic status (SES), prenatal mental health problems (posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms), and perceived stress during their secondtrimester of pregnancy as well as infant stress regulation at 4 months. While all trauma types were associated with high levels of prenatal symptoms, CEA had the most wide-ranging effects and was uniquely associated with depression symptoms. Concerning infant stress regulation, mothers' CEA predicted negative affectivity, but only among mothers with low WT. Against hypothesis, the effects of maternal trauma on infant stress regulation were not mediated by mental health symptoms. Mothers' higher SES was associated with better infant stress regulation whereas infant prematurity and male sex predisposed for difficulties. Our findings suggest that maternal childhood abuse, especially CEA, should be a central treatment target among war-exposed families. Cumulated psychosocial stressors might increase the risk for transgenerational problems. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  12. Negative affect mediates effects of psychological stress on disordered eating in young Chinese women.

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    Jue Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The bi-relationships between psychological stress, negative affect and disordered eating has been well studied in western culture, while tri-relationship among them, i.e. how some of those factors influence these bi-relationships, has rarely been studied. However, there has been little related study in the different Chinese culture. This study was conducted to investigate the bi-relationships and tri-relationship between psychological stress, negative affect, and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors in young Chinese women. METHODOLOGY: A total of 245 young Chinese policewomen employed to carry out health and safety checks at the 2010 Shanghai World Expo were recruited in this study. The Chinese version of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10, Beck Depression Inventory Revised (BDI-II, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, and Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26 were administered to all participants. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The total scores of PSS-10, BDI-II and BAI were all highly correlated with that of EAT-26. The PSS-10 score significantly correlated with both BDI-II and BAI scores. There was no statistically significant direct effect from perceived stress to disordered eating (-0.012, 95%CI: -.038~0.006, p=0.357, however, the indirect effects from PSS-10 via affect factors were statistically significant, e.g. the estimated mediation effects from PSS to EAT-26 via depression and anxiety were 0.036 (95%CI: 0.022~0.044, p<0.001 and 0.015 (95%CI: 0.005~0.023, p<0.01, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Perceived stress and negative affects of depression and anxiety were demonstrated to be strongly associated with disordered eating. Negative affect mediated the relationship between perceived stress and disordered eating. The findings suggest that effective interventions and preventative programmes for disordered eating should pay more attention to depression and anxiety among the young Chinese female population.

  13. Pediatricians' affective communication behavior attenuates parents' stress response during the medical interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmiti, Marco; Hamed, Selei; Lauber-Biason, Anna; Wildhaber, Johannes; Pharisa, Cosette; Klumb, Petra L

    2017-03-01

    To investigate whether the medical interview in the pediatric context generates a stressful response in parents in form of heightened cortisol activity, and whether pediatricians' empathetic communication is able to attenuate this stress response. 68 parents were recruited at pediatric out-patient and in-patient consultations. Salivary samples were collected between 60 and 30min prior to the consultation, shortly before the consultation, 20min as well as 45min after the consultation. 19 pediatricians participated in the study and effectuated the medical visit as usual. We videotaped the consultations and coded pediatricians' affective communication using the RIAS and the Four Habits Coding Scheme. Parents' cortisol increased during the medical visit with a peak at 20min after the medical encounter. Furthermore, multilevel analysis revealed a lesser increase in parents' cortisol response associated with pediatricians' levels in supportive communication behaviors. As indicated by their humoral stress responses, the medical encounter was stressful for the parents. Pediatricians' affective communication modulated this stress response in that more supportive communication was related to smaller cortisol increases. Pediatricians' affective communication behavior during the medical visit can alleviate parents' distress and anxiety, representing a source of social and emotional support. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. DNA damage in a human population affected by chronic psychogenic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitroglou, Eva; Zafiropoulou, Maria; Messini-Nikolaki, Niki; Doudounakis, Stavros; Tsilimigaki, Smaragdi; Piperakis, Stylianos M

    2003-01-01

    The effects of chronic psychogenic stress on the expression of DNA damage and cellular response to the damage were investigated. Using the comet assay, basal DNA damage was found to be similar in lymphocytes of both affected and non-affected populations (n = 30 in both groups). The induction of DNA damage in lymphocytes by external factors (H2O2 and gamma-irradiation), was also investigated. In these studies, cells were treated with 50, 100 and 150 microM H2O2 for 5 minutes or with 0.8, 2.5 and 4.2 Gy gamma-rays. A significant difference was found between the chronically stressed and the control populations, indicating the enhanced sensitivity of the former population. Cells were also held for 2 hours after the treatment, allowing time for the cells to deal with the induced DNA damage. Based on the level of residual DNA strand breaks, cells from the stressed population had more breaks than the controls. Gender does not alter these findings. In conclusion, our data indicate that cells from the stressed population were more sensitive to the induction of DNA damage and had higher level of residual damage. Therefore, stress conditions may cause the affected individuals to be susceptible to environmental mutagenic agents.

  15. Effects of perinatal stress and drug abuse on maternal behavior and sensorimotor development of affected progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubová, A; Ševčíková, M; Macúchová, E; Hrebíčková, I; Pometlová, M; Šlamberová, R

    2017-12-30

    Methamphetamine (MA) is an addictive psychostimulant with significant potential for abuse. Previous rat studies have demonstrated that MA use during pregnancy impairs maternal behavior and induced delayed development of affected pups. The offspring of drug-addictive mothers were often neglected and exposed to neonatal stressors. The present study therefore examines the effect of perinatal stressors combined with exposure to prenatal MA on the development of pups and maternal behavior. Dams were divided into three groups according to drug treatment during pregnancy: controls (C); saline (SA, s.c., 1 ml/kg); MA (s.c., 5 mg/ml/kg). Litters were divided into four groups according to postnatal stressors: controls (N); maternal separation (S); maternal cold-water stress (W); maternal separation plus cold-water stress (SW). The pup-retrieval test showed differences among postnatally stressed mothers and non-stressed controls. The righting reflex on a surface revealed delayed development of pups prenatally exposed to MA/SA and postnatal stress. Negative geotaxis and Rotarod results confirmed that the MA group was the most affected. Overall, our data suggests that a combination of perinatal stress and prenatal MA can have a detrimental effect on maternal behavior as well as on the sensorimotor development of pups. However, MA exposure during pregnancy seems to be the decisive factor for impairment.

  16. Effects of a Kundalini Yoga Program on Elementary and Middle School Students' Stress, Affect, and Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkissian, Meliné; Trent, Natalie L; Huchting, Karen; Singh Khalsa, Sat Bir

    2018-01-22

    The Your Own Greatness Affirmed (YOGA) for Youth program delivers yoga to urban inner-city schools with the goal of providing practical benefits that support underserved children at high risk of behavioral and emotional problems. A 10-week YOGA for Youth program delivered 1 to 2 times per week was implemented in 3 schools in urban neighborhoods to examine the effect of the program on student stress, affect, and resilience. Thirty children were administered the Perceived Stress Scale, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, and the Resilience Scale before and after the yoga program. After the program, informal qualitative interviews were conducted with school teachers, yoga teachers, and students to determine the overall impact of the yoga program. The quantitative results of this study indicated that the yoga program significantly improved students stress (p resilience (p urban schools with behavioral skills that will protect against risk factors associated with the development of behavioral and emotional problems.

  17. QTL affecting morphometric traits and stress response in the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boulton, G.S.; Massault, C.; Ross, D.J.; Koning, de D.J.; Haley, C.S.; Bovenhuis, H.; Batargias, C.; Canario, A.; Kotoulas, G.; Tsigenopoulos, C.S.

    2011-01-01

    incipient selective breeding programme. This study, which examined the genetic architecture of seabream morphology and stress response to confinement, takes a step toward the use of marker assisted selection in this species. Major loci affecting these traits were mapped, using data from 460

  18. Exogenous abscisic acid significantly affects proteome in tea plant (Camellia sinensis) exposed to drought stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] is an important economic crop, and drought is the most important abiotic stress affecting yield and quality. Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important phytohormone responsible for activating drought resistance. Increased understanding of ABA effects on tea plant unde...

  19. Evaluation of Oxidative Stress in Sheep Affected with Peste des petits ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kataria A. K.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to evaluate oxidative stress in sheep affected with peste des petits ruminants (PPR. Oxidative stress in the affected sheep was evaluated by determining various serum biomarkers viz. vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, glutathione, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and xanthine oxidase, the mean values of which were 1.70±0.07µmol L-1, 13.00± 0.10 µmol L-1, 2.25 ±0.07 µmol L-1, 3.10 ±0.06 µmol L-1, 140.00 ±8.00 kU L-1, 294.22 ±9.91 kU L-1, 6.99± 0.05 kU L-1 and 100.10 ±3.00 m U L-1, respectively. The levels of vitamins A, C, E and glutathione decreased significantly (p≤0.05 and the serum catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and xanthine oxidase activities increased significantly (p≤0.05 in affected sheep as compared to that in healthy ones. On the basis of the altered levels of serum biomarkers of oxidative stress it was concluded that the animals affected with PPR developed oxidative stress. The findings suggested the relevance of periodic assessment of oxidative status in ruminants for healthier management through supplementation of proper antioxidants as supportive treatment in PPR and in healthy in-contact animals.

  20. Mapping the Potentially Affected Fraction (PAF) of species as an indicator of generic toxic stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klepper O; Meent D van de; ECO

    1997-01-01

    The Potentially Affected Fraction (PAF) is the fraction of species exposed above the no-effect concentration (NOEC). The PAF is a measure that allows a comparison in toxic stress between substances and areas. In the report the PAF is calculated for four heavy metals (cadmium, copper, lead and zinc)

  1. Drought stress affects bioactive compounds in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. relevant to non-communicable diseases

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    Christina B. Wegener

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:Potatoes react very sensitively to drought during growth. Thus, appropriate plant stress responses may affect metabolites associated with the health quality of tubers.Objective:The aim of this study was to determine the effects of drought stress (DS on soluble sugars, starch, crude protein, minerals, free amino acids (AAs, and fatty acids (FAs.Design:The experiment was carried out on three potato genotypes during two years with four replications. The plants were grown in pots in a glasshouse with optimal water supply and under drought stress conditions. After harvest, the tubers of these two variants were analyzed for nutritional and bioactive compounds relevant to human health. Results:Apart from genotypic differences in most parameters, the results revealed that the DS caused a decline in glucose and fructose (P <0.05, all in both years, while sucrose was increased, especially in the second year with severe stress (P < 0.01. Starch was significantly reduced by moderate stress in the first year (P < 0.01, but less affected in the second year. Crude proteins and total amounts of free amino acids (AAs were clearly enhanced by the stress in both years (P < 0.05, all. The minerals magnesium (Mg, potassium (K and phosphorus (P (P < 0.05, all were similarly enhanced, while calcium (Ca actually declined (P < 0.05. The portion of α-linolenic acid (ALA on total lipids was elevated in the stress variants (P < 0.01, while oleic acid (OLA, its precursor, decreased significantly (P < 0.05, but only in the first year. In the second year, ALA was generally higher andnot further induced by the stress. Additionally, OLA was less affected in that year, which was similar to all the other FAs in both years. Interestingly, Myo-inositol (MI and lipid acyl hydrolases (LAH associated with modulation in cell membrane lipids were raised by the drought stress in each year (P < 0.01, all. In the second year, MI and LAH data of the drought stressed tubers

  2. Vascular adaptive responses to physical exercise and to stress are affected differently by nandrolone administration

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    T. Bruder-Nascimento

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Androgenic anabolic steroid, physical exercise and stress induce cardiovascular adaptations including increased endothelial function. The present study investigated the effects of these conditions alone and in combination on the vascular responses of male Wistar rats. Exercise was started at 8 weeks of life (60-min swimming sessions 5 days per week for 8 weeks, while carrying a 5% body-weight load. One group received nandrolone (5 mg/kg, twice per week for 8 weeks, im. Acute immobilization stress (2 h was induced immediately before the experimental protocol. Curves for noradrenaline were obtained for thoracic aorta, with and without endothelium from sedentary and trained rats, submitted or not to stress, treated or not with nandrolone. None of the procedures altered the vascular reactivity to noradrenaline in denuded aorta. In intact aorta, stress and exercise produced vascular adaptive responses characterized by endothelium-dependent hyporeactivity to noradrenaline. These conditions in combination did not potentiate the vascular adaptive response. Exercise-induced vascular adaptive response was abolished by nandrolone. In contrast, the aortal reactivity to noradrenaline of sedentary rats and the vascular adaptive response to stress of sedentary and trained rats were not affected by nandrolone. Maximum response for 7-10 rats/group (g: sedentary 3.8 ± 0.2 vs trained 3.0 ± 0.2*; sedentary/stress 2.7 ± 0.2 vs trained/stress 3.1 ± 0.1*; sedentary/nandrolone 3.6 ± 0.1 vs trained/nandrolone 3.8 ± 0.1; sedentary/stress/nandrolone 3.2 ± 0.1 vs trained/stress/nandrolone 2.5 ± 0.1*; *P < 0.05 compared to its respective control. Stress and physical exercise determine similar vascular adaptive response involving distinct mechanisms as indicated by the observation that only the physical exercise-induced adaptive response was abolished by nandrolone.

  3. Negative affect, stress, and smoking in college students: Unique associations independent of alcohol and marijuana use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magid, Viktoriya; Colder, Craig R.; Stroud, Laura R.; Nichter, Mimi; Nichter, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Stress and negative affect (NA) figure prominently in theoretical models of smoking initiation, maintenance and relapse, yet few studies have examined these associations among college students. Further complicating examination of these associations, smoking often occurs in the context of other substance use (e.g., alcohol, marijuana) in college populations. Thus, it remains unclear whether stress and NA are associated with cigarette use among college students, and if so, whether these associations are evident after controlling for effects of other substance use. The goals of this study were: a) to examine whether several aspects of stress (objective events, subjective experiences) and NA (sad mood, general emotional distress) were associated with cigarette smoking among college students and b) whether associations remained after accounting for alcohol and marijuana use. Sample A large sample of college freshmen (N=633) followed longitudinally over 35 weeks via internet assessments. Results Results of hierarchical linear modeling demonstrated that measures of subjective stress and NA were positively related to cigarette use, whereas measures of objective stressful events were negatively related to cigarette use. When alcohol and marijuana use were added to the models, associations between smoking and stress/NA were diminished. Associations between NA and smoking remained significant; however, associations between subjective stress/stressful events and smoking were no longer significant. Conclusions This is the first study to comprehensively examine links between subjective and objective measures of stress and smoking behavior among college students while also considering the influence of other substance use. Negative affect was the most robust correlate of smoking among college students. Subjective and objective stress do not appear to be strongly associated with college smoking above and beyond alcohol and marijuana use. Stress may not be an important

  4. Perceived Thermal Discomfort and Stress Behaviours Affecting Students’ Learning in Lecture Theatres in the Humid Tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamaraukuro Tammy Amasuomo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the relationship between students’ perceived thermal discomfort and stress behaviours affecting their learning in lecture theatres in the humid tropics. Two lecture theatres, LTH-2 and 3, at the Niger Delta University, Nigeria, were used for the study. Two groups of students from the Faculties of Agriculture and Engineering and the Department of Technology Education constituted the population. The sample size selected through random sampling for Groups A and B was 210 and 370 students, respectively. Objective and self-report instruments were used for data collection. The objective instrument involved physical measurement of the two lecture theatres and of the indoor temperature, relative humidity and air movement. The self-report instrument was a questionnaire that asked for the students perceived indoor thermal discomfort levels and the effect of indoor thermal comfort level on perceived stress behaviours affecting their learning. The objective indoor environmental data indicated thermal discomfort with an average temperature of 29–32 °C and relative humidity of 78% exceeding the ASHARE [1] and Olgyay [2].The students’ experienced a considerable level of thermal discomfort and also perceived that stress behaviours due to thermal discomfort affected their learning. Further, there were no significant differences in the perceived thermal discomfort levels of the two groups of students in LTH-2 and 3. Furthermore, stress behaviours affecting learning as perceived by the two groups of students did not differ significantly. In addition, no correlation existed between the perceived indoor thermal discomfort levels and stress behaviour levels affecting learning for students in LTH-2, because the arousal level of the students in the thermal environment was likely higher than the arousal level for optimal performance [3,4]. However, a correlation existed in the case of students in LTH-3, which was expected because it only

  5. Prefrontal cortex executive processes affected by stress in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotti, Milena; Adler, Samantha M; Bulin, Sarah E; Fucich, Elizabeth A; Paredes, Denisse; Morilak, David A

    2017-07-06

    Prefrontal cortical executive functions comprise a number of cognitive capabilities necessary for goal directed behavior and adaptation to a changing environment. Executive dysfunction that leads to maladaptive behavior and is a symptom of psychiatric pathology can be instigated or exacerbated by stress. In this review we survey research addressing the impact of stress on executive function, with specific focus on working memory, attention, response inhibition, and cognitive flexibility. We then consider the neurochemical pathways underlying these cognitive capabilities and, where known, how stress alters them. Finally, we review work exploring potential pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches that can ameliorate deficits in executive function. Both preclinical and clinical literature indicates that chronic stress negatively affects executive function. Although some of the circuitry and neurochemical processes underlying executive function have been characterized, a great deal is still unknown regarding how stress affects these processes. Additional work focusing on this question is needed in order to make progress on developing interventions that ameliorate executive dysfunction. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Prenatal flavor exposure affects flavor recognition and stress-related behavior of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostindjer, Marije; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; van den Brand, Henry; Kemp, Bas

    2009-11-01

    Exposure to flavors in the amniotic fluid and mother's milk derived from the maternal diet has been shown to modulate food preferences and neophobia of young animals of several species. Aim of the experiment was to study the effects of pre- and postnatal flavor exposure on behavior of piglets during (re)exposure to this flavor. Furthermore, we investigated whether varying stress levels, caused by different test settings, affected behavior of animals during (re)exposure. Piglets were exposed to anisic flavor through the maternal diet during late gestation and/or during lactation or never. Piglets that were prenatally exposed to the flavor through the maternal diet behaved differently compared with unexposed pigs during reexposure to the flavor in several tests, suggesting recognition of the flavor. The differences between groups were more pronounced in tests with relatively high stress levels. This suggests that stress levels, caused by the design of the test, can affect the behavior shown in the presence of the flavor. We conclude that prenatal flavor exposure affects behaviors of piglets that are indicative of recognition and that these behaviors are influenced by stress levels during (re)exposure.

  7. Impact of Sleep Quality on Amygdala Reactivity, Negative Affect, and Perceived Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Aric A.; Bogdan, Ryan; Ahmad R. Hariri, PhD

    2013-01-01

    Objective Research demonstrates a negative impact of sleep disturbance on mood and affect; however, the biological mechanisms mediating these links are poorly understood. Amygdala reactivity to negative stimuli has emerged as one potential pathway. Here, we investigate the influence of self-reported sleep quality on associations between threat-related amygdala reactivity and measures of negative affect and perceived stress. Methods Analyses on data from 299 participants (125 men, 50.5% white, mean [standard deviation] age = 19.6 [1.3] years) who completed the Duke Neurogenetics Study were conducted. Participants completed several self-report measures of negative affect and perceived stress. Threat-related (i.e., angry and fearful facial expressions) amygdala reactivity was assayed using blood oxygen level–dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging. Global sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Results Amygdala reactivity to fearful facial expressions predicted greater depressive symptoms and higher perceived stress in poor (β values = 0.18–1.86, p values .05). In sex-specific analyses, men reporting poorer global sleep quality showed a significant association between amygdala reactivity and levels of depression and perceived stress (β values = 0.29–0.44, p values < .05). In contrast, no significant associations were observed in men reporting good global sleep quality or in women, irrespective of sleep quality. Conclusions This study provides novel evidence that self-reported sleep quality moderates the relationships between amygdala reactivity, negative affect, and perceived stress, particularly among men. PMID:23592753

  8. Influence of regular voluntary exercise on spontaneous and social stress-affected sleep in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancel, Marike; Droste, Susanne K; Sommer, Susanne; Reul, Johannes M H M

    2003-05-01

    To investigate the impact of regular physical exercise on sleep, we assessed sleep-wake behaviour in male C57BL/6N mice with and without long-term access (i.e. 4 weeks) to a running wheel. We studied sleep-wake behaviour during undisturbed conditions as well as after social stress. The exercising mice ran approximately 4 km/day, which affected their physical constitution, their spontaneous sleep-wake pattern and their endocrine and sleep responses to stress. When compared with the control mice, exercising animals had more muscle substance, less body fat and heavier adrenal glands. At baseline, exercising mice showed fewer, but longer-lasting, sleep episodes (indicating improved sleep consolidation) and less rapid-eye-movement sleep. In both control and exercising mice, mild social stress (elicited by a 15-min social conflict) evoked elevated plasma levels of adrenocorticotrophic hormone and corticosterone, an increase in non-rapid-eye-movement sleep, an enhancement of low-frequency activity in the electroencephalogram within non-rapid-eye-movement sleep (indicating increased sleep intensity) and a decrease in wakefulness. However, as compared with the control animals, exercising mice responded to social stress with higher corticosterone levels, but not adrenocorticotrophic hormone levels, suggesting an increased sensitivity of their adrenal glands to adrenocorticotrophic hormone. Moreover, in control mice, social stress increased rapid-eye-movement sleep in parallel to non-rapid-eye-movement sleep, whereas this stressor selectively decreased rapid-eye-movement sleep in exercising animals. Corticosterone is known to decrease rapid-eye-movement sleep. Therefore, changes in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis as a result of the long-term exercise may contribute to the observed differences in spontaneous and social stress-affected sleep. In conclusion, regular exercise appears to increase sleep quality and reverses the effects of mild

  9. Nutritional stress affects corticosterone deposition in feathers of Caspian tern chicks

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    Patterson, Allison G. L.; Kitaysky, Alexander S.; Lyons, Donald E.; Roby, Daniel D.

    2015-01-01

    Stressful environmental conditions affect the adrenocortical function of developing animals, which can have consequences for their fitness. Discovery of the avian stress hormone corticosterone (CORT) in feathers has the potential to broaden the application of endocrine research in ecological and evolutionary studies of wild birds by providing a long-term measure of CORT secretion. Mechanisms of CORT deposition in feathers are not well known and few studies have related feather CORT to circulating plasma CORT during feather growth. Our objective was to experimentally test the validity of using feather CORT as a measure of CORT secretion in developing birds experiencing nutritional stress. Caspian tern Hydroprogne caspia chicks were fed ad libitum or restricted (35% less than ad libitum) diets for four weeks. We measured CORT in feathers from these chicks to examine the relationship between feather CORT concentrations and nutritional limitation, circulating plasma CORT, and feather development. We found that feather CORT was higher in controls fed ad libitum than in restricted individuals, despite higher levels of plasma CORT in restricted chicks compared to controls. Feather mass and growth rates were strongly and positively related to feather CORT concentrations in both treatments. This is the first experimental study to show that feather CORT concentrations can be lower in response to nutritional stress, even when plasma CORT concentrations are elevated. Our results indicate that CORT deposition in feathers may be confounded when feather mass and growth rates are compromised by nutritional stress. We conclude that feather CORT can be used for assessing nutritional stress in growing birds, but the direction of response depends on how strongly stress affects feather development.

  10. Stress assessment using hair cortisol of kangaroos affected by the lumpy jaw disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotohira, Yukari; Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Sano, Tadashi; Arai, Chigusa; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko; Hayashi, Hideaki

    2017-05-03

    The aim of this study was to objectively assess stress of kangaroos affected by lumpy jaw disease (LJD) using plasma and hair cortisol concentrations. The plasma and hair samples were collected from kangaroos with LJD and healthy controls. Collected hair samples were extracted with methanol after washing with isopropanol, following which they were processed with the cortisol enzyme immunoassay kit. The plasma cortisol concentration of LJD animals tended to be higher than that of the control. Ventral hair cortisol, but not dorsal hair, of LJD animals was significantly higher than that of the control. In conclusion, stress in kangaroos infected with LJD could be assessed by measuring ventral hair cortisol.

  11. Heat stress but not inbreeding affects offensive sperm competitiveness in Callosobruchus maculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieshout, Emile; Tomkins, Joseph L; Simmons, Leigh W

    2013-09-01

    Environmental and genetic stress have well-known detrimental effects on ejaculate quality, but their concomitant effect on male fitness remains poorly understood. We used competitive fertilization assays to expose the effects of stress on offensive sperm competitive ability in the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, a species where ejaculates make up more than 5% of male body mass. To examine the effects of environmental and genetic stress, males derived from outcrosses or sib matings were heat shocked at 50°C for 50 min during the pupal stage, while their siblings were maintained at a standard rearing temperature of 28°C. Heat-shocked males achieved only half the offensive paternity success of their siblings. While this population exhibited inbreeding depression in body size, sperm competitiveness was unaffected by inbreeding, nor did the effect of heat shock stress on sperm competitiveness depend on inbreeding status. In contrast, pupal emergence success was increased by 34% among heat-stressed individuals, regardless of their inbreeding status. Heat-shocked males' ejaculate size was 19% reduced, but they exhibited 25% increased mating duration in single mating trials. Our results highlight both the importance of stress in postcopulatory sexual selection, and the variability among stressors in affecting male fitness.

  12. Maternal Stress Affects Fetal Growth but Not Developmental Instability in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Bots

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Developmental instability (DI, often measured by fluctuating asymmetry (FA or the frequency of phenodeviants (fPD, is thought to increase with stress. However, specifically for stressors of maternal origin, evidence of such negative associations with DI is scarce. Whereas effects of maternal stress on DI have predominately been examined retroactively in humans, very little is known from experiments with well-defined stress levels in animal model systems. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of maternal exposure to three doses (plus a control of a toxic compound affecting maternal condition on DI of their offspring in rabbits. Presence of maternal stress induced by the treatment was confirmed by a decrease in food consumption and weight gain of gravid females in the medium and high dose. Major abnormalities and mortality were unaffected by dose, suggesting the lack of toxic effects of the compound on the offspring. In spite of string maternal stress, offspring FA did not increase with dose. The treatment did lead to elevated fPD, but most were transient, reflecting growth retardation. Furthermore, a consistent association between fPD and FA was absent. These findings indicate that DI is not increased by maternal stress in this animal model.

  13. ER stress affects processing of MHC class I-associated peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meloche Sylvain

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viral infection and neoplastic transformation trigger endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress. Thus, a large proportion of the cells that must be recognized by the immune system are stressed cells. Cells respond to ER stress by launching the unfolded protein response (UPR. The UPR regulates the two key processes that control major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I-peptide presentation: protein synthesis and degradation. We therefore asked whether and how the UPR impinges on MHC I-peptide presentation. Results We evaluated the impact of the UPR on global MHC I expression and on presentation of the H2Kb-associated SIINFEKL peptide. EL4 cells stably transfected with vectors coding hen egg lysozyme (HEL-SIINFEKL protein variants were stressed with palmitate or exposed to glucose deprivation. UPR decreased surface expression of MHC I but did not affect MHC I mRNA level nor the total amount of intracellular MHC I proteins. Impaired MHC I-peptide presentation was due mainly to reduced supply of peptides owing to an inhibition of overall protein synthesis. Consequently, generation of H2Kb-SIINFEKL complexes was curtailed during ER stress, illustrating how generation of MHC I peptide ligands is tightly coupled to ongoing protein synthesis. Notably, the UPR-induced decline of MHC I-peptide presentation was more severe when the protein source of peptides was localized in the cytosol than in the ER. This difference was not due to changes in the translation rates of the precursor proteins but to increased stability of the cytosolic protein during ER stress. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that ER stress impairs MHC I-peptide presentation, and that it differentially regulates expression of ER- vs. cytosol-derived peptides. Furthermore, this work illustrates how ER stress, a typical feature of infected and malignant cells, can impinge on cues for adaptive immune recognition.

  14. The Relationship between Social Affect and Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors Measured on the ADOS-2 and Maternal Stress

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    Schutte, Claire; Richardson, Wendy; Devlin, Morgan; Hill, Jeanna; Ghossainy, Maliki; Hewitson, Laura

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated categories of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms measured by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Second Edition and their association with maternal stress. Social affect and restricted and repetitive behaviors were compared with levels of maternal stress, measured by the Parenting Stress Index, in 102 children…

  15. Effects of Hatha yoga and African dance on perceived stress, affect, and salivary cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Jeremy; Otte, Christian; Geher, Kathleen; Johnson, Joe; Mohr, David C

    2004-10-01

    Dance and yoga have been shown to produce improvements in psychological well-being. The aim of this study was to examine some of the psychological and neuroendocrine response to these activities. Sixty-nine healthy college students participated in one of three 90-min classes: African dance (n = 21), Hatha yoga (n= 18), or a biology lecture as a control session (n = 30). Before and after each condition participants completed the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), completed the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule, and provided a saliva sample for cortisol. There were significant reductions in PSS and negative affect (ps dance and Hatha yoga showed significant declines, whereas there was no significant change in biology lecture. There was no significant main effect for positive affect (p = .53), however there was a significant interaction effect (p dance, decreased in biology lecture, and did not change significantly in Hatha yoga. There was a significant main effect for salivary cortisol (p dance, decreased in Hatha yoga, and did not change in biology. Changes in cortisol were not significantly related to changes in psychological variables across treatments. There was 1 significant interaction effect (p = .04) such that change in positive affect and change in cortisol were negatively correlated in Hatha yoga but positively correlated in Africa dance and biology. Both African dance and Hatha yoga reduced perceived stress and negative affect. Cortisol increased in African dance and decreased in Hatha yoga. Therefore, even when these interventions produce similar positive psychological effects, the effects may be very different on physiological stress processes. One factor that may have particular salience is that amount of physiological arousal produced by the intervention.

  16. Global life satisfaction predicts ambulatory affect, stress, and cortisol in daily life in working adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Joshua M; Zawadzki, Matthew J; Juth, Vanessa; Sciamanna, Christopher N

    2017-04-01

    Global life satisfaction has been linked with long-term health advantages, yet how life satisfaction impacts the trajectory of long-term health is unclear. This paper examines one such possible mechanism-that greater life satisfaction confers momentary benefits in daily life that accumulate over time. A community sample of working adults (n = 115) completed a measure of life satisfaction and then three subsequent days of ecological momentary assessment surveys (6 times/day) measuring affect (i.e., emotional valence, arousal), and perceived stress, and also provided salivary cortisol samples. Multilevel models indicated that people with higher (vs. lower) levels of life satisfaction reported better momentary affect, less stress, marginally lower momentary levels and significantly altered diurnal slopes of cortisol. Findings suggest individuals with high global life satisfaction have advantageous daily experiences, providing initial evidence for potential mechanisms through which global life satisfaction may help explain long-term health benefits.

  17. Coping behaviours and post-traumatic stress in war-affected eastern Congolese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mels, Cindy; Derluyn, Ilse; Broekaert, Eric; García-Pérez, Coral

    2015-02-01

    This study explores coping strategies used by war-affected eastern Congolese adolescents across age and sex, and the association between post-traumatic stress symptoms and engagement and disengagement coping. Cross-sectional data were collected in 11 secondary schools across four areas in the Ituri province, Democratic Republic of Congo. A total of 952 pupils (45.3% girls, 54.7% boys) aged 13-21 years (M = 15.83, standard deviation = 1.81) participated in self-report assessment, using instruments that were either specifically developed (Adolescent Complex Emergency Exposure Scale, assessing traumatic exposure), validated (Impact of Event Scale Revised, assessing post-traumatic stress symptoms) or reviewed (Kidcope, assessing coping strategies) for the study population. Reported coping strategies varied with age, and boys more frequently reported problem solving and resignation as compared with girls. Disengagement coping was associated with lower symptom scores in younger adolescent girls, as was the interaction effect between engagement and disengagement coping. We conclude that disengagement coping is not necessarily a maladaptive reaction to stressful events in war-affected situations and that future research should aim to better understand the heterogeneous patterns of stress and coping responses, including the role of factors such as the nature and appraisal of stressors, available resources for coping and cultural preferences. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Drought stress affects plant metabolites and herbivore preference but not host location by its parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldegergis, Berhane T; Zhu, Feng; Poelman, Erik H; Dicke, Marcel

    2015-03-01

    One of the main abiotic stresses that strongly affects plant survival and the primary cause of crop loss around the world is drought. Drought stress leads to sequential morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular changes that can have severe effects on plant growth, development and productivity. As a consequence of these changes, the interaction between plants and insects can be altered. Using cultivated Brassica oleracea plants, the parasitoid Microplitis mediator and its herbivorous host Mamestra brassicae, we studied the effect of drought stress on (1) the emission of plant volatile organic compounds (VOCs), (2) plant hormone titres, (3) preference and performance of the herbivore, and (4) preference of the parasitoid. Higher levels of jasmonic acid (JA) and abscisic acid (ABA) were recorded in response to herbivory, but no significant differences were observed for salicylic acid (SA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Drought significantly impacted SA level and showed a significant interactive effect with herbivory for IAA levels. A total of 55 VOCs were recorded and the difference among the treatments was influenced largely by herbivory, where the emission rate of fatty acid-derived volatiles, nitriles and (E)-4,8-dimethylnona-1,3,7-triene [(E)-DMNT] was enhanced. Mamestra brassicae moths preferred to lay eggs on drought-stressed over control plants; their offspring performed similarly on plants of both treatments. VOCs due to drought did not affect the choice of M. mediator parasitoids. Overall, our study reveals an influence of drought on plant chemistry and insect-plant interactions.

  19. Stress assessment using hair cortisol of kangaroos affected by the lumpy jaw disease

    OpenAIRE

    SOTOHIRA, Yukari; SUZUKI, Kazuyuki; SANO, Tadashi; ARAI, Chigusa; ASAKAWA, Mitsuhiko; HAYASHI, Hideaki

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to objectively assess stress of kangaroos affected by lumpy jaw disease (LJD) using plasma and hair cortisol concentrations. The plasma and hair samples were collected from kangaroos with LJD and healthy controls. Collected hair samples were extracted with methanol after washing with isopropanol, following which they were processed with the cortisol enzyme immunoassay kit. The plasma cortisol concentration of LJD animals tended to be higher than that of the control. ...

  20. Attention-Affect Check List: A self-report measure of acute mental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, YUKIHIRO; Tanaka, GOHICHI

    2004-05-01

    Given a hint from Lang, Bradley, and Cutbert's (1997) defense cascade, two cognitive processes, instead of passive versus active behavioral coping, which seem to have differential effects on the provocation of vascular- versus cardiac-dominant reaction pattern during mental stress were advocated: attention (Attent) versus unpleasant affect (UnplAff). Based on this notion the Attention-Affect Check List (AACL) was developed as a self-report measure. In addition, items on uncontrollability (Uncontr) were prepared for the purpose of checking whether heightened Attent and UnplAff are accompanied by alterations in Uncontr. Two hundred and eighty-four students underwent two kinds of mental stress, which seemed to specifically heighten Attent and UnplAff. Four factors with four items each were extracted from the AACL item pool: concentrated and allocated Attent, UnplAff, and pleasant affect. Also, one factor with four items was extracted from the Uncontr item pool. For both the mental stresses, each scale, although very brief, had quite reasonable alpha reliability. Accountability of each scale for the total variance was reasonably high. Some problems are discussed in relation to the validity of AACL.

