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Sample records for streptococcus bovis atcc

  1. Draft genome sequences of Streptococcus bovis strains ATCC 33317 and JB1

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report the draft genome sequences of Streptococcus bovis type strain ATTC 33317 (CVM42251) isolated from cow dung and strain JB1 (CVM42252) isolated from a cow rumen in 1977. Strains were subjected to Next Generation sequencing and the genome sizes are approximately 2 MB and 2.2 MB, respectively....

  2. Ecology and pathogenicity of gastrointestinal Streptococcus bovis.

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    Herrera, Paul; Kwon, Young Min; Ricke, Steven C

    2009-01-01

    Streptococcus bovis is an indigenous resident in the gastrointestinal tracts of both humans and animals. S. bovis is one of the major causes of bacterial endocarditis and has been implicated in the incidence of human colon cancer, possibly due to chronic inflammatory response at the site of intestinal colonization. Certain feeding regimens in ruminants can lead to overgrowth of S. bovis in the rumen, resulting in the over-production of lactate and capsular polysaccharide causing acute ruminal acidosis and bloat, respectively. There are multiple strategies in controlling acute lactic acidosis and bloat. The incidence of the two diseases may be controlled by strict dietary management. Gradual introduction of grain-based diets and the feeding of coarsely chopped roughage decrease the incidence of the two disease entities. Ionophores, which have been used to enhance feed conversion and growth rate in cattle, have been shown to inhibit the growth of lactic acid bacteria in the rumen. Other methods of controlling lactic acid bacteria in the ruminal environment (dietary supplementation of long-chain fatty acids, induction of passive and active immune responses to the bacteria, and the use of lytic bacteriophages) have also been investigated. It is anticipated that through continued in-depth ecological analysis of S. bovis the characteristics responsible for human and animal pathogenesis would be sufficiently identified to a point where more effective control strategies for the control of this bacteria can be developed.

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Type Strain Streptococcus gordonii ATCC 10558

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Louise Hesselbjerg; Dargis, Rimtas; Christensen, Jens Jørgen Elmer

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus gordonii ATCC 10558T was isolated from a patient with infective endocarditis in 1946 and announced as a type strain in 1989. Here, we report the 2,154,510-bp draft genome sequence of S. gordonii ATCC 10558T. This sequence will contribute to knowledge about the pathogenesis of infect......Streptococcus gordonii ATCC 10558T was isolated from a patient with infective endocarditis in 1946 and announced as a type strain in 1989. Here, we report the 2,154,510-bp draft genome sequence of S. gordonii ATCC 10558T. This sequence will contribute to knowledge about the pathogenesis...

  4. Significant Association of Streptococcus bovis with Malignant Gastrointestinal Diseases

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    Salah Shanan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus bovis is a Gram-positive bacterium causing serious human infections, including endocarditis and bacteremia, and is usually associated with underlying disease. The aims of the current study were to compare prevalence of the bacterium associated with malignant and nonmalignant gastrointestinal diseases and to determine the susceptibility of the isolated strains to different antimicrobial agents. The result showed that the prevalence of S. bovis in stool specimens from patients with malignant or with nonmalignant gastrointestinal diseases was statistically significant. This result may support the idea that there is correlation between S. bovis and the malignant gastrointestinal diseases.

  5. Verrucous endocarditis associated with Streptococcus bovis in mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Jørgensen, J.C.; Dietz, Hans-Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Between 1998 and 2001, mortalities due to verrucous endocarditis were experienced at several mink farms. Gram-positive cocci were isolated from the endocardium of all the animals examined but not always from other internal organs. Almost all the isolates were identified as Streptococcus bovis...

  6. Magnetic response in cultures of Streptococcus mutans ATCC-27607.

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    Adamkiewicz, V W; Bassous, C; Morency, D; Lorrain, P; Lepage, J L

    1987-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans ATCC-27607 produces exopolysaccharides that adhere to glass. In the normal geomagnetic field about 50% more polysaccharide adhere preferentially to glass surfaces facing North as compared to South facing surfaces. Reversal of the direction of the magnetic field by 180 degrees produces a similar reversal in the direction of the preferential accumulation. Reduction of the field by 90% abolishes the preferential accumulation.

  7. Comparative genomics of the dairy isolate Streptococcus macedonicus ACA-DC 198 against related members of the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex.

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    Papadimitriou, Konstantinos; Anastasiou, Rania; Mavrogonatou, Eleni; Blom, Jochen; Papandreou, Nikos C; Hamodrakas, Stavros J; Ferreira, Stéphanie; Renault, Pierre; Supply, Philip; Pot, Bruno; Tsakalidou, Effie

    2014-04-08

    Within the genus Streptococcus, only Streptococcus thermophilus is used as a starter culture in food fermentations. Streptococcus macedonicus though, which belongs to the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC), is also frequently isolated from fermented foods mainly of dairy origin. Members of the SBSEC have been implicated in human endocarditis and colon cancer. Here we compare the genome sequence of the dairy isolate S. macedonicus ACA-DC 198 to the other SBSEC genomes in order to assess in silico its potential adaptation to milk and its pathogenicity status. Despite the fact that the SBSEC species were found tightly related based on whole genome phylogeny of streptococci, two distinct patterns of evolution were identified among them. Streptococcus macedonicus, Streptococcus infantarius CJ18 and Streptococcus pasteurianus ATCC 43144 seem to have undergone reductive evolution resulting in significantly diminished genome sizes and increased percentages of potential pseudogenes when compared to Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus. In addition, the three species seem to have lost genes for catabolizing complex plant carbohydrates and for detoxifying toxic substances previously linked to the ability of S. gallolyticus to survive in the rumen. Analysis of the S. macedonicus genome revealed features that could support adaptation to milk, including an extra gene cluster for lactose and galactose metabolism, a proteolytic system for casein hydrolysis, auxotrophy for several vitamins, an increased ability to resist bacteriophages and horizontal gene transfer events with the dairy Lactococcus lactis and S. thermophilus as potential donors. In addition, S. macedonicus lacks several pathogenicity-related genes found in S. gallolyticus. For example, S. macedonicus has retained only one (i.e. the pil3) of the three pilus gene clusters which may mediate the binding of S. gallolyticus to the extracellular matrix. Unexpectedly, similar findings were

  8. Analysis of Streptococcus bovis infections at a monographic oncological centre

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    Lozano TG

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Streptococcus bovis is a Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic, catalase and oxidase negative coccus belonging to the genus Streptococcus. It is part of Streptoccus bovis/ equinus complex and it express the Lancefield antigen D on the surface.This complex has been characterized by molecular biology techniques and specifically by 16S rRNA and sodA gene. Phylogenetic trees based on these techniques are complex and therefore the routine work in laboratories, biochemical techniques are used to identify subspecies if it is necessary.The complex is divided into two subtypes based on biochemical properties: positive mannitol fermentation (biotype I including S. gallolyticus (S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus and S. gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus, mannitol negative and ß-glucuronidase negative (biotype II/ 1, which includes more species (S. infantarius subsp. coli and S. lutetiensis and mannitol negative and ß-glucuronidase positive (biotype II/ 2, with a single species called S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus.Owing to the relationship between colon cancer tumour and Streptococcus bovis, we intend to analyse all isolates in our hospital between the periods of 2010 until March 2013 and analyse tumor epidemiology at our center, in patients infected with this pathogen.Despite the different types of samples and out of the possibility of identification of subspecies, were isolated 14 S. bovis of 14 different patients. The isolates patients were (at the beginning: 4 blood (blood culture, 5 urine, 4 multiple exudates and 1 bronchoalveolar lavage. The proportion of men and women was 8/6. The mean age was 67 years (56±91. Malignant tumor distribution was: 6 prostate cancer, 1 breast cancer, 1 biliary tract, 1 skin, 1, stomach, 1 uterus, 1 vulvar, 1 pyriform sinus and other reproductive organs without specify.The study of antimicrobial in vitro susceptibility was performed by microdilution (MicroScan® WalkAway, Siemens, Sacramento, CA, USA and the

  9. Cerebral ischemia caused by Streptococcus bovis aortic endocarditis: case report Isquemia cerebral causada por endocardite aórtica pelo Streptococcus bovis: relato de caso

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    Leopoldo Santos-Neto

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral ischemic processes associated with infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus bovis are rare; only 2 cases having been reported. Here we report a case of a 50-year-old man with S. bovis endocarditis who presented signs of frontal, parietal and occipital lobe cerebral ischemia. This is the first case reported in which the presence of hemianopsia preceded the endocarditis diagnosis. Initially, the clinical manifestations suggested a systemic vasculitis. Later, vegetating lesions were identified in the aortic valve and S. bovis grew in blood cultures. Antibiotic use and aortic valve replacement eliminated the infection and ceased thromboembolic events. A videocolonoscopy examination revealed no mucosal lesions as a portal of entry in this case, although such lesions have been encountered in up to 70% of reported cases of S. bovis endocarditis.A associação de isquemia cerebral e endocardite por Streptococcus bovis é um evento raro, tendo sido publicados apenas 2 casos anteriormente. Nós relatamos o caso de um homem de 50 anos com endocardite por S. bovis que apresentou sinais isquêmicos nos lobos frontal, parietal e occipital. Este é o primeiro caso em que a hemianopsia precedeu o diagnóstico de endocardite. Inicialmente, o quadro foi confundido com vasculite. Posteriormente, foi confirmada a presença de vegetações na válvula aórtica e a hemocultura identificou S. bovis. Os eventos tromboembólicos foram controlados com o uso de antibióticos e a troca da válvula aórtica. Estudo videocolonoscópico não identificou nenhuma lesão, apesar de lesões colônicas serem descritas em até 70% dos casos de indivíduos com endocardite por S. bovis.

  10. Genomics, evolution, and molecular epidemiology of the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC).

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    Jans, Christoph; Meile, Leo; Lacroix, Christophe; Stevens, Marc J A

    2015-07-01

    The Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) is a group of human and animal derived streptococci that are commensals (rumen and gastrointestinal tract), opportunistic pathogens or food fermentation associates. The classification of SBSEC has undergone massive changes and currently comprises 7 (sub)species grouped into four branches based on sequences identities: the Streptococcus gallolyticus, the Streptococcus equinus, the Streptococcus infantarius and the Streptococcus alactolyticus branch. In animals, SBSEC are causative agents for ruminal acidosis, potentially laminitis and infective endocarditis (IE). In humans, a strong association was established between bacteraemia, IE and colorectal cancer. Especially the SBSEC-species S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus is an emerging pathogen for IE and prosthetic joint infections. S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus and the S. infantarius branch are further associated with biliary and urinary tract infections. Knowledge on pathogenic mechanisms is so far limited to colonization factors such as pili and biofilm formation. Certain strain variants of S. gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus and S. infantarius subsp. infantarius are associated with traditional dairy and plant-based food fermentations and display traits suggesting safety. However, due to their close relationship to virulent strains, their use in food fermentation has to be critically assessed. Additionally, implementing accurate and up-to-date taxonomy is critical to enable appropriate treatment of patients and risk assessment of species and strains via recently developed multilocus sequence typing schemes to enable comparative global epidemiology. Comparative genomics revealed that SBSEC strains harbour genomics islands (GI) that seem acquired from other streptococci by horizontal gene transfer. In case of virulent strains these GI frequently encode putative virulence factors, in strains from food fermentation the GI encode functions that are

  11. Characterization of Streptococcus bovis from the rumen of the dromedary camel and Rusa deer.

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    Ghali, M B; Scott, P T; Al Jassim, R A M

    2004-01-01

    Isolation and characterization of Streptococcus bovis from the dromedary camel and Rusa deer. Bacteria were isolated from the rumen contents of four camels and two deer fed lucerne hay by culturing on the semi-selective medium MRS agar. Based on Gram morphology and RFLP analysis seven isolates, MPR1, MPR2, MPR3, MPR4, MPR5, RD09 and RD11 were selected and putatively identified as Streptococcus. The identity of these isolates was later confirmed by comparative DNA sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene with the homologous sequence from S. bovis strains, JB1, C14b1, NCFB2476, SbR1, SbR7 and Sb5, from cattle and sheep, and the Streptococcus equinus strain NCD01037T. The percentage similarity amongst all strains was >99%, confirming the identification of the camel isolates as S. bovis. The strains were further characterized by their ability to utilize a range of carbohydrates, the production of volatile fatty acids (VFA) and lactate and the determination of the doubling time in basal medium 10 supplemented with glucose. All the isolates produced l-lactate as a major fermentation end product, while four of five camel isolates produced VFA. The range of carbohydrates utilized by all the strains tested, including those from cattle and sheep were identical, except that all camel isolates and the deer isolate RD11 were additionally able to utilize arabinose. Streptococcus bovis was successfully isolated from the rumen of camels and deer, and shown by molecular and biochemical characterization to be almost identical to S. bovis isolates from cattle and sheep. Streptococcus bovis is considered a key lactic acid producing bacterium from the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants, and has been implicated as a causative agent of lactic acidosis. This study is the first report of the isolation and characterization of S. bovis from the dromedary camel and Rusa deer, and suggests a major contributive role of this bacterium to fermentative acidosis.

  12. Species identification of Streptococcus bovis group isolates causing bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Charlotte N; Knudsen, Elisa; Dargis, Rimtas

    2017-01-01

    This study compared two MALDI-TOF MS systems (Biotyper and VITEK MS) on clinical Streptococcus bovis group isolates (n=66). The VITEK MS gave fewer misidentifications and a higher rate of correct identifications than the Biotyper. Only the identification of S. lutetiensis by the VITEK MS was reli......This study compared two MALDI-TOF MS systems (Biotyper and VITEK MS) on clinical Streptococcus bovis group isolates (n=66). The VITEK MS gave fewer misidentifications and a higher rate of correct identifications than the Biotyper. Only the identification of S. lutetiensis by the VITEK MS...

  13. Streptococcus bovis septicemia and meningitis associated with chronic radiation enterocolitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadeja, L.; Kantarjian, H.; Bolivar, R.

    1983-01-01

    We describe the first patient with simultaneous S bovis septicemia and meningitis associated with chronic radiation enterocolitis. This case underlines the value of a thorough gastrointestinal evaluation of all patients with S bovis infection, and the need for a neurologic investigation even with minor neurologic manifestations

  14. Efeitos das cepas probioticas de Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356, Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 1465 e ATCC 7469 sobre o crescimento planctonico e formação de biofilme de Streptococcus mutans UA 159

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro, Tamara Rodrigues de Andrade [UNESP

    2015-01-01

    Most probiotic bacteria used in commercial products belong to the genus Lactobacillus. However, the effects of Lactobacillus probiotic strains in the oral health need to be further investigated. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of probiotic Lactobacillus strains, on Streptococcus mutans. Lactobacillus strains acidophilus ATCC 4356, Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 1465, Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 were tested on planktonic and biofilm growth of Streptococcus mutans (UA...

  15. Effects of inulin chain length on fermentation by equine fecal bacteria and Streptococcus bovis

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    Fructans from pasture can be fermented by Gram-positive bacteria (e.g., Streptococcus bovis) in the equine hindgut, increasing production of lactic acid and decreasing pH. The degree of polymerization (DP) of fructans has been suggested to influence fermentation rates. The objective of the current ...

  16. Effects of Streptococcus bovis Isolated from Bovine Rumen on the Fermentation Characteristics and Nutritive Value of Tanzania Grass Silage

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    Anderson de Moura Zanine

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Streptococcus bovis on the fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of Tanzania grass silage. Tanzania grass was chopped and left untreated (U or treated with Streptococcus bovis JB1 at 1 × 106 colony-forming units per gram (cfu/g of fresh forage or Streptococcus bovis HC5 at 1 × 106 cfu/g of fresh forage and packed into sixtuplicate laboratory silos. The largest number of enterobacteria, molds and yeast (M&Y occurred in untreated silages and the smallest populations of enterobacteria and M&Y and the largest numbers of lactic acid bacteria (LAB, at 9.81 and 9.87 log cfu/g, were observed in Streptococcus bovis JB1 and HC5, respectively (P<0.05. Silages treated with JB1 and HC5 had lower (P<0.05 silage pHs and concentrations of ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N than untreated silages. The application of Streptococcus bovis JB1 and HC5 resulted in fewer losses through gases and effluents (P<0.05, which resulted in greater dry matter recovery (DMR and crude protein recovery (CPR (P<0.05. Streptococcus bovis JB1 and HC5 improved the fermentative profile and increased the concentration of crude protein and DMR and CPR in Tanzania grass silage.

  17. Chromosome and cell wall segregation in Streptococcus faecium ATCC 9790

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, M.L.; Glaser, D.; Dicker, D.T.; Zito, E.T.

    1989-01-01

    Segregation was studied by measuring the positions of autoradiographic grain clusters in chains formed from single cells containing on average less than one radiolabeled chromosome strand. The degree to which chromosomal and cell wall material cosegregated was quantified by using the methods of S. Cooper and M. Weinberger, dividing the number of chains labeled at the middle. This analysis indicated that in contrast to chromosomal segregation in Escherichia coli and, in some studies, to that in gram-positive rods, chromosomal segregation in Streptococcus faecium was slightly nonrandom and did not vary with growth rate. Results were not significantly affected by strand exchange. In contrast, labeled cell wall segregated predominantly nonrandomly

  18. Colonoscopy is mandatory after Streptococcus bovis endocarditis: a lesson still not learned. Case report

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    Cavazzi Emma

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Even though the relationship between certain bacterial infections and neoplastic lesions of the colon is well-recognized, this knowledge has not been sufficiently translated into routine practice yet. Case presentation We describe the case of a 51-year-old man who was admitted to our Surgical Department due to rectal bleeding and abdominal pain. Preoperative colonoscopy, staging exams and subsequent surgery demonstrated a stenotic adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon, invading the left urinary tract and the homolateral bladder wall, with regional lymph nodes involvement and massive bilobar liver metastases (T4N1M1. After Hartmann's rectosigmoidectomy and despite systemic chemotherapy, a rapid progression occurred and the patient survived for only 5 months after diagnosis. Five years before detecting this advanced colonic cancer, the patient underwent aortic valve replacement due to a severe Streptococcus bovis endocarditis. Subsequent to this infection he never underwent a colonoscopy until overt intestinal symptoms appeared. Conclusion As this case illustrates, in the unusual setting of a Streptococcus bovis infection, it is necessary to timely and carefully rule out occult colon cancer and other malignancies during hospitalization and, if a tumor is not found, to schedule endoscopic follow-up. Rigorous application of these recommendations in the case described would have likely led to an earlier diagnosis of cancer and maybe saved the patient's life.

  19. Streptococcus bovis/S. equinus complex septicemia in a group of calves following intramuscular vaccination.

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    Clarke, Lorelei L; Fathke, Robert L; Sanchez, Susan; Stanton, James B

    2016-07-01

    Organisms previously classified as Streptococcus bovis (i.e., the S. bovis/S. equinus complex) are common in cattle feces, but may also act as opportunistic pathogens. In the current work, Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli, a member of this complex, was associated of a cluster of calves that died within hours of injection with a modified live viral vaccine. Within 12 h of vaccination of 46 calves at a cow/calf operation, 4 calves had died, 3 calves were ill, and 1 unvaccinated cow was dead. Autopsies were performed on the cow, 2 dead calves, and 1 affected surviving calf, which was euthanized ~24 h after vaccine administration. The animals had similar gross anatomic and microscopic lesions, including subcutaneous and intramuscular dark hemorrhage on the caudal neck, multiorgan ecchymosis and petechiation, and alveolitis to interstitial pneumonia. Gram-positive cocci were in the vasculature of the lung and skeletal muscle, and S. infantarius subsp. coli was cultured from tissues and from the vaccines used on affected animals, but not in vials used on unaffected animals. Together, these findings suggest death caused by streptococcal septicemia and toxemia as a result of contamination. © 2016 The Author(s).

  20. Inhibition of fructan-fermenting equine fecal bacteria and Streptococcus bovis by hops (Humulus lupulus L.) ß-acid

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    Aims: The goals were to determine if the '-acid from hops (Humulus lupulus L.) could be used to control fructan fermentation by equine hindgut microorganisms, and to verify the antimicrobial mode of action on the Streptococcus bovis, which has been implicated in fructan fermentation, hindgut acidos...

  1. Development of infection with Streptococcus bovis and Aspergillus sp. in irradiated mice after glycopeptide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brook, I.; Tom, S.P.; Ledney, G.D.

    1993-01-01

    The use of ofloxacin and glycopeptides was evaluated for the treatment of infections arising in C3H/HeN female mice irradiated with 8.3 Gy from a 60 Co source. The 21 day regimen began 72 h after irradiation when each of five sets of experimental animals received three antimicrobial therapy regimens and a saline-treated control group. With 40 mice in each group, 20 were used to monitor survival, 20 for the recovery of bacteria from the liver culture. Treatment groups were oral ofloxacin; oral or intramuscular vancomycin oral teicoplanin, ofloxacin and vancomycin; ofloxacin and teicoplanin; or saline. Bacteria recovered from saline treated mice were Enterobacteriaceae and Streptococcus spp. By comparison, fewer Enterobacteriaceae were isolated from ofloxacin treated mice and fewer Streptococcus spp. in both vancomycin and teicoplanin treated mice. However, glycopeptide-treated mice developed infection with Aspergillis fumigatus and glycopeptide resistant Streptococcus bovis. Mortality rates within 60 days of irradiation were 100% in all treatment and control groups with the exception of ofloxacin which was 25%-35%. These data suggest that glycopeptide therapy increases rates of systemic infection with fungi and antibiotic resistant bacteria in irradiated mice. (Author)

  2. Development of infection with Streptococcus bovis and Aspergillus sp. in irradiated mice after glycopeptide therapy

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    Brook, I.; Tom, S.P.; Ledney, G.D. (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States))

    1993-11-01

    The use of ofloxacin and glycopeptides was evaluated for the treatment of infections arising in C3H/HeN female mice irradiated with 8.3 Gy from a [sup 60]Co source. The 21 day regimen began 72 h after irradiation when each of five sets of experimental animals received three antimicrobial therapy regimens and a saline-treated control group. With 40 mice in each group, 20 were used to monitor survival, 20 for the recovery of bacteria from the liver culture. Treatment groups were oral ofloxacin; oral or intramuscular vancomycin oral teicoplanin, ofloxacin and vancomycin; ofloxacin and teicoplanin; or saline. Bacteria recovered from saline treated mice were Enterobacteriaceae and Streptococcus spp. By comparison, fewer Enterobacteriaceae were isolated from ofloxacin treated mice and fewer Streptococcus spp. in both vancomycin and teicoplanin treated mice. However, glycopeptide-treated mice developed infection with Aspergillis fumigatus and glycopeptide resistant Streptococcus bovis. Mortality rates within 60 days of irradiation were 100% in all treatment and control groups with the exception of ofloxacin which was 25%-35%. These data suggest that glycopeptide therapy increases rates of systemic infection with fungi and antibiotic resistant bacteria in irradiated mice. (Author).

  3. Late Streptococcus bovis infection of total knee replacement complicated by infective endocarditis and associated with colonic ulcers

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    Nagy, Mathias Thomas; Hla, Sann Minn; Keys, Graham Watson

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus bovis is rare cause of late infections after total knee replacement (TKR). This report presents a case of confirmed late septic arthritis following TKR caused by S bovis that was further complicated with infective endocarditis resulting in aortic valve insufficiency in an immunecompetent patient. As an association between S bovis and gastrointestinal malignancies is suggested, a workup for such malignancies was performed that revealed non-malignant ulcers in patient's ascending colon. The patient is currently recovering from his aortic valve replacement surgery and is scheduled to have annual colonoscopies. His knee joint has improved; however, he developed constant pain because of underlying chronic infection in the affected joint and has difficulties mobilising. Therefore, a revision TKR is considered but postponed until he fully recovers from his heart valve surgery. PMID:23744853

  4. The Road to Infection: Host-Microbe Interactions Defining the Pathogenicity of Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus Complex Members

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    Christoph Jans

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC comprises several species inhabiting the animal and human gastrointestinal tract (GIT. They match the pathobiont description, are potential zoonotic agents and technological organisms in fermented foods. SBSEC members are associated with multiple diseases in humans and animals including ruminal acidosis, infective endocarditis (IE and colorectal cancer (CRC. Therefore, this review aims to re-evaluate adhesion and colonization abilities of SBSEC members of animal, human and food origin paired with genomic and functional host-microbe interaction data on their road from colonization to infection. SBSEC seem to be a marginal population during GIT symbiosis that can proliferate as opportunistic pathogens. Risk factors for human colonization are considered living in rural areas and animal-feces contact. Niche adaptation plays a pivotal role where Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (SGG retained the ability to proliferate in various environments. Other SBSEC members have undergone genome reduction and niche-specific gene gain to yield important commensal, pathobiont and technological species. Selective colonization of CRC tissue is suggested for SGG, possibly related to increased adhesion to cancerous cell types featuring enhanced collagen IV accessibility. SGG can colonize, proliferate and may shape the tumor microenvironment to their benefit by tumor promotion upon initial neoplasia development. Bacteria cell surface structures including lipotheichoic acids, capsular polysaccharides and pilus loci (pil1, pil2, and pil3 govern adhesion. Only human blood-derived SGG contain complete pilus loci and other disease-associated surface proteins. Rumen or feces-derived SGG and other SBSEC members lack or harbor mutated pili. Pili also contribute to binding to fibrinogen upon invasion and translocation of cells from the GIT into the blood system, subsequent immune evasion, human contact

  5. The Road to Infection: Host-Microbe Interactions Defining the Pathogenicity of Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus Complex Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jans, Christoph; Boleij, Annemarie

    2018-01-01

    The Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) comprises several species inhabiting the animal and human gastrointestinal tract (GIT). They match the pathobiont description, are potential zoonotic agents and technological organisms in fermented foods. SBSEC members are associated with multiple diseases in humans and animals including ruminal acidosis, infective endocarditis (IE) and colorectal cancer (CRC). Therefore, this review aims to re-evaluate adhesion and colonization abilities of SBSEC members of animal, human and food origin paired with genomic and functional host-microbe interaction data on their road from colonization to infection. SBSEC seem to be a marginal population during GIT symbiosis that can proliferate as opportunistic pathogens. Risk factors for human colonization are considered living in rural areas and animal-feces contact. Niche adaptation plays a pivotal role where Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (SGG) retained the ability to proliferate in various environments. Other SBSEC members have undergone genome reduction and niche-specific gene gain to yield important commensal, pathobiont and technological species. Selective colonization of CRC tissue is suggested for SGG, possibly related to increased adhesion to cancerous cell types featuring enhanced collagen IV accessibility. SGG can colonize, proliferate and may shape the tumor microenvironment to their benefit by tumor promotion upon initial neoplasia development. Bacteria cell surface structures including lipotheichoic acids, capsular polysaccharides and pilus loci (pil1, pil2, and pil3) govern adhesion. Only human blood-derived SGG contain complete pilus loci and other disease-associated surface proteins. Rumen or feces-derived SGG and other SBSEC members lack or harbor mutated pili. Pili also contribute to binding to fibrinogen upon invasion and translocation of cells from the GIT into the blood system, subsequent immune evasion, human contact system

  6. Transport and phosphorylation of disaccharides by the ruminal bacterium Streptococcus bovis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, S.A.; Russell, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    Toluene-treated cells of Streptococcus bovis JB1 phosphorylated cellobiose, glucose, maltose, and sucrose by the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system. Glucose phosphorylation was constitutive, while all three disaccharide systems were inducible. Competition experiments, indicated that separate phosphotransferases systems existed for glucose, maltose, and sucrose. [ 14 C]maltose transport was inhibited by excess glucose and to a lesser extent by sucrose. [ 14 C]glucose and [ 14 C]sucrose transports were not inhibited by an excess of maltose. Since [ 14 C]maltose phosphorylation in triethanolamine buffer was increased 160-fold as the concentration of P/sub i/ was increased from 0 to 100 mM, a maltose phosphorylase was present, and this activity was inducible. Maltose was also hydrolyzed by an inducible maltase. Glucose 1-phosphate arising from the maltose phosphorylase was metabolized by a constitutive phosphoglucomutase that was specific for α-glucose 1-phosphate. Only sucrose-grown cells possessed sucrose hydrolase activity, and this activity was much lower than the sucrose phosphotransferase system and sucrose-phosphate hydrolase activities

  7. Agroindustrial Byproducts For The Production Of Hyaluronic Acid By Streptococcus Zooepidemicus ATCC 39920

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    Nicole Caldas Pan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Agroindustrial derivatives are alternative nutritional sources employed in bioprocesses that reduce costs and corroborate with social sustainability. In this study alternative carbon sugarcane juice sugarcane molasses and soy molasses and nitrogen sources corn steep liquor soy protein and whey protein were evaluated for hyaluronic acid production by Streptococcus zooepidemicus ATCC 39920. The medium containing sugarcane molasses archived high yield of hyaluronic acid 0.066 g.g-1 when compared to the medium composed of glucose or sucrose. The replacement of yeast extract by soy protein was also effective for the production of the polymer resulting in 0.219 g.L-1. In general the organic acids production was also evaluated and the results showed that the main metabolic products were lactate. In contrast the acetate synthesis was detected only in the medium containing yeast extract. This study showed that sugarcane molasses is a promising carbon source for the hyaluronic acid production. This is the first study in which a culture media containing sugarcane molasses a cheap substrate extensively produced in Brazil has been successfully used for the microbial hyaluronic acid production.

  8. Complete structure of the cell surface polysaccharide of Streptococcus oralis ATCC 10557: A receptor for lectin-mediated interbacterial adherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeygunawardana, C.; Bush, C.A.; Cisar, J.O.

    1991-01-01

    Lectin-carbohydrate binding is known to play an important role in a number of different cell-cell interactions including those between certain species of oral streptococci and actinomyces that colonize teeth. The cell wall polysaccharides of Streptococcus oralis ATCC 10557, S. oralis 34, and Streptococcus mitis J22, although not identical antigenically, each function as a receptor molecule for the galactose and N-acetylgalactosamine reactive fimbrial lectins of Actinomyces viscosus and Actinomyces naeslundii. Carbohydrate analysis of the receptor polysaccharide isolated from S. oralis ATCC 10557 shows galactose (3 mol), glucose (1 mol), GalNAc (1 mol), and rhamnose (1 mol). 1 H NMR spectra of the polysaccharide show that is partially O-acetylated. Analysis of the 1 H NMR spectrum of the de-O-acetylated polysaccharide shows that it is composed of repeating subunits containing six monosaccharides and that the subunits are joined by a phosphodiester linkage. The 1 H and 13 C NMR spectra were completely assigned by two-dimensional homonuclear correlation methods and by 1 H-detected heteronuclear multiple-quantum correlation ( 1 H[ 13 C]HMQC). The complete 1 H and 13 C assignment of the native polysaccharide was carried out by the same techniques augmented by a 13 C-coupled hybrid HMQC-COSY method, which is shown to be especially useful for carbohydrates in which strong coupling and overlapping peaks in the 1 H spectrum pose difficulties

  9. Frothy feedlot bloat in cattle: production of extracellular polysaccharides and development of viscosity in cultures of Streptococcus bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, K J; Hironaka, R; Jones, G A; Nicas, T; Costerton, J W

    1976-04-01

    Streptococcus bovis was cultured in a synthetic medium with three concentrations of sucrose. Initial viscosity of the media was 1.5 centipoise (cp). After incubation for 8 h, the viscosity of the medium with 0.5% sucrose was unchanged, that with 3% sucrose had increased to 8 cp, and that with 6% sucrose to 112 cp. Similar results were found with a rumen fluid medium. A slimy material, responsible for increased viscosity of these cultures, was digested by dextranase. The material appeared as a complex system of intercellular fibers when viewed under the electron microscope after freeze-etching. With proteins and other polymers released from lysed bacteria, this slimy material may contribute directly to increased viscosity and foam formation. In addition to these intercellular fibers, each cell was surrounded by a fibrous capsule that was not digested by dextranase. This capsule stained with lead citrate and uranyl acetate, but not with ruthenium red. The amount of capsular material produced was similar whether the media contained 0.5, 3.0, or 6% sucrose.

  10. Starch-fueled microbial fuel cells by two-step and parallel fermentation using Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and Streptococcus bovis 148.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Megumi; Phansroy, Nichanan; Aso, Yuji; Ohara, Hitomi

    2017-08-01

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 generates electricity from lactic acid, but cannot utilize starch. On the other hand, Streptococcus bovis 148 metabolizes starch and produces lactic acid. Therefore, two methods were trialed for starch-fueled microbial fuel cell (MFC) in this study. In electric generation by two-step fermentation (EGT) method, starch was first converted to lactic acid by S. bovis 148. The S. bovis 148 were then removed by centrifugation, and the fermented broth was preserved for electricity generation by S. oneidensis MR-1. Another method was electric generation by parallel fermentation (EGP) method. In this method, the cultivation and subsequent fermentation processes of S. bovis 148 and S. oneidensis MR-1 were performed simultaneously. After 1, 2, and 3 terms (5-day intervals) of S. oneidensis MR-1 in the EGT fermented broth of S. bovis 148, the maximum currents at each term were 1.8, 2.4, and 2.8 mA, and the maximum current densities at each term were 41.0, 43.6, and 49.9 mW/m 2 , respectively. In the EGP method, starch was also converted into lactic acid with electricity generation. The maximum current density was 140-200 mA/m 2 , and the maximum power density of this method was 12.1 mW/m 2 . Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Scanning electron microscopic study of Piper betle L. leaves extract effect against Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Zubaidah Haji Abdul; Thurairajah, Nalina

    2011-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that Piper betle L. leaves extract inhibits the adherence of Streptococcus mutans to glass surface, suggesting its potential role in controlling dental plaque development. In this study, the effect of the Piper betle L. extract towards S. mutans (with/without sucrose) using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and on partially purified cell-associated glucosyltransferase activity were determined. S. mutans were allowed to adhere to glass beads suspended in 6 different Brain Heart Infusion broths [without sucrose; with sucrose; without sucrose containing the extract (2 mg mL(-1) and 4 mg mL(-1)); with sucrose containing the extract (2 mg mL(-1) and 4 mg mL(-1))]. Positive control was 0.12% chlorhexidine. The glass beads were later processed for SEM viewing. Cell surface area and appearance and, cell population of S. mutans adhering to the glass beads were determined upon viewing using the SEM. The glucosyltransferase activity (with/without extract) was also determined. One- and two-way ANOVA were used accordingly. It was found that sucrose increased adherence and cell surface area of S. mutans (pPiper betle L. leaves extract. It was also found that the extract inhibited glucosyltransferase activity and its inhibition at 2.5 mg mL(-1) corresponded to that of 0.12% chlorhexidine. At 4 mg mL(-1) of the extract, the glucosyltransferase activity was undetectable and despite that, bacterial cells still demonstrated adherence capacity. The SEM analysis confirmed the inhibitory effects of the Piper betle L. leaves extract towards cell adherence, cell growth and extracellular polysaccharide formation of S. mutans visually. In bacterial cell adherence, other factors besides glucosyltransferase are involved.

  12. Resistance of Streptococcus bovis to acetic acid at low pH: Relationship between intracellular pH and anion accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, J.B. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Streptococcus bovis JB1, an acid-tolerant ruminal bacterium, was able to grown at pHs from 6.7 to 4.5, and 100 mM acetate had little effect on growth rate or proton motive force across the cell membrane. When S. bovis was grown in glucose-limited chemostats at pH 5.2, the addition of sodium acetate (as much as 100 mM) had little effect on the production of bacterial protein. At higher concentrations of sodium acetate (100 to 360 mM), production of bacterial protein declined, but this decrease could largely be explained by a shift in fermentation products (acetate, formate, and ethanol production to lactate production) and a decline in ATP production (3 ATP per glucose versus 2 ATP per glucose). Y{sub ATP} (grams of cells per mole at ATP) was not decreased significantly even by high concentrations of acetate. Cultures supplemented with 100 mM sodium acetate took up ({sup 14}C)acetate and ({sup 14}C)benzoate in accordance with the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation and gave similar estimates of intracellular pH. As the extracellular pH declined, S. bovis allowed its intracellular pH to decrease and maintained a relatively constant pH gradient across the cell membrane (0.9 unit). The decrease in intracellular pH prevented S. bovis from accumulating large amounts of acetate anion. On the basis of these results it did not appear that acetate was acting as an uncoupler. The sensitivity of other bacteria to volatile fatty acids at low pH is explained most easily by a high transmembrane pH gradient and anion accumulation.

  13. Resistance of Streptococcus bovis to acetic acid at low pH: Relationship between intracellular pH and anion accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    Streptococcus bovis JB1, an acid-tolerant ruminal bacterium, was able to grown at pHs from 6.7 to 4.5, and 100 mM acetate had little effect on growth rate or proton motive force across the cell membrane. When S. bovis was grown in glucose-limited chemostats at pH 5.2, the addition of sodium acetate (as much as 100 mM) had little effect on the production of bacterial protein. At higher concentrations of sodium acetate (100 to 360 mM), production of bacterial protein declined, but this decrease could largely be explained by a shift in fermentation products (acetate, formate, and ethanol production to lactate production) and a decline in ATP production (3 ATP per glucose versus 2 ATP per glucose). Y ATP (grams of cells per mole at ATP) was not decreased significantly even by high concentrations of acetate. Cultures supplemented with 100 mM sodium acetate took up [ 14 C]acetate and [ 14 C]benzoate in accordance with the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation and gave similar estimates of intracellular pH. As the extracellular pH declined, S. bovis allowed its intracellular pH to decrease and maintained a relatively constant pH gradient across the cell membrane (0.9 unit). The decrease in intracellular pH prevented S. bovis from accumulating large amounts of acetate anion. On the basis of these results it did not appear that acetate was acting as an uncoupler. The sensitivity of other bacteria to volatile fatty acids at low pH is explained most easily by a high transmembrane pH gradient and anion accumulation

  14. Uptake and expulsion of sup 14 C-xylitol by xylitol-cultured Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederling, E.; Pihlanto-Leppaelae, A. (Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Dentistry, University of Turku, Turku (Finland))

    1989-01-01

    The effect of successive cultivations in the presence of 6% xylitol on the uptake and expulsion of {sup 14}C-xylitol was studied using the cells of Streptococcus mutans 25175. Three sequential cultivations did not alter the growth inhibition percentage (approximately 50%) observed in the presence of 6% xylitol. The {sup 14}C-xylitol uptake experiments performed with growing and resting cells showed that both the uptake and the expulsion of xylitol were enhanced by xylitolculturing. Both xylitol-cultured and resting control cells contained only one major labeled compound which was identified as {sup 14}C-xylitol 5-phosphate. The label subsequently was expelled from the cells as {sup 14}C-xylitol. These results indicate that S. mutans possesses an intracellular xylitol cycle and this cycle is regulated by adding xylitol to the growth medium. (author).

  15. Uptake and expulsion of 14C-xylitol by xylitol-cultured Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederling, E.; Pihlanto-Leppaelae, A.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of successive cultivations in the presence of 6% xylitol on the uptake and expulsion of 14 C-xylitol was studied using the cells of Streptococcus mutans 25175. Three sequential cultivations did not alter the growth inhibition percentage (approximately 50%) observed in the presence of 6% xylitol. The 14 C-xylitol uptake experiments performed with growing and resting cells showed that both the uptake and the expulsion of xylitol were enhanced by xylitolculturing. Both xylitol-cultured and resting control cells contained only one major labeled compound which was identified as 14 C-xylitol 5-phosphate. The label subsequently was expelled from the cells as 14 C-xylitol. These results indicate that S. mutans possesses an intracellular xylitol cycle and this cycle is regulated by adding xylitol to the growth medium. (author)

  16. Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri strains ATCC PTA 5289 and ATCC 55730 differ in their cariogenic properties in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalasvuori, Heli; Haukioja, Anna; Tenovuo, Jorma

    2012-12-01

    The effects of probiotics on cariogenic biofilms remain controversial. Our aim was to characterise two probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri strains, ATCC PTA 5289 and ATCC 55730 from a cariogenic standpoint in vitro. These strains are used in commercial products designed for oral health purposes. The adhesion and biofilm formation were studied on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite. The effects of glucose or sucrose on the biofilm formation were also tested. Arginine metabolism was assessed by measuring the pH in the presence of glucose and arginine. The degradation of hydroxyapatite was measured in three different growth media. Streptococcus mutans strains Ingbritt and MT 8148 were used as positive controls for bacterial adhesion and degradation of hydroxyapatite. Strain ATCC PTA 5289 adhered on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite and formed detectable biofilm, but strain ATCC 55730 was poor in both adhesion and biofilm formation. Both strains were arginolytic and raised the pH in the presence of arginine. The amount of dissolved calcium from hydroxyapatite correlated with bacterial growth rate and the final pH of the growth medium. L. reuteri strains ATCC PTA 5289 and ATCC 55730 differed in their adhesion, biofilm formation and arginine metabolism in vitro. Thus, these probiotic lactobacilli are likely to differ in their behaviour and cariogenic potential also in an oral environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative genome analysis of Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius CJ18, an African fermented camel milk isolate with adaptations to dairy environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jans, Christoph; Follador, Rainer; Hochstrasser, Mira; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo; Stevens, Marc J A

    2013-03-22

    Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius (Sii) belongs to the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex associated with several human and animal infections. Sii is a predominant bacterium in spontaneously fermented milk products in Africa. The genome sequence of Sii strain CJ18 was compared with that of other Streptococcus species to identify dairy adaptations including genome decay such as in Streptococcus thermophilus, traits for its competitiveness in spontaneous milk fermentation and to assess potential health risks for consumers. The genome of Sii CJ18 harbors several unique regions in comparison to Sii ATCC BAA-102T, among others an enlarged exo- and capsular polysaccharide operon; Streptococcus thermophilus-associated genes; a region containing metabolic and hypothetical genes mostly unique to CJ18 and the dairy isolate Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus; and a second oligopeptide transport operon. Dairy adaptations in CJ18 are reflected by a high percentage of pseudogenes (4.9%) representing genome decay which includes the inactivation of the lactose phosphotransferase system (lacIIABC) by multiple transposases integration. The presence of lacS and lacZ genes is the major dairy adaptation affecting lactose metabolism pathways also due to the disruption of lacIIABC.We constructed mutant strains of lacS, lacZ and lacIIABC and analyzed the resulting strains of CJ18 to confirm the redirection of lactose metabolism via LacS and LacZ.Natural competence genes are conserved in both Sii strains, but CJ18 contains a lower number of CRISPR spacers which indicates a reduced defense capability against alien DNA. No classical streptococcal virulence factors were detected in both Sii strains apart from those involved in adhesion which should be considered niche factors. Sii-specific virulence factors are not described. Several Sii-specific regions encoding uncharacterized proteins provide new leads for virulence analyses and investigation of the

  18. Comparative genome analysis of Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius CJ18, an African fermented camel milk isolate with adaptations to dairy environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius (Sii) belongs to the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex associated with several human and animal infections. Sii is a predominant bacterium in spontaneously fermented milk products in Africa. The genome sequence of Sii strain CJ18 was compared with that of other Streptococcus species to identify dairy adaptations including genome decay such as in Streptococcus thermophilus, traits for its competitiveness in spontaneous milk fermentation and to assess potential health risks for consumers. Results The genome of Sii CJ18 harbors several unique regions in comparison to Sii ATCC BAA-102T, among others an enlarged exo- and capsular polysaccharide operon; Streptococcus thermophilus-associated genes; a region containing metabolic and hypothetical genes mostly unique to CJ18 and the dairy isolate Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus; and a second oligopeptide transport operon. Dairy adaptations in CJ18 are reflected by a high percentage of pseudogenes (4.9%) representing genome decay which includes the inactivation of the lactose phosphotransferase system (lacIIABC) by multiple transposases integration. The presence of lacS and lacZ genes is the major dairy adaptation affecting lactose metabolism pathways also due to the disruption of lacIIABC. We constructed mutant strains of lacS, lacZ and lacIIABC and analyzed the resulting strains of CJ18 to confirm the redirection of lactose metabolism via LacS and LacZ. Natural competence genes are conserved in both Sii strains, but CJ18 contains a lower number of CRISPR spacers which indicates a reduced defense capability against alien DNA. No classical streptococcal virulence factors were detected in both Sii strains apart from those involved in adhesion which should be considered niche factors. Sii-specific virulence factors are not described. Several Sii-specific regions encoding uncharacterized proteins provide new leads for virulence analyses and

  19. Pathogenicity and genetic variation of 3 strains of Corynebacterium bovis in immunodeficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dole, Vandana S; Henderson, Kenneth S; Fister, Richard D; Pietrowski, Michael T; Maldonado, Geomaris; Clifford, Charles B

    2013-07-01

    Corynebacterium bovis has been associated with hyperkeratotic dermatitis and acanthosis in mice. We studied 3 different strains of C. bovis: one previously described to cause hyperkeratotic dermatitis (HAC), one that infected athymic nude mice without leading to the classic clinical signs, and one of bovine origin (ATCC 7715). The 3 strains showed a few biochemical and genetic differences. Immunodeficient nude mice were housed in 3 independent isolators and inoculated with pure cultures of the 3 strains. We studied the transmission of these C. bovis studies to isolator-bedding and contact sentinels housed for 5 to 12 wk in filter-top or wire-top cages in the respective isolators. Using a 16S rRNA-based qPCR assay, we did not find consistent differences in growth and transmission among the 3 C. bovis strains, and neither the incidence nor severity of hyperkeratosis or acanthosis differed between strains. Housing in filter-top compared with wire-top cages did not alter the morbidity associated with any of the strains. Our findings confirmed the variability in the gross and histologic changes associated with C. bovis infection of mice. Although bacteriology was a sensitive method for the detection of Corynebacterium spp., standard algorithms occasionally misidentified C. bovis and several related species. Our study demonstrates that PCR of skin swabs or feces is a sensitive and specific method for the detection of C. bovis infection in mice. An rpoB-based screen of samples from North American vivaria revealed that HAC is the predominant C. bovis strain in laboratory mice.

  20. Consideraciones sobre elaislamiento en exudados vaginales de Streptococcus morbillorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. F. Egido

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available De el estúdio de 195 exudados vaginales enviados por el Servicio de Ginecologia de este hospital, durante el período 1988-1990, hemos seleccionado aquellos en los que el cultivo fue positivo para estreptococos, 58 (30% de los cuales 26 (44.8% correspondia a Streptococcus morbillorum, 9 (15.5% a Gardnerella vaginalis, 5 (8.6% a Enterococcus faecalis-durans, y a Streptococcus agalactiae, 3 (5.1% a Streptococcus mitis y Streptococcus mitis, 2 (3-4% a Streptococcus bovis y Streptococcus cremoris y 1 (1.7% a Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus equinus y Strptococcus sanguis II respectivamente. En todos los casos se observo antecedentes de actuacción medico- quirurjica en el tracto genital, y en el 52.8% de los casos fuô concomitante con el diagnostico clinico-micologico de candidiasis vaginal. La ideittificaccion bacteriologica se realizo mediante el sistema API 20 STREP (sistema api bioMêríeux GmbH, Nütingen, Alemania dando un patron tipico ("excelente identificacción" para el Streptococcus morbillorum.We have tested 195 vaginal secretions sent by Gynecology Service of this hospital between the years 1988 - 1990. We achieved positive culture for streptococci in 58 (30% of these cultures, 26 (44.8% corresponding to Streptococcus morbillorum 9 (15.5%, to Gardnerella vaginalis 5 (8.6%, to Enterococcus faecalis-durans and to Streptococcus agalactiae, 3 (5.1 % to Streptococcus mitis and milleri 2 (3-4%, to Streptococcus bovis and cremoris, and 1 (1.7% to Streptococcus salivarius, equinus and sanguis II respectively. We previously found that 52.8% of these patients were positive for vaginal candidiasis. The bacteriological identification done by the API 20 STREP System (bioMerieux GmbH, Nútingen, Germanyprovides a typical pattern ("good identification" for the Streptococcus morbillorum.

  1. Cellulase producing microorganism ATCC 55702

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dees, H. Craig

    1997-01-01

    Bacteria which produce large amounts of cellulase--containing cell-free fermentate have been identified. The original bacterium (ATCC 55703) was genetically altered using nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment to produce the enhanced cellulase producing bacterium (ATCC 55702), which was identified through replicate plating. ATCC 55702 has improved characteristics and qualifies for the degradation of cellulosic waste materials for fuel production, food processing, textile processing, and other industrial applications. ATCC 55702 is an improved bacterial host for genetic manipulations using recombinant DNA techniques, and is less likely to destroy genetic manipulations using standard mutagenesis techniques.

  2. Measurement of the rate of production of bacteria in the rumen of buffalo calves using 14C Str. Bovis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, D.N.; Singh, U.B.; Srivastava, S.K.; Srivastava, R.V.N.

    1976-01-01

    A technique has been developed for the in vivo estimation of the rate of production of bacteria in the rumen of buffalo calves. Three male buffalo calves (Des bubalis) of about 2 years of age were taken for these experiments. The animals were given 20 kg. of green maize in 12 equal amounts at 2 hourly intervals. The streptococcus bovis isolated from the rumen were labelled with 14 C by in vitro incubation in the presence of (U- 14 C) DL-leucine. Labelled streptococcus bovis were injected in a single dose in the rumen. Tracer dilution kinetics for open system were applied to the data obtained as a result of dilution of Str. bovis in the rumen to obtained production rates. The average turnover time and production rates were 424.54 minute and 87.43mg/minute. (author)

  3. Infection due to Mycobacterium bovis in common variable immunodeficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Andrea Herrera-Sánchez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID is an heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by impaired antibody production. It shows a wide spectrum of manifestations including severe and recurrent respiratory infections (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus and gastrointestinal (Campylobacter jejuni, rotavirus and Giardia lamblia. Viral infections caused by herpes zoster, cytomegalovirus (CMV and hepatitis C are rare. The opportunistic agents such as CMV, Pneumocystis jirovecii, cryptococcus and atypical mycobacteria have been reported as isolated cases. This paper reports the case of a 38-year-old female patient, who began six years before with weight loss of 7 kg in six months, fatigue, weakness, sweating, fever and abdominal pain. Furthermore, patient had intestinal obstruction and abdominal CT showed mesenteric lymph growth. The mesenteric lymph node biopsy revealed positives Mycobacterium PCR, Ziehl-Neelsen staining and culture for M. bovis. In the laparotomy postoperative period was complicated with nosocomial pneumonia, requiring mechanical ventilation and tracheostomy. Two years later, she developed right renal abscess that required surgical drainage, once again with a positive culture for Mycobacterium bovis. She was referred to highly specialized hospital and we documented panhypogammaglobulinemia and lymphopenia. Secondary causes of hypogammaglobulinemia were ruled out and common variable immunodeficiency (CVID was confirmed, we started IVIG replacement. Four years later she developed mixed cellularity Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Until today she continues with IVIG and chemotherapy. This report of a patient with CVID and Mycobacterium bovis infection, a unusual association, shows the cellular immunity susceptibility in this immunodeficiency, additional to the humoral defect.

  4. Lactobacillus fermentum ATCC 23271 Displays In vitro Inhibitory Activities against Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Carmo, Monique S.; Noronha, Francisca M. F.; Arruda, Mariana O.; Costa, Ênnio P. da Silva; Bomfim, Maria R. Q.; Monteiro, Andrea S.; Ferro, Thiago A. F.; Fernandes, Elizabeth S.; Girón, Jorge A.; Monteiro-Neto, Valério

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacilli are involved in the microbial homeostasis in the female genital tract. Due to the high prevalence of many bacterial diseases of the female genital tract and the resistance of microorganisms to various antimicrobial agents, alternative means to control these infections are necessary. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the probiotic properties of well-characterized Lactobacillus species, including L. acidophilus (ATCC 4356), L. brevis (ATCC 367), L. delbrueckii ssp. delbrueckii (ATCC 9645), L. fermentum (ATCC 23271), L. paracasei (ATCC 335), L. plantarum (ATCC 8014), and L. rhamnosus (ATCC 9595), against Candida albicans (ATCC 18804), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (ATCC 9826), and Streptococcus agalactiae (ATCC 13813). The probiotic potential was investigated by using the following criteria: (i) adhesion to host epithelial cells and mucus, (ii) biofilm formation, (iii) co-aggregation with bacterial pathogens, (iv) inhibition of pathogen adhesion to mucus and HeLa cells, and (v) antimicrobial activity. Tested lactobacilli adhered to mucin, co-aggregated with all genital microorganisms, and displayed antimicrobial activity. With the exception of L. acidophilus and L. paracasei, they adhered to HeLa cells. However, only L. fermentum produced a moderate biofilm and a higher level of co-aggregation and mucin binding. The displacement assay demonstrated that all Lactobacillus strains inhibit C. albicans binding to mucin (p < 0.001), likely due to the production of substances with antimicrobial activity. Clinical isolates belonging to the most common Candida species associated to vaginal candidiasis were inhibited by L. fermentum. Collectively, our data suggest that L. fermentum ATCC 23271 is a potential probiotic candidate, particularly to complement candidiasis treatment, since presented with the best probiotic profile in comparison with the other tested lactobacilli strains. PMID:27833605

  5. Lactobacillus fermentum ATCC 23271 displays in vitro inhibitory activities against Candida spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Santos Carmo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacilli are involved in the microbial homeostasis in the female genital tract. Due to the high prevalence of many bacterial diseases of the female genital tract and the resistance of microorganisms to various antimicrobial agents, alternative means to control these infections are necessary. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the probiotic properties of well-characterized Lactobacillus species, including L. acidophilus (ATCC 4356, L. brevis (ATCC 367, L. delbrueckii ssp. delbrueckii (ATCC 9645, L. fermentum (ATCC 23271, L. paracasei (ATCC 335, L. plantarum (ATCC 8014, and L. rhamnosus (ATCC 9595, against Candida albicans (ATCC 18804, Neisseria gonorrhoeae (ATCC 9826, and Streptococcus agalactiae (ATCC 13813. The probiotic potential was investigated by using the following criteria: i adhesion to host epithelial cells and mucus, ii biofilm formation, iii co-aggregation with bacterial pathogens, iv inhibition of pathogen adhesion to mucus and HeLa cells, and v antimicrobial activity. Tested lactobacilli adhered to mucin, co-aggregated with all genital microorganisms, and displayed antimicrobial activity. With the exception of L. acidophilus and L. paracasei, they adhered to HeLa cells. However, only L. fermentum produced a moderate biofilm and a higher level of co-aggregation and mucin binding. The displacement assay demonstrated that all Lactobacillus strains inhibit C. albicans binding to mucin (p < 0.001, likely due to the production of substances with antimicrobial activity. Clinical isolates belonging to the most common Candida species associated to vaginal candidosis were inhibited by L. fermentum. Collectively, our data suggest that L. fermentum ATCC 23271 is a potential probiotic candidate, particularly to complement candidosis treatment, since presented with the best probiotic profile in comparison with the other tested lactobacilli strains.

  6. Comparative Genomics Analysis of Streptococcus Isolates from the Human Small Intestine Reveals their Adaptation to a Highly Dynamic Ecosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogert, van den B.; Boekhorst, te J.; Herrmann, R.; Smid, E.J.; Zoetendal, E.G.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2013-01-01

    The human small-intestinal microbiota is characterised by relatively large and dynamic Streptococcus populations. In this study, genome sequences of small-intestinal streptococci from S. mitis, S. bovis, and S. salivarius species-groups were determined and compared with those from 58 Streptococcus

  7. Streptococcus iniae and Streptococcus agalactiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae are economically important Gram positive bacterial pathogens of cultured and wild fish with a worldwide distribution. Both bacteria are potential zoonotic pathogens and have been associated most often with infections in immunocompromised people. Streptococcus in...

  8. Aciduricity and acid tolerance mechanisms of Streptococcus anginosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Minoru; Kodama, Yoshitoyo; Shimoyama, Yu; Ishikawa, Taichi; Kimura, Shigenobu

    2018-04-17

    Although Streptococcus anginosus constitutes a proportion of the normal flora of the gastrointestinal and genital tracts, and the oral cavity, it has been reported that S. anginosus infection could be closely associated with abscesses at various body sites, infective endocarditis, and upper gastrointestinal cancers. The colonization in an acidic environment due to the aciduricity of S. anginosus could be the etiology of the systemic infection of the bacteria. To elucidate the aciduricity and acid tolerance mechanisms of the microbe, we examined the viability and growth of S. anginosus under acidic conditions. The viabilities of S. anginosus NCTC 10713 and Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 at pH 4.0 showed as being markedly higher than those of Streptococcus sanguinis ATCC 10556, Streptococcus gordonii ATCC 10558, and Streptococcus mitis ATCC 49456; however, the viability was partially inhibited by dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, an H + -ATPase inhibitor, suggesting that H + -ATPase could play a role in the viability of S. anginosus under acidic conditions. In addition, S. anginosus NCTC 10713 could grow at pH 5.0 and showed a marked arginine deiminase (ADI) activity, unlike its ΔarcA mutant, deficient in the gene encoding ADI, and other streptococcal species, which indicated that ADI could also be associated with aciduricity. These results suggest that S. anginosus has significant aciduric properties, which can be attributed to these enzyme activities.

  9. Probiotic Lactobacillus sp. inhibit growth, biofilm formation and gene expression of caries-inducing Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasfi, Reham; Abd El-Rahman, Ola A; Zafer, Mai M; Ashour, Hossam M

    2018-03-01

    Streptococcus mutans contributes significantly to dental caries, which arises from homoeostasic imbalance between host and microbiota. We hypothesized that Lactobacillus sp. inhibits growth, biofilm formation and gene expression of Streptococcus mutans. Antibacterial (agar diffusion method) and antibiofilm (crystal violet assay) characteristics of probiotic Lactobacillus sp. against Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175) were evaluated. We investigated whether Lactobacillus casei (ATCC 393), Lactobacillus reuteri (ATCC 23272), Lactobacillus plantarum (ATCC 14917) or Lactobacillus salivarius (ATCC 11741) inhibit expression of Streptococcus mutans genes involved in biofilm formation, quorum sensing or stress survival using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Growth changes (OD600) in the presence of pH-neutralized, catalase-treated or trypsin-treated Lactobacillus sp. supernatants were assessed to identify roles of organic acids, peroxides and bacteriocin. Susceptibility testing indicated antibacterial (pH-dependent) and antibiofilm activities of Lactobacillus sp. against Streptococcus mutans. Scanning electron microscopy revealed reduction in microcolony formation and exopolysaccharide structural changes. Of the oral normal flora, L. salivarius exhibited the highest antibiofilm and peroxide-dependent antimicrobial activities. All biofilm-forming cells treated with Lactobacillus sp. supernatants showed reduced expression of genes involved in exopolysaccharide production, acid tolerance and quorum sensing. Thus, Lactobacillus sp. can inhibit tooth decay by limiting growth and virulence properties of Streptococcus mutans. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  10. Consideraciones sobre elaislamiento en exudados vaginales de Streptococcus morbillorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. F. Egido

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available De el estúdio de 195 exudados vaginales enviados por el Servicio de Ginecologia de este hospital, durante el período 1988-1990, hemos seleccionado aquellos en los que el cultivo fue positivo para estreptococos, 58 (30% de los cuales 26 (44.8% correspondia a Streptococcus morbillorum, 9 (15.5% a Gardnerella vaginalis, 5 (8.6% a Enterococcus faecalis-durans, y a Streptococcus agalactiae, 3 (5.1% a Streptococcus mitis y Streptococcus mitis, 2 (3-4% a Streptococcus bovis y Streptococcus cremoris y 1 (1.7% a Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus equinus y Strptococcus sanguis II respectivamente. En todos los casos se observo antecedentes de actuacción medico- quirurjica en el tracto genital, y en el 52.8% de los casos fuô concomitante con el diagnostico clinico-micologico de candidiasis vaginal. La ideittificaccion bacteriologica se realizo mediante el sistema API 20 STREP (sistema api bioMêríeux GmbH, Nütingen, Alemania dando un patron tipico ("excelente identificacción" para el Streptococcus morbillorum.

  11. Mycobacterium bovis Infection of Red Fox, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelet, Lorraine; De Cruz, Krystel; Hénault, Sylvie; Tambosco, Jennifer; Richomme, Céline; Réveillaud, Édouard; Gares, Hélène; Moyen, Jean-Louis; Boschiroli, María Laura

    2018-06-01

    Mycobacterium bovis infection in wild red foxes was found in southern France, where livestock and other wildlife species are infected. Foxes frequently interact with cattle but have been underestimated as a reservoir of M. bovis. Our results suggest a possible role of the red fox in the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis.

  12. Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine Tuberculosis) in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bovis is usually resistant to one of the antibiotics, pyrazinamide, typically used to treat TB disease. However, resistance to just ... disease is treated with a combination of several antibiotics. Latent infection without ... livestock producers, has nearly eliminated M. bovis infection from ...

  13. Resistance of Streptococcus sanguis biofilms to antimicrobial agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, T; Fiehn, N E

    1996-01-01

    of Streptococcus sanguis 804 and ATCC 10556 to amoxicillin, doxycycline and chlorhexidine was determined by a broth dilution method. Subsequently, S. sanguis biofilms established in an in vitro flow model were perfused with the antimicrobial agents for 48 h at concentrations equal to and up to 500 times the MIC...

  14. Cryopreservation of Mycobacterium bovis isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Yumi Ikuta

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Research, development of new biotechnological methods, diagnostic tests, confirmation of results, and reinvestigations are possible because of the availability of well-preserved living organisms maintained without any changes. Cryopreservation is a simpler, more reliable and long-term stable method for culture maintenance. Storage temperature and composition of the suspending vehicle are factors that affect the viability of mycobacterial strains. Three vehicles and three storage temperatures were evaluated to define a suitable cryoprotective medium for the preservation of Mycobacterium bovis strains. Colonies of sixteen M. bovis isolates were used to prepare the suspensions, which were then added to three vehicles: sterile 0.85% saline solution (SS, Middlebrook 7H9 broth (7H9, and Middlebrook 7H9 broth with sodium pyruvate (7H9p replacing glycerol. Aliquots of these suspensions were frozen by three different methods, directly in the -20°C freezer, directly in the -80°C freezer, and at -196°C by immersion in liquid nitrogen (LN. The frozen aliquots were thawed at room temperature after 45, 90 and 120 days. Mycobacterial viability was assessed by counting the living cells on plates of Stonebrink medium before and after the freezing procedure. Storage at -20°C exhibited a lower recovery of M. bovis compared to storage at -80°C (Dunn’s test, p=0.0018 and LN (Dunn’s test, p=0.0352. There was no statistically significant difference between storage at -80°C and in LN (Dunn’s test, p=0.1403, yet -80°C showed better results than LN. All three suspending vehicles showed no statistically significant difference in terms of viability (Friedman’s test, p=0.7765. Given the low loss proportion of 5% during storage at -20°C and the high cost equipment required for storage at -80°C and LN, we recommend storage at -20°C or -80°C, when this is available, for preservation of M. bovis field strains.

