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Sample records for streptomycin production streptomycin

  1. The induction of streptomycin resistance in tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, D.E.; Snel, E.A.M.; Akerboom, M.; HiIle, J.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: The aim of the research is to investigate cytoplasmic genetics. For the analysis of organelle transfer and segregation in cybrids the presence of selectable and easily screenable genetic markers on organelles is indispensable. Streptomycin resistance is the best characterised cytoplasmic marker. The resistance is dominant and can be induced by a single basepair change in the chloroplast DNA. Protoplasts were treated with several MNU concentrations directly after isolation. Three months after the protoplast mutagenesis about 600 green colonies were isolated from 28x10 6 treated protoplasts. These colonies were retested several times on streptomycin containing media and approximately 150 colonies remained. We distinguished four classes of streptomycin resistance. Experiments were also done without the use of MNU. By somaclonal variation, only a small quantity of streptomycin resistant colonies was isolated at a 50 fold lower frequency. (author)

  2. Rapid Isolation and Molecular Detection of Streptomycin-Producing Streptomycetes

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    M Motovali-bashi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Streptomyces species are mycelial, aerobic gram-positive bacteria that are isolated from soil and produce a diverse range of antibiotics. Streptomyces griseus produces the antibiotic, streptomycin and forms spores even in a liquid culture. The gene cluster for the production of Streptomycin antibiotic contains strR gene that encodes StrR, a pathway-specific regulator. Then, this pathway-specific regulator induces transcription of other streptomycin production genes in the gene cluster. The overall aim of this work was rapid isolation and molecular detection of streptomycin-producing Streptomycetes, especially S. griseus, from Iranian soils in order to manipulate them for increased production of streptomycin. Methods: This research used new initiative half-specific medium for isolation of Streptomycetes from natural environments, called FZmsn. The fifty colonies of Streptomyces strains grown on the surface of FZmsn medium isolated from environmental samples were defined on the basis of their morphological characteristics and light microscope studies. A set of primers was designed to detect strR by OLIGO software. Results: In colony-PCR reactions followed by gel electrophoresis, 6 colonies from Streptomyces strains colonies were detected as S. griseus colonies. Conclusion: These native Streptomyces strains will be used for genetic manipulation of S. griseus in order to increase production levels of streptomycin.

  3. 78 FR 29049 - Streptomycin; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... determine whether this document applies to them. Potentially affected entities may include: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide....40 ppm. Streptomycin is an antibiotic of the aminoglycoside class and is produced by the bacteria...

  4. [Contribution of microbiologists of Kirov City to development of penicillin and streptomycin production processes (70 years since development of technology for submerged production of first domestic antibiotics)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakulin, M K; Tumanov, A S; Bakulin, V M; Kalininskiĭ, V B

    2014-01-01

    The publication is concerned with development of the technological processes for submered production of the first domestic antibiotics 70 years age. The literature data on the contribution of the microbiologists of the Kirov City and mainly the workers of the Red Army Research Institute of Epidemiology and Hygiene (nowadays Central Research Institute No. 48 of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, Kirov), to development of the manufacture processes for production of penicillin and streptomycin are reviewed.

  5. 76 FR 69734 - Streptomycin Sulfate; Receipt of Application for Emergency Exemption, Solicitation of Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide... pesticide containing streptomycin sulfate, which is also used in human and animal treatment as an antibiotic... which contains the active ingredient, streptomycin sulfate, also used in humans and animals as an...

  6. The mthA mutation conferring low-level resistance to streptomycin enhances antibiotic production in Bacillus subtilis by increasing the S-adenosylmethionine pool size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tojo, Shigeo; Kim, Ji-Yun; Tanaka, Yukinori; Inaoka, Takashi; Hiraga, Yoshikazu; Ochi, Kozo

    2014-04-01

    Certain Str(r) mutations that confer low-level streptomycin resistance result in the overproduction of antibiotics by Bacillus subtilis. Using comparative genome-sequencing analysis, we successfully identified this novel mutation in B. subtilis as being located in the mthA gene, which encodes S-adenosylhomocysteine/methylthioadenosine nucleosidase, an enzyme involved in the S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-recycling pathways. Transformation experiments showed that this mthA mutation was responsible for the acquisition of low-level streptomycin resistance and overproduction of bacilysin. The mthA mutant had an elevated level of intracellular SAM, apparently acquired by arresting SAM-recycling pathways. This increase in the SAM level was directly responsible for bacilysin overproduction, as confirmed by forced expression of the metK gene encoding SAM synthetase. The mthA mutation fully exerted its effect on antibiotic overproduction in the genetic background of rel(+) but not the rel mutant, as demonstrated using an mthA relA double mutant. Strikingly, the mthA mutation activated, at the transcription level, even the dormant ability to produce another antibiotic, neotrehalosadiamine, at concentrations of 150 to 200 μg/ml, an antibiotic not produced (antibiotic production, by introducing either the rsmG mutation to Streptomyces or the mthA mutation to eubacteria, since many eubacteria have mthA homologues.

  7. Pharmacokinetics of streptomycin sulfate in Staphylococcus aureus-infected Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822

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    O.O. Oladele

    2014-01-01

    Possible systemic therapeutic value is suggested, depending on increased distribution of streptomycin and levels of streptomycin in kidneys of diseased fish at corresponding times being higher than in sera.

  8. Ribosome slowed by mutation to streptomycin resistance. [Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galas, D J; Branscomb, E W

    1976-08-12

    The effect of mutation to streptomycin resistance on the speed of polypeptide elongation in Escherichia coli was investigated. Translation speed was determined by measuring the time required for the first newly synthesized ..beta..-galactosidase molecules to appear after induction of the lactose operon. The results showed that ribosome speed is not a fixed parameter inherent to the protein synthetic apparatus, but a variable determined by the kinetics of translation and ultimately by the structure of the ribosome. (HLW)

  9. Determination of streptomycin residues in honey

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    Monica Cristina Cara,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Honey was the first sweet substance used in human food as a precursor sugar cane or beet. Honey production by bees is a complex process of transformation, from harvesting and ending with a striking honeycomb cells. Immediately after extraction, honey is always clear and liquid. This is due to the high content of fructose, which makes some items, such as locust always remain liquid. If the glucose is higher than that of fructose, honey will crystallize at temperatures below 18°C. Honey is easily susceptible to heat, so they should be stored at room temperature. Bees, like all living organisms, can become ill with various diseases. These, by mortality that occur among individuals of the colony, thereby reducing the number of bees and beefamilies are emptied and become unproductive. In many cases, it appears significant damage resulting in large losses for beekeepers. Prevention, detection and treatment of diseases with antibiotics is an extremely important factor in ensuring the health of bee.

  10. Genetic segregation in a high-yielding streptomycin-producing strain of Streptomyces griseus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, M; Schwalenberg, B; Reiche, R; Noack, D; Geuther, R; Eritt, I

    1982-01-01

    The streptomycin-producing Streptomyces griseus HP spontaneously segregated non-reverting derivatives with altered phenotypes. Clones characterized by increased spore formation and decreased streptomycin production were found. Two other types of derivatives were defective in aerial mycelium and streptomycin formation as well, but differed in the capacity to synthesize a yellow pigment. These derivatives were examined with respect to further properties. The stability of S. griseus HP was investigated in relation to conditions of continuous culture. Both at 26 and 30 degrees C, under glycerol and NH4Cl limitation a rapid segregation and enrichment of streptomycin-non-producing derivatives occurred. At 34 degrees C and glycerol limitation segregation began only after about 35 generations of continuous culture. In NH4Cl-limited chemostats the original strain was stable during 80 generations. In the course of the continuous culture experiments it was shown that the onset of genetic segregation within mycelia can be detected before it becomes obvious in colonies grown from the mycelia. This was achieved by fractionation of the mycelia by protoplast formation and subsequent plating on regeneration medium allowing colony growth and differentiation.

  11. MATHEMATICAL MODELING FOR BENZYLPENICILIN POTASSIUM AND STREPTOMYCIN SULPHATE POTENCY DETERMINATION OF ASCOMICIN

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    Viviana Ciuca

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ascomicin is an antibacterial unguent for treatment of local infections of skin, eyes, outer ear, in cattle, sheep, pig, dog and cat. The product contains two active substances: benzylpenicillin potassium (Penicillin G potassium and streptomycin sulphate. The main characteristic of commercial product is benzylpenicillin potassium and streptomycin sulphate potency. The potency is estimated by comparing the inhibition of growth of sensitive micro-organisms produced by known concentrations of the antibiotic to be examined and a reference substance. The validation study aims to demonstrate the determination of the potency of benzylpenicillin potassium and streptomycin sulphate, it is an appropriate analytical method, reproducible and meets the quality requirements of Ascomicin product. The paper establishes the performance characteristics of the method considered and identify the factors that influence these characteristics. The diameters of inhibition zones, directly proportional to the logarithm of the concentration of the antibiotic used for the assay, measured and calculated using statistical methods (Combistats Soft. The assay is designed in such a way that the mathematical model on which the potency equation is based can be proved to be valid. A parallel-line model is chosen. The two log dose response lines of the preparation under examination and the standard preparation are parallel; they are rectilinear over the range of doses used in the calculation. These conditions are verified by validity tests for a given probability (P = 0.05. The test is not valid unless the confidence limits (P = 0.95 are not less than 50 per cent and not more than 200 per cent of the estimated potency. The estimated potency is not less than 95 per cent and not more than 105 per cent of the stated potency. The stated potency is not less than 19400 international units/g benzylpenicillin potassium and 13960 international units/g streptomycin sulphate. The validation

  12. Effect of streptomycin treatment on bacterial community structure in the apple phyllosphere.

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    Erika Yashiro

    Full Text Available We studied the effect of many years of streptomycin use in apple orchards on the proportion of phyllosphere bacteria resistant to streptomycin and bacterial community structure. Leaf samples were collected during early July through early September from four orchards that had been sprayed with streptomycin during spring of most years for at least 10 years and four orchards that had not been sprayed. The percentage of cultured phyllosphere bacteria resistant to streptomycin at non-sprayed orchards (mean of 65% was greater than at sprayed orchards (mean of 50% (P = 0.0271. For each orchard, a 16S rRNA gene clone library was constructed from leaf samples. Proteobacteria dominated the bacterial communities at all orchards, accounting for 71 of 104 OTUs (determined at 97% sequence similarity and 93% of all sequences. The genera Massilia, Methylobacterium, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, and Sphingomonas were shared across all sites. Shannon and Simpson's diversity indices and Pielou's evenness index were similar among orchards regardless of streptomycin use. Analysis of Similarity (ANOSIM indicated that long-term streptomycin treatment did not account for the observed variability in community structure among orchards (R = -0.104, P = 0.655. Other variables, including time of summer, temperature and time at sampling, and relative distance of the orchards from each other, also had no significant effect on bacterial community structure. We conclude that factors other than streptomycin exposure drive both the proportion of streptomycin-resistant bacteria and phylogenetic makeup of bacterial communities in the apple phyllosphere in middle to late summer.

  13. Streptomycin action to the mammalian inner ear vestibular organs: comparison between pigmented guinea pigs and rats.

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    Meza, Graciela; Aguilar-Maldonado, Beatriz

    2007-01-01

    Streptomycin is the antibiotic of choice to treat tuberculosis and other infectious diseases but it causes vestibular malfunction and hipoacusia. Rodents are usually employed as models of drug action to the inner ear and results are extrapolated to what happens in humans. In rats, streptomycin destroys macular sensory cells and does not affect cochlear ones, whereas in guinea pigs the contrary is true. Action on the vestibular cristae cells involved in vestibulo-ocular reflex integrity is less clear. Thus, we compared this response in both pigmented guinea pigs (Cavia cobaya) and rats (Rattus norvegicus) after parallel streptomycin chronic treatment. In guinea pigs, the reflex was obliterated along treatment time; in rats this behavior was not observed, suggesting that the end organ target was diverse. In recent studies, streptidine, a streptomycin derivative found in the blood of humans and rats treated with streptomycin, was the actual ototoxic agent. The putative streptomycin vestibular organ target observed in humans corresponds with the guinea pig observations. Results observed in rats are controversial: streptidine did not cause any damage either to vestibular cristae nor auditory cells. We hypothesize differential drug metabolism and distribution and conclude that results in laboratory animals may not always be applicable in the human situation.

  14. Ecological risk study on subacute toxicology experiment of streptomycin wastewater for Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qing; Shen, Hongyan

    2017-08-01

    An exposure experiment was conducted to study the effect of different volume fraction of effluent streptomycin wastewater on the activity of the peroxidase (POD) activity and the malondialdehyde (MDA) content in muscles of Zebrafish for 20 days. The results show that POD activity is significantly induced on the eighth day. POD activities in the muscles of Zebrafish exposed to the streptomycin wastewater of 20% exposure group were significantly different (0.01streptomycin wastewater increase, the Integreted Biomarker Responses (IBR) increase at first and then decrease. The IBR value of Zebrafish that exposed streptomycin wastewater ranged from 10.42 to 54.26, and the wastewater of 10% exposure group induced the maximum value on the twelve day. The study indicates that low concentration streptomycin wastewater has impacts on the antioxidant defense system and antioxidant ability of Zebrafish.

  15. Streptomycin ototoxicity and hair cell regeneration in the adult pigeon utricle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, T. C.; Dye, B. J.; Newlands, S. D.; Dickman, J. D.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to develop a technique to investigate the regeneration of utricular hair cells in the adult pigeon (Columba livia) following complete hair cell loss through administration of streptomycin. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental animal study. METHODS: Animals were divided into four groups. Group 1 received 10 to 15 days of systemic streptomycin injections. Animals in Groups 2 and 3 received a single direct placement of a 1-, 2-, 4-, or 8-mg streptomycin dose into the perilymphatic space. Animals in Groups 1 and 2 were analyzed within 1 week from injection to investigate hair cell destruction, whereas Group 3 was investigated at later dates to study hair cell recovery. Group 4 animals received a control injection of saline into the perilymphatic space. Damage and recovery were quantified by counting hair cells in isolated utricles using scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: Although systemic injections failed to reliably achieve complete utricular hair cell destruction, a single direct placement of a 2-, 4-, or 8-mg streptomycin dose caused complete destruction within the first week. Incomplete hair cell loss was observed with the 1-mg dose. Over the long term, regeneration of the hair cells was seen with the 2-mg dose but not the 8-mg dose. Control injections of saline into the perilymphatic space caused no measurable hair cell loss. CONCLUSIONS: Direct placement of streptomycin into the perilymph is an effective, reliable method for complete destruction of utricular hair cells while preserving the regenerative potential of the neuroepithelium.

  16. Binding of streptomycin with bovine serum albumin: Energetics and conformational aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Niki S.; Kishore, Nand

    2009-01-01

    Thermodynamics of the binding of antibiotic streptomycin to bovine serum albumin have been studied using isothermal titration calorimetry in combination with fluorescence, UV-vis and circular dichroism spectroscopies. The values of van't Hoff enthalpy calculated from the temperature dependence of the binding constant do not agree with the calorimetric enthalpies indicating temperature dependent conformational changes in the protein upon binding. With increase in the ionic strength, reduction in the binding affinity of streptomycin to BSA is observed suggesting the predominance of electrostatic interactions in the binding. The contribution of hydrophobic interactions in the binding is also demonstrated by decrease in binding affinity in the presence of tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB). The value of binding affinity in the presence of sucrose indicates that hydrogen bonding is not a significant contribution in complexation. The results have permitted quantitative evaluation of the interaction of streptomycin with bovine serum albumin

  17. Cross-linking of streptomycin to the 16S ribosomal RNA of Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravel, M.; Melancon, P.; Barkier-Gingras, L.

    1987-01-01

    [ 3 H]Dihydrostreptomycin was cross-linked to the 30S ribosomal subunit from Escherichia coli with the bifunctional reagent nitrogen mustard. The cross-linking primarily involved the 16S RNA. To localize the site of cross-linking of streptomycin to the 16S RNA, the authors hybridized RNA labeled with streptomycin to restriction fragments of the 16S RNA gene. Labeled RNA hybridized to DNA fragments corresponding to bases 892-917 and bases 1394-1415. These two segments of the ribosomal RNA must by juxtaposed in the ribosome, since there is a single binding site for streptomycin. This region has been implicated both in the decoding site and in the binding of initiation factor IF-3, indicating its functional importance

  18. Rifampicin versus streptomycin for brucellosis treatment in humans: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

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    Meng, Fanjie; Pan, Xiangpo; Tong, Wenzhen

    2018-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease with a high morbidity in developing countries, but there the optimal treatment is not yet determined. Therefore, the development of a simple and effective treatment is important. The aim of this study was to summarize the available evidences and compare rifampicin with streptomycin in human brucellosis with doxycycline as background regimen. We systematically searched PubMed, EmBase, and the Cochrane Library from their inception up through December 2016. We included studies with a randomized controlled design that evaluated the effect of streptomycin compared with rifampicin in human brucellosis patients who received doxycycline therapy as background regimen. The overall failure and relapse were summarized using random-effects model. Our meta-analysis included 1,383 patients with brucellosis from 14 trials. We found that patients who received rifampicin therapy had a higher risk of overall failure (RR: 2.36; 95% CI: 1.72-3.23; Pbrucellosis receiving streptomycin therapy.

  19. Effects of streptomycin, desiccation, and UV radiation on ice nucleation by Pseudomonas viridiflava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.A.; Ashworth, E.N.

    1986-01-01

    Streptomycin (100 micrograms per milliliter), desiccation (over CaSO 4 ), and ultraviolet radiation (4500 microwatts per square centimeter at 254 nonometers for 15 minutes) reduced ice nucleation activity by Pseudomonas viridiflava strain W-1 as determined by freezing drops of the bacterial suspensions. Highest residual ice nucleation activity by dead cells was obtained by desiccation, although no freezing above -3.5 0 C was detected. The rate and extent of loss of ice nucleation activity following streptomycin and ultraviolet treatment was affected by preconditioning temperature. At 21 0 C and above, loss of activity by dead cells was rapid and irreversible

  20. Minocycline attenuates streptomycin-induced cochlear hair cell death by inhibiting protein nitration and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Li, Haonan; Yu, Shuyuan; Jin, Peng; Hassan, Abdurahman; Du, Bo

    2017-08-24

    This study aimed to elucidate the protective effect of minocycline against streptomycin-induced damage of cochlear hair cells and its mechanism. Cochlear membranes were isolated from newborn Wistar rats and randomly divided into control, 500μmol/L streptomycin, 100μmol/L minocycline, and streptomycin and minocycline treatment groups. Hair cell survival was analyzed by detecting the expression of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) in cochlear hair cells by immunofluorescence and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Expression of 3-NT and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and poly (ADP-Ribose) polymerase (PARP) and caspase-3 activation were evaluated by western blotting. The results demonstrated hair cell loss at 24h after streptomycin treatment. No change was found in supporting cells of the cochleae. Minocycline pretreatment improved hair cell survival and significantly reduced the expression of iNOS and 3-NT in cochlear tissues compared with the streptomycin treatment group. PARP and caspase-3 activation was increased in the streptomycin treatment group compared with the control group, and pretreatment with minocycline decreased cleaved PARP and activated caspase-3 expression. Minocycline protected cochlear hair cells from injury caused by streptomycin in vitro. The mechanism underlying the protective effect may be associated with the inhibition of excessive formation of nitric oxide, reduction of the nitration stress reaction, and inhibition of PARP and caspase-3 activation in cochlear hair cells. Combined minocycline therapy can be applied to patients requiring streptomycin treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Establishing Streptomycin Epidemiological Cut-Off Values for Salmonella and Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Migura, Lourdes Garcia; Sunde, Marianne; Karlsmose, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to elucidate the accuracy of the current streptomycin epidemiological cut-off value (ECOFF) for Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. A total of 236 Salmonella enterica and 208 E. coli isolates exhibiting MICs between 4 and 32 mg/L were selected from 12 countries. Isolates...

  2. Reduced antimicrobial potencies of Oxytetracycline, tylosin, sulfadiazine, streptomycin, ciprofloxacin and olaquindox due to environmental processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling-Sørensen, Bent; Sengeløv, G.; Ingerslev, Flemming

    2003-01-01

    The stability of oxytetracycline (OTC), tylosin (TYL), sulfadiazin (SDZ), streptomycin (ST), ciprofloxacin (CF) and olaquindox (O) was examined in environmentally relevant matrices, such as soil interstitial water and sewage sludge water. Compounds were assessed in both aerobic (OTC, TYL, SDZ, ST...

  3. Whole-genome sequencing reveals the mechanisms for evolution of streptomycin resistance in Lactobacillus plantarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fuxin; Gao, Jiayuan; Wang, Bini; Huo, Dongxue; Wang, Zhaoxia; Zhang, Jiachao; Shao, Yuyu

    2018-04-01

    In this research, we investigated the evolution of streptomycin resistance in Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC14917, which was passaged in medium containing a gradually increasing concentration of streptomycin. After 25 d, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of L. plantarum ATCC14917 had reached 131,072 µg/mL, which was 8,192-fold higher than the MIC of the original parent isolate. The highly resistant L. plantarum ATCC14917 isolate was then passaged in antibiotic-free medium to determine the stability of resistance. The MIC value of the L. plantarum ATCC14917 isolate decreased to 2,048 µg/mL after 35 d but remained constant thereafter, indicating that resistance was irreversible even in the absence of selection pressure. Whole-genome sequencing of parent isolates, control isolates, and isolates following passage was used to study the resistance mechanism of L. plantarum ATCC14917 to streptomycin and adaptation in the presence and absence of selection pressure. Five mutated genes (single nucleotide polymorphisms and structural variants) were verified in highly resistant L. plantarum ATCC14917 isolates, which were related to ribosomal protein S12, LPXTG-motif cell wall anchor domain protein, LrgA family protein, Ser/Thr phosphatase family protein, and a hypothetical protein that may correlate with resistance to streptomycin. After passage in streptomycin-free medium, only the mutant gene encoding ribosomal protein S12 remained; the other 4 mutant genes had reverted to the wild type as found in the parent isolate. Although the MIC value of L. plantarum ATCC14917 was reduced in the absence of selection pressure, it remained 128-fold higher than the MIC value of the parent isolate, indicating that ribosomal protein S12 may play an important role in streptomycin resistance. Using the mobile elements database, we demonstrated that streptomycin resistance-related genes in L. plantarum ATCC14917 were not located on mobile elements. This research offers a way of

  4. Field Efficiency Trial of 72% Streptomycin against Konjac Bacterial Soft Rot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang; Yongsheng; Li; Xiaojun; Zhu; Shijin; Ma; Yongsheng; Wang; Li

    2014-01-01

    72% Streptomycin soluble powder was used to control konjac bacterial soft rot in the study. The control efficiency and yield of different treatments were investigated,and the benefit was analyzed. The control scheme against konjac bacterial soft rot was as follows: spraying 72% atreptomycinon twice on rotation fields after all the seedlings were strong and uniform,or irrigating roots with 72% atreptomycinon once and spraying twice on continuous cropping fields.

  5. Computational identification of potent inhibitors for Streptomycin 3″-adenylyltransferase of Serratia marcescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Dhamodharan; Vidhyavathi, Ramasamy; Jeyakanthan, Jeyaraman

    2017-02-01

    Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic pathogen responsible for the respiratory and urinary tract infections in humans. The antibiotic resistance mechanism of S. marcescens is mediated through aminoglycoside modification enzyme that transfer adenyl group from substrate to antibiotic through regiospecific transfers for the inactivation of antibiotics. Streptomycin 3 ″ -adenylyltransferase acts on the 3' position of the antibiotic and considered as a novel drug target to overcome bacterial antibiotic resistance. Till now, there is no experimentally solved crystal structure of Streptomycin 3″-adenylyltransferase in S. marcescens. Hence, the present study was initiated to construct the three dimensional structure of Streptomycin 3″-adenylyltransferase in order to understand the binding mechanism. The modeled structure was subjected to structure-based virtual screening to identify potent compounds from the five chemical structure databases. Furthermore, different computational methods such as molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulations, ADME toxicity assessment, free energy and density functional theory calculations predicted the structural, binding and pharmacokinetic properties of the best five compounds. Overall, the results suggested that stable binding confirmation of the five potent compounds were mediated through hydrophobic, π-π stacking, salt bridges and hydrogen bond interactions. The identified compounds could pave way for the development of anti-pathogenic agents as potential drug entities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sulphaphenazole, streptomycin and sulphaphenazole combination, trimethoprim, and erythromycin in the treatment of chancroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, B; Sharma, V K; Bakaya, V

    1990-01-01

    One hundred and thirty six patients with chancroid were treated with four different treatment regimens; (A) Sulphaphenazole 1 g 12 hourly by mouth x 10 days (B) Inj streptomycin 1 g intramuscularly daily with sulphaphenazole 1 g 12 hourly orally x 10 days; (C) trimethoprim 200 mg 12 hourly by mouth x 7-10 days, and (D) erythromycin 500 mg 6 hourly orally x 7-10 days. Cure rates of 9% with sulphaphenazole alone, 48% with streptomycin and sulphaphenazole combination, 93% with trimethoprim and 100% with erythromycin were obtained. Sulphaphenazole alone or in combination with streptomycin were thus inferior in the treatment of chancroid. There is need for modification of treatment regimens recommended for chancroid in the textbooks of dermatology and venereology. Trimethoprim can be recommended as first line of treatment for chancroid in developing countries like India where resistance to trimethoprim is uncommon and erythromycin is suggested as a second line of therapy because by that time syphilis can be easily ruled out. PMID:2187791

  7. Simple and rapid method on High Performance Liquid Chromatography for simultaneous determination of benzylpenicillin potassium, streptomycin sulphate and related substances in Ascomicin – a veterinary use ointment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neagu Maria

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A new simple, rapid, accurate and precise High – Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC method for determination of benzylpenicillin potassium and streptomycin sulphate in Ascomicin ointment was developed and validated. The method can be used for the detection and quantification of known and unknown impurities and degradation products in this pharmaceutical product during routine analysis and also for stability studies in view of its capability to separate degradation products. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, specificity, robustness and quantification limits according to ICH Guidelines. The estimation of benzylpenicillin potassium and streptomycin sulphate was done by Waters HPLC 2695. The chromatographic conditions comprised a reverse-phased C18 column (5 µm particle size, 250 mm×4.6 mm i.d. with a mobile phase consisting of a mixture of solution in water containing 0.025 M of sodium phosphate dibasic and 0.02 of sodium hexansulfonate adjusted to pH 6.0 with 22.5 g/lsolution of phosphoric acid and acetonitrile in gradient elution. The flow rate was 0.8 ml/min. Standard curves were linear over the concentration range of 5.00 µg/ml to 5.00 mg/ml for streptomycin sulphate and 3.26 µg/ml to 3.26 mg/ml for benzylpenicillin potassium. Statistical analyses proved the method was precise, reproducible, selective, specific and accurate for analysis of benzylpenicillin potassium, streptomycin sulphate and related substances.

  8. Point-of-care testing for streptomycin based on aptamer recognizing and digital image colorimetry by smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bixia; Yu, Ying; Cao, Yujuan; Guo, Manli; Zhu, Debin; Dai, Jiaxing; Zheng, Minshi

    2018-02-15

    The rapid detection of antibiotic residual in everyday life is very important for food safety. In order to realize the on-site and visual detection of antibiotic, a POCT method was established by using digital image colorimetry based on smartphone. Streptomycin was taken as the analyte model of antibiotics, streptomycin aptamer preferentially recognized analyte, and the excess aptamer hybridized with the complementary DNA to form the dsDNA. SYBR Green I combined with the dsDNA and then emitted obvious green fluorescence, thus the fluorescence intensity decreased with the increasing of streptomycin concentration. Then a smartphone-based device was constructed as the fluorescence readout. The smartphone camera acquired the images of the fluorescence derived from the samples, and the Touch Color APP installed in smartphone read out the RGB values of the images. There was a linear relationship between the G values and the streptomycin concentrations in the range of 0.1-100µM. The detection limit was 94nM, which was lower than the maximum residue limit defined by World Health Organization. The POCT method was applied for determining streptomycin in chicken and milk samples with recoveries in 94.1-110%. This method had the advantages of good selectivity, simple operation and on-site visualization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Volatile compounds of Lamiaceae exhibit a synergistic antibacterial activity with streptomycin

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    Sthéfane G. Araújo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections cause thousands of deaths in the world every year. In most cases, infections are more serious because the patient is already weakened, and often, the bacteria are already resistant to the antibiotics used. Counterparting this negative scenario, the interest in medicinal plants as an alternative to the synthetic antimicrobial drugs is blossoming worldwide. In the present work, we identified the volatile compounds of ethanol extracts of Melissa officinalis, Mentha sp., Ocimum basilicum, Plectranthus barbatus, and Rosmarinus officinalis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Also was evaluated antimicrobial activity of ethanol extracts against 6 bacteria of clinical interest, and was tested the interaction of these extracts with a commercial antibiotic streptomycin. Phytol was a compound identified in all extracts by GC/MS, being majoritary component in Plectranthus barbatus and Rosmarinus officinalis. The Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to ethanol extracts, and Plectranthus barbatus and Rosmarinus officinalis were the most active extracts. Ethanol extracts exhibited a synergetic effect with streptomycin. These results encourage additional studies, in order to evaluate the possibilities of using ethanol extracts of Lamiaceae family as natural source for antibacterial activity.

  10. Effect of Ampicillin, Streptomycin, Penicillin and Tetracycline on Metal Resistant and Non-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Chudobova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There is an arising and concerning issue in the field of bacterial resistance, which is confirmed by the number of deaths associated with drug-resistant bacterial infections. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of antibiotics on Staphylococcus aureus non-resistant strain and strains resistant to cadmium or lead ions. Metal resistant strains were created by the gradual addition of 2 mM solution of metal ions (cadmium or lead to the S. aureus culture. An increasing antimicrobial effect of ampicillin, streptomycin, penicillin and tetracycline (0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 150, 225 and 300 µM on the resistant strains was observed using a method of growth curves. A significant growth inhibition (compared to control of cadmium resistant cells was observed in the presence of all the four different antibiotics. On the other hand, the addition of streptomycin and ampicillin did not inhibit the growth of lead resistant strain. Other antibiotics were still toxic to the bacterial cells. Significant differences in the morphology of cell walls were indicated by changes in the cell shape. Our data show that the presence of metal ions in the urban environment may contribute to the development of bacterial strain resistance to other substances including antibiotics, which would have an impact on public health.

  11. Effect of Ampicillin, Streptomycin, Penicillin and Tetracycline on Metal Resistant and Non-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudobova, Dagmar; Dostalova, Simona; Blazkova, Iva; Michalek, Petr; Ruttkay-Nedecky, Branislav; Sklenar, Matej; Nejdl, Lukas; Kudr, Jiri; Gumulec, Jaromir; Tmejova, Katerina; Konecna, Marie; Vaculovicova, Marketa; Hynek, David; Masarik, Michal; Kynicky, Jindrich; Kizek, Rene; Adam, Vojtech

    2014-01-01

    There is an arising and concerning issue in the field of bacterial resistance, which is confirmed by the number of deaths associated with drug-resistant bacterial infections. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of antibiotics on Staphylococcus aureus non-resistant strain and strains resistant to cadmium or lead ions. Metal resistant strains were created by the gradual addition of 2 mM solution of metal ions (cadmium or lead) to the S. aureus culture. An increasing antimicrobial effect of ampicillin, streptomycin, penicillin and tetracycline (0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 150, 225 and 300 µM) on the resistant strains was observed using a method of growth curves. A significant growth inhibition (compared to control) of cadmium resistant cells was observed in the presence of all the four different antibiotics. On the other hand, the addition of streptomycin and ampicillin did not inhibit the growth of lead resistant strain. Other antibiotics were still toxic to the bacterial cells. Significant differences in the morphology of cell walls were indicated by changes in the cell shape. Our data show that the presence of metal ions in the urban environment may contribute to the development of bacterial strain resistance to other substances including antibiotics, which would have an impact on public health. PMID:24651395

  12. Chemiluminescence determination of streptomycin in pharmaceutical preparation and its application to pharmacokinetic study by a flow injection analysis assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Bin; Li, Hongyan; Jin, Jianwen; Wang, Tiantian; Li, Yang; Shen, Guopeng; Li, Xiaotian

    2013-11-01

    A novel and rapid method for the determination of streptomycin has been established by chemiluminescence (CL) based on significant intensity enhancement of streptomycin on the weak CL of N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) and eosin in alkaline medium. The method is simple, rapid and effective to determine streptomycin in the range of 8.0 × 10-9-1.0 × 10-6 g mL-1 with a determination limit of 2.25 × 10-9 g mL-1. The relative standard deviation is 1.95% for the determination of 2.0 × 10-7 g mL-1 streptomycin (n = 11). The pharmacokinetics of streptomycin in plasma of rat coincides with the two-compartment open model. The T1/2α, T1/2β, CL/F, AUC(0-t), MRT, Tmax and Cmax were 18.83 ± 1.24 min, 82.14 ± 3.07 min, 0.0026 ± 0.0011 L kg-1 min-1, 36044.50 ± 105.02 mg min-1 L-1, 92.29 ± 8.21 min, 21.63 ± 1.26 min and 375.61 ± 8.50 μg mL-1, respectively. There was no significant difference between the results obtained by CL and HPLC. The FI-CL method can be used to determine streptomycin in pharmaceutical preparation and biological samples. The established method is simple, rapid and sensitive without expensive instruments. The possible enhancement mechanism was also investigated.

  13. From penicillin-streptomycin to amikacin-vancomycin: antibiotic decontamination of cardiovascular homografts in Singapore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wee Ling Heng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In February 2012, the National Cardiovascular Homograft Bank (NCHB became the first tissue bank outside of North America to receive accreditation from the American Association of Tissue Banks. From 2008 to 2009, NCHB had been decontaminating its cardiovascular homografts with penicillin and streptomycin. The antibiotic decontamination protocol was changed in January 2010 as amikacin and vancomycin were recommended, in order to cover bacteria isolated from post-recovery and post- antibiotic incubation tissue cultures. AIM: The objective of this study is to determine the optimal incubation conditions for decontamination of homografts by evaluating the potencies of amikacin and vancomycin in different incubation conditions. Retrospective reviews of microbiological results were also performed for homografts recovered from 2008 to 2012, to compare the effectiveness of penicillin-streptomycin versus the amikacin-vancomycin regimens. METHODS: Based on microbiological assays stated in United States Pharmacopeia 31, potency of amikacin was evaluated by turbidimetric assay using Staphylococcus aureus, while vancomycin was by diffusion assay using Bacillus subtilis sporulate. Experiments were performed to investigate the potencies of individual antibiotic 6-hours post incubation at 4°C and 37°C and 4°C for 24 hours, after the results suggested that amikacin was more potent at lower temperature. FINDINGS: Tissue incubation at 4°C for 24 hours is optimal for both antibiotics, especially for amikacin, as its potency falls drastically at 37°C. CONCLUSION: The decontamination regimen of amikacin-vancomycin at 4°C for 24 hours is effective. Nevertheless, it is imperative to monitor microbiological trends closely and evaluate the efficacy of current antibiotics regimen against emerging strains of micro-organisms.

  14. Streptomycin, Schatz v. Waksman, and the balance of credit for discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, William

    2004-07-01

    A recent article in Nature, arguing that "the misallocation of credit is endemic in science," used Selman Waksman as an illustration, claiming that the true discoverer of streptomycin was one of his graduate students. The article received wide publicity and seriously damaged Waksman's great reputation. What actually happened was that the success of penicillin stimulated Merck to fund research by Waksman, a soil scientist, into the collection of actinomycetes that he had assembled over thirty years. He applied the systematic, uncreative testing techniques that had made the German pharmaceutical industry so successful to these, and streptomycin was discovered within a matter of months. Work in the Mayo Institute then showed that it was marvelously effective against tuberculosis, and Waksman received the Nobel Prize for it in 1952. The test that turned out to be the crucial one could have been carried out by any of several students, but the lucky one was Albert Schatz. He then sued the university for a share of the royalties payable by Merck and also petitioned the Nobel committee to include him in the award. Although he obtained a very substantial out-of-court settlement, this probably damaged his subsequent academic career, and he has never ceased to argue his case for recognition, of which the Nature article is a reflection. To claim that Waksman took credit properly due to Schatz is to fail to understand that once pharmaceutical research had become primarily a matter of large-scale, routine testing, little individual creativity was left in this work. Credit for any successful results must therefore be given to whoever is the originator or director of a particular program. Nature refused to publish evidence that this case could not be used as an example of misallocation of credit for discovery. This in itself illustrates that editors of scientific journals should be every bit as mindful of scientists' reputations as they are of scientific facts.

  15. Colorimetric and ratiometric aggregation assay for streptomycin using gold nanoparticles and a new and highly specific aptamer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soheili, Vahid; Taghdisi, Seyed Mohammad; Khayyat, Mohammad Hassanzadeh; Abnous, Khalil; Bazzaz, BiBi Sedigheh Fazly; Ramezani, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Aptamers specific for the antibiotic streptomycin were identified by a modified SELEX procedure that employs magnetic beads. After eight rounds of selection, twenty-six aptamers were identified and clustered into seven groups according to similarities in their sequences. The binding constant of three sequences from different groups were determined by colorimetric assays using unmodified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). These most suitable aptamers were then truncated, and finally a 23-base sequence was identified that has the highest affinity (K_d = 132.3 nM) and selectivity. The assay was employed to analyze streptomycin residue in raw milk samples by ratiometric spectrophotometry at 520 and 660 nm, respectively. The analytical range extends from 180 to 1000 nM, and the LOD is 47.2 nM which is better than that of HPLC (4 μM). The interaction between aptamer and streptomycin was studied by molecular modeling. In our perception, this colorimetric assay provides a viable method for fast analysis of streptomycin in raw milk. (author)

  16. Culture-independent detection of 'TM7' bacteria in a streptomycin-resistant acidophilic nitrifying process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurogi, T.; Linh, N. T. T.; Kuroki, T.; Yamada, T.; Hiraishi, A.

    2014-01-01

    Nitrification in biological wastewater treatment processes has been believed for long time to take place under neutral conditions and is inhibited under acidic conditions. However, we previously constructed acidophilic nitrifying sequencing-batch reactors (ANSBRs) being capable of nitrification at −1 was added. In all reactors, the pH varied between 2.7 and 4.0, and ammonium was completely converted to nitrate in every batch cycle. PCR-aided denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) targeting 16S rRNA genes revealed that some major clones assigned to TM7 bacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were constantly present during the overall period of operation. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with specific oligonucleotide probes also showed that TM7 bacteria predominated in all SRAN reactors, accounting for 58% of the total bacterial population on average. Although the biological significance of the TM7 bacteria in the SRAN reactors are unknown, our results suggest that these bacteria are possibly streptomycin-resistant and play some important roles in the acidophilic nitrifying process

  17. Drug Partitioning in Micellar Media and Its Implications in Rational Drug Design: Insights with Streptomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judy, Eva; Pagariya, Darshna; Kishore, Nand

    2018-03-20

    Oral bioavailability of a drug molecule requires its effective delivery to the target site. In general, majority of synthetically developed molecular entities have high hydrophobic nature as well as low bioavailability, therefore the need for suitable delivery vehicles arises. Self-assembled structures such as micelles, niosomes, and liposomes have been used as effective delivery vehicles and studied extensively. However, the information available in literature is mostly qualitative in nature. We have quantitatively investigated the partitioning of antibiotic drug streptomycin into cationic, nonionic, and a mixture of cationic and nonionic surfactant micelles and its interaction with the transport protein serum albumin upon subsequent delivery. A combination of calorimetry and spectroscopy has been used to obtain the thermodynamic signatures associated with partitioning and interaction with the protein and the resulting conformational changes in the latter. The results have been correlated with other class of drugs of different nature to understand the role of molecular features in the partitioning process. These studies are oriented toward understanding the physical chemistry of partitioning of a variety of drug molecules into suitable delivery vehicles and hence establishing structure-property-energetics relationships. Such studies provide general guidelines toward a broader goal of rational drug design.

  18. [Streptomycin--an activator of persisting tick-borne encephalitis virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malenko, G V; Pogodina, V V; Karmysheva, V Ia

    1984-01-01

    The effect of streptomycin (C) on persistence of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus in Syrian hamsters infected with 3 strains of the virus (41/65, Aina/1448, Vasilchenko ) intracerebrally or subcutaneously was studied. In the animals not given C the infectious virus could be detected in the brain for 8-14 days but not later although their organs (mostly brains and spleens) contained the hemagglutinating antigen and viral antigen detectable by immunofluorescence. Intramuscularly C was given twice daily for 13-35 days in a daily dose of 200 mg/kg. The C-treated hamsters yielded 7 virulent TBE virus strains: 3 from the brain, 3 from the spleen, and one from the blood. No virus could be isolated from the liver, kidneys, or lungs despite the use of various methods for isolation including tissue explantation. The activating effect of C was observed against the background of 4-fold decrease in the titre of complement-fixing and antihemagglutinating antibodies. C exerted its activating effect both at early (70 days) and late (9 months) stages of TBE virus persistence. The activating effect of C appears to be due to its immunosuppressive properties and neurotoxic action on the CNS.

  19. Culture-independent detection of 'TM7' bacteria in a streptomycin-resistant acidophilic nitrifying process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurogi, T.; Linh, N. T. T.; Kuroki, T.; Yamada, T. [Department of Environmental and Life Science, Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan); Hiraishi, A. [Department of Environmental and Life Science, Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi 441-8580, Japan and Electronics-inspired Interdisciplinary Institute (EIIRIS), Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan)

    2014-02-20

    Nitrification in biological wastewater treatment processes has been believed for long time to take place under neutral conditions and is inhibited under acidic conditions. However, we previously constructed acidophilic nitrifying sequencing-batch reactors (ANSBRs) being capable of nitrification at < pH 4 and harboring bacteria of the candidate phylum 'TM7' as the major constituents of the microbial community. In light of the fact that the 16S rRNA of TM7 bacteria has a highly atypical base substitution possibly responsible for resistance to streptomycin at the ribosome level, this study was undertaken to construct streptomycin-resistant acidophilic nitrifying (SRAN) reactors and to demonstrate whether TM7 bacteria are abundant in these reactors. The SRAN reactors were constructed by seeding with nitrifying sludge from an ANSBR and cultivating with ammonium-containing mineral medium (pH 4.0), to which streptomycin at a concentration of 10, 30 and 50 mg L{sup −1} was added. In all reactors, the pH varied between 2.7 and 4.0, and ammonium was completely converted to nitrate in every batch cycle. PCR-aided denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) targeting 16S rRNA genes revealed that some major clones assigned to TM7 bacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were constantly present during the overall period of operation. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with specific oligonucleotide probes also showed that TM7 bacteria predominated in all SRAN reactors, accounting for 58% of the total bacterial population on average. Although the biological significance of the TM7 bacteria in the SRAN reactors are unknown, our results suggest that these bacteria are possibly streptomycin-resistant and play some important roles in the acidophilic nitrifying process.

  20. Preparation, optimisation and characterisation of novel wound healing film dressings loaded with streptomycin and diclofenac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, H V; Tetteh, J; Boateng, J S

    2013-02-01

    Streptomycin (STP) and diclofenac (DLF) loaded film dressings were prepared by blending Polyox(®) (POL) with four hydrophilic polymers [hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), carrageenan (CAR), sodium alginate (SA) or chitosan (CS)] using glycerol (GLY) as plasticiser. The films were characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, texture analysis (tensile and swelling characteristics) and in vitro dissolution profiles using Franz diffusion cell. SEM showed homogeneous morphology for both blank (BLK) and drug loaded (DL) films. Films prepared by blending of POL with the other polymers showed a reduction in the crystallisation of POL in descending order of SA>CS>HPMC>CAR respectively. DSC and XRD showed no crystalline peaks of STP and DLF suggesting molecular dispersion of both drugs as well as possible drug interaction with negatively charged sulphate ions present in CAR. The DL films did not show any IR bands of both drugs, confirming the DSC and XRD results. POL-CAR-BLK films showed higher tensile strength (12.32±1.40 MPa) than the POL-CAR-DL films (9.52±1.12 MPa). DL films plasticised with 25%w/w GLY revealed soft and tough (tensile strength 1.02±0.28 MPa, % elongation 1031.33±16.23) formulations. The swelling capacities of POL-CAR-BLK and POL-CAR-DL films were (733.17±25.78%) and (646.39±40.39%), increasing to (1072.71±80.30%) and (1051±86.68%) for POL-CAR-BLK-25% GLY and POL-CAR-DL-25% GLY respectively. POL-CAR-DL films showed significantly (n=3, p<0.0318) lower cumulative release of STP and DLF (52.11±1.34, 55.26±2.25) compared to POL-CAR-DL-25% GLY films (60.07±1.56, 63.39±1.92) respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Streptomycin-lidocaine injections for the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia: Report of three cases with literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghray, Shefali; Asif, Shaik Mohammed; Duddu, Mahesh Kumar; Arakeri, Gururaj

    2013-09-01

    The sudden, stabbing, paroxysmal pain of neuralgia is the fiercest agony that a patient may experience in his life. Many varied medical treatments and surgical procedures have been suggested in the literature for neuralgic pain. Most of the patients fail to respond to medical treatments or succumb to complications of total anesthesia owing to surgical procedures. Herein, we tried a new treatment modality in patients suffering from postherpetic neuralgia with appreciable success in all the three cases that are presented in this paper. Streptomycin sulfate dissolved in 2% lidocaine solution was deposited at the peripheral branches on the involved nerves targeting the trigger zones, given weekly once for a maximum of 6 week period and continued once in 2 weeks if symptoms persisted. All patients were followed-up for 1 year and there was a marked improvement on follow-up.

  2. The Escherichia coli K-12 gntP gene allows E. coli F-18 to occupy a distinct nutritional niche in the streptomycin-treated mouse large intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sweeney, N.J.; Klemm, Per; McCormick, Beth A.

    1996-01-01

    Escherichia coli F-18 is a human fecal isolate that makes type 1 fimbriae, encoded by the fim gene cluster, and is an excellent colonizer of the streptomycin-treated mouse intestine. E. coli F-18 fimA::tet, lacking type 1 fimbriae, was constructed by bacteriophage P1 transduction of the fim regio...

  3. The effect of streptomycin on stretch-induced electrophysiological changes of isolated acute myocardial infarcted hearts in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lu; Cao, Jun-xian; Xie, Rong-sheng; Li, Jia; Han, Ying; Zhu, Li-qun; Dai, Ying-nan

    2007-08-01

    To explore whether the stretch of ischaemic myocardium could modulate the electrophysiological characteristics, especially repolarization via mechanoelectric feedback (MEF), as well as the effect of streptomycin (SM) on these changes. Methods Thirty-six wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group (n = 9), SM group (n = 9), myocardial infarction (MI) group (n = 9), and MI + SM group (n = 9). After perfused on Langendorff, the isolated hearts were stretched for 5s by a ballon inflation of 0.2mL. After being stretched, the effect of the stretch was observed for 30s, including the 20, 20-70, 70, and 90% monophasic action potential duration (MAPD), i.e. MAPD(20), MAPD(20-70), MAPD(70), and MAPD(90), respectively, premature ventricular beats (PVB), and ventricular tachycardia (VT). Results The stretch caused a decrease in MAPD(20-70) (both P 0.05, except MAPD(20-70) between the control and SM groups, P maintenance of malignant arrhythmias. SM could significantly inhibit the occurrence of arrhythmias, which may correlate with the effect on blocking stretch-activated ion channels.

  4. Effects of Streptomycin Administration on Increases in Skeletal Muscle Fiber Permeability and Size Following Eccentric Muscle Contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayao, Keishi; Tamaki, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Kouki; Tamakoshi, Keigo; Takahashi, Hideaki; Yotani, Kengo; Ogita, Futoshi; Yamamoto, Noriaki; Onishi, Hideaki

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the preventive effect of streptomycin (Str) administration on changes in membrane permeability and the histomorphological characteristics of damaged muscle fibers following eccentric contraction (ECC ). Eighteen 7-week-old male Fischer 344 rats were randomly assigned to three groups: control (Cont), ECC, and ECC with Str (ECC + Str). The tibialis anterior (TA) muscles in both ECC groups were stimulated electrically and exhibited ECC. Evans blue dye (EBD), a marker of muscle fiber damage associated with increased membrane permeability, was injected 24 hr before TA muscle sampling. The number of EBD-positive fibers, muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA), and roundness were determined via histomorphological analysis. The ECC intervention resulted in an increased fraction of EBD-positive fibers, a larger CSA, and decreased roundness. The fraction of EBD-positive fibers was 79% lower in the ECC + Str group than in the ECC group. However, there was no difference in the CSA and roundness of the EBD-positive fibers between the two ECC groups. These results suggest that Str administration can reduce the number of myofibers that increase membrane permeability following ECC, but does not ameliorate the extent of fiber swelling in extant EBD-positive fibers. Anat Rec, 301:1096-1102, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Soil texture-depending effects of doxycycline and streptomycin applied with manure on the bacterial community composition and resistome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, Khald; Casadevall, Laia; Wolters, Birgit; Van den Meersche, Tina; Kreuzig, Robert; Smalla, Kornelia; Jechalke, Sven

    2018-02-01

    Veterinary antibiotics, bacteria carrying antibiotic resistance determinants located on mobile genetic elements and nutrients are spread on agricultural soil using manure as fertilizer. However, systematic quantitative studies linking antibiotic concentrations and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) in manure and the environment are scarce but needed to assess environmental risks. In this microcosm study, a sandy and a loamy soil were mixed with manure spiked with streptomycin or doxycycline at five concentrations. Total-community DNA was extracted on days 28 and 92, and the abundances of ARGs (aadA, strA, tet(A), tet(M), tet(W), tet(Q), sul1, qacE/qacEΔ1) and class 1 and 2 integron integrase genes (intI1 and intI2) were determined by qPCR relative to 16S rRNA genes. Effects on the bacterial community composition were evaluated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Manure application to the soils strongly increased the relative abundance of most tested genes. Antibiotics caused further enrichments which decreased over time and were mostly seen at high concentrations. Strikingly, the effects on relative gene abundances and soil bacterial community composition were more pronounced in sandy soil. The concept of defining antibiotic threshold concentrations for environmental risk assessments remains challenging due to the various influencing factors. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Treatment of inflammatory bowel disease associated E. coli with ciprofloxacin and E. coli Nissle in the streptomycin-treated mouse intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Andreas Munk; Schjørring, Susanne; Gerstrøm, Sarah Choi

    2011-01-01

    E. coli belonging to the phylogenetic group B2 are linked to Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). Studies have shown that antimicrobials have some effect in the treatment of IBD, and it has been demonstrated that E. coli Nissle has prophylactic abilities comparable to 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA......) therapy in ulcerative colitis. The objective of this study was to test if ciprofloxacin and/or E. coli Nissle could eradicate IBD associated E. coli in the streptomycin-treated mouse intestine....

  7. Progress in selection for sodium chloride, 2,4-D dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) and streptomycin tolerance in Citrus sinensis ovular callus lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochba, J.; Spiegel-Roy, P.

    1982-01-01

    Citrus sinensis (cultivar Shamouti) nucellar embryogenic callus lines with greatly increased tolerance to salinity (NaCl), 2,4-D and streptomycin were selected. Selected lines were found stable after removal of selection pressure. Gamma irradiation at 8-16 kR was also employed and found to speed up selections. Embryos from NaCl and 2,4-D tolerant lines also showed increased tolerance. Embryogenesis in selected lines, suppressed during selection procedures, was regained by growing cultures in the presence of galactose or lactose as the sole carbon source. A schedule was worked out furthering development of embryos into plantlets. Conditions for adventive shoot formation from embryonic shoot segments were established, thus allowing cloning of embryos. A procedure was worked out for suspension culture and agar plating of cell groups. (author)

  8. The streptomycin-treated mouse intestine selects Escherichia coli envZ missense mutants that interact with dense and diverse intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatham-Jensen, Mary P; Frimodt-Møller, Jakob; Adediran, Jimmy; Mokszycki, Matthew E; Banner, Megan E; Caughron, Joyce E; Krogfelt, Karen A; Conway, Tyrrell; Cohen, Paul S

    2012-05-01

    Previously, we reported that the streptomycin-treated mouse intestine selected nonmotile Escherichia coli MG1655 flhDC deletion mutants of E. coli MG1655 with improved colonizing ability that grow 15% faster in vitro in mouse cecal mucus and 15 to 30% faster on sugars present in mucus (M. P. Leatham et al., Infect. Immun. 73:8039-8049, 2005). Here, we report that the 10 to 20% remaining motile E. coli MG1655 are envZ missense mutants that are also better colonizers of the mouse intestine than E. coli MG1655. One of the flhDC mutants, E. coli MG1655 ΔflhD, and one of the envZ missense mutants, E. coli MG1655 mot-1, were studied further. E. coli MG1655 mot-1 is more resistant to bile salts and colicin V than E. coli MG1655 ΔflhD and grows ca. 15% slower in vitro in mouse cecal mucus and on several sugars present in mucus compared to E. coli MG1655 ΔflhD but grows 30% faster on galactose. Moreover, E. coli MG1655 mot-1 and E. coli MG1655 ΔflhD appear to colonize equally well in one intestinal niche, but E. coli MG1655 mot-1 appears to use galactose to colonize a second, smaller intestinal niche either not colonized or colonized poorly by E. coli MG1655 ΔflhD. Evidence is also presented that E. coli MG1655 is a minority member of mixed bacterial biofilms in the mucus layer of the streptomycin-treated mouse intestine. We offer a hypothesis, which we call the "Restaurant" hypothesis, that explains how nutrient acquisition in different biofilms comprised of different anaerobes can account for our results.

  9. TRP channels in brown and white adipogenesis from human progenitors: new therapeutic targets and the caveats associated with the common antibiotic, streptomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goralczyk, Anna; van Vijven, Marc; Koch, Mathilde; Badowski, Cedric; Yassin, M Shabeer; Toh, Sue-Anne; Shabbir, Asim; Franco-Obregón, Alfredo; Raghunath, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are polymodal cell sensors responding to diverse stimuli and widely implicated in the developmental programs of numerous tissues. The evidence for an involvement of TRP family members in adipogenesis, however, is scant. We present the first comprehensive expression profile of all known 27 human TRP genes in mesenchymal progenitors cells during white or brown adipogenesis. Using positive trilineage differentiation as an exclusion criterion, TRP polycystic (P)3, and TPR melastatin (M)8 were found to be uniquely adipospecific. Knockdown of TRPP3 repressed the expression of the brown fat signature genes uncoupling protein (UCP)-1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator (PGC)-1α as well as attenuated forskolin-stimulated uncoupled respiration. However, indices of generalized adipogenesis, such as lipid droplet morphology and fatty acid binding protein (FAPB)-4 expression, were not affected, indicating a principal mitochondrial role of TRPP3. Conversely, activating TRPM8 with menthol up-regulated UCP-1 expression and augmented uncoupled respiration predominantly in white adipocytes (browning), whereas streptomycin antagonized TRPM8-mediated calcium entry, downregulated UCP-1 expression, and mitigated uncoupled respiration; menthol was less capable of augmenting uncoupled respiration (thermogenesis) in brown adipocytes. TRPP3 and TRPM8 hence appear to be involved in the priming of mitochondria to perform uncoupled respiration downstream of adenylate cyclase. Our results also underscore the developmental caveats of using antibiotics in adipogenic studies.-Goralczyk, A., van Vijven, M., Koch, M., Badowski, C., Yassin, M. S., Toh, S.-A., Shabbir, A., Franco-Obregón, A., Raghunath, M. TRP channels in brown and white adipogenesis from human progenitors: new therapeutic targets and the caveats associated with the common antibiotic, streptomycin. © FASEB.

  10. A streptomycin resistance marker in H. parasuis based on site-directed mutations in rpsL gene to perform unmarked in-frame mutations and to verify natural transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Dai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Haemophilus parasuis is a member of the family Pasteurellaceae and a major causative agent of Glässer’s disease. This bacterium is normally a benign swine commensal but may become a deadly pathogen upon penetration into multiple tissues, contributing to severe lesions in swine. We have established a successive natural transformation-based markerless mutation system in this species. However, the two-step mutation system requires screening of natural competent cells, and cannot delete genes which regulate natural competence per se. In this study, we successfully obtained streptomycin-resistant derivatives from H. parasuis wild type strain SC1401 by using ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS, CH3SO2OC2H5. Upon sequencing and site-directed mutations, we uncovered that the EMS-induced point mutation in rpsL at codon 43rd (AAA → AGA; K43R or at 88th (AAA → AGA; K88R confers a much higher streptomycin resistance than clinical isolates. We have applied the streptomycin resistance marker as a positive selection marker to perform homologous recombination through conjugation and successfully generated a double unmarked in-frame targeted mutant 1401D88△tfox△arcA. Combined with a natural transformation-based knockout system and this genetic technique, multiple deletion mutants or attenuated strains of H. parasuis can be easily constructed. Moreover, the mutant genetic marker rpsL and streptomycin resistant phenotypes can serve as an effective tool to select naturally competent strains, and to verify natural transformation quantitatively.

  11. One-tube loop-mediated isothermal amplification combined with restriction endonuclease digestion and ELISA for colorimetric detection of resistance to isoniazid, ethambutol and streptomycin in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mei-Feng; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Hsu, Hui-Jine; Peng, Chien-Fang

    2010-10-01

    In this study, we designed a simple and rapid colorimetric detection method, a one-tube loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP)-PCR-hybridization-restriction endonuclease-ELISA [one-tube LAMP-PCR-HY-RE-ELISA] system, to detect resistance to isoniazid, ethambutol and streptomycin in strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from clinical specimens. The clinical performance of this method for detecting isoniazid-resistant, ethambutol-resistant and streptomycin-resistant isolates of M. tuberculosis showed 98.9%, 94.3% and 93.8%, respectively. This assay is rapid and convenient that can be performed within one working day. One-tube LAMP-PCR-HY-RE-ELISA system was designed based on hot spot point mutations in target drug-resistant genes, using LAMP-PCR, hybridization, digestion with restriction endonuclease and colorimetric method of ELISA. In this study, LAMP assay was used to amplify DNA from drug-resistant M. tuberculosis, and ELISA was used for colorimetrical determination. This assay will be a useful tool for rapid diagnosis of mutant codons in strains of M. tuberculosis for isoniazid at katG 315 and katG 463, ethambutol at embB 306 and embB 497, and streptomycin at rpsL 43. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Escherichia coli EDL933 Requires Gluconeogenic Nutrients To Successfully Colonize the Intestines of Streptomycin-Treated Mice Precolonized with E. coli Nissle 1917

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinner, Silvia A. C.; Mokszycki, Matthew E.; Adediran, Jimmy; Leatham-Jensen, Mary; Conway, Tyrrell

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli MG1655, a K-12 strain, uses glycolytic nutrients exclusively to colonize the intestines of streptomycin-treated mice when it is the only E. coli strain present or when it is confronted with E. coli EDL933, an O157:H7 strain. In contrast, E. coli EDL933 uses glycolytic nutrients exclusively when it is the only E. coli strain in the intestine but switches in part to gluconeogenic nutrients when it colonizes mice precolonized with E. coli MG1655 (R. L. Miranda et al., Infect Immun 72:1666–1676, 2004, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/IAI.72.3.1666-1676.2004). Recently, J. W. Njoroge et al. (mBio 3:e00280-12, 2012, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00280-12) reported that E. coli 86-24, an O157:H7 strain, activates the expression of virulence genes under gluconeogenic conditions, suggesting that colonization of the intestine with a probiotic E. coli strain that outcompetes O157:H7 strains for gluconeogenic nutrients could render them nonpathogenic. Here we report that E. coli Nissle 1917, a probiotic strain, uses both glycolytic and gluconeogenic nutrients to colonize the mouse intestine between 1 and 5 days postfeeding, appears to stop using gluconeogenic nutrients thereafter in a large, long-term colonization niche, but continues to use them in a smaller niche to compete with invading E. coli EDL933. Evidence is also presented suggesting that invading E. coli EDL933 uses both glycolytic and gluconeogenic nutrients and needs the ability to perform gluconeogenesis in order to colonize mice precolonized with E. coli Nissle 1917. The data presented here therefore rule out the possibility that E. coli Nissle 1917 can starve the O157:H7 E. coli strain EDL933 of gluconeogenic nutrients, even though E. coli Nissle 1917 uses such nutrients to compete with E. coli EDL933 in the mouse intestine. PMID:25733524

  13. Clinical efficacy of Rifampicin and Streptomycin in combination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Buruli ulcer (BU) is a cutaneous neglected tropical disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. Synthesizing the evidence on their efficacy of antibiotic in the management of BU can help to better define their roles, identify weaknesses and inform clinicians on relevant measures than can be used to control BU.

  14. A study on the mechanism of resistance to streptomycin in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-12

    1973), and the length of lesions on the inoculated leaf was measured after 15 days. DNA isolation. DNA was isolated from the wild-type isolate and resistant strains as described by Ausubel et al. (1987). After the bacteria were ...