  1. Acute Stress Eliminates Female Advantage in Detection of Ambiguous Negative Affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. DeDora

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The human stress response evolved to maximize an individual's probability of survival when threatened. The present study addressed whether physical danger modulates perception of an unrelated ambiguous threat and, if so, to what extent this response is sex-specific. The authors utilized a first-time tandem skydive as a stressor, which had been previously validated as producing a highly-controlled, genuinely stressful environment. In a counter-balanced within-subjects design, participants wore a virtual reality helmet to complete an emotion-identification task during the plane's ascent (stress condition and in the laboratory (control condition. Participants were presented static male faces morphed between 20–80% aggression, which gradually emerged from degraded images. Using a binary forced-choice design, participants identified each ambiguous face as aggressive or neutral. Results showed that participants characterized emotion more rapidly under stress versus control conditions. Unexpectedly, the results also show that while women were more sensitive to affect ambiguity than men under control conditions, they exhibited a marked decrease in sensitivity equivalent to men while under stress.

  2. Unstable Maternal Environment Affects Stress Response in Adult Mice in a Genotype-Dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Segni, Matteo; Andolina, Diego; Luchetti, Alessandra; Babicola, Lucy; D'Apolito, Lina Ilaras; Pascucci, Tiziana; Conversi, David; Accoto, Alessandra; D'Amato, Francesca R; Ventura, Rossella

    2016-10-17

    Early postnatal events exert powerful effects on development, inducing persistent functional alterations in different brain network, such as the catecholamine prefrontal-accumbal system, and increasing the risk of developing psychiatric disorders later in life. However, a vast body of literature shows that the interaction between genetic factors and early environmental conditions is crucial for expression of psychopathologies in adulthood. We evaluated the long-lasting effects of a repeated cross-fostering (RCF) procedure in 2 inbred strains of mice (C57BL/6J, DBA/2), known to show a different susceptibility to the development and expression of stress-induced psychopathologies. Coping behavior (forced swimming test) and preference for a natural reinforcing stimulus (saccharine preference test) were assessed in adult female mice of both genotypes. Moreover, c-Fos stress-induced activity was assessed in different brain regions involved in stress response. In addition, we evaluated the enduring effects of RCF on catecholamine prefrontal-accumbal response to acute stress (restraint) using, for the first time, a new "dual probes" in vivo microdialysis procedure in mouse. RCF experience affects behavioral and neurochemical responses to acute stress in adulthood in opposite direction in the 2 genotypes, leading DBA mice toward an "anhedonic-like" phenotype and C57 mice toward an increased sensitivity for a natural reinforcing stimulus. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. The moderating effects of aging and cognitive abilities on the association between work stress and negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Jinshil; Sliwinski, Martin J; Almeida, David M; Smyth, Joshua M; Scott, Stacey B

    2018-05-01

    Given that the association between work stress and negative affect can exacerbate negative health and workplace outcomes, it is important to identify the protective and risk factors that moderate this association. Socioemotional aging and cognitive abilities might influence how people utilize emotion regulation skills and engage in practical problem solving to manage their work stress. The aim of this study is to examine whether age and cognitive abilities independently and interactively moderate the association between work-related stress and negative affect. A diverse working adult sample (N = 139, age 25-65, 69% of females) completed a cross-sectional survey that assessed chronic work stress, negative affect, and fluid and crystallized cognitive abilities. Results from regression analyses suggested that both fluid and crystallized cognitive abilities, but not age, moderated the association between work stress and negative affect. Further, we found that crystallized cognition had a stronger attenuating effect on the work stress-negative affect association for older compared to younger workers. The moderating effect of fluid cognition was invariant across age. Our findings demonstrate that cognitive abilities are an important personal resource that might protect individuals against the negative impacts of work stress and negative affect. Although the role that fluid cognition plays in work stress-negative affect association is comparably important for both younger and older workers, crystallized cognition might play a more valuable role for older than younger workers.

  4. Negative affect mediates effects of psychological stress on disordered eating in young Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jue; Wang, Zhen; Guo, Boliang; Arcelus, Jon; Zhang, Haiyin; Jia, Xiuzhen; Xu, Yong; Qiu, Jianyin; Xiao, Zeping; Yang, Min

    2012-01-01

    The bi-relationships between psychological stress, negative affect and disordered eating has been well studied in western culture, while tri-relationship among them, i.e. how some of those factors influence these bi-relationships, has rarely been studied. However, there has been little related study in the different Chinese culture. This study was conducted to investigate the bi-relationships and tri-relationship between psychological stress, negative affect, and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors in young Chinese women. A total of 245 young Chinese policewomen employed to carry out health and safety checks at the 2010 Shanghai World Expo were recruited in this study. The Chinese version of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), Beck Depression Inventory Revised (BDI-II), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) were administered to all participants. The total scores of PSS-10, BDI-II and BAI were all highly correlated with that of EAT-26. The PSS-10 score significantly correlated with both BDI-II and BAI scores. There was no statistically significant direct effect from perceived stress to disordered eating (-0.012, 95%CI: -.038~0.006, p=0.357), however, the indirect effects from PSS-10 via affect factors were statistically significant, e.g. the estimated mediation effects from PSS to EAT-26 via depression and anxiety were 0.036 (95%CI: 0.022~0.044, peffective interventions and preventative programmes for disordered eating should pay more attention to depression and anxiety among the young Chinese female population.

  5. Sensitivity of salivary hydrogen sulfide to psychological stress and its association with exhaled nitric oxide and affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Juliet L; Werchan, Chelsey A; Reeves, Audrey G; Bruemmer, Kevin J; Lippert, Alexander R; Ritz, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) is the third gasotransmitter recently discovered after nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide. Both NO and H 2 S are involved in multiple physiological functions. Whereas NO has been shown to vary with psychological stress, the influence of stress on H 2 S and the relationship between H 2 S and NO are unknown. We therefore examined levels of salivary H 2 S and NO in response to a stressful final academic exam period. Measurements of stress, negative affect, and fraction of exhaled NO (FE NO ), were obtained from students (N=16) and saliva was collected at three time points: low-stress period in the semester, early exam period, and late exam period. Saliva was immediately analyzed for H 2 S with the fluorescent probe Sulfidefluor-4. H 2 S increased significantly during the early exam period and FE NO decreased gradually towards the late exam period. H 2 S, FE NO , negative affect, and stress ratings were positively associated with each other: as stress level and negative affect increased, values of H 2 S increased; in addition, as FE NO levels decreased, H 2 S also decreased. Asthma status did not modify these associations. Sustained academic stress increases H 2 S and these changes are correlated with NO and the experience of stress and negative affect. These findings motivate research with larger samples to further explore the interaction and function of H 2 S and FE NO during psychological stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Migratory management and environmental conditions affect lifespan and oxidative stress in honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone-Finstrom, Michael; Li-Byarlay, Hongmei; Huang, Ming H.; Strand, Micheline K.; Rueppell, Olav; Tarpy, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Most pollination in large-scale agriculture is dependent on managed colonies of a single species, the honey bee Apis mellifera. More than 1 million hives are transported to California each year just to pollinate the almonds, and bees are trucked across the country for various cropping systems. Concerns have been raised about whether such “migratory management” causes bees undue stress; however to date there have been no longer-term studies rigorously addressing whether migratory management is detrimental to bee health. To address this issue, we conducted field experiments comparing bees from commercial and experimental migratory beekeeping operations to those from stationary colonies to quantify effects on lifespan, colony health and productivity, and levels of oxidative damage for individual bees. We detected a significant decrease in lifespan of migratory adult bees relative to stationary bees. We also found that migration affected oxidative stress levels in honey bees, but that food scarcity had an even larger impact; some detrimental effects of migration may be alleviated by a greater abundance of forage. In addition, rearing conditions affect levels of oxidative damage incurred as adults. This is the first comprehensive study on impacts of migratory management on the health and oxidative stress of honey bees. PMID:27554200

  7. Failure of stress and supplemental lighting to affect release of prolactin in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoagland, T A; Diekman, M A; Malven, P V

    1981-08-01

    Concentrations of prolactin (PRL) were quantified in blood serum collected by cannula from prepubertal gilts and by venipuncture from young boars. Subjecting the gilts to a 1-min experimental stress, which consisted of physical restraint with a snare, did not significantly affect serum PRL. However, injection of 50 micrograms thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) abruptly increased serum PRL within 5 minutes. In a second experiment with gilts, the stress of vascular cannulation did not increase serum PRL during the ensuing 4-hr period in comparison with concentrations in other gilts cannulated 90 min or 18 hr earlier. Venipuncture samples were obtained biweekly from boars exposed to natural lighting or to supplemental lighting that extended the photoperiod to 15 hr/day. Supplemental lighting did not affect serum concentrations of PRL of board during the period from 17 to 33 weeks of age. Thus, PRL release in swine was resistant to stress and to supplemental lighting, two factors which readily cause PRL release in other species. However, the PRL response to exogenous TRH was similar to that observed in other species.

  8. Ultra-endurance exercise induces stress and inflammation and affects circulating hematopoietic progenitor cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzer, I; Kröpfl, J M; Fuchs, R; Pekovits, K; Mangge, H; Raggam, R B; Gruber, H-J; Prüller, F; Hofmann, P; Truschnig-Wilders, M; Obermayer-Pietsch, B; Haushofer, A C; Kessler, H H; Mächler, P

    2015-10-01

    Although amateur sports have become increasingly competitive within recent decades, there are as yet few studies on the possible health risks for athletes. This study aims to determine the impact of ultra-endurance exercise-induced stress on the number and function of circulating hematopoietic progenitor cells (CPCs) and hematological, inflammatory, clinical, metabolic, and stress parameters in moderately trained amateur athletes. Following ultra-endurance exercise, there were significant increases in leukocytes, platelets, interleukin-6, fibrinogen, tissue enzymes, blood lactate, serum cortisol, and matrix metalloproteinase-9. Ultra-endurance exercise did not influence the number of CPCs but resulted in a highly significant decline of CPC functionality after the competition. Furthermore, Epstein-Barr virus was seen to be reactivated in one of seven athletes. The link between exercise-induced stress and decline of CPC functionality is supported by a negative correlation between cortisol and CPC function. We conclude that ultra-endurance exercise induces metabolic stress and an inflammatory response that affects not only mature hematopoietic cells but also the function of the immature hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell fraction, which make up the immune system and provide for regeneration. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Analysis of Factors Affecting Stress Solution at Concrete Gravity Dam Heel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Vu Hoang; Quoc Cong, Trinh; Tongchun, Li

    2010-05-01

    Along with Vietnam's development, various hydraulic constructions including concrete gravity dams have been being built. In some of these dams, the fractures occurred at the heel of the dams are even in small and media dams. There are various reasons cause the factures at dam heel but the main reason is the stress states at dam heel are not determined correctly while designing dam. In this paper, several factors affecting stress solution at concrete gravity dam heel such as element mesh size, crack joints of upstream foundation, execution process are investigated by using finite element model of Banve concrete gravity dam. This work is very significant when the more high concrete gravity dams will be constructed in Vietnam year after year.

  10. Gallic acid attenuates high-fat diet fed-streptozotocin-induced insulin resistance via partial agonism of PPARγ in experimental type 2 diabetic rats and enhances glucose uptake through translocation and activation of GLUT4 in PI3K/p-Akt signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Gopalsamy Rajiv; Jothi, Gnanasekaran; Antony, Poovathumkal James; Balakrishna, Kedike; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Stalin, Antony; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

    2014-12-15

    In this study, the therapeutic efficacy of gallic acid from Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub. (Fabaceae) beans was examined against high-fat diet fed-streptozotocin-induced experimental type 2 diabetic rats. Molecular-dockings were done to determine the putative binding modes of gallic acid into the active sites of key insulin-signaling markers. Gallic acid (20 mg/kg) given to high-fat diet fed-streptozotocin-induced rats lowered body weight gain, fasting blood glucose and plasma insulin in diabetic rats. It further restored the alterations of biochemical parameters to near normal levels in diabetic treated rats along with cytoprotective action on pancreatic β-cell. Histology of liver and adipose tissues supported the biochemical findings. Gallic acid significantly enhanced the level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) expression in the adipose tissue of treated rat compared to untreated diabetic rat; it also slightly activated PPARγ expressions in the liver and skeletal muscle. Consequently, it improved insulin-dependent glucose transport in adipose tissue through translocation and activation of glucose transporter protein 4 (GLUT4) in phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-Akt) dependent pathway. Gallic acid docked with PPARγ; it exhibited promising interactions with the GLUT4, glucose transporter protein 1 (GLUT1), PI3K and p-Akt. These findings provided evidence to show that gallic acid could improve adipose tissue insulin sensitivity, modulate adipogenesis, increase adipose glucose uptake and protect β-cells from impairment. Hence it can be used in the management of obesity-associated type 2 diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Affect-Laden Imagery and Risk Taking: The Mediating Role of Stress and Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how affect-laden imagery that evokes emotional stress influences risk perception and risk taking in real-life scenarios. In a series of three studies, we instructed participants to imagine the consequences of risky scenarios and then rate the intensity of the experienced stress, perceived risk and their willingness to engage in risky behavior. Study 1 showed that people spontaneously imagine negative rather than positive risk consequences, which are directly related to their lower willingness to take risk. Moreover, this relationship was mediated by feelings of stress and risk perception. Study 2 replicated and extended these findings by showing that imagining negative risk consequences evokes psychophysiological stress responses observed in elevated blood pressure. Finally, in Study 3, we once again demonstrated that a higher intensity of mental images of negative risk consequences, as measured by enhanced brain activity in the parieto-occipital lobes, leads to a lower propensity to take risk. Furthermore, individual differences in creating vivid and intense negative images of risk consequences moderated the strength of the relationship between risk perception and risk taking. Participants who created more vivid and intense images of negative risk consequences paid less attention to the assessments of riskiness in rating their likelihood to take risk. To summarize, we showed that feelings of emotional stress and perceived riskiness mediate the relationship between mental imagery and risk taking, whereas individual differences in abilities to create vivid mental images may influence the degree to which more cognitive risk assessments are used in the risk-taking process. PMID:25816238

  12. Stress-Preventive Management Competencies, Psychosocial Work Environments, and Affective Well-Being: A Multilevel, Multisource Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balducci, Cristian

    2018-01-01

    The Management Competencies for Preventing and Reducing Stress at Work framework represents one of the few tailored models of leadership for work stress prevention purposes, but it has never been empirically evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether supervisors’ stress-preventive management competencies, as measured by the Stress Management Competencies Indicator Tool (SMCIT), are related to employees’ affective well-being through psychosocial work environmental factors. To this end, multilevel structural equation modelling (MSEM) was developed and tested, including data provided by both supervisors and employees. Supervisors (n = 84) self-assessed their stress-preventive management competencies (i.e., being respectful and responsible, managing and communicating existing and future work, reasoning and managing difficult situations, and managing the individual within the team) with a previously validated reduced version of the SMCIT. The supervised employees (n = 584) rated job content (e.g., job demands) and work context (e.g., role clarity) psychosocial factors and their job-related affective well-being. Supervisors’ job-related affective well-being was also included in the tested model. The results revealed that the stress-preventive competencies factor was related to employees’ affective well-being through the psychosocial work environment only when the latter was operationalized by means of contextual work factors. Supervisors’ affective well-being was related to their stress-preventive competencies, but it was not related to employees’ affective well-being. We discuss the implications of the results obtained. PMID:29495360

  13. Stress-Preventive Management Competencies, Psychosocial Work Environments, and Affective Well-Being: A Multilevel, Multisource Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toderi, Stefano; Balducci, Cristian

    2018-02-26

    The Management Competencies for Preventing and Reducing Stress at Work framework represents one of the few tailored models of leadership for work stress prevention purposes, but it has never been empirically evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether supervisors' stress-preventive management competencies, as measured by the Stress Management Competencies Indicator Tool (SMCIT), are related to employees' affective well-being through psychosocial work environmental factors. To this end, multilevel structural equation modelling (MSEM) was developed and tested, including data provided by both supervisors and employees. Supervisors ( n = 84) self-assessed their stress-preventive management competencies (i.e., being respectful and responsible, managing and communicating existing and future work, reasoning and managing difficult situations, and managing the individual within the team) with a previously validated reduced version of the SMCIT. The supervised employees ( n = 584) rated job content (e.g., job demands) and work context (e.g., role clarity) psychosocial factors and their job-related affective well-being. Supervisors' job-related affective well-being was also included in the tested model. The results revealed that the stress-preventive competencies factor was related to employees' affective well-being through the psychosocial work environment only when the latter was operationalized by means of contextual work factors. Supervisors' affective well-being was related to their stress-preventive competencies, but it was not related to employees' affective well-being. We discuss the implications of the results obtained.

  14. Childhood maltreatment and revictimization: the role of affect dysregulation, interpersonal relatedness difficulties and posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Anne

    2007-01-01

    In this study, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other posttraumatic sequelae, including affect dysregulation and problems with interpersonal relatedness, were examined as potential predictors of revictimization. Data were analyzed for 207 individuals who reported childhood maltreatment per the Child Maltreatment Interview Schedule. Participants included prison inmates, a treatment-seeking community sample, and a sample recruited via the internet. Significant gender differences were found for rates of revictimization. Controlling for the effects of childhood maltreatment, PTSD significantly predicts sexual revictimization of women. Interpersonal relatedness problems enter as a predictor for most types of revictimization of women, and indices reflective of affect dysregulation variably predict the different types of revictimization examined in this study. doi:10.1300/J229v08n04_03.

  15. Using the Dynamic Model of Affect (DMA) to examine leisure time as a stress coping resource: Taking into account stress severity and gender difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xinyi Lisa; Yarnal, Careen M.; Almeida, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Affective complexity (AC) is a marker of psychological well-being. According to the Dynamic Model of Affect (DMA), stressful experiences reduce AC while positive events increase AC. One type of positive events is leisure, which was also identified as a coping resource. This study extended the DMA and leisure coping research by assessing gender difference in how daily stress severity and leisure time influence AC. Analyzing eight-day diary data, we found that females, compared to males, experienced greater decrease in AC with increase in stress severity but also bigger increase in AC with increase in leisure time. The finding highlights gender difference in affective reactivity to and coping with daily stress, the value of the DMA, and the importance of severity appraisal. PMID:25242824

  16. The stress-affected carrier injection and transport in organic semiconductor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Weifeng; Kang, Yonglong; Chen, Huamin; Zhong, Gaoyu; Li, Yuesheng; Zhang, Bin

    2013-01-01

    The current–voltage (I–V) characteristics of the thin films of methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phyenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV) and tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq) under different stresses have been measured, together with their Young's modulus, hardness, and loading curve. We propose a model on stress-affected carrier injection and transport to explain the experimental results. The model is based on the well-built space-charge-limited current (SCLC) and injection-limited current (ILC) model, together with the electrical and mechanic properties of organic semiconductor. By Monte Carlo simulation, we investigated the relationship between the conductance and strain. We found two trends in the current variation with the stress. One is fast at low current density, and the other is relatively slower at high current density, which may due to the SCLC in the bulk and the ILC at the interface, respectively. The working voltage of the present device with the highest sensitivity is about 1 V. (paper)

  17. Relationships of Personality, Affect, Emotional Intelligence and Coping with Student Stress and Academic Success: Different Patterns of Association for Stress and Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saklofske, Donald H.; Austin, Elizabeth J.; Mastoras, Sarah M.; Beaton, Laura; Osborne, Shona E.

    2012-01-01

    The associations of personality, affect, trait emotional intelligence (EI) and coping style measured at the start of the academic year with later academic performance were examined in a group of undergraduate students at the University of Edinburgh. The associations of the dispositional and affect measures with concurrent stress and life…

  18. Negative Affect Instability among Individuals with Comorbid Borderline Personality Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiderer, Emily M.; Wang, Ting; Tomko, Rachel L.; Wood, Phillip K.; Trull, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Ecological momentary assessment (EMA; Stone & Shiffman, 1994) was utilized to examine affective instability (AI) in the daily lives of outpatients with borderline personality disorder (BPD; n=78) with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A psychiatric control group (n=50) composed of outpatients with major depressive disorder/dysthymia (MDD/DYS) was employed to compare across subgroups: BPD-only, BPD+PTSD, MDD/DYS-only, and MDD/DYS+PTSD. Compared to the BPD-only group, the BPD+PTSD group had significantly greater instability of fear and sadness, but did not significantly differ in instability of hostility or aggregate negative affect. This pattern of elevated instability of fear and sadness was not present—and, in fact, was reversed—in the MDD/DYS group. Results emphasize the importance of examining AI within the context of specific comorbidities and affect types. Treatment and research addressing AI in the context of BPD-PTSD comorbidity may benefit from a focus on fear and sadness as separate from hostility or general negative affect. PMID:26904388

  19. Trajectories of posttraumatic stress symptomatology in older persons affected by a large-magnitude disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, Robert H; Van Ness, Peter H; Fried, Terri R; Galea, Sandro; Norris, Fran H

    2013-04-01

    This study examined the nature and determinants of longitudinal trajectories of disaster-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in older persons affected by a large-magnitude disaster. Two hundred six adults age 60 or older (mean = 69, range = 60-92) who resided in the Galveston Bay area when Hurricane Ike struck in September 2008 completed telephone interviews an average of 3-, 6-, and 15-months after this disaster. Latent growth mixture modeling was employed to identify predominant trajectories of disaster-related PTSD symptoms over time; and pre-, peri-, and post-disaster determinants of these trajectories were then examined. A 3-class solution optimally characterized PTSD symptom trajectories, with the majority (78.7%) of the sample having low/no PTSD symptoms over all assessments (i.e., resistant); 16.0% having chronically elevated symptoms (i.e., chronic); and 5.3% having a delayed onset course of symptoms (i.e., delayed-onset). Lower education, greater severity of Hurricane Ike exposure (i.e., Ike-related physical illness or injury and high level of community destruction), and greater number of traumatic and stressful life events after Hurricane Ike, particularly financial problems, were associated with a chronic PTSD trajectory. Greater number of traumatic and stressful life events, particularly financial problems after Hurricane Ike, was also associated with a delayed-onset trajectory. These findings suggest that there are heterogeneous trajectories of disaster-related PTSD symptoms in older adults and that these trajectories have common and unique determinants. They also underscore the importance of prevention efforts designed to mitigate the deleterious effects of post-disaster stressors, most notably financial distress, in older persons affected by disasters. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Affect systems, changes in body mass index, disordered eating and stress: an 18-month longitudinal study in women

    OpenAIRE

    Kupeli, N.; Norton, S.; Chilcot, J.; Campbell, I. C.; Schmidt, U. H.; Troop, N. A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Evidence suggests that stress plays a role in changes in body weight and disordered eating. The present study examined the effect of mood, affect systems (attachment and social rank) and affect regulatory processes (self-criticism, self-reassurance) on the stress process and how this impacts on changes in weight and disordered eating. Methods: A large sample of women participated in a community-based prospective, longitudinal online study in which measures of body mass in...

  1. ALS mutant SOD1 interacts with G3BP1 and affects stress granule dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, Jozsef; Kuang, Lisha; Barnett, Kelly R; Zhu, Brian Z; Shissler, Susannah C; Korotkov, Konstantin V; Hayward, Lawrence J; Kasarskis, Edward J; Zhu, Haining

    2016-10-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease. Mutations in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) are responsible for approximately 20 % of the familial ALS cases. ALS-causing SOD1 mutants display a gain-of-toxicity phenotype, but the nature of this toxicity is still not fully understood. The Ras GTPase-activating protein-binding protein G3BP1 plays a critical role in stress granule dynamics. Alterations in the dynamics of stress granules have been reported in several other forms of ALS unrelated to SOD1. To our surprise, the mutant G93A SOD1 transgenic mice exhibited pathological cytoplasmic inclusions that co-localized with G3BP1-positive granules in spinal cord motor neurons. The co-localization was also observed in fibroblast cells derived from familial ALS patient carrying SOD1 mutation L144F. Mutant SOD1, unlike wild-type SOD1, interacted with G3BP1 in an RNA-independent manner. Moreover, the interaction is specific for G3BP1 since mutant SOD1 showed little interaction with four other RNA-binding proteins implicated in ALS. The RNA-binding RRM domain of G3BP1 and two particular phenylalanine residues (F380 and F382) are critical for this interaction. Mutant SOD1 delayed the formation of G3BP1- and TIA1-positive stress granules in response to hyperosmolar shock and arsenite treatment in N2A cells. In summary, the aberrant mutant SOD1-G3BP1 interaction affects stress granule dynamics, suggesting a potential link between pathogenic SOD1 mutations and RNA metabolism alterations in ALS.

  2. Salicylic acid negatively affects the response to salt stress in pea plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba-Espín, G; Clemente-Moreno, M J; Alvarez, S; García-Legaz, M F; Hernández, J A; Díaz-Vivancos, P

    2011-11-01

    We studied the effect of salicylic acid (SA) treatment on the response of pea plants to salinity. Sodium chloride (NaCl)-induced damage to leaves was increased by SA, which was correlated with a reduction in plant growth. The content of reduced ascorbate and glutathione in leaves of salt-treated plants increased in response to SA, although accumulation of the respective oxidised forms occurred. An increase in hydrogen peroxide also occurred in leaves of salt-exposed plants treated with SA. In the absence of NaCl, SA increased ascorbate peroxidase (APX; 100 μm) and glutathione-S transferase (GST; 50 μm) activities and increased catalase (CAT) activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Salinity decreased glutathione reductase (GR) activity, but increased GST and CAT activity. In salt-stressed plants, SA also produced changes in antioxidative enzymes: 100 μm SA decreased APX but increased GST. Finally, a concentration-dependent increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was induced by SA treatment in salt-stressed plants. Induction of PR-1b was observed in NaCl-stressed plants treated with SA. The treatment with SA, as well as the interaction between salinity and SA treatment, had a significant effect on PsMAPK3 expression. The expression of PsMAPK3 was not altered by 70 mm NaCl, but was statistically higher in the absence than in the presence of SA. Overall, the results show that SA treatment negatively affected the response of pea plants to NaCl, and this response correlated with an imbalance in antioxidant metabolism. The data also show that SA treatment could enhance the resistance of salt-stressed plants to possible opportunistic pathogen attack, as suggested by increased PR-1b gene expression. © 2011 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  3. Chronic variable stress prevents amphetamine-elicited 50-kHz calls in rats with low positive affectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kõiv, Kadri; Metelitsa, Mait; Vares, Marten; Tiitsaar, Kai; Raudkivi, Karita; Jaako, Külli; Vulla, Kaspar; Shimmo, Ruth; Harro, Jaanus

    2016-04-01

    The relationship between stress response and positive affective states is thought to be bidirectional: whilst stress can lead to a blunted hedonic response, positive affect reduces the negative effects of stress. We have previously shown that persistently high positive affectivity as measured by 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) is protective against chronic variable stress (CVS). The present study examined the effect of CVS on 50-kHz USVs elicited by amphetamine administration, simultaneously considering the stable inter-individual differences in positive affectivity. Forty juvenile male Wistar rats were categorised as of high (HC) or low (LC) positive affectivity based on their 50-kHz USV response to imitation of rough-and-tumble play ('tickling'). As adults, the rats were subjected to four weeks of CVS, after which D-amphetamine was administered in five daily doses followed by a challenge dose (all 1mg/kg IP) nine days later. CVS reduced sucrose preference in LC-rats only. After CVS, amphetamine-elicited 50-kHz USVs were significantly reduced in LC-rats, the effect of stress in HC-rats being smaller and less consistent. In previously stressed and amphetamine-treated LC-rats, locomotor response to amphetamine was attenuated. In stressed LC-rats, DOPAC levels and dopamine turnover were increased in striatum after amphetamine treatment, and dopamine D1 receptor levels were upregulated in nucleus accumbens. LC-rats had lower isoleucine levels in frontal cortex. These results show that stress-related changes in response to amphetamine are dependent on inter-individual differences in positive affectivity both at neurochemical and behavioural levels, and further support the notion of higher vulnerability of animals with low positive affect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  4. Academic stress and positive affect: Asian value and self-worth contingency as moderators among Chinese international students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin; Wei, Meifen

    2014-01-01

    The theoretical model proposed by Berry and colleagues (Berry, 1997; Berry, Kim, Minde, & Mok, 1987) highlights the importance of identifying moderators in the acculturation process. Accordingly, the current study examined the Asian cultural value of family recognition through achievement (FRTA) and contingency of self-worth on academic competence (CSW-AC) as moderators in the association between academic stress and positive affect among Chinese international students. A total of 370 Chinese international students completed online surveys. Results from a hierarchical regression indicated that while academic stress was negatively associated with positive affect, FRTA was positively associated with positive affect. In other words, those with high academic stress reported a lower level of positive affect. However, individuals who endorsed high levels of FRTA reported a higher level of positive affect. In addition, results also revealed a significant interaction between academic stress and CSW-AC on positive affect. Thus, the study's finding supported the moderator role of CSW-AC. Simple effect analyses were conducted to examine the significant interaction. The results showed that higher levels of CSW-AC strengthened the negative association between academic stress and positive affect but lower levels of CSW-AC did not. Future research directions and implications are discussed.

  5. Increases in exhaled nitric oxide after acute stress: association with measures of negative affect and depressive mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, Thomas; Trueba, Ana F; Simon, Erica; Auchus, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    Increases in fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) have been observed after acute laboratory stress, which could indicate a strengthening of immune defenses in acute stress because of the quick onset of the response and the role of nitric oxide in airway-protective functions. In addition, because sustained psychological distress and depression are known to deteriorate immune defenses systems, they may dampen the FeNO response to acute stress. FeNO and negative affect were measured before and after a speech and mental arithmetic stressor. We examined the association of stress-induced FeNO changes with momentary negative affect and questionnaires of perceived stress, anxious mood, and depressive mood in 39 asthma patients and 41 healthy controls. FeNO increased from baseline to stress in participants with asthma (from 3.38 [0.102] to 3.46 [0.103] ln(ppb)) and controls (2.86 [0.098] to 2.92 [0.099]; F(4,141) = 3.26, p = .014), but the magnitude of the FeNO response did not differ between groups (F mood were associated with FeNO increases after stress (most pronounced at 0 minute poststress; t(76) = 3.87, p mood is associated with a reduced mobilization of airway nitric oxide in acute stress, whereas other indicators of negative affect are positively associated with overall FeNO levels and reactivity.

  6. The Mind-Body Connection - Can Prolonged Stress Affect Whether Breast Cancer Returns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... traumatic stress to some stress to no significant stress. According to David Spiegel, M.D., one of the study's authors and a faculty member at the Stanford University School of Medicine, there were marked differences. "Comparisons ...

  7. Perfectionism in Relation to Stress and Cardiovascular Disease among Gifted Individuals and the Need for Affective Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, Ansley T.; Loveless, James P.; Mochrie, Kirk D.; Whited, Matthew C.

    2018-01-01

    Maladaptive perfectionism has the potential to put gifted individuals at an increased risk for cardiac events via the reduced heart rate variability that results from chronic negative affect and physiological stress reactions. As a result, implementing affective interventions into gifted programs may play a critical role in teaching gifted…

  8. Stress affects theta activity in limbic networks and impairs novelty-induced exploration and familiarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis eJacinto

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to a novel environment triggers the response of several brain areas that regulate emotional behaviors. Here, we studied theta oscillations within the hippocampus (HPC-amygdala (AMY-medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC network in exploration of a novel environment and subsequent familiarization through repeated exposures to that same environment; in addition, we assessed how concomitant stress exposure could disrupt this activity and impair both behavioral processes. Local field potentials were simultaneously recorded from dorsal and ventral hippocampus (dHPC and vHPC respectively, basolateral amygdala (BLA and mPFC in freely behaving rats while they were exposed to a novel environment, then repeatedly re-exposed over the course of 3 weeks to that same environment and, finally, on re-exposure to a novel unfamiliar environment. A longitudinal analysis of theta activity within this circuit revealed a reduction of vHPC and BLA theta power and vHPC-BLA theta coherence through familiarization which was correlated with a return to normal exploratory behavior in control rats. In contrast, a persistent over-activation of the same brain regions was observed in stressed rats that displayed impairments in novel exploration and familiarization processes. Importantly, we show that stress also affected intra-hippocampal synchrony and heightened the coherence between vHPC and BLA. In summary, we demonstrate that modulatory theta activity in the aforementioned circuit, namely in the vHPC and BLA, is correlated with the expression of anxiety in novelty-induced exploration and familiarization in both normal and pathological conditions.

  9. Microbiota and environmental stress: how pollution affects microbial communities in Manila clams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, M; Carraro, L; Fariselli, P; Martino, M E; Cavalieri, D; Vitali, F; Boffo, L; Patarnello, T; Bargelloni, L; Cardazzo, B

    2018-01-01

    Given the crucial role of microbiota in host development, health, and environmental interactions, genomic analyses focusing on host-microbiota interactions should certainly be considered in the investigation of the adaptive mechanisms to environmental stress. Recently, several studies suggested that microbiota associated to digestive tract is a key, although still not fully understood, player that must be considered to assess the toxicity of environmental contaminants. Bacteria-dependent metabolism of xenobiotics may indeed modulate the host toxicity. Conversely, environmental variables (including pollution) may alter the microbial community and/or its metabolic activity leading to host physiological alterations that may contribute to their toxicity. Here, 16s rRNA gene amplicon sequencing has been applied to characterize the hepatopancreas microbiota composition of the Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum. The animals were collected in the Venice lagoon area, which is subject to different anthropogenic pressures, mainly represented by the industrial activities of Porto Marghera (PM). Seasonal and geographic differences in clam microbiotas were explored and linked to host response to chemical stress identified in a previous study at the transcriptome level, establishing potential interactions among hosts, microbes, and environmental parameters. The obtained results showed the recurrent presence of putatively detoxifying bacterial taxa in PM clams during winter and over-representation of several metabolic pathways involved in xenobiotic degradation, which suggested the potential for host-microbial synergistic detoxifying actions. Strong interaction between seasonal and chemically-induced responses was also observed, which partially obscured such potentially synergistic actions. Seasonal variables and exposure to toxicants were therefore shown to interact and substantially affect clam microbiota, which appeared to mirror host response to environmental variation. It

  10. Changes in neuronal CycD/Cdk4 activity affect aging, neurodegeneration, and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icreverzi, Amalia; de la Cruz, Aida Flor A; Walker, David W; Edgar, Bruce A

    2015-10-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in human diseases, including cancer, and proposed to accelerate aging. The Drosophila Cyclin-dependent protein kinase complex cyclin D/cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CycD/Cdk4) promotes cellular growth by stimulating mitochondrial biogenesis. Here, we examine the neurodegenerative and aging consequences of altering CycD/Cdk4 function in Drosophila. We show that pan-neuronal loss or gain of CycD/Cdk4 increases mitochondrial superoxide, oxidative stress markers, and neurodegeneration and decreases lifespan. We find that RNAi-mediated depletion of the mitochondrial transcription factor, Tfam, can abrogate CycD/Cdk4's detrimental effects on both lifespan and neurodegeneration. This indicates that CycD/Cdk4's pathological consequences are mediated through altered mitochondrial function and a concomitant increase in reactive oxygen species. In support of this, we demonstrate that CycD/Cdk4 activity levels in the brain affect the expression of a set of 'oxidative stress' genes. Our results indicate that the precise regulation of neuronal CycD/Cdk4 activity is important to limit mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and prevent neurodegeneration. © 2015 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Contaminant loading in remote Arctic lakes affects cellular stress-related proteins expression in feral charr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Steve; Jorgensen, Even H.; Maule, Alec G.; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.