  15. Isolation and molecular characterisation of Mycobacterium bovis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    : Three hundred and six milk samples collected from 102 infected cows in different Tunisian regions were analysed. M. bovis isolates were further characterized by spoligotyping and variable number tandem repeat typing. Results: A total of ...

  16. Evaluation of Lactobacillus sanfransicencis (ATCC 14917)and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of sourdoughs, produced with Lactobacillus sanfransicencis (ATCC 14917) and Lactobacillus plantarum (ATCC 43332) at different fermentation time, fermentation temperature and type of starter culture on the staling and microbiological shelf life of Iranian Barbari wheat bread was studied. For statistical analysis a ...

  17. Streptococcus suis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poggenborg, René; Gaïni, Shahin; Kjaeldgaard, Poul

    2008-01-01

    Meningitis and spondylodiscitis caused by Streptococcus suis is a rare disease which is contracted by occupational exposure to pigs. We report a 54-y-old pig-farm worker with S. suis meningitis and septicaemia complicated with thoracal and lumbar spine spondylodiscitis. The S. suis strain involved...

  18. Abortion associated with Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) in a bison (Bison bison) herd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) has recently emerged as a significant health threat in bison and is an increasing concern and source of economic loss for producers. Clinical manifestations of infection documented in bison include pneumonia, respiratory distress and polyarthritis. The current study des...

  19. Typebestemmelse af de danske M. bovis stammer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokotovic, Branko

    Mycoplasma bovis er en af de mest betydningsfulde mykoplasma i kvægbruget på verdensplan. Bakterien findes oftest i forbindelse med mastitis, lunge- og ledbetændelse, men andre kliniske manifestationer kan også forekomme. Der findes ikke præcise, nyere beregninger over konsekvenser af M. bovis...... relateret sygdomme, men det anses, at infektionen hvert år globalt set pålægger en økonomisk byrde til kvægbruget i en multimillion skala. M. bovis blev for første gang påvist i Danmark i 1981 og gennem 1980’erne har bakterien forårsaget store udbrud af mastitis. I de følgende årtier blev bakterien isoleret...... sporadisk fra mange forskellige kvægbesætninger, men på trods af en tilsyneladende stigende forekomst i 1990’erne, blev der ikke registret omfattende sundhedsmæssige problemer som følge af M. bovis smitte. Siden 2011 er M. bovis dog kommet i fokus igen på grund af alvorlige udbrud af især ledbetændelse, men...

  20. 9 CFR 113.409 - Tuberculin-PPD Bovis, Intradermic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tuberculin-PPD Bovis, Intradermic. 113... REQUIREMENTS Diagnostics and Reagents § 113.409 Tuberculin—PPD Bovis, Intradermic. Tuberculin—PPD Bovis... completed product from each serial shall be subjected to a comparison specificity test using a Reference PPD...

  1. Antibody response to a sterile filtered PPD tuberculin in M. bovis infected and M. bovis sensitized cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Bryan; Filion, Lionel G; Smart, Nonie

    2010-11-09

    Bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, afflicts approximately 50 million cattle worldwide and is detected by the tuberculin skin test (TST). While it has long been recognized that purified protein derivative (PPD) tuberculin is composed of a mixture of M. bovis derived protein components, little is known about the quality, relative quantity and identity of the proteins that make up PPD tuberculin. We manufactured a sterile filtered PPD tuberculin (SF-PPD) from a nine-week-old M. bovis culture supernatant in order to characterise the culture filtrate proteins (CFP) which make up M. bovis PPD tuberculin and to compare the antibody response of M. bovis infected versus M. bovis sensitized cattle. SF-PPD resolved into approximately 200 discrete spots using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) while fewer than 65 spots could be discerned from 2-DE gels of tuberculin derived from autoclaved culture supernatant. Two dimensional Western blot analyses indicated that sera from M. bovis sensitized cattle recognized additional SF-PPD antigens as compared to M. bovis infected cattle at seven weeks post infection/sensitization. However, application of a comparative tuberculin skin test resulted in an antibody boosting response to the same set of M. bovis CFPs in both the M. bovis infected and M. bovis sensitized cattle. We concluded that it is the heat sterilization of the M. bovis CFPs that causes severe structural changes to the M. bovis proteins. This work suggests that M. bovis infected cattle and cattle artificially sensitized to M. bovis with an injection of heat killed cells exhibit similar antibody responses to M. bovis antigens.

  2. Sequencing and comparative genome analysis of two pathogenic Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies: genome plasticity, adaptation and virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Hsuan Lin

    Full Text Available Streptococcus gallolyticus infections in humans are often associated with bacteremia, infective endocarditis and colon cancers. The disease manifestations are different depending on the subspecies of S. gallolyticus causing the infection. Here, we present the complete genomes of S. gallolyticus ATCC 43143 (biotype I and S. pasteurianus ATCC 43144 (biotype II.2. The genomic differences between the two biotypes were characterized with comparative genomic analyses. The chromosome of ATCC 43143 and ATCC 43144 are 2,36 and 2,10 Mb in length and encode 2246 and 1869 CDS respectively. The organization and genomic contents of both genomes were most similar to the recently published S. gallolyticus UCN34, where 2073 (92% and 1607 (86% of the ATCC 43143 and ATCC 43144 CDS were conserved in UCN34 respectively. There are around 600 CDS conserved in all Streptococcus genomes, indicating the Streptococcus genus has a small core-genome (constitute around 30% of total CDS and substantial evolutionary plasticity. We identified eight and five regions of genome plasticity in ATCC 43143 and ATCC 43144 respectively. Within these regions, several proteins were recognized to contribute to the fitness and virulence of each of the two subspecies. We have also predicted putative cell-surface associated proteins that could play a role in adherence to host tissues, leading to persistent infections causing sub-acute and chronic diseases in humans. This study showed evidence that the S. gallolyticus still possesses genes making it suitable in a rumen environment, whereas the ability for S. pasteurianus to live in rumen is reduced. The genome heterogeneity and genetic diversity among the two biotypes, especially membrane and lipoproteins, most likely contribute to the differences in the pathogenesis of the two S. gallolyticus biotypes and the type of disease an infected patient eventually develops.

  3. Structure of the nucleoid in cells of Streptococcus faecalis.

    OpenAIRE

    Daneo-Moore, L; Dicker, D; Higgins, M L

    1980-01-01

    The structure of the nucleoid of Streptococcus faecalis (ATCC 9790) was examined and compared in the unfixed and fixed states by immersive refractometry and electron microscopy. It appears from these studies that the nucleoid structure is much more centralized in unfixed chloramphenicol-treated (stationary-phase) cells than it is in cells in the exponential phase of growth. The more dispersed configuration of the exponential-phase nucleoid could be preserved by fixation in glutaraldehyde, but...

  4. Invasion of erythrocytes by Babesia bovis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaffar, Fasila Razzia

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis we investigated the invasion of erythrocytes taking place during the asexual erythrocytic blood stage of the apicomplexan parasites Babesia bovis parasite. Host cell invasion by apicomplexan parasites is a complex process requiring multiple receptor-ligand interactions, involving

  5. Bacteremia with the bovis group streptococci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marmolin, Ea S; Hartmeyer, Gitte N; Christensen, Jens Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    DNA sequencing of the intergenic spacer (ITS) region was used to identify 53 blood culture isolates that had previously been designated to the bovis group streptococci and clinical data was collected retrospectively from patients' records using a standardized protocol. ITS sequencing identified 19....... pasteurianus (58.7%) bacteremia calls for intensive investigation for underlying disease focusing on the pancreas and the hepatobiliary system....

  6. Live and heat-killed Lactobacillus spp. interfere with Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus oralis during biofilm development on titanium surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciandrini, E; Campana, R; Baffone, W

    2017-06-01

    This research investigates the ability of live and heat-killed (HK) Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) to interfere with Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 and Streptococcus oralis ATCC 9811 during biofilm formation. Eight Lactobacillus spp. and two oral colonizers, pathogenic Streptococcus mutans and resident Streptococcus oralis, were characterized for their aggregation abilities, cell surface properties and biofilm formation ability on titanium surface. Then, the interference activity of selected live and HK Lactobacillus spp. during S. mutans and S. oralis biofilm development were performed. The cell-free culture supernatants (CFCS) anti-biofilm activity was also determined. LAB possess good abilities of auto-aggregation (from 14.19 to 28.97%) and of co-aggregation with S. oralis. The cell-surfaces characteristics were most pronounced in S. mutans and S. oralis, while the highest affinities to xylene and chloroform were observed in Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103 (56.37%) and Lactobacillus paracasei B21060 (43.83%). S. mutans and S. oralis developed a biofilm on titanium surface, while LAB showed a limited or no ability to create biofilm. Live and HK L. rhamnosus ATCC 53103 and L. paracasei B21060 inhibited streptococci biofilm formation by competition and displacement mechanisms with no substantial differences. The CFCSs of both LAB strains, particularly the undiluted one of L. paracasei B21060, decreased S. mutans and S. oralis biofilm formation. This study evidenced the association of LAB aggregation abilities and cell-surface properties with the LAB-mediated inhibition of S. mutans and S. oralis biofilm formation. Lactobacilli showed different mechanisms of action and peculiar strain-specific characteristics, maintained also in the heat-killed LAB. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Babesia bovis clones: biochemical and enzymatic characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Camarillo, S.D.

    1985-01-01

    Studies were undertaken to generate additional knowledge of the biochemistry of Babesia bovis. A modified in vitro culture technique used for cloning B. bovis. This technique included a low oxygen concentration atmosphere (2%, O 2 , 5% CO 2 , 93% N 2 ) and 4 mm fluid level. Cultures initiated with one infected erythrocyte were maintained until parasitemias of positive wells reached 2% parasitemia. Primary clones were obtained and from these, nine clones were recloned twice and used for subsequent studies. A procedure was developed to concentrate and separate B. bovis merozoites and infected erythrocytes by Percoll density gradients. Merozoites separated at 1.087 g/ml specific density, whereas infected erythrocytes separated at 1.121 g/ml. Viability of purified parasites was not affected. Agarose gel electrophoresis was used to identify metabolic enzyme in B. bovis and B. bigemina. The enzymes LDH, GDH, GPI and HK were detected in both species. Molecular analysis by one and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of proteins metabolically labeled with 35 S-methionine indicated that two clones, derived from the same field strain, were similar but not identical to the parent. Fewer proteins were observed in the parental strain. Growth of two 60-Co irradiated B. bovis clones indicated a dose-effect relationship. Growth of parasites exposed for the longest period was initially retarded but returned to normal growth after two or three subcultures. Cultures exposed for shorter periods were unaffected with respect to the rate of growth. Analysis of electrophoretic mobility of metabolic enzyme showed a change in migration pattern

  8. Bacteraemia due to Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies pasteurianus is associated with digestive tract malignancies and resistance to macrolides and clindamycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Wang-Huei; Chuang, Yu-Chung; Teng, Lee-Jene; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2014-08-01

    This study was intended to delineate the association between digestive tract malignancies and bacteraemia due to Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies pasteurianus. We reviewed the medical records and microbiological results of patients with bacteraemia due to Streptococcus bovis during the period 2000-2012. Species and subspecies identification of isolates originally classified as S. bovis was confirmed by 16S rRNA sequencing and PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assays. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of antimicrobial agents were determined by the broth microdilution method. Of the 172 S. bovis complex isolates obtained from 172 patients (age range, Streptococcus infantarius. The majority (n = 104, 60%) of patients were male and had underlying malignancies (n = 87, 51%). Bacteraemia due to S. gallolyticus subspecies gallolyticus was significantly associated with endocarditis while S. gallolyticus subspecies pasteurianus was more likely to be associated with malignancies of the digestive tract, including gastric, pancreatic, hepatobiliary and colorectal cancers. Septic shock at presentation was the only factor associated with mortality among patients with bacteraemia due to either subspecies of S. bovis. Isolates of S. gallolyticus subspecies pasteurianus had higher rates of resistance to macrolides and clindamycin than isolates of S. gallolyticus subspecies gallolyticus. Extensive diagnostic work-up for digestive tract malignancies and trans-esophageal echocardiogram should be investigated in patients with bacteraemia caused by S. gallolyticus. Copyright © 2014 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mycoplasma bovis: Mechanisms of Resistance and Trends in Antimicrobial Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysnyansky, Inna; Ayling, Roger D

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is a cell-wall-less bacterium and belongs to the class Mollicutes. It is the most important etiological agent of bovine mycoplasmoses in North America and Europe, causing respiratory disease, mastitis, otitis media, arthritis, and reproductive disease. Clinical disease associated with M. bovis is often chronic, debilitating, and poorly responsive to antimicrobial therapy, resulting in significant economic loss, the full extent of which is difficult to estimate. Until M. bovis vaccines are universally available, sanitary control measures and antimicrobial treatment are the only approaches that can be used in attempts to control M. bovis infections. However, in vitro studies show that many of the current M. bovis isolates circulating in Europe have high minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for many of the commercially available antimicrobials. In this review we summarize the current MIC trends indicating the development of antimicrobial resistance in M. bovis as well as the known molecular mechanisms by which resistance is acquired.

  10. Mycoplasma bovis: mechanisms of resistance and trends in antimicrobial susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna eLysnyansky

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma bovis is a cell-wall-less bacterium and belongs to the class Mollicutes. It is the most important etiological agent of bovine mycoplasmoses in North America and Europe, causing respiratory disease, mastitis, otitis media, arthritis, and reproductive disease. Clinical disease associated with M. bovis is often chronic, debilitating, and poorly responsive to antimicrobial therapy, resulting in significant economic loss, the full extent of which is difficult to estimate. Until M. bovis vaccines are universally available, sanitary control measures and antimicrobial treatment are the only approaches that can be used in attempts to control M. bovis infections. However, in vitro studies show that many of the current M. bovis isolates circulating in Europe have high minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC for many of the commercially available antimicrobials. In this review we summarize the current MIC trends indicating the development of antimicrobial resistance in M. bovis as well as the known molecular mechanisms by which resistance is acquired.

  11. Mycobacterium bovis in milk samples: a preliminary investigation using PCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achel, D.G.; Gyamfi, O.K.; Broni, F.; Gomda, Y.; Brown, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    PCR was used to screen milk samples (n=41) for Mycobacterium bovis. DNA samples were obtained through concentration by 50% sucrose addition and centrifugation. Sixteen (16) samples (or 39%) were positive for M. Bovis DNA and the rest 25 (or 61%) were negative. All four kraals had some samples testing positive for M. bovis; the highest being 50% (5/10) and the lowest being 13% (2/15). (au)

  12. Genome sequence of Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 8530.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittet, Vanessa; Ewen, Emily; Bushell, Barry R; Ziola, Barry

    2012-02-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus is found in the human gastrointestinal tract and is important for probiotics. We became interested in L. rhamnosus isolate ATCC 8530 in relation to beer spoilage and hops resistance. We report here the genome sequence of this isolate, along with a brief comparison to other available L. rhamnosus genome sequences.

  13. Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 8530

    OpenAIRE

    Pittet, Vanessa; Ewen, Emily; Bushell, Barry R.; Ziola, Barry

    2012-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus is found in the human gastrointestinal tract and is important for probiotics. We became interested in L. rhamnosus isolate ATCC 8530 in relation to beer spoilage and hops resistance. We report here the genome sequence of this isolate, along with a brief comparison to other available L. rhamnosus genome sequences.

  14. Group B streptococcus - pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000511.htm Group B streptococcus - pregnancy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a type of bacteria that some ...

  15. Synthetic Peptides Derived from Bovine Lactoferricin Exhibit Antimicrobial Activity against E. coli ATCC 11775, S. maltophilia ATCC 13636 and S. enteritidis ATCC 13076

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataly De Jesús Huertas Méndez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Linear, dimeric, tetrameric, and cyclic peptides derived from lactoferricin B–containing non-natural amino acids and the RWQWR motif were synthesized, purified, and characterized using RP-HPLC, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and circular dichroism. The antibacterial activity of peptides against Escherichia coli ATCC 11775, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ATCC 13636, and Salmonella enteritidis ATCC 13076 was evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined. The synthetic bovine lactoferricin exhibited antibacterial activity against E. coli ATCC 11775 and S. enteritidis ATCC 13076. The dimeric peptide (RRWQWR2K-Ahx exhibited the highest antibacterial activity against the tested bacterial strain. The monomeric, cyclic, tetrameric, and palindromic peptides containing the RWQWR motif exhibited high and specific activity against E. coli ATCC 11775. The results suggest that short peptides derived from lactoferricin B could be considered as potential candidates for the development of antibacterial agents against infections caused by E. coli.

  16. Synthetic Peptides Derived from Bovine Lactoferricin Exhibit Antimicrobial Activity against E. coli ATCC 11775, S. maltophilia ATCC 13636 and S. enteritidis ATCC 13076.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas Méndez, Nataly De Jesús; Vargas Casanova, Yerly; Gómez Chimbi, Anyelith Katherine; Hernández, Edith; Leal Castro, Aura Lucia; Melo Diaz, Javier Mauricio; Rivera Monroy, Zuly Jenny; García Castañeda, Javier Eduardo

    2017-03-12

    Linear, dimeric, tetrameric, and cyclic peptides derived from lactoferricin B-containing non-natural amino acids and the RWQWR motif were synthesized, purified, and characterized using RP-HPLC, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and circular dichroism. The antibacterial activity of peptides against Escherichia coli ATCC 11775, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ATCC 13636, and Salmonella enteritidis ATCC 13076 was evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined. The synthetic bovine lactoferricin exhibited antibacterial activity against E. coli ATCC 11775 and S. enteritidis ATCC 13076. The dimeric peptide (RRWQWR)₂K-Ahx exhibited the highest antibacterial activity against the tested bacterial strain. The monomeric, cyclic, tetrameric, and palindromic peptides containing the RWQWR motif exhibited high and specific activity against E. coli ATCC 11775. The results suggest that short peptides derived from lactoferricin B could be considered as potential candidates for the development of antibacterial agents against infections caused by E. coli .

  17. Genetic variations among Mycoplasma bovis strains isolated from Danish cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusiluka, L.J.M.; Kokotovic, Branko; Ojeniyi, B.

    2000-01-01

    The genetic heterogeneity of Mycoplasma bovis strains isolated in Denmark over a 17-year period was investigated. Forty-two field strains isolated from different geographic locations and specimens, including strains from 21 herds involved in two outbreaks of M. bovis-induced mastitis, and the type...

  18. Mycobacterium bovis hip bursitis in a lung transplant recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, J M; Crespo, M; Silveira, F P; Kaplan, R; Aslam, S

    2016-02-01

    We present a report of extrapulmonary Mycobacterium bovis infection in a lung transplant recipient. M. bovis is acquired predominantly by zoonotic transmission, particularly from consumption of unpasteurized foods. We discuss epidemiologic exposure, especially as relates to the Mexico-US border, clinical characteristics, resistance profile, and treatment. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Sensitivity of Mycobacterium bovis to common beef processing interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective. Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis, a relevant zoonosis that can spread to humans through inhalation or by ingestion. M. bovis multiplies slowly, so infected animals may be sent to slaughter during the early stages of the disease before diagnosis and when ...

  20. Prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis in Cattle Slaughtered at Sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to screen cattle slaughtered at the Sokoto Central Abattoir for antibodies against Mycobacterium bovis. By the lateral flow technique (immunochromatography), using monoclonal antibodies for M. bovis (BioNote, Inc. Gyeonggi-do, Korea) and by post mortem examination. A total of 194 slaughtered ...

  1. Transmissie van Mycobacterium bovis tussen mens en dier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de G.; Beer, de J.; Bakker, D.; Soolingen, D.

    2015-01-01

    Nederland is officieel vrij van rundertuberculose. Toch komt af en toe nog Mycobacterium bovis-tuberculose voor bij relatief jonge autochtone Nederlanders. Ook zijn er recent nog wel boviene-uitbraken geweest. Dat roept de vraag op of er ook nu nog transmissie is van M.bovis tussen mens en dier.

  2. Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma bovis infection in dairy cows in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma bovis infection in dairy cows in subtropical southern China. ... Dairy cows with the history of 5 pregnancies had the highest seroprevalence (33.3%). However, no statistically significant association was found between M. bovis infection and age or number of pregnancies (p > 0.05). All the ...

  3. Comparative Genomics Analysis of Streptococcus Isolates from the Human Small Intestine Reveals their Adaptation to a Highly Dynamic Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bogert, Bartholomeus; Boekhorst, Jos; Herrmann, Ruth; Smid, Eddy J.; Zoetendal, Erwin G.; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2013-01-01

    The human small-intestinal microbiota is characterised by relatively large and dynamic Streptococcus populations. In this study, genome sequences of small-intestinal streptococci from S. mitis, S. bovis, and S. salivarius species-groups were determined and compared with those from 58 Streptococcus strains in public databases. The Streptococcus pangenome consists of 12,403 orthologous groups of which 574 are shared among all sequenced streptococci and are defined as the Streptococcus core genome. Genome mining of the small-intestinal streptococci focused on functions playing an important role in the interaction of these streptococci in the small-intestinal ecosystem, including natural competence and nutrient-transport and metabolism. Analysis of the small-intestinal Streptococcus genomes predicts a high capacity to synthesize amino acids and various vitamins as well as substantial divergence in their carbohydrate transport and metabolic capacities, which is in agreement with observed physiological differences between these Streptococcus strains. Gene-specific PCR-strategies enabled evaluation of conservation of Streptococcus populations in intestinal samples from different human individuals, revealing that the S. salivarius strains were frequently detected in the small-intestine microbiota, supporting the representative value of the genomes provided in this study. Finally, the Streptococcus genomes allow prediction of the effect of dietary substances on Streptococcus population dynamics in the human small-intestine. PMID:24386196

  4. Mastite bovina por Mycoplasma bovis em rebanhos leiteiros Mastitis caused by Mycoplasma bovis in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucienne G. Pretto

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram examinadas 713 vacas de três rebanhos leiteiros localizados na região norte do Estado do Paraná e sudoeste do Estado de São Paulo, das quais 137 apresentaram mastite. Nas três propriedades foram detectados oito animais (1,12% com mastite clínica por Mycoplasma bovis. Destes animais, quatro tratados com oxitetraciclina e tilosina e três com enrofloxacina, não responderam ao tratamento e foram descartados no decorrer da lactação. Uma vaca medicada com enrofloxacina recuperou quase que totalmente a secreção láctea mas a eliminação de M. bovis persistiu por toda lactação. Esta vaca apresentou cura bacteriológica na lactação seguinte. O descarte dos animais positivos, monitora-mento bacteriológico e a aplicação correta das medidas de prevenção para as mastites contagiosas controlaram a disseminação de M. bovis nos rebanhos.In this study 713 cows were examined. The animals were from three dairy farms in northern Paraná and the southwest of the State of São Paulo. From these cows, 137 had mastitis. On the three farms, 8 cows (1.12% with Mycoplasma bovis mastitis were detected. Four were treated with tylosin and oxytetracyclin and three with enrofloxacin. There was no response to the treatments, and these animals were culled during the lactation period. One cow treated with enrofloxacin almost totally recovered milk production, but elimination of M. bovis continued during the lactation, and there was no bacteriological cure. This cow had a normal milk production in the next lactation period, without elimination of M. bovis. Culling of positive animals, the bacteriological study and correct application of preventive practices for contagious mastitis controlled the dissemination of M. bovis to other animals.

  5. Mycobacterium bovis BCG mycobacteria--new application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewicz-Kulbat, Magdalena; Pestel, Joël; Biet, Franck; Locht, Camille; Tonnel, André-Bernard; Druszczyńska, Magdalena; Rudnicka, Wiesława

    2006-01-01

    The polarized response of T helper-2 (Th2) lymphocytes to an allergen is considered to be the main cause of the pathogenesis of asthma. In this study, we asked a question whether M. bovis BCG mycobacteria which are known for the preferential stimulation of T helper-1 (Th1) immunity, diminish the effector functions of Th2 cells from allergic patients upon stimulation with a common house dust mite Der p-1 allergen. Our results allow a positive answer to this question. We demonstrate that BCG modulates the dendritic cell-dependent allergen presentation process and switches naive T lymphocytes towards an anti-allergic Th1 profile.

  6. Draft genome sequence of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus strain S31A1, isolated from equine infectious endometritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Piedade, Isabelle; Skive, Bolette; Christensen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    We present the draft genome sequence of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus S31A1, a strain isolated from equine infectious endometritis in Denmark. Comparative analyses of this genome were done with four published reference genomes: S. zooepidemicus strains MGCS10565, ATCC 35246, and H70 and S...

  7. Group B Streptococcus and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... B Strep and Pregnancy • What is group B streptococcus (GBS)? • What does it mean to be colonized ... planned cesarean birth? •Glossary What is group B streptococcus (GBS)? Group B streptococcus is one of the ...

  8. Laparoscopic pyloromyotomy: comparing the arthrotomy knife to the Bovie blade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Priscilla G; Sharp, Nicole E; St Peter, Shawn D

    2014-07-01

    Laparoscopic pyloromyotomy was performed at our institution using an arthrotomy knife until it became unavailable in 2010. Thus, we adapted the use of the blunt Bovie tip, which can be used with or without electrocautery to perform the myotomy. This study compared the outcomes between using the arthrotomy knife versus the Bovie blade in laparoscopic pyloromyotomies. Retrospective review was performed on all laparoscopic pyloromyotomy patients from October 2007 to September 2012. Arthrotomy knife pyloromyotomy patients were compared with those performed with the Bovie blade. Patient demographics, diagnostic measurements, electrolyte levels, length of stay, operative time, and complications were compared. A total of 381 patients were included, with 191 in the arthrotomy group and 190 in the Bovie blade group. No significant differences existed between groups in age, weight, gender, pyloric dimensions, electrolyte levels, or length of stay. Mean operative times were 15.8±5.6 min with knife and 16.4±5.3 min for Bovie blade (P=0.24). In the arthrotomy knife group, there was one incomplete pyloromyotomy and one omental herniation. There was one wound infection in each group. Readmission rate was greater in the arthrotomy knife group (5.7%) versus the Bovie blade group (3.1%). The Bovie blade appears to offer no objective disadvantages compared with the arthrotomy knife when performing laparoscopic pyloromyotomy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Mycobacterium bovis infection in domestic pigs in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Suzanne S; Crawshaw, Timothy R; Smith, Noel H; Palgrave, Christopher J

    2013-11-01

    Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (TB), infects a wide range of wild and domestic mammals. Despite a control programme spanning decades, M. bovis infection levels in cattle in Great Britain (GB) have continued to rise over recent years. As the incidence of infection in cattle and wildlife may be linked to that in swine, data relating to infection of pigs identified at slaughter were examined in this study. Between 2007 and 2011, almost all M. bovis-infected pigs originated from farms in the South-West and West-Midland regions of England. The data suggest that pigs raised outdoors or on holdings with poor biosecurity may be more vulnerable to infection with M. bovis. In the majority of cases, the same strains of M. bovis were found in pigs and cattle, despite that fact that direct contact between these species was rarely observed. Genotyping and geographical mapping data indicated that some strains found in pigs may correlate better with those present in badgers, rather than cattle. In consequence, it is proposed that pigs may represent a useful sentinel for M. bovis infection in wildlife in GB. Given the potential implications of this infection for the pig industry, and for the on-going effort to control bovine TB, the importance of understanding the epidemiology and pathogenesis of M. bovis infection, as well as monitoring its prevalence, in pigs should not be underestimated. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Proteomic Analysis of the Secretome of Cellulomonas fimi ATCC 484 and Cellulomonas flavigena ATCC 482.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren W Wakarchuk

    Full Text Available The bacteria in the genus Cellulomonas are known for their ability to degrade plant cell wall biomass. Cellulomonas fimi ATCC 484 and C. flavigena ATCC 482 have been the subject of much research into secreted cellulases and hemicellulases. Recently the genome sequences of both C. fimi ATCC 484 and C. flavigena ATCC 482 were published, and a genome comparison has revealed their full spectrum of possible carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes. Using mass spectrometry, we have compared the proteins secreted by C. fimi and C. flavigena during growth on the soluble cellulose substrate, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC, as well as a soluble xylan fraction. Many known C. fimi CAZymes were detected, which validated our analysis, as were a number of new CAZymes and other proteins that, though identified in the genome, have not previously been observed in the secretome of either organism. Our data also shows that many of these are co-expressed on growth of either CMC or xylan. This analysis provides a new perspective on Cellulomonas enzymes and provides many new CAZyme targets for characterization.

  11. Evaluation of Ellagic acid on the activities of oral bacteria with the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175, Streptococcus sanguis ATCC 10556, Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 25975, Actinomyces naeslundii ATCC 12104, Actinomyces viscosus ATCC 15987, Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103, Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277 and Bacteroides forsythus ATCC 43037 were the ...

  12. Phenotypic, Genotypic, and Antimicrobial Characteristics of Streptococcus halichoeri Isolates from Humans, Proposal To Rename Streptococcus halichoeri as Streptococcus halichoeri subsp. halichoeri, and Description of Streptococcus halichoeri subsp. hominis subsp. nov., a Bacterium Associated with Human Clinical Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewmaker, P L; Whitney, A M; Humrighouse, B W

    2016-03-01

    Phenotypic, genotypic, and antimicrobial characteristics of six phenotypically distinct human clinical isolates that most closely resembled the type strain of Streptococcus halichoeri isolated from a seal are presented. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA, rpoB, sodA, and recN genes; comparative whole-genome analysis; conventional biochemical and Rapid ID 32 Strep identification methods; and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed on the human isolates, the type strain of S. halichoeri, and type strains of closely related species. The six human clinical isolates were biochemically indistinguishable from each other and showed 100% 16S rRNA, rpoB, sodA, and recN gene sequence similarity. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis revealed 98.6% similarity to S. halichoeri CCUG 48324(T), 97.9% similarity to S. canis ATCC 43496(T), and 97.8% similarity to S. ictaluri ATCC BAA-1300(T). A 3,530-bp fragment of the rpoB gene was 98.8% similar to the S. halichoeri type strain, 84.6% to the S. canis type strain, and 83.8% to the S. ictaluri type strain. The S. halichoeri type strain and the human clinical isolates were susceptible to the antimicrobials tested based on CLSI guidelines for Streptococcus species viridans group with the exception of tetracycline and erythromycin. The human isolates were phenotypically distinct from the type strain isolated from a seal; comparative whole-genome sequence analysis confirmed that the human isolates were S. halichoeri. On the basis of these results, a novel subspecies, Streptococcus halichoeri subsp. hominis, is proposed for the human isolates and Streptococcus halichoeri subsp. halichoeri is proposed for the gray seal isolates. The type strain of the novel subspecies is SS1844(T) = CCUG 67100(T) = LMG 28801(T). Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Escherichia coli K-12 (ATCC 10798)

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrova, Daniela; Engelbrecht, Kathleen C.; Putonti, Catherine; Koenig, David W.; Wolfe, Alan J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here, we present the draft genome sequence of Escherichia coli ATCC 10798. E.?coli ATCC 10798 is a K-12 strain, one of the most well-studied model microorganisms. The size of the genome was 4,685,496?bp, with a G+C content of 50.70%. This assembly consists of 62 contigs and the F plasmid.

  14. Enzymes of agmatine degradation and the control of their synthesis in Streptococcus faecalis.

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, J P; Stalon, V

    1982-01-01

    Streptococcus faecalis ATCC 11700 uses agmatine as its sole energy source for growth. Agmatine deiminase and putrescine carbamoyltransferase are coinduced by growth on agmatine. Glucose and arginine were found to exert catabolite repression on the agmatine deiminase pathway. Four mutants unable to utilize agmatine as an energy source, isolated from the wild-type strain, exhibited three distinct phenotypes. Two of these strains showed essentially no agmatine deiminase, one mutant showed neglig...

  15. Streptococcus oriloxodontae sp. nov., isolated from the oral cavities of elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinozaki-Kuwahara, Noriko; Saito, Masanori; Hirasawa, Masatomo; Takada, Kazuko

    2014-11-01

    Two strains were isolated from oral cavity samples of healthy elephants. The isolates were Gram-positive, catalase-negative, coccus-shaped organisms that were tentatively identified as a streptococcal species based on the results of biochemical tests. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis suggested classification of these organisms in the genus Streptococcus with Streptococcus criceti ATCC 19642(T) and Streptococcus orisuis NUM 1001(T) as their closest phylogenetic neighbours with 98.2 and 96.9% gene sequence similarity, respectively. When multi-locus sequence analysis using four housekeeping genes, groEL, rpoB, gyrB and sodA, was carried out, similarity of concatenated sequences of the four housekeeping genes from the new isolates and Streptococcus mutans was 89.7%. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments suggested that the new isolates were distinct from S. criceti and other species of the genus Streptococcus. On the basis of genotypic and phenotypic differences, it is proposed that the novel isolates are classified in the genus Streptococcus as representatives of Streptococcus oriloxodontae sp. nov. The type strain of S. oriloxodontae is NUM 2101(T) ( =JCM 19285(T) =DSM 27377(T)). © 2014 IUMS.

  16. Antibacterial activity of Bixa orellana L. (achiote) against Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dyanne Medina-Flores; Gabriela Ulloa-Urizar; Rosella Camere-Colarossi; Stefany Caballero-Garca; Frank Mayta-Tovalino; Juana del Valle-Mendoza

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the cytotoxic and antibacterial effect of Bixa orellana L. (B. orellana) (achiote) methanol extract against Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175) (S. mutans) and Streptococcus sanguinis (ATCC 10556) (S. sanguinis). Methods: Two methanol extracts of B. orellana were prepared in vitro, from the seeds and leaves. The antibacterial activity of extracts against S. mutans and S. sanguinis was evaluated using the cup-plate agar diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concen-tration (MIC) was determined using the microdilution method and the cytotoxic activity was determinated by using the cell line MDCK. Results: A stronger antibacterial effect was observed with the leaves methanolic extract with an inhibition zone of (19.97 ± 1.31) mm against S. mutans and (19.97 ± 1.26) mm against S. sanguinis. The methanolic extract of the seeds had an activity of (15.11 ± 1.03) mm and (16.15 ± 2.15) mm against S. mutans and S. sanguinis, respectively. The MIC of the leaf and the seed extracts against S. sanguinis was 62.5 and 125 mg/mL, respectively, and the MIC of the leaf extract against S. mutans was 62.5 mg/mL, and for the seed extract it was 31.25 mg/mL. The 50%cytotoxic concentration was 366.45 and 325.05 mg/mL for the leaves and seeds extracts, respectively. Conclusions: The experimental findings demonstrated the antibacterial effect of the methanolic extract of B. orellana (achiote) on S. mutans and S. sanguinis. The extract of this plant is cytotoxic at high concentrations.

  17. Antibacterial activity of Myrciaria dubia (Camu camu) against Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rosella Camere-Colarossi; Gabriela Ulloa-Urizar; Dyanne Medina-Flores; Stefany Caballero-Garca; Frank Mayta-Tovalino; Juana del Valle-Mendoza

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial and cytotoxic effect of Myrciaria dubia (Camu camu) (M. dubia) methanol extract, against Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175) (S. mutans) and Streptococcus sanguinis (ATCC 10556) (S. sanguinis). Methods: Two methanol extracts of M. dubia were prepared in vitro, from the seeds and pulp. Ten independent tests were prepared for each type of extract, using 0.12% chlor-hexidine solution as positive control. Agar diffusion test was used by preparing wells with the experimental solutions cultivated in anaerobic conditions for 48 h at 37 ° C. Mean-while, the minimum inhibitory concentration and the cytotoxic effect over MDCK cell line was found. Results: A higher antibacterial effect was observed with the methanol seed extract with an inhibitory halo of (21.36 ± 6.35) mm and (19.21 ± 5.18) mm against S. mutans and S. sanguinis, respectively. The methanol extract of the pulp had an effect of (16.20 ± 2.08) mm and (19.34 ± 2.90) mm, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the pulp extract was 62.5μg/mL for both strains, whereas for the seed antibacterial activity was observed even at low concentrations. The CC50 of the seeds extract was at a higher con-centration than 800μg/mL and 524.37μg/mL for the pulp extract. Conclusions: The experimental findings demonstrated the antibacterial effect of the methanol extract of M. dubia against S. mutans and S. sanguinis. These extracts were not cytotoxic at high concentrations.

  18. Characterization of two N-acetyl muramoylhydrolases of Streptococcus faecium ATCC 9790

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolinger, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    Purified muramidase-1 of S. faecium has been shown to contain a covalently attached nucleotide. The nucleotide was isolated and identified as 5-mercaptouridine monophosphate, and to occur as multiple monomeric substitutions on the polypeptide chain, via a phosphodiester bond. Exhaustive proteolytic hydrolysis of purified muramidase-1 yielded a peptide fragment consisting of 5-mercaptouridine, tyrosine, alanine, glycine, and leucine. A second peptidoglycan hydrolase (muramidase-2) has been purified to apparent homogeneity. The enzymatic activity has been shown to be consistent with that of a 3-1,4-N-acetylmuramoylhydrolase and differs in substrate specificity and possibility mechanism of hydrolysis from muramidase-1. Purified enzyme appears as two protein staining bands of molecular masses 125 and 75 kDa after sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel ectrophoresis. Elution and renaturation of the protein bands showed that both proteins contain muramidase-2 activity. In addition both proteins have also been shown to specifically bind [ 14 C]penicillin G and been tentatively identified as penicillin binding proteins 1 and 5, respectively

  19. Prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis in some cattle breeds in the aids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M. bovis was identified by growth rate, pigment production, colony and cell morphology and biochemical characteristics. A total of 41 heads of cattle comprising of 9 bulls and 32 cows from 7 breeds were positive for M. bovis. No isolate of M. bovis was obtained from Keteku breed and no seasonal distribution of the organism ...

  20. Targeted surface expression of an exogenous antigen in stably transfected babesia bovis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babesia bovis is a tick-borne intraerythocytic protozoan responsible for acute disease in cattle which can be controlled by vaccination with attenuated B. bovis strains. Emerging B. bovis transfection technologies may increase the usefulness of these live vaccines. Here we propose using transfected ...

  1. Genetic characterization of Australian Mycoplasma bovis isolates through whole genome sequencing analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Alysia M.; Shukla, Ankit; House, John K.

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is a major pathogen in cattle causing mastitis, arthritis and pneumonia. First isolated in Australian cattle in 1970, M. bovis has persisted causing serious disease in infected herds. To date, genetic analysis of Australian M. bovis isolates has not been performed. With whole gen...

  2. Mycobacterium bovis infection in humans and cats in same household, Texas, USA, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium bovis infection of cats is exceedingly rare in non-endemic regions for bovine tuberculosis. This case study describes the diagnosis and clinical management of pulmonary M. bovis infection in two indoor-housed cats and their association with at least one M. bovis-infected human in Texas...

  3. Gene Regulation in Streptococcus pneumoniae: interplay between nutrition and virulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.T. Hendriksen (Wouter)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractStreptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is a Gram-positive bacterium, which belongs to the species of streptococci. Other pathogenic bacteria belonging to this class include Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus suis, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus

  4. Increasing prevalence of Mycoplasma bovis in Danish cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusiluka, L.J.M.; Ojeniyi, B.; Friis, N.F.

    2000-01-01

    A study on the prevalence of mycoplasmas in pneumonic bovine lungs was performed on material submitted for diagnostic pul poses at the Danish Veterinary Laboratory, Copenhagen. Among the 50 examined cases 43 (86.0%) were found to be infected with mycoplasmas. The predominant mycoplasmas were...... Ureaplasma spp. (72.0%), M dispar (48.0%) and M. bovis (24.0%). Other mycoplasmas were M. bovirhinis (20.0%) and M. bovigenitalium (6.0%). Among the infected lungs multiple species infections were predominant (76.7%) over single species infections (23.3%) with M.dispar-Ureaplasma (25.6%), M. bovis......-Ureaplasma (18.6%) and M. dispar-M. bovirhinis-Ureaplasma (11.6%) infections being the most frequently encountered combinations. There appears to be an increasing prevalence of Al. bovis (24.0%) as compared to earlier reports (0.6-2.0%), thus calling fur special attention upon this mycoplasma. Pulsed field gel...

  5. Mycobacterium bovis meningitis in young Nigerian-born male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Lillebæk, Troels; Nielsen, Ming-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    In Denmark, tuberculous meningitis is rare. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement with Mycobacterium bovis is even rarer and has only been seen three times since 1992. We present a case of M. bovis meningitis in a previously healthy young Nigerian-born male, who had been exposed to unpasteurized...... dairy products in Nigeria but had no known contact with larger mammals. Before the development of meningitis, the patient had several contacts with the health system due to fever and non-specific symptoms. Finally, upon hospital admission, the patient was diagnosed with M. tuberculosis complex...... meningitis and treated empirically. After 13 days he was discharged without neurological sequelae. Later, the culture revealed M. bovis and treatment was adjusted accordingly....

  6. Adherence of Moraxella bovis to cell cultures of bovine origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annuar, B O; Wilcox, G E

    1985-09-01

    The adherence of five strains of Moraxella bovis to cell cultures was investigated. M bovis adhered to cultures of bovine corneal epithelial and Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells but not to cell types of non-bovine origin. Both piliated and unpiliated strains adhered but piliated strains adhered to a greater extent than unpiliated strains. Antiserum against pili of one strain inhibited adherence of piliated strains but caused only slight inhibition of adherence to the unpiliated strains. Treatment of bacteria with magnesium chloride caused detachment of pili from the bacterial cell and markedly inhibited adherence of piliated strains but caused only slight inhibition of adherence by the unpiliated strains. The results suggested that adhesion of piliated strains to cell cultures was mediated via pili but that adhesins other than pili may be involved in the attachment of unpiliated strains of M bovis to cells.

  7. Effect of inulin chain length on fermentation by equine fecal bacteria and Streptococcus bovis in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ingestion of large quantities of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates (e.g. fructans) from pasture has been associated with the development of laminitis. Fructans are poorly degraded by mammalian enzymes and, therefore, are able to reach the hindgut. The fermentation of fructans can lead to the ove...

  8. Endocarditis por Streptococcus bovis: ¿sólo una endocarditis?

    OpenAIRE

    Angelini, Julieta María; Díaz Perera, Rodrigo; Garay, María Eugenia; Martínez, Camilo; Occhiuzzi, Silvina; Rodríguez Russo, Paula; Sarlo, Ana Julia

    2012-01-01

    Paciente varón de 74 años de edad, con antecedentes de cáncer de vejiga en plan de tratamiento quimioterápico, que ingresa al servicio de guardia por presentar fiebre de 38,5º astenia, adinamia e hiporexia asociado a disnea clase funcional II. Refiere al ingreso haber realizado la última sesión de quimioterapia una semana previa a la consulta.

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Escherichia coli K-12 (ATCC 10798).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Daniela; Engelbrecht, Kathleen C; Putonti, Catherine; Koenig, David W; Wolfe, Alan J

    2017-07-06

    Here, we present the draft genome sequence of Escherichia coli ATCC 10798. E. coli ATCC 10798 is a K-12 strain, one of the most well-studied model microorganisms. The size of the genome was 4,685,496 bp, with a G+C content of 50.70%. This assembly consists of 62 contigs and the F plasmid. Copyright © 2017 Dimitrova et al.

  10. Controlled Human Infection for Vaccination Against Streptococcus Pyogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-26

    Streptococcus Pyogenes Pharyngitis; Streptococcus Pharyngitis; Strep Throat; Streptococcus Pyogenes Infection; Group A Streptococcus: B Hemolytic Pharyngitis; Group A Streptococcal Infection; Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections; Bacterial Infections

  11. Prevalence of Fasciola gigantica, Cysticercus bovis and some other ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Other disease conditions seen were splenomegaly, jaundice, and telangiactasis. Out of the 150cattle examined, 30 (20%) were infected or have disease. A total of 150 cattle comprising 116 males and 34 females were examined. The distribution of infections is as follows: 1(070%) was infected wth Cysticercus bovis, ...

  12. Comparative Proteomic Profiling of Mycobacterium bovis and BCG Vaccine Strains

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Ge

    2013-09-01

    BCG is the only licensed human vaccine currently available against TB. Derived from a virulent strain of M. bovis, the vaccine was thought to have struck a balance between reduced virulence and preserved immunogenicity. Nowadays, BCG vaccine strains used in different countries and vaccination programs show clear variations in their genomes and immune protective properties. The aim of this study was to characterize the proteomic profile on Mycobacterium bovis and five BCG strains Pasteur, Tokyo, Danish, Phipps and Birkhaug by Tandem Mass Tag® (TMT®)-labeling quantitative proteomic approach. In total, 420 proteins were identified and 377 of them were quantitated for their relative abundance. We reported the number and relationship of differential expressed proteins in BCG strains compared to M. bovis and investigated their functions by bioinformatics analysis. Several interesting up-regulated and down-regulated protein targets were found. The identified proteins and their quantitative expression profiles provide a basis for further understanding of the cellular biology of M. bovis and BCG vaccine strains, and hopefully would assist in the design of better anti-TB vaccine and drugs.

  13. Phylogenomics and the Dynamic Genome Evolution of the Genus Streptococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Vincent P.; Palmer, Sara R.; Pavinski Bitar, Paulina D.; Qin, Xiang; Weinstock, George M.; Highlander, Sarah K.; Town, Christopher D.; Burne, Robert A.; Stanhope, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Streptococcus comprises important pathogens that have a severe impact on human health and are responsible for substantial economic losses to agriculture. Here, we utilize 46 Streptococcus genome sequences (44 species), including eight species sequenced here, to provide the first genomic level insight into the evolutionary history and genetic basis underlying the functional diversity of all major groups of this genus. Gene gain/loss analysis revealed a dynamic pattern of genome evolution characterized by an initial period of gene gain followed by a period of loss, as the major groups within the genus diversified. This was followed by a period of genome expansion associated with the origins of the present extant species. The pattern is concordant with an emerging view that genomes evolve through a dynamic process of expansion and streamlining. A large proportion of the pan-genome has experienced lateral gene transfer (LGT) with causative factors, such as relatedness and shared environment, operating over different evolutionary scales. Multiple gene ontology terms were significantly enriched for each group, and mapping terms onto the phylogeny showed that those corresponding to genes born on branches leading to the major groups represented approximately one-fifth of those enriched. Furthermore, despite the extensive LGT, several biochemical characteristics have been retained since group formation, suggesting genomic cohesiveness through time, and that these characteristics may be fundamental to each group. For example, proteolysis: mitis group; urea metabolism: salivarius group; carbohydrate metabolism: pyogenic group; and transcription regulation: bovis group. PMID:24625962

  14. Septicemia with Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuursted, Kurt; Littauer, Pia Jeanette; Greve, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae was described in 2004 as a new human pathogen, acknowledged in a range of clinical infections typically associated to the respiratory tract. This report demonstrates that S. pseudopneumoniae has the potential to cause invasive infection. In blood cultures from three...... and the antibiogram and resistome revealed no antibiotic resistance....

  15. Bacteremia with Streptococcus pneumoniae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, J S; Jensen, T G; Kolmos, H J

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a hospital-based cohort study among adult patients with first-time Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia (SPB) from 2000 through 2008. Patients were identified in a population-based bacteremia database and followed up for mortality through the Danish Civil Registration System (CRS...

  16. [Single and combining effects of Calculus Bovis and zolpidem on inhibitive neurotransmitter of rat striatum corpora].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; He, Xinrong; Guo, Mei

    2010-04-01

    To investigate the correlation effects between single or combined administration of Calculus Bovis or zolpidem and changes of inhibitive neurotransmitter in rat striatum corpora. Sampling from rat striatum corpora was carried out through microdialysis. The content of two inhibitive neurotransmitters in rat corpus striatum- glycine (Gly) and gama aminobutyric acid (GABA), was determined by HPLC, which involved pre-column derivation with orthophthaladehyde, reversed-phase gradient elution and fluorescence detection. GABA content of rat striatum corpora in Calculus Bovis group was significantly increased compared with saline group (P Calculus Boris plus zolpidem group were increased largely compared with saline group as well (P Calculus Bovis group was higher than combination group (P Calculus Bovis or zolpidem group was markedly increased compared with saline group or combination group (P Calculus Bovis group, zolpidem group and combination group. The magnitude of increase was lower in combination group than in Calculus Bovis group and Zolpidem group, suggesting that Calculus Bovis promoted encephalon inhibition is more powerful than zolpidem. The increase in two inhibitive neurotransmitters did not show reinforcing effect in combination group, suggesting that Calculus Bovis and zolpidem may compete the same receptors. Therefore, combination of Calculus Bovis containing drugs and zolpidem has no clinical significance. Calculus Bovis shouldn't as an aperture-opening drugs be used for resuscitation therapy.

  17. Streptococcus oricebi sp. nov., isolated from the oral cavity of tufted capuchin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, M; Shinozaki-Kuwahara, N; Hirasawa, M; Takada, K

    2016-02-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative, coccus-shaped organism was isolated from the oral cavity of tufted capuchin (Cebus apella). Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis suggested classification of the organism within the genus Streptococcus. Strain M8T was related most closely to Streptococcus oralis ATCC 35037T (96.17 % similarity) followed by Streptococcus massiliensis CCUG 49690T (95.90 %) based on the 16S rRNA gene. Strain M8T was related most closely to S. massiliensis CCUG 49690T (86.58 %) based on the RNA polymerase β subunit-encoding gene (rpoB), and to Streptococcus tigurinus AZ_3aT (81.26 %) followed by S. massiliensis CCUG 49690T (80.45 %) based on the 60 kDa heat-shock protein gene (groEL). The phylogenetic trees of 16S rRNA, rpoB and groEL gene sequences showed that strain M8T was most closely related to S. massiliensis. Based on phenotypic characterization as well as 16S rRNA gene and housekeeping gene (rpoB and groEL) sequence data, a novel taxon, Streptococcus oricebi sp. nov. (type strain M8T = JCM 30719T = DSM 100101T), is proposed.

  18. Exploring internal features of 16S rRNA gene for identification of clinically relevant species of the genus Streptococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Streptococcus is an economically important genus as a number of species belonging to this genus are human and animal pathogens. The genus has been divided into different groups based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The variability observed among the members of these groups is low and it is difficult to distinguish them. The present study was taken up to explore 16S rRNA gene sequence to develop methods that can be used for preliminary identification and can supplement the existing methods for identification of clinically-relevant isolates of the genus Streptococcus. Methods 16S rRNA gene sequences belonging to the isolates of S. dysgalactiae, S. equi, S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, S. bovis, S. gallolyticus, S. mutans, S. sobrinus, S. mitis, S. pneumoniae, S. thermophilus and S. anginosus were analyzed with the purpose to define genetic variability within each species to generate a phylogenetic framework, to identify species-specific signatures and in-silico restriction enzyme analysis. Results The framework based analysis was used to segregate Streptococcus spp. previously identified upto genus level. This segregation was validated using species-specific signatures and in-silico restriction enzyme analysis. 43 uncharacterized Streptococcus spp. could be identified using this approach. Conclusions The markers generated exploring 16S rRNA gene sequences provided useful tool that can be further used for identification of different species of the genus Streptococcus. PMID:21702978

  19. Virulence Factors of Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    763512/715242 Final Report U VIRULENCE FACTORS OF STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS U Samuel Rosen Department of Oral Biology For the Period April 1, 1983 - June 30...00 FINAL REPORT VIRULENCE FACTORS OF STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS Sam Rosen, Irving Shklair, E. X. Beck and F. M. Beck Ohio State University Columbus,Oh and...206-212. Johnson CP, Gorss S, Hillman JD (1978). Cariogenic properties of LDH deficient mutants of streptococcus mutans . J Dent Res 57, Special Issue

  20. Validation and use of an ELISA kit for the diagnosis of Babesia bovis in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blandino, T.; Alonso, M.; Barrera, M.; Mendoza, E.

    1998-01-01

    Babesia bovis, the most important etiological agent causing bovine babesiosis, is widely distributed in Cuba and affects mainly adult cattle. A survey of the prevalence of the disease in cattle using an ELISA kit (FAO/IAEA) revealed that 34.2% of the animals between 6 and 18 months of age were positive to Babesia bovis, whereas 69.9% on the cattle older than 18 months were positive. Antibodies to Babesia bovis were detected in 96.9% of calves vaccinated with an attenuated Babesia bovis vaccine. A good correlation was found between the results of ELISA kit with those from indirect immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase tests developed in Cuba. (author)

  1. Molecular Detection of Anaplasma bovis in Cattle from Central Part of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Noaman

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma bovis is a leukocytotropic agent of bovine anaplasmosis and there is no available information about molecular study on this agent in cattle of Iran. In this study a total 150 cattle blood samples were collected from central part of Iran. The presence of A. bovis examined using light microscopic detection and species-specific nested polymerase chain reaction (nested-PCR based on 16S rRNA gene. Of the 150 cattle, 4 (2.66 % was positive for A. bovis by nested-PCR. These data is the first A. bovis DNA presence in cattle from central part of Iran.

  2. Impact of temperature and soil type on Mycobacterium bovis survival in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Elodie; Rochelet, Murielle; Gal, Laurent; Boschiroli, Maria Laura; Hartmann, Alain

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of the bovine tuberculosis (bTB), mainly affects cattle, its natural reservoir, but also a wide range of domestic and wild mammals. Besides direct transmission via contaminated aerosols, indirect transmission of the M. bovis between wildlife and livestock might occur by inhalation or ingestion of environmental substrates contaminated through infected animal shedding. We monitored the survival of M. bovis in two soil samples chosen for their contrasted physical and-chemical properties (i.e. pH, clay content). The population of M. bovis spiked in sterile soils was enumerated by a culture-based method after 14, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 days of incubation at 4°C and 22°C. A qPCR based assay targeting the IS1561' locus was also performed to monitor M. bovis in both sterile and biotic spiked soils. The analysis of survival profiles using culture-based method showed that M. bovis survived longer at lower temperature (4°C versus 22°C) whereas the impact of soil characteristics on M. bovis persistence was not obvious. Furthermore, qPCR-based assay detected M. bovis for a longer period of time than the culture based method with higher gene copy numbers observed in sterile soils than in biotic ones. Impact of soil type on M. bovis persistence need to be deepened in order to fill the gap of knowledge concerning indirect transmission of the disease.

  3. Characterization of germination receptors of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornstra, L.M.; Vries, de Y.P.; Wells-Bennik, M.H.J.; Vos, de W.M.; Abee, T.

    2006-01-01

    Specific amino acids, purine ribonucleosides, or a combination of the two is required for efficient germination of endospores of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579. A survey including 20 different amino acids showed that L-alanine, L-cysteine, L-threonine, and L-glutamine are capable of initiating the

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium vaccae Type Strain ATCC 25954

    KAUST Repository

    Ho, Y. S.; Adroub, S. A.; Abadi, Maram; Al Alwan, B.; Alkhateeb, R.; Gao, G.; Ragab, A.; Ali, Shahjahan; van Soolingen, D.; Bitter, W.; Pain, Arnab; Abdallah, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterium vaccae is a rapidly growing, nontuberculous Mycobacterium species that is generally not considered a human pathogen and is of major pharmaceutical interest as an immunotherapeutic agent. We report here the annotated genome sequence of the M. vaccae type strain, ATCC 25954.

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium vaccae Type Strain ATCC 25954

    KAUST Repository

    Ho, Y. S.

    2012-10-26

    Mycobacterium vaccae is a rapidly growing, nontuberculous Mycobacterium species that is generally not considered a human pathogen and is of major pharmaceutical interest as an immunotherapeutic agent. We report here the annotated genome sequence of the M. vaccae type strain, ATCC 25954.

  6. Highly hydrolytic reuteransucrase from probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri strain ATCC 55730

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kralj, S.; Stripling, E.; Sanders, P.; Geel-Schutten, G.H. van; Dijkhuizen, L.

    2005-01-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri strain ATCC 55730 (LB BIO) was isolated as a pure culture from a Reuteri tablet purchased from the BioGaia company. This probiotic strain produces a soluble glucan (reuteran), in which the majority of the linkages are of the α-(1→4) glucosidic type (∼70%). This reuteran also

  7. Metabolism of amino acid amides in Pseudomonas putida ATCC 12633

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, H.F.M.; Croes, L.M.; Peeters, W.P.H.; Peters, P.J.H.; Dijkhuizen, L.

    1993-01-01

    The metabolism of the natural amino acid L-valine, the unnatural amino acids D-valine, and D-, L-phenylglycine (D-, L-PG), and the unnatural amino acid amides D-, L-phenylglycine amide (D, L-PG-NH2) and L-valine amide (L-Val-NH2) was studied in Pseudomonas putida ATCC 12633. The organism possessed

  8. Mycobacterium bovis: realities and challenges for the veterinary biopharmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aníbal Domínguez Odio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium bovis is the main etiological agent of bovine tuberculosis, bacterial diseases of world distribution, chronicle, of easy transmission, debilitating, zoonotic and antropozoonotic that affects any organ and which can be presented without symptoms On this base, it was carried out a study with the objective of approaching the current state and the scientific-technological projections for the prevention and diagnosis of the bovine tuberculosis, caused by M. bovis. It was demonstrated that the 45.09% of the original articles on inmunoprophylaxis against bacteria, registered in the Scopus database and contextualised until principles of 2014, were focused toward M. bovis. In spite of the advances in molecular biology and the hopes deposited in the Ag85A, Rv0287, Rv0288, Rv0251c, MPB70, MPB83, ESAT-6 and CFP-10 molecules, jointly with their combinations, it will continue absent in the market an effective, safety and differentiating vaccine; as well as a robust DIVA diagnosis system. It can be concluded that in the next 5 years, an officially recognized vacinal formulation will continue absent and that the tuberculin test in spite of its weaknesses will continue being the main tool of surveillance.

  9. Bovine Tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) in Wildlife in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranaz, Alicia; de Juan, Lucía; Montero, Natalia; Sánchez, Celia; Galka, Margarita; Delso, Consuelo; Álvarez, Julio; Romero, Beatriz; Bezos, Javier; Vela, Ana I.; Briones, Victor; Mateos, Ana; Domínguez, Lucas

    2004-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis infection in wildlife and feral species is a potential source of infection for livestock and a threat to protected and endangered species. The aim of this study was to identify Spanish wild animal species infected with M. bovis through bacteriological culture and spacer oligonucleotide typing (spoligotyping) of isolates for epidemiological purposes. This study included samples from red deer (Cervus elaphus), fallow deer (Dama dama), wild boar (Sus scrofa), Iberian lynx (Lynx pardina), hare (Lepus europaeus), and cattle (Bos taurus). They were collected in several geographical areas that were selected for their unique ecological value and/or known relationships between wildlife and livestock. In the areas included in this survey, M. bovis strains with the same spoligotyping pattern were found infecting several wild species and livestock, which indicates an epidemiological link. A locally predominant spoligotype was found in these areas. Better understanding of the transmission and distribution of disease in these populations will permit more precise targeting of control measures. PMID:15184440

  10. Infection by Mycobacterium bovis in a dog from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivianne Cambuí Figueiredo Rocha

    Full Text Available Abstract Tuberculosis (TB is a chronic disease caused by bacteria belonging to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MtbC. This disease rarely affects dogs. Canine infections are usually caused by M. tuberculosis. Mycobacterium bovis infections are rare in dogs and associated with consumption of raw milk or contaminated products. Here, we report a Boxer dog who had a M. bovis infection and was admitted to a Brazilian veterinary hospital with a presumptive diagnosis of chronic ehrlichiosis. Despite receiving treatment for chronic ehrlichiosis, it progressed to death. TB was diagnosed during post-mortem examinations using histopathological analysis. Ziehl-Neelsen staining revealed acid-fast bacilli in the kidneys, liver, mesentery, and a mass adhered to the liver. Further, PCR-restriction analysis was performed to identify mycobacteria in the samples. A restriction profile compatible with MtbC was found in the lungs. In addition, PCR-based MtbC typing deletions at different loci of chromosome 9 enabled the identification of M. bovis in the lungs. Therefore, it is very essential to perform differential diagnosis of TB in dogs with non-specific clinical signs and who do not respond to treatment, particularly those who had been in contact with TB-infected cattle or owners. Further, we highlight the use of molecular methods for the identification of bacilli, improving the diagnosis and aiding epidemiological studies.

  11. Effect of dietary sugars on dual-species biofilms of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus – a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Virginia Dutra de OLIVEIRA

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Frequent consumption of sugars and the presence of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus are correlated with higher caries experience. Objective The aim of this pilot study was to elucidate the effect of different fermentable carbohydrates on biomass formation and acidogenicity of S. mutans and S. sobrinus biofilms. Material and method Single and dual-species biofilms of S. mutans ATCC 25175 and S. sobrinus ATCC 27607 were grown at the bottom of microtiter plates at equal concentrations for 24 h at 37 °C under micro-aerobic atmosphere. Carbohydrates were added at 2% concentration: maltose, sucrose, glucose and lactose. BHI Broth (0.2% glucose was used as negative control. Acidogenicity was assessed by measuring the pH of spent culture medium after 24 h, immediately after refreshing the culture medium and for the next 1 h and 2 h. Crystal violet staining was used as an indicator of the total attached biofilm biomass after 24 h incubation. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni post hoc test. Significance level was set at 5%. Result All carbohydrates resulted in higher biomass formation in single- and dual-species biofilms when compared to the control group. Sucrose, lactose and maltose showed higher acidogenicity than the control group in both single- and dual-species biofilms after 24 h. Conclusion These findings indicate that the type of biofilm (single- or dual-species and the carbohydrate used may influence the amount of biomass formed and rate of pH reduction.

  12. Inactivation of Bacteria S. aureus ATCC 25923 and S. Thyphimurium ATCC 14 028 Influence of UV-HPEF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakri, A.; Hariono, B.; Utami, M. M. D.; Sutrisno

    2018-01-01

    The research was objected to study the performance of the UV unit - HPEF in inactivating bacteria population of Gram-positive (S aureus ATCC 25923) and Gram-negative (S Thyphimurium ATCC 14028) inoculated in sterilized goat’s milk. UV pasteurization instrument employed three reactors constructed in series UV-C system at 10 W, 253.7 nm wavelength made in Kada (USA) Inc. with 1.8 J/cm2 dose per reactor. HPEF instrument used high pulsed electric field at 31.67 kV/cm, 15 Hz and goat’s milk rate at 4:32 ± 0.71 cc/second. Pathogenic bacteria was observed According to Indonesian National Standard 01-2782-1998. Inactivation rate of pathogenic bacteria ie S Thyphimurium ATCC 14028 and S. aureus ATCC 25923 was 0.28 and 0.19 log cycle or 6.35 and 4.34 log cfu/ml/hour, respectively; D value was 0.16 and 0.23 hour with k value was 14.62 and 10 hour-1 respectively.