  15. The effect of antibiotics on associated bacterial community of stored product mites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kopecky

    Full Text Available Bacteria are associated with the gut, fat bodies and reproductive organs of stored product mites (Acari: Astigmata. The mites are pests due to the production of allergens. Addition of antibiotics to diets can help to characterize the association between mites and bacteria.Ampicillin, neomycin and streptomycin were added to the diets of mites and the effects on mite population growth (Acarus siro, Lepidoglyphus destructor and Tyrophagus putrescentiae and associated bacterial community structure were assessed. Mites were treated by antibiotic supplementation (1 mg g(-1 of diet for 21 days and numbers of mites and bacterial communities were analyzed and compared to the untreated control. Bacterial quantities, determined by real-time PCR, significantly decreased in antibiotic treated specimens from 5 to 30 times in A. siro and T. putrescentiae, while no decline was observed in L. destructor. Streptomycin treatment eliminated Bartonella-like bacteria in the both A. siro and T. putrescentiae and Cardinium in T. putrescentiae. Solitalea-like bacteria proportion increased in the communities of neomycin and streptomycin treated A. siro specimens. Kocuria proportion increased in the bacterial communities of ampicillin and streptomycin treated A. siro and neomycin and streptomycin treated L. destructor.The work demonstrated the changes of mite associated bacterial community under antibiotic pressure in pests of medical importance. Pre-treatment of mites by 1 mg g(-1 antibiotic diets improved mite fitness as indicated accelerated population growth of A. siro pretreated streptomycin and neomycin and L. destructor pretreated by neomycin. All tested antibiotics supplemented to diets caused the decrease of mite growth rate in comparison to the control diet.

  16. Klebsiella pneumoniae capsule expression is necessary for colonization of large intestines of streptomycin-treated mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Favre-Bonte, S.; Licht, Tine Rask; Forestier, C.

    1999-01-01

    The role of the Klebsiella pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide (K antigen) during colonization of the mouse large intestine was assessed with mild-type K. pneumoniae LM21 and its isogenic capsule-defective mutant. When bacterial strains were fed alone to mice, the capsulated bacteria persisted...... in the intestinal tract at levels of 10(8) CFU/g of feces while the capsule-defective strain colonized at low levels, 10(4) CFU/g of feces. In mixed-infection experiments, the mutant was rapidly outcompeted by the wild type. In situ hybridization on colonic sections revealed that bacterial cells of both strains...... were evenly distributed in the mucus layer at day 1 after infection, while at day 20 the wild type remained dispersed and the capsule-defective strain was seen in clusters in the mucus layer. These results suggest that capsular polysaccharide plays an important role in the gut colonization ability of K...

  17. Progress and problems for randomized clinical trials: from streptomycin to the era of megatrials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbrich, Lutz; Sleight, Peter

    2006-09-01

    Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are the definitive contributors to evidence-based medicine. RCTs assessing serious outcomes in cardiovascular disease have grown, with 'megatrials' becoming more common with the realization that wrong conclusions resulted from random error in inadequately sized trials. Simple design and a heterogeneous patient population were early features, but multinational trials have increased in scientific, logistical, bureaucratic, regulatory, and legal complexity. These studies now exceed the financial means of academia or medical charities. Governments have left the bill with the pharmaceutical industry, encouraging a symbiosis with academics, who contribute medical and scientific expertise, and access to patients. Industry provides pharmacological, pharmaceutical, technical and regulatory know-how, good clinical practice expertise, and legal assistance during the trial. Study supervision is then in the hands of an independent steering committee and associated subcommittees, until appropriate dissemination of results. Prospectively defined interaction with the sponsor facilitates unbiased design and conduct, but arrangements need careful implementation to avoid conflicts of interest. The patient is protected by a strong data safety monitoring board that is wholly independent. Megatrials are under threat from over-regulation, increasing costs, and difficulties in execution. These issues merit urgent public and political education and debate.

  18. Assessment of strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato from Tanzania for resistance to copper and streptomycin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shenge, K.C.; Wydra, K.; Mabagala, M.B.

    2008-01-01

    Fifty-six strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (P.s. pv. tomato) were collected from tomato-producing areas in Tanzania and assessed for resistance to copper and antibiotics. The collection was done from three tomato-producing regions (Morogoro, Arusha and Iringa), representing three...... different ecological conditions in the country. After isolation and identification, the P. s. pv. tomato strains were grown on King's medium B (KB) amended with 20% copper sulphate (w/v). The strains were also assessed for resistance to antibiotics. Results indicated that there was widespread resistance...... strains of the pathogen were moderately resistant to copper sulphate, such that 54.0% of them were able to grow on the KB medium amended with 20% (w/v) of the copper compound....

  19. Activation of Antibiotic Production in Bacillus spp. by Cumulative Drug Resistance Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tojo, Shigeo; Tanaka, Yukinori; Ochi, Kozo

    2015-12-01

    Bacillus subtilis strains produce a wide range of antibiotics, including ribosomal and nonribosomal peptide antibiotics, as well as bacilysocin and neotrehalosadiamine. Mutations in B. subtilis strain 168 that conferred resistance to drugs such as streptomycin and rifampin resulted in overproduction of the dipeptide antibiotic bacilysin. Cumulative drug resistance mutations, such as mutations in the mthA and rpsL genes, which confer low- and high-level resistance, respectively, to streptomycin, and mutations in rpoB, which confer resistance to rifampin, resulted in cells that overproduced bacilysin. Transcriptional analysis demonstrated that the enhanced transcription of biosynthesis genes was responsible for the overproduction of bacilysin. This approach was effective also in activating the cryptic genes of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, leading to actual production of antibiotic(s). Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Antimicrobial susceptibility of listeria monocytogenes from food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Knöchel, Susanne; Hasman, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    for susceptibility to ceftiofur, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, florfenicol, penicillin, spectinomycin, streptomycin, tetracycline, tiamulin, trimethoprim, and co-trimoxazole, and the disinfectants benzalkonium chloride and triclosan, by determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). All...

  1. DNA replication in necessary for fixing induced mutations to streptomycin-resistance in UV-irradiated Escherichia coli cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubinin, N P; Filippov, V D

    1986-01-01

    A suspension of E.coli cells has been subjected to UV radiation, then it has been incubated in the growth medium for 15 min. After that one of the portions was incubated with nalidixic acid (NA), and the other one without it in the presence of an antibiotic. Frequency of mutations depending on or irrespective of photoactivation, has been determined. Dependence of Str mutation fixing, induced by low UV radiation doses, on DNA synthesis is determined. Results indicate that both photoreactivation of mutations and its senstivity to mfd system are simultaneously lost.

  2. [Genetic improvement of technological characteristics of starters for fermented milk products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oganesian, G G; Barsegian, A A; Grigorian, N G; Toptsian, A V

    2010-01-01

    Possibility for improvement of technological characteristics of lactobacilli using mutations of resistance to rifampicin (rif(r)) and streptomycin (str(r)) was studied. Using starter model of Narine Lactobacillus acidophilus INMIA-9602 Armenian diet milk product, it was showed that a possibility for selecting strains with increased rate of milk fermentation and acid production is higher in Rif(r) and Str(r) mutants induced by nitrosoguanidine than in cultures sensitive to antibiotics. The milk products obtained using Rif(r) and Str(r) strains had high viscosity, improved texture, increased amount of alive cells and good organoleptic features.

  3. The use of CR1aa for ovine in vitro embryo production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulnawati

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of CR1aa as a simple medium for maturation, fertilization and culture of ovine embryo in vitro. Oocytes were collected by slicing method in Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS supplemented with 5% Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS and 100 IU/ml penicillin streptomycin. Oocytes were matured in Tissue Culture Medium (TCM-199 as control or CR1aa as treatment medium. Both maturation medium were supplemented with 10% Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS, 10 IU/ml Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH, 10 IU/ml Luteinizing Hormone (LH, 1 μg/ml Estradiol and 100 IU/ml penicillin-streptomycin. Oocytes were incubated in 5% CO2 incubator, 38˚C for 24 h. Matured oocytes were fertilized in BO or CR1aa medium, supplemented with 2.5 mM caffeine benzoate and 20 mg /ml heparin. After 18 h in vitro fertilization, oocytes were cultured in TCM-199 or CR1aa medium, both supplemented with 5% FBS, 5 mg/ml insulin and 100 IU/ml penicillin streptomycin. Results showed that the highest maturation rate was found in TCM-199 medium (73.27% and significantly different (P0.05 between cleavage rate of ovine embryos in TCM-199 and CR1aa medium (39.45% vs 50.94%. In conclusion, optimum result on ovine in vitro embryo production can be achieved from a combination of TCM-199 as maturation medium and CR1aa as fertilization and culture medium.

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility of starter culture bacteria used in Norwegian dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katla, A K; Kruse, H; Johnsen, G; Herikstad, H

    2001-07-20

    Commercial starter culture bacteria are widely used in the production of dairy products and could represent a potential source for spread of genes encoding resistance to antimicrobial agents. To learn more about the antimicrobial susceptibility of starter culture bacteria used in Norwegian dairy products, a total of 189 isolates of lactic acid bacteria were examined for susceptibility to ampicillin, penicillin G, cephalothin, vancomycin, bacitracin, gentamicin, streptomycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, quinupristin/dalfopristin, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim and sulphadiazine using Etest for MIC determination. Most of the isolates (140) originated from 39 dairy products (yoghurt, sour cream, fermented milk and cheese), while 49 were isolated directly from nine commercial cultures. The bacteria belonged to the genera Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc and Streptococcus. Only one of the 189 isolates was classified as resistant to an antimicrobial agent included in the study. This isolate, a lactobacillus, was classified as high level resistant to streptomycin. The remaining isolates were not classified as resistant to the antimicrobial agents included other than to those they are known to have a natural reduced susceptibility to. Thus, starter culture bacteria in Norwegian dairy products do not seem to represent a source for spread of genes encoding resistance to antimicrobial agents.

  5. Development of innovative technique that may be used as models for the increase of biomass production with grasses and other species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, G. W.; Hanna, W. W.

    1981-09-01

    Techniques for biomass increase are discussed: irradiation breeding of sterile triploid turf bermuda grasses; irradiation breeding of sterile Coastcross-1, a forage grass hybrid to increase winter hardiness; heterosis resulting from crossing specific irradiation induced mutants with their normal inbred parent; use of mitomycin and streptomycin to create cytoplasmic male sterile mutants in pearl millet; biomass of napiergrass; evaluation of mutagen induced lignin mutants to maximize metabolizable energy in sorghum; interspecific crosses in Pennisetum; production of homozygous translocation tester stocks; use of radiation to induce and transfer reproductive behavior in plants; and genetics of radiation induced mutations.

  6. Evaluation and validation of a multi-residue method based on biochip technology for the simultaneous screening of six families of antibiotics in muscle and aquaculture products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, Valérie; Hedou, Celine; Soumet, Christophe; Verdon, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Evidence Investigator™ system (Randox, UK) is a biochip and semi-automated system. The microarray kit II (AM II) is capable of detecting several compounds belonging to different families of antibiotics: quinolones, ceftiofur, thiamphenicol, streptomycin, tylosin and tetracyclines. The performance of this innovative system was evaluated for the detection of antibiotic residues in new matrices, in muscle of different animal species and in aquaculture products. The method was validated according to the European Decision No. EC/2002/657 and the European guideline for the validation of screening methods, which represents a complete initial validation. The false-positive rate was equal to 0% in muscle and in aquaculture products. The detection capabilities CCβ for 12 validated antibiotics (enrofloxacin, difloxacin, ceftiofur, desfuroyl ceftiofur cysteine disulfide, thiamphenicol, florfenicol, tylosin, tilmicosin, streptomycin, dihydrostreptomycin, tetracycline, doxycycline) were all lower than the respective maximum residue limits (MRLs) in muscle from different animal origins (bovine, ovine, porcine, poultry). No cross-reactions were observed with other antibiotics, neither with the six detected families nor with other families of antibiotics. The AM II kit could be applied to aquaculture products but with higher detection capabilities from those in muscle. The detection capabilities CCβ in aquaculture products were respectively at 0.25, 0.10 and 0.5 of the respective MRL in aquaculture products for enrofloxacin, tylosin and oxytetracycline. The performance of the AM II kit has been compared with other screening methods and with the performance characteristics previously determined in honey.

  7. Coevolution of antibiotic production and counter-resistance in soil bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskaris, Paris; Tolba, Sahar; Calvo-Bado, Leo; Wellington, Elizabeth M; Wellington, Liz

    2010-03-01

    We present evidence for the coexistence and coevolution of antibiotic resistance and biosynthesis genes in soil bacteria. The distribution of the streptomycin (strA) and viomycin (vph) resistance genes was examined in Streptomyces isolates. strA and vph were found either within a biosynthetic gene cluster or independently. Streptomyces griseus strains possessing the streptomycin cluster formed part of a clonal complex. All S. griseus strains possessing solely strA belonged to two clades; both were closely related to the streptomycin producers. Other more distantly related S. griseus strains did not contain strA. S. griseus strains with only vph also formed two clades, but they were more distantly related to the producers and to one another. The expression of the strA gene was constitutive in a resistance-only strain whereas streptomycin producers showed peak strA expression in late log phase that correlates with the switch on of streptomycin biosynthesis. While there is evidence that antibiotics have diverse roles in nature, our data clearly support the coevolution of resistance in the presence of antibiotic biosynthetic capability within closely related soil dwelling bacteria. This reinforces the view that, for some antibiotics at least, the primary role is one of antibiosis during competition in soil for resources.

  8. Effect of antibiotics on growth and laccase production from Cyathus bulleri and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Shikha; Lal, Rup; Hanspal, Manjit; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander

    2005-08-01

    The effect of nine different antibiotics (chloramphenicol, ampicillin trihydrate, kanamycin A monosulfate, neomycin sulfate, erythromycin, thiostrepton, tetracycline, apramycin sulfate and streptomycin sulfate) on growth and laccase production from Cyathus bulleri and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus has been investigated. All the antibiotics tested at a concentration of 200 mg/l affected the fungal growth, release of protein and laccase production to different extent. Inhibition in fungal growth was found to be positively correlated with increase in laccase production. Interestingly, apramycin sulfate inhibited biomass production (14.9-26.2%), nevertheless, it stimulated maximum laccase production (18.2 U/ml) in both the fungi. Increasing concentrations of apramycin sulfate enhanced laccase production from P. cinnabarinus but not from C. bulleri.

  9. TRP channels in brown and white adipogenesis from human progenitors : new therapeutic targets and the caveats associated with the common antibiotic, streptomycin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goralczyk, A.; van Vijven, M.; Koch, M.; Badowski, C.; Yassin, M.S.; Toh, S.A.; Shabbir, A.; Franco-Obregón, A.; Raghunath, M.

    2017-01-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are polymodal cell sensors responding to diverse stimuli and widely implicated in the developmental programs of numerous tissues. The evidence for an involvement of TRP family members in adipogenesis, however, is scant. We present the first comprehensive

  10. Isolation and identification of Staphylococcus aureus from milk and milk products and their drug resistance patterns in Anand, Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Brahmbhatt

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was carried out with aim to isolate Staphylococcus aureus from milk and milk products (pedha and curd and determine antibiogram pattern of S. aureus isolates. Materials and Methods: During 9 months duration of study a total of 160 milk and milk product samples (pedha and curd were collected from different places in and around Anand city such as milk collection centre of Co-operative milk dairies, cattle farms, individual household, milk vendors and sweet shops. The samples were collected under aseptic precautions and were enriched in Peptone Water (PW followed by direct plating on selective media viz. Baird-Parker Agar. The presumptive S. aureus isolates were identified by biochemical tests. Antibiogram pattern of S. aureus to antimicrobial agents were evaluated by disk diffusion method. Results: Analysis of result revealed that out of total 160 samples of milk (100 and milk products i.e. curd (30 and pedha (30 resulted in the isolation of 10 isolates (6.25 % of S. aureus. In the present study S. aureus isolates were found variably resistant to the antibiotics tested. The S. aureus isolates showed highest sensitivity towards cephalothin (100.00 %, co-trimoxazole (100.00 %, cephalexin (100.00 % and methicillin (100.00 % followed by gentamicin (90.00 %, ciprofloxacin (80.00 %, oxacillin (70.00 %, streptomycin (60.00 % and ampicillin (60.00 %. The pattern clearly indicated that the overall high percent of S. aureus isolates were resistant to Penicillin-G (100.00 % followed by ampicillin (40.00 %, oxytetracycline and oxacillin (20.00 % and streptomycin and gentamicin (10.00 % Conclusions: Results clearly suggested a possibility of potential public health threat of S. aureus resulting from contamination of milk and milk products with pathogenic bacteria is mainly due to unhygienic processing, handling and unhygienic environment. [Vet World 2013; 6(1.000: 10-13

  11. Antimicrobial Activity and Antibiotic Sensitivity of Three Isolates of Lactic Acid Bacteria From Fermented Fish Product, Budu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liasi, S. A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Three isolates of lactic acid bacteria (LAB from the fermented food product, Budu, were identified as genus lactobacillus (Lactobacillus casei LA17, Lactobacillus plantarum LA22 and L. paracasei LA02, and the highest population was Lb. paracasei LA02. The antibacterial agent produced by the isolates inhibited the growth of a range of gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. Antimicrobial sensitivity test to 18 different types of antibiotic were evaluated using the disc diffusion method. Inhibition zone diameter was measured and calculated from the means of five determinations and expressed in terms of resistance or susceptibility. All the LAB isolates were resistant to colestin sulphate, streptomycin, amikacin, norfloxacin, nalidixic acid, mecillinam, sulphanethoxazole/ trimethoprim, kanamycin, neomycin, bacitracin and gentamycin but susceptible to erythromycin, penicillin G, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, ampicillin and nitrofurantion.

  12. Development of new techniques of using irradiation in the genetic improvement of warm season grasses, the assessment of their genetic and cytogenetic effects and biomass production from grass. Progress report, November 1, 1978-October 31, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, G.W.; Hanna, W.W.

    1979-06-01

    The following topics are discussed: altering protein quantity and quality in pearl millet grain by irradiation and mutation breeding; effect of nitrogen and genotype (male and female) on pearl millet grain; irradiation breeding of sterile triploid turf bermudagrasses; irradiation breeding of sterile Coastcross-1, a forage grass hybrid to increase winterhardiness; heterosis resulting from crossing specific irradiation induced mutants with their normal inbred parent; economic assessment of irradiation induced mutants; use of ethidium bromide to create cytoplasmic male sterile mutants in pearl millet; use of mitomycin and streptomycin to create cytoplasmic male sterile mutants in pearl millet; biomass of napiergrass; evaluation of mutagen induced lignin mutants in sorghum; interspecific transfer of germplasm using gamma radiation; production of homozygous translocation tester stocks; use of radiation to control the reproductive behavior in plants; genetics of radiation induced mutations; response of pearl millet pollen to gamma radiation; and nature of morphological changes in sterile triploid bermudagrass on golf courses

  13. Switchable photosystem-II designer algae for photobiological hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James Weifu

    2010-01-05

    A switchable photosystem-II designer algae for photobiological hydrogen production. The designer transgenic algae includes at least two transgenes for enhanced photobiological H.sub.2 production wherein a first transgene serves as a genetic switch that can controls photosystem II (PSII) oxygen evolution and a second transgene encodes for creation of free proton channels in the algal photosynthetic membrane. In one embodiment, the algae includes a DNA construct having polymerase chain reaction forward primer (302), a inducible promoter (304), a PSII-iRNA sequence (306), a terminator (308), and a PCR reverse primer (310). In other embodiments, the PSII-iRNA sequence (306) is replaced with a CF.sub.1-iRNA sequence (312), a streptomycin-production gene (314), a targeting sequence (316) followed by a proton-channel producing gene (318), or a PSII-producing gene (320). In one embodiment, a photo-bioreactor and gas-product separation and utilization system produce photobiological H.sub.2 from the switchable PSII designer alga.

  14. Antibiotic usage pattern in selected poultry farms in Ogun state

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2013-12-27

    Dec 27, 2013 ... streptomycin and tylosin among poultry farms in. Ekiti State, Nigeria. ... in poultry production due to its possibility of forming residue in ... withdrawal periods are not observed before selling ... Manipulating pig production IX.

  15. Molecular characterization, technological properties and safety aspects of enterococci from 'Hussuwa', an African fermented sorghum product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, N M K; Dawyndt, P; Abriouel, H; Wijaya, A; Schillinger, U; Vancanneyt, M; Swings, J; Dirar, H A; Holzapfel, W H; Franz, C M A P

    2005-01-01

    To identify enterococci from Hussuwa, a Sudanese fermented sorghum product, and determine their technological properties and safety for possible inclusion in a starter culture preparation. Twenty-two Enterococcus isolates from Hussuwa were identified as Enterococcus faecium by using phenotypic and genotypic tests such as 16S rDNA gene sequencing, RAPD-PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism of the 16S/23S intergenic spacer region fingerprinting. Genotyping revealed that strains were not clonally related and exhibited a considerable degree of genomic diversity. Some strains possessed useful technological properties such as production of bacteriocins and H2O2 or utilization of raffinose and stachyose. None produced alpha-amylase or tannase. A safety investigation revealed that all strains were susceptible to the antibiotics ampicillin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline and streptomycin, but some were resistant to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, penicillin and vancomycin. Production of biogenic amines or presence of genes encoding virulence determinants occurred in some strains. Enterococcus faecium strains are associated with fermentation of Sudanese Hussuwa. Some strains exhibited useful technological properties such as production of antimicrobial agents and fermentation of indigestible sugars, which may aid in stabilizing and improving the digestibility of the product respectively. Enterococci were shown to play a role in the fermentation of African foods. While beneficial properties of these bacteria are indicated, their presence in this food may also imply a hygienic risk as a result of antimicrobial resistances or presence of virulence determinants.

  16. 75 FR 16102 - Kasugamycin; Receipt of Application for Emergency Exemption, Solicitation of Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... pesticide manufacturer. Potentially affected entities may include, but are not limited to: Crop production... control streptomycin-resistant strains of Erwinia amylovora, the causal pathogen of fire blight, due to...

  17. Level of Farmers' Participation In The International Institute Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SproDell

    transferred properly by Livestock Extension Agents (LEA) to farmers for proper adoption. ... improvement in the use of this technology for specific production purposes. In the ... Antibiotics (penicillin and streptomycin) used to control pathogenic.

  18. The effects of propolis on cytokine production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Özbilge

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Propolis, a bee-product, has attracted researchers’ interest in recent years because of several biological and pharmacological properties. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS is a component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and has an important role in the pathogenesis of septic shock and several inflammatory diseases by causing excessive release of inflammatory cytokines. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ethanol extract of propolis collected in Kayseri and its surroundings on production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in LPS-stimulated macrophages.Materials and methods: In vitro, U937 human macrophage cells were grown in RPMI-1640 medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum (10% and penicillin-streptomycin (2% and divided into: control, LPS treated, and propolis+LPS treated cell groups. After incubation in an atmosphere of 5% CO2 and at 37°C of cells, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α levels were measured in cell-free supernatants by ELISA.Results: IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α levels increased in LPS treated cell group according to control, statistically significant. Each cytokine levels significantly decreased in LPS and propolis treated cell group according to only LPS treated cell group (p<0.05.Conclusion: Propolis is a natural product to be examined for usage when needed the suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. J Clin Exp Invest 2011; 2 (4: 366-370

  19. Bakery by-products based feeds borne-Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with probiotic and antimycotoxin effects plus antibiotic resistance properties for use in animal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poloni, Valeria; Salvato, Lauranne; Pereyra, Carina; Oliveira, Aguida; Rosa, Carlos; Cavaglieri, Lilia; Keller, Kelly Moura

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to select S. cerevisiae strains able to exert probiotic and antimycotoxin effects plus antibiotics resistance properties for use in animal production. S. cerevisiae LL74 and S. cerevisiae LL83 were isolated from bakery by-products intended for use in animal feed and examined for phenotypic characteristics and nutritional profile. Resistance to antibiotic, tolerance to gastrointestinal conditions, autoaggregation and coaggregation assay, antagonism to animal pathogens and aflatoxin B 1 binding were studied. S. cerevisiae LL74 and S. cerevisiae LL83 showed resistance to all the antibiotics assayed (ampicillin, streptomycin, neomycin, norfloxacin, penicillin G, sulfonamide and trimethoprim). The analysis showed that exposure time to acid pH had a significant impact onto the viable cell counts onto both yeast strains. Presence of bile 0.5% increased significantly the growth of the both yeast strains. Moreover, they were able to tolerate the simulated gastrointestinal conditions assayed. In general, the coaggregation was positive whereas the autoaggregation capacity was not observed. Both strains were able to adsorb AFB 1 . In conclusion, selected S. cerevisiae LL74 and S. cerevisiae LL83 have potential application to be used as a biological method in animal feed as antibiotic therapy replacement in, reducing the adverse effects of AFB 1 and giving probiotic properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Controlling Listeria monocytogenes Scott A on Surfaces of Fully Cooked Turkey Deli Product Using Organic Acid-Containing Marinades as Postlethality Dips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casco, Gerardo; Johnson, Jennifer L; Taylor, T Matthew; Gaytán, Carlos N; Brashears, Mindy M; Alvarado, Christine Z

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of organic acids applied singly or in combination as postlethality dips to sliced uncured turkey deli loaves to inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) Scott A. Treatments consisted of sodium lactate (SL; 3.6%), potassium lactate (PL; 3.6%), sodium citrate (SC; 0.75%), a combination of SL and sodium diacetate (SDA; 0.25%), and a combination of SL/PL/SDA, alongside appropriate negative and positive controls. Products were inoculated with 10(4)-10(5) CFU/mL streptomycin-resistant (1500 μg/mL) Lm Scott A prior to treatment. Products were then stored at ~4°C and sampled at 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, and 56 d. The SL/SDA combination applied to turkey slices extended the lag phase through 21 days of refrigerated storage. Numbers of Lm Scott A rose by 0.7 log10 CFU/g through the 56 d storage period. The application of the SL/PL/SDA treatment to turkey product surfaces extended the lag phase through 42 d, with pathogen numbers declining after 21 d. Combination organic acid dips prolonged the lag phase for 2 to 6 wk on turkey product surfaces and can be useful as antimicrobial agents for Lm control on postlethality exposed sliced deli products.

  1. Campylobacter coli in Organic and Conventional Pig Production in France and Sweden: Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Kempf

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate and compare the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter coli in conventional and organic pigs from France and Sweden. Fecal or colon samples were collected at farms or at slaughterhouses and cultured for Campylobacter. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, tetracycline, erythromycin, and gentamicin were determined by microdilution for a total of 263 French strains from 114 pigs from 50 different farms and 82 Swedish strains from 144 pigs from 54 different farms. Erythromycin resistant isolates were examined for presence of the emerging rRNA methylase erm(B gene. The study showed that within the colon samples obtained in each country there was no significant difference in prevalence of Campylobacter between pigs in organic and conventional productions [France: conventional: 43/58 (74%; organic: 43/56 (77% and Sweden: conventional: 24/36 (67%; organic: 20/36 (56%]. In France, but not in Sweden, significant differences of percentages of resistant isolates were associated with production type (tetracycline, erythromycin and the number of resistances was significantly higher for isolates from conventional pigs. In Sweden, the number of resistances of fecal isolates was significantly higher compared to colon isolates. The erm(B gene was not detected in the 87 erythromycin resistant strains tested.

  2. The production and sales of anti-tuberculosis drugs in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yang-Mu; Zhao, Qi-Peng; Ren, Qiao-Meng; Peng, Dan-Lu; Guo, Yan

    2016-10-04

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major infectious disease globally. Adequate and proper use of anti-TB drugs is essential for TB control. This study aims to study China's production capacity and sales situation of anti-TB drugs, and to further discuss the potential for China to contribute to global TB control. The production data of anti-TB drugs in China from 2011 to 2013 and the sales data from 2010 to 2014 were extracted from Ministry of Industry and Information Technology database of China and IMS Health database, respectively. The number of drugs was standardized to the molecular level of the key components before calculating. All data were described and analyzed by Microsoft Excel. First-line drugs were the majority in both sales (89.5 %) and production (92.3 %) of anti-TB drugs in China. The production of rifampicin held the majority share in active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and finished products, whilst ethambutol and pyrazinamide were the top two sales in finished products. Fixed-dose combinations only held small percentages in total production and sales weight, though a slight increase was observed. The production and sales of streptomycin showed a tendency of decrease after 2012. The trends and proportion of different anti-TB drugs were similar in production and sales, however, the production weight was much larger than that of sales, especially for rifampicin and isoniazid. First-line drugs were the predominant medicine produced and used in China. While the low production and sales of the second-line TB drugs and FDCs rose concerns for the treatment of multiple drug resistant TB. The redundant production amount, as well as the prompt influence of national policy on drug production and sales, indicated the potential for China to better contribute to global TB control.

  3. Detection of biosynthetic gene and phytohormone production by endophytic actinobacteria associated with Solanum lycopersicum and their plant-growth-promoting effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passari, Ajit Kumar; Chandra, Preeti; Zothanpuia; Mishra, Vineet Kumar; Leo, Vincent Vineeth; Gupta, Vijai Kumar; Kumar, Brijesh; Singh, Bhim Pratap

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, fifteen endophytic actinobacterial isolates recovered from Solanum lycopersicum were studied for their antagonistic potential and plant-growth-promoting (PGP) traits. Among them, eight isolates showed significant antagonistic and PGP traits, identified by amplification of the 16S rRNA gene. Isolate number DBT204, identified as Streptomyces sp., showed multiple PGP traits tested in planta and improved a range of growth parameters in seedlings of chili (Capsicum annuum L.) and tomato (S. lycopersicum L.). Further, genes of indole acetic acid (iaaM) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase (acdS) were successively amplified from five strains. Six antibiotics (trimethoprim, fluconazole, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, rifampicin and streptomycin) and two phytohormones [indole acetic acid (IAA) and kinetin (KI)] were detected and quantified in Streptomyces sp. strain DBT204 using UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The study indicates the potential of these PGP strains for production of phytohormones and shows the presence of biosynthetic genes responsible for production of secondary metabolites. It is the first report showing production of phytohormones (IAA and KI) by endophytic actinobacteria having PGP and biosynthetic potential. We propose Streptomyces sp. strain DBT204 for inoculums production and development of biofertilizers for enhancing growth of chili and tomato seedlings. Copyright © 2016 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Selman A. Waksman, winner of the 1952 Nobel Prize for physiology or medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, H Boyd

    2014-01-01

    The history of the discovery and development of streptomycin is reviewed here from the personal standpoint of a member of Dr. Selman Waksman's antibiotic screening research team. The team approach of eight individuals illustrates how the gradual enhancement of the screening methodology was developed. I illustrate three study periods with key aspects in the development of streptomycin which led to a Nobel Prize being granted to Professor Waksman. One item not previously emphasized is the employment of a submerged culture technique for large-scale production of streptomycin, thus enabling rapid animal testing and human clinical trials with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Another is that purified streptomycin was shown by Dr. Waksman to be distinctly different from the substances called natural products, which are no longer patentable in the United States; therefore, streptomycin was found to be patentable. A third item not previously emphasized is his emphasis on the screening of actinomycetes, including the newly named Streptomyces genus. All of these factors contributed to the success of streptomycin in the treatment of tuberculosis. In combination, their successes led to Dr. Waksman's department becoming a new pharmacological research area, specializing in drug discovery. These unique accomplishments all burnish the prior rationales used by the Karolinska Institute in granting Dr. Waksman alone the 1952 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine.

  5. Antibiotic resistance of lactic acid bacteria and Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from dairy and pharmaceutical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aimmo, Maria Rosaria; Modesto, Monica; Biavati, Bruno

    2007-04-01

    The outlines of antibiotic resistance of some probiotic microorganisms were studied. This study was conducted with the double purpose of verifying their ability to survive if they are taken simultaneously with an antibiotic therapy and to increase the selective properties of suitable media for the isolation of samples containing mixed bacterial populations. We isolated from commercial dairy and pharmaceutical products, 34 strains declared as probiotics, belonging to the genera Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, and 21 strains of starter culture bacteria. All the microorganisms have been compared by electrophoresis of the soluble proteins for the purpose of identifying them. A Multiplex-PCR with genus- and species-specific primers was used to detect for Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis presence. All bifidobacteria were B. animalis subsp. lactis except one Bifidobacterium longum. Sometimes the identification showed that the used strain was not the one indicated on the label. The lactobacilli were Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. The streptococci were all Streptococcus thermophilus. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 24 common antibiotic substances has been valued by the broth microdilution method. All tested strains were susceptible to ampicillin, bacitracin, clindamycin, dicloxacillin, erytromycin, novobiocin, penicillin G, rifampicin (MIC(90) ranging from 0.01 to 4 microg/ml); resistant to aztreonam, cycloserin, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, polymyxin B and spectinomycin (MIC(90) ranging from 64 to >1000 microg/ml). The susceptibility to cephalothin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, lincomycin, metronidazole, neomycin, paromomycin, streptomycin, tetracycline and vancomycin was variable and depending on the species.

  6. Determination and production of antimicrobial compounds by Aspergillus clavatonanicus strain MJ31, an endophytic fungus from Mirabilis jalapa L. using UPLC-ESI-MS/MS and TD-GC-MS analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet Kumar Mishra

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi associated with medicinal plants are reported as potent producers of diverse classes of secondary metabolites. In the present study, an endophytic fungi, Aspergillus clavatonanicus strain MJ31, exhibiting significant antimicrobial activity was isolated from roots of Mirabilis jalapa L., was identified by sequencing three nuclear genes i.e. internal transcribed spacers ribosomal RNA (ITS rRNA, 28S ribosomal RNA (28S rRNA and translation elongation factor 1- alpha (EF 1α. Ethyl acetate extract of strain MJ31displayed significant antimicrobial potential against Bacillus subtilis, followed by Micrococccus luteus and Staphylococcus aureus with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of 0.078, 0.156 and 0.312 mg/ml respectively. In addition, the strain was evaluated for its ability to synthesize bioactive compounds by the amplification of polyketide synthase (PKS and non ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS genes. Further, seven antibiotics (miconazole, ketoconazole, fluconazole, ampicillin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, and rifampicin were detected and quantified using UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Additionally, thermal desorption-gas chromatography mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS analysis of strain MJ31 showed the presence of 28 volatile compounds. This is the first report on A. clavatonanicus as an endophyte obtained from M. jalapa. We conclude that A. clavatonanicus strain MJ31 has prolific antimicrobial potential against both plant and human pathogens and can be exploited for the discovery of new antimicrobial compounds and could be an alternate source for the production of secondary metabolites.

  7. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance of non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars in retail aquaculture products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianmin; Yang, Xiaowei; Kuang, Dai; Shi, Xianming; Xiao, Wenjia; Zhang, Jing; Gu, Zhen; Xu, Xuebin; Meng, Jianghong

    2015-10-01

    Aquaculture products can become sources of Salmonella by exposure to contaminated water or through processing practices, thus representing a public health hazard. A study was conducted on Salmonella contamination in aquaculture products sampled from marketplaces and retailers in Shanghai, China. A total of 730 samples (including fish, shellfish, bullfrog, clam, shrimp and others) were obtained from 2006 to 2011. Among them, 217 (29.7%) were positive for Salmonella. Thirty-eight serovars were identified in the 217 Salmonella isolates. The most prevalent were Salmonella Aberdeen (18.4%), S. Wandsworth (12.0%), S. Thompson (9.2%), S. Singapore (5.5%), S. Stanley (4.6%), S. Schwarzengrund (4.6%), S. Hvittingfoss (4.1%) and S. Typhimurium (4.1%). Many resistant isolates were detected, with 69.6% resistant to at least one antimicrobial drug. We observed high resistance to sulfonamides (56.5%), tetracycline (34.1%), streptomycin (28.6%), ampicillin (23.5%) and nalidixic acid (21.2%). Lower levels of resistance were found for gentamicin (3.2%), ciprofloxacin (2.3%), ceftiofur (1.3%), cefotaxime (0.9%), ceftazidime (0.5%) and cefepime (0.5%). A total of 43.3% of the Salmonella isolates were multidrug-resistant and 44 different resistance patterns were found. This study provided data on the prevalence, serovars and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella from retail aquaculture products in Shanghai, and indicated the need for monitoring programs for microbiologic safety in such projects and for more prudent drug use in aquaculture production in order to reduce the risk of development and spread of antimicrobial resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterization of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica strains isolated from Brazilian poultry production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiello, Samara P; Drescher, Guilherme; Barth, Valdir C; Ferreira, Carlos A S; Oliveira, Sílvia D

    2015-11-01

    Antimicrobial resistance profiles and presence of resistance determinants and integrons were evaluated in Salmonella enterica strains from Brazilian poultry. The analysis of 203 isolates showed that those from the poultry environment (88 isolates) were significantly more resistant to antimicrobials than isolates from other sources, particularly those isolated from poultry by-product meal (106 isolates). Thirty-seven isolates were resistant to at least three antimicrobial classes. Class 1 integrons were detected in 26 isolates, and the analysis of the variable region between the 5' conserved segment (CS) and 3' CS of each class 1 integron-positive isolate showed that 13 contained a typical 3' CS and 14 contained an atypical 3' CS. One Salmonella Senftenberg isolate harbored two class 1 integrons, showing both typical and atypical 3' CSs. The highest percentage of resistance was found to sulfonamides, and sul genes were detected in the majority of the resistant isolates. Aminoglycoside resistance was detected in 50 isolates, and aadA and aadB were present in 28 and 32 isolates, respectively. In addition, strA and strB were detected in 78.1 and 65.6% isolates resistant to streptomycin, respectively. Twenty-one isolates presented reduced susceptibility to β-lactams and harbored bla(TEM), bla(CMY), and/or bla(CTX-M). Forty isolates showed reduced susceptibility to tetracycline, and most presented tet genes. These results highlight the importance of the environment as a reservoir of resistant Salmonella, which may enable the persistence of resistance determinants in the poultry production chain, contributing, therefore, to the debate regarding the impacts that antimicrobial use in animal production may exert in human health.

  9. Identification and antibiogram pattern of Bacillus cereus from the milk and milk products in and around Jammu region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Umar; Kotwal, S. K.; Gupta, Sanjolly; Ahmed, Touqeer

    2018-01-01

    Aim: The aims of the present study were to assess the prevalence, identification, and antibiogram pattern of Bacillus cereus from 215 samples of different milk and milk products in and around Jammu region. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 215 samples of milk, rasgulla, burfi, rasmalai, kalaari, paneer, ice cream, and pastry were collected and analyzed for the isolation of the B. cereus using PEMBA, and antibiogram pattern was observed for all the milk and milk products. Results: B. cereus was detected in 61/215 samples with an overall prevalence of 28.37%. Biotyping revealed predominantly 5, 7, and 2 biotypes in raw milk. Burfi and ice cream revealed 2, 3, 5, and 7 biotypes. Rasgulla had 2, 3, and 5 biotypes; paneer and rasmalai had biotypes 2 and 5, while kalaari revealed biotype 5. Antibiogram pattern revealed that isolates were highly sensitive to gentamicin (100%), intermediate to ampicillin (40.98%), tetracycline (31.14%), erythromycin (29.50%), and amoxicillin (26.22%), and high resistance against penicillin G (100%). Adulteration of starch was detected in 16.66 % raw milk samples. All starch positive samples were positive for B. cereus. However, 12 starch negative samples also yielded B. cereus. Conclusion: From this study, it was concluded that highest prevalence of B. cereus was found in ice cream. Several isolates of B. cereus showed toxigenic activity, so the presence of B. cereus in milk and milk products may be of public health hazard. The antibiogram pattern of B. cereus isolates showed sensitivity to gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, and resistance to penicillin-G and cephalexin. The presence of B. cereus in milk and milk products showed a strong association besides establishing the fact that starch adulteration can be indicative of the presence of B. cereus. PMID:29657402

  10. Prevalence, seasonal occurrence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella in poultry retail products in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdragas, A; Mazaraki, K; Vafeas, G; Giantzi, V; Papadopoulos, T; Ekateriniadou, L

    2012-10-01

    To detect the prevalence, the seasonal occurrence and distribution of Salmonella serotypes in poultry products and to determine the resistance profile of Salmonella isolates. A total of 96 skin-on chicken carcasses and 30 liver samples were analysed between May 2007 and May 2009 from twenty-two different commercial farm brands found in retail market countrywide. Salmonella was isolated from 38 (39·5%) of 96 chicken carcasses and from 10 (33·3%) of 30 liver samples. Higher isolation rate (60·4%) was observed in carcasses detected during summer (May to October), and lower isolation rate (18·7%) was observed in carcasses detected during winter (November to April); in liver samples, the positive rates were 53·4 and 13·2%, respectively. Twelve serotypes were detected with the serotypes Hadar, Enteritidis and Blockley being the most prevalent at 29·2, 22·9 and 12·5%, respectively. Nine of 11 Salm. Enteritidis isolates occurred during summer. Of 48 isolates, 38 (79%) were resistant to one or more of the antimicrobial agents used. The highest resistance rates were found to the following antimicrobials: streptomycin (64·5%), tetracycline (56·2%), nalidixic acid (39·5%), ampicillin and rifampicin (33·3%). The relatively high Salmonella spp. contamination rates of raw chicken meat and liver have been detected. Salm. Enteritidis isolates peaked in summer, increasing the risk to human health. Antibiotic resistance of Salmonella still remains a threat as resistance plasmids may be extensively shared between animal and humans. The study enabled us to improve the data on the seasonal occurrence of Salmonella and to determine the antimicrobial pattern profile and trends in Salmonella strains isolated from poultry retail products in Greece. © 2012 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Safety assessment of radiation pasteurization of poultry feed : production performance trails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El din, M D; Farag, H; Borsa, Joseph; Guenter, Bill

    1989-01-01

    Feed used to rear farm animals for human consumption has often been implicated as vehicle for dissemination of microbial pathogens that can adversely affect both animals or birds, and humans. Radiation pasteurization of animal feed to improve its microbiological quality should reduce the incidence of feed-borne infection (both clinical and subs clinical) in the herd or flock. This would result in safer food for the consumer, and improved economic performance of the production unit. This latter benefit is particularly important because it could directly offset the treating the feed. The likelihood of occurrence, as well as the magnitude, of any improved economic performance in the herd or flock consuming the irradiated feed must be determined experimentally. Accordingly, short term feeding tests were carried out to determine the effect of radiation pasteurization of poultry feed on growth performance of young chicks. Newly hatched white leghorn cacklers were used in the present studies to examine the effects of (i) control vs irradiated feed; and (ii) control vs stressed (transient chilled) birds. Feed consumption and pen weight were monitored for 21 days. Three experiments were conducted in the summer of 1989, using separate lots of commercially obtained feed ingredients for each experiment, In two of the three feeding tests there was a highly significant (p<.01) increase in feed conversion efficiency in the birds fed the irradiated feed. The magnitude of the increased efficiency was 2.4% and 2.8% in the two positive experiments. In one of the two positive experiments the feed contained antibiotics (Penicillin and Streptomycin) while the feed in other was antibiotic-free these results suggest that radiation pasteurization of poultry feed may have a beneficial effect on the feed conversion efficiency of the birds consuming that feed.8 tab.

  12. Safety assessment of radiation pasteurization of poultry feed : production performance trails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El din, M. D.; Farag, H.; Borsa, Joseph; Guenter, Bill.

    1989-01-01

    Feed used to rear farm animals for human consumption has often been implicated as vehicle for dissemination of microbial pathogens that can adversely affect both animals or birds, and humans. Radiation pasteurization of animal feed to improve its microbiological quality should reduce the incidence of feed-borne infection (both clinical and subs clinical) in the herd or flock. This would result in safer food for the consumer, and improved economic performance of the production unit. This latter benefit is particularly important because it could directly offset the treating the feed. The likelihood of occurrence, as well as the magnitude, of any improved economic performance in the herd or flock consuming the irradiated feed must be determined experimentally. Accordingly, short term feeding tests were carried out to determine the effect of radiation pasteurization of poultry feed on growth performance of young chicks. Newly hatched white leghorn cacklers were used in the present studies to examine the effects of (i) control vs irradiated feed; and (ii) control vs stressed (transient chilled) birds. Feed consumption and pen weight were monitored for 21 days. Three experiments were conducted in the summer of 1989, using separate lots of commercially obtained feed ingredients for each experiment, In two of the three feeding tests there was a highly significant (p<.01) increase in feed conversion efficiency in the birds fed the irradiated feed. The magnitude of the increased efficiency was 2.4% and 2.8% in the two positive experiments. In one of the two positive experiments the feed contained antibiotics (Penicillin and Streptomycin) while the feed in other was antibiotic-free these results suggest that radiation pasteurization of poultry feed may have a beneficial effect on the feed conversion efficiency of the birds consuming that feed.8 tab

  13. Longitudinal study of distributions of similar antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella serovars in pigs and their environment in two distinct swine production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keelara, Shivaramu; Scott, H Morgan; Morrow, William M; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A; Correa, Maria; Nayak, Rajesh; Stefanova, Rossina; Thakur, Siddhartha

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to determine and compare the prevalences and genotypic profiles of antimicrobial-resistant (AR) Salmonella isolates from pigs reared in antimicrobial-free (ABF) and conventional production systems at farm, at slaughter, and in their environment. We collected 2,889 pig fecal and 2,122 environmental (feed, water, soil, lagoon, truck, and floor swabs) samples from 10 conventional and eight ABF longitudinal cohorts at different stages of production (farrowing, nursery, finishing) and slaughter (postevisceration, postchill, and mesenteric lymph nodes [MLN]). In addition, we collected 1,363 carcass swabs and 205 lairage and truck samples at slaughter. A total of 1,090 Salmonella isolates were recovered from the samples; these were isolated with a significantly higher prevalence in conventionally reared pigs (4.0%; n = 66) and their environment (11.7%; n = 156) than in ABF pigs (0.2%; n = 2) and their environment (0.6%; n = 5) (P antimicrobial resistance (AR) were exhibited to tetracycline (71%), sulfisoxazole (42%), and streptomycin (17%). Multidrug resistance (resistance to ≥ 3 antimicrobials; MDR) was detected in 27% (n = 254) of the Salmonella isolates from the conventional system. Our study reports a low prevalence of Salmonella in both production systems in pigs on farms, while a higher prevalence was detected among the carcasses at slaughter. The dynamics of Salmonella prevalence in pigs and carcasses were reciprocated in the farm and slaughter environment, clearly indicating an exchange of this pathogen between the pigs and their surroundings. Furthermore, the phenotypic and genotypic fingerprint profile results underscore the potential role played by environmental factors in dissemination of AR Salmonella to pigs.

  14. Salmonella in pork retail outlets and dissemination of its pulsotypes through pig production chain in Chiang Mai and surrounding areas, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchanee, Prapas; Tansiricharoenkul, Kankanok; Buawiratlert, Tunyamai; Wiratsudakul, Anuwat; Angchokchatchawal, Kittipat; Yamsakul, Panuwat; Yano, Terdsak; Boonkhot, Phacharaporn; Rojanasatien, Suvichai; Tadee, Pakpoom

    2016-08-01

    Salmonella spp. is acknowledged as a significant zoonotic foodborne pathogen throughout the world. Contaminated pork consumption is considered as a main cause of human salmonellosis. In the later stage of the pig production chain, poor hygiene and unsuitable storage conditions in retail outlets are considered to be key factors linked to the risk of Salmonella infection. The purpose of current study, which was conducted throughout April 2014 to September 2014, was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of Salmonella spp. in pork sold at the retail stage in wet markets and supermarkets in the Chiang Mai urban area of Thailand. Additionally, clonal relations between Salmonella strains described in this study and those identified in earlier study from the same geographical area were considered. It is provided as a means of contributing to current knowledge regarding Salmonella epidemiology with an ultimate aim of improved food security and consumer protection in this region. From a total of 82 pork samples analyzed in this study, 41% were positive for Salmonella, with prevalence of 73.2% from wet markets (n=30/41) and 9.8% from supermarkets (n=4/41). Twelve Salmonella serovars were identified, S. Rissen being the most commonly encountered. Antibiotic resistance of the isolates was highest for ampicillin and tetracycline (53%), followed by streptomycin (44%). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and subsequent geographical distribution analysis indicated that the clonal Salmonella strains originated from multiple sources had been spread over a wide area. The existence of a common pig supply chain "farm-slaughterhouse-retail" transmission route is inferred. Continuous monitoring of Salmonella along the entire production chain is needed to reduce contamination loads and to ensure the safety of pork products for end consumers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The seasonal and ovarian status effects on in vitro production of domestic cat embryos between Equator and Tropic of Capricorn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian R. Martins

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available From the Tropic of Capricorn to Equator, the seasonality of domestic cat is known to be absent, i.e., these animals are considered non-seasonal breeders at these regions. We hypothesized that this particularity might have some influence on in vitro embryo production. The aim of this experiment was to determine the percentage of cleavage and morulae and blastocyst formation produced from oocytes recovered from queen ovaries of three distinct status - follicular, luteal or inactive - during two different reproductive seasons experienced by cats in southeast of Brazil (22°53'09" S and 48°26'42" W - non breeding season (NBS, comprehending January to March; and breeding season (BS, August to October. Thirty queens were neutered. Ovaries were classified according to their status and were sliced in PBS for cumulus oocyte complex (COC releasing. Grade I COC were washed three times in H-MEM supplemented with BSA, glutamine, sodium pyruvate, cysteine, streptomycin and penicillin. Oocytes were incubated in groups of 20-30 in 400µL of DMEM supplemented with FSH, LH, estradiol, IGF-I and basic fibroblast growth factor under mineral oil for 30 or 36 hours at 38°C in humidified environment of 5% de O2, 5% CO2 and 90% N2. COC were fertilized in Ham's F-10 medium supplemented with BSA, cysteine, pyruvate and streptomycin/penicillin (culture medium with fresh semen selected through swim up technique. Eighteen hours later, the presumptive zygotes were denuded, the percentage of cleavage was determined and every 10 zygotes were transferred to 100mL drops of culture medium for culture during three days. After 72 hours of culture the percentage of morulae formation was evaluated and these structures were transferred to drops of the same culture medium. At the eighth day of culture blastocyst formation was analyzed. During NBS, from a total of 272 (inactive, 162 (luteal and 134 (follicular fertilized oocytes, the percentage of cleaved zygotes, morulae and

  16. The Effect of Monensin or Protexin on Gas Production Parameters of Alfalfa and Barley in the Ruminal Fungi Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saeid sobhanirad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Since the legislation of European Union has prohibited the use of growth-promoting antibiotics such as: monensin, there is an interest in alternatives to manipulate the rumen fermentation. The use of growth-promoting antibiotics in animal feeds is banned in Europe due to having potential risks such as the spread of antibiotic resistance genes or the contamination of milk or meat with antibiotic residues. Recently, probiotics have been increasingly evaluated to replace or facilitate reductions in the use of antibiotics. Thus, the aim of this study was investigating the comparison of antibiotic (sodium monensin and probiotic (protexin on the gas production parameters and organic matter digestibility of feedstuffs (alfalfa hay, barley grain, and alfalfa+ barley mixture Materials and Methods Experimental treatments were included control (basal feeds without additive, basal feeds supplemented with sodium monensin or protexin probiotic at levels of 500 or 1000 mg per kg of DM in a rumen fungi culture. Ruminal fluid was collected from two fistulated sheep (49.5±2.5 kg and all samples were withdrawn 2 h after the morning ration had been consumed. Collected ruminal contents were strained through four layers of cheesecloth and brought immediately to the laboratory. To have a pure ruminal fungi culture, whole ruminal fluid was centrifuged at 1000 g for 10 min and added 0.100 mg/ml antibacterial agent (streptomycin sulfate, penicillin G, and chloramphenicol (14, 35. Gas production technique was used to detect the fermentation parameters of the treatments (16.Three parallel syringes of each treatment were prepared in this experiment. To measure the total gas production (A and the rate of gas production (c, cumulative gas production, organic digestibility and metabolizable energy of treatments until 120 h. Gas production was measured directly from the volume of the syringes at 0, 3, 6, 16, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h. Statistical analysis of data

  17. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bacillus Strains Isolated from Primary Starters for African Traditional Bread Production and Characterization of the Bacitracin Operon and Bacitracin Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Kim I.; Thorsen, Line; Stuer-Lauridsen, Birgitte; Abdelgadir, Warda S.; Nielsen, Dennis S.; Derkx, Patrick M. F.; Jespersen, Lene

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus spp. are widely used as feed additives and probiotics. However, there is limited information on their resistance to various antibiotics, and there is a growing concern over the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes. The MIC for 8 antibiotics was determined for 85 Bacillus species strains, Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis (n = 29), Bacillus licheniformis (n = 38), and Bacillus sonorensis (n = 18), all of which were isolated from starters for Sudanese bread production. All the strains were sensitive to tetracycline (8.0 mg/liter), vancomycin (4.0 mg/liter), and gentamicin (4.0 mg/liter) but resistant to streptomycin. Sensitivity to clindamycin, chloramphenicol, and kanamycin was species specific. The erythromycin resistance genes ermD and ermK were detected by PCR in all of the erythromycin-resistant (MIC, ≥16.0 mg/liter) B. licheniformis strains and one erythromycin-sensitive (MIC, 4.0 mg/liter) B. licheniformis strain. Several amino acid changes were present in the translated ermD and ermK nucleotide sequences of the erythromycin-sensitive strain, which could indicate ErmD and ErmK protein functionalities different from those of the resistance strains. The ermD and ermK genes were localized on an 11.4-kbp plasmid. All of the B. sonorensis strains harbored the bacitracin synthetase gene, bacA, and the transporter gene bcrA, which correlated with their observed resistance to bacitracin. Bacitracin was produced by all the investigated species strains (28%), as determined by ultra-high-definition quadrupole time-of-flight liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHD-QTOF LC/MS). The present study has revealed species-specific variations in the antimicrobial susceptibilities of Bacillus spp. and provides new information on MIC values, as well as the occurrence of resistance genes in Bacillus spp., including the newly described species B. sonorensis. PMID:22941078

  18. Recurring colisepticaemia in batches of birds in a poultry farm in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was a 15% drop in egg production in laying birds. Post-mortem lesions included peritonitis, pericarditis, hydropericardium and perihepatitis. Pure cultures of E. coli were obtained from the organs cultured. The E. coli strains were sensitive to neomycin, streptomycin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, pefloxacin, ofloxacin and ...

  19. Genotypic characterization and safety assessment of lactic acid bacteria from indigenous African fermented food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adimpong David B

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous fermented food products play an essential role in the diet of millions of Africans. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are among the predominant microbial species in African indigenous fermented food products and are used for different applications in the food and biotechnology industries. Numerous studies have described antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of LAB from different parts of the world. However, there is limited information on antimicrobial resistance profiles of LAB from Africa. The aim of this study was to characterize 33 LAB previously isolated from three different African indigenous fermented food products using (GTG5-based rep-PCR, sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and species-specific PCR techniques for differentiation of closely related species and further evaluate their antibiotic resistance profiles by the broth microdilution method and their haemolytic activity on sheep blood agar plates as indicators of safety traits among these bacteria. Results Using molecular biology based methods and selected phenotypic tests such as catalase reaction, CO2 production from glucose, colonies and cells morphology, the isolates were identified as Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus ghanensis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus salivarius, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, Pediococcus acidilactici, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Weissella confusa. The bacteria were susceptible to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, clindamycin and erythromycin but resistant to vancomycin, kanamycin and streptomycin. Variable sensitivity profiles to tetracycline and gentamicin was observed among the isolates with Lb. plantarum, Lb. salivarius, W. confusa (except strain SK9-5 and Lb. fermentum strains being susceptible to tetracycline whereas Pediococcus strains and Lb. ghanensis strains were resistant. For gentamicin, Leuc. pseudomesenteroides, Lb. ghanensis and Ped. acidilactici strains were resistant to 64

  20. Effect of redox conditions on bacterial and fungal biomass and carbon dioxide production in Louisiana coastal swamp forest sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Dong Cheol; DeLaune, Ronald D.

    2010-01-01

    Fungal and bacterial carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) production/emission was determined under a range of redox conditions in sediment from a Louisiana swamp forest used for wastewater treatment. Sediment was incubated in microcosms at 6 Eh levels (-200, -100, 0, + 100, + 250 and + 400 mV) covering the anaerobic range found in wetland soil and sediment. Carbon dioxide production was determined by the substrate-induced respiration (SIR) inhibition method. Cycloheximide (C 15 H 23 NO 4 ) was used as the fungal inhibitor and streptomycin (C 21 H 39 N 7 O 12 ) as the bacterial inhibitor. Under moderately reducing conditions (Eh > + 250 mV), fungi contributed more than bacteria to the CO 2 production. Under highly reducing conditions (Eh ≤ 0 mV), bacteria contributed more than fungi to the total CO 2 production. The fungi/bacteria (F/B) ratios varied between 0.71-1.16 for microbial biomass C, and 0.54-0.94 for microbial biomass N. Under moderately reducing conditions (Eh ≥ + 100 mV), the F/B ratios for microbial biomass C and N were higher than that for highly reducing conditions (Eh ≤ 0 mV). In moderately reducing conditions (Eh ≥ + 100 mV), the C/N microbial biomass ratio for fungi (C/N: 13.54-14.26) was slightly higher than for bacteria (C/N: 9.61-12.07). Under highly reducing redox conditions (Eh ≤ 0 mV), the C/N microbial biomass ratio for fungi (C/N: 10.79-12.41) was higher than for bacteria (C/N: 8.21-9.14). For bacteria and fungi, the C/N microbial biomass ratios under moderately reducing conditions were higher than that in highly reducing conditions. Fungal CO 2 production from swamp forest could be of greater ecological significance under moderately reducing sediment conditions contributing to the greenhouse effect (GHE) and the global warming potential (GWP). However, increases in coastal submergence associated with global sea level rise and resultant decrease in sediment redox potential from increased flooding would likely shift CO 2 production to bacteria

  1. Antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar typhimurium from humans and production animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seyfarth, Anne Mette; Wegener, Henrik Caspar; FrimodtMoller, N.

    1997-01-01

    : Poultry strains were usually resistant only to ampicillin, white pig and cattle isolates were most often resistant to sulphonamide, tetracycline and streptomycin. Typing of the strains showed that some animal strains and human strains were indistinguishable. In conclusion, while antimicrobial resistance......We have studied the frequency of antimicrobial resistance and epidemiological relatedness among 473 isolates of Salmonella enterica subsp, enterica serovar typhimurium (S. typhimurium) from human and veterinary sources. The human strains were clinical isolates from patients with diarrhoea sent...... to the State Serum Institute during August 1993 (228 isolates). The animal strains were isolated from clinical or subclinical infections in cattle (48 isolates), pigs (99 isolates) or poultry (98 isolates), all from 1993. All strains were tested against 22 different antimicrobial agents used in both human...

  2. Biofilm formation, hemolysin production and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from the mastitis milk of dairy cows in Shahrekord district, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizollah Ebrahimi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae is a major contagious pathogen causing bovine sub-clinical mastitis. The present investigation was carried out to determine some phenotypic characteristics of the S. agalactiae strains isolated from bovine mastitis cases in dairy cows of Shahrekord in the west-center of Iran. One hundred eighty California mastitis test (CMT positive milk samples were bacteriologically studied. A total of 31 (17.2% S. agalactiae isolated. Twenty eight (90.3% of the isolates were biofilm producers. This finding may indicate the high potential of pathogenicity in isolated strains. Sixteen (51.6% isolates were α hemolysin producers. Only 19.3%, 22.5% and 29.0% of the isolates were sensitive to streptomycin, flumequine and kanamycin, respectively. None of these three agents is recommended for treatment of mastitis cases.

  3. Effect of Radiation Dosage on Efficiency of Chloroplast Transfer by Protoplast Fusion in Nicotiana

    OpenAIRE

    Menczel, László; Galiba, Gábor; Nagy, Ferenc; Maliga, Pál

    1982-01-01

    Chloroplasts of Nicotiana tabacum SR1 were transferred into Nicotiana plumbaginifolia by protoplast fusion. The protoplasts of the organelle donor were irradiated with different lethal doses using a 60Co source, to facilitate the elimination of their nuclei from the fusion products. After fusion induction, clones derived from fusion products and containing streptomycin-resistant N. tabacum SR1 chloroplasts were selected by their ability to green on a selective medium. When N. tabacum protopla...

  4. Evaluation of the Tissue Culture Standard and Correlation with DNA probes and ELISA for the Detection of Chlamydia Trachomatis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    include the aminoglycosides, the aminocyclitols (spectinomycin), nalidixic acid, trimethoprim, vancomycin, metronidazole , lincomycin, cephalosporins...and antifungal agents such as nystatin and amphotericin B. This is why gentamicin, streptomycin, vancomycin and antifungals may be used in...often used are gentamicin or streptomycin, vancomycin, and amphotericin B or nystatin . Using 2-SP with antimicrobials will keep over 99% of cell

  5. Applications of ribosomal in situ hybridization for the study of bacterial cells in the mouse intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Tine Rask; Poulsen, Lars Kongsbak; Molin, Søren

    1997-01-01

    Localization of E. coli and S. typhimurium in the large and small intestine of streptomycin-treated mice was visualized by in situ hybridization with specific rRNA target probes and epi-fluorescence microscopy. Growth rates of E. coli BJ4 colonizing the large intestine of streptomycin-treated mic...