    2011-01-01

    The remote Arctic lakes on Bjornoya Island, Norway, offer a unique opportunity to study possible affect of lifelong contaminant exposure in wild populations of landlocked Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). This is because Lake Ellasjoen has persistent organic pollutant (POP) levels that are significantly greater than in the nearby Lake Oyangen. We examined whether this differential contaminant loading was reflected in the expression of protein markers of exposure and effect in the native fish. We assessed the expressions of cellular stress markers, including cytochrome P4501A (Cyp1A), heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in feral charr from the two lakes. The average polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) load in the charr liver from Ellasjoen was approximately 25-fold higher than in individuals from Oyangen. Liver Cyp1A protein expression was significantly higher in individuals from Ellasjoen compared with Oyangen, confirming differential PCB exposure. There was no significant difference in hsp70 protein expression in charr liver between the two lakes. However, brain hsp70 protein expression was significantly elevated in charr from Ellasjoen compared with Oyangen. Also, liver GR protein expression was significantly higher in the Ellasjoen charr compared with Oyangen charr. Taken together, our results suggest changes to cellular stress-related protein expression as a possible adaptation to chronic-contaminant exposure in feral charr in the Norwegian high-Arctic.

  12. Heat Stress Affects Facultative Symbiont-Mediated Protection from a Parasitoid Wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyworth, Eleanor R; Ferrari, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Many insects carry facultative bacterial symbionts, which provide benefits including resistance to natural enemies and abiotic stresses. Little is known about how these beneficial phenotypes are affected when biotic or abiotic threats occur simultaneously. The pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) can host several well-characterized symbiont species. The symbiont known as X-type can protect against both parasitoid wasps and heat stress. Here, we used three pea aphid genotypes that were naturally infected with X-type and the symbiont Spiroplasma sp. We compared aphids coinfected with these two symbionts with those cured from X-type and infected with only Spiroplasma to investigate the ability of X-type to confer benefits to the host when two threats are experienced simultaneously. Our aim is to explore how robust symbiont protection may be outside a benign laboratory environment. Aphids were subjected to heat shock either before or after attack by parasitoid wasps. Under a benign temperature regime, the aphids carrying X-type tended to be better protected from the parasitoid than those cured. When the aphids experienced a heat shock before being parasitized aphids carrying X-type were more susceptible than those cured. Regardless of infection with the symbiont, the aphids benefitted from being heat shocked after parasitization. The results demonstrate how resistance to parasitoid wasps can be strongly environment-dependent and that a beneficial phenotype conferred by a symbiont under controlled conditions in the laboratory does not necessarily equate to a consistently useful effect in natural populations.

  13. The influence of social psychological factors on behaviour, stress and dose in Chernobyl affected areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, M.; Allen, P.

    1998-01-01

    During the 12 years since the Chernobyl nuclear accident, people in the affected areas have lived day to day with the risks of radiation. During these 12 years many countermeasures have been applied to minimise dose and thus reduce the threat to the health of the affected populations. Some of these countermeasures are aimed at changing daily life; for example, advice and restrictions on behaviours relating to the forest, consumption of forest produce and the consumption of private milk. In order to be effective, these countermeasures require action, or compliance, on the part of the affected populations. How have people in these areas responded to this risk and to the countermeasures employed to minimise the risk? A number of social psychological factors may be involved in peoples responses to this situation, including their perceptions of threat, the perceived costs and benefits of the behaviours involved, and the influence of other people. We examine the influence of these various social psychological factors on compliance behaviour, dose, and stress related health through a survey of people in the affected areas using quantitative questionnaire measures. SPARPA or Social psychological aspects of radiation protection after accidents, is a European Commission-sponsored project (F14C-CT96-0010) involving U. Surrey, Symlog and NRPB as well as partners in the CIS. Specific objectives include: to characterise, using quantitative methods, the nature and psychological impact of countermeasures and the influence of behaviour on dose, and to develop, guidance on the implementation of countermeasures, taking account of the social and psychological context. (authors)

  14. Communalism predicts prenatal affect, stress, and physiology better than ethnicity and socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Cleopatra M; Dunkel Schetter, Christine; Campos, Belinda; Hilmert, Clayton J; Dominguez, Tyan Parker; Hobel, Calvin J; Glynn, Laura M; Sandman, Curt

    2010-07-01

    The authors examined the relevance of communalism, operationalized as a cultural orientation emphasizing interdependence, to maternal prenatal emotional health and physiology and distinguished its effects from those of ethnicity and childhood and adult socioeconomic status (SES). African American and European American women (N = 297) were recruited early in pregnancy and followed through 32 weeks gestation using interviews and medical chart review. Overall, African American women and women of lower socioeconomic backgrounds had higher levels of negative affect, stress, and blood pressure, but these ethnic and socioeconomic disparities were not observed among women higher in communalism. Hierarchical multivariate regression analyses showed that communalism was a more robust predictor of prenatal emotional health than ethnicity, childhood SES, and adult SES. Communalism also interacted with ethnicity and SES, resulting in lower blood pressure during pregnancy for African American women and women who experienced socioeconomic disadvantage over the life course. The effects of communalism on prenatal affect, stress, and physiology were not explained by depressive symptoms at study entry, perceived availability of social support, self-esteem, optimism, mastery, nor pregnancy-specific factors, including whether the pregnancy was planned, whether the pregnancy was desired after conception, or how frequently the woman felt happy to be pregnant. This suggests that a communal cultural orientation benefits maternal prenatal emotional health and physiology over and above its links to better understood personal and social resources in addition to economic resources. Implications of culture as a determinant of maternal prenatal health and well-being and an important lens for examining ethnic and socioeconomic inequalities in health are discussed.

  15. Comprehension of affective prosody in women with post-traumatic stress disorder related to childhood abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarov, A; Frewen, P; Oremus, C; Schellenberg, E G; McKinnon, M C; Lanius, R

    2015-05-01

    Although deficits in memory and cognitive processing are evident in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), difficulties with social cognition and the impact of such difficulties on interpersonal functioning are poorly understood. Here, we examined the ability of women diagnosed with PTSD related to childhood abuse to discriminate affective prosody, a central component of social cognition. Women with PTSD and healthy controls (HCs) completed two computer-based tasks assessing affective prosody: (i) recognition (categorizing foreign-language excerpts as angry, fearful, sad, or happy) and (ii) discrimination (identifying whether two excerpts played consecutively had the 'same' or 'different' emotion). The association of performance with symptom presentation, trauma history, and interpersonal functioning was also explored. Women with PTSD were slower than HCs at identifying happiness, sadness, and fear, but not anger in the speech excerpts. The presence of dissociative symptoms was related to reduced accuracy on the discrimination task. An increased severity of childhood trauma was associated with reduced accuracy on the discrimination task and with slower identification of emotional prosody. Exposure to childhood trauma is associated with long-term, atypical development in the interpretation of prosodic cues in speech. The findings have implications for the intergenerational transmission of trauma. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Acute stress differentially affects spatial configuration learning in high and low cortisol-responding healthy adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, T.; Smeets, T.J.M.; Giesbrecht, T.; Quaedflieg, C.W.E.M.; Merckelbach, H.L.G.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Stress and stress hormones modulate memory formation in various ways that are relevant to our understanding of stress-related psychopathology, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Particular relevance is attributed to efficient memory formation sustained by the hippocampus and

  17. Quiescence does not affect p53 and stress response by irradiation in human lung fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Jiawen; Itahana, Koji; Baskar, Rajamanickam

    2015-01-01

    Cells in many organs exist in both proliferating and quiescent states. Proliferating cells are more radio-sensitive, DNA damage pathways including p53 pathway are activated to undergo either G 1 /S or G 2 /M arrest to avoid entering S and M phase with DNA damage. On the other hand, quiescent cells are already arrested in G 0 , therefore there may be fundamental difference of irradiation response between proliferating and quiescent cells, and this difference may affect their radiosensitivity. To understand these differences, proliferating and quiescent human normal lung fibroblasts were exposed to 0.10–1 Gy of γ-radiation. The response of key proteins involved in the cell cycle, cell death, and metabolism as well as histone H2AX phosphorylation were examined. Interestingly, p53 and p53 phosphorylation (Ser-15), as well as the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27, were induced similarly in both proliferating and quiescent cells after irradiation. Furthermore, the p53 protein half-life, and expression of cyclin A, cyclin E, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Bax, or cytochrome c expression as well as histone H2AX phosphorylation were comparable after irradiation in both phases of cells. The effect of radioprotection by a glycogen synthase kinase 3β inhibitor on p53 pathway was also similar between proliferating and quiescent cells. Our results showed that quiescence does not affect irradiation response of key proteins involved in stress and DNA damage at least in normal fibroblasts, providing a better understanding of the radiation response in quiescent cells, which is crucial for tissue repair and regeneration. - Highlights: • p53 response by irradiation was similar between proliferating and quiescent cells. • Quiescent cells showed similar profiles of cell cycle proteins after irradiation. • Radioprotection of GSK-3β inhibitor caused similar effects between these cells. • Quiescence did not affect p53 response despite its known role in

  18. Quiescence does not affect p53 and stress response by irradiation in human lung fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Jiawen [Molecular Radiobiology Laboratory, Division of Cellular and Molecular Research (Singapore); Itahana, Koji, E-mail: koji.itahana@duke-nus.edu.sg [Cancer and Stem Cell Biology Program, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School (Singapore); Baskar, Rajamanickam, E-mail: r.baskar@nccs.com.sg [Molecular Radiobiology Laboratory, Division of Cellular and Molecular Research (Singapore); Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Centre (Singapore)

    2015-02-27

    Cells in many organs exist in both proliferating and quiescent states. Proliferating cells are more radio-sensitive, DNA damage pathways including p53 pathway are activated to undergo either G{sub 1}/S or G{sub 2}/M arrest to avoid entering S and M phase with DNA damage. On the other hand, quiescent cells are already arrested in G{sub 0}, therefore there may be fundamental difference of irradiation response between proliferating and quiescent cells, and this difference may affect their radiosensitivity. To understand these differences, proliferating and quiescent human normal lung fibroblasts were exposed to 0.10–1 Gy of γ-radiation. The response of key proteins involved in the cell cycle, cell death, and metabolism as well as histone H2AX phosphorylation were examined. Interestingly, p53 and p53 phosphorylation (Ser-15), as well as the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27, were induced similarly in both proliferating and quiescent cells after irradiation. Furthermore, the p53 protein half-life, and expression of cyclin A, cyclin E, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Bax, or cytochrome c expression as well as histone H2AX phosphorylation were comparable after irradiation in both phases of cells. The effect of radioprotection by a glycogen synthase kinase 3β inhibitor on p53 pathway was also similar between proliferating and quiescent cells. Our results showed that quiescence does not affect irradiation response of key proteins involved in stress and DNA damage at least in normal fibroblasts, providing a better understanding of the radiation response in quiescent cells, which is crucial for tissue repair and regeneration. - Highlights: • p53 response by irradiation was similar between proliferating and quiescent cells. • Quiescent cells showed similar profiles of cell cycle proteins after irradiation. • Radioprotection of GSK-3β inhibitor caused similar effects between these cells. • Quiescence did not affect p53 response despite its

  19. Protein and carbohydrate composition of larval food affects tolerance tothermal stress and desiccation in adult Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laila H; Kristensen, Torsten N; Loeschcke, Volker

    2010-01-01

    Larval nutrition may affect a range of different life history traits as well as responses to environmental stress in adult insects. Here we test whether raising larvae of fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, on two different nutritional regimes affects resistance to cold, heat and desiccation....... In contrast, flies developed on the carbohydrate-enriched growth medium recovered faster from chill coma stress compared to flies developed on a protein-enriched medium. We also found gender differences in stress tolerance, with female flies being more tolerant to chill coma, heat knockdown and desiccation...... stress compared to males. Egg production was highest in females that had developed on the protein-enriched medium. However, there was a sex-specific effect of nutrition on egg-to-adult viability, with higher viability for males developing on the sucrose-enriched medium, while female survival was highest...

  20. Accuracy of soil stress measurements as affected by transducer dimensions and shape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamandé, Mathieu; Keller, Thomas; Berisso, Feto Esimo

    2015-01-01

    Accurate measurements of soil stress are needed to evaluate the impact of traffic on soil properties and prevent soil compaction. Four types of transducer commonly used to measure vertical stress were calibrated in realistic traffic conditions in the field. The four transducer types differed...... in shape and dimensions, which are important factors influencing stress. Deviation of measured stress from true stress ranged from 15% underestimation to 18% overestimation, with transducer thickness to width ratio being the most important shape factor influencing the stress recorded. Changes in physical...... conditions in the soil above the transducers due to their installation did not influence the accuracy of vertical stress measurements. The results of this calibration are valid for correcting stress measurements in topsoil, but should be used with caution for vertical stress measurements in subsoil. All...

  1. Challenge or hindrance: Does job stress affect presenteeism among Chinese healthcare workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tianan; Ma, Mingxu; Zhu, Mingjing; Liu, Yuanling; Chen, Qian; Zhang, Shiyang; Deng, Jianwei

    2018-03-27

    We examined the effects of challenge stress and hindrance stress on general health and presenteeism among Chinese healthcare workers. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate data from a national hospital survey in China (n = 1392). Job stress, general health, and presenteeism were measured by the Perceived Ability to Work Scale, the 8-item Short-Form Health Survey, and the Challenge- and Hindrance-Related Self-reported Stress Scale. Challenge stress and hindrance stress were significantly positively correlated (β = 0.62, SE = 0.021; p Challenge stress was directly negatively associated with presenteeism (β = -0.05, SE = 0.037; p hindrance stress was positively associated with presenteeism (β = 0.25, SE = 0.040; p challenge, but employee health is the most important consideration. Further efforts targeting job stress and health of junior healthcare workers are required.

  2. Ecological interactions affecting population-level responses to chemical stress in Mesocyclops leuckarti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Devdutt; Hommen, Udo; Schäffer, Andreas; Preuss, Thomas G

    2014-10-01

    Higher tiers of ecological risk assessment (ERA) consider population and community-level endpoints. At the population level, the phenomenon of density dependence is one of the most important ecological processes that influence population dynamics. In this study, we investigated how different mechanisms of density dependence would influence population-level ERA of the cyclopoid copepod Mesocyclops leuckarti under toxicant exposure. We used a combined approach of laboratory experiments and individual-based modelling. An individual-based model was developed for M. leuckarti to simulate population dynamics under triphenyltin exposure based on individual-level ecological and toxicological data from laboratory experiments. The study primarily aimed to-(1) determine which life-cycle processes, based on feeding strategies, are most significant in determining density dependence (2) explore how these mechanisms of density dependence affect extrapolation from individual-level effects to the population level under toxicant exposure. Model simulations showed that cannibalism of nauplii that were already stressed by TPT exposure contributed to synergistic effects of biotic and abiotic factors and led to a twofold stress being exerted on the nauplii, thereby resulting in a higher population vulnerability compared to the scenario without cannibalism. Our results suggest that in population-level risk assessment, it is easy to underestimate toxicity unless underlying ecological interactions including mechanisms of population-level density regulation are considered. This study is an example of how a combined approach of experiments and mechanistic modelling can lead to a thorough understanding of ecological processes in ecotoxicology and enable a more realistic ERA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Need to Belong, Not Rejection Sensitivity, Moderates Cortisol Response, Self-Reported Stress, and Negative Affect Following Social Exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekman, Janine B; Stock, Michelle L; Marcus, Tara

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined if the traits need to belong (NTB) and rejection sensitivity (RS) differentially moderate the impact of experimentally manipulated social exclusion on stress and affect. Participants (N = 132) completed a survey measuring NTB and RS, and then were randomly assigned to be included or excluded during a game of Cyberball. A second survey then assessed perceived stress and negative affect, and a cortisol sample was taken. Controlling for gender and baseline cortisol levels, excluded participants high (vs. low) in NTB had significantly higher postexclusion cortisol levels, and reported greater perceived stress and negative affect. The moderating effect for RS was not found, however, and NTB and RS were not correlated. Findings suggest that the NTB moderates psychological and physiological responses to exclusion.

  4. Dispositional Affect Moderates the Stress-Buffering Effect of Social Support on Risk for Developing the Common Cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicki Deverts, Denise; Cohen, Sheldon; Doyle, William J

    2017-10-01

    The aim was to examine whether trait positive and negative affect (PA, NA) moderate the stress-buffering effect of perceived social support on risk for developing a cold subsequent to being exposed to a virus that causes mild upper respiratory illness. Analyses were based on archival data from 694 healthy adults (M age  = 31.0 years, SD = 10.7 years; 49.0% female; 64.6% Caucasian). Perceived social support and perceived stress were assessed by self-report questionnaire and trait affect by aggregating responses to daily mood items administered by telephone interview across several days. Subsequently, participants were exposed to a virus that causes the common cold and monitored for 5 days for clinical illness (infection + objective signs of illness). Two 3-way interactions emerged-Support × Stress × PA and Support × Stress × NA. The nature of these effects was such that among persons with high trait PA or low trait NA, greater social support attenuated the risk of developing a cold when under high but not low perceived stress; this stress-buffering effect did not emerge among persons with low trait PA or high trait NA. Dispositional affect might be used to identify individuals who may be most responsive to social support and support-based interventions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase mediates insulin- and oxidative stress-induced glucose uptake in skeletal muscle myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Dean L; McCammon, Karen M; Hinchee-Rodriguez, Kathryn S; Adamo, Martin L; Roman, Linda J

    2017-09-01

    Previously published studies strongly suggested that insulin- and exercise-induced skeletal muscle glucose uptake require nitric oxide (NO) production. However, the signal transduction mechanisms by which insulin and contraction regulated NO production and subsequent glucose transport are not known. In the present study, we utilized the myotube cell lines treated with insulin or hydrogen peroxide, the latter to mimic contraction-induced oxidative stress, to characterize these mechanisms. We found that insulin stimulation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) phosphorylation, NO production, and GLUT4 translocation were all significantly reduced by inhibition of either nNOS or Akt2. Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) induced phosphorylation of nNOS at the same residue as did insulin, and also stimulated NO production and GLUT4 translocation. nNOS inhibition prevented H 2 O 2 -induced GLUT4 translocation. AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibition prevented H 2 O 2 activation and phosphorylation of nNOS, leading to reduced NO production and significantly attenuated GLUT4 translocation. We conclude that nNOS phosphorylation and subsequently increased NO production are required for both insulin- and H 2 O 2 -stimulated glucose transport. Although the two stimuli result in phosphorylation of the same residue on nNOS, they do so through distinct protein kinases. Thus, insulin and H 2 O 2 -activated signaling pathways converge on nNOS, which is a common mediator of glucose uptake in both pathways. However, the fact that different kinases are utilized provides a basis for the use of exercise to activate glucose transport in the face of insulin resistance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Affect systems, changes in body mass index, disordered eating and stress: an 18-month longitudinal study in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupeli, N; Norton, S; Chilcot, J; Campbell, I C; Schmidt, U H; Troop, N A

    2017-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that stress plays a role in changes in body weight and disordered eating. The present study examined the effect of mood, affect systems (attachment and social rank) and affect regulatory processes (self-criticism, self-reassurance) on the stress process and how this impacts on changes in weight and disordered eating. Methods: A large sample of women participated in a community-based prospective, longitudinal online study in which measures of body mass index (BMI), disordered eating, perceived stress, attachment, social rank, mood and self-criticism/reassurance were measured at 6-monthly intervals over an 18-month period. Results: Latent Growth Curve Modelling showed that BMI increased over 18 months while stress and disordered eating decreased and that these changes were predicted by high baseline levels of these constructs. Independently of this, however, increases in stress predicted a reduction in BMI which was, itself, predicted by baseline levels of self-hatred and unfavourable social comparison. Conclusions: This study adds support to the evidence that stress is important in weight change. In addition, this is the first study to show in a longitudinal design, that social rank and self-criticism (as opposed to self-reassurance) at times of difficulty predict increases in stress and, thus, suggests a role for these constructs in weight regulation.

  7. Exposure to stressful events during a peacekeeping mission may have a price: The impact on trait of negative and positive affect and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvares, Roberta Sonia Rodrigues; Mendonça-de-Souza, Ana Carolina Ferraz; Duarte, Antônio Fernando Araujo; Gameiro, Thaís Medeiros; Fischer, Nastassja Lopes; Souza, Wanderson Fernandes; Coutinho, Evandro da Silva Freire; Figueira, Ivan; Volchan, Eliane; Souza, Gabriela Guerra Leal

    2018-01-01

    We evaluated the participants' negative affect, positive affect, post-traumatic stress disorder, and depression symptoms before and after a peacekeeping mission. Depression symptoms and positive affect after mission were significantly associated with exposure to stressful events during the mission, controlled by the respective characteristics before mission. Negative affect and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms after mission had a tendency to be associated with exposure to stressful events during the mission, controlled by the respective characteristics before mission. In conclusion, even in healthy and physically active male peacekeepers, those more exposed to stressful events could be more vulnerable to present negative outcomes.

  8. The Impact of a Novel Biobehavioral Intervention on Physiologic State, Perceived Stress and Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-15

    As a result of over 15 years of war, members of the military services have experienced unprecedented consequences related to the stresses of serving...during this time. Early detection, characterization, and treatment of stress -related disorders is one of the highest priorities for the armed forces...a military population but is a promising treatment for stress related disorders.

  9. Cardiovascular and Affective Responses to Social Stress in Adolescents with Internalizing and Externalizing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Paul D.; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Usher, Barbara A.

    2007-01-01

    Behavioral responses to stress and challenge are based in emotional and physiological arousal reactions. Adolescents with maladaptive or problematic behavior patterns, such as internalizing or externalizing problems, are likely to show atypical emotional and physiological reactions to stress. Relations between problems and reactions to stress were…

  10. Does habitat disturbance affect stress, body condition and parasitism in two sympatric lemurs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotoniaina, Josué H; Kappeler, Peter M; Ravoniarimbinina, Pascaline; Pechouskova, Eva; Hämäläinen, Anni M; Grass, Juliane; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Kraus, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how animals react to human-induced changes in their environment is a key question in conservation biology. Owing to their potential correlation with fitness, several physiological parameters are commonly used to assess the effect of habitat disturbance on animals' general health status. Here, we studied how two lemur species, the fat-tailed dwarf lemur (Cheirogaleus medius) and the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus), respond to changing environmental conditions by comparing their stress levels (measured as hair cortisol concentration), parasitism and general body condition across four habitats ordered along a gradient of human disturbance at Kirindy Forest, Western Madagascar. These two species previously revealed contrasting responses to human disturbance; whereas M. murinus is known as a resilient species, C. medius is rarely encountered in highly disturbed habitats. However, neither hair cortisol concentrations nor parasitism patterns (prevalence, parasite species richness and rate of multiple infections) and body condition varied across the gradient of anthropogenic disturbance. Our results indicate that the effect of anthropogenic activities at Kirindy Forest is not reflected in the general health status of both species, which may have developed a range of behavioural adaptations to deal with suboptimal conditions. Nonetheless, a difference in relative density among sites suggests that the carrying capacity of disturbed habitat is lower, and both species respond differently to environmental changes, with C. medius being more negatively affected. Thus, even for behaviourally flexible species, extended habitat deterioration could hamper long-term viability of populations.

  11. Adenylate kinase I does not affect cellular growth characteristics under normal and metabolic stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Wieke; Oerlemans, Frank; Wieringa, Bé

    2004-07-01

    Adenylate kinase (AK)-catalyzed phosphotransfer is essential in the maintenance of cellular energetic economy in cells of fully differentiated tissues with highly variable energy demand, such as muscle and brain. To investigate if AK isoenzymes have a comparable function in the energy-demand management of proliferating cells, AK1 and AK1beta were expressed in mouse neuroblastoma N2a cells and in human colon carcinoma SW480 cells. Glucose deprivation, galactose feeding, and metabolic inhibitor tests revealed a differential energy dependency for these two cell lines. N2a cells showed a faster proliferation rate and strongest coupling to mitochondrial activity, SW480 proliferation was more dependent on glycolysis. Despite these differences, ectopic expression of AK1 or AK1beta did not affect their growth characteristics under normal conditions. Also, no differential effects were seen under metabolic stress upon treatment with mitochondrial and glycolytic inhibitors in in vitro culture or in solid tumors grown in vivo. Although many intimate connections have been revealed between cell death and metabolism, our results suggest that AK1- or AK1beta-mediated high-energy phosphoryl transfer is not a modulating factor in the survival of tumor cells during episodes of metabolic crisis.

  12. Psychosocial stress affects the acquisition of cerebellar-dependent sensorimotor adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghe, Delia A; Panouillères, Muriel T N; Walsh, Nicholas D

    2018-03-27

    Despite being overlooked in theoretical models of stress-related disorders, differences in cerebellar structure and function are consistently reported in studies of individuals exposed to current and early-life stressors. However, the mediating processes through which stress impacts upon cerebellar function are currently unknown. The aim of the current experiment was to test the effects of experimentally-induced acute stress on cerebellar functioning, using a classic, forward saccadic adaptation paradigm in healthy, young men and women. Stress induction was achieved by employing the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST), a task employing mental arithmetic and negative social feedback to generate significant physiological and endocrine stress responses. Saccadic adaptation was elicited using the double-step target paradigm. In the experiment, 48 participants matched for gender and age were exposed to either a stress (n = 25) or a control (n = 23) condition. Saliva for cortisol analysis was collected before, immediately after, and 10, and 30 min after the MIST. Saccadic adaptation was assessed approximately 10 min after stress induction, when cortisol levels peaked. Participants in the stress group reported significantly more stress symptoms and exhibited greater total cortisol output compared to controls. The stress manipulation was associated with slower learning rates in the stress group, while control participants acquired adaptation faster. Learning rates were negatively associated with cortisol output and mood disturbance. Results suggest that experimentally-induced stress slowed acquisition of cerebellar-dependent saccadic adaptation, related to increases in cortisol output. These 'proof-of-principle' data demonstrate that stress modulates cerebellar-related functions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Psychological stress affects the severity of radiation-induced acute skin reactions in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, A E; Bennett, N C; Herst, P M

    2017-11-01

    Psychological stress exacerbates many pathological conditions including inflammatory skin conditions. The effect of psychological stress on acute radiation-induced skin reactions has not been documented before. Here, we aimed to explore if psychological stress could aggravate skin reaction severity in breast cancer patients. We conducted a secondary analysis of patient data obtained during a randomised, controlled clinical trial for acute radiation-induced skin reaction severity in 78 breast cancer patients. Patients were assessed three times a week during treatment. Skin reaction severity was measured using the modified Radiation-Induced Skin Reaction Assessment Scale (RISRAS) and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grades. Stress levels were determined using a 5-point LIKERT scale to rate physical well-being, managing stress levels, house, family, work and other commitments. A total of 20 patients (26%) of the 78-patient cohort were considered stressed. Skin reaction severity in stressed patients was twice that of non-stressed patients (p stressed patients were five times more likely to develop moist desquamation. Our results show that psychological stress aggravates skin reaction severity during radiation therapy. This research needs to be validated in a more rigorous manner by incorporating a validated scale such as the Distress Thermometer and Impact Thermometer in future skin trials. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Is stress affecting our ability to tune into others? Evidence for gender differences in the effects of stress on self-other distinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomova, L; von Dawans, B; Heinrichs, M; Silani, G; Lamm, C

    2014-05-01

    Stress is a ubiquitous challenge in society as we consistently interact with others under the influence of stress. Distinguishing self- from other-related mental representations plays an important role for social interactions, and is a prerequisite for crucial social skills such as action understanding, empathy, and mentalizing. Little is known, however, about the effects of stress on self-other distinction. We assessed how acute stress impacts self-other distinction in the perceptual-motor, the affective, and the cognitive domain, in a male and female sample. In all domains, the results show opposing effects of stress on the two genders: while women showed increases in self-other distinction, men showed decreases. Our findings suggest that women flexibly disambiguate self and other under stress, enabling accurate social responses, while men respond with increased egocentricity and less adaptive regulation. This has crucial implications for explaining gender differences in social skills such as empathy and prosociality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Learning, Adjustment and Stress Disorders: With Special Reference to Tsunami Affected Regions. Beitrage zur Padagogischen und Rehabilitationspsychologie. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witruk, Evelin, Ed.; Riha, David, Ed.; Teichert, Alexandra, Ed.; Haase, Norman, Ed.; Stueck, Marcus, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This book contains selected contributions from the international workshop Learning, "Adjustment and Stress Disorders--with special reference to Tsunami affected Regions" organised by Evelin Witruk and the team of Educational and Rehabilitative Psychology at the University of Leipzig in January 2006. The book contains new results and the…

  16. Pathways of Sleep, Affect, and Stress Constellations during the First Year of College: Transition Difficulties of Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ari, Lilac Lev; Shulman, Shmuel

    2012-01-01

    One hundred and fifty Israeli first-year college students were assessed twice: during the first semester following the commencement of their undergraduate studies and toward the end of the second semester. At each semester, participants completed web-based daily diaries for seven consecutive days assessing daily sleep, affective mood, stress, and…

  17. Social stress during adolescence in Wistar rats induces social anxiety in adulthood without affecting brain monoaminergic content and activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vidal, Jose; de Bie, Josien; Granneman, Ramon A.; Wallinga, Alinde E.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Buwalda, Bauke

    2007-01-01

    Adolescence has been described as an important period to acquire social competences required for adult life. It has been suggested that early stress experiences could affect the development of the brain at different levels. These changes in the brain during adolescence may be related with the

  18. How does auditors’ work stress affect audit quality? Empirical evidence from the Chinese stock market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanmin Yan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With reference to the Job Demands–Control Model, we empirically examine the effect of auditors’ work stress on audit quality using a sample of Chinese A-share listed companies and their signature auditors from 2009 to 2013. The results show that (1 there is generally no pervasive deterioration in audit quality resulting from auditors’ work stress; (2 there is a significant negative association between work stress and audit quality in the initial audits of new clients; and (3 the perception of work stress depends on auditors’ individual characteristics. Auditors from international audit firms and those in the role of partner respond more strongly to work stress than industry experts. Auditors tend to react more intensively when dealing with state-owned companies. We suggest that audit firms attach more importance to auditors’ work stress and rationalize their allocation of audit resources to ensure high audit quality.

  19. Does Leaders' Health (and Work-Related Experiences) Affect their Evaluation of Followers' Stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, Gabriele; Mancuso, Serena; Fiz Perez, Francisco Javier; Montani, Francesco; Courcy, Francois; Arcangeli, Giulio

    2015-09-01

    Stressed workers suffer from severe health problems which appear to have increased. Poor leadership is especially considered a source of stress. Indeed, supervisors might perceive their subordinates to be similar to them as far as stress is concerned and this might more widespread in organizations than previously thought. The present research investigates the relationships between leaders' health, in terms of work-related stress, mental health, and workplace bullying and their evaluation of subordinates' stress. Five regression models were formulated to test our hypothesis. This is a cross-sectional study among 261 Italian leaders, using supervisor self-assessment and leaders' assessments of their subordinates. Leaders' health was related to their evaluation of staff stress. Job demand, lack of job control, and lack of support by colleagues and supervisors evaluated in their subordinates were particularly associated with the leaders' own health. Implications for developing healthy leaders are finally discussed.

  20. Social instability stress differentially affects amygdalar neuron adaptations and memory performance in adolescent and adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Feng eTsai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a time of developmental changes and reorganization in the brain. It has been hypothesized that stress has a greater neurological impact on adolescents than on adults. However, scientific evidence in support of this hypothesis is still limited. We treated adolescent (4-week-old and adult (8-week-old rats with social instability stress for five weeks and compared the subsequent structural and functional changes to amygdala neurons. In the stress-free control condition, the adolescent group showed higher fear-potentiated startle responses, larger dendritic arborization, more proximal dendritic spine distribution and lower levels of truncated TrkB than the adult rats. Social instability stress exerted opposite effects on fear-potentiated startle responses in these two groups, i.e., the stress period appeared to hamper the performance in adolescents but improved it in adult rats. Furthermore, whilst the chronic social stress applied to adolescent rats reduced their dendritic field and spine density in basal and lateral amygdala neurons, the opposite stress effects on neuron morphology were observed in the adult rats. Moreover, stress in adolescence suppressed the amygdala expression of synaptic proteins, i.e., full-length TrkB and SNAP-25, whereas, in the adult rats, chronic stress enhanced full-length and truncated TrkB expressions in the amygdala. In summary, chronic social instability stress hinders amygdala neuron development in the adolescent brain, while mature neurons in the amygdala are capable of adapting to the stress. The stress induced age-dependent effects on the fear-potentiated memory may occur by altering the BDNF-TrkB signaling and neuroplasticity in the amygdala.

  1. Normative Life Events and PTSD in Children: How Easy Stress Can Affect Children’s Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Kousha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to traumatic events is common in children and adolescent. Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is an emotional reaction to traumatic events, which is increasingly recognized to be a prevalent and disabling disorder. The aim of this study is to determine the distribution of normative life events which predicts PTSD in youth who referred to an outpatient clinic in Rasht, Iran. This study is a cross-sectional descriptive study. The samples of children and adolescents ranging from 1-18 yr old who were diagnosed PTSD based on DSM-IV criteria in psychiatric interview and K-SADS (Kiddie-schedule for affective disorder and schizophrenia for school age children semi-structured diagnostic interview, from 2005 until 2008.The information consist of: age, sex, comorbidity with PTSD, events accompanying with PTSD, and time interval between events and visit. Eighty four youth who met the diagnosis of PTSD and their parents participated in the survey. Half of PTSD youth were 6-11 years old and admitted to clinic in the first 3 months after events. The most common events were witnessing violent or fearful scenes on TV followed by witnessing someone's death or funeral ceremony. The most comorbidity with PTSD included: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression and anxiety. Our results indicate that youth exposure to violent or fearful scenes on TV could be very traumatic for them. Informing parents about the potential effect of low-magnitude stressors such as violent or fearful scenes on TV and funeral ceremony can decrease the prevalence of PTSD in youth.