  13. 40 CFR 180.1205 - Beauveria bassiana ATCC #74040; exemption from the requirements of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Beauveria bassiana ATCC #74040... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1205 Beauveria bassiana ATCC #74040; exemption from the... the insecticide Beauveria bassiana (ATCC #74040) in or on all food commodities when applied or used as...

  14. Genetic Transformation of Streptococcus mutans

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, Dennis; Kuramitsu, Howard K.

    1981-01-01

    Three strains of Streptococcus mutans belonging to serotypes a, c, and f were transformed to streptomycin resistance by deoxyribonucleic acids derived from homologous and heterologous streptomycin-resistant strains of S. mutans and Streptococcus sanguis strain Challis. Homologous transformation of S. mutans was less efficient than heterologous transformation by deoxyribonucleic acids from other strains of S. mutans.

  15. Meningitis por Streptococcus suis

    OpenAIRE

    Geffner Sclarsky, D. E.; Moreno Muñoz, R.; Campillo Alpera, Mª.S.; Pardo Serrano, F.J.; Gómez Gómez, A.; Martínez-Lozano, Mª.D.

    2001-01-01

    La infección humana por Streptococcus suis (S. suis) es una zoonosis, con un riesgo ocupacional conocido y que suele presentarse como meningitis purulenta, que tiene baja mortalidad y frecuentes secuelas de hipoacusia y ataxia. Se han publicado menos de 150 casos humanos desde el informe original de hace 30 años. Hay una reconocida distribución geográfica viviendo la mayoría de los afectados en el norte de Europa y el sudeste Asiático. En España se han comunicado dos pacientes con enfermedad ...

  16. Polymorphisms of twenty regulatory proteins between Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis are responsible for tuberculosis in humans or animals, respectively. Both species are closely related and belong to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC). M. tuberculosis is the most ancient species from which M. bovis and the other members o...

  17. Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from cattle slaughtered at two abattoirs in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouzrout Rachid

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine Tuberculosis is prevalent in Algeria despite governmental attempts to control the disease. The objective of this study was to conduct, for the first time, molecular characterization of a population sample of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from slaughter cattle in Algeria. Between August and November 2007, 7250 animals were consecutively screened at the abattoirs of Algiers and Blida. In 260 animals, gross visible granulomatous lesions were detected and put into culture. Bacterial isolates were subsequently analysed by molecular methods. Results Altogether, 101 bacterial strains from 100 animals were subjected to molecular characterization. M. bovis was isolated from 88 animals. Other bacteria isolated included one strain of M. caprae, four Rhodococcus equi strains, three Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM and five strains of other bacterial species. The M. bovis strains isolated showed 22 different spoligotype patterns; four of them had not been previously reported. The majority of M. bovis strains (89% showed spoligotype patterns that were previously observed in strains from European cattle. Variable Number of Tandem Repeat (VNTR typing supported a link between M. bovis strains from Algeria and France. One spoligotype pattern has also been shown to be frequent in M. bovis strains from Mali although the VNTR pattern of the Algerian strains differed from the Malian strains. Conclusion M. bovis infections account for a high amount of granulomatous lesions detected in Algerian slaughter cattle during standard meat inspection at Algiers and Blida abattoir. Molecular typing results suggested a link between Algerian and European strains of M. bovis.

  18. Patterns and processes of Mycobacterium bovis evolution revealed by phylogenomic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium bovis is an important animal pathogen worldwide that parasitizes wild and domesticated vertebrate livestock as well as humans. A comparison of the five M. bovis complete genomes from UK, South Korea, Brazil and USA revealed four novel large-scale structural variations of at least 2,000...

  19. Eye Irritation Test of Bovis Calculus Pharmacopuncture Solutions for Eye Drop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong-sik Seo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This study was done to investigate the safety of Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution manufactured with freezing dryness method to use eye drop. Methods : The eye irritation test of this material was performed according to the Regulation of Korea Food & Drug Administration (2005. 10. 21, KFDA 2005-60. After Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution was medicated in the left eye of the rabbits, the auther observed eye irritation of the cornea, iris, conjunctiva at 1, 2, 3, 4 & 7day. Results : 1. After Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution was medicated in the left eye of the rabbits, there wasn’t physical problem at 9 rabbits. 2. After Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solutionwas medicated in the left eye of the rabbits, there wasn’t eye irritation of the cornea, iris, conjunctiva at 1, 2, 3, 4 & 7day. Conclusions : I suggested that Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution didn’t induced eye irritation in rabbits.

  20. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103) and platelet aggregation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpela, R; Moilanen, E; Saxelin, M; Vapaatalo, H

    1997-06-17

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is an experimentally and clinically well documented probiotic used in different dairy products. The present study aimed to investigate the safety aspects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, particularly with respect to platelet aggregation, the initiating event in thrombosis. Platelet rich plasma was separated from the blood of healthy volunteers, and the effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103), Lactobacillus rhamnosus (ATCC 7469) and Enterococcus faecium T2L6 in different dilutions on spontaneous, ADP- and adrenaline-induced aggregation were tested. The bacteria did not influence spontaneous aggregation. Only Enterococcus faecium T2L6 enhanced the adrenaline-induced aggregation, with a less clear effect on ADP-induced aggregation.

  1. Inducible transport of citrate in Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Figueroa, R M; Benito de Cárdenas, I L; Sesma, F; Alvarez, F; de Ruiz Holgado, A P; Oliver, G

    1996-10-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 exhibited diauxie when grown in a medium containing both glucose and citrate as energy source. Glucose was used as the primary energy source during the glucose-citrate diauxie. Uptake of citrate was carried out by an inducible citrate transport system. The induction of citrate uptake system was repressed in the presence of glucose. This repression was reversible and mediated by cAMP.

  2. Vaccination against group B streptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Paul T; Feldman, Robert G

    2005-04-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus) is an important cause of disease in infants, pregnant women, the elderly and in immunosuppressed adults. An effective vaccine is likely to prevent the majority of infant disease (both early and late onset), as well as Group B streptococcus-related stillbirths and prematurity, to avoid the current real and theoretical limitations of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis, and to be cost effective. The optimal time to administer such a vaccine would be in the third trimester of pregnancy. The main limitations on the production of a Group B streptococcus vaccine are not technical or scientific, but regulatory and legal. A number of candidates including capsular conjugate vaccines using traditional carrier proteins such as tetanus toxoid and mutant diphtheria toxin CRM197, as well as Group B streptococcus-specific proteins such as C5a peptidase, protein vaccines using one or more Group B streptococcus surface proteins and mucosal vaccines, have the potential to be successful vaccines. The capsular conjugate vaccines using tetanus and CRM197 carrier proteins are the most advanced candidates, having already completed Phase II human studies including use in the target population of pregnant women (tetanus toxoid conjugate), however, no definitive protein conjugates have yet been trialed. However, unless the regulatory environment is changed specifically to allow the development of a Group B streptococcus vaccine, it is unlikely that one will ever reach the market.

  3. Delineation of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, its subspecies, and its clinical and phylogenetic relationship to Streptococcus pyogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders; Kilian, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    The close phylogenetic relationship of the important pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae and several species of commensal streptococci, particularly Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, and the recently demonstrated sharing of genes and phenotypic traits previously considered...

  4. Biochemical characterization of the maltokinase from Mycobacterium bovis BCG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamosa Pedro

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maltose-1-phosphate was detected in Mycobacterium bovis BCG extracts in the 1960's but a maltose-1-phosphate synthetase (maltokinase, Mak was only much later purified from Actinoplanes missouriensis, allowing the identification of the mak gene. Recently, this metabolite was proposed to be the intermediate in a pathway linking trehalose with the synthesis of glycogen in M. smegmatis. Although the M. tuberculosis H37Rv mak gene (Rv0127 was considered essential for growth, no mycobacterial Mak has, to date, been characterized. Results The sequence of the Mak from M. bovis BCG was identical to that from M. tuberculosis strains (99-100% amino acid identity. The enzyme was dependent on maltose and ATP, although GTP and UTP could be used to produce maltose-1-phosphate, which we identified by TLC and characterized by NMR. The Km for maltose was 2.52 ± 0.40 mM and 0.74 ± 0.12 mM for ATP; the Vmax was 21.05 ± 0.89 μmol/min.mg-1. Divalent cations were required for activity and Mg2+ was the best activator. The enzyme was a monomer in solution, had maximal activity at 60°C, between pH 7 and 9 (at 37°C and was unstable on ice and upon freeze/thawing. The addition of 50 mM NaCl markedly enhanced Mak stability. Conclusions The unknown role of maltokinases in mycobacterial metabolism and the lack of biochemical data led us to express the mak gene from M. bovis BCG for biochemical characterization. This is the first mycobacterial Mak to be characterized and its properties represent essential knowledge towards deeper understanding of mycobacterial physiology. Since Mak may be a potential drug target in M. tuberculosis, its high-level production and purification in bioactive form provide important tools for further functional and structural studies.

  5. Oral vaccination of guinea pigs with a Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine in a lipid matrix protects against aerosol infection with virulent M. bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Simon; Cross, Martin L; Nadian, Allan; Vipond, Julia; Court, Pinar; Williams, Ann; Hewinson, R Glyn; Aldwell, Frank E; Chambers, Mark A

    2008-08-01

    Increased incidence of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in the United Kingdom caused by infection with Mycobacterium bovis is a cause of considerable economic loss to farmers and the government. The Eurasian badger (Meles meles) represents a wildlife source of recurrent M. bovis infections of cattle in the United Kingdom, and its vaccination against TB with M. bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is an attractive disease control option. Delivery of BCG in oral bait holds the best prospect for vaccinating badgers over a wide geographical area. Using a guinea pig pulmonary challenge model, we evaluated the protective efficacy of candidate badger oral vaccines, based on broth-grown or ball-milled BCG, delivered either as aqueous suspensions or formulated in two lipids with differing fatty acid profiles (one being animal derived and the other being vegetable derived). Protection was determined in terms of increasing body weight after aerosol challenge with virulent M. bovis, reduced dissemination of M. bovis to the spleen, and, in the case of one oral formulation, restricted growth of M. bovis in the lungs. Only oral BCG formulated in lipid gave significant protection. These data point to the potential of the BCG-lipid formulation for further development as a tool for controlling tuberculosis in badgers.

  6. Spectrophotometric evaluation of selenium binding by Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC MYA-2200 and Candida utilis ATCC 9950 yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieliszek, Marek; Błażejak, Stanisław; Płaczek, Maciej

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the ability of selenium binding the biomas of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC MYA-2200 and Candida utilis ATCC 9950 was investigated. Sodium selenite(IV) salts were added to the experimental media at concentrations of 10, 20, 40, and 60 mg Se(4+) L(-1). In the tested concentration range, one concentration reported a significant reduction in the biomass yield of both yeast strains. Intense growth was observed for C. utilis yeast, which reached the highest biomass yield of 15 gd.w.L(-1) after 24h cultivation in the presence of 10mg Se(4+) L(-1). Based on the use of spectrophotometric method for the determination of selenium content by using Variamine Blue as a chromogenic agent, efficient accumulation of this element in the biomass of the investigated yeast was observed. The highest amount of selenium, that is, 5.64 mg Se(4+)gd.w.(-1), was bound from the environment by S. cerevisiae ATCC MYA-2200 cultured in the presence of 60 mg Se(4+) L(-1) medium 72h Slightly less amount, 5.47 mg Se(4+) gd.w.(-1), was absorbed by C. utilis ATCC 9950 during similar cultural conditions. Based on the results of the biomass yield and the use of selenium from the medium, it can be observed that yeasts of the genus Candida are more efficient in binding this element, and this property finds practical application in the production of selenium-enriched yeast. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Proteomic profile of culture filtrate from the Brazilian vaccine strain Mycobacterium bovis BCG Moreau compared to M. bovis BCG Pasteur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degrave Wim M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG is currently the only available vaccine against tuberculosis (TB and comprises a heterogeneous family of sub-strains with genotypic and phenotypic differences. The World Health Organization (WHO affirms that the characterization of BCG sub-strains, both on genomic and proteomic levels, is crucial for a better comprehension of the vaccine. In addition, these studies can contribute in the development of a more efficient vaccine against TB. Here, we combine two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE and mass spectrometry to analyse the proteomic profile of culture filtrate proteins (CFPs from M. bovis BCG Moreau, the Brazilian vaccine strain, comparing it to that of BCG Pasteur. CFPs are considered of great importance given their dominant immunogenicity and role in pathogenesis, being available for interaction with host cells since early infection. Results The 2DE proteomic map of M. bovis BCG Moreau CFPs in the pH range 3 - 8 allowed the identification of 158 spots corresponding to 101 different proteins, identified by MS/MS. Comparison to BCG Pasteur highlights the great similarity between these BCG strains. However, quantitative analysis shows a higher expression of immunogenic proteins such as Rv1860 (BCG1896, Apa, Rv1926c (BCG1965c, Mpb63 and Rv1886c (BCG1923c, Ag85B in BCG Moreau when compared to BCG Pasteur, while some heat shock proteins, such as Rv0440 (BCG0479, GroEL2 and Rv0350 (BCG0389, DnaK, show the opposite pattern. Conclusions Here we report the detailed 2DE profile of CFPs from M. bovis BCG Moreau and its comparison to BCG Pasteur, identifying differences that may provide relevant information on vaccine efficacy. These findings contribute to the detailed characterization of the Brazilian vaccine strain against TB, revealing aspects that may lead to a better understanding of the factors leading to BCG's variable protective efficacy against TB.

  8. Streptococcus suis infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Youjun; Zhang, Huimin; Wu, Zuowei; Wang, Shihua; Cao, Min; Hu, Dan; Wang, Changjun

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus suis (S. suis) is a family of pathogenic gram-positive bacterial strains that represents a primary health problem in the swine industry worldwide. S. suis is also an emerging zoonotic pathogen that causes severe human infections clinically featuring with varied diseases/syndromes (such as meningitis, septicemia, and arthritis). Over the past few decades, continued efforts have made significant progress toward better understanding this zoonotic infectious entity, contributing in part to the elucidation of the molecular mechanism underlying its high pathogenicity. This review is aimed at presenting an updated overview of this pathogen from the perspective of molecular epidemiology, clinical diagnosis and typing, virulence mechanism, and protective antigens contributing to its zoonosis. PMID:24667807

  9. Cytochemical and biological properties of Mycobacterium bovis BCG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slosárek, M

    1977-01-01

    It was the aim of the present communication to find a simple test for a reliable discrimination of Mycobacterium bovis BCG from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A total of 26 BCG strains, out of them 10 Czechoslovak strains (2 lyophilized cultures of BCG of different batch, 6 strains isolated from abscesses of children after BCG-vaccination and 2 strains from fatal cases after BCG-vaccination) and 16 strains obtained from foreign laboratories, were used. Of the tested characteristics a combination of 3 tests, sensitivity to 1 microgram of 2-thiophene carbonylhydrazide (TCH), activity of 3 acylamidases (urease, nicotinamidase and pyrazinamidase) and a quantitative nitrate test, was found to be most advantageous. The Czechoslovak strains of Mycobacterium bovis BCG were fully sensitive to TCH, of the 3 acylamidases mentioned above only urease was positive and nitrate was reduced only little or not at all. On the other hand, strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were always resistant to TCH, had positive urease, nicotinamidase and pyrazinamidase and reduced nitrate very intensively.

  10. [Mycobacterial bovis BCG cutaneous infections following mesotherapy: 2 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco-Bonnet, J; Beylot-Barry, M; Texier-Maugein, J; Barucq, J P; Supply, P; Doutre, M S; Beylot, C

    2002-05-01

    Infectious complications following mesotherapy are usually due to ordinary bacteria or atypical mycobacteria. We report two new cases of mycobacterial bovis BCG infections following mesotherapy. To our knowledge only one case has already been reported. A 52 year-old woman developed vaccinal MERIEUX BCG cutaneous abscesses following mesotherapy. Identification was made by a novel class of repeated sequences: Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units. Despite prolonged anti-tuberculous therapy, complete remission was not obtained and surgical excision was performed. The second case was a 49 year-old man who developed a mycobacterial bovis BCG cutaneous abscess (Connaught) after mesotherapy, the regression of which was obtained with anti-tuberculous therapy. The severity of these two mycobacterial infections following mesotherapy illustrate the potential risks of mesotherapy. Identification is possible by molecular biology techniques (PCR and sequencing). The origin of this infection is unclear and therapeutic decision is difficult. Some authors recommend anti-tuberculous therapy but surgical excision may be necessary as in our cases.

  11. Study on radiosterilization of crude drug pill involving bezoar bovis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Syojiro; Sasaki, Masahiro; Kondo, Yuichi; Jo, Hisanobu; Kanbashi, Toshitaka.

    1981-01-01

    Radiolysis of bilirubin and cholic acids (cholic acid, desoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid) in hydrous pellet have been investigated with following parameters, which were hydrous content, radiation dose and the dose rate, to discuss the application of gamma -irradiation for sterilization of crude drug pill involving bezoar bovis. At 774 C/kg(3.0MR) irradiation for 5% and 10% hydrous contents pellets, the radiolysis percent of those components were less than 5%. However, the higher hydrous pellet, the radiolysis percents of those are more increase. At the same irradiated condition for 20% hydrous contents pellets, the radiolysis percents of those were 15--22%. The hydrous percent of commercial crude drug pill involving bezoar bovis are about 9%, so that the radiolysis of those components will be less than 5% on the sterilization. The radiolysis percent of bilirubin are constant to variation of radiation dose rate between 51.6--722.5C/kg.hr(0.2--2.8MR/hr). But, the values of cholic acids don't definite such as that of bilirubin, because of larger analitycal error. (author)

  12. Susceptibility of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Streptococcus mutans to Antibacterial Effect from Mammea americana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Herrera Herrera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of periodontal disease and dental caries is influenced by several factors, such as microorganisms of bacterial biofilm or commensal bacteria in the mouth. These microorganisms trigger inflammatory and immune responses in the host. Currently, medicinal plants are treatment options for these oral diseases. Mammea americana extracts have reported antimicrobial effects against several microorganisms. Nevertheless, this effect is unknown against oral bacteria. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effect of M. americana extract against Porphyromonas gingivalis and Streptococcus mutans. For this, an experimental study was conducted. Ethanolic extract was obtained from seeds of M. americana (one oil phase and one ethanolic phase. The strains of Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277 and Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 were exposed to this extract to evaluate its antibacterial effect. Antibacterial activity was observed with the two phases of M. americana extract on P. gingivalis and S. mutans with lower MICs (minimum inhibitory concentration. Also, bactericidal and bacteriostatic activity was detected against S. mutans, depending on the concentration of the extract, while on M. americana extract presented only bacteriostatic activity against P. gingivalis. These findings provide important and promising information allowing for further exploration in the future.

  13. Genotyping did not evidence any contribution of Mycobacterium bovis to human tuberculosis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Adalgiza; Elias, Atina R; Sobral, Luciana F; Soares, Diego F; Santos, Alexandre C; Marsico, Ana-Grazia; Hacker, Mariana A; Caldas, Paulo C; Parente, Luiz C; Silva, Marcio R; Fonseca, Leila; Suffys, Philip; Boéchat, Neio

    2011-01-01

    The contribution of Mycobacterium bovis to the global burden of tuberculosis (TB) in man is likely to be underestimated due to its dysgonic growth characteristics and because of the absence of pyruvate in most used media is disadvantageous for its primary isolation. In Brazil Mycobacterium culture, identification and susceptibility tests are performed only in TB reference centers, usually for selected cases. Moreover, solid, egg-based, glycerol-containing (without pyruvate supplementation) Löwenstein-Jensen (L-J) or Ogawa media are routinely used, unfavouring M. bovis isolation. To determine the importance of M. bovis as a public health threat in Brazil we investigated 3046 suspected TB patients inoculating their clinical samples onto routine L-J and L-J pyruvate enriched media. A total of 1796 specimens were culture positive for Mycobacterium spp. and 702 TB cases were confirmed. Surprisingly we did not detect one single case of M. bovis in the resulting collection of 1674 isolates recovered from M. bovis favourable medium analyzed by conventional and molecular speciation methods. Also, bacillary DNA present on 454 sputum smears from 223 TB patients were OxyR genotyped and none was recognized as M. bovis. Our data indicate that M. bovis importance on the burden of human TB in Brazil is marginal. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A specific DNA probe which identifies Babesia bovis in whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petchpoo, W; Tan-ariya, P; Boonsaeng, V; Brockelman, C R; Wilairat, P; Panyim, S

    1992-05-01

    A genomic library of Babesia bovis DNA from the Mexican strain M was constructed in plasmid pUN121 and cloned in Escherichia coli. Several recombinants which hybridized strongly to radioactively labeled B. bovis genomic DNA in an in situ screening were selected and further analyzed for those which specifically hybridized to B. bovis DNA. It was found that pMU-B1 had the highest sensitivity, detecting 25 pg of purified B. bovis DNA, and 300 parasites in 10 microliters of whole infected blood, or 0.00025% parasitemia. pMU-B1 contained a 6.0 kb B. bovis DNA insert which did not cross-hybridize to Babesia bigemina, Trypanosoma evansi, Plasmodium falciparum, Anaplasma marginale, Boophilus microplus and cow DNA. In the Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA, pMU-B1 could differentiate between two B. bovis geographic isolates, Mexican strain M and Thai isolate TS4. Thus, the pMU-B1 probe will be useful in the diagnosis of Babesia infection in cattle and ticks, and in the differentiation of B. bovis strains.

  15. Isolation and molecular characterization of Mycobacterium bovis causing pulmonary tuberculosis and epistaxis in a Thoroughbred horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlokwe, Tiny Motlatso; Sutton, David; Page, Patrick; Michel, Anita Luise

    2016-09-02

    Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) is very uncommon in horses worldwide. In the current study, an eight-year-old male Thoroughbred in good body condition was admitted to the Equine Clinic at the Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital in 2005 due to bilateral epistaxis accompanied by coughing. Routine examinations were conducted to determine the cause of the condition. Endoscopic examination revealed the major source of the epistaxis as the trachea, whereas thoracic radiography indicated the presence of a primary pulmonary mass. M. bovis was isolated from a broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) sample collected. The pulmonary mass reduced in size three months later following an oral administration of enrofloxacin (7.5 mg/kg PO SID). Genetic fingerprinting by spoligotyping identified the M. bovis isolate as spoligotype SB0868 strain. This M. bovis strain type was never described previously in South Africa (SA). This is the first case of M. bovis infection in a horse in SA which has been fully documented including clinical findings, isolation and genetic characterisation of the causative pathogen. This report indicates that horses may contract and harbour M. bovis despite their lower susceptibility compared to other domestic animals. It also suggests that the infection may be more easily contained and eliminated from the host.

  16. Significance of Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus Association With Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Pasquereau-Kotula

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus Sgg (formerly known as S. bovis type I is the main causative agent of septicemia and infective endocarditis (IE in elderly and immunocompromised persons. It belongs to the few opportunistic bacteria, which have been strongly associated to colorectal cancer (CRC. A literature survey covering a period of 40 years (1970–2010 revealed that 65% of patients diagnosed with an invasive Sgg infection had a concomitant colorectal neoplasia. Sgg is associated mainly with early adenomas and may thus constitute an early marker for CRC screening. Sgg has been described as a normal inhabitant of the rumen of herbivores and in the digestive tract of birds. It is more rarely detected in human intestinal tract (2.5–15%. Recent molecular analyses indicate possible zoonotic transmission of Sgg. Thanks to the development of a genetic toolbox and to comparative genomics, a number of factors that are important for Sgg pathogenicity have been identified. This review will highlight the role of Sgg pili in host colonization and how their phase-variable expression contributes to mitigate the host immune responses and finally their use as serological diagnostic tool. We will then present experimental data addressing the core question whether Sgg is a cause or consequence of CRC. We will discuss a few recent studies examining the etiological versus non-etiological participation of Sgg in colorectal cancer with the underlying mechanisms.

  17. Meningitis caused by streptococci other than Streptococcus pneumoniae: a retrospective clinical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kirsten; Harder, Eva; Wandall, Johan

    1999-01-01

    We reviewed the medical records of 26 patients (median age 62 years, range 5-76 years) admitted to our institution during 1978-98 with acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) caused by streptococci other than Streptococcus pneumoniae (comprising 1.9% of all patients with ABM). 19 cases were community......-acquired and 7 were nosocomial. 73% had comorbid or predisposing conditions and 73% had an identifiable extracerebral focus; only in 2 patients no comorbid disease, primary focus or predisposing condition was present. Five patients had cerebral abscesses, and 5 had endocarditis. Beta-haemolytic streptococci were...... grown in 14 cases (serotype A: 4, B: 5, C: 1, G: 4) and were predominant among patients with endocarditis, whereas alpha- or non-haemolytic strains grew in 12 cases (S. mitis: 4, S. constellatus: 2, E. faecalis: 2, S. bovis: 1, unspecified: 3) and were predominant in patients with a brain abscess...

  18. Surveillance of a Ventilated Rack System for Corynebacterium bovis by Sampling Exhaust-Air Manifolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Christopher A; Pugazhenthi, Umarani; Leszczynski, Jori K

    2016-01-01

    Corynebacterium bovis causes an opportunistic infection of nude (Foxn1, nu/nu) mice, leading to nude mouse hyperkeratotic dermatitis (scaly skin disease). Enzootic in many nude mouse colonies, C. bovis spreads rapidly to naive nude mice, despite modern husbandry practices, and is very difficult to eradicate. To facilitate rapid detection in support of eradication efforts, we investigated a surveillance method based on quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) evaluation of swabs collected from the horizontal exhaust manifold (HEM) of an IVC rack system. We first evaluated the efficacy of rack sanitation methods for removing C. bovis DNA from the HEM of racks housing endemic colonies of infected nude mice. Pressurized water used to flush the racks' air exhaust system followed by a standard rack-washer cycle was ineffective in eliminating C. bovis DNA. Only after autoclaving did all sanitized racks test negative for C. bovis DNA. We then measured the effects of stage of infection (early or established), cage density, and cage location on the rack on time-to-detection at the HEM. Stage of infection significantly affected time-to-detection, independent of cage location. Early infections required 7.3 ± 1.2 d whereas established infections required 1 ± 0 d for detection of C. bovis at the HEM. Cage density influenced the quantity of C. bovis DNA detected but not time-to-detection. The location of the cage on the rack affected the time-to-detection only during early C. bovis infections. We suggest that qPCR swabs of HEM are useful during the routine surveillance of nude mouse colonies for C. bovis infection.

  19. Mycobacterium bovis in Burkina Faso: epidemiologic and genetic links between human and cattle isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adama Sanou

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa, bovine tuberculosis (bTB is a potential hazard for animals and humans health. The goal of this study was to improve our understanding of bTB epidemiology in Burkina Faso and especially Mycobacterium bovis transmission within and between the bovine and human populations.Twenty six M. bovis strains were isolated from 101 cattle carcasses with suspected bTB lesions during routine meat inspections at the Bobo Dioulasso and Ouagadougou slaughterhouses. In addition, 7 M. bovis strains were isolated from 576 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Spoligotyping, RDAf1 deletion and MIRU-VNTR typing were used for strains genotyping. The isolation of M. bovis strains was confirmed by spoligotyping and 12 spoligotype signatures were detected. Together, the spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR data allowed grouping the 33 M. bovis isolates in seven clusters including isolates exclusively from cattle (5 or humans (1 or from both (1. Moreover, these data (genetic analyses and phenetic tree showed that the M. bovis isolates belonged to the African 1 (Af1 clonal complex (81.8% and the putative African 5 (Af5 clonal complex (18.2%, in agreement with the results of RDAf1 deletion typing.This is the first detailed molecular characterization of M. bovis strains from humans and cattle in Burkina Faso. The distribution of the two Af1 and putative Af5 clonal complexes is comparable to what has been reported in neighbouring countries. Furthermore, the strain genetic profiles suggest that M. bovis circulates across the borders and that the Burkina Faso strains originate from different countries, but have a country-specific evolution. The genetic characterization suggests that, currently, M. bovis transmission occurs mainly between cattle, occasionally between cattle and humans and potentially between humans. This study emphasizes the bTB risk in cattle but also in humans and the difficulty to set up proper disease control strategies in Burkina Faso.

  20. Mycobacterium bovis in Burkina Faso: epidemiologic and genetic links between human and cattle isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanou, Adama; Tarnagda, Zekiba; Kanyala, Estelle; Zingué, Dezemon; Nouctara, Moumini; Ganamé, Zakaria; Combary, Adjima; Hien, Hervé; Dembele, Mathurin; Kabore, Antoinette; Meda, Nicolas; Van de Perre, Philippe; Neveu, Dorine; Bañuls, Anne Laure; Godreuil, Sylvain

    2014-10-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a potential hazard for animals and humans health. The goal of this study was to improve our understanding of bTB epidemiology in Burkina Faso and especially Mycobacterium bovis transmission within and between the bovine and human populations. Twenty six M. bovis strains were isolated from 101 cattle carcasses with suspected bTB lesions during routine meat inspections at the Bobo Dioulasso and Ouagadougou slaughterhouses. In addition, 7 M. bovis strains were isolated from 576 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Spoligotyping, RDAf1 deletion and MIRU-VNTR typing were used for strains genotyping. The isolation of M. bovis strains was confirmed by spoligotyping and 12 spoligotype signatures were detected. Together, the spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR data allowed grouping the 33 M. bovis isolates in seven clusters including isolates exclusively from cattle (5) or humans (1) or from both (1). Moreover, these data (genetic analyses and phenetic tree) showed that the M. bovis isolates belonged to the African 1 (Af1) clonal complex (81.8%) and the putative African 5 (Af5) clonal complex (18.2%), in agreement with the results of RDAf1 deletion typing. This is the first detailed molecular characterization of M. bovis strains from humans and cattle in Burkina Faso. The distribution of the two Af1 and putative Af5 clonal complexes is comparable to what has been reported in neighbouring countries. Furthermore, the strain genetic profiles suggest that M. bovis circulates across the borders and that the Burkina Faso strains originate from different countries, but have a country-specific evolution. The genetic characterization suggests that, currently, M. bovis transmission occurs mainly between cattle, occasionally between cattle and humans and potentially between humans. This study emphasizes the bTB risk in cattle but also in humans and the difficulty to set up proper disease control strategies in Burkina Faso.

  1. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf. on Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus mutans and Candida spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RBA Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants with fungicide action, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects are under investigation. The main purpose of this work was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf. on strains of Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus mutans and Candida spp. with planktonic and biofilm growth. To study the micro-organisms in planktonic cells, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined by using 9 clinical strains for each species and 1 ATCC (American Type Culture Collection from C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, S. aureus, S. epidermidis and S. mutans. In order to evaluate the effects of the essential oils on biofilms, strains of S. aureus (ATCC 6538, S. mutans (ATCC 35688 and C. albicans (ATCC 18804 were used. The biofilm was formed on acrylic resin discs with isolated micro-organisms or in associations. The number of colony-forming-units (CFU obtained in each biofilm (CFU/ml was submitted to Student's t statistical test. The results demonstrated that the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus showed microbiostatic and microbicidal activity against all tested strains. The average CFU/ml for the biofilm of S. aureus, S. mutans and C. albicans, whether isolated or in association, was lower in the group treated with essential oil than in the control group.

  2. Virulent and Vaccine Strains of Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus Have Different Influences on Phagocytosis and Cytokine Secretion of Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Peng; Zhe, Ma; Chengwei, Hua; Huixing, Lin; Hui, Zhang; Chengping, Lu; Hongjie, Fan

    2017-01-06

    Swine streptococcosis is a significant threat to the Chinese pig industry, and Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (SEZ) is one of the major pathogens. SEZ ATCC35246 is a classical virulent strain, while SEZ ST171 is a Chinese attenuated vaccine strain. In this study, we employed stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to determine the differential response of macrophages to infection by these two strains. Eighty-seven upregulated proteins and 135 downregulated proteins were identified. The proteomic results were verified by real-time polymerase chain reaction for 10 chosen genes and Western blotting for three proteins. All differentially abundant proteins were analyzed for their Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes annotations. Certain downregulated proteins were associated with immunity functions, and the upregulated proteins were related to cytomembrane and cytoskeleton regulation. The phagocytosis rate and cytokine genes transcription in Raw264.7 cells during SEZ ATCC35246 and ST171 infection were detected to confirm the bioinformatics results. These results showed that different effects on macrophage phagocytosis and cytokine expression might explain the different phenotypes of SEZ ATCC35246 and ST171 infection. This research provided clues to the mechanisms of host immunity responses to SEZ ST171and SEZ ATCC35246, which could identify potential therapy and vaccine development targets.

  3. Streptococcus didelphis sp. nov., a streptococcus with marked catalase activity isolated from opossums (Didelphis virginiana) with suppurative dermatitis and liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rurangirwa, F R; Teitzel, C A; Cui, J; French, D M; McDonough, P L; Besser, T

    2000-03-01

    beta-Haemolytic, catalase-positive, Gram-positive cocci that formed chains in broth media but did not react with Lancefield group antisera were isolated from skin lesions, spleen, liver and lungs of nine opossums, including eight from a research colony and one from a wildlife rehabilitation organization. The isolates had vigorous catalase activity that was retained on initial passage on non-blood-containing media, but this activity was lost in subsequent passages. The use of standard phenotypic tests did not lead to satisfactory identification of these organisms beyond the genus level, even if the aberrant catalase reaction was not considered. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolates was most similar (96%) to Streptococcus dysgalactiae, but distinct from that species as 16S rRNA gene similarity of different strains of S. dysgalactiae was > 99%. Characterization of biochemical reactions and cell-wall fatty acid profiles also revealed significant differences between the opossum isolates and all other known Streptococcus spp., thus it is proposed as a new species with the name Streptococcus didelphis, sp. nov. The type strain is ATCC 700828T.

  4. Susceptibilities of Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma dispar, and Ureaplasma diversum strains to antimicrobial agents in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    ter Laak, E A; Noordergraaf, J H; Verschure, M H

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the susceptibility of various strains of Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma dispar, and Ureaplasma diversum, which are prevalent causes of pneumonia in calves, to 16 antimicrobial agents in vitro. The MICs of the antimicrobial agents were determined by a serial broth dilution method for 16 field strains and the type strain of M. bovis, for 19 field strains and the type strain of M. dispar, and for 17 field strains of U. diversum. Final MICs for M. bovis an...

  5. Description of Mycobacterium chelonae subsp. bovis subsp. nov., isolated from cattle (Bos taurus coreanae), emended description of Mycobacterium chelonae and creation of Mycobacterium chelonae subsp. chelonae subsp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byoung-Jun; Kim, Ga-Na; Kim, Bo-Ram; Jeon, Che Ok; Jeong, Joseph; Lee, Seon Ho; Lim, Ji-Hun; Lee, Seung-Heon; Kim, Chang Ki; Kook, Yoon-Hoh; Kim, Bum-Joon

    2017-10-01

    Three rapidly growing mycobacterial strains, QIA-37 T , QIA-40 and QIA-41, were isolated from the lymph nodes of three separate Korean native cattle, Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae). These strains were previously shown to be phylogenetically distinct but closely related to Mycobacterium chelonae ATCC 35752 T by taxonomic approaches targeting three genes (16S rRNA, hsp6 and rpoB) and were further characterized using a polyphasic approach in this study. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of all three strains showed 99.7 % sequence similarity with that of the M. chelonae type strain. A multilocus sequence typing analysis targeting 10 housekeeping genes, including hsp65 and rpoB, revealed a phylogenetic cluster of these strains with M. chelonae. DNA-DNA hybridization values of 78.2 % between QIA-37 T and M. chelonae indicated that it belongs to M. chelonae but is a novel subspecies distinct from M. chelonae. Phylogenetic analysis based on whole-genome sequences revealed a 95.44±0.06 % average nucleotide identity (ANI) value with M. chelonae, slightly higher than the 95.0 % ANI criterion for determining a novel species. In addition, distinct phenotypic characteristics such as positive growth at 37 °C, at which temperature M. chelonae does not grow, further support the taxonomic status of these strains as representatives of a novel subspecies of M. chelonae. Therefore, we propose an emended description of Mycobacterium chelonae, and descriptions of M. chelonae subsp. chelonae subsp. nov. and M. chelonae subsp. bovis subsp. nov. are presented; strains ATCC 35752 T (=CCUG 47445 T =CIP 104535 T =DSM 43804 T =JCM 6388 T =NCTC 946 T ) and QIA-37 T (=KCTC 39630 T =JCM 30986 T ) are the type strains of the two novel subspecies.

  6. Detection of Mycobacterium bovis in artisanal cheese in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata D. S Cezar

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The results of the present study highlight the need for improving sanitary measures during the production of artisanal cheese to prevent zoonotic tuberculosis in humans, resulting from the consumption of food contaminated with M. bovis.

  7. Current knowledge and pending challenges in zoonosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Lago, Laura; Navarro, Yurena; García-de-Viedma, Darío

    2014-10-01

    Mycobacterium bovis is both the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (TB) and a zoonotic pathogen. In humans, considerably fewer cases of TB are caused by M. bovis than M. tuberculosis; nevertheless, diagnostic limitations mean that currently available data on prevalence grossly underestimate the true dimension of the problem. The routes of transmission from animals to humans are well known and include direct exposure to infected animals or consumption of contaminated animal products. Application of fingerprinting tools facilitates analysis of the molecular epidemiology of M. bovis in animal-to-human and human-to-human transmission. Apart from cattle and M. bovis, other animal species and members within the M. tuberculosis complex can contribute to the zoonosis. Improvements in diagnostic techniques, application of more advanced discriminatory genotyping tools, and collaboration between veterinary and human health care researchers are key to our understanding of this zoonosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Multinucleated giant cell cytokine expression in pulmonary granulomas of cattle experimentally infected with Mycobacterium bovis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathogenic mycobacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex such as Mycobacterium bovis, induce a characteristic lesion known as a granulomas. Granulomas represent a specific host response to chronic antigenic stimuli, such as foreign bodies, certain bacterial components, or persistent pathoge...

  9. A Highly Arginolytic Streptococcus Species That Potently Antagonizes Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuelian; Palmer, Sara R; Ahn, Sang-Joon; Richards, Vincent P; Williams, Matthew L; Nascimento, Marcelle M; Burne, Robert A

    2016-01-29

    The ability of certain oral biofilm bacteria to moderate pH through arginine metabolism by the arginine deiminase system (ADS) is a deterrent to the development of dental caries. Here, we characterize a novel Streptococcus strain, designated strain A12, isolated from supragingival dental plaque of a caries-free individual. A12 not only expressed the ADS pathway at high levels under a variety of conditions but also effectively inhibited growth and two intercellular signaling pathways of the dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans. A12 produced copious amounts of H2O2 via the pyruvate oxidase enzyme that were sufficient to arrest the growth of S. mutans. A12 also produced a protease similar to challisin (Sgc) of Streptococcus gordonii that was able to block the competence-stimulating peptide (CSP)-ComDE signaling system, which is essential for bacteriocin production by S. mutans. Wild-type A12, but not an sgc mutant derivative, could protect the sensitive indicator strain Streptococcus sanguinis SK150 from killing by the bacteriocins of S. mutans. A12, but not S. gordonii, could also block the XIP (comX-inducing peptide) signaling pathway, which is the proximal regulator of genetic competence in S. mutans, but Sgc was not required for this activity. The complete genome sequence of A12 was determined, and phylogenomic analyses compared A12 to streptococcal reference genomes. A12 was most similar to Streptococcus australis and Streptococcus parasanguinis but sufficiently different that it may represent a new species. A12-like organisms may play crucial roles in the promotion of stable, health-associated oral biofilm communities by moderating plaque pH and interfering with the growth and virulence of caries pathogens. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Bartonella bovis and Candidatus Bartonella davousti in cattle from Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmani, Mustapha; Sambou, Masse; Scandola, Pierre; Raoult, Didier; Fenollar, Florence; Mediannikov, Oleg

    2017-02-01

    In Senegal, domestic ruminants play a vital role in the economy and agriculture and as a food source for people. Bartonellosis in animals is a neglected disease in the tropical regions, and little information is available about the occurrence of this disease in African ruminants. Human bartonellosis due to Bartonella quintana has been previously reported in Senegal. In this study, 199 domestic ruminants, including 104 cattle, 43 sheep, and 52 goats were sampled in villages from the Senegalese regions of Sine Saloum and Casamance. We isolated 29 Bartonella strains, all exclusively from cattle. Molecular and genetic characterization of isolated strains identified 27 strains as Bartonella bovis and two strains as potentially new species. The strains described here represent the first Bartonella strains isolated from domestic ruminants in Senegal and the first putative new Bartonella sp. isolated from cattle in Africa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Shedding of the immunodominant P20 surface antigen of Eimeria bovis sporozoites.

    OpenAIRE

    Speer, C A; Whitmire, W M

    1989-01-01

    P20 is an immunodominant surface antigen of Eimeria bovis sporozoites. As parasites underwent merogony within cultured bovine monocytes and Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells, P20 appeared to be shed gradually by meronts and was absent in type 1 and 2 first-generation merozoites. Meronts of E. bovis appeared to shed P20 into the parasitophorous vacuole of bovine monocytes, whereas MDBK cells evidently released P20 into the culture medium or destroyed its antigenic determinant.

  12. Molecular Typing of Mycobacterium bovis from Cattle Reared in Midwest Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo César Tavares Carvalho

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (BTB, the pathogen responsible for serious economic impact on the livestock sector. In order to obtain data on isolated M. bovis strains and assist in the control and eradication program for BTB, a cross sectional descriptive molecular epidemiology study in the Brazilian Midwest was conducted. Through spoligotyping and 24-loci MIRU-VNTR methods, 37 clinical isolates of M. bovis circulating in the region were analyzed, 10 isolated from the state of Mato Grosso, 12 from the state of Mato Grosso do Sul and 15 from the state of Goiás. The spoligotyping analysis identified 10 distinct M. bovis profiles (SB0121 n = 14, SB0295 n = 6, SB0140 n = 6, SB0881 n = 3, SB1144 n = 2, SB1145 n = 2, SB0134 n = 1, SB1050 n = 1, SB1055 n = 1, SB1136 n = 1 grouped in six clusters and four orphan patterns. The MIRU-VNTR 24-loci grouped the same isolates in six clusters and 22 unique orphan patterns, showing higher discriminatory power than spoligotyping. When associating the results of both techniques, the isolates were grouped in five clusters and 24 unique M. bovis profiles. Among the 24-loci MIRU-VNTR evaluated, two, ETR-A and QUB 11b loci, showed high discriminatory ability (h = ≥ 0.50, while MIRU 16, MIRU 27, ETR-B, ETR-C, Mtub21 and QUB 26 loci showed moderate ability (h = 0.33 or h = 0.49 and were the most effective in evaluating the genotypic similarities among the clinical M. bovis isolate samples. Herein, the 29 patterns found amongst the 37 isolates of M. bovis circulating in the Brazilian Midwest can be due to the animal movement between regions, municipalities and farms, thus causing the spread of various M. bovis strains in herds from Midwest Brazil.

  13. Immune response profiles of calves following vaccination with live BCG and inactivated Mycobacterium bovis vaccine candidates.

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    E M D L van der Heijden

    Full Text Available Conventional control and eradication strategies for bovine tuberculosis (BTB face tremendous difficulties in developing countries; countries with wildlife reservoirs, a complex wildlife-livestock-human interface or a lack of veterinary and veterinary public health surveillance. Vaccination of cattle and other species might in some cases provide the only suitable control strategy for BTB, while in others it may supplement existing test-and-slaughter schemes. However, the use of live BCG has several limitations and the global rise of HIV/AIDS infections has furthermore warranted the exploration of inactivated vaccine preparations. The aim of this study was to compare the immune response profiles in response to parenteral vaccination with live BCG and two inactivated vaccine candidates in cattle. Twenty-four mixed breed calves (Bos taurus aged 4-6 months, were allocated to one of four groups and vaccinated sub-cutaneously with live M. bovis BCG (Danish 1331, formalin-inactivated M. bovis BCG, heat-killed M. bovis or PBS/Montanide™ (control. Interferon-γ responsiveness and antibody production were measured prior to vaccination and at weekly intervals thereafter for twelve weeks. At nine weeks post-priming, animals were skin tested using tuberculins and MTBC specific protein cocktails and subsequently challenged through intranodular injection of live M. bovis BCG. The animals in the heat-killed M. bovis group demonstrated strong and sustained cell-mediated and humoral immune responses, significantly higher than the control group in response to vaccination, which may indicate a protective immune profile. Animals in this group showed reactivity to the skin test reagents, confirming good vaccine take. Lastly, although not statistically significant, recovery of BCG after challenge was lowest in the heat-killed M. bovis group. In conclusion, the parenteral heat-killed M. bovis vaccine proved to be clearly immunogenic in cattle in the present study

  14. Prosthetic Joint Infection due to Mycobacterium bovis after Intravesical Instillation of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG

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    Eric Gomez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravesical instillation of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG is a treatment to prevent recurrence of superficial urothelial bladder carcinoma. Complications after bladder instillation of BCG have been reported including locally invasive and systemic infections due to dissemination of Mycobacterium bovis from the bladder. We present an uncommon case and literature review of prosthetic joint infection due to M. bovis after intravesical BCG treatment of bladder cancer.

  15. Comparative study on major bioactive components in natural, artificial and in-vitro cultured Calculus Bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shi-Kai; Wu, Yan-Wen; Liu, Run-Hui; Zhang, Wei-Dong

    2007-01-01

    Major bioactive components in various Calculus Bovis, including natural, artificial and in-vitro cultured Calculus Bovis, were comparatively studied. An approach of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet and evaporative light scattering detections (HPLC/UV/ELSD) was established to simultaneously determinate six bioactive components thereof, including five bile acids (cholic acid, deoxycholic acid, ursodeoxycholic, chenodeoxycholic acid, hyodeoxycholic acid) and bilirubin. ELSD and UV detector were applied to detect bile acids and bilirubin respectively. The assay was performed on a C(18) column with water-acetonitrile gradient elution and the investigated constituents were authenticated by comparing retention times and mass spectra with those of reference compounds. The proposed method was applied to analyze twenty-one Calculus Bovis extraction samples, and produced data with acceptable linearity, precision, repeatability and accuracy. The result indicated the variations among Calculus Bovis samples under different developmental conditions. Artificial and in-vitro cultured Calculus Bovis, especially in-vitro cultured ones, which contain total bioactive constituents no less than natural products and have the best batch-to-batch uniformity, suffice to be used as substitutes of natural Calculus Bovis.

  16. Prevalence of Mycoplasma bovis in Respiratory Tract of Cattle Slaughtered in Balochistan, Pakistan

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    Zafar Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cattle lungs (n=1200 obtained from abattoir of 10 districts of Balochistan were processed for isolation and identification of Mycoplasma species. A total of 156 isolates produced typical fried egg colonies on Modified Hayflick’s agar medium and 87.8% were preliminarily identified as Mycoplasma species, 12.2% species were Acholeplasmas. All the digitonin sensitive isolates were further subjected to different biochemical and PCR tests for further identification. Overall prevalence of M. bovis lungs samples obtained from slaughter house samples was 9%. Among the Mycoplasma isolates; 108 M. bovis, 29 Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc and 16 M. arginini were identified through the biochemical tests. M. bovis and Mycoplasma mycoides subcluster members were further validated through PCR and RFLP. Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides small colony type (Mmm SC was not isolated from any of the lung samples. Among the Mycoplasma bovis species isolated, the highest number was observed from Quetta district (16% followed by Pishin (15%, Zhob (11 % and Kalat (10%. Conversely the lowest number of M. bovis isolates was found in Bolan (2% district followed by Jaffarabad (3%, 4%, each from Khuzdar, Mustung, Killasaifullah and 7% in Sibi district. Statistical analysis using chi square test, showed a significance difference (χ²=33.38 in the recovery of Mycoplasma bovis from the lungs of cattle slaughtered in 10 districts of Balochistan.

  17. Study on bioactive compounds of in vitro cultured Calculus Suis and natural Calculus Bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Tien-Chun; Cheng, Fu-Yuan; Liu, Yu-Tse; Lin, Liang-Chuan; Sakata, Ryoichi

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate bioactive compounds of in vitro cultured Calculus Suis and natural Calculus Bovis obtained as valuable by-products from animals used for meat production. The results showed that the components of natural Calculus Bovis were rich in bilirubin and biliverdin and had higher content of essential amino acids. The major amino acids of in vitro cultured Calculus Suis were identified as glycine, alanine, glutamic acid and aspartic acid, and those for natural Calculus Bovis were found to be glutamic acid, aspartic acid, proline, and arginine. The methionine and cysteine contents of precursors for glutathione in natural Calculus Bovis were significantly higher than those of in vitro cultured Calculus Suis. The mineral contents of zinc, iron and manganese of natural Calculus Bovis were significantly higher than those of in vitro cultured Calculus Suis. The major bile acids in both products were cholic acid and dehydrocholic acid, respectively. The chenodeoxycholic and ursodeoxycholic acid content of in vitro cultured Calculus Suis was significantly higher than that of natural Calculus Bovis.

  18. Some aspects of the epidemiology of Babesia bovis in Santana do Livramento, Southern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, J.R.; Correa, B.L.; Cereser, V.H.; Arteche, C.C.P.; Guglielmone, A.A.

    1998-01-01

    Some aspects of the epidemiology of Babesia bovis were studied in Santana do Livramento, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil by analysing cattle raising practices applied to 101 herds and by diagnosing B. bovis antibodies in cattle of about 11 months old using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Herds with prevalence of antibodies ranging between 15% to 80% were considered at risk of babesiosis outbreaks of economic importance (enzootic instability). 53% of herds were found in enzootic instability to B. bovis. The proportion of Bos taurus and B. indicus x B. taurus herds in instability were similar (P=0.771, qui square) and the number of acaricides treatments applied yearly had no influence in the instability to B. bovis (P=0.866, chi square). Herds maintained along with sheep in a ratio < 1.5 (P=0.012, chi square); this probability was further increased in herds maintained on properties greater than 500 ha (P=0.057, chi square). High B. bovis antibody prevalence was found in B. taurus x B. indicus herds subjected to an average of 5.8 tick treatments yearly with long residual period acaricides, indicating misuse of the chemicals or tick resistance to them. The epidemiological situation to B. bovis seems to justify vaccination to avoid economic losses in herds in enzootic instability and those in enzootic stability due to low antibody prevalence. (author)

  19. Antibacterial activity of synthetic peptides derived from lactoferricin against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Calvijo, María A; Leal-Castro, Aura L; Almanzar-Reina, Giovanni A; Rosas-Pérez, Jaiver E; García-Castañeda, Javier E; Rivera-Monroy, Zuly J

    2015-01-01

    Peptides derived from human and bovine lactoferricin were designed, synthesized, purified, and characterized using RP-HPLC and MALDI-TOF-MS. Specific changes in the sequences were designed as (i) the incorporation of unnatural amino acids in the sequence, the (ii) reduction or (iii) elongation of the peptide chain length, and (iv) synthesis of molecules with different number of branches containing the same sequence. For each peptide, the antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 was evaluated. Our results showed that Peptides I.2 (RWQWRWQWR) and I.4 ((RRWQWR)4K2Ahx2C2) exhibit bigger or similar activity against E. coli (MIC 4-33 μM) and E. faecalis (MIC 10-33 μM) when they were compared with lactoferricin protein (LF) and some of its derivate peptides as II.1 (FKCRRWQWRMKKLGA) and IV.1 (FKCRRWQWRMKKLGAPSITCVRRAE). It should be pointed out that Peptides I.2 and I.4, containing the RWQWR motif, are short and easy to synthesize; our results demonstrate that it is possible to design and obtain synthetic peptides that exhibit enhanced antibacterial activity using a methodology that is fast and low-cost and that allows obtaining products with a high degree of purity and high yield.

  20. Antibacterial Activity of Synthetic Peptides Derived from Lactoferricin against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María A. León-Calvijo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Peptides derived from human and bovine lactoferricin were designed, synthesized, purified, and characterized using RP-HPLC and MALDI-TOF-MS. Specific changes in the sequences were designed as (i the incorporation of unnatural amino acids in the sequence, the (ii reduction or (iii elongation of the peptide chain length, and (iv synthesis of molecules with different number of branches containing the same sequence. For each peptide, the antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 was evaluated. Our results showed that Peptides I.2 (RWQWRWQWR and I.4 ((RRWQWR4K2Ahx2C2 exhibit bigger or similar activity against E. coli (MIC 4–33 μM and E. faecalis (MIC 10–33 μM when they were compared with lactoferricin protein (LF and some of its derivate peptides as II.1 (FKCRRWQWRMKKLGA and IV.1 (FKCRRWQWRMKKLGAPSITCVRRAE. It should be pointed out that Peptides I.2 and I.4, containing the RWQWR motif, are short and easy to synthesize; our results demonstrate that it is possible to design and obtain synthetic peptides that exhibit enhanced antibacterial activity using a methodology that is fast and low-cost and that allows obtaining products with a high degree of purity and high yield.

  1. Acid-regulated proteins induced by Streptococcus mutans and other oral bacteria during acid shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, I R; Svensäter, G

    1998-10-01

    first 30 min of the acid shock, with a total of 11 acid-regulated proteins formed during the 2-h adaptation period with enhanced synthesis transient for seven of these proteins. Streptococcus salivarius AT2 and Streptococcus gordonii TH12 had the formation of 6 and 8 proteins enhanced, while the weakly responding organisms, Streptococcus sanguis ATCC 10,556 and Streptococcus oralis ATCC 10,557, exhibited 8 and 6 such proteins, respectively. Even non-responding strains unable to survive at very low pH, such as Streptococcus sobrinus CH125/43, Streptococcus mitis ATCC 12,261 and Actinomyces naeslundii 301-13 showed the initial formation of 3-9 acid-regulated proteins, but protein synthesis was not sustained over the entire adaptation period. Clearly, the survival of oral bacteria at very low pH is related, not to the total number of the acid-regulated proteins induced per se but to the formation of key proteins that function to augment normal pH homeostasis.

  2. In vitro Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Activity of Artocarpus Lakoocha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Representative strains of oral pathogens (Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175, Streptococcus sobrinus ATCC 33478, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 19433, Lactobacillus fermentum ATCC 14931, Lactobacillus salivarius ATCC 11741, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans ATCC 33384, Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC ...

  3. Comparative transcriptome analysis of biofilm and planktonic cells of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijman, Janneke; Mols, M.; Tempelaars, Marcel; Abee, Tjakko

    2015-01-01

    Planktonic and biofilm cells of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 and ATCC 10987 were studied using microscopy and transcriptome analysis. By microscopy, clear differences could be observed between biofilm and planktonic cells as well as between the two strains. By using hierarchical clustering of the

  4. Comparative transcriptome analysis of biofilm and planktonic cells of Bacillus cereus ATCC 10987

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijman, Janneke; Mols, M.; Tempelaars, Marcel; Abee, Tjakko

    2015-01-01

    Planktonic and biofilm cells of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 and ATCC 10987 were studied using microscopy and transcriptome analysis. By microscopy, clear differences could be observed between biofilm and planktonic cells as well as between the two strains. By using hierarchical clustering of the

  5. Natural Babesia bovis Infection in Water Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis and Crossbred Cattle under Field Conditions in Egypt: a Preliminary Study.

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    Yasser Mahmmod

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a little or no data available on the natural Babesia bovis (B. bovis infection in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis comparing to the available one for cattle. This study was conducted to investigate the natural B. bovis infection in water buffaloes in comparison to crossbred cattle under field conditions in Egypt.A total of 35 buffaloes and cattle were clinically and laboratory investigated from March to June 2008. Twenty-nine buffaloes and cattle out of 35 were naturally infected with B. bovis and showed signs of bovine babesiosis. Three cows and three buffaloes showed no clinical signs and were free from external, internal, and blood parasites served as control group.Babesia bovis-infected cattle showed typical signs of bovine babesiosis while B. bovis-infected buffaloes showed a milder form (less severe of the clinical signs. Advanced cases of cattle showed dark brown to dark red (coffee-color urine, hemoglobinuria and nervous manifestations while these manifestations were not detected in the infected buffaloes. Hematological changes in both species however, these changes were less significant in buffaloes than those reported in cattle.This paper documents the first description of natural B. bovis infection in water buffaloes which were found to be more likely to be tolerant than cattle to the natural clinical infection with B. bovis and its subsequent haematological changes. Our finding may lead to a better understanding of the disease pattern of B. bovis infection under field conditions in buffaloes.

  6. T- and B-cell response analysis following calf immunisation with experimental Mycoplasma bovis vaccine containing saponin and lysozyme dimer

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    Dudek Katarzyna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Mycoplasma bovis is a well-known cause of various disorders in cattle, such as pneumonia, arthritis, mastitis kerato-conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, otitis media, meningitis, and reproductive disorders. There are no commercial vaccines against M. bovis in Europe, therefore, experimental ones are still under investigation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of experimental M. bovis vaccine, containing the Polish field M. bovis strain as well as saponin and lysozyme dimer adjuvants, on the T- and B-cell response in calves.

  7. Molecular and serologic evidence for Babesia bovis-like parasites in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in south Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Christina M; Cooper, Susan M; Holman, Patricia J

    2010-09-20

    The current study was undertaken to determine if white-tailed deer in south Texas harbor Babesia bovis, a causative agent of bovine babesiosis. Blood samples from free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on two ranches in LaSalle and Webb Counties were screened for B. bovis and other hemoparasites by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect the piroplasm 18S rDNA. Serology was conducted on selected samples to detect antibody activity to B. bovis by the immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). PCR revealed that 16% of the LaSalle County samples and 4% of the Webb County samples were positive for B. bovis. Five of the LaSalle County and the two Webb County B. bovis 18S rDNA amplicons were cloned and sequenced. The resulting clones shared 99% identity to B. bovis 18S rRNA gene sequences derived from cattle isolates. Weak seroreactivity to B. bovis was shown by the IFAT. The samples were also screened for additional hemoparasites of deer including Theileria cervi, Babesia odocoilei and other Babesia spp. A genotypically unique Theileria sp. was found, along with T. cervi and B. odocoilei. The finding of putative B. bovis in white-tailed deer necessitates further study to determine if deer may act as a transient host or even a reservoir of infection for B. bovis pathogenic to cattle.

  8. Transfected Babesia bovis Expressing a Tick GST as a Live Vector Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldiges, Daiane P.; Laughery, Jacob M.; Tagliari, Nelson Junior; Leite Filho, Ronaldo Viana; Davis, William C.; da Silva Vaz, Itabajara; Termignoni, Carlos; Knowles, Donald P.; Suarez, Carlos E.

    2016-01-01

    The Rhipicephalus microplus tick is a notorious blood-feeding ectoparasite of livestock, especially cattle, responsible for massive losses in animal production. It is the main vector for transmission of pathogenic bacteria and parasites, including Babesia bovis, an intraerythrocytic apicomplexan protozoan parasite responsible for bovine Babesiosis. This study describes the development and testing of a live B. bovis vaccine expressing the protective tick antigen glutathione-S-transferase from Haemaphysalis longicornis (HlGST). The B. bovis S74-T3B parasites were electroporated with a plasmid containing the bidirectional Ef-1α (elongation factor 1 alpha) promoter of B. bovis controlling expression of two independent genes, the selectable marker GFP-BSD (green fluorescent protein–blasticidin deaminase), and HlGST fused to the MSA-1 (merozoite surface antigen 1) signal peptide from B. bovis. Electroporation followed by blasticidin selection resulted in the emergence of a mixed B. bovis transfected line (termed HlGST) in in vitro cultures, containing parasites with distinct patterns of insertion of both exogenous genes, either in or outside the Ef-1α locus. A B. bovis clonal line termed HlGST-Cln expressing intracellular GFP and HlGST in the surface of merozoites was then derived from the mixed parasite line HlGST using a fluorescent activated cell sorter. Two independent calf immunization trials were performed via intravenous inoculation of the HlGST-Cln and a previously described control consisting of an irrelevant transfected clonal line of B. bovis designated GFP-Cln. The control GFP-Cln line contains a copy of the GFP-BSD gene inserted into the Ef-1α locus of B. bovis in an identical fashion as the HIGST-Cln parasites. All animals inoculated with the HlGST-Cln and GFP-Cln transfected parasites developed mild babesiosis. Tick egg fertility and fully engorged female tick weight was reduced significantly in R. microplus feeding on HlGST-Cln-immunized calves

  9. Transfected Babesia bovis Expressing a Tick GST as a Live Vector Vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane P Oldiges

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Rhipicephalus microplus tick is a notorious blood-feeding ectoparasite of livestock, especially cattle, responsible for massive losses in animal production. It is the main vector for transmission of pathogenic bacteria and parasites, including Babesia bovis, an intraerythrocytic apicomplexan protozoan parasite responsible for bovine Babesiosis. This study describes the development and testing of a live B. bovis vaccine expressing the protective tick antigen glutathione-S-transferase from Haemaphysalis longicornis (HlGST. The B. bovis S74-T3B parasites were electroporated with a plasmid containing the bidirectional Ef-1α (elongation factor 1 alpha promoter of B. bovis controlling expression of two independent genes, the selectable marker GFP-BSD (green fluorescent protein-blasticidin deaminase, and HlGST fused to the MSA-1 (merozoite surface antigen 1 signal peptide from B. bovis. Electroporation followed by blasticidin selection resulted in the emergence of a mixed B. bovis transfected line (termed HlGST in in vitro cultures, containing parasites with distinct patterns of insertion of both exogenous genes, either in or outside the Ef-1α locus. A B. bovis clonal line termed HlGST-Cln expressing intracellular GFP and HlGST in the surface of merozoites was then derived from the mixed parasite line HlGST using a fluorescent activated cell sorter. Two independent calf immunization trials were performed via intravenous inoculation of the HlGST-Cln and a previously described control consisting of an irrelevant transfected clonal line of B. bovis designated GFP-Cln. The control GFP-Cln line contains a copy of the GFP-BSD gene inserted into the Ef-1α locus of B. bovis in an identical fashion as the HIGST-Cln parasites. All animals inoculated with the HlGST-Cln and GFP-Cln transfected parasites developed mild babesiosis. Tick egg fertility and fully engorged female tick weight was reduced significantly in R. microplus feeding on Hl

  10. Comparative Genomics of the Bacterial Genus Streptococcus Illuminates Evolutionary Implications of Species Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiao-Yang; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Li, Hong-Wei; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Li, Wen-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Members of the genus Streptococcus within the phylum Firmicutes are among the most diverse and significant zoonotic pathogens. This genus has gone through considerable taxonomic revision due to increasing improvements of chemotaxonomic approaches, DNA hybridization and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. It is proposed to place the majority of streptococci into “species groups”. However, the evolutionary implications of species groups are not clear presently. We use comparative genomic approaches to yield a better understanding of the evolution of Streptococcus through genome dynamics, population structure, phylogenies and virulence factor distribution of species groups. Genome dynamics analyses indicate that the pan-genome size increases with the addition of newly sequenced strains, while the core genome size decreases with sequential addition at the genus level and species group level. Population structure analysis reveals two distinct lineages, one including Pyogenic, Bovis, Mutans and Salivarius groups, and the other including Mitis, Anginosus and Unknown groups. Phylogenetic dendrograms show that species within the same species group cluster together, and infer two main clades in accordance with population structure analysis. Distribution of streptococcal virulence factors has no obvious patterns among the species groups; however, the evolution of some common virulence factors is congruous with the evolution of species groups, according to phylogenetic inference. We suggest that the proposed streptococcal species groups are reasonable from the viewpoints of comparative genomics; evolution of the genus is congruent with the individual evolutionary trajectories of different species groups. PMID:24977706

  11. Recombination-deficient Streptococcus sanguis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daneo-Moore, L.; Volpe, A.