  6. Modulation of allele leakiness and adaptive mutability in Escherichia ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is shown that partial phenotypic suppression of two ochre mutations (argE3 and lacZU118) and an amber mutation (in argE) by sublethal concentrations of streptomycin in an rpsL+ (streptomycin-sensitive) derivative of the Escherichia coli strain AB1157 greatly enhances their adaptive mutability under selection.

  7. Transfer of the pheromone-inducible plasmid pCF10 among Enterococcus faecalis microorganisms colonizing the intestine of mini-pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Tine Rask; Laugesen, D.; Jensen, Lars Bogø

    2002-01-01

    A new animal model, the streptomycin-treated mini-pig, was developed in order to allow colonization of defined strains of Enterococcus faecalis in numbers sufficient to study plasmid transfer. Transfer of the pheromone-inducible pCF10 plasmid between streptomycin-resistant strains of E. faecalis OG...

  8. Genetic Transformation of Streptococcus mutans

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, Dennis; Kuramitsu, Howard K.

    1981-01-01

    Three strains of Streptococcus mutans belonging to serotypes a, c, and f were transformed to streptomycin resistance by deoxyribonucleic acids derived from homologous and heterologous streptomycin-resistant strains of S. mutans and Streptococcus sanguis strain Challis. Homologous transformation of S. mutans was less efficient than heterologous transformation by deoxyribonucleic acids from other strains of S. mutans.

  9. Detection and properties of A-factor-binding protein from Streptomyces griseus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, K.; Horinouchi, S.; Yoshida, M.; Chiba, N.; Mori, K.; Nogawa, N.; Morikawa, N.; Beppu, T.

    1989-01-01

    The optically active form of tritium-labeled A-factor (2-isocapryloyl-3R-hydroxymethyl-gamma-butyrolactone), a pleiotropic autoregulator responsible for streptomycin production, streptomycin resistance, and sporulation in Streptomyces griseus, was chemically synthesized. By using the radioactive A-factor, a binding protein for A-factor was detected in the cytoplasmic fraction of this organism. The binding protein had an apparent molecular weight of approximately 26,000, as determined by gel filtration. Scatchard analysis suggested that A-factor bound the protein in the molar ratio of 1:1 with a binding constant, Kd, of 0.7 nM. The number of the binding protein was roughly estimated to be 37 per genome. The inducing material virginiae butanolide C (VB-C), which has a structure very similar to that of A-factor and is essential for virginiamycin production in Streptomyces virginiae, did not inhibit binding. In addition, no protein capable of specifically binding 3 H-labeled VB-C was found in S. griseus. Together with the observation that VB-C had almost no biological activity on the restoration of streptomycin production or sporulation in an A-factor-deficient mutant of S. griseus, these results indicated that the binding protein had a strict ligand specificity. Examination for an A-factor-binding protein in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) and Streptomyces lividans showed the absence of any specifically binding protein

  10. Investigating CH4 production in an oxic plant-soil system -a new approach combining isotopic labelling (13C) and inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhart, Katharina; Keppler, Frank

    2017-04-01

    Typically, aerated soil are net sinks of atmospheric methane (CH4), being highest in native ecosystems (pristine forests > managed forests > grasslands > crop fields). However, this does not exclude a simultaneous endogenic CH4 production in the plant-soil system, which cannot be detected simply via CH4 flux measurements. Methanogenic archaea producing CH4 under anoxic conditions were thought to be the only biotic source of CH4 in the soil. However, until recently a non-archaeal pathway of CH4 formation is known where CH4 is produced under oxic conditions in plants (Keppler et al. 2006) and fungi (Lenhart et al. 2012). Additionally, abiotic formation of CH4 from soil organic matter was reported (Jugold et al. 2012) and may be ubiquitous in terrestrial ecosystems. The major goal of this project was to determine soil endogenic CH4 sources and to estimate their contribution to the endogenic CH4 production. Especially the effect of plants and fungi on soil CH4 production was investigated. Therefore, a series of experiments was carried out on field fresh soil collected in a grassland and a forest ecosystem under controlled laboratory conditions. By combining selective inhibitors and 13C labelling, CH4 production rates of several CH4 sources were quantified. The major difficulty was to detect the comparatively small flux of CH4 production against the background of the high CH4 consumption rates due to methanotrophic bacteria. Therefore, we supplemented bare soil and soil with vegetation with selective inhibitors and 13C labelled substrates in a closed chamber system. In a first step, CH4 production was determined by the inhibition of CH4 oxidizing bacteria with Difluoromethane (DFM, 2ml l-1). In the following, a 13C labelled substrate (either CO2, Acetate, or Methionine -S-CH3 labelled) was added in combination with a specific inhibitor -either for archaeal methanogenesis (Bromoethanesulfonate), bacteria (Streptomycin), or fungi (Captan, Cycloheximide). Gas samples were

  11. Immunotropic aspect of the Bacillus coagulans probiotic action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomko, Tatiana V; Nosalskaya, Tatiana N; Kabluchko, Tatiana V; Lisnyak, Yury V; Martynov, Artur V

    2017-08-01

    Currently, probiotics are increasingly used as the alternative to antibiotics as well as the preventive measures in humans. In particular, probiotics occupy a key position in the treatment of antibiotics-associated intestinal dysbiosis. A spore-forming microorganism lactobacillus Bacillus coagulans is one of the most promising probiotics. However, some of its pharmacological effects remain poorly understood. This study was aimed at investigation of the effect of B. coagulans (Laktovit Forte) on the intestinal dysbiosis syndrome in mice caused by streptomycin against the background of cyclophosphamide-induced cellular immunodeficiency. Pharmacological method: mouse model in vivo with immunodeficiency caused by cyclophosphamide. In mice with colitis caused by streptomycin treatment, the administration of B. coagulans (Laktovit Forte medicinal product) resulted in an antidiarrhoeal effect, normalisation of gastrointestinal motility and prevention of the animals' weight loss. Given the cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression and streptomycin-associated diarrhoea, the immunity was completely restored only under the action of B. coagulans. According to all parameters, B. coagulans has been proved to be more effective as compared to the Linex Forte reference product containing lacto- and bifidobacteria. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  12. In vitro growth response of Phytophthora cactorum, P. nicotianae and P. × pelgrandis to antibiotics and fungicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pánek, M; Tomšovský, M

    2017-07-01

    The reactions of isolates of Phytophthora cactorum, P. nicotianae and P. × pelgrandis to metalaxyl, mancozeb, dimethomorph, streptomycin and chloramphenicol were tested to obtain information about the variability of resistance in these pathogens. Distinct genetic groups showed significant differences in resistance to all tested substances except streptomycin. In response to streptomycin, the growth inhibition rates of distinct groups did not differ significantly. The most remarkable differences were detected in the reactions to chloramphenicol and metalaxyl. Discriminant analysis evaluating the effect of all substances confirmed the differences among the groups, which are in agreement with the differences revealed by earlier DNA analyses.

  13. Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spring, Martin; Johnes, Geraint; Hald, Kim Sundtoft

    Productivity is increasingly critical for developed economies. It has always been important: as Paul Krugman puts it, “Productivity isn’t everything, but in the long run it is almost everything. A country’s ability to improve its standard of living over time depends almost entirely on its ability...... to raise its output per worker”(Krugman, 1994). Analyses of productivity have, by and large, been the preserve of economists. Operations Management (OM) is rooted in a similar concern for the efficient use of scarce resources; Management Accounting (MA) is concerned with the institutionalised measurement...... and management of productivity. Yet the three perspectives are rarely connected. This paper is a sketch of a literature review seeking to identify, contrast and reconcile these three perspectives. In so doing, it aims to strengthen the connections between policy and managerial analyses of productivity....

  14. 77 FR 791 - Kasugamycin; Receipt of Application for Emergency Exemption for Use on Apples in Michigan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ..., or pesticide manufacturer. Potentially affected entities may include, but are not limited to: Crop... kasugamycin is needed to control streptomycin-resistant strains of Erwinia amylovora, the causal pathogen of...

  15. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns Of Salmonella Species In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    % susceptible to cefepime and carbapenem, 91% to azithromycin, 82.1% to cefixime and 73% to quinolones. Also susceptibility to chloramphenicol, erythromycin, streptomycin, ampicillin, gentamicin, co-trimoxazole, augmentin and amikacin ...

  16. Characterisation of recently emerged multiple antibiotic-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium DT104 and other multiresistant phage types from Danish pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    1998-01-01

    A total of 670 isolates of Salmonella enterica were isolated from Danish pig herds, phage typed and tested for susceptibility to amoxycillin + clavulanate, ampicillin, colistin, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, neomycin, spectinomycin, streptomycin, tetracyclines, and trimethoprim + sulphadiazine. S...

  17. Antimicrobial treatment for early, limited Mycobacterium ulcerans infection : a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nienhuis, Willemien A.; Stienstra, Ymkje; Thompson, William A.; Awuah, Peter C.; Abass, K. Mohammed; Tuah, Wilson; Awua-Boateng, Nana Yaa; Ampadu, Edwin O.; Siegmund, Vera; Schouten, Jan P.; Adjei, Ohene; Bretzel, Gisela; van der Werf, Tjip S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Surgical debridement was the standard treatment for Mycobacterium ulcerans infection (Buruli ulcer disease) until WHO issued provisional guidelines in 2004 recommending treatment with antimicrobial drugs (streptomycin and rifampicin) in addition to surgery. These recommendations were

  18. Supplementary Material for: Detection of antibiotic resistance in probiotics of dietary supplements

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Aloysius Tze; Ngu, Davey; Dan, Lydia; Ooi, Amanda Siok Lee; Lim, Renee

    2015-01-01

    , streptomycin and ciprofloxacin antibiotics. Additionally, we also report a discrepancy between the enumerated viable bacteria amounts and the claims of the manufacturers. Conclusions This short report has highlighted the present of antibiotic resistance

  19. The effect of antibiotics on diatom communities

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeCosta, P.M.; Anil, A.C.

    Effect of antibiotics (penicillin (P), streptomycin (S) and chloramphenicol (C)) on benthic diatom communities was evaluated using a modified extinction–dilution method. The high antibiotic combinations (2PSC and PSC) reduced diatoms by 99...

  20. Ten years of antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Salmonella from Danish pig farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2008-01-01

    to the following antimicrobials were determined: ampicillin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, colistin, streptomycin, sulphonamide, tetracycline and trimethoprim. Results: No significant development of resistance occurred within the most important serovars, except Salmonella Typhimurium. A major...

  1. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 451 - 500 of 11090 ... Vol 10, No 78 (2011), A study on reverse osmosis permeating treatment ... of resistance to streptomycin in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, Abstract PDF ... suitable for Medicago truncatula leaf proteome, Abstract PDF.

  2. Quinolizidines alkaloids: Petrosin and xestospongins from the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to rich in secondary metabolites in marine organisms and larger ... marine sponges of genera Xestospongia and Oceanapia were reported to ..... cillin or streptomycin was used for bacteria test while. Nystatin was employed for fungus test. 4.

  3. ORF Alignment: NC_005835 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ine pdb|1FJG|S Chain S, Structure ... Of The Thermus Thermophilus 30s Ribosomal Subunit In ... Complex With The Antibioti...cs Streptomycin, ... Spectinomycin, And Paromomycin ... Length = 84 ... Q

  4. ORF Alignment: NC_006461 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ine pdb|1FJG|S Chain S, Structure ... Of The Thermus Thermophilus 30s Ribosomal Subunit In ... Complex With The Antibioti...cs Streptomycin, ... Spectinomycin, And Paromomycin ... Length = 84 ... Q

  5. Antibacterial Activity of Vernonia amygdalina Leaf Extracts against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    (Bitter leaf), Allium sativum (Garlic), O. gratissimum. (Scent leaf) ... complex active components that are useful ... hydroxide was added. .... KEY: CPX-Ciprofloxacin, Ro-Rocephin, St-Streptomycin, AU-Augmentin, SXT-Septrin, SP- Sparfloxacin, ...

  6. Characterization of Streptococcus suis serotype 7 isolates from diseased pigs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Y.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Lu, C.P.

    2004-01-01

    to erythromycin (41%), tetracycline (24%) and streptomycin (28%) was observed. Furthermore, almost all isolates (101) were resistant to sulphamethoxazol. Most isolates were susceptible to ceftiofur, chloramphenicol, florfenicol, penicillin, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim and trimethoprim + sulphonamides. The tet...

  7. Adefovir

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ever taken any of the following medications: aminoglycoside antibiotics such as amikacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, streptomycin, and tobramycin (Tobi,); aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) and ...

  8. Características de frutos de pimentão pulverizados com produtos de ação bactericida Characteristics of bell pepper fruits affected by products with bactericidal action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariella C Rocha

    2006-06-01

    , accomplished in field and laboratory conditions, were to evaluate the effect of weekly sprayings of Agrobio biofertilizer (5%v.v., copper oxychloride (2.4 g active ingredient L-1, streptomycin sulphate + oxitetracycline (0.8% active ingredient L-1 and water as control treatment, on the production and quality of fruits of three cultivars of bell peppers: "Magda", "Cascadura Itaipu" and "Magali R". In both conditions, a randomized complete block design with four replicates was used, in a factorial scheme (4x3. The analyzed variables were productivity, physical and physical-chemical features, percentage and total P, Cu and Pb in fruits. Larger longitudinal diameter and volume as well as higher productivity and efficiency of P use by 'Magali R' were found. There was no effect of the treatments on Pb accumulation but effects were found on Cu. Higher Cu concentrations were found in fruits treated with copper oxychloride, especially in cultivar ' Magda', although concentrations found were within the range acceptable by the national sanitary agency (ANVISA parameters. Besides, Cu applications afffected fruit flavor, primarily by changing total titrable acidity and lower pH. Results also suggested a relationship of Cu content and P efficiency use by pepper plants, which need further confirmation.

  9. The Endemic Infectious Diseases of Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Iliolfiman-LaRoche, Nutleyý. N.1) three tablets at once on the last day of quinine Although ongoing research may ultimately yield an effec- a1diniiistiation...resistance ’Tuberculosis to isoniazid , rilanipin, streptomycin, and ethambutol; 78% of these isolates were resistant to at least two of the four drugs...administration of streptomycin, isoniazid , The leishmanial diseases of humans are commonly divided and thiacetazone followed by a 9-month maintenance regi

  10. Medical Countermeasure Models. Volume 4. Francisella tularensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    abscess complicating ulceroglandular tularemia." Canadian Medical Association Journal. 129(12). 1983. 191 Hanna C and Lyford J. "Tularemia...administration of another antibiotic (TMP/SMX) 3 3 Lung infiltrate Cefazolin 6 7 Streptomycin 13 7 Relapsed 1 week after therapy with a...course. 1 patient was not treated with antibiotics and subsequently died. 2 46 Lung infiltrates Isoniazid Streptomycin 3 11

  11. Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Muenchen from Pigs and Humans and Potential Interserovar Transfer of Antimicrobial Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Gebreyes, Wondwossen A.; Thakur, Siddhartha

    2005-01-01

    Salmonella serovars are important reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance. Recently, we reported on multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains among pigs with resistance to ampicillin, kanamycin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline (resistance [R] type AKSSuT) and resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline (R type AxACSSuT). In the present study, 67 isolates (39 from humans...

  12. Effects of copper-based compounds, antibiotics and a plant activator on population sizes and spread of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in greenhouse tomato seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Milijašević Svetlana; Todorović Biljana; Potočnik Ivana; Rekanović Emil; Stepanović Miloš

    2009-01-01

    Three copper-based compounds (copper hydroxide, copper oxychloride, copper sulphate), two antibiotics (streptomycin and kasugamycin) and a plant activator (ASM) significantly reduced population sizes and spread of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis among tomato seedlings in the greenhouse. Streptomycin had the best effect in reducing pathogen population size in all sampling regions. Moreover, this antibiotic completely stopped the spread of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in the regi...

  13. Synthesis and Antibacterial Screening of Novel Derivatives of Embelin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, L.; Leema, M.; Pradeep, N. S.; Joy, B.; Pillai, Z. S.

    2018-02-01

    Embelin, a naturally occurring compound extracted from Embelia ribes is used in Ayurvedic system of medicine owing to its wide spectrum of biological activities. In the present work, we have aimed at improving the efficacy of Embelin by appropriate structural modifications. A few novel derivatives of Embelin have been prepared. The antibacterial screening of these derivatives were carried out and compared with a well known antibiotic, Streptomycin. The derivatives exhibited better activity than Streptomycin and the lead molecule, Embelin.

  14. Effects of antibiotics and ultraviolet radiation on the halophilic blue-green alga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yopp, J.H.; Albright, G.; Miller, D.M.; Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale

    1979-01-01

    The effects of a variety of antibiotics, ultraviolet radiation and N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (NTG) on the survival and mutability of the halophilic blue-green alga, Aphanothece halophytica, were determined. The halophile was found extremely sensitive to penicillin G and bacitracin; moderately sensitive to novobiocin, amino acid analogs, chloramphenicol and streptomycin; and tolerant to actidione and hydroxyurea. Ultraviolet and NTG killing curves and photoreactivation capabilities were seimilar to those reported for other members of the Chroococcales. Three stable morphological mutants were obtained by ultraviolet and NTG treatment, the latter being much more efficient in the production of mutants. (orig.)

  15. Characterization of silver nanoparticles synthesized using an endophytic fungus, Penicillium oxalicum having potential antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Sukla; Debnath, Gopal; Das, Aparajita Roy; Krishna Saha, Ajay; Das, Panna

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the efficacy of the extracellular mycelium extract of Penicillium oxalicum isolated from Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus to biosynthesize silver nanoparticles. It was characterized using ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy. The silver nanoparticles were evaluated for antimicrobial activity. The characterization confirms the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Both silver nanoparticles and combination of silver nanoparticles with streptomycin showed activity against the four bacteria. The results suggested that P. oxalicum offers eco-friendly production of silver nanoparticles and the antibacterial activity may find application in biomedicine.

  16. Study on breeding of daptomycin-producing strains by nitrogen ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jian; Liu Ying; Fang Dongsheng; Jiang Hong; Zhang Yin; Gao Wuyan

    2008-01-01

    Streptomyces roseosporus C20, the bacteria used in production of daptomycin, were implanted with (15-200)x10 13 /cm 2 of 20keV N + ions. Survival rate of the bacteria at different absorbed doses was investigated, and mutagenic effects of the microbe were studied. After breeding under the selection pressure of resistance to streptomycin (the lethal concentration is 1.2μg/mL), several mutant strains with higher yields of daptomycin have been obtained. One of mutant strains, N3-36, can increase up to 126% compared to the original strain. It also shows that the mutant strains have high genetic stability. (authors)

  17. Pyrrhocoricin, a proline-rich antimicrobial peptide derived from insect, inhibits the translation process in the cell-free Escherichia coli protein synthesis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Masayuki; Ochiai, Akihito; Kondo, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Shun; Ishiyama, Yohei; Saitoh, Eiichi; Kato, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Takaaki

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that pyrrhocoricin, a proline-rich antimicrobial peptide (PrAMP), killed sensitive species in a dose-dependent manner by specifically binding to DnaK. Here, on the basis of the finding that DnaK-deficient Escherichia coli strains are susceptible to PrAMPs, we used pyrrhocoricin to investigate internal targets other than DnaK. Using conventional antibiotics (bleomycin, streptomycin, and fosfomycin) that have known modes of action, first, we validated the availability of an assay using a cell-free rapid translation system (RTS), which is an in vitro protein synthesis system based on E. coli lysate, for evaluating inhibition of protein synthesis. We found that, similarly to bleomycin and streptomycin, pyrrhocoricin inhibited GFP synthesis in RTS in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, blockage of transcription and translation steps in RTS was individually estimated using RT-PCR after gene expression to determine mRNA products and using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to determine the amounts of GFP expressed from purified mRNA, respectively. The results demonstrated that this inhibition of GFP synthesis by pyrrhocoricin did not occur at the transcription step but rather at the translation step, in a manner similar to that of GFP synthesis by streptomycin, an inhibitor of the translation step by causing misreading of tRNA. These results suggest that RTS is a powerful assay system for determining if antimicrobial peptides inhibit protein synthesis and its transcription and/or translation steps. This is the first study to have shown that pyrrhocoricin inhibited protein synthesis by specifically repressing the translation step. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Resistance phenotypes and genotypes of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica isolates from feed, pigs, and carcasses in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Graciela Volz; Pissetti, Caroline; da Cruz Payão Pellegrini, Débora; da Silva, Luis Eduardo; Cardoso, Marisa

    2015-02-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica plays a role as a foodborne pathogen worldwide. The consumption of contaminated pork has been associated with human salmonellosis and the increase in antimicrobial resistance among Salmonella from pigs and pork products is a concern. A total of 225 Salmonella isolates from feed mills, the lairage environment, and the intestinal contents of pigs and carcasses were investigated for their antimicrobial susceptibility. A MIC for ciprofloxacin was screened by agar dilution, and antimicrobial resistance genes were investigated by PCR assays. Among the tested isolates, 171 (76%) showed resistance to at least one antimicrobial agent, and 91 (40.4%) were multiresistant. Resistance occurred most frequently to tetracycline (54.5%), sulfonamides (39.6%), and streptomycin (33.7%). Thirty-two (94.1%) nalidixic acid-resistant isolates exhibited decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. The resistance genes found were blaTEM (ampicillin), tet(A) (tetracycline), tet(B) (tetracycline/minocycline), sul1, sul2, and sul3 (sulfonamides), catA1 (chloramphenicol), floR (florfenicol/chloramphenicol), strA and strB (streptomycin), aph(3')-Ia (kanamycin), aac(3)-IIa and aac(3)-IVa (apramycin/gentamicin), aadA variant (streptomycin/spectinomycin), and dfrA1 (trimethoprim). Salmonella isolates from pig feces and carcasses displayed a higher frequency of resistance to most antimicrobials tested than isolates from feed mills. Common resistance gene profiles were found in isolates from the lairage and the intestinal content of pigs and carcasses, demonstrating that resistance genes selected on farms may be found in pork.

  19. Acidophilus Milk Shelf-life Prolongation by the Use of Cold Sensitive Mutants of Lactobacillus acidophilus MDC 9626

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Goodarzi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available  Background and Objective: The shelf-life of Acidophilus milk fermented by probiotic culture Lactobacillus acidophilus is limited due to acidification caused by continued organic acid formation at low temperatures. Increasing of titrable acidity in turn causes reducing of the total viable count of probiotic bacteria. To overcome acidification we suggested to use coldsensitive mutants of Lactobacillus acidophilus, with limited metabolism at low temperatures. In order to facilitate the selection of cold sensitive mutants, it was decided to use Rifampicin and Streotomycin mutations affecting thermostability of the key molecules of cell metabolism the RNA polymerase and ribosome, respectively.Material and Methods: Ultra violet mutagenesis was used to enhance the yield and diversity of rifampicin and streptomycin resistant mutants of Lactobacillus acidophilus. To perform negative selection of cold sensitive mutants, antibiotic resistant colonies replica plated and incubated at 23ºC. The growth rate, milk fermenting rate, titratable acidity were measured.Results and Conclusion: Among tested resistant to either rifampicin or streptomycin clones with frequency mean of 1.0 %, ten mutants were isolated which have lost the ability to grow at minimal temperature. Fermented with cold-sensitive mutants of Lactobacillus acidophilus milks, during storage in the refrigerator, almost twice as long retained high amount of probiotic bacteria and low titratable acidity as compared to the parent strain. Thus, direct relationship between temperature sensitivity of the starter and shelf life of acidophilic milk was confirmed. Rifampicin and Streptomycin resistant mutations are powerful tools for selection of cold-sensitive dairy starters for preparing dairy fermented products with long shelf-life.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  20. Characterization of Antibiotic Resistance Genes from Lactobacillus Isolated from Traditional Dairy Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huiling; Pan, Lin; Li, Lina; Lu, Jie; Kwok, Laiyu; Menghe, Bilige; Zhang, Heping; Zhang, Wenyi

    2017-03-01

    Lactobacilli are widely used as starter cultures or probiotics in yoghurt, cheese, beer, wine, pickles, preserved food, and silage. They are generally recognized as safe (GRAS). However, recent studies have shown that some lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains carry antibiotic resistance genes and are resistant to antibiotics. Some of them may even transfer their intrinsic antibiotic resistance genes to other LAB or pathogens via horizontal gene transfer, thus threatening human health. A total of 33 Lactobacillus strains was isolated from fermented milk collected from different areas of China. We analyzed (1) their levels of antibiotic resistance using a standardized dilution method, (2) their antibiotic resistance gene profiles by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using gene-specific primers, and (3) the transferability of some of the detected resistance markers by a filter mating assay. All Lactobacillus strains were found to be resistant to vancomycin, but susceptible to gentamicin, linezolid, neomycin, erythromycin, and clindamycin. Their susceptibilities to tetracycline, kanamycin, ciprofloxacin, streptomycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, trimethoprim, ampicillin, rifampicin, and chloramphenicol was different. Results from our PCR analysis revealed 19 vancomycin, 10 ciprofloxacin, and 1 tetracycline-resistant bacteria that carried the van(X), van(E), gyr(A), and tet(M) genes, respectively. Finally, no transferal of the monitored antibiotic resistance genes was observed in the filter mating assay. Taken together, our study generated the antibiotic resistance profiles of some milk-originated lactobacilli isolates and preliminarily assessed their risk of transferring antibiotic gene to other bacteria. The study may provide important data concerning the safe use of LAB. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  1. Characterization of Lactobacillus plantarum as a Potential Probiotic In vitro and Use of a Dairy Product (Yogurt as Food Carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawad Kadhim Isa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The current study was undertaken to check in vitro different characteristics of Lactobacillus plantarum as potential probiotic. These characteristics include viability of probiotic and pH during cold storage, tolerance to acid and bile, and antibiotic resistance.Material and Methods: Samples of yogurt were stored at 4°C and analyzed in time 0, 1, 3, 7, 10 and 14 days of storage. In these periods, probiotic and starter cultures were enumerated and the pH parameter was analyzed.Results and Conclusion: A gradual decline in pH was noticed throughout the storage. Counting of starter cultures decreased by 0.42 log cycle, and the probiotic's viability decreased by 0.68 log cycle at the end of storage, whereas the probiotic's viability inthe samples subjected to re-pasteurization decreased by 0.30, 0.22 log cycles in the selective and reference media, respectively. The average viable cell counts of Lactobacillus plantarum decreased by 0.76, and 0.28 log cycles after incubation period (3 h at 37ºC in the simulated gastric juice (pH 2.0 and 3.0, respectively. Generally, probiotic can maintain its viability by 76.672% in (1.0% w v -1 bile. Lactobacillus plantarum was resistant to gentamicin, streptomycin, and vancomycin but susceptible to chloramphenicol, and tetracycline. Depended on these characteristics, Lactobacillus plantarum showed probiotic potential.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  2. Detection of antibiotic resistance in probiotics of dietary supplements

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Aloysius Tze

    2015-09-14

    Background Probiotics are live microorganisms that confer nutrition- and health-promoting benefits if consumed in adequate amounts. Concomitant with the demand for natural approaches to maintaining health is an increase in inclusion of probiotics in food and health products. Since probiotic bacteria act as reservoir for antibiotic resistant determinants, the transfer of these genes to pathogens sharing the same intestinal habitat is thus conceivable considering the fact that dietary supplements contain high amounts of often heterogeneous populations of probiotics. Such events can confer pathogens protection against commonly-used drugs. Despite numerous reports of antibiotic resistant probiotics in food and biological sources, the antibiogram of probiotics from dietary supplements remained elusive. Findings Here, we screened five commercially available dietary supplements for resistance towards antibiotics of different classes. Probiotics of all batches of products were resistant towards vancomycin while batch-dependent resistance towards streptomycin, aztreonam, gentamycin and/or ciprofloxacin antibiotics was detected for probiotics of brands Bi and Bn, Bg, and L. Isolates of brand Cn was also resistant towards gentamycin, streptomycin and ciprofloxacin antibiotics. Additionally, we also report a discrepancy between the enumerated viable bacteria amounts and the claims of the manufacturers. Conclusions This short report has highlighted the present of antibiotic resistance in probiotic bacteria from dietary supplements and therefore serves as a platform for further screenings and for in-depth characterization of the resistant determinants and the molecular machinery that confers the resistance.

  3. Supplementary Material for: Detection of antibiotic resistance in probiotics of dietary supplements

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Aloysius Tze

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Probiotics are live microorganisms that confer nutrition- and health-promoting benefits if consumed in adequate amounts. Concomitant with the demand for natural approaches to maintaining health is an increase in inclusion of probiotics in food and health products. Since probiotic bacteria act as reservoir for antibiotic resistant determinants, the transfer of these genes to pathogens sharing the same intestinal habitat is thus conceivable considering the fact that dietary supplements contain high amounts of often heterogeneous populations of probiotics. Such events can confer pathogens protection against commonly-used drugs. Despite numerous reports of antibiotic resistant probiotics in food and biological sources, the antibiogram of probiotics from dietary supplements remained elusive. Findings Here, we screened five commercially available dietary supplements for resistance towards antibiotics of different classes. Probiotics of all batches of products were resistant towards vancomycin while batch-dependent resistance towards streptomycin, aztreonam, gentamycin and/or ciprofloxacin antibiotics was detected for probiotics of brands Bi and Bn, Bg, and L. Isolates of brand Cn was also resistant towards gentamycin, streptomycin and ciprofloxacin antibiotics. Additionally, we also report a discrepancy between the enumerated viable bacteria amounts and the claims of the manufacturers. Conclusions This short report has highlighted the present of antibiotic resistance in probiotic bacteria from dietary supplements and therefore serves as a platform for further screenings and for in-depth characterization of the resistant determinants and the molecular machinery that confers the resistance.

  4. Effects of Copper-based Compounds, Antibiotics and a Plant Activator on Population Sizes and Spread of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in Greenhouse Tomato Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Milijašević

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Three copper-based compounds (copper hydroxide, copper oxychloride, copper sulphate, two antibiotics (streptomycin and kasugamycin and a plant activator (ASM significantly reduced population sizes and spread of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis among tomatoseedlings in the greenhouse. Streptomycin had the best effect in reducing pathogen population size in all sampling regions. Moreover, this antibiotic completely stopped the spread of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in the region most distant from the inoculumfocus. Copper hydroxide mixed with streptomycin significantly limited the pathogen population, compared with copper hydroxide alone, the other copper-based compounds, ASM and kasugamycin. However, combining streptomycin with copper hydroxide did notcontribute to its greater efficacy against the pathogen population. Copper-based compounds, in general, were less effective in limiting pathogen population sizes than the other treatments in all three sampling regions, primarily copper oxychloride and the combinationof copper hydroxide and mancozeb. Among copper compounds, copper hydroxide was the most prominent in reducing the bacterial population, especially in the region closest to the inoculum focus, while its combination with mancozeb did not improve the effects. Kasugamycin significantly limited pathogen population size, compared to copper bactericides, but it was less effective than the other antibiotic compound, i.e. streptomycin. The plant activator ASM significantly reduced population density, and it was more effectivewhen used three days prior to inoculation than six days before inoculation.

  5. PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) Assay On Antibiotics Resistant Clinical Isolates Of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R, Maria Lina; S, Dadang; Suhadi, F.

    2000-01-01

    To detect to DNA of 9 drug-resistant isolates of m. tuberculosis such as isoniazid, streptomycin, isoniazid + streptomycin and isoniazid + rifampisin- resistant isolates, the DNA amplification by using PCR assay was carried out after lysing the bacterial cells. Two primer pairs for amplification used were Pt8 and Pt9 and Pt3 and Pt6. The amplified DNA taeget of 8 drug-resistant isolates and 1 drug-resistant isolate by means Pt8 8 Pt9 primer, gave the positive and negative result, respectively. Presence of amplified DNA target fragmens/bands on agarose gel, showed the positive result and vice verse. PCR process by using Pt3 and Pt6 primer revealed the positive results on 2 drug-resistant islates, whereas there was no amplified DNA bands from the other 7 isolates. DNA amplification by using either Pt8 and Pt9 or Pt3 and Pt6 primers occurred on H sub.37Rv strain DNA. Size of the amplified DNA products with Pt8 and Pt9 and Pt3 and Pt6 primers were 541 bp and 188 bp, respectively

  6. In vitro susceptibilities of Brucella melitensis isolates to eleven antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loukaides Feidias

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis is an endemic disease present in many countries worldwide, but it is rare in Europe and North America. Nevertheless brucella is included in the bacteria potentially used for bioterrorism. The aim of this study was the investigation of the antibiotic susceptibility profile of brucella isolates from areas of the eastern Mediterranean where it has been endemic. Methods The susceptibilities of 74 Brucella melitensis isolates derived from clinical samples (57 and animal products (17 were tested in vitro. The strains originate from Crete (59, Cyprus (10, and Syria (5. MICs of tetracycline, rifampicin, streptomycin, gentamicin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, and erythromycin were detected by E-test method. The NCCLS criteria for slow growing bacteria were considered to interpret the results. Results All the isolates were susceptible to tetracycline, streptomycin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and levofloxacin. Two isolates presented reduced susceptibility to rifampicin (MIC value: 1.5 mg/l and eight to SXT (MIC values: 0.75–1.5 mg/l. Erythromycin had the highest (4 mg/l MIC90value and both norfloxacin and erythromycin the highest (1.5 mg/l MIC50 value. Conclusion Brucella isolates remain susceptible in vitro to most antibiotics used for treatment of brucellosis. The establishment of a standardized antibiotic susceptibility method for Brucella spp would be useful for resistance determination in these bacteria and possible evaluation of bioterorism risks.

  7. Antibiotic Resistance of Diverse Bacteria from Aquaculture in Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The administration of antimicrobials in aquaculture provides a selective pressure creating a reservoir of multiple resistant bacteria in the cultured fish and shrimps as well as the aquaculture environment. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of antibiotic resistance in aquaculture products and aquaculture’s surrounding environment in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Ninety-four identified bacterial isolates constituted of 17 genera were isolated from sediment, water, and cultured organisms (fish and shrimp in selected aquaculture farms. These isolates were tested for their antibiotic resistance against 22 antibiotics from several groups using the disk diffusion method. The results show that the highest resistance was observed towards streptomycin (85%, n=20, while the lowest resistance was towards gentamicin (1.1%, n=90. The multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR index of the isolates tested ranged between 0 and 0.63. It was suggested that isolates with MAR index > 0.2 were recovered from sources with high risk of antibiotic resistant contamination. This study revealed low level of antibiotic resistance in the aquaculture bacterial isolates except for streptomycin and ampicillin (>50% resistance, n=94 which have been used in the aquaculture industry for several decades. Antibiotic resistant patterns should be continuously monitored to predict the emergence and widespread of MAR. Effective action is needed to keep the new resistance from further developing and spreading.

  8. Antibiotic radioprotection of mice exposed to supralethal whole-body irradiation independent of antibacterial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastromarino, A.; Wilson, R.

    1976-01-01

    Oral administration of streptomycin, kanamycin, neomycin, or gentamicin to specific pathogen-free C57 x Af mice in their drinking water (4 mg/ml) for 2 weeks before supralethal whole-body irradiation very significantly prolonged their mean survival times (8.2 to 8.9 days vs 6.9 for controls) to values which exceed those reported for germ-free mice (7.3 days). The total fecal concentrations of aerobes and anaerobes were reduced by kanamycin, neomycin, and gentamicin. Streptomycin reduced the anaerobes significantly, but not the aerobes. Unlike germ-free mice, these antibiotic-treated mice did excrete free bile acids, products of bacterial action. Oral antibiotic treatment was ineffective in altering the transit time of the intestinal mucosal cells. Previously reported studies had indicated a correlation between decreased transit time and increased survival after irradiation. No significant correlation between mean survival time after irradiation and mucosal transit time was observed. The data demonstrate that certain antibiotics alter the character of the intestinal bacterial flora and increase protection against supralethal doses of whole-body irradiation. It is concluded that the mechanisms of radioresistance in antibiotic-treated mice and germ-free mice are different and that in both groups radioresistance is the result of more than elimination of postirradiation infection

  9. Identification of the RsmG methyltransferase target as 16S rRNA nucleotide G527 and characterization of Bacillus subtilis rsmG mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishimura, Kenji; Johansen, Shanna K; Inaoka, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    The methyltransferase RsmG methylates the N7 position of nucleotide G535 in 16S rRNA of Bacillus subtilis (corresponding to G527 in Escherichia coli). Disruption of rsmG resulted in low-level resistance to streptomycin. A growth competition assay revealed that there are no differences in fitness...... between the rsmG mutant and parent strains under the various culture conditions examined. B. subtilis rsmG mutants emerged spontaneously at a relatively high frequency, 10(-6). Importantly, in the rsmG mutant background, high-level-streptomycin-resistant rpsL (encoding ribosomal protein S12) mutants...

  10. Haemophilus paragallinarum in chickens in Indonesia: III. Antimicrobial drug sensitivity test ofHaemophilus paragallinarum from chickens suffering of coryza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Poernomo

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available An agar disc diffusion method was used to examine the sensitivity of 27 Haemophilus paragallinarum (Hpg isolates consisted of 23 local isolates, 4 standard isolates (serotype A and Escherichia coli ATCC 24922 as a control to eight antimicrobial drugs (ampicillin, erythromycin, oxytetracycline, doxycycline, neomycin, streptomycin, colistine and sulphanlethoxazole-trimethoprim . Twenty one out of 23 local isolates of Hpg were sensitive to doxycycline, 19 isolates to ampsllin, 18 isolates to oxytetracycline, 17 isolates to sulphametoxazole-trimethoprim, 16 isolates to erythromycin, and 13 isolates to neomycin, while 13 isolates were resistance to colistine and 11 isolates were also resistance to streptomycin .

  11. Nanoparticles as Antituberculosis Drugs Carriers: Effect on Activity Against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisimova, Y.V.; Gelperina, S.I.; Peloquin, C.A.; Heifets, L.B.

    2000-01-01

    This is the first report evaluating the nanoparticle delivery system for three antituberculosis drugs: isoniazid, rifampin, and streptomycin. The typical particle size is 250 nm. We studied accumulation of these drugs in human monocytes as well as their antimicrobial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis residing in human monocyte-derived macrophages. Nanoparticle encapsulation increased the intracellular accumulation (cell-association) of all three tested drugs, but it enhanced the antimicrobial activity of isoniazid and streptomycin only. On the other hand, the activity of encapsulated rifampin against intracellular bacteria was not higher than that of the free drug

  12. Detection of Escherichia albertii from chicken meat and giblets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Eriko; Murakami, Koichi; Sera, Nobuyuki; Ito, Kenitiro; Fujimoto, Shuji

    2015-07-01

    Escherichia albertii occasionally causes food-borne outbreaks of gastroenteritis in humans; however, little is known about the vehicle of transmission. To screen retail chicken products for the presence of E. albertii, 104 retail chicken products were investigated. Portions of enrichment cultures that were PCR-positive for E. albertii (n=3) were sub-cultured on agar medium. Only 2 strains obtained from 2 chicken giblet samples were identified as E. albertii by multi locus sequence typing. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that 1 strain was resistant to streptomycin and sulfisoxazole. Both strains harbored the virulence genes cdt and eae. This study is the first description of E. albertii isolation from retail food, suggesting that chicken products are a potential vehicle of E. albertii transmission.

  13. Efeito de produtos químicos e biológicos sobre a mancha bacteriana, flora microbiana no filoplano e produtividade de pimentão Effects of chemical and biological products on bacterial spot, microbial flora and yield in bell pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora AG da Silva

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de pulverizações semanais com sulfato de estreptomicina + oxitetraciclina (0,8 g ia L-1, oxicloreto de cobre (2,4 g ia L-1, biofertilizante Agrobio (5%, e testemunha (água sobre o controle da mancha-bacteriana, sobre a flora microbiana no filoplano e sobre a produtividade de três cultivares de pimentão (Magda, Cascadura Itaipu e Magali R. Os experimentos foram realizados em campo de maio a outubro de 2002. Adotou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial (4x3, com quatro repetições. Realizaram-se avaliações semanais, durante três meses para altura de plantas (cm; número de hastes; número total de folhas; número de folhas caídas; incidência de folhas lesionadas; severidade da mancha bacteriana e produtividade (t ha-1. Paralelamente, quantificou-se a população microbiana residente no filoplano e nos frutos. Não houve efeito dos tratamentos sobre a produção de frutos, porém, observou-se efeito sobre o desenvolvimento vegetativo das plantas, sobre a mancha bacteriana e sobre a flora microbiana no filoplano. O oxicloreto de cobre inibiu o desenvolvimento vegetativo, a taxa de abscisão foliar e a flora bacteriana no filoplano. O Agrobio favoreceu o desenvolvimento vegetativo e, assim como o sulfato de estreptomicina + oxitetraciclina, reduziu a população de bactérias, exceto de Bacillus sp., e de fungos, exceto Cladosporium sp., no filoplano. O híbrido Magali R foi significativamente superior às demais cultivares quanto ao vigor das plantas, produtividade e resistência à mancha bacteriana. Estes resultados sugerem atividade bactericida do Agrobio em condições de campo.The effect of weekly sprayings with streptomycin sulfate + oxytetracycline (0.8 g ia L-1, copper oxychloride (2.4 g ia L-1 and Agrobio fertilizer (5% plus a control (water was evaluated in the control of bacterial spot, the microbial flora in the phyloplan, and over yield in three bell pepper cultivars (Magda, Cascadura

  14. Study on enhancement protease-producing of Bacillus subtilis by combining ribosome engineering and gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Bang Diep; Nguyen Thi Thom; Hoang Dang Sang; Nguyen Van Binh; Tran Xuan An; Hoang Phuong Thao; Pham Duy Duong; Tran Minh Quynh; Ta Bich Thuan; Vo Thi Thuong Lan

    2017-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis B5, Bacillus subtilis H12 and Bacillus subtilis VI are high protease-producing bacteria selected from various domestic laboratories. The suspensions in logarithmic growth phase and nutrient agar plates inoculated these bacteria were irradiated at dose ranging 0-3000 Gy under gamma Cobalt-60 source at Hanoi Irradiation Center. In both cases of irradiation treatment, the viability of Bacillus subtilis strains was much affected by gamma radiation and the survival rate of bacteria decreases with the increasing dose. The rate of high protease-producing mutation in three kinds of Bacillus strains seems to be greater at the dose range of 700-1500 Gy, at which the survival cells of bacteria was reduced by 3-4 log unit. In this study, the effect of gamma irradiation at different doses to mutation frequency of antibiotic resistance (rifampicin 0.2 µg/ml and streptomycin 20 µg/ml) of Bacillus subtilis strains is also investigated. The results show that the mutation frequency of antibiotic resistance was improved significantly by radiation treatment. The frequency of rifampicin-resistance reached the highest value at dose of 2000 Gy, 0.93-5.46x10 3 times higher than the frequency of spontaneous mutation. On the other hand, the highest streptomycin mutation frequency was obtained by irradiation at 1000 Gy. After the first screening, 82 potential 0.2 µg/ml rifampicin-resistant and 25 potential 20 µg/ml streptomycin-resistant colonies with higher production of protease than original strain were selected from the irradiated Bacillus subtilis B5 and H12. In the subsequent screening, some mutants having 2-2.5 times higher of protease activity than that of parent strain were obtained by using the culture medium containing incrementally higher antibiotic concentrations. The results of PCR, cloning and sequencing techniques proved that the antibiotic-resistance of Bacillus subtilis due to mutate in rpoB gene involved in these bacteria’s protease synthesis

  15. Dakin Solution Alters Macrophage Viability and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-18

    fungi, viruses, and parasites [1]. Dakin’s solution (DS) is buffered sodium hypochlorite, which has a long history of use as a topical antiseptic in...eagle medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, 10 U/mL penicillin, 10 mg/mL streptomycin, and maintained at 37C in 5% CO2. DS (buffered

  16. Bacterial antibiotic resistance levels in Danish farmland as a result of treatment with pig manure slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengeløv, Gitte; Agersø, Yvonne; Halling-Sørensen, B.

    2003-01-01

    Resistance to tetracycline, macrolides and streptomycin was measured for a period of 8 months in soil bacteria obtained from farmland treated with pig manure slurry. This was done by spread plating bacteria on selective media (Luria Bertani (LB) medium supplemented with antibiotics). To account...

  17. Pharmacokinetics of Rifampin and Clarithromycin in Patients Treated for Mycobacterium ulcerans Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alffenaar, J. W. C.; Nienhuis, W. A.; de Velde, F.; Zuur, A. T.; Wessels, A. M. A.; Almeida, D.; Grosset, J.; Adjei, O.; Uges, D. R. A.; van der Werf, T. S.

    In a randomized controlled trial in Ghana, treatment of Mycobacterium ulcerans infection with streptomycin (SM)-rifampin (RIF) for 8 weeks was compared with treatment with SM-RIF for 4 weeks followed by treatment with RIF-clarithromycin (CLA) for 4 weeks. The extent of the interaction of RIF and CLA

  18. Antimicrobial resistance profile of Enterococcus spp isolated from food in Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riboldi, Gustavo Pelicioli; Frazzon, Jeverson; d’Azevedo, Pedro Alves; Frazzon, Ana Paula Guedes

    2009-01-01

    Fifty-six Enterococcus spp. strains were isolated from foods in Southern Brazil, confirmed by PCR and classified as Enterococcus faecalis (27), Enterococcus faecium (23) and Enterococcus spp (6). Antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed resistance phenotypes to a range of antibiotics widely administrated in humans such as gentamycin, streptomycin, ampicillin and vancomycin. PMID:24031330

  19. Effect of light and aeration on the growth of Sclerotium rolfsii in vitro

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2013-12-04

    Ainsworth, 1961) impregnated with streptomycin, and incubated for seven days at 28 ± 2°C. The fungal growth on 5th day, which arose through the sclerotial bodies was cut by inoculation loop and transferred aseptically to the PDA ...

  20. THE RESISTANCE TO ANTIBIOTICS IN STRAINS OF E. COLI AND ENTEROCOCCUS SP. ISOLATED FROM RECTAL SWABS OF LAMBS AND CALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVANA NOVÁKOVÁ

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available he aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of enterococcii and E. coli strains isolated from dairy calves and lambs. Susceptibilities of isolated enterococci were tested using the disk diffusion method. The interpretation of inhibition zones around the disks was according to CLSI 2004 Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. In our study, all isolates (E. coli and enterococci were multiresistant (100% to tetracycline, streptomycin and compound sulphonamides. Lower levels of resistance to enrofloxacin were noted. Antimicrobial resistance profiles of Enterococcus sp. isolated from lambs indicated that the highest percentage of susceptibility was exhibited to tetracycline (100% and streptomycin (100% and compound sulphonamides (100%. The intermediate resistance was exhibited against compound enrofloxacin (80%. The high frequencies of resistant isolates of Enterococcus sp. from calves were documented in tetracycline (100%, streptomycin (100% and compound sulphonamides (100% and enrofloxacin (50%. The high percentage (compound sulphonamides-100%, tetracycline-100% and streptomycin- 100% of multiresistant E. coli (isolates from dairy calves was noticed. There were no significant correlations between groups.

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. from humans, pigs, cattle, and broilers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Nielsen, E. M.; Madsen, Mogens

    1997-01-01

    isolates from broilers (18%) and humans (14%), Twenty-four percent of C, coli isolates from pigs were resistant to enrofloxacin, whereas 29% of C, coli isolates from humans and none from broilers were resistant, More resistance to streptomycin was observed among C, coil isolates from swine (48%) than among...

  2. 154 ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    teicoplanin, gentamicin, streptomycin, linezolid, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, doxycycline, nitrofurantoin, erythromycin and rifampin. More than 50% of the isolates were resistant to erythromycin, rifampin and doxycycline. E-test. M.I.C confirmed 12 out of 34 strains to be intermediately resistant to vancomycin.

  3. Insights into the Enhanced in vivo Fitness of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Driven by a Fluoroquinolone Resistance-Conferring Mutant DNA Gyrase

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-05

    inoculated into 30 ml of fresh GCB containing 100 µg/ml of streptomycin and supplemented with co-carboxylase, ferric nitrate , and mM NaH2CO3 at the...approximately 8 weeks old, National Cancer Institute, NIH) and cnlp-/- mice in the BALB/c background of a similar age (USUHS breeding colony) were administered

  4. Local repeat sequence organization of an intergenic spacer in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    chloroplast genome of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii leads to DNA expansion and sequence ... The discovery of uniparentally inherited streptomycin resistant mutants ... resembles yeast, mitochondrial and phage recombination in that it is typically ...... Sager R and Lane D 1972 Molecular basis of maternal inheritance; Proc.

  5. Granuloma Inguinale Simulating Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Z Mani

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of extensive granuloma inguinale simulating squamous cell carcinoma is described. There was past history of urethritis leading to a urethral fistula. The ulcer healed almost completely within 19 days of receiving streptomycin injections. The patient had associated scabies and presumably also had latent syphillis (His VDRL was reactive in 1:8 dilution. The patient belonged to Madhya Pradesh.

  6. Comparative efficacies of candidate antibiotics against Yersinia pestis in an in vitro pharmacodynamic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Arnold; Vanscoy, Brian; Liu, Weiguo; Kulawy, Robert; Brown, David; Heine, Henry S; Drusano, George L

    2011-06-01

    Yersinia pestis, the bacterium that causes plague, is a potential agent of bioterrorism. Streptomycin is the "gold standard" for the treatment of plague infections in humans, but the drug is not available in many countries, and resistance to this antibiotic occurs naturally and has been generated in the laboratory. Other antibiotics have been shown to be active against Y. pestis in vitro and in vivo. However, the relative efficacies of clinically prescribed regimens of these antibiotics with streptomycin and with each other for the killing of Yersinia pestis are unknown. The efficacies of simulated pharmacokinetic profiles for human 10-day clinical regimens of ampicillin, meropenem, moxifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and gentamicin were compared with the gold standard, streptomycin, for killing of Yersinia pestis in an in vitro pharmacodynamic model. Resistance amplification with therapy was also assessed. Streptomycin killed the microbe in one trial but failed due to resistance amplification in the second trial. In two trials, the other antibiotics consistently reduced the bacterial densities within the pharmacodynamic systems from 10⁸ CFU/ml to undetectable levels (pestis and deserve further evaluation.

  7. Emergency Medical Response Capability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    Analgesics, non-narcotic Anesthesia aooaratus Antibiotics and anti-bacterials Basin, qash, solution Antidiabetic Agents (Oral) Blade, surgical Knife...for replace- Holder, suture needle nent therapy Inhaler, anesthesia , Yankauer (atner fask) Local anesthetics Intravenous injection sets Lubricant...Medium-Spectrum Erythromycin Kanamycin Clindamycin Narrow-Spectrum Penicillins Oxacillin Methicillin Streptomycin Gentamicin Other Amphotericin B Nystatin

  8. Genomic Comparison of Escherichia coli O104:H4 Isolates from 2009 and 2011 Reveals Plasmid, and Prophage Heterogeneity, Including Shiga Toxin Encoding Phage stx2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Testing Broth microdilution (SensititreH, Trek Diagnostics, Westlake, OH) was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentra- tions (MIC) for 15...kanamycin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, tetracycline, and trimethoprim -sulfa- methoxazole. Resistance was defined by the Clinical and...S1. Most phenotypes of the three strains were similar. Antibiotic Resistance Antibiotic resistance profiles were determined for all three strains

  9. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography-mass spectrometry for anionic metabolic profiling of urine from antibiotic-treated rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Miranda G M; Swann, Jonathan R; Wilson, Ian D; Somsen, Govert W; de Jong, Gerhardus J

    Hydrophilic interaction chromatography-mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS) was used for anionic metabolic profiling of urine from antibiotic-treated rats to study microbial-host co-metabolism. Rats were treated with the antibiotics penicillin G and streptomycin sulfate for four or eight days and compared

  10. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography-mass spectrometry for anionic metabolic profiling of urine from antibiotic-treated rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Miranda G M; Swann, Jonathan R.; Wilson, Ian D.; Somsen, Govert W.; de Jong, Gerhardus J.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrophilic interaction chromatography-mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS) was used for anionic metabolic profiling of urine from antibiotic-treated rats to study microbial-host co-metabolism. Rats were treated with the antibiotics penicillin G and streptomycin sulfate for four or eight days and compared

  11. Public health impact of isoniazid-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains with a mutation at amino-acid position 315 of katG: a decade of experience in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, H. R.; de Haas, P. E. W.; Kremer, K.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C. M. J. E.; Borgdorff, M. W.; van Soolingen, D.

    2006-01-01

    A previous limited study demonstrated that Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates with a mutation at amino-acid position 315 of katG (Delta315) exhibited high-level resistance to isoniazid and were more frequently resistant to streptomycin. In the present study, isoniazid-resistant M. tuberculosis

  12. Vom work Book Journal, 2011 3rd Edition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    fascia of the Sartorius muscle. The skin flaps were brought in apposition and the edges were sutured with interrupted suture using Nylon. The suture on the skin was removed twelve days post surgery. POST OPERATIVE CARE. The bitch was injected Penicillin at the dose of. 10,000IU/Kg IM and Streptomycin at the dose.

  13. R-plasmic transfer from Serratia liquefaciens to Escherichia coli in vitro and in vivo in the digestive tract of gnotobiotic mice associated with human fecal flora.

    OpenAIRE

    Duval-Iflah, Y; Raibaud, P; Tancrede, C; Rousseau, M

    1980-01-01

    It was shown that a strain of Serratia liquefaciens harbors a conjugative R-plasmid responsible for reistance to the following 14 antibiotics: ampicillin, carbenicillin, cephalothin, butirosin, neomycin, paramomycin, kanamycin, lividomycin, gentamicin, tobramycin, streptomycin, tetracycline, sulfonamide, and chloramphenicol, which belong to five families, the beta-lactamines, the aminoglycosides, the tetracyclines, the sulfonamides, and the phenicols. Resistance to th 14 antibiotics was cotra...

  14. Mutagenic DNA repair in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridges, B.A.; Sharif, Firdaus

    1986-01-01

    The authors report a study of the misincorporation step in excision proficient umuC Escherichia coli as revealed by delayed photoreversal and show that it parallels the loss of photoreversibility of mutations induced in isogenic umu + bacteria; in both cases the end-point was mutation to streptomycin resistance. (author)

  15. Integrated Control of Fire Blight with Antagonists and Oxytetracycline

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Pacific Northwest of the United States, the antibiotic streptomycin provided excellent control of fire blight until resistant isolates of Erwinia amylovora arose. Oxytetracycline (Mycoshield) is now sprayed as an alternative antibiotic. We found that the duration of inhibitory activity of o...

  16. Integrated Control of Fire Blight with Bacterial Antagonists and Oxytetracycline

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Pacific Northwest of the United States, the antibiotic streptomycin provided excellent control of fire blight until resistant isolates of Erwinia amylovora were prevalent. Oxytetracycline (Mycoshield) is now sprayed as an alternative antibiotic. We found that the duration of inhibitory acti...

  17. Effect of Dietary Inclussion of Antibiotics and Wild Sunflower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of addition of penicillin, streptomycin and wild sunflower leaf in layer diet on the performance of hens was investigated. Forty (40) Shaver Brown layers at twenty four weeks of age were involved in a completely randomized design experiment. They were randomly allocated to give dietary treatments.

  18. Giant Chancroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhushan Kumar

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of giant chancroid following rupture of inguinal bubo and having systemic symptoms is described. Response with sulfa and streptomycin combination was excellent and the lesion healed completely in 3 weeks. Early diagnosis and treatment of chancroid will prevent this debilitating complication.

  19. Extracts of Morinda oleifera (Moringaceae) show anti-retroviral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    2013-07-24

    Jul 24, 2013 ... reported to act as cardiac and circulatory stimulants. (Duke, 2001; Nandave et al., 2009), have ... dried and ground to powder using a mechanical grinder. The methanol extract (MM) and petroleum ether ... (FBS), 100 U/ml penicillin and 100. µg/ml streptomycin. Tissue culture medium and supplements were.

  20. Molecular characterization of Salmonella enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- DT193 ASSuT strains from two outbreaks in Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barco, Lisa; Ramon, Elena; Cortini, Enzo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- DT193 is recognized as an emerging monophasic variant of Salmonella Typhimurium in many European countries. Resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamides, and tetracycline (R-type ASSuT) is described as one of the most comm...

  1. Governance of Cutaneous Photocarcinogenesis by Chronic UVA-Exposed Dermal Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    2b). In contrast, bystander mela - nocytes cocultured with unirradiated cells led to no appreci- able induction of DCF fluorescence. Experiments were...Life Technologies) containing human mela - nocyte growth supplement (5 ml in 500 ml of media; Life Technolo- gies) and 10% penicillin/streptomycin

  2. Experiment list: SRX684266 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ere grown in 15 cm polystyrene dishes, passaged 1:20 every 5 days, Cells used in ChIP experiments were harve...nted with 10% (v/v) HyClone FBS Characterized U.S. and 1X Penicillin/Streptomycin (Gibco). HEK293 cultures w

  3. Experiment list: SRX684267 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ere grown in 15 cm polystyrene dishes, passaged 1:20 every 5 days, Cells used in ChIP experiments were harve...nted with 10% (v/v) HyClone FBS Characterized U.S. and 1X Penicillin/Streptomycin (Gibco). HEK293 cultures w

  4. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    laboratory procedures involved a proficiency testing scheme organized for the project laboratory by a. Supranational Reference Laboratory (Medical. Research Council, Pretoria, South Africa). At the beginning of patient recruitment, proficiency test showed a laboratory efficiency of 80% for. Ethambutol, 85% for Streptomycin, ...

  5. [Potentialization of antibiotics by lytic enzymes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisou, J; Babin, P; Babin, R

    1975-01-01

    Few lytic enzymes, specially papaine and lysozyme, acting on the membrane and cell wall structures facilitate effects of bacitracine, streptomycine and other antibiotics. Streptomycino resistant strains became sensibles to this antibiotic after contact with papaine and lysozyme. The results of tests in physiological suspensions concern only the lytic activity of enzymes. The results on nutrient medium concern together lytic, and antibiotic activities.

  6. Transplantation of Reprogrammed Autologous Stem Cells for Chronic Pain and Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    were removed for more detailed examination. No enlarged lymph node was detected. Subsequent immunohistochemical examination was conducted for...100 UI/ml peni - cillin, 100 mg/ml streptomycin, and 0.125 ml/ml fungi- zone (PSF; Sigma-Aldrich) for transport. Preparation of chromaffin cells was

  7. Methods for the evaluation of antibiotic resistance in Lactobacillus isolated from fermented sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Lethycia Wolupeck

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to assess the antibiotic resistance in 54 indigenous Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from artisanal fermented sausages. The confirmation of the strain species was performed by multiplex-PCR assay. Antibiotic resistance was assessed by disk diffusion (DD and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC methods. Of 54 L. plantarum, 44 strains were genotypically confirmed as L. plantarum and 3 as Lactobacillus pentosus. The highest resistance rates were to ampicillin and streptomycin. The highest susceptibility rates were shown to tetracycline, chloramphenicol and penicillin G. None of the strains showed multidrug resistance. Resistance rates by DD and MIC were not different (P>0.05 for ampicillin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin and penicillin G. Future research should assess the genetic mechanisms underlying the phenotypic resistance in Lactobacillus strains to screen the potential probiotic strains for the development of functional meat products.

  8. Zincophorin – biosynthesis in Streptomyces griseus and antibiotic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walther, Elisabeth

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Zincophorin is a polyketide antibiotic that possesses potent activity against Gram-positive bacteria, including human pathogens. While a number of total syntheses of this highly functionalized natural product were reported since its initial discovery, the genetic basis for the biosynthesis of zincophorin has remained unclear. In this study, the co-linearity inherent to polyketide pathways was used to identify the zincophorin biosynthesis gene cluster in the genome of the natural producer HKI 0741. Interestingly, the same locus is fully conserved in the streptomycin-producing actinomycete IFO 13350, suggesting that the latter bacterium is also capable of zincophorin biosynthesis. Biological profiling of zincophorin revealed a dose-dependent inhibition of the Gram-positive bacterium . The antibacterial effect, however, is accompanied by cytotoxicity. Antibiotic and cytotoxic activities were completely abolished upon esterification of the carboxylic acid group in zincophorin.