  2. BAG3 affects the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HSF1 upon heat stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Young-Hee [Department of Biochemistry, Dongguk University College of Oriental Medicine, Gyeongju 780-714 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Sang-Gun [Department of Pathology, Chosun University College of Dentistry, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Soo-A., E-mail: ksooa@dongguk.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, Dongguk University College of Oriental Medicine, Gyeongju 780-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-21

    Bcl2-associated athoanogene (BAG) 3 is a member of the co-chaperone BAG family. It is induced by stressful stimuli such as heat shock and heavy metals, and it regulates cellular adaptive responses against stressful conditions. In this study, we identified a novel role for BAG3 in regulating the nuclear shuttling of HSF1 during heat stress. The expression level of BAG3 was induced by heat stress in HeLa cells. Interestingly, BAG3 rapidly translocalized to the nucleus upon heat stress. Immunoprecipitation assay showed that BAG3 interacts with HSF1 under normal and stressed conditions and co-translocalizes to the nucleus upon heat stress. We also demonstrated that BAG3 interacts with HSF1 via its BAG domain. Over-expression of BAG3 down-regulates the level of nuclear HSF1 by exporting it to the cytoplasm during the recovery period. Depletion of BAG3 using siRNA results in reduced nuclear HSF1 and decreased Hsp70 promoter activity. BAG3 in MEF(hsf1{sup −/−}) cells actively translocalizes to the nucleus upon heat stress suggesting that BAG3 plays a key role in the processing of the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HSF1 upon heat stress. - Highlights: • The expression level of BAG3 is induced by heat stress. • BAG3 translocates to the nucleus upon heat stress. • BAG3 interacts with HSF1 and co-localizes to the nucleus. • BAG3 is a key regulator for HSF1 nuclear shuttling.

  3. Anxiety, Stress, and Trauma Symptoms in African Americans: Negative Affectivity Does Not Explain the Relationship between Microaggressions and Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Monnica T; Kanter, Jonathan W; Ching, Terence H W

    2017-11-02

    Prior research has demonstrated a clear relationship between experiences of racial microaggressions and various indicators of psychological unwellness. One concern with these findings is that the role of negative affectivity, considered a marker of neuroticism, has not been considered. Negative affectivity has previously been correlated to experiences of racial discrimination and psychological unwellness and has been suggested as a cause of the observed relationship between microaggressions and psychopathology. We examined the relationships between self-reported frequency of experiences of microaggressions and several mental health outcomes (i.e., anxiety [Beck Anxiety Inventory], stress [General Ethnic and Discrimination Scale], and trauma symptoms [Trauma Symptoms of Discrimination Scale]) in 177 African American and European American college students, controlling for negative affectivity (the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule) and gender. Results indicated that African Americans experience more racial discrimination than European Americans. Negative affectivity in African Americans appears to be significantly related to some but not all perceptions of the experience of discrimination. A strong relationship between racial mistreatment and symptoms of psychopathology was evident, even after controlling for negative affectivity. In summary, African Americans experience clinically measurable anxiety, stress, and trauma symptoms as a result of racial mistreatment, which cannot be wholly explained by individual differences in negative affectivity. Future work should examine additional factors in these relationships, and targeted interventions should be developed to help those suffering as a result of racial mistreatment and to reduce microaggressions.

  4. Early-Life Stress Affects Stress-Related Prefrontal Dopamine Activity in Healthy Adults, but Not in Individuals with Psychotic Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Kasanova

    Full Text Available Early life stress may have a lasting impact on the developmental programming of the dopamine (DA system implicated in psychosis. Early adversity could promote resilience by calibrating the prefrontal stress-regulatory dopaminergic neurotransmission to improve the individual's fit with the predicted stressful environment. Aberrant reactivity to such match between proximal and distal environments may, however, enhance psychosis disease risk. We explored the combined effects of childhood adversity and adult stress by exposing 12 unmedicated individuals with a diagnosis of non-affective psychotic disorder (NAPD and 12 healthy controls (HC to psychosocial stress during an [18F]fallypride positron emission tomography. Childhood trauma divided into early (ages 0-11 years and late (12-18 years was assessed retrospectively using a questionnaire. A significant group x childhood trauma interaction on the spatial extent of stress-related [18F]fallypride displacement was observed in the mPFC for early (b = -8.45, t(1,23 = -3.35, p = .004 and late childhood trauma (b = -7.86, t(1,23 = -2.48, p = .023. In healthy individuals, the spatial extent of mPFC DA activity under acute psychosocial stress was positively associated with the severity of early (b = 7.23, t(11 = 3.06, p = .016 as well as late childhood trauma (b = -7.86, t(1,23 = -2.48, p = .023. Additionally, a trend-level main effect of early childhood trauma on subjective stress response emerged within this group (b = -.7, t(11 = -2, p = .07, where higher early trauma correlated with lower subjective stress response to the task. In the NAPD group, childhood trauma was not associated with the spatial extent of the tracer displacement in mPFC (b = -1.22, t(11 = -0.67, nor was there a main effect of trauma on the subjective perception of stress within this group (b = .004, t(11 = .01, p = .99. These findings reveal a potential mechanism of neuroadaptation of prefrontal DA transmission to early life stress

  5. How does workplace stress affect job performance? An employee’s perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Whitfield, Matthew; Cachia, Moira

    2018-01-01

    This study looks at the effect of perceived stress upon employees within the workplace environment and how it impacts their operating performance. Qualitative methodology was applied to gather in-depth information about the participants’ experience of employment and associated factors that induce stress. This article reports the research outcome, relating the results to previous research on the topic.

  6. Cognitive and Interpersonal Predictors of Stress Generation in Children of Affectively Ill Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Josephine H.; Abela, John R. Z.; Starrs, Claire

    2009-01-01

    Stress generation is a process in which individuals, through their depressive symptoms, personal characteristics, and/or behaviors, contribute to the occurrence of stressful life events. While this process has been well documented in adults, few studies have examined it in children. The present study examines whether cognitive and interpersonal…

  7. Factors affecting the recovery-stress, burnout and mood state scores ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation ... A sample of 41 male student rugby players (mean age: 21.87 ± 1.39 years) completed the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire (Kellmann & Kallus, 2001), Athlete Burnout ... Key words: Overtraining; Recovery-stress; Burnout; Mood States; Rugby.

  8. Numerical study of how creep and progressive stiffening affect the growth stress formation in trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormarsson, Sigurdur; Dahlblom, O.; Johansson, M.

    2010-01-01

    and they are highly influenced by climate, biologic and material related factors. To increase the knowledge of the stress formation a finite element model was created to study how the growth stresses develop during the tree growth. The model is an axisymmetric general plane strain model where material for all new...

  9. Destructive Examinations on Divider Plates from Decommissioned Steam Generators Affected by Superficial Stress Corrosion Cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloudi, Salem; Firmin, Erwan; Deforge, Damien; Vaillant, François; Lemaire, Emmanuel

    Stress Corrosion Cracking of nickel alloys has been a major concern for all the Nuclear Power Plants over the last forty years. Since 2002, some cases of Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) have been reported on Steam Generator (SG) Divider Plates. However, evidence of propagation following the first detection has never been observed (based on nearly one hundred in-service inspections).

  10. Psychogenic fever: how psychological stress affects body temperature in the clinical population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Takakazu

    2015-01-01

    Psychogenic fever is a stress-related, psychosomatic disease especially seen in young women. Some patients develop extremely high core body temperature (Tc) (up to 41°C) when they are exposed to emotional events, whereas others show persistent low-grade high Tc (37–38°C) during situations of chronic stress. The mechanism for psychogenic fever is not yet fully understood. However, clinical case reports demonstrate that psychogenic fever is not attenuated by antipyretic drugs, but by psychotropic drugs that display anxiolytic and sedative properties, or by resolving patients' difficulties via natural means or psychotherapy. Animal studies have demonstrated that psychological stress increases Tc via mechanisms distinct from infectious fever (which requires proinflammatory mediators) and that the sympathetic nervous system, particularly β3-adrenoceptor-mediated non-shivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue, plays an important role in the development of psychological stress-induced hyperthermia. Acute psychological stress induces a transient, monophasic increase in Tc. In contrast, repeated stress induces anticipatory hyperthermia, reduces diurnal changes in Tc, or slightly increases Tc throughout the day. Chronically stressed animals also display an enhanced hyperthermic response to a novel stress, while past fearful experiences induce conditioned hyperthermia to the fear context. The high Tc that psychogenic fever patients develop may be a complex of these diverse kinds of hyperthermic responses. PMID:27227051

  11. Role of Virtues and Perceived Life Stress in Affecting Psychological Symptoms among Chinese College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wenjie; Ho, Samuel M. Y.; Siu, Bowie P. Y.; Li, Tingting; Zhang, Yonghong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the relationship among virtues, self-perceived life stress, and psychological symptoms. Participants: A total of 235 undergraduates participated in the study in March 2013. Methods: The participants were recruited to complete the Life Stress Rating Scale for College Students, the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire that…

  12. Soil chemical properties affect the reaction of forest soil bacteria to drought and rewetting stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodak, Marcin; Gołębiewski, Marcin; Morawska-Płoskonka, Justyna; Kuduk, Katarzyna; Niklińska, Maria

    Reaction of soil bacteria to drought and rewetting stress may depend on soil chemical properties. The objectives of this study were to test the reaction of different bacterial phyla to drought and rewetting stress and to assess the influence of different soil chemical properties on the reaction of soil bacteria to this kind of stress. The soil samples were taken at ten forest sites and measured for pH and the contents of organic C (C org ) and total N (N t ), Zn, Cu, and Pb. The samples were kept without water addition at 20 - 30 °C for 8 weeks and subsequently rewetted to achieve moisture equal to 50 - 60 % of their maximum water-holding capacity. Prior to the drought period and 24 h after the rewetting, the structure of soil bacterial communities was determined using pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. The drought and rewetting stress altered bacterial community structure. Gram-positive bacterial phyla, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes , increased in relative proportion after the stress, whereas the Gram-negative bacteria in most cases decreased. The largest decrease in relative abundance was for Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes . For several phyla the reaction to drought and rewetting stress depended on the chemical properties of soils. Soil pH was the most important soil property influencing the reaction of a number of soil bacterial groups (including all classes of Proteobacteria , Bacteroidetes , Acidobacteria , and others) to drought and rewetting stress. For several bacterial phyla the reaction to the stress depended also on the contents of N t and C org in soil. The effect of heavy metal pollution was also noticeable, although weaker compared to other chemical soil properties. We conclude that soil chemical properties should be considered when assessing the effect of stressing factors on soil bacterial communities.

  13. Unusual stress fracture in an adolescent baseball pitcher affecting the trochlear groove of the olecranon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, Joseph J.; Block, John J.; Kan, J.H.; Hannah, Gene A.

    2008-01-01

    Stress fractures of the proximal ulna are known to occur in throwing athletes. Most cases extend to involve the olecranon, and cases limited to the trochlear groove are rare. In this report we present a 17-year-old elite baseball pitcher with a stress fracture of the trochlear groove of the proximal ulna. Diagnosis was made by demonstration of characteristic signal changes on MRI of the elbow. The fracture occurred at the cortical notch, also known as the pseudodefect of the trochlear groove. This case suggests that the cortical notch serves as an area of weakness predisposing pitchers to development of a stress fracture. (orig.)

  14. Growth and Yield Quality Parameter of Phyllanthus Amarus as Affected by Moisture and Temperature Stress factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrawanshi, N.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the influence of moisture and temperature stress on plant phenological parameters of Phyllanthus amarusplant. A pot experiment was conducted under controlled water stress environment in greenhouse during the Rabi season of 2007 and 2008 at the Experimental Farm area, JNKVV, Jabalpur. Plants were treated with different levels of water and temperature stresses. The experimental design was Completely Randomized Design (CRD with six treatments and five replications. Moisture stress has been given on selected dates for which the sets of pot were first brought to field capacity and the water with hold till wilting. It was found that the Plantheight, Root length, Number of leaves, Number of branches per plants, No. of fruits per plant, Leaf area, Dry weight gm per plant were found maximum in control condition.

  15. Stress adversely affects efficacy of physostigmine-scopolamine pretreatment against soman in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippens, Ingrid H C H M; Joosen, Marloes J A; Vanwersch, Raymond A P

    2005-09-01

    During military operations, soldiers may be exposed to mixtures of chemicals and to physical, emotional and psychological stress factors, which all may influence efficacy of any treatment, including the nerve agent pretreatment regimen. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate the influence of chronic intermittent, variable, unpredictable and uncontrollable stress conditions on the side effects and therapeutic efficacy of the combination of physostigmine (0.025 mg/kg/h) and scopolamine (0.018 mg/kg/h) as a pretreatment against 2 x LD50 soman intoxication in guinea pigs. Stress during pretreatment led to an increase of motor activity and an increase of power in the EEG delta2 frequency band. After chronic stress, exposure of pretreated animals to 2 x LD50 soman resulted in more severe intoxication symptoms, a more persistent effect on the startle response, and considerable more severe and persistent effects on the EEG power-spectrum, indicating irreversible brain damage.

  16. Transportation Stress and Expression of Heat Shock Protein Affecting Pork Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Tang, , , and

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between heat shock protein (Hsp expression and meat quality were assessed in pigs. Carcasses from 2 h- and 6 h-transported pigs had higher temperatures and lower pH and water holding capacity values in the longissimus dorsi and gluteus maximus superficialis muscles. Long journeys were associated with increased creatine kinase (CK levels. Higher CK levels are indicative of physical stress, as the enzyme is released from muscle fibers as a result of intense muscular exertion. These physiological and enzymatic changes were correlated with increased Hsp70 and decreased Hsp90 expression levels in both skeletal muscles. Animals whose cells contained high levels of Hsp may have had an advantage due to the protective role conferred by Hsp. Reduced Hsp levels were indicative of a higher meat quality and a good welfare of the transported pigs. The stress response declined over time in response to the same stress, such as a 6-h transport stress.

  17. Behavioral and physiological responses to stress are affected by high-fat feeding in male rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buwalda, B; Blom, WAM; Koolhaas, JM; van Dijk, G; Blom, Wendy A.M.

    Interactions between monoaminergic neurochemistry and macronutrient intake have been frequently shown. Because monoaminergic systems in the brain are also closely involved in behavioral and physiological stress responses it can be hypothesized that differences in the macronutrient composition of

  18. Which stresses affect the glide of screw dislocations in bcc metals?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gröger, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 18 (2014), s. 2021-2030 ISSN 1478-6435 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Grant - others:Marie Curie Actions(CZ) 247705 MesoPhysDel Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Peierls stress * screw dislocation * bcc metal * non-glide stress * yield criterion Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.825, year: 2014

  19. Aerobic Fitness Level Affects Cardiovascular and Salivary Alpha Amylase Responses to Acute Psychosocial Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, Thomas; Boesch, Maria; Roos, Lilian; Tschopp, Céline; Frei, Klaus M; Annen, Hubert; La Marca, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    Good physical fitness seems to help the individual to buffer the potential harmful impact of psychosocial stress on somatic and mental health. The aim of the present study is to investigate the role of physical fitness levels on the autonomic nervous system (ANS; i.e. heart rate and salivary alpha amylase) responses to acute psychosocial stress, while controlling for established factors influencing individual stress reactions. The Trier Social Stress Test for Groups (TSST-G) was executed with 302 male recruits during their first week of Swiss Army basic training. Heart rate was measured continuously, and salivary alpha amylase was measured twice, before and after the stress intervention. In the same week, all volunteers participated in a physical fitness test and they responded to questionnaires on lifestyle factors and personal traits. A multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to determine ANS responses to acute psychosocial stress from physical fitness test performances, controlling for personal traits, behavioural factors, and socioeconomic data. Multiple linear regression revealed three variables predicting 15 % of the variance in heart rate response (area under the individual heart rate response curve during TSST-G) and four variables predicting 12 % of the variance in salivary alpha amylase response (salivary alpha amylase level immediately after the TSST-G) to acute psychosocial stress. A strong performance at the progressive endurance run (high maximal oxygen consumption) was a significant predictor of ANS response in both models: low area under the heart rate response curve during TSST-G as well as low salivary alpha amylase level after TSST-G. Further, high muscle power, non-smoking, high extraversion, and low agreeableness were predictors of a favourable ANS response in either one of the two dependent variables. Good physical fitness, especially good aerobic endurance capacity, is an important protective factor against health

  20. Tsunami-affected Scandinavian tourists: disaster exposure and post-traumatic stress symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heir, Trond; Rosendal, Susanne; Bergh-Johannesson, Kerstin

    2011-01-01

    Studies of short- and long-term mental effects of natural disasters have reported a high prevalence of post-traumatic stress. Less is known about disaster-exposed tourists repatriated to stable societies.......Studies of short- and long-term mental effects of natural disasters have reported a high prevalence of post-traumatic stress. Less is known about disaster-exposed tourists repatriated to stable societies....

  1. Factors affecting stress experienced by surrogate decision makers for critically ill patients: implications for nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Ellen; Celious, Aaron; Kennedy, Carie R; Shehane, Erica; Eastman, Alexander; Warren, Victoria; Freeman, Bradley D

    2014-04-01

    This study explores surrogate decision-makers' (SDMs) challenges making decisions related to the care of patients in critical care, to (1) characterise the SDM stress, (2) identify personal, social, care-related factors influencing stress and (3) consider implications of findings to improving critical care practice. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with SDMs of critically ill patients receiving care in two tertiary care institutions. Transcripts were analysed using a grounded theory approach. Domains explored were: stress characteristics, stress mitigators, coping strategies, social networks, SDM decision-making role, decision-making concordance, knowledge of patient's preferences, experience with provider team, SDM-provider communication, patient outcome certainty. We interviewed 34 SDMs. Most were female and described long-term relationships with patients. SDMs described the strain of uncertain outcomes and decision-making without clear, consistent information from providers. Decision-making anxiety was buffered by SDMs' active engagement of social networks, faith and access to clear communication from providers. Stress is a very real factor influencing SDMs confidence and comfort making decisions. These findings suggest that stress can be minimised by improving communication between SDMs and medical providers. Nurses' central role in the ICU makes them uniquely poised to spearhead interventions to improve provider-SDM communication and reduce SDM decision-making anxiety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Some Root Traits of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. as Affected by Mycorrhizal Symbiosis under Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bayani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of drought stress and mycorrhizal symbiosis on the colonization, root and leaf phosphorous content, root and leaf phosphatase activity, root volume and area as well as shoot dry weight of a variety of hulless barley were evaluated using a completely randomized experimental design (CRD with 3 replications. Treatments were three levels of drought stress of 30, 60 and 90% field capacity and two levels of mycorrhizal with and without inoculation. According to the results, the highest value of leaf phosphorous (1.54 mg/g was observed at mycorrhizal symbiosis against severe drought treatment. Root phosphatase activity was highest (297.9 OD min -1 FW-1 at severe drought stress with mycorrhizal symbiosis which in comparison with mild stress in the presence of mycorrhiza showed 16.6 fold increasing. The control and non-mycorrhizal symbiosis treatments had highest root dry weight (0.091 g. The lowest root volume (0.016 cm2 observed at mycorrhizal symbiosis × severe drought treatment. Generally, Inoculation of barley seed with mycorrhiza at severe water stress could transport more phosphorous to shoot, especially leaf via inducing of leaf and root phosphatase activity. Also, in addition to supply of nutrient sources especially phosphorous for plant, mycorrhizal symbiosis could play an important role in withstanding water stress in plant via increasing of root dry weight and area.

  3. STUDY REGARDING THE DYNAMICS OF AFFECTIVE MANIFESTATIONS IN MIDDLE DISTANCE AND LONG DISTANCE RUNNERS, IN DIFFERENT SITUATIONS OF MENTAL STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAREŞ GABRIEL

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction. High performance in track and field is constantly conditioned by the athletes' reaction to different stress factors. The analysis of mental stress on athletes in different situations has made certain specialists to say that the psychological effect of a stress agent (seen as a response of the athlete is less predictable than the physiological effect, one reason being the complex and difficult nature of objectively predicting the response provoked by the effect of the stress factor, considering the fact that high performance athletes react differently to the pressure of complex situations during training and competitions. Methodology. The research was conducted on 12 subjects with different experience in high performance track and field/athletics, and in this specific event. The subjects were given three psychological tests, within a period of six months, during three different stress situations: two tests (initial and final before two major competitions (the national championships - selection competitions, and an intermediate testing (halfway between the two competitions, when the subjects were in full training process for the second competition. During these six months the previously planned training program was followed, but with a larger emphasis (in comparison with other training periods on the psychological training of the athletes.Results. The statistical analysis of the values for the studied variables has shown the existence of significant differences only in the manifestations associated with certain psychological states of the ones we studied, during different tests. Conclusions The affective manifestations of the middle distance-long distance runners during different situations of mental stress present an oscillatory dynamics with a slightly descendant curve, showing a complexity of the psycho-affective states and reactions.

  4. Negative Affect Intensity and Hostility in Individuals with Alcohol Use Disorder with or without Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandelman, Erin; Petrakis, Ismene; Kachadourian, Lorig; Ralevski, Elizabeth

    2018-02-20

    Negative affect intensity and hostility have both been implicated in alcohol use disorders (AUD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) when they occur separately, but have neither been compared nor explored among those with dual diagnosis AUD and PTSD. This study is a secondary analysis designed to compare levels of negative affect intensity and hostility among those with AUD to those with dual diagnosis AUD and PTSD. Participants (n = 113) were recruited from the placebo-controlled groups of two distinct 12-week clinical trials (NCT00342563 and NCT00744055). The Short Affect Intensity Scale and Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory were administered at weeks 0, 4, 8 and 12 to all study participants to assess negative affect intensity and hostility levels, respectively. Dual diagnosis AUD and PTSD individuals showed significantly higher levels of negative affect intensity and hostility than individuals with single diagnosis AUD. These levels remained relatively stable over the course of the study in spite of all study participants showing clinically significant improvements in AUD severity and PTSD symptomology (for those with dual diagnosis). Our results indicate that individuals with dual diagnosis AUD and PTSD have higher levels of negative affect and higher levels of hostility compared to individuals with single diagnosis AUD. In addition, these heightened levels of negative affect intensity and hostility appear to function somewhat independently of diagnosis severity and symptomology improvement. To our knowledge, this is the first study to compare negative affect intensity and hostility levels between single diagnosis AUD and dual diagnosis AUD and PTSD individuals.

  5. Maternal Parenting Stress and Child Perception of Family Functioning Among Families Affected by HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Marya T; Armistead, Lisa; Marelich, William D; Payne, Diana L; Goodrum, Nada M; Murphy, Debra A

    Mothers living with HIV (MLWH) experience stressors inherent to parenting, often within a context characterized by poverty, stigma, and/or limited social support. Our study assessed the relationship between parenting stress and child perceptions of family functioning in families with MLWH who have healthy school-age children. MLWH and their children (N = 102 pairs) completed measures addressing parenting stress and perceptions of family functioning (i.e., parent-child communication, family routines, and family cohesion). We used covariance structural modeling to evaluate the relationship between these factors, with results showing greater maternal parenting stress associated with poorer family functioning outcomes (reported by both the child and the mother). Findings offer support for the parenting stress-family functioning relationship by providing the child perspective along with the maternal perspective, and point to the need for interventions aimed at minimizing the impact of maternal parenting stress on family functioning. Copyright © 2017 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Surgical treatment affects perceived stress differently in women with endometriosis: correlation with severity of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, Lucia; Vannuccini, Silvia; Orlandini, Cinzia; Luisi, Stefano; Zupi, Errico; Nappi, Rossella Elena; Petraglia, Felice

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the amount of perceived stress in a group of women with different forms of endometriosis-related pain before and after surgical treatment. Prospective clinical trial. University hospital. A group of women (n = 98) referred to our center for chronic pain and suspected of having endometriosis. All women suspected of having endometriosis with ultrasonography underwent to a clinical evaluation including assessment of perception of stress. Endometriosis was confirmed histologically by laparoscopy. Painful symptoms and perception of stress were recorded 1 month after surgery. Perceived stress scale (PSS) and visual analog scale for painful symptoms before and 1 month after surgery for endometriosis. The PSS score before surgery was perceived as "very high" in patients with deep endometriosis (n = 20) or deep endometriosis associated with endometrioma (n = 21); "high" or "medium" PSS was perceived in patients with endometrioma (n = 34) or endometrioma associated with peritoneal endometriosis (n = 23). After the surgical treatment a significant decrease of the "very high" PSS score was shown, as well as when the entire group of patients was considered. When evaluated before and after surgery, according to the severity of pain (dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, and pelvic pain), a direct correlation was found with the level of PSS. Patients with deep endometriosis-related pain (dysmenorrhea, pelvic pain, dyspareunia) showed the highest level of perceived stress, which significantly decreased after surgical treatment. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Does oxidative stress affect the activity of the sodium-proton exchanger?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bober, Joanna; Kedzierska, Karolina; Kwiatkowska, Ewa; Stachowska, Ewa; Gołembiewska, Edyta; Mazur, Olech; Staniewicz, Zdzisław; Ciechanowski, Kazimierz; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2010-01-01

    Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) takes place in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). Oxidative stress causes disorders in the activity of the sodium-proton exchanger (NHE). Studies on NHE in CRF produced results that are discrepant and difficult to interpret. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that oxidative stress had an effect on the activity of NHE. We enrolled 87 subjects divided into 4 groups: patients with CRF treated conservatively; patients with CRF hemodialyzed without glucose--HD-g(-); patients with CRF hemodialyzed with glucose--HD-g(+); controls (C). The activity of NHE, the rate of proton efflux V(max), Michaelis constant (Km), and the concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, an indicator of oxidative stress) in plasma, as well as the concentration of reduced glutathione in blood were determined. The concentration of TBARS was significantly higher in hemodialyzed patients before and after dialysis and in patients with CRF on conservative treatment in comparison with group C. TBARS in plasma correlated negatively with VpH(i)6.4 in group C and with V(max) and VpH(i)6.4 after HD in group HD-g(-). We found that the concentration of creatinine correlated with TBARS (p < 0.0001; r = +0.51) in the conservatively treated group. We observed a marked oxidative stress and decreased NHE activity when dialysis was done without glucose, whereas patients dialyzed with glucose demonstrated a relatively low intensity of oxidative stress.

  8. Tsunami-affected Scandinavian tourists: disaster exposure and post-traumatic stress symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heir, Trond; Rosendal, Susanne; Bergh-Johannesson, Kerstin; Michel, Per-Olof; Mortensen, Erik L; Weisaeth, Lars; Andersen, Henrik S; Hultman, Christina M

    2011-02-01

    Studies of short- and long-term mental effects of natural disasters have reported a high prevalence of post-traumatic stress. Less is known about disaster-exposed tourists repatriated to stable societies. To examine the association between exposure to the 2004 Southeast Asian tsunami and symptoms of post-traumatic stress in three Scandinavian tourist populations. Postal survey of Norwegian, Danish and Swedish Southeast Asia tourists registered by the police when arriving at national airports. Follow-up time was 6 (Norway), 10 (Denmark) and 14 months (Sweden) post-disaster; 6772 individuals were included and categorized according to disaster exposure: danger exposed (caught or chased by the waves), non-danger exposed (other disaster-related stressors) and non-exposed. Outcome measures were the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Check List (PCL). Danger exposed reported more post-traumatic stress than non-danger exposed, and the latter reported more symptoms than non-exposed (each PDisaster-exposed tourists repatriated to unaffected home environments show long-term post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms related to the severity of exposure.

  9. The mediating role of interpersonal conflict at work in the relationship between negative affectivity and biomarkers of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi, Damiano; Falco, Alessandra; De Carlo, Alessandro; Benevene, Paula; Comar, Manola; Tongiorgi, Enrico; Bartolucci, Giovanni Battista

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the association between interpersonal conflict at work (ICW) and serum levels of three possible biomarkers of stress, namely the pro-inflammatory cytokines Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), Interleukin 12 (IL-12), and Interleukin 17 (IL-17). Additionally, this study investigated the role of negative affectivity (NA) in the relationship between ICW and the pro-inflammatory cytokines. Data from 121 employees in an Italian healthcare organization were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results showed that ICW was positively associated with IL-1β, IL-12, and IL-17, after controlling for the effect of gender. Moreover, ICW completely mediated the relationship between NA and the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-12, and IL-17. This mediating effect was significant after controlling for the effect of gender. Overall, this study suggests that work-related stress may be associated with biomarkers of inflammation, and that negative affectivity may influence the stress process affecting the exposure to psychosocial stressors.

  10. How does stress affect human being—a molecular dynamic simulation study on cortisol and its glucocorticoid receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Stress can be either positive or negative to human beings. Under stressful conditions, the mental and physical conditions of human can be affected. There exists certain relation between stress and illness. The cortisol and other glucocorticoids bind to the same receptor, which is called glucocorticoid receptor. Some evidences indicated that cortisol molecule binding to its glucocorticoid receptor was necessary for the stress response. Up to now, the structure–function relationships between cortisol molecule and its glucocorticoid receptor have not been deliberated from the atomic-level. In order to get a detailed understanding of the structure–function relationships between the cortisol molecule and glucocorticoids receptor, we have carried out molecular dynamic (MD simulations on glucocorticoid receptor (Apo system and cortisol with its glucocorticoid receptor complex (HCY system. On the basis of molecular dynamic simulations, a couple of key residues were identified, which were crucial for the binding of cortisol molecule. The results of binding free energy calculations are in good agreement with the experiment data. Our research gives clear insights from atomic-level into the structural–functional aspects of cortisol molecule and its glucocorticoid receptor, and also provides valuable information for the design of drug which can treat stress related illnesses.

  11. Mechanisms by which Stress Affects the Experimental and Clinical Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD): Role of Brain-Gut Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzozowski, Bartosz; Mazur-Bialy, Agnieszka; Pajdo, Robert; Kwiecien, Slawomir; Bilski, Jan; Zwolinska-Wcislo, Malgorzata; Mach, Tomasz; Brzozowski, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Stress of different origin is known to alter so called "braingut axis" and contributes to a broad array of gastrointestinal disorders including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and other functional gastrointestinal diseases. The stressful situations and various stressors including psychosocial events, heat, hypo- and hyperthermia may worsen the course of IBD via unknown mechanism. The aims of this paper were to provide an overview of experimental and clinical evidences that stress activates the brain-gut axis which results in a mucosal mast cells activation and an increase in the production of proinflammatory cytokines and other endocrine and humoral mediators. Research and online content related to effects of stress on lower bowel disorders are reviewed and most important mechanisms are delineated. Brain conveys the neural, endocrine and circulatory messages to the gut via brain-gut axis reflecting changes in corticotrophin releasing hormone, mast cells activity, neurotransmission at the autonomic nerves system and intestinal barrier function all affecting the pathogenesis of animal colitis and human IBD. Stress triggers the hypothalamus-pituitary axis and the activation of the autonomic nervous system, an increase in cortisol levels and proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-8, interleukin-1beta and interleukin-6. The acute or chronic stress enhances the intestinal permeability weakening of the tight junctions and increasing bacterial translocation into the intestinal wall. An increased microbial load in the colonic tissue, excessive cytokine release and a partially blunted immune reactivity in response to stress result in its negative impact on IBD.

  12. Calcium affecting protein expression in longan under simulated acid rain stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tengfei; Li, Yongyu; Ma, Cuilan; Qiu, Dongliang

    2015-08-01

    Longan (Dimocarpus longana Lour. cv. Wulongling) of uniform one-aged seedlings grown in pots were selected to study specific proteins expressed in leaves under simulated acid rain (SiAR) stress and exogenous Ca(2+) regulation. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) results showed that there was a protein band specifically expressed under SiAR of pH 2.5 stress for 15 days with its molecular weight of about 23 kD. A 17 kD protein band specifically expressed after SiAR stress 5 days. Compared with pH 2.5, the pH 3.5 of SiAR made a less influence to protein expression. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) results showed that six new specific proteins including C4 (20.2 kD pI 6.0), F (24 kD pI 6.35), B3 (22.3 kD pI 6.35), B4 (23.5 kD pI 6.5), C5 (21.8 kD pI 5.6), and C6 (20.2 kD pI 5.6) specifically expressed. C4 always expressed during SiAR stress. F expressed under the stress of pH 2.5 for 15 days and expressed in all pH SiAR stress for 20 days. The expression of proteins including B3, C5, and C6 was related to pH value and stress intensity of SiAR. The expression of B4 resulted from synergistic effects of SiAR and Ca. The expression of G1 (Mr 19.3 kD, pI 4.5), G2 (Mr 17.8 kD, pI 4.65), G3 (Mr 16.6 kD, pI 4.6), and G4 (Mr 14.7 kD, pI 4.4) enhanced under the treatment of 5 mM ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and 2 mM chlorpromazine (CPZ). These proteins showed antagonistic effects and might be relative to the Ca-calmodulin (Ca-CaM) system of longan in response to SiAR stress.

  13. Physical Fitness Levels Do Not Affect Stress Levels in a Sample of Norwegian Adolescents

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    Berit Østerås

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity, low physical fitness, and perceived stress during adolescence are presumed to be risk factors for various disorders and subjective health complaints. On the other hand, physical activity and physical fitness, as well as mindfulness qualities, are regarded as prerequisites for health and well-being in children and adolescent, possibly by moderating the negative effects of stress and protecting against stress-related health complaints. Previous studies have suggested gender differences in the relationship between physical activity/physical fitness and psychological variables. The main objective in this study was to evaluate how physical fitness, along with mindfulness qualities (MAAS-A, pain, and BMI, relate to stress (PSQ in adolescents. Secondary objectives were to explore the relationship between physical fitness, mindfulness (MAAS-A, and BMI more explicitly in the study sample, as well as to evaluate possible gender differences. The cross-sectional sample included 102 Norwegian pupils in 10th grade (15 or 16 years. Study measurements were four items from the Test of Physical Fitness (TPF, the Norwegian version of the four-factor Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ, the Norwegian version of the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale-Adolescent (MAAS-A, and BMI (recorded in terms of self-reported height and weight. Additionally, pain was measured in terms of localization, number of pain sites, duration, and intensity (Visual analogue scale; VAS. According to the regression analyses, physical fitness could not explain any variation in stress among the adolescents. Nevertheless, there were some negative associations between one stress factor (lack of joy and components of physical fitness at a group level, possibly influenced by conditions not measured in this study. As opposed to physical fitness, mindfulness qualities, and to some degree gender, seemed to explain variation in stress among the adolescents. None of the physical

  14. [Screening for posttraumatic stress disorder in people affected by the 2010 earthquake in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Alicia Ruth; Estario, Juan Carlos; Enders, Julio Enrique; Neira, María Josefina López de; Abeldaño, Roberto Ariel

    2014-11-01

    The authors conducted an assessment of post-traumatic stress disorder screening in the Chilean population following the February 2010 earthquake, based on the Post Earthquake Survey with a multistage sample of 24,982 individuals over 18 years of age, applying the Davidson Trauma Scale. Multivariate analysis was performed with significance set at pearthquake proved to be a protective factor as compared to other social or neighborhood groups, and more years of schooling were also protective (p<0.05). Positive screening for posttraumatic stress disorders revealed clear social inequalities.