    1985-01-01

    A UV-sensitive derivative was obtained from Streptococcus sanguis Challis. The organism could be transformed with a number of small streptococcal plasmids at frequencies equal to, or 1 logarithm below, the transformation frequencies for the parent organism. However, transformation with chromosomal DNA was greatly impaired in the UV-sensitive derivative

  12. Streptococcus mitis/human gingival fibroblasts co-culture: the best natural association in answer to the 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giulio, Mara; D'Ercole, Simonetta; Zara, Susi; Cataldi, Amelia; Cellini, Luigina

    2012-01-01

    One of the major components of dental polymerized resin-based restorative materials is 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and its release in monomeric form interferes with the oral cavity environment. This study aimed to evaluate HEMA monomeric effects on the co-culture of Streptococcus mitis and human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs). Streptococcus mitis DS12 and S. mitis ATCC 6249 were co-cultivated with HGF in the presence of HEMA (3 mM), for 48 and 72 h; the amount of sessile and planktonic cells, as well as the prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell viability were analyzed in treated and untreated samples. The treatment of S. mitis/HGFs with HEMA did not produce significant effects on the bacterial adhesion and induced an increase in planktonic S. mitis ATCC 6249 population after 48 and 72 h. HEMA increased significantly the planktonic S. mitis ATCC 6249 viability when co-cultured with HGFs, while a cytotoxic effect on HGFs, without bacteria, was recorded. An increase of bacterial aggregation on HGFs was also detected with HEMA. Data obtained in this study suggest that HEMA exhibits a toxic effect mainly on eukaryotic cells and this effect can be modulated by co-cultivation with the S. mitis cells which, in the presence of the monomer, enhance their aggregation rate on HGFs. PMID:22229269

  13. Development and host compatibility of plasmids for two important ruminant pathogens, Mycoplasma bovis and Mycoplasma agalactiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukriti Sharma

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma bovis is a cause of pneumonia, mastitis, arthritis and otitis media in cattle throughout the world. However, despite its clinical significance, there is a paucity of tools to genetically manipulate it, impeding our capacity to further explore the molecular basis of its virulence. To address this limitation, we developed a series of homologous and heterologous replicable plasmids from M. bovis and M. agalactiae. The shortest replicable oriC plasmid based on the region downstream of dnaA in M. bovis was 247 bp and contained two DnaA boxes, while oriC plasmids based on the region downstream of dnaA in M. agalactiae strains 5632 and PG2 were 219 bp and 217 bp in length, respectively, and contained only a single DnaA box. The efficiency of transformation in M. bovis and M. agalactiae was inversely correlated with the size of the oriC region in the construct, and, in general, homologous oriC plasmids had a higher transformation efficiency than heterologous oriC plasmids. The larger pWholeoriC45 and pMM21-7 plasmids integrated into the genomic oriC region of M. bovis, while the smaller oriC plasmids remained extrachromosomal for up to 20 serial passages in selective media. Although specific gene disruptions were not be achieved in M. bovis in this study, the oriC plasmids developed here could still be useful as tools in complementation studies and for expression of exogenous genes in both M. bovis and M. agalactiae.

  14. Susceptibilities of Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma dispar, and Ureaplasma diversum strains to antimicrobial agents in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Laak, E A; Noordergraaf, J H; Verschure, M H

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the susceptibility of various strains of Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma dispar, and Ureaplasma diversum, which are prevalent causes of pneumonia in calves, to 16 antimicrobial agents in vitro. The MICs of the antimicrobial agents were determined by a serial broth dilution method for 16 field strains and the type strain of M. bovis, for 19 field strains and the type strain of M. dispar, and for 17 field strains of U. diversum. Final MICs for M. bovis and M. dispar were read after 7 days and final MICs for U. diversum after 1 to 2 days. All strains tested were susceptible to tylosin, kitasamycin, and tiamulin but were resistant to nifuroquine and streptomycin. Most strains of U. diversum were intermediately susceptible to oxytetracycline but fully susceptible to chlortetracycline; most strains of M. bovis and M. dispar, however, were resistant to both agents. Strains of M. dispar and U. diversum were susceptible to doxycycline and minocycline, but strains of M. bovis were only intermediately susceptible. Susceptibility or resistance to chloramphenicol, spiramycin, spectinomycin, lincomycin, or enrofloxacin depended on the species but was not equal for the three species. The type strains of M. bovis and M. dispar were more susceptible to various antimicrobial agents, including tetracyclines, than the field strains. This finding might indicate that M. bovis and M. dispar strains are becoming resistant to these agents. Antimicrobial agents that are effective in vitro against all three mycoplasma species can be considered for treating mycoplasma infections in pneumonic calves. Therefore, tylosin, kitasamycin, and tiamulin may be preferred over oxytetracycline and chlortetracycline.

  15. Development and Host Compatibility of Plasmids for Two Important Ruminant Pathogens, Mycoplasma bovis and Mycoplasma agalactiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shukriti; Citti, Chistine; Sagné, Eveline; Marenda, Marc S.

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is a cause of pneumonia, mastitis, arthritis and otitis media in cattle throughout the world. However, despite its clinical significance, there is a paucity of tools to genetically manipulate it, impeding our capacity to further explore the molecular basis of its virulence. To address this limitation, we developed a series of homologous and heterologous replicable plasmids from M. bovis and M. agalactiae. The shortest replicable oriC plasmid based on the region downstream of dnaA in M. bovis was 247 bp and contained two DnaA boxes, while oriC plasmids based on the region downstream of dnaA in M. agalactiae strains 5632 and PG2 were 219 bp and 217 bp in length, respectively, and contained only a single DnaA box. The efficiency of transformation in M. bovis and M. agalactiae was inversely correlated with the size of the oriC region in the construct, and, in general, homologous oriC plasmids had a higher transformation efficiency than heterologous oriC plasmids. The larger pWholeoriC45 and pMM21-7 plasmids integrated into the genomic oriC region of M. bovis, while the smaller oriC plasmids remained extrachromosomal for up to 20 serial passages in selective media. Although specific gene disruptions were not be achieved in M. bovis in this study, the oriC plasmids developed here could still be useful as tools in complementation studies and for expression of exogenous genes in both M. bovis and M. agalactiae. PMID:25746296

  16. Gliding motility of Babesia bovis merozoites visualized by time-lapse video microscopy.

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    Masahito Asada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Babesia bovis is an apicomplexan intraerythrocytic protozoan parasite that induces babesiosis in cattle after transmission by ticks. During specific stages of the apicomplexan parasite lifecycle, such as the sporozoites of Plasmodium falciparum and tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii, host cells are targeted for invasion using a unique, active process termed "gliding motility". However, it is not thoroughly understood how the merozoites of B. bovis target and invade host red blood cells (RBCs, and gliding motility has so far not been observed in the parasite. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Gliding motility of B. bovis merozoites was revealed by time-lapse video microscopy. The recorded images revealed that the process included egress of the merozoites from the infected RBC, gliding motility, and subsequent invasion into new RBCs. The gliding motility of B. bovis merozoites was similar to the helical gliding of Toxoplasma tachyzoites. The trails left by the merozoites were detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay using antiserum against B. bovis merozoite surface antigen 1. Inhibition of gliding motility by actin filament polymerization or depolymerization indicated that the gliding motility was driven by actomyosin dependent process. In addition, we revealed the timing of breakdown of the parasitophorous vacuole. Time-lapse image analysis of membrane-stained bovine RBCs showed formation and breakdown of the parasitophorous vacuole within ten minutes of invasion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first report of the gliding motility of B. bovis. Since merozoites of Plasmodium parasites do not glide on a substrate, the gliding motility of B. bovis merozoites is a notable finding.

  17. Toxicogenomic response of Mycobacterium bovis BCG to peracetic acid and a comparative analysis of the M. bovis BCG response to three oxidative disinfectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nde, Chantal W; Toghrol, Freshteh; Jang, Hyeung-Jin; Bentley, William E

    2011-04-01

    Tuberculosis is a leading cause of death worldwide and infects thousands of Americans annually. Mycobacterium bovis causes tuberculosis in humans and several animal species. Peracetic acid is an approved tuberculocide in hospital and domestic environments. This study presents for the first time the transcriptomic changes in M. bovis BCG after treatment with 0.1 mM peracetic acid for 10 and 20 min. This study also presents for the first time a comparison among the transcriptomic responses of M. bovis BCG to three oxidative disinfectants: peracetic acid, sodium hypochlorite, and hydrogen peroxide after 10 min of treatment. Results indicate that arginine biosynthesis, virulence, and oxidative stress response genes were upregulated after both peracetic acid treatment times. Three DNA repair genes were downregulated after 10 and 20 min and cell wall component genes were upregulated after 20 min. The devR-devS signal transduction system was upregulated after 10 min, suggesting a role in the protection against peracetic acid treatment. Results also suggest that peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite both induce the expression of the ctpF gene which is upregulated in hypoxic environments. Further, this study reveals that in M. bovis BCG, hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid both induce the expression of katG involved in oxidative stress response and the mbtD and mbtI genes involved in iron regulation/virulence.

  18. Streptococcus pneumoniae Drugs Resistance in Acute Rhinosinusitis

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    Chong Jie Hao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute rhinosinusitis that usually caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae becomes the reason why patients seek for medical care. Drugs resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae is increasing worldwide. This study was conducted to determine drugs resistance of Streptococcus pneumonia from acute rhinosinusitis in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital. Methods: A descriptive laboratory study was conducted in June–October 2014 at the Laboratory of Microbiology Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran. The sample was taken using nasopharyngeal swabbing from 100 acute rhinosinusitis patients in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital and planted on tryptic soy agar containing 5% sheep blood and 5 μg/ml of gentamicin sulphate and then incubated in 5% CO2 incubator at 37°C for 24 hours. The identification of Streptococcus pneumonia was performed by optochin test. The susceptibility test against Streptococcus pneumoniae was done using disk diffusion method.The antibiotic disks were trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, oxacillin, levofloxacin, azithromycin, and doxycycline. Results: Out of 100 samples, 8 of them were tested positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae. Three of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates died with unknown reason after it were stored at -80 .The drugs resistance test showed the resistance of Streptococcus pneumonia to oxacillin, azithromycin and trimethoprim were 6, whereas levofloxacin and doxycycline are 4. Conclusions: Streptococcus pneumonia drugs resistance in acute rhinosinusitis shows the resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae to oxacillin, azithromycin and trimethoprim are 6, whereas the resistance to levofloxacin and doxycycline are 4.

  19. Streptococcus mutans attachment on a cast titanium surface

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    Sicknan Soares da Rocha

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM, the attachment of Streptococcus mutans and the corrosion of cast commercially pure titanium, used in dental dentures. The sample discs were cast in commercially pure titanium using the vacuum-pressure machine (Rematitan System. The surfaces of each metal were ground and polished with sandpaper (#300-4000 and alumina paste (0.3 µm. The roughness of the surface (Ra was measured using the Surfcorder rugosimeter SE 1700. Four coupons were inserted separately into Falcon tubes contained Mueller Hinton broth inoculated with S. mutans ATCC 25175 (10(9 cuf and incubated at 37 °C. The culture medium was changed every three days during a 365-day period, after which the falcons were prepared for observations by SEM. The mean Ra value of CP Ti was 0.1527 µm. After S. mutans biofilm removal, pits of corrosion were observed. Despite the low roughness, S. mutans attachment and biofilm formation was observed, which induced a surface corrosion of the cast pure titanium.

  20. Gene repertoire evolution of Streptococcus pyogenes inferred from phylogenomic analysis with Streptococcus canis and Streptococcus dysgalactiae.

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    Tristan Lefébure

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes, is an important human pathogen classified within the pyogenic group of streptococci, exclusively adapted to the human host. Our goal was to employ a comparative evolutionary approach to better understand the genomic events concomitant with S. pyogenes human adaptation. As part of ascertaining these events, we sequenced the genome of one of the potential sister species, the agricultural pathogen S. canis, and combined it in a comparative genomics reconciliation analysis with two other closely related species, Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus equi, to determine the genes that were gained and lost during S. pyogenes evolution. Genome wide phylogenetic analyses involving 15 Streptococcus species provided convincing support for a clade of S. equi, S. pyogenes, S. dysgalactiae, and S. canis and suggested that the most likely S. pyogenes sister species was S. dysgalactiae. The reconciliation analysis identified 113 genes that were gained on the lineage leading to S. pyogenes. Almost half (46% of these gained genes were phage associated and 14 showed significant matches to experimentally verified bacteria virulence factors. Subsequent to the origin of S. pyogenes, over half of the phage associated genes were involved in 90 different LGT events, mostly involving different strains of S. pyogenes, but with a high proportion involving the horse specific pathogen S. equi subsp. equi, with the directionality almost exclusively (86% in the S. pyogenes to S. equi direction. Streptococcus agalactiae appears to have played an important role in the evolution of S. pyogenes with a high proportion of LGTs originating from this species. Overall the analysis suggests that S. pyogenes adaptation to the human host was achieved in part by (i the integration of new virulence factors (e.g. speB, and the sal locus and (ii the construction of new regulation networks (e.g. rgg, and to some extent speB.

  1. Adhesion of streptococcus rattus and streptococcus mutans to metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branting, C.; Linder, L.E.; Sund, M.-L.; Oden, A.; Wiatr-Adamczak, E.

    1988-01-01

    The adhesion of Streptococcus rattus BHT and Streptococcus mutans IB to metal specimens of amalgam, silver, tin and copper was studied using (6- 3 H) thymidine labeled cells. In the standard assay the metal specimens were suspended by a nylon thread in an adhesion solution containing a chemically defined bacterial growth medium (FMC), sucrose, and radiolabeled bacteria. Maximum amounts of adhering bacteria were obtained after about 100 min of incubation. Saturation of the metal specimens with bacteria was not observed. Both strains also adhered in the absence of sucrose, indicating that glucan formation was not necessary for adhesion. However, in the presence of glucose, adhesion was only 26-45% of that observed in the presence of equimolar sucrose. Sucrose-dependent stimulation of adhesion seemed to be due to increased cell-to-cell adhesion capacity. Isolated radiolabeled water-insoluble and water-soluble polysaccharides produced from sucrose by S. rattus BHT were not adsorbed to the metal surfaces. (author)

  2. Adhesion of streptococcus rattus and streptococcus mutans to metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branting, C.; Linder, L.E.; Sund, M.-L.; Oden, A.; Wiatr-Adamczak, E.

    1988-01-01

    The adhesion of Streptococcus rattus BHT and Streptococcus mutans IB to metal specimens of amalgam, silver, tin and copper was studied using (6-/sup 3/H) thymidine labeled cells. In the standard assay the metal specimens were suspended by a nylon thread in an adhesion solution containing a chemically defined bacterial growth medium (FMC), sucrose, and radiolabeled bacteria. Maximum amounts of adhering bacteria were obtained after about 100 min of incubation. Saturation of the metal specimens with bacteria was not observed. Both strains also adhered in the absence of sucrose, indicating that glucan formation was not necessary for adhesion. However, in the presence of glucose, adhesion was only 26-45% of that observed in the presence of equimolar sucrose. Sucrose-dependent stimulation of adhesion seemed to be due to increased cell-to-cell adhesion capacity. Isolated radiolabeled water-insoluble and water-soluble polysaccharides produced from sucrose by S. rattus BHT were not adsorbed to the metal surfaces.

  3. Transcriptional analysis of genetic region RvD1 of Mycobacterium bovis

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    Víctor Manuel Tibatá R.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium bovis, shares 99.9% of genomic identity with M. tuberculosis, M. africanum and M. microti. Within this 0.1 % of difference, there are two genetic regions characteristics of M. bovis that are deleted in M. tuberculo­sis H37Rv: RvD1 and RvD2. According to bioinformatic analysis, these regions contain Open Reading Frames (ORFs. With the purpose of determining if the RvD1 region transcribes the ORFs predicted by bioinformatics (ORF1, ORF2 and Rv2024; total RNA was extracted from a culture of M. bovis BCG Pasteur, at different time points along the growth curve. The RNA samples were analyzed by Real Time Reverse Transcription - Poly-merase Chain Reaction (RTq-PCR. The findings show that ORF1, ORF2 and Rv2024, were transcribed consti-tutively, something that has not been reported previously. These results are a first step in order to determine the function of M. bovis RvD1 region, its possible role in pathogenesis and its interaction with both cattle and humans. Key words: Mycobacterium bovis, BCG, RNA, Real Time, RT-PCR, RvD1

  4. Decay of Mycobacterium bovis in whole milk submitted to pasteurization parameters

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    Leandro Ribeiro

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Parameters for milk pasteurization were established a long time ago, considering the thermal resistance of Mycobacterium bovis, and the systematic adoption of this process has drastically reduced the incidence of human tuberculosis caused by this pathogen. However, more recently, molecular methods have allowed the identification of genetic variations in this bacterium that may lead to greater thermal resistance. The aim of this study was to investigate whether genetic variation leads to variation in the death pattern of this bacterium during the milk pasteurization process. Samples of UHT (ultra-high temperature-treated whole milk were artificially contaminated with four different Mycobacterium bovis spoligotypes and were subjected to pasteurization by low-temperature long-time (LTLT and high-temperature short-time (HTST treatments. The M. bovis spoligotypes were quantified (Colony Forming Unit per milliliter of milk before and during the thermal process. The decay of the pathogen was quantified by calculating the difference between the measurements at the beginning and at the end of the thermal treatment. The data demonstrated that the LTLT and HTST pasteurization processes considerably reduced the M. bovis load in the milk; however, the bacterium was not eliminated. There was no difference in the thermal resistance of the spoligotypes tested or in the efficiency of pasteurization processes (LTLT versus HTST. However, heating phase was more effective in reducing the M. bovis load than the target temperature maintenance phase.

  5. A space-time analysis of Mycoplasma bovis: bulk tank milk antibody screening results from all Danish dairy herds in 2013-2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arede, Margarida; Nielsen, Per Kantsø; Ahmed, Syed Sayeem Uddin

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is an important pathogen causing severe disease outbreaks in cattle farms. Since 2011, there has been an apparent increase in M. bovis outbreaks among Danish dairy cattle herds. The dairy cattle industry performed cross-sectional antibody screening for M. bovis on four occasions,...

  6. Streptococcus oligofermentans inhibits Streptococcus mutans in biofilms at both neutral pH and cariogenic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bao, X.; de Soet, J.J.; Tong, H.; Gao, X.; He, L.; van Loveren, C.; Deng, D.M.

    2015-01-01

    Homeostasis of oral microbiota can be maintained through microbial interactions. Previous studies showed that Streptococcus oligofermentans, a non-mutans streptococci frequently isolated from caries-free subjects, inhibited the cariogenic Streptococcus mutans by the production of hydrogen peroxide

  7. Antibiotic Susceptibility of Periodontal Streptococcus Constellatus and Streptococcus Intermedius Clinical Isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rams, Thomas E; Feik, Diane; Mortensen, Joel E; Degener, John E; van Winkelhoff, Arie J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Streptococcus constellatus and Streptococcus intermedius in subgingival dental plaque biofilms may contribute to forms of periodontitis that resist treatment with conventional mechanical root debridement/surgical procedures and may additionally participate in some extraoral infections.

  8. A genomic island provides Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 53993 additional copper resistance: a possible competitive advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Luis H; Jerez, Carlos A

    2011-11-01

    There is great interest in understanding how extremophilic biomining bacteria adapt to exceptionally high copper concentrations in their environment. Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 53993 genome possesses the same copper resistance determinants as strain ATCC 23270. However, the former strain contains in its genome a 160-kb genomic island (GI), which is absent in ATCC 23270. This GI contains, amongst other genes, several genes coding for an additional putative copper ATPase and a Cus system. A. ferrooxidans ATCC 53993 showed a much higher resistance to CuSO(4) (>100 mM) than that of strain ATCC 23270 (<25 mM). When a similar number of bacteria from each strain were mixed and allowed to grow in the absence of copper, their respective final numbers remained approximately equal. However, in the presence of copper, there was a clear overgrowth of strain ATCC 53993 compared to ATCC 23270. This behavior is most likely explained by the presence of the additional copper-resistance genes in the GI of strain ATCC 53993. As determined by qRT-PCR, it was demonstrated that these genes are upregulated when A. ferrooxidans ATCC 53993 is grown in the presence of copper and were shown to be functional when expressed in copper-sensitive Escherichia coli mutants. Thus, the reason for resistance to copper of two strains of the same acidophilic microorganism could be determined by slight differences in their genomes, which may not only lead to changes in their capacities to adapt to their environment, but may also help to select the more fit microorganisms for industrial biomining operations. © Springer-Verlag 2011

  9. The prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis-infection and atypical mycobacterioses in cattle in and around Morogoro, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durnez, Lies; Sadiki, Harrison; Katakweba, Abdul

    2009-01-01

     A study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis-infection and atypical mycobacterioses in different cattle herd management systems in and around Morogoro, Tanzania. Between April and June 2005, a total of 728 bovines from 49 herds were tested for M. bovis-infection and a...

  10. Stability Comparison of Free and Encapsulated Lactobacilus casei ATCC 393 in Yoghurt for Long Time Storage

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    Oana Lelia POP

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An innovative method of L. casei ATCC 393 encapsulation has been reported in the present study using pectin combined with alginate. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of encapsulation on the survival of L. casei ATCC 393 in yoghurt during long time storage, free or encapsulated in alginate and alginate pectin microspheres, and influence over yoghurt properties, particularly acidification. Over 35 days of storage in yoghurt, the encapsulated probiotic cells proved a higher viability compared with free probiotic cells. An even higher viability and stability was observed for the samples where pectin was used. Pectin acts as prebiotic during encapsulation of L. casei ATCC 393.

  11. [Evaluation of variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) isolates of Mycobacterium bovis in Algeria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahraoui, Naima; Muller, Borna; Djamel, Yala; Fadéla, Boulahbal; Rachid, Ouzrout; Jakob, Zinsstag; Djamel, Guetarni

    2010-01-01

    The discriminatory potency of variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR), based on 7 loci (MIRU 26, 27 and 5 ETRs A, B, C, D, E) was assayed on Mycobacterium bovis strains obtained from samples due to tuberculosis in two slaughterhouses in Algeria. The technique of MIRU-VNTR has been evaluated on 88 strains of M. bovis and one strain of M. caprea and shows 41 different profiles. Results showed that the VNTR were highly discriminatory with an allelic diversity of 0.930 when four loci (ETR A, B, C and MIRU 27) were highly discriminatory (h>0.25) and three loci (ETR D and E MIRU 26) moderately discriminatory (0.11VNTR loci were highly discriminatory be adequate for the first proper differentiation of strains of M. bovis in Algeria. The VNTR technique has proved a valuable tool for further development and application of epidemiological research for the of tuberculosis transmission in Algeria.

  12. Successful vaccination against Boophilus microplus and Babesia bovis using recombinat antigens

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    P. Willadsen

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Current methods for the control of the cattle tick Boophils microplus and the agent of bovine babesiosis, Babesia bovis are unsatisfactory. Effective immunological control of both parasites would have great advantages. However, naturally acquired immunity to the tick is generally unable to prevent serious production losses. A vaccine against the tick, based on a novel form of immunization, is being developed. A protective antigen has been isolated from the tick, characterized and produced as an effective, recombinant protein. A vaccine incorporating this antigen is currently undergoing field trials. In the Australian situation, improved tick control will probably increase endemic instability with respect to B. bovis. Fortunately, a trivalent, recombinant B. bovis vaccine has also been developed. This too is now undergoing pre-registration field trials.

  13. First Isolation of Streptococcus halichoeri and Streptococcus phocae from a Steller Sea Lion (Eumetopias jubatus) in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kichan; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Jung, Suk Chan; Lee, Hee-Soo; Her, Moon; Chae, Chanhee

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus species are emerging potential pathogens in marine mammals. We report the isolation and identification of Streptococcus halichoeri and Streptococcus phocae in a Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) in South Korea.

  14. L-Lactic Acid Production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 10863

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    Ana Lívia Chemeli Senedese

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid has been shown to have the most promising application in biomaterials as poly(lactic acid. L. rhamnosus ATCC 10863 that produces L-lactic acid was used to perform the fermentation and molasses was used as substrate. A solution containing 27.6 g/L of sucrose (main composition of molasses and 3.0 g/L of yeast extract was prepared, considering the final volume of 3,571 mL (14.0% (v/v inoculum. Batch and fed batch fermentations were performed with temperature of 43.4°C and pH of 5.0. At the fed batch, three molasses feed were applied at 12, 24, and 36 hours. Samples were taken every two hours and the amounts of lactic acid, sucrose, glucose, and fructose were determined by HPLC. The sucrose was barely consumed at both processes; otherwise the glucose and fructose were almost entirely consumed. 16.5 g/L of lactic acid was produced at batch and 22.0 g/L at fed batch. Considering that lactic acid was produced due to the low concentration of the well consumed sugars, the final amount was considerable. The cell growth was checked and no substrate inhibition was observed. A sucrose molasses hydrolysis is suggested to better avail the molasses fermentation with this strain, surely increasing the L-lactic acid.

  15. Studies of linear Gramicidin synthesis in Bacillus brevis ATCC 8185

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Kou; Kagawa, Kenichi

    1976-01-01

    Bacillus brevis ATCC 8185 was grown in polypepton and Ehrlich's meat extract medium, and this strain produced two kinds of peptide antibiotics, Tyrocidine and linear Gramicidin. A simple chromatographic method was developed for the isolation of linear Gramicidin from mixture Tyrothricin, applied on the column. Trimethoprim, an inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase, inhibits the synthesis of both peptides in the growing culture with slight inhibition to cell growth. Serine- 14 C is incorporated in the Gramicidin, and recovered as ethanol amine and glycine by the hydrolysis of 14 C-labeled Gramicidin, but deoxypyridoxine-HCl, B 6 antagonist, has no effect on the production of antibiotics in the culture. Linear Gramicidin gives two spots on the thin layer chromatogram (TLC) developed by ethyl acetate-pyridine-water system of 16:4:2, and by chloroform-methanol-water system of 17:3:0.3. The incorporations of constitutive 14 C-labeled amino acids, ethanol amine, and sodium formate into linear Gramicidin were studied by growing cells. These labeled specimens were identified to correspond to authentic specimens which migrated on TLC. Cells were hydrolysed with Lysozyme, and the crude extract was prepared between 0.33 and 0.45 saturation of ammonium sulfate. It activated constituent amino acids including D-leucine by ATP- 32 PPi exchange reaction, but hardly activated L-serine, D-valine, and formyl L-valine. (Kobatake, H.)

  16. Pili of oral Streptococcus sanguinis bind to fibronectin and contribute to cell adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okahashi, Nobuo; Nakata, Masanobu; Sakurai, Atsuo; Terao, Yutaka; Hoshino, Tomonori; Yamaguchi, Masaya; Isoda, Ryutaro; Sumitomo, Tomoko; Nakano, Kazuhiko; Kawabata, Shigetada; Ooshima, Takashi

    2010-01-08

    Streptococcus sanguinis is a predominant bacterium in the human oral cavity and occasionally causes infective endocarditis. We identified a unique cell surface polymeric structure named pili in this species and investigated its functions in regard to its potential virulence. Pili of S. sanguinis strain SK36 were shown to be composed of three distinctive pilus proteins (PilA, PilB, and PilC), and a pili-deficient mutant demonstrated reduced bacterial adherence to HeLa and human oral epithelial cells. PilC showed a binding ability to fibronectin, suggesting that pili are involved in colonization by this species. In addition, ATCC10556, a standard S. sanguinis strain, was unable to produce pili due to defective pilus genes, which indicates a diversity of pilus expression among various S. sanguinis strains. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Asymptomatic cattle naturally infected with Mycobacterium bovis present exacerbated tissue pathology and bacterial dissemination.

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    Álvaro Menin

    Full Text Available Rational discovery of novel immunodiagnostic and vaccine candidate antigens to control bovine tuberculosis (bTB requires knowledge of disease immunopathogenesis. However, there remains a paucity of information on the Mycobacterium bovis-host immune interactions during the natural infection. Analysis of 247 naturally PPD+ M. bovis-infected cattle revealed that 92% (n = 228 of these animals were found to display no clinical signs, but presented severe as well as disseminated bTB-lesions at post-mortem examination. Moreover, dissemination of bTB-lesions positively correlated with both pathology severity score (Spearman r = 0.48; p<0.0001 and viable tissue bacterial loads (Spearman r = 0.58; p = 0.0001. Additionally, granuloma encapsulation negatively correlated with M. bovis growth as well as pathology severity, suggesting that encapsulation is an effective mechanism to control bacterial proliferation during natural infection. Moreover, multinucleated giant cell numbers were found to negatively correlate with bacterial counts (Spearman r = 0.25; p = 0.03 in lung granulomas. In contrast, neutrophil numbers in the granuloma were associated with increased M. bovis proliferation (Spearman r = 0.27; p = 0.021. Together, our findings suggest that encapsulation and multinucleated giant cells control M. bovis viability, whereas neutrophils may serve as a cellular biomarker of bacterial proliferation during natural infection. These data integrate host granuloma responses with mycobacterial dissemination and could provide useful immunopathological-based biomarkers of disease severity in natural infection with M. bovis, an important cattle pathogen.

  18. Genetic diversity and antigenicity variation of Babesia bovis merozoite surface antigen-1 (MSA-1) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattiyapong, Muncharee; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Takemae, Hitoshi; Simking, Pacharathon; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2016-07-01

    Babesia bovis, an intraerythrocytic protozoan parasite, causes severe clinical disease in cattle worldwide. The genetic diversity of parasite antigens often results in different immune profiles in infected animals, hindering efforts to develop immune control methodologies against the B. bovis infection. In this study, we analyzed the genetic diversity of the merozoite surface antigen-1 (msa-1) gene using 162 B. bovis-positive blood DNA samples sourced from cattle populations reared in different geographical regions of Thailand. The identity scores shared among 93 msa-1 gene sequences isolated by PCR amplification were 43.5-100%, and the similarity values among the translated amino acid sequences were 42.8-100%. Of 23 total clades detected in our phylogenetic analysis, Thai msa-1 gene sequences occurred in 18 clades; seven among them were composed of sequences exclusively from Thailand. To investigate differential antigenicity of isolated MSA-1 proteins, we expressed and purified eight recombinant MSA-1 (rMSA-1) proteins, including an rMSA-1 from B. bovis Texas (T2Bo) strain and seven rMSA-1 proteins based on the Thai msa-1 sequences. When these antigens were analyzed in a western blot assay, anti-T2Bo cattle serum strongly reacted with the rMSA-1 from T2Bo, as well as with three other rMSA-1 proteins that shared 54.9-68.4% sequence similarity with T2Bo MSA-1. In contrast, no or weak reactivity was observed for the remaining rMSA-1 proteins, which shared low sequence similarity (35.0-39.7%) with T2Bo MSA-1. While demonstrating the high genetic diversity of the B. bovis msa-1 gene in Thailand, the present findings suggest that the genetic diversity results in antigenicity variations among the MSA-1 antigens of B. bovis in Thailand. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Whole genome sequencing of the monomorphic pathogen Mycobacterium bovis reveals local differentiation of cattle clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasserre, Moira; Fresia, Pablo; Greif, Gonzalo; Iraola, Gregorio; Castro-Ramos, Miguel; Juambeltz, Arturo; Nuñez, Álvaro; Naya, Hugo; Robello, Carlos; Berná, Luisa

    2018-01-02

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) poses serious risks to animal welfare and economy, as well as to public health as a zoonosis. Its etiological agent, Mycobacterium bovis, belongs to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), a group of genetically monomorphic organisms featured by a remarkably high overall nucleotide identity (99.9%). Indeed, this characteristic is of major concern for correct typing and determination of strain-specific traits based on sequence diversity. Due to its historical economic dependence on cattle production, Uruguay is deeply affected by the prevailing incidence of Mycobacterium bovis. With the world's highest number of cattle per human, and its intensive cattle production, Uruguay represents a particularly suited setting to evaluate genomic variability among isolates, and the diversity traits associated to this pathogen. We compared 186 genomes from MTBC strains isolated worldwide, and found a highly structured population in M. bovis. The analysis of 23 new M. bovis genomes, belonging to strains isolated in Uruguay evidenced three groups present in the country. Despite presenting an expected highly conserved genomic structure and sequence, these strains segregate into a clustered manner within the worldwide phylogeny. Analysis of the non-pe/ppe differential areas against a reference genome defined four main sources of variability, namely: regions of difference (RD), variable genes, duplications and novel genes. RDs and variant analysis segregated the strains into clusters that are concordant with their spoligotype identities. Due to its high homoplasy rate, spoligotyping failed to reflect the true genomic diversity among worldwide representative strains, however, it remains a good indicator for closely related populations. This study introduces a comprehensive population structure analysis of worldwide M. bovis isolates. The incorporation and analysis of 23 novel Uruguayan M. bovis genomes, sheds light onto the genomic diversity of this

  20. Effect of pasteurization on the decay of Mycobacterium bovis in milk cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia de Andrade Rodrigues

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Milk cream must be pasteurized in order to be sold in Brazil. However, there are no specific legal requirements for this product, and producers set their own pasteurization parameters using the ones approved for milk as a reference. Considering that fat protects bacteria from heat, that no thermal inactivation studies have been performed on Mycobacterium bovis present in cream, and that bovine tuberculosis is endemic in Brazil, the aim of this study was to evaluate the inactivation of M. bovis in milk cream subjected to commercial parameters of pasteurization. Milk cream samples were contaminated and pasteurized in a water bath at 75, 80, 85, and 90°C for 5 and 15 s. M. bovis cells were plated onto Stonebrink-Leslie medium, incubated at 36°C for 45 days, and quantified; the result was expressed in log CFU mL-1. The fat content of the samples ranged from 34% to 37% and the average initial load of M. bovis was 8.0 Log CFU mL-1. The average decay of the M. bovis populations was 4.0, 4.3, 4.9 and 6.7 log CFU mL-1 when the cream was incubated for 15 sec at 75, 80, 85 and 90°C, respectively, showing that the efficiency of the heat treatment was improved by increasing the temperature of the process. Given the lipophilic nature of M. bovis, the cream should be subjected to more intense parameters of pasteurization than those applied to milk.

  1. Detection of Babesia bovis carrier cattle by using polymerase chain reaction amplification of parasite DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrimal, Y; Goff, W L; Jasmer, D P

    1992-01-01

    Carrier cattle infected with Babesia bovis are difficult to detect because of the low numbers of parasites that occur in peripheral blood. However, diagnosis of low-level infections with the parasite is important for evaluating the efficacies of vaccines and in transmission and epidemiological studies. We used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify a portion of the apocytochrome b gene from the parasite and tested the ability of this method to detect carrier cattle. The target sequence is associated with a 7.4-kb DNA element in undigested B. bovis genomic DNA (as shown previously), and the amplified product was detected by Southern and dot blot hybridization. The assay was specific for B. bovis, since no amplification was detected with Babesia bigemina, Trypanosoma brucei, Anaplasma marginale, or leukocyte DNA. The target sequence was amplified in DNA from B. bovis Mexico, Texas, and Australia S and L strains, demonstrating the applicability of the method to strains from different geographic regions. The sensitivity of the method ranged from 1 to 10 infected erythrocytes extracted from 0.5 ml of blood. This sensitivity was about 1,000 times greater than that from the use of unamplified parasite DNA. By the PCR method, six B. bovis carrier cattle were detected 86% of the time (range, 66 to 100%) when they were tested 11 times, while with microscopic examination of thick blood smears, the same carrier cattle were detected only 36% of the time (range, 17 to 66%). The method provides a useful diagnostic tool for detecting B. bovis carrier cattle, and the sensitivity is significantly improved over that of current methods. The results also suggest that characteristics of the apocytchrome b gene may make this a valuable target DNA for PCR-based detection of other hemoparasites. Images PMID:1624551

  2. Evaluation the virulence of Mycobacterium bovis isolated from milk samples through histopathological study in laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saqur, I M; Al-Thwani, A N; Al-Attar, I M; Al-Mashhadani, M S

    2016-12-01

    Mycobacterium bovis has a broad host range, and it is the principal agent responsible for tuberculosis (TB) in bovine, domestic and wild mammals. M. bovis also infects human, causing zoonotic TB through ingestion, inhalation and, less frequently by contact with mucous membranes and broken skin. Zoonotic TB was formerly an endemic disease, usually transmitted to man by consumption of raw cow's milk. It is indistinguishable clinically or pathologically from TB caused by M. tuberculosis. The aims of this study were, to isolate and identified M. bovis from raw milk samples by different methods, and evaluate the virulence of M. bovis in laboratory animals (Rabbit). To conduct the study, ninety three cow's milk samples were collected from farms around Baghdad governorate. The decontamination of milk samples was firstly carried out, then samples were subjected to routine tests which include, direct smear for Ziehl Neelsen acid fast stain, culture, each sample was cultured on Lowenstein Jensen media with Sodium pyruvite (All cultures incubated on 37°C for 4-10weeks with continuous observation), and biochemical testes as Nitrate reduction test, Niacin paper strip test and pyrazinamidase test, were employed to diagnose and identified the bacteria. Beside molecular assay was used to confirm the identification of the isolates by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) using specific primers for M. bovis. The virulence of these isolates were investigated through inoculate it in group of laboratory animals consist of 8 rabbit in addition to other group of 4 animals as control (inoculate with Phosphate Buffer Saline). The animals were scarified after 6weeks of inoculation, post- mortem examination was carried out, smears were taken from lesions, and tissue samples were collected from lymph nodes and different organs. The results revealed five isolates of M. bovis in direct smear by acid fast Ziehl-Neelsen stain, while eight isolates observed by culture, the colonies appeared with

  3. Standardization and application of indirect ELISA for diagnosis of Mycoplasma bovis in bovine blood serum samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Moraes Cunha de Mesquita

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Mesquita S.M.C., Mansur F.J., Nascimento E.R., Barreto M.L. & Kimura L.M.S. [Standardization and application of indirect ELISA for diagnosis of Mycoplasma bovis in bovine blood serum samples.] Padroniza- ção e aplicação de ELISA indireto para diagnóstico de Mycoplasma bovis em amostras de soro sanguíneo bovino. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(2:101-107, 2015. Universidade Federal Fluminense, Faculdade de Veteriná- ria, Rua Vital Brazil Filho, 64, Vital Brazil, Niterói, RJ 24230-340, Brasil. E-mail: samira.veterinaria@gmail.com International researchers presented results indicating frequent involvement of Mycoplasma spp. as a causative agent of mastitis in cattle, associating its presence with significant economic losses to farmers. Mycoplasma bovis is the species most reported and relevant, because it causes more severe disease. The level of antibodies against M. bovis remains high for several months and can be detected by ELISA. The aim of this work was to develop an indirect ELISA with whole cell antigen of M. bovis (strain Donetta PG 45 with subsequent application in bovine blood serum samples for detection of antibodies against M. bovis. The immunization of cows A and B by inoculating an immunogen against M. bovis to obtain hyperimmune blood serum was the first stage of this work, then the stage of standardization of ELISA was proceeded. The concentration of 2 mg of antigen/mL for coating the microtiter plates was decided by statistical analyses. The optical density value 0,2 was determined as the limit of reactivity discrimination of samples (the cut-off point. The hyperimmune blood serum sample of the cow A (collected 30 days after immunization was chosen as the positive control and, the fetal calf serum was chosen as negative control of the assay. In addition, the ideal optimal dilutions found for blood serum samples was 1:400 and for conjugate was 1:10.000 and the substrate used was the ortho

  4. Differences in the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Moraxella bovis, M. bovoculi and M. ovis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maboni, Grazieli; Gressler, Leticia T.; Espindola, Julia P.; Schwab, Marcelo; Tasca, Caiane; Potter, Luciana; de Vargas, Agueda Castagna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the differences in the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Moraxella bovis, M. bovoculi and M. ovis. Thirty-two strains of Moraxella spp. isolated from cattle and sheep with infectious keratoconjunctivitis were tested via broth microdilution method to determine their susceptibility to ampicillin, cefoperazone, ceftiofur, cloxacillin, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, gentamicin, neomycin, oxytetracycline and penicillin. The results demonstrated that Moraxella spp. strains could be considered sensitive for most of the antimicrobials tested in this study, but differences between the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of these three Moraxella species were found. M. bovis might differ from other species due to the higher MIC and MBC values it presented. PMID:26273272

  5. Isolation and identification of Mycobacterium bovis in milk from cows in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelson Marcolino Ramos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Milk samples from 16 cows that tested positive on the tuberculin test in the state of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil, were used for mycobacteria isolation and identification. Mycobacteria were isolated from five (31.25% of the 16 milk samples; three samples were classified as M. bovis, and two as belonging to the Mycobacterium genus. This is probably the first study of isolation and identification of M. bovis in milk from cows in Northeastern Brazil, which suggests that humans are at risk of contamination by ingestion.

  6. Human Tuberculosis Caused by Mycobacterium bovis in the United States, 2006-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Colleen; Cavanaugh, Joseph S; Pratt, Robert; Silk, Benjamin J; LoBue, Philip; Moonan, Patrick K

    2016-09-01

    Using genotyping techniques that have differentiated Mycobacterium bovis from Mycobacterium tuberculosis since 2005, we review the epidemiology of human tuberculosis caused by M. bovis in the United States and validate previous findings nationally. All tuberculosis cases with a genotyped M. tuberculosis complex isolate reported during 2006-2013 in the United States were eligible for analysis. We used binomial regression to identify characteristics independently associated with M. bovis disease using adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). During 2006-2013, the annual percentages of tuberculosis cases attributable to M. bovis remained consistent nationally (range, 1.3%-1.6%) among all tuberculosis cases (N = 59 273). Compared with adults 25-44 years of age, infants aged 0-4 years (aPR, 1.9 [95% CI, 1.4-2.8]) and children aged 5-14 years (aPR, 4.0 [95% CI, 3.1-5.3]) had higher prevalences of M. bovis disease. Patients who were foreign-born (aPR, 1.4 [95% CI, 1.2-1.7]), Hispanic (aPR, 3.9 [95% CI, 3.0-5.0]), female (aPR, 1.4 [95% CI, 1.3-1.6]), and resided in US-Mexico border counties (aPR, 2.0 [95% CI, 1.7-2.4]) also had higher M. bovis prevalences. Exclusively extrapulmonary disease (aPR, 3.7 [95% CI, 3.3-4.2]) or disease that was both pulmonary and extrapulmonary (aPR, 2.4 [95% CI, 2.1-2.9]) were associated with a higher prevalence of M. bovis disease. Children, foreign-born persons, Hispanics, and females are disproportionately affected by M. bovis, which was independently associated with extrapulmonary disease. Targeted prevention efforts aimed at Hispanic mothers and caregivers are warranted. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  7. Characterisation of the nitrile biocatalytic activity of rhodococcus rhodochrous ATCC BAA-870

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Frederick, J

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available rhodochrous ATCC BAA-870, was explored. The biocatalyst expressed a two enzyme system with sequential nitrile-converting activity: nitrile hydratase and amidase. This biocatalytic nitrile hydrolysis affords valuable applications in industry, including...

  8. Effects of macro nutrient concentration on biological N2 fixation by Azotobacter vinelandii ATCC 12837

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liew Pauline Woan Ying; Nazalan Najimudin; Jong Bor Chyan; Latiffah Noordin; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim; Amir Hamzah Ahmad Ghazali

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic changes of biological N 2 fixation by Azotobacter vinelandii ATCC 12837 under the influence of various macro nutrients, specifically phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), was investigated. In this attempt, Oryza sativa L. var. MR 219 was used as the model plant. Results obtained showed changes in the biological N 2 fixation activities with different macro nutrient(s) manipulations. The research activity enables optimisation of macro nutrients concentration for optimal/ enhanced biological N 2 fixation by A. vinelandii ATCC 12837. (author)

  9. Streptococcus tangierensis sp. nov. and Streptococcus cameli sp. nov., two novel Streptococcus species isolated from raw camel milk in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Zaina; Vandamme, Peter; Ouadghiri, Mouna; Cnockaert, Margo; Aerts, Maarten; Elfahime, El Mostafa; Farricha, Omar El; Swings, Jean; Amar, Mohamed

    2015-02-01

    Biochemical and molecular genetic studies were performed on two unidentified Gram-stain positive, catalase and oxidase negative, non-hemolytic Streptococcus-like organisms recovered from raw camel milk in Morocco. Phenotypic characterization and comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing demonstrated that the two strains were highly different from each other and that they did not correspond to any recognized species of the genus Streptococcus. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed the unidentified organisms each formed a hitherto unknown sub-line within the genus Streptococcus, displaying a close affinity with Streptococcus moroccensis, Streptococcus minor and Streptococcus ovis. DNA G+C content determination, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and biochemical tests demonstrated the bacterial isolates represent two novel species. Based on the phenotypic distinctiveness of the new bacteria and molecular genetic evidence, it is proposed to classify the two strains as Streptococcus tangierensis sp. nov., with CCMM B832(T) (=LMG 27683(T)) as the type strain, and Streptococcus cameli sp. nov., with CCMM B834(T) (=LMG 27685(T)) as the type strain.

  10. Comparative analysis of innate immune responses to Streptococcus phocae strains in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Soraya; Oliver, Cristian; Yáñez, Alejandro J; Avendaño-Herrera, Ruben

    2016-04-01

    Streptococcus phocae subsp. salmonis is a Gram-positive bacterium that causes mortality only in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farmed in Chile, even when this species is co-cultured with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). This susceptibility could be determined by innate immune response components and their responses to bacterial infection. This fish pathogen shares subspecies status with Streptococcus phocae subsp. phocae isolated from seals. The present study compared innate immune system mechanisms in Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout when challenged with different S. phocae, including two isolates from Atlantic salmon (LM-08-Sp and LM-13-Sp) and two from seal (ATCC 51973(T) and P23). Streptococcus phocae growth was evaluated in the mucus and serum of both species, with rainbow trout samples evidencing inhibitory effects. Lysozyme activity supported this observation, with significantly higher (p trout serum and mucus as compared to Atlantic salmon. No differences were found in phagocytic capacity between fish species when stimulated with ATCC 51973(T) and P23. Against all S. phocae strains, rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon showed up to two-fold increased bactericidal activity, and rainbow trout demonstrated up to three-fold greater reactive oxygen species production in macrophages. In conclusion, the non-specific humoral and cellular barriers of Atlantic salmon were immunologically insufficient against S. phocae subsp. salmonis, thereby facilitating streptococcosis. Moreover, the more robust response of rainbow trout to S. phocae could not be attributed to any specific component of the innate immune system, but was rather the consequence of a combined response by the evaluated components. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Estudo do efeito in vitro de extratos do rizoma de Dorstenia asaroides Hook. sobre fatores cariogênicos de Streptococcus mutans

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Eduardo Mendes D\\'Angelis

    2011-01-01

    Dorstenia asaroides Hook. é um erva perene, conhecida como carapiá, utilizada na medicina popular contra uma variedade de enfermidades. Este estudo teve como objetivo obter e caracterizar o perfil fitoquímico de frações orgânicas (hexânica, acetato e clorofórmica) do extrato de rizomas de D. asaroides, bem como avaliar o efeito in vitro sobre Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 (multiplicação, potencial acidogênico e biofilme) e analisar a citotoxicidade destas frações. Os extratos estudados fora...

  12. Multiple lung abscesses caused by Streptococcus constellatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanina Rognoni

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite numerous descriptions of body abscesses produced by Streptococcus milleri group bacteria, lung abscesses caused by this group remain under-reported and the clinical and laboratory features have yet to be fully characterised. We present the case of a patient admitted with lung multiple abscesses produced by Streptococcus constellatus.

  13. Group A Streptococcus vulvovaginitis in breastfeeding women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahangdale, Lisa; Lacy, Judith; Hillard, Paula A

    2008-08-01

    Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus-associated vulvovaginitis is uncommon in adult women. Clinicians should include group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus as a possible cause of vulvovaginal symptoms in breastfeeding women. Along with appropriate antibiotic therapy, vaginal estrogen therapy may be considered to diminish susceptibility to recurrent infection in women with vaginal atrophy.

  14. Streptococcus suis meningitis, a poacher's risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halaby, T.; Hoitsma, E.; Hupperts, R.; Spanjaard, L.; Luirink, M.; Jacobs, J.

    2000-01-01

    Streptococcus suis infection is a zoonosis that has been mainly reported in pig-rearing and pork-consuming countries. The most common disease manifestation is meningitis, often associated with cochleovestibular signs. The causative agent is Streptococcus suis serotype 2, found as a commensal in the

  15. Evaluation of pathogenesis caused in cattle and guinea pig by a Mycobacterium bovis strain isolated from wild boar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Rienzo Julio

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many regions of the world, wild mammals act as reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis, a situation that prevents the eradication of bovine tuberculosis. In order to observe whether a strain isolated from a wild boar, previously tested as highly virulent in a mice model, is also virulent in cattle, we performed cattle experimental inoculation with this strain Results Groups of Friesian calves were either infected with the wild boar strain M. bovis 04-303 or with the bovine strain NCTC10772 as a control. We found that antigen-specific IFN-γ release in whole blood samples occurred earlier in animals infected with M. bovis 04-303. Both M. bovis strains resulted in a positive skin test, with animals infected with the wild boar isolate showing a stronger response. These results and the presence of more severe organ lesions, with granuloma and pneumonic areas in cattle demonstrate that the wild boar isolate is more virulent than the NCTC10772 strain. Additionally, we tested the infectivity of the M. bovis strains in guinea pigs and found that M. bovis 04-303 had the highest pathogenicity. Conclusions M. bovis strains isolated from wild boars may be pathogenic for cattle, producing TB lesions.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria isolated from bekasam against staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, escherichia coli ATCC 25922, and salmonella sp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Melia; Suryanto, Dwi; Yurnaliza

    2018-03-01

    Bekasam is an Indonesian fermented food made of fish. As a fermented food, this food may contain some beneficial bacteria like lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which usually have antimicrobial properties such as organic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and a bacteriocin. A study on antimicrobial activity of LAB isolated from bekasam against some pathogenic bacteria has been conducted. The purpose of this study was to know the ability of crude bacteriocin produced LAB of bekasam against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, and Salmonella sp. Bekasam sample was taken from South Sumatera. LAB isolation was done using de Man Rogosa and Sharpe agar. A bacterial colony with clear zone was selected and purified to get a single colony. The antagonistic assay of the LAB was conducted in Muller-Hinton agar Selected isolates with higher clearing zone were assayed for antibacterial effect of their crude bacteriocin of different culture incubation time of 6, 9, and 12 hours. The results showed that the crude extract bacteriocin of isolate MS2 of 9 hours culture incubation time inhibited more in Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 with inhibition zone of 13.1 mm, whereas isolate MS9 of 9 hours culture incubation time inhibited more in Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Salmonella sp. with inhibition zone of 12.7 and 7.3 mm, respectively.

  17. Antimicrobial Activity of Truncated and Polyvalent Peptides Derived from the FKCRRQWQWRMKKGLA Sequence against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataly de Jesús Huertas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Peptides derived from LfcinB were designed and synthesized, and their antibacterial activity was tested against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. Specifically, a peptide library was constructed by systemically removing the flanking residues (N or C-terminal of Lfcin 17–31 (17FKCRRWQWRMKKLGA31, maintaining in all peptides the 20RRWQWR25 sequence that corresponds to the minimal antimicrobial motif. For this research, also included were (i a peptide containing an Ala instead of Cys ([Ala19]-LfcinB 17–31 and (ii polyvalent peptides containing the RRWQWR sequence and a non-natural amino acid (aminocaproic acid. We established that the lineal peptides LfcinB 17–25 and LfcinB 17–26 exhibited the greatest activity against E. coli ATCC 25922 and S. aureus ATCC 25923, respectively. On the other hand, polyvalent peptides, a dimer and a tetramer, exhibited the greatest antibacterial activity, indicating that multiple copies of the sequence increase the activity. Our results suggest that the dimeric and tetrameric sequence forms potentiate the antibacterial activity of lineal sequences that have exhibited moderate antibacterial activity.

  18. Production and evaluation of antibodies and phage display-derived peptide ligands for immunomagnetic separation of Mycobacterium bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Linda D; McNair, James; McCallan, Lyanne; Thompson, Suzan; Kulakov, Leonid A; Grant, Irene R

    2012-05-01

    This study describes the development and optimization of an immunomagnetic separation (IMS) method to isolate Mycobacterium bovis cells from lymph node tissues. Gamma-irradiated whole M. bovis AF2122/97 cells and ethanol-extracted surface antigens of such cells were used to produce M. bovis-specific polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies in rabbits and mice. They were also used to generate M. bovis-specific peptide ligands by phage display biopanning. The various antibodies and peptide ligands obtained were used to coat MyOne tosyl-activated Dynabeads (Life Technologies), singly or in combination, and evaluated for IMS. Initially, M. bovis capture from Middlebrook 7H9 broth suspensions (concentration range, 10 to 10(5) CFU/ml) was evaluated by IMS combined with an M. bovis-specific touchdown PCR. IMS-PCR results and, subsequently, IMS-culture results indicated that the beads with greatest immunocapture capability for M. bovis in broth were those coated simultaneously with a monoclonal antibody and a biotinylated 12-mer peptide. These dually coated beads exhibited minimal capture (mean of 0.36% recovery) of 12 other Mycobacterium spp. occasionally encountered in veterinary tuberculosis (TB) diagnostic laboratories. When the optimized IMS method was applied to various M. bovis-spiked lymph node matrices, it demonstrated excellent detection sensitivities (50% limits of detection of 3.16 and 57.7 CFU/ml of lymph node tissue homogenate for IMS-PCR and IMS-culture, respectively). The optimized IMS method therefore has the potential to improve isolation of M. bovis from lymph nodes and hence the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis.

  19. Evaluation of an ELISA kit in the serological diagnosis of Babesia bovis for epidemiological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, J.R.; Correa, B.L.; Cereser, V.H.; Artiles, J.M.; Alves-Branco, F.P.J.

    1998-01-01

    An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit for detect antibodies to Babesia bovis, an intraerytrocitic bovine parasite was evaluated using known negative and positive samples and the results were compared with an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Results obtained with field samples were used to estimate seroprevalence of B. bovis in an endemic area to the cattle tick (Boophilus microplus) vector of bovine babesiosis. Percentage of positivity (PP) values (optical density of tested serum/mean optical density of positive control) on 274 negative samples, had major values ranged in the frequency of 4.0 to 7.0 PP. Comparison between ELISA and IFAT showed an agreement of 93.3% on field sera samples, collected in areas of low, good and high soil fertility in the region of Bage (31 degree 20 min 13 sec S, 54 degree 06 min 21 sec W), RS, Brazil. From 5,082 tested sera, 3,751 (73%) were positive for B. bovis antibodies. No significant difference (P>0.05) was observed between results from calves living in areas of low and good soil fertility (80 and 82% of seroprevalence, respectively). However, calves living in soil of high fertility showed a minor inoculation rate for B. bovis (63% of seroprevalence), indicating needs of measures to prevent losses due to babesiosis. (author)

  20. Experimental aerosol inoculation of Mycobacterium bovis in North American opossums (Didelphis virginiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Scott D; Zwick, Laura S; Diegel, Kelly L; Berry, Dale E; Church, Steven V; Sikarskie, James G; Kaneene, John B; Reed, Willie M

    2003-04-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of North American opossums (Didelphis virginiana) to aerosol inoculation of Mycobacterium bovis at two dose levels in order to gain information on disease pathogenesis, fecal shedding of the organism, and the potential role that opossums play in the spread of this disease in nature. Six opossums received high dose (1 x 10(7) colony forming units (cfu) by aerosol inoculation, six opossums received low dose (1 x 10(3) cfu inoculation, and six opossums were sham-inoculated with sterile water and served as controls. Lungs were the most frequently infected tissues, with nine of 12 inoculated opossums positive for M. bovis on culture. Gross lesions consisted of multifocal pneumonia and enlarged lymph nodes. Microscopically, granulomatous pneumonia and granulomatous lymphadenitis associated with acid-fast bacilli were present in eight of 12 inoculated opossums. Fecal shedding of M. bovis was uncommon at both inoculation doses. While opossums were highly susceptible to aerosol inoculation of M. bovis, they did not become emaciated or develop widely disseminated lesions. From this study, opossums may transmit tuberculosis by aerosol infection to other opossums in close contact and serve as a source of infection to carnivores that feed upon them, however, transmission of the disease to large herbivores by fecal shedding or direct contact may be less likely.

  1. Antigen-Specific IP-10 Release Is a Sensitive Biomarker of Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven D C Parsons

    Full Text Available The most widely used ante-mortem diagnostic tests for tuberculosis in cattle are the tuberculin skin test and the interferon-gamma (IFN-γ release assay, both of which measure cell-mediated immune responses to Mycobacterium bovis infection. However, limitations in the performance of these tests results in a failure to identify all infected animals. In attempting to increase the range of diagnostic tests for tuberculosis, measurement of the cytokine IP-10 in antigen-stimulated blood has previously been shown to improve the detection of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis infection, in humans and African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer, respectively. In the present study, 60 cattle were identified by the single intradermal comparative tuberculin test as tuberculosis reactors (n = 24 or non-reactors (n = 36 and the release of IFN-γ and IP-10 in antigen-stimulated whole blood from these animals was measured using bovine specific ELISAs. There was a strong correlation between IP-10 and IFN-γ production in these samples. Moreover, measurement of the differential release of IP-10 in response to stimulation with M. bovis purified protein derivative (PPD and M. avium PPD distinguished between reactor and non-reactor cattle with a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI, 86%-100% and a specificity of 97% (95% CI, 85%-100%. These results suggest that IP-10 might prove valuable as a diagnostic biomarker of M. bovis infection in cattle.

  2. Association of microRNAs with antibody response to mycoplasma bovis in beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to identify microRNAs associated with a serum antibody response to Mycoplasma bovis in beef cattle. Serum from sixteen beef calves was collected at three points: in summer after calves were born, in fall at weaning, and in the following spring. All sera collected in t...

  3. Molecular detection of natural Babesia bovis infection from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and crossbred cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmmod, Yasser

    2013-01-01

    PCR identified 29 (85.3%). B. bovis infected animals showed high fever, anaemia, jaundice, haemoglobinuria, and accelerated heart and respiratory rates. Out of 15 animals clinically infected, PCR identified 14 animals (93.3%) as infected while ME identified only, 8 animals (53.3%). Out of 19 animals...

  4. Relative virulence in bison and cattle of bison-associated genotypes of Mycoplasma bovis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background. Mycoplasma bovis is a cause of respiratory disease in cattle and the bacterium most frequently isolated from bovine respiratory disease complex. It has recently emerged as a major health problem in bison, causing pharyngitis, pneumonia, arthritis, dystocia and abortion. In cattle, M. b...

  5. Virulent Mycobacterium bovis Beijing Strain Activates the NLRP7 Inflammasome in THP-1 Macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhou

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of tuberculosis in a wide range of mammals, including humans. Macrophages are the first line of host defense. They secrete proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β, in response to mycobacterial infection, but the underlying mechanisms by which human macrophages are activated and release IL-1β following M. bovis infection are poorly understood. Here we show that the 'nucleotide binding and oligomerization of domain-like receptor (NLR family pyrin domain containing 7 protein' (NLRP7 inflammasome is involved in IL-1β secretion and caspase-1 activation induced by M. bovis infection in THP-1 macrophages. NLRP7 inflammasome activation promotes the induction of pyroptosis as well as the expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, Chemokine (C-C motif ligand 3 (CCL3 and IL-1β mRNAs. Thus, the NLRP7 inflammasome contributes to IL-1β secretion and induction of pyroptosis in response to M. bovis infection in THP-1 macrophages.

  6. Isolation of Moraxella bovis from frozen bovine semen and determination of microbial load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandhi, Abhishek; Sharma, Mandeep; Dhar, Prasenjit

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, isolation of Moraxella bovis was done from the microbiological examination of frozen semen straws from clinically healthy twelve Jersey and one Jersey-cross bull supplied by a semen laboratory. The organism was identified on the basis of colonial morphology and biochemical c...

  7. Mycobacterium bovis and Other Uncommon Members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Jaime; Muñoz-Egea, Maria-Carmen

    2016-12-01

    Since its discovery by Theobald Smith, Mycobacterium bovis has been a human pathogen closely related to animal disease. At present, M. bovis tuberculosis is still a problem of importance in many countries and is considered the main cause of zoonotic tuberculosis throughout the world. Recent development of molecular epidemiological tools has helped us to improve our knowledge about transmission patterns of this organism, which causes a disease indistinguishable from that caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Diagnosis and treatment of this mycobacterium are similar to those for conventional tuberculosis, with the important exceptions of constitutive resistance to pyrazinamide and the fact that multidrug-resistant and extremely drug-resistant M. bovis strains have been described. Among other members of this complex, Mycobacterium africanum is the cause of many cases of tuberculosis in West Africa and can be found in other areas mainly in association with immigration. M. bovis BCG is the currently available vaccine for tuberculosis, but it can cause disease in some patients. Other members of the M. tuberculosis complex are mainly animal pathogens with only exceptional cases of human disease, and there are even some strains, like "Mycobacterium canettii," which is a rare human pathogen that could have an important role in the knowledge of the evolution of tuberculosis in the history.