  9. Rapid, serial, non-invasive assessment of drug efficacy in mice with autoluminescent Mycobacterium ulcerans infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyu Zhang

    Full Text Available Buruli ulcer (BU caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans is the world's third most common mycobacterial infection. There is no vaccine against BU and surgery is needed for patients with large ulcers. Although recent experience indicates combination chemotherapy with streptomycin and rifampin improves cure rates, the utility of this regimen is limited by the 2-month duration of therapy, potential toxicity and required parenteral administration of streptomycin, and drug-drug interactions caused by rifampin. Discovery and development of drugs for BU is greatly hampered by the slow growth rate of M. ulcerans, requiring up to 3 months of incubation on solid media to produce colonies. Surrogate markers for evaluating antimicrobial activity in real-time which can be measured serially and non-invasively in infected footpads of live mice would accelerate pre-clinical evaluation of new drugs to treat BU. Previously, we developed bioluminescent M. ulcerans strains, demonstrating proof of concept for measuring luminescence as a surrogate marker for viable M. ulcerans in vitro and in vivo. However, the requirement of exogenous substrate limited the utility of such strains, especially for in vivo experiments.For this study, we engineered M. ulcerans strains that express the entire luxCDABE operon and therefore are autoluminescent due to endogenous substrate production. The selected reporter strain displayed a growth rate and virulence similar to the wild-type parent strain and enabled rapid, real-time monitoring of in vitro and in vivo drug activity, including serial, non-invasive assessments in live mice, producing results which correlated closely with colony-forming unit (CFU counts for a panel of drugs with various mechanisms of action.Our results indicate that autoluminescent reporter strains of M. ulcerans are exceptional tools for pre-clinical evaluation of new drugs to treat BU due to their potential to drastically reduce the time, effort, animals, compound

  10. Diversity of Campylobacter in retail meat and liver of lambs and goat kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazou, Thomai; Dovas, Chrysostomos; Houf, Kurt; Soultos, Nikolaos; Iossifidou, Eleni

    2014-04-01

    The presence, genetic diversity, and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Campylobacter spp. in retail lamb and goat kid carcasses were assessed. A total of 200 samples consisting of 100 meat and 100 liver surface swabs were collected from 47 lamb and 53 goat kid carcasses at 23 retail markets in Northern Greece, and 125 Campylobacter isolates were recovered from 32 meat surfaces (32%) and 44 liver surfaces (44%). Multiplex polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis specified Campylobacter coli as the most frequently detected species (59.2%) followed by C. jejuni (40.8%). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was applied in order to typify a subset of randomly selected isolates (n=80). SmaI-PFGE successfully clustered the 80 isolates in 38 SmaI-PFGE types, indicating high heterogeneity among the analyzed Campylobacter isolates, and provided data regarding the dissemination of Camplobacter among carcasses stored in the same retail market. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Campylobacter isolates, assessed by the disk-diffusion method, indicated that 31 isolates (24.8%) were multidrug resistant, and the most common profile was the concurrent resistance to tetracycline and streptomycin. Overall, 56.8% of isolates (n=71, multidrug-resistant isolates included) exhibited resistance to at least one antimicrobial (tetracycline 34.4%, quinolones 27.2%, and streptomycin 20.8%). However, all isolates were susceptible to erythromycin and gentamicin. The findings of this study verify the contamination of retail lamb and goat kid carcasses with a heterogeneous population of thermotolerant campylobacters. These data underscore the fact that retail meat and liver of small ruminants could serve as vehicles for consumer contamination with Campylobacter and that further investigation is necessary in order to evaluate the risk imposed by such products within the epidemiology of human campylobacteriosis cases.

  11. Brucellosis in Kosovo and Clinical Features of Brucellosis at University clinical center of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Qehaja Buçaj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Brucellosis became a remarkable disease in Kosovo. But there is not a comprehensive epidemiological study about epidemiology and clinical course of this disease from Kosovo. The aim of our study is to present demographic and clinical data of patients with brucellosis at University Clinical Center of Kosovo. Methods: A retrospective study was performed for the patients with brucellosis treated in our clinic during years 2011- 2012. The data about demography, history of the disease, clinical presentations, serological test, serum biochemistry and reatment were collected from hospital medical records. The diagnosis of brucellosis based on clinical and laboratory findings. Results: This descriptive study included 47 patients, who 33 of them (70.2% were males. The mean age was 37.9 ± 19.3 years. The route of transmission of the disease was known in 28 59.5% of them. Direct contact with livestock in 22 (46.8% and ingestion of dairy products in six cases (12.7% were reported as the transmission route. The majority of patients (27 patients, 57.4% were from rural area. The main presenting symptoms were atigue, fever and arthralgia. Osteoarticular manifestations were the common forms of localized disease. Regarding to the therapy, 45 (95.7% of patients were treated with streptomycin and doxycycline for the first three weeks. Conclusion: Human brucellosis is not a common in Kosovo but there is a potential risk. Osteoarticular symptoms were the most common presentation reasons. The most effective and preferred treatment regimen was Streptomycin plus Doxycycline for the first three weeks, and Doxycycline plus Rifampicin thereafter. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2015;5(4: 147-150

  12. Fire Blight Control: The Struggle Goes On. A Comparison of Different Fire Blight Control Methods in Switzerland with Respect to Biosafety, Efficacy and Durability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusberti, Michele; Klemm, Urs; Meier, Matthias S; Maurhofer, Monika; Hunger-Glaser, Isabel

    2015-09-11

    Fire blight (FB), caused by Erwinia amylovora, is one of the most important pome fruit pathogens worldwide. To control this devastating disease, various chemical and biological treatments are commonly applied in Switzerland, but they fail to keep the infection at an acceptable level in years of heavy disease pressure. The Swiss authorities therefore currently allow the controlled use of the antibiotic streptomycin against FB in years that are predicted to have heavy infection periods, but only one treatment per season is permitted. Another strategy for controlling Erwinia is to breed resistant/tolerant apple cultivars. One way of accelerating the breeding process is to obtain resistant cultivars by inserting one or several major resistance genes, using genetic engineering. To date, no study summarizing the impact of different FB control measures on the environment and on human health has been performed. This study consequently aims to compare different disease-control measures (biological control, chemical control, control by antibiotics and by resistant/tolerant apple cultivars obtained through conventional or molecular breeding) applied against E. amylovora, considering different protection goals (protection of human health, environment, agricultural diversity and economic interest), with special emphasis on biosafety aspects. Information on each FB control measure in relation to the specified protection goal was assessed by literature searches and by interviews with experts. Based on our results it can be concluded that the FB control measures currently applied in Switzerland are safe for consumers, workers and the environment. However, there are several gaps in our knowledge of the human health and environmental impacts analyzed: data are missing (1) on long term studies on the efficacy of most of the analyzed FB control measures; (2) on the safety of operators handling streptomycin; (3) on residue analyses of Equisetum plant extract, the copper and aluminum

  13. Characterization of antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli in different poultry farming systems in the Eastern Province and Kigali City of Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Manishimwe

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance has become a global public health concern as a wide num­ber of resistant bacteria are continuously emerging. Animals have been pointed out as one of the sources of antibiotic-resistant bacteria that can be transferred to humans. To enrich the data on antibiotic resistance in animals in Rwanda, a cross-sectional study was carried out in the Eastern Province and in Kigali City to isolate Escherichia coli from free-range and commercial poultry farms. Fecal samples were collected from 294 poultry farms and E. coli strains were isolated and identified. In total 241 E. coli isolates were subjected to an antibi­otic sensitivity test using five antibiotics (gentamicin, streptomycin, rifampicin, doxycycline and erythromycin. Antibiotic use in poultry was low in free-range poultry farms (30.9% compared to layer and broiler production farms (100%. Among 151 farmers who reported using antibiotics in poultry, almost half (49.7% always used antibiotics with a veterinarian prescription. Out of 241 E. coli isolates, 43.2% had a multiple resistance to four of the five antibiotics tested. Almost all the isolates (98.8% were resistant to erythromycin, 78.8% were resistant to streptomycin, 77.6% were resistant to doxycycline, 69.3% were resistant to rifampicin and only a few were resistant to gentamicin (3.7%. No statistically significant difference was observed regarding isolate resistance against antibiotics according to the farming system type. However, resistance of isolates to doxycycline was significantly higher in farms where antibiotic use was reported (84% than in farms where antibiotic use was not reported (70%. The observed antibiotic resistance of E. coli shows the existence of a potential source of resistance that can be transferred to pathogenic bacteria and impact humans as well as animals.

  14. Prevalence and diversity of Salmonella enterica in water, fish and lettuce in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traoré, Oumar; Nyholm, Outi; Siitonen, Anja; Bonkoungou, Isidore Juste O; Traoré, Alfred S; Barro, Nicolas; Haukka, Kaisa

    2015-07-31

    This study investigated the prevalence, serotypes and antimicrobial sensitivity patterns of Salmonella enterica in environment in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. A total of 476 samples, consisting of 36 samples of tap water, 51 samples of well water, 87 samples of channel water, 44 samples of reservoir water, 238 samples of fish, and 20 samples of lettuce were examined using standard bacteriological procedures for Salmonella. Salmonella were isolated from 98 samples. Salmonella were rare in drinking water, since they were not found at all from the tap water, and only in 2 % of well water. Salmonella were more common in the water of reservoir of Tanghin (15 %), reservoir of Yamtenga (20 %), and in the water channels in the city (from 20 to 31 %). Salmonella were commonly isolated from the fish (24 %) caught from the reservoir of Tanghin and from the lettuce (50 %) irrigated with water from Tanghin. The Salmonella isolates were found to represent 50 different serotypes. The 11 most common serotypes were Salmonella Bredeney and S. Colindale (both 8.2 %), S. Muenster (6.1 %), S. Korlebu (5.1 %), S. Eastbourne and S. Poona (both 4.1 %), and S. Agona, S. Derby, S. Drac, S. Senftenberg, S. Waycross (each 3.1 %), accounting for 51.3 % of all the isolates. In general, the Salmonella strains were sensitive to the antimicrobials tested, but two strains were resistant to streptomycin and many more intermediate to streptomycin or sulphonamide. This study highlights the common prevalence of Salmonella and the high diversity of Salmonella serotypes in aquatic environment in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Therefore, various human activities linked to water and consumption of water-related products, such as fish and lettuce, can lead to human Salmonella infections.

  15. Tobacco Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exposure is High in Multiunit Housing Smokeless Products Electronic Cigarettes Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco Products Tobacco Ingredient ... Tweet Share Compartir Find Fact Sheets on Products (Cigars, Bidis and Betel Quid with Tobacco (Gutka) and ...

  16. Study of bacteria isolated from the foot pad of Spheniscus magellanicus with and without bumblefoot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Osório

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The bumblefoot or pododermatitis is among the diseases with the highest morbidity in Magellanic penguins, sometimes evolving to septicemia and death. Therefore, this study aimed to relate the main species involved in the disorder, as well as the in vitro susceptibility profile of the microorganisms against routine antimicrobial usage in Veterinary Medicine. During two years in vivo material was harvested from 200 footpads (n=100 animals for microbiological analysis and in vitro susceptibility tests against the Antibiotic enrofloxacin, streptomycin, penicillin and cephalosporin. Bacteria have been identified both as part of permanent and transient microbiota, also being associated to 100% of the pododermatitis cases. The most prevalent genus were Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium. The antibiograms of all the isolated bacteria resulted in greater susceptibility of the strains facing cephalosporin, followed by enrofloxacin, streptomycin and penicillin.

  17. Effects of UV light disinfection on antibiotic-resistant coliforms in wastewater effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meckes, M.C.

    1982-01-01

    Total coliforms and total coliforms resistant to streptomycin, tetracycline, or chloramphenicol were isolated from filtered activated sludge effluents before and after UV light irradiation. Although the UV irradiation effectively disinfected the wastewater effluent, the percentage of the total surviving coliform population resistant to tetracycline or chloramphenicol was significantly higher than the percentage of the total coliform population resistant to those antibiotics before UV irradiation. This finding was attributed to the mechanism of R-factor mediated resistance to tetracycline. No significant difference was noted for the percentage of the surviving total coliform population resistant to streptomycin before or after UV irradiation. Multiple drug resistant to patterns of 300 total coliform isolates revealed that 82% were resistant to two or more antibiotics. Furthermore, 46% of these isolates were capable of transferring antibiotic resistance to a sensitive strain of Escherichia coli

  18. Antimicrobial drug resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from cattle in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M S; Siqueira-Júnior, J P

    1995-06-01

    Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus obtained from apparently healthy cattle in the State of Paraiba, Brazil were characterized in relation to resistance to 21 antimicrobial agents. Among the 46 isolates obtained, resistance to penicillin was most frequent, followed by resistance to cadmium, streptomycin, arsenate, tetracycline, mercury, erythromycin and kanamycin/neomycin. All isolates were susceptible to fusidic acid, ethidium bromide, cetrimide, chloramphenicol, benzalkonium chloride, doxycycline, gentamicin, methicillin, minocycline, novobiocin, rifamycin, tylosin and vancomycin. Only six isolates were susceptible to all the drugs tested. With respect to the antibiotics, multi-resistant isolates were uncommon. These results are probably a consequence of the peculiarities of local drug usage pressures. In relation to metal ions, resistance to mercury was rare while resistance to arsenate was relatively frequent, which contrasts with the situation for human Staph. aureus strains. After treatment with ethidium bromide, elimination of resistance to penicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin, erythromycin and cadmium was observed, which was consistent with the genetic determinants being plasmid-borne.

  19. Characterisation of recently emerged multiple antibiotic-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium DT104 and other multiresistant phage types from Danish pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    1998-01-01

    electrophoresis (PFGE) using the restriction enzyme Xba I, Overall, 66 per cent of the 670 isolates were sensitive to all the antimicrobial agents tested. Eleven isolates of S typhimurium were resistant to ampicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline and also resistant to other antibiotics in different resistance...... patterns. Seven different multiresistant clones were identified, The most common clones were four isolates of DT104 and three isolates of DT193, TWO Of the three S typhimurium DT104 from 1994 and 1995 were sensitive to all the antimicrobials tested whereas the remaining isolate from 1994 was resistant......A total of 670 isolates of Salmonella enterica were isolated from Danish pig herds, phage typed and tested for susceptibility to amoxycillin + clavulanate, ampicillin, colistin, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, neomycin, spectinomycin, streptomycin, tetracyclines, and trimethoprim + sulphadiazine. S...

  20. Long-Term Blocking of Calcium Channels in mdx Mice Results in Differential Effects on Heart and Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Louise Helskov; Blain, Alison; Greally, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    in older mice. However, streptomycin treatment did not show positive effects in diaphragm or heart muscle, and heart pathology was worsened. Thus, blocking calcium channels even before disease onset does not prevent dystrophy, making this an unlikely treatment for DMD. These findings highlight......The disease mechanisms underlying dystrophin-deficient muscular dystrophy are complex, involving not only muscle membrane fragility, but also dysregulated calcium homeostasis. Specifically, it has been proposed that calcium channels directly initiate a cascade of pathological events by allowing...... calcium ions to enter the cell. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of chronically blocking calcium channels with the aminoglycoside antibiotic streptomycin from onset of disease in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Treatment in utero onwards delayed onset...

  1. Biomanufacturing: history and perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-Heng Percival; Sun, Jibin; Ma, Yanhe

    2017-05-01

    Biomanufacturing is a type of manufacturing that utilizes biological systems (e.g., living microorganisms, resting cells, animal cells, plant cells, tissues, enzymes, or in vitro synthetic (enzymatic) systems) to produce commercially important biomolecules for use in the agricultural, food, material, energy, and pharmaceutical industries. History of biomanufacturing could be classified into the three revolutions in terms of respective product types (mainly), production platforms, and research technologies. Biomanufacturing 1.0 focuses on the production of primary metabolites (e.g., butanol, acetone, ethanol, citric acid) by using mono-culture fermentation; biomanufacturing 2.0 focuses on the production of secondary metabolites (e.g., penicillin, streptomycin) by using a dedicated mutant and aerobic submerged liquid fermentation; and biomanufacturing 3.0 focuses on the production of large-size biomolecules-proteins and enzymes (e.g., erythropoietin, insulin, growth hormone, amylase, DNA polymerase) by using recombinant DNA technology and advanced cell culture. Biomanufacturing 4.0 could focus on new products, for example, human tissues or cells made by regenerative medicine, artificial starch made by in vitro synthetic biosystems, isobutanol fermented by metabolic engineering, and synthetic biology-driven microorganisms, as well as exiting products produced by far better approaches. Biomanufacturing 4.0 would help address some of the most important challenges of humankind, such as food security, energy security and sustainability, water crisis, climate change, health issues, and conflict related to the energy, food, and water nexus.

  2. USES OF ACETOACETANILIDE FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reacted with acetic acid/acetic anhydride (3:1) to give the 2-N-acetyl derivative 8. .... 9a-d, it is clear that compound 9b with 6- the 4-methylphenyl group showed the highest ... Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), doxorubicin, penicillin, streptomycin and ... 1688 (CO), 1630 (C=C).1H NMR (DMSO-d6) δ 2.50 (s, 3H, CH3), 3.33 (s, 2H, ...

  3. A20 Functional Domains Regulate Subcellular Localization and NF-Kappa B Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    endothelial cells or if the effects of A20 are limited strictly to the process of apoptosis. The Ferran group began by taking bovine aortic endothelial...protein (64, 67, 81, 118, 122). Interestingly, A20 is also involved in the regulation of intracellular parasite infection (109, 123). Given the...was supplemented with a combination of heat inactivated 10% fetal bovine serum and 1% penicillin G/streptomycin sulfate/gentamycin sulfate

  4. People having global patent with a novel idea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    1991-04-01

    This book introduces the people gotten global patent with a brilliant idea, the contents of this book are coca cola bottles of Lud, barbed-wire fence of Joseph, cross head of Phillip, a pencil attached a eraser of Heimann, blue jeans of Strauss, refining process of Martin whole, automobile of Daimler, artificial silk of Chardonnay, phone of Bel, a telegraphic instrument of Mos, streptomycin of Waksman, cement of Smitten, permanent machine of Haris and mickey mouse.

  5. In vitro antituberculous activity of thymoquinone, an active principle of nigella sativa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randhawa, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Nigella sativa seed has been used in folk medicine against many ailments including infections. The present study was aimed to investigate activity of thymoquinone, in vitro, against clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Methods: Mycobacteria obtained from patients of King Fahd Hospital of University, Alkhobar, Saudi Arabia were subcultured at 37 degree C in MGIT tubes containing Middle brook broth and OADC growth supplement and growth detected by BACTEC Micro MGIT fluoro meter on day 10. Mycobacteria were then inoculated in MGIT tubes containing thymoquinone 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 micro g/ml, streptomycin 1.25 micro g/ml or controls in Middle brook broth plus supplement, incubated at 37 degree C for 14 days and read daily for fluorescence. In addition, isolates were inoculated in culture tubes containing Middle brook agar (plus supplement) in presence of thymoquinone 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 micro g/ml, streptomycin 1.25 micro g/ml or controls, and incubated at 37 degree C for 4 weeks. Results: In Middle brook broth, fluorescence test for tuberculosis was negative with thymoquinone 20, 40 and 80 micro g/ml and streptomycin 1.25 micro g/ml up to day 14. With controls, thymoquinone 2.5, 5 and 10 micro g/ml fluorescence was detectable from day 10 to 14. In Middle brook agar, there was no visible growth of tubercle bacillus with thymoquinone 20, 40 and 80 micro g/ml and streptomycin 1.25 micro g/ml, however, with controls, thymoquinone 2.5 and 5 micro g/ml abundant and with 10 micro g/ml few colonies were observed. Conclusions: Thymoquinone possesses activity against M. tuberculosis with MIC of 20 micro g/ml and has potential for further investigation. Our study confirms the benefit of N. sativa in native medicine against chest infection. (author)

  6. People having global patent with a novel idea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    1991-04-15

    This book introduces the people gotten global patent with a brilliant idea, the contents of this book are coca cola bottles of Lud, barbed-wire fence of Joseph, cross head of Phillip, a pencil attached a eraser of Heimann, blue jeans of Strauss, refining process of Martin whole, automobile of Daimler, artificial silk of Chardonnay, phone of Bel, a telegraphic instrument of Mos, streptomycin of Waksman, cement of Smitten, permanent machine of Haris and mickey mouse.

  7. Apparent Herbivory and Indigenous Pathogens of Invasive Flowering Rush (Butomus umbellatus L.) in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    associated herbivore fauna and pathogenic diseases. The results of these surveys allow researchers to predict potential interactions between native...Canada. USDA Technical Bulletin No. 634. Martin, J. 1950. Use of acid, rose Bengal, and streptomycin in the plate method for estimating soil fungi... Soil Science 69:215-232. Merritt, R. W., K. W. Cummins, and M. B. Berg. 2008. An Introduction to the aquatic insects of North America. 4th ed

  8. Literature Survey on Decorporation of Radionuclides from the Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-01

    iodine, smaller doses are recommended - 130 mg KI tablets for adults and children 56 DRDC Ottawa I’M 2002-042 and one-half tablet (65mg KI) for...children under 6 months of age. Crush tablets to enhance the rate of absorption. Success depends upon early administration of the drug, preferably within 1...nlicvlic Acid Fe. Cu Bacitracin Zn Isoniazid Fe, Cu, Mn, Co Kanamycin Ca Neomycin Fe, Al Novobiocin Mg Penicillin Co Polymyxin Mg, Mn, Ca, Fe Streptomycin

  9. Drug procurement and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salhotra, V S

    2003-03-01

    A strong drug procurement and management system under the RNTCP is critical to programme success. Significant improvements in manufacturing, inspection, supply, storage and quality control practices and procedures have been achieved due to an intensive RNTCP network. Drugs used in RNTCP are rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol, pyrazinamide and streptomycin. Patients of TB are categorised into I, II and III and each category has a different standarised treatment. Procurement, distribution system and quality assurance of drugs are narrated in brief in this article.

  10. The effect of Zataria multiflora extract on the clinical endometritis and reproductive indices in lactating Holstein dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Hajibemani, Abolfazl; Mirzaei, Abdolah; Rowshan Ghasrodashti, Abbas; Memarzadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of intrauterine infusion of Zataria multiflora extract on the clinical endometritis was investigated. Vaginal examination, transrectal palpation and ultrasonography were used to inspect the genital tract at 30-40 days in milk and two weeks later the same approach was applied. Cows with clinical endometritis were randomly divided into three treatment groups: Z. multiflora extract (n = 56), penicillin + streptomycin (pen + strep, n = 55), and placebo (n = 20). C...

  11. Interactions of bacteria with diatoms: Influence on natural marine biofilms.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khandeparker, L.; DeCosta, P.M.; Anil, A.C.; Sawant, S.S.

    therein). In fact, biofilms are considered a reservoir and source of dissemination for V. cholerae (Shikuma & Hadfield 2010). Nutrient concentrations in the surrounding waters also affect the progression of the biofilm community (Qian et al. 2007... to render diatom monocultures near axenic (Patil & Anil 2005c). The following diluents were used – Aged Sea Water (ASW; unenriched control), ASW+streptomycin (ASW+S), ASW+chloramphenicol (ASW+C), f/2 medium (Guillard and Ryther, 1962) prepared in ASW [f...

  12. A Rare Form of Brucella Bursitis with Negative Serology: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. Almajid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is still endemic in certain parts of the world including the Mediterranean, the Middle East, Latin America, and African regions. Osteoarticular manifestations are common presenting features. Brucellosis presenting as prepatellar bursitis has already been reported. We present a case of seronegative olecranon bursitis with positive blood and aspirate cultures. The patient improved remarkably by treatment with streptomycin and doxycycline with no evidence or relapse.

  13. Using Bioluminescence To Monitor Treatment Response in Real Time in Mice with Mycobacterium ulcerans Infection▿

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Tianyu; Li, Si-Yang; Converse, Paul J.; Almeida, Deepak V.; Grosset, Jacques H.; Nuermberger, Eric L.

    2010-01-01

    Mycobacterium ulcerans causes Buruli ulcer, a potentially disabling ulcerative skin disease. Only recently was antimicrobial therapy proven effective. Treatment for 2 months with rifampin plus streptomycin was first proposed after experiments in the mouse footpad model demonstrated bactericidal activity. This treatment is now considered the treatment of choice, although larger ulcers may require adjunctive surgery. Shorter, oral regimens are desired, but evaluating drug activity in mice is ha...

  14. Molecular genetics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to aminoglycosides and cyclic peptide testing by MTBDRsl in Armenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasmik Margaryan

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Isolates with rrs structural gene mutations were cross-resistant to streptomycin, KAN, CAP, and AMK. Detection of the A1401G mutation appeared to be 100% specific for the detection of resistance to KAN and AMK. Being the first assessment, these data establish the presence of phenotypic drug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant strains using molecular profiling and are helpful in understanding aminoglycoside resistance on a molecular level.

  15. Occurrence and Distribution of Antibiotic-resistant Bacteria and Transfer of Resistance Genes in Lake Taihu

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Qian; Yue, Dongmei; Peng, Yuke; Liu, Ying; Xiao, Lin

    2013-01-01

    The overuse of antibiotics has accelerated antibiotic resistance in the natural environment, especially fresh water, generating a potential risk for public health around the world. In this study, antibiotic resistance in Lake Taihu was investigated and this was the first thorough data obtained through culture-dependent methods. High percentages of resistance to streptomycin and ampicillin among bacterial isolates were detected, followed by tetracycline and chloramphenicol. Especially high lev...

  16. Toluene Dose-Response and Preliminary Study of Proteomics for Neuronal Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Cedarlane DMEM, Sigma adherent TC treated 10% FBS 1% Pen Strep Notes: *horse serum, fetal bovine serum (FBS) and 1% penicillin/streptomycin...Langfelder A, Okonji E, Deca D, Wei WC, and Glitsch MD. (2015). Extracellular acidosis impairs P2Y receptor-mediated Ca(2+) signalling and migration of...dissociation CNS central nervous system DMSO dimethyl sulfoxide EGF epidermal growth factor FBS fetal bovine serum GO gene ontology HCD higher

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Nafulsella turpanensis ZLM-10T, a Novel Member of the Family Flammeovirgaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Si, Meiru; Zhu, Lingfang; Li, Changfu; Wei, Yahong; Shen, Xihui

    2014-04-03

    Nafulsella turpanensis ZLM-10(T) is a slightly halophilic, Gram-negative, rod-shaped, gliding, pale-pink-pigmented bacterium in the family Flammeovirgaceae, and it shows resistance to gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, and streptomycin. Here, we report the genome sequence of N. turpanensis strain ZLM-10(T), which has a 4.8-Mb genome and a G+C content of 45.67%.

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Nafulsella turpanensis ZLM-10T, a Novel Member of the Family Flammeovirgaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Lei; Si, Meiru; Zhu, Lingfang; Li, Changfu; Wei, Yahong; Shen, Xihui

    2014-01-01

    Nafulsella turpanensis ZLM-10T is a slightly halophilic, Gram-negative, rod-shaped, gliding, pale-pink-pigmented bacterium in the family Flammeovirgaceae, and it shows resistance to gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, and streptomycin. Here, we report the genome sequence of N. turpanensis strain ZLM-10T, which has a 4.8-Mb genome and a G+C content of 45.67%.

  19. Complete genome sequence of Marivirga tractuosa type strain (H-43).

    OpenAIRE

    Pagani, Ioanna; Chertkov, Olga; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Del Rio, Tijana Glavina; Tice, Hope; Copeland, Alex; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Nolan, Matt; Saunders, Elizabeth; Pitluck, Sam; Held, Brittany; Goodwin, Lynne; Liolios, Konstantinos; Ovchinikova, Galina

    2011-01-01

    Marivirga tractuosa (Lewin 1969) Nedashkovskaya et al. 2010 is the type species of the genus Marivirga, which belongs to the family Flammeovirgaceae. Members of this genus are of interest because of their gliding motility. The species is of interest because representative strains show resistance to several antibiotics, including gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, polymixin and streptomycin. This is the first complete genome sequence of a member of the family Flammeovirgaceae. Here we describe t...

  20. Dielectrophoretic assay of bacterial resistance to antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johari, Juliana; Huebner, Yvonne; Hull, Judith C; Dale, Jeremy W; Hughes, Michael P

    2003-01-01

    The dielectrophoretic collection spectra of antibiotic-sensitive and antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis have been determined. These indicate that in the absence of antibiotic treatment there is a strong similarity between the dielectric properties of sensitive and resistant strains, and that there is a significant difference between the sensitive strains before and after treatment with the antibiotic streptomycin after 24 h exposure. This method offers possibilities for the assessment of bacterial resistance to antibiotics. (note)

  1. Draft genome sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain B9741 of Beijing B0/W lineage from HIV positive patient from Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Shur

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a draft genome sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain B9741 belonging to Beijing B0/W lineage isolated from a HIV patient from Siberia, Russia. This clinical isolate showed MDR phenotype and resistance to isoniazid, rifampin, streptomycin and pyrazinamide. We analyzed SNPs associated with virulence and resistance. The draft genome sequence and annotation have been deposited at GenBank under the accession NZ_LVJJ00000000.

  2. Effect of Adipose Tissue-Derived Osteogenic and Endothelial Cells on Bone Allograft Osteogenesis and Vascularization in Critical-Sized Calvarial Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    1% peni - cillin/streptomycin, and 50 ng/mL recombinant rat VEGF-C (Promocell, Heidelberg, Germany). The media were changed every other day for 8...various animal models that have demonstrated an enhanced osteogenic effect after treating bone allografts with adipose tissue or bone marrow-derived... enhanced 1560 CORNEJO ET AL. performance of bone allografts using osteogenic differentiated adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells. Biomaterials 32, 8880

  3. Molecular Characterization of Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Typhimurium Isolates from Swine

    OpenAIRE

    Gebreyes, Wondwossen Abebe; Altier, Craig

    2002-01-01

    As part of a longitudinal study of antimicrobial resistance among salmonellae isolated from swine, we studied 484 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium (including serovar Typhimurium var. Copenhagen) isolates. We found two common pentaresistant phenotypes. The first was resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline (the AmCmStSuTe phenotype; 36.2% of all isolates), mainly of the definitive type 104 (DT104) phage type (180 of 187 ...

  4. Stemcell Information: SKIP000195 [SKIP Stemcell Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available illin, 50 mg/mL streptomycin, and 1 mM L-glutamine ... Daisuke Ito 伊東 大介 Keio University 慶應義塾大学医学...部神経内科 Keio University 慶應義塾大学医学部神経内科 Norihiro Suzuki 鈴木 則宏 Not Available Keio University 慶應義塾大学医学

  5. Stemcell Information: SKIP000194 [SKIP Stemcell Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lin, 50 mg/mL streptomycin, and 1 mM L-glutamine ... Daisuke Ito 伊東 大介 Keio University 慶應義塾大学医学...部神経内科 Keio University 慶應義塾大学医学部神経内科 Norihiro Suzuki 鈴木 則宏 Not Available Keio University 慶應義塾大学医学

  6. Early Diagnosis and Intervention Strategies for Post-Traumatic Heterotopic Ossification in Severely Injured Extremities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    penicillin, 100µg/mL streptomycin, 10−8 M dexamethasone, and 50 μg/mL ascorbate. Cell suspensions were serially filtered through 100µm and 70µm nylon...into serial 5µm thick longitudinal sections using a microtome and mounted onto glass slides for histology. Sections were stained using hematoxylin...pleiotropic effects, including stimulation of monocytes, natural killer and T-cell migration, and modulation of adhesion molecule expression. Cxcl1 2

  7. Production of Modularised Product Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Peter

    2004-01-01

    but a solution. Modularisation is one tool used in designing the products. Designing and controlling a production system making customized products in an economical way is not an easy task. In order to fulfil the Lean and Agile manufacturing philosophies the production is often carried out in networks. Here...

  8. Product Customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Riis, Jesper

    For the majority of industrial companies, customizing products and services is among the most critical means to deliver true customer value and achieve superior competitive advantage. The challenge is not to customize products and services in itself – but to do it in a profitable way...... from more than 40 product configuration projects in companies providing customer tailored products and services........ The implementation of a product configuration system is among the most powerful ways of achieving this in practice, offering a reduction of the lead time for products and quotations, faster and more qualified responses to customer inquiries, fewer transfers of responsibility and fewer specification mistakes...

  9. Antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation of some bacteria isolated from sediment, water and fish farms in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faja, Orooba Meteab; Usup, Gires; Ahmad, Asmat

    2018-04-01

    A total of 90 isolates of bacteria were isolated, from sediment (10) samples, water (10) samples and fish (12) samples (Sea bass, Snapper, Grouper and Tilapia). These include 22 isolates of bacteria from sediment, 28 isolates from water and 40 isolates from fish. All the isolates were tested for sensitivity to 13 antibiotics using disc diffusion method. The isolates showed high resistance to some antibiotics based on samples source. Isolates from sediment showed highest resistance toward novobiocin, kanamycin, ampicillin and streptomycin while isolates from water showed highest resistance against vancomycin, penicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline, in contrast, in fish sample showed highest resistance toward vancomycin, ampicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline. Most of the isolates showed biofilm formation ability with different degrees. Out of 22 bacteria isolates from water, two isolates were weak biofilm formers, six isolates moderate biofilm formers and fourteen isolates strong biofilm formers. While, out of 28 bacteria isolates from water one isolate was weak biofilm former, five isolates moderate biofilm formers and 22 strong biofilm formers Fish isolate showed three isolates (8%) moderate biofilm formers and 27 isolates strong biofilm formers. Biofilm formation was one of the factors that lead to antibiotic resistance of the bacterial isolates from these samples.

  10. A modified Janus cassette (Sweet Janus to improve allelic replacement efficiency by high-stringency negative selection in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Li

    Full Text Available The Janus cassette permits marker-free allelic replacement or knockout in streptomycin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus through sequential positive and negative selection. Spontaneous revertants of Janus can lead to high level of false-positives during negative selection, which necessitate a time-consuming post-selection screening process. We hypothesized that an additional counter-selectable marker in Janus would decrease the revertant frequency and reduce false-positives, since simultaneous reversion of both counter-selectable makers is much less likely. Here we report a modified cassette, Sweet Janus (SJ, in which the sacB gene from Bacillus subtilis conferring sucrose sensitivity is added to Janus. By using streptomycin and sucrose simultaneously as selective agents, the frequency of SJ double revertants was about 105-fold lower than the frequency of Janus revertants. Accordingly, the frequency of false-positives in the SJ-mediated negative selection was about 100-fold lower than what was seen for Janus. Thus, SJ enhances negative selection stringency and can accelerate allelic replacement in pneumococcus, especially when transformation frequency is low due to strain background or suboptimal transformation conditions. Results also suggested the sacB gene alone can function as a counter-selectable marker in the Gram-positive pneumococcus, which will have the advantage of not requiring a streptomycin-resistant strain for allelic replacement.

  11. Erratum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aninwene G II

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Aninwene II GE, Yao C, Webster TJ. Enhanced osteoblast adhesion to drug-coated anodized nanotubular titanium surfaces. Int J Nanomedicine. 2008;3(2:257–264.There is a mistake in the Drug coating section of the Materials and methods. In the paper it is written as follows:“For simple physical adsorption, 120 μL of either penicillin/streptomycin (Hyclone, Logan, UT, USA; 5 μg/mL or dexamethasone (Sigma, St. Louis, MO, USA; 5 μg/mL solutions were placed onto each unanodized or anodized titanium for 3 days at room temperature.”But the text should be written as:“For simple physical adsorption, 120 μL of either penicillin/streptomycin (Hyclone, Logan, UT, USA; 6.25 mg penicillin and 10 mg streptomycin per mL or dexamethasone (Sigma, St. Louis, MO, USA; 5 mg/mL solutions were placed onto each unanodized or anodized titanium for 3 days at room temperature.”Read the original article

  12. Quadruplex gold immunochromatogaraphic assay for four families of antibiotic residues in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jinyu; Nie, Wei; Chen, Yiqiang; Yang, Chunjiang; Gong, Lu; Zhang, Chi; Chen, Qian; He, Lidong; Feng, Xiaoyu

    2018-08-01

    In this study, we developed a quadruplex gold immunochromatogaraphic assay (GICA) for the simultaneous determination of four families of antibiotics including β-lactams, tetracyclines, streptomycin and chloramphenicol in milk. For qualitative analysis, the visual cut-off values were measured to be 2-100 ng/mL, 16-32 ng/mL, 50 ng/mL and 2.4 ng/mL for β-lactams, tetracyclines, streptomycin and chloramphenicol, respectively. For quantitative analysis, the detection ranges were 0.13-1 ng/mL for penicillin G, 0.13-8 ng/mL for tetracycline, 0.78-25 ng/mL for streptomycin, 0.019-1.2 ng/mL for chloramphenicol in milk respectively, with linear correlation coefficients higher than 0.97. The spiked experiment indicated that the mean recoveries ranged from 84.5% to 107.6% with coefficient of variations less than 16.2%, and real sample analysis revealed that the GICA can produce consistent results with instrumental analysis. These results demonstrated that this novel immunoassay is a promising approach for rapidly screening common antibiotic residues in milk. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Identification and elimination of bacterial contamination during in vitro propagation of Guadua angustifolia Kunth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadha, Harleen Kaur; Salwan, Richa; Kasana, Ramesh Chand; Anand, Manju; Sood, Anil

    2012-04-01

    Guadua angustifolia Kunth is a very important bamboo species with significant utility in pharmaceutical, paper, charcoal, and construction industries. Microbial contamination is a major problem encountered during establishment of in vitro cultures of Guadua. This study has been designed to analyze the identity of contaminating bacteria and to develop the strategy to eliminate them during micropropagation of Guadua. We isolated and consequently analyzed partial sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene to identify two contaminating bacteria as (1) Pantoea agglomerans and (2) Pantoea ananatis. In addition, we also- performed antibiotic sensitivity testing on these bacterial isolates. We identified kanamycin and streptomycin sulfate as potentially useful antibiotics in eliminating the contaminating bacteria. We grew shoots on multiplication medium containing BAP (2 mg/l) and adenine sulfate (10 mg/l) supplemented with kanamycin (10 μg/ml) for 10 days and transferred them to fresh medium without antibiotics and found that bacterial growth was inhibited. Moreover, we observed intensive formation of high-quality shoots. Streptomycin sulfate also inhibited bacterial growth but at higher concentration. We also demonstrated that shoots grown in streptomycin sulfate tended to be shorter and had yellow leaves. Thus, we have developed a novel strategy to identify and inhibit intriguing microbial contaminations of (1) Pantoea agglomerans and (2) Pantoea ananatis during establishment of in vitro cultures of Guadua. This would improve in vitro establishment of an important bamboo, Guadua angustifolia Kunth for large scale propagation.

  14. Spectrophotometric Determination of Aminoglycoside Antibiotics Based on their Oxidation by Potassium Permanganate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Didamony, A. M.; Ghoneim, A. K.; Telebany, A. M.; Amin, A. S.

    2006-01-01

    A rapid, simple and sensitive validated spectrophotometric methods have been described for the assay of neomycin and streptomycin either in pure form or in pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed methods were based on the oxidation of the studied drugs by a known excess of potassium permanganate in acidic medium and estimating the unreacted permanganate with amaranth dye (method A), acid orange II (method B), indigocarmine (method C), and methylene blue (method D), in the same acid medium at a suitable λ max =521, 485, 610 and 664 nm, respectively. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range of 5-10 and 2-7 mg mL -1 for neomycin and streptomycin, respectively. The apparent molar absorptivity and sandell sensitivity values are in the range 5.47-6.20x10 4 , 2.35-2.91x10 5 L mol -1 cm -1 and 7.57-8.59, 5.01-6.2 ng cm -2 for neomycin and streptomycin, respectively. Different variables affecting the reaction were studied and optimized. The proposed methods were applied successfully to the determination of the examined drugs either in a pure or pharmaceutical dosage forms with good accuracy and precision. No interferences were observed from excipients and the results obtained were in good agreement with those obtained using the official methods

  15. Characterization of integron mediated antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella isolated from diseased swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David G.; Zhao, Shaohua; McDermott, Patrick F.; Ayers, Sherry; Friedman, Sharon; Sherwood, Julie; Breider-Foley, Missy; Nolan, Lisa K.

    2003-01-01

    Forty-two Salmonella isolates obtained from diseased swine were genetically characterized for the presence of specific antimicrobial resistance mechanisms. Twenty of these isolates were characterized as S. Typhimurium DT104 strains. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to determine genetic relatedness and revealed 20 distinct genetic patterns among the 42 isolates. However, all DT104 isolates fell within 2 closely related genetic clusters. Other Salmonella isolates were genetically grouped together according to serotype. All DT104 isolates displayed the penta-resistance phenotype to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline. Resistance to sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, streptomycin, kanamycin, and ampicillin was most common among the non-DT104 Salmonella isolates. All DT104 strains contained 2 chromosomal integrons of 1000 and 1200 base pairs. The DNA sequencing revealed that the 2 integrons contained genes encoding a resistance to streptomycin and ampicillin, respectively. None of the non-DT104 strains showed the same pattern, although several strains possessed integrons of 1000 base pairs or larger. However, the majority of non-DT104 Salmonella strains did not possess any integrons. Two Salmonella isolates displayed tolerance to the organic solvent cyclohexane, indicating the possibility that they are overexpressing chromosomal regulatory genes marA or soxS or the associated multidrug efflux pump, acrAB. This research suggests that integrons contribute to antimicrobial resistance among specific swine Salmonella serotypes; however, they are not as widely disseminated among non-Typhimurium swine Salmonella serotypes as previously thought. PMID:12528827

  16. Polyox and carrageenan based composite film dressing containing anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory drugs for effective wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boateng, Joshua S; Pawar, Harshavardhan V; Tetteh, John

    2013-01-30

    Polyethylene oxide (Polyox) and carrageenan based solvent cast films have been formulated as dressings for drug delivery to wounds. Films plasticised with glycerol were loaded with streptomycin (30%, w/w) and diclofenac (10%, w/w) for enhanced healing effects in chronic wounds. Blank and drug loaded films were characterised by texture analysis (for mechanical and mucoadhesive properties), scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In addition, swelling, in vitro drug release and antibacterial studies were conducted to further characterise the films. Both blank and drug loaded films showed a smooth, homogeneous surface morphology, excellent transparency, high elasticity and acceptable tensile (mechanical) properties. The drug loaded films showed a high capacity to absorb simulated wound fluid and significant mucoadhesion force which is expected to allow effective adherence to and protection of the wound. The films showed controlled release of both streptomycin and diclofenac for 72 h. These drug loaded films produced higher zones of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli compared to the individual drugs zones of inhibition. Incorporation of streptomycin can prevent and treat chronic wound infections whereas diclofenac can target the inflammatory phase of wound healing to relieve pain and swelling. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. LiF Reduces MICs of Antibiotics against Clinical Isolates of Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Syed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance is an ever-growing problem yet the development of new antibiotics has slowed to a trickle, giving rise to the use of combination therapy to eradicate infections. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the combined inhibitory effect of lithium fluoride (LiF and commonly used antimicrobials on the growth of the following bacteria: Enterococcus faecalis, Staphyloccoccus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The in vitro activities of ceftazidime, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, streptomycin, erythromycin, amoxicillin, and ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, alone or combined with LiF were performed by microdilution method. MICs were determined visually following 18–20 h of incubation at 37°C. We observed reduced MICs of antibiotics associated with LiF ranging from two-fold to sixteen-fold. The strongest decreases of MICs observed were for streptomycin and erythromycin associated with LiF against Acinetobacter baumannii and Streptococcus pneumoniae. An eight-fold reduction was recorded for streptomycin against S. pneumoniae whereas an eight-fold and a sixteen-fold reduction were obtained for erythromycin against A. baumannii and S. pneumoniae. This suggests that LiF exhibits a synergistic effect with a wide range of antibiotics and is indicative of its potential as an adjuvant in antibiotic therapy.

  18. Evolution of clinical research: A history before and beyond james lind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Bhatt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of clinical research traverses a long and fascinating journey. From the first recorded trial of legumes in biblical times to the first randomized controlled of trial of streptomycin in 1946, the history of clinical trial covers a wide variety of challenges - scientific, ethical and regulatory. The famous 1747 scurvy trial conducted by James Lind contained most elements of a controlled trial. The UK Medical Research Council′s (MRC trial of patulin for common cold in 1943 was the first double blind controlled trial. This paved the way for the first randomized control trial of streptomycin in pulmonary tuberculosis carried out in 1946 by MRC of the UK. This landmark trial was a model of meticulousness in design and implementation, with systematic enrolment criteria and data collection compared with the ad hoc nature of other contemporary research. Over the years, as the discipline of controlled trials grew in sophistication and influence, the streptomycin trial continues to be referred to as ground breaking. The ethical advances in human protection include several milestones - Nuremberg Code, Declaration of Helsinki, Belmont Report, and 1996, International Conference on Harmonization Good Clinical Practice guidance. In parallel to ethical guidelines, clinical trials started to become embodied in regulation as government authorities began recognizing a need for controlling medical therapies in the early 20th century. As the scientific advances continue to occur, there will be new ethical and regulatory challenges requiring dynamic updates in ethical and legal framework of clinical trials.

  19. Workforce productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ruth

    2012-10-26

    Managers who are responsible for delivering the workforce productivity element of the Quality, Innovation, Productivity and Prevention (QIPP) programme can network and share best practice through a dedicated NHS Employers webpage.

  20. Primary productivity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Photosynthetic production in the oceans in relation to light, nutrients and mixing processes is discussed. Primary productivity in the estuarine region is reported to be high in comparison to coastal and oceanic waters. Upwelling phenomenon...

  1. Biotechnology and genetic engineering in the new drug development. Part I. DNA technology and recombinant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryjewska, Agnieszka; Kiepura, Katarzyna; Librowski, Tadeusz; Lochyński, Stanisław

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceutical biotechnology has a long tradition and is rooted in the last century, first exemplified by penicillin and streptomycin as low molecular weight biosynthetic compounds. Today, pharmaceutical biotechnology still has its fundamentals in fermentation and bioprocessing, but the paradigmatic change affected by biotechnology and pharmaceutical sciences has led to an updated definition. The biotechnology revolution redrew the research, development, production and even marketing processes of drugs. Powerful new instruments and biotechnology related scientific disciplines (genomics, proteomics) make it possible to examine and exploit the behavior of proteins and molecules. Recombinant DNA (rDNA) technologies (genetic, protein, and metabolic engineering) allow the production of a wide range of peptides, proteins, and biochemicals from naturally nonproducing cells. This technology, now approximately 25 years old, is becoming one of the most important technologies developed in the 20(th) century. Pharmaceutical products and industrial enzymes were the first biotech products on the world market made by means of rDNA. Despite important advances regarding rDNA applications in mammalian cells, yeasts still represent attractive hosts for the production of heterologous proteins. In this review we describe these processes.

  2. Microbiological quality of selected ready-to-eat leaf vegetables, sprouts and non-pasteurized fresh fruit-vegetable juices including the presence of Cronobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthold-Pluta, Anna; Garbowska, Monika; Stefańska, Ilona; Pluta, Antoni

    2017-08-01

    Bacteria of the genus Cronobacter are emerging food-borne pathogens. Foods contaminated with Cronobacter spp. may pose a risk to infants or adults with suppressed immunity. This study was aimed at determining the microbiological quality of ready-to-eat (RTE) plant-origin food products available on the Polish market with special emphasis on the prevalence of Cronobacter genus bacteria. Analyses were carried out on 60 samples of commercial RTE type plant-origin food products, including: leaf vegetables (20 samples), sprouts (20 samples) and non-pasteurized vegetable, fruit and fruit-vegetable juices (20 samples). All samples were determined for the total count of aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TAMB) and for the presence of Cronobacter spp. The isolates of Cronobacter spp. were subjected to genetic identification and differentiation by 16S rDNA sequencing, PCR-RFLP analysis and RAPD-PCR and evaluation of antibiotic susceptibility by the disk diffusion assay. The TAMB count in samples of lettuces, sprouts and non-pasteurized fruit, vegetable and fruit-vegetable juices was in the range of 5.6-7.6, 6.7-8.4 and 2.9-7.7 log CFU g -1 , respectively. The presence of Cronobacter spp. was detected in 21 (35%) samples of the products, including in 6 (30%) samples of leaf vegetables (rucola, lamb's lettuce, endive escarola and leaf vegetables mix) and in 15 (75%) samples of sprouts (alfalfa, broccoli, small radish, lentil, sunflower, leek and sprout mix). No presence of Cronobacter spp. was detected in the analyzed samples of non-pasteurized fruit, vegetable and fruit-vegetable juices. The 21 strains of Cronobacter spp. isolated from leaf vegetable and sprouts included: 13 strains of C. sakazakii, 4 strains of C. muytjensii, 2 strains of C. turicensis, one strain of C. malonaticus and one strain of C. condimenti. All isolated C. sakazakii, C. muytjensii, C. turicensis and C. malonaticus strains were sensitive to ampicillin, cefepime, chloramphenicol, gentamycin

  3. Product (RED)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    ) and the consumers who buy iconic brand products to help ‘distant others’. While in many other forms of causumerism, labels or certification systems ‘prove’ that a product is just, in RED, aid celebrities provide the proof. From the consumer point of view both labels and celebrities provide a similar simplification...... of complex social, economic, and environmental processes. At the same time, we argue that there are important distinctions as well—labels and certifications are ultimately about improving the conditions of production, whereas RED is about accepting existing production and trade systems and donating......(PRODUCT)RED™ (hereafter RED) is a cobranding initiative launched in 2006 by the aid celebrity Bono to raise money from product sales to support The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. In this paper we argue that RED is shifting the boundaries of ‘causumerism’ (shopping...

  4. Stretch induced endothelin-1 secretion by adult rat astrocytes involves calcium influx via stretch-activated ion channels (SACs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrow, Lyle W.; Suchyna, Thomas M.; Sachs, Frederick

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Endothelin-1 expression by adult rat astrocytes correlates with cell proliferation. → Stretch-induced ET-1 is inhibited by GsMtx-4, a specific inhibitor of Ca 2+ permeant SACs. → The less specific SAC inhibitor streptomycin also inhibits ET-1 secretion. → Stretch-induced ET-1 production depends on a calcium influx. → SAC pharmacology may provide a new class of therapeutic agents for CNS pathology. -- Abstract: The expression of endothelins (ETs) and ET-receptors is often upregulated in brain pathology. ET-1, a potent vasoconstrictor, also inhibits the expression of astrocyte glutamate transporters and is mitogenic for astrocytes, glioma cells, neurons, and brain capillary endothelia. We have previously shown that mechanical stress stimulates ET-1 production by adult rat astrocytes. We now show in adult astrocytes that ET-1 production is driven by calcium influx through stretch-activated ion channels (SACs) and the ET-1 production correlates with cell proliferation. Mechanical stimulation using biaxial stretch ( 2+ threshold. This coupling of mechanical stress to the astrocyte endothelin system through SACs has treatment implications, since all pathology deforms the surrounding parenchyma.

  5. Generalized product

    OpenAIRE

    Greco, Salvatore; Mesiar, Radko; Rindone, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Aggregation functions on [0,1] with annihilator 0 can be seen as a generalized product on [0,1]. We study the generalized product on the bipolar scale [–1,1], stressing the axiomatic point of view. Based on newly introduced bipolar properties, such as the bipolar increasingness, bipolar unit element, bipolar idempotent element, several kinds of generalized bipolar product are introduced and studied. A special stress is put on bipolar semicopulas, bipolar quasi-copulas and bipolar copulas.

  6. Swine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plain, Ronald L; Lawrence, John D

    2003-07-01

    The US swine industry is large and growing. The quantity of pork desired by consumers of US pork is growing at the rate of 1.5%/y. New production systems and new technology have enabled production per sow to grow at a rate of 4% annually in recent years. Consequently, the number of sows in the United States is declining. Because productivity growth is outpacing demand growth, the deflated price of hogs and pork is declining. Hog production and prices continue to exhibit strong seasonal and cyclic patterns. Pork production is usually lowest in the summer and highest in the fall. Production and prices tend to follow 4-year patterns. The US swine industry continues to evolve toward fewer and larger producers who rely on contracts for both hog production and marketing. In 2000, over half of the hogs marketed were from approximately 156 firms marketing more than 50,000 head annually. These producers finished 60% of their production in contract facilities. Over 90% of their marketings were under contract or were owned by a packer. These producers expressed a high level of satisfaction with hog production. Both they and their contract growers were satisfied with production contracts. These large producers were satisfied with their marketing contracts and planned to continue them in the future. The hog industry has changed a great deal in the last decade. There is little reason to believe this rapid rate of change will not continue. This swine industry is highly competitive and profit driven. Profit margins are too small to allow producers the luxury of ignoring new technology and innovative production systems. Consequently, hog production will continue its rapid evolution from traditional agriculture to typical industry.

  7. 活性木炭制备及重要性状分析%Preparation and Characterization of Activated Biocharcoal from Different Tree Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁潇; 余仲东; 马菁; 朱薇熹; 赵成娟; 陈林敏

    2013-01-01

    the same families or genuses tree show a little difference in adsorption value and pH.The antimicrobial experiments using streptomycin indicated all pyrolysates have antimicrobial activity,which gives better performance from the pyrolytic product at 400-600 ℃.However,the antimicrobial activity from the samples showed less durability compared with the effect of streptomycin (10 mg/L).

  8. Antiproton production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allaby, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    The basic definitions used in the physics literature on particle production are reviewed. The data on anti p production are interpreted in order to provide an estimate of the yield of anti p's from typical target at the antiproton accumulator, including the effects of re-absorption in the target. (orig.)

  9. Conjugal transfer of aac(6')Ie-aph(2″)Ia gene from native species and mechanism of regulation and cross resistance in Enterococcus faecalis MCC3063 by real time-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaimee, G; Halami, P M

    2017-09-01

    High level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR) in the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) derived from food animals is detrimental. The aim of this study was to investigate the localization and conjugal transfer of aminoglycoside resistance genes, aac(6')Ie-aph(2″)Ia and aph(3')IIIa in different Enterococcus species. The cross resistance patterns in Enterococcus faecalis MCC3063 to clinically important aminoglycosides by real time PCR were also studied. Southern hybridization experiments revealed the presence of aac(6')Ie-aph(2 ″ )Ia and aph(3')IIIa genes conferring HLAR in high molecular weight plasmids except in Lactobacillus plantarum. The plasmid encoded bifunctional aac(6')Ie-aph(2″)Ia gene was transferable from Enterococcus avium (n = 2), E. cecorum (n = 1), E. faecalis (n = 1) and Pediococcus lolii (n = 1) species into the recipient strain; E. faecalis JH2-2 by filter mating experiments thus indicating the possible risks of gene transfer into pathogenic strains. Molecular analysis of cross resistance patterns in native isolate of E. faecalis MCC3063 carrying aac(6')Ie-aph(2″)Ia and aph(3')IIIa gene was displayed by quantification of the mRNA levels in this study. For this, the culture was induced with increasing concentrations of gentamicin, kanamycin and streptomycin (2048, 4096, 8192, 16384 μg/mL) individually. The increasing concentrations of gentamicin and kanamycin induced the expression of the aac(6')Ie-aph(2″)Ia and aph(3')IIIa resistance genes, respectively. Interestingly, it was observed that induction with streptomycin triggered a significant fold increase in the expression of the aph(3')IIIa gene which otherwise was not known to modify the aminoglycoside. This is noteworthy as streptomycin was found to confer cross resistance to structurally unrelated kanamycin. Also, expression of the aph(3')IIIa gene when induced with streptomycin, revealed that bacteria harbouring this gene will be able to overcome streptomycin bactericidal action at

  10. Identificazione e caratterizzazione dei determinanti genetici di antibiotico-resistenza in ceppi di Salmonella enterica di origine animale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Pezzella

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Tetracyclines are broad-spectrum agents, exhibiting activity against a wide range of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and are currently used for therapy and prophylaxis of human infections and for the prevention and control of bacterial infections in veterinary medicine. Streptomycin has only limited current usage in clinical medicine, but this antibiotic remains important for therapeutic and growth promotion in animals and for the bacterial disease control in plants.The increasing incidence of resistance to streptomycin and tetracyclines has been reported worldwide in Salmonella spp. of human and animal origin. Fifty-eight multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica strains of twenty different serotypes, were chosen among the collection of multidrug-resistant strains isolated from animals and food of animal origin at the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie and at the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell’Abruzzo e Molise, during their routine surveillance activity in the 2000 and 2001 period.All strains showed resistance to at least three different antimicrobials: tetracycline and streptomycin resistances represent the 98% and 95% of the strains, respectively. Salmonella isolates were analyzed for the presence of genetic determinants conferring streptomycin and tetracyclines resistance by PCR for the tet(A and strA-strB genes, respectively.The strA-strB genes were highly prevalent in Salmonella strains of our collection, being detected in the 83% of the streptomycin resistant strains; the 68% of the tetracycline resistant strains were tet(A gene positive, indicating that this gene is widely diffused in Salmonella strains circulating in animals in Italy. Two prevalent repN- and repI1-resistance plasmids were identified in Salmonella isolates of our collection. In many strains, the strA-strB genes were linked to a particular Tn5393-derivative transposon, characterized by the presence of the insertion sequence IS1133

  11. Radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The trial production runs started in the previous report period were continued and have been extended to 67 Ga, 81 Rb/ 81m Kr and 111 In, the production of which will be taken over from the Pretoria cyclotron at the end of this year, when that machine is scheduled to be shut down. After commissioning of the target water cooling system and the helium cooling system for beam foil windows at the beginning of this year, these production runs could also be extended to high beam currents (up to 50 μA). Test consignments of a number of products have been supplied to various potential future users, and 123 I, in the form of Na 123 I capsules as well as 123 I-sodium hippurate, and 52 Fe-citrate have actually been used with success in trial diagnostic studies on patients. A procedure for labelling IPPA and 3-IPMPA with 123 I has been developed, while initial work has also been done on the radioiodination of monoclonal antifibrine antibodies. The last major facility needed for the commencement of the routine radioisotope production programme, namely the multiple-target facility, is now ready for installation in the production vault within the next few weeks, and routine production runs are expected to start in November 1988. 4 figs., 18 refs

  12. Ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolleurp, F; Daugulis, A J

    1985-05-01

    Extractive fermentation is a technique that can be used to reduce the effect of end-product inhibition through the use of a water-immiscible phase which removes fermentation products in situ. This has the beneficial effect of not only removing inhibitory products as they are formed (thus keeping reaction rates high) but also has the potential for reducing product recovery costs. We have chosen to examine the ethanol fermentation as a model system for end product inhibition and extractive fermentation, and have developed a computer model predicting the productivity enhancement possible with this technique. The model predicts an ethanol productivity of 82.6 g/L-h if a glucose feed of 750 g/L is fermented with a solvent having a distribution coefficient of 0.5 at a dilution rate of 5.0 h . This is more than 10 times higher than for a conventional chemostat fermentation of a 250 g/L glucose feed. In light of this, a systematic approach to extractive fermentation has been undertaken involving the screening of more than 1,000 solvents for their extractive properties. UNIFAC and UNIQUAC estimates of distribution coefficients and selectivities were compiled and ranked in a database, together with other important physical properties, such as density, surface tension and viscosity. Preliminary shake-flask and chemostat biocompatibility studies on the most promising solvents have been undertaken. The previous predictive, data base and experimental results are discussed.

  13. The Effect of Light on Bacterial Activity in a Seaweed Holobiont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho-Souza, Sergio A; Jenkins, Stuart R; Casarin, Antonio; Baeta-Neves, Maria Helena; Salgado, Leonardo T; Guimaraes, Jean R D; Coutinho, Ricardo

    2017-11-01

    Holobionts are characterized by the relationship between host and their associated organisms such as the biofilm associated with macroalgae. Considering that light is essential to macroalgae survival, the aim of this study was to verify the effect of light on the heterotrophic activity in biofilms of the brown macroalgae Sargassum furcatum during its growth cycle. Measurements of heterotrophic activity were done under natural light levels at different times during a daily cycle and under an artificial extinction of natural light during the afternoon. We also measured Sargassum primary production under these light levels in the afternoon. Both measurements were done with and without photosynthesis inhibitor and antibiotics. Biofilm composition was mainly represented by bacteria but diatoms, cyanobacteria, and other organisms were also common. When a peak of diatom genera was recorded, the heterotrophic activity of the biofilm was higher. Heterotrophic activity was usually highest during the afternoon and the presence of a photosynthesis inhibitor caused an average reduction of 17% but there was no relationship with Sargassum primary production. These results indicate that autotrophic production in the biofilm was reduced by the inhibitor with consequences on bacterial activity. Heterotrophic activity was mainly bacterial and the antibiotics chloramphenicol and penicillin were more effective than streptomycin. We suggest primary producers in the biofilm are more important to increase bacterial activity than the macroalgae itself because of coherence of the peaks of heterotrophic and autotrophic activity in biofilm during the afternoon and the effects of autotrophic inhibitors on heterotrophic activity.