  15. Chronic Stress in Young German Adults: Who Is Affected? A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Ronald; Berger, Ursula; Genuneit, Jon; Gerlich, Jessica; Nowak, Dennis; Schlotz, Wolff; Vogelberg, Christian; von Mutius, Erika; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Windstetter, Doris; Weigl, Matthias; Radon, Katja

    2017-10-31

    We aimed to prospectively assess changes in chronic stress among young adults transitioning from high school to university or working life. A population-based cohort in Munich and Dresden (Germany) was followed from age 16-18 (2002-2003) to age 20-23 (2007-2009) ( n = 1688). Using the Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress, two dimensions of stress at university or work were assessed: work overload and work discontent. In the multiple ordinal generalized estimating equations, socio-demographics, stress outside the workplace, and job history were additionally considered. At follow-up, 52% of the population were university students. Work overload increased statistically significantly from first to second follow-up, while work discontent remained constant at the population level. Students, compared to employees, reported a larger increase in work overload (adjusted odds ratio (OR): 1.33; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.07, 1.67), while work discontent did not differ between the groups. In conclusion, work overload increases when young adults transition from school to university/job life, with university students experiencing the largest increase.

  16. Moderate water stress affects tomato leaf water relations in dependence on the nitrogen supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia, A.L.; Marcelis, L.F.M.; Garcia-Sanchez, F.; Nicolas, N.; Martinez, V.

    2007-01-01

    The responses of water relations, stomatal conductance (g(s)) and growth parameters of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Royesta) plants to nitrogen fertilisation and drought were studied. The plants were subjected to a long-term, moderate and progressive water stress by adding 80 % of the

  17. UV radiation induced stress does not affect DMSP synthesis in the marine prymnesiophyte Emiliania huxleyi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijssel, M; Buma, A.G.J.

    2002-01-01

    A possible coupling between UV radiation (UVR; 280 to 400 nm) induced stress and the production of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), the precursor of the climate-regulating gas dimethylsulfide (DMS), was investigated in the marine prymnesiophyte Emiliania huxleyi. To this end, axenic cultures of E.

  18. Selection for resistance to white pine blister rust affects the abiotic stress tolerances of limber pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick J. Vogan; Anna W. Schoettle

    2015-01-01

    Limber pine (Pinus flexilis) mortality is increasing across the West as a result of the combined stresses of white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola; WPBR), mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), and dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium cyanocarpum) in a changing climate. With the continued spread of WPBR, extensive mortality will continue with strong selection...

  19. How Prenatal Depression, Anxiety, and Stress May Affect Child Outcome: The Placenta and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Vivette; O'Connor, T. G.; O'Donnell, K.; Capron, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    There is good evidence that if a woman is depressed, anxious, or stressed while she is pregnant, then there is an increased risk that her child will have emotional, behavioral, or cognitive problems. Her own biology must cause these effects, but it is not known how. One important line of research suggests that the function of the placenta changes…

  20. Mapping the Potentially Affected Fraction (PAF) of species as an indicator of generic toxic stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klepper O; van de Meent D; ECO

    1997-01-01

    De Potentieel Aangetaste Fractie (PAF) is het deel van de soorten blootgesteld boven de geen-effect concentratie (NOEC). De PAF is een maat die het mogelijk maakt toxische stress tussen stoffen en gebieden onderling te vergelijken. In het rapport wordt de PAF uitgerekend voor 4 zware metalen

  1. Intracolleague aggression in a group of Dutch prison workers : Negative affectivity and posttraumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaerts, S.; van der Laan, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined workplace aggression among a Dutch group of 174 prison workers at 10 penitentiaries in the Netherlands. The purpose of the study was to investigate the main and interaction effects of Type D personality and violence on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The results showed a

  2. Copper Stress Affects Iron Homeostasis by Destabilizing Iron-Sulfur Cluster Formation in Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chillappagari, Shashi; Seubert, Andreas; Trip, Hein; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Marahiel, Mohamed A.; Miethke, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Copper and iron are essential elements for cellular growth. Although bacteria have to overcome limitations of these metals by affine and selective uptake, excessive amounts of both metals are toxic for the cells. Here we investigated the influences of copper stress on iron homeostasis in Bacillus

  3. Family Members Affected by a Close Relative's Addiction: The Stress-Strain-Coping-Support Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orford, Jim; Copello, Alex; Velleman, Richard; Templeton, Lorna

    2010-01-01

    This article outlines the stress-strain-coping-support (SSCS) model which underpins the whole programme of work described in this supplement. The need for such a model is explained: previous models of substance misuse and the family have attributed dysfunction or deficiency to families or family members. In contrast, the SSCS model assumes that…

  4. Management of sleep-time masticatory muscle activity using stabilisation splints affects psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H; Masaki, C; Makino, M; Yoshida, M; Mukaibo, T; Kondo, Y; Nakamoto, T; Hosokawa, R

    2013-12-01

    To treat sleep bruxism (SB), symptomatic therapy using stabilisation splints (SS) is frequently used. However, their effects on psychological stress and sleep quality have not yet been examined fully. The objective of this study was to clarify the effects of SS use on psychological stress and sleep quality. The subjects (11 men, 12 women) were healthy volunteers. A crossover design was used. Sleep measurements were performed for three consecutive days or longer without (baseline) or with an SS or palatal splint (PS), and data for the final day were evaluated. We measured masseter muscle activity during sleep using portable electromyography to evaluate SB. Furthermore, to compare psychological stress before and after sleep, assessments were made based on STAI-JYZ and the measurement of salivary chromogranin A. To compare each parameter among the three groups (baseline, SS and PS), Friedman's and Dunn's tests were used. From the results of the baseline measurements, eight subjects were identified as high group and 15 as low group. Among the high group, a marked decrease in the number of bruxism events per hour and an increase in the difference in the total STAI Y-1 scores were observed in the SS group compared with those at baseline (P sleep stages. SS use may be effective in reducing the number of SB events, while it may increase psychological stress levels, and SS use did not apparently influence sleep stages. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Disturbed Dreaming, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Affect Distress: A Review and Neurocognitive Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Ross; Nielsen, Tore A.

    2007-01-01

    Nightmares are common, occurring weekly in 4%-10% of the population, and are associated with female gender, younger age, increased stress, psychopathology, and dispositional traits. Nightmare pathogenesis remains unexplained, as do differences between nontraumatic and posttraumatic nightmares (for those with or without posttraumatic stress…

  6. Cryopreservation affects ROS-induced oxidative stress and antioxidant response in Arabidopsis seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant recovery status after cryopreservation by vitrification had a negative relationship to the oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings germinated for 48-h or 72-h with different cryopreservation survival tolerances were examined at five steps of a ...

  7. Brucella suis vaccine strain 2 induces endoplasmic reticulum stress that affects intracellular replication in goat trophoblast cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangguo eWang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Brucella has been reported to impair placental trophoblasts, a cellular target where Brucella efficiently replicates in association with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER, and ultimately trigger abortion in pregnant animals. However, the precise effects of Brucella on trophoblast cells remain unclear. Here, we describe the infection and replication of Brucella suis vaccine strain 2 (B.suis.S2 in goat trophoblast cells (GTCs and the cellular and molecular responses induced in vitro. Our studies demonstrated that B.suis.S2 was able to infect and proliferate to high titers, hamper the proliferation of GTCs and induce apoptosis due to ER stress. Tunicamycin (Tm, a pharmacological chaperone that strongly mounts ER stress-induced apoptosis, inhibited B.suis.S2 replication in GTCs. In addition, 4 phenyl butyric acid (4-PBA, a pharmacological chaperone that alleviates ER stress-induced apoptosis, significantly enhanced B.suis.S2 replication in GTCs. The Unfolded Protein Response (UPR chaperone molecule GRP78 also promoted B.suis.S2 proliferation in GTCs by inhibiting ER stress-induced apoptosis. We also discovered that the IRE1 pathway, but not the PERK or ATF6 pathway, was activated in the process. However, decreasing the expression of phosphoIRE1α and IRE1α proteins with Irestatin 9389 (IRE1 antagonist in GTCs did not affect the proliferation of B.suis.S2. Although GTC implantation was not affected upon B.suis.S2 infection, progesterone secretion was suppressed, and prolactin and estrogen secretion increased; these effects were accompanied by changes in the expression of genes encoding key steroidogenic enzymes. This study systematically explored the mechanisms of abortion in Brucella infection from the viewpoint of pathogen invasion, ER stress and reproductive endocrinology. Our findings may provide new insight for understanding the mechanisms involved in goat abortions caused by Brucella infection.

  8. Maternal social stress during late pregnancy affects hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function and brain neurotransmitter systems in pig offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, W; Kanitz, E; Couret, D; Veissier, I; Prunier, A; Merlot, E

    2010-04-01

    Maternal stress in pregnant sows may induce long-lasting alterations in the behavior, physiology, and immunity of their offspring. The aim of the present study was to investigate the consequences of repeated social stress during late gestation on determinants of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and on hippocampal neurotransmitter profiles in pig offspring. All pregnant gilts were housed in pairs. Each Stress gilt was mixed with an unfamiliar gilt twice a week between days 77 and 105 of gestation (n=18). Control gilts were housed in stable pairs over the same period (n=18). Plasma cortisol and corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) were measured in 1 male and 1 female per litter in a basal situation on postnatal days (PND) 4, 26, and 60 and in a stressful situation at PND 28 (2 d after weaning) and 62 (2 d after relocation to a new building). Prenatal stress had no effect on plasma cortisol, but it decreased CBG at PND 26. Brain and adrenals were collected from 1 female per litter after weaning or relocation at PND 28 and PND 62. Adrenals were additionally collected at PND 4. Glucocorticoid receptor binding in the hippocampus and hypothalamus was not affected by prenatal treatment. However, prenatal stress increased the expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 mRNA in the hippocampus after weaning (P<0.05) and after relocation (P=0.08). In addition, prenatally stressed piglets showed an increased 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid to 5-hydroxytryptamine ratio in the hippocampus after weaning and increased hippocampal c-fos mRNA expression and noradrenaline concentration after relocation (P<0.05). Prenatal stress also increased the relative adrenal weight at PND 4 and the cell density in the cortex and the medulla at PND 28, whereas no difference was found for activities of catecholamine-synthesising enzymes in the medulla. Overall, our data indicate that repeated social stress during pregnancy has long-lasting consequences on hypothalamic

  9. Heat and light stresses affect metabolite production in the fruit body of the medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiaojiao, Zhang; Fen, Wang; Kuanbo, Liu; Qing, Liu; Ying, Yang; Caihong, Dong

    2018-03-29

    Cordyceps militaris is a highly valued edible and medicinal fungus due to its production of various metabolites, including adenosine, cordycepin, N 6 -(2-hydroxyethyl)-adenosine, and carotenoids. The contents of these metabolites are indicative of the quality of commercially available fruit body of this fungus. In this work, the effects of environmental abiotic factors, including heat and light stresses, on the fruit body growth and metabolite production in C. militaris were evaluated during the late growth stage. The optimal growth temperature of C. militaris was 20 °C. It was found that a heat stress of 25 °C for 5-20 days during the late growth stage significantly promoted cordycepin and carotenoid production without affecting the biological efficiency. Light stress at 6000 lx for 5-20 days during the late growth stage significantly promoted cordycepin production but decreased the carotenoid content. Both heat and light stresses promoted N 6 -(2-hydroxyethyl)-adenosine production. In addition, gene expression analysis showed that there were simultaneous increases in the expression of genes encoding a metal-dependent phosphohydrolase (CCM_04437) and ATP phosphoribosyltransferase (CCM_04438) that are involved in the cordycepin biosynthesis pathway, which was consistent with the accumulation of cordycepin during heat stress for 5-20 days. A positive weak correlation between the cordycepin and adenosine contents was observed with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.338 (P < 0.05). The results presented herein provide a new strategy for the production of a superior quality fruit body of C. militaris and contribute to further elucidation of the effects of abiotic stress on metabolite accumulation in fungi.

  10. Incidence and risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder in a population affected by a severe flood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontalba-Navas, A; Lucas-Borja, M E; Gil-Aguilar, V; Arrebola, J P; Pena-Andreu, J M; Perez, J

    2017-03-01

    We aimed to study the risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in people who resided in an affected area by an extremely severe flood, and sociodemographic risk factors associated with this condition. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to distribute the rainfall data. A case-control study was developed to study the relationship between PTSD and sociodemographic risk factors. To delineate the areas affected by the flood and the intensity of this rainfall in comparison with historical hydrological data, we employed geographical information systems (GIS). Then, we recruited a representative sample of the affected population and another population sample that lived at the time of this disaster in adjacent geographical areas that were not affected. Both groups were randomly selected in primary care practices, from December 1st 2012 to January 31st 2013. All participants, 70 from the affected areas and 91 from the non-affected, filled a sociodemographic questionnaire and the trauma questionnaire (TQ) to identify and rate PTSD symptoms. Our GIS analysis confirmed that the amount of precipitation in 2012 in the areas affected by the flood was exceptionally high compared with historical average rainfall data (461l per square metre vs 265). Individuals who resided in the affected areas at the time of the flood were at much higher risk of developing PTSD symptoms (OR: 8.18; 95% CI: 3.99-17.59) than those living in adjacent, non-affected localities. Among the sociodemographic variables included in this study, only material and financial losses were strongly associated with the onset of PTSD (P disorder, may help develop effective plans to minimize the negative impact of these natural disasters on public health. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Dietary Resveratrol Does Not Affect Life Span, Body Composition, Stress Response, and Longevity-Related Gene Expression in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Staats

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we tested the effect of the stilbene resveratrol on life span, body composition, locomotor activity, stress response, and the expression of genes encoding proteins centrally involved in ageing pathways in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. Male and female w1118 D. melanogaster were fed diets based on sucrose, corn meal, and yeast. Flies either received a control diet or a diet supplemented with 500 µmol/L resveratrol. Dietary resveratrol did not affect mean, median, and maximal life span of male and female flies. Furthermore, body composition remained largely unchanged following the resveratrol supplementation. Locomotor activity, as determined by the climbing index, was not significantly different between control and resveratrol-supplemented flies. Resveratrol-fed flies did not exhibit an improved stress response towards hydrogen peroxide as compared to controls. Resveratrol did not change mRNA steady levels of antioxidant (catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, NADH dehydrogenase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase 2 and longevity-related genes, including sirtuin 2, spargel, and I’m Not Dead Yet. Collectively, present data suggest that resveratrol does not affect life span, body composition, locomotor activity, stress response, and longevity-associated gene expression in w1118 D. melanogaster.

  12. Environmental stress affects the expression of a carotenoid-based sexual trait in male zebra finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eraud, Cyril; Devevey, Godefroy; Gaillard, Maria; Prost, Josiane; Sorci, Gabriele; Faivre, Bruno

    2007-10-01

    Abiotic factors including thermal stress are suggested to exert constrains on sexual ornaments through trade-offs between sexual displays and physiological functions related to self-maintenance. Given the health properties of carotenoid pigments, carotenoid-based ornaments offer a relevant context in which to investigate the effect of environmental stress, such as ambient temperature, on the production and maintenance of secondary sexual traits and, also, to explore the proximate mechanisms shaping their expression. In this study, we exposed male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) to environmental stress by exposing them to two temperature regimes (6 and 26 degrees C) over a 4 week period. Simultaneously, half of the males in each temperature group were supplemented with carotenoids, whereas the other half were not. The expression of a carotenoid-based sexual trait (bill colour) and the amount of circulating carotenoids were assessed before and at the end of the experiment. Carotenoid-supplemented males developed a redder bill, but the effect of supplementation was reduced under cold exposure. However, we found evidence that birds facing a cold stress were carotenoid limited, since supplemented males developed redder bills than the non-supplemented ones. Interestingly, while cold-exposed and non-supplemented males developed duller bills, they circulated a higher amount of carotenoids at the end of the experiment compared to the pre-experimental values. Together, these results suggest that ambient temperature might contribute to the modulation of the expression of carotenoid-based ornaments. Our findings suggest that carotenoids are a limiting resource under cold exposure and that they might be prioritized for self-maintenance at the expense of the ornament. The physiological functions related to self-maintenance that might have benefited from carotenoid saving are discussed.

  13. Anxiety response and restraint-induced stress differentially affect ethanol intake in female adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, María Belén; Fabio, Maria Carolina; Fernández, Macarena Soledad; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

    2016-10-15

    Anxiety disorders are more likely to occur in women than in men, usually emerge during adolescence and exhibit high comorbidity with alcohol use disorders (AUD). Adolescents with high levels of anxiety or heightened reactivity to stress may be at-risk for developing AUD. An approach to analyze if high levels of inborn anxiety predict greater ethanol drinking is to assess the latter variable in subjects classified as high- or low-anxiety responders. The present study assessed ethanol drinking in adolescent, female Wistar, rats classified as high-, low- or average-anxiety responders and exposed or not to restraint stress (RS, Exp. 1). Classification was made through a multivariate index derived from testing anxiety responses in an elevated plus maze and a light-dark box tests. RS was applied after animals had been initiated to ethanol drinking. Intake of sweetened ethanol was unaffected by level of anxiety response. Adolescents with high levels of inborn anxiety exhibited significantly higher intake of unsweetened ethanol than counterparts with standard levels of anxiety, yet this effect was inhibited by RS exposure. Experiment 2 assessed FOS immunoreactivity after RS. Stress induced a significant increase in FOS immunoreactivity at the paraventricular nucleus, yet this effect was unaffected by level of anxiety response. Female adolescents with high levels of basal anxiety may be at-risk for exhibiting increased predisposition for ethanol intake and preference. The study also indicates that stress may exert differential effects on adolescent ethanol intake as a function of the level of anxiety response. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Salt stress affects xylem differentiation of grey poplar (Populus x canescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante-Pérez, María; Lautner, Silke; Nehls, Uwe; Selle, Anita; Teuber, Markus; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter; Teichmann, Thomas; Fayyaz, Payam; Hartung, Wolfram; Polle, Andrea; Fromm, Jörg; Hedrich, Rainer; Ache, Peter

    2009-01-01

    In this study the impact of salt stress on the physiology and wood structure of the salt-sensitive Populus x canescens was investigated. Two weeks of salt stress altered wood anatomy significantly. The xylem differentiation zone was reduced and the resulting vessels exhibited reduced lumina. To understand this phenomenon, ion composition, levels of corresponding transcripts and of the stress hormone ABA were analysed. With increasing sodium and chloride concentrations, a general reduction of potassium was found in roots and shoots, but not in leaves. Consequently, the corresponding K+ channel transcripts in roots favoured K+ release. The overall osmolarity in leaves was up to fourfold higher than in roots or shoots. Therefore, adjustment of the K+/Na+ balance seemed not to be required in leaves. Sodium increased gradually from roots to shoots and then to leaves indicating that sodium storage took place first in roots, then in shoots, and finally in leaves to protect photosynthesis from salt effects as long as possible. Since leaf abscisic acid levels markedly increased, stomatal closure seemed to limit CO2 uptake. As a consequence, diminished nutrient supply to the cambium in combination with lowered shoot K+ content led to decreased vessel lumina, and a reduction of the radial cambium was observed. Thus, xylem differentiation was curtailed and the development of full size vessels was impaired.

  15. Temperature and water stress during conditioning and incubation phase affecting Orobanche crenata seed germination and radicle growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN eMORAL

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche crenata is a holoparasitic plant that is potentially devastating to crop yield of legume species. Soil temperature and humidity are known to affect seed germination, however, the extent of their influence on germination and radicle growth of those of O. crenata is largely unknown. In this work, we studied the effects of temperature, water potential (Ψt and the type of water stress (matric or osmotic on O. crenata seeds during conditioning and incubation periods. We found that seeds germinated between 5 and 30ºC during both periods, with a maximum around 20ºC. Germination increased with increasing Ψt from -1.2 to 0 MPa during conditioning and incubation periods. Likewise, seed germination increased logarithmically with length of conditioning period until 40 days. The impact of the type of water stress on seed germination was similar, although the radicle growth of seeds under osmotic stress was lower than under matric stress, what could explain the lowest infestation of Orobanche spp. in regions characterized by saline soil. The data in this study will be useful to forecast infection of host roots by O. crenata.

  16. Temperature and water stress during conditioning and incubation phase affecting Orobanche crenata seed germination and radicle growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral, Juan; Lozano-Baena, María Dolores; Rubiales, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Orobanche crenata is a holoparasitic plant that is potentially devastating to crop yield of legume species. Soil temperature and humidity are known to affect seed germination, however, the extent of their influence on germination and radicle growth of those of O. crenata is largely unknown. In this work, we studied the effects of temperature, water potential (Ψt) and the type of water stress (matric or osmotic) on O. crenata seeds during conditioning and incubation periods. We found that seeds germinated between 5 and 30°C during both periods, with a maximum around 20°C. Germination increased with increasing Ψt from -1.2 to 0 MPa during conditioning and incubation periods. Likewise, seed germination increased logarithmically with length of conditioning period until 40 days. The impact of the type of water stress on seed germination was similar, although the radicle growth of seeds under osmotic stress was lower than under matric stress, what could explain the lowest infestation of Orobanche sp. in regions characterized by saline soil. The data in this study will be useful to forecast infection of host roots by O. crenata.

  17. Growth and Physiological Performance of Aerobic and Lowland Rice as Affected by Water Stress at Selected Growth Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadzariah Kamarul Zaman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic rice technology is still new in Malaysia, and information regarding MARDI Aerob 1 (MA1, the first local aerobic rice variety, is still lacking. Therefore, comparative studies were carried out to determine the physiological performance of aerobic rice variety MA1 and lowland rice variety MR253 under water stress given at the panicle initiation, flowering and ripening stages. This experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design. Stomatal conductance (gs, chlorophyll a fluorescence (Fv/Fm, leaf relative water content (leaf RWC, and soil moisture content (SMC as well as yield component parameters such as panicle number, grain yield and 100-grain weight were measured. Results revealed that gs and leaf RWC for both varieties decreased with depletion of SMC. The correlation study between the physiological parameters and SMC indicated that Fv/Fm was not affected by water stress, regardless of varieties. The yield components (panicle number, grain yield and 100-grain weight for both varieties greatly decreased when water stress was imposed at the panicle initiation stage. This study showed that the panicle initiation period was the most sensitive stage to water stress that contributed to a substantial reduction in yield for both varieties. Under the aerobic condition (control, MR253 produced higher panicle number, 100-grain weight and yield than MA1. Although MR253 is bred for lowland, it is well adapted to aerobic condition.

  18. Selected Abiotic and Biotic Environmental Stress Factors Affecting Two Economically Important Sugarcane Stalk Boring Pests in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan T. Showler

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane, Saccharum spp., in the United States is attacked by a number of different arthropod pests. The most serious among those pests are two stalk boring moths in the Family Crambidae: the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F., and the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar. The two species are affected by abiotic and biotic environmental stress factors. Water deficit and excessive soil nitrogen alter physical and physiochemical aspects of the sugarcane plant that make the crop increasingly vulnerable to E. loftini. Weed growth can be competitive with sugarcane but it also supports enhanced abundances and diversity of natural enemies that can suppress infestations of D. saccharalis. In an instance where the stalk borer is considered a stress factor, proximity of vulnerable crops to sugarcane can influence levels of E. loftini infestation of sugarcane. The adverse effects of each stress factor, in terms of stalk borer attack, can be reduced by adopting appropriate cultural practices, such as adequate irrigation, judicious use of nitrogen fertilizer, using noncompetitive weed growth, and not planting vulnerable crops near sugarcane fields. Understanding the relationships between stress factors and crop pests can provide valuable insights for plant breeders and tools for incorporation into integrated pest management strategies.

  19. Minority stress model components and affective well-being in a sample of sexual orientation minority adults living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Robert J; Burks, Alixandra C; Plöderl, Martin; Durgampudi, Praveen

    2017-12-01

    To date very little literature exists examining theoretically-based models applied to day-to-day positive and negative affective well-being among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Grounded in the perspective of Meyer, I. H. (2003). Prejudice, social stress, and mental health in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: Conceptual issues and research evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 674-697. Minority Stress Model, the present study examined HIV- and sexual orientation-related factors influencing affective well-being (i.e., positive affect, negative affect, life satisfaction, and stress). Participants were 154 HIV-positive LGB adults from an urban area in the southwestern United States. Data were drawn from an archival database (i.e., Project Legacy). The study methodology featured a cross-sectional self-report survey of minority stress, victimization, coping, and emotional well-being, among other subjects. Primary regression results were: (1) males reported less general stress than females; (2) higher internalized HIV-related stigma was associated with elevated negative affect; (3) higher internalized homophobia was associated with elevations in negative affect and general stress; (4) higher coping self-efficacy was associated with lesser negative affect, lesser general stress, greater positive affect, and greater satisfaction with life; (5) a significant interaction between HIV-related victimization and coping self-efficacy showed that coping self-efficacy was positively associated with positive affect only (only for non-victims). Contrary to expectations, coping self-efficacy demonstrated the largest main effects on affective well-being. Results are discussed with regard to potential need for theoretical refinement of Minority Stress Model applied to PLWHA and affective well-being outcomes. Recommendations are offered for future research.

  20. Reproductive effort affects oxidative status and stress in an Antarctic penguin species: An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colominas-Ciuró, Roger; Santos, Mercedes; Coria, Néstor; Barbosa, Andrés

    2017-01-01

    The oxidative cost of reproduction has been a matter of debate in recent years presumably because of the lack of proper experimental studies. Based on the hypothesis that different brood sizes produce differential reproductive costs, an experimental manipulation during breeding of Adélie penguins was conducted at Hope Bay, Antarctica, to study oxidative status and stress. We predict that a lower reproductive effort should be positively related to low oxidative and physiological stress. We randomly assigned nests with two chicks to a control reproductive effort group (CRE), and by removing one chick from some nests with two chicks, formed a second, low reproductive effort group (LRE). We examined how oxidative status in blood plasma (reactive oxygen metabolites, ROMs, and total antioxidant capacity, OXY) and stress (heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, H/L) responded to a lower production of offspring total biomass. Our nest manipulation showed significant differences in offspring total biomass, which was lower in the LRE group. As predicted, the LRE group had higher antioxidant capacity than individuals in the CRE group. We have also found, although marginally significant, interactions between sex and treatment in the three variables analysed. Females had higher OXY, lower ROMs and lower H/L ratio when rearing one chick, whereas males did so when rearing two except for OXY which was high regardless of treatment. Moreover, there was a significant negative correlation between the H/L ratio and OXY in females. Finally, we have found a negative and significant relationship between the duration of the experiment and OXY and ROMs and positive with H/L ratio which suggests that indeed breeding penguins are paying an effort in physiological terms in relation to the duration of the chick rearing. In conclusion, a reduction of the reproductive effort decreased oxidative stress in this long-lived bird meaning that a link exists between breeding effort and oxidative stress. However

  1. Reproductive effort affects oxidative status and stress in an Antarctic penguin species: An experimental study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Colominas-Ciuró

    Full Text Available The oxidative cost of reproduction has been a matter of debate in recent years presumably because of the lack of proper experimental studies. Based on the hypothesis that different brood sizes produce differential reproductive costs, an experimental manipulation during breeding of Adélie penguins was conducted at Hope Bay, Antarctica, to study oxidative status and stress. We predict that a lower reproductive effort should be positively related to low oxidative and physiological stress. We randomly assigned nests with two chicks to a control reproductive effort group (CRE, and by removing one chick from some nests with two chicks, formed a second, low reproductive effort group (LRE. We examined how oxidative status in blood plasma (reactive oxygen metabolites, ROMs, and total antioxidant capacity, OXY and stress (heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, H/L responded to a lower production of offspring total biomass. Our nest manipulation showed significant differences in offspring total biomass, which was lower in the LRE group. As predicted, the LRE group had higher antioxidant capacity than individuals in the CRE group. We have also found, although marginally significant, interactions between sex and treatment in the three variables analysed. Females had higher OXY, lower ROMs and lower H/L ratio when rearing one chick, whereas males did so when rearing two except for OXY which was high regardless of treatment. Moreover, there was a significant negative correlation between the H/L ratio and OXY in females. Finally, we have found a negative and significant relationship between the duration of the experiment and OXY and ROMs and positive with H/L ratio which suggests that indeed breeding penguins are paying an effort in physiological terms in relation to the duration of the chick rearing. In conclusion, a reduction of the reproductive effort decreased oxidative stress in this long-lived bird meaning that a link exists between breeding effort and oxidative

  2. The Effects of Adult Day Services on Family Caregivers’ Daily Stress, Affect, and Health: Outcomes From the Daily Stress and Health (DaSH) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarit, Steven H.; Kim, Kyungmin; Femia, Elia E.; Almeida, David M.; Klein, Laura C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: We examine the effects of use of adult day service (ADS) by caregivers of individuals with dementia (IWD) on daily stressors, affect, and health symptoms. Participants were interviewed for 8 consecutive days. On some days, the IWD attended an ADS program and on the other days caregivers provide most or all of the care at home. Methods: Participants were 173 family caregivers of IWDs using an ADS program. Daily telephone interviews assessed care-related stressors, noncare stressors, positive events, affect, and health symptoms. Multilevel models with data nested within persons were used to examine effects of ADS use on daily stressor exposure, affect, and health symptoms. Results: Caregivers had lower exposure to care-related stressors on ADS days, more positive experiences, and more noncare stressors. ADS use lowered anger and reduced the impact of noncare stressors on depressive symptoms. Implications: The findings demonstrate that stressors on caregivers are partly lowered, and affect is improved on ADS days, which may provide protection against the effects of chronic stress associated with caregiving. PMID:23690056

  3. Commonly consumed and naturally occurring dietary substances affect biomarkers of oxidative stress and DNA damage in healthy rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farombi, E. O.; Hansen, Max; Ravn-Haren, Gitte

    2004-01-01

    triglyceride levels and black currant juice increased plasma cholesterol but neither of them nor any other treatment affected blood glucose, erythrocyte HbA1c or fructosamine. We conclude that markers of oxidative stress may be modified by several mechanisms after feeding rats with complex dietary factors......The influence of black currant juice, Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor (BBI), kolaviron (a biflavonoid fraction of Garcinia kola seed), sugars, vitamin C and tert-butyl hydroperoxide on a wide range of biomarkers for oxidative stress, DNA damage and sugar or lipid metabolism has been investigated...... decreased oxidative damage to DNA in the liver. The erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were decreased in rats treated with tert-butyl hydroperoxide (p treatments. Black currant juice and sugars increased plasma...

  4. Heat Stress Affects Pi-related Genes Expression and Inorganic Phosphate Deposition/Accumulation in Barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacak, Andrzej; Barciszewska-Pacak, Maria; Swida-Barteczka, Aleksandra; Kruszka, Katarzyna; Sega, Pawel; Milanowska, Kaja; Jakobsen, Iver; Jarmolowski, Artur; Szweykowska-Kulinska, Zofia

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) in plants is taken from soil as an inorganic phosphate (Pi) and is one of the most important macroelements in growth and development. Plants actively react to Pi starvation by the induced expression of Pi transporters, MIR399, MIR827, and miR399 molecular sponge – IPS1 genes and by the decreased expression of the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 (PHOSPHATE2 – PHO2) and Pi sensing and transport SPX-MFS genes. The PHO2 protein is involved in the degradation of Pi transporters PHT1;1 (from soil to roots) and PHO1 (from roots to shoots). The decreased expression of PHO2 leads to Pi accumulation in shoots. In contrast, the pho1 mutant shows a decreased level of Pi concentration in shoots. Finally, Pi starvation leads to decreased Pi concentration in all plant tissues. Little is known about plant Pi homeostasis in other abiotic stress conditions. We found that, during the first hour of heat stress, Pi accumulated in barley shoots but not in the roots, and transcriptomic data analysis as well as RT-qPCR led us to propose an explanation for this phenomenon. Pi transport inhibition from soil to roots is balanced by lower Pi efflux from roots to shoots directed by the PHO1 transporter. In shoots, the PHO2 mRNA level is decreased, leading to an increased Pi level. We concluded that Pi homeostasis in barley during heat stress is maintained by dynamic changes in Pi-related genes expression. PMID:27446155

  5. Prion protein misfolding affects calcium homeostasis and sensitizes cells to endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Torres

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Prion-related disorders (PrDs are fatal neurodegenerative disorders characterized by progressive neuronal impairment as well as the accumulation of an abnormally folded and protease resistant form of the cellular prion protein, termed PrP(RES. Altered endoplasmic reticulum (ER homeostasis is associated with the occurrence of neurodegeneration in sporadic, infectious and familial forms of PrDs. The ER operates as a major intracellular calcium store, playing a crucial role in pathological events related to neuronal dysfunction and death. Here we investigated the possible impact of PrP misfolding on ER calcium homeostasis in infectious and familial models of PrDs. Neuro2A cells chronically infected with scrapie prions showed decreased ER-calcium content that correlated with a stronger upregulation of UPR-inducible chaperones, and a higher sensitivity to ER stress-induced cell death. Overexpression of the calcium pump SERCA stimulated calcium release and increased the neurotoxicity observed after exposure of cells to brain-derived infectious PrP(RES. Furthermore, expression of PrP mutants that cause hereditary Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease or fatal familial insomnia led to accumulation of PrP(RES and their partial retention at the ER, associated with a drastic decrease of ER calcium content and higher susceptibility to ER stress. Finally, similar results were observed when a transmembrane form of PrP was expressed, which is proposed as a neurotoxic intermediate. Our results suggest that alterations in calcium homeostasis and increased susceptibility to ER stress are common pathological features of both infectious and familial PrD models.

  6. Background adaptation and water acidification affect pigmentation and stress physiology of tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Salm, A L; Spanings, F A T; Gresnigt, R; Bonga, S E Wendelaar; Flik, G

    2005-10-01

    The ability to adjust skin darkness to the background is a common phenomenon in fish. The hormone alpha-melanophore-stimulating hormone (alphaMSH) enhances skin darkening. In Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus L., alphaMSH acts as a corticotropic hormone during adaptation to water with a low pH, in addition to its role in skin colouration. In the current study, we investigated the responses of this fish to these two environmental challenges when it is exposed to both simultaneously. The skin darkening of tilapia on a black background and the lightening on grey and white backgrounds are compromised in water with a low pH, indicating that the two vastly different processes both rely on alphaMSH-regulatory mechanisms. If the water is acidified after 25 days of undisturbed background adaptation, fish showed a transient pigmentation change but recovered after two days and continued the adaptation of their skin darkness to match the background. Black backgrounds are experienced by tilapia as more stressful than grey or white backgrounds both in neutral and in low pH water. A decrease of water pH from 7.8 to 4.5 applied over a two-day period was not experienced as stressful when combined with background adaptation, based on unchanged plasma pH and plasma alphaMSH, and Na levels. However, when water pH was lowered after 25 days of undisturbed background adaptation, particularly alphaMSH levels increased chronically. In these fish, plasma pH and Na levels had decreased, indicating a reduced capacity to maintain ion-homeostasis, implicating that the fish indeed experience stress. We conclude that simultaneous exposure to these two types of stressor has a lower impact on the physiology of tilapia than subsequent exposure to the stressors.