  8. Measuring bovine gamma delta T cell function at the site of Mycobacterium bovis infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine gamma delta T cells are amongst the first cells to accumulate at the site of Mycobacterium bovis infection; however, their role in the developing lesion remains unclear. We utilized transcriptomics analysis, in situ hybridization, and a macrophage/gamma delta T cell co-culture system to eluc...

  9. Mycobacterium bovis infection in a young Dutch adult : transmission from an elderly human source?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Onno; van der Loo, Kees; Nijmeijer, Dirk; van der Werf, Tjip; Mulder, Bert; Kremer, Kristin; van Soolingen, Dick; van der Zanden, Adri

    A young female health professional was diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis. Source finding and contact tracing was initiated by the regional municipal health service using both tuberculin skin test and QuantiFERON(A (R))-TB Gold (QFT-GIT (IGRA). The strain appeared

  10. The Experimental Study of Safety and Efficacy in Using Bovis Calculus Pharmacopuncture Solution as Eye Drop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeongsik Seo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This experimental study was performed to investigate the safety and efficacy of Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution manufactured with freezing dryness method to use eye drop. To identify the use of it as eye drop, the eye irritation test of rabbits and the antibacterial test of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, and Candida albicans were performed. Methods : 1. The eye irritation test of this material was performed according to the Regulation of Korea Food & Drug Administration(2005. 10. 21, KFDA 2005-60. After Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution was administered in the left eye of the rabbits, eye irritation of the cornea, iris and conjunctiva was observed at 1, 2, 3, 4 & 7day. 2. After administering Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution on bacterial species(Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Candida albicans which cause Keratitis, MIC(Minimum Inhibition Concentration and the size of inhibition zone were measured. Anti-bacterial potency was also measured using the size of inhibition zone. Results : 1. After Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution was administered in the left eye of the rabbits, it was found that none of nine rabbits have abnormal signs and weight changes. 2. After Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution was medicated in the left eye of the rabbits, no eye irritation of the cornea, iris and conjunctiva was observed at 1, 2, 3, 4 & 7day. 3. There was no response to MIC on bacterial species (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Candida albicans after Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution was medicated. Conclusions : The present study suggests that Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution is a nontoxic and non-irritant medicine, which does not cause eye irritation in

  11. Intradermal tuberculin testing of wild African lions (Panthera leo) naturally exposed to infection with Mycobacterium bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keet, D F; Michel, A L; Bengis, R G; Becker, P; van Dyk, D S; van Vuuren, M; Rutten, V P M G; Penzhorn, B L

    2010-08-26

    African lions in the southern half of Kruger National Park (KNP) are infected with Mycobacterium bovis. Historically, reliable detection of mycobacteriosis in lions was limited to necropsy and microbiological analysis of lesion material collected from emaciated and ailing or repeat-offender lions. We report on a method of cervical intradermal tuberculin testing of lions and its interpretation capable of identifying natural exposure to M. bovis. Infected lions (n=52/95) were identified by detailed necropsy and mycobacterial culture. A large proportion of these confirmed infected lions (45/52) showed distinct responses to bovine tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) while responses to avian tuberculin PPD were variable and smaller. Confirmed uninfected lions from non-infected areas (n=11) responded variably to avian tuberculin PPD only. Various non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) were cultured from 45/95 lions examined, of which 21/45 were co-infected with M. bovis. Co-infection with M. bovis and NTM did not influence skin reactions to bovine tuberculin PPD. Avian tuberculin PPD skin reactions were larger in M. bovis-infected lions compared to uninfected ones. Since NTM co-infections are likely to influence the outcome of skin testing, stricter test interpretation criteria were applied. When test data of bovine tuberculin PPD tests were considered on their own, as for a single skin test, sensitivity increased (80.8-86.5%) but false positive rate for true negatives (18.75%) remained unchanged. Finally, the adapted skin test procedure was shown not to be impeded by persistent Feline Immunodeficiency Virus(Ple) co-infection. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Using msa-2b as a molecular marker for genotyping Mexican isolates of Babesia bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genis, Alma D; Perez, Jocelin; Mosqueda, Juan J; Alvarez, Antonio; Camacho, Minerva; Muñoz, Maria de Lourdes; Rojas, Carmen; Figueroa, Julio V

    2009-12-01

    Variable merozoite surface antigens of Babesia bovis are exposed glycoproteins having a role in erythrocyte invasion. Members of this gene family include msa-1 and msa-2 (msa-2c, msa-2a(1), msa-2a(2) and msa-2b). To determine the sequence variation among B. bovis Mexican isolates using msa-2b as a genetic marker, PCR amplicons corresponding to msa-2b were cloned and plasmids carrying the corresponding inserts were purified and sequenced. Comparative analysis of nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences revealed distinct degrees of variability and identity among the coding gene sequences obtained from 16 geographically different Mexican B. bovis isolates and a reference strain. Clustal-W multiple alignments of the MSA-2b deduced amino acid sequences performed with the 17 B. bovis Mexican isolates, revealed the identification of three genotypes with a distinct set each of amino acid residues present at the variable region: Genotype I represented by the MO7 strain (in vitro culture-derived from the Mexico isolate) as well as RAD, Chiapas-1, Tabasco and Veracruz-3 isolates; Genotype II, represented by the Jalisco, Mexico and Veracruz-2 isolates; and Genotype III comprising the sequences from most of the isolates studied, Tamaulipas-1, Chiapas-2, Guerrero-1, Nayarit, Quintana Roo, Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas-2, Yucatan and Guerrero-2. Moreover, these three genotypes could be discriminated against each other by using a PCR-RFLP approach. The results suggest that occurrence of indels within the variable region of msa-2b sequences can be useful markers for identifying a particular genotype present in field populations of B. bovis isolated from infected cattle in Mexico.

  13. Diversity of Babesia bovis merozoite surface antigen genes in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattiyapong, Muncharee; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Ybanez, Adrian Patalinghug; Ybanez, Rochelle Haidee Daclan; Perez, Zandro Obligado; Guswanto, Azirwan; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2014-02-01

    Babesia bovis is the causative agent of fatal babesiosis in cattle. In the present study, we investigated the genetic diversity of B. bovis among Philippine cattle, based on the genes that encode merozoite surface antigens (MSAs). Forty-one B. bovis-positive blood DNA samples from cattle were used to amplify the msa-1, msa-2b, and msa-2c genes. In phylogenetic analyses, the msa-1, msa-2b, and msa-2c gene sequences generated from Philippine B. bovis-positive DNA samples were found in six, three, and four different clades, respectively. All of the msa-1 and most of the msa-2b sequences were found in clades that were formed only by Philippine msa sequences in the respective phylograms. While all the msa-1 sequences from the Philippines showed similarity to those formed by Australian msa-1 sequences, the msa-2b sequences showed similarity to either Australian or Mexican msa-2b sequences. In contrast, msa-2c sequences from the Philippines were distributed across all the clades of the phylogram, although one clade was formed exclusively by Philippine msa-2c sequences. Similarities among the deduced amino acid sequences of MSA-1, MSA-2b, and MSA-2c from the Philippines were 62.2-100, 73.1-100, and 67.3-100%, respectively. The present findings demonstrate that B. bovis populations are genetically diverse in the Philippines. This information will provide a good foundation for the future design and implementation of improved immunological preventive methodologies against bovine babesiosis in the Philippines. The study has also generated a set of data that will be useful for futher understanding of the global genetic diversity of this important parasite. © 2013.

  14. Risk of Mycoplasma bovis transmission from contaminated sand bedding to naive dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D J; Justice-Allen, A; Goodell, G; Baldwin, T J; Skirpstunas, R T; Cavender, K B

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the possible transmission of Mycoplasma bovis from positive sand bedding to naïve dairy calves. Twelve preweaned Holstein bull calves were blocked in pairs and randomly assigned as unexposed controls (n=6) bedded with control sand, or exposed calves (n=6) bedded with sand previously positive for M. bovis at a dairy farm. Bedding sand was cultured weekly. Nasal and ear swabs and sera were collected weekly, tracheal swabs were collected monthly, and by the end of the 105-d study, all calves were euthanized (n=10) or died (n=2). Sera were tested for M. bovis-specific antibody. Mycoplasma spp. culture was performed on nasal and ear swabs; culture and a PCR differentiating multiple Mycoplasma spp. were performed on postmortem samples of lung, retropharyngeal lymph node, and trachea from each calf. A complete necropsy also was performed. During 6 wk, mycoplasma concentration in exposed group sand was between 200 and 32,000 cfu/g. All 166 tracheal swabs, nasal and ear swabs, and postmortem tests from all calves were negative for mycoplasma. All 94 sera were negative for M. bovis-specific antibody. No gross pathology suggestive of mycoplasma disease was detected. The probability of mycoplasma detection, if an exposed calf had become infected 4 wk after exposure, ranged between 97 and 99% depending on time of exposure for individual calves. There was no evidence that sand bedding contaminated with M. bovis might serve as a source of transmission to naïve dairy calves. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of Macromolecular Biosynthesis on Cellular Autolysis in Streptococcus faecalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayare, Mitchel; Daneo-Moore, Lolita; Shockman, Gerald D.

    1972-01-01

    The addition of several different antibiotics to growing cultures of Streptococcus faecalis, ATCC 9790, was found to inhibit autolysis of cells in sodium phosphate buffer. When added to exponential-phase cultures, mitomycin C (0.4 μg/ml) or phenethyl alcohol (3 mg/ml) inhibited deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis, but did not appreciably affect the rate of cellular autolysis. Addition of chloramphenicol (10 μg/ml), tetracycline (0.5 μg/ml), puromycin (25 μg/ml), or 5-azacytidine (5 μg/ml) to exponential-phase cultures inhibited protein synthesis and profoundly decreased the rate of cellular autolysis. Actinomycin D (0.075 μg/ml) and rifampin (0.01 μg/ml), both inhibitors of ribonucleic acid (RNA) synthesis, also reduced the rate of cellular autolysis. However, the inhibitory effect of actinomycin D and rifampin on cellular autolysis was more closely correlated with their concomitant secondary inhibition of protein synthesis than with the more severe inhibition of RNA synthesis. The dose-dependent inhibition of protein synthesis by 5-azacytidine was quickly diluted out of a growing culture. Reversal of inhibition was accompanied by a disproportionately rapid increase in the ability of cells to autolyze. Thus, inhibition of the ability of cells to autolyze can be most closely related to inhibition of protein synthesis. Furthermore, the rapidity of the response of cellular autolysis to inhibitors of protein synthesis suggests that regulation is exerted at the level of autolytic enzyme activity and not enzyme synthesis. PMID:4116754

  16. Effects of Lectins on initial attachment of cariogenic Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takashi; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Shiota, Yasuyoshi; Ito, Yuki; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Takashiba, Shogo

    2018-02-01

    Oral bacteria initiate biofilm formation by attaching to tooth surfaces via an interaction of a lectin-like bacterial protein with carbohydrate chains on the pellicle. This study aimed to find naturally derived lectins that inhibit the initial attachment of a cariogenic bacterial species, Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), to carbohydrate chains in saliva in vitro. Seventy kinds of lectins were screened for candidate motifs that inhibit the attachment of S. mutans ATCC 25175 to a saliva-coated culture plate. The inhibitory effect of the lectins on attachment of the S. mutans to the plates was quantified by crystal violet staining, and the biofilm was observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis was performed to examine the binding of S. mutans to carbohydrate chains and the binding of candidate lectins to carbohydrate chains, respectively. Moreover, binding assay between the biotinylated-lectins and the saliva components was conducted to measure the lectin binding. Lectins recognizing a salivary carbohydrate chain, Galβ1-3GalNAc, inhibited the binding of S. mutans to the plate. In particular, Agaricus bisporus agglutinin (ABA) markedly inhibited the binding. This inhibition was confirmed by SEM observation. SPR analysis indicated that S. mutans strongly binds to Galβ1-3GalNAc, and ABA binds to Galβ1-3GalNAc. Finally, the biotinylated Galβ1-3GalNAc-binding lectins including ABA demonstrated marked binding to the saliva components. These results suggest that ABA lectin inhibited the attachment of S. mutans to Galβ1-3GalNAc in saliva and ABA can be useful as a potent inhibitor for initial attachment of oral bacteria and biofilm formation.

  17. Experimental Aerosol Inoculation and Investigation of Potential Lateral Transmission of Mycobacterium bovis in Virginia Opossum (Didelphis virginiana)

    OpenAIRE

    Fenton, Karla A.; Fitzgerald, Scott D.; Bolin, Steve; Kaneene, John; Sikarskie, James; Greenwald, Rena; Lyashchenko, Konstantin

    2012-01-01

    An endemic focus of Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) infection in the state of Michigan has contributed to a regional persistence in the animal population. The objective of this study was to determine if Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) contribute to disease persistence by experimentally assessing intraspecies lateral transmission. One wild caught pregnant female opossum bearing 11 joeys (young opossum) and one age-matched joey were obtained for the study. Four joeys were aerosol inocul...

  18. Heterogeneity in cytokine profiles of Babesia bovis-specific bovine CD4+ T cells clones activated in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, W C; Woods, V M; Dobbelaere, D A; Logan, K S

    1993-01-01

    The central role of T cells in the immune response against hemoprotozoan parasites, both as helper cells for T cell-dependent antibody production and as effector cells acting on intracellular parasites through the elaboration of cytokines, has prompted an investigation of the bovine cellular immune response against Babesia bovis antigens. CD4+ T helper (Th) cell clones generated from four B. bovis-immune cattle by in vitro stimulation with a soluble or membrane-associated merozoite antigen we...

  19. Whole genome sequencing of Mycobacterium bovis to obtain molecular fingerprints in human and cattle isolates from Baja California, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarai Estrella Sandoval-Azuara

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: All isolates from humans had spoligotype patterns that matched those observed in the cattle isolates, and all human isolates shared common ancestors with cattle in Baja California based on SNP analysis. This suggests that most human tuberculosis caused by M. bovis in Baja California is derived from M. bovis circulating in Baja California cattle. These results reinforce the importance of bovine tuberculosis surveillance and control in this region.

  20. Cloning, expression, and purification of recombinant protein MPT-64 from a virulent strain of Mycobacterium bovis in a prokaryotic system

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Mohammadi Tashakkori; Majid Tebianian; Mohammad Tabatabaei; Nader Mosavari

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Tuberculosis (TB) is a zoonotic infectious disease common to humans and animals that is caused by the rod-shaped acid-fast bacterium Mycobacterium bovis. Rapid and sensitive detection of TB is promoted by specific antigens. Virulent strains of the TB complex from M. bovis contain 16 regions of difference (RD) in their genome that encode important proteins, including major protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis 64 (MBT-64, which is a primary immune-stimulating antigen encoded by RD-2...

  1. Improved detection of Mycobacterium bovis infection in bovine lymph node tissue using immunomagnetic separation (IMS-based methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda D Stewart

    Full Text Available Immunomagnetic separation (IMS can selectively isolate and concentrate Mycobacterium bovis cells from lymph node tissue to facilitate subsequent detection by PCR (IMS-PCR or culture (IMS-MGIT. This study describes application of these novel IMS-based methods to test for M. bovis in a survey of 280 bovine lymph nodes (206 visibly lesioned (VL, 74 non-visibly lesioned (NVL collected at slaughter as part of the Northern Ireland bovine TB eradication programme. Their performance was evaluated relative to culture. Overall, 174 (62.1% lymph node samples tested positive by culture, 162 (57.8% by IMS-PCR (targeting IS6110, and 191 (68.2% by IMS-MGIT culture. Twelve (6.9% of the 174 culture positive lymph node samples were not detected by either of the IMS-based methods. However, an additional 79 M. bovis positive lymph node samples (27 (13.1% VL and 52 (70.3% NVL were detected by the IMS-based methods and not by culture. When low numbers of viable M. bovis are present in lymph nodes (e.g. in NVLs of skin test reactor cattle decontamination prior to culture may adversely affect viability, leading to false negative culture results. In contrast, IMS specifically captures whole M. bovis cells (live, dead or potentially dormant which are not subject to any deleterious treatment before detection by PCR or MGIT culture. During this study only 2.7% of NVL lymph nodes tested culture positive, whereas 70.3% of the same samples tested M. bovis positive by the IMS-based tests. Results clearly demonstrate that not only are the IMS-based methods more rapid but they have greater detection sensitivity than the culture approach currently used for the detection of M. bovis infection in cattle. Adoption of the IMS-based methods for lymph node testing would have the potential to improve M. bovis detection in clinical samples.

  2. Experimental Aerosol Inoculation and Investigation of Potential Lateral Transmission of Mycobacterium bovis in Virginia Opossum (Didelphis virginiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Karla A; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Bolin, Steve; Kaneene, John; Sikarskie, James; Greenwald, Rena; Lyashchenko, Konstantin

    2012-01-01

    An endemic focus of Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) infection in the state of Michigan has contributed to a regional persistence in the animal population. The objective of this study was to determine if Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) contribute to disease persistence by experimentally assessing intraspecies lateral transmission. One wild caught pregnant female opossum bearing 11 joeys (young opossum) and one age-matched joey were obtained for the study. Four joeys were aerosol inoculated with M. bovis (inoculated), four joeys were noninoculated (exposed), and four joeys plus the dam were controls. Four replicate groups of one inoculated and one exposed joey were housed together for 45 days commencing 7 days after experimental inoculation. At day 84 opossums were sacrificed. All four inoculated opossums had a positive test band via rapid test, culture positive, and gross/histologic lesions consistent with caseogranulomatous pneumonia. The exposed and control groups were unremarkable on gross, histology, rapid test, and culture. In conclusion, M. bovis infection within the inoculated opossums was confirmed by gross pathology, histopathology, bacterial culture, and antibody tests. However, M. bovis was not detected in the control and exposed opossums. There was no appreciable lateral transmission of M. bovis after aerosol inoculation and 45 days of cohabitation between infected and uninfected opossums.

  3. Experimental Aerosol Inoculation and Investigation of Potential Lateral Transmission of Mycobacterium bovis in Virginia Opossum (Didelphis virginiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla A. Fenton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An endemic focus of Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis infection in the state of Michigan has contributed to a regional persistence in the animal population. The objective of this study was to determine if Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana contribute to disease persistence by experimentally assessing intraspecies lateral transmission. One wild caught pregnant female opossum bearing 11 joeys (young opossum and one age-matched joey were obtained for the study. Four joeys were aerosol inoculated with M. bovis (inoculated, four joeys were noninoculated (exposed, and four joeys plus the dam were controls. Four replicate groups of one inoculated and one exposed joey were housed together for 45 days commencing 7 days after experimental inoculation. At day 84 opossums were sacrificed. All four inoculated opossums had a positive test band via rapid test, culture positive, and gross/histologic lesions consistent with caseogranulomatous pneumonia. The exposed and control groups were unremarkable on gross, histology, rapid test, and culture. In conclusion, M. bovis infection within the inoculated opossums was confirmed by gross pathology, histopathology, bacterial culture, and antibody tests. However, M. bovis was not detected in the control and exposed opossums. There was no appreciable lateral transmission of M. bovis after aerosol inoculation and 45 days of cohabitation between infected and uninfected opossums.

  4. Generation of transgenic cattle expressing human β-defensin 3 as an approach to reducing susceptibility to Mycobacterium bovis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Feng; Wang, Yongsheng; Liu, Guanghui; Ru, Kun; Liu, Xin; Yu, Yuan; Liu, Jun; Wu, Yongyan; Quan, Fusheng; Guo, Zekun; Zhang, Yong

    2016-03-01

    Bovine tuberculosis results from infection with Mycobacterium bovis, a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis family. Worldwide, M. bovis infections result in economic losses in the livestock industry; cattle production is especially hard-hit by this disease. Generating M. bovis-resistant cattle may potentially mitigate the impact of this disease by reducing M. bovis infections. In this study, we used transgenic somatic cell nuclear transfer to generate cattle expressing the gene encoding human β-defensin 3 (HBD3), which confers resistance to mycobacteria in vitro. We first generated alveolar epithelial cells expressing HBD3 under the control of the bovine MUC1 promoter, and confirmed that these cells secreted HBD3 and possessed anti-mycobacterial capacity. We then generated and identified transgenic cattle by somatic cell nuclear transfer. The cleavage and blastocyst formation rates of genetically modified embryos provided evidence that monoclonal transgenic bovine fetal fibroblast cells have an integral reprogramming ability that is similar to that of normal cells. Five genetically modified cows were generated, and their anti-mycobacterial capacities were evaluated. Alveolar epithelial cells and macrophages from these cattle expressed higher levels of HBD3 protein compared with non-transgenic cells and possessed effective anti-mycobacterial capacity. These results suggest that the overall risk of M. bovis infection in transgenic cattle is efficiently reduced, and support the development of genetically modified animals as an effective tool to reduce M. bovis infection. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  5. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Mycobacterium bovis Infection in African Lions ( Panthera leo ) in the Kruger National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, Tashnica Taime; Martin, Laura Elizabeth Rosen; Buss, Peter; Loxton, Andre Gareth; Hausler, Guy Anton; Rossouw, Leana; van Helden, Paul; Parsons, Sven David Charles; Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Miller, Michele Ann

    2017-04-01

    Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (BTB), is endemic in the Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa. African lions ( Panthera leo ) are susceptible to BTB, but the impact of the disease on lion populations is unknown. In this study, we used a novel gene expression assay for chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 (CXCL9) to measure the prevalence of M. bovis infection in 70 free-ranging lions that were opportunistically sampled in the southern and central regions of the KNP. In the southern region of the KNP, the apparent prevalence of M. bovis infection was 54% (95% confidence interval [CI]=36.9-70.5%), compared with 33% (95% CI=18.0-51.8%) in the central region, an important difference (P=0.08). Prevalence of M. bovis infection in lions showed similar patterns to estimated BTB prevalence in African buffaloes ( Syncerus caffer ) in the same areas. Investigation of other risk factors showed a trend for older lions, males, or lions with concurrent feline immunodeficiency virus infection to have a higher M. bovis prevalence. Our findings demonstrate that the CXCL9 gene expression assay is a useful tool for the determination of M. bovis status in free-ranging lions and identifies important epidemiologic trends for future studies.

  6. Development of a Gene Expression Assay for the Diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis Infection in African Lions (Panthera leo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, T T; Viljoen, I M; Hofmeyr, J; Hausler, G A; Goosen, W J; Tordiffe, A S W; Buss, P; Loxton, A G; Warren, R M; Miller, M A; van Helden, P D; Parsons, S D C

    2017-06-01

    Mycobacterium bovis infection, the cause of bovine tuberculosis (BTB), is endemic in wildlife in the Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa. In lions, a high infection prevalence and BTB mortalities have been documented in the KNP; however, the ecological consequences of this disease are currently unknown. Sensitive assays for the detection of this infection in this species are therefore required. Blood from M. bovis-exposed, M. bovis-unexposed, M. tuberculosis-exposed and M. bovis-infected lions was incubated in QuantiFERON ® -TB Gold (QFT) tubes containing either saline or ESAT-6/CFP-10 peptides. Using qPCR, selected reference genes were evaluated for expression stability in these samples and selected target genes were evaluated as markers of antigen-dependent immune activation. The abundance of monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG/CXCL9) mRNA, measured in relation to that of YWHAZ, was used as a marker of ESAT-6/CFP-10 sensitization. The gene expression assay results were compared between lion groups, and lenient and stringent diagnostic cut-off values were calculated. This CXCL9 gene expression assay combines a highly specific stimulation platform with a sensitive diagnostic marker that allows for discrimination between M. bovis-infected and M. bovis-uninfected lions. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Prevalence of pathogens from Mollicutes class in cattle affected by respiratory diseases and molecular characteristics of Mycoplasma bovis field strains

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    Szacawa Ewelina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mycoplasma bovis is one of the main pathogens involved in cattle pneumonia. Other mycoplasmas have also been directly implicated in respiratory diseases in cattle. The prevalence of different Mycoplasma spp. in cattle affected by respiratory diseases and molecular characteristics of M. bovis field strains were evaluated. Material and Methods: In total, 713 nasal swabs from 73 cattle herds were tested. The uvrC gene fragment was amplified by PCR and PCR products were sequenced. PCR/DGGE and RAPD were performed. Results: It was found that 39 (5.5% samples were positive for M. bovis in the PCR and six field strains had point nucleotide mutations. Additionally, the phylogenetic analysis of 20 M. bovis field strains tested with RAPD showed two distinct groups of M. bovis strains sharing only 3.8% similarity. PCR/DGGE analysis demonstrated the presence of bacteria belonging to the Mollicutes class in 79.1% of DNA isolates. The isolates were identified as: Mycoplasma bovirhinis, M. dispar, M. bovis, M. canis, M. arginini, M. canadense, M. bovoculi, M. alkalescens, and Ureaplasma diversum. Conclusion: Different Mycoplasma spp. strains play a crucial role in inducing respiratory diseases in cattle.

  8. Oral vaccination of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell V Palmer

    Full Text Available Wildlife reservoirs of Mycobacterium bovis represent serious obstacles to the eradication of tuberculosis from livestock, particularly cattle. In Michigan, USA tuberculous white-tailed deer transmit M. bovis to other deer and cattle. One approach in dealing with this wildlife reservoir is to vaccinate deer, thus interfering with the intraspecies and interspecies transmission cycles. Thirty-three white-tailed deer were assigned to one of two groups; oral vaccination with 1 × 10(8 colony-forming units of M. bovis BCG Danish (n = 17; and non-vaccinated (n = 16. One hundred eleven days after vaccination deer were infected intratonsilarly with 300 colony-forming units of virulent M. bovis. At examination, 150 days after challenge, BCG vaccinated deer had fewer gross and microscopic lesions, fewer tissues from which M. bovis could be isolated, and fewer late stage granulomas with extensive liquefactive necrosis. Fewer lesions, especially those of a highly necrotic nature should decrease the potential for dissemination of M. bovis within the host and transmission to other susceptible hosts.

  9. A dominant lineage of Mycoplasma bovis is associated with an increased number of severe mastitis cases in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürki, Sibylle; Spergser, Joachim; Bodmer, Michèle; Pilo, Paola

    2016-11-30

    Mycoplasma bovis is the most frequent etiologic agent of bovine mycoplasmosis. It causes various diseases in bovines and considerable economic loss due to the lack of effective treatment or preventive measures such as vaccination. In contrast to the US, where M. bovis-mastitis has been reported for a long time, M. bovis infections in Switzerland and Austria were predominantly associated with pneumonia and subclinical mastitis. However, since 2007 the situation has changed with the emergence of severe M. bovis-associated mastitis cases in both countries. In order to evaluate the molecular epidemiology of the bacteria isolated from these infections, recent and old Swiss, along with recent Austrian M. bovis isolates were analyzed by a typing method displaying intermediate resolution of evolutionary relationships among isolates called Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST). The analysis of Swiss and Austrian M. bovis isolates revealed two major lineages. Isolates collected since 2007 in both countries cluster in the lineage I including ST5, ST33, ST34, 36, and ST38-40 (clonal complex 1), while all Swiss isolates recovered before 2007 cluster in the lineage II comprising ST17 and ST35 (clonal complex 5). Further investigations are necessary to understand if lineage I has a higher predilection or virulence toward mammary gland cells than the old lineage or if other factors are involved in the increased number of severe mastitis cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A PCR method targeting internal transcribed spacers: the simultaneous detection of Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junlong; Guan, Guiquan; Liu, Aihong; Li, Youquan; Yin, Hong; Luo, Jianxun

    2014-03-01

    In this study, two pairs of oligonucleotide primers were designed according to the nucleotide sequence of the internal transcribed spacers (ITSs) of Babesia bigemina and B. bovis isolates from China. The primers were used in a multiplex PCR to detect parasite DNA in blood samples from cattle. There was no cross reactions with B. ovata, B. major, B. sp. Kashi, Theileria annulata, T. sergenti, T. sinensis or normal bovine DNA. The sensitivity of multiplex PCR assay was 1 pg and 10 pg DNA for B. bigemina and B. bovis, respectively. A total of 260 field blood samples collected from cattle in five provinces of China were analyzed by multiplex PCR and light microscopy. PCR testing revealed that 7.3% (19/260) and 5.8% (15/260) of cattle were positive for B. bigemina and B. bovis and 1.2% (3/260) of cattle were co-infected with B. bigemina and B. bovis. Using light microscopy, 2.3% (6/260) and 1.5% (4/260) of cattle were infected by B. bigemina and B. bovis, respectively, and no co-infection was found. The results showed that the multiplex PCR developed in the present study could be an alternative diagnostic tool for the detection of B. bovis and B. bigemina infection in cattle.

  11. Human Mycobacterium bovis infection in the south-west of Ireland 1983-1992: a comparison with M. tuberculosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cotter, T P

    2012-02-03

    Epidemiological and bacteriological aspects of human Mycobacterium bovis disease were investigated in south-west Ireland (counties Cork & Kerry, population 536,000) over the years 1983-92 inclusive and compared to M. tuberculosis. Results showed a small, stable incidence of culture positive M. bovis human disease, mean annual incidence 0.56 per 100,000 population compared to a higher but declining incidence of culture positive M. tuberculosis (15.3 per 100,000 in 1983, 9.0 per 100,000 in 1992). Male patients were the majority, 63.4 per cent of M. bovis; 62.4% of M. tuberculosis (p = 0.03). Fifty three per cent of M. bovis cases (n = 30) were pulmonary, compared to 85% of M. tuberculosis (n = 626; p = 0.0001). M. bovis patients were older (p = 0.02), mean age 58.4 years (SD 18.9) compared to 48.5 (SD 22.2). The mycobacterial smear positive rate was similar in both groups taken as a whole. No rural-urban difference in incidence was found in either disease, suggesting in the case of M. bovis initial infection in childhood via contaminated milk in the pre-pasteurisation era.

  12. Occurrence, isolation and DNA identification of Streptococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-28

    Nov 28, 2011 ... Streptococcus thermophilus involved in Algerian ... among reference, and wild strains of S. thermophilus and for their differentiation from Enterococcus spp. ..... Isolation and characterization of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp.

  13. streptococcus pneumoniae , klebsiella pneumoniae proteus vulgaris

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2-20mm) on Streptococcus pneumoniae and Proteus vulgaris when compared to the ... The result from this preliminary study suggests that the plant contains active compounds that .... Veterinary and Medical Laboratory Technology, Vom,. Jos.

  14. Streptococcus pneumoniae urinary tract infection in pedeatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pougnet, Richard; Sapin, Jeanne; De Parscau, Loïc; Pougnet, Laurence

    2017-06-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae infections in children are most often lung infections or meningitis. Urinary tract infections are much rarer. We present the case of a urinary tract infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae. The clinical picture was classical. The urine culture showed the presence of Streptococcus pneumoniae in urine (10 4 UFC/mL; with 2 × 10 4 leucocytes/mL). The literature mentions a few cases of such infections. In some studies, the prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae in urine of children is less than 1%. Those children mostly present abnormalities of urinary tract. In our case, urinary ultrasound scan have shown the presence of an ectopic kidney in this child. The discussion between the clinician and the biologist has contributed to the discovery of this renal anomaly.

  15. Role of Streptococcus Anginosus on the formation of dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yetty Herdiyati Nonong

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Generally, the etiology of dental caries is the cariogenic properties of bacteria, these are always associated with Streptococcus mutans. Glucosyltransferase fragment (Gtf are also in other strains of Streptococcus such as Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus milleri which includes beta hemolysis. Genotypically B Streptococcus anginosus has genetic characteristics that are similar to Streptococcus mutans. The research objective was to determine the existence of Gtf B/C gene as a cause of caries in Streptococcus anginosus. The study was conducted in experimental laboratories with PCR technique by taking a sample of 20 children who had caries. The results showed there was the amplification of Streptococcus anginosus with a level of homology 96%, 97%, and 99%. The results of the Gtf genes amplification fragment B/C provided 600 pb ribbon. The conclusion was Streptococcus anginosus classified as cariogenic bacteria because they had Gtf B/C genes.

  16. Aortitis with bacteraemia by Streptococcus equi Zooepidemicus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betancur, Carlos Alberto; Giraldo, Juan David; Saldarriaga Eugenia Lucia

    2005-01-01

    Infections by Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus occur in animals. In human beings these infections are generally accidental, and few cases have been reported. We present the case of a 56-year-old male, a butcher, who presented with abdominal pain. Aneurismatic dilatation of the aorta below the renal arteries was documented by CT-scanning. A purulent collection and arterial ulceration were found during surgery; Streptococcus equi zooepidemicus was isolated from the collection and from blood cultures

  17. Draft Genome Sequences of Sanguibacteroides justesenii, gen. nov., sp. nov., Strains OUH 308042T (= ATCC BAA-2681T) and OUH 334697 (= ATCC BAA-2682), Isolated from Blood Cultures from Two Different Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sydenham, Thomas Vognbjerg; Hasman, Henrik; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz

    2015-01-01

    We announce here the draft genome sequences of Sanguibacteroides justesenii, gen. nov., sp. nov., strains OUH 308042T (= DSM 28342T = ATCC BAA-2681T) and OUH 334697 (= DSM 28341 = ATCC BAA-2682), isolated from blood cultures from two different patients and composed of 51 and 39 contigs for totals...

  18. Recommended conservation of the names Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus rattus, Streptococcus cricetus, and seven other names included in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Request for an opinion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilian, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    With reference to the first Principle of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria, which emphasizes stability of names, it is proposed that the original names Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus rattus, Streptococcus cricetus, Erwinia ananas, Eubacterium tarantellus, Lactobacillus sake......, Nitrosococcus oceanus, Pseudomonas betle, Rickettsia canada and Streptomyces rangoon, all included in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names, be conserved. Request for an Opinion...

  19. Prevalence and comparison of Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus in raw and fermented dairy products from East and West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jans, Christoph; Kaindi, Dasel Wambua Mulwa; Böck, Désirée; Njage, Patrick Murigu Kamau; Kouamé-Sina, Sylvie Mireille; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo

    2013-10-15

    Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius (Sii) and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus are members of the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) associated with human infections. SBSEC-related endocarditis was furthermore associated with rural residency in Southern Europe. SBSEC members are increasingly isolated as predominant species from fermented dairy products in Europe, Asia and Africa. African variants of Sii displayed dairy adaptations to lactose metabolism paralleling those of Streptococcus thermophilus including genome decay. In this study, the aim was to assess the prevalence of Sii and possibly other SBSEC members in dairy products of East and West Africa in order to identify their habitat, estimate their importance in dairy fermentation processes and determine geographic areas affected by this potential health risk. Presumptive SBSEC members were isolated on semi-selective M17 and SM agar media. Subsequent genotypic identification of isolates was based on rep-PCR fingerprinting and SBSEC-specific16S rRNA gene PCR assay. Detailed identification was achieved through application of novel primers enhancing the binding stringency in partial groES/groEL gene amplification and subsequent DNA sequencing. The presence of S. thermophilus-like lacS and lacZ genes in the SBSEC isolates was determined to elucidate the prevalence of this dairy adaptation. Isolates (n = 754) were obtained from 72 raw and 95 fermented milk samples from Côte d'Ivoire and Kenya on semi-selective agar media. Colonies of Sii were not detected from raw milk despite high microbial titers of approximately 10(6)CFU/mL on M17 agar medium. However, after spontaneous milk fermentation Sii was genotypically identified in 94.1% of Kenyan samples and 60.8% of Kenyan isolates. Sii prevalence in Côte d'Ivoire displayed seasonal variations in samples from 32.3% (June) to 40.0% (Dec/Jan) and isolates from 20.5% (June) to 27.7% (Dec/Jan) present at titers of 10

  20. Differences in the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Moraxella bovis, M. bovoculi and M. ovis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazieli Maboni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the differences in the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Moraxella bovis, M. bovoculi and M. ovis. Thirty-two strains of Moraxella spp. isolated from cattle and sheep with infectious keratoconjunctivitis were tested via broth microdilution method to determine their susceptibility to ampicillin, cefoperazone, ceftiofur, cloxacillin, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, gentamicin, neomycin, oxytetracycline and penicillin. The results demonstrated that Moraxella spp. strains could be considered sensitive for most of the antimicrobials tested in this study, but differences between the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of these three Moraxella species were found. M. bovis might differ from other species due to the higher MIC and MBC values it presented.

  1. Protection of sheep against Schistosoma bovis using cryopreserved radiation-attenuated schistosomula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, E.R.; Dobinson, A.R.; Andrews, B.J.; Bickle, Q.D.; Taylor, M.G.; Ham, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    Three sheep were vaccinated with two doses of 3 krad-irradiated cryopreserved Schistosoma bovis schistosomula containing 20,000 and 17,000 organisms respectively, injected intramuscularly 23 days apart after storage in liquid nitrogen for between 9 and 46 days. A challenge of 5360 S. bovis cercariae was administered percutaneously approximately four weeks after the last vaccine dose to these animals and to three controls. Post-challenge the vaccinated animals gained significantly more weight (27% v. 9%), produced fewer eggs in their faeces, showed a smaller reduction in PCV values (-18% v. -27%) and were over-all in better condition than control animals. At perfusion 49.1% fewer adult worms were found in the vaccinated sheep than in controls. The tissue egg burdens were similar in both groups. Histopathologically both groups were similar except that fewer and smaller egg lesions were observed in the livers of vaccinated animals. (author)

  2. A space-time analysis of Mycoplasma bovis: bulk tank milk antibody screening results from all Danish dairy herds in 2013-2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arede, Margarida; Nielsen, Per Kantsø; Ahmed, Syed Sayeem Uddin

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is an important pathogen causing severe disease outbreaks in cattle farms. Since 2011, there has been an apparent increase in M. bovis outbreaks among Danish dairy cattle herds. The dairy cattle industry performed cross-sectional antibody screening for M. bovis on four occasions...... population throughout the study period. Repeated bulk tank milk samples were used as a proxy for the herd-level diagnosis. Descriptive and spatial analyses were performed for the four screening rounds. Based on a previous diagnostic test evaluation study, the M. bovis status for each herd was determined...

  3. Penetration of Streptococcus sobrinus and Streptococcus sanguinis into dental enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneist, Susanne; Nietzsche, Sandor; Küpper, Harald; Raser, Gerhard; Willershausen, Brita; Callaway, Angelika

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to assess the difference in virulence of acidogenic and aciduric oral streptococci in an in vitro caries model using their penetration depths into dental enamel. 30 caries-free extracted molars from 11- to 16-year-olds were cleaned ultrasonically for 1 min with de-ionized water and, after air-drying, embedded in epoxy resin. After 8-h of setting at room temperature, the specimens were ground on the buccal side with SiC-paper 1200 (particle size 13-16 μm). Enamel was removed in circular areas sized 3 mm in diameter; the mean depth of removed enamel was 230 ± 60 μm. 15 specimens each were incubated anaerobically under standardized conditions with 24 h-cultures of Streptococcus sanguinis 9S or Streptococcus sobrinus OMZ 176 in Balmelli broth at 37 ± 2 °C; the pH-values of the broths were measured at the beginning and end of each incubation cycle. After 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 weeks 3 teeth each were fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde in cacodylate buffer for 24 h, washed 3× and dehydrated 30-60min by sequential washes through a series of 30-100% graded ethanol. The teeth were cut in half longitudinally; afterward, two slits were made to obtain fracture surfaces in the infected area. After critical-point-drying the fragments were gold-sputtered and viewed in a scanning electron microscope at magnifications of ×20-20,000. After 10 weeks of incubation, penetration of S. sanguinis of 11.13 ± 24.04 μm below the break edges into the enamel was observed. The invasion of S. sobrinus reached depths of 87.53 ± 76.34 μm. The difference was statistically significant (paired t test: p = 0.033). The experimental penetration depths emphasize the importance of S. sanguinis versus S. sobrinus in the context of the extended ecological plaque hypothesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of the Microbispora sp. Strain ATCC-PTA-5024, Producing the Lantibiotic NAI-107

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sosio, M.; Gallo, G.; Pozzi, R.

    2014-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Microbispora sp. strain ATCC-PTA-5024, a soil isolate that produces NAI-107, a new lantibiotic with the potential to treat life-threatening infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens. The draft genome of strain Microbispora sp. ATCC...

  5. Monitoring the ethanol stress response of a sigM deletion strain of B. cereus ATCC 14579.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voort, van der M.

    2008-01-01

    Here, the role of σM and its regulon in stress response and survival of B. cereus ATCC 14579 was assessed by comparative transciptome and phenotypic analysis of this strain and its sigM deletion strain. Exposure of B. cereus ATCC 14579 to a wide range of stresses revealed expression of sigM,

  6. Analysis of Babesia bovis infection-induced gene expression changes in larvae from the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heekin Andrew M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cattle babesiosis is a tick-borne disease of cattle that has severe economic impact on cattle producers throughout the world’s tropical and subtropical countries. The most severe form of the disease is caused by the apicomplexan, Babesia bovis, and transmitted to cattle through the bite of infected cattle ticks of the genus Rhipicephalus, with the most prevalent species being Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. We studied the reaction of the R. microplus larval transcriptome in response to infection by B. bovis. Methods Total RNA was isolated for both uninfected and Babesia bovis-infected larval samples. Subtracted libraries were prepared by subtracting the B. bovis-infected material with the uninfected material, thus enriching for expressed genes in the B. bovis-infected sample. Expressed sequence tags from the subtracted library were generated, assembled, and sequenced. To complement the subtracted library method, differential transcript expression between samples was also measured using custom high-density microarrays. The microarray probes were fabricated using oligonucleotides derived from the Bmi Gene Index database (Version 2. Array results were verified for three target genes by real-time PCR. Results Ticks were allowed to feed on a B. bovis-infected splenectomized calf and on an uninfected control calf. RNA was purified in duplicate from whole larvae and subtracted cDNA libraries were synthesized from Babesia-infected larval RNA, subtracting with the corresponding uninfected larval RNA. One thousand ESTs were sequenced from the larval library and the transcripts were annotated. We used a R. microplus microarray designed from a R. microplus gene index, BmiGI Version 2, to look for changes in gene expression that were associated with infection of R. microplus larvae. We found 24 transcripts were expressed at a statistically significant higher level in ticks feeding upon a B. bovis-infected calf contrasted to ticks

  7. Functional variation of the antigen I/II surface protein in Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus intermedius

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petersen, FC; Assev, S; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ; Scheie, AA

    Although Streptococcus intermedius and Streptococcus mutans are regarded as members of the commensal microflora of the body, S. intermedius is often associated with deep-seated purulent infections, whereas S. mutans is frequently associated with dental caries. In this study, we investigated the

  8. Relation of Growth of Streptococcus lactis and Streptococcus cremoris to Amino Acid Transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poolman, Bert; Konings, Wil N.

    The maximum specific growth rate of Streptococcus lactis and Streptococcus cremoris on synthetic medium containing glutamate but no glutamine decreases rapidly above pH 7. Growth of these organisms is extended to pH values in excess of 8 in the presence of glutamine. These results can be explained

  9. Isolation of Streptococcus tigurinus - a novel member of Streptococcus mitis group from a case of periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhotre, Shree V; Mehetre, Gajanan T; Dharne, Mahesh S; Suryawanshi, Namdev M; Nagoba, Basavraj S

    2014-08-01

    Streptococcus tigurinus is a new member of the Streptococcus viridians group and is closely related to Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, Streptococcus oralis, and Streptococcus infantis. The type strain AZ_3a(T) of S. tigurinus was originally isolated from a patient with infective endocarditis. Accurate identification of S. tigurinus is facilitated only by newer molecular methods like 16S rRNA gene analysis. During the course of study on bacteraemia and infective endocarditis with reference to periodontitis and viridians group of streptococci, a strain of S. tigurinus isolated from subgingival plaque of a patient with periodontitis identified by 16S rRNA gene analysis, which was originally identified as Streptococcus pluranimalium by Vitek 2. Confirmation by 16S rRNA gene analysis showed 99.39% similarity (1476/1485 bp) with S. tigurinus AZ_3a(T) (AORU01000002). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of isolation of S. tigurinus from the oral cavity of a periodontitis patient. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The life cycle of Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina in ticks and cattle in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Ph.D. Bovine babesiosis, or redwater, is at present known to be caused by Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis in the Republic of South Africa. Until recently, however, the only information on the natural transmission of these parasites in the country was based on observations made during the early part of this century and information on the developmental cycle of the parasites in their vectors was superficial or nonexistent ...

  11. Molecular discrimination of Mycobacterium bovis in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Vivianne Cambuí Figueiredo; de Figueiredo, Salomão Cambuí; Rosales, Cesar Alejandro Rodriguez; de Hildebrand e Grisi Filho, José Henrique; Keid, Lara Borges; Soares, Rodrigo Martins; Ferreira Neto, José Soares

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis, a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, is the most common agent of cattle tuberculosis, a zoonosis that causes losses in meat and milk production in several countries. In order to support epidemiological studies aimed at controlling the disease, several methods for molecular discrimination of M. bovis isolates have recently been developed. The most frequently used are spacer oligonucleotide typing (spoligotyping), mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRU), and exact tandem repeat (ETR), but they all have different discriminatory power. In the present study, allelic diversity was calculated for each MIRU and ETR locus, and the Hunter-Gaston discriminatory index (HGI) was calculated for spoligotyping, 10 MIRUs, and 3 ETRs, in 116 isolates of M. bovis obtained from cattle. The analysis of allelic diversity indicated that MIRUs 16, 26, and 27, and ETRs A, B, and C, showed the greatest diversity between the assayed loci. The HGIs for each of the techniques were: spoligotyping=0.738381; MIRU=0.829835; and ETR=0.825337. The associations of the methods' improved discriminatory power were: spoligotyping+MIRU=0.930585; spoligotyping+ETR=0.931034; and MIRU+ETR=0.953373. The greatest discriminatory power was obtained when the three techniques were associated (HGI=0.98051). Considering the analyses of the present study, spoligotyping should be the first method to be used because it differentiates M. bovis from the other members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. As the associations of MIRU and ETR with spoligotyping resulted in nearly identical HGIs, ETR seems to be the best choice after spoligotyping, because it is faster and more economical than MIRU. Finally, MIRU should be the last method used. In spite of this finding, the choice of the method used should be based on the discriminatory power necessary for the objective at hand.

  12. Wrist Tenosynovitis due to Mycobacterium bovis Infection: Case Series and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Derviş Güner, MD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Tuberculosis infections are still one of the most important public health problems among developing countries. Musculoskeletal involvement represents 10–15% of all extrapulmonary cases. Tuberculosis tenosynovitis is usually misdiagnosed as nonspecific tenosynovitis. To avoid misdiagnosis and mistreatment, it is important to be alert for mycobacterial infections. This article presents 3 patients with wrist tenosynovitis, which was caused by Mycobacterium bovis infection. The article also includes review of the literature.

  13. Wrist Tenosynovitis due to Mycobacterium bovis Infection: Case Series and Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güner, Mehmet Derviş; Bektaş, Umut; Akmeşe, Ramazan; Armangil, Mehmet; Ay, Şadan

    2014-01-01

    Summary: Tuberculosis infections are still one of the most important public health problems among developing countries. Musculoskeletal involvement represents 10–15% of all extrapulmonary cases. Tuberculosis tenosynovitis is usually misdiagnosed as nonspecific tenosynovitis. To avoid misdiagnosis and mistreatment, it is important to be alert for mycobacterial infections. This article presents 3 patients with wrist tenosynovitis, which was caused by Mycobacterium bovis infection. The article also includes review of the literature. PMID:25587496

  14. Spoligotyping and variable number tandem repeat analysis of Mycobacterium bovis isolates from cattle in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Martins Parreiras

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We performed spoligotyping and 12-mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTRs typing to characterise Mycobacterium bovis isolates collected from tissue samples of bovines with lesions suggestive for tuberculosis during slaughter inspection procedures in abattoirs in Brazil. High-quality genotypes were obtained with both procedures for 61 isolates that were obtained from 185 bovine tissue samples and all of these isolates were identified as M. bovis by conventional identification procedures. On the basis of the spoligotyping, 53 isolates were grouped into nine clusters and the remaining eight isolates were unique types, resulting in 17 spoligotypes. The majority of the Brazilian M. bovis isolates displayed spoligotype patterns that have been previously observed in strains isolated from cattle in other countries. MIRU-VNTR typing produced 16 distinct genotypes, with 53 isolates forming eight of the groups, and individual isolates with unique VNTR profiles forming the remaining eight groups. The allelic diversity of each VNTR locus was calculated and only two of the 12-MIRU-VNTR loci presented scores with either a moderate (0.4, MIRU16 or high (0.6, MIRU26 discriminatory index (h. Both typing methods produced similar discriminatory indexes (spoligotyping h = 0.85; MIRU-VNTR h = 0.86 and the combination of the two methods increased the h value to 0.94, resulting in 29 distinct patterns. These results confirm that spoligotyping and VNTR analysis are valuable tools for studying the molecular epidemiology of M. bovis infections in Brazil.

  15. MIRU-VNTR allelic variability depends on Mycobacterium bovis clonal group identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauer, Amandine; Michelet, Lorraine; De Cruz, Krystel; Cochard, Thierry; Branger, Maxime; Karoui, Claudine; Henault, Sylvie; Biet, Franck; Boschiroli, María Laura

    2016-11-01

    The description of the population of M. bovis strains circulating in France from 1978 to 2013 has highlighted the discriminating power of the MLVA among predominant spoligotype groups. In the present study we aimed to characterize clonal groups via MLVA and to better understand the strain's population structure. MLVA was performed with eight MIRU-VNTR loci, most of them defined by the Venomyc European consortium. The discriminatory index of each MLVA loci was calculated for SB0120, SB0134, SB0121 and the "F4-family", the main spoligotype groups in France. Differences in global DI per spoligotype, but also by locus within each spoligotype, were observed, which strongly suggest the clonal complex nature of these major groups. These MLVA results were compared to those of other European countries where strain collections had been characterized (Spain, Portugal, Italy, Northern Ireland and Belgium). Overall, QUB 3232 and ETR D are respectively the most and the least discriminative loci, regardless of the strains geographical origin. However, marked DI differences are observed in the rest of the MIRU-VNTR loci, again highlighting that strain genetic variability in a country depends on the dominant existing clonal complexes. A web application for M. bovis, including spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR typing data, was developed to allow inter-laboratory comparison of field isolates. In conclusion, combination of typing methods is required for M. bovis optimum discrimination and differentiation of groups of strains. Thus, the loci employed for MLVA in a country should be those which are the most discriminative for the clonal complexes which characterize their M. bovis population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Mycobacterium bovis infection in the lion (Panthera leo): Current knowledge, conundrums and research challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, Ignatius M; van Helden, Paul D; Millar, Robert P

    2015-06-12

    Mycobacterium bovis has global public-health and socio-economic significance and can infect a wide range of species including the lion (Panthera leo) resulting in tuberculosis. Lions are classified as vulnerable under the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and have experienced a 30% population decline in the past two decades. However, no attempt has been made to collate and critically evaluate the available knowledge of M. bovis infections in lions and potential effects on population. In this review we set out to redress this. Arguments suggesting that ingestion of infected prey animals are the main route of infection for lions have not been scientifically proven and research is needed into other possible sources and routes of infection. The paucity of knowledge on host susceptibility, transmission directions and therefore host status, manifestation of pathology, and epidemiology of the disease in lions also needs to be addressed. Advances have been made in diagnosing the presence of M. bovis in lions. However, these diagnostic tests are unable to differentiate between exposure, presence of infection, or stage of disease. Furthermore, there are contradictory reports on the effects of M. bovis on lion populations with more data needed on disease dynamics versus the lion population's reproductive dynamics. Knowledge on disease effects on the lion reproduction and how additional stressors such as drought or co-morbidities may interact with tuberculosis is also lacking. Filling these knowledge gaps will contribute to the understanding of mycobacterial infections and disease in captive and wild lions and assist in lion conservation endeavours. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Successful vaccination against Boophilus microplus and Babesia bovis using recombinat antigens

    OpenAIRE

    Willadsen,P.; Kemp,D. H.; Cobon,G. S.; Wright,I. G.

    1992-01-01

    Current methods for the control of the cattle tick Boophils microplus and the agent of bovine babesiosis, Babesia bovis are unsatisfactory. Effective immunological control of both parasites would have great advantages. However, naturally acquired immunity to the tick is generally unable to prevent serious production losses. A vaccine against the tick, based on a novel form of immunization, is being developed. A protective antigen has been isolated from the tick, characterized and produced as ...

  18. Experimental inoculation of North American opossums (Didelphis virginiana) with Mycobacterium bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diegel, Kelly L; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Berry, Dale E; Church, Steven V; Reed, Willie M; Sikarskie, James G; Kaneene, John B

    2002-04-01

    Eight North American opossums (Didelphis virginiana) were inoculated with 1 x 10(5) colony forming units of Mycobacterium bovis to investigate their potential as reservoir hosts for bovine tuberculosis in Michigan. Four animals received this dose orally and four were inoculated intramuscularly (i.m.). In each group, two animals were euthanized 1 mo postinoculation (PI) and two at 2 mo PI. Four control animals were housed separately and sacrificed in the same manner as those inoculated. One of four orally inoculated opossums and three of four i.m.-inoculated opossums were positive for M. bovis by culture of tissues obtained at necropsy. The oral recipient had positive cultures from intestine and pooled lymphoid samples. Pooled lymphoid samples were positive in three i.m.-inoculated animals and two of these also had positive liver and lung cultures. One animal with gross and histologic lesions compatible with tuberculosis had negative tissue cultures. The findings suggest that opossums are susceptible to M. bovis infection by multiple routes, although their relative susceptibility compared to true reservoir hosts appears to be low.

  19. Molecular detection of Anaplasma bovis, Ehrlichia canis and Hepatozoon felis in cats from Luanda, Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana Cristina; Luz, Maria Francisca; Granada, Sara; Vilhena, Hugo; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Cardoso, Luís; Baneth, Gad

    2018-03-20

    Molecular identification of tick-borne pathogen infection in cats from Africa is scarce. The presence of bacterial (Anaplasma and Ehrlichia) and protozoal (Babesia and Hepatozoon) agents was investigated in blood samples from 102 domestic cats from Luanda, Angola, by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. Three cats (2.9%) were found infected with Ehrlichia canis, three (2.9%) with Hepatozoon felis and one (1.0%) with Anaplasma bovis. The prevalence of infections with one single agent was 4.9%, and that of infection with two agents (i.e. E. canis and H. felis) was 1.0%. In total, six cats (5.9%) were found infected with at least one of the detected tick-borne agents. This is the first report of A. bovis, E. canis and H. felis in cats from Angola. To the best of our knowledge, A. bovis is also being reported for the first time in domestic cats outside of Japan. Cats are at a low to moderate risk of being infected with tick-borne agents in Luanda.

  20. Gap analysis of Mycoplasma bovis disease, diagnosis and control: An aid to identify future development requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcutt, M J; Lysnyansky, I; Sachse, K; Fox, L K; Nicholas, R A J; Ayling, R D

    2018-05-01

    There is a worldwide problem of disease caused by Mycoplasma (M.) bovis in cattle; it has a significant detrimental economic and animal welfare impact on cattle rearing. Infection can manifest as a plethora of clinical signs including mastitis, pneumonia, arthritis, keratoconjunctivitis, otitis media and genital disorders that may result in infertility and abortion. Current diagnosis and control information are reviewed and analysed to identify gaps in knowledge of the causative organism in respect of the disease pathology, diagnosis and control methods. The main considerations are as follows: no vaccines are commercially available; antimicrobial resistance is increasing; diagnostic and antimicrobial sensitivity testing needs to be improved; and a pen-side test would facilitate more rapid diagnosis and implementation of treatment with antimicrobials. More data on host susceptibility, stress factors, immune response and infectious dose levels are required. The impact of asymptomatic carriers, M. bovis survival in the environment and the role of wildlife in transmitting the disease also needs investigation. To facilitate development of vaccines, further analysis of more M. bovis genomes, its pathogenic mechanisms, including variable surface proteins, is required, along with reproducible disease models. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Tuberculosis vaccine strain Mycobacterium bovis BCG Russia is a natural recA mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Böttger Erik C

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current tuberculosis vaccine is a live vaccine derived from Mycobacterium bovis and attenuated by serial in vitro passaging. All vaccine substrains in use stem from one source, strain Bacille Calmette-Guérin. However, they differ in regions of genomic deletions, antigen expression levels, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy. Results As a RecA phenotype increases genetic stability and may contribute restricting the ongoing evolution of the various BCG substrains while maintaining their protective efficacy, we aimed to inactivate recA by allelic replacement in BCG vaccine strains representing different phylogenetic lineages (Pasteur, Frappier, Denmark, Russia. Homologous gene replacement was achieved successfully in three out of four strains. However, only illegitimate recombination was observed in BCG substrain Russia. Sequence analyses of recA revealed that a single nucleotide insertion in the 5' part of recA led to a translational frameshift with an early stop codon making BCG Russia a natural recA mutant. At the protein level BCG Russia failed to express RecA. Conclusion According to phylogenetic analyses BCG Russia is an ancient vaccine strain most closely related to the parental M. bovis. We hypothesize that recA inactivation in BCG Russia occurred early and is in part responsible for its high degree of genomic stability, resulting in a substrain that has less genetic alterations than other vaccine substrains with respect to M. bovis AF2122/97 wild-type.

  2. Genetic diversity based on MIRU-VNTR profile of isolates of Mycobacterium bovis from Mexican cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava Vargas, Alejandro; Milián Suazo, Feliciano; Cantó Alarcón, Germinal Jorge; Rubio Venegas, Yezenia; Guerrero Solorio, Roberto; Rodríguez Hernández, Elba; Pizano Martìnez, Oscar

    2016-09-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), which affects cattle, animal species and humans. To determinate the genetic structure of strains of M. bovis in mexican cattle, 467 isolates obtained from 2009 to 2010 from different regions of Mexico with known spoligotype were included in the study. The isolates were genotyped by interspersed repeated mycobacterial units-variable number tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) obtaining 13 MIRU-VNTR groups. When combining MIRU-VNTR patterns with its spolygotypes, the Hunter genetic discrimination index (HGDI), we obtained 421 genetic patterns distributed in 17 groups. The HGDI for the total loci was 0.99. The locus that presented the higher HGDI was 2461 (0.857), while the locus with the lowest HGDI was 2686 (0.239). When we analyzed our results, using just 6 or 8 MIRU-VNTR we obtained an discriminatory power of 0.8499 and 0.8875 respectively indicating lower HGDI than 12 MIRU-VNTR locus. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma bovis isolated in Israel from local and imported cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerchman, Irena; Levisohn, Sharon; Mikula, Inna; Lysnyansky, Inna

    2009-06-12

    Monitoring of susceptibility to antibiotics in field isolates of pathogenic bovine mycoplasmas is important for appropriate choice of treatment. Our study compared in vitro susceptibility profiles of Mycoplasma bovis clinical strains, isolated during 2005-2007 from Israeli and imported calves. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined for macrolides by the microbroth dilution test, for aminoglycosides by commercial Etest, and for fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines by both methods. Notably, although correlation between the methods was generally good, it was not possible to determine the MIC endpoint for enrofloxacin-resistant strains (MIC > or =2.5 microg/ml in the microtest) by Etest. Comparison of antibiotic susceptibility profiles between local and imported M. bovis strains revealed that local strains were significantly more resistant to macrolides than most isolates from imported animals, with MIC(50) of 128 microg/ml vs. 2 microg/ml for tilmicosin and 8 microg/ml vs. 1 microg/ml for tylosin, respectively. However, local strains were more susceptible than most imported strains to fluoroquinolones and spectinomycin. Difference in susceptibility to tetracycline, doxycycline and oxytetracycline between local and imported strains was expressed in MIC(90) values for imported strains in the susceptible range compared to intermediate susceptibility for local strains. The marked difference in susceptibility profiles of M. bovis strains isolated from different geographical regions seen in this study emphasizes the necessity for performing of the antimicrobial susceptibility testing periodically and on a regional basis.

  4. Evaluation of an indirect ELISA for the diagnosis of Babesia bovis in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardozo, H.; Solari, M.A.; Etchebarne, J.

    1992-01-01

    In initially establishing the FAO/IAEA indirect ELISA for the detection of antibodies to Babesia bovis, the optical density (OD) values of sera from known positive or negative local cattle were compared to the OD values obtained from the negative and positive reference sera provided with the ELISA kit. The percentage of false positive and negative sera were 2.53% and 2.97% respectively. The cut-off values for the negative reference serum in the kit were compared with those of a local negative population. These values were found to be similar. The specificity of the test was evaluated by testing 30 sera from animals experimentally infected with Anaplasma marginale and 30 sera from animals infected with Babesia bigemina. These were no cross-reaction either between A. marginale and B. bovis or between B. bigemina and B. bovis. A serological survey using this ELISA kit was carried out on animals from an enzootic area and an area free from the vecot Boophilus microplus. 53 out of 282 animals (18.8%) in the enzootic area were positive whilst all the animals (113) from the free area were negative. This study would indicate that the FAO/IAEA ELISA kit has a sensitivity of around 98% and specificity of 97%. (author). 8 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  5. Control of mycobacterium bovis infection in two sika deer herds in ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partridge Tom

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a number of countries, tuberculosis (due to infection with Mycobacterium bovis is a significant health problem of captive deer. This paper describes outbreaks of bovine tuberculosis in sika deer (Cervus nippon on two farms in Ireland and the methods used to control the disease. On Farm A, infection was first detected during 1993. The infection was eradicated using a programme of test and removal, in association with segregation of young animals. A second outbreak (also due to infection with M. bovis, but a different RFLP profile was detected in 2002. In the latter outbreak, infection was particularly prevalent in two groups of young deer. M. bovis with the same RFLP profile was also isolated in a badger found dead on the farm. Control was achieved by test and removal in association with herd management changes. In Herd B, infection was first detected in 1995, and subsequently eradicated using test and removal alone. In Herd A, re-infection remains an ongoing risk. Control rather than eradication of infection may more realistic in the short-to medium-term.