  14. Genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Yersinia enterocolitica isolated from pigs and humans in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoslavskij, Aleksandr; Kudirkienė, Eglė; Marcinkutė, Audronė; Bajoriūnienė, Almina; Korkeala, Hannu; Malakauskas, Mindaugas

    2013-06-01

    Yersiniosis is one of the three leading foodborne zoonoses in Lithuania, and the incidence of 12.86 per 100,000 population was the highest among EU member states in 2010. Contaminated pig carcasses and subsequently undercooked pig meat are considered to be the primary transmission vehicle of enteropathogenic Y. enterocolitica to consumers. With the aim of evaluating pigs as a possible source of human yersiniosis in Lithuania, this study investigated the genetic diversity of Y. enterocolitica isolated from pigs and human cases of yersiniosis. In addition, the antimicrobial resistance of selected isolates from both sources was compared. In total, 83 Y. enterocolitica strains were characterised using pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Overall, 68% of Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 pulsotypes found in human clinical samples were identical to 81% of pulsotypes found in the pig production chain. Yersinia enterocolitica pulsotype II was confirmed as the dominant pulsotype in the pig production chain and was identical to nine of 19 Y. enterocolitica strains found in humans. All tested Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 strains were resistant to ampicillin and erythromycin and sensitive to ciprofloxacin. Of the strains studied, 5% were resistant to tetracycline and streptomycin. This study showed that pigs may be the main source of human yersiniosis in Lithuania. In addition, Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 strains isolated from the pig production chain and from yersiniosis patients shared similar resistance to different antimicrobials. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Product plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, Hadley; Hofmann, Heike

    2011-12-01

    We propose a new framework for visualising tables of counts, proportions and probabilities. We call our framework product plots, alluding to the computation of area as a product of height and width, and the statistical concept of generating a joint distribution from the product of conditional and marginal distributions. The framework, with extensions, is sufficient to encompass over 20 visualisations previously described in fields of statistical graphics and infovis, including bar charts, mosaic plots, treemaps, equal area plots and fluctuation diagrams. © 2011 IEEE

  16. Fire Blight Control: The Struggle Goes On. A Comparison of Different Fire Blight Control Methods in Switzerland with Respect to Biosafety, Efficacy and Durability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Gusberti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fire blight (FB, caused by Erwinia amylovora, is one of the most important pome fruit pathogens worldwide. To control this devastating disease, various chemical and biological treatments are commonly applied in Switzerland, but they fail to keep the infection at an acceptable level in years of heavy disease pressure. The Swiss authorities therefore currently allow the controlled use of the antibiotic streptomycin against FB in years that are predicted to have heavy infection periods, but only one treatment per season is permitted. Another strategy for controlling Erwinia is to breed resistant/tolerant apple cultivars. One way of accelerating the breeding process is to obtain resistant cultivars by inserting one or several major resistance genes, using genetic engineering. To date, no study summarizing the impact of different FB control measures on the environment and on human health has been performed. This study consequently aims to compare different disease-control measures (biological control, chemical control, control by antibiotics and by resistant/tolerant apple cultivars obtained through conventional or molecular breeding applied against E. amylovora, considering different protection goals (protection of human health, environment, agricultural diversity and economic interest, with special emphasis on biosafety aspects. Information on each FB control measure in relation to the specified protection goal was assessed by literature searches and by interviews with experts. Based on our results it can be concluded that the FB control measures currently applied in Switzerland are safe for consumers, workers and the environment. However, there are several gaps in our knowledge of the human health and environmental impacts analyzed: data are missing (1 on long term studies on the efficacy of most of the analyzed FB control measures; (2 on the safety of operators handling streptomycin; (3 on residue analyses of Equisetum plant extract, the copper

  17. Uji Efektivitas Pestisida terhadap Beberapa Patogen Penyebab Penyakit Penting pada Buah Naga (Hylocereus sp. secara In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Widiastuti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Problem caused by pathogen in Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus sp. cultivation became very important because it decreased significantly the quantity and quality of the fruit production. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of some pesticides against pathogens that cause diseases of dragon fruit in several plantations in the DIY (Sleman and Kulon Progo and Central Java (Magelang and Batang. Test of fungicide effectiveness was done in vitro on PDA medium (potato dextrose agar by poisoned food technique. The fungicides were mancozeb 80 %, methyl tiofanat 70 %, copper hydroxide 80 %, chlorotalonil 75 %, mancozeb 64 % + metalaxyl 4 %, mancozeb karbendazim 73.8 % + 6.8 %,benomyl 50 % at a concentration of 1g/L. The bactericides used were streptomycin sulfate 20 % and oxytetracycline 150 AL with each concentration of 1 g/L and 1 mL /L. The results showed that benomyl 50 % was the most effective fungicide to suppress the growth of Fusarium sp. (brown spot, Colletotrichum sp. (anthracnose and Pestalotiopsis sp. (scab, followed by mancozeb 73.8 % +karbendazim 6.8 % and 73.8 % mancozeb. Bactericide which was able to suppress the growth of Erwinia sp. (stem rot was streptomycin sulfate 20 %.   Gangguan patogen pada buah naga (Hylocereus sp. saat ini menjadi masalah penting karena secara signifikan menurunkan kuantitas dan kualitas hasil panen. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui keefektivan beberapa pestisida terhadap patogen penyebab penyakit-penyakit penting pada tanaman buah naga yang ditanaman pada beberapa sentra pertanaman di Propinsi DIY (Sleman dan Kulon Progo dan Jawa Tengah (Magelang dan Batang. Uji keefektivan pestisida dilakukan secara in vitro pada medium PDA (potato dextrose agar dengan metode teknik makanan beracun (poisoned food technique. Fungisida yang dipergunakan adalah mankozeb 80%, tiofanat metil 70%, tembaga hidroksida 80%, klorotalonil 75%, mankozeb 64% + metalaksil 4%, mankozeb 73,8% + karbendazim 6,8%, benomil 50% dengan

  18. Tanning Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... must obtain a signed, FDA-prescribed risk acknowledgement certification before use that states that they have been informed of the risks to health that may result from use of sunlamp products. Using tanning lamps, booths, or beds: If you ...

  19. Bc production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusignoli, M.; Masetti, M.; Petrarca, S.

    1991-01-01

    The pseudoscalar meson B c is the simplest particle containing more than one heavy quark of different flavours. Its production cross sections at accelerators presently running or in project are estimated using the HERWIG parton shower Monte Carlo code. (orig.)

  20. Production models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Carsten

    2002-01-01

    The Project is co-financed with Nilpeter A/S and investigates the industrialization of build to order production. Project content: - Enterprise engineering - Specification processes - Mass Customization/ Build To Order - Knowledge/information management - Configuration - Supply Chain Management...

  1. Marketplace Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Office of Enterprise Data and Analytics, within the Centers for Medicare aqnd Medicaid Services (CMS), has developed a set of information products and analytics...

  2. Lean production

    OpenAIRE

    Veselková, Jana

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this Bachelor's Thesis is to describe the general principles of lean production and afterwards apply these principles in a particular company. Due to the changing conditions on the world market is among companies growing concern about such innovative business systems. The theoretical part of this work deals with the general characteristics of lean production, including their history and focus on Toyota, as the originator of most lean systems. Mentioned are also the economic aspect...

  3. Productive Gaming

    OpenAIRE

    Brandstätter , Ulrich; Sommerer , Christa

    2016-01-01

    Part 4: Short Papers; International audience; Video games can be appropriated for productive purposes. Commercial games and game engines are often used for video productions, and game development companies provide development kits and modding environments to gaming communities and independent developers. With gamification, game principles are deployed in non-game contexts for benefits beyond pure entertainment. Most approaches are more focused on using games and their design elements rather t...

  4. Biocidal Products and Borderline Products

    OpenAIRE

    Yılmaz, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Biocidal product is defined as preparations sold in ready form to use that contains one or more active substances and has control effect, movement restriction or destruction against harmful organisms which has harmful effect on products that people use or produce or animals or environment. These substances which are composed mostly chemicals and ease our lifes are used in increasingly every areas of our life on the other hand they carry variety of risks and threaten our lives. In terms of env...

  5. Chloroplast protein synthesis: thylakoid bound polysomes synthesize thylakoid proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurewitz, J.; Jagendorf, A.T.

    1986-01-01

    Previous work indicated more polysomes bound to pea thylakoids in light than in the dark, in vivo. With isolated intact chloroplasts incubated in darkness, 24 to 74% more RNA was thylakoid-bound at pH 8.3 than at pH 7. Thus the major effect of light in vivo may be due to higher stroma pH. In isolated pea chloroplasts, initiation inhibitors (pactamycin and kanamycin) decreased the extent of RNA binding, and elongation inhibitors (lincomycin and streptomycin) increased it. Thus translation initiation and termination probably control the cycling of bound ribosomes. While only 3 to 6% of total RNA is in bound polysomes the incorporation of 3 H-Leu into thylakoids was proportional to the amount of this bound RNA. When Micrococcal nuclease-treated thylakoids were added to labeled runoff translation products of stroma ribosomes, less than 1% of the label adhered to the added membranes; but 37% of the labeled products made by thylakoid polysomes were bound. These data support the concept that stroma ribosomes are recruited into thylakoid proteins

  6. Effects of the antimicrobial peptide gomesin on the global gene expression profile, virulence and biofilm formation of Xylella fastidiosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogaça, Andréa C; Zaini, Paulo A; Wulff, Nelson A; da Silva, Patrícia I P; Fázio, Marcos A; Miranda, Antônio; Daffre, Sirlei; da Silva, Aline M

    2010-05-01

    In the xylem vessels of susceptible hosts, such as citrus trees, Xylella fastidiosa forms biofilm-like colonies that can block water transport, which appears to correlate to disease symptoms. Besides aiding host colonization, bacterial biofilms play an important role in resistance against antimicrobial agents, for instance antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Here, we show that gomesin, a potent AMP from a tarantula spider, modulates X. fastidiosa gene expression profile upon 60 min of treatment with a sublethal concentration. DNA microarray hybridizations revealed that among the upregulated coding sequences, some are related to biofilm production. In addition, we show that the biofilm formed by gomesin-treated bacteria is thicker than that formed by nontreated cells or cells exposed to streptomycin. We have also observed that the treatment of X. fastidiosa with a sublethal concentration of gomesin before inoculation in tobacco plants correlates with a reduction in foliar symptoms, an effect possibly due to the trapping of bacterial cells to fewer xylem vessels, given the enhancement in biofilm production. These results warrant further investigation of how X. fastidiosa would respond to the AMPs produced by citrus endophytes and by the insect vector, leading to a better understanding of the mechanism of action of these molecules on bacterial virulence.

  7. Antibiotic resistance and resistance genes in Escherichia coli from poultry farms, southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelowo, Olawale O; Fagade, Obasola E; Agersø, Yvonne

    2014-09-12

    This study investigated the mechanisms of resistance in 36 E. coli isolated from waste, litter, soil and water samples collected from poultry farms in Southwestern Nigeria. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) distributions of the isolates were determined using the methods of the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute and resistance genes detected by PCR. A total of 30 isolates (94%) showed resistance to more than one antimicrobial. Percentage resistance was: tetracycline 81%, sulphamethoxazole 67%, streptomycin 56%, trimethoprim 47 %, ciprofloxacin 42%, ampicillin 36%, spectinomycin 28%, nalidixic acid 25%, chloramphenicol 22%, neomycin 14%, gentamicin 8%, amoxicillin-clavulanate, ceftiofur, cefotaxime, colistin, florfenicol and apramycin 0%. Resistance genes found among the isolates include bla-TEM (85%), sul2 (67%), sul3 (17%), aadA (65%), strA (70%), strB (61%), catA1 (25%), cmlA1 (13%), tetA (21%) and tetB (17%). Class 1 and 2 integrons were found in five (14%) and six (17%) isolates, respectively, while one isolate was positive for both classes of integrons. Seven out of eight isolates with resistance to ciprofloxacin and MIC ≤ 32 mg/L to nalidixic acid contained qnrS genes. Our findings provided additional evidence that the poultry production environment in Nigeria represents an important reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes such as qnrS that may spread from livestock production farms to human populations via manure and water.

  8. Environmental products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    This volume in the series of directories of Quebec organizations doing research and development involving biomass-based products or processes focused on environmental products and services. The objective of this, and other directories in the series, was to stimulate interaction, and hence more aggressive development, of products and processes capable of being commercialized, to facilitate interaction between those who possess and those who could utilize biomass resources, and in general, to encourage the development of biomass-based industries. A total of 83 organizations were included in standardized format, describing areas of research interest, principal areas of technological expertise, major equipment, personnel and name and address of contact person. In this volume fields of research interest included environmental audits, waste treatment, biodegradation, composting, oxidation, photodegradation, disinfection and combustion. tabs

  9. Uranium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spriggs, M.

    1980-01-01

    The balance between uranium supply and demand is examined. Should new resources become necessary, some unconventional sources which could be considered include low-grade extensions to conventional deposits, certain types of intrusive rock, tuffs, and lake and sea-bed sediments. In addition there are large but very low grade deposits in carbonaceous shales, granites, and seawater. The possibility of recovery is discussed. Programmes of research into the feasibility of extraction of uranium from seawater, as a by-product from phosphoric acid production, and from copper leach solutions, are briefly discussed. Other possible sources are coal, old mine dumps and tailings, the latter being successfully exploited commercially in South Africa. The greatest constraints on increased development of U from lower grade sources are economics and environmental impact. It is concluded that apart from U as a by-product from phosphate, other sources are unlikely to contribute much to world requirements in the foreseeable future. (U.K.)

  10. Bottom production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baines, J.; Baranov, S.P.; Bartalini, P.; Bay, A.; Bouhova, E.; Cacciari, M.; Caner, A.; Coadou, Y.; Corti, G.; Damet, J.; Dell-Orso, R.; De Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Domenech, J.L.; Drollinger, V.; Eerola, P.; Ellis, N.; Epp, B.; Frixione, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gavrilenko, I.; Gennai, S.; George, S.; Ghete, V.M.; Guy, L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iengo, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jones, R.; Kharchilava, A.; Kneringer, E.; Koppenburg, P.; Korsmo, H.; Kramer, M.; Labanca, N.; Lehto, M.; Maltoni, F.; Mangano, M.L.; Mele, S.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakada, T.; Nikitin, N.; Nisati, A.; Norrbin, E.; Palla, F.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robins, S.; Rousseau, D.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Shapiro, M.; Sherwood, P.; Smirnova, L.; Smizanska, M.; Starodumov, A.; Stepanov, N.; Vogt, R.

    2000-01-01

    In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations

  11. Bottom production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baines, J.; Baranov, S.P.; Bartalini, P.; Bay, A.; Bouhova, E.; Cacciari, M.; Caner, A.; Coadou, Y.; Corti, G.; Damet, J.; Dell-Orso, R.; De Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Domenech, J.L.; Drollinger, V.; Eerola, P.; Ellis, N.; Epp, B.; Frixione, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gavrilenko, I.; Gennai, S.; George, S.; Ghete, V.M.; Guy, L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iengo, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jones, R.; Kharchilava, A.; Kneringer, E.; Koppenburg, P.; Korsmo, H.; Kramer, M.; Labanca, N.; Lehto, M.; Maltoni, F.; Mangano, M.L.; Mele, S.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakada, T.; Nikitin, N.; Nisati, A.; Norrbin, E.; Palla, F.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robins, S.; Rousseau, D.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Shapiro, M.; Sherwood, P.; Smirnova, L.; Smizanska, M.; Starodumov, A.; Stepanov, N.; Vogt, R.

    2000-03-15

    In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations.

  12. Phytosanitary products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    One of a series of directories of Quebec universities, industrial and governmental agencies in Quebec actively involved in research and development of phytosanitary products or services derived from or associated with biomass products. This directory contained standardized entries for 79 organizations from the agriculture, forestry and environmental sectors, active in fields ranging from genetic engineering, fertilizers, crop diseases and pest management, forestry management, harvesting methods and bioconversion. Each entry provided information about major fields of research interest, principal technologies utilized, major equipment, personnel, and name and address of person to be contacted for further information. tabs

  13. Aluminium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, B.; Ayers, J.; Sammer, G.

    2001-01-01

    Aluminium is the most important non-ferrous metal by quantity. Aluminium is produced by electrolysis of aluminium oxide (also known as alumina). Alumina is produced by refining bauxite. The quantity of primary and secondary aluminium production in ECE-countries between 1992 and 1998 is shown. The European aluminium industry employs approximately 200 000 employees. The annual aluminium production in the European Union was 3.58 million tonnes in 1994, of which 44 % was secondary aluminium. In 1996 3.96 million tonnes of aluminium were produced in the EU, of which 44 % was secondary aluminium. (author)

  14. Uranium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.Q.

    1981-01-01

    The domestic uranium industry is in a state of stagflation. Costs continue to rise while the market for the product remains stagnant. During the last 12 months, curtailments and closures of mines and mills have eliminated over 5000 jobs in the industry, plus many more in those industries that furnish supplies and services. By January 1982, operations at four mills and the mines that furnish them ore will have been terminated. Other closures may follow, depending on cost trends, duration of current contracts, the degree to which mills have been amortized, the feasibility of placing mines on standby, the grade of the ore, and many other factors. Open-pit mines can be placed on standby without much difficulty, other than the possible cost of restoration before all the ore has been removed. There are a few small, dry, underground mines that could be mothballed; however, the major underground producers are wet sandstone mines that in most cases could not be reopened after a prolonged shutdown; mills can be mothballed for several years. Figure 8 shows the location of all the production centers in operation, as well as those that have operated or are on standby. Table 1 lists the same production centers plus those that have been deferred, showing nominal capacity of conventional mills in tons of ore per calendar day, and the industry production rate for those mills as of October 1, 1981

  15. Novolak Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiba, Hiroshi

    Novolak resins are produced by reacting formaldehyde (30-55% concentration) with phenol under acidic conditions, with oxalic acid as the preferred catalyst and in special conditions, sulfuric acid. Depending on the batch size, all raw material components can be introduced into the reactor, or when there is an increase in the batch size as well as in the reactor volume, the reaction exotherm is controlled by a gradual addition of formaldehyde. Modern novolak production facilities are automated and programmed for reduced operational cost. A flow diagram of a general production line for the manufacture of novolak is shown. Recovery of the novolak is accomplished by the removal of water and devolatilization of crude novolak to molten, low-free phenol novolak resin which can be isolated as flake or pastille or dissolved in appropriate solvents. Novolak is stored either in a solid flake or pastille form or in solution. Most production is conducted under atmospheric conditions, but there are some recent, novel activities such as pressure in a hermetically-closed reactor reaching 0.1-10 MPa by using the heat of reaction without reflux to shorten reaction time, accelerating dehydration time by flash distillation, and providing economic benefit in the cost of novolak production.

  16. Product Configuration Systems and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard; Edwards, Kasper

    2004-01-01

    Twelve companies have been interviewed with the purpose to get information about technical, economic and organisational matters in respect of Product Configuration Systems (PCS).Combinations of qualitative interviews and quantitative scoring have been used in ranking expected and realized results...

  17. Tequila production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedeño, M

    1995-01-01

    Tequila is obtained from the distillation of fermented juice of agave plant, Agave tequilana, to which up to 49% (w/v) of an adjunct sugar, mainly from cane or corn, could be added. Agave plants require from 8 to 12 years to mature and during all this time cleaning, pest control, and slacken of land are required to produce an initial raw material with the appropriate chemical composition for tequila production. Production process comprises four steps: cooking to hydrolyze inulin into fructose, milling to extract the sugars, fermentation with a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to convert the sugars into ethanol and organoleptic compounds, and, finally, a two-step distillation process. Maturation, if needed, is carried out in white oak barrels to obtain rested or aged tequila in 2 or 12 months, respectively.

  18. Lepton production

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment aims to settle open questions in the hadronic production of electrons, muons and neutrinos. Prominent among these are $e/\\mu$ universality, the contribution of charm decay to lepton pair production, and the "anomalous" low mass pairs.\\\\ The experimental design aims to optimize the combination of:\\\\- electron identification\\\\ - muon identification \\\\ - missing energy measurement for neutrinos \\\\ - vertex identification (for $\\tau \\simeq \\tau_{charm}$). \\\\ \\\\ The major components of the apparatus are shown in the figure. In the vertex region a proton beam of transverse size $\\simeq 50 \\mu$ impinges on a beryllium target of diameter $50 \\mu$, and high precision tracking in the vertex region is achieved by silicon strip detectors. Charged particle momenta are measured using a dipole magnet and high resolution drift chambers. Electrons are identified by the combination of the transition radiation detector and the finely segmented front section of the Uranium/Liquid Argon calorimeter. Essentially t...

  19. Product customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lueg, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    This case study deals with the extension, customization, and profitability of two new product lines of a bicycle manufacturer. It can serve both as a discussion basis in class as well as an exam for advanced Master students in management, marketing, and ccounting. The case illustrates how variance...... application of financial analysis can lead to dysfunctional decisions that run counter to a company’s business model....

  20. Isotope production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Dewi M.

    1995-07-15

    Some 2 0% of patients using radiopharmaceuticals receive injections of materials produced by cyclotrons. There are over 200 cyclotrons worldwide; around 35 are operated by commercial companies solely for the production of radio-pharmaceuticals with another 25 accelerators producing medically useful isotopes. These neutron-deficient isotopes are usually produced by proton bombardment. All commonly used medical isotopes can be generated by 'compact' cyclotrons with energies up to 40 MeV and beam intensities in the range 50 to 400 microamps. Specially designed target systems contain gram-quantities of highly enriched stable isotopes as starting materials. The targets can accommodate the high power densities of the proton beams and are designed for automated remote handling. The complete manufacturing cycle includes large-scale target production, isotope generation by cyclotron beam bombardment, radio-chemical extraction, pharmaceutical dispensing, raw material recovery, and labelling/packaging prior to the rapid delivery of these short-lived products. All these manufacturing steps adhere to the pharmaceutical industry standards of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP). Unlike research accelerators, commercial cyclotrons are customized 'compact' machines usually supplied by specialist companies such as IBA (Belgium), EBCO (Canada) or Scanditronix (Sweden). The design criteria for these commercial cyclotrons are - small magnet dimensions, power-efficient operation of magnet and radiofrequency systems, high intensity extracted proton beams, well defined beam size and automated computer control. Performance requirements include rapid startup and shutdown, high reliability to support the daily production of short-lived isotopes and low maintenance to minimize the radiation dose to personnel. In 1987 a major step forward in meeting these exacting industrial requirements came when IBA, together with the University of Louvain-La-Neuve in Belgium, developed the Cyclone-30

  1. Diboson production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans D.L.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of diboson production cross sections in pp collisions at the LHC at a centre of mass energy √s = 7 and 8 TeV, and in pp̅ collisions at the Tevatron at √s = 1.96 TeV are reviewed and compared with standard model predictions. Limits on charged and neutral anomalous triple gauge couplings extracted from the selected diboson event samples are also compared.

  2. Product design - Molecules, devices, functional products, and formulated products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; Ng, Ka M.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical product design is a multidisciplinary and diverse subject. This article provides an overview of product design while focusing on product conceptualization. Four product types are considered - molecular products, formulated products, devices and functional products. For molecular products......, computer-aided design tools are used to predict the physicochemical properties of single molecules and blends. For formulated products, an integrated experiment-modeling approach is used to generate the formula with the specified product attributes. For devices and functional products, conceptual product...... design is carried out by modeling the product based on thermodynamics, kinetics and transport processes, by performing experiments, and by decision making based on rule-based methods The results are product specifications in terms of the type of ingredients, composition, and the structure, form, shape...

  3. Microwave assisted one-pot catalyst free green synthesis of new methyl-7-amino-4-oxo-5-phenyl-2-thioxo-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-pyrano[2,3-d]pyrimidine-6-carboxylates as potent in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajmal R. Bhat

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An efficiently simple protocol for the synthesis of methyl 7 amino-4-oxo-5-phenyl-2-thioxo-2, 3, 4,5-tetrahydro-1H-pyrano[2,3-d]pyrimidine-6-carboxylates via one-pot three component condensation pathway is established via microwave irradiation using varied benzaldehyde derivatives, methylcyanoacetate and thio-barbituric acid in water as a green solvent. A variety of functionalized substrates were found to react under this methodology due to its easy operability and offers several advantages like, high yields (78–94%, short reaction time (3–6 min, safety and environment friendly without used any catalyst. The synthesized compounds (4a–4k showed comparatively good in vitro antimicrobial and antifungal activities against different strains. The Compounds 4a, 4b, 4c, 4d 4e and 4f showed maximum antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus (gram-positive bacteria, Escherichia coli, Klebshiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (gram-negative bacteria. The synthesized compound 4f showed maximum antifungal activity against Aspergillus Niger and Penicillium chrysogenum strains. Streptomycin is used as standard for bacterial studies and Mycostatin as standards for fungal studies. Structure of all newly synthesized products was characterized on the basis of IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectral analysis.

  4. Safety characterization and antimicrobial properties of kefir-isolated Lactobacillus kefiri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carasi, Paula; Díaz, Mariángeles; Racedo, Silvia M; De Antoni, Graciela; Urdaci, María C; Serradell, María de los Angeles

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacilli are generally regarded as safe; however, certain strains have been associated with cases of infection. Our workgroup has already assessed many functional properties of Lactobacillus kefiri, but parameters regarding safety must be studied before calling them probiotics. In this work, safety aspects and antimicrobial activity of L. kefiri strains were studied. None of the L. kefiri strains tested caused α- or β-hemolysis. All the strains were susceptible to tetracycline, clindamycin, streptomycin, ampicillin, erythromycin, kanamycin, and gentamicin; meanwhile, two strains were resistant to chloramphenicol. On the other hand, all L. kefiri strains were able to inhibit both Gram(+) and Gram(-) pathogens. Regarding the in vitro results, L. kefiri CIDCA 8348 was selected to perform in vivo studies. Mice treated daily with an oral dose of 10(8) CFU during 21 days showed no signs of pain, lethargy, dehydration, or diarrhea, and the histological studies were consistent with those findings. Moreover, no differences in proinflammatory cytokines secretion were observed between treated and control mice. No translocation of microorganisms to blood, spleen, or liver was observed. Regarding these findings, L. kefiri CIDCA 8348 is a microorganism isolated from a dairy product with a great potential as probiotic for human or animal use.

  5. Induction of male sterility in rice using chemical mutagens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minocha, J L; Gupta, R K [Department of Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (India)

    1988-07-01

    Full text: To diversify the sources of cytoplasmic male sterility for hybrid seed production in rice (Oryza sativa L.) attempts were made to induce this character in a popular indica cultivar PR 106 through chemical mutagens. Seeds were treated with 0.4% ethidium bromide (EB) for 24 or 48h at 10 deg. C, with 0.4% ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) for 24 or 48h at 10 deg. C for 16 hr at 20 deg. C or with 0.2% streptomycin sulphate (SM) for 24 or 48 hr at 10 deg. C. In M{sub 2} male sterile plants were detected in eleven different progenies, one from SM treatment and the remaining from EMS treatments. All the sterile plants had 100% non-stainable aborted pollen. Seed set upon open-pollination of the male sterile plants with the variety PR 106 ranged from 0.03 to 4.93 per cent whereas no seed formed in bagged panicles. In M{sub 3}, open-pollinated progenies of the male sterile plants and their fertile sibs were further studied. Two progenies segregated for male sterility, all others had only fertile plants. In one of the segregating progenies, five out of six and in the other nine out of fourteen plants were male sterile. The progenies of fertile sibs did not have any male sterile plant. The results indicate that sterility of cytoplasmic type has been induced by EMS. The parental variety PR 106 acts as the maintainer. (author)

  6. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Salmonella in animal feed produced in Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilangale, Renatus P; Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Chimwamurombe, Percy M; Kaaya, Godwin P

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of Salmonella is a global challenge in the public health and food production sectors. Our study investigated the prevalence, serovar and antimicrobial susceptibility of strains of Salmonella serovars isolated from animal feed (meat-and-bone and blood meal) samples from two commercial abattoirs in Namibia. A total of 650 samples (n=650) were examined for the presence of Salmonella. Results showed that 10.9% (n=71) were positive for Salmonella. Of the Salmonella serovars isolated, S. Chester was the most commonly isolated serovar (19.7%), followed by S. Schwarzengrund at 12.7%. From the Salmonella isolates, 19.7% (n=14) were resistant to one or more of the antimicrobials (nalidixic acid, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, sulfisoxazole, streptomycin and/or tetracycline), whereas 80.3% (n=57) were susceptible to all 16 antimicrobials tested. Resistance to sulfisoxazole and the trimethroprimsuflamethoxazole combination were the most common. The resistant isolates belonged to ten different Salmonella serovars. The susceptibility of most of the Salmonella isolated to the antimicrobials tested indicates that anti-microbial resistance is not as common and extensive in Namibia as has been reported in many other countries. It also appears that there is a range of antimicrobials available that are effective in managing Salmonella infections in Namibia. However, there is some evidence that resistance is developing and this will need further monitoring to ensure it does not become a problem.

  7. MOLECULAR-PHYLOGENETIC CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE OF Escherichia coli ISOLATED FROM GOATS WITH DIARRHEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Almeida Guimarães

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal diarrhea determines significant changes in feed conversion, causing productivity loss in caprine herds. The antimicrobial resistance in bacteria is characterized as an important public health issue; therefore, Escherichia coli may be characterized as an important pathogen due to expressing virulence mechanisms responsible for significant clinical conditions in humans and animals. The present study evaluated the presence of E. coli among 117 caprine fecal samples and analyzed the isolates for antimicrobial resistance. Suggestive colonies were submitted to biochemical screening followed by genotypic group determination and phylogenetic analysis; further, the samples were submitted to antimicrobials susceptibility test. E. coli, Salmonella spp, Shigella sonnei and Enterobacter aerogenes were identified. E. coli isolates were phylogenetically classified as B2 (9/39, D (19/39, B1 (7/39 e A (4/29 groups. The analysis of the isolates also revealed the presence of K99 (04/39 and Stx (02/39 virulence factors. Antimicrobial susceptibility test revealed sensitive isolates to Chloramphenicol, Streptomycin, Amoxicillin and Ciprofloxacin, being all resistant to Lincomycin, Vancomycin and Penicillin. The results support the need of establishing restricted protocols for antimicrobial use, a fundamental procedure for health improvement in Brazilian caprine herds.

  8. New Dimensions of Research on Actinomycetes: Quest for Next Generation Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polpass Arul Jose

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Starting with the discovery of streptomycin, the promise of natural products research on actinomycetes has been captivat¬ing researchers and offered an array of life-saving antibiotics. However, most of the actinomycetes have received a little attention of researchers beyond isolation and activity screening. Noticeable gaps in genomic information and associated biosynthetic potential of actinomycetes are mainly the reasons for this situation, which has led to a decline in the discovery rate of novel antibiotics. Recent insights gained from genome mining have revealed a massive existence of previously unrecognized biosynthetic potential in actinomycetes. Successive developments in next-generation sequencing, genome editing, analytical separation and high-resolution spectroscopic methods have reinvigorated interest on such actinomycetes and opened new avenues for the discovery of natural and natural-inspired antibiotics. This article describes the new dimensions that have driven the ongoing resurgence of research on actinomycetes with historical background since the commencement in 1940, for the attention of worldwide researchers. Coupled with increasing advancement in molecular and analytical tools and techniques, the discovery of next-generation antibiotics could be possible by revisiting the untapped potential of actinomycetes from different natural sources.

  9. Antibiotic Resistance Pattern and Biofilm Formation Ability of Clinically Isolates of Salmonella enterica Serotype typhimurium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Ghasemmahdi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The emergence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria with biofilm formation ability may be a major threat to public health and food safety and sanitation. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine antibiotic resistance patterns and biofilm production characteristics of Salmonella typhimurium isolated from different species of birds. Materials and Methods: The antibiotic resistance patterns of 38 pre-identified isolates were screened by standard Kirby-Bauer disc-diffusion method performed on Mueller–Hinton agar to a panel of 17 antibiotics. The extent of biofilm formation was measured by Microtiter plate (MTP-based systems. Results: The highest antimicrobial resistance was detected against nalidixic acid (97%, followed by doxycycline (86%, colistin (84%, streptomycin (84% and tetracycline (84%. All isolates were sensitive to amikacin (100% and 97% and 95% of the isolates were sensitive to ceftazidime and ceftriaxone, respectively. Twenty one different antibiotic resistance patterns were observed among S. typhimurium isolates. According to the results of the microtitre plate biofilm assay, there was a wide variation in biofilm forming ability among S. typhimurium isolates. Most of the isolates (60.52% were not capable of producing biofilm, while 26.31%, 7.89%, and 5.26% isolates were weak, strong and moderate biofilm producers, respectively. Conclusions: It was concluded that nearly all S. typhimurium isolates revealed a high multiple antibiotic resistant with low biofilm forming capabilities which proposed low association between biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance of a major food important pathogen.

  10. Immense essence of excellence: marine microbial bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Ira; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2010-10-15

    Oceans have borne most of the biological activities on our planet. A number of biologically active compounds with varying degrees of action, such as anti-tumor, anti-cancer, anti-microtubule, anti-proliferative, cytotoxic, photo protective, as well as antibiotic and antifouling properties, have been isolated to date from marine sources. The marine environment also represents a largely unexplored source for isolation of new microbes (bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, microalgae-cyanobacteria and diatoms) that are potent producers of bioactive secondary metabolites. Extensive research has been done to unveil the bioactive potential of marine microbes (free living and symbiotic) and the results are amazingly diverse and productive. Some of these bioactive secondary metabolites of microbial origin with strong antibacterial and antifungal activities are being intensely used as antibiotics and may be effective against infectious diseases such as HIV, conditions of multiple bacterial infections (penicillin, cephalosporines, streptomycin, and vancomycin) or neuropsychiatric sequelae. Research is also being conducted on the general aspects of biophysical and biochemical properties, chemical structures and biotechnological applications of the bioactive substances derived from marine microorganisms, and their potential use as cosmeceuticals and nutraceuticals. This review is an attempt to consolidate the latest studies and critical research in this field, and to showcase the immense competence of marine microbial flora as bioactive metabolite producers. In addition, the present review addresses some effective and novel approaches of procuring marine microbial compounds utilizing the latest screening strategies of drug discovery.

  11. Integrate genome-based assessment of safety for probiotic strains: Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvetti, Elisa; Orrù, Luigi; Capozzi, Vittorio; Martina, Alessia; Lamontanara, Antonella; Keller, David; Cash, Howard; Felis, Giovanna E; Cattivelli, Luigi; Torriani, Sandra; Spano, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    Probiotics are microorganisms that confer beneficial effects on the host; nevertheless, before being allowed for human consumption, their safety must be verified with accurate protocols. In the genomic era, such procedures should take into account the genomic-based approaches. This study aims at assessing the safety traits of Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 integrating the most updated genomics-based procedures and conventional phenotypic assays. Special attention was paid to putative virulence factors (VF), antibiotic resistance (AR) genes and genes encoding enzymes responsible for harmful metabolites (i.e. biogenic amines, BAs). This probiotic strain was phenotypically resistant to streptomycin and kanamycin, although the genome analysis suggested that the AR-related genes were not easily transferrable to other bacteria, and no other genes with potential safety risks, such as those related to VF or BA production, were retrieved. Furthermore, no unstable elements that could potentially lead to genomic rearrangements were detected. Moreover, a workflow is proposed to allow the proper taxonomic identification of a microbial strain and the accurate evaluation of risk-related gene traits, combining whole genome sequencing analysis with updated bioinformatics tools and standard phenotypic assays. The workflow presented can be generalized as a guideline for the safety investigation of novel probiotic strains to help stakeholders (from scientists to manufacturers and consumers) to meet regulatory requirements and avoid misleading information.

  12. Pathogenicity determinants and antibiotic resistance profiles of enterococci from foods of animal origin in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elal Mus, Tulay; Cetinkaya, Figen; Cibik, Recep; Soyutemiz, Gul Ece; Simsek, Husniye; Coplu, Nilay

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the presence of genes responsible for the pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance profile of enterococci isolated from various foodstuffs of animal origin was investigated. The percentage prevalence of enterococci was 54.1% (203/375) and the average count was found to be 3.81 log cfu/ml-g. Species-specific primers revealed Enterococcus faecalis as the predominant species carrying one or more virulence-associated traits of efa, gelE, ace, esp and agg genetic markers. Only one E. faecium isolate (from milk) was positive for the esp gene. Regarding antibiotic resistance, the highest frequency of resistance was observed for tetracycline (21.7%), followed by quinupristin/dalfopristin (13.3%), ciprofloxacin (2.0%), penicillin (2.0%), linezolid (1.0%), ampicillin (1.0%), streptomycin (1.0%), and gentamicin (0.5%). Enterococcus faecalis showed a higher prevalence of antibiotic resistance than other enterococci. The percentage of multidrug resistance among the isolates was 3.4%. Twenty-nine E. faecalis isolates (26.6%) carrying one of the virulence-associated traits were at the same time resistant to at least one antibiotic. Our results show that foods of animal origin, including ready-to-eat products, may be reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant and potentially virulent enterococci.

  13. Safety Characterization and Antimicrobial Properties of Kefir-Isolated Lactobacillus kefiri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Carasi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacilli are generally regarded as safe; however, certain strains have been associated with cases of infection. Our workgroup has already assessed many functional properties of Lactobacillus kefiri, but parameters regarding safety must be studied before calling them probiotics. In this work, safety aspects and antimicrobial activity of L. kefiri strains were studied. None of the L. kefiri strains tested caused α- or β-hemolysis. All the strains were susceptible to tetracycline, clindamycin, streptomycin, ampicillin, erythromycin, kanamycin, and gentamicin; meanwhile, two strains were resistant to chloramphenicol. On the other hand, all L. kefiri strains were able to inhibit both Gram(+ and Gram(− pathogens. Regarding the in vitro results, L. kefiri CIDCA 8348 was selected to perform in vivo studies. Mice treated daily with an oral dose of 108 CFU during 21 days showed no signs of pain, lethargy, dehydration, or diarrhea, and the histological studies were consistent with those findings. Moreover, no differences in proinflammatory cytokines secretion were observed between treated and control mice. No translocation of microorganisms to blood, spleen, or liver was observed. Regarding these findings, L. kefiri CIDCA 8348 is a microorganism isolated from a dairy product with a great potential as probiotic for human or animal use.

  14. In vitro safety assessments and antimicrobial activities of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains isolated from a fermented mare's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryantini, Ni Putu Desy; Yamasaki, Eiki; Kurazono, Hisao; Sujaya, I Nengah; Urashima, Tadasu; Fukuda, Kenji

    2017-03-01

    Safety and probiotic characteristics such as antimicrobial activities of three Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains, FSMM15, FSMM22 and FSMM26, previously isolated as potential probiotics from fermented mare's milk were investigated. The three FSMM strains were susceptible to ampicillin, gentamycin, kanamycin, streptomycin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol, whereas they were resistant to erythromycin (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 4-8 µg/mL) and clindamycin (MIC = 4 µg/mL); bioconversion of bile salts, hemolytic activity and mucin degradation activity were negative; enzymatic activities of α-chymotrypsin and β-glucosidase were detected, but those of α-galactosidase, β-glucuronidase and N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase, were undetectable. Among the strains, strain FSMM15 was chosen as a safer probiotic candidate due mainly to the lack of plasminogen binding ability. Despite lower acid production of strain FSMM15 than others, its cell-free culture supernatant inhibited growths of Salmonella Typhimurium LT-2, Shigella sonnei, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli O157 with comparable levels of ampicillin, suggesting a favorable aspect of strain FSMM15 as a probiotic strain. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. The Cultivation of Human Granulosa Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Brůčková

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The major functions of granulosa cells (GCs include the production of steroids, as well as a myriad of growth factors to interact with the oocyte during its development within the ovarian follicle. Also FSH stimulates GCs to convert androgens (coming from the thecal cells to estradiol by aromatase. However, after ovulation the GCs produce progesterone that may maintain a potential pregnancy. Experiments with human GCs are mainly focused on the purification of GCs from ovarian follicular fluid followed by FACS analysis or short-term cultivation. The aim of our study was to cultivate GCs for a long period, to characterize their morphology and phenotype. Moreover, we have cultivated GCs under gonadotropin stimulation in order to simulate different pathological mechanisms during folliculogenesis (e.g. ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. GCs were harvested from women undergoing in vitro fertilization. Complex oocyte-cumulus oophorus was dissociated by hyaluronidase. The best condition for transport of GCs was optimized as short transport in follicular fluid at 37 °C. GCs expansion medium consisted of DMEM/F12, 2 % FCS, ascorbic acid, dexamethasone, L-glutamine, gentamycine, penicillin, streptomycin and growth factors (EGF, bFGF. GCs transported in follicular fluid and cultivated in 2 % FCS containing DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with follicular fluid presented increased adhesion, proliferation, viability and decreased doubling time. Cell viability was 92 % and mean cell doubling time was 52 hrs. We have optimized transport and cultivation protocols for long-term cultivation of GCs.

  16. Effect of Fibroblast Co-culture on In Vitro Maturation and Fertilization of Mouse Preantral Follicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Heidari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate fibroblast co-culture on in vitro maturation andfertilization of prepubertal mouse preantral follicles.Materials and Methods: The ovaries of 12-14 day old mice were dissected and 120-150 μmintact preantral follicles with one or two layers of granulosa cells, and round oocytes were culturedindividually in α-minimal essential medium (α-MEM supplemented with 5% fetal bovine serum(FBS, 100 mIU/ml recombinant follicle stimulating hormone, 1% insulin, transferrin, seleniummix, 100 μg/ml penicillin and 50 μg/ml streptomycin as base medium for 12 days. A total number of226 follicules were cultured under two conditions: i base medium as control group (n=113; ii basemedium co-cultured with mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF (n=113. Follicular diameters, alone,in addition to other factors were analyzed by student’s t-test and chi-square test, respectively.Results: The co-culture group showed significant differences (p<0.05 in growth rate (days 4, 6 and8 of the culture period and survival rate. However, there was no significant difference in antrumformation, ovulation rate and embryonic development of released oocytes. There were significantdifferences (p<0.05 in the estradiol and progesterone secretion at all days between the co-cultureand control groups.Conclusion: Fibroblast co-culture increased survival rate and steroid production of preantralfollicles by promoting granulosa cell proliferation.

  17. Partial Sequencing of 16S rRNA Gene of Selected Staphylococcus aureus Isolates and its Antibiotic Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsi Dewantari Kusumaningrum

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The choice of primer used in 16S rRNA sequencing for identification of Staphylococcus species found in food is important. This study aimed to characterize Staphylococcus aureus isolates by partial sequencing based on 16S rRNA gene employing primers 16sF, 63F or 1387R. The isolates were isolated from milk, egg dishes and chicken dishes and selected based on the presence of sea gene that responsible for formation of enterotoxin-A. Antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates towards six antibiotics was also tested. The use of 16sF resulted generally in higher identity percentage and query coverage compared to the sequencing by 63F or 1387R. BLAST results of all isolates, sequenced by 16sF, showed 99% homology to complete genome of four S. aureus strains, with different characteristics on enterotoxin production and antibiotic resistance. Considering that all isolates were carrying sea gene, indicated by the occurence of 120 bp amplicon after PCR amplification using primer SEA1/SEA2,  the isolates were most in agreeing to S. aureus subsp. aureus ST288. This study indicated that 4 out of 8 selected isolates were resistant towards streptomycin. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing using 16sF is useful for identification of S. aureus. However, additional analysis such as PCR employing specific gene target, should give a valuable supplementary information, when specific characteristic is expected.

  18. Integrated approach for disease management and growth enhancement of Sesamum indicum L. utilizing Azotobacter chroococcum TRA2 and chemical fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, D K; Dubey, R C; Aeron, Abhinav; Kumar, Bhavesh; Kumar, Sandeep; Tewari, Sakshi; Arora, Naveen Kumar

    2012-10-01

    Azotobacter chroococcum TRA2, an isolate of wheat rhizosphere displayed plant growth promoting attributes including indole acetic acid, HCN, siderophore production, solubilization of inorganic phosphate and fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. In addition, it showed strong antagonistic effect against Macrophomina phaseolina and Fusarium oxysporum. It also caused degradation and digestion of cell wall components, resulting in hyphal perforations, empty cell (halo) formation, shrinking and lysis of fungal mycelia along with significant degeneration of conidia. Fertilizer adaptive variant strain of A. chroococcum TRA2 was studied with Tn5 induced streptomycin resistant transconjugants of wild type tetracycline-resistant TRA2 (designated TRA2(tetra+strep+)) after different durations. The strain was significantly competent in rhizosphere, as its population increased by 15.29 % in rhizosphere of Sesamum indicum. Seed bacterization with the strain TRA2 resulted in significant increase in vegetative growth parameters and yield of sesame over the non-bacterized seeds. However, application of TRA2 with half dose of fertilizers showed sesame yield almost similar to that obtained by full dose treatment. Moreover, the oil yield increased by 24.20 %, while protein yield increased by 35.92 % in treatment receiving half dose of fertilizer along with TRA2 bacterized seeds, as compared to untreated control.

  19. Immense Essence of Excellence: Marine Microbial Bioactive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Bhatnagar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Oceans have borne most of the biological activities on our planet. A number of biologically active compounds with varying degrees of action, such as anti-tumor, anti-cancer, anti-microtubule, anti-proliferative, cytotoxic, photo protective, as well as antibiotic and antifouling properties, have been isolated to date from marine sources. The marine environment also represents a largely unexplored source for isolation of new microbes (bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, microalgae-cyanobacteria and diatoms that are potent producers of bioactive secondary metabolites. Extensive research has been done to unveil the bioactive potential of marine microbes (free living and symbiotic and the results are amazingly diverse and productive. Some of these bioactive secondary metabolites of microbial origin with strong antibacterial and antifungal activities are being intensely used as antibiotics and may be effective against infectious diseases such as HIV, conditions of multiple bacterial infections (penicillin, cephalosporines, streptomycin, and vancomycin or neuropsychiatric sequelae. Research is also being conducted on the general aspects of biophysical and biochemical properties, chemical structures and biotechnological applications of the bioactive substances derived from marine microorganisms, and their potential use as cosmeceuticals and nutraceuticals. This review is an attempt to consolidate the latest studies and critical research in this field, and to showcase the immense competence of marine microbial flora as bioactive metabolite producers. In addition, the present review addresses some effective and novel approaches of procuring marine microbial compounds utilizing the latest screening strategies of drug discovery.

  20. Optimized in vitro procedure for assessing the cytocompatibility of magnesium-based biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ole; Smeets, Ralf; Porchetta, Dario; Kopp, Alexander; Ptock, Christoph; Müller, Ute; Heiland, Max; Schwade, Max; Behr, Björn; Kröger, Nadja; Kluwe, Lan; Hanken, Henning; Hartjen, Philip

    2015-09-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is a promising biomaterial for degradable implant applications that has been extensively studied in vitro and in vivo in recent years. In this study, we developed a procedure that allows an optimized and uniform in vitro assessment of the cytocompatibility of Mg-based materials while respecting the standard protocol DIN EN ISO 10993-5:2009. The mouse fibroblast line L-929 was chosen as the preferred assay cell line and MEM supplemented with 10% FCS, penicillin/streptomycin and 4mM l-glutamine as the favored assay medium. The procedure consists of (1) an indirect assessment of effects of soluble Mg corrosion products in material extracts and (2) a direct assessment of the surface compatibility in terms of cell attachment and cytotoxicity originating from active corrosion processes. The indirect assessment allows the quantification of cell-proliferation (BrdU-assay), viability (XTT-assay) as well as cytotoxicity (LDH-assay) of the mouse fibroblasts incubated with material extracts. Direct assessment visualizes cells attached to the test materials by means of live-dead staining. The colorimetric assays and the visual evaluation complement each other and the combination of both provides an optimized and simple procedure for assessing the cytocompatibility of Mg-based biomaterials in vitro. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Isoniazid-resistant Mycobacterium kansasii in an HIV-positive patient, and possible development of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Despotovic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-tuberculous mycobacteria are rare but important causes of infection in HIV-positive individuals. A 28-year-old HIV-positive male presented with a high fever, non-productive cough, right subcostal pain, splenomegaly, a very low CD4 count, elevated C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and a normal white blood cell count. The suspicion of tuberculosis (TB was very high, and sputum samples were positive for acid-fast bacilli. Standard quadruple anti-TB therapy was initiated, but once culture of the sample revealed Mycobacterium kansasii, pyrazinamide was withdrawn. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART was initiated soon after, consisting of abacavir/lamivudine and efavirenz. The patient's general condition deteriorated 2 weeks after HAART initiation, which could have been due to the development of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS. The patient recovered and was discharged in good condition. However, the results of resistance testing of the isolated organism arrived after discharge, and showed isoniazid and streptomycin resistance. This is the first case report of M. kansasii infection from Serbia and shows the difficulties encountered during the course of treatment.

  2. Induction of male sterility in rice using chemical mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minocha, J.L.; Gupta, R.K.

    1988-01-01

    Full text: To diversify the sources of cytoplasmic male sterility for hybrid seed production in rice (Oryza sativa L.) attempts were made to induce this character in a popular indica cultivar PR 106 through chemical mutagens. Seeds were treated with 0.4% ethidium bromide (EB) for 24 or 48h at 10 deg. C, with 0.4% ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) for 24 or 48h at 10 deg. C for 16 hr at 20 deg. C or with 0.2% streptomycin sulphate (SM) for 24 or 48 hr at 10 deg. C. In M 2 male sterile plants were detected in eleven different progenies, one from SM treatment and the remaining from EMS treatments. All the sterile plants had 100% non-stainable aborted pollen. Seed set upon open-pollination of the male sterile plants with the variety PR 106 ranged from 0.03 to 4.93 per cent whereas no seed formed in bagged panicles. In M 3 , open-pollinated progenies of the male sterile plants and their fertile sibs were further studied. Two progenies segregated for male sterility, all others had only fertile plants. In one of the segregating progenies, five out of six and in the other nine out of fourteen plants were male sterile. The progenies of fertile sibs did not have any male sterile plant. The results indicate that sterility of cytoplasmic type has been induced by EMS. The parental variety PR 106 acts as the maintainer. (author)

  3. Phage therapy is effective against infection by Mycobacterium ulcerans in a murine footpad model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Trigo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Buruli Ulcer (BU is a neglected, necrotizing skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. Currently, there is no vaccine against M. ulcerans infection. Although the World Health Organization recommends a combination of rifampicin and streptomycin for the treatment of BU, clinical management of advanced stages is still based on the surgical resection of infected skin. The use of bacteriophages for the control of bacterial infections has been considered as an alternative or to be used in association with antibiotherapy. Additionally, the mycobacteriophage D29 has previously been shown to display lytic activity against M. ulcerans isolates. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used the mouse footpad model of M. ulcerans infection to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of treatment with mycobacteriophage D29. Analyses of macroscopic lesions, bacterial burdens, histology and cytokine production were performed in both M. ulcerans-infected footpads and draining lymph nodes (DLN. We have demonstrated that a single subcutaneous injection of the mycobacteriophage D29, administered 33 days after bacterial challenge, was sufficient to decrease pathology and to prevent ulceration. This protection resulted in a significant reduction of M. ulcerans numbers accompanied by an increase of cytokine levels (including IFN-γ, both in footpads and DLN. Additionally, mycobacteriophage D29 treatment induced a cellular infiltrate of a lymphocytic/macrophagic profile. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our observations demonstrate the potential of phage therapy against M. ulcerans infection, paving the way for future studies aiming at the development of novel phage-related therapeutic approaches against BU.

  4. New Product

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    铭瑄

    2012-01-01

    Double Coin Holdings Launch New OTR Tire REM-15 With the increase of the demand for large-scale bulldozer in American market, Double Coin Group Co., Ltd. developed the Double Coin REM-15 OTR tire. This product is applicable for large-scale loader and bulldozer. The most remarkable characteristic is that it has good energy-saving performance and durability with low operating cost while the performances of tires aren't lowered. The new REM-15 is currently offered in the 17.5R25 size, which will be expanded to larger sizes in the future.

  5. production lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingshan Li

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, serial production lines with finished goods buffers operating in the pull regime are considered. The machines are assumed to obey Bernoulli reliability model. The problem of satisfying customers demand is addressed. The level of demand satisfaction is quantified by the due-time performance (DTP, which is defined as the probability to ship to the customer a required number of parts during a fixed time interval. Within this scenario, the definitions of DTP bottlenecks are introduced and a method for their identification is developed.

  6. Bottom Production

    CERN Document Server

    Nason, P.; Schneider, O.; Tartarelli, G.F.; Vikas, P.; Baines, J.; Baranov, S.P.; Bartalini, P.; Bay, A.; Bouhova, E.; Cacciari, M.; Caner, A.; Coadou, Y.; Corti, G.; Damet, J.; Dell'Orso, R.; De Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Domenech, J.L.; Drollinger, V.; Eerola, P.; Ellis, N.; Epp, B.; Frixione, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gavrilenko, I.; Gennai, S.; George, S.; Ghete, V.M.; Guy, L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iengo, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jones, R.; Kharchilava, A.; Kneringer, E.; Koppenburg, P.; Korsmo, H.; Kramer, M.; Labanca, N.; Lehto, M.; Maltoni, F.; Mangano, Michelangelo L.; Mele, S.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakada, T.; Nikitin, N.; Nisati, A.; Norrbin, E.; Palla, F.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robins, S.; Rousseau, D.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Shapiro, M.; Sherwood, P.; Smirnova, L.; Smizanska, M.; Starodumov, A.; Stepanov, N.; Vogt, R.

    2000-01-01

    We review the prospects for bottom production physics at the LHC. Members of the working group who has contributed to this document are: J. Baines, S.P. Baranov, P. Bartalini, A. Bay, E. Bouhova, M. Cacciari, A. Caner, Y. Coadou, G. Corti, J. Damet, R. Dell'Orso, J.R.T. De Mello Neto, J.L. Domenech, V. Drollinger, P. Eerola, N. Ellis, B. Epp, S. Frixione, S. Gadomski, I. Gavrilenko, S. Gennai, S. George, V.M. Ghete, L. Guy, Y. Hasegawa, P. Iengo, A. Jacholkowska, R. Jones, A. Kharchilava, E. Kneringer, P. Koppenburg, H. Korsmo, M. Kraemer, N. Labanca, M. Lehto, F. Maltoni, M.L. Mangano, S. Mele, A.M. Nairz, T. Nakada, N. Nikitin, A. Nisati, E. Norrbin, F. Palla, F. Rizatdinova, S. Robins, D. Rousseau, M.A. Sanchis-Lozano, M. Shapiro, P. Sherwood, L. Smirnova, M. Smizanska, A. Starodumov, N. Stepanov, R. Vogt

  7. Production management (1976)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sun Ryong

    1976-03-01

    This book introduces production management theory, which gives descriptions of production and system, systems approach, development of production management, Taylor system, Ford system, types of production system, measuring ingredients model of production management, decision of production management, selection of production facilities, arrangement of facilities design of work method and task, work measure system, demanding fore casting, production quality system and credibility system.

  8. From Product Models to Product State Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Holm

    1999-01-01

    A well-known technology designed to handle product data is Product Models. Product Models are in their current form not able to handle all types of product state information. Hence, the concept of a Product State Model (PSM) is proposed. The PSM and in particular how to model a PSM is the Research...

  9. Tobacco Products Production and Operations Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Treasury — Monthly statistical reports on tobacco products production and operations. Data for Tobacco Statistical Release is derived directly from the Report – Manufacturer of...

  10. Innovation in Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Tim C.; Restrepo-Giraldo, John Dairo

    2005-01-01

    The course on Innovation in Product Development attempts to identify and understand the nature of innovation and product development and their important factors. The course takes both a theoretical and a practical approach and employs a mix of lectures, project work and group discussion. Format...... insight. Course content The following aspects of innovation in product development are considered: - Humans and products - Needs and products - Product life - Teams creating products - Products creating business - Product development models - Organising product development - Product development tools...... - The future of product development....

  11. BACILLUS COAGULANS EFFICIENCY IN TREATING ANTIBIOTIC-ASSOCIATED DIARRHEA IN IMMUNODEFICIENCY MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosalskaya T.N.,

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. One of the most promising probiotic including spore-forming microorganisms is a lactobacilli Bacillus coagulans (BC. In the spore form, it is resistant to technological processes and storage, it does not collapse under the influence of gastric juice and bile. After getting into the duodenum, the BC spores can germinate into vegetative bacteria in the human intestine and exert their probiotic effects. BC is not a part of dietary supplements. Recently, many drugs with proven clinical efficiency, based on BC, in the global pharmaceutical market are present. Based on the BC, the drug Laktovit Forte’s influence on the digestive disorders and intestinal dysbiosis caused by streptomycin chronic administration in immunodeficiency mice was investigated in this study. Materials and methods. Work carried out on white outbred mice weighing 20-22 g to simulate digestion disorders characterized by diarrhea in mice for 9 days through streptomycin administered intragastrically at a dose of 2 g / kg of body weight. Disorders in the immune status were modeled by a single subcutaneous injection of cyclophosphamide at a dose of 250 mcg / kg. A Bacillus coagulans from Laktovit Forte was administered to the animals of experimental groups intragastrically at a dose of 46 mg / kg. Comparison drugs were capsules containing Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BB-12. Comparison drugs were also administered intragastrically at a dose of 42 mg / kg. Both drugs were administered beginning from day 6 after antibiotic was started to be administered, the treatment duration was for 7 days. Animals were randomized into groups by 12 animals each: 1 - intact control; 2 - control disease (only streptomycin administered; 3 - pathology with immunosuppression (both streptomycin and cyclophosphamide administered; 4 - streptomycin + Laktovit Forte; 5 - pathology immunosuppression + Laktovit Forte; 6 - streptomycin + reference drug

  12. SaferProducts API

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Consumer Product Safety Commission — On March 11, 2011, the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission launched SaferProducts.gov. This site hosts the agency's new Publicly Available Consumer Product...

  13. Product and labour market regulations, production prices, wages and productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cette, G.; Lopez, J.; Mairesse, J.

    2015-01-01

    This study is an attempt to evaluate the effects of product and labour market regulations on industry productivity through their various impacts on changes in production prices and wages. In a first stage, the estimation of a regression equation on an industry*country panel, with controls for

  14. Antibiotic Resistance in Escherichia coli from Pigs in Organic and Conventional Farming in Four European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österberg, Julia; Wingstrand, Anne; Nygaard Jensen, Annette; Kerouanton, Annaelle; Cibin, Veronica; Barco, Lisa; Denis, Martine; Aabo, Sören; Bengtsson, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Organic pig production differs in many ways from conventional production of pigs, e.g., in antibiotic use, herd structure, feeding regimes, access to outdoor areas and space allowance per pig. This study investigated if these differences result in a lower occurrence of antibiotic resistance in organic slaughter pigs in Denmark, France, Italy and Sweden. Samples were taken from the colon content and/or faeces and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of ten antibiotics were determined in isolates of Escherichia coli. In addition, the proportion of tetracycline (TET) resistant E. coli in colon content and/or faeces from individual pigs was determined. In all four countries the percentage resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamides or trimethoprim was significantly lower in E. coli from organic pigs. In France and Italy, the percentage of isolates resistant to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid or gentamicin was also significantly lower in the E. coli from organic pigs. Resistance to cefotaxime, was not found in any country. The percentage of E. coli isolates resistant to TET as well as the proportion of TET-resistant E. coli was significantly lower in organic than in conventional pigs, except in Sweden where TET-resistance was equally low in both production types. There were also differences between countries within production type in the percentage resistance to individual antibiotics as well as the proportion of TET-resistant E. coli with lower median proportions in Sweden and Denmark compared to France and Italy. The study shows that in each of the four countries resistance in intestinal E. coli was less common in organic than in conventional pigs, but that there were also large differences in resistance between countries within each production type, indicating that both country- and production-specific factors influence the occurrence of resistance.

  15. Production management (2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Chung Yeong

    2000-08-01

    This book includes basic concept of production management, production system, strategy and mission of production, decision of production management, operation of decision making, life cycle of items and development, value of productions, design for reliability of productions, equipment layout and manufacturing process, quantitative forecast, schedule plan, inventory system, concept, input and output of MRP, Montekalo simulation, quality management, and automation system.

  16. Product Service Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Departing from Product Development models based on physical artefacts. Moving towards integrated Product Development and System Operations models suited Product/Service-systems......Departing from Product Development models based on physical artefacts. Moving towards integrated Product Development and System Operations models suited Product/Service-systems...