  7. Posttraumatic stress and emotion dysregulation: Relationships with smoking to reduce negative affect and barriers to smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Nicole A; Oglesby, Mary E; Raines, Amanda M; Zvolensky, Michael J; Schmidt, Norman B

    2015-08-01

    Many cigarette smokers have experienced a traumatic event, and elevated posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are associated with increased smoking levels. Previous research has found that elevated PTSS are associated with smoking to cope with negative affect, and it has been posited that perceptions of being unable to cope with the consequences of smoking cessation interfere with smoking cessation in this population. However, the mechanism of the relationship between PTSS and these smoking maintenance factors (i.e., smoking to reduce negative affect and barriers to cessation) has not been established. Emotion dysregulation is one potential mechanism as it is associated with PTSS as well as addictive behavior aimed at avoiding and reducing negative emotional states. We cross-sectionally tested the hypotheses that 1) PTSS and emotion dysregulation would be incrementally associated with smoking to reduce negative affect and barriers to cessation, and 2) that emotion dysregulation would mediate the relationships between PTSS, smoking to reduce negative affect, and barriers to cessation among a community sample of trauma-exposed individuals presenting for smoking cessation treatment (N=315). Results demonstrated that elevated PTSS were associated with increased smoking to reduce negative affect and barriers to cessation, and that emotion dysregulation mediated these relationships. These findings provide evidence of a mechanism between PTSS and psychological smoking maintenance factors, and suggest that emotion dysregulation may be a useful target for smoking cessation interventions among trauma-exposed individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Make up your mind - How stress and sex affect decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koot, S.

    2013-01-01

    Decision-making refers to assessing costs and benefits of competing actions, with either a known outcome or an uncertain result. Decision-making depends on several abilities, such as behavioural flexibility and inhibiting risky responses. Several factors affect decision-making, causing differences

  9. CENTRAL AMYGDALA LESIONS AFFECT BEHAVIORAL AND AUTONOMIC BALANCE DURING STRESS IN RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ROOZENDAAL, B; KOOLHAAS, JM; BOHUS, B

    1991-01-01

    The effects of a bilateral electrolytical lesion of the CEA on the behavioral and sympathetically induced cardiac response in the shock-probe/defensive-burying test have been analyzed in male Wistar rats. Lesions in the CEA failed to affect defensive burying and accompanying tachycardiac response as

  10. Pesticide stress on plants negatively affects parasitoid fitness through a bypass of their phytophage hosts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampfraath, Andries A.; Giesen, Daniel; van Gestel, Cornelis A.M.; Le Lann, C.

    2017-01-01

    Pesticides taken up by plants from the soil or interstitial (pore) water can cascade to higher trophic levels, which are expected to be more affected due to cumulative bottom-up effects. Knowledge about the impact of indirect exposure to pesticides on non-target terrestrial trophic chains, however,

  11. Habitat quality affects stress responses and survival in a bird wintering under extremely low ambient temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cīrule, Dina; Krama, Tatjana; Krams, Ronalds; Elferts, Didzis; Kaasik, Ants; Rantala, Markus J.; Mierauskas, Pranas; Luoto, Severi; Krams, Indrikis A.

    2017-12-01

    Animals normally respond to stressful environmental stimuli by releasing glucocorticoid hormones. We investigated whether baseline corticosterone (CORT), handling-induced corticosterone concentration(s), and body condition indices of members of willow tit ( Poecile montanus) groups differed while wintering in old growth forests and managed young forests in mild weather conditions and during cold spells. Willow tits spend the winter season in non-kin groups in which dominant individuals typically claim their priority to access resources, while subordinate individuals may experience greater levels of stress and higher mortality, especially during cold spells. We captured birds to measure baseline CORT and levels of handling-induced CORT secretion after 20 min of capture. Willow tits in the young forests had higher baseline CORT and a smaller increase in CORT in response to capture than individuals in the old forests. Baseline CORT was higher in females and juvenile birds compared to adult males, whereas handling-induced CORT secretion did not differ between birds of different ages. During cold spells, baseline CORT of willow tits increased and handling-induced CORT secretion decreased, especially in birds in young forests. Willow tits' survival was higher in the old forests, with dominant individuals surviving better than subordinates. Our results show that changes in CORT secretion reflect responses to habitat quality and climate harshness, indicating young managed coniferous forests as a suboptimal habitat for the willow tit.

  12. Arabidopsis mutants affecting oxylipin signaling in photo-oxidative stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Masanori; Tokaji, Yoshihito; Nagano, Atsushi J; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko; Hayashi, Makoto; Nishimura, Mikio; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Masuda, Shinji

    2014-08-01

    Plant oxylipins derive from oxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in thylakoid membranes and oxylipins such as jasmonic acid (JA) and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) play important roles in adaptation to photo-oxidative stress. OPDA functions both as a JA precursor and as a biologically active signaling molecule that induces expression of a specific set of genes. These genes can be induced by OPDA in the JA-insensitive coronatine insensitive1 (coi1) mutant, suggesting that there is an alternative pathway for OPDA signaling, independent of COI1-dependent JA signaling. However, little is known about OPDA signaling in photo-oxidative stress responses. In this study, we isolated Arabidopsis mutants with constitutively enhanced expression from the OPDA-responsive HsfA2 promoter. We used deletion mapping and complementation analysis to identify one responsible gene as CATALASE2. Our results thus indicate that ROS-producing cellular metabolism links to OPDA signaling. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Signaling through the primary cilium affects glial cell survival under a stressed environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Kentaro; Kawate, Toyoko; Takeda, Sen

    2011-02-01

    Sensing extracellular milieu is a fundamental requirement of cells. To facilitate and specify sensory reception, mammalian cells develop an antenna-like structure denoted as the primary cilia. Nearly all interphase and nondividing cells in vertebrates have a single, nonmotile seemingly unspecialized cilium (called a primary cilium). In the central nervous system, astrocytes express primary cilia, but their function in astrocytes has not been examined. Recent studies have shown that primary cilia unite receptors and the machinery of signal-transduction components, such as Wnt and Hedgehog (Hh) signaling cascades. Although, Hh signaling cascades are known to be activated in various cells during development, their physiological functions in the adult nervous system, especially in glial cells, are still unknown. In this study, we reveal that glial primary cilia receive the Hh signal and regulate the survival of astrocytes under stressed conditions such as starvation. Interestingly, increased astrocyte survival was reversed by knockdown of Ift20, which is one of the main components for building primary cilia. These results collectively indicate that the activation of Hh signaling in the primary cilia plays an important role in the survival of astrocytes under stressed conditions. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Spotlight on fish: light pollution affects circadian rhythms of European perch but does not cause stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüning, Anika; Hölker, Franz; Franke, Steffen; Preuer, Torsten; Kloas, Werner

    2015-04-01

    Flora and fauna evolved under natural day and night cycles. However, natural light is now enhanced by artificial light at night, particularly in urban areas. This alteration of natural light environments during the night is hypothesised to alter biological rhythms in fish, by effecting night-time production of the hormone melatonin. Artificial light at night is also expected to increase the stress level of fish, resulting in higher cortisol production. In laboratory experiments, European perch (Perca fluviatilis) were exposed to four different light intensities during the night, 0 lx (control), 1 lx (potential light level in urban waters), 10 lx (typical street lighting at night) and 100 lx. Melatonin and cortisol concentrations were measured from water samples every 3h during a 24 hour period. This study revealed that the nocturnal increase in melatonin production was inhibited even at the lowest light level of 1 lx. However, cortisol levels did not differ between control and treatment illumination levels. We conclude that artificial light at night at very low intensities may disturb biological rhythms in fish since nocturnal light levels around 1 lx are already found in urban waters. However, enhanced stress induction could not be demonstrated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The polyacetylenes falcarinol and falcarindiol affect stress responses in myotube cultures in a biphasic manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jette F; Christensen, Lars P; Theil, Peter K; Oksbjerg, Niels

    2008-01-01

    The effects of the bioactive polyacetylenes, falcarinol and falcarindiol, present in carrots, celery, celeriac and other umbelliferous vegetables, on the stress responses in primary myotube cultures, were studied. Biphasic responses on cellular stress responses in myotube cultures were investigated by exposing them to various concentrations of falcarinol and falcarindiol for 24 h before testing effects of 100 microM H(2)O(2) on the intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), transcription of the antioxidative enzyme cytosolic glutathione peroxidase (cGPx), and the heat shock proteins (HSP) HSP70 and HO1. At low concentrations (1.6 to 25 microM) polyacetylenes caused a slightly accelerated intra-cellular ROS formation, increased cGPx transcription and decreased HSP70 and HO1 transcription. The increased cGPx transcription may be interpreted as an adaptive response to the increased ROS formation and may have caused a reduced demand for the protective functions of the HSPs. ROS formation, however, was substantially decreased after pre-incubation with both polyacetylenes at 50 and 100 microM, the cGPx transcription was reduced and the HSP70 and HO1 transcription increased, indicating a need for the protective and repairing functions of the HSPs. In conclusion, pre-incubation with low concentrations of both polyacetylenes prior to H(2)O(2) exposure induced a cytoprotective effect whereas higher concentrations had adverse effects.

  16. Influence of stress restraint on the expansive behaviour of concrete affected by alkali-silica reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berra, M.; Faggiani, G.; Mangialardi, T.; Paolini, A.E.

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to ascertain whether the Threshold Alkali Level (TAL) of the concrete aggregates may be taken as a suitable reactivity parameter for the selection of aggregates susceptible of alkali-silica reaction (ASR), even when ASR expansion in concrete develops under restrained conditions. Concrete mixes made with different alkali contents and two natural siliceous aggregates with very different TALs were tested for their expansivity at 38 o C and 100% RH under unrestrained and restrained conditions. Four compressive stress levels over the range from 0.17 to 3.50 N/mm 2 were applied by using a new appositely designed experimental equipment. The lowest stress (0.17 N/mm 2 ) was selected in order to estimate the expansive pressure developed by the ASR gel under 'free' expansion conditions. It was found that, even under restrained conditions, the threshold alkali level proves to be a suitable reactivity parameter for designing concrete mixes that are not susceptible of deleterious ASR expansion. An empirical relationship between expansive pressure, concrete alkali content and aggregate TAL was developed in view of its possible use for ASR diagnosis and/or safety evaluation of concrete structures.

  17. Molecular and physiological responses of Iranian Perennial ryegrass as affected by Trinexapac ethyl, Paclobutrazol and Abscisic acid under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh Mohammadi, Mohammad Hossein; Etemadi, Nematollah; Arab, Mohammad Mehdi; Aalifar, Mostafa; Arab, Mostafa; Pessarakli, Mohammad

    2017-02-01

    Drought stress is the major limiting factor which affects turfgrass management in area with restricted rainfall or irrigation water supply. Trinexapac ethyl (TE), Paclobutrazol (PAC) and Abscisic acid (ABA) are three plant growth regulators (PGRs) that are commonly used on turf species for increasing their tolerance to different environmental stresses such as drought. However, little is known about the impact of PGRs on stress tolerance of Iranian Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). The present study was conducted to examine the visual and physiological changes of Iranian Perennial ryegrass in response to foliar application of TE, PAC, and ABA under drought stress conditions. According to the obtained results, application of all three PGRs considerably restored visual quality of drought exposed plants. TE treatment increased chlorophyll content, proline content and resulted in less malondialdehyde (MDA) in drought stressed Perennial ryegrass. Application of all PGRs enhanced the relative water content (RWC) and decreased the electrolyte leakage (EL) and Hydrogen peroxide contents (H 2 O 2 content) of plants under drought stress, though the impact of TE was more pronounced. Throughout the experiment, TE- and ABA-treated plant showed greater soluble sugar (SSC) content as compared to the control. Antioxidant enzymes activities of drought exposed plants were considerably increased by PGRs application. Catalase (CAT) and Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were greater in TE-treated grasses followed by PAC-treated plants. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and peroxidase (POD) activities were significantly enhanced by TE and ABA application. The results of the present investigation suggest that application of TE, ABA and PAC enhances drought tolerance in Perennial ryegrass. TE, PAC and ABA were all effective in mitigating physiological damages resulting from drought stress, however the beneficial effects of TE were more pronounced. The result obtained of real time

  18. Nutritional Ketosis Affects Metabolism and Behavior in Sprague-Dawley Rats in Both Control and Chronic Stress Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene L. Brownlow

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional ketosis may enhance cerebral energy metabolism and has received increased interest as a way to improve or preserve performance and resilience. Most studies to date have focused on metabolic or neurological disorders while anecdotal evidence suggests that ketosis may enhance performance in the absence of underlying dysfunction. Moreover, decreased availability of glucose in the brain following stressful events is associated with impaired cognition, suggesting the need for more efficient energy sources. We tested the hypotheses that ketosis induced by endogenous or exogenous ketones could: (a augment cognitive outcomes in healthy subjects; and (b prevent stress-induced detriments in cognitive parameters. Adult, male, Sprague Dawley rats were used to investigate metabolic and behavioral outcomes in 3 dietary conditions: ketogenic (KD, ketone supplemented (KS, or NIH-31 control diet in both control or chronic stress conditions. Acute administration of exogenous ketones resulted in reduction in blood glucose and sustained ketosis. Chronic experiments showed that in control conditions, only KD resulted in pronounced metabolic alterations and improved performance in the novel object recognition test. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis response revealed that KD-fed rats maintained peripheral ketosis despite increases in glucose whereas no diet effects were observed in ACTH or CORT levels. Both KD and KS-fed rats decreased escape latencies on the third day of water maze, whereas only KD prevented stress-induced deficits on the last testing day and improved probe test performance. Stress-induced decrease in hippocampal levels of β-hydroxybutyrate was attenuated in KD group while both KD and KS prevented stress effects on BDNF levels. Mitochondrial enzymes associated with ketogenesis were increased in both KD and KS hippocampal samples and both endothelial and neuronal glucose transporters were affected by stress but only in the

  19. The Adolescent Coping Process Interview: Measuring Temporal and Affective Components of Adolescent Responses to Peer Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Gould, Laura Feagans; Hussong, Andrea M.; Keeley, Mary L.

    2007-01-01

    The way in which adolescents cope with stressors in their lives has been established as an important correlate of adjustment. While most theoretical models of coping entail unfolding transactions between coping strategies and emotional arousal, the majority of coping measures tap only trait-level coping styles, ignoring both temporal and affective components of the coping process. The current study fills this gap by establishing the psychometric properties of a newly developed measure, the Ad...

  20. Habitat degradation and seasonality affect physiological stress levels of Eulemur collaris in littoral forest fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestri, Michela; Barresi, Marta; Campera, Marco; Serra, Valentina; Ramanamanjato, Jean Baptiste; Heistermann, Michael; Donati, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The littoral forest on sandy soil is among the most threatened habitats in Madagascar and, as such, it represents a hot-spot within a conservation hot-spot. Assessing the health of the resident lemur fauna is not only critical for the long-term viability of these populations, but also necessary for the future re-habilitation of this unique habitat. Since the Endangered collared brown lemur, Eulemur collaris, is the largest seed disperser of the Malagasy south-eastern littoral forest its survival in this habitat is crucial. In this study we compared fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) levels, a measure of physiological stress and potential early indicator of population health, between groups of collared brown lemurs living in a degraded forest fragment and groups occurring in a more preserved area. For this, we analysed 279 fecal samples collected year-round from 4 groups of collared brown lemurs using a validated 11-oxoetiocholanolone enzyme immunoassay and tested if fGCM levels were influenced by reproductive stages, phenological seasons, sex, and habitat degradation. The lemurs living in the degraded forest had significantly higher fGCM levels than those living in the more preserved area. In particular, the highest fGCM levels were found during the mating season in all animals and in females during gestation in the degraded forest. Since mating and gestation are both occurring during the lean season in the littoral forest, these results likely reflect a combination of ecological and reproductive pressures. Our findings provide a clear indication that habitat degradation has additive effects to the challenges found in the natural habitat. Since increased stress hormone output may have long-term negative effects on population health and reproduction, our data emphasize the need for and may add to the development of effective conservation plans for the species.

  1. Habitat degradation and seasonality affect physiological stress levels of Eulemur collaris in littoral forest fragments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Balestri

    Full Text Available The littoral forest on sandy soil is among the most threatened habitats in Madagascar and, as such, it represents a hot-spot within a conservation hot-spot. Assessing the health of the resident lemur fauna is not only critical for the long-term viability of these populations, but also necessary for the future re-habilitation of this unique habitat. Since the Endangered collared brown lemur, Eulemur collaris, is the largest seed disperser of the Malagasy south-eastern littoral forest its survival in this habitat is crucial. In this study we compared fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM levels, a measure of physiological stress and potential early indicator of population health, between groups of collared brown lemurs living in a degraded forest fragment and groups occurring in a more preserved area. For this, we analysed 279 fecal samples collected year-round from 4 groups of collared brown lemurs using a validated 11-oxoetiocholanolone enzyme immunoassay and tested if fGCM levels were influenced by reproductive stages, phenological seasons, sex, and habitat degradation. The lemurs living in the degraded forest had significantly higher fGCM levels than those living in the more preserved area. In particular, the highest fGCM levels were found during the mating season in all animals and in females during gestation in the degraded forest. Since mating and gestation are both occurring during the lean season in the littoral forest, these results likely reflect a combination of ecological and reproductive pressures. Our findings provide a clear indication that habitat degradation has additive effects to the challenges found in the natural habitat. Since increased stress hormone output may have long-term negative effects on population health and reproduction, our data emphasize the need for and may add to the development of effective conservation plans for the species.

  2. Feeding frequency affects stress, innate immunity and disease resistance of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-Fei; Tian, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Ding-Dong; Jiang, Guang-Zhen; Liu, Wen-Bin

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of feeding frequency on stress, innate immunity and disease resistance of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala (average weight: 9.92 ± 0.06 g). Fish were randomly assigned to one of six feeding frequencies (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 times/day) following the same ration size for 8 weeks. After the feeding trial, fish were challenged by Aeromonas hydrophila and cumulative mortality was recorded for the next 10 days. Daily gain index of fish fed 3-5 times/day was significantly higher than that of the other groups. High feeding frequencies induced significantly elevated plasma levels of both cortisol and lactate. Fish fed 3-4 times/day exhibited relatively low liver catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities as well as malondialdehyde contents, but obtained significantly higher reduced glutathione levels and post-challenged haemato-immunological parameters (include blood leukocyte and erythrocyte counts as well as plasma lysozyme, alternative complement, acid phosphatase and myeloperoxidase activities) compared with that of the other groups. After challenge, the lowest mortality was observed in fish fed 4 times/day. It was significantly lower than that of fish fed 1-3 times/day, but exhibited no statistical difference with that of the other groups. In conclusion, both low and high feeding frequencies could cause oxidative stress of juvenile M. amblycephala, as might consequently lead to the depressed immunity and reduced resistance to A. hydrophila infection. The optimal feeding frequency to enhance growth and boost immunity of this species at juvenile stage is 4 times/day. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hedonic sensitivity to natural rewards is affected by prenatal stress in a sex-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaert, Marie-Line; Marrocco, Jordan; Mairesse, Jérôme; Lionetto, Luana; Simmaco, Maurizio; Deruyter, Lucie; Allorge, Delphine; Moles, Anna; Pittaluga, Anna; Maccari, Stefania; Morley-Fletcher, Sara; Van Camp, Gilles; Nicoletti, Ferdinando

    2016-11-01

    Palatable food is a strong activator of the reward circuitry and may cause addictive behavior leading to eating disorders. How early life events and sex interact in shaping hedonic sensitivity to palatable food is largely unknown. We used prenatally restraint stressed (PRS) rats, which show abnormalities in the reward system and anxious/depressive-like behavior. Some of the hallmarks of PRS rats are known to be sex-dependent. We report that PRS enhanced and reduced milk chocolate-induced conditioned place preference in males and females, respectively. Male PRS rats also show increases in plasma dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels and dopamine (DA) levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), and reductions in 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) levels in the NAc and prefrontal cortex (PFC). In male rats, systemic treatment with the DHT-lowering drug finasteride reduced both milk chocolate preference and NAc DA levels. Female PRS rats showed lower plasma estradiol (E 2 ) levels and lower DA levels in the NAc, and 5-HT levels in the NAc and PFC. E 2 supplementation reversed the reduction in milk chocolate preference and PFC 5-HT levels. In the hypothalamus, PRS increased ERα and ERβ estrogen receptor and CARTP (cocaine-and-amphetamine receptor transcript peptide) mRNA levels in males, and 5-HT 2 C receptor mRNA levels in females. Changes were corrected by treatments with finasteride and E 2 , respectively. These new findings show that early life stress has a profound impact on hedonic sensitivity to high-palatable food via long-lasting changes in gonadal hormones. This paves the way to the development of hormonal strategies aimed at correcting abnormalities in the response to natural rewards. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Hypohydration and acute thermal stress affect mood state but not cognition or dynamic postural balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Brett R; Sollanek, Kurt J; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Lieberman, Harris R; Kenefick, Robert W

    2013-04-01

    Equivocal findings have been reported in the few studies that examined the impact of ambient temperature (T a) and hypohydration on cognition and dynamic balance. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of acute exposure to a range of ambient temperatures (T(a) 10-40 °C) in euhydration (EUH) and hypohydration (HYP) states on cognition, mood and dynamic balance. Thirty-two men (age 22 ± 4 years, height 1.80 ± 0.05 m, body mass 85.4 ± 10.8 kg) were grouped into four matched cohorts (n = 8), and tested in one of the four T(a) (10, 20, 30, 40 °C) when EUH and HYP (-4 % body mass via exercise-heat exposure). Cognition was assessed using psychomotor vigilance, 4-choice reaction time, matching to sample, and grammatical reasoning. Mood was evaluated by profile of mood states and dynamic postural balance was tested using a Biodex Balance System. Thermal sensation (TS), core (T core) and skin temperature (T(sk)) were obtained throughout testing. Volunteers lost -4.1 ± 0.4 % body mass during HYP. T sk and TS increased with increasing T(a), with no effect of hydration. Cognitive performance was not altered by HYP or thermal stress. Total mood disturbance (TMD), fatigue, confusion, anger, and depression increased during HYP at all T(a). Dynamic balance was unaffected by HYP, but 10 °C exposure impaired balance compared to all other T(a). Despite an increase in TMD during HYP, cognitive function was maintained in all testing environments, demonstrating cognitive resiliency in response to body fluid deficits. Dynamic postural stability at 10 °C appeared to be hampered by low-grade shivering, but was otherwise maintained during HYP and thermal stress.

  5. Long-Term Acclimation to Different Thermal Regimes Affects Molecular Responses to Heat Stress in a Freshwater Clam Corbicula Fluminea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falfushynska, Halina I.; Phan, Tuan; Sokolova, Inna M.

    2016-12-01

    Global climate change (GCC) can negatively affect freshwater ecosystems. However, the degree to which freshwater populations can acclimate to long-term warming and the underlying molecular mechanisms are not yet fully understood. We used the cooling water discharge (CWD) area of a power plant as a model for long-term warming. Survival and molecular stress responses (expression of molecular chaperones, antioxidants, bioenergetic and protein synthesis biomarkers) to experimental warming (20-41 °C, +1.5 °C per day) were assessed in invasive clams Corbicula fluminea from two pristine populations and a CWD population. CWD clams had considerably higher (by ~8-12 °C) lethal temperature thresholds than clams from the pristine areas. High thermal tolerance of CWD clams was associated with overexpression of heat shock proteins HSP70, HSP90 and HSP60 and activation of protein synthesis at 38 °C. Heat shock response was prioritized over the oxidative stress response resulting in accumulation of oxidative lesions and ubiquitinated proteins during heat stress in CWD clams. Future studies should determine whether the increase in thermal tolerance in CWD clams are due to genetic adaptation and/or phenotypic plasticity. Overall, our findings indicate that C. fluminea has potential to survive and increase its invasive range during warming such as expected during GCC.

  6. Stress management training as a prevention program for heavy social drinkers: cognitions, affect, drinking, and individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohsenow, D J; Smith, R E; Johnson, S

    1985-01-01

    The effectiveness of cognitive-affective stress management training (SMT) as a drinking reduction program for heavy social drinking college students was investigated. The SMT package included muscle relaxation and meditation training, cognitive restructuring, and coping skill rehearsal during induced affect. Treated and control subjects rated the frequency and intensity of their anxiety, anger and depression and recorded their alcohol consumption on a daily basis over a 6-month period. SMT significantly reduced posttreatment daily anxiety ratings and was associated with changes in four of ten irrational beliefs and a shift toward more internal locus of control in treated subjects. Reduction in anxiety was no longer evident at the 2 1/2- and 5 1/2-month follow-ups. The men in the SMT group showed a significant decrease in daily drinking rates at posttreatment and at the 2 1/2-month follow-up, but drinking returned to baseline levels by 5 1/2 months for the group as a whole. However, significant improvement variance in daily moods and in drinking rates over all posttreatment periods was accounted for by individual difference variables in the trained subjects but not in the control group, suggesting that these cognitive, personality, and social support variables are associated with response to stress management training. Implications of these results for future prevention research are discussed.

  7. Does increased Nitric Oxide production and oxidative stress due to high fat diet affect cardiac function after myocardial infarction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Aghajani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background &Objectives: High fat (HF diet by affecting the oxidative stress and nitric oxide (NO production may lead to different effects on function of the heart after myocardial infarction (MI. In the present study we aimed to address the hypothesis that high release of NO by activated macrophages affects LV function after MI.Methods: The animals were randomly divided into four groups comprising each of 10 rats: 1 Sham; 2 MI; 3 Sham+ HF diet; 4 MI+ HF diet. Animals fed with HF diet 30 days before sham and MI surgery. MI was induced by permanent ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD. Nitric oxide (NO production of peritoneal macrophages, the concentrations of MDA in the heart and the infarct size were measured.Results: Our study indicated that HF has adverse effects on myocardium and it may increase NO production as well as oxidative stress, resulting in augmentation of infarct size.Conclusion: Our results add to our knowledge that HF diet was associated with overproduction of NO by peritoneal macrophages and ROS that lead to development of infarct size and adverse remodeling.

  8. Heated hatha yoga to target cortisol reactivity to stress and affective eating in women at risk for obesity-related illnesses: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopkins, L.B.; Medina, J.L.; Baird, S.O.; Rosenfield, D.; Powers, M.B.; Smits, J.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Cortisol reactivity to stress is associated with affective eating, an important behavioral risk factor for obesity and related metabolic diseases. Yoga practice is related to decreases in stress and cortisol levels, thus emerging as a potential targeted complementary intervention for

  9. Abiotic stresses affect differently the intron splicing and expression of chloroplast genes in coffee plants (Coffea arabica) and rice (Oryza sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Dinh, Sy; Sai, Than Zaw Tun; Nawaz, Ghazala; Lee, Kwanuk; Kang, Hunseung

    2016-08-20

    Despite the increasing understanding of the regulation of chloroplast gene expression in plants, the importance of intron splicing and processing of chloroplast RNA transcripts under stress conditions is largely unknown. Here, to understand how abiotic stresses affect the intron splicing and expression patterns of chloroplast genes in dicots and monocots, we carried out a comprehensive analysis of the intron splicing and expression patterns of chloroplast genes in the coffee plant (Coffea arabica) as a dicot and rice (Oryza sativa) as a monocot under abiotic stresses, including drought, cold, or combined drought and heat stresses. The photosynthetic activity of both coffee plants and rice seedlings was significantly reduced under all stress conditions tested. Analysis of the transcript levels of chloroplast genes revealed that the splicing of tRNAs and mRNAs in coffee plants and rice seedlings were significantly affected by abiotic stresses. Notably, abiotic stresses affected differently the splicing of chloroplast tRNAs and mRNAs in coffee plants and rice seedlings. The transcript levels of most chloroplast genes were markedly downregulated in both coffee plants and rice seedlings upon stress treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that coffee and rice plants respond to abiotic stresses via regulating the intron splicing and expression of different sets of chloroplast genes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Wheat phenological development and growth studies as affected by drought and late season high temperature stress under arid environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zahid eIhsan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Crop phenological development study evaluates the potential for adaptability and tolerance of genotypes to arid environment. Present study examined the effect of drought stress (100%, 75% and 50% FC, planting times (16-November, 01-December, 16-December and 01-January and genotypes (Yocoro Rojo, FKAU-10, Faisalabad-08 and Galaxy L-7096 on phenological development, growth indices, grain yield and water use efficiency of drip-irrigated wheat. Development of wheat genotypes were measured at five phenological growth stages (tillering, jointing, booting, heading and maturity and correlation of growth indices (30, 45, 60 and 75 DAS were also estimated against final grain yield. Phenological development study measured early tillering in drought stressed plots, while at maximum, 31 days were taken to complete tillering stage. Days to complete 50% heading and physiological crop maturity were the most susceptible growth stages that resulted in a reduction of 31-72% in number of days to complete these growth stages. Wheat genotypes grown with 50% FC reported the shortest grain filling duration. The genotype, Fsd-08 presented greater adaptability to studied arid climate and recorded 31%, 35% and 38% longer grain filling period as compared with rest of the genotypes at 100-50% FC respectively. December sowing mitigated the drought and delayed plantation effects by producing superior growth and yield (2162 kg ha-1 at severe drought stress. The genotype Fsd-08 and L-7096 recorded the minimum plant height (36 cm and the shortest growth cycle (76 days for January plantation with 50% FC. At severe drought stress leaf area index, dry matter accumulation, crop growth rate and net assimilation rate were decreased by 67%, 57%, 34% and 38% as compared to non-stressed plots. The genotype, Fsd-08 and F-10 were the superior one and secured 14-17% higher grain yield as compared to local YR for severely stressed plots. The correlation between crop growth indices and grain

  11. Emotional suppression in torture survivors: Relationship to posttraumatic stress symptoms and trauma-related negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Angela; Garber, Benjamin; Ahmed, Ola; Asnaani, Anu; Cheung, Jessica; Hofmann, Stefan G; Huynh, Ly; Liddell, Belinda; Litz, Brett T; Pajak, Rosanna; Bryant, Richard A

    2016-08-30

    While clinical reports suggest that torture survivors may try to suppress their emotions during torture, little is known about the use of emotional suppression following torture. In this study, 82 refugees and asylum-seekers (including 33 torture survivors) completed self-report measures of trait suppression, PTSD symptoms and baseline negative affect before being exposed to images depicting scenes of interpersonal trauma. The use of suppression while viewing the images was indexed and negative affect was measured both immediately after viewing the images and following a five minute rest period. Findings indicated that torture survivors did not show higher rates of trait suppression or state emotional suppression during the experimental session compared to non-torture survivors. However, torture survivors who endorsed state suppression higher levels of distress, and this relationship was especially strong for those with more severe PTSD symptoms. In contrast, there was a negative relationship between state suppression and distress for non-torture survivors with high levels of PTSD symptoms. These findings suggest that, while torture exposure does not lead to greater use of suppression, it does influence the impact of suppression on emotional responses to stimuli. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Npas4 deficiency and prenatal stress interact to affect social recognition in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heslin, K; Coutellier, L

    2017-12-11

    Neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia have an expansive array of reported genetic and environmental contributing factors. However, none of these factors alone can account for a substantial proportion of cases of either disorder. Instead, many gene-by-environment interactions are responsible for neurodevelopmental disturbances that lead to these disorders. The current experiment used heterozygous knock-out mice to examine a potential interaction between 2 factors commonly linked to neurodevelopmental disorders and cognitive deficit: imbalanced excitatory/inhibitory signaling in the cortex and prenatal stress (PNS) exposure. Both of these factors have been linked to disrupt GABAergic signaling in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), a common feature of neurodevelopmental disorders. The neuronal PAS domain protein 4 (Npas4) gene is instrumental in regulation of the excitatory/inhibitory balance in the cortex and hippocampus in response to activation. Npas4 heterozygous and wild-type male and female mice were exposed to either PNS or standard gestation, then evaluated during adulthood in social and anxiety behavioral measures. The combination of PNS and Npas4 deficiency in male mice impaired social recognition. This behavioral deficit was associated with decreased parvalbumin and cFos protein expression in the infralimbic region of the PFC following social stimulation in Npas4 heterozygous males. In contrast, females displayed fewer behavioral effects and molecular changes in PFC in response to PNS and decreased Npas4. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  13. Viewing nature scenes positively affects recovery of autonomic function following acute-mental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Daniel K; Barton, Jo L; Gladwell, Valerie F

    2013-06-04

    A randomized crossover study explored whether viewing different scenes prior to a stressor altered autonomic function during the recovery from the stressor. The two scenes were (a) nature (composed of trees, grass, fields) or (b) built (composed of man-made, urban scenes lacking natural characteristics) environments. Autonomic function was assessed using noninvasive techniques of heart rate variability; in particular, time domain analyses evaluated parasympathetic activity, using root-mean-square of successive differences (RMSSD). During stress, secondary cardiovascular markers (heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure) showed significant increases from baseline which did not differ between the two viewing conditions. Parasympathetic activity, however, was significantly higher in recovery following the stressor in the viewing scenes of nature condition compared to viewing scenes depicting built environments (RMSSD; 50.0 ± 31.3 vs 34.8 ± 14.8 ms). Thus, viewing nature scenes prior to a stressor alters autonomic activity in the recovery period. The secondary aim was to examine autonomic function during viewing of the two scenes. Standard deviation of R-R intervals (SDRR), as change from baseline, during the first 5 min of viewing nature scenes was greater than during built scenes. Overall, this suggests that nature can elicit improvements in the recovery process following a stressor.

  14. How increased extreme precipitation under future climate change affects plant water stress and water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eekhout, Joris P. C.; Hunink, Johannes E.; de Vente, Joris

    2017-04-01

    For many areas worldwide, increased rainfall intensity and frequency of extreme weather events are projected for the coming century. This will have effect on water security and soil erosion in large parts of the world. Here we present a detailed catchment-scale study, arguing that global and regional studies may be insufficiently accurate to describe actual impacts on the redistribution of water and the consequences for soil erosion. We applied a hydrological model, including infiltration excess surface runoff, coupled with an erosion model. The model was applied to 1 reference and 4 future climate scenarios (2 periods and 2 Representative Concentration Pathways), consisting of an ensemble of 9 Regional Climate Models. The climatic input for the future scenarios was bias-corrected using quantile mapping. Our results show a significant increase of plant water stress, reservoir inflow, soil erosion and reservoir sedimentation in all 4 future scenarios. Hence, a redistribution of water is expected, where agriculture may shift from rainfed to irrigated crops as a result of decreasing soil moisture and increased reservoir inflow. At the same time, reservoir sedimentation increases and threatens long-term sustainability of water storage and water security. Our results emphasize the role infiltration excess surface runoff and bias-correction methods play in the quantification of the impact of increased intense precipitation on water availability and soil erosion at the catchment scale.