  6. Comparative transcriptome and phenotype analysis of acid-stressed Bacillus cereus strain ATCC 14579

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, J.M.; Kranenburg, van Richard; Melis, van Clint; Moezelaar, Roy; Abee, Tjakko

    2009-01-01

    The food-borne human pathogen Bacillus cereus is found in environments that often have a low pH, such as food and soil. The physiological response upon exposure to several levels of acidity were investigated of B. cereus model strain ATCC 14579, to elucidate the response of B. cereus to acid stress.

  7. Comparative transcriptome and phenotype analysis of acid-stressed Bacillus cereus strain ATCC 10987

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, J.M.; Kranenburg, van Richard; Melis, van Clint; Moezelaar, Roy; Abee, Tjakko

    2009-01-01

    The food-borne human pathogen Bacillus cereus is found in environments that often have a low pH, such as food and soil. The physiological response upon exposure to several levels of acidity were investigated of B. cereus model strain ATCC 10987, to elucidate the response of B. cereus to acid stress.

  8. Optimization of the medium composition for production of antimicrobial substances by bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rončević Zorana Z.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the effort to overcome the increase in antimicrobial resistance of different pathogens, natural products from microbial sources appear to be the most favorable alternative to current antibiotics. Production of antimicrobial compounds is highly dependent on the nutritional conditions. Hence, in order to achieve high product yields, selection of the media constituents and optimization of their concentrations are required. In this research, the possibility of antimicrobial substances production using Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 was investigated. Also, optimization of the cultivation medium composition in terms of contents of glycerol, sodium nitrite and phosphates was done. Response surface methodology and the method of desirability function were applied for determination of optimal values of the examined factors. The developed model predicts that the maximum inhibition zone diameters for Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876 (33.50 mm and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 (12.00 mm are achieved when the initial contents of glycerol, sodium nitrite and phosphates were 43.72 g/L, 1.93 g/L and 5.64 g/L, respectively. The results of these experiments suggest that further research should include the utilization of crude glycerol as a carbon source and optimization of composition of such media and cultivation conditions in order to improve production of antimicrobial substances using Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633.

  9. Antimicrobial mechanism of flavonoids against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 by model membrane study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Mengying; Wu, Ting; Pan, Siyi; Xu, Xiaoyun

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial mechanism of four flavonoids (kaempferol, hesperitin, (+)-catechin hydrate, biochanin A) against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 was investigated through cell membranes and a liposome model. The release of bacterial protein and images from transmission electron microscopy demonstrated damage to the E. coli ATCC 25922 membrane. A liposome model with dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DPPE) (0.6 molar ratio) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) (0.4 molar ratio), representative of the phospholipid membrane of E. coli ATCC 25922, was used to specify the mode of action of four selected flavonoids through Raman spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. It is suggested that for flavonoids, to be effective antimicrobials, interaction with the polar head-group of the model membrane followed by penetration into the hydrophobic regions must occur. The antimicrobial efficacies of the flavonoids were consistent with liposome interaction activities, kaempferol > hesperitin > (+)-catechin hydrate > biochanin A. This study provides a liposome model capable of mimicking the cell membrane of E. coli ATCC 25922. The findings are important in understanding the antibacterial mechanism on cell membranes.

  10. Identification of proteins involved in the heat stress response of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Periago, P.M.; Schaik, van W.; Abee, T.; Wouters, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    To monitor the ability of the food-borne opportunistic pathogen Bacillus cereus to survive during minimal processing of food products, we determined its heat-adaptive response. During pre-exposure to 42°C, B. cereus ATCC 14579 adapts to heat exposure at the lethal temperature of 50°C (maximum

  11. Genome Sequence of Streptomyces viridosporus Strain T7A ATCC 39115, a Lignin-Degrading Actinomycete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Jennifer R. [Brown University; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Teshima, Hazuki [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Huntemann, Marcel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Wei, Chia-Lin [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Szeto, Ernest [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Peters, Lin [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Sello, Jason K. [Brown University

    2013-01-01

    We announce the availability of the genome sequence of Streptomyces viridosporus strain T7A ATCC 39115, a plant biomass- degrading actinomycete. This bacterium is of special interest because of its capacity to degrade lignin, an underutilized compo- nent of plants in the context of bioenergy. It has a full complement of genes for plant biomass catabolism.

  12. Antimicrobial mechanism of flavonoids against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 by model membrane study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Mengying; Wu, Ting; Pan, Siyi; Xu, Xiaoyun, E-mail: xiaoyunxu88@gmail.com

    2014-06-01

    Antimicrobial mechanism of four flavonoids (kaempferol, hesperitin, (+)-catechin hydrate, biochanin A) against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 was investigated through cell membranes and a liposome model. The release of bacterial protein and images from transmission electron microscopy demonstrated damage to the E. coli ATCC 25922 membrane. A liposome model with dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DPPE) (0.6 molar ratio) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) (0.4 molar ratio), representative of the phospholipid membrane of E. coli ATCC 25922, was used to specify the mode of action of four selected flavonoids through Raman spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. It is suggested that for flavonoids, to be effective antimicrobials, interaction with the polar head-group of the model membrane followed by penetration into the hydrophobic regions must occur. The antimicrobial efficacies of the flavonoids were consistent with liposome interaction activities, kaempferol > hesperitin > (+)-catechin hydrate > biochanin A. This study provides a liposome model capable of mimicking the cell membrane of E. coli ATCC 25922. The findings are important in understanding the antibacterial mechanism on cell membranes.

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of the Quality Control Strain Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus ATCC 25923.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treangen, Todd J; Maybank, Rosslyn A; Enke, Sana; Friss, Mary Beth; Diviak, Lynn F; Karaolis, David K R; Koren, Sergey; Ondov, Brian; Phillippy, Adam M; Bergman, Nicholas H; Rosovitz, M J

    2014-11-06

    Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus ATCC 25923 is commonly used as a control strain for susceptibility testing to antibiotics and as a quality control strain for commercial products. We present the completed genome sequence for the strain, consisting of the chromosome and a 27.5-kb plasmid. Copyright © 2014 Treangen et al.

  14. Selection of lactose-fermenting yeast for ethanol production from whey. [Candida pseudotropicalis ATCC 8619

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izaguirre, M E; Castillo, F J

    1982-01-01

    Candida pseudotropicalis ATCC 8619 was selected from among 9 strains of lactose-fermenting yeasts on the basis of its ability to ferment concentrated whey. In 28% deproteinized whey solutions it produced an average of 12.4% EtOH. This yeast could be used in a process for whey treatment.

  15. Differential expression of three members of the multidomain adhesion CCp family in Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis and Theileria equi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo G Bastos

    Full Text Available Members of the CCp protein family have been previously described to be expressed on gametocytes of apicomplexan Plasmodium parasites. Knocking out Plasmodium CCp genes blocks the development of the parasite in the mosquito vector, making the CCp proteins potential targets for the development of a transmission-blocking vaccine. Apicomplexans Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina are the causative agents of bovine babesiosis, and apicomplexan Theileria equi causes equine piroplasmosis. Bovine babesiosis and equine piroplasmosis are the most economically important parasite diseases that affect worldwide cattle and equine industries, respectively. The recent sequencing of the B. bovis and T. equi genomes has provided the opportunity to identify novel genes involved in parasite biology. Here we characterize three members of the CCp family, named CCp1, CCp2 and CCp3, in B. bigemina, B. bovis and T. equi. Using B. bigemina as an in vitro model, expression of all three CCp genes and proteins was demonstrated in temperature-induced sexual stages. Transcripts for all three CCp genes were found in vivo in blood stages of T. equi, and transcripts for CCp3 were detected in vivo in blood stages of B. bovis. However, no protein expression was detected in T. equi blood stages or B. bovis blood stages or B. bovis tick stages. Collectively, the data demonstrated a differential pattern of expression of three orthologous genes of the multidomain adhesion CCp family by B. bigemina, B. bovis and T. equi. The novel CCp members represent potential targets for innovative approaches to control bovine babesiosis and equine piroplasmosis.

  16. Improvement of endophytic Azospirillum colonization by co-inoculation with Cellulomonas Uda ATCC 491

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Mehdipour Moghaddam

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Most of the plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR such as Azopirillum if accompanied with strong cellulase producing bacteria such as Cellulomonas, their colonization may be increased and their host plants growth improved. Materials and methods: Six endophytic Azospirilla which isolated from three rice and three wheat cultivars and also one strain from commercial biofertilizer (Green Biotech Co., identified by biochemical tests and 16S rDNA analysis and were studied on the basis of cellulase, pectinase and auxin production and also their chemotaxis toward rice and wheat cultivars exudates was investigated. Two cellulase positive (A5 and A6 and two negative (A2 and A3 strains were selected and their interaction with C. uda ATCC 491 on auxin production and colonization on roots were compared. Results: This study showed that none of the strains had pectinase activity, but the strain isolated from rice had more Carboxy methyl cellulase (CMCase activity. Selected isolates and C. uda ATCC 491 showed chemotaxis toward roots exudates. In most of the isolates, rate of auxin production increased by coculture with C. uda ATCC 491. Also, it was determined that C. uda ATCC 491 promoted the colonization of Azospirillum without or with cellulase activity on rice and wheat roots, respectively. Discussion and conclusion: Co-inoculation Azospirillum with C. uda ATCC 491 improves plant root system due to stimulation or additive effect of auxin production and cellulase activity, followed by more uptakes of water and minerals by roots. Also, it raises the number of colonization niches for useful bacteria such as Azospirillum and finally quantitative and qualitative plant parameters.

  17. Antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma bovis isolated in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Ulrich; de Jong, Anno; Moyaert, Hilde; El Garch, Farid; Leon, Rocio; Richard-Mazet, Alexandra; Rose, Markus; Maes, Dominiek; Pridmore, Andrew; Thomson, Jill R; Ayling, Roger D

    2017-05-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in pigs and Mycoplasma bovis in cattle are major pathogens affecting livestock across Europe and are the focus of the MycoPath pan-European antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring programme. Fifty M. hyopneumoniae isolates from Belgium, Spain and the United Kingdom (UK), and 156 M. bovis isolates from France, Hungary, Spain and the UK that met specific criteria were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility in a central laboratory by using a microbroth dilution method. Specific isolate criteria included recovery from animals not recently treated with antimicrobials, isolates from different locations within each country and retaining only one isolate per farm. MIC 50/ MIC 90 values were 0.031/0.5, 0.031/0.5, 0.062/0.25, ≤0.001/0.004, 0.031/0.125, 0.25/0.5 and 0.062/0.25mg/L for enrofloxacin, marbofloxacin, spiramycin, tulathromycin, tylosin, florfenicol and oxytetracycline respectively against M. hyopneumoniae and 0.25/4, 1/4, 4/16, >64/ >64, 32/ >64, 2/4 and 4/64mg/L, respectively against M. bovis. MIC 50 /MIC 90 values for tiamulin and valnemulin against M. hyopneumoniae were 0.016/0.062 and ≤0.001/ ≤0.001mg/L respectively. The MIC 50 /MIC 90 values of danofloxacin and gamithromycin for M. bovis were 0.25/1 and >64/ >64mg/L respectively. The highest MIC 90 values for M. hyopneumoniae were found in the UK at 1.0mg/L for enrofloxacin, marbofloxacin and florfenicol. In contrast, for M. bovis the lowest MIC 90 value was 1.0mg/L, but ranged to >64mg/L. Specific laboratory standards and clinical breakpoints for veterinary Mycoplasma species are required as no independently validated clinical breakpoints are specified for veterinary Mycoplasma species, which makes data interpretation and correlation to in vivo efficacy difficult. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of diazepam on Mycobacterium bovis-induced infection in hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Righi D.A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The in utero exposure of hamsters to low doses of diazepam results in impaired host defense against Mycobacterium bovis during adulthood. Delayed developmental immunotoxicity, however, represents a specific situation that might not be general. The present experiment was undertaken to investigate the effects of diazepam on hamster resistance to M. bovis using adult animals. The effects of diazepam treatment on serum cortisol levels were also studied. Adult hamsters (N = 10 for each group were treated with diazepam (E1 = 1.0, E2 = 2.0 or E3 = 3.0 mg kg-1 day-1 subcutaneously or with control solution (C for 30 days. Seven days after the beginning of the treatment, the animals received identical inoculum concentrations of M. bovis. Hamsters treated with the higher (2.0 and 3.0 mg kg-1 day-1 doses of diazepam exhibited: 1 increased granuloma areas in the liver (C = 1.81 ± 1.39, E2 = 10.29 ± 4.64 and E3 = 15.80 ± 4.82 and lung (C = 0.54 ± 0.55, E2 = 6.28 ± 3.85 and E3 = 6.31 ± 3.56 and 2 increased scores of M. bovis colony-forming units isolated from liver (C = 2.0, E2 = 3.0 and E3 = 3.5, lung (C = 1.0, E2 = 3.0 and E3 = 3.5 and spleen (C = 1.0, E2 = 2.5 and E3 = 4.0. These effects were dose dependent, and were not detected or were less severe in animals treated with the lowest (1.0 mg/kg dose of diazepam as well as in those of the control group. Furthermore, diazepam treatment (3.0 mg kg-1 day-1 for 30 days increased (E3 = 71.32 ± 2.99; N = 10 the serum levels of cortisol compared to control hamsters (C = 22.61 ± 2.75; N = 10. The present data, that demonstrate an impaired defense against M. bovis in adult hamsters treated with diazepam, were tentatively explained on the basis of a direct and/or indirect action of diazepam on the cytokine network. The effects may be related to stimulation of peripheral benzodiazepine receptor binding sites (PBR by macrophages and/or lymphocytes, or they may be mediated by PBR stimulation of the adrenals.

  19. Human milk oligosaccharides inhibit growth of group B Streptococcus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Ann E; Autran, Chloe A; Szyszka, Alexandra; Escajadillo, Tamara; Huang, Mia; Godula, Kamil; Prudden, Anthony R; Boons, Geert-Jan; Lewis, Amanda L; Doran, Kelly S; Nizet, Victor; Bode, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS) is a leading cause of invasive bacterial infections in newborns, typically acquired vertically during childbirth secondary to maternal vaginal colonization. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) have important nutritional and biological activities

  20. Streptococcus agalactiae: a vaginal pathogen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniatis, A N; Palermos, J; Kantzanou, M; Maniatis, N A; Christodoulou, C; Legakis, N J

    1996-03-01

    The significance of Streptococcus agalactiae as an aetiological agent in vaginitis was evaluated. A total of 6226 samples from women who presented with vaginal symptoms was examined. The presence of >10 leucocytes/high-power field (h.p.f.) was taken to be the criterion of active infection. S. agalactiae was isolated from 10.1% of these samples. The isolation rates of other common pathogens such as Candida spp., Gardnerella vaginalis and Trichomonas spp. were 54.1%, 27.2% and 4.2%, respectively, in the same group of patients. In contrast, the isolation rates of these micro-organisms in the group of patients who had no infection (S. agalactiae was isolated, it was the sole pathogen isolated (83%) and its presence was associated with an inflammatory response in 80% of patients. Furthermore, the relative risk of vaginal infection with S. agalactiae (2.38) in patients with purulent vaginal discharge was greater than that of Candida spp. infection (1.41) and lower than that of Trichomonas spp. infection (8.32). These data suggest that S. agalactiae in symptomatic women with microscopic evidence of inflammation should be considered a causative agent of vaginitis.

  1. Comparative genome and transcriptome analysis reveals distinctive surface characteristics and unique physiological potentials of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Huiluo

    2017-06-12

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 was isolated from a hospital blood specimen in 1971 and has been widely used as a model strain to survey antibiotics susceptibilities, biofilm development, and metabolic activities of Pseudomonas spp.. Although four draft genomes of P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 have been sequenced, the complete genome of this strain is still lacking, hindering a comprehensive understanding of its physiology and functional genome.Here we sequenced and assembled the complete genome of P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 using the Pacific Biosciences SMRT (PacBio) technology and Illumina sequencing platform. We found that accessory genes of ATCC 27853 including prophages and genomic islands (GIs) mainly contribute to the difference between P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and other P. aeruginosa strains. Seven prophages were identified within the genome of P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853. Of the predicted 25 GIs, three contain genes that encode monoxoygenases, dioxygenases and hydrolases that could be involved in the metabolism of aromatic compounds. Surveying virulence-related genes revealed that a series of genes that encode the B-band O-antigen of LPS are lacking in ATCC 27853. Distinctive SNPs in genes of cellular adhesion proteins such as type IV pili and flagella biosynthesis were also observed in this strain. Colony morphology analysis confirmed an enhanced biofilm formation capability of ATCC 27853 on solid agar surface compared to Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. We then performed transcriptome analysis of ATCC 27853 and PAO1 using RNA-seq and compared the expression of orthologous genes to understand the functional genome and the genomic details underlying the distinctive colony morphogenesis. These analyses revealed an increased expression of genes involved in cellular adhesion and biofilm maturation such as type IV pili, exopolysaccharide and electron transport chain components in ATCC 27853 compared with PAO1. In addition, distinctive expression profiles of the

  2. Mycobacterium bovis in a European bison (Bison bonasus) raises concerns about tuberculosis in Brazilian captive wildlife populations: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimpel, Cristina Kraemer; Brum, Juliana Sperotto; de Souza Filho, Antônio Francisco; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Perotta, João Henrique; Dib, Cristina Corsi; Bonat, Marcelo; Neto, José Soares Ferreira; Brandão, Paulo Eduardo; Heinemann, Marcos Bryan; Guimaraes, Ana Marcia Sa

    2017-02-10

    Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis is an important worldwide zoonosis and has been reported to cause clinical disease in several animal species, including captive wildlife. This report describes a case of M. bovis infection in a European bison from a Brazilian zoo and compiles a number of literature reports that raise concern regarding tuberculosis among captive wildlife in Brazil. A 13 year-old captive-born male bison (Bison bonasus) from a Brazilian zoo began presenting weight loss, diarrhea and respiratory symptoms, which inevitably led to his death. At the animal's necropsy, inspection of the thoracic and abdominal cavities revealed multiple enlarged lymph nodes, ranging from 4 to 10 cm, and pulmonary nodules containing caseous masses with firm white materials consistent with mineralization. Histopathology findings showed a significant amount of acid-alcohol resistant bacilli compatible with Mycobacterium spp. Specimens from lymph nodes and lungs were cultured on Petragnani and Stonebrink media, and specific PCR assays of the bacterial isolate identified it as M. bovis. The European bison reported herein died from a severe form of disseminated tuberculosis caused by M. bovis. A review of the available literature indicates possible widespread occurrence of clinical disease caused by M. bovis or M. tuberculosis affecting multiple animal species in Brazilian wildlife-related institutions. These likely underestimated numbers raise concern regarding the control of the disease in captive animal populations from Brazil.

  3. A pilot study exploring the use of breath analysis to differentiate healthy cattle from cattle experimentally infected with Mycobacterium bovis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine K Ellis

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a zoonotic disease of international public health importance. Ante-mortem surveillance is essential for control; however, current surveillance tests are hampered by limitations affecting ease of use or quality of results. There is an emerging interest in human and veterinary medicine in diagnosing disease via identification of volatile organic compounds produced by pathogens and host-pathogen interactions. The objective of this pilot study was to explore application of existing human breath collection and analysis methodologies to cattle as a means to identify M. bovis infection through detection of unique volatile organic compounds or changes in the volatile organic compound profiles present in breath. Breath samples from 23 male Holstein calves (7 non-infected and 16 M. bovis-infected were collected onto commercially available sorbent cartridges using a mask system at 90 days post-inoculation with M. bovis. Samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and chromatographic data were analyzed using standard analytical chemical and metabolomic analyses, principle components analysis, and a linear discriminant algorithm. The findings provide proof of concept that breath-derived volatile organic compound analysis can be used to differentiate between healthy and M. bovis-infected cattle.

  4. A Pilot Study Exploring the Use of Breath Analysis to Differentiate Healthy Cattle from Cattle Experimentally Infected with Mycobacterium bovis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Christine K.; Stahl, Randal S.; Nol, Pauline; Waters, W. Ray; Palmer, Mitchell V.; Rhyan, Jack C.; VerCauteren, Kurt C.; McCollum, Matthew; Salman, M. D.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a zoonotic disease of international public health importance. Ante-mortem surveillance is essential for control; however, current surveillance tests are hampered by limitations affecting ease of use or quality of results. There is an emerging interest in human and veterinary medicine in diagnosing disease via identification of volatile organic compounds produced by pathogens and host-pathogen interactions. The objective of this pilot study was to explore application of existing human breath collection and analysis methodologies to cattle as a means to identify M. bovis infection through detection of unique volatile organic compounds or changes in the volatile organic compound profiles present in breath. Breath samples from 23 male Holstein calves (7 non-infected and 16 M. bovis-infected) were collected onto commercially available sorbent cartridges using a mask system at 90 days post-inoculation with M. bovis. Samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and chromatographic data were analyzed using standard analytical chemical and metabolomic analyses, principle components analysis, and a linear discriminant algorithm. The findings provide proof of concept that breath-derived volatile organic compound analysis can be used to differentiate between healthy and M. bovis-infected cattle. PMID:24586655

  5. Whole genome sequencing of Mycobacterium bovis to obtain molecular fingerprints in human and cattle isolates from Baja California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Azuara, Sarai Estrella; Muñiz-Salazar, Raquel; Perea-Jacobo, Ricardo; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; Perera-Ortiz, Alejandro; López-Valencia, Gilberto; Bravo, Doris M; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Miranda-Guzmán, Daniela; Flores-López, Carlos Alberto; Zenteno-Cuevas, Roberto; Laniado-Laborín, Rafael; de la Cruz, Fabiola Lafarga; Stuber, Tod P

    2017-10-01

    To determine genetic diversity by comparing the whole genome sequences of cattle and human Mycobacterium bovis isolates from Baja California. A whole genome sequencing strategy was used to obtain the molecular fingerprints of 172 isolates of M. bovis obtained from Baja California, Mexico; 155 isolates were from cattle and 17 isolates were from humans. Spoligotypes were characterized in silico and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) differences between the isolates were evaluated. A total of 12 M. bovis spoligotype patterns were identified in cattle and humans. Two predominant spoligotypes patterns were seen in both cattle and humans: SB0145 and SB1040. The SB0145 spoligotype represented 59% of cattle isolates (n=91) and 65% of human isolates (n=11), while the SB1040 spoligotype represented 30% of cattle isolates (n=47) and 30% of human isolates (n=5). When evaluating SNP differences, the human isolates were intimately intertwined with the cattle isolates. All isolates from humans had spoligotype patterns that matched those observed in the cattle isolates, and all human isolates shared common ancestors with cattle in Baja California based on SNP analysis. This suggests that most human tuberculosis caused by M. bovis in Baja California is derived from M. bovis circulating in Baja California cattle. These results reinforce the importance of bovine tuberculosis surveillance and control in this region. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Capsular Polysaccharide Expression in Commensal Streptococcus Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov Sørensen, Uffe B; Yao, Kaihu; Yang, Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    Expression of a capsular polysaccharide is considered a hallmark of most invasive species of bacteria, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, in which the capsule is among the principal virulence factors and is the basis for successful vaccines. Consequently, it was previously assumed that capsule....... pneumoniae evolved by import of cps fragments from commensal Streptococcus species, resulting in a mosaic of genes of different origins. The demonstrated antigenic identity of at least eight of the numerous capsular polysaccharide structures expressed by commensal streptococci with recognized serotypes of S...... of Streptococcus pneumoniae and is the basis for successful vaccines against infections caused by this important pathogen. Contrasting with previous assumptions, this study showed that expression of capsular polysaccharides by the same genetic mechanisms is a general property of closely related species...

  7. Reclassification of the Specialized Metabolite Producer Pseudomonas mesoacidophila ATCC 31433 as a Member of the Burkholderia cepacia Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveridge, E Joel; Jones, Cerith; Bull, Matthew J; Moody, Suzy C; Kahl, Małgorzata W; Khan, Zainab; Neilson, Louis; Tomeva, Marina; Adams, Sarah E; Wood, Andrew C; Rodriguez-Martin, Daniel; Pinel, Ingrid; Parkhill, Julian; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar; Crosby, John

    2017-07-01

    Pseudomonas mesoacidophila ATCC 31433 is a Gram-negative bacterium, first isolated from Japanese soil samples, that produces the monobactam isosulfazecin and the β-lactam-potentiating bulgecins. To characterize the biosynthetic potential of P. mesoacidophila ATCC 31433, its complete genome was determined using single-molecule real-time DNA sequence analysis. The 7.8-Mb genome comprised four replicons, three chromosomal (each encoding rRNA) and one plasmid. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that P. mesoacidophila ATCC 31433 was misclassified at the time of its deposition and is a member of the Burkholderia cepacia complex, most closely related to Burkholderia ubonensis The sequenced genome shows considerable additional biosynthetic potential; known gene clusters for malleilactone, ornibactin, isosulfazecin, alkylhydroxyquinoline, and pyrrolnitrin biosynthesis and several uncharacterized biosynthetic gene clusters for polyketides, nonribosomal peptides, and other metabolites were identified. Furthermore, P. mesoacidophila ATCC 31433 harbors many genes associated with environmental resilience and antibiotic resistance and was resistant to a range of antibiotics and metal ions. In summary, this bioactive strain should be designated B. cepacia complex strain ATCC 31433, pending further detailed taxonomic characterization. IMPORTANCE This work reports the complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas mesoacidophila ATCC 31433, a known producer of bioactive compounds. Large numbers of both known and novel biosynthetic gene clusters were identified, indicating that P. mesoacidophila ATCC 31433 is an untapped resource for discovery of novel bioactive compounds. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that P. mesoacidophila ATCC 31433 is in fact a member of the Burkholderia cepacia complex, most closely related to the species Burkholderia ubonensis Further investigation of the classification and biosynthetic potential of P. mesoacidophila ATCC 31433 is warranted. Copyright © 2017

  8. Stability of free and encapsulated Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 in yogurt and in an artificial human gastric digestion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortakci, F; Sert, S

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of encapsulation on survival of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 (ATCC 4356) in yogurt and during artificial gastric digestion. Strain ATCC 4356 was added to yogurt either encapsulated in calcium alginate or in free form (unencapsulated) at levels of 8.26 and 9.47 log cfu/g, respectively, and the influence of alginate capsules (1.5 to 2.5mm) on the sensorial characteristics of yogurts was investigated. The ATCC 4356 strain was introduced into an artificial gastric solution consisting of 0.08 N HCl (pH 1.5) containing 0.2% NaCl or into artificial bile juice consisting of 1.2% bile salts in de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe broth to determine the stability of the probiotic bacteria. When incubated for 2h in artificial gastric juice, the free ATCC 4356 did not survive (reduction of >7 log cfu/g). We observed, however, greater survival of encapsulated ATCC 4356, with a reduction of only 3 log cfu/g. Incubation in artificial bile juice (6 h) did not significantly affect the viability of free or encapsulated ATCC 4356. Moreover, statistically significant reductions (~1 log cfu/g) of both free and encapsulated ATCC 4356 were observed during 4-wk refrigerated storage of yogurts. The addition of probiotic cultures in free or alginate-encapsulated form did not significantly affect appearance/color or flavor/odor of the yogurts. However, significant deficiencies were found in body/texture of yogurts containing encapsulated ATCC 4356. We concluded that incorporation of free and encapsulated probiotic bacteria did not substantially change the overall sensory properties of yogurts, and encapsulation in alginate using the extrusion method greatly enhanced the survival of probiotic bacteria against an artificial human gastric digestive system. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Progenitor strain introduction of Mycobacterium bovis at the wildlife-livestock interface can lead to clonal expansion of the disease in a single ecosystem

    KAUST Repository

    Dippenaar, Anzaan

    2017-04-13

    Mycobacterium bovis infects multiple wildlife species and domesticated cattle across South Africa, and negatively impacts on livestock trade and movement of wildlife for conservation purposes. M. bovis infection was first reported in the Kruger National Park (KNP) in South Africa during the 1990s, and has since spread to infect numerous animal host species throughout the park and across South Africa. Whole genome sequencing data of 17 M. bovis isolates were analyzed to investigate the genomic diversity among M. bovis isolates causing disease in different animal host species from various locations in South Africa. M. bovis strains analyzed in this study are geographic rather than host species-specific. The clonal expansion of M. bovis in the KNP highlights the effect of an introduction of a transmissible infectious disease leading to a rising epidemic in wildlife, and emphasizes the importance of disease control and movement restriction of species that serve as disease reservoirs. In conclusion, the point source introduction of a single M. bovis strain type in the KNP ecosystem lead to an M. bovis outbreak in this area that affects various host species and poses an infection risk in neighboring rural communities where HIV prevalence is high.

  10. Expression of arsenic resistance genes in the obligate anaerobe Bacteroides vulgatus ATCC 8482, a gut microbiome bacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jiaojiao; Mandal, Goutam; Rosen, Barry P.

    2016-01-01

    The response of the obligate anaerobe Bacteroides vulgatus ATCC 8482, a common human gut microbiota, to arsenic was determined. B. vulgatus ATCC 8482 is highly resistant to pentavalent As(V) and methylarsenate (MAs(V)). It is somewhat more sensitive to trivalent inorganic As(III) but 100-fold more sensitive to methylarsenite (MAs(III)) than to As(III). B. vulgatus ATCC 8482 has eight continuous genes in its genome that we demonstrate form an arsenical-inducible transcriptional unit. The first...

  11. Monoclonal Idiotope Vaccine against Streptococcus pneumoniae Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Mary K.; Ward, Ronald E.; Kohler, Heinz

    1984-12-01

    A monoclonal anti-idiotope antibody coupled to a carrier protein was used to immunize BALB/c mice against a lethal Streptococcus pneumoniae infection. Vaccinated mice developed a high titer of antibody to phosphorylcholine, which is known to protect against infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae. Measurement of the median lethal dose of the bacteria indicated that anti-idiotope immunization significantly increased the resistance of BALB/c mice to the bacterial challenge. Antibody to an idiotope can thus be used as an antigen substitute for the induction of protective immunity.

  12. Development of a solid-phase radioimmunoassay for antibody to antigens of Babesia bovis infected bovine erythrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahl, L.P.; Anders, R.F.; Mitchell, G.F. (Walter and Eliza Hall Inst. of Medical Research, Parkville (Australia)); Callow, L.L.; Rodwell, B.J. (Animal Research Inst. Wacol (Australia). Tick Fever Research Centre)

    1982-06-01

    A quantitative solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) has been developed for the purpose of ranking sera from exposed animals according to their titre of anti-B. bovis antibody. The antigen was a sonicate of lysed infected blood cells, and antibody binding was detected with /sup 125/I-labelled anti-bovine IgG. The assay was tested using sera from experimentally infected splenectomized and intact cattle and from animals resident in an endemic area. A high specificity for B. bovis was demonstrated. There was good agreement in identifying exposed cattle when the test was compared with an indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test although no correlation was seen between titres obtained in the two tests. Analysis of the effects of challenge infection with B. bovis on IFA and RIA titres in previously exposed animals illustrated that the RIA was a more sensitive test for detecting changes in antibody titre.

  13. Antemortem diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis infection in free-ranging African lions (Panthera leo) and implications for transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michele; Buss, Peter; Hofmeyr, Jennifer; Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Parsons, Sven; van Helden, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Diagnosis of tuberculosis in wildlife often relies on postmortem samples because of logistical challenges and lack of field-friendly techniques for live animal testing. Confirmation of infection through detection of infectious organisms is essential for studying the pathogenesis and epidemiology of disease. We describe the application of a technique to obtain respiratory samples from free-ranging living lions to facilitate detection of viable Mycobacterium bovis under field conditions. We identified M. bovis by mycobacterial culture and PCR in tracheobronchial lavage samples from 8/134 (6.0%) lions tested in Kruger National Park, South Africa. This confirms the respiratory shedding of viable M. bovis in living lions. The implications of these results are that infected lions have the potential to transmit this disease and serve as maintenance hosts.

  14. Bio desulfurization of a system containing synthetic fuel by rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC 4277; Remocao de compostos sulfurosos de sitema bifasico contendo combustivel sintetico por Rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC 4277

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maass, Danielle; Souza, Antonio Augusto Ulson de; Souza, Selene Maria de Arruda Guelli Ulson de [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), SC (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    For decades the burning of fossil fuels released a lot of pollutants in the atmosphere. Among the most harmful is sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), which reacts with the moisture in the air and turns into sulfuric acid, being the main cause of acid rain. Acid rain is very harmful to animal and plant kingdoms; accelerates the corrosion's processes of buildings and monuments, and causes serious health problems for humans. As a result, many countries have reformed their legislation to require the sale of fuels with very low sulfur content. The existing processes of desulfurization are not capable of removing sulfur so low. Therefore, there has developed a new process called bio desulfurization. In this process, the degradation of sulfur occurs through the action of microorganisms that act as catalysts. The bacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis has emerged as one of the most promising for bio desulfurization because it removes the sulfur without breaking the benzene rings, thereby maintaining the potential energy of the same. Using dibenzothiophene as a model of sulfur compounds, the products of the bio desulfurization process are 2- hydroxybiphenyl and sulfate. In this study we sought to examine the desulfurizing capacity of national Rhodococcus erythropolis strain ATCC4277 in a batch reactor using concentrations of organic phase (n-dodecane) of 20 and 80% (v/v). Rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC4277 was capable of degrading DBT in 93.3 and 98.0% in the presence of 20 and 80% (v/v) of synthetic fuel, respectively. (author)

  15. Characterization of the binding of Actinomyces naeslundii (ATCC 12104) and Actinomyces viscosus (ATCC 19246) to glycosphingolipids, using a solid-phase overlay approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroemberg, N.K.; Karlsson, K.A.

    1990-01-01

    Actinomyces naeslundii (ATCC 12104) and Actinomyces viscosus (ATCC 19246) were radiolabeled externally (125I) or metabolically (35S) and analyzed for their ability to bind glycosphingolipids separated on thin layer chromatograms or coated in microtiter wells. Two binding properties were found and characterized in detail. (i) Both bacteria showed binding to lactosylceramide (LacCer) in a fashion similar to bacteria characterized earlier. The activity of free LacCer was dependent on the ceramide structure; species with 2-hydroxy fatty acid and/or a trihydroxy base were positive, while species with nonhydroxy fatty acid and a dihydroxy base were negative binders. Several glycolipids with internal lactose were active but only gangliotriaosylceramide and gangliotetraosylceramide were as active as free LacCer. The binding to these three species was half-maximal at about 200 ng of glycolipid and was not blocked by preincubation of bacteria with free lactose or lactose-bovine serum albumin. (ii) A. naeslundii, unlike A. viscosus, showed a superimposed binding concluded to be to terminal or internal GalNAc beta and equivalent to a lactose-inhibitable specificity previously analyzed by other workers. Terminal Gal beta was not recognized in several glycolipids, although free Gal and lactose were active as soluble inhibitors. The binding was half-maximal at about 10 ng of glycolipid. A glycolipid mixture prepared from a scraping of human buccal epithelium contained an active glycolipid with sites for both binding specificities

  16. Effect of milk fermentation by kefir grains and selected single strains of lactic acid bacteria on the survival of Mycobacterium bovis BCG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macuamule, C L S; Wiid, I J; van Helden, P D; Tanner, M; Witthuhn, R C

    2016-01-18

    Mycobacterium bovis that causes Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) can be transmitted to humans thought consumption of raw and raw fermented milk products from diseased animals. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) used in popular traditional milk products in Africa produce anti-microbial compounds that inhibit some pathogenic and spoilage bacteria. M. bovis BCG is an attenuated non-pathogenic vaccine strain of M. bovis and the aim of the study was to determine the effect of the fermentation process on the survival of M. bovis BCG in milk. M. bovis BCG at concentrations of 6 log CFU/ml was added to products of kefir fermentation. The survival of M. bovis BCG was monitored at 12-h intervals for 72 h by enumerating viable cells on Middlebrook 7H10 agar plates enriched with 2% BD BACTEC PANTA™. M. bovis BCG was increasingly reduced in sterile kefir that was fermented for a period of 24h and longer. In the milk fermented with kefir grains, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei or Lactobacillus casei, the viability of M. bovis BCG was reduced by 0.4 logs after 24h and by 2 logs after 48 h of fermentation. No viable M. bovis BCG was detected after 60 h of fermentation. Results from this study show that long term fermentation under certain conditions may have the potential to inactivate M. bovis BCG present in the milk. However, to ensure safety of fermented milk in Africa, fermentation should be combined with other hurdle technologies such as boiling and milk pasteurisation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Trends of Mycobacterium bovis Isolation and First-Line Anti-tuberculosis Drug Susceptibility Profile: A Fifteen-Year Laboratory-Based Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobadilla-del Valle, Miriam; Torres-González, Pedro; Cervera-Hernández, Miguel Enrique; Martínez-Gamboa, Areli; Crabtree-Ramirez, Brenda; Chávez-Mazari, Bárbara; Ortiz-Conchi, Narciso; Rodríguez-Cruz, Luis; Cervantes-Sánchez, Axel; Gudiño-Enríquez, Tomasa; Cinta-Severo, Carmen; Sifuentes-Osornio, José; Ponce de León, Alfredo

    2015-09-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes the majority of tuberculosis (TB) cases in humans; however, in developing countries, human TB caused by M. bovis may be frequent but undetected. Human TB caused by M. bovis is considered a zoonosis; transmission is mainly through consumption of unpasteurized dairy products, and it is less frequently attributed to animal-to-human or human-to-human contact. We describe the trends of M. bovis isolation from human samples and first-line drug susceptibility during a 15-year period in a referral laboratory located in a tertiary care hospital in Mexico City. Data on mycobacterial isolates from human clinical samples were retrieved from the laboratory's database for the 2000-2014 period. Susceptibility to first-line drugs: rifampin, isoniazid, streptomycin (STR) and ethambutol was determined. We identified 1,165 isolates, 73.7% were M. tuberculosis and 26.2%, M. bovis. Among pulmonary samples, 16.6% were M. bovis. The proportion of M. bovis isolates significantly increased from 7.8% in 2000 to 28.4% in 2014 (X(2)trend, ptuberculosis isolates (10.9% vs.3.4%, ptuberculosis, respectively (p = 0.637). A rising trend of primary STR monoresistance was observed for both species (3.4% in 2000-2004 vs. 7.6% in 2010-2014; p = 0.02). There is a high prevalence and a rising trend of M. bovis isolates in our region. The proportion of pulmonary M. bovis isolates is higher than in previous reports. Additionally, we report high rates of primary anti-tuberculosis resistance and secondary MDR in both M. tuberculosis and M. bovis. This is one of the largest reports on drug susceptibility of M. bovis from human samples and shows a significant proportion of first-line anti-tuberculosis drug resistance.

  18. Trends of Mycobacterium bovis Isolation and First-Line Anti-tuberculosis Drug Susceptibility Profile: A Fifteen-Year Laboratory-Based Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobadilla-del Valle, Miriam; Torres-González, Pedro; Cervera-Hernández, Miguel Enrique; Martínez-Gamboa, Areli; Crabtree-Ramirez, Brenda; Chávez-Mazari, Bárbara; Ortiz-Conchi, Narciso; Rodríguez-Cruz, Luis; Cervantes-Sánchez, Axel; Gudiño-Enríquez, Tomasa; Cinta-Severo, Carmen; Sifuentes-Osornio, José; Ponce de León, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Background Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes the majority of tuberculosis (TB) cases in humans; however, in developing countries, human TB caused by M. bovis may be frequent but undetected. Human TB caused by M. bovis is considered a zoonosis; transmission is mainly through consumption of unpasteurized dairy products, and it is less frequently attributed to animal-to-human or human-to-human contact. We describe the trends of M. bovis isolation from human samples and first-line drug susceptibility during a 15-year period in a referral laboratory located in a tertiary care hospital in Mexico City. Methodology/Principal Findings Data on mycobacterial isolates from human clinical samples were retrieved from the laboratory’s database for the 2000–2014 period. Susceptibility to first-line drugs: rifampin, isoniazid, streptomycin (STR) and ethambutol was determined. We identified 1,165 isolates, 73.7% were M. tuberculosis and 26.2%, M. bovis. Among pulmonary samples, 16.6% were M. bovis. The proportion of M. bovis isolates significantly increased from 7.8% in 2000 to 28.4% in 2014 (X 2 trend, ptuberculosis isolates (10.9% vs.3.4%, ptuberculosis, respectively (p = 0.637). A rising trend of primary STR monoresistance was observed for both species (3.4% in 2000–2004 vs. 7.6% in 2010–2014; p = 0.02). Conclusions/Significance There is a high prevalence and a rising trend of M. bovis isolates in our region. The proportion of pulmonary M. bovis isolates is higher than in previous reports. Additionally, we report high rates of primary anti-tuberculosis resistance and secondary MDR in both M. tuberculosis and M. bovis. This is one of the largest reports on drug susceptibility of M. bovis from human samples and shows a significant proportion of first-line anti-tuberculosis drug resistance. PMID:26421930

  19. Mesosomes are a definite event in antibiotic-treated Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhana Raj, L; Hing, H L; Baharudin, Omar; Teh Hamidah, Z; Aida Suhana, R; Nor Asiha, C P; Vimala, B; Paramsarvaran, S; Sumarni, G; Hanjeet, K

    2007-06-01

    Mesosomes of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 treated with antibiotics were examined morphologically under the electron microscope. The Transmission Electron Microscope Rapid Method was used to eliminate the artifacts due to sample processing. Mesosomes were seen in all the antibiotic treated bacteria and not in the control group. The main factor that contributes to the formation of mesosomes in the bacteria was the mode of action of the antibiotics. The continuous cytoplasmic membrane with infolding (mesosomes) as in the S. aureus ATCC 25923 is therefore confirmed as a definite pattern of membrane organization in gram positive bacteria assaulted by amikacin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, vancomycin and oxacillin antibiotics. Our preliminary results show oxacillin and vancomycin treated bacteria seemed to have deeper and more mesosomes than those treated with amikacin, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin. Further research is needed to ascertain whether the deep invagination and the number of mesosomes formed is associated with the types of antibiotic used.

  20. Glycerol metabolism of Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469: cloning and expression of two glycerol kinase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, María de Fátima; Medina, Roxana; Pasteris, Sergio E; Strasser de Saad, Ana M; Sesma, Fernando

    2004-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 was able to grow in glycerol as the sole source of energy in aerobic conditions, producing lactate, acetate, and diacetyl. A biphasic growth was observed in the presence of glucose. In this condition, glycerol consumption began after glucose was exhausted from the culture medium. Glycerol kinase activity was detected in L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469, a characteristic of microorganisms which catabolize glycerol in aerobic conditions. Genetic analysis revealed that this strain possesses two glycerol kinase genes: gykA and glpK, that encode for two different glycerol kinases GykA and GlpK, respectively. The glpK geneis associated in an operon with alpha-glycerophosphate oxidase (glpO) and glycerol facilitator (glpF) genes. Transcriptional analysis revealed that only glpK is expressed when L. rhamnosus was grown on glycerol. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  1. Effect of nitrogen source on curdlan production by Alcaligenes faecalis ATCC 31749.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Longfa

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of nitrogen source on curdlan production by Alcaligenes faecalis ATCC 31749. Curdlan production fell when excess nitrogen source was present, while biomass accumulation increased as the level of nitrogen source raised. Curdlan production and biomass accumulation were greater with urea compared with those with other nitrogen sources. The highest production of curdlan and biomass accumulation by A. faecalis ATCC 31749 was 28.16 g L(-1) and 9.58 g L(-1), respectively, with urea, whereas those with NH(4)Cl were 15.17 g L(-1) and 6.25 g L(-1), respectively. The optimum fermentation time for curdlan production was also affected by the nitrogen source in the medium. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The mycobacterial DNA-binding protein 1 (MDP1 from Mycobacterium bovis BCG influences various growth characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurischat Sven

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pathogenic mycobacteria such as M. tuberculosis, M. bovis or M. leprae are characterised by their extremely slow growth rate which plays an important role in mycobacterial virulence and eradication of the bacteria. Various limiting factors influence the generation time of mycobacteria, and the mycobacterial DNA-binding protein 1 (MDP1 has also been implicated in growth regulation. Our strategy to investigate the role of MDP1 in mycobacterial growth consisted in the generation and characterisation of a M. bovis BCG derivative expressing a MDP1-antisense gene. Results The expression rate of the MDP1 protein in the recombinant M. bovis BCG containing the MDP1-antisense plasmid was reduced by about 50% compared to the reference strain M. bovis BCG containing the empty vector. In comparison to this reference strain, the recombinant M. bovis BCG grew faster in broth culture and reached higher cell masses in stationary phase. Likewise its intracellular growth in mouse and human macrophages was ameliorated. Bacterial clumping in broth culture was reduced by the antisense plasmid. The antisense plasmid increased the susceptibility of the bacteria towards Ampicillin. 2-D protein gels of bacteria maintained under oxygen-poor conditions demonstrated a reduction in the number and the intensity of many protein spots in the antisense strain compared to the reference strain. Conclusion The MDP1 protein has a major impact on various growth characteristics of M. bovis BCG. It plays an important role in virulence-related traits such as aggregate formation and intracellular multiplication. Its impact on the protein expression in a low-oxygen atmosphere indicates a role in the adaptation to the hypoxic conditions present in the granuloma.

  3. Antibody responses of cervids (Cervus elaphus) following experimental Mycobacterium bovis infection and the implications for immunodiagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Noel P; Surujballi, Om P; Prescott, John F; Duncan, J Robert; Waters, W Ray; Lyashchenko, Konstantin; Greenwald, Rena

    2008-11-01

    Captive and free-ranging wildlife animals are implicated in the maintenance and transmission of bovine tuberculosis and therefore pose a significant obstacle to eradication of the disease from domestic livestock. The current antemortem diagnostic method, the intradermal tuberculin skin test, is impractical for routine use with many wild animals. Antibody-based assays are particularly attractive because the animals are handled only once and immediate processing of the sample is not required. This report characterizes the antibody responses of red deer-elk hybrids (Cervus elaphus) against Mycobacterium bovis and subsequently evaluates the diagnostic performance of select antigens in a rapid-test format. Sequential serum samples were collected from 10 animals experimentally infected with M. bovis and 5 noninfected animals over a 7-month period postinfection (p.i.). Samples were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, immunoblot analyses, and multiantigen print immunoassays for seroreactivity to mycobacterial antigens. Although all infected animals produced antibodies to M. bovis protein antigens, there was significant animal-to-animal variation in the kinetics and magnitudes of responses and the antigens recognized. The most frequently recognized antigens included MPB83, ESAT-6, CFP10, and MPB70. Responses to some antigens, such as MPB83, were consistently detected as early as 4 weeks after inoculation, whereas other antigens were detected only much later (>140 days p.i.). Antibody responses were boosted by injection of tuberculin for intradermal tuberculin skin testing. Comparison of single-antigen (fluorescence polarization assay) with multiantigen (CervidTB STAT-PAK) rapid tests demonstrated that a highly sensitive and specific serodiagnostic test for tuberculosis in cervids will require multiple and carefully selected seroreactive antigens covering a broad spectrum of antibody specificities.

  4. Performance of immunochromatographic and ELISA tests for detecting fallow deer infected with Mycobacterium bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boadella, M; Barasona, J A; Diaz-Sanchez, S; Lyashchenko, K P; Greenwald, R; Esfandiari, J; Gortazar, C

    2012-04-01

    Fallow deer (Dama dama) are widely distributed as natural or naturalised populations, as well as in game parks and deer farms. We used 157 fallow deer sampled in populations considered to be Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) free and 73 Mycobacterium bovis-infected fallow deer confirmed postmortem by culture to evaluate the diagnostic performance of two tests for the detection of anti-mycobacterial antibodies: the dual path platform (DPP) VetTB assay and the bovine purified protein derivative (bPPD) ELISA. We also compared their sensitivity with that of the skin test, analyzed the effect of haemolysis degree on the antibody detection and described the relationship between the test readings and presence/absence of gross tuberculosis (TB) compatible lesions. Sensitivity of bPPD ELISA was 51% at a specificity of 96%. Depending on the cut-off value selected, the sensitivity of DPP VetTB ranged from 62 to 71%, while its specificity was 88-95%. In the subgroup of M. bovis-infected deer for which the skin test data were available (33 of 73); this method detected 76% of culture-positive animals, although the specificity of the intradermal test was not determined in this study. When the DPP VetTB and skin test data were combined, the resulting sensitivity obtained in this sub-group of M. bovis-infected deer increased to 97%. Gross pathology identified TB compatible lesions (TBL) in 89% culture-confirmed fallow deer. The infected animals with visible lesions had significantly higher readings in the DPP VetTB, but not in the bPPD ELISA. Only high levels of haemolysis decreased antibody test sensitivity and this effect was more evident for the bPPD ELISA. The results allowed inferring a number of management recommendations for rapid detection of MTC infection in live fallow deer and in surveys on hunter-harvested cervids. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Association of Circulating Transfer RNA fragments with antibody response to Mycoplasma bovis in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Eduardo; Cai, Guohong; Kuehn, Larry A; Register, Karen B; McDaneld, Tara G; Neill, John D

    2018-03-13

    High throughput sequencing allows identification of small non-coding RNAs. Transfer RNA Fragments are a class of small non-coding RNAs, and have been identified as being involved in inhibition of gene expression. Given their role, it is possible they may be involved in mediating the infection-induced defense response in the host. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify 5' transfer RNA fragments (tRF5s) associated with a serum antibody response to M. bovis in beef cattle. The tRF5s encoding alanine, glutamic acid, glycine, lysine, proline, selenocysteine, threonine, and valine were associated (P < 0.05) with antibody response against M. bovis. tRF5s encoding alanine, glutamine, glutamic acid, glycine, histidine, lysine, proline, selenocysteine, threonine, and valine were associated (P < 0.05) with season, which could be attributed to calf growth. There were interactions (P < 0.05) between antibody response to M. bovis and season for tRF5 encoding selenocysteine (anticodon UGA), proline (anticodon CGG), and glutamine (anticodon TTG). Selenocysteine is a rarely used amino acid that is incorporated into proteins by the opal stop codon (UGA), and its function is not well understood. Differential expression of tRF5s was identified between ELISA-positive and negative animals. Production of tRF5s may be associated with a host defense mechanism triggered by bacterial infection, or it may provide some advantage to a pathogen during infection of a host. Further studies are needed to establish if tRF5s could be used as a diagnostic marker of chronic exposure.

  6. Distinct Biological Potential of Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis Revealed by Comparative Genome Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Wenning; Tan, Mui Fern; Old, Lesley A.; Paterson, Ian C.; Jakubovics, Nicholas S.; Choo, Siew Woh

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis are pioneer colonizers of dental plaque and important agents of bacterial infective endocarditis (IE). To gain a greater understanding of these two closely related species, we performed comparative analyses on 14 new S. gordonii and 5 S. sanguinis strains using various bioinformatics approaches. We revealed S. gordonii and S. sanguinis harbor open pan-genomes and share generally high sequence homology and number of core genes including virule...

  7. Improvement in citric acid production of Aspergillus niger ATCC 11414 by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pewlong, Wachiraporn; Sansakorn, Sujittra; Puntharakratchadej, Chanin

    2003-10-01

    Ultraviolet and gamma irradiation were used to induce mutation of Aspergillus niger ATCC 11414 in order to increase ability of citric acid production. Five mutants of high-producing citric acid were 7UV-18, A2-14, 9UV-2, 9UV-27 and 8UV-10. The yields of citric acid were 2.0 to 3.84 fold higher than that of the wild type strain

  8. Metabolic Engineering of the Actinomycete Amycolatopsis sp. Strain ATCC 39116 towards Enhanced Production of Natural Vanillin

    OpenAIRE

    Fleige, Christian; Meyer, Florian; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 is used for the fermentative production of natural vanillin from ferulic acid on an industrial scale. The strain is known for its outstanding tolerance to this toxic product. In order to improve the productivity of the fermentation process, the strain's metabolism was engineered for higher final concentrations and molar yields. Degradation of vanillin could be decreased by more than 90% through deletion of the vdh gene, which codes for ...

  9. Rare 1,2’-binaphthyls Produced by Nodulisporium hinnuleum Smith (ATCC 36102

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Schlingman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the course of processing extracts from fermentations with Nodulisporium hinnuleum Smith (ATCC 36102 to obtain demethoxyvirdin, we noticed that this fungus produced several other secondary metabolites as well. In an effort to identify these components, four new, related natural products designated hinnulin A-D (1-4 were isolated and characterized. Structure elucidation of the hinnulins, primarily by NMR spectroscopy, revealed that these belong to the rare class of 1,2’-binaphthyl natural products.

  10. Degradation of the Phosphonate Herbicide Glyphosate by Arthrobacter atrocyaneus ATCC 13752

    OpenAIRE

    Pipke, Rüdiger; Amrhein, Nikolaus

    1988-01-01

    Of nine authentic Arthrobacter strains tested, only A. atrocyaneus ATCC 13752 was capable of using the herbicide glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] as its sole source of phosphorus. Contrary to the previously isolated Arthrobacter sp. strain GLP-1, which degrades glyphosate via sarcosine, A. atrocyaneus metabolized glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid. The carbon of aminomethylphosphonic acid was entirely converted to CO2. This is the first report on glyphosate degradation by a bacte...

  11. Murein Hydrolase Activity in the Surface Layer of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356▿

    OpenAIRE

    Prado Acosta, Mariano; Palomino, María Mercedes; Allievi, Mariana C.; Rivas, Carmen Sanchez; Ruzal, Sandra M.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a new enzymatic functionality for the surface layer (S-layer) of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356, namely, an endopeptidase activity against the cell wall of Salmonella enterica serovar Newport, assayed via zymograms and identified by Western blotting. Based on amino acid sequence comparisons, the hydrolase activity was predicted to be located at the C terminus. Subsequent cloning and expression of the C-terminal domain in Bacillus subtilis resulted in the functional verificati...

  12. A hydrogen-producing, hydrogenase-free mutant strain of Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, P.; Lindblad, P. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Physiological Botany; Schuetz, K.; Happe, T. [Universitaet Bonn (Germany). Botanisches Inst.

    2002-12-01

    The hupL gene, encoding the uptake hydrogenase large subunit, in Nostoc sp. strain ATCC 29133, a strain lacking a bidirectional hydrogenase, was inactivated by insertional mutagenesis. Recombinant strains were isolated and analysed, and one hupL{sup -} strain, NHM5, was selected for further study. Cultures of NHM5 were grown under nitrogen-fixing conditions and H{sub 2} evolution under air was observed using an H{sub 2} electrode. (Author)

  13. Effects of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase desensitization on glutamic acid production in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Masaru; Sawada, Kazunori; Ogura, Kotaro; Shimono, Yuta; Hagiwara, Takuya; Sugimoto, Masakazu; Onuki, Akiko; Yokota, Atsushi

    2016-02-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC13032, a glutamic-acid producing actinobacterium, is subject to feedback inhibition by metabolic intermediates such as aspartic acid and 2-oxoglutaric acid, which implies the importance of PEPC in replenishing oxaloacetic acid into the TCA cycle. Here, we investigated the effects of feedback-insensitive PEPC on glutamic acid production. A single amino-acid substitution in PEPC, D299N, was found to relieve the feedback control by aspartic acid, but not by 2-oxoglutaric acid. A simple mutant, strain R1, having the D299N substitution in PEPC was constructed from ATCC 13032 using the double-crossover chromosome replacement technique. Strain R1 produced glutamic acid at a concentration of 31.0 g/L from 100 g/L glucose in a jar fermentor culture under biotin-limited conditions, which was significantly higher than that of the parent, 26.0 g/L (1.19-fold), indicative of the positive effect of desensitized PEPC on glutamic acid production. Another mutant, strain DR1, having both desensitized PEPC and PYK-gene deleted mutations, was constructed in a similar manner using strain D1 with a PYK-gene deleted mutation as the parent. This mutation had been shown to enhance glutamic acid production in our previous study. Although marginal, strain D1 produced higher glutamic acid, 28.8 g/L, than ATCC13032 (1.11-fold). In contrast, glutamic acid production by strain DR-1 was elevated up to 36.9 g/L, which was 1.42-fold higher than ATCC13032 and significantly higher than the other three strains. The results showed a synergistic effect of these two mutations on glutamic acid production in C. glutamicum. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The production of lactic acid on liquid distillery stillage by Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469

    OpenAIRE

    Đukić-Vuković, Aleksandra; Mojović, Ljiljana; Pejin, Dušanka; Vukašinović-Sekulić, Maja; Rakin, Marica; Nikolić, Svetlana; Pejin, Jelena

    2011-01-01

    The production of lactic acid on a liquid distillery stillage remaining after the bioethanol production on a mixture of waste bread and waste water from the production of wheat gluten was studied in this work. The lactic acid fermentation was performed with a probiotic lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469. During the fermentation, parameters such as the concentration of lactic acid (according to Taylor method), the concentration of reducing sugars (spectrophotometric method ...

  15. Transcriptomic Analysis of (Group I) Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502 Cold Shock Response

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlsten, Elias; Isokallio, Marita; Somervuo, Panu; Lindström, Miia; Korkeala, Hannu

    2014-01-01

    Profound understanding of the mechanisms foodborne pathogenic bacteria utilize in adaptation to the environmental stress they encounter during food processing and storage is of paramount importance in design of control measures. Chill temperature is a central control measure applied in minimally processed foods; however, data on the mechanisms the foodborne pathogen Clostridium botulinum activates upon cold stress are scarce. Transcriptomic analysis on the C. botulinum ATCC 3502 strain upon t...

  16. Characterization of the Phthalate Permease OphD from Burkholderia cepacia ATCC 17616†

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Hung-Kuang; Zylstra, Gerben J.

    1999-01-01

    The ophD gene, encoding a permease for phthalate transport, was cloned from Burkholderia cepacia ATCC 17616. Expression of the gene in Escherichia coli results in the ability to transport phthalate rapidly into the cell. Uptake inhibition experiments show that 4-hydroxyphthalate, 4-chlorophthalate, 4-methylphthalate, and cinchomeronate compete for the phthalate permease. An ophD knockout mutant of 17616 grows slightly more slowly on phthalate but is still able to take up phthalate at rates eq...

  17. Genome sequence of the Bacteroides fragilis phage ATCC 51477-B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawkins Shawn A

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genome of a fecal pollution indicator phage, Bacteroides fragilis ATCC 51477-B1, was sequenced and consisted of 44,929 bases with a G+C content of 38.7%. Forty-six putative open reading frames were identified and genes were organized into functional clusters for host specificity, lysis, replication and regulation, and packaging and structural proteins.

  18. The ovarian transcriptome of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, feeding upon a bovine host infected with Babesia bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heekin, Andrew M; Guerrero, Felix D; Bendele, Kylie G; Saldivar, Leo; Scoles, Glen A; Dowd, Scot E; Gondro, Cedric; Nene, Vishvanath; Djikeng, Appolinaire; Brayton, Kelly A

    2013-09-23

    Cattle babesiosis is a tick-borne disease of cattle with the most severe form of the disease caused by the apicomplexan, Babesia bovis. Babesiosis is transmitted to cattle through the bite of infected cattle ticks of the genus Rhipicephalus. The most prevalent species is Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, which is distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical countries of the world. The transmission of B. bovis is transovarian and a previous study of the R. microplus ovarian proteome identified several R. microplus proteins that were differentially expressed in response to infection. Through various approaches, we studied the reaction of the R. microplus ovarian transcriptome in response to infection by B. bovis. A group of ticks were allowed to feed on a B. bovis-infected splenectomized calf while a second group fed on an uninfected splenectomized control calf. RNA was purified from dissected adult female ovaries of both infected and uninfected ticks and a subtracted B. bovis-infected cDNA library was synthesized, subtracting with the uninfected ovarian RNA. Four thousand ESTs were sequenced from the ovary subtracted library and annotated. The subtracted library dataset assembled into 727 unique contigs and 2,161 singletons for a total of 2,888 unigenes, Microarray experiments designed to detect B. bovis-induced gene expression changes indicated at least 15 transcripts were expressed at a higher level in ovaries from ticks feeding upon the B. bovis-infected calf as compared with ovaries from ticks feeding on an uninfected calf. We did not detect any transcripts from these microarray experiments that were expressed at a lower level in the infected ovaries compared with the uninfected ovaries. Using the technique called serial analysis of gene expression, 41 ovarian transcripts from infected ticks were differentially expressed when compared with transcripts of controls. Collectively, our experimental approaches provide the first comprehensive profile of the

  19. Mycobacterium bovis infections in domesticated non-bovine mammalian species. Part 2: A review of diagnostic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughan, J M; Crawshaw, T R; Downs, S H; Brewer, J; Clifton-Hadley, R S

    2013-11-01

    Despite the large host range of Mycobacterium bovis, ante-mortem diagnostic tests for the infection mostly lack sensitivity/specificity and/or remain unvalidated in non-bovine species. The epidemiology and importance of M. bovis infection in these species are discussed in the first part of this two-part review. This second part focuses on the diagnostic options available to identify infected species such as sheep, goats, dogs, cats, and camelids, and highlights the significant challenges posed, both in establishing estimates of disease prevalence and in controlling infections in these species, in the absence of fully validated tests. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The diagnosis of bovine basesiosis (babesia bovis) by means of the test of ELISA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon Arenas, Edgar; Guillen, Ana Teresa; Silva, Maglene

    1997-01-01

    Between 1994 and 1996 a kit ELISA, developed by the FAO - IAEA for the diagnose of bovine babesiosis produced by Babesia bovis, was validated. There were processed a total of 547 blood serums from bovine between 9 and 18 months old, coming from high and low risk to illness areas. The point obtained for the test was 0.178 (DO) and the resulting percentages inside the population studied was 48% animal positive and 52% bovine negative. These results confirm that bovine population in Venezuela is in enzootic uncertainty areas for bovine babesiosis [es

  1. Molecular characterization of a new Babesia bovis thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (BbTRAP2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Alaa Terkawi

    Full Text Available A gene encoding a Babesia bovis protein that shares significant degree of similarity to other apicomplexan thrombospondin-related anonymous proteins (TRAPs was found in the genomic database and designated as BbTRAP2. Recombinant protein containing a conserved region of BbTRAP2 was produced in E. coli. A high antigenicity of recombinant BbTRAP2 (rBbTRAP2 was observed with field B. bovis-infected bovine sera collected from geographically different regions of the world. Moreover, antiserum against rBbTRAP2 specifically reacted with the authentic protein by Western blot analysis and an indirect fluorescent antibody test. Three bands corresponding to 104-, 76-, and 44-kDa proteins were identified in the parasite lysates and two bands of 76- and 44-kDa proteins were detected in the supernatant of cultivated parasites, indicating that BbTRAP2 was proteolytically processed and shed into the culture. Apical and surface localizations of BbTRAP2 were observed in the intracellular and extracellular parasites, respectively, by confocal laser microscopic examination. Moreover, native BbTRAP2 was precipitated by bovine erythrocytes, suggesting its role in the attachment to erythrocytes. Furthermore, the specific antibody to rBbTRAP2 inhibited the growth of B. bovis in a concentration-dependent manner. Consistently, pre-incubation of the free merozoites with the antibody to rBbTRAP2 resulted in an inhibition of the parasite invasion into host erythrocytes. Interestingly, the antibody to rBbTRAP2 was the most inhibitive for the parasite's growth as compared to those of a set of antisera produced against different recombinant proteins, including merozoite surface antigen 2c (BbMSA-2c, rhoptry-associated protein 1 C-terminal (BbRAP-1CT, and spherical body protein 1 (BbSBP-1. These results suggest that BbTRAP2 might be a potential candidate for development of a subunit vaccine against B. bovis infection.