  17. A cross-sectional study of tuberculosis drug resistance among previously treated patients in a tertiary hospital in Accra, Ghana: public health implications of standardized regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forson, Audrey; Kwara, Awewura; Kudzawu, Samuel; Omari, Michael; Otu, Jacob; Gehre, Florian; de Jong, Bouke; Antonio, Martin

    2018-04-02

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance is a major challenge to the use of standardized regimens for tuberculosis (TB) therapy, especially among previously treated patients. We aimed to investigate the frequency and pattern of drug resistance among previously treated patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital Chest Clinic, Accra. This was a cross-sectional survey of mycobacterial isolates from previously treated patients referred to the Chest Clinic Laboratory between October 2010 and October 2013. The Bactec MGIT 960 system for mycobactrerial culture and drug sensitivity testing (DST) was used for sputum culture of AFB smear-positive patients with relapse, treatment failure, failure of smear conversion, or default. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize patient characteristics, and frequency and patterns of drug resistance. A total of 112 isolates were studied out of 155 from previously treated patients. Twenty contaminated (12.9%) and 23 non-viable isolates (14.8%) were excluded. Of the 112 studied isolates, 53 (47.3%) were pan-sensitive to all first-line drugs tested Any resistance (mono and poly resistance) to isoniazid was found in 44 isolates (39.3%) and any resistance to streptomycin in 43 (38.4%). Thirty-one (27.7%) were MDR-TB. Eleven (35.5%) out of 31 MDR-TB isolates were pre-XDR. MDR-TB isolates were more likely than non-MDR isolates to have streptomycin and ethambutol resistance. The main findings of this study were the high prevalence of MDR-TB and streptomycin resistance among previously treated TB patients, as well as a high prevalence of pre-XDR-TB among the MDR-TB patients, which suggest that first-line and second-line DST is essential to aid the design of effective regimens for these groups of patients in Ghana.

  18. Antibacterial activity of four Gracilaria species of red seaweeds collected from Mandapam Coast, Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sethu Rameshkumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the antibacterial activities of diethyl ether, toluene, ethanol and methanol extracts of red seaweeds such as Gracilaria crassa (G. crassa, Gracilaria folifera (G. folifera, Gracilaria debilis (G. debilis and Gracilaria corticata. Methods: The crude extracts were tested against different types of Gram-positive and -negative bacterial strains and all the seaweed extracts were tested a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. Antibacterial activity was made using paper disc diffusion method. Four organic solvents (diethyl ether, toluene, methanol and ethanol were used separately in a Soxhlet apparatus for seven bacterial strains. Antibacterial activity of the known antibiotics such as chloramphenicol, streptomycin, kanamycin and ampicillin was determined by testing them against different test organisms. Results: The high antibacterial activity was noted in the extracts of G. crassa, G. folifera and G. debilis. However, G. crassa and G. debilis have good antibacterial activity. Pathogens like Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli were less susceptible to the methanol and diethyl ether extracts of G. folifera. The comparative study on the antibacterial activity was also made by using 200 μg concentration of solvent extracts (diethyl ether, ethanol, toluene and methanoland different five antibiotics such as chloramphenicol, streptomycin, kanamycin, amoxicillin and ampicillin. The bacterial strains tested were more sensitive to chloramphenicol, streptomycin, kanamycin, and ampicillin when compared to algal extracts. Conclusions: The present study proved that the extracts of G. crassa, G. folifera and G. debilis have high antibacterial activity. Although G. crassa and G. debilis showed good antibacterial activity, many known antibiotics are active against a few organisms individually. Hence, the extracts of seaweeds were active against all test organisms used and the activities were comparable to that of antibiotics and the

  19. Enrofloxacin is able to control Toxoplasma gondii infection in both in vitro and in vivo experimental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Bellisa Freitas; Gomes, Angelica Oliveira; Ferro, Eloisa Amália Vieira; Napolitano, Danielle Reis; Mineo, José Roberto; Silva, Neide Maria

    2012-06-08

    Currently, toxoplasmosis is treated with sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine. However, this treatment presents several adverse side effects; thus, there is a critical need for the development and evaluation of new drugs, which do not present the same problems of the standard therapy. Enrofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic known to control infection against several bacteria in veterinary medicine. Recently, this drug has demonstrated protective effects against protozoan parasites such as Neospora caninum. The present study aimed to determine the effect of enrofloxacin in the control of Toxoplasma gondii infection. For this purpose, human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) cells were infected with T. gondii RH strain and treated with sulfadiazine, penicillin/streptomycin, pyrimethamine, or enrofloxacin. Following treatment, we analyzed the infection index, parasite intracellular proliferation and the number of plaques. Additionally, tissue parasitism and histological changes were investigated in the brain of Calomys callosus that were infected with T. gondii (ME49 strain) and treated with either sulfadiazine or enrofloxacin. Enrofloxacin was able to reduce the infection index, intracellular proliferation and the number of plaques in HFF cells infected by T. gondii in comparison with untreated or penicillin/streptomycin-treated ones. Enrofloxacin was more protective against T. gondii in HFF infected cells than sulfadiazine treatment (Penrofloxacin or the associations of sulfadiazine plus pyrimethamine, enrofloxacin plus sulfadiazine or enrofloxacin plus pyrimethamine-treatments were able to reduce the plaque numbers in HFF cells infected by T. gondii when compared to medium, penicillin/streptomycin or sulfadiazine alone. In vivo experiments demonstrated that enrofloxacin diminished significantly the tissue parasitism as well as the inflammatory alterations in the brain of C. callosus infected with T. gondii when compared with untreated animals. Based on our findings, it can

  20. Enhanced osteoblast adhesion to drug-coated anodized nanotubular titanium surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E Aninwene II

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available George E Aninwene II1, Chang Yao2, Thomas J Webster21Department of Biochemical Engineering, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD; 2Division of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI, USAAbstract: Current orthopedic implants have functional lifetimes of only 10–15 years due to a variety of reasons including infection, extensive inflammation, and overall poor osseointegration (or a lack of prolonged bonding of the implant to juxtaposed bone. To improve properties of titanium for orthopedic applications, this study anodized and subsequently coated titanium with drugs known to reduce infection (penicillin/streptomycin and inflammation (dexamethasone using simple physical adsorption and the deposition of such drugs from simulated body fluid (SBF. Results showed improved drug elution from anodized nanotubular titanium when drugs were coated in the presence of SBF for up to 3 days. For the first time, results also showed that the simple physical adsorption of both penicillin/streptomycin and dexamethasone on anodized nanotubular titanium improved osteoblast numbers after 2 days of culture compared to uncoated unanodized titanium. In addition, results showed that depositing such drugs in SBF on anodized titanium was a more efficient method to promote osteoblast numbers compared to physical adsorption for up to 2 days of culture. In addition, osteoblast numbers increased on anodized titanium coated with drugs in SBF for up to 2 days of culture compared to unanodized titanium. In summary, compared to unanodized titanium, this preliminary study provided unexpected evidence of greater osteoblast numbers on anodized titanium coated with either penicillin/streptomycin or dexamethasone using simple physical adsorption or when coated with SBF; results which suggest the need for further research on anodized titanium orthopedic implants possessing drug-eluting nanotubes.Keywords: anodization, titanium, adhesion, simulated body fluid, nanotubes

  1. Use of an in vitro pharmacodynamic model to derive a moxifloxacin regimen that optimizes kill of Yersinia pestis and prevents emergence of resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, A; Heine, H S; VanScoy, B; Eichas, A; Files, K; Fikes, S; Brown, D L; Liu, W; Kinzig-Schippers, M; Sörgel, F; Drusano, G L

    2011-02-01

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of bubonic, septicemic, and pneumonic plague, is classified as a CDC category A bioterrorism pathogen. Streptomycin and doxycycline are the "gold standards" for the treatment of plague. However, streptomycin is not available in many countries, and Y. pestis isolates resistant to streptomycin and doxycycline occur naturally and have been generated in laboratories. Moxifloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic that demonstrates potent activity against Y. pestis in in vitro and animal infection models. However, the dose and frequency of administration of moxifloxacin that would be predicted to optimize treatment efficacy in humans while preventing the emergence of resistance are unknown. Therefore, dose range and dose fractionation studies for moxifloxacin were conducted for Y. pestis in an in vitro pharmacodynamic model in which the half-lives of moxifloxacin in human serum were simulated so as to identify the lowest drug exposure and the schedule of administration that are linked with killing of Y. pestis and with the suppression of resistance. In the dose range studies, simulated moxifloxacin regimens of ≥175 mg/day killed drug-susceptible bacteria without resistance amplification. Dose fractionation studies demonstrated that the AUC (area under the concentration-time curve)/MIC ratio predicted kill of drug-susceptible Y. pestis, while the C(max) (maximum concentration of the drug in serum)/MIC ratio was linked to resistance prevention. Monte Carlo simulations predicted that moxifloxacin at 400 mg/day would successfully treat human infection due to Y. pestis in 99.8% of subjects and would prevent resistance amplification. We conclude that in an in vitro pharmacodynamic model, the clinically prescribed moxifloxacin regimen of 400 mg/day is predicted to be highly effective for the treatment of Y. pestis infections in humans. Studies of moxifloxacin in animal models of plague are warranted.

  2. Effects of antibiotics on uptake of calcium into isolated nerve terminals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atchison, W.D.; Adgate, L.; Beaman, C.M.

    1988-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to determine whether several antibiotics which are known to block neuromuscular transmission would impair depolarization-dependent and/or -independent uptake of calcium into isolated nerve terminals prepared from forebrain synaptosomes of rats by conventional methods. Antibiotics tested for potential block of Ca++ uptake included the aminoglycosides neomycin and streptomycin, the lincosamide clindamycin, oxytetracycline and polymyxin B. Drugs were applied in concentrations ranging from 1 to 1000 microM. Uptake of 45Ca was determined during depolarization induced by an elevated K+ concentration (77.5 mM). Influxes of 45Ca during 1 and 10 sec of depolarization were used to assess Ca++ uptake via a fast, inactivating path and total uptake, respectively. Uptake of 45Ca during 10 sec of depolarization into synaptosomes which were previously depolarized for 10 sec in the presence of 77.5 mM K+ but in the absence of external Ca++ was used to measure uptake during a slow, noninactivating path. Total depolarization-dependent uptake of 45Ca was depressed significantly by all antibiotics tested except oxytetracycline; however, the various agents differed with respect to their efficacy and potency as blockers of Ca influx. The fast component of uptake, which is thought to be associated with neurotransmitter release, was decreased significantly by all antibiotics. Neomycin and polymyxin were the most potent and most effective at lowering fast phase 45Ca influx; streptomycin, was intermediate in effectiveness whereas clindamycin and oxytetracycline were only effective at concentrations greater than or equal to 100 microM. Only clindamycin, streptomycin and polymyxin B caused significant reductions in the slow phase of 45Ca uptake

  3. [Construction of a recombinant HVT virus expressing the HA gene of avian influenza virus H5N1 via Rde/ET recombination system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Desong; Shi, Xingming; Wang, Yunfeng; Liu, Changjun; Wang, Mei; Cui, Hongyu; Tian, Guobin; Li, Jisong; Tong, Guangzhi

    2009-01-01

    In recent years,manipulation of large herpesvirus genomes has been facilitated by using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) vectors. We have previously reported the construction of the BAC clones (HVT BACs) of herpesvirus of turkey (HVT). With these BAC clones in hand,we manipulated the genome of HVT by utilizing Red/ET recombination system, and developed a biologically safe live vaccine based on the HVT BACs. In this two-step approach, we first transformed the plasmid pRedET into the DH10B competent cells that carried the HVT BACs,and added inducer L-arabinose into the cells. We prepared the cells into competent cells and electroporated the linear rpsL-neo counter-selection/selection cassette flanked by the 50 bp long homology arms into the cells. So the functional cassette was inserted into the U(S)2 locus. Only colonies carrying the modified BAC would survive Kanamycin selection on the agar plates. The successful integration of the rpsL-neo cassette was monitored by PCR and Streptomycin selection, for the insertion of rpsL-neo cassette cells will become Streptomycin sensitive. Secondly, in the same way, we replaced the rpsL-neo cassette with the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of (HPAIV) A/Goose/ Guangdong/1/96(H5N1) flanked by the same homology arms. Only colonies which lost the rpsL-neo cassette will grow on Streptomycin containing plates. Finally, we obtained many colonies of which the HA gene of the AIV was inserted into the U(S)2 locus to be modified of HVT. And we reconstituted one recombinant virus from transfecting one of these BAC clones DNA into chick embryo fibroblasts (CEFs). We achieved one rescued recombinant virus which designated as rHVT-HA3. The H5 subtype HA gene expression in this recombinant virus rHVT-HA3 was confirmed by immunofluorescence assay.

  4. THE ANTI-TB DRUG SENSITIVITY OF MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS FROM CEREBROSPINAL FLUID AND BONE TISSUE BIOPSY SPECIMENS OF PATIENTS SUSPECTED TUBERCULOUS MENINGITIS AND SPINAL TB IN DR SOETOMO HOSPITAL INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Mertaniasih

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculous meningitis (TBM is an infection of meningens which potentially life threatening with significant morbidity and mortality. Spinal TB has the same problem with TBM, infection in bone and joint, the delayed diagnosis worsens the prognosis. The rapid and accurate diagnosis plus promt adequate treatment is essential for the good outcome. The aim of this research is to study the first line drug sensitivity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from specimens of cerebrospinal fluid from suspected tuberculous meningitis patients and bone tissue biopsy from suspected spinal TB patients. The method of this research is TB Laboratory examination in Department of Clinical Microbiology – Dr. Soetomo General Hospital, Indonesia, using the gold standard liquid culture method MGIT 960 System (Becton Dickinson and solid culture method with Lowenstein-Jensen medium. The specimens CSF from 50 TBM patients at January 2013 until May 2014. Positive isolate detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex were 11 isolates (22%, which sensitivity 100% (11/11 isolates to Rifampin (R, Pyrazinamide (Z, Ethambutol (E, and Streptomycin (S; one isolate resistant to Isoniazid, sensitivity to Isoniazid 90,90% (10/11; and received 21 specimens of bone tissue biopsy which positive 5 isolates (23%, all isolates sensitive 100% (5/5 isolates to Rifampin and Pyrazinamide, and 1 isolates resistant to Isoniazid, Ethambutol, and Streptomycin, in which sensitivity 80% (4/5 isolates to Isoniazid, Ethambutol, and Streptomycin. The conclusion of this research is positivity detection 22% of CSF specimens, and 23% of bone tissue biopsy were low. All isolates sensitive 100% to Rifampin and Pyrazinamide, and 80-90% sensitive to Isoniazid.

  5. Control of Listeria monocytogenes in turkey deli loaves using organic acids as formulation ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, T; Alvarado, C Z; Brashears, M M; Thompson, L D; McKee, S R; Berrang, M

    2009-10-01

    The growth of Listeria monocytogenes in further-processed meat products has become a major concern and an important food safety issue. The meat and poultry industries have incorporated interventions such as organic acids in marinades to inhibit the growth of L. monocytogenes. In this study, organic acids were utilized in the raw product and as a postcook dip to determine their inhibitory effect on the growth of L. monocytogenes in turkey deli loaves. The turkey deli loaves were processed, cooked, cooled, inoculated with streptomycin-resistant L. monocytogenes, and then dipped. Treatments were potassium lactate (PL) in the raw product with sodium lactate (SL), sodium diacetate (SD) dip, PL with SL/PL/SD dip, SL with SL/SD dip, and SL with SL/PL/SD dip. There was also a positive (inoculated) and negative (noninoculated) control, which was dipped in distilled water. Days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, and 56 were sampled for L. monocytogenes. There were no differences (P>0.05) among the organic acid treatments in the turkey deli loaves at any time points; therefore, all of the treatments increased the lag phase of L. monocytogenes, extending the shelf-life of the product. However, there was a difference between the treatments and the positive control at d 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, and 56. The growth of L. monocytogenes increased immediately in the positive control, whereas the negative control appeared to have no growth. These organic acids can provide meat processors with a useful method for extending the lag phase of L. monocytogenes in ready-to-eat meat and poultry products.

  6. Production monitoring system for understanding product robustness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boorla, Srinivasa Murthy; Howard, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    study is used to demonstrate how the monitoring system can be used to efficiently guide corrective action to improve product performance. It is claimed that the monitoring system can be used to dramatically cut the time taken to identify, planand execute corrective action related to typical quality......In the current quality paradigm, the performance of a product is kept within specification by ensuring that its parts are within specification. Product performance is then validated after final assembly. However, this does not control how robust the product performance is, i.e. how much...... it will vary between the specification limits. In this paper, a model for predicting product performance is proposed, taking into account design, assembly and process parameters live from production. This empowers production to maintain final product performance, instead of part quality. The PRECI‐IN case...

  7. Indolo[3,2-c]cinnolines with antiproliferative, antifungal, and antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraja, P; Diana, P; Lauria, A; Passannanti, A; Almerico, A M; Minnei, C; Longu, S; Congiu, D; Musiu, C; La Colla, P

    1999-08-01

    A series of indolo[3,2-c]cinnoline derivatives was prepared and tested to evaluate their biological activity. Most of them inhibited the proliferation of leukemia, lymphoma and solid tumor-derived cell lines at micromolar concentrations, whereas none of the compounds were active against HIV-1. With the exception of 7g, all title compounds showed antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria, being up to 200 times more potent than the reference drug streptomycin. Some of the indolo[3,2-c]cinnolines were also endowed with good antifungal activity, particularly against Criptococcus neoformans.

  8. Structure of polysaccharide antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matutano, L.

    1966-01-01

    Study of the structure of antibiotics having two or several sugars in their molecule. One may distinguish: the polysaccharide antibiotics themselves, made up of two or several sugars either with or without nitrogen, such as streptomycin, neomycins, paromomycine, kanamycin, chalcomycin; the hetero-polysaccharide antibiotics made up of one saccharide part linked to an aglycone of various type through a glucoside: macrolide, pigment, pyrimidine purine. Amongst these latter are: erythromycin, magnamycin, spiramycin, oleandomycin, cinerubin and amicetin. The sugars can either play a direct role in biochemical reactions or act as a dissolving agent, as far as the anti-microbe power of these antibiotics is concerned. (author) [fr

  9. Clonal relationship among Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor strains isolated in Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrascia, Maria; Pugliese, Nicola; Maimone, Francesco; Mohamud, Kadigia A; Grimont, Patrick A D; Materu, Sadiki F; Pazzani, Carlo

    2009-03-01

    One hundred and three Vibrio cholerae O1 strains, selected to represent the cholera outbreaks which occurred in Somalia in 1998-1999, were characterized by random amplified polymorphic DNA patterns, ribotyping, and antimicrobial susceptibility. All strains showed a unique amplified DNA pattern and 2 closely related ribotypes (B5a and B8a), among which B5a was the more frequently identified. Ninety-one strains were resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, spectinomycin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim, conferred, except for spectinomycin, by a conjugative plasmid IncC. These findings indicated that the group of strains active in Somalia in the late 1990s had a clonal origin.

  10. [Venereal granuloma (donovaniasis) in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duperrat, B; Labouche, F

    1975-01-01

    The study of six cases of MacLeod-Donovan chancre, 2 in Paris, 4 in Brest, in young men coming from the West Indies, showed after 15 days incubation, a balano-preputial lesion consisting of an oval-shaped granuloma, 1 to 4 cm diameter, raised, indurated, ulcerated, reddish-yellow, spontaneously painful, bleeding easily, accompanied in 50 p. 100 of cases by inguinal adenitis, due to secondary infection. Swabs, which should be repeated, showed Donovan bodies within numerous histiocytes. The inactivity of penicillin may be contrasted with the rapidly favourable effect of streptomycin, chloramphenicol or aureomycin.

  11. Origins and Evolution of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Clonal Lineages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, AR; Westh, Henrik; Lancastre, H de

    2006-01-01

    Most methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates identified among blood isolates collected in Denmark between 1957 and 1970 belonged to either phage group III or the closely related 83A complex and had a PSTM antibiotype (resistance to penicillin [P], streptomycin [S], tetracycline...... [T], and methicillin [M]). Recently, some of these isolates were shown to have the same genetic backgrounds as contemporary epidemic MRSA isolates, and Danish methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates from the 1960s with a PST antibiotype were proposed to have been the recipients of the mec...

  12. Antimicrobial susceptibility and occurrence of resistance genes among Salmonella enterica serovar Weltevreden from different countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Lertworapreecha, M.; Evans, M.C.

    2003-01-01

    and gentamicin. All nine ampicillin-resistant isolates contained a sequence similar to the bla(TEM-1b) gene, one of the eight chloramphenicol-resistant isolates a sequence similar to the catA1 gene, all three neomycin-resistant isolates a sequence similar to the aphA-2 gene, 16 (73%) of the 22 streptomycin...... isolates were examined for susceptibility to antimicrobial agents, and resistant isolates were examined for the presence of selected resistance genes by PCR. Results: Only 48 (9.5%) of the isolates were resistant to one or more of the antimicrobial agents tested. A low frequency of resistance was found...

  13. ANTIBIOTIC THERAPY OF ABSCESS OF THE LUNG AND BRONCHIECTASIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, William L.

    1952-01-01

    Since the fusospirochetal group of bacteria are the commonest etiologic agents in abscess of the lung, aqueous crystalline penicillin is the agent of first choice in the majority of cases. Streptomycin is indicated for a small group of cases in which Klebsiella is the etiologic agent. Aureomycin, chloramphenicol or terramycin may produce an excellent therapeutic response either initially or after therapeutic failure with penicillin. Administration of antibiotics by inhalation should be carried out in conjunction with systemic forms of treatment. In the treatment of bronchiectasis, the antibiotics are most useful in the control of acute exacerbations of pulmonary infection which punctuate the course of this disease. PMID:14935877

  14. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Echinophora spinosa L. (Apiaceae Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina M. Glamočlija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate the chemical composition and effectiveness of the essential oil isolated from Echinophora spinosa on different bacterial and fungal species. Chemical analysis (GC/MS showed that δ³-carene (60,86 %, α-phellandrene (7,12%, p-cymene (6,22 %, myrcene (4,82 % and β-phellandrene (2,73 % were dominant components in this oil. Essential oil tested showed good antimicrobial activity. Antimicrobial potential of this oil was higher than potential of commercial antimicrobial drugs tested, streptomycin, bifonozole and ketoconazole.

  15. Antimutagenic properties of lactic acid-cultured milk on chemical and fecal mutagens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosono, A.; Kashina, T.; Kada, T.

    1986-09-01

    The antimutagenic properties of milk cultured with Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus were examined using streptomycin-dependent strains of Salmonella in an in vitro assay system. The mutagens utilized for testing included 2-(2-furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl) acrylamide, 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide, and fecal mutagenic extracts from cats, monkeys, dogs and other mammals. Both types of cultured milk exhibited antimutagenic activity on all mutagens used. Antimutagenic activities of the cultured milks with 2-(2-furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl) acrylamide and 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide increased with incubation time but were thermolabile beyond 55/sup 0/C for 10 min.

  16. Induction of mutations in blue-green alga Anacystis nidulans by consolidated and split UV irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amla, D.V.

    1979-01-01

    Ultraviolet mutability of consolidated and split dose treatment in A. nidulans was investigated with reference to induction of phage- and streptomycin-resistant markers. The consolidated UV treatment induced both the markers about 100-150-fold, whereas under photoreactivating conditions the survival of alga was enhanced and mutation frequency was decreased. The split UV treatment with 6 hr dark incubation between two UV exposures enhanced the survival and mutation frequencies to 500-700 fold above the back-ground level. The data give indirect evidence for the presence of error-prone dark repair system in this organism. (auth.)

  17. Phenotypic and Serotypic Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Strains from Subclinical Mastitis Cattle (KARAKTERISASI SECARA FENOTIPE DAN SEROTIPE STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS YANG BERASAL DARI MASTITIS SUBKLINIK PADA SAPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Gusti Ningrum

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is known as a major causative agent of mastitis in dairy cattle. In the presentstudy, 104 isolates of Staphylococcus originated from subclinical mastitis cattle characterized for thephenotypic properties and the presence of Staphylococcal protein A (Spa. Some bacteria were resistancesagainst several antibiotics were also studied, such as erythromycin, streptomycin, tetracycline, cefepime,nitrofurantoin, amikacin, chloramphenicol, and ciprofloxacin. About 78% of the isolated were moderatelysensitive to nitrofurantoin, while 89% were highly resistant to cefepime and ciprofloxacin. Using thevarious mammals’ sera, seven isolates out of 104 revealed the presence of Spa.

  18. Characterization of resistance to tetracyclines and aminoglycosides of sheep mastitis pathogens: study of the effect of gene content on resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lollai, S A; Ziccheddu, M; Duprè, I; Piras, D

    2016-10-01

    Mastitis causes economic losses and antimicrobials are frequently used for mastitis treatment. Antimicrobial resistance surveys are still rare in the ovine field and characterization of strains is important in order to acquire information about resistance and for optimization of therapy. Bacterial pathogens recovered in milk samples from mastitis-affected ewes were characterized for resistance to tetracyclines and aminoglycosides, members of which are frequently used antimicrobials in small ruminants. A total of 185 strains of staphylococci, streptococci, and enterococci, common mastitis pathogens, were tested for minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) to tetracycline, doxycycline, minocycline, gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin, and for resistance genes by PCR. Effects of different tet genes arrangements on MICs were also investigated. Staphylococci expressed the lowest MIC for tetracycline and tet(K) was the most common gene recovered; tet(M) and tet(O) were also found. Gene content was shown to influence the tetracycline MIC values. Enterococci and streptococci showed higher MICs to tetracyclines and nonsusceptible strains always harboured at least one ribosomal protection gene (MIC above 8 μg ml(-1) ). Streptococci often harboured two or more tet determinants. As regards the resistance to aminoglycosides, staphylococci showed the lowest gentamicin and kanamycin median MIC along with streptomycin high level resistant (HLR) strains (MIC >1024 μg ml(-1) ) all harbouring str gene. The resistance determinant aac(6')-Ie-aph(2″)-Ia was present in few strains. Streptococci were basically nonsusceptible to aminoglycosides but neither HLR isolates nor resistance genes were detected. Enterococci revealed the highest MICs for gentamicin; two str harbouring isolates were shown to be HLR to streptomycin. Evidence was obtained for the circulation of antimicrobial-resistant strains and genes in sheep dairy farming. Tetracycline MIC of 64 μg ml(-1) and high

  19. Technological properties and probiotic potential of Lactobacillus fermentum strains isolated from West African fermented millet dough

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owusu-Kwarteng, James; Tano-Debrah, Kwaku; Akabanda, Fortune

    2015-01-01

    resistance to bile salts, bile salt hydrolysis, antimicrobial property, haemolysis and antibiotics resistance. L. fermentum strains clustered into 3 groups represented by 36 %, 47 % and 17 % as fast, medium and slow acidifiers respectively. About 8 %, 78 % and 14 % of the strains showed strong, weak...... activity was observed towards Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus but not E. coli and Salmonella enteritidis. Lactobacillus fermentum strains were generally susceptible to antibiotics except 6 strains which showed resistance towards streptomycin, gentamicin and kanamycin. CONCLUSION: In vitro...... good candidates for further studies to elucidate their full potential and possible application as novel probiotic starter cultures....

  20. Molecular Identification of Adenoviruses Associated with Respiratory Infection in Egypt from 2003 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-30

    have been shown to occur frequently in immunocompromised * Correspondence: annemgaynor@gmail.com 1U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit No. 3, Cairo, Egypt...treated with 10 μl of each of the following antibiotics : penicillin (100,000U/ml)/streptomycin (100,000 μg/ml), gentamicin (50 mg/ml)) and...Burchette JL Jr, Hale LP: Fatal disseminated adenovirus infections in immunocompromised patients. Am J Clin Pathol 2003, 120(4):575–583. 5. Hess BDJ

  1. Prevalence and characterization of plasmids carrying sulfonamide resistance genes among Escherichia coli from pigs, pig carcasses and human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shuyu, Wu; Dalsgaard, A.; Hammerum, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    isolates. Fifty-seven sulfonamide-resistant E. coli were selected based on presence of sul resistance genes and subjected to conjugation and/or transformation experiments. S1 nuclease digestion followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to visualize and determine the size of plasmids. Plasmids...... and humans) were 65%, 45% and 12% for sul2, sul1, and sul3, respectively. Transfer of resistance through conjugation was observed in 42/57 isolates. Resistances to streptomycin, ampicillin and trimethoprim were co-transferred in most strains. Class 1 integrons were present in 80% of sul1-carrying plasmids...

  2. Evaluation of Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Opacity (Opa) Protein Loops as Targets for Passive Vaccination and Investigation of the Role of Opa Proteins During Infection of a Female Host

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-24

    colistin, nystatin, trimethoprim , and streptomycin sulfate) was as described (91). Generation of antibodies Affinity-purified rabbit polyclonal... determined empirically: AbHV2 linear (0.87-1.2 µg/mL), AbSV linear (2.2 µg/mL), Ab4L linear (2.4 µg/ml), and AbHV2 cyclic (1:100) and AbSV cyclic (1...killing of the target strains in the absence of added antibody as determined by Garvin 44 et al. (59). For testing Opa loop-specific antibodies

  3. Burkholderia humptydooensis sp. nov., A Burkholderia thailandensis-Like Species and the Fifth Member of the pseudomallei Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-02

    biochemical pattern to B. pseudomallei and B. thailandensis were co-64 isolated with B. pseudomallei on Ashdown’s selective agar. To determine the...three B. ubonensis strains) (see SI doc and Fig. S2). 157 Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by broth microdilution 158...rifampicin (0.0625–8 mg/L), chloramphenicol (0.5–64 mg/L), 162 trimethoprim /sulfamethoxazole (0.25–32/4.75–608 mg/L), streptomycin (0.25–32 mg/L

  4. Antibiotic Resistance in Escherichia coli from Pigs in Organic and Conventional Farming in Four European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Österberg, Julia; Wingstrand, Anne; Jensen, Annette Nygaard

    2016-01-01

    content and/or faeces from individual pigs was determined. In all four countries the percentage resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamides or trimethoprim was significantly lower in E. coli from organic pigs. In France and Italy, the percentage of isolates resistant to chloramphenicol...... in organic slaughter pigs in Denmark, France, Italy and Sweden. Samples were taken from the colon content and/or faeces and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of ten antibiotics were determined in isolates of Escherichia coli. In addition, the proportion of tetracycline (TET) resistant E. coli in colon...

  5. Characterization of the microbial community structure in ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’-infected citrus plants treated with antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, M.; Powell, Charles A.; Chuan, Yu; Duan, Yongping

    2014-01-01

    The updated PhyloChip TM G3 were used to explore the differences in the relative abundance and phylogenetic diversity of the bacterial communities associated with HLB-affected citrus plants in the field over a growing season and those treated with antibiotic combinations of AG (Ampicillin at 1000 mg/L and Gentamicin at 100 mg/L) and PS (Penicillin at 1000 mg/L and Streptomycin at 100 mg/L). Both antibiotic treatments resulted in significantly lower Las bacterial ti...

  6. Effect of irradiation on erythromycin residues in poultry meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurowski, P.

    1993-01-01

    Ionising radiation in doses used for radurisation (Recommendations of international organizations admit for poultry meat doses up to 5 kGy. Practically doses up to 3 kGy are applied does not influence erythromycin concentration in poultry meat. Doses on a level 10 kGy reduce its concentration in slurry more effectively, but results of earlier studies on penicillin and streptomycin suggest, that reduction of erythromycin level in meat should be smaller than in slurry. This allows an assumption that poultry meat irradiation with radurisation doses (up to 5 kGy), does not cause danger of overlooking of erythromycin residues in meat, with traditional, microbiological methods of detection. (orig.)

  7. Effect of ionizing radition on conjugative R plasmid in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kmetova, M.; Puzova, H.; Rexa, R.

    1986-01-01

    Five-fold cyclic gamma irradiation of E. coli strain No. 214 with conjugative R plasmid with doses of 150 Gy, with the exception of chloramphenicol, did not essentially affect the expression of the examined determinants of resistance to antimicrobial substances (tetracycline, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, canamycin, ampicillin, sulfamethoxidine). The dose of 150 Gy from the first irradiation of the strain reduced the transfer frequency of the R plasmid approximately hundred-fold. After the second up to the fourth irradiation of the strain the transfer frequency went back to approximately its original value. (author)

  8. Multi drug resistant tuberculosis presenting as anterior mediastinal mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmarth Chandane

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Enlargement of the mediastinal lymphatic glands is a common presentation of intrathoracic tuberculosis (TB in children. However, usually, the mediastinal TB nodes enlarge to 2.8 ± 1.0 cm. In this report, we describe a case of anterior mediastinal lymphnode TB seen as huge mass (7 cm on computed tomography (CT thorax without respiratory or food pipe compromise despite anterior mediastinum being an enclosed space. CT guided biopsy of the mass cultured Mycobacterium TB complex which was resistant to isoniazide, rifampicin, streptomycin ofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and pyrazinamide. Hence, we report primary multi drug resistant TB presenting as anterior mediastinal mass as a rare case report.

  9. An improved method for isolating viruses from asymptomatic carrier fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amend, Donald F.; Pietsch, John P.

    1972-01-01

    This paper describes a method using elevated levels of penicillin, streptomycin, and nystatin instead of filters to control bacteria and mold contaminants in specimens processed for virus isolation. Filters were shown to significantly reduce the virus concentration. Virus and tissue cultures were not affected by this procedure. In field tests nearly three times more specimens were positive for virus with this method than with the widely used filter technique. Moreover, the cost of materials was less. This method is recommended for inspection and certification purposes.

  10. Identifikasi Gen Aerolysin dan Sensitivitas Antibiotik Aeromonas Hydrophila Penyebab Kematian Tukik (Lepidochelys olivacea di Pulau Serangan, Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima Ratnanggana Prasetya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pathogene of Aeromonas hydrophila genes (Aerolysin as the cause of Lepidochelys olivacea death and to perform the antibiotic sensitivity test for antibiotic that often used in order to provide the best antibiotic treatment in the field case. The method used was the identification test using primary cultures on Tryptic Soy Agar (TSA and Mac Conkey Agar (MCA medium, then followed by Gram staining, oxidase, catalase, and biochemical tests. Then, aerolysin genes detection was performed by using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR method, while oxytetracycline, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, and kanamycin were tested for their sensitivity. From five samples of dead Lepidochelys olivacea, bleeding on the liver and intestine were observed. The identification result of bacteria was found A. hydrophila, and identified the gene encoding aerolysin. The antibiotic sensitivity test showed a sensitive category of A. hydrophila with a sensitivity level were oxytetracycline, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, and streptomycin. The main cause of Lepidochelys olivacea death in Turtle Conservation and Education Centre, Serangan Island, Bali was A. hydrophila which contains aerolysin genes, in which oxytetracycline seems to be the most effective drug for the treatment. ABSTRAK Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah membuktikan adanya gen patogen (Aerolysin pada Aeromonas hydrophila sebagai penyebab kematian tukik penyu abu-abu serta mengetahui kepekaan obat antibiotic yang sering digunakan sehingga dapat memberikan terapi yang tepat pada kasus di lapangan. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah uji identifikasi menggunakan kultur primer pada media Tryptic Soy Agar (TSA dan Mac Conkey Agar (MCA, dilanjutkan uji pewarnaan Gram, uji oksidase, uji katalase, dan uji biokimiawi. Setelah itu dilakukan deteksi gen aerolysin menggunakan metode Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR, serta dilakukan uji sensitivitas antibiotik oxytetracycline

  11. Breast Cancer Gene Therapy: Development of Novel Non-Invasive Magnetic Resonance Assay to Optimize Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    2 (UroCor, Oklahoma City, OK) were grown on 150-mm culture dishes in T-medium (Invitro- gen) with 5% fetal bovine serum at 37°C with 5% CO2. Control...maintained in RPMI-1640 medium supplemented with 100 units/mL penicillin, 100 µg/mL streptomycin, and 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) at 37 °C, with 5% CO2...tissue health and acidosis may reflect ischemia and hypoxia. Historically, tumors were believed to be acidic (Warburg hypothesis) and the detection of

  12. Improvement of organic compounds labelling method with the use of thermally activated tritium gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nejman, L.A.; Smolyakov, V.S.; Antropova, L.P.

    1982-01-01

    Use of a support (various types of papers) is recommended for organic compounds labelling by tritium gas activated at a hot tungsten filament. This improvement increases chemical and radiochemical yields and makes the experiment simpler and faster. Generally labelled triethyloxonium tetra-fluoroborate, ethyl-p-aminobenzoate, p-aminobenzoic acid (Na-salt), A-factor (a natural regulator of streptomycin biosynthesis), decapeptide angiotensin I, phospholipid 1, 2 - dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3--phosphocholine and E. coli tRNAs have been prepared by this method. Molar radioactivity of the labelled compounds is in the range of 1-200 GBg/mmole [ru

  13. Ecological and laboratory studies on the role of luminous bacteria and their luminescence in coastal pollution surveillance

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Chandramohan, D.

    the light to below 50% in the first 20 s. ZnCI 2, CdC12 and PPDDE decreased the luminescence to below 50% in 40 s. Hexane reduced it to 48.38% in 180 s. However, 200 or more seconds were required by decanol, penicillin, streptomycin and DDD (10 and 20...), decreased the light to less than 10% within 300 s (Fig. 4) and it dropped to 50% levels within the first 40 s, except for CdC12 which enhanced it in the first 60 s and, reduced sharply to 10% or less at the end of the experimental period (Fig. 5...

  14. Primary drug-resistant tuberculosis in Hanoi, Viet Nam: present status and risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thi Le Hang

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB to anti-tuberculosis (TB drugs presents a serious challenge to TB control worldwide. We investigated the status of drug resistance, including multidrug-resistant (MDR TB, and possible risk factors among newly diagnosed TB patients in Hanoi, the capital of Viet Nam. METHODS: Clinical and epidemiological information was collected from 506 newly diagnosed patients with sputum smear- and culture-positive TB, and 489 (96.6% MTB isolates were subjected to conventional drug susceptibility testing, spoligotyping, and 15-locus variable numbers of tandem repeats typing. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs were calculated to analyze the risk factors for primary drug resistance. RESULTS: Of 489 isolates, 298 (60.9% were sensitive to all drugs tested. Resistance to isoniazid, rifampicin, streptomycin, ethambutol, and MDR accounted for 28.2%, 4.9%, 28.2%, 2.9%, and 4.5%, respectively. Of 24 isolates with rifampicin resistance, 22 (91.7% were MDR and also resistant to streptomycin, except one case. Factors associated with isoniazid resistance included living in old urban areas, presence of the Beijing genotype, and clustered strains [aOR = 2.23, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.15-4.35; 1.91, 1.18-3.10; and 1.69, 1.06-2.69, respectively. The Beijing genotype was also associated with streptomycin resistance (aOR = 2.10, 95% CI 1.29-3.40. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV coinfection was associated with rifampicin resistance and MDR (aOR = 5.42, 95% CI 2.07-14.14; 6.23, 2.34-16.58, respectively. CONCLUSION: Isoniazid and streptomycin resistance was observed in more than a quarter of TB patients without treatment history in Hanoi. Transmission of isoniazid-resistant TB among younger people should be carefully monitored in urban areas, where Beijing strains and HIV coinfection are prevalent. Choosing an optimal treatment regimen on the basis of the results of drug susceptibility tests and monitoring of treatment

  15. Resistent tuberkulose i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, V O; Johansen, I S; Bauer, J O

    2001-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Increased rates of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) has been reported from countries close to Denmark. We evaluated the incidence of drug resistance in Denmark in order to determine the magnitude of the problem. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Susceptibility testing was performed......-cluster. Among all patients with isoniazid- and streptomycin-resistance, 77.0% had clustered strains. DISCUSSION: In conclusion, although drug resistance among untreated Danes was close to the rate estimated in good national programmes, close monitoring is needed in future years, as active transmission...

  16. Occurrence of Salmonella spp. in broiler chicken carcasses and their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Dalila Angélica Moliterno; Ribeiro, Aldemir Reginato; Vasconcelos, Ana Mércia Mendes; Santos, Sylnei Barros; Silva, Juliana Vital Domingos; de Andrade, Patrícia Lúcia Arruda; de Arruda Falcão, Lúcia Sadae Pereira da Costa

    2009-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the occurrence of Salmonellae in broiler chicken carcasses and to determine the antimicrobial resistance profile of the isolated strains. Twenty-five out of the 260 broiler chicken carcasses samples (9.6%) were positive for Salmonella. S. Enteritidis was the most frequent serovar. Nineteen Salmonella isolates were tested for antimicrobial resistance, and the results indicated that 94.7% were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent. Resistance to streptomycin (73.7%), nitrofurantoin (52.3%), tetracycline (31.6%), and nalidixic acid (21%) were the prevalent amongst Salmonella strains tested. PMID:24031401

  17. Soluble Factors from Biofilms of Wound Pathogens Modulate Human Bone Marrow-derived Stromal Cell Differentiation, Migration, Angiogenesis, and Cytokine Secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-28

    Island, NY) supple- mented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and 10 U peni - cillin mL−1 and streptomycin 10 μg mL−1 at 37°C in 5 % CO2. For all studies...average, the exposure to BCM re- duced the migration capacity by > 6 fold compared to the untreated growth control (Figure 4E). hBMSCs enhance the... enhanced release of factors promoting bone resorption [24]. Prior to the current study, the ef- fect of biofilms on hBMSCs had not been studied. The

  18. Molecular Genetic and Gene Therapy Studies of the Musculoskeletal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    enlarged fracture cartilage. Real-time RT-PCR measurements compared Bax KO mouse fracture gene expression to C57BL/6J (wild-type) mouse fracture gene...2 mM l-glutamine, 100 U/mL peni - cillin, and 100 µg/mL streptomycin (Invitrogen) in 60-mm plates, and cultured in a humidified 37°C incubator with 5...increased callus size and callus cartilage formation during the early phase of the fracture healing process, the enlarged callus and cartilage area were

  19. Productivity and Performance Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft; Spring, Martin

    This study explores conceptually how performance measurement as discussed in the literature, enables or constrains the ability to manage and improve productivity. It uses an inter-disciplinary literature review to identify five areas of concern relating productivity accounting to the ability...... to improve productivity: “Productivity representation”; “productivity incentives”, “productivity intervention”; “productivity trade-off or synergy” and “productivity strategy and context”. The paper discusses these areas of concern and expands our knowledge of how productivity and performance measurement...

  20. Product Structure, the Heart of Product Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHoog, C., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the LMMSS Product Definition System (PDS) philosophy and approach were the use of each item parts document or software can be traced to a specific end item (EI) serial/tail number of the product. It explains why a part-oriented approach to data organization and configuration management is required. The definition of part-oriented is that all appropriate product definition data products will be collected. Referenced and managed by their linkage/relationship to parts/items, The paper will touch upon how LMMSS store/controls product definition information under each project's top product designator in a two tiered approach. One tier for each product end item and another tier which contain/controls listings of drawings, documents. Specifications and standards that are required for hardware item definition.

  1. Antimicrobial Resistance of Faecal Escherichia coli Isolates from Pig Farms with Different Durations of In-feed Antimicrobial Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, J F; Boland, F; Egan, J; Fanning, S; Markey, B K; Leonard, F C

    2016-05-01

    Antimicrobial use and resistance in animal and food production are of concern to public health. The primary aims of this study were to determine the frequency of resistance to 12 antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from 39 pig farms and to identify patterns of antimicrobial use on these farms. Further aims were to determine whether a categorization of farms based on the duration of in-feed antimicrobial use (long-term versus short-term) could predict the occurrence of resistance on these farms and to identify the usage of specific antimicrobial drugs associated with the occurrence of resistance. Escherichia coli were isolated from all production stages on these farms; susceptibility testing was carried out against a panel of antimicrobials. Antimicrobial prescribing data were collected, and farms were categorized as long term or short term based on these. Resistance frequencies and antimicrobial use were tabulated. Logistic regression models of resistance to each antimicrobial were constructed with stage of production, duration of antimicrobial use and the use of 5 antimicrobial classes included as explanatory variables in each model. The greatest frequencies of resistance were observed to tetracycline, trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole and streptomycin with the highest levels of resistance observed in isolates from first-stage weaned pigs. Differences in the types of antimicrobial drugs used were noted between long-term and short-term use farms. Categorization of farms as long- or short-term use was sufficient to predict the likely occurrence of resistance to 3 antimicrobial classes and could provide an aid in the control of resistance in the food chain. Stage of production was a significant predictor variable in all models of resistance constructed and did not solely reflect antimicrobial use at each stage. Cross-selection and co-selection for resistance was evident in the models constructed, and the use of trimethoprim/sulphonamide drugs in particular was

  2. Technological and safety properties display biodiversity among enterococci isolated from two Egyptian cheeses, "Ras" and "Domiati".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Reine; El-Attar, Aisha; Mohamed, Mariam; Anwar, Shimaa; El-Soda, Morsi; Béal, Catherine

    2012-02-15

    The technological and safety properties of 35 indigenous strains of Enterococcus faecium isolated from two Egyptian cheeses were characterised in order to determine their ability for rational manufacture of diversified and typical dairy products in the Middle East. A great diversity was observed within the 35 strains on the basis of their technological properties. A statistical analysis made it possible to distribute the 35 strains of E. faecium into different groups. Three groups were identified in terms of their acidification activity, measured by the Cinac system: a group of strains that quickly acidified milk, a second that moderately acidified milk, and a last cluster that revealed weak acidification activity. On the basis of texturing properties that were evaluated using a texturometer and a viscometer, a cluster of strains produced viscous and firm gels, a second cluster included fairly viscous, firm and cohesive gels, and a last group generated slightly viscous, but firm and very cohesive gels. By considering the aroma profiles that were determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, four clusters were identified. One cluster displayed a high dimethyl disulfide level, a second group of strains was highly aromatic, a third cluster led to typical "lactic" products, and the last cluster made it possible to obtain low aromatic products. None of the 35 strains proved to be β-haemolytic on the basis of the characterisation of their safety properties. The resistance to 20 antibiotics was assessed by the disc diffusion method. The 35 isolates were sensitive to 12 antibiotics, and among them, one isolate was resistant to only two antibiotics (nalixidic acid and streptomycin). The resistance to eight antibiotics was strain-dependant. Finally, this study demonstrates that some indigenous strains of E. faecium displayed interesting technological properties for cheese manufacture, together with good safety characteristics. They could be useful for the

  3. Occurrence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. isolated from food other than meat in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Mąka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objectives. Antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic bacteria can result in therapy failure, increased hospitalization, and increased risk of death. In Poland, [i]Salmonella[/i] spp. is a major bacterial agent of food poisoning. The majority of studies on antimicrobial resistance in [i]Salmonella[/i] spp. isolates from food have focused on meat products as the source of this pathogen. In comparison, this study examines the antimicrobial susceptibility of [i]Salmonella[/i] spp. isolated from retail food products other than meat in Poland. Materials and Methods. A collection of 122 [i]Salmonella[/i] spp. isolates were isolated in Poland in 2008–2012 from foods other than meat: confectionery products, eggs, fruits, vegetables, spices and others. The resistance of these isolates to 19 antimicrobial agents was tested using the disc diffusion method. Results. [i]Salmonella[/i] Enteritidis was the most frequently identified serotype (84.4% of all tested isolates. In total, 42.6% of the [i]Salmonella[/i] spp. isolates were resistant to antibiotics. The highest frequencies of resistance were observed in isolates from 2009 (60.0% and 2012 (59.5%. Antibiotic resistance was most prevalent among [i]Salmonella[/i] spp. isolated from egg-containing food samples (68.0%. Resistance to nalidixic acid was most common and was observed in 35.2% of all tested isolates. The isolates were less frequently resistant to sulphonamides (6.6%, ampicillin (4.9%, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (2.5% and to streptomycin, cefoxitin, gentamicin and tetracycline (1.6%. Only one isolate showed resistance to chloramphenicol. Four isolates displayed multiresistance. Conclusions. Although, the level of resistance and multiresistance of [i]Salmonella[/i] spp. isolates from non-meat foods was lower than in those from meat products, the presence of these resistant bacteria poses a real threat to the health of consumers.

  4. Resistance to antibiotics in Lacid acid bacteria - strain Lactococcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipić Brankica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are widely used in the food industry, especially in the production of fermented dairy products and meat. The most studied species among Lis Lactococcus lactis. L. lactis strains are of great importance in the production of fermented dairy products such as yogurt, butter, fresh cheese and some kind of semi-hard cheese. Although L. lactis acquired the „Generally Regarded As Safe“ (GRAS status, many investigations indicated that lactococci may act as reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes, which could be transferred to other bacterial species in human gastrointestinal tract includ­ing pathogens. The genome analysis of L. lactis indicated the presence of at least 40 putative drug transporter genes, and only four multidrug resistance (MDR transporters are functionally characterized: LmrA, LmrP, LmrCD i CmbT. LmrA is the first described MDR transporter in prokaryotes. LmrCD is responsible for resistance to cholate, which is an integral part of human bile and LmrCD is important for intestinal survival of lactococci that are used as probiotics. Secondary multidrug transporter LmrP confers resistance to lincosamides, macrolides, streptogramins and tetracyclines. CmbT protein has an effect on the host cell resistance to lincomycin, sulfadiazine, streptomycin, rifampicin, puromycin and sulfametox­azole. Since the food chain is an important way of transmitting resistance genes in human and animal population, it is of great importance to study the mechanisms of resistance in lactococci and other LAB, intended for the food industry. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173019: Izučavanje gena i molekularnih mehanizama u osnovi probiotičke aktivnosti bakterija mlečne kiseline izolovanih sa područja Zapadnog Balkana

  5. Protective effect of Nigella sativa extract and thymoquinone on serum/glucose deprivation-induced PC12 cells death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, S H; Tayarani-Najaran, Z; Asghari, M; Sadeghnia, H R

    2010-05-01

    The serum/glucose deprivation (SGD)-induced cell death in cultured PC12 cells represents a useful in vitro model for the study of brain ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Nigella sativa L. (family Ranunculaceae) and its active component thymoquinone (TQ) has been known as a source of antioxidants. In the present study, the protective effects of N. sativa and TQ on cell viability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in cultured PC12 cells were investigated under SGD conditions. PC12 cells were cultured in DMEM medium containing 10% (v/v) fetal bovine serum, 100 units/ml penicillin, and 100 microg/ml streptomycin. Cells were seeded overnight and then deprived of serum/glucose for 6 and 18 h. Cells were pretreated with different concentrations of N. sativa extract (15.62-250 microg/ml) and TQ (1.17-150 microM) for 2 h. Cell viability was quantitated by MTT assay. Intracellular ROS production was measured by flow cytometry using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCF-DA) as a probe. SGD induced significant cells toxicity after 6, 18, or 24 h (P < 0.001). Pretreatment with N. sativa (15.62-250 microg/ml) and TQ (1.17-37.5 microM) reduced SGD-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells after 6 and 18 h. A significant increase in intracellular ROS production was seen following SGD (P < 0.001). N. sativa (250 microg/ml, P < 0.01) and TQ (2.34, 4.68, 9.37 microM, P < 0.01) pretreatment reversed the increased ROS production following ischemic insult. The experimental results suggest that N. sativa extract and TQ protects the PC12 cells against SGD-induced cytotoxicity via antioxidant mechanisms. Our findings might raise the possibility of potential therapeutic application of N. sativa extract and TQ for managing cerebral ischemic and neurodegenerative disorders.

  6. Heavy Flavour Production

    CERN Document Server

    Nason, Paolo; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    1995-01-01

    We review the status of heavy flavour production in QCD. Comparison of experimental and theoretical results for top and bottom production are given. Selected topics in charm production are also discussed.

  7. Animal Product Safety Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Product Safety Information Product Safety Information Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... to report adverse experiences with veterinary drugs. Additional Product Information Questions and Answers: Evanger’s Dog and Cat ...

  8. Urinary incontinence products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003973.htm Urinary incontinence products To use the sharing features on this ... There are many products to help you manage urinary incontinence . You can decide which product to choose based ...

  9. COTTAGE CHEESE PRODUCTS FUNCTIONALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Golubeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cottage cheese products holds a significant place among the dairy and milk-containing products. The range of products includes cheese: cheese, pastes, creams, cakes, etc. Such diversity can be attributed to their popularity among the population and benefit brought by the body from regular use. Curd protein is much better and easier to digest by the body than protein fish, meat or milk. Rich curd products lysine and methionine. Minerals contained in cheese products have a positive effect on bone formation and structure of tissues. The composition of curd products, in addition to cheese and dairy ingredients may include non-dairy ingredients origin. Today, for the production of cheese products use the most advanced technologies to further enrich its structure and significantly improve the nutritional value. Pine nut is widely used in the manufacture of many dairy products. But, in most cases, the production of dairy products as a filler used pine nut cake, which deprives the finished product valuable cedar oil. The authors proposed a technology for producing curd product with the addition of pine nuts and honey (pine nuts and fructose. Compatible with cream cheese filling insertion determined sensory organoleptic point scale. he optimum dosage of components: pine nuts – 5 %, honey – 10 % fructose – 7 %. Technological process of cottage cheese product is different from the traditional operations training components and their introduction into the finished cheese. Identify indicators of quality of the new product. Production of curd products thus expanding the range of dairy products functional orientation.

  10. STRATEGIES FOR INCREASING PRODUCTIVITY IN PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Pacheco

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to point a set of practical strategies that can be adopted to increase the capacity of constraints resources on production systems, when the constraint is inside the factory and not is in the market. To serve this purpose will be presented strategies based on best practices of the Theory of Constraints, Lean Manufacturing and Total Productive Maintenance. This article also presents the mains tools for the deployment of these methodologies. The survey results have provided an objective set of practical strategy that can be used to increase the capacity and productivity of production systems according to the needs of each manufacturing system.

  11. PDT (Product Data Technology), Production and Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterager, Johan

    1997-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) constitute a genuine technical revolution by enabling a dynamic and flexible support or automation of knowledge and information work. Bearing in mind that products are frozen knowledge, ICT as known will change the way we produce products dramatically....... The use of ICT in engineering of products constitutes product data technology (PDT).This paper presents a a basic platform for an understanding the ongoing revolution with focus on the PDT-area taking outset in the fundamental elements of knowledge and information work: creation, transformation...

  12. Animal Production Research Advances

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal Production Research Advances is a peer-review journal established expressly to promote the production of all animal species utilized as food. The journal has an international scope and is intended for professionals in animal production and related sciences. We solicit contributions from animal production and ...

  13. Intelligent products : A survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, G.G.; Främling, K.; Holmström, J.

    This paper presents an overview of the field of Intelligent Products. As Intelligent Products have many facets, this paper is mainly focused on the concept behind Intelligent Products, the technical foundations, and the achievable practical goals of Intelligent Products. A novel classification of

  14. Making Product Customization Profitable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars; Haug, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The main result presented in this paper is the Framework for Product Family Master Plan. This framework supports the identification of a product architecture for companies that customize products and services. The framework has five coherent aspects, the market, product assortment, supply...

  15. Consumer Product Category Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use information is compiled from multiple sources while product information is gathered from publicly available Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS). EPA researchers are evaluating the possibility of expanding the database with additional product and use information.

  16. Ergonomic Product Design 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Yeong Guk

    1996-09-01

    This book explains basic of ergonomic product design with human engineering, image engineering and strategy of that design, ergonomic industrial design, which includes product design to access the human engineering in development of new product and customer satisfaction, application technology of image engineering, industrial design of human engineering item and strategy of human engineering, a good ergonomic design. It also tells of examples of convenient design for human such as hardware product and software product in automobile, telephones for ergonomic product in the future, new goods and new technology, ergonomic product in house and office, and computers and robots in the future.

  17. Product Family Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Morten

    their focus from single products to entire product families and try to incorporate the development of product variety into a future product family. The key is to create fit between the product design and production setup. The challenge of understanding this fit and modelling dispositional relations between...... and on the ideas of lean production, plus experiences from the industrial collaboration. The idea of waste from the lean philosophy is brought into a product variety context, and discussed in relation to product development. Verification of the model has been carried out in an industrial setting at Danfoss......This thesis reports the results of a PhD project from the Technical University of Denmark. The research has been carried out in a collaborative project with the Danish company Danfoss Automatic Controls. In the global market companies are struggling to meet customers’ expectation of products...

  18. Designing Product Families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Per Erik Elgård; Miller, Thomas Dedenroth

    1998-01-01

    Manufacturing companies that operate with products aimed at different market segments and applications are experiencing an increasing demand from customers who expect products to be tailored to their exact needs rather than accepting general products based on average customer needs. This trend ha......: Variety, Design Principles, and Product Maturity.......Manufacturing companies that operate with products aimed at different market segments and applications are experiencing an increasing demand from customers who expect products to be tailored to their exact needs rather than accepting general products based on average customer needs. This trend has...... led to a new business paradigm, "mass customization", where companies strive to provide highly customized products while still maintaining the efficiency of the classical mass production enterprise. One of the key factors in mass customization has been efficient use of product platforms...

  19. Production Function Geometry with "Knightian" Total Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truett, Dale B.; Truett, Lila J.

    2007-01-01

    Authors of principles and price theory textbooks generally illustrate short-run production using a total product curve that displays first increasing and then diminishing marginal returns to employment of the variable input(s). Although it seems reasonable that a temporary range of increasing returns to variable inputs will likely occur as…

  20. Probiotic fermented dairy products

    OpenAIRE

    Adnan Tamime; Rajka Božanić; Irena Rogelj

    2003-01-01

    Fermented dairy products are the most popular vehicle used in theindustry for the implantation of the probiotic microflora in humans. Therefore this paper provides an overview of new knowledge on probiotic fermented dairy products. It involves historical developments, commercial probiotic microorganisms and products, and their therapeutic properties, possibilities of quality improvement of different types of newly developed fermented dairy products together with fermented goat’s milk products.

  1. Software product quality measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Godliauskas, Eimantas

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses Ruby product quality measures, suggesting three new measures for Ruby product quality measurement tool Rubocop to measure Ruby product quality characteristics defined in ISO 2502n standard series. This paper consists of four main chapters. The first chapter gives a brief view of software product quality and software product quality measurement. The second chapter analyses object oriented quality measures. The third chapter gives a brief view of the most popular Ruby qualit...

  2. Fission products collecting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Hiroshi

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To enable fission products trap with no contamination to coolants and cover gas by the provision of a fission products trap above the upper part of a nuclear power plant. Constitution: Upon fuel failures in a reactor core, nuclear fission products leak into coolants and move along the flow of the coolants to the coolants above the reactor core. The fission products are collected in a trap container and guided along a pipeline into fission products detector. The fission products detector monitors the concentration of the fission products and opens the downstream valve of the detector when a predetermined concentration of the fission products is detected to introduce the fission products into a waste gas processing device and release them through the exhaust pipe. (Seki, T.)

  3. BRAND - PRODUCT INTERDEPENDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor NISTORESCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we conceptually discussed the brands’ role in the society, the dimensions of branding and the relationship between the brand and the products. We adhere to the main ideas expressed in the literature, that the brand is more than a product. However the product is needed to render the brand tangible. The product is the magic box that delivers the brand experience. Without the product, the brand meaning would have difficulties in attracting customers. More studies are needed to investigate the brand-product relationship.

  4. Emulsified Water Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Tuğçe AKSUN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Seafood is very important depending on having high protein rate and easily digestibility by human, for supply to an important part of animal protein needed. Determining the quality of emulsion-type products, emulsion stability, viscosity and gel strength properties are very important. In the production of products specified in this property emulsion; the main protein ratio and properties of raw material used while you; emulsion pH, temperature, ionic violence, mixing speed, type of fat and additives that are used as well. Previous studies show that particularly of products resulting from water emulsified chicken and goat meat emulsified product obtained from a high capacity of emulsified and compared to cattle and sheep meat is close to specifications, preparation of emulsified type products may be appropriate for the use of fish meat. Another quality parameter in the emulsified meat products, viscosity depends on the amount of meat used in direct proportion with the texture. Fish meat animals in connective tissue connective tissue in meat other butchers to rate ratio is quite low. In this respect, the fish meat produced using emulsified products viscosity according to products prepared using other meat products is quite low. Fish meat produced using emulsified fish sausage products based on surimi, sausage and fish pate fish varieties classed emulsion type products. In this review the different types of seafood using emulsified meat product.

  5. Micro Products - Product Development and Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2003-01-01

    Innovation within the field of micro and nano technology is to a great extent characterized by cross-disciplinary skills. The traditional disciplines like e.g. physics, biology, medicine and engineering are united in a common development process that can only take place in the presence of multi......-disciplinary competences. One example is sensors for chemical analysis of fluids, where chemistry, biology and flow mechanics all influence the design of the product and thereby the industrial fabrication of the product [1]. On the technological side the development has moved very fast, primarily driven by the need...... of the electronics industry to create still smaller chips with still larger capacity. Therefore the manufacturing technologies connected with micro/nano products in silicon are relatively highly developed compared to the technologies used for manufacturing micro products in metals, polymers and ceramics. For all...

  6. Productivity and Competitiveness of Sorghum Production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    showed that sorghum production in the study areas yielded profitable returns ... Keywords: Sorghum, Profitability, Competitiveness, Investment Potential, .... Guinness Ghana Brewery Limited to estimate cost and returns at the marketing sector ...