  15. The impact of acute stress on hormones and cytokines, and how their recovery is affected by music-evoked positive mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan; Boehlig, Albrecht; Hohenadel, Maximilian; Nitsche, Ines; Bauer, Katrin; Sack, Ulrich

    2016-03-29

    Stress and recovery from stress significantly affect interactions between the central nervous system, endocrine pathways, and the immune system. However, the influence of acute stress on circulating immune-endocrine mediators in humans is not well known. Using a double-blind, randomized study design, we administered a CO2 stress test to n = 143 participants to identify the effects of acute stress, and recovery from stress, on serum levels of several mediators with immune function (IL-6, TNF-α, leptin, and somatostatin), as well as on noradrenaline, and two hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hormones (ACTH and cortisol). Moreover, during a 1 h-recovery period, we repeatedly measured these serum parameters, and administered an auditory mood-induction protocol with positive music and a neutral control stimulus. The acute stress elicited increases in noradrenaline, ACTH, cortisol, IL-6, and leptin levels. Noradrenaline and ACTH exhibited the fastest and strongest stress responses, followed by cortisol, IL-6 and leptin. The music intervention was associated with more positive mood, and stronger cortisol responses to the acute stressor in the music group. Our data show that acute (CO2) stress affects endocrine, immune and metabolic functions in humans, and they show that mood plays a causal role in the modulation of responses to acute stress.

  16. The Adolescent Coping Process Interview: measuring temporal and affective components of adolescent responses to peer stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feagans Gould, Laura; Hussong, Andrea M; Keeley, Mary L

    2008-10-01

    The way in which adolescents cope with stressors in their lives has been established as an important correlate of adjustment. While most theoretical models of coping entail unfolding transactions between coping strategies and emotional arousal, the majority of coping measures tap only trait-level coping styles, ignoring both temporal and affective components of the coping process. The current study fills this gap by establishing the psychometric properties of a newly developed measure, the Adolescent Coping Process Interview (ACPI), that is more in line with transactional and developmental models of coping. Results indicate that the ACPI displays good psychometric properties, captures significant intra-individual variability in coping over the process, and points to emotional arousal as informing several coping-adjustment relationships. Moreover, the ACPI and similar approaches may help promote the development of more adaptive patterns of coping in adolescents by helping to identify specific points within the coping process at which to intervene.

  17. Thermal stress and tropical cyclones affect economic production in Central America and Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiang, S. M.

    2009-12-01

    Surface temperatures and tropical cyclones have large impacts on economic production. Local cyclone energy dissipation reduces output in agriculture and tourism, while stimulating output in construction. High surface temperatures reduce output in several labor-intensive industries; a 1° C increase for two consecutive years results in production losses of ˜13%. The response is greatest during the hottest season and is non-linear, with high temperature days contributing the most to production losses. The structure of this response matches results from a large ergonomics literature, supporting the hypothesis that thermal stress reduces human performance, driving macroeconomic fluctuations. This large response of non-agricultural sectors suggests that current estimates underestimate the scale and scope of economic vulnerabilities to climate change. Responses of each industry to surface temperature, tropical cyclones and rainfall. Estimates represent the change of value-added in the industry in response to each atmospheric variables during the year of production (L=0) and the years prior (L≥1). The responses to surface temperature are triangles, tropical cyclones are squares and rainfall are crosses. Estimates are grey if none of the annual responses are significant at the α = 0.1 level. Whiskers indicate 95% confidence intervals. Tourism receipts displays the five years prior (L=1-5) because of the long response of that industry to cyclones. Agriculture per worker is also plotted as circles when estimated a second time excluding mainland countries from the sample. Units are: temperature- percent change in output per 0.33°C; cyclones- percent changes in output per 1 standard deviation of tropical cyclone energy; rainfall- percent change in output per 2 cm/month.

  18. Prenatal stress from trawl capture affects mothers and neonates: a case study using the southern fiddler ray (Trygonorrhina dumerilii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, L.; Awruch, C.; Walker, T. I.; Reina, R. D.

    2017-04-01

    Assessing fishing effects on chondrichthyan populations has predominantly focused on quantifying mortality rates. Consequently, sub-lethal effects of capture stress on the reproductive capacity of chondrichthyans are largely unknown. We investigated the reproductive consequences of capture on pregnant southern fiddler rays (Trygonorrhina dumerilii) collected from Swan Bay, Australia, in response to laboratory-simulated trawl capture (8 h) followed immediately by air exposure (30 min). Immediately prior to, and for up to 28 days post trawling, all females were measured for body mass (BM), sex steroid concentrations (17-β estradiol, progesterone, testosterone) and granulocyte to lymphocyte (G:L) ratio. At parturition, neonates were measured for total length (TL), BM and G:L ratio. Trawling reduced maternal BM and elevated the G:L ratio for up to 28 days. Trawling did not significantly affect any sex steroid concentrations relative to controls. Neonates from trawled mothers were significantly lower in BM and TL than control animals, and had an elevated G:L ratio. Our results show that capture of pregnant T. dumerilii can influence their reproductive potential and affect the fitness of neonates. We suggest other viviparous species are likely to be similarly affected. Sub-lethal effects of capture, particularly on reproduction, require further study to improve fisheries management and conservation of chondrichthyans.

  19. Hydrilla verticillata employs two different ways to affect DNA methylation under excess copper stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Danlu; Zhuang, Kai; Xia, Yan; Zhu, Changhua; Chen, Chen; Hu, Zhubing; Shen, Zhenguo

    2017-12-01

    Because of the accumulation of heavy metals, Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle, a rooted submerged perennial aquatic herb, is being developed as a potential tool to clean the aquatic ecosystem polluted by heavy metals. However, its physiological responses for heavy metal remain to be elucidated. Here, through employing proteomics approach, we found that excess Cu significantly induced the expressions of four DNA methylation related proteins in H. verticillata, which were the homologues of two domains rearranged methyltransferases (DRM), a methyltransferases chromomethylase (CMT) and a histone H3 lysine-9 specific SUVH6-like (SUVH6). Consistently, a dramatic change in DNA methylation patterns was detected in excess Cu-exposed H. verticillata. Surprisingly, administration of the NADPH oxidase inhibitors, diphenylene iodonium (DPI) and imidazole (IMZ) that block production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) could trigger the remethylation of genomic sites that were demethylated by excess Cu, indicating that Cu-induced ROS might be another way to affect DNA methylation. Further analysis suggested this changed DNA methylation may be owing to the ROS-induced DNA damage. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that two different ways to influence DNA methylation in excess Cu-treated H. verticillata. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Overexpression of an Arabidopsis heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein gene, AtRNP1, affects plant growth and reduces plant tolerance to drought and salt stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhenyu, E-mail: wzy72609@163.com [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China); Zhao, Xiuyang, E-mail: xiuzh@psb.vib-ugent.be [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China); Wang, Bing, E-mail: wangbing@ibcas.ac.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China); Liu, Erlong, E-mail: liuel14@lzu.edu.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China); Chen, Ni, E-mail: 63710156@qq.com [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China); Zhang, Wei, E-mail: wzhang1216@yahoo.com [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Bio-Energy Crops, School of Life Sciences, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Liu, Heng, E-mail: hengliu@lzu.edu.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China)

    2016-04-01

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) participate in diverse regulations of plant growth and environmental stress responses. In this work, an Arabidopsis hnRNP of unknown function, AtRNP1, was investigated. We found that AtRNP1 gene is highly expressed in rosette and cauline leaves, and slightly induced under drought, salt, osmotic and ABA stresses. AtRNP1 protein is localized to both the nucleus and cytoplasm. We performed homologous overexpression of AtRNP1 and found that the transgenic plants showed shortened root length and plant height, and accelerated flowering. In addition, the transgenic plants also showed reduced tolerance to drought, salt, osmotic and ABA stresses. Further studies revealed that under both normal and stress conditions, the proline contents in the transgenic plants are markedly decreased, associated with reduced expression levels of a proline synthase gene and several stress-responsive genes. These results suggested that the overexpression of AtRNP1 negatively affects plant growth and abiotic stress tolerance. - Highlights: • AtRNP1 is a widely expressed gene and its expression is slightly induced under abiotic stresses. • AtRNP1 protein is localized to both the nucleus and cytoplasm. • Overexpression of AtRNP1 affects plant growth. • Overexpression of AtRNP1 reduces plant tolerance to drought and salt stresses. • AtRNP1 overexpression plants show decreased proline accumulation and stress-responsive gene expressions.

  1. Overexpression of an Arabidopsis heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein gene, AtRNP1, affects plant growth and reduces plant tolerance to drought and salt stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Zhao, Xiuyang; Wang, Bing; Liu, Erlong; Chen, Ni; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Heng

    2016-01-01

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) participate in diverse regulations of plant growth and environmental stress responses. In this work, an Arabidopsis hnRNP of unknown function, AtRNP1, was investigated. We found that AtRNP1 gene is highly expressed in rosette and cauline leaves, and slightly induced under drought, salt, osmotic and ABA stresses. AtRNP1 protein is localized to both the nucleus and cytoplasm. We performed homologous overexpression of AtRNP1 and found that the transgenic plants showed shortened root length and plant height, and accelerated flowering. In addition, the transgenic plants also showed reduced tolerance to drought, salt, osmotic and ABA stresses. Further studies revealed that under both normal and stress conditions, the proline contents in the transgenic plants are markedly decreased, associated with reduced expression levels of a proline synthase gene and several stress-responsive genes. These results suggested that the overexpression of AtRNP1 negatively affects plant growth and abiotic stress tolerance. - Highlights: • AtRNP1 is a widely expressed gene and its expression is slightly induced under abiotic stresses. • AtRNP1 protein is localized to both the nucleus and cytoplasm. • Overexpression of AtRNP1 affects plant growth. • Overexpression of AtRNP1 reduces plant tolerance to drought and salt stresses. • AtRNP1 overexpression plants show decreased proline accumulation and stress-responsive gene expressions.

  2. Early affective processing in patients with acute posttraumatic stress disorder: magnetoencephalographic correlates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Burgmer

    Full Text Available In chronic PTSD, a preattentive neural alarm system responds rapidly to emotional information, leading to increased prefrontal cortex (PFC activation at early processing stages (<100 ms. Enhanced PFC responses are followed by a reduction in occipito-temporal activity during later processing stages. However, it remains unknown if this neuronal pattern is a result of a long lasting mental disorder or if it represents changes in brain function as direct consequences of severe trauma.The present study investigates early fear network activity in acutely traumatized patients with PTSD. It focuses on the question whether dysfunctions previously observed in chronic PTSD patients are already present shortly after trauma exposure. We recorded neuromagnetic activity towards emotional pictures in seven acutely traumatized PTSD patients between one and seven weeks after trauma exposure and compared brain responses to a balanced healthy control sample. Inverse modelling served for mapping sources of differential activation in the brain.Compared to the control group, acutely traumatized PTSD patients showed an enhanced PFC response to high-arousing pictures between 60 to 80 ms. This rapid prefrontal hypervigilance towards arousing pictorial stimuli was sustained during 120-300 ms, where it was accompanied by a reduced affective modulation of occipito-temporal neural processing.Our findings indicate that the hypervigilance-avoidance pattern seen in chronic PTSD is not necessarily a product of an endured mental disorder, but arises as an almost immediate result of severe traumatisation. Thus, traumatic experiences can influence emotion processing strongly, leading to long-lasting changes in trauma network activation and expediting a chronic manifestation of maladaptive cognitive and behavioral symptoms.

  3. Glyphosate Adversely Affects Danio rerio Males: Acetylcholinesterase Modulation and Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Fernanda Moreira; Caldas, Sergiane Souza; Primel, Ednei Gilberto; da Rosa, Carlos Eduardo

    2017-04-01

    It has been demonstrated that glyphosate-based herbicides are toxic to animals. In the present study, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP), and lipid peroxidation (LPO), as well as the activity and expression of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme, were evaluated in Danio rerio males exposed to 5 or 10 mg/L of glyphosate for 24 and 96 h. An increase in ACAP in gills after 24 h was observed in the animals exposed to 5 mg/L of glyphosate. A decrease in LPO was observed in brain tissue of animals exposed to 10 mg/L after 24 h, while an increase was observed in muscle after 96 h. No significant alterations were observed in ROS generation. AChE activity was not altered in muscles or brains of animals exposed to either glyphosate concentration for 24 or 96 h. However, gene expression of this enzyme in the brain was reduced after 24 h and was enhanced in both brain and muscle tissues after 96 h. Thus, contrary to previous findings that had attributed the imbalance in the oxidative state of animals exposed to glyphosate-based herbicides to surfactants and other inert compounds, the present study demonstrated that glyphosate per se promotes this same effect in zebrafish males. Although glyphosate concentrations did not alter AChE activity, this study demonstrated for the first time that this molecule affects ache expression in male zebrafish D. rerio.

  4. Pesticide stress on plants negatively affects parasitoid fitness through a bypass of their phytophage hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampfraath, Andries A; Giesen, Daniel; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Le Lann, Cécile

    2017-04-01

    Pesticides taken up by plants from the soil or interstitial (pore) water can cascade to higher trophic levels, which are expected to be more affected due to cumulative bottom-up effects. Knowledge about the impact of indirect exposure to pesticides on non-target terrestrial trophic chains, however, is still lacking. Therefore, we examined the direct and indirect effects of three concentrations of the herbicide 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCBN) and an insecticide with a similar molecular structure (1,4-dichlorobenzene, DCB) on the fitness traits of a tritrophic system: the wheat plant Triticum aestivum, the aphid Sitobion avenae and its specialist parasitoid Aphidius rhopalosiphi. To mimic exposure via interstitial water the toxicants were added to the growth medium of the plant. Passive dosing between the medium and a silicon layer was used to achieve constant exposure of the poorly soluble pesticides. Wheat plants exposed to both pesticides grew smaller and had reduced biomasses. Negative effects on the reproductive rate, biomass and the number of aphids were only observable at the highest concentration of DCBN. Overall parasitism rate decreased when exposed to both pesticides and parasitoid attack rates decreased at lower concentrations of DCBN and at the highest DCB concentration. The parasitoid sex ratio was extremely male-biased in the presence of DCBN. Our results demonstrate that pesticides can alter the performance of higher trophic levels by sublethal effects, through a bypass of the second trophic level. In addition, the novel test system used was suitable for detecting such carryover effects on non-target organisms.

  5. Short-Term Sleep Disturbance-Induced Stress Does not Affect Basal Pain Perception, but Does Delay Postsurgical Pain Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Po-Kai; Cao, Jing; Wang, Hongzhen; Liang, Lingli; Zhang, Jun; Lutz, Brianna Marie; Shieh, Kun-Ruey; Bekker, Alex; Tao, Yuan-Xiang

    2015-11-01

    Chronic sleep disturbance-induced stress is known to increase basal pain sensitivity. However, most surgical patients frequently report short-term sleep disturbance/deprivation during the pre- and postoperation periods and have normal pain perception presurgery. Whether this short-term sleep disturbance affects postsurgical pain is elusive. Here, we report that pre- or postexposure to rapid eye movement sleep disturbance (REMSD) for 6 hours daily for 3 consecutive days did not alter basal responses to mechanical, heat, and cold stimuli, but did delay recovery in incision-induced reductions in paw withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimulation and paw withdrawal latencies to heat and cold stimuli on the ipsilateral side of male or female rats. This short-term REMSD led to stress shown by an increase in swim immobility time, a decrease in sucrose consumption, and an increase in the level of corticosterone in serum. Blocking this stress via intrathecal RU38486 or bilateral adrenalectomy abolished REMSD-caused delay in recovery of incision-induced reductions in behavioral responses to mechanical, heat, and cold stimuli. Moreover, this short-term REMSD produced significant reductions in the levels of mu opioid receptor and kappa opioid receptor, but not Kv1.2, in the ipsilateral L4/5 spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia on day 9 after incision (but not after sham surgery). Our findings show that short-term sleep disturbance either pre- or postsurgery does not alter basal pain perception, but does exacerbate postsurgical pain hypersensitivity. The latter may be related to the reductions of mu and kappa opioid receptors in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia caused by REMSD plus incision. Prevention of short-term sleep disturbance may help recovery from postsurgical pain in patients. Copyright © 2015 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Stress acclimation and particulate matter accumulation in Pinus sylvestris saplings affected by moderate combinations of urban stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanslin, Hans Martin; Przybysz, Arkadiusz; Slimestad, Rune; Sæbø, Arne

    2017-09-01

    To predict how the function of urban vegetation and the provision of ecosystem services respond to combinations of natural and anthropogenic drivers, a better understanding of multiple stress interactions is required. This study tested combined effects of moderate levels of drought, soil salinity and exposure to diesel exhaust on parameters of physiology, metabolism, morphology and growth of Pinus sylvestris L. saplings. We found that plant responses were primarily dominated by single stressors and a few two-way interactions. Stressor combinations did not have considerable additional negative effects on plant performance compared to single stressors. Hence, synergistic and antagonistic interactions were rare and additive effects frequent. Drought cycles caused most negative effects, from chlorophyll a fluorescence and epicuticular wax content to growth responses, while soil salinity caused fewer negative effects but contributed to reduction in fine root growth and fluorescence parameters at low air contamination. Interestingly, the air contamination alone had only marginal effects on plant morphology and growth, but contributed an antagonistic effect, dampening the negative effect of drought and salinity on the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (F v /F m ) and fine root biomass. Although, these effects were moderate, it appears that exhaust exposure had a cross-acclimation effect on plant responses to drought and salinity. We also found that salinity had a negative effect on the accumulation of particulate matter on shoots, illustrating that the plant stress situation can affect the provisioning of certain ecosystem services like pollution attenuation. These findings have implications for the understanding of the complex natural and anthropogenic stress situation of urban, and how to maintain the ecological functions and delivery of ecosystem services. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Control of the development of residual stresses and heat affected zone (HAZ) microstructure during welding of low alloy steels and influence on stress relieve cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storesund, J.; Rui Wu; Sandstroem, R.; von Walden, E. [Swedish Inst. for Metals Research, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1990-12-31

    Creep resistant 1 Cr 0.5 Mo steels are frequently used as steam pipes at operating temperature of 450 degree C to 500 degrees C. Welded joints have been post weld heat treated (PWHT). The results show: - In fully refined microstructures close to the fusion boundary of the weldments a reduction of the grain size by a factor of 3-4 was measured. The impact transition temperature was up to 27 degree C lower for test series notched in the refined HAZ (Heat Affected Zone) than in the coarse grained HAZ of the as welded condition. The overlay heat treatments were not observed to significantly influence the hardness and the room temperature tensile properties of the weldments. - The influence of refinement on impact transition temperature (ITT) and upper shelf energy was beneficial. In the coarse grained HAZ, for which the ITT was significantly higher than for weld metal and base metal, the refinement resulted in a 30 degrees C lower value of the ITT. The influence of PWHT on impact properties was also studied. The PWHT raised the upper shelf energy greatly. The effect on the ITT was smaller than that of refinement. - For cross welds in the as-welded (AW) condition refinement improved the creep properties. After PWHT the creep ductility was significantly increased at the same as a considerable reduction of life was observed. At lower stresses the effects of refinement and especially PWHT were less pronounced. Beneficial influence of refinement in inhibiting the formation of creep cavitation was apparent regardless stress level in both AW and PWHT conditions. (K.A.E).

  8. Control of the development of residual stresses and heat affected zone (HAZ) microstructure during welding of low alloy steels and influence on stress relieve cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storesund, J.; Rui Wu; Sandstroem, R.; von Walden, E.

    1990-01-01

    Creep resistant 1 Cr 0.5 Mo steels are frequently used as steam pipes at operating temperature of 450 degree C to 500 degrees C. Welded joints have been post weld heat treated (PWHT). The results show: - In fully refined microstructures close to the fusion boundary of the weldments a reduction of the grain size by a factor of 3-4 was measured. The impact transition temperature was up to 27 degree C lower for test series notched in the refined HAZ (Heat Affected Zone) than in the coarse grained HAZ of the as welded condition. The overlay heat treatments were not observed to significantly influence the hardness and the room temperature tensile properties of the weldments. - The influence of refinement on impact transition temperature (ITT) and upper shelf energy was beneficial. In the coarse grained HAZ, for which the ITT was significantly higher than for weld metal and base metal, the refinement resulted in a 30 degrees C lower value of the ITT. The influence of PWHT on impact properties was also studied. The PWHT raised the upper shelf energy greatly. The effect on the ITT was smaller than that of refinement. - For cross welds in the as-welded (AW) condition refinement improved the creep properties. After PWHT the creep ductility was significantly increased at the same as a considerable reduction of life was observed. At lower stresses the effects of refinement and especially PWHT were less pronounced. Beneficial influence of refinement in inhibiting the formation of creep cavitation was apparent regardless stress level in both AW and PWHT conditions. (K.A.E)

  9. Stress affects instrumental learning based on positive or negative reinforcement in interaction with personality in domestic horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenchon, Mathilde; Lévy, Frédéric; Moussu, Chantal; Lansade, Léa

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated how stress affects instrumental learning performance in horses (Equus caballus) depending on the type of reinforcement. Horses were assigned to four groups (N = 15 per group); each group received training with negative or positive reinforcement in the presence or absence of stressors unrelated to the learning task. The instrumental learning task consisted of the horse entering one of two compartments at the appearance of a visual signal given by the experimenter. In the absence of stressors unrelated to the task, learning performance did not differ between negative and positive reinforcements. The presence of stressors unrelated to the task (exposure to novel and sudden stimuli) impaired learning performance. Interestingly, this learning deficit was smaller when the negative reinforcement was used. The negative reinforcement, considered as a stressor related to the task, could have counterbalanced the impact of the extrinsic stressor by focusing attention toward the learning task. In addition, learning performance appears to differ between certain dimensions of personality depending on the presence of stressors and the type of reinforcement. These results suggest that when negative reinforcement is used (i.e. stressor related to the task), the most fearful horses may be the best performers in the absence of stressors but the worst performers when stressors are present. On the contrary, when positive reinforcement is used, the most fearful horses appear to be consistently the worst performers, with and without exposure to stressors unrelated to the learning task. This study is the first to demonstrate in ungulates that stress affects learning performance differentially according to the type of reinforcement and in interaction with personality. It provides fundamental and applied perspectives in the understanding of the relationships between personality and training abilities.

  10. Cre-mediated stress affects sirtuin expression levels, peroxisome biogenesis and metabolism, antioxidant and proinflammatory signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xiao

    Full Text Available Cre-mediated excision of loxP sites is widely used in mice to manipulate gene function in a tissue-specific manner. To analyze phenotypic alterations related to Cre-expression, we have used AMH-Cre-transgenic mice as a model system. Different Cre expression levels were obtained by investigation of C57BL/6J wild type as well as heterozygous and homozygous AMH-Cre-mice. Our results indicate that Cre-expression itself in Sertoli cells already has led to oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation (4-HNE lysine adducts, inducing PPARα/γ, peroxisome proliferation and alterations of peroxisome biogenesis (PEX5, PEX13 and PEX14 as well as metabolic proteins (ABCD1, ABCD3, MFP1, thiolase B, catalase. In addition to the strong catalase increase, a NRF2- and FOXO3-mediated antioxidative response (HMOX1 of the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial SOD2 and a NF-κB activation were noted. TGFβ1 and proinflammatory cytokines like IL1, IL6 and TNFα were upregulated and stress-related signaling pathways were induced. Sertoli cell mRNA-microarray analysis revealed an increase of TNFR2-signaling components. 53BP1 recruitment and expression levels for DNA repair genes as well as for p53 were elevated and the ones for related sirtuin deacetylases affected (SIRT 1, 3-7 in Sertoli cells. Under chronic Cre-mediated DNA damage conditions a strong downregulation of Sirt1 was observed, suggesting that the decrease of this important coordinator between DNA repair and metabolic signaling might induce the repression release of major transcription factors regulating metabolic and cytokine-mediated stress pathways. Indeed, caspase-3 was activated and increased germ cell apoptosis was observed, suggesting paracrine effects. In conclusion, the observed wide stress-induced effects and metabolic alterations suggest that it is essential to use the correct control animals (Cre/Wt with matched Cre expression levels to differentiate between Cre-mediated and specific gene-knock out

  11. Cre-Mediated Stress Affects Sirtuin Expression Levels, Peroxisome Biogenesis and Metabolism, Antioxidant and Proinflammatory Signaling Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yu; Karnati, Srikanth; Qian, Guofeng; Nenicu, Anca; Fan, Wei; Tchatalbachev, Svetlin; Höland, Anita; Hossain, Hamid; Guillou, Florian; Lüers, Georg H.; Baumgart-Vogt, Eveline

    2012-01-01

    Cre-mediated excision of loxP sites is widely used in mice to manipulate gene function in a tissue-specific manner. To analyze phenotypic alterations related to Cre-expression, we have used AMH-Cre-transgenic mice as a model system. Different Cre expression levels were obtained by investigation of C57BL/6J wild type as well as heterozygous and homozygous AMH-Cre-mice. Our results indicate that Cre-expression itself in Sertoli cells already has led to oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation (4-HNE lysine adducts), inducing PPARα/γ, peroxisome proliferation and alterations of peroxisome biogenesis (PEX5, PEX13 and PEX14) as well as metabolic proteins (ABCD1, ABCD3, MFP1, thiolase B, catalase). In addition to the strong catalase increase, a NRF2- and FOXO3-mediated antioxidative response (HMOX1 of the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial SOD2) and a NF-κB activation were noted. TGFβ1 and proinflammatory cytokines like IL1, IL6 and TNFα were upregulated and stress-related signaling pathways were induced. Sertoli cell mRNA-microarray analysis revealed an increase of TNFR2-signaling components. 53BP1 recruitment and expression levels for DNA repair genes as well as for p53 were elevated and the ones for related sirtuin deacetylases affected (SIRT 1, 3-7) in Sertoli cells. Under chronic Cre-mediated DNA damage conditions a strong downregulation of Sirt1 was observed, suggesting that the decrease of this important coordinator between DNA repair and metabolic signaling might induce the repression release of major transcription factors regulating metabolic and cytokine-mediated stress pathways. Indeed, caspase-3 was activated and increased germ cell apoptosis was observed, suggesting paracrine effects. In conclusion, the observed wide stress-induced effects and metabolic alterations suggest that it is essential to use the correct control animals (Cre/Wt) with matched Cre expression levels to differentiate between Cre-mediated and specific gene-knock out

  12. The Moderating Role of Positive and Negative Affect on the Relationship between Perceived Social Support and Stress in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çivitci, Asim

    2015-01-01

    During college years, which are known as a stressful time, students may often face stress personally, socially, academically, economically, and so forth in various areas of life. One of the important sources that students use to cope with stress is social support. Students can cope with stress easier via the support they receive from their friends…

  13. The sequential pathway between trauma-related symptom severity and cognitive-based smoking processes through perceived stress and negative affect reduction expectancies among trauma exposed smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garey, Lorra; Cheema, Mina K; Otal, Tanveer K; Schmidt, Norman B; Neighbors, Clayton; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-10-01

    Smoking rates are markedly higher among trauma-exposed individuals relative to non-trauma-exposed individuals. Extant work suggests that both perceived stress and negative affect reduction smoking expectancies are independent mechanisms that link trauma-related symptoms and smoking. Yet, no work has examined perceived stress and negative affect reduction smoking expectancies as potential explanatory variables for the relation between trauma-related symptom severity and smoking in a sequential pathway model. Methods The present study utilized a sample of treatment-seeking, trauma-exposed smokers (n = 363; 49.0% female) to examine perceived stress and negative affect reduction expectancies for smoking as potential sequential explanatory variables linking trauma-related symptom severity and nicotine dependence, perceived barriers to smoking cessation, and severity of withdrawal-related problems and symptoms during past quit attempts. As hypothesized, perceived stress and negative affect reduction expectancies had a significant sequential indirect effect on trauma-related symptom severity and criterion variables. Findings further elucidate the complex pathways through which trauma-related symptoms contribute to smoking behavior and cognitions, and highlight the importance of addressing perceived stress and negative affect reduction expectancies in smoking cessation programs among trauma-exposed individuals. (Am J Addict 2016;25:565-572). © 2016 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  14. Heated hatha yoga to target cortisol reactivity to stress and affective eating in women at risk for obesity-related illnesses: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Lindsey B; Medina, Johnna L; Baird, Scarlett O; Rosenfield, David; Powers, Mark B; Smits, Jasper A J

    2016-06-01

    Cortisol reactivity to stress is associated with affective eating, an important behavioral risk factor for obesity and related metabolic diseases. Yoga practice is related to decreases in stress and cortisol levels, thus emerging as a potential targeted complementary intervention for affective eating. This randomized controlled trial examined the efficacy of a heated, hatha yoga intervention for reducing cortisol reactivity to stress and affective eating. Females (N = 52; ages 25-46 years; 75% White) at risk for obesity and related illnesses were randomly assigned to 8 weeks of Bikram Yoga practice or to waitlist control. Cortisol reactivity to a laboratory stress induction were measured at Weeks 0 (pretreatment) and 9 (posttreatment). Self-reported binge eating frequency and coping motives for eating were assessed at Weeks 0, 3, 6, and 9. Among participants with elevated cortisol reactivity at pretreatment ("high reactors"), those randomized to the yoga condition evidenced greater pre- to posttreatment reductions in cortisol reactivity (p = .042, d = .85), but there were not significant condition differences for the "low reactors" (p = .178, d = .53). Yoga participants reported greater decreases in binge eating frequency (p = .040, d = .62) and eating to cope with negative affect (p = .038, d = .54). This study provides preliminary support for the efficacy of heated hatha yoga for treating physiological stress reactivity and affective eating among women at risk for obesity-related illnesses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Does comorbid chronic pain affect posttraumatic stress disorder diagnosis and treatment? Outcomes of posttraumatic stress disorder screening in Department of Veterans Affairs primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outcalt, Samantha D; Hoen, Helena Maria; Yu, Zhangsheng; Franks, Tenesha Marie; Krebs, Erin E

    2016-01-01

    Because posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is both prevalent and underrecognized, routine primary care-based screening for PTSD has been implemented across the Veterans Health Administration. PTSD is frequently complicated by the presence of comorbid chronic pain, and patients with both conditions have increased symptom severity and poorer prognosis. Our objective was to determine whether the presence of pain affects diagnosis and treatment of PTSD among Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) patients who have a positive PTSD screening test. This retrospective cohort study used clinical and administrative data from six Midwestern VA medical centers. We identified 4,244 VA primary care patients with a positive PTSD screen and compared outcomes for those with and without a coexisting pain diagnosis. Outcomes were three clinically appropriate responses to positive PTSD screening: (1) mental health visit, (2) PTSD diagnosis, and (3) new selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) prescription. We found that patients with coexisting pain had a lower rate of mental health visits than those without pain (hazard ratio: 0.889, 95% confidence interval: 0.821-0.962). There were no significant differences in the rate of PTSD diagnosis or new SSRI prescription between patients with and without coexisting pain.

  16. Seasonal heat stress affects adipose tissue proteome toward enrichment of the Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress response in late-pregnant dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachut, M; Kra, G; Livshitz, L; Portnick, Y; Yakoby, S; Friedlander, G; Levin, Y

    2017-03-31

    Environmental heat stress and metabolic stress during transition from late gestation to lactation are main factors limiting production in dairy cattle, and there is a complex interaction between them. Many proteins expressed in adipose tissue are involved in metabolic responses to stress. We aimed to investigate the effects of seasonal heat stress on adipose proteome in late-pregnant cows, and to identify biomarkers of heat stress. Late pregnant cows during summer heat stress (S, n=18), or during the winter season (W, n=12) were used. Subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies sampled 14days prepartum from S (n=10) and W (n=8) were analyzed by intensity-based, label-free, quantitative shotgun proteomics (nano-LC-MS/MS). Plasma concentrations of malondialdehyde and cortisol were higher in S than in W cows. Proteomic analysis revealed that 107/1495 proteins were differentially abundant in S compared to W (Pcows. This work shows that seasonal heat stress increases plasma concentrations of the oxidative stress marker malondialdehyde and cortisol in transition dairy cows. As many proteins expressed in the adipose tissue are involved in metabolic responses to stress, we investigated the effects of heat stress on the proteome of adipose tissue from late-pregnant cows during summer or winter seasons. We demonstrated that heat stress enriches several stress-related pathways, such as the Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress response and the acute-phase response in adipose tissues. Thus, environmental heat stress has a unique effect on adipose tissue in late-pregnant cows, as part of the regulatory adaptations to chronic heat load during the summer season. In addition, this study presents the widest available dataset of adipose tissue proteome in dairy cows, and revealed several novel biomarkers of heat stress in adipose tissue of dairy cows, the use of which awaits further validation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Stress !!!

    OpenAIRE

    Fledderus, M.

    2012-01-01

    Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten. Opvallend is dat mannelijke studenten uit Twente zich veel minder druk lijken te maken over hun studie. Onder vrouwen ligt de stress juist erg hoog ten opzichte van het landelijk gemiddelde.

  18. Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Hanne Dauer

    2015-01-01

    Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb.......Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb....

  19. How does early maternal separation and chronic stress in adult rats affect the immunoreactivity of serotonergic neurons within the dorsal raphe nucleus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollano, Antonella; Trujillo, Verónica; Suárez, Marta M

    2018-01-01

    Vulnerability to emotional disorders like depression derives from interactions between early and late environments, including stressful conditions. The serotonin (5HT) system is strongly affected by stress and chronic unpredictable stress can alter the 5HT system. We evaluated the distribution of active serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) through immunohistochemistry in maternally separated and chronically stressed rats treated with an antidepressant, tianeptine, whose mechanism of action is still under review. Male Wistar rats were subjected to daily maternal separation (MS) for 4.5 h between postnatal days (PND) 1-21, or to animal facility rearing (AFR). Between (PND) days 50-74, rats were exposed to chronic unpredictable stress and were treated daily with tianeptine (10 mg/kg) or vehicle. We found an interaction between the effects of MS and chronic unpredictable stress on Fos-5HT immunoreactive cells at mid-caudal level of the DR. MS-chronically stressed rats showed an increase of Fos-5HT immunoreactive cells compared with AFR-chronically stressed rats. The ventrolateral (DRL/VLPAG) and dorsal (DRD) subdivisions of the DR were significantly more active than the ventral part (DRV). At the rostral level of the DR, tianeptine decreased the number of Fos-5HT cells in DR in the AFR groups, both unstressed and stressed. Overall, our results support the idea of a match in phenotype exhibited when the early and the adult environment correspond.

  20. Consumption of Oxidized Soybean Oil Increased Intestinal Oxidative Stress and Affected Intestinal Immune Variables in Yellow-feathered Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang Liang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of oxidized soybean oil in the diet of young chickens on growth performance and intestinal oxidative stress, and indices of intestinal immune function. Corn-soybean-based diets containing 2% mixtures of fresh and oxidized soybean oil provided 6 levels (0.15, 1.01, 3.14, 4.95, 7.05, and 8.97 meqO2/kg of peroxide value (POV in the diets. Each dietary treatment, fed for 22 d, had 6 replicates, each containing 30 birds (n = 1,080. Increasing POV levels reduced average daily feed intake (ADFI of the broilers during d 1 to 10, body weight and average daily gain at d 22 but did not affect overall ADFI. Concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA increased in plasma and jejunum as POV increased but total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC declined in plasma and jejunum. Catalase (CAT activity declined in plasma and jejunum as did plasma glutathione S-transferase (GST. Effects were apparent at POV exceeding 3.14 meqO2/kg for early ADFI and MDA in jejunum, and POV exceeding 1.01 meqO2/kg for CAT in plasma and jejunum, GST in plasma and T-AOC in jejunum. Relative jejunal abundance of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB P50 and NF-κB P65 increased as dietary POV increased. Increasing POV levels reduced the jejunal concentrations of secretory immunoglobulin A and cluster of differentiation (CD 4 and CD8 molecules with differences from controls apparent at dietary POV of 3.14 to 4.95 meqO2/kg. These findings indicated that growth performance, feed intake, and the local immune system of the small intestine were compromised by oxidative stress when young broilers were fed moderately oxidized soybean oil.