  2. Genetic diversity of merozoite surface antigens in Babesia bovis detected from Sri Lankan cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Okubo, Kazuhiro; Igarashi, Ikuo; de Silva, Weligodage Kumarawansa; Kothalawala, Hemal; Silva, Seekkuge Susil Priyantha; Vimalakumar, Singarayar Caniciyas; Meewewa, Asela Sanjeewa; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2013-10-01

    Babesia bovis, the causative agent of severe bovine babesiosis, is endemic in Sri Lanka. The live attenuated vaccine (K-strain), which was introduced in the early 1990s, has been used to immunize cattle populations in endemic areas of the country. The present study was undertaken to determine the genetic diversity of merozoite surface antigens (MSAs) in B. bovis isolates from Sri Lankan cattle, and to compare the gene sequences obtained from such isolates against those of the K-strain. Forty-four bovine blood samples isolated from different geographical regions of Sri Lanka and judged to be B. bovis-positive by PCR screening were used to amplify MSAs (MSA-1, MSA-2c, MSA-2a1, MSA-2a2, and MSA-2b), AMA-1, and 12D3 genes from parasite DNA. Although the AMA-1 and 12D3 gene sequences were highly conserved among the Sri Lankan isolates, the MSA gene sequences from the same isolates were highly diverse. Sri Lankan MSA-1, MSA-2c, MSA-2a1, MSA-2a2, and MSA-2b sequences clustered within 5, 2, 4, 1, and 9 different clades in the gene phylograms, respectively, while the minimum similarity values among the deduced amino acid sequences of these genes were 36.8%, 68.7%, 80.3%, 100%, and 68.3%, respectively. In the phylograms, none of the Sri Lankan sequences fell within clades containing the respective K-strain sequences. Additionally, the similarity values for MSA-1 and MSA-2c were 40-61.8% and 90.9-93.2% between the Sri Lankan isolates and the K-strain, respectively, while the K-strain MSA-2a/b sequence shared 64.5-69.8%, 69.3%, and 70.5-80.3% similarities with the Sri Lankan MSA-2a1, MSA-2a2, and MSA-2b sequences, respectively. The present study has shown that genetic diversity among MSAs of Sri Lankan B. bovis isolates is very high, and that the sequences of field isolates diverged genetically from the K-strain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Validation of an indirect ELISA for the diagnosis of Babesia bovis in El Salvador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, G.; Cardona, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    Validation and a preliminary serological study of Babesia bovis was made in El Salvador, using the indirect ELISA kit provided by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Sera were collected from 545 cattle involving 10 regions of the country and various ages of cattle between 8 and 16 months. These were tested from May 1993 to February 1994. A 79.5% prevalence was found, but with a wide range from (5.8-100%), explained by different farm managing systems and different breeds. (author)

  4. Mycoplasma bovis pathogenesis, diagnostic methods and epidemiology of relevance for control and prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum

    Mycoplasma bovis introduction to and spread within cattle herds is difficult to predict, and no vaccines provide efficient prevention today despite the fact that this infection severely affects animal welfare and leads to economic losses in cattle farms worldwide. The most common transmission...... from infected bulls and perhaps long-distance airborne pathogens being spread between outbreaks and susceptible farms. Prevention and control methods have to focus on management and biosecurity measures that maximise resilience of the farm system and the animals’ resistance against the disease in case...

  5. Streptococcus loxodontisalivarius sp. nov. and Streptococcus saliviloxodontae sp. nov., isolated from oral cavities of elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Masanori; Shinozaki-Kuwahara, Noriko; Hirasawa, Masatomo; Takada, Kazuko

    2014-09-01

    Four Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative, coccoid-shaped organisms were isolated from elephant oral cavities. The isolates were tentatively identified as streptococcal species based on the results of biochemical tests. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies confirmed the organisms to be members of the genus Streptococcus. Two isolates (NUM 6304(T) and NUM 6312) were related most closely to Streptococcus salivarius with 96.8 % and 93.1 % similarity based on the 16S rRNA gene and the RNA polymerase β subunit encoding gene (rpoB), respectively, and to Streptococcus vestibularis with 83.7 % similarity based on the 60 kDa heat-shock protein gene (groEL). The other two isolates (NUM 6306(T) and NUM 6318) were related most closely to S. vestibularis with 97.0 % and 82.9 % similarity based on the 16S rRNA and groEL genes, respectively, and to S. salivarius with 93.5 % similarity based on the rpoB gene. Based on phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, these isolates are suggested to represent novel species of the genus Streptococcus, for which the names Streptococcus loxodontisalivarius sp. nov. (type strain NUM 6304(T) = JCM 19287(T) = DSM 27382(T)) and Streptococcus saliviloxodontae sp. nov. (type strain NUM 6306(T) = JCM 19288(T) = DSM 27513(T)) are proposed. © 2014 IUMS.

  6. Streptococcus moroccensis sp. nov. and Streptococcus rifensis sp. nov., isolated from raw camel milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Zaina; Amar, Mohamed; Ouadghiri, Mouna; Cnockaert, Margo; Aerts, Maarten; El Farricha, Omar; Vandamme, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Two catalase- and oxidase-negative Streptococcus-like strains, LMG 27682(T) and LMG 27684(T), were isolated from raw camel milk in Morocco. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing assigned these bacteria to the genus Streptococcus with Streptococcus rupicaprae 2777-2-07(T) as their closest phylogenetic neighbour (95.9% and 95.7% similarity, respectively). 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the two strains was 96.7%. Although strains LMG 27682(T) and LMG 27684(T) shared a DNA-DNA hybridization value that corresponded to the threshold level for species delineation (68%), the two strains could be distinguished by multiple biochemical tests, sequence analysis of the phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase (pheS), RNA polymerase (rpoA) and ATP synthase (atpA) genes and by their MALDI-TOF MS profiles. On the basis of these considerable phenotypic and genotypic differences, we propose to classify both strains as novel species of the genus Streptococcus, for which the names Streptococcus moroccensis sp. nov. (type strain, LMG 27682(T)  = CCMM B831(T)) and Streptococcus rifensis sp. nov. (type strain, LMG 27684(T)  = CCMM B833(T)) are proposed. © 2014 IUMS.

  7. [Influence of cross-protection on the survival of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Feng; Zhang, Juan; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2010-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the cross-protection of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 under multi-stress conditions. Cells pre-adapted to mild conditions (heat, H2O2, acid or bile salts) were then treated at lethal temperature (> 60 degrees C) or hydrogen peroxide stress (> 5 mmol/L). Furthermore, the changes of survival rate intracellular pH and membrane fatty acid under lethal conditions with or without acid adaption were compared. The cross-protection in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 were affected by different stress conditions. Acid pre-adaption, especially hydrochloride treatment, would increase the resistance of cells to lethal heat and peroxide stresses significantly, with the survival rate of 305-fold and 173-fold, respectively. Further study suggested that the effect of acid pre-adaption might be related to the regulation on intracellular pH and the saturation of cell membrane. Hydrochloride adaption was the best inducer for the cross-protection of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 to maintain relatively stable physiological status of cells. The results supplied a novel way to investigate the relationship between different protective mechanisms in L. casei under different kinds of stresses.

  8. Genome-scale reconstruction of metabolic networks of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 and 12A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vinay-Lara

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus casei strains are widely used in industry and the utility of this organism in these industrial applications is strain dependent. Hence, tools capable of predicting strain specific phenotypes would have utility in the selection of strains for specific industrial processes. Genome-scale metabolic models can be utilized to better understand genotype-phenotype relationships and to compare different organisms. To assist in the selection and development of strains with enhanced industrial utility, genome-scale models for L. casei ATCC 334, a well characterized strain, and strain 12A, a corn silage isolate, were constructed. Draft models were generated from RAST genome annotations using the Model SEED database and refined by evaluating ATP generating cycles, mass-and-charge-balances of reactions, and growth phenotypes. After the validation process was finished, we compared the metabolic networks of these two strains to identify metabolic, genetic and ortholog differences that may lead to different phenotypic behaviors. We conclude that the metabolic capabilities of the two networks are highly similar. The L. casei ATCC 334 model accounts for 1,040 reactions, 959 metabolites and 548 genes, while the L. casei 12A model accounts for 1,076 reactions, 979 metabolites and 640 genes. The developed L. casei ATCC 334 and 12A metabolic models will enable better understanding of the physiology of these organisms and be valuable tools in the development and selection of strains with enhanced utility in a variety of industrial applications.

  9. Influence of controlled atmosphere on thermal inactivation of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 in almond powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Teng; Li, Rui; Kou, Xiaoxi; Wang, Shaojin

    2017-06-01

    Heat controlled atmosphere (CA) treatments hold potential to pasteurize Salmonella enteritidis PT 30 in almonds. Nonpathogenic Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 was used as a surrogate species of pathogenic Salmonella for validation of thermal pasteurization to meet critical safety requirements. A controlled atmosphere/heating block system (CA-HBS) was used to rapidly determine thermal inactivation of E. coli ATCC 25922. D- and z-values of E. coli ATCC 25922 inoculated in almond powder were determined at four temperatures between 65 °C and 80 °C under different gas concentrations and heating rates. The results showed that D- and z-values of E. coli under CA treatment were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those under regular atmosphere (RA) treatment at 4 given temperatures. Relatively higher CO 2 concentrations (20%) and lower O 2 concentrations (2%) were more effective to reduce thermal inactivation time. There were no significant differences in D-values of E. coli when heating rates were above 1 °C/min both in RA and CA treatments. But D-values significantly (P < 0.05) increased under RA treatment and decreased under CA treatment at lower heating rates. Combination of rapid heat and CA treatments could be a promising method for thermal inactivation of S. enteritidis PT 30 in almond powder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparative genome and transcriptome analysis reveals distinctive surface characteristics and unique physiological potentials of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Huiluo; Lai, Yong; Bougouffa, Salim; Xu, Zeling; Yan, Aixin

    2017-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 was isolated from a hospital blood specimen in 1971 and has been widely used as a model strain to survey antibiotics susceptibilities, biofilm development, and metabolic activities of Pseudomonas spp.. Although four

  11. Factors associated with colonization of Streptococcus pneumoniae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with schooling and presence chronic diseases. ... Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of serious community-acquired infections such as ... large number of individuals are still suffering from infections caused by these bacteria, especially ... samples of children with severe pneumonia (Nantanda et al., 2008).

  12. Streptococcus suis meningitis in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beek, Diederik; Spanjaard, Lodewijk; de Gans, Jan

    2008-01-01

    We present four patients with Streptococcus suis meningitis identified during a 3.5-year prospective surveillance study in the Netherlands. All cases were associated with exposure to pigs. Patients presented with classic symptoms and signs of bacterial meningitis. Outcome was characterized by severe

  13. STREPTOCOCCUS: A WORLDWIDE FISH HEALTH PROBLEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae are important emergent pathogens that affect many fish species worldwide, especially in warm-water regions. In marine and freshwater systems, these Gram-positive bacteria cause significant economic losses, estimated at hundreds of millions of dollars annually. ...

  14. Detection and quantification of Streptococcus pneumoniae from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to develop a real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for quantitative detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae from clinical respiratory specimens. Initially, 184 respiratory specimens from patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP) (n = 129) and 55 cases with hospital associated ...

  15. Antibacterial activity of Euphorbia hirta against Streptococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This investigation was conducted to determine the in-vitro effect of aqueous, ethanol and methanol crude extracts of Euphorbia hirta at concentrations ranging from 10mg/ml – 100mg/ml against three pathogenic bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus vulgaris) using cup plate method.

  16. Dyrkningsnegativ Streptococcus pneumoniae endokarditis diagnosticeret med polymerasekaedereaktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus Vedby; Kemp, Michael; Bangsborg, Jette Marie

    2008-01-01

    A 60-year old man was admitted with sepsis and meningitis of unknown aetiology. Underlying aortic valve endocarditis was diagnosed by echocardiography and severe insufficiency led to aortic valve replacement. Application of broad-range PCR to cusp tissue revealed a DNA product, and a diagnosis of...... of Streptococcus pneumoniae endocarditis was obtained by DNA sequencing....

  17. NEW VIRULENCE FACTORS OF STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, Peter Wilhelmus Maria; Bootsma, Jeanette Hester; Burghout, Pieter Jan; Kuipers, Oscar; Bijlsma, Johanna Jacoba Elisabeth; Kloosterman, Tomas Gerrit; Andersen, Christian O.

    2011-01-01

    The present invention provides proteins/genes, which are essential for survival, and consequently, for virulence of Streptococcus pneumoniae in vivo, and thus are ideal vaccine candidates for a vaccine preparation against pneumococcal infection. Further, also antibodies against said protein(s) are

  18. 9230 FECAL ENTEROCOCCUS/STREPTOCOCCUS GROUPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1903 the genus name Enterococcus was proposed for gram-positive, catalase-negative, coccoid-shaped bacterial of intestinal origin. Several years later, it was suggested that the genus name be changed to Streptococcus because of the organisms' ability to form chains of coccoid...

  19. An Evaluation of Quantitative PCR Assays (TaqMan® and SYBR Green for the Detection of Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis, and a Novel Fluorescent-ITS1-PCR Capillary Electrophoresis Method for Genotyping B. bovis Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Babesia spp. are tick-transmitted haemoparasites causing tick fever in cattle. In Australia, economic losses to the cattle industry from tick fever are estimated at AUD$26 Million per annum. If animals recover from these infections, they become immune carriers. Here we describe a novel multiplex TaqMan qPCR targeting cytochrome b genes for the identification of Babesia spp. The assay shows high sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility, and allows quantification of parasite DNA from Babesia bovis and B. bigemina compared to standard PCR assays. A previously published cytochrome b SYBR Green qPCR was also tested in this study, showing slightly higher sensitivity than the Taqman qPCRs but requires melting curve analysis post-PCR to confirm specificity. The SYBR Green assays were further evaluated using both diagnostic submissions and vaccinated cattle (at 7, 9, 11 and 14 days post-inoculation showed that B. bigemina can be detected more frequently than B. bovis. Due to fewer circulating parasites, B. bovis detection in carrier animals requires higher DNA input. Preliminary data for a novel fluorescent PCR genotyping based on the Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 region to detect vaccine and field alleles of B. bovis are described. This assay is capable of detecting vaccine and novel field isolate alleles in a single sample.

  20. Molecular characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae strains isolated from fishes in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amal, M N A; Zamri-Saad, M; Siti-Zahrah, A; Zulkafli, A R; Nur-Nazifah, M

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize Streptococcus agalactiae strains that were isolated from fishes in Malaysia using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (REP-PCR) techniques. A total of 181 strains of Strep. agalactiae isolated from red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) and golden pompano (Trachinotus blochii) were characterized using RAPD and REP-PCR techniques. Both the fingerprinting techniques generated reproducible band patterns, differing in the number and molecular mass amplicons. The RAPD technique displayed greater discriminatory power by its production of more complex binding pattern and divided all the strains into 13 groups, compared to 9 by REP-PCR technique. Both techniques showed the availability to differentiate the genetic profiles of the strains according to their geographical location of origin. Three strains of Strep. agalactiae that were recovered from golden pompano showed a genetic dissimilarity from the strains isolated from red hybrid tilapia, while the strain of ATCC 27956 that recovered from bovine displayed a unique profile for both methods. Both techniques possess excellent discriminative capabilities and can be used as a rapid means of comparing Strep. agalactiae strains for future epidemiological investigation. Framework as the guideline in traceability of this disease and in the search for potential local vaccine candidates for streptococcosis in this country. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. An electron microscopy study of the diversity of Streptococcus sanguinis cells induced by lysozyme in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yuqing; Li, Li; Li, Wei; Zhou, Xuedong; Lu, Junjun

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial virulence could be altered by the antimicrobial agents of the host. Our aim was to identify the damage and survival of Streptococcus sanguinis induced by lysozymes in vitro and to analyse the potential of oral microorganisms to shirk host defences, which cause infective endocarditis. S. sanguinis ATCC 10556 received lysozyme at concentrations of 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 microg/ml. Cells were examined by electron microscopy. The survival was assessed by colony counting and construction of a growth curve. Challenged by lysozymes, cells mainly exhibited cell wall damage, which seemed to increase with increasing lysozyme concentration and longer incubation period in the presence of ions. Cells with little as well as apparent lesion were observed under the same treatment set, and anomalous stick and huge rotund bodies were occasionally observed. After the removal of the lysozyme, some damaged cells could be reverted to its original form with brain heart infusion (BHI), and their growth curve was similar to the control cells. After further incubation in BHI containing lysozyme, S. sanguinis cell damage stopped progressing, and their growth curve was also similar to the control cells. The results suggested that the S. sanguinis lesions caused by the lysozyme in the oral cavity may be nonhomogeneous and that some damaged cells could self-repair and survive. It also indicated that S. sanguinis with damaged cell walls may survive and be transmitted in the bloodstream.

  2. Evolution of M. bovis BCG Vaccine: Is Niacin Production Still a Valid Biomarker?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarman Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BCG vaccine is usually considered to be safe though rarely serious complications have also been reported, often incriminating contamination of the seed strain with pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In such circumstances, it becomes prudent to rule out the contamination of the vaccine seed. M. bovis BCG can be confirmed by the absence of nitrate reductase, negative niacin test, and resistance to pyrazinamide and cycloserine. Recently in India, some stocks were found to be niacin positive which led to a national controversy and closer of a vaccine production plant. This prompted us to write this review and the comparative biochemical and genotypic studies were carried out on the these contentious vaccine stocks at the Indian vaccine plant and other seeds and it was found that some BCG vaccine strains and even some strains of M. bovis with eugenic-growth characteristics mainly old laboratory strains may give a positive niacin reaction. Most probably, the repeated subcultures lead to undefined changes at the genetic level in these seed strains. These changing biological characteristics envisage reevaluation of biochemical characters of existing BCG vaccine seeds and framing of newer guidelines for manufacturing, production, safety, and effectiveness of BCG vaccine.

  3. Expression, purification and crystallization of an atypical class C acid phosphatase from Mycoplasma bovis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Harkewal; Reilly, Thomas J.; Calcutt, Michael J.; Tanner, John J.

    2011-01-01

    Methods for the expression, purification and crystallization of the class C acid phosphatase from M. bovis are reported. This enzyme is atypical in that it is nearly 20 kDa larger than other known class C acid phosphatases. Class C acid phosphatases (CCAPs) are 25–30 kDa bacterial surface proteins that are thought to function as broad-specificity 5′,3′-nucleotidases. Analysis of the newly published complete genome sequence of Mycoplasma bovis PG45 revealed a putative CCAP with a molecular weight of 49.9 kDa. The expression, purification and crystallization of this new family member are described here. Standard purification procedures involving immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography and ion-exchange chromatography yielded highly pure and crystallizable protein. Crystals were grown in sitting drops at room temperature in the presence of PEG 3350 and HEPES buffer pH 7.5 and diffracted to 2.3 Å resolution. Analysis of diffraction data suggested a primitive monoclinic space group, with unit-cell parameters a = 78, b = 101, c = 180 Å, β = 92°. The asymmetric unit is predicted to contain six molecules, which are likely to be arranged as three dimers

  4. [Simultaneous determination of seven residual solvents in bovis calculus artifactus by headspace gas chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Shuyao; Wu, Dike; Sun, Jinhong; Ye, Ruhan; Wang, Xiaoyan

    2014-05-01

    A headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of seven residual solvents (petroleum ether (60-90 degrees C), acetone, ethyl acetate, methanol, methylene chloride, ethanol and butyl acetate) in bovis calculus artifactus. The DB-WAX capillary column and flame ionization detector (FID) were used for the separation and detection of the residual solvents, and the internal standard method was used for the quantification. The chromatographic conditions, such as equilibrium temperature and equilibrium time, were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, all of the seven residual solvents showed good linear relationships with good correlation coefficients (not less than 0.999 3) in the prescribed concentration range. At three spiked levels, the recoveries for the seven residual solvents were 94.7%-105.2% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 3.5%. The limits of detection (LODs) of the method were 0.43-5.23 mg/L, and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were 1.25-16.67 mg/L. The method is simple, rapid, sensitive and accurate, and is suitable for the simultaneous determination of the seven residual solvents in bovis calculus artifactus.

  5. Immunization of cattle against Schistosome bovis (including pathophysiological studies on schistosome infection in bovines)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.F.

    1978-12-01

    Bovine schistosomiasis caused by S. bovis constitutes a serious veterinary problem in the Sudan, yet very little is known about the epidemiology, pathogenesis and immunology of the disease. Over the past 5 years, work on these aspects has been conducted at Khartoum and several outlying areas of the White Nile Province in Sudan. In studies involving over 1,000 cattle, it was found that almost 100% of animals are infected by 2 years of age but that the prevalence falls to less than 60% over the following 7 years. There was also a marked reduction in the intensity of infection with increasing age, indicating the development of a high degree of acquired resistance. This was confirmed experimentally by challenging animals from an endemic area with massive numbers of cercariae. These animals completely resisted the challenge whereas animals never previously exposed either died or became moribund due to the severe haemorrhagic diarrhoea resulting from the passage of schistosome eggs through the gut wall. Attempts were made to vaccinate calves using irradiated organisms. These gave 70-80% protection against a challenge infection and this was sufficient to allow these animals to gain weight and remain clinically healthy. Animals not given the vaccine deteriorated. The efficacy of the vaccine was then tested under field conditions and found to give a high level of protection against S. bovis. These animals were also less susceptible to intercurrent infections

  6. Validation of an indirect ELISA for the diagnosis of Babesia bovis in cattle in Yucatan, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, A.J.L.; Rodriguez, V.R.I.; Oura, C.; Cob, G.L.A.

    1998-01-01

    The ELISA kit provided by the FAO/IAEA for the diagnosis of Babesia bovis was validated. In order to determine the appropriate ELISA cut-off point that would serve as the threshold between positive and negative samples, 119 serum samples from a Mexican Babesia-free zone were analyzed. The optimal cut-off point chosen was at 12% of the reactivity of the high positive control serum sample (PP) which resulted in a specificity of 97%. One hundred and ninety-six cattle from Wisconsin, USA, were introduced into Yucatan, Mexico, of which 181 were vaccinated with an attenuated live Babesia bovis vaccine; 15 animals remained as unvaccinated controls. Before and after vaccination all animals were bled and tested by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT). Both tests showed a high degree of correlation in their results. To evaluate an immune response to vaccination the optimal cut-off point chosen was 12% PP resulting in a sensitivity 99% and a specificity 95%. We concluded that the ELISA test has proved to be useful in Yucatan, Mexico for serological surveys and monitoring the efficiency o vaccination programmes. (author)

  7. Bacteriological diagnosis and molecular strain typing of Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium caprae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, E; Corner, L A L; Costello, E; Rodriguez-Campos, S

    2014-10-01

    The primary isolation of a Mycobacterium sp. of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex from an infected animal provides a definitive diagnosis of tuberculosis. However, as Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium caprae are difficult to isolate, particularly for animals in the early stages of disease, success is dependent on the optimal performance of all aspects of the bacteriological process, from the initial choice of tissue samples at post-mortem examination or clinical samples, to the type of media and conditions used to cultivate the microorganism. Each step has its own performance characteristics, which can contribute to sensitivity and specificity of the procedure, and may need to be optimized in order to achieve the gold standard diagnosis. Having isolated the slow-growing mycobacteria, species identification and fine resolution strain typing are keys to understanding the epidemiology of the disease and to devise strategies to limit transmission of infection. New technologies have emerged that can now even discriminate different isolates from the same animal. In this review we highlight the key factors that contribute to the accuracy of bacteriological diagnosis of M. bovis and M. caprae, and describe the development of advanced genotyping techniques that are increasingly used in diagnostic laboratories for the purpose of supporting detailed epidemiological investigations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Investigating the association between African spontaneously fermented dairy products, faecal carriage of Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius and colorectal adenocarcinoma in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaindi, Dasel W M; Kogi-Makau, Wambui; Lule, Godfrey N; Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Renault, Pierre; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Schelling, Esther; Zinsstag, Jakob; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo; Jans, Christoph; Hattendorf, Jan

    2018-02-01

    Consumption of traditional fermented dairy products (tFDP) in Africa leads to the ingestion of up to 10 8 Streptococcus infantarius subspecies infantarius (Sii) per millilitre of spontaneously fermented milk. Sii is a member of the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) for which some members are associated particularly with colorectal cancer or endocarditis. The extent of health risks to tFDP consumers is largely unknown. A hospital-based unmatched case-control study was conducted at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi (Kenya) on 80 cases and 193 controls that were selected exhaustively from patients attending colonoscopy at the hospital. Logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex and residency were used in the statistical analysis. Consumption of tFDP was not associated with CRC (odds ratio (OR) 1.4; 95% Confidence interval (CI) 0.7-2.7; p=0.34). Risk factors associated with CRC included age above 40 years, and consumption of processed meat and alcohol. Faecal carriage of Sii was significantly higher in persons with colon tumours and polyps compared to controls (8.4% vs 21.6%: OR: 4.6; CI 1.3-15.9). Patients with haemorrhoids represented an unexpected carrier group with significantly higher Sii faecal carriage (30.4%, CI: 17.7-45.8). Consumption of tFDP does not represent risk factors for CRC whereas Sii seems to be associated with CRC. However, there is urgent need to assess this finding also in the general population, investigate the causality of SBSEC, Sii and CRC as well as compare the phylogenetic, functional and genomic relationship between human and dairy Sii with regards to the ongoing application of Sii in FDP production. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Fasciola hepatica infection reduces Mycobacterium bovis burden and mycobacterial uptake and suppresses the pro-inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza-Cuartero, L; O'Sullivan, J; Blanco, A; McNair, J; Welsh, M; Flynn, R J; Williams, D; Diggle, P; Cassidy, J; Mulcahy, G

    2016-07-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, has an annual incidence in cattle of 0.5% in the Republic of Ireland and 4.7% in the UK, despite long-standing eradication programmes being in place. Failure to achieve complete eradication is multifactorial, but the limitations of diagnostic tests are significant complicating factors. Previously, we have demonstrated that Fasciola hepatica infection, highly prevalent in these areas, induced reduced sensitivity of the standard diagnostic tests for BTB in animals co-infected with F. hepatica and M. bovis. This was accompanied by a reduced M. bovis-specific Th1 immune response. We hypothesized that these changes in co-infected animals would be accompanied by enhanced growth of M. bovis. However, we show here that mycobacterial burden in cattle is reduced in animals co-infected with F. hepatica. Furthermore, we demonstrate a lower mycobacterial recovery and uptake in blood monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) from F. hepatica-infected cattle which is associated with suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and a switch to alternative activation of macrophages. However, the cell surface expression of TLR2 and CD14 in MDM from F. hepatica-infected cattle is increased. These findings reflecting the bystander effect of helminth-induced downregulation of pro-inflammatory responses provide insights to understand host-pathogen interactions in co-infection. © 2016 The Authors. Parasite Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Tuberculosis patients co-infected with Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in an urban area of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marcio Roberto; Rocha, Adalgiza da Silva; da Costa, Ronaldo Rodrigues; de Alencar, Andrea Padilha; de Oliveira, Vania Maria; Fonseca Júnior, Antônio Augusto; Sales, Mariana Lázaro; Issa, Marina de Azevedo; Filho, Paulo Martins Soares; Pereira, Omara Tereza Vianello; dos Santos, Eduardo Calazans; Mendes, Rejane Silva; Ferreira, Angela Maria de Jesus; Mota, Pedro Moacyr Pinto Coelho; Suffys, Philip Noel; Guimarães, Mark Drew Crosland

    2013-05-01

    In this cross-sectional study, mycobacteria specimens from 189 tuberculosis (TB) patients living in an urban area in Brazil were characterised from 2008-2010 using phenotypic and molecular speciation methods (pncA gene and oxyR pseudogene analysis). Of these samples, 174 isolates simultaneously grew on Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) and Stonebrink (SB)-containing media and presented phenotypic and molecular profiles of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, whereas 12 had molecular profiles of M. tuberculosis based on the DNA analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin wax-embedded tissue samples (paraffin blocks). One patient produced two sputum isolates, the first of which simultaneously grew on LJ and SB media and presented phenotypic and molecular profiles of M. tuberculosis, and the second of which only grew on SB media and presented phenotypic profiles of Mycobacterium bovis. One patient provided a bronchial lavage isolate, which simultaneously grew on LJ and SB media and presented phenotypic and molecular profiles of M. tuberculosis, but had molecular profiles of M. bovis from paraffin block DNA analysis, and one sample had molecular profiles of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis identified from two distinct paraffin blocks. Moreover, we found a low prevalence (1.6%) of M. bovis among these isolates, which suggests that local health service procedures likely underestimate its real frequency and that it deserves more attention from public health officials.

  11. Babesia bovis and B. bigemina DNA detected in cattle and ticks from Zimbabwe by polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Smeenk

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available From blood collected from 94 cattle at 12 locations in the eastern and northeastern areas of Zimbabwe, DNA was extracted and analysed by polymerase chain reaction with primers previously reported to be specific for Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis. Overall, DNA of Babesia bigemina was detected in the blood of 33/94 (35 % cattle and DNA from B. bovis was detected in 27/58 (47 % of cattle. The prevalence of DNA of B. bigemina was significantly higher in young animals (<2 years (23/46 than in animals over 2 years of age (10/48; (chi2 = 8.77; P < 0.01 %. Although tick sampling was not thorough, Boophilus decoloratus could be collected at 7/9 sites sampled and Boophilus microplus at 4/9 sites. Of the 20 B. decoloratus allowed to oviposit before PCR analysis, 1 (5 % contained DNA that could be amplified with primers for B. bigemina while 12 (60 % were positive with primers for B. bovis. Of the B. microplus allowed to oviposit, 11/16 (69 % were positive for B. bovis DNAby PCR and 2/16 (12 % were positive for B. bigemina.

  12. Latent class analysis of bulk tank milk PCR and ELISA testing for herd level diagnosis of Mycoplasma bovis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Kantsø; Petersen, Mette Bisgaard; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum

    2015-01-01

    of this study was to evaluate the herd-level diagnostic performance of an indirect ELISA test by comparison to a real-time PCR test when diagnosing M. bovis in cattle herds of bulk tank milk. Bulk tank milk samples from Danish dairy herds (N=3437) were analysed with both the antibody detecting BIO K 302 M...

  13. Field application of immunoassays for the detection of Mycobacterium bovis infection in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, E.M.D.L.; Jenkins, A.; Cooper, D.; Rutten, V.P.M.G.; Michel, A.L.

    2016-01-01

    The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is considered the most important maintenance host of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in wildlife in Southern Africa. The diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis infection in this species mostly relies on the single intradermal comparative tuberculin test (SICTT). As an

  14. Polyfunctional cytokine production by central memory T cells from cattle in response to Mycobacterium bovis infection and BCG vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyfunctional T cells simultaneously produce IFN-gamma, IL-2 and TNF-alpha and play relevant roles in several chronic infections, including TB. Mycobacterium bovis infection of cattle elicits ex vivo polyfunctional T cell responses. Vaccine-elicited IFN-gamma Tcm (CD4 plus CD45RO plus CCR7 plus) re...

  15. Molecular cloning and characterization of a surface-localized adhesion protein in Mycoplasma bovis Hubei-1 strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Zou

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis is an important pathogen that causes various bovine diseases, such as mastitis in cows and pneumonia in calves. The surface proteins are generally thought to play a central role in the pathogenesis of this organism. We screened the entire genome of M. bovis Hubei-1 and discovered a gene named vpmaX that encodes the 25 kDa variable surface lipoprotein A (VpmaX. Sequence analysis revealed that VpmaX contains several repetitive units and a typical bacterial lipoprotein signal sequence. The vpmaX gene was cloned and expressed in E. coli to obtain recombinant VpmaX (rVpmaX. Western blot analysis using a rabbit antibody against rVpmaX demonstrated that VpmaX is a membrane protein. Immunostaining visualized via confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that rVpmaX was able to adhere to embryonic bovine lung cells (EBL, and this was also confirmed by a sandwich ELISA. In summary, a surface-localized adhesion protein was identified in M. bovis Hubei-1.

  16. SEROLOGICAL, PARASITOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR ASSESSMENT OF Babesia bovis AND Babesia bigemina IN CATTLE FROM STATE OF MARANHÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO BORGES COSTA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina in dairy cattle from São Luis Island in the state of Maranhão, Brazil. A total of 281 blood samples were collected. In total, 275 (97.9% animals were B. bovis-reactive and B. bigemina reactive in the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The microscopy examination detected 22 (7.8% animals that were positive for Babesia sp. and the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR analysis showed that 91 animals (32.38% and 23 animals (8.18% were positive for B. bovis and B. bigemina, respectively, while 17 animals (6.04% were co-infected. There is a high level of transmission of these protozoa in Maranhão, and the animals were naturally exposed. Therefore, it is possible to characterize the island as enzootic stability for babesiosis, indicat-ing a risk of financial losses when susceptible animals are introduced from areas of enzootic instability or free regions of B. bovis and B. bigemina.

  17. Recombinant M. bovis BCG expressing the PLD protein promotes survival in mice challenged with a C. pseudotuberculosis virulent strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Karen Silva; de Oliveira Silva, Mara Thais; de Fátima Silva Rezende, Andréa; Bezerra, Francisco Silvestre Brilhante; Begnini, Karine; Seixas, Fabiana; Collares, Tiago; Dellagostin, Odir; Portela, Ricardo Wagner; de Carvalho Azevedo, Vasco Ariston; Borsuk, Sibele

    2018-06-14

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival of mice inoculated with M. bovis BCG Pasteur recombinant expressing the PLD protein and challenged with a C. pseudotuberculosis virulent strain. Four groups were immunized with a sterile 0.9% saline solution (G1), 10 6  CFU of M. bovis BCG Pasteur (G2), 10 6  CFU of M. bovis BCG/pld (G3) or 10 6  CFU of M. bovis BCG/pld with a booster with rPLD (G4) and challenged with 10 4 CFU of C. pseudotuberculosis MIC-6 strain. The highest survival rate of 88% was observed in G4, followed by 77% in G3 and 66% in G2. A significant statistical difference was observed in the levels of cytokines IFN-γ and IL-10 in vaccinated groups (G3 and G4) when compared with the control group (G1) (p < 0.05). The results seem promising as the recombinant vaccine elicited a cellular immune response and provided significant survival after a high virulent challenge. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Tuberculosis patients co-infected with Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in an urban area of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Roberto Silva

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this cross-sectional study, mycobacteria specimens from 189 tuberculosis (TB patients living in an urban area in Brazil were characterised from 2008-2010 using phenotypic and molecular speciation methods (pncA gene and oxyR pseudogene analysis. Of these samples, 174 isolates simultaneously grew on Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ and Stonebrink (SB-containing media and presented phenotypic and molecular profiles of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, whereas 12 had molecular profiles of M. tuberculosis based on the DNA analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin wax-embedded tissue samples (paraffin blocks. One patient produced two sputum isolates, the first of which simultaneously grew on LJ and SB media and presented phenotypic and molecular profiles of M. tuberculosis, and the second of which only grew on SB media and presented phenotypic profiles of Mycobacterium bovis. One patient provided a bronchial lavage isolate, which simultaneously grew on LJ and SB media and presented phenotypic and molecular profiles of M. tuberculosis, but had molecular profiles of M. bovis from paraffin block DNA analysis, and one sample had molecular profiles of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis identified from two distinct paraffin blocks. Moreover, we found a low prevalence (1.6% of M. bovis among these isolates, which suggests that local health service procedures likely underestimate its real frequency and that it deserves more attention from public health officials.

  19. Molecular and antimicrobial susceptibility profiling of atypical Streptococcus species from porcine clinical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Luisa Z; Matajira, Carlos E C; Gomes, Vasco T M; Silva, Ana Paula S; Mesquita, Renan E; Christ, Ana Paula G; Sato, Maria Inês Z; Moreno, Andrea M

    2016-10-01

    The Streptococcus species present broad phenotypic variation, making identification difficult using only traditional microbiological methods. Even though Streptococcus suis is the most important species for the worldwide swine industry, other Streptococcus species appear to be able to cause disease in swine and could represent a higher underestimated risk for porcine health. The aim of this study was to identify Streptococcus-like isolates by MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA sequencing and further molecular and antibiotic susceptibility characterization of the atypical Streptococcus species capable of causing disease in swine. Fifty presumptive Streptococcus isolates from diseased pigs isolated from different Brazilian States between 2002 and 2014 were evaluated. Among the studied isolates, 26% were identified as Streptococcus hyovaginalis, 24% as Streptococcus plurianimalium, 12% as Streptococcus alactolyticus, 10% as Streptococcus hyointestinalis, and the remaining isolates belonged to Streptococcus henryi (6%), Streptococcus thoraltensis (6%), Streptococcus gallolyticus (6%), Streptococcus gallinaceus (4%), Streptococcus sanguinis (4%), and Streptococcus mitis (2%). The Streptococcus isolates were successfully identified by spectral cluster analysis and 16S rRNA sequencing with 96% of concordance between the techniques. The SE-AFLP analysis also supported Streptococcus species distinction and enabled further observation of higher genetic heterogeneity intra-species. The identified Streptococcus species presented variable MIC values to β-lactams, enrofloxacin and florfenicol, and high resistance rates to tetracyclines and macrolides, which appear to be directly related to the industry's antimicrobial usage and resistance selection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Molecular diagnosis and phylogenetic analysis of Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis hemoparasites from cattle in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Babesia parasites, mainly Babesia bovis and B. bigemina, are tick-borne hemoparasites inducing bovine babesiosis in cattle globally. The clinical signs of the disease include, among others, anemia, fever and hemoglobinuria. Babesiosis is known to occur in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In this study, we aim to provide information about the occurrence and phylogenetic relationship of B. bigemina and B. bovis species in cattle from different locations in nine provinces of South Africa. A total of 430 blood samples were randomly collected from apparently healthy cattle. These samples were genetically tested for Babesia parasitic infections using nested PCR assays with species-specific primers. Results Nested PCR assays with Group I primer sets revealed that the overall prevalence of B. bigemina and B. bovis in all bovine samples tested was 64.7% (95% CI = 60.0-69.0) and 35.1% (95% CI = 30.6-39.8), respectively. Only 117/430 (27.2%) animals had a mixed infection. The highest prevalence of 87.5% (95% CI = 77.2-93.5) for B. bigemina was recorded in the Free State province collection sites (Ficksburg, Philippolis and Botshabelo), while North West collection sites had the highest number of animals infected with B. bovis (65.5%; 95% CI = 52.7-76.4). Phylograms were inferred based on B. bigemina-specific gp45 and B. bovis-specific rap-1 nucleotide sequences obtained with Group II nested PCR primers. Phylogenetic analysis of gp45 sequences revealed significant differences in the genotypes of B. bigemina isolates investigated, including those of strains published in GenBank. On the other hand, a phylogeny based on B. bovis rap-1 sequences indicated a similar trend of clustering among the sequences of B. bovis isolates investigated in this study. Conclusion This study demonstrates the occurrence of Babesia parasites in cattle from different provinces of South Africa. It was also noted that the situation of Babesia parasitic infection

  1. Inactivation of Mycobacterium bovis ssp. caprae in high-temperature, short-term pasteurized pilot-plant milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, P; Richter, E; Rüsch-Gerdes, S; Walte, H-G C; Matzen, S; Kiesner, C

    2015-03-01

    Experiments to determine the efficacy of high temperature, short time (HTST) pasteurization of milk in terms of inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms were mainly performed between 1930 and 1960. Among the target organisms were Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. As a result, the Codex Alimentarius prescribes that HTST treatment of milk should lead to a significant reduction of pathogenic microorganisms during milk pasteurization. Due to the development of improved methods for the detection of survivors and of more advanced heating technology, verification of this requirement seemed to be necessary. To address recent outbreaks of tuberculosis in cattle caused by M. bovis ssp. caprae (M. caprae) in the southern regions of Germany, this organism was tested and compared with M. bovis ssp. bovis (M. bovis). Experiments were performed in a pilot plant for HTST pasteurization of milk with 3 strains of M. caprae and 1 strain of M. bovis. In preliminary trials at a fixed holding time of 25 s, the temperature at which significant inactivation occurred was 62.5°C for all strains. To determine D-values (decimal reduction times) for the inactivation kinetics, the strains were tested at 65, 62.5, and 60°C at holding times of 16.5, 25, and 35 s. At 65°C, the D-values of all strains ranged from 6.8 to 7.8 s, and at 62.5°C, D-values ranged from 14.5 to 18.1 s. Low inactivation was observed at 60°C. When the low slope of the inactivation curve allowed calculation of a D-value, these ranged from 40.8 to 129.9 s. In terms of log10 reductions, the highest values for all strains were 4.1 to 4.9 log at 65°C, with a holding time of 35 s. The tested strains of M. caprae and M. bovis showed similar low resistance to heat. Standard HTST treatment should result in a high reduction of these organisms and thus the requirements of the Codex Alimentarius for inactivation of pathogens by this process are far exceeded. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association

  2. Decline in Mycobacterium bovis and Brucella abortus populations during the maturation of experimentally contaminated parmesan-type cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Ramirez Starikoff

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian legislation allows the manufacture of raw milk cheese with a maturation exceeding 60 days at room temperature above 5°C, but there is a lack of solid scientific evidence on the efficacy of this maturation process in inactivating important pathogens that may be present in milk, such as Mycobacterium bovis and Brucella abortus. Thus, the objectives of this study were to produce parmesan-type cheese experimentally contaminated with M. bovis and B. abortus and evaluate the survival of these pathogens along 2-month maturation. Parmesan-type cheese was manufactured in the laboratory using whole pasteurized milk with or without inoculation with M. bovis (SB1033 or B. abortus (1119-3 and matured at 18°C for up to 63 days. M. bovis was inoculated in Stonebrink-Leslie medium supplemented with antibiotics and incubated at 37°C for 45 days, and B. abortus was incubated in Farrel medium at 36°C for 3 days. The average D18°C value, weighted by variance, was 37.5 ± 5.3 days for M. bovis and 5.9 ± 0.7 days for B. abortus. The average physicochemical parameters in the cheese at the end of the study were as follows: pH = 4.89, water activity = 0.976, and moisture percentage = 43.1%. The pH might have contributed to the reduction in the population of B. abortus but seems not to have influenced the population of M. bovis. We conclude that the duration of the maturation process influences the size of the surviving populations of M. bovis and B. abortus, and that the shortening of the maturation duration might not ensure a decline in pathogen levels to safe levels. Thus, complementary studies considering the effect of several other technological aspects on the survival of these pathogens are required, including the effect of the lactic acid bacterial population, salt content, and temperature of maturation.

  3. Molecular diagnosis and phylogenetic analysis of Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis hemoparasites from cattle in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtshali, Moses Sibusiso; Mtshali, Phillip Senzo

    2013-08-08

    Babesia parasites, mainly Babesia bovis and B. bigemina, are tick-borne hemoparasites inducing bovine babesiosis in cattle globally. The clinical signs of the disease include, among others, anemia, fever and hemoglobinuria. Babesiosis is known to occur in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In this study, we aim to provide information about the occurrence and phylogenetic relationship of B. bigemina and B. bovis species in cattle from different locations in nine provinces of South Africa. A total of 430 blood samples were randomly collected from apparently healthy cattle. These samples were genetically tested for Babesia parasitic infections using nested PCR assays with species-specific primers. Nested PCR assays with Group I primer sets revealed that the overall prevalence of B. bigemina and B. bovis in all bovine samples tested was 64.7% (95% CI = 60.0-69.0) and 35.1% (95% CI = 30.6-39.8), respectively. Only 117/430 (27.2%) animals had a mixed infection. The highest prevalence of 87.5% (95% CI = 77.2-93.5) for B. bigemina was recorded in the Free State province collection sites (Ficksburg, Philippolis and Botshabelo), while North West collection sites had the highest number of animals infected with B. bovis (65.5%; 95% CI = 52.7-76.4). Phylograms were inferred based on B. bigemina-specific gp45 and B. bovis-specific rap-1 nucleotide sequences obtained with Group II nested PCR primers. Phylogenetic analysis of gp45 sequences revealed significant differences in the genotypes of B. bigemina isolates investigated, including those of strains published in GenBank. On the other hand, a phylogeny based on B. bovis rap-1 sequences indicated a similar trend of clustering among the sequences of B. bovis isolates investigated in this study. This study demonstrates the occurrence of Babesia parasites in cattle from different provinces of South Africa. It was also noted that the situation of Babesia parasitic infection in cattle from certain areas

  4. Natural Babesia bovis infection in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and crossbred cattle under field conditions in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmmod, Yasser

    2014-01-01

    showed no clinical signs and were free from external, internal, and blood parasites served as control group. Results: Babesia bovis-infected cattle showed typical signs of bovine babesiosis while B. bovis-infected buffaloes showed a milder form (less severe) of the clinical signs. Advanced cases...... cattle under field conditions in Egypt. Methods: A total of 35 buffaloes and cattle were clinically and laboratory investigated from March to June 2008. Twenty-nine buffaloes and cattle out of 35 were naturally infected with B. bovis and showed signs of bovine babesiosis. Three cows and three buffaloes...

  5. Trends of Mycobacterium bovis Isolation and First-Line Anti-tuberculosis Drug Susceptibility Profile: A Fifteen-Year Laboratory-Based Surveillance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Bobadilla-del Valle

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes the majority of tuberculosis (TB cases in humans; however, in developing countries, human TB caused by M. bovis may be frequent but undetected. Human TB caused by M. bovis is considered a zoonosis; transmission is mainly through consumption of unpasteurized dairy products, and it is less frequently attributed to animal-to-human or human-to-human contact. We describe the trends of M. bovis isolation from human samples and first-line drug susceptibility during a 15-year period in a referral laboratory located in a tertiary care hospital in Mexico City.Data on mycobacterial isolates from human clinical samples were retrieved from the laboratory's database for the 2000-2014 period. Susceptibility to first-line drugs: rifampin, isoniazid, streptomycin (STR and ethambutol was determined. We identified 1,165 isolates, 73.7% were M. tuberculosis and 26.2%, M. bovis. Among pulmonary samples, 16.6% were M. bovis. The proportion of M. bovis isolates significantly increased from 7.8% in 2000 to 28.4% in 2014 (X(2trend, p<0.001. Primary STR resistance was higher among M. bovis compared with M. tuberculosis isolates (10.9% vs.3.4%, p<0.001. Secondary multidrug resistance (MDR rates were 38.5% and 34.4% for M. bovis and M. tuberculosis, respectively (p = 0.637. A rising trend of primary STR monoresistance was observed for both species (3.4% in 2000-2004 vs. 7.6% in 2010-2014; p = 0.02.There is a high prevalence and a rising trend of M. bovis isolates in our region. The proportion of pulmonary M. bovis isolates is higher than in previous reports. Additionally, we report high rates of primary anti-tuberculosis resistance and secondary MDR in both M. tuberculosis and M. bovis. This is one of the largest reports on drug susceptibility of M. bovis from human samples and shows a significant proportion of first-line anti-tuberculosis drug resistance.

  6. Acquisition through Horizontal Gene Transfer of Plasmid pSMA198 by Streptococcus macedonicus ACA-DC 198 Points towards the Dairy Origin of the Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Konstantinos; Anastasiou, Rania; Maistrou, Eleni; Plakas, Thomas; Papandreou, Nikos C.; Hamodrakas, Stavros J.; Ferreira, Stéphanie; Supply, Philip; Renault, Pierre; Pot, Bruno; Tsakalidou, Effie

    2015-01-01

    Background Streptococcus macedonicus is an intriguing streptococcal species whose most frequent source of isolation is fermented foods similarly to Streptococcus thermophilus. However, S. macedonicus is closely related to commensal opportunistic pathogens of the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed the pSMA198 plasmid isolated from the dairy strain Streptococcus macedonicus ACA-DC 198 in order to provide novel clues about the main ecological niche of this bacterium. pSMA198 belongs to the narrow host range pCI305/pWV02 family found primarily in lactococci and to the best of our knowledge it is the first such plasmid to be reported in streptococci. Comparative analysis of the pSMA198 sequence revealed a high degree of similarity with plasmids isolated from Lactococcus lactis strains deriving from milk or its products. Phylogenetic analysis of the pSMA198 Rep showed that the vast majority of closely related proteins derive from lactococcal dairy isolates. Additionally, cloning of the pSMA198 ori in L. lactis revealed a 100% stability of replication over 100 generations. Both pSMA198 and the chromosome of S. macedonicus exhibit a high percentage of potential pseudogenes, indicating that they have co-evolved under the same gene decay processes. We identified chromosomal regions in S. macedonicus that may have originated from pSMA198, also supporting a long co-existence of the two replicons. pSMA198 was also found in divergent biotypes of S. macedonicus and in strains isolated from dispersed geographic locations (e.g. Greece and Switzerland) showing that pSMA198’s acquisition is not a recent event. Conclusions/Significance Here we propose that S. macedonicus acquired plasmid pSMA198 from L. lactis via an ancestral genetic exchange event that took place most probably in milk or dairy products. We provide important evidence that point towards the dairy origin of this species. PMID:25584532

  7. Investigation of the Amycolatopsis sp. strain ATCC 39116 vanillin dehydrogenase and its impact on the biotechnical production of vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleige, Christian; Hansen, Gunda; Kroll, Jens; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The actinomycete Amycolatopsis sp. strain ATCC 39116 is capable of synthesizing large amounts of vanillin from ferulic acid, which is a natural cell wall component of higher plants. The desired intermediate vanillin is subject to undesired catabolism caused by the metabolic activity of a hitherto unknown vanillin dehydrogenase (VDH(ATCC 39116)). In order to prevent the oxidation of vanillin to vanillic acid and thereby to obtain higher yields and concentrations of vanillin, the responsible vanillin dehydrogenase in Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 was investigated for the first time by using data from our genome sequence analysis and further bioinformatic approaches. The vdh gene was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and the encoded vanillin dehydrogenase was characterized in detail. VDH(ATCC 39116) was purified to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity and exhibited NAD(+)-dependent activity toward vanillin, coniferylaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde, and benzaldehyde. The enzyme showed its highest level of activity toward vanillin at pH 8.0 and at a temperature of 44°C. In a next step, a precise vdh deletion mutant of Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 was generated. The mutant lost its ability to grow on vanillin and did not show vanillin dehydrogenase activity. A 2.3-times-higher vanillin concentration and a substantially reduced amount of vanillic acid occurred with the Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 Δvdh::Km(r) mutant when ferulic acid was provided for biotransformation in a cultivation experiment on a 2-liter-bioreactor scale. Based on these results and taking further metabolic engineering into account, the Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 Δvdh::Km(r) mutant represents an optimized and industrially applicable platform for the biotechnological production of natural vanillin.

  8. Variation in the Early Host-Pathogen Interaction of Bovine Macrophages with Divergent Mycobacterium bovis Strains in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kirsty; Gallagher, Iain J; Johnston, Nicholas; Welsh, Michael; Skuce, Robin; Williams, John L; Glass, Elizabeth J

    2018-03-01

    Bovine tuberculosis has been an escalating animal health issue in the United Kingdom since the 1980s, even though control policies have been in place for over 60 years. The importance of the genetics of the etiological agent, Mycobacterium bovis , in the reemergence of the disease has been largely overlooked. We compared the interaction between bovine monocyte-derived macrophages (bMDM) and two M. bovis strains, AF2122/97 and G18, representing distinct genotypes currently circulating in the United Kingdom. These M. bovis strains exhibited differences in survival and growth in bMDM. Although uptake was similar, the number of viable intracellular AF2122/97 organisms increased rapidly, while G18 growth was constrained for the first 24 h. AF2122/97 infection induced a greater transcriptional response by bMDM than G18 infection with respect to the number of differentially expressed genes and the fold changes measured. AF2122/97 infection induced more bMDM cell death, with characteristics of necrosis and apoptosis, more inflammasome activation, and a greater type I interferon response than G18. In conclusion, the two investigated M. bovis strains interact in significantly different ways with the host macrophage. In contrast to the relatively silent infection by G18, AF2122/97 induces greater signaling to attract other immune cells and induces host cell death, which may promote secondary infections of naive macrophages. These differences may affect early events in the host-pathogen interaction, including granuloma development, which could in turn alter the progression of the disease. Therefore, the potential involvement of M. bovis genotypes in the reemergence of bovine tuberculosis in the United Kingdom warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2018 Jensen et al.

  9. Overall decrease in the susceptibility of Mycoplasma bovis to antimicrobials over the past 30 years in France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne V Gautier-Bouchardon

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma (M. bovis is frequently implicated in respiratory diseases of young cattle worldwide. Today, to combat M. bovis in Europe, only antimicrobial therapy is available, but often fails, leading to important economical losses. The antimicrobial susceptibility of M. bovis is not covered by antimicrobial resistance surveillance networks. The objectives of this study were to identify resistances that were acquired over the last 30 years in France and to determine their prevalence within contemporary strains. The minimum inhibition concentration (MIC values of 12 antimicrobials, considered active on M. bovis, were compared, using an agar dilution method, between 27 and 46 M. bovis isolates respectively obtained in 1978-1979 and in 2010-2012 from 73 distinct respiratory disease outbreaks in young cattle all over France. For eight antimicrobials, resistances were proven to be acquired over the period and expressed by all contemporary strains. The increase of the MIC value that inhibited 50% of the isolates (MIC50 was: i substantial for tylosin, tilmicosin, tulathromycin and spectinomycin, from 2 to >64, 2 to >128, 16 to 128 and 4 to >64 µg/mL, respectively, ii moderate for enrofloxacin, danofloxacin, marbofloxacin and oxytetracycline, from 0.25 to 0.5, 0.25 to 0.5, 0.5 to 1, 32 to >32 µg/mL, respectively. No differences were observed for gamithromycin, tildipirosin, florfenicol and valnemulin with MIC50 of 128, 128, 8, <0.03 µg/mL, respectively. If referring to breakpoint MIC values published for respiratory bovine pathogens, all contemporary isolates would be intermediate in vivo for fluoroquinolones and resistant to macrolides, oxytetracycline, spectinomycin and florfenicol.

  10. Seeing Streptococcus pneumoniae, a Common Killer Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Rikke Schmidt; Andersen, Ebbe Sloth

    2014-01-01

    Look around you. The diversity and complexity of life on earth is overwhelming and data continues to grow. In our desire to understand and explain everything scientifically from molecular evolution to supernovas we depend on visual representations. This paper investigates visual representations...... of the bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae by use of ink, watercolours and computer graphics. We propose a novel artistic visual rendering of Streptococcus pneumoniae and ask what the value of these kind of representations are compared to traditional scientific data. We ask if drawings and computer......-assisted representations can add to our scientific knowledge about this dangerous bacteria. Is there still a role for the scientific illustrator in the scientific process and synthesis of scientific knowledge?...

  11. Enhancing fructooligosaccharides production by genetic improvement of the industrial fungus Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Liu, Caixia; Xie, Yijia; Li, Ning; Ning, Zhanguo; Du, Na; Huang, Xirong; Zhong, Yaohua

    2017-05-10

    Aspergillus niger ATCC20611 is one of the most potent filamentous fungi used commercially for production of fructooligosaccharides (FOS), which are prospective components of functional food by stimulating probiotic bacteria in the human gut. However, current strategies for improving FOS yield still rely on production process development. The genetic engineering approach hasn't been applied in industrial strains to increase FOS production level. Here, an optimized polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated protoplast transformation system was established in A. niger ATCC 20611 and used for further strain improvement. The pyrithiamine resistance gene (ptrA) was selected as a dominant marker and protoplasts were prepared with high concentration (up to 10 8 g -1 wet weight mycelium) by using mixed cell wall-lysing enzymes. The transformation frequency with ptrA can reach 30-50 transformants per μg of DNA. In addition, the efficiency of co-transformation with the EGFP reporter gene (egfp) was high (approx. 82%). Furthermore, an activity-improved variant of β-fructofuranosidase, FopA(A178P), was successfully overexpressed in A. niger ATCC 20611 by using the transformation system. The transformant, CM6, exhibited a 58% increase in specific β-fructofuranosidase activity (up to 507U/g), compared to the parental strain (320U/g), and effectively reduced the time needed for completion of FOS synthesis. These results illustrate the feasibility of strain improvement through genetic engineering for further enhancement of FOS production level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification of lactose phosphotransferase systems in Lactobacillus gasseri ATCC 33323 required for lactose utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francl, Alyssa L; Hoeflinger, Jennifer L; Miller, Michael J

    2012-04-01

    Improving the annotation of sugar catabolism-related genes requires functional characterization. Our objective was to identify the genes necessary for lactose utilization by Lactobacillus gasseri ATCC 33323 (NCK334). The mechanism of lactose transport in many lactobacilli is a lactose/galactose-specific permease, yet no orthologue was found in NCK334. Characterization of an EI knockout strain [EI (enzyme I) is required for phosphotransferase system transporter (PTS) function] demonstrated that L. gasseri requires PTS(s) to utilize lactose. In order to determine which PTS(s) were necessary for lactose utilization, we compared transcript expression profiles in response to lactose for the 15 complete PTSs identified in the NCK334 genome. PTS 6CB (LGAS_343) and PTS 8C (LGAS_497) were induced in the presence of lactose 107- and 53-fold, respectively. However, L. gasseri ATCC 33323 PTS 6CB, PTS 8C had a growth rate similar to that of the wild-type on semisynthetic deMan, Rogosa, Sharpe (MRS) medium with lactose. Expression profiles of L. gasseri ATCC 33323 PTS 6CB, PTS 8C in response to lactose identified PTS 9BC (LGAS_501) as 373-fold induced, whereas PTS 9BC was not induced in NCK334. Elimination of growth on lactose required the inactivation of both PTS 6CB and PTS 9BC. Among the six candidate phospho-β-galactosidase genes present in the NCK334 genome, LGAS_344 was found to be induced 156-fold in the presence of lactose. In conclusion, we have determined that: (1) NCK334 uses a PTS to import lactose; (2) PTS 6CB and PTS 8C gene expression is strongly induced by lactose; and (3) elimination of PTS 6CB and PTS 9BC is required to prevent growth on lactose.

  13. Reducing the Bitterness of Tuna (Euthynnus pelamis) Dark Meat with Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei ATCC 393

    OpenAIRE

    Ernani S. Sant’Anna; Luiz H. Beirão; Fabiano Cleber Bertoldi

    2004-01-01

    During the process of canning tuna fish, considerable amounts of dark tuna meat are left over because of its bitterness, which are then used in the production of animal food. Fermentation with Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei ATCC 393 was used as an alternative to reduce this bitter taste. Samples of meat were prepared, vacuum packed and then stored at –18 °C. The frozen dark meat was used immediately after defrosting and the experiment was carried out with 2 and 4 % of NaCl with the addition...

  14. INFLUENCE OF HIGH LIGHT INTENSITY ON THE CELLS OF CYANOBACTERIA ANABAENA VARIABILIS SP. ATCC 29413

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OPRIŞ SANDA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article is presented the result of research regardind the effect of high light intensity on the cells of Anabaena variabilis sp. ATCC 29413, the main objective is to study the adaptation of photosynthetic apparatus to light stress. Samples were analyzed in the present of herbicide diuron (DCMU which blocks electron flow from photosystem II and without diuron. During treatment maximum fluorescence and photosystems efficiency are significantly reduced, reaching very low values compared with the blank, as a result of photoinhibition installation. Also by this treatment is shown the importance of the mechanisms by which cells detect the presence of light stress and react accordingly.