  7. Comparative phenotypic and genotypic analyses of Salmonella Rissen that originated from food animals in Thailand and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornsukarom, S; Patchanee, P; Erdman, M; Cray, P F; Wittum, T; Lee, J; Gebreyes, W A

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Rissen has been recognized as one of the most common serovar among humans and pork production systems in different parts of the world, especially Asia. In the United States, this serovar caused outbreaks but its epidemiologic significance remains unknown. The objectives of this study were to compare the phenotypic (antimicrobial susceptibility) and genotypic attributes of Salmonella Rissen isolated in Thailand (Thai) and the United States (US). All the Thai isolates (n = 30) were recovered from swine faecal samples. The US isolates (n = 35) were recovered from swine faecal samples (n = 29), cattle (n = 2), chicken (n = 2), dog (n = 1) and a ready-to-eat product (n = 1). The antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates was determined using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method with a panel of 12 antimicrobials. Pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to determine the genotypic diversity of isolates. All Thai isolates showed multidrug resistance (MDR) with the most frequent antibiotic resistance shown against ampicillin (100%), sulfisoxazole (96.7%), tetracycline (93.3%), streptomycin (90%) and chloramphenicol (30%). About half of the isolates of USA origin were pan-susceptible and roughly 30% were resistant to only tetracycline (R-type: Te). Salmonella Rissen isolated from Thailand and the USA in this study were found to be clonally unrelated. Genotypic analyses indicated that isolates were clustered primarily based on the geographic origin implying the limited clonality among the strains. Clonal relatedness among different host species within the same geography (USA) was found. We found genotypic similarity in Thai and US isolates in few instances but with no epidemiological link. Further studies to assess propensity for increased inter-regional transmission and dissemination is warranted. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Molecular characterization of multidrug-resistant Shigella spp. of food origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ashraf M; Shimamoto, Tadashi

    2015-02-02

    Shigella spp. are the causative agents of food-borne shigellosis, an acute enteric infection. The emergence of multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of Shigella presents an increasing challenge for clinicians in the treatment of shigellosis. Several studies worldwide have characterized the molecular basis of antibiotic resistance in clinical Shigella isolates of human origin, however, to date, no such characterization has been reported for Shigella spp. of food origin. In this study, we characterized the genetic basis of multidrug resistance in Shigella spp. isolated from 1600 food samples (800 meat products and 800 dairy products) collected from different street venders, butchers, retail markets, and slaughterhouses in Egypt. Twenty-four out of 27 Shigella isolates (88.9%) showed multidrug resistance phenotypes to at least three classes of antimicrobials. The multidrug-resistant Shigella spp. were as follows: Shigella flexneri (66.7%), Shigella sonnei (18.5%), and Shigella dysenteriae (3.7%). The highest resistance was to streptomycin (100.0%), then to kanamycin (95.8%), nalidixic acid (95.8%), tetracycline (95.8%), spectinomycin (93.6%), ampicillin (87.5%), and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (87.5%). PCR and DNA sequencing were used to screen and characterize integrons and antibiotic resistance genes. Our results indicated that 11.1% and 74.1% of isolates were positive for class 1 and class 2 integrons, respectively. Beta-lactamase-encoding genes were identified in 77.8% of isolates, and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes were identified in 44.4% of isolates. These data provide useful information to better understand the molecular basis of antimicrobial resistance in Shigella spp. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the molecular characterization of antibiotic resistance in Shigella spp. isolated from food. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of Effective Rhizobacteria Isolated from Velvet Bean (Mucuna Pruriens) to Enhance Plant Growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, A. R.; Mahmood, T.; Batool, A.; Khalid, A.

    2016-01-01

    Rhizobacteria with plant growth promoting ability exist in association with plant roots and ameliorate over all plant development and yield. Numerous species of rhizobacteria have been identified with plant growth promoting ability, which can be attributed to multiple microbial characteristics. In the current study rhizobacterial isolates with best plant growth promotion traits were subjected to screening for plant growth promotion under axenic condition. The results of lab assays revealed that out of five rhizobacterial isolates three of bacterial isolate were Gram -ve and two of them were Gram +ve bacterial group. All isolates found positive for the auxin production and ACC-demainase activity. The isolate HS9 showed highest ACC activity (331 ketobutyrate nmol mg-1 biomass hr-1) and auxin production (3.85 without L-TRP). PGPR increase plant growth by reducing the ethylene release and its inhibitory effects, the role of isolates to decrease ethylene effects was affirmed via classical triple response assay on velvet bean. Furthermore, isolate were assessed for resistance test, three efficient strains (G9, HS9 and H38) exhibited antibiotic resistance for streptomycin, kanamycin and rifampicin at 100 mg L-1in TSB medium. For the purpose of co-inoculation, all three isolates showed positive relation to grow together. The results concluded that rhizobacteria selected from rain fed areas were found effective to improve plant growth with their multiple growth enhancing traits. Therefore, PGPR with various characteristics could be a better option for inoculation and co-inoculation to improve plant growth in well watered and water stressed environment. (author)

  10. Product line design

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Anderson, S. P.; Celik, Levent

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 157, May (2015), s. 517-526 ISSN 0022-0531 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : product line design * product differentiation * second-degree price discrimination Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.097, year: 2015

  11. Advances in production technology

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This edited volume contains the selected papers presented at the scientific board meeting of the German Cluster of Excellence on “Integrative Production Technology for High-Wage Countries”,  held in November 2014. The topical structure of the book is clustered in six sessions: Integrative Production Technology, Individualised Production, Virtual Production Systems, Integrated Technologies, Self-Optimising Production Systems and Human Factors in Production Technology. The Aachen perspective on a holistic theory of production is complemented by conference papers from external leading researchers in the fields of production, materials science and bordering disciplines. The target audience primarily comprises research experts and practitioners in the field but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  12. Transformer Industry Productivity Slows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Phyllis Flohr

    1981-01-01

    Annual productivity increases averaged 2.4 percent during 1963-79, slowing since 1972 to 1.5 percent; computer-assisted design and product standardization aided growth in output per employee-hour. (Author)

  13. Phenomenology of lepton production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renard, F.M.

    1976-06-01

    The problem of lepton production in hadronic collisions is reviewed. The following subjects are developed: the Drell-Yan model for continuous l + l - production, vector mesons and clusters, and other sources of direct leptons [fr

  14. Pesticide Product Label System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the...

  15. Dictionaries for text production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro; Bergenholtz, Henning

    2018-01-01

    Dictionaries for Text Production are information tools that are designed and constructed for helping users to produce (i.e. encode) texts, both oral and written texts. These can be broadly divided into two groups: (a) specialized text production dictionaries, i.e., dictionaries that only offer...... a small amount of lexicographic data, most or all of which are typically used in a production situation, e.g. synonym dictionaries, grammar and spelling dictionaries, collocation dictionaries, concept dictionaries such as the Longman Language Activator, which is advertised as the World’s First Production...... Dictionary; (b) general text production dictionaries, i.e., dictionaries that offer all or most of the lexicographic data that are typically used in a production situation. A review of existing production dictionaries reveals that there are many specialized text production dictionaries but only a few general...

  16. Household Products Database: Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Products Manufacturers Ingredients About the Database FAQ Product ... control bulbs carpenter ants caterpillars crabgrass control deer dogs dogs/cats fertilizer w/insecticide fertilizer w/weed ...

  17. Consumer Product Category Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use...

  18. Globalization and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayakawa, Kazunobu; Machikita, Tomohiro

    2012-01-01

    Recent empirical studies which utilize plant- or establishment-level data to examine globalization's impact on productivity have discovered many causal mechanisms involved in globalization's impact on firms’ productivity. Because these pathways have been broad, there have been few attempts...

  19. Production sharing agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This paper, which was presented at the Production Sharing Agreement seminar, discusses economic rent, negotiations, trends in fiscal system development, and concessionary systems. Production sharing contracts, risk service contracts, joint ventures and the global market are examined. (UK)

  20. Alcohol production from whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reesen, L

    1978-01-01

    The continuous production of ethanol from whey permeate, by fermentation of its lactose with Kluyveromyces fragilis, is described. From whey containing 4.4% lactose, production costs were very competitive with those for alcohol from molasses.

  1. National pulpwood production, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva; James W. Bentley; Steven W. Hayes

    2014-01-01

    U.S. pulpwood production amounted to 86.5 million cords in 2010, a decrease of 4 percent from 2008. Roundwood production totaled 65.7 million cords and accounted for 76 percent of the Nation's total pulpwood production. The Southern Region led the Nation in total production with 65.5 million cords, followed by the Northern Region with 12.8 million cords, and the...

  2. National pulpwood production, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony G. Johnson; Ronald J. Piva; Brian F. Walters; al. et.

    2011-01-01

    United States’ pulpwood production amounted to 89.2 million cords in 2008. Roundwood production totaled 63.0 million cords and accounted for 71 percent of the Nation’s total pulpwood production. The use of wood residue totaled 26.2 million cords. Georgia led the Nation in total production, with 11.6 million cords. In 2008, 146 mills were operating and drawing wood from...

  3. Southern pulpwood production, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony G. Johnson; Carolyn D. Steppleton; James w. Bentley

    2009-01-01

    The South’s production of pulpwood increased from 64.7 million cords in 2006 to 65.7 million cords in 2007. Roundwood production increased 1.2 million cords to 47.6 million cords and accounted for 72 percent of the total pulpwood production. The use of wood residue declined 1 percent to 18.2 million cords. Alabama led the South in total production at 10.6 million cords...

  4. Nordic Noir Production Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waade, Anne Marit; Jensen, Pia Majbritt

    2013-01-01

    In this article the authors argue that Nordic noir constitutes a set of production values utilised and conceptualised to make Danish television series attractive in the international market. The idea of production values is embedded into a media industrial context where market principles of target...... by relating the specific Nordic noir production values present in the two series to changing conditions in Danish television drama production, in particular the internationalisation of DR’s Drama Division....

  5. Pomegranate production and marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book is relatively short, with 134 pages, 15 chapters, 52 figures, and 20 tables. It ranges from cultivar descriptions, production, biotic and abiotic challenges to production, to postharvest, aril and juice production, health benefits, and international trade. It contains great information and...

  6. Reconstituted products from oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. C. Lewis; B. G. Heebink

    1971-01-01

    "Reconstituted" describes a family of panel products made from fractionated oak, bonded with either a synthetic resin or a natural lignin bond. Several current commercial fiber panel products from oak are described, and the status of research on experimental products and processes is presented. Recent technological developments are removing the stigma...

  7. Scenario based product design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tideman, M.

    2008-01-01

    Creating good products is not an easy thing to do. There are usually many different people who have an interest in the product. People such as the user, of course, but also marketing managers, production engineers, maintenance workers, recycling specialists, and government representatives, just to

  8. Age, Wage and Productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.; Stoeldraijer, L.

    2010-01-01

    Previous empirical studies on the effect of age on productivity and wages find contradicting results. Some studies find that if workers grow older there is an increasing gap between productivity and wages, i.e. wages increase with age while productivity does not or does not increase at the same

  9. Polling, production & priorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winands, E.M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Polling, Production & Priorities The present monograph focuses on the so-called stochastic economic lot scheduling problem (SELSP), which deals with the make-to-stock production of multiple standardized products on a single machine with limited capacity under random demands, possibly random setup

  10. Star Products and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Iida, Mari; Yoshioka, Akira

    2010-01-01

    Star products parametrized by complex matrices are defined. Especially commutative associative star products are treated, and star exponentials with respect to these star products are considered. Jacobi's theta functions are given as infinite sums of star exponentials. As application, several concrete identities are obtained by properties of the star exponentials.

  11. Framework of product experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desmet, P.; Hekkert, P.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a general framework for product experience that applies to all affective responses that can be experienced in human-product interaction. Three distinct components or levels of product experiences are discussed: aesthetic experience, experience of meaning, and emotional

  12. Evolving production network structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunow, Martin; Gunther, H.O.; Burdenik, H.

    2007-01-01

    When deciding about future production network configurations, the current structures have to be taken into account. Further, core issues such as the maturity of the products and the capacity requirements for test runs and ramp-ups must be incorporated. Our approach is based on optimization...... modelling and assigns products and capacity expansions to production sites under the above constraints. It also considers the production complexity at the individual sites and the flexibility of the network. Our implementation results for a large manufacturing network reveal substantial possible cost...

  13. Product Structuring, an overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tichem, Marcel; Storm, Ton; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    1997-01-01

    .In the paper, the field of product structuring is defined and broken down into topics. For each of the topics, results of research are presented. Issues for further research are identified. The references in the paper refer to papers in the proceedings of the workshops.......This paper presents the highlights of two WDK Workshops on Product Structuring. Product structuring plays an important role in creating products which have good functional and life-cycle related properties, in design process management, and in several other company functions like production control...

  14. Productivity analysis of sunflower production in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semerci, A.

    2012-01-01

    In Turkey, which ranks the tenth country worldwide in the sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) production, 55% of the production is carried out in Thrace Region. Therefore, agricultural enterprises in Thrace Region, situated in the European part of Turkey have specialized in producing sunflower, and have become the centre of vegetable oil industry in the region in terms of produced raw material. This research was conducted in 182 agricultural enterprises in 3 provinces of Thrace Region in Turkey and its objective was to determine input/output relations in sunflower production. The study indicates that the determination coefficient (r/sup 2/) derived from Cobb-Douglas production function was significant at 0.01 level and the elasticity coefficients of the variables (except chemical fertilizer) were found beta i positive in derived equation. It was determined that the variable of herbicide cost had the highest value of the marginal effectiveness coefficients and none of the variables was used at economically optimal level in the study area. When the Marginal Technical Substitution and the Price Rates were taken into consideration, it was noted that only the seed cost/hoeing cost was closest to economically optimum level (1.10). According to stepwise analysis the Land Renting Value was determined as the most important variable in sunflower production. (author)

  15. Product Platform Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus

    for customisation of products. In many companies these changes in the business environment have created a controversy between the need for a wide variety of products offered to the marketplace and a desire to reduce variation within the company in order to increase efficiency. Many companies use the concept...... other. These groups can be varied and combined to form different product variants without increasing the internal variety in the company. Based on the Theory of Domains, the concept of encapsulation in the organ domain is introduced, and organs are formulated as platform elements. Included......This PhD thesis has the title Product Platform Modelling. The thesis is about product platforms and visual product platform modelling. Product platforms have gained an increasing attention in industry and academia in the past decade. The reasons are many, yet the increasing globalisation...

  16. Low income product innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília Sobral

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available At affluent markets, the literature on product development management tells us to aggregate value and technology, to differentiate products and to launch fast. And at the low-income markets? This exploratory research defines a popular product, characterizes and measures their markets in Brazil, and identifies innovation strategies for them. The results suggest that the effective strategic orientation differs from affluent markets. It includes: to enhance the auto service component; to identify and service the key functionalities to the targeted public; to standardize products and increase the production scale; to extend the product life cycle; to use convenient distribution and marketing channels; to build product images that have appeal in the popular market; to offer longer financing horizons with befittingly lower installments. Data came from market researches and general demographic census. General media published stories were used to identify companies and their strategies. And a few case studies allowed the authors a deeper exploration of the relevant themes.

  17. Chlorhexidine in cosmetic products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opstrup, Morten Schjørring; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Bossi, Rossana

    2015-01-01

    or an antimicrobial agent in cosmetic products at a concentration up to 0.3%, as set by the European Cosmetics Directive (now Regulations). OBJECTIVES: To identify cosmetic product types containing chlorhexidine, and to measure the concentration of chlorhexidine in selected products. METHODS: Between February 2013...... and April 2013, we checked for chlorhexidine in cosmetic products in 14 supermarkets, one hairdressing salon and one beauty and retail store in Copenhagen, Denmark by reading the ingredient labels. The chlorhexidine concentration was measured in 10 selected products by high-performance liquid chromatography...... concentrations were 0.01-0.15%. CONCLUSIONS: We found chlorhexidine in various cosmetic product types, predominantly aimed at females, and in hair products. The measured chlorhexidine concentrations were all within the permitted limit. The relevance for allergic sensitization should be further explored....

  18. Structure of polysaccharide antibiotics; Structure des antibiotiques polysaccharidiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matutano, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    Study of the structure of antibiotics having two or several sugars in their molecule. One may distinguish: the polysaccharide antibiotics themselves, made up of two or several sugars either with or without nitrogen, such as streptomycin, neomycins, paromomycine, kanamycin, chalcomycin; the hetero-polysaccharide antibiotics made up of one saccharide part linked to an aglycone of various type through a glucoside: macrolide, pigment, pyrimidine purine. Amongst these latter are: erythromycin, magnamycin, spiramycin, oleandomycin, cinerubin and amicetin. The sugars can either play a direct role in biochemical reactions or act as a dissolving agent, as far as the anti-microbe power of these antibiotics is concerned. (author) [French] Etude de la structure des antibiotiques qui possedent dans leur molecule deux ou plusieurs sucres. On distingue: les antibiotiques polysaccharidiques proprement dits, constitues de deux eu plusieurs sucres azotes ou non, tels que streptomycines, neomycines, paromomycines, kanamycine, chalcomycine; les antibiotiques heteropolysaccharidiques formes d'une partie saccharidique liee glycosidiquement a un aglycone de nature diverse: macrolide - pigment - purine pyrimidine. On compte parmi ceux-ci: erythroraycine rnagnamycine, spiromycine, oleandomycine, cinerubine et amicetine. Dans le pouvoir antimicrobien de ces antibiotiques les sucres peuvent jouer soit un role direct dans les reactions biochimiques, soit agir comme solubilisant. (auteur)

  19. Antimicrobial activity of Algerian honey on subclinical mastitis pathogens isolated from goat's milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bourabah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to determine the susceptibility of subclinical mastitis pathogens isolated from goat's milk and to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Algerian honey on mastitis causing bacteria. Materials and Methods: The antibacterial activity against the isolated bacteria was evaluated by determining the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC, using the agar incorporation method. Results: The results showed that both Micrococcus spp. and Klebsiella spp. were susceptible to Streptomycin and tetracycline, while Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E coli, Enterobacter spp., Bacillus spp., and Coagulase Negative Staphyloccoci (CNS were preferentially susceptible to Streptomycin. However, Streptococcus D was the most resistant to the tested antibiotics whereas Staphylococcus aureus was the most susceptible to all the studied antibiotics. As regards to the antimicrobial activity of honey, the measured values were comprised between 11 and 14%. Conclusion: The results reveal that antimicrobial drugs susceptibility tests in goat subclinical mastitis might be necessary before the treatment. Algerian honey exhibited in vitro antimicrobial activity against different isolated bacteria in goat mastitis.

  20. Prevalence, serovars and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella spp. from wild and domestic green iguanas (Iguana iguana) in Grenada, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, W R B; Amadi, V; Pinckney, R; Macpherson, C N L; McKibben, J S; Bruhl-Day, R; Johnson, R; Hariharan, H

    2014-09-01

    Cloacal swabs from 62 green iguanas (Iguana iguana), including 47 wild and 15 domestic ones from five parishes of Grenada, were sampled during a 4-month period of January to April 2013 and examined by enrichment and selective culture for the presence of Salmonella spp. Fifty-five per cent of the animals were positive, and eight serovars of Salmonella were isolated. The most common serovar was Rubislaw (58.8%), a serovar found recently in many cane toads in Grenada, followed by Oranienburg (14.7%), a serovar that has been causing serious human disease outbreaks in Japan. Serovar IV:48:g,z51 :- (formerly, S. Marina) highly invasive and known for serious infections in children in the United States, constituted 11.8% of the isolates, all of them being from domestic green iguanas. Salmonella Newport, a serovar recently found in a blue land crab in Grenada, comprised 11.8% of the isolates from the green iguanas. The remaining four less frequent serovars included S. Javiana and S. Glostrup. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests conducted by a disc diffusion method against amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole showed that drug resistance is minimal, with intermediate susceptibility, mainly to streptomycin, tetracycline and cefotaxime. This is the first report of isolation and antimicrobial susceptibilities of various Salmonella serovars from wild and domestic green iguanas in Grenada, West Indies. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Cellulose digestion in primitive hexapods: Effect of ingested antibiotics on gut microbial populations and gut cellulase levels in the firebrat,Thermobia domestica (Zygentoma, Lepismatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treves, D S; Martin, M M

    1994-08-01

    Antibiotic feeding studies were conducted on the firebrat,Thermobia domestica (Zygentoma, Lepismatidae) to determine if the insect's gut cellulases were of insect or microbial origin. Firebrats were fed diets containing either nystatin, metronidazole, streptomycin, tetracycline, or an antibiotic cocktail consisting of all four antibiotics, and then their gut microbial populations and gut cellulase levels were monitored and compared with the gut microbial populations and gut cellulase levels in firebrats feeding on antibiotic-free diets. Each antibiotic significantly reduced the firebrat's gut micro-flora. Nystatin reduced the firebrat's viable gut fungi by 89%. Tetracycline and the antibiotic cocktail reduced the firebrat's viable gut bacteria by 81% and 67%, respectively, and metronidazole, streptomycin, tetracycline, and the antibiotic cocktail reduced the firebrat's total gut flora by 35%, 32%, 55%, and 64%, respectively. Although antibiotics significantly reduced the firebrat's viable and total gut flora, gut cellulase levels in firebrats fed antibiotics were not significantly different from those in firebrats on an antibiotic-free diet. Furthermore, microbial populations in the firebrat's gut decreased significantly over time, even in firebrats feeding on the antibiotic-free diet, without corresponding decreases in gut cellulase levels. Based on this evidence, we conclude that the gut cellulases of firebrats are of insect origin. This conclusion implies that symbiont-independent cellulose digestion is a primitive trait in insects and that symbiont-mediated cellulose digestion is a derived condition.

  2. Antimicrobial resistance and resistance gene determinants in clinical Escherichia coli from different animal species in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanz, Roland; Kuhnert, Peter; Boerlin, Patrick

    2003-01-02

    Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on a total of 581 clinical Escherichia coli isolates from diarrhea and edema disease in pigs, from acute mastitis in dairy cattle, from urinary tract infections in dogs and cats, and from septicemia in laying hens collected in Switzerland between 1999 and 2001. Among the 16 antimicrobial agents tested, resistance was most frequent for sulfonamides, tetracycline, and streptomycin. Isolates from swine presented significantly more resistance than those from the other animal species. The distribution of the resistance determinants for sulfonamides, tetracycline, and streptomycin was assessed by hybridization and PCR in resistant isolates. Significant differences in the distribution of resistance determinants for tetracycline (tetA, tetB) and sulfonamides (sulII) were observed between the isolates from swine and those from the other species. Resistance to sulfonamides could not be explained by known resistance mechanisms in more than a quarter of the sulfonamide-resistant and sulfonamide-intermediate isolates from swine, dogs and cats. This finding suggests that one or several new resistance mechanisms for sulfonamides may be widespread among E. coli isolates from these animal species. The integrase gene (intI) from class I integrons was detected in a large proportion of resistant isolates in association with the sulI and aadA genes, thus demonstrating the importance of integrons in the epidemiology of resistance in clinical E. coli isolates from animals.

  3. Comparative antibiogram of coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CNS associated with subclinical and clinical mastitis in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. Bansal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was planned to determine the in vitro antibiotic susceptibility of coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CNS strains isolated from clinical and subclinical cases of mastitis in dairy cows. Antibiotic sensitivity profile will be helpful to recommend early therapy at the field level prior to availability of CST results. Materials and Methods: The milk samples from cases of clinical mastitis received in Mastitis Laboratory, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana and those of subclinical mastitis collected during routine screening of state dairy farms, were subjected to microbial culture. Identification of CNS organisms was done by standard biochemical tests. Antibiotic sensitivity testing, based on 30 antibiotics belonging to 12 groups, was done on 58 randomly selected CNS isolates (clinical isolates: 41, subclinical isolates: 17. Results: Isolates were highly susceptible to chloramphenicol (98.3%, gentamicin (93.1%, streptomycin (91.4%, linezolid (91.4%, ceftixozime (87.9%, cloxacillin (86.2%, clotrimazole (86.2%, bacitracin (86.2%, enrofloxacin (84.5% and ceftrioxone + tazobactum (70.7%, while resistance was observed against amoxicillin (77.6%, penicillin (75.9%, ampicillin (74.1% and cefoperazone (51.7%. Overall, isolates from clinical cases of mastitis had a higher resistance than subclinical isolates. Conclusion: CNS isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol, gentamicin and streptomycin, while higher resistance was recorded against routinely used penicillin group.

  4. Pattern of secondary acquired drug resistance to antituberculosis drug in Mumbai, India--1991-1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowgule, R V; Deodhar, L

    1998-01-01

    A retrospective observational study was conducted to find out whether secondary acquired drug resistance to isoniazid and ethambutol is high and to rifamycin and pyrazinamide is low, as is commonly believed in India. There were 2033 patients, whose sputum samples (6099) were reviewed from a specimen registry of the microbiology laboratory for the years 1991 to 1995. Of these, 521 (25.6%) patients [335 males and 186 females; age ranged from 11 to 75 years] had sputum positive culture and sensitivity for acid-fast bacilli (AFB). The drug resistance patterns in our study were: isoniazid (H) 15%, rifamycin (R) 66.8%, pyrazinamide (Z) 72.2%, ethambutol (E) 8.4%, streptomycin (S) 53.6%, cycloserine (C) 39.2% kanamycin (K) 25.1% and ethionamide (Eth) 65.3%. The resistance to streptomycin showed a significant fall over a year while there was a rise in resistance to cycloserine and kanamycin which is significant. The rate of secondary acquired resistance of isoniazid and ethambutol was low, and the rate of secondary acquired resistance to rifamycin and pyrazinamide was high, which is contarary to the common belief regarding these drugs in India. This implies that isoniazid is still a valuable drug in the treatment of multidrug resistance in India.

  5. A high prevalence of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli isolated from pigs and a low prevalence of antimicrobial resistant E. coli from cattle and sheep in Great Britain at slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enne, Virve I; Cassar, Claire; Sprigings, Katherine; Woodward, Martin J; Bennett, Peter M

    2008-01-01

    The incidence of antimicrobial resistance and expressed and unexpressed resistance genes among commensal Escherichia coli isolated from healthy farm animals at slaughter in Great Britain was investigated. The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among the isolates varied according to the animal species; of 836 isolates from cattle tested only 5.7% were resistant to one or more antimicrobials, while only 3.0% of 836 isolates from sheep were resistant to one or more agents. However, 92.1% of 2480 isolates from pigs were resistant to at least one antimicrobial. Among isolates from pigs, resistance to some antimicrobials such as tetracycline (78.7%), sulphonamide (66.9%) and streptomycin (37.5%) was found to be common, but relatively rare to other agents such as amikacin (0.1%), ceftazidime (0.1%) and coamoxiclav (0.2%). The isolates had a diverse range of resistance gene profiles, with tet(B), sul2 and strAB identified most frequently. Seven out of 615 isolates investigated carried unexpressed resistance genes. One trimethoprim-susceptible isolate carried a complete dfrA17 gene but lacked a promoter for it. However, in the remaining six streptomycin-susceptible isolates, one of which carried strAB while the others carried aadA, no mutations or deletions in gene or promoter sequences were identified to account for susceptibility. The data indicate that antimicrobial resistance in E. coli of animal origin is due to a broad range of acquired genes.

  6. Estudo bacteriológico de escarros de leprosos-tuberculosos em tratamento com a Estreptomicina

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    H. C. de Souza-Araujo

    1948-12-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen samples of sputum from fourteen lepers with pulmonary tuberculosis, were treated by PETROFF method and its sediments were smeared on LOEWENSTEIN medium and incubated at 37°C. These fourteen patients are under treatment by Streptomycin. They are advanced cases of active leprosy associated with pulmonary tuberculosis, according to X ray diagnosis. Between 15 to 45 days thirteen out of fourteen (92,85% sputa gave cultures of acid-fast bacilli with all characteristics of KOCH'S bacillus, eugonic type. Nine out of thirteen positive cases produced eugonic colonies in all ten tubes smeared with each sample. These facts proved that Streptomycin did not affect the pulmonary flora. Three out of fourteen patients died within two months after positive cultures of KOCH'S bacillus. New fact - Three out of those thirteen positive patients gave non-chromogenic cultures, eugonic type, associated with chromogenic ones, quite similar to cultures of acid-fast bacilli isolated previously by the author from leprous material. One of the three patients who died showed in smear of fresh sputum only characteristics globies (globies of MARCHOUX not globi of NEISSER of HANSEN'S Bacillus. Probably he died from leprous-pneumonia. The eugonic type cultures are being inoculated in guinea-pigs and the choromogenic ones, similar to leprosy-culture, will be inoculated in white rats and mice.

  7. Dermatophilosis in Nelore calves in Mato Grosso do Sul

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    Flávia Barbieri Bacha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe two outbreaks of dermatophilosis in Nelore calves in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul with epidemiological characteristics peculiar to the Midwest. Morbidity and mortality rates were 50% and 0.0025% in the outbreak 1, and 12.5% and 10% in the outbreak 2, respectively. Only Nelore calves aging between 5 and 60 days were affected. Most cases occurred on pastures of Brachiaria brizantha during the rainy season. In both outbreaks, the signs started with skin thickening followed by weeping and crusting around the eyes and muzzle. In more severe cases, lesions disseminated throughout the face and the body, evolving to generalized marked thickening of the skin and wrinkling. Histology of skin lesions showed suppurative dermatitis and hyperkeratosis. The diagnosis was confirmed by viewing basophilic filamentous structures morphologically consistent with Dermatophilus congolensis in Gram stained smears. The treatment with streptomycin, oxytetracycline or penicillin associated with streptomycin used in calves demonstrated to be effective. The disease has been misdiagnosed, by the farmers, with hepatic photosensitization caused by Brachiaria spp. ingestion. This article discusses these results with the aim to help in the correct diagnosis of dermatophilosis, which is important to achieve the adequate treatment and effective control measures to minimize the losses caused by this disease.

  8. Experimental studies on the larval development of the shrimps Crangon crangon and C. allmanni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criales, M. M.; Anger, K.

    1986-09-01

    Larvae of the shrimps Crangon crangon L. and C. allmanni Kinahan were reared in the laboratory from hatching through metamorphosis. Effects of rearing methods (larval density, application of streptomycin, food) and of salinity on larval development were tested only in C. crangon, influence of temperature was studied in both species. Best results were obtained when larvae were reared individually, with a mixture of Artemia sp. and the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis as food. Streptomycin had partly negative effects and was thus not adopted for standard rearing techniques. All factors tested in this study influenced not only the rates of larval survival and moulting, but also morphogenesis. In both species, in particular in C. crangon, a high degree of variability in larval morphology and in developmental pathways was observed. Unsuitable conditions, e.g. crowding in mass culture, application of antibiotics, unsuitable food (rotifers, phytoplankton), extreme temperatures and salinities, tend to increase the number of larval instars and of morphological forms. The frequency of moulting is controlled mainly by temperature. Regression equations describing the relations between the durations of larval instars and temperature are given for both Crangon species. The number of moults is a linear function of larval age and a power function of temperature. There is high variation in growth (measured as carapace length), moulting frequency, morphogenesis, and survival among hatches originating from different females. The interrelations between these different measures of larval development in shrimps and prawns are discussed.

  9. Potential public health significance of faecal contamination and multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli and Salmonella serotypes in a lake in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhirosh, C; Sherin, V; Thomas, A P; Hatha, A A M; Mazumder, A

    2011-06-01

    To assess the prevalence of faecal coliform bacteria and multiple drug resistance among Escherichia coli and Salmonella serotypes from Vembanadu Lake. Systematic microbiological testing. Monthly collection of water samples were made from ten stations on the southern and northern parts of a salt water regulator constructed in Vembanadu Lake in order to prevent incursion of seawater during certain periods of the year. Density of faecal colifrom bacteria was estimated. E. coli and Salmonella were isolated and their different serotypes were identified. Antibiotic resistance analysis of E. coli and Salmonella serotypes was done and the MAR index of individual isolates was calculated. Density of faecal coliform bacteria ranged from mean MPN value 2900 -7100/100ml. Results showed multiple drug resistance pattern among the bacterial isolates. E. coli showed more than 50% resistance to amickacin, oxytetracycline, streptomycin, tetracycline and kanamycin while Salmonella showed high resistance to oxytetracycline, streptomycin, tetracycline and ampicillin. The MAR indexing of the isolates showed that they have originated from high risk source such as humans, poultry and dairy cows. The high density of faecal coliform bacteria and prevalence of multi drug resistant E. coli and Salmonella serotypes in the lake may pose severe public health risk through related water borne and food borne outbreaks. Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Former Buruli Ulcer Patients' Experiences and Wishes May Serve as a Guide to Further Improve Buruli Ulcer Management.

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    Anita Velink

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Buruli ulcer (BU, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, is a neglected tropical disease frequently leading to permanent disabilities. The ulcers are treated with rifampicin and streptomycin, wound care and, if necessary surgical intervention. Professionals have exclusively shaped the research agenda concerning management and control, while patients' perspective on priorities and preferences have not explicitly been explored or addressed.To get insight into patient perception of the management and control of Buruli ulcer a mixed methods research design was applied with a questionnaire and focus group discussions among former BU patients. Data collection was obtained in collaboration with a local team of native speakers in Ghana. A questionnaire was completed by 60 former patients and four focus group discussions were conducted with eight participants per group. Former patients positively evaluated both the effectiveness of the treatment and the financial contribution received for the travel costs to the hospitals. Pain experienced during treatment procedures, in particular wound care and the streptomycin injections, and the side-effects of the treatment were negatively evaluated. Former patients considered the development of preventive measures and knowledge on the transmission as priorities. Additionally, former patients asked for improved accessibility of health services, counselling and economic support.These findings can be used to improve clinical management and to guide the international research agenda.

  11. Former Buruli Ulcer Patients' Experiences and Wishes May Serve as a Guide to Further Improve Buruli Ulcer Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velink, Anita; Woolley, Rebecca J; Phillips, Richard O; Abass, Kabiru M; van der Werf, Tjip S; Agumah, Emmanuel; de Zeeuw, Janine; Klis, Sandor; Stienstra, Ymkje

    2016-12-01

    Buruli ulcer (BU), caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, is a neglected tropical disease frequently leading to permanent disabilities. The ulcers are treated with rifampicin and streptomycin, wound care and, if necessary surgical intervention. Professionals have exclusively shaped the research agenda concerning management and control, while patients' perspective on priorities and preferences have not explicitly been explored or addressed. To get insight into patient perception of the management and control of Buruli ulcer a mixed methods research design was applied with a questionnaire and focus group discussions among former BU patients. Data collection was obtained in collaboration with a local team of native speakers in Ghana. A questionnaire was completed by 60 former patients and four focus group discussions were conducted with eight participants per group. Former patients positively evaluated both the effectiveness of the treatment and the financial contribution received for the travel costs to the hospitals. Pain experienced during treatment procedures, in particular wound care and the streptomycin injections, and the side-effects of the treatment were negatively evaluated. Former patients considered the development of preventive measures and knowledge on the transmission as priorities. Additionally, former patients asked for improved accessibility of health services, counselling and economic support. These findings can be used to improve clinical management and to guide the international research agenda.

  12. Agrochemicals indirectly increase survival of E. coli O157:H7 and indicator bacteria by reducing ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Zachery R; Rohr, Jason R; Senkbeil, Jacob K; Harwood, Valerie J

    Storm water and agricultural runoff frequently contain agrochemicals, fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), and zoonotic pathogens. Entry of such contaminants into aquatic ecosystems may affect ecology and human health. This study tested the hypothesis that the herbicide atrazine and the fungicide chlorothalonil indirectly affect the survival of FIB (Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis) and a pathogen (E. coli O157:H7) by altering densities of protozoan predators or by altering competition from autochthonous bacteria. Streptomycin-resistant E. coli, En. faecalis, and E. coli O157:H7 were added to microcosms composed of Florida river water containing natural protozoan and bacterial populations. FIB, pathogen, and protozoan densities were monitored over six days. Known metabolic inhibitors, cycloheximide and streptomycin, were used to inhibit autochthonous protozoa or bacteria, respectively. The inhibitors made it possible to isolate the effects of predation or competition on survival of allochthonous bacteria, and each treatment increased the survival of FIB and pathogens. Chlorothalonil's effect was similar to that of cycloheximide, significantly reducing protozoan densities and elevating densities of FIB and pathogens relative to the control. Atrazine treatment did not affect protozoan densities, but, through an effect on competition, resulted in significantly greater densities of En. faecalis and E. coli O157:H7. Hence, by reducing predaceous protozoa and bacterial competitors that facilitate purifying water bodies of FIBs and human pathogens, chlorothalonil and atrazine indirectly diminished an ecosystem service of fresh water.

  13. Tetracycline and Azithromycin Resistance Investigation on Shigella spp. Isolated from the Stool of Children with Diarrhea in Tehran, Iran

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    Shadi Shahsavan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Shigella spp. are gram negative bacteria that can cause shigellosis in human. It is important in young children as well as elderly and immunocompromised people. Threatening complications can occur in severe cases with multidrug resistance species. It has been observed that Shigella spp. have become resistant to antibiotics like other bacteria. Investigation of resistance to azithromycin, tetracycline and pattern of resistance are the objectives of this study. Methods: Fifty isolates of Shigella spp. which have been collected from three hospitals in Tehran were studied. Isolates identified and confirmed as Shigella spp. by biochemical, serological and molecular methods (ipaH, wbgz, rfc genes. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed for ampicillin, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, levofloxacin, minocycline, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin, streptomycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline by disc agar diffusion method. Minimal inhibition concentrations were performed for azithromycin and tetracycline. Results: From a total of 50 Shigella spp. isolates, 16% of them were Shigella flexneri and 84% Shigella sonnei. The majority of isolates were multidrug resistant. The most resistance was seen to doxycycline, streptomycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline. Resistance to azithromycin was 6%  and all of the isolates were susceptible to norfloxacin and levofloxacin. Nine patterns of resistance were revealed to these isolates. Conclusion: High resistance to tetracycline was observed and resistance to azithromycin as an alternative treatment choice was also considerable.

  14. UV light-induced survival response in a highly radiation-resistant isolate of the Moraxella-acinetobacter group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, L.C.; Thompson, T.L.; Maxcy, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    A highly radiation-resistant member of the Moraxella-Acinetobacter group, isolate 4, obtained from meat, was studied to determine the effect of preexposure to UV radiation on subsequent UV light resistance. Cultures that were preexposed to UV light and incubated for a short time in plate count broth exhibited increased survival of a UV light challenge dose. This response was inhibited in the presence of chloramphenicol. Frequencies of mutation to streptomycin, trimethoprim, and sulfanilamide resistance remained the same after the induction of this survival response and were not altered by treatment with mutagens, with the exception of mutation to streptomycin resistance after γ-irradiation or nitrosoguanidine or methyl methane sulfonate treatment. The results indicated that isolate 4 has a UV light-inducible UV light resistance mechanism which is not associated with increased mutagenesis. The characteristics of the radiation resistance response in this organism are similar to those of certain other common food contaminants. Therefore, considered as part of the total microflora of meat, isolate 4 and the other radiation-resistant Moraxella-Acinetobacter isolates should not pose unique problems in a proposed radappertizaton process

  15. Comparative antibiogram of coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CNS) associated with subclinical and clinical mastitis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, B K; Gupta, D K; Shafi, T A; Sharma, S

    2015-03-01

    The present study was planned to determine the in vitro antibiotic susceptibility of coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CNS) strains isolated from clinical and subclinical cases of mastitis in dairy cows. Antibiotic sensitivity profile will be helpful to recommend early therapy at the field level prior to availability of CST results. The milk samples from cases of clinical mastitis received in Mastitis Laboratory, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana and those of subclinical mastitis collected during routine screening of state dairy farms, were subjected to microbial culture. Identification of CNS organisms was done by standard biochemical tests. Antibiotic sensitivity testing, based on 30 antibiotics belonging to 12 groups, was done on 58 randomly selected CNS isolates (clinical isolates: 41, subclinical isolates: 17). Isolates were highly susceptible to chloramphenicol (98.3%), gentamicin (93.1%), streptomycin (91.4%), linezolid (91.4%), ceftixozime (87.9%), cloxacillin (86.2%), clotrimazole (86.2%), bacitracin (86.2%), enrofloxacin (84.5%) and ceftrioxone + tazobactum (70.7%), while resistance was observed against amoxicillin (77.6%), penicillin (75.9%), ampicillin (74.1%) and cefoperazone (51.7%). Overall, isolates from clinical cases of mastitis had a higher resistance than subclinical isolates. CNS isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol, gentamicin and streptomycin, while higher resistance was recorded against routinely used penicillin group.

  16. ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Multidrug Resistance and Phage Pattern of Staphylococcus aureus in Pyoderma Cases

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    Sanjay M. Wavare

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pyoderma is common in India and other tropical countries. Staphylococcus aureus is the commonest causative agent ofpyoderma. Aims and Objectives: To know the antibiotic susceptibility and bacteriophage pattern of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from pyoderma infection. Materials and Methods: One hundred clinically diagnosed pyoderma cases were investigated bacteriologically. A total of 59 isolates of S. aureus were subjected to antibioticsusceptibility testing by Kirby Bauer’s disk diffusion method and phage typing by routine test dilution X 100 bacteriophages. Results: Most of the strains were resistant to penicillin, ampicillin and were susceptible to gentamicin, streptomycin and erythromycin. Multidrug resistance was also high among these strains. Regarding the phage types, Phage type 52 (15 strains, 96 (8 strains and 71(16strains were predominant among the typed strains (55.95% of S. aureus. The most common group was mixed phage group (17% followed by phage group I (13.55%. Conclusion: Knowledge of antibioticsusceptibility pattern is essential to give proper antibiotic therapy and avoid unnecessary medication with non-effective drugs, which may increase resistance. Gentamicin, streptomycin and erythromycin are the drugs of choice in that order. Association of phage typing and antibiotic sensitivity of S. aureus showed the predominance of phage group III with greater frequency of penicillin resistance.

  17. Detection limits of antimicrobials in ewe milk by delvotest photometric measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althaus, R L; Torres, A; Montero, A; Balasch, S; Molina, M P

    2003-02-01

    The Delvotest method detection limits per manufacturer's instructions at a fixed reading time of 3 h for 24 antimicrobial agents were determined in ewe milk by photometric measurement. For each drug, eight concentrations were tested on 20 ewe milk samples from individual ewes. Detection limits, determined by means of logistic regression models, were (microg/kg): 3, amoxycillin; 2, ampicillin; 18, cloxacillin; 1, penicillin "G"; 34, cefadroxil; 430, cephalosporin "C"; 40, cephalexin; 20, cefoperazone; 33, Ceftiofur; 18, cefuroxime; 6100, streptomycin; 1200, gentamycin; 2600, neomycin; 830, erythromycin; 100, tylosin; 180, doxycycline; 320, oxytetracycline; 590, tetracycline; 88, sulfadiazine; 44, sulfamethoxazole; 140, sulfametoxypyridazine; 48, sulfaquinoxaline; 12,000, chloramphenicol; and 290, trimethoprim. Whereas the beta-lactam antibiotics, sulphonamides, and tylosin were detected by Delvotest method at levels equal to those of maximum residue limits, its sensitivity needs to be enhanced to detect aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim residues in ewe milk or to develop an integrated residue detection system for ewe milk with different sensitive microorganisms for each group of antiinfectious agents.

  18. Multiclass determination and confirmation of antibiotic residues in honey using LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Mayda I; Pettis, Jeffery S; Smith, I Barton; Chu, Pak-Sin

    2008-03-12

    A multiclass method has been developed for the determination and confirmation in honey of tetracyclines (chlortetracycline, doxycycline, oxytetracycline, and tetracycline), fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, danofloxacin, difloxacin, enrofloxacin, and sarafloxacin), macrolides (tylosin), lincosamides (lincomycin), aminoglycosides (streptomycin), sulfonamides (sulfathiazole), phenicols (chloramphenicol), and fumagillin residues using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Erythromycin (a macrolide) and monensin (an ionophore) can be detected and confirmed but not quantitated. Honey samples (approximately 2 g) are dissolved in 10 mL of water and centrifuged. An aliquot of the supernatant is used to determine streptomycin. The remaining supernatant is filtered through a fine-mesh nylon fabric and cleaned up by solid phase extraction. After solvent evaporation and sample reconstitution, 15 antibiotics are assayed by LC-MS/MS using electrospray ionization (ESI) in positive ion mode. Afterward, chloramphenicol is assayed using ESI in negative ion mode. The method has been validated at the low part per billion levels for most of the drugs with accuracies between 65 and 104% and coefficients of variation less than 17%. The evaluation of matrix effects caused by honey of different floral origin is presented.

  19. In Vitro Screening of Antibacterial Agents for Suppression of Fire Blight Disease in Korea

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    Min Su Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Since fire blight disease on apple and pear was produced in Korea in 2015, there were no registered chemicals to control against this disease. Instead, several antibacterial chemicals that were registered for other bacterial diseases such as soft rot and bacterial spot have been authorized by Rural Development Administration (RDA. However, these chemicals are not tested efficacy for fire blight disease except damage by those treatments on apple and pear in Korea. Thus, we evaluated efficiency using in vitro and in planta assays of antibacterial chemicals such as antibiotics and copper compounds including kasugamycin, oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid and streptomycin, and copper hydroxide, copper sulfate, oxine copper and tribasic copper sulfate, respectively. We also tested two kinds of biological agents. As expected, significant antibacterial effect was observed in vitro test of both antibiotics and copper-based chemicals. In planta test based on disease severity including ooze and water-soaked formation on immature pears, bacterial populations on blooms, and blight lesion formation in artificially inoculated shoots, kasugamycin, oxytetracycline and streptomycin have been shown the most efficiency among tested antibiotics. Four copper-based chemicals tested in this study, control effects are little bit lower than agricultural antibiotics but they seem to be available to use in terms of winter season. Biocontrol agents were also shown possibility to treat in eco-friendly farms. In addition, there are no antibiotic resistance genes in Korean isolates against antibiotics, which were selected for suppression of fire blight in this study.

  20. A prospective study on evaluation of pathogenesis, biofilm formation, antibiotic susceptibility of microbial community in urinary catheter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Khansa Mohammed; Usup, Gires; Ahmad, Asmat

    2015-09-01

    This study is aimed to isolate, detect biofilm formation ability and antibiotic susceptibility of urinary catheter adherent microorganisms from elderly hospitalized patient at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center. Microorganisms were isolated from three samples of urinary catheters (UC) surface; one of the acute vascular rejection patient (UCB) and two from benign prostate hyperplasia patients (UCC and UCD). A total of 100 isolates was isolated with 35 from UCB, 38 (UCC) and 28 (UCD). Ninety six were identified as Gram-negative bacilli, one Gram-positive bacilli and three yeasts. Results of biofilm forming on sterile foley catheter showed that all the isolates can form biofilm at different degrees; strong biofilm forming: 32% from the 35 isolates (UCB), 25% out of 38 isolates (UCC), 26% out of 28 isolates (UCD). As for moderate biofilm forming; 3% from UCB, 10% from UCC and 2% from UCD. Weak biofilm forming in UCC (3%). The antibiotic susceptibility for (UCB) isolates showed highly resistant to ampicillin, novobiocin and penicillin 100 (%), kanamycin (97%), tetracycline (94%), chloramphenicol (91%), streptomycin (77%) and showed low level of resistance to gentamycin (17%), while all the isolates from (UCC-D) showed high resistant towards ampicillin and penicillin, novobiocin (94%), tetracycline (61%), streptomycin (53%), gentamycin (50%) and low level of resistance to kanamycin (48%), chloramphenicol (47%). The findings indicate that these isolates can spread within the community on urinary catheters surface and produce strong biofilm, therefore, monitoring antibiotic susceptibility of bacteria isolated in the aggregation is recommended.

  1. The use of re espirometry in determining the inhibition produced by toxic substances in activated sludge; Empleo de la respirometria en la determinacion de la inhibicion provocada sobre lodos activados por sustancias toxicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quesada, I.; Jaureguil, U.; Menendz, C.

    2001-07-01

    In manufacturing pharmaceuticals processes such as synthesis, fermentation and extractions are commonly employed. Such processes generate waste waters, with an organic content that is not very biodegradable, as they also contain inhibiting substances. in the first place, inhibition due to formaldehyde on a sludge medium, as measured by its respiratory activity, was studied at concentrations of 90, 180 and 360 mg/l. The results obtained were plotted on a graph and an almost straight line was found to correlate the degree of inhibition to the concentration of formaldehyde. In view of the reliability of this method, also backed up by the literature, several more tests were carried out, this time using streptomycin as the inhibitor. In this case it was found that the respiratory activity of the activated sludge was reduced to 50% with a streptomycin concentration of 19 mg/l. A further study using inhibition halos showed that concentrations of <10 mg/l did not affect the organisms studied (E, coli, Ps aeruginosa and B, subtilis). However, inhibition was found at concentrations of the antibiotic of 30 mg/l especial in the case of B, subtilis. (Author) 17 refs.

  2. Multifunctional medicated lyophilised wafer dressing for effective chronic wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Harshavardhan V; Boateng, Joshua S; Ayensu, Isaac; Tetteh, John

    2014-06-01

    Wafers combining weight ratios of Polyox with carrageenan (75/25) or sodium alginate (50/50) containing streptomycin and diclofenac were prepared to improve chronic wound healing. Gels were freeze-dried using a lyophilisation cycle incorporating an annealing step. Wafers were characterised for morphology, mechanical and in vitro functional (swelling, adhesion, drug release in the presence of simulated wound fluid) characteristics. Both blank (BLK) and drug-loaded (DL) wafers were soft, flexible, elegant in appearance and non-brittle in nature. Annealing helped to improve porous nature of wafers but was affected by the addition of drugs. Mechanical characterisation demonstrated that the wafers were strong enough to withstand normal stresses but also flexible to prevent damage to newly formed skin tissue. Differences in swelling, adhesion and drug release characteristics could be attributed to differences in pore size and sodium sulphate formed because of the salt forms of the two drugs. BLK wafers showed relatively higher swelling and adhesion than DL wafers with the latter showing controlled release of streptomycin and diclofenac. The optimised dressing has the potential to reduce bacterial infection and can also help to reduce swelling and pain associated with injury due to the anti-inflammatory action of diclofenac and help to achieve more rapid wound healing. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  3. Pre-disposition and epigenetics govern variation in bacterial survival upon stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Ni

    Full Text Available Bacteria suffer various stresses in their unpredictable environment. In response, clonal populations may exhibit cell-to-cell variation, hypothetically to maximize their survival. The origins, propagation, and consequences of this variability remain poorly understood. Variability persists through cell division events, yet detailed lineage information for individual stress-response phenotypes is scarce. This work combines time-lapse microscopy and microfluidics to uniformly manipulate the environmental changes experienced by clonal bacteria. We quantify the growth rates and RpoH-driven heat-shock responses of individual Escherichia coli within their lineage context, stressed by low streptomycin concentrations. We observe an increased variation in phenotypes, as different as survival from death, that can be traced to asymmetric division events occurring prior to stress induction. Epigenetic inheritance contributes to the propagation of the observed phenotypic variation, resulting in three-fold increase of the RpoH-driven expression autocorrelation time following stress induction. We propose that the increased permeability of streptomycin-stressed cells serves as a positive feedback loop underlying this epigenetic effect. Our results suggest that stochasticity, pre-disposition, and epigenetic effects are at the source of stress-induced variability. Unlike in a bet-hedging strategy, we observe that cells with a higher investment in maintenance, measured as the basal RpoH transcriptional activity prior to antibiotic treatment, are more likely to give rise to stressed, frail progeny.

  4. Identification, antimicrobial resistance and genotypic characterization of Enterococcus spp. isolated in Porto Alegre, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Eduardo André; de Freitas, Ana Lúcia Peixoto; Reiter, Keli Cristine; Lutz, Larissa; Barth, Afonso Luís

    2009-01-01

    In the past two decades the members of the genus Enterococcus have emerged as important nosocomial pathogens worldwide. In the present study, we evaluated the antimicrobial resistance and genotypic characteristics of 203 Enterococcus spp. recovered from different clinical sources from two hospitals in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The species were identified by conventional biochemical tests and by an automated system. The genetic diversity of E. faecalis presenting high-level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR) was assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of chromosomal DNA after SmaI digestion. The E. faecalis was the most frequent specie (93.6%), followed by E. faecium (4.4%). The antimicrobial resistance profile was: 2.5% to ampicillin, 0.5% to vancomycin, 0.5% teicoplanin, 33% to chloramphenicol, 2% to nitrofurantoin, 66.1% to erythromycin, 66.5% to tetracycline, 24.6% to rifampicin, 30% to ciprofloxacin and 87.2% to quinupristin-dalfopristin. A total of 10.3% of the isolates proved to be HLAR to both gentamicin and streptomycin (HLR-ST/GE), with 23.6% resistant only to gentamicin (HLR-GE) and 37.4% only to streptomycin (HLR-ST). One predominant clonal group was found among E. faecalis HLR-GE/ST. The prevalence of resistance among beta-lactam antibiotics and glycopeptides was very low. However, in this study there was an increased number of HLR Enterococcus which may be spreading intra and inter-hospital. PMID:24031416

  5. Rapid drug susceptibility test of mycobacterium tuberculosis by bioluminescence sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bin; Xu, Shunqing; Chen, Zifei; Zhou, Yikai

    2001-09-01

    With the persisting increase of drug-resistant stains of M. Tuberculosis around the world, rapid and sensitive detection of antibiotic of M. Tuberculosis is becoming more and more important. In the present study, drug susceptibility of M. tuberculosis were detected by recombination mycobacteriophage combined with bioluminescence sensor. It is based on the use of recombination mycobacteriophage which can express firefly luciferase when it infects viable mycobacteria, and can effectively produce quantifiable photon. Meanwhile, in mycobacterium cells treated with active antibiotic, no light is observed. The emitted light is recorded by a bioluminscence sensor, so the result of drug-resistant test can be determined by the naked eye. 159 stains of M. tuberculosis were applied to this test on their resistant to rifampin, streptomycin and isoniazid. It is found that the agreement of this assay with Liewenstein- Jensen slat is: rifampin 95.60 percent, isoniazid 91.82 percent, streptomycin 88.68 percent, which showed that it is a fast and practical method to scene and detect drug resistant of mycobacterium stains.

  6. Assessment of antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli isolates and screening of Salmonella spp. in wild ungulates from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Diana; Torres, Rita T; Kronvall, Göran; Fonseca, Carlos; Mendo, Sónia; Caetano, Tânia

    2015-09-01

    Antibiotic resistance is an emerging global problem. Wild animals are rarely exposed to antibiotics and therefore low levels of antibiotic resistance are expected. However, the growing interactions of these animals with humans and livestock may have a huge impact on their bacterial flora. This study aimed to assess the levels of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from widespread wild ungulates in Portugal. The interpretation of inhibition zone diameters was performed according to clinical breakpoints and epidemiological cut-offs, determined with the normalized resistance interpretation (NRI) method. For clinical breakpoints, 16% of the isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, including ampicillin (10%), tetracycline (9%), streptomycin (5%) co-trimoxazole (4%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (1%) and cefoxitin (1%). The levels of resistance detected in E. coli strains isolated from wild boar were statistically different for ampicillin and co-trimoxasol. According to NRI cut-offs, 10% of the population showed a non-wild-type phenotype against at least one antibiotic, also including tetracycline (9%), co-trimoxazole (6%), streptomycin (4%), ampicillin (2%) and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (1%). Considering this parameter of comparison, no statistically different levels of resistance were identified between E. coli recovered from the three wild ungulates. Screening of Salmonella spp., which can be potentially pathogenic, was also performed, revealing that its prevalence was very low (1.5%). The study demonstrated that wild ungulates from Portugal are also reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Antibiotic stress-induced modulation of the endoribonucleolytic activity of RNase III and RNase G confers resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wooseok; Kim, Yong-Hak; Sim, Se-Hoon; Hwang, Soonhye; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Younghoon; Bae, Jeehyeon; Hwang, Jihwan; Lee, Kangseok

    2014-04-01

    Here, we report a resistance mechanism that is induced through the modulation of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) processing on the exposure of Escherichia coli cells to aminoglycoside antibiotics. We observed decreased expression levels of RNase G associated with increased RNase III activity on rng mRNA in a subgroup of E. coli isolates that transiently acquired resistance to low levels of kanamycin or streptomycin. Analyses of 16S rRNA from the aminoglycoside-resistant E. coli cells, in addition to mutagenesis studies, demonstrated that the accumulation of 16S rRNA precursors containing 3-8 extra nucleotides at the 5' terminus, which results from incomplete processing by RNase G, is responsible for the observed aminoglycoside resistance. Chemical protection, mass spectrometry analysis and cell-free translation assays revealed that the ribosomes from rng-deleted E. coli have decreased binding capacity for, and diminished sensitivity to, streptomycin and neomycin, compared with wild-type cells. It was observed that the deletion of rng had similar effects in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain SL1344. Our findings suggest that modulation of the endoribonucleolytic activity of RNase III and RNase G constitutes a previously uncharacterized regulatory pathway for adaptive resistance in E. coli and related gram-negative bacteria to aminoglycoside antibiotics.

  8. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles of some Vibrio strains isolated from wastewater final effluents in a rural community of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igbinosa Etinosa O

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the antibiogram and antibiotic resistance genes of some Vibrio strains isolated from wastewater final effluents in a rural community of South Africa. V. vulnificus (18, V. metschnikovii (3, V. fluvialis (19 and V. parahaemolyticus (12 strains were isolated from final effluents of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP located in a rural community of South Africa. The disk diffusion method was used for the characterization of the antibiogram of the isolates. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was employed to evaluate the presence of established antibiotic resistance genes using specific primer sets. Results The Vibrio strains showed the typical multidrug-resistance phenotype of an SXT element. They were resistant to sulfamethoxazole (Sul, trimethoprim (Tmp, cotrimoxazole (Cot, chloramphenicol (Chl, streptomycin (Str, ampicillin (Amp, tetracycline (Tet nalidixic acid (Nal, and gentamicin (Gen. The antibiotic resistance genes detected includes dfr18 and dfrA1 for trimethoprim; floR, tetA, strB, sul2 for chloramphenicol, tetracycline, streptomycin and sulfamethoxazole respectively. Some of these genes were only recently described from clinical isolates, demonstrating genetic exchange between clinical and environmental Vibrio species. Conclusions These results demonstrate that final effluents from wastewater treatment plants are potential reservoirs of various antibiotics resistance genes. Moreover, detection of resistance genes in Vibrio strains obtained from the wastewater final effluents suggests that these resistance determinants might be further disseminated in habitats downstream of the sewage plant, thus constituting a serious health risk to the communities reliant on the receiving waterbodies.

  9. Effect of a pulsed magnetic field on permeability of the cornea and sorption properties of the tissue structures and refractive media of the eye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrinnik, A.V.

    1986-01-01

    The author attempts to obtain direct proof of increased permeability of the cornea and enhanced sorption properties of the tissue structures and refractive media of the eye under the influence of a pulsed magnetic field (MF). In the course of the investigation, the method of radioactive indication of two substances ( 35 S-streptomycin and 75 Se-methionine), widely used in opthalmologic practice, was used. The radioactivity of the working solution of the preparations was 300,000 cpm in 0.1 ml. Changes in the permeability of the cornea were assessed on the basis of changes in radioactivity of the aqueous humor. The concentration of 35 S-streptomycin in aqueous humor of the animals immediately after exposure to MF was significantly higher than in the control. Analysis of permeability of the cornea for 75 Se-methionine also showed increased penetration of radioactivity into the aqueous. The results are evidence of the greater penetrating power of 75 Se-methionine

  10. The role of the time-kill kinetics assay as part of a preclinical modeling framework for assessing the activity of anti-tuberculosis drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bax, Hannelore I; Bakker-Woudenberg, Irma A J M; de Vogel, Corné P; van der Meijden, Aart; Verbon, Annelies; de Steenwinkel, Jurriaan E M

    2017-07-01

    Novel treatment strategies for tuberculosis are urgently needed. Many different preclinical models assessing anti-tuberculosis drug activity are available, but it is yet unclear which combination of models is most predictive of clinical treatment efficacy. The aim of this study was to determine the role of our in vitro time kill-kinetics assay as an asset to a predictive preclinical modeling framework assessing anti-tuberculosis drug activity. The concentration- and time-dependent mycobacterial killing capacities of six anti-tuberculosis drugs were determined during exposure as single drugs or in dual, triple and quadruple combinations towards a Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype strain and drug resistance was assessed. Streptomycin, rifampicin and isoniazid were most active against fast-growing M. tuberculosis. Isoniazid with rifampicin or high dose ethambutol were the only synergistic drug combinations. The addition of rifampicin or streptomycin to isoniazid prevented isoniazid resistance. In vitro ranking showed agreement with early bactericidal activity in tuberculosis patients for some but not all anti-tuberculosis drugs. The time-kill kinetics assay provides important information on the mycobacterial killing dynamics of anti-tuberculosis drugs during the early phase of drug exposure. As such, this assay is a valuable component of the preclinical modeling framework. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Semi-selective medium for Fusarium graminearum detection in seed samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marivane Segalin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fungi of the genus Fusarium cause a variety of difficult to control diseases in different crops, including winter cereals and maize. Among the species of this genus Fusarium graminearum deserves attention. The aim of this work was to develop a semi-selective medium to study this fungus. In several experiments, substrates for fungal growth were tested, including fungicides and antibiotics such as iprodiona, nystatin and triadimenol, and the antibacterial agents streptomycin and neomycin sulfate. Five seed samples of wheat, barley, oat, black beans and soybeans for F. graminearum detection by using the media Nash and Snyder agar (NSA, Segalin & Reis agar (SRA and one-quarter dextrose agar (1/4PDA; potato 50g; dextrose 5g and agar 20g, either unsupplemented or supplemented with various concentrations of the antimicrobial agents cited above. The selected components and concentrations (g.L-1 of the proposed medium, Segalin & Reis agar (SRA-FG, were: iprodiona 0.05; nystatin 0,025; triadimenol 0.015; neomycin sulfate 0.05; and streptomycin sulfate, 0.3 added of ¼ potato sucrose agar. In the isolation from seeds of cited plant species, the sensitivity of this medium was similar to that of NSA but with de advantage of maintaining the colony morphological aspects similar to those observed in potato-dextrose-agar medium.