  1. Does leisure time moderate or mediate the effect of daily stress on positive affect? An examination using eight-day diary data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xinyi Lisa; Yarnal, Careen M.; Almeida, David M.

    2013-01-01

    This study tested the applicability of moderation and mediation models to leisure time as a stress coping resource. Analyzing eight-day diary data (N=2,022), we examined the within-person process of using leisure time to cope with daily stressors. We found that relatively high daily stress frequency, while reducing positive affect, prompted an individual to allocate more time to leisure than usual, which then increased positive affect, thus partially remedying the damage by high daily stress frequency. This within-person process, however, is significantly stronger among those with less leisure time on average than leisure-rich individuals. The findings support a partial counteractive mediation model, demonstrate between-person difference in the within-person coping process, and reveal the importance of positive affect as a coping outcome. PMID:25221350

  2. Wheat Phenological Development and Growth Studies As Affected by Drought and Late Season High Temperature Stress under Arid Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihsan, Muhammad Z; El-Nakhlawy, Fathy S; Ismail, Saleh M; Fahad, Shah; Daur, Ihsanullah

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the potential for adaptability and tolerance of wheat genotypes (G) to an arid environment. We examined the influence of drought stress (DS) (100, 75, and 50% field capacity), planting times (PT) (16-November, 01-December, 16-December and 01-January), and G (Yocoro Rojo, FKAU-10, Faisalabad-08, and Galaxy L-7096) on phenological development, growth indices, grain yield, and water use efficiency of drip-irrigated wheat. Development measured at five phenological growth stages (GS) (tillering, jointing, booting, heading, and maturity) and growth indices 30, 45, 60, and 75 days after sowing (DAS) were also correlated with final grain yield. Tillering occurred earlier in DS plots, to a maximum of 31 days. Days to complete 50% heading and physiological crop maturity were the most susceptible GS that denoted 31-72% reduction in number of days to complete these GS at severe DS. Wheat G grown with severe DS had the shortest grain filling duration. Genotype Fsd-08 presented greater adaptability to studied arid climate and recorded 31, 35, and 38% longer grain filling period as compared with rest of the G at 100-50% field capacity respectively. December sowing mitigated the drought and delayed planting effects by producing superior growth and yield (2162 kg ha(-1)) at severe DS. Genotypes Fsd-08 and L-7096 attained the minimum plant height (36 cm) and the shortest growth cycle (76 days) for January planting with 50% field capacity. At severe DS leaf area index, dry matter accumulation, crop growth rate and net assimilation rate were decreased by 67, 57, 34, and 38% as compared to non-stressed plots. Genotypes Fsd-08 and F-10 were the superior ones and secured 14-17% higher grain yield than genotype YR for severely stressed plots. The correlation between crop growth indices and grain yield depicted the highest value (0.58-0.71) at 60-75 DAS. So the major contribution of these growth indices toward grain yield was at the start of reproductive phase. It

  3. "The Program Affects Me 'Cause it Gives Away Stress": Urban Students' Qualitative Perspectives on Stress and a School-Based Mindful Yoga Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dariotis, Jacinda K; Cluxton-Keller, Fallon; Mirabal-Beltran, Roxanne; Gould, Laura Feagans; Greenberg, Mark T; Mendelson, Tamar

    School-based mindfulness and yoga studies generally measure stress-related outcomes using quantitative measures. This study answers the following research questions: How do youth define stress and in what ways, if any, was a mindful yoga intervention helpful to youth during stress experiences? To explore youths' own perspectives on stress, stressors in youths' lives, and perceived changes in responses to stress post-intervention, we conducted focus group discussions with 22 middle school students from low-income urban communities following a 16-week mindful yoga intervention. Using thematic analysis, the following three themes emerged: (1) youth conflated stress with negative emotions; (2) peer and family conflicts were common stressors; and (3) youth reported improved impulse control and emotional regulation following the intervention. Study findings have implications for refining intervention content (e.g., discussions of stress), as well as informing the selection and development of quantitative measures for future research on stress and stress responses in urban youth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of single cortisol administrations on human affect reviewed: Coping with stress through adaptive regulation of automatic cognitive processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putman, P.L.J.; Roelofs, K.

    2011-01-01

    The human stress hormone cortisol may facilitate effective coping after psychological stress. In apparent agreement, administration of cortisol has been demonstrated to reduce fear in response to stressors. For anxious patients with phobias or posttraumatic stress disorder this has been ascribed to

  5. Short-term salt stress strongly affects dynamic photosynthesis, but not steady-state photosynthesis, in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Yuqi; Kaiser, Elias; Zhang, Yating; Yang, Qichang; Li, Tao

    2018-01-01

    Salt stress occurs worldwide due to widespread soil salinization. Also, plants are often subjected to rapidly alternating periods of sun and shade (sunflecks). Despite this combined occurrence of salt stress and sunflecks, dynamic photosynthetic responses to sunflecks under salt stress remain

  6. Feeding rates affect stress and non-specific immune responses of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala subjected to hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-Fei; Xu, Chao; Tian, Hong-Yan; Jiang, Guang-Zhen; Zhang, Ding-Dong; Liu, Wen-Bin

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of feeding rates on stress response, innate immunity and hypoxia resistance of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala. Fish were randomly assigned to one of six feeding rates (2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7% of body weight/day) for 60 days. Then, fish were subjected to hypoxic conditions and haemato-immunological parameters were analyzed pre- and post-challenge. Low feed ration resulted in decreased liver superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and reduced glutathione contents. Inadequate feeding also adversely affected the immune functions of fish, as was characterized by the relatively low haemato-immunological parameters (including alternative complement (ACH50), myeloperoxidase (MPO), plasma protein profiles and transferring) and high hypoxia-induced mortality. High feed ration did not lead to the improvement in antioxidant capability, immune responses and survival. In addition, plasma cortisol, glucose and transferrin levels as well as lysozyme activities all increased significantly after hypoxia challenge, whereas the opposite was true for plasma ACH50 and MPO activities as well as protein profiles in terms of hypoxia challenge. An interaction between feeding rate and hypoxia was also observed in plasma cortisol, glucose and protein profiles. In conclusion, a feeding rate of 4-5% of body weight/day is optimal to boost the innate immunity of juvenile blunt snout bream. Low ration resulted in decreased antioxidant capability, compromised immune functions and reduced hypoxia resistance, while over feeding did not benefit the health status. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ground transport stress affects bacteria in the rumen of beef cattle: A real-time PCR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lixin; He, Cong; Zhou, Yanwei; Xu, Lifan; Xiong, Huijun

    2017-05-01

    Transport stress syndrome often appears in beef cattle during ground transportation, leading to changes in their capacity to digest food due to changes in rumen microbiota. The present study aimed to analyze bacteria before and after cattle transport. Eight Xianan beef cattle were transported over 1000 km. Rumen fluid and blood were sampled before and after transport. Real-time PCR was used to quantify rumen bacteria. Cortisol and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) were measured. Cortisol and ACTH were increased on day 1 after transportation and decreased by day 3. Cellulolytic bacteria (Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus flavefaciens), Ruminococcus amylophilus and Prevotella albensis were increased at 6 h and declined by 15 days after transport. There was a significant reduction in Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens, Prevotella bryantii, Prevotella ruminicola and Anaerovibrio lipolytica after transport. Rumen concentration of acetic acid increased after transport, while rumen pH and concentrations of propionic and butyric acids were decreased. Body weight decreased by 3 days and increased by 15 days after transportation. Using real-time PCR analysis, we detected changes in bacteria in the rumen of beef cattle after transport, which might affect the growth of cattle after transport. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  8. Maize water status and physiological traits as affected by root endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica under combined drought and mechanical stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Fatemeh; Mosaddeghi, Mohammad Reza; Dexter, Anthony Roger; Sepehri, Mozhgan

    2018-02-16

    Under combined drought and mechanical stresses, mechanical stress primarily controlled physiological responses of maize. Piriformospora indica mitigated the adverse effects of stresses, and inoculated maize experienced less oxidative damage and had better adaptation to stressful conditions. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of maize root colonization by an endophytic fungus P. indica on plant water status, physiological traits and root morphology under combined drought and mechanical stresses. Seedlings of inoculated and non-inoculated maize (Zea mays L., cv. single cross 704) were cultivated in growth chambers filled with moistened siliceous sand at a matric suction of 20 hPa. Drought stress was induced using PEG 6000 solution with osmotic potentials of 0, - 0.3 and - 0.5 MPa. Mechanical stress (i.e., penetration resistances of 1.05, 4.23 and 6.34 MPa) was exerted by placing weights on the surface of the sand medium. After 30 days, leaf water potential (LWP) and relative water content (RWC), root and shoot fresh weights, root volume (RV) and diameter (RD), leaf proline content, leaf area (LA) and catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities were measured. The results show that exposure to individual drought and mechanical stresses led to higher RD and proline content and lower plant biomass, RV and LA. Moreover, increasing drought and mechanical stress severity increased APX activity by about 1.9- and 3.1-fold compared with the control. When plants were exposed to combined stresses, mechanical stress played the dominant role in controlling plant responses. P. indica-inoculated plants are better adapted to individual and combined stresses. The inoculated plants had greater RV, LA, RWC, LWP and proline content under stressful conditions. In comparison with non-inoculated plants, inoculated plants showed lower CAT and APX activities which means that they experienced less oxidative stress induced by stressful conditions.

  9. Early-Life Stress Affects Stress-Related Prefrontal Dopamine Activity in Healthy Adults, but Not in Individuals with Psychotic Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasanova, Zuzana; Hernaus, Dennis; Vaessen, Thomas; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse; Winz, Oliver; Heinzel, Alexander; Pruessner, Jens; Mottaghy, Felix M.; Collip, Dina; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress may have a lasting impact on the developmental programming of the dopamine (DA) system implicated in psychosis. Early adversity could promote resilience by calibrating the prefrontal stress-regulatory dopaminergic neurotransmission to improve the individual's fit with the predicted

  10. Stress !!!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fledderus, M.

    2012-01-01

    Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten.

  11. Changes of Germination Properties, Photosynthetic Pigments and Anti Oxidant Enzymes Activity of Safflower as Affected by Drought and Salinity Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sirousmehr

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of drought and salinity stresses on some germination characteristics, contents of photosynthetic pigments and antioxidant enzymes (CAT, APX and GPX in the leaves of safflower, a factorial experiment based on CRD was conducted during 2012 at both laboratory and greenhouse of Zabol University with four replications. To expose the plants to drought (0, -6 and -8 bars and salinity stresses (5, 10 and 15 ds.m-1 PEG 6000 and NaCl were used respectively. The results indicated that the effects of factors on germination percentage and rate, chlorophyll a and b contents and antioxidants enzymes activities were significant. The result of laboratory study revealed a reduction in percentage and speed of germination when plants exposed to negative osmotic potential. Photosynthetic pigments of plant leaves grown in greenhouse significantly decreased by increasing drought and salinity stresses. Increasing drought stress along with soluble salts changed the activity of some antioxidant enzymes. Enzymes’ activity of both CAT and GPX were increased when the plants expose to PEG drought stress, but decreased against the levels of salt stress. APX activity also increased due to drought stress. Interactive effects of drought×salinity stresses indicated that under lower stress GPX enzymes increased salinity, and under severe stress APX was highly increased. It means the production and activity of plant defensive system like these enzymes in recent tensions and leads to protect or make plants tolerate against oxidative stress induced by drought and salinity.

  12. Emery-Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy-Associated Mutant Forms of Lamin A Recruit the Stress Responsive Protein Ankrd2 into the Nucleus, Affecting the Cellular Response to Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Angori

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ankrd2 is a stress responsive protein mainly expressed in muscle cells. Upon the application of oxidative stress, Ankrd2 translocates into the nucleus where it regulates the activity of genes involved in cellular response to stress. Emery-Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy 2 (EDMD2 is a muscular disorder caused by mutations of the gene encoding lamin A, LMNA. As well as many phenotypic abnormalities, EDMD2 muscle cells also feature a permanent basal stress state, the underlying molecular mechanisms of which are currently unclear. Methods: Experiments were performed in EDMD2-lamin A overexpressing cell lines and EDMD2-affected human myotubes. Oxidative stress was produced by H2O2 treatment. Co-immunoprecipitation, cellular subfractionation and immunofluorescence analysis were used to validate the relation between Ankrd2 and forms of lamin A; cellular sensibility to stress was monitored by the analysis of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS release and cell viability. Results: Our data demonstrate that oxidative stress induces the formation of a complex between Ankrd2 and lamin A. However, EDMD2-lamin A mutants were able to bind and mislocalize Ankrd2 in the nucleus even under basal conditions. Nonetheless, cells co-expressing Ankrd2 and EDMD2-lamin A mutants were more sensitive to oxidative stress than the Ankrd2-wild type lamin A counterpart. Conclusions: For the first time, we present evidence that in muscle fibers from patients affected by EDMD2, Ankrd2 has an unusual nuclear localization. By introducing a plausible mechanism ruling this accumulation, our data hint at a novel function of Ankrd2 in the pathogenesis of EDMD2-affected cells.

  13. Automatic affective-motivational regulation processes underlying supportive dyadic coping: the role of increased implicit positive attitudes toward communal goals in response to a stressed relationship partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koranyi, Nicolas; Hilpert, Peter; Job, Veronika; Bodenmann, Guy

    2017-09-01

    We examined the implicit affective mechanisms underlying provision of support in intimate dyads. Specifically, we hypothesized that in individuals with high relationship satisfaction, the perception that one's partner is stressed leads to increased implicit positive attitudes toward communal goals. In turn, this change in implicit attitudes facilitates supportive behavior. In two studies, we induced partner stress by instructing participants to either recall a situation where their partner was highly stressed (Study 1; N = 47 university students) or imagine a specific stressful event (excessive workload; Study 2; N = 85 university students). Subsequently, implicit attitudes toward communal goals were assessed with an Implicit Association Test. In both studies, we found that among participants with high relationship satisfaction partner stress increases preferences for communal goals. In addition, implicit preferences for communal goals predicted stronger inclinations to engage in supportive dyadic coping (Study 2). The current findings provide important insights into the implicit cognitive-affective mechanics of dyadic coping. Moreover, they can explain how people manage to avoid experiencing motivational conflicts between partner-oriented and self-oriented goals in situations characterized by high partner stress.

  14. Styrene enhances the noise induced oxidative stress in the cochlea and affects differently mechanosensory and supporting cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetoni, A R; Rolesi, R; Paciello, F; Eramo, S L M; Grassi, C; Troiani, D; Paludetti, G

    2016-12-01

    Experimental and human investigations have raised the level of concern about the potential ototoxicity of organic solvents and their interaction with noise. The main objective of this study was to characterize the effects of the combined noise and styrene exposure on hearing focusing on the mechanism of damage on the sensorineural cells and supporting cells of the organ of Corti and neurons of the ganglion of Corti. The impact of single and combined exposures on hearing was evaluated by auditory functional testing and histological analyses of cochlear specimens. The mechanism of damage was studied by analyzing superoxide anion and lipid peroxidation expression and by computational analyses of immunofluorescence data to evaluate and compare the oxidative stress pattern in outer hair cells versus the supporting epithelial cells of the organ of Corti. The oxidative stress hypothesis was further analyzed by evaluating the protective effect of a Coenzyme Q 10 analogue, the water soluble Q ter , molecule known to have protective antioxidant properties against noise induced hearing loss and by the analysis of the expression of the endogenous defense enzymes. This study provides evidence of a reciprocal noise-styrene synergism based on a redox imbalance mechanism affecting, although with a different intensity of damage, the outer hair cell (OHC) sensory epithelium. Moreover, these two damaging agents address preferentially different cochlear targets: noise mainly the sensory epithelium, styrene the supporting epithelial cells. Namely, the increase pattern of lipid peroxidation in the organ of Corti matched the cell damage distribution, involving predominantly OHC layer in noise exposed cochleae and both OHC and Deiters' cell layers in the styrene or combined exposed cochleae. The antioxidant treatment reduced the lipid peroxidation increase, potentiated the endogenous antioxidant defense system at OHC level in both exposures but it failed to ameliorate the oxidative

  15. Daily cognitive appraisals, daily affect, and long-term depressive symptoms: the role of self-esteem and self-concept clarity in the stress process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Flynn, Sharon C; Pomaki, Georgia; Delongis, Anita; Biesanz, Jeremy C; Puterman, Eli

    2011-02-01

    The current study investigated how self-esteem and self-concept clarity are implicated in the stress process both in the short and long term. Initial and 2-year follow-up interviews were completed by 178 participants from stepfamily unions. In twice-daily structured diaries over 7 days, participants reported their main family stressor, cognitive appraisals (perceived stressor threat and stressor controllability), and negative affect. Results of multilevel modeling indicated that high self-esteem ameliorated the effect of daily negative cognitive appraisals on daily negative affect. Self-concept clarity also buffered the effect of low self-self-esteem on depressive symptoms 2 years later. Our findings point to the vulnerability of those having low self-esteem or low self-concept clarity in terms of both short- and long-term adaptation to stress. They indicate the need for the consideration of such individual differences in designing stress management interventions.

  16. Examining Factors of Acculturative Stress on International Students as They Affect Utilization of Campus-Based Health and Counseling Services at Four-Year Public Universities in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Paul N.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined factors of acculturative stress experienced by international students as they affect utilization of campus-based health and counseling services. Eight hundred thirty-eight international students studying at 11 four-year public institutions in the State of Ohio were surveyed to determine how frequently they had experienced 20…

  17. The effects of experimentally induced rumination, positive reappraisal, acceptance, and distancing when thinking about a stressful event on affect states in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rood, L.; Roelofs, J.; Bögels, S.M.; Arntz, A.

    2012-01-01

    The current study compares the effects of experimentally induced rumination, positive reappraisal, distancing, and acceptance on affect states in adolescents aged 13-18. Participants (N = 160) were instructed to think about a recent stressful event. Next, they received specific instructions on how

  18. Pre-learning stress differentially affects long-term memory for emotional words, depending on temporal proximity to the learning experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Clark, Brianne; Warnecke, Ashlee; Smith, Lindsay; Tabar, Jennifer; Talbot, Jeffery N

    2011-07-06

    Stress exerts a profound, yet complex, influence on learning and memory and can enhance, impair or have no effect on these processes. Here, we have examined how the administration of stress at different times before learning affects long-term (24-hr) memory for neutral and emotional information. Participants submerged their dominant hand into a bath of ice cold water (Stress) or into a bath of warm water (No stress) for 3 min. Either immediately (Exp. 1) or 30 min (Exp. 2) after the water bath manipulation, participants were presented with a list of 30 words varying in emotional valence. The next day, participants' memory for the word list was assessed via free recall and recognition tests. In both experiments, stressed participants exhibited greater blood pressure, salivary cortisol levels, and subjective pain and stress ratings than non-stressed participants in response to the water bath manipulation. Stress applied immediately prior to learning (Exp. 1) enhanced the recognition of positive words, while stress applied 30 min prior to learning (Exp. 2) impaired free recall of negative words. Participants' recognition of positive words in Experiment 1 was positively associated with their heart rate responses to the water bath manipulation, while participants' free recall of negative words in Experiment 2 was negatively associated with their blood pressure and cortisol responses to the water bath manipulation. These findings indicate that the differential effects of pre-learning stress on long-term memory may depend on the temporal proximity of the stressor to the learning experience and the emotional nature of the to-be-learned information. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Astragalus membranaceus-Polysaccharides Ameliorates Obesity, Hepatic Steatosis, Neuroinflammation and Cognition Impairment without Affecting Amyloid Deposition in Metabolically Stressed APPswe/PS1dE9 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Cheng Huang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Astragalus membranaceus is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine for strengthening the host defense system. Astragalus membranaceus-polysaccharides is an effective component with various important bioactivities, such as immunomodulation, antioxidant, anti-diabetes, anti-inflammation and neuroprotection. In the present study, we determine the effects of Astragalus membranaceus-polysaccharides on metabolically stressed transgenic mice in order to develop this macromolecules for treatment of sporadic Alzheimer’s disease, a neurodegenerative disease with metabolic risk factors. Transgenic mice, at 10 weeks old prior to the appearance of senile plaques, were treated in combination of administrating high-fat diet and injecting low-dose streptozotocin to create the metabolically stressed mice model. Astragalus membranaceus-polysaccharides was administrated starting at 14 weeks for 7 weeks. We found that Astragalus membranaceus-polysaccharides reduced metabolic stress-induced increase of body weight, insulin and insulin and leptin level, insulin resistance, and hepatic triglyceride. Astragalus membranaceus-polysaccharides also ameliorated metabolic stress-exacerbated oral glucose intolerance, although the fasting blood glucose was only temporally reduced. In brain, metabolic stress-elicited astrogliosis and microglia activation in the vicinity of plaques was also diminished by Astragalus membranaceus-polysaccharides administration. The plaque deposition, however, was not significantly affected by Astragalus membranaceus-polysaccharides administration. These findings suggest that Astragalus membranaceus-polysaccharides may be used to ameliorate metabolic stress-induced diabesity and the subsequent neuroinflammation, which improved the behavior performance in metabolically stressed transgenic mice.

  20. Factors affecting stress distribution and displacements in crystals III-V grown by Czochralski method with liquid encapsulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schvezov, C.E.; Samarasekera, I.; Weinberg, F.

    1988-01-01

    A mathematical model based on the finite element method for calculating temperature and shear stress distributions in III-V crystals grown by LEC technique was developed. The calculated temperature are in good agreements with the experimental measurements. The shear stress distribution was calculated for several environmental conditions. The results showed that the magnitude and the distribution of shear stresses are highly sensitive to the crystal environment, including thickness and temperature distribution in boron oxides and the gas. The shear stress is also strongly influenced by interface curvature and cystals radius. (author) [pt

  1. Hormone-mediated maternal stress affects embryonic development during incubation without adverse effect on chick weight and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babacanoğlu, E; Yalçin, S

    2014-01-01

    1. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of maternal stress (MS) induced by supplementing the hen's diet with 2 mg/hen/d dietary corticosterone (CORT) on embryonic development, biochemical blood parameters and hatching performance of broiler chicks. 2. A total of 200 Ross broiler breeder hens at 42 weeks of age were randomly divided into two groups: MS or control. Hens in the MS were fed 2 mg/hen/d CORT for 14 d. Eggs (648 and 635 eggs for MS and control, respectively) were collected from d 3 to 14 of dietary CORT supplementation and incubated. Weights of embryo, chicks and organs and body composition were determined during incubation and at hatch. Biochemical blood parameters were measured at internal pipping stage and day of hatch. Hatching performance and embryonic mortalities were recorded. 3. Hens fed a diet supplemented with CORT had lighter body weight and produced less eggs at the end of the 14-d treatment period. Although MS embryos were heavier than control from 12 to 18 d of incubation, chick weight was similar at the day of hatch. Lower relative weights for yolk sac and bursa were observed at 12 d of incubation for MS chicks compared to control. Chicks from both groups had similar body content in spite of higher fat content of MS embryos on d 18 of incubation. 4. MS had no effect on the duration of incubation or hatching performance but increased mortality at the pipping stage. 5. The results suggest that hormone-mediated MS might affect embryonic development during incubation without adverse effect on chick weight and body composition.

  2. Posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and perceived needs for psychological care in older persons affected by Hurricane Ike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, Robert H.; Southwick, Steven M.; Tracy, Melissa; Galea, Sandro; Norris, Fran H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the prevalence and correlates of disaster-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and needs for psychological care in older persons affected by Hurricane Ike. Method A total of 193 adults age 60 or older who resided in the Galveston Bay area were interviewed 2–5 months following Hurricane Ike. Pre-, peri-, and post-disaster variables hypothesized to be related to PTSD and depressive symptoms, and perceived needs for psychological care were assessed. Results Weighted prevalences of past-month Ike-related PTSD and depression were 7.6% and 8.6%, respectively. Risk factors for Ike-related PTSD symptoms were predominantly peri-disaster in nature, with greater hurricane exposure, and peri-event dissociative and autonomic activation symptoms associated positively with these symptoms. Risk factors for depressive symptoms were predominantly pre-disaster in nature, with being married/living with partner associated negatively, and prior disaster exposure and pre-disaster PTSD or depression associated positively with these symptoms. 27.2% of the sample endorsed at least one of the perceived needs for psychological care assessed. A history of PTSD or depression, greater peri-event autonomic activation, and Ike-related PTSD and depressive symptoms were associated with greater need for psychological care. Limitations This study is limited by its cross-sectional design and employment of psychiatric screening instruments. Conclusions A substantial proportion of older adults may have PTSD and depression, as well as perceived needs for psychological care, after a disaster. Assessment of disaster exposures, and peri-event dissociative and autonomic symptoms may help identify older adults at risk for disaster-related psychopathology. Older adults with a history of PTSD or depression, and greater peri-event autonomic activation and PTSD symptoms may be more likely to have needs for psychological care. PMID:22285792

  3. Two-day fasting evokes stress, but does not affect mood, brain activity, cognitive, psychomotor, and motor performance in overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solianik, Rima; Sujeta, Artūras

    2018-02-15

    The physiological, cognitive state, and motor behavior changes that occur during acute fasting are not completely understood. Thus, the aim of this study was to estimate the effect of 2-day total fasting on evoked stress, mood, brain activity, and cognitive, psychomotor, and motor function in overweight women. Eleven overweight women (body mass index above 25kg/m 2 ) aged 20-30 years were tested under two conditions allocated randomly: 2-day zero-calorie diet with water provided ad libitum and 2-day usual diet. One week before the experiment, aerobic fitness was evaluated. Subjective stress ratings in relation to the diet, autonomic function, prefrontal cortex activity, cognitive performance, psychomotor coordination, and grip strength were evaluated before and after each diet. The study demonstrated that fasting decreased log-transformed high-frequency (HF) power, without affecting heart rate. The relative maximum oxygen uptake was negatively correlated with subjective stress rating and changes in log-transformed HF. Fasting did not affect mood, brain activity, and cognitive, motor, and psychomotor performance. Thus, 2-day total fasting evoked moderate stress with a shift of the autonomic nervous system balance toward sympathetic activity in overweight women. Better aerobic endurance is likely to facilitate the capacity for dealing with acute fasting. Regardless of the evoked stress, cognitive state and motor behavior remained intact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Abiotic stress and phytohormones affect enzymic activity of 1-O-(indole-3-acetyl)-β-d-glucose: myo-inositol indoleacetyl transferase from rice (Oryza sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarkowska, Anna; Ostrowski, Maciej; Jakubowska, Anna

    2016-10-20

    Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) conjugation is a part of mechanism regulating free auxin concentration. 1-O-(indole-3-acetyl)-β-d-glucose: myo-inositol indoleacetyl transferase (IAInos synthase) is an enzyme involved in IAA-ester conjugates biosynthesis. Biotic and abiotic stress conditions can modulate auxin conjugates formation in plants. In this study, we investigated effect of plant hormones (IAA, ABA, SA and 2,4-D) and abiotic stress (drought and salt stress: 150mM NaCl and 300mM NaCl) on expression level and catalytic activity of rice IAInos synthase. Enzymic activity assay indicated that all tested phytohormones affected activity of IAInos synthase, but only ABA had inhibiting effect, while IAA, SA and 2,4-D activated the enzyme. Drought and salt stress induced with lower NaCl concentration resulted in decreased activity of IAInos synthase, but 300mM NaCl had no effect on the enzyme. Despite observed differences in enzymic activities, no changes of expression level, tested by semiquantitative RT-PCR and Western blot, were detected. Based on our results it has been supposed that plant hormones and stress conditions affect IAInos synthase activity on posttranslational level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2008-01-01

    We all experience stress as a regular, and sometimes damaging and sometimes useful, part of our daily lives. In our normal ups and downs, we have our share of exhaustion, despondency, and outrage--matched with their corresponding positive moods. But burnout and workaholism are different. They are chronic, dysfunctional, self-reinforcing, life-shortening habits. Dentists, nurses, teachers, ministers, social workers, and entertainers are especially susceptible to burnout; not because they are hard-working professionals (they tend to be), but because they are caring perfectionists who share control for the success of what they do with others and perform under the scrutiny of their colleagues (they tend to). Workaholics are also trapped in self-sealing cycles, but the elements are ever-receding visions of control and using constant activity as a barrier against facing reality. This essay explores the symptoms, mechanisms, causes, and successful coping strategies for burnout and workaholism. It also takes a look at the general stress response on the physiological level and at some of the damage American society inflicts on itself.

  6. Bipolar affective disorder and borderline personality disorder: Differentiation based on the history of early life stress and psychoneuroendocrine measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazer, Angela Kaline; Cleare, Anthony J; Young, Allan H; Juruena, Mario F

    2018-04-24

    Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and Bipolar Affective Disorder (BD) have clinical characteristics in common which often make their differential diagnosis difficult. The history of early life stress (ELS) may be a differentiating factor between BPD and BD, as well as its association with clinical manifestations and specific neuroendocrine responses in each of these diagnoses. Assessing and comparing patients with BD and BPD for factors related to symptomatology, etiopathogenesis and neuroendocrine markers. The study sample consisted of 51 women, divided into 3 groups: patients with a clinical diagnosis of BPD (n = 20) and BD (n = 16) and healthy controls (HC, n = 15). Standardized instruments were used for the clinical evaluation, while the history of ELS was quantified with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), and classified according to the subtypes: emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect and physical neglect. The functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis was evaluated by measuring a single plasma cortisol sample. Patients with BPD presented with more severe psychiatric symptoms of: anxiety, impulsivity, depression, hopelessness and suicidal ideation than those with BD. The history of ELS was identified as significantly more prevalent and more severe in patients (BPD and BP) than in HC. Emotional abuse, emotional neglect and physical neglect also showed differences and were higher in BPD than BD patients. BPD patients had greater severity of ELS overall and in the subtypes of emotional abuse, emotional neglect and physical neglect than BD patients. The presence of ELS in patients with BPD and BP showed significant difference with lower cortisol levels when compared to HC. The endocrine evaluation showed no significant differences between the diagnoses of BPD and BD. Cortisol measured in patients with BPD was significantly lower compared to HC in the presence of emotional neglect and physical

  7. Positive and negative affectivity, stress, and well-being in African-Americans: Initial demonstration of a polynomial regression and response surface methodology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Jennifer; Zhdanova, Ludmila; Lucas, Todd

    2017-09-05

    The extent to which positive (PA) and negative (NA) affect conjointly impact well-being is not yet well understood. Additionally, research investigating the role of affectivity in maintaining well-being among ethnic and racial minorities is scant. The current research demonstrates how polynomial regression and response surface methodology (PR and RSM) may be used to better understand how PA and NA jointly influence stress and well-being. In Study 1, 291 African-American undergraduates (M age  = 22.91, SD = 6.91; 67% female) completed measures of affectivity and psychological well-being. In Study 2, a community sample of 117 African-Americans (M age  = 31.87, SD = 13.83; 69% female) completed affectivity measures and a laboratory-based social stressor task to assess links between affectivity and salivary cortisol reactivity. Study 1 included life satisfaction, perceived stress and self-reported depressive symptoms. Study 2 included salivary cortisol reactivity. Across both studies, PA ascendency (i.e. high PA combined with low NA) was associated with better well-being, while NA ascendancy (i.e. high NA combined with low PA) was associated with poorer outcomes. PR and RSM may provide new insight into the conjoint influence of PA and NA on health and well-being. We discuss potential implications for affectivity research, including race-related explorations.

  8. In vitro acute exposure to DEHP affects oocyte meiotic maturation, energy and oxidative stress parameters in a large animal model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Ambruosi

    Full Text Available Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental contaminants because of their use in plastics and other common consumer products. Di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP is the most abundant phthalate and it impairs fertility by acting as an endocrine disruptor. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of in vitro acute exposure to DEHP on oocyte maturation, energy and oxidative status in the horse, a large animal model. Cumulus cell (CC apoptosis and oxidative status were also investigated. Cumulus-oocyte complexes from the ovaries of slaughtered mares were cultured in vitro in presence of 0.12, 12 and 1200 µM DEHP. After in vitro maturation (IVM, CCs were removed and evaluated for apoptosis (cytological assessment and TUNEL and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS levels. Oocytes were evaluated for nuclear chromatin configuration. Matured (Metaphase II stage; MII oocytes were further evaluated for cytoplasmic energy and oxidative parameters. DEHP significantly inhibited oocyte maturation when added at low doses (0.12 µM; P<0.05. This effect was related to increased CC apoptosis (P<0.001 and reduced ROS levels (P<0.0001. At higher doses (12 and 1200 µM, DEHP induced apoptosis (P<0.0001 and ROS increase (P<0.0001 in CCs without affecting oocyte maturation. In DEHP-exposed MII oocytes, mitochondrial distribution patterns, apparent energy status (MitoTracker fluorescence intensity, intracellular ROS localization and levels, mt/ROS colocalization and total SOD activity did not vary, whereas increased ATP content (P<0.05, possibly of glycolytic origin, was found. Co-treatment with N-Acetyl-Cysteine reversed apoptosis and efficiently scavenged excessive ROS in DEHP-treated CCs without enhancing oocyte maturation. In conclusion, acute in vitro exposure to DEHP inhibits equine oocyte maturation without altering ooplasmic energy and oxidative stress parameters in matured oocytes which retain the potential to be fertilized and develop into

  9. Stressing fish in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS): Does stress induced in one group of fish affect the feeding motivation of other fish sharing the same RAS?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, C.I.; Eding, E.H.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2011-01-01

    As a consequence of water re-use and high stocking densities, Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS) may lead to an accumulation of substances released by the fish into the water, e.g. cortisol and alarm pheromones. This study investigated the effect of stressing fish on the feeding motivation of

  10. Elevated atmospheric CO2 affected photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under cadmium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xia; Liu, Tuo; Zhao, Yonghua; He, Yunhua; Yang, Mingyan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of elevated CO2 (700 ± 23 μmol mol(-1)) on photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and on organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under cadmium (Cd) stress. Elevated CO2 was associated with decreased quantities of reducing sugars, starch, and soluble amino acids, and with increased quantities of soluble sugars, total sugars, and soluble proteins in wheat seedlings under Cd stress. The contents of total soluble sugars, total free amino acids, total soluble phenolic acids, and total organic acids in the rhizosphere soil under Cd stress were improved by elevated CO2. Compared to Cd stress alone, the activity of amylase, phenol oxidase, urease, L-asparaginase, β-glucosidase, neutral phosphatase, and fluorescein diacetate increased under elevated CO2 in combination with Cd stress; only cellulase activity decreased. Bacterial abundance in rhizosphere soil was