  15. Oxygen-Inducible Conversion of Lactate to Acetate in Heterofermentative Lactobacillus brevis ATCC 367.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tingting; Zhang, Li; Xin, Yongping; Xu, ZhenShang; He, Huiying; Kong, Jian

    2017-11-01

    Lactobacillus brevis is an obligatory heterofermentative lactic acid bacterium that produces high levels of acetate, which improve the aerobic stability of silages against deterioration caused by yeasts and molds. However, the mechanism involved in acetate accumulation has yet to be elucidated. Here, experimental evidence indicated that aerobiosis resulted in the conversion of lactate to acetate after glucose exhaustion in L. brevis ATCC 367 (GenBank accession number NC_008497). To elucidate the conversion pathway, in silico analysis showed that lactate was first converted to pyruvate by the reverse catalytic reaction of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH); subsequently, pyruvate conversion to acetate might be mediated by pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) or pyruvate oxidase (POX). Transcriptional analysis indicated that the pdh and pox genes of L. brevis ATCC 367 were upregulated 37.92- and 18.32-fold, respectively, by oxygen and glucose exhaustion, corresponding to 5.32- and 2.35-fold increases in the respective enzyme activities. Compared with the wild-type strain, the transcription and enzymatic activity of PDH remained stable in the Δ pox mutant, while those of POX increased significantly in the Δ pdh mutant. More lactate but less acetate was produced in the Δ pdh mutant than in the wild-type and Δ pox mutant strains, and more H 2 O 2 (a product of the POX pathway) was produced in the Δ pdh mutant. We speculated that the high levels of aerobic acetate accumulation in L. brevis ATCC 367 originated mainly from the reuse of lactate to produce pyruvate, which was further converted to acetate by the predominant and secondary functions of PDH and POX, respectively. IMPORTANCE PDH and POX are two possible key enzymes involved in aerobic acetate accumulation in lactic acid bacteria (LAB). It is currently thought that POX plays the major role in aerobic growth in homofermentative LAB and some heterofermentative LAB, while the impact of PDH remains unclear. In this study, we

  16. Pathway analysis for intracellular Porphyromonas gingivalis using a strain ATCC 33277 specific database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Tiansong

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porphyromonas gingivalis is a Gram-negative intracellular pathogen associated with periodontal disease. We have previously reported on whole-cell quantitative proteomic analyses to investigate the differential expression of virulence factors as the organism transitions from an extracellular to intracellular lifestyle. The original results with the invasive strain P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 were obtained using the genome sequence available at the time, strain W83 [GenBank: AE015924]. We present here a re-processed dataset using the recently published genome annotation specific for strain ATCC 33277 [GenBank: AP009380] and an analysis of differential abundance based on metabolic pathways rather than individual proteins. Results Qualitative detection was observed for 1266 proteins using the strain ATCC 33277 annotation for 18 hour internalized P. gingivalis within human gingival epithelial cells and controls exposed to gingival cell culture medium, an improvement of 7% over the W83 annotation. Internalized cells showed increased abundance of proteins in the energy pathway from asparagine/aspartate amino acids to ATP. The pathway producing one short chain fatty acid, propionate, showed increased abundance, while that of another, butyrate, trended towards decreased abundance. The translational machinery, including ribosomal proteins and tRNA synthetases, showed a significant increase in protein relative abundance, as did proteins responsible for transcription. Conclusion Use of the ATCC 33277 specific genome annotation resulted in improved proteome coverage with respect to the number of proteins observed both qualitatively in terms of protein identifications and quantitatively in terms of the number of calculated abundance ratios. Pathway analysis showed a significant increase in overall protein synthetic and transcriptional machinery in the absence of significant growth. These results suggest that the interior of host cells

  17. Fed-batch production of concentrated fructose syrup and ethanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 36859

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koren, D W [CANMET, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Duvnjak, Z [Univ. of Ottawa, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1992-01-01

    A fed-batch process is used for the production of concentrated pure fructose syrup and ethanol from various glucose/fructose mixtures by S.cerevisiae ATCC 36859. Applying this technique, glucose-free fructose syrups with over 250 g/l of this sugar were obtained using High Fructose Corn Syrup and hydrolyzed Jerusalem artichoke juice. Bey encouraging ethanol evaporation from the reactor and condensing it, a separate ethanol product with a concentration of up to 350 g/l was also produced. The rates of glucose consumption and ethanol production were higher than in classical batch ethanol fermentation processes. (orig.).

  18. Purification and Characterization of an Extracellular Proteinase from Brevibacterium-Linens ATCC-9174

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattray, F P; Bockelmann, W; Fox, P F

    1995-01-01

    An extracellular serine proteinase from Brevibacterium linens ATCC 9174 was purified to homogeneity. pH and temperature optima were 8,5 and 50 degrees C, respectively. The results for the molecular mass of the proteinase were 56 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis...... and 126 kDa by gel filtration, indicating that the native enzyme exists as a dimer. Mg2+ and Ca2+ activated the proteinase, as did NaCl; however, Hg2+ Fe2+, and Zn2+ caused strong inhibition. The sequence of the first 20 N-terminal amino acids was NH2-Ala-Lys- Asn...

  19. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for differentiation between Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Prehn, Joffrey; van Veen, Suzanne Q; Schelfaut, Jacqueline J G; Wessels, Els

    2016-05-01

    We compared the Vitek MS and Microflex MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry platform for species differentiation within the Streptococcus mitis group with PCR assays targeted at lytA, Spn9802, and recA as reference standard. The Vitek MS correctly identified 10/11 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 13/13 Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, and 12/13 S. mitis/oralis. The Microflex correctly identified 9/11 S. pneumoniae, 0/13 S. pseudopneumoniae, and 13/13 S. mitis/oralis. MALDI-TOF is a powerful tool for species determination within the mitis group. Diagnostic accuracy varies depending on platform and database used. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. BoLA class I polymorphism and in vitro immune response to M. bovis antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longeri, M; Polli, M; Ponti, W; Zanotti, M

    1993-01-12

    From a sample of 119 Friesian calves, serologically typed for BoLA class I, 47 subjects were chosen expressing 9 different MHC types (A6, A6.9, A10, A11, A14, A15, A30, W16, M103) with the same age and reared in the same farm conditions. The animals were s.c. injected with a water in oil suspension of killed M. bovis and the treatment was repeated two days later. Before the treatment and 21 days later, calves were bled and on PBM (peripheral blood mononuclear leucocytes) were performed the following tests: 1. Lymphocyte Stimulation with bovine and avian PPDs (Purified protein derivative of Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium avium, respectively). 2. Phagocytic activity towards M. bovis. 3. Class II molecules expression on cell surface. 4. Percentage of leucocyte populations and subpopulations. In the in vitro Lymphocyte Stimulation test, all the animals and classes were responders. Animals bearing A10 BoLA class I presented c.p.m. (counts per minute) and index values higher than the other cattle; these values were significantly positively related both to bovine and avian PPDs (P celular de moleculas de clase II. 4. Porcentaje de poblaciones y de subpob-laciones de leucocitos. Todos los animales y todos los tipos de MHC dieron respuestas positivas en las pruebas de Stimulacion Lymphocitaria. Los animales que tenian la BoLA A10 presentaron valores de c.p.m. y indices mas altos de los demas animales. Estos valores se encontraron significativamente y positivamente relacionados sea a la PPD bovina que a la PPD avicola. Por medio de la analisis de varianzas se encontro que el tipo BoLA A14 muestraba una correlacion significativa y algo positiva con una mejor actividad fagocitaria. Los tipos de clase BoLA I no parecieron que influenzaran de manera appreciable el porcentaje de positividad por la clase II y el porcentaje de leucocitos en la sangre PBM. 1993 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. The role of filamentous hemagglutinin adhesin in adherence and biofilm formation in Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC19606(T).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvish Alipour Astaneh, Shakiba; Rasooli, Iraj; Mousavi Gargari, Seyed Latif

    2014-09-01

    Filamentous hemagglutinin adhesins (FHA) are key factors for bacterial attachment and subsequent cell accumulation on substrates. Here an FHA-like Outer membrane (OM) adhesin of Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC19606(T) was displayed on Escherichia coli. The candidate autotransporter (AT) genes were identified in A. baumannii ATCC19606(T) genome. The exoprotein (FhaB1) and transporter (FhaC1) were produced independently within the same cell (FhaB1C1). The fhaC1 was mutated. In vitro adherence to epithelial cells of the recombinant FhaB1C1 and the mutant strains were compared with A. baumanni ATCC19606(T). A bivalent chimeric protein (K) composed of immunologically important portions of fhaB1 (B) and fhaC1 (C) was constructed. The mice vaccinated with chimeric protein were challenged with A. baumannii ATCC19606(T) and FhaB1C1 producing recombinant E. coli. Mutations in the fhaC1 resulted in the absence of FhaB1 in the OM. Expression of FhaB1C1 enhanced the adherence of recombinant bacteria to A546 bronchial cell line. The results revealed association of FhaB1 with bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. Immunization with a combination of recombinant B and K proteins proved protective against A. baumanni ATCC19606(T). The findings may be applied in active and passive immunization strategies against A. baumannii. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of nitrogen source concentration on curdlan production by Agrobacterium sp. ATCC 31749 grown on prairie cordgrass hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Thomas P

    2016-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen source concentration on the production of the polysaccharide curdlan by the bacterium Agrobacterium sp. ATCC 31749 from hydrolysates of prairie cordgrass was examined. The highest curdlan concentrations were produced by ATCC 31749 when grown on a medium containing a solids-only hydrolysate and the nitrogen source ammonium phosphate (2.2 mM) or on a medium containing a complete hydrolysate and 3.3 mM ammonium phosphate. The latter medium sustained a higher level of bacterial curdlan production than the former medium after 144 hr. Biomass production by ATCC 31749 was highest after 144 hr when grown on a medium containing a solids-only hydrolysate and 2.2 or 8.7 mM ammonium phosphate. On the medium containing the complete hydrolysate, biomass production by ATCC 31749 was highest after 144 hr when 3.3 mM ammonium phosphate was present. Bacterial biomass production after 144 hr was greater on the complete hydrolysate medium compared to the solids-only hydrolysate medium. Curdlan yield produced by ATCC 31749 after 144 hr from the complete hydrolysate medium containing 3.3 mM ammonium phosphate was higher than from the solids-only hydrolysate medium containing 2.2 mM ammonium phosphate.

  3. [Streptococcus suis infection--clinical manifestations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragojlović, Julijana; Milosević, Branko; Sasić, Neda; Pelemis, Mijomir; Sasić, Milan

    2005-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is a bacterium causing a disease in pigs and rarely in humans. This zoonosis is mostly found as a sporadic disease in individuals that were in contact with the affected or infected pigs: farmers, veterinarians and workers engaged in fresh pork processing. It is assumed that the bacterium enters the body through a cut abrasion in the skin. Initially, the condition resembles a flu, followed by signs of bacteriemia and sepsis. The most frequent clinical manifestation of Streptococcus suis infection is meningitis, leading to hearing loss in over 75% of patients, and subsequent arthritis, endophtalmitis, endocarditis and pneumonia. Toxic shock syndrome with hemorhagic manifestations rarely develops. This study included five male patients aged 22 to 63 years treated in the Intensive Care Unit of the Institute of Infectious and Tropical Diseases in Belgrade, due to Streptococcus suis infection. The aim of this study was to point to the existence of this bacteria in our environment, to describe clinical manifestations of the disease and to point out the importance of its prevention. All patients had epidemiological evidence of being in contact with pork meat. There were no data about diseased pigs. The estimated incubation period was 4 to 8 days. All patients had meningeal signs. Clinical symptoms included shivering, fever, vomiting, headache, malaise, vertigo and tinitus. Three patients presented with alerterd level of awarrness. Four patients developed very severe bilateral hearing impairment, whereas one endophtalmtis and one developed endocarditis. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was opalescent in four patients, and only one patient presented with clear CSF. CSF examination showed typical changes characteristic for bacterial meningitis. Streptoccocus suis was isolated in CSF in all patients, and in one patient the bacteria was isolated in blood as well. All patients underwent treatement with II and III generation cephalosporins and one with one

  4. Comparison between conventional and molecular methods for diagnosis of bovine babesiosis (Babesia bovis infection) in tick infested cattle in upper Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hosary, Amira A T

    2017-03-01

    Ticks and tick-borne diseases are the main problems affecting the livestock production in Egypt. Bovine babesiosis has adverse effects on the animal health and production. A comparison of Giemsa stained blood smears, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nested PCR (nPCR) assays for detection of Babesia bovis infection in Egyptian Baladi cattle ( Bos taurus ) in reference to reverse line blot was carried out. The sensitivity of PCR and nested PCR (nPCR) assays were 65 and 100 % respectively. Giemsa stained blood smears showed the lowest sensitivity (30 %). According to these results using of PCR and nPCR target for B. bovis , [BBOV-IV005650 (BV5650)] gene are suitable for diagnosis of B. bovis infection. The 18Ss rRNA partial sequence confirmed that all the positive samples were Babesia bovis and all of them were deposited in the GenBank databases (Accession No: KM455548, KM455549 and KM455550).

  5. Persistence of Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) in White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) After Oral or Parenteral Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium bovis is the cause of tuberculosis in cattle and a serious zoonotic pathogen, most commonly contracted through consumption of unpasteurized dairy products. To control this zoonosis, many countries have developed bovine tuberculosis eradication programs. Although relatively successful, ...

  6. Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG for immunotherapy in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begnini, K R; Buss, J H; Collares, T; Seixas, F K

    2015-05-01

    In the past three decades, intravesical instillation of Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been used for treating bladder cancer and it still remains at the forefront of immunotherapy for cancer patients. Although BCG-based therapy is the most effective intravesical therapy for this kind of tumor and represents the only agent known to reduce progression into muscle invasive bladder cancer, BCG is ineffective in approximately 30-40 % of cases and disease recurs in up to 50 % of patients. Since that BCG is considered an effective vehicle for delivery of antigens due to its unique characteristics, the genetic manipulation of these mycobacteria has been appealing in the search for less toxic and more potent therapeutic agents for bladder cancer immunotherapy. Herein, we discuss current advances in recombinant BCG construction, research, concerns, and future directions to promote the development of this promising immunotherapeutic approach for bladder cancer.

  7. Field evaluation of the efficacy of Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine against tuberculosis in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Enric; Arrieta-Villegas, Claudia; Grasa, Miriam; Mercader, Irene; Domingo, Mariano; Pérez de Val, Bernat

    2017-08-17

    Control of animal tuberculosis (TB) through vaccination has emerged as a long-term strategy to complement test and slaughter control strategy. A pilot trial under field conditions was conducted in a goat herd with high TB prevalence to assess the efficacy of the Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine. Twenty-three goat kids vaccinated with BCG and other 22 unvaccinated control kids were euthanized at 18 months post-vaccination. Gross pathological and histopathological examination of target tissues was performed for detection of tuberculous lesions and assessment of vaccine efficacy. Mycobacterial culture and DNA detection were used to confirm Mycobacterium caprae infection. Vaccination significantly reduced the number of animals with TB lesions compared to unvaccinated controls (35% and 77%, respectively; P goats can significantly reduce the TB lesion rates in high disease exposure conditions, indicating that vaccination could contribute to the control of TB in domestic goats.

  8. Biological properties of dissociative L- and other forms of Mycobacterium bovis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Tkachenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A race of modified forms of mycobacteria with special properties that can be promising for the construction of TB vaccines was selected It was found that the persistence of the researched microorganisms (27th subculture of acid-fast bacillus and the L-form persisted for nine months (the period of research and longer in the bodies of guinea pigs. However, from the suspension prepared from macroscopically unchanged organs of the experimental animals we found acid-proof elementary bodies (grains and bacilli of typical morphological forms, which formed an orange culture on the nutrient medium on the third day after suspension seeding. The inoculation of guinea pigs with isolated acid-proof mycobacteria (culture-revertant (1 mg/cm3 was not accompanied by the development of allergic condition (allergic reaction to the tuberculin and AAM was negative at 30, 60 and 90 days; however, acid-proof bacilli, which formed an orange culture,were isolated on the the third day from experimental animals which had been subjected to euthanasia. Multiple passages through the artificial culture medium (dense, prolonged exposure (20 months at low plus temperature changed the genetic balance, ensuring their survival as a result of the loss of some (specific to the pathogen and the acquisition of new properties (especially atypical which are partly inherent in other mycobacteria. At the same time, the persistence in the body of guinea pigs of typical morphological acid-proof forms (bacilli that reverse from L-forms was not accompanied by the development of the disease. They are chromogenic and retain the ability to form colonies (culture-revertant on dense nutrient medium from the first generation (from biological material of the guinea pigs on the second day of cultivation. The loss of sensitization ability of Mycobacterium bovis which werepassaged many times and persistent in the body of guinea pigs can probably testify to the loss of immunogenic capacity, since the

  9. Mycoplasma bovis infections and co-infections with other Mycoplasma spp. with different clinical manifestations in affected cattle herds in eastern region of Poland

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    Szacawa Ewelina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the presence of Mycoplasma bovis infection and co-infections with other Mycoplasma spp. infections in cattle. The tested population was one in the eastern region of Poland containing 66 dairy cows and 23 calves showing different clinical signs and suffering from pneumonia, mastitis, and arthritis. The incidence of M. bovis in co-infections with other Mycoplasma spp. was examined using serological traditional mycoplasma culture methods, and the molecular methods - PCR and polymerase chain reaction/denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR/DGGE. The PCR/DGGE method for detecting Mycoplasma spp. in cattle was used for the first time in Poland. The seroprevalence of M. bovis in the affected cattle herds in the eastern region of Poland was 47.8% in calves and 19.7% in dairy cows. The direct detection and identification of M. bovis from nasopharyngeal swabs by PCR revealed that 56.5% of calves were positive, but all of the dairy cows were negative. The PCR/DGGE identified eight (34.8% instances of M. arginini and eight (26.1% instances of M. bovirhinis co-infecting with M. bovis in ten calves. The seroprevalence of M. bovis in the tested population was 33.7%. Any future attempts to control mycoplasma infections require an insight into the current epidemiological situation of M. bovis infection and its relationship to other mycoplasmas in causing clinical disease in cattle. Using these diagnostic methods we have demonstrated that mycoplasmal infections are often caused by multiple species of Mycoplasma and not just the primary M. bovis pathogen.

  10. Extent of Mycobacterium bovis transmission among animals of dairy and beef cattle and deer farms in South Korea determined by variable-number tandem repeats typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Je, Sungmo; Ku, Bok Kyung; Jeon, Bo-Young; Kim, Jae-Myoung; Jung, Suk-Chan; Cho, Sang-Nae

    2015-04-17

    Identifying sources of Mycobacterium bovis transmission would be essential for establishing effective control programs of bovine tuberculosis (TB), a major zoonosis threatening human health worldwide. As an effort to determine the extent of M. bovis transmission among dairy and beef cattle and deer populations, a mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRU)-variable-number tandem repeats (VNTR) typing method was employed for analysis of 131 M. bovis isolates from 59 Holstein dairy cattle, 39 Korean beef cattle, and 33 deer. Of 31 MIRU-VNTR markers, 15 showed allelic diversity. The most discriminatory locus for M. bovis isolates was VNTR 3336 (h=0.59) followed by QUB 26, MIRU 31, VNTR 2401, and VNTR 3171 which showed high discriminatory power (h=0.43). The combined VNTR loci had an allelic diversity of 0.83. On the basis of the VNTR profiles of 30 VNTR loci, 24 genotypes were identified, and two genotypes were highly prevalent among all M. bovis isolates (33.6% and 19.1%, respectively), thus indicating that more than 50% of the isolates shared common molecular characteristics. Six additional genotypes were common in 2 of the 3 animal species, suggesting a wide interspecies transmission of M. bovis. This study thus demonstrates that MIRU-VNTR typing is useful in differentiation of M. bovis isolates and that M. bovis transmission occurs frequently among farmed animal species, highlighting the importance of bovine TB control programs in different animal species which are often raised in the same villages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. In vitro susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium africanum, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium fortuitum, and Mycobacterium chelonae to ticarcillin in combination with clavulanic acid.

    OpenAIRE

    Casal, M J; Rodriguez, F C; Luna, M D; Benavente, M C

    1987-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium africanum, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium fortuitum, and Mycobacterium chelonae (M. chelonei) to ticarcillin in combination with calvulanic acid (CA) was studied by the agar dilution method. All the M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, and M. africanum strains were inhibited at a ticarcillin concentration of 32 micrograms/ml or lower in combination with 5 micrograms of CA. M. chelonae and M. avium strains ...

  12. [Proteomic analysis of curdlan-producing Agrobacterium sp. ATCC 31749 in response to dissolved oxygen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiaomeng; Yang, Libo; Zheng, Zhiyong; Chen, Haiqin; Zhan, Xiaobei

    2015-08-04

    Curdlan is produced by Agrobacterium sp. ATCC 31749 under nitrogen limiting condition. The biosynthesis of crudlan is a typical aerobic bioprocess, and the production of curdlan would be severely restricted under micro-aerobic and anoxic conditions. Proteomic analysis of Agrobacterium sp. was conducted to investigate the effect of dissolved oxygen on the crucial enzymes involved in curdlan biosynthesis. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was performed to separate and visualize the differential expression of the intracellular proteins extracted from Agrobacterium sp. ATCC 31749 cultured under various dissolved oxygen levels (75%, 50%, 25% and 5%). In addition, a comparative proteomic analysis of the intracellular proteins expression level under various dissolved oxygen levels was done. Significant differently expressed proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF. Finally, we identified 15 differently expressed proteins involved in polysaccharide synthesis, fatty acid synthesis, amino acid synthesis pathway. Among these proteins, phosphoglucomutase and orotidine 5-phosphate decarboxylase were the key metabolic enzymes directing curdlan biosynthesis. Oxygen could affect the expression of the proteins taking charge of curdlan synthesis significantly.

  13. Cloning and characterization of genes involved in nostoxanthin biosynthesis of Sphingomonas elodea ATCC 31461.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Zhu

    Full Text Available Most Sphingomonas species synthesize the yellow carotenoid nostoxanthin. However, the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway of these species remains unclear. In this study, we cloned and characterized a carotenoid biosynthesis gene cluster containing four carotenogenic genes (crtG, crtY, crtI and crtB and a β-carotene hydroxylase gene (crtZ located outside the cluster, from the gellan-gum producing bacterium Sphingomonas elodea ATCC 31461. Each of these genes was inactivated, and the biochemical function of each gene was confirmed based on chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis of the intermediates accumulated in the knockout mutants. Moreover, the crtG gene encoding the 2,2'-β-hydroxylase and the crtZ gene encoding the β-carotene hydroxylase, both responsible for hydroxylation of β-carotene, were confirmed by complementation studies using Escherichia coli producing different carotenoids. Expression of crtG in zeaxanthin and β-carotene accumulating E. coli cells resulted in the formation of nostoxanthin and 2,2'-dihydroxy-β-carotene, respectively. Based on these results, a biochemical pathway for synthesis of nostoxanthin in S. elodea ATCC 31461 is proposed.

  14. Cloning and characterization of genes involved in nostoxanthin biosynthesis of Sphingomonas elodea ATCC 31461.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liang; Wu, Xuechang; Li, Ou; Qian, Chaodong; Gao, Haichun

    2012-01-01

    Most Sphingomonas species synthesize the yellow carotenoid nostoxanthin. However, the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway of these species remains unclear. In this study, we cloned and characterized a carotenoid biosynthesis gene cluster containing four carotenogenic genes (crtG, crtY, crtI and crtB) and a β-carotene hydroxylase gene (crtZ) located outside the cluster, from the gellan-gum producing bacterium Sphingomonas elodea ATCC 31461. Each of these genes was inactivated, and the biochemical function of each gene was confirmed based on chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis of the intermediates accumulated in the knockout mutants. Moreover, the crtG gene encoding the 2,2'-β-hydroxylase and the crtZ gene encoding the β-carotene hydroxylase, both responsible for hydroxylation of β-carotene, were confirmed by complementation studies using Escherichia coli producing different carotenoids. Expression of crtG in zeaxanthin and β-carotene accumulating E. coli cells resulted in the formation of nostoxanthin and 2,2'-dihydroxy-β-carotene, respectively. Based on these results, a biochemical pathway for synthesis of nostoxanthin in S. elodea ATCC 31461 is proposed.

  15. Different nitrogen sources change the transcriptome of welan gum-producing strain Sphingomonas sp. ATCC 31555.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaopeng; Nie, Zuoming; Zheng, Zhiyong; Zhu, Li; Zhang, Hongtao; Zhan, Xiaobei

    2017-09-01

    To reveal effects of different nitrogen sources on the expressions and functions of genes in Sphingomonas sp. ATCC 31555, it was cultivated in medium containing inorganic nitrogen (IN), organic nitrogen (ON), or inorganic-organic combined nitrogen (CN). Welan gum production and bacterial biomass were determined, and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the different ATCC 31555 groups were identified, and their functions were analyzed. Welan gum production and bacterial biomass were significantly higher in the ON and CN groups compared with those in the IN group. RNA-seq produced 660 unigenes, among which 488, 731, and 844 DEGs were identified between the IN vs. ON, IN vs. CN, and ON vs. CN groups, respectively. All the DEGs were related significantly to metabolic process and signal transduction. DEGs between the IN vs. CN and ON vs. CN groups were potentially associated with bacterial chemotaxis. Real-time PCR confirmed the expressions of selected DEGs. Organic nitrogen led to higher bacterial biomass and welan gum production than inorganic nitrogen, which might reflect differences in gene expression associated with metabolic process, signal transduction, and bacterial chemotaxis induced by different nitrogen sources.

  16. Transcriptomic analysis of (group I Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502 cold shock response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Dahlsten

    Full Text Available Profound understanding of the mechanisms foodborne pathogenic bacteria utilize in adaptation to the environmental stress they encounter during food processing and storage is of paramount importance in design of control measures. Chill temperature is a central control measure applied in minimally processed foods; however, data on the mechanisms the foodborne pathogen Clostridium botulinum activates upon cold stress are scarce. Transcriptomic analysis on the C. botulinum ATCC 3502 strain upon temperature downshift from 37°C to 15°C was performed to identify the cold-responsive gene set of this organism. Significant up- or down-regulation of 16 and 11 genes, respectively, was observed 1 h after the cold shock. At 5 h after the temperature downshift, 199 and 210 genes were up- or down-regulated, respectively. Thus, the relatively small gene set affected initially indicated a targeted acute response to cold shock, whereas extensive metabolic remodeling appeared to take place after prolonged exposure to cold. Genes related to fatty acid biosynthesis, oxidative stress response, and iron uptake and storage were induced, in addition to mechanisms previously characterized as cold-tolerance related in bacteria. Furthermore, several uncharacterized DNA-binding transcriptional regulator-encoding genes were induced, suggesting involvement of novel regulatory mechanisms in the cold shock response of C. botulinum. The role of such regulators, CBO0477 and CBO0558A, in cold tolerance of C. botulinum ATCC 3502 was demonstrated by deteriorated growth of related mutants at 17°C.

  17. Production of L-lactic acid from metabolically engineered strain of Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 29007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Laxmi Prasad; Lee, Sang Jun; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Seung Wook

    2017-07-01

    In this study, L-lactic acid production was investigated from metabolically engineered strain of E. aerogenes ATCC 29007. The engineered strain E. aerogenes SUMI01 (Δpta) was generated by the deletion of phosphate acetyltransferase (pta) gene from the chromosome of E. aerogenes ATCC 29007 and deletion was confirmed by colony PCR. Under the optimized fermentation conditions, at 37°C and pH 6 for 84h, the L-lactic acid produced by engineered strain E. aerogenes SUMI01 (Δpta) in flask fermentation using 100g/L mannitol as the carbon source was 40.05g/L as compared to that of the wild type counterpart 20.70g/L. At the end of the batch fermentation in bioreactor the production of L-lactic acid reached to 46.02g/L and yield was 0.41g/g by utilizing 112.32g/L mannitol. This is the first report regarding the production of L-lactic acid from Enterobacter species. We believe that this result may provide valuable guidelines for further engineering Enterobacter strain for the improvement of L-lactic acid production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Antibacterial effect of four endodontic cements against Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. An in vitro study.

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    Marcos J. Carruitero

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the in vitro antibacterial effect of the root canal cements Endobalsam®, Top Seal®, Apexit® and Endofill® against Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. Materials and method: Eighty-five applications of cements on Enterococcus faecalis, cultured in vitro on solid media in Petri dishes, were analyzed. Five groups were evaluated: four for each cement, and the fifth for the positive control (amoxicillin. The antibacterial effect was measured by the diameters of the bacterial inhibition halos at 24 hours, 48 hours, and seven days. Student´s t-test, ANOVA and the Tukey test were used for the statistical analysis. Results: No statistically significant differences were found at 24 hours (p>0.05; at 48 hours and seven days, Endofill® and Apexit® had the greatest effect (p0.05. Conclusion: Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 was susceptible to all cements. Endofill® had greater in vitro antibacterial effect than Apexit®, Top Seal® and Endobalsam®.

  19. GAMMA Radiation Effect On Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 19095) in Cheese MINAS FRESCALIRRADIATED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral Gurgel, M.S.C.C. DO; Spoto, M.H.F.; Domarco, R.E.

    1999-01-01

    Milk is an excellent medium of culture for development of Staphylococcus aureus. Gamma radiation can be an alternative method to guarantee the safety of the contaminated cheeses. The objective of this research was determine the effects of the gamma radiation on the resistance of S.aureus (ATCC 19095) in cheese M inas Frescal i rradiated. The cheeses elaborated in the Laboratory of Food Irradiation of CENA/USP, were contaminated during their production with 10 6 CFU/mL of culture of S.aureus (ATCC 19095). The cheeses were irradiated with 0; 1; 2; 3 and 4 kGy, maintained under refrigeration condition (5 0C ) and analyzed at 1, 7 and 14 days of storage. The evaluation microbiology was made through the S.aureus survival analysis using Baird Parker selective medium and confirmative test of coagulase, catalase and fermentation aerobics of the manitol. The capacity of enterotoxins production by irradiated S.aureus was detected by the method of Passive Reverse Agglutination Latex. Results showed that 3 kGy is enough to destroy the S.aureus and 2 kGy to inhibited its toxins production

  20. Comparative Proteomics Identifies Host Immune System Proteins Affected by Infection with Mycobacterium bovis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir López

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC greatly impact human and animal health worldwide. The mycobacterial life cycle is complex, and the mechanisms resulting in pathogen infection and survival in host cells are not fully understood. Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa are natural reservoir hosts for MTBC and a model for mycobacterial infection and tuberculosis (TB. In the wild boar TB model, mycobacterial infection affects the expression of innate and adaptive immune response genes in mandibular lymph nodes and oropharyngeal tonsils, and biomarkers have been proposed as correlates with resistance to natural infection. However, the mechanisms used by mycobacteria to manipulate host immune response are not fully characterized. Our hypothesis is that the immune system proteins under-represented in infected animals, when compared to uninfected controls, are used by mycobacteria to guarantee pathogen infection and transmission. To address this hypothesis, a comparative proteomics approach was used to compare host response between uninfected (TB- and M. bovis-infected young (TB+ and adult animals with different infection status [TB lesions localized in the head (TB+ or affecting multiple organs (TB++]. The results identified host immune system proteins that play an important role in host response to mycobacteria. Calcium binding protein A9, Heme peroxidase, Lactotransferrin, Cathelicidin and Peptidoglycan-recognition protein were under-represented in TB+ animals when compared to uninfected TB- controls, but protein levels were higher as infection progressed in TB++ animals when compared to TB- and/or TB+ adult wild boar. MHCI was the only protein over-represented in TB+ adult wild boar when compared to uninfected TB- controls. The results reported here suggest that M. bovis manipulates host immune response by reducing the production of immune system proteins. However, as infection progresses, wild boar immune response recovers to

  1. Vaccination of cattle with Mycobacterium bovis BCG by a combination of systemic and oral routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddle, Bryce M; Denis, Michel; Aldwell, Frank E; Martin Vordermeier, H; Glyn Hewinson, R; Neil Wedlock, D

    2008-11-01

    Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine delivered to calves by the subcutaneous (s.c.) or by the oral route in a formulated lipid matrix has been previously shown to induce similar levels of protection against bovine tuberculosis. The current study was aimed at determining whether a combination of delivering BCG by s.c. and oral routes would enhance levels of protection, compared to only one route of vaccination. Forty calves were randomly divided into four groups (10/group). Calves were vaccinated with 10(6)colony forming units (CFU) of BCG Pasteur by the s.c. route or orally with 10(9)CFU BCG incorporated into a lipid formulation. One group received a combination of BCG administered by both the s.c. and oral routes and a non-vaccinated group served as a control. The two groups of calves that received s.c. BCG produced strong IFN-gamma responses in whole blood cultures stimulated with bovine purified protein derivative (PPD) 3 weeks after vaccination. Cattle vaccinated just with oral BCG in a lipid matrix produced a strong IFN-gamma response 8 weeks after vaccination, and peaking at 11 weeks after vaccination. All calves were challenged by the intratracheal route with M. bovis 15 weeks after vaccination and were euthanized and necropsied to assess protection at 17 weeks following challenge. BCG given s.c. or orally induced significant and comparable levels of protection against the virulent challenge. Vaccination of cattle by a combination of s.c./oral routes did not enhance protection beyond that achieved by s.c. or oral vaccination alone. We conclude that vaccination of cattle with BCG by a combination of routes has no beneficial additive effects, compared to a single s.c. administration of BCG or BCG given orally in a lipid formulation.

  2. Viral booster vaccines improve Mycobacterium bovis BCG-induced protection against bovine tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vordermeier, H Martin; Villarreal-Ramos, Bernardo; Cockle, Paul J; McAulay, Martin; Rhodes, Shelley G; Thacker, Tyler; Gilbert, Sarah C; McShane, Helen; Hill, Adrian V S; Xing, Zhou; Hewinson, R Glyn

    2009-08-01

    Previous work with small-animal laboratory models of tuberculosis has shown that vaccination strategies based on heterologous prime-boost protocols using Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) to prime and modified vaccinia virus Ankara strain (MVA85A) or recombinant attenuated adenoviruses (Ad85A) expressing the mycobacterial antigen Ag85A to boost may increase the protective efficacy of BCG. Here we report the first efficacy data on using these vaccines in cattle, a natural target species of tuberculous infection. Protection was determined by measuring development of disease as an end point after M. bovis challenge. Either Ad85A or MVA85A boosting resulted in protection superior to that given by BCG alone: boosting BCG with MVA85A or Ad85A induced significant reduction in pathology in four/eight parameters assessed, while BCG vaccination alone did so in only one parameter studied. Protection was particularly evident in the lungs of vaccinated animals (median lung scores for naïve and BCG-, BCG/MVA85A-, and BCG/Ad85A-vaccinated animals were 10.5, 5, 2.5, and 0, respectively). The bacterial loads in lymph node tissues were also reduced after viral boosting of BCG-vaccinated calves compared to those in BCG-only-vaccinated animals. Analysis of vaccine-induced immunity identified memory responses measured by cultured enzyme-linked immunospot assay as well as in vitro interleukin-17 production as predictors of vaccination success, as both responses, measured before challenge, correlated positively with the degree of protection. Therefore, this study provides evidence of improved protection against tuberculosis by viral booster vaccination in a natural target species and has prioritized potential correlates of vaccine efficacy for further evaluation. These findings also have implications for human tuberculosis vaccine development.

  3. Genotypic diversity of merozoite surface antigen 1 of Babesia bovis within an endemic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Audrey O T; Cereceres, Karla; Palmer, Guy H; Fretwell, Debbie L; Pedroni, Monica J; Mosqueda, Juan; McElwain, Terry F

    2010-08-01

    Multiple genetically distinct strains of a pathogen circulate and compete for dominance within populations of animal reservoir hosts. Understanding the basis for genotypic strain structure is critical for predicting how pathogens respond to selective pressures and how shifts in pathogen population structure can lead to disease outbreaks. Evidence from related Apicomplexans such as Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium and Theileria suggests that various patterns of population dynamics exist, including but not limited to clonal, oligoclonal, panmictic and epidemic genotypic strain structures. In Babesia bovis, genetic diversity of variable merozoite surface antigen (VMSA) genes has been associated with disease outbreaks, including in previously vaccinated animals. However, the extent of VMSA diversity within a defined population in an endemic area has not been examined. We analyzed genotypic diversity and temporal change of MSA-1, a member of the VMSA family, in individual infected animals within a reservoir host population. Twenty-eight distinct MSA-1 genotypes were identified within the herd. All genotypically distinct MSA-1 sequences clustered into three groups based on sequence similarity. Two thirds of the animals tested changed their dominant MSA-1 genotypes during a 6-month period. Five animals within the population contained multiple genotypes. Interestingly, the predominant genotypes within those five animals also changed over the 6-month sampling period, suggesting ongoing transmission or emergence of variant MSA-1 genotypes within the herd. This study demonstrated an unexpected level of diversity for a single copy gene in a haploid genome, and illustrates the dynamic genotype structure of B. bovis within an individual animal in an endemic region. Co-infection with multiple diverse MSA-1 genotypes provides a basis for more extensive genotypic shifts that characterizes outbreak strains.

  4. Comparative Proteomics Identifies Host Immune System Proteins Affected by Infection with Mycobacterium bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Vladimir; Villar, Margarita; Queirós, João; Vicente, Joaquín; Mateos-Hernández, Lourdes; Díez-Delgado, Iratxe; Contreras, Marinela; Alves, Paulo C; Alberdi, Pilar; Gortázar, Christian; de la Fuente, José

    2016-03-01

    Mycobacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) greatly impact human and animal health worldwide. The mycobacterial life cycle is complex, and the mechanisms resulting in pathogen infection and survival in host cells are not fully understood. Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) are natural reservoir hosts for MTBC and a model for mycobacterial infection and tuberculosis (TB). In the wild boar TB model, mycobacterial infection affects the expression of innate and adaptive immune response genes in mandibular lymph nodes and oropharyngeal tonsils, and biomarkers have been proposed as correlates with resistance to natural infection. However, the mechanisms used by mycobacteria to manipulate host immune response are not fully characterized. Our hypothesis is that the immune system proteins under-represented in infected animals, when compared to uninfected controls, are used by mycobacteria to guarantee pathogen infection and transmission. To address this hypothesis, a comparative proteomics approach was used to compare host response between uninfected (TB-) and M. bovis-infected young (TB+) and adult animals with different infection status [TB lesions localized in the head (TB+) or affecting multiple organs (TB++)]. The results identified host immune system proteins that play an important role in host response to mycobacteria. Calcium binding protein A9, Heme peroxidase, Lactotransferrin, Cathelicidin and Peptidoglycan-recognition protein were under-represented in TB+ animals when compared to uninfected TB- controls, but protein levels were higher as infection progressed in TB++ animals when compared to TB- and/or TB+ adult wild boar. MHCI was the only protein over-represented in TB+ adult wild boar when compared to uninfected TB- controls. The results reported here suggest that M. bovis manipulates host immune response by reducing the production of immune system proteins. However, as infection progresses, wild boar immune response recovers to limit pathogen

  5. Influence of the incubation conditions on culture media to optimize primary isolation of Mycobacterium bovis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Yumi Ikuta

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of Mycobacterium bovis is critical to a surveillance system for bovine tuberculosis based on detection of lesions in abattoirs. Thus, four solid culture media and three incubation conditions were investigated to elucidate which combination overcomes the others by assessing growth, time to the first appearance of colonies and their number. Ninety-seven samples of granulomatous lesions were submitted to the decontamination procedure by 1-hexadecylpyridinium chloride at 0.75% w/v, and inoculated on two egg-based media, Stonebrink’s (ST and Löwenstein-Jensen’s with sodium pyruvate (LJp, and two agar-based media, tuberculosis blood agar (B83 and Middlebrook 7H11 medium (7H11. Each medium was incubated at 37°C for 90 days in three incubation conditions: in air, in air containing 10% carbon dioxide (CO2, and in air in slopes closed with burned hydrophobic cotton and subsequently plugged with a cork to create a microaerophilic atmosphere. The colonies appeared faster and in higher number when incubated in air containing 10% CO2 (p < 0.01, independent of media. B83 showed a faster growth and detected more isolates at 30 days of incubation, when compared to ST (0.0178, LJp (p < 0.0001 and 7H11 (p < 0.0001, though there was no difference between B83, ST and LJp at 60 and 90 days of incubation. 7H11 presented the lowest number of isolates (p < 0.0001 and a longer period for the appearance of the first colony (p < 0.001. According to our findings, the concomitant use of ST and B83 media incubated in air containing 10% CO2 increases the isolation of M. bovis in a shorter period of time, which improves bovine tuberculosis diagnosis.

  6. Comparison of DNA extraction protocols to detect Mycobacterium bovis in bovine tissue by PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Yumi Ikuta

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The current scenario of international beef trading has increased the pressure for better and faster diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis. Although traditional culture remains the gold standard method to confirm Mycobacterium bovis infection, it is exceedingly time consuming, and demands viable mycobacteria. Molecular methods overcome the flaws of the bacteriological methods with faster detection and identification. However, mycobacterial features like a complex cell wall and pathogen–host interaction make the molecular detection a challenge. Three protocols for DNA extraction (A, B and C from bovine tissues were tested to verify the most suitable technique for routine diagnostic assessment of their specificity and sensitivity. Thirty culture-positive and thirty culture-negative granulomatous lesions were included in the trial. From each sample, three tissue suspensions at different dilutions (10-1, 10-2 and 10-3 were prepared and submitted to DNA extraction. PCR procedures targeting IS6110 were performed, employing two volumes of DNA: 5 µL of all three dilutions, and 2.5 µL of the 10-1 dilution. Protocol A was able to detect members of the M. tuberculosis complex in most samples. The sensitivity of the test decreased with increase in tissue-suspension dilution. Although Protocol A presented the highest sensitivity followed by C and B, it showed the lowest specificity, which can be due to a failure in primary isolation caused by the lack of viable organisms or incubation time. Regardless classical bacteriological methods are still recommended by OIE, after evaluating the sensitivity of DNA extraction protocols and PCR procedures, we conclude that the best strategy for M. bovis detection is to follow Protocol A on concentrated tissue suspensions.

  7. Pathogenesis of Mycobacterium bovis Infection: the Badger Model As a Paradigm for Understanding Tuberculosis in Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eamonn Gormley

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis in animals is caused principally by infection with Mycobacterium bovis and the potential for transmission of infection to humans is often the fundamental driver for surveillance of disease in livestock and wild animals. However, with such a vast array of species susceptible to infection, it is often extremely difficult to gain a detailed understanding of the pathogenesis of infection––a key component of the epidemiology in all affected species. This is important because the development of disease control strategies in animals is determined chiefly by an understanding of the epidemiology of the disease. The most revealing data from which to formulate theories on pathogenesis are that observed in susceptible hosts infected by natural transmission. These data are gathered from detailed studies of the distribution of gross and histological lesions, and the presence and distribution of infection as determined by highly sensitive bacteriology procedures. The information can also be used to establish the baseline for evaluating experimental model systems. The European badger (Meles meles is one of a very small number of wild animal hosts where detailed knowledge of the pathogenesis of M. bovis infection has been generated from observations in natural-infected animals. By drawing parallels from other animal species, an experimental badger infection model has also been established where infection of the lower respiratory tract mimics infection and the disease observed in natural-infected badgers. This has facilitated the development of diagnostic tests and testing of vaccines that have the potential to control the disease in badgers. In this review, we highlight the fundamental principles of how detailed knowledge of pathogenesis can be used to evaluate specific intervention strategies, and how the badger model may be a paradigm for understanding pathogenesis of tuberculosis in any affected wild animal species.

  8. Longitudinal evaluation of humoral immune response and merozoite surface antigen diversity in calves naturally infected with Babesia bovis, in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Carlos António; Gonçalves, Luiz Ricardo; Alvarez, Dasiel Obregón; Freschi, Carla Roberta; Silva, Jenevaldo Barbosa da; Val-Moraes, Silvana Pompeia; Mendes, Natalia Serra; André, Marcos Rogério; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

    2017-01-01

    Babesiosis is an economically important infectious disease affecting cattle worldwide. In order to longitudinally evaluate the humoral immune response against Babesia bovis and the merozoite surface antigen diversity of B. bovis among naturally infected calves in Taiaçu, Brazil, serum and DNA samples from 15 calves were obtained quarterly, from their birth to 12 months of age. Anti-B. bovis IgG antibodies were detected by means of the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to investigate the genetic diversity of B. bovis, based on the genes that encode merozoite surface antigens (MSA-1, MSA-2b and MSA-2c). The serological results demonstrated that up to six months of age, all the calves developed active immunity against B. bovis. Among the 75 DNA samples evaluated, 2, 4 and 5 sequences of the genes msa-1, msa-2b and msa-2c were obtained. The present study demonstrated that the msa-1 and msa-2b genes sequences amplified from blood DNA of calves positive to B. bovis from Taiaçu were genetically distinct, and that msa-2c was conserved. All animals were serologically positive to ELISA and IFAT, which used full repertoire of parasite antigens in despite of the genetic diversity of MSAs.

  9. Natural killer cell cytokine response to M. bovis BCG Is associated with inhibited proliferation, increased apoptosis and ultimate depletion of NKp44(+CD56(bright cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Portevin

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium bovis BCG, a live attenuated strain of M. bovis initially developed as a vaccine against tuberculosis, is also used as an adjuvant for immunotherapy of cancers and for treatment of parasitic infections. The underlying mechanisms are thought to rely on its immunomodulatory properties including the recruitment of natural killer (NK cells. In that context, we aimed to study the impact of M. bovis BCG on NK cell functions. We looked at cytotoxicity, cytokine production, proliferation and cell survival of purified human NK cells following exposure to single live particles of mycobacteria. We found that M. bovis BCG mediates apoptosis of NK cells only in the context of IL-2 stimulation during which CD56(bright NK cells are releasing IFN-γ in response to mycobacteria. We found that the presence of mycobacteria prevented the IL-2 induced proliferation and surface expression of NKp44 receptor by the CD56(bright population. In summary, we observed that M. bovis BCG is modulating the functions of CD56(bright NK cells to drive this subset to produce IFN-γ before subsequent programmed cell death. Therefore, IFN-γ production by CD56(bright cells constitutes the main effector mechanism of NK cells that would contribute to the benefits observed for M. bovis BCG as an immunotherapeutic agent.

  10. Searching for the main anti-bacterial components in artificial Calculus bovis using UPLC and microcalorimetry coupled with multi-linear regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Qing-Ce; Wang, Jia-Bo; Kong, Wei-Jun; Jin, Cheng; Ma, Zhi-Jie; Chen, Jing; Gong, Qian-Feng; Xiao, Xiao-He

    2011-12-01

    The fingerprints of artificial Calculus bovis extracts from different solvents were established by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and the anti-bacterial activities of artificial C. bovis extracts on Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) growth were studied by microcalorimetry. The UPLC fingerprints were evaluated using hierarchical clustering analysis. Some quantitative parameters obtained from the thermogenic curves of S. aureus growth affected by artificial C. bovis extracts were analyzed using principal component analysis. The spectrum-effect relationships between UPLC fingerprints and anti-bacterial activities were investigated using multi-linear regression analysis. The results showed that peak 1 (taurocholate sodium), peak 3 (unknown compound), peak 4 (cholic acid), and peak 6 (chenodeoxycholic acid) are more significant than the other peaks with the standard parameter estimate 0.453, -0.166, 0.749, 0.025, respectively. So, compounds cholic acid, taurocholate sodium, and chenodeoxycholic acid might be the major anti-bacterial components in artificial C. bovis. Altogether, this work provides a general model of the combination of UPLC chromatography and anti-bacterial effect to study the spectrum-effect relationships of artificial C. bovis extracts, which can be used to discover the main anti-bacterial components in artificial C. bovis or other Chinese herbal medicines with anti-bacterial effects. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Control of Glycolysis by Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase in Streptococcus cremoris and Streptococcus lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    POOLMAN, B; BOSMAN, B; KONINGS, WN

    1987-01-01

    The decreased response of the energy metabolism of lactose-starved Streptococcus cremoris upon readdition of lactose is caused by a decrease of the glycolytic activity. The decrease in glycolysis is accompanied by a decrease in the activities of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and

  12. Antimicrobial activity of vanadium chloroperoxidase on planktonic Streptococcus mutans cells and Streptococcus mutans biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenkamp, M.A.; Crielaard, W.; ten Cate, J.M.; Wever, R.; Hartog, A.F.; Renirie, R.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of vanadium chloroperoxidase (VCPO) reaction products on planktonic and biofilm cellsof Streptococcus mutans C180-2. Planktonic and biofilm cells were incubated in a buffered reaction mixture containing VCPO, halide (either chloride

  13. Influence of pH on inhibition of Streptococcus mutans by Streptococcus oligofermentans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Chu, Lei; Wu, Fei; Guo, Lili; Li, Mengci; Wang, Yinghui; Wu, Ligeng

    2014-02-01

    Streptococcus oligofermentans is a novel strain of oral streptococcus that can specifically inhibit the growth of Streptococcus mutans. The aims of this study were to assess the growth of S. oligofermentans and the ability of S. oligofermentans to inhibit growth of Streptococcus mutans at different pH values. Growth inhibition was investigated in vitro using an interspecies competition assay. The 4-aminoantipyine method was used to measure the initial production rate and the total yield of hydrogen peroxide in S. oligofermentans. S. oligofermentans grew best at pH 7.0 and showed the most pronounced inhibitory effect when it was inoculated earlier than S. mutans. In terms of the total yield and the initial production rate of hydrogen peroxide by S. oligofermentans, the effects of the different culture pH values were as follows: pH 7.0 > 6.5 > 6.0 > 7.5 > 5.5 = 8.0 (i.e. there was no significant difference between pH 5.5 and pH 8.0). Environmental pH and the sequence of inoculation significantly affected the ability of S. oligofermentans to inhibit the growth of S. mutans. The degree of inhibition may be attributed to the amount of hydrogen peroxide produced. © 2013 Eur J Oral Sci.

  14. Spring forward with improved Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus resistant to Streptococcus iniae and Streptococcus agalactiae IB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilapia aquaculture worldwide is valued around US $ 7 billion. Tilapia are an important source of protein for domestic (top 5 most consumed seafoods) and global food security. Two gram postitive bacteria, Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae, are responsible for billion dollar losses annually. Gen...

  15. Efficacy of some synthetic antibiotics on Streptococcus pneumoniae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of some synthetic antibiotics on Streptococcus pnemoniae and Proteus mirabilis isolated from cultured Clarias gariepinus, an important food fish raised in a concrete tank was carried out to ascertain their remedies on mortalities of the Clarias gariepinus adult fish. Streptococcus pnemoniae and Proteus mirabilis were ...

  16. Streptococcus suis meningitis can require a prolonged treatment course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Dejace

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of recrudescent Streptococcus suis meningitis requiring a prolonged treatment course. A few similar cases can be found in the burgeoning literature on what remains a relatively uncommon disease in humans, and these patients should be monitored carefully upon completion of therapy. Keywords: Meningitis, Relapse, Duration, Streptococcus suis

  17. Endocarditis caused by Streptococcus canis: an emerging zoonosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacave, Guillaume; Coutard, Aymeric; Troché, Gilles; Augusto, Sandrine; Pons, Stéphanie; Zuber, Benjamin; Laurent, Virginie; Amara, Marlène; Couzon, Brigitte; Bédos, Jean-Pierre; Pangon, Béatrice; Grimaldi, David

    2016-02-01

    We report a human case of infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus canis. Identification was carried out from positive blood culture using mass spectrometry and SodA gene sequencing. S. canis related zoonotic invasive infections may have been previously underdiagnosed due to inadequate identification of group G Streptococcus species.

  18. Diversity of human small intestinal Streptococcus and Veillonella populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bogert, Bartholomeus; Erkus, Oylum; Boekhorst, Jos; de Goffau, Marcus; Smid, Eddy J; Zoetendal, Erwin G; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2013-08-01

    Molecular and cultivation approaches were employed to study the phylogenetic richness and temporal dynamics of Streptococcus and Veillonella populations in the small intestine. Microbial profiling of human small intestinal samples collected from four ileostomy subjects at four time points displayed abundant populations of Streptococcus spp. most affiliated with S. salivarius, S. thermophilus, and S. parasanguinis, as well as Veillonella spp. affiliated with V. atypica, V. parvula, V. dispar, and V. rogosae. Relative abundances varied per subject and time of sampling. Streptococcus and Veillonella isolates were cultured using selective media from ileostoma effluent samples collected at two time points from a single subject. The richness of the Streptococcus and Veillonella isolates was assessed at species and strain level by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and genetic fingerprinting, respectively. A total of 160 Streptococcus and 37 Veillonella isolates were obtained. Genetic fingerprinting differentiated seven Streptococcus lineages from ileostoma effluent, illustrating the strain richness within this ecosystem. The Veillonella isolates were represented by a single phylotype. Our study demonstrated that the small intestinal Streptococcus populations displayed considerable changes over time at the genetic lineage level because only representative strains of a single Streptococcus lineage could be cultivated from ileostoma effluent at both time points. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of different formulations of oral Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine in rodent models for immunogenicity and protection against aerosol challenge with M. bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Simon; Cross, Martin L; Smith, Alan; Court, Pinar; Vipond, Julia; Nadian, Allan; Hewinson, R Glyn; Batchelor, Hannah K; Perrie, Yvonne; Williams, Ann; Aldwell, Frank E; Chambers, Mark A

    2008-10-29

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) caused by infection with Mycobacterium bovis is causing considerable economic loss to farmers and Government in the United Kingdom as its incidence is increasing. Efforts to control bTB in the UK are hampered by the infection in Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) that represent a wildlife reservoir and source of recurrent M. bovis exposure to cattle. Vaccination of badgers with the human TB vaccine, M. bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), in oral bait represents a possible disease control tool and holds the best prospect for reaching badger populations over a wide geographical area. Using mouse and guinea pig models, we evaluated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy, respectively, of candidate badger oral vaccines based on formulation of BCG in lipid matrix, alginate beads, or a novel microcapsular hybrid of both lipid and alginate. Two different oral doses of BCG were evaluated in each formulation for their protective efficacy in guinea pigs, while a single dose was evaluated in mice. In mice, significant immune responses (based on lymphocyte proliferation and expression of IFN-gamma) were only seen with the lipid matrix and the lipid in alginate microcapsular formulation, corresponding to the isolation of viable BCG from alimentary tract lymph nodes. In guinea pigs, only BCG formulated in lipid matrix conferred protection to the spleen and lungs following aerosol route challenge with M. bovis. Protection was seen with delivery doses in the range 10(6)-10(7) CFU, although this was more consistent in the spleen at the higher dose. No protection in terms of organ CFU was seen with BCG administered in alginate beads or in lipid in alginate microcapsules, although 10(7) in the latter formulation conferred protection in terms of increasing body weight after challenge and a smaller lung to body weight ratio at necropsy. These results highlight the potential for lipid, rather than alginate, -based vaccine formulations as suitable delivery

  20. In silico assessment of virulence factors in strains of Streptococcus oralis and Streptococcus mitis isolated from patients with Infective Endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Louise H.; Iversen, Katrine Højholt; Dargis, Rimtas

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus oralis and Streptococcus mitis belong to the Mitis group, which are mostly commensals in the human oral cavity. Even though S. oralis and S. mitis are oral commensals, they can be opportunistic pathogens causing infective endocarditis. A recent taxonomic re-evaluation of the Mitis...

  1. Necrotizing fasciitis caused by group A streptococcus

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    Mikić Dragan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The first case of the confirmed necrotizing fasciitis caused by Group A Streptococcus in Yugoslavia was presented. Male patient, aged 28, in good health, suddenly developed symptoms and signs of severe infective syndrome and intensive pain in the axillary region. Parenteral antibiotic, substitution and supportive therapy was conducted along with the radical surgical excision of the necrotizing tissue. The patient did not develop streptococcal toxic shock syndrome thanks to the early established diagnosis and timely applied aggressive treatment. He was released from the hospital as completely cured two months after the admission.

  2. Streptococcus anginosus infections: crossing tissue planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunwoo, Bernie Y; Miller, Wallace T

    2014-10-01

    Streptococcus anginosus has long been recognized to cause invasive pyogenic infections. This holds true for thoracic infections where S. anginosus has a propensity for abscess and empyema formation. Early diagnosis is important given the significant morbidity and mortality associated with thoracic S. anginosus infections. Yet, distinguishing thoracic S. anginosus clinically is difficult. We present three cases of thoracic S. anginosus that demonstrated radiographic extension across tissue planes, including the interlobar fissure, diaphragm, and chest wall. Few infectious etiologies are known to cross tissue planes. Accordingly, we propose S. anginosus be considered among the differential diagnosis of potential infectious etiologies causing radiographic extension across tissue planes.

  3. CrdR function in a curdlan-producing Agrobacterium sp. ATCC31749 strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Chao; Yang, Liping; Zhao, Lamei; Lin, Chun; Liu, Zhengjie; Mao, Zichao

    2015-02-10

    Agrobacterium sp. ATCC31749 is an efficient curdlan producer at low pH and under nitrogen starvation. The helix-turn-helix transcriptional regulatory protein (crdR) essential for curdlan production has been analyzed, but whether crdR directly acts to cause expression of the curdlan biosynthesis operon (crdASC) is uncertain. To elucidate the molecular function of crdR in curdlan biosynthesis, we constructed a crdR knockout mutant along with pBQcrdR and pBQNcrdR vectors with crdR expression driven by a T5 promoter and crdR native promoter, respectively. Also, we constructed a pAG with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene driven by a curdlan biosynthetic operon promoter (crdP) to measure the effects of crdR expression on curdlan biosynthesis. Compared with wild-type (WT) strain biomass production, the biomass of the crdR knockout mutant was not significantly different in either exponential or stationary phases of growth. Mutant cells were non-capsulated and planktonic and produced significantly less curdlan. WT cells were curdlan-capsulated and aggregated in the stationery phase. pBQcrdR transformed to the WT strain had a 38% greater curdlan yield and pBQcrdR and pBQNcrdR transformed to the crdR mutant strain recovered 18% and 105% curdlan titers of the WT ATCC31749 strain, respectively. Consistent with its function of promoting curdlan biosynthesis, curdlan biosynthetic operon promoter (crdP) controlled GFP expression caused the transgenic strain to have higher GFP relative fluorescence in the WT strain, and no color change was observed with low GFP relative fluorescence in the crdR mutant strain as evidenced by fluorescent microscopy and spectrometric assay. q-RT-PCR revealed that crdR expression in the stationary phase was greater than in the exponential phase, and crdR overexpression in the WT strain increased crdA, crdS, and crdC expression. We also confirmed that purified crdR protein can specifically bind to the crd operon promoter region, and we inferred

  4. Bliv klogere på Mycoplasma bovis - Beslægtethed blandt de danske stammer: Afsløret

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokotovic, Branko

    Baggrund Bakterier tilhørende slægten Mycoplasma er årsag til forskellige sygdomme hos husdyr. De påvirker dyrenes velfærd samt fører til øgede produktionsomkostninger og betydelige økonomiske tab. I kvægbruget er en af de mest betydningsfulde mykoplasma på verdensplan Mycoplasma bovis, (M...

  5. An oral Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine for wildlife produced in the absence of animal-derived reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Martin L; Lambeth, Matthew R; Aldwell, Frank E

    2009-09-01

    Cultures of Mycobacterium bovis BCG, comprising predominantly single-cell bacilli, were prepared in broth without animal-derived reagents. When formulated into a vegetable-derived lipid matrix, the vaccine was stable in vitro and was immunogenic in vivo upon feeding it to mice. This formulation could be useful for oral vaccination of wildlife against tuberculosis, where concern over transmissible prions may preclude the field use of vaccines containing animal products.

  6. First-time detection of Mycobacterium bovis in livestock tissues and milk in the West Bank, Palestinian Territories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suheir Ereqat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bovine tuberculosis, bTB, is classified by the WHO as one of the seven neglected zoonontic diseases that cause animal health problems and has high potential to infect humans. In the West Bank, bTB was not studied among animals and the prevalence of human tuberculosis caused by M. bovis is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of bTB among cattle and goats and identify the molecular characteristics of bTB in our area. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 208 tissue samples, representing 104 animals, and 150 raw milk samples, obtained from cows and goats were examined for the presence of mycobacteria. The tissue samples were collected during routine meat inspection from the Jericho abattoir. DNA was extracted from all samples, milk and tissue biopsies (n = 358, and screened for presence of TB DNA by amplifying a 123-bp segment of the insertion sequence IS6110. Eight out of 254 animals (3.1% were found to be TB positive based on the IS6110-PCR. Identification of M. bovis among the positive TB samples was carried out via real time PCR followed by high resolution melt curve analysis, targeting the A/G transition along the oxyR gene. Spoligotyping analysis revealed a new genotype of M. bovis that was revealed from one tissue sample. SIGNIFICANCE: Detection of M. bovis in tissue and milk of livestock suggests that apparently healthy cattle and goats are a potential source of infection of bTB and may pose a risk to public health. Hence, appropriate measures including meat inspection at abattoirs in the region are required together with promotion of a health campaign emphasizing the importance of drinking pasteurized milk. In addition, further studies are essential at the farm level to determine the exact prevalence of bTB in goats and cattle herds in the West Bank and Israel.

  7. First-time detection of Mycobacterium bovis in livestock tissues and milk in the West Bank, Palestinian Territories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ereqat, Suheir; Nasereddin, Abedelmajeed; Levine, Hagai; Azmi, Kifaya; Al-Jawabreh, Amer; Greenblatt, Charles L; Abdeen, Ziad; Bar-Gal, Gila Kahila

    2013-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis, bTB, is classified by the WHO as one of the seven neglected zoonontic diseases that cause animal health problems and has high potential to infect humans. In the West Bank, bTB was not studied among animals and the prevalence of human tuberculosis caused by M. bovis is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of bTB among cattle and goats and identify the molecular characteristics of bTB in our area. A total of 208 tissue samples, representing 104 animals, and 150 raw milk samples, obtained from cows and goats were examined for the presence of mycobacteria. The tissue samples were collected during routine meat inspection from the Jericho abattoir. DNA was extracted from all samples, milk and tissue biopsies (n = 358), and screened for presence of TB DNA by amplifying a 123-bp segment of the insertion sequence IS6110. Eight out of 254 animals (3.1%) were found to be TB positive based on the IS6110-PCR. Identification of M. bovis among the positive TB samples was carried out via real time PCR followed by high resolution melt curve analysis, targeting the A/G transition along the oxyR gene. Spoligotyping analysis revealed a new genotype of M. bovis that was revealed from one tissue sample. Detection of M. bovis in tissue and milk of livestock suggests that apparently healthy cattle and goats are a potential source of infection of bTB and may pose a risk to public health. Hence, appropriate measures including meat inspection at abattoirs in the region are required together with promotion of a health campaign emphasizing the importance of drinking pasteurized milk. In addition, further studies are essential at the farm level to determine the exact prevalence of bTB in goats and cattle herds in the West Bank and Israel.

  8. A comparative study of an elisa test and an indirect immunofluorescence test for serological diagnosis of Babesia bovis infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, J.R.; Cheong, F.H.; Correa, B.L.; Radley, D.E.; Cereser, V.H.

    1998-01-01

    Detection of antibodies to Babesia bovis in cattle is essential for the understanding of the epidemiology of babesiosis and this study was concerned with comparing the indirect fluorescent antibody with the ELISA. Both assays gave rise to 100% sensitivity whilst the ELISA was shown to be marginally more specific at 98%. The ease of use and low cost of the ELISA would make it the more obvious choice in conducting future serological surveys for this parasite. (author)

  9. Prevalence of latent and active tuberculosis among dairy farm workers exposed to cattle infected by Mycobacterium bovis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Torres-Gonzalez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human tuberculosis caused by M. bovis is a zoonosis presently considered sporadic in developed countries, but remains a poorly studied problem in low and middle resource countries. The disease in humans is mainly attributed to unpasteurized dairy products consumption. However, transmission due to exposure of humans to infected animals has been also recognized. The prevalence of tuberculosis infection and associated risk factors have been insufficiently characterized among dairy farm workers (DFW exposed in settings with poor control of bovine tuberculosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tuberculin skin test (TST and Interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA were administered to 311 dairy farm and abattoir workers and their household contacts linked to a dairy production and livestock facility in Mexico. Sputa of individuals with respiratory symptoms and samples from routine cattle necropsies were cultured for M. bovis and resulting spoligotypes were compared. The overall prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI was 76.2% (95% CI, 71.4-80.9% by TST and 58.5% (95% CI, 53