  12. Structure of polysaccharide antibiotics; Structure des antibiotiques polysaccharidiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matutano, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    Study of the structure of antibiotics having two or several sugars in their molecule. One may distinguish: the polysaccharide antibiotics themselves, made up of two or several sugars either with or without nitrogen, such as streptomycin, neomycins, paromomycine, kanamycin, chalcomycin; the hetero-polysaccharide antibiotics made up of one saccharide part linked to an aglycone of various type through a glucoside: macrolide, pigment, pyrimidine purine. Amongst these latter are: erythromycin, magnamycin, spiramycin, oleandomycin, cinerubin and amicetin. The sugars can either play a direct role in biochemical reactions or act as a dissolving agent, as far as the anti-microbe power of these antibiotics is concerned. (author) [French] Etude de la structure des antibiotiques qui possedent dans leur molecule deux ou plusieurs sucres. On distingue: les antibiotiques polysaccharidiques proprement dits, constitues de deux eu plusieurs sucres azotes ou non, tels que streptomycines, neomycines, paromomycines, kanamycine, chalcomycine; les antibiotiques heteropolysaccharidiques formes d'une partie saccharidique liee glycosidiquement a un aglycone de nature diverse: macrolide - pigment - purine pyrimidine. On compte parmi ceux-ci: erythroraycine rnagnamycine, spiromycine, oleandomycine, cinerubine et amicetine. Dans le pouvoir antimicrobien de ces antibiotiques les sucres peuvent jouer soit un role direct dans les reactions biochimiques, soit agir comme solubilisant. (auteur)

  13. Novel patterns of ultraviolet mutagenesis and Weigle reactivation in Staphylococcus aureus and phage phi II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.K.; Hart, M.G.R.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of u.v. irradiation on the survival of Staphylococcus aureus and its phage phi11 were studied. The recA and uvr mutations affected their survival like synonymous mutations in Escherichia coli. Weigle reactivation (W-reactivation) of phi11 occurred in wild-type S. aureus and in a uvr mutant. Reactivation was recA-dependent and was accompanied by u.v.-induced mutagenesis in a temperature-sensitive mutant of phi11. Bacterial mutation to streptomycin resistance was induced by u.v. and was also recA-dependent. In S. aureus, as in E. coli, u.v. was a more effective mutagen in the uvr genetic background. However, a dose-squared response for u.v.-induced mutation of wild-type and uvr strains of S. aureus to streptomycin resistance, and of a trp auxotroph to tryptophan independence, was found only with u.v. doses below 1 J m -2 . In relation to the Uvr mechanism of DNA repair, u.v. mutagenesis in S. aureus may involve both repairable and non-repairable lesions. As in E. Coli, the uvr genetic background reduced the u.v. dose required for maximal W-reactivation of u.v.-irradiated phage. However, there was no enhancement of W-reactivation by post-irradiation broth incubation of S. aureus. The results are compatible with a non-inducible mechanism for this phenomenon. (author)

  14. Human basophil degranulation test in drug allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre Domínguez, J; Sastre Castillo, A

    1986-01-01

    We have evaluated the usefulness of HBDT as an in vitro method for the diagnosis of drug allergy. Two hundred and thirty six patients with suspected drug sensitization to penicillin, streptomycin, sulfamides, pyrazolones and A.S.A. were analyzed. Seventy-nine of them were allergic; in 43 cases it was confirmed by in vivo methods. Other patients were diagnosed by clinical history only if they had more than two reactions to the same drug. In order to be included in this group patients with reactions to pyrazolones and A.S.A. had to have tolerated other NSAI, therefore these patients were allergic to one compound only. All patients were considered non-allergic were determined by a negative provocation test. In the group of allergic patients we obtained 63 (79%) positive degranulations and 16 (21%) negative. One hundred and thirty two (84%) negative degranulations and 25 (16%) positive were obtained in the group of non-allergic patients. Once having analyzed 10 statistical parameters with each drug, the HBOT appears to be a useful method for these drugs except for streptomycin. In 16 (80%) out of 20 aspirin sensitive asthmatic patients we found that their basophils were degranulated. In 7 patients with urticaria and/or angioedema by A.S.A. and other NSAI the degranulation was negative, confirming the absence of the involvement of basophils in this reactions.

  15. Distribution and time course of hair cell regeneration in the pigeon utricle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, B. J.; Frank, T. C.; Newlands, S. D.; Dickman, J. D.

    1999-01-01

    Vestibular and cochlear regeneration following ototoxic insult from aminoglycoside antibiotics has been well documented, particularly in birds. In the present study, intraotic application of a 2 mg streptomycin paste was used to achieve complete vestibular hair cell destruction in pigeons (Columba livia) while preserving regenerative ability. Scanning electron microscopy was used to quantify hair cell density longitudinally during regeneration in three different utricular macula locations, including the striola, central and peripheral regions. The utricular epithelium was void of stereocilia (indicating hair cell loss) at 4 days after intraotic treatment with streptomycin. At 2 weeks the stereocilia began to appear randomly and mostly in an immature form. However, when present most kinocilia were polarized toward the developing striola. Initially, regeneration occurred more rapidly in the central and peripheral regions of the utricle as compared to the striola. As regeneration proceeded from 2 to 12 weeks, hair cell density in the striola region equaled the density noted in the central and peripheral regions. At 24 weeks, hair cell density of the central and peripheral regions was equal to normal values, however the striola region had a slightly greater hair cell density than that observed for normal animals.

  16. Play as productionproduction as game?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Play-related products and their export have through recent decades contributed to a certain Danish image on the world level – with Lego bricks at the commercial end and adventure playgrounds at the pedagogical end. The phenomena of toy production and play exports challenge our understanding of what...... “play” and “game” are, and of their social as well as political significance. At the municipal level, the city of Odense – “city of Hans Christian Andersen” – is branding itself as “city of play”. On the international level, Danish play-related products have expanded on the world market. In the field...... of sport, Danish sport is not just elite sport, but also organized in local associations. People meet in mass summer festivals of popular sport. Folk Academies develop sport as personal development, often in an experimental way. Street sports, parkour, play and games are promoted. Civil society is a basis...

  17. Estabelecimento e multiplicação in vitro de brotos no processo de micropropagação de cultivares de bananeira (Musa spp. Establishment and in vitro multiplication of banana (Musa spp. cultivars with the use of PVP (Polyvinylpyrrolidone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hérica Santos de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A banana (Musa spp. é uma das frutas mais consumidas no mundo, e amplamente cultivada no Brasil, porém doenças como as sigatokas, negra e amarela, vêm reduzindo a sua produção. A disponibilização imediata de novas cultivares resistentes às principais doenças é limitada pela propagação convencional. A micropropagação é uma alternativa para a produção de mudas com qualidade fitossanitária e vegetativa, mas apresenta fatores que dificultam sua aplicação como a contaminação por fungos e bactérias, associada à oxidação dos explantes. O objetivo desse trabalho foi adaptar e/ou otimizar as etapas do processo de micropropagação para diferentes cultivares de bananeira, por meio do controle de oxidação, contaminação, e multiplicação de brotos, sendo utilizadas as cultivares Caipira (AAA, BRS Caprichosa (AAAB, Pacovan Ken (AAAB, Preciosa (AAAB, PV 03-76 (AAAB, Thap Maeo (AAB. No estudo foram utilizados o antibiótico sulfato de estreptomicina e o fungicida Opera® (BASF visando reduzir a contaminação in vitro provocada por bactérias e fungos, além do anti-oxidante PVP (polivinilpirrolidona para controlar a oxidação. Houve redução da contaminação com uso do sulfato de estreptomicina à concentração de 100 mg L-1 e da oxidação com PVP a 4 g L-1. Na fase de multiplicação de brotos, as cultivares apresentaram médias que variaram de 1,90 a 4,75 brotos/explante. A cultivar caipira (AAA destacou-se das demais com a maior taxa de multiplicação de brotos após três subcultivos, média de 41,50 brotos por rizoma.The banana (Musa spp is one of the most consumed fruits in the world and is widely consumed in Brazil, but diseases such as yellow and black sigatoka have been reducing its production. The immediate availability of new cultivars resistant to major diseases is limited by conventional propagation. The micropropagation, is an alternative for the production of seedlings with phytosanitarium and vegetative

  18. Ação do biofertilizante Agrobio sobre a mancha-bacteriana e desenvolvimento de mudas de pimentão Effect of the Agrobio biofertilizer on the bacterial spot and the development of bell pepper transplants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia S.R. Deleito

    2005-03-01

    beneficial effect of Agrobio on bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L. transplants under greenhouse conditions. Two cultivars, 'Cascadura Ikeda' and 'Cascadura Itaipu' were used. Four Agrobio treatments, all diluted 5% (v/v in distilled water were used. They consisted of: (a raw; (b autoclaved (120ºC/20 min; (c filtered in millipore (0,22 µ diameter and (d the fraction retained on the millipore. They were applied as foliage sprays or directly on the substrate. As control treatments, oxytetracicline + streptomycin sulphate (0.8 g L-1, copper oxichloride (2.4 g L-1 and water were used. Raw of filtered Agrobio, as a foliage spray, resulted in better control of the disease and higher growth of the transplants, compared to autoclaved and fraction retained of the Agrobio and substrate sprays. All Agrobio treatments resulted in a less satisfactory disease control when compared to the commercial products, copper oxichloride and oxitetracicline + streptomycin sulphate, but more, effective than water. Agrobio stimulated the vegetative growth of the transplants, reduced the incidence of bacterial spot, increased the leaf area and promoted a better retention of infected leaves and the Bacillus spp. population.

  19. 17 CFR 229.1204 - (Item 1204) Oil and gas production, production prices and production costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... production, production prices and production costs. 229.1204 Section 229.1204 Commodity and Securities... production, production prices and production costs. (a) For each of the last three fiscal years disclose... production cost, not including ad valorem and severance taxes, per unit of production. Instruction 1 to Item...

  20. Nephrotoxicity of Natural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauffal, Mary; Gabardi, Steven

    2016-01-01

    The manufacture and sale of natural products constitute a multi-billion dollar industry. Nearly a third of the American population admit to using some form of complementary or alternative medicine, with many using them in addition to prescription medications. Most patients fail to inform their healthcare providers of their natural product use and physicians rarely inquire. Annually, thousands of natural product-induced adverse events are reported to Poison Control Centers nationwide. Natural product manufacturers are not responsible for proving safety and efficacy, as the FDA does not regulate them. However, concerns exist surrounding the safety of natural products. This review provides details on natural products that have been associated with renal dysfunction. We have focused on products that have been associated with direct renal injury, immune-mediated nephrotoxicity, nephrolithiasis, rhabdomyolysis with acute renal injury, hepatorenal syndrome, and common adulterants or contaminants that are associated with renal dysfunction. The potential for natural products to cause renal dysfunction is justifiable. It is imperative that natural product use be monitored closely in all patients. Healthcare practitioners must play an active role in identifying patients using natural products and provide appropriate patient education. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Fermentative production of isobutene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Bianca N M; van der Wulp, Albertus M; Duijnstee, Isabelle; van Maris, Antonius J A; Straathof, Adrie J J

    2012-02-01

    Isobutene (2-methylpropene) is one of those chemicals for which bio-based production might replace the petrochemical production in the future. Currently, more than 10 million metric tons of isobutene are produced on a yearly basis. Even though bio-based production might also be achieved through chemocatalytic or thermochemical methods, this review focuses on fermentative routes from sugars. Although biological isobutene formation is known since the 1970s, extensive metabolic engineering is required to achieve economically viable yields and productivities. Two recent metabolic engineering developments may enable anaerobic production close to the theoretical stoichiometry of 1isobutene + 2CO(2) + 2H(2)O per mol of glucose. One relies on the conversion of 3-hydroxyisovalerate to isobutene as a side activity of mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase and the other on isobutanol dehydration as a side activity of engineered oleate hydratase. The latter resembles the fermentative production of isobutanol followed by isobutanol recovery and chemocatalytic dehydration. The advantage of a completely biological route is that not isobutanol, but instead gaseous isobutene is recovered from the fermenter together with CO(2). The low aqueous solubility of isobutene might also minimize product toxicity to the microorganisms. Although developments are at their infancy, the potential of a large scale fermentative isobutene production process is assessed. The production costs estimate is 0.9 Euro kg(-1), which is reasonably competitive. About 70% of the production costs will be due to the costs of lignocellulose hydrolysate, which seems to be a preferred feedstock.

  2. Recombinant organisms for production of industrial products

    OpenAIRE

    Adrio, Jose-Luis; Demain, Arnold L

    2009-01-01

    A revolution in industrial microbiology was sparked by the discoveries of ther double-stranded structure of DNA and the development of recombinant DNA technology. Traditional industrial microbiology was merged with molecular biology to yield improved recombinant processes for the industrial production of primary and secondary metabolites, protein biopharmaceuticals and industrial enzymes. Novel genetic techniques such as metabolic engineering, combinatorial biosynthesis and molecular breeding...

  3. Leading co-production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tortzen, Anne

    leadership styles executed by public managers affect the quality and public value of co-production processes? The paper argues that publicly initiated co-production initiatives are influenced by conflicting governance logics placing public managers in an institutional cross pressure (Lowndes & Roberts, 2013...... of building networks and relations, developing trust and focusing on empowerment and on the participants' resources to develop innovative solutions Drawing on three qualitative case studies of ‘most likely' co-production cases in Danish municipalities, the study identifies three different leadership styles...... and increase public value (Bovaird & Löffler, 2012; Osborne, 2010). The paper argues that a deeper understanding of the dynamics of co-production can be gained from analyzing the leadership dimension of co-production processes, which has hitherto not been given much attention by co-production researchers...

  4. Product Platform Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Lone

    The aim of this research is to improve understanding of platform-based product development by studying platform performance in relation to internal effects in companies. Platform-based product development makes it possible to deliver product variety and at the same time reduce the needed resources...... engaging in platform-based product development. Similarly platform assessment criteria lack empirical verification regarding relevance and sufficiency. The thesis focuses on • the process of identifying and estimating internal effects, • verification of performance of product platforms, (i...... experienced representatives from the different life systems phase systems of the platform products. The effects are estimated and modeled within different scenarios, taking into account financial and real option aspects. The model illustrates and supports estimation and quantification of internal platform...

  5. Global product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2011-01-01

    Globalisation has enabled companies to globalise their product development process. Today, everything from manufacturing to R&D can be globally distributed. This has led to a more complex and disintegrated product development process. This paper investigates the impacts companies have experienced...... operational solutions to counteract the negative impacts with varying degrees of success. This paper presents a unique look into global product development through an investigation of its impact on the organisation, the product development process, and the product. Furthermore, it shows the solutions...... as a result of this, and how they have been addressed. Data was collected through case studies of five Danish multinational corporations. The findings showed that the companies experienced several challenges when they globalised their product development process. They consequently implemented various...

  6. Prevalence and characterization of multidrug-resistant zoonotic Enterobacter spp. in poultry of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Shuvro Prokash; Sultana, Munawar; Hossain, M Anwar

    2013-05-01

    Poultry and poultry products are major contributors of zoonotic pathogens. Limited data are available on Enterobacter spp. as a potent zoonotic pathogen in poultry. The present study is a first endeavor on the emergence of multidrug-resistant zoonotic Enterobacter spp. and its prevalence arising from poultry in Bangladesh. Cloacal swabs from poultry samples of five different farms at Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh were collected and from 106 isolates, 18 presumptive Enterobacter spp. were obtained. Antibiogram using 19 used antibiotics belonging to 15 major groups revealed that all of the 18 isolates were completely resistant to penicillin and rifampicin, but differed in their drug resistance pattern against ampicillin (94.4%), clindamycin (94.4%), erythromycin (94.4%), vancomycin (88.9%), sulfonamides (72.2%), imipenem (66.6%), streptomycin (55.6%), nitrofurantoin (33.3%), doxycycline (33.3%), tetracyclines (33.3%), cefepime (11.1%), and gentamicin (5.6%). All Enterobacter spp. were found to be plasmid free, implying that multidrug-resistant properties are chromosomal borne. The vanA and sulI were detected by polymerase chain reaction assay in 17 and 13 isolates, respectively. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA distributed the 18 multidrug-resistant Enterobacter spp. into three genotypes. Phylogenetic analysis of the representatives of the three genotypes using partial 16S rRNA gene sequence (approximately 900 bp) showed that the genotypically diverse groups belonged to Enterobacter hormaechei, E. cloacae, and E. cancerogenus, respectively. The clinical significance of the close relative Enterobacter spp. is indicative of their zoonotic potential. Therefore, urgent intervention is required to limit the emergence and spread of these bacteria in poultry feed as well as prudent use of antibiotics among poultry farmers in Bangladesh.

  7. Antileishmanial activity of Ferula assa-foetida oleo gum resin against Leishmania major: An in vitro study

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    Ali Fatahi Bafghi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Ayurveda, asafetida is introduced as a valuable remedy for flatulence, hysteria, nervous disorders, whooping cough, pneumonia and bronchitis in children and also considered as an aphrodisiac agent. Presently, Leishmaniasis is common in most countries of the world and is a serious health problem in the world. Some plant medicines and natural products have a new candidate for treatment of leishmaniasis. Objective: This study was designed to evaluate Ferula assa-foetida oleo gum resin (asafetida on mortality and morbidity Leishmania major in vitro. Materials and Methods: Mostigotes were isolated from mice spleens and then transformed to promastigotes in Novy-Nicolle-Mac Neal (NNN medium supplemented with penicillin (100 U/ml, streptomycin (100 μg/ml and 20% heat-inactivated fetal calf serum (FCS at 25°C. A fixed initial density of the parasites was transferred to screw-capped vials containing 5 ml of RPMI 1640 media to which different concentrations of 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 μg asafetida were added and each concentration was done in triplicates. Each run also included control. The mortality of parasitoids was measured by the slide and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA methods. Results: After 72 h, asafetida inhibited growth of parasites in all doses in stationary and logarithmic phases. The ELISA measurement suggested that the viability of parasites significantly decreased after 48h (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The results show that asafetida could prevent from growth and viability of parasites and this oleo gum resin can be useful for treatment of leishmaniasis.

  8. Beneficial Effects of Sodium Phenylbutyrate Administration during Infection with Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellbauer, Stefan; Perez Lopez, Araceli; Behnsen, Judith; Gao, Nina; Nguyen, Thao; Murphy, Clodagh; Edwards, Robert A; Raffatellu, Manuela

    2016-09-01

    Sodium phenylbutyrate (PBA) is a derivative of the short-chain fatty acid butyrate and is approved for treatment of urea cycle disorders and progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 2. Previously known functions include histone deacetylase inhibitor, endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibitor, ammonia sink, and chemical chaperone. Here, we show that PBA has a previously undiscovered protective role in host mucosal defense during infection. Administration of PBA to Taconic mice resulted in the increase of intestinal Lactobacillales and segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB), as well as an increase of interleukin 17 (IL-17) production by intestinal cells. This effect was not observed in Jackson Laboratory mice, which are not colonized with SFB. Because previous studies showed that IL-17 plays a protective role during infection with mucosal pathogens, we hypothesized that Taconic mice treated with PBA would be more resistant to infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S Typhimurium). By using the streptomycin-treated mouse model, we found that Taconic mice treated with PBA exhibited significantly lower S Typhimurium intestinal colonization and dissemination to the reticuloendothelial system, as well as lower levels of inflammation. The lower levels of S Typhimurium gut colonization and intestinal inflammation were not observed in Jackson Laboratory mice. Although PBA had no direct effect on bacterial replication, its administration reduced S Typhimurium epithelial cell invasion and lowered the induction of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-23 in macrophage-like cells. These effects likely contributed to the better outcome of infection in PBA-treated mice. Overall, our results suggest that PBA induces changes in the microbiota and in the mucosal immune response that can be beneficial to the host during infection with S Typhimurium and possibly other enteric pathogens. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Identification of okadaic acid binding protein 2 in reconstituted sponge cell clusters from Halichondria okadai and its contribution to the detoxification of okadaic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konoki, Keiichi; Okada, Kayo; Kohama, Mami; Matsuura, Hiroki; Saito, Kaori; Cho, Yuko; Nishitani, Goh; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Fukuzawa, Seketsu; Tachibana, Kazuo; Yotsu-Yamashita, Mari

    2015-12-15

    Okadaic acid (OA) and OA binding protein 2 (OABP2) were previously isolated from the marine sponge Halichondria okadai. Because the amino acid sequence of OABP2 is completely different from that of protein phosphatase 2A, a well-known target of OA, we have been investigating the production and function of OABP2. In the present study, we hypothesized that OABP2 plays a role in the detoxification of OA in H. okadai and that the OA concentrations are in proportional to the OABP2 concentrations in the sponge specimens. Based on the OA concentrations and the OABP2 concentrations in the sponge specimens collected in various places and in different seasons, however, we could not determine a positive correlation between OA and OABP2. We then attempted to determine distribution of OA and OABP2 in the sponge specimen. When the mixture of dissociated sponge cells and symbiotic species were separated with various pore-sized nylon meshes, most of the OA and OABP2 was detected from the same 0-10 μm fraction. Next, when sponge cell clusters were prepared from a mixture of dissociated sponge cells and symbiotic species in the presence of penicillin and streptomycin, we identified the 18S rDNA of H. okadai and the gene of OABP2 in the analysis of genomic DNA but could not detect OA by LC-MS/MS. We thus concluded that the sponge cells express OABP2, and that OA was not apparently present in the sponge cells but could be colocalized with OABP2 in the sponge cells at a concentration less than the limit of detection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence profile of enterococci isolated from poultry and cattle sources in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngbede, Emmanuel Ochefije; Raji, Mashood Abiola; Kwanashie, Clara Nna; Kwaga, Jacob Kwada Paghi

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the occurrence, antimicrobial resistance and virulence of Enterococcus from poultry and cattle farms. Three hundred and ninety samples: cloacal/rectal swabs (n = 260) and manure (n = 130] were processed for recovery of Enterococcus species. Standard bacteriological methods were used to isolate, identify and characterize Enterococcus species for antimicrobial susceptibility and expression of virulence traits. Detection of antibiotic resistance and virulence genes was carried out by polymerase chain reaction. Enterococcus was recovered from 167 (42.8%) of the 390 samples tested with a predominance of Enterococcus faecium (27.7%). Other species detected were Enterococcus gallinarum, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus hirae, Enterococcus raffinosus, Enterococcus avium, Enterococcus casseliflavus, Enterococcus mundtii and Enterococcus durans. All the isolates tested were susceptible to vancomycin, but resistance to tetracycline, erythromycin, ampicillin and gentamicin was also observed among 61.0, 61.0, 45.1 and 32.7% of the isolates, respectively. Sixty (53.1%) of the isolates were multidrug resistant presenting as 24 different resistance patterns with resistance to gentamicin-erythromycin-streptomycin-tetracycline (CN-ERY-STR-TET) being the most common (n = 11) pattern. In addition to expression of virulence traits (haemolysin, gelatinase, biofilm production), antibiotic resistance (tetK, tetL, tetM, tetO and ermB) and virulence (asa1, gelE, cylA) genes were detected among the isolates. Also, in vitro transfer of resistance determinants was observed among 75% of the isolates tested. Our data revealed poultry, cattle and manure in this area are hosts to varying Enterococcus species harbouring virulence and resistance determinants that can be transferred to other organisms and also are important for causing nosocomial infection.

  11. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profiles of S a l m o n e l l a isolates in apparently healthy slaughtered food animals at Maiduguri central abattoir, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Mohammed Jajere

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Salmonella isolates in the mesenteric lymph nodes of apparently healthy slaughtered food animals at Maiduguri central abattoir, Nigeria. Methods: A total of 154 lymph nodes (cattle-54, camel-22, sheep-12, goats-66 were collected from slaughtered animals and analysed using standard microbiological and biochemical methods. Results: An overall prevalence of 39.0% [95% confidence interval (CI: 31.3–46.7] was obtained. The prevalence rate across studied species ranged from 24.2% (95% CI: 13.9–34.5 in goats to 61.1% (95% CI: 48.1–74.1 in cattle. There was statistically significant association between Salmonella infection and species of food animals (P 0.05. Younger animals had slightly higher prevalence (44.0%; 95% CI: 24.5–63.5 compared with adults (38.0%; 95% CI: 29.6–46.4 (P > 0.05. All isolates showed marked susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, cotrimoxazole and chloramphenicol. Whereas, high resistance patterns to ampicillin, kanamycin and streptomycin, and moderate resistance patterns to kanamycin and tetracycline were observed from camels. Conclusions: Salmonella is high in the mesenteric lymph nodes of apparently healthy slaughtered food animals in Maiduguri. Therefore, it is recommended that further studies should be carried out to identify the serotypes and phage typing of the isolates, and hazard analysis and critical control point should be applied in handling of meat and meat products to avoid the risk of foodborne salmonellosis as well as appropriate use of antibiotics like ciprofloxacin in food animals.

  12. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium clinical isolates from two hospitals in Mexico: First detection of VanB phenotype-vanA genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra-Ibarias, Paola; Flores-Treviño, Samantha; Camacho-Ortiz, Adrián; Morfin-Otero, Rayo; Villarreal-Treviño, Licet; Llaca-Díaz, Jorge; Martínez-Landeros, Erik Alan; Rodríguez-Noriega, Eduardo; Calzada-Güereca, Andrés; Maldonado-Garza, Héctor Jesús; Garza-González, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium has emerged as a multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogen involved in outbreaks worldwide. Our aim was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility, biofilm production, and clonal relatedness of vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VREF) clinical isolates from two hospitals in Mexico. Consecutive clinical isolates (n=56) were collected in two tertiary care hospitals in Mexico from 2011 to 2014. VREF isolates were characterized by phenotypic and molecular methods including pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). VREF isolates were highly resistant to vancomycin, erythromycin, norfloxacin, high-level streptomycin, and teicoplanin, and showed lower resistance to tetracycline, nitrofurantoin and quinupristin-dalfopristin. None of the isolates were resistant to linezolid. The vanA gene was detected in all isolates. Two VanB phenotype-vanA genotype isolates, highly resistant to vancomycin and susceptible to teicoplanin, were detected. Furthermore, 17.9% of the isolates were classified as biofilm producers, and the espfm gene was found in 98.2% of the isolates. A total of 37 distinct PFGE patterns and 6 clones (25% of the isolates as clone A, 5.4% as clone B, and 3.6% each as clone C, D, E, and F) were detected. Clone A was detected in 5 different wards of the same hospital during 14 months of surveillance. The high resistance to most antimicrobial agents and the moderate cross-transmission of VREF detected accentuates the need for continuous surveillance of E. faecium in the hospital setting. This is also the first reported incidence of the E. faecium VanB phenotype-vanA genotype in the Americas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  13. First Report in China on the Identification and Drug Sensitivity of Mycobacterium elephantis Isolated from the Milk of a Cow with Mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ling Yun; Xu, Dong Lei; Yin, Shu Peng; Liu, Hai Can; Li, Gui Lian; Jiang, Yi; Wei, Jian Hao; Zeng, Hao; Lou, Yong Liang; Lyu, Jian Xin; Wan, Kang Lin

    2017-07-01

    In this study, milk from a cow with mastitis was analyzed to determine the presence of mycobacterial infection. Milk quality and security problems pertaining to the safe consumption of dairy products were also discussed in this study. Milk was preprocessed with 4% NaOH. Then, mycobacteria were isolated from the milk sample on L-J medium. The isolate was identified using multiple loci Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and multi-locus sequence analysis with 16S rRNA, sodA, hsp65, and ITS genes. The drug sensitivity of the isolate to 27 antibiotics was tested through alamar blue assay. Smooth, moist, pale yellow colonies appeared on the L-J medium within a week after inoculation. Based on the results of multiple loci PCR analysis, the isolate was preliminarily identified as non-tuberculous mycobacteria. The 16S rRNA, SodA, hsp65, and ITS gene sequences of the isolate exhibited 99%, 99%, 99%, and 100% similarities, respectively, with those of the published reference strains of Mycobacterium elephantis (M. elephantis). The drug sensitivity results showed that the strain is resistant to isoniazid, p-aminosalicylic acid, and trimesulf but is sensitive to ofloxacin, rifampicin, amikacin, capreomycin, moxifloxacin, kanamycin, levofloxacin, cycloserine, ethambutol, streptomycin, tobramycin, rifabutin, ciprofloxacin, linezolid, cefoxitin, clarithromycin, and minocycline. To the best of our knowledge, this study is initially to report the isolation of M. elephantis from the milk of a cow with mastitis in China. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  14. Incidence and transferability of antibiotic resistance in the enteric bacteria isolated from hospital wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Zubair Alam

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the occurrence of antibiotic resistance and production of β-lactamases including extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESβL in enteric bacteria isolated from hospital wastewater. Among sixty-nine isolates, tested for antibiotic sensitivity, 73.9% strains were resistant to ampicillin followed by nalidixic acid (72.5%, penicillin (63.8%, co-trimoxazole (55.1%, norfloxacin (53.6%, methicillin (52.7%, cefuroxime (39.1%, cefotaxime (23.2% and cefixime (20.3%. Resistance to streptomycin, chloramphenicol, nitrofurantoin, tetracycline, and doxycycline was recorded in less than 13% of the strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC showed a high level of resistance (800-1600 µg/mL to one or more antibiotics. Sixty three (91% isolates produced β-lactamases as determined by rapid iodometric test. Multiple antibiotic resistances were noted in both among ESβL and non-ESβL producers. The β-lactamases hydrolyzed multiple substrates including penicillin (78.8% isolates, ampicillin (62.3%, cefodroxil (52.2%, cefotoxime (21.7% and cefuroxime (18.8%. Fifteen isolates producing ESβLs were found multidrug resistant. Four ESβL producing isolates could transfer their R-plasmid to the recipient strain E. coli K-12 with conjugation frequency ranging from 7.0 x 10-3 to 8.8 x 10-4. The findings indicated that ESβL producing enteric bacteria are common in the waste water. Such isolates may disseminate the multiple antibiotic resistance traits among bacterial community through genetic exchange mechanisms and thus requires immediate attention.

  15. Pasteurella multocida in backyard chickens in Upper Egypt: incidence with polymerase chain reaction analysis for capsule type, virulence in chicken embryos and antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Moemen A; Mohamed, Mohamed-Wael A; Ahmed, Ahmed I; Ibrahim, Awad A; Ahmed, Mohamed S

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of Pasteurella multocida strains among 275 backyard chickens from different regions of Upper Egypt was studied. A total of 21 isolates of P. multocida were recovered in 21 out of 275 chickens tested (7.6%) and were confirmed using phenotypic characterisation. Somatic serotyping of the 21 isolates resulted in 12 isolates being classed as serotype A:1 (57.14%), 4 as serotype A:3 (19.05%) and 5 could not be typed (23.8%). Capsular typing, using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), demonstrated that 18 strains were capsular type A (85.7%), and 3 were type D (14.3%). The present findings suggest that a multiplex capsular PCR could be valuable for the rapid identification of P. multocida in cases of fowl cholera infection. A total of 5 isolates of P. multocida were selected to study their pathogenicity in embryonated chicken eggs instead of conducting a study in mature chickens. The results showed a variation in pathogenicity between the strains tested, namely: serotype A:1 strains caused 80% mortality, in contrast to 20% mortality by type D strains. Pathological findings included severe congestion of the entire embryo, haemorrhaging of the skin, feather follicles and toe, and ecchymotic haemorrhages on the liver of the inoculated embryos. The observations in this study indicate that P. multocida serogroup A could be highly pathogenic for mature chickens and therefore might be a cause of considerable economic losses in commercial production. A total of 10 isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration of 7 antimicrobials. All isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, florfenicol, streptomycin and sulphamethoxazol with trimethoprim and with varying degrees of sensitivity to the other agents.

  16. Constraints in animal health service delivery and sustainable improvement alternatives in North Gondar, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen Kebede

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Poor livestock health services remain one of the main constraints to livestock production in many developing countries, including Ethiopia. A study was carried out in 11 districts of North Gondar, from December 2011 to September 2012, with the objective of identifying the existing status and constraints of animal health service delivery, and thus recommending possible alternatives for its sustainable improvement. Data were collected by using pre-tested questionnaires and focus group discussion. Findings revealed that 46.34% of the responding farmers had taken their animals to government veterinary clinics after initially trying treatments with local medication. More than 90.00% of the clinical cases were diagnosed solely on clinical signs or even history alone. The antibacterial drugs found in veterinary clinics were procaine penicillin (with or without streptomycin, oxytetracycline and sulphonamides, whilst albendazole, tetramisole and ivermectin were the only anthelmintics. A thermometer was the only clinical aid available in all clinics, whilst only nine (45.00% clinics had a refrigerator. In the private sector, almost 95.00% were retail veterinary pharmacies and only 41.20% fulfilled the requirement criteria set. Professionals working in the government indicated the following problems: lack of incentives (70.00%, poor management and lack of awareness (60.00% and inadequate budget (40.00%. For farmers, the most frequent problems were failure of private practitioners to adhere to ethical procedures (74.00% and lack of knowledge of animal diseases and physical distance from the service centre (50.00%. Of all responding farmers, 58.54% preferred the government service, 21.14% liked both services equally and 20.33% preferred the private service. Farmers’ indiscriminate use of drugs from the black market (23.00% was also mentioned as a problem by private practitioners. Sustainable improvement of animal health service delivery needs increased

  17. Constraints in animal health service delivery and sustainable improvement alternatives in North Gondar, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Hassen; Melaku, Achenef; Kebede, Elias

    2014-11-12

    Poor livestock health services remain one of the main constraints to livestock production in many developing countries, including Ethiopia. A study was carried out in 11 districts of North Gondar, from December 2011 to September 2012, with the objective of identifying the existing status and constraints of animal health service delivery, and thus recommending possible alternatives for its sustainable improvement. Data were collected by using pre-tested questionnaires and focus group discussion. Findings revealed that 46.34% of the responding farmers had taken their animals to government veterinary clinics after initially trying treatments with local medication. More than 90.00% of the clinical cases were diagnosed solely on clinical signs or even history alone. The antibacterial drugs found in veterinary clinics were procaine penicillin (with or without streptomycin), oxytetracycline and sulphonamides, whilst albendazole, tetramisole and ivermectin were the only anthelmintics. A thermometer was the only clinical aid available in all clinics, whilst only nine (45.00%) clinics had a refrigerator. In the private sector, almost 95.00% were retail veterinary pharmacies and only 41.20% fulfilled the requirement criteria set. Professionals working in the government indicated the following problems: lack of incentives (70.00%), poor management and lack of awareness (60.00%) and inadequate budget (40.00%). For farmers, the most frequent problems were failure of private practitioners to adhere to ethical procedures (74.00%) and lack of knowledge of animal diseases and physical distance from the service centre (50.00%). Of all responding farmers, 58.54% preferred the government service, 21.14% liked both services equally and 20.33% preferred the private service. Farmers' indiscriminate use of drugs from the black market (23.00%) was also mentioned as a problem by private practitioners. Sustainable improvement of animal health service delivery needs increased awareness for all

  18. Prevalence of Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, and pathogenic Escherichia coli in bulk tank milk and milk filters from US dairy operations in the National Animal Health Monitoring System Dairy 2014 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnier, Jakeitha L; Karns, Jeffrey S; Lombard, Jason E; Kopral, Christine A; Haley, Bradd J; Kim, Seon-Woo; Van Kessel, Jo Ann S

    2018-03-01

    The dairy farm environment is a well-documented reservoir for zoonotic pathogens such as Salmonella enterica, Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes, and humans may be exposed to these pathogens via consumption of unpasteurized milk and dairy products. As part of the National Animal Health Monitoring System Dairy 2014 study, bulk tank milk (BTM, n = 234) and milk filters (n = 254) were collected from a total of 234 dairy operations in 17 major dairy states and analyzed for the presence of these pathogens. The invA gene was detected in samples from 18.5% of operations and Salmonella enterica was isolated from 18.0% of operations. Salmonella Dublin was detected in 0.7% of operations. Sixteen Salmonella serotypes were isolated, and the most common serotypes were Cerro, Montevideo, and Newport. Representative Salmonella isolates (n = 137) were tested against a panel of 14 antimicrobials. Most (85%) were pansusceptible; the remaining were resistant to 1 to 9 antimicrobials, and within the resistant strains the most common profile was resistance to ampicillin/clavulanic acid, ampicillin, cefoxitin, ceftiofur, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and tetracycline. Listeria spp. were isolated from 19.9% of operations, and L. monocytogenes was isolated from 3.0% of operations. Serogroups 1/2a and 1/2b were the most common, followed by 4b and 4a. One or more E. coli virulence genes were detected in the BTM from 30.5% of operations and in the filters from 75.3% of operations. A combination of stx 2 , eaeA, and γ-tir genes was detected in the BTM from 0.5% of operations and in the filters from 6.6% of operations. The results of this study indicate an appreciable prevalence of bacterial pathogens in BTM and filters, including serovars known to infect humans. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Occurrence of Salmonella in ruminants and camel meat in Maiduguri, Nigeria and their antibiotic resistant pattern

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    Zakaria Musa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to determine the occurrence of Salmonella in various meat products (beef from cattle, chevon from goats, mutton from sheep and jaziir from camel, by screening the various selling points which includes; meat retailers in abattoir, markets and shops in Maiduguri and its environs. Materials and methods: A total of 120 samples of fresh meat from cattle, sheep, goats and camels sampled from ten meat retailers in abattoir, markets and shops in the Maiduguri metropolis, using simple random sampling technique. All samples were processed and examined according to standard bacteriological protocols. Results: Percentage occurrence of Salmonella species had the highest value of 15 (50.1% from the market, found in sheep, while the lowest occurrence of Salmonella species was associated with 3(10.0% in goats sampled from shop meat.. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Salmonella species from cattle meat revealed high resistant to Erythromycin (52%. In sheep, the higher percentage of resistance occurred against Ampicillin (33.3% and less resistant to Amoxicillin (4% was obtained. The isolates from camel meat recorded 25% resistant against Ampicillin, Gentamycin and 12.5% to Streptomycin. A total of 28.4% of the isolates were resistant to Ampicillin, Gentamycin and 23.1% to Ofloxacin. Conclusion: The study has shown that Salmonella species are present in fresh meat sold in abattoir, retail markets and shops. We recommend strict hygienic measures in places where fresh meat are sold in Maiduguri metropolis, Nigeria to ensure consumers right to have safe food. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(3.000: 227-233

  20. Antimicrobial resistances do not affect colonization parameters of intestinal E. coli in a small piglet group

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    Schierack Peter

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although antimicrobial resistance and persistence of resistant bacteria in humans and animals are major health concerns worldwide, the impact of antimicrobial resistance on bacterial intestinal colonization in healthy domestic animals has only been rarely studied. We carried out a retrospective analysis of the antimicrobial susceptibility status and the presence of resistance genes in intestinal commensal E. coli clones from clinically healthy pigs from one production unit with particular focus on effects of pheno- and/or genotypic resistance on different nominal and numerical intestinal colonization parameters. In addition, we compared the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and genotypes with the occurrence of virulence associated genes typical for extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli. Results In general, up to 72.1% of all E. coli clones were resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole or tetracycline with a variety of different resistance genes involved. There was no significant correlation between one of the nominal or numerical colonization parameters and the absence or presence of antimicrobial resistance properties or resistance genes. However, there were several statistically significant associations between the occurrence of single resistance genes and single virulence associated genes. Conclusion The demonstrated resistance to the tested antibiotics might not play a dominant role for an intestinal colonization success in pigs in the absence of antimicrobial drugs, or cross-selection of other colonization factors e.g. virulence associated genes might compensate "the cost of antibiotic resistance". Nevertheless, resistant strains are not outcompeted by susceptible bacteria in the porcine intestine. Trial Registration The study was approved by the local animal welfare committee of the "Landesamt für Arbeitsschutz, Gesundheitsschutz und technische Sicherheit" Berlin

  1. Trends of Mycobacterium bovis Isolation and First-Line Anti-tuberculosis Drug Susceptibility Profile: A Fifteen-Year Laboratory-Based Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobadilla-del Valle, Miriam; Torres-González, Pedro; Cervera-Hernández, Miguel Enrique; Martínez-Gamboa, Areli; Crabtree-Ramirez, Brenda; Chávez-Mazari, Bárbara; Ortiz-Conchi, Narciso; Rodríguez-Cruz, Luis; Cervantes-Sánchez, Axel; Gudiño-Enríquez, Tomasa; Cinta-Severo, Carmen; Sifuentes-Osornio, José; Ponce de León, Alfredo

    2015-09-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes the majority of tuberculosis (TB) cases in humans; however, in developing countries, human TB caused by M. bovis may be frequent but undetected. Human TB caused by M. bovis is considered a zoonosis; transmission is mainly through consumption of unpasteurized dairy products, and it is less frequently attributed to animal-to-human or human-to-human contact. We describe the trends of M. bovis isolation from human samples and first-line drug susceptibility during a 15-year period in a referral laboratory located in a tertiary care hospital in Mexico City. Data on mycobacterial isolates from human clinical samples were retrieved from the laboratory's database for the 2000-2014 period. Susceptibility to first-line drugs: rifampin, isoniazid, streptomycin (STR) and ethambutol was determined. We identified 1,165 isolates, 73.7% were M. tuberculosis and 26.2%, M. bovis. Among pulmonary samples, 16.6% were M. bovis. The proportion of M. bovis isolates significantly increased from 7.8% in 2000 to 28.4% in 2014 (X(2)trend, ptuberculosis isolates (10.9% vs.3.4%, ptuberculosis, respectively (p = 0.637). A rising trend of primary STR monoresistance was observed for both species (3.4% in 2000-2004 vs. 7.6% in 2010-2014; p = 0.02). There is a high prevalence and a rising trend of M. bovis isolates in our region. The proportion of pulmonary M. bovis isolates is higher than in previous reports. Additionally, we report high rates of primary anti-tuberculosis resistance and secondary MDR in both M. tuberculosis and M. bovis. This is one of the largest reports on drug susceptibility of M. bovis from human samples and shows a significant proportion of first-line anti-tuberculosis drug resistance.

  2. Trends of Mycobacterium bovis Isolation and First-Line Anti-tuberculosis Drug Susceptibility Profile: A Fifteen-Year Laboratory-Based Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobadilla-del Valle, Miriam; Torres-González, Pedro; Cervera-Hernández, Miguel Enrique; Martínez-Gamboa, Areli; Crabtree-Ramirez, Brenda; Chávez-Mazari, Bárbara; Ortiz-Conchi, Narciso; Rodríguez-Cruz, Luis; Cervantes-Sánchez, Axel; Gudiño-Enríquez, Tomasa; Cinta-Severo, Carmen; Sifuentes-Osornio, José; Ponce de León, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Background Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes the majority of tuberculosis (TB) cases in humans; however, in developing countries, human TB caused by M. bovis may be frequent but undetected. Human TB caused by M. bovis is considered a zoonosis; transmission is mainly through consumption of unpasteurized dairy products, and it is less frequently attributed to animal-to-human or human-to-human contact. We describe the trends of M. bovis isolation from human samples and first-line drug susceptibility during a 15-year period in a referral laboratory located in a tertiary care hospital in Mexico City. Methodology/Principal Findings Data on mycobacterial isolates from human clinical samples were retrieved from the laboratory’s database for the 2000–2014 period. Susceptibility to first-line drugs: rifampin, isoniazid, streptomycin (STR) and ethambutol was determined. We identified 1,165 isolates, 73.7% were M. tuberculosis and 26.2%, M. bovis. Among pulmonary samples, 16.6% were M. bovis. The proportion of M. bovis isolates significantly increased from 7.8% in 2000 to 28.4% in 2014 (X 2 trend, ptuberculosis isolates (10.9% vs.3.4%, ptuberculosis, respectively (p = 0.637). A rising trend of primary STR monoresistance was observed for both species (3.4% in 2000–2004 vs. 7.6% in 2010–2014; p = 0.02). Conclusions/Significance There is a high prevalence and a rising trend of M. bovis isolates in our region. The proportion of pulmonary M. bovis isolates is higher than in previous reports. Additionally, we report high rates of primary anti-tuberculosis resistance and secondary MDR in both M. tuberculosis and M. bovis. This is one of the largest reports on drug susceptibility of M. bovis from human samples and shows a significant proportion of first-line anti-tuberculosis drug resistance. PMID:26421930

  3. Incidence and transferability of antibiotic resistance in the enteric bacteria isolated from hospital wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mohammad Zubair; Aqil, Farrukh; Ahmad, Iqbal; Ahmad, Shamim

    2013-01-01

    This study reports the occurrence of antibiotic resistance and production of β-lactamases including extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESβL) in enteric bacteria isolated from hospital wastewater. Among sixty-nine isolates, tested for antibiotic sensitivity, 73.9% strains were resistant to ampicillin followed by nalidixic acid (72.5%), penicillin (63.8%), co-trimoxazole (55.1%), norfloxacin (53.6%), methicillin (52.7%), cefuroxime (39.1%), cefotaxime (23.2%) and cefixime (20.3%). Resistance to streptomycin, chloramphenicol, nitrofurantoin, tetracycline, and doxycycline was recorded in less than 13% of the strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) showed a high level of resistance (800–1600 μg/mL) to one or more antibiotics. Sixty three (91%) isolates produced β-lactamases as determined by rapid iodometric test. Multiple antibiotic resistances were noted in both among ESβL and non-ESβL producers. The β-lactamases hydrolyzed multiple substrates including penicillin (78.8% isolates), ampicillin (62.3%), cefodroxil (52.2%), cefotoxime (21.7%) and cefuroxime (18.8%). Fifteen isolates producing ESβLs were found multidrug resistant. Four ESβL producing isolates could transfer their R-plasmid to the recipient strain E. coli K-12 with conjugation frequency ranging from 7.0 × 10−3 to 8.8 × 10−4. The findings indicated that ESβL producing enteric bacteria are common in the waste water. Such isolates may disseminate the multiple antibiotic resistance traits among bacterial community through genetic exchange mechanisms and thus requires immediate attention. PMID:24516448

  4. Molecular epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 on Ontario swine farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzan, Abdolvahab; Friendship, Robert M.; Poppe, Cornelis; Martin, Laura; Dewey, Catherine E.; Funk, Julie

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine antimicrobial resistances, plasmid profiles, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of 80 Salmonella Typhimurium (including var. Copenhagen) DT104 strains (including DT104a and DT104b) recovered from pig and environmental fecal samples on 17 swine farms in Ontario. No resistance was observed to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, apramycin, carbadox, cephalothin, ceftriaxone, ceftiofur, cefoxitin, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, trimethoprim, and tobramycin. However, the isolates exhibited resistance against 4 to 10 antimicrobials with the most frequent resistance being to sulfonamides (Su), ampicillin (A), streptomycin (S), spectinomycin (Sp), chloramphenicol (C), tetracycline (T), and florfenicol (F). Thirteen distinct resistance patterns were determined but 88% of isolates shared the typical resistance pattern “ACSpSSuT.” Twelve different plasmid profiles were observed; the 62 MDa virulence-associated plasmid was detected in 95% of the isolates. The 2.1 MDa plasmid was the second most frequent one, which was harbored by 65% isolates. The isolates were classified into 23 distinct genotypes by PFGE-SpeI + BlnI when difference in at least one fragment was defined as a distinct genotype. In total, 39 distinct “types” were observed when defining a “type” based on the combination of antimicrobial resistance, plasmid pattern, and PFGE-SpeI + BlnI for each isolate. The highest diversity was 0.96 (95% CI: 0.92, 0.96) for the “type” described above followed by 0.92 (95% CI: 0.88, 0.93) for PFGE-SpeI + BlnI. The diversity of DT104 isolates indicates there might be multiple sources for this microorganism on swine farms. This knowledge might be used to track these sources, as well as to study the extent of human salmonellosis attributed to pork compared to food products derived from other food-producing animals. PMID:18505209

  5. Pasteurella multocida in backyard chickens in Upper Egypt: incidence with polymerase chain reaction analysis for capsule type, virulence in chicken embryos and antimicrobial resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moemen A. Mohamed

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Pasteurella multocida strains among 275 backyard chickens from different regions of Upper Egypt was studied. A total of 21 isolates of P. multocida were recovered in 21 out of 275 chickens tested (7.6% and were confirmed using phenotypic characterisation. Somatic serotyping of the 21 isolates resulted in 12 isolates being classed as serotype A:1 (57.14%, 4 as serotype A:3 (19.05% and 5 could not be typed (23.8%. Capsular typing, using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR, demonstrated that 18 strains were capsular type A (85.7%, and 3 were type D (14.3%. The present findings suggest that a multiplex capsular PCR could be valuable for the rapid identification of P. multocida in cases of fowl cholera infection. A total of 5 isolates of P. multocida were selected to study their pathogenicity in embryonated chicken eggs instead of conducting a study in mature chickens. The results showed a variation in pathogenicity between the strains tested, namely: serotype A:1 strains caused 80% mortality, in contrast to 20% mortality by type D strains. Pathological findings included severe congestion of the entire embryo, haemorrhaging of the skin, feather follicles and toe, and ecchymotic haemorrhages on the liver of the inoculated embryos. The observations in this study indicate that P. multocida serogroup A could be highly pathogenic for mature chickens and therefore might be a cause of considerable economic losses in commercial production. A total of 10 isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration of 7 antimicrobials. All isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, florfenicol, streptomycin and sulphamethoxazol with trimethoprim and with varying degrees of sensitivity to the other agents.

  6. Antibiotic resistance, phylogenetic grouping and virulence potential of Escherichia coli isolated from the faeces of intensively farmed and free range poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeng, Akua Serwaah; Rickard, Heather; Ndi, Olasumbo; Sexton, Margaret; Barton, Mary

    2012-01-27

    Antibiotic use in poultry production is a risk factor for promoting the emergence of resistant Escherichia coli. To ascertain differences in different classes of chickens, the resistance profile, some virulence genes and phylogenetic grouping on 251 E. coli isolates from intensive meat (free range and indoor commercial) and free range egg layer chickens collected between December 2008 and June 2009 in South Australia were performed. Among the 251 strains, 102 (40.6%) and 67 (26.7%) were found to be resistant to tetracycline and ampicillin respectively. Resistance was also observed to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (12.4%), streptomycin (10.8%), spectinomycin (9.6%), neomycin (6.0%) and florfenicol (2.0%) but no resistance was found to ceftiofur, ciprofloxacin or gentamicin. Amplification of DNA of the isolates by polymerase chain reaction revealed the presence of genes that code for resistant determinants: tetracycline (tet(A), tet(B) and tet(C)), ampicillin (bla(TEM) and bla(SHV)), trimethoprim (dhfrV and dhfrXIII), sulphonamide (sulI and sulII), neomycin (aph(3)-Ia(aphA1)), and spectinomycin-streptinomycin (aadA2). In addition, 32.3-39.4% of the isolates were found to belong to commensal groups (A and B1) and 11.2-17.1% belonged to the virulent groups (B2 and D). Among the 251 E. coli isolates, 25 (10.0%) carried two or more virulence genes typical of Extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). Furthermore, 17 of the isolates with multi-resistance were identified to be groups B2 and D. Although no significant difference was observed between isolates from free range and indoor commercial meat chickens (P>0.05), significant differences was observed between the different classes of meat chickens (free range and indoor commercial) and egg layers (Pzoonotic potential of poultry E. coli isolates. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Antimicrobial Resistance and Genotypic Diversity of Campylobacter Isolated from Pig, Dairy and Beef Cattle in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac eKashoma

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne Campylobacter infections pose a serious threat to public health worldwide. However, the occurrence and characteristics of Campylobacter in food animals and products remain largely unknown in Tanzania. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, antibiotic resistance, and genetic profiles (sequence types, STs of Campylobacter isolated from feces of pigs and dairy and beef cattle in Tanzania. Overall, 259 (~ 30% of 864 samples were positive for Campylobacter spp, which were detected in 32.5%, 35.4%, and 19.6% of the pig, dairy, and beef cattle samples, respectively. Multiplex PCR analysis identified 64.5% and 29.3% of the Campylobacter isolates as C. coli and C. jejuni, respectively. The majority (91.9% of the isolates from pig samples were identified as C. coli, while C. jejuni accounted for 65.5% of the isolates from cattle. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disk diffusion assay and the broth microdilution method revealed resistance to: ampicillin (70% and 76%, gentamicin (1.8% and 12.6%, respectively, streptomycin (65.8% and 74.8%, erythromycin (41.4% and 48.7%, tetracycline (18.9% and 23.4%, and ciprofloxacin (14.4% and 7.2%. Resistance to nalidixic acid (39.6%, azithromycin (13.5%, and chloramphenicol (4.5% was determined using the disk diffusion assay only, while resistance to tylosin (38.7% was quantified using the broth microdilution method. Multilocus sequence typing of 111 Campylobacter isolates resulted in the identification of 48 STs (26 C. jejuni and 22 C. coli of which 7 were novel (6 C. jejuni and 1 C. coli. Taken together, this study revealed the high prevalence, genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter in important food animals in Tanzania, which highlights the urgent need for the surveillance and control of Campylobacter in this country.

  8. MICROORGANISMS IN CONFECTIONERY PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ľubomíra Juhaniaková; Miroslava Kačániová

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine microbiological quality of confectionery products. In confectionery products microbiological parameters: coliforms bacteria, microscopic filamentous fungi and yeasts, Salmonella sp. and staphylococci were observed. The confectionery products were evaluated: Kremes - honey cube, roll Arabica, roll Rona, roll stuffed with apricot cream, honey cube, pinwheel caramel, Sachovnica cut, Zora cut and curd cake. For microbiological tests 18 samples of confectioner...

  9. Southern pulpwood production, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony G. Johnson; Carolyn D. Steppleton; James W. Bentley

    2010-01-01

    The South’s production of pulpwood increased from 65.7 million cords in 2007 to 67.0 million cords in 2008. Roundwood production increased by 1.2 million cords to 48.8 million cords and accounted for 73 percent of the South’s total pulpwood production. The use of wood residue remained stable at 18.2 million cords. Georgia led the South...

  10. Southern pulpwood production, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. Bentley; Jason A. Cooper

    2015-01-01

    The South’s production of pulpwood increased from 62.7 million cords in 2011 to 63.7 million cords in 2012. Roundwood production decreased by 770,000 cords to 49.3 million cords and accounted for 78 percent of the South’s total pulpwood production. The use of wood residue dropped 15 percent to 14.4 million cords in 2012. Georgia and Alabama led the South in total...

  11. Southern pulpwood production, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. Bentley; Carolyn D. Steppleton

    2013-01-01

    The South’s production of pulpwood declined from 65.5 million cords in 2010 to 62.7 million cords in 2011. Roundwood production decreased by 878,000 cords to 50.1 million cords and accounted for 80 percent of the South’s total pulpwood production. The use of wood residue dropped 14 percent to 12.6 million cords in 2011. Georgia and Alabama led the South in total...

  12. Electricity production of Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czodor, T.

    2003-01-01

    Here is examined the spatial structure of electric energy production divided in hydropower plants (through-flow and re-pumping), thermal power plants as the most expensive way of electric energy production and nuclear power plants where high difficulty and long-term realisation of construction projects and spent financial resources are pointed out. Work describes present structure of electric energy production and consumption and refers to alternative electric energy sources

  13. Working Hours and Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Collewet, Marion; Sauermann, Jan

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the link between working hours and productivity using daily information on working hours and performance of a sample of call centre agents. We exploit variation in the number of hours worked by the same employee across days and weeks due to central scheduling, enabling us to estimate the effect of working hours on productivity. We find that as the number of hours worked increases, the average handling time for a call increases, meaning that agents become less productive. Th...

  14. Productivity in Public Services

    OpenAIRE

    Helen Simpson

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses issues arising in the measurement of productivity in public services. Compared to measuring productivity in the private sector difficulties arise because the output of public services is often un-priced and because some public services are consumed collectively. A key problem is measuring the full range of outputs and quality improvements delivered by public sector organisations that are valued by society. Without comprehensive measures of output productivity statistics m...

  15. Ionization of food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasseur, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    After general remarks on foods preservation, on international works and on ionization future prospects, main irradiation sources are described. Recalls on radioactivity, on radiation-matter interaction, on toxicology of ionized foods and on ionized foods detection are given. Ionization applications to various products are reviewed, especially in: - Poultry meat - Fishing products - Fresh fruits and vegetables - Dry fruits and vegetables - spices, tea, infusion - prepacked products... An evaluation of economics and sociocultural impacts is presented in connection with recent experiments [fr

  16. Accounting for productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aiyar, Shekhar; Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars

    2009-01-01

    The development accounting literature almost always assumes a Cobb-Douglas (CD) production function. However, if in reality the elasticity of substitution between capital and labor deviates substantially from 1, the assumption is invalid, potentially casting doubt on the commonly held view...... that factors of production are relatively unimportant in accounting for differences in labor productivity. We use international data on relative factor shares and capital-output ratios to formulate a number of tests for the validity of the CD assumption. We find that the CD specification performs reasonably...... well for the purposes of cross-country productivity accounting....

  17. Measuring Clinical Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Mark E; Lebovitz, Evan E

    2018-06-01

    Productivity measurements have been used to evaluate and compare physicians and physician practices. Anesthesiology is unique in that factors outside anesthesiologist control impact opportunity for revenue generation and make comparisons between providers and facilities challenging. This article uses data from the multicenter University of Pittsburgh Physicians Department of Anesthesiology to demonstrate factors influencing productivity opportunity by surgical facility, between department divisions and subspecialties within multispecialty divisions, and by individuals within divisions. The complexities of benchmarking anesthesiology productivity are demonstrated, and the potential value of creating a productivity profile for facilities and groups is illustrated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sustainable hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, D.L.; Linkous, C.; Muradov, N.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the Sustainable Hydrogen Production research conducted at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) for the past year. The report presents the work done on the following four tasks: Task 1--production of hydrogen by photovoltaic-powered electrolysis; Task 2--solar photocatalytic hydrogen production from water using a dual-bed photosystem; Task 3--development of solid electrolytes for water electrolysis at intermediate temperatures; and Task 4--production of hydrogen by thermocatalytic cracking of natural gas. For each task, this report presents a summary, introduction/description of project, and results.

  19. DESIGN VERSUS PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edu Grieco Mazzini Junior

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Design or product development? The questioning in relation to the employment of such terminology dates back to possible misconceptions regarding interpretation and approach them. Therefore, it can be stated that there are differences between these two terms? In this context, we highlight two views concerning the origin of the design. The first character creative and based on pre-industrial revolution, based on projective and methodologies directed towards the practice of designing products. And second, where design is understood as an industrial process: the development of new products includes, besides a creative procedure are developed, and symbolic formal solutions for products, but also a technical procedure based on the definition of the requirements concerning the product engineering. Is this the most widely accepted interpretation? theoretical studies were conducted from interpretations of the concept of the design proposed by the International Council of Societies of Industrial Design – ICSDI (2012, and for the characterization of the process of product development, we sought to develop an analogy between these two terminologies and can be proved that the use of one of terminology will not cause deviations of interpretation, since both deal with the life cycle of the product. The main results obtained until now the definition of design proposed by the ICSID where it is characterized as a creative activity focused on the complete life cycle of products is the more approaches of the concept of product development.

  20. The Internationalisation of Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Cheng; Madsen, Erik Skov

    2013-01-01

    practice is further analysed in terms of (1) general information of each case company; (2) motivation of production internationalisation of each case company; (3) limitations as SMEs to internationalise production; (4) operational activities during the internationalization; (5) benefits of joint effort......This paper mainly aims to explore how SMEs internationalise their production. Directed by this objective, a new practice adopted by five Danish SMEs to internationalise their production to China is identified, which to our knowledge has never been reported by any of the existing literature. The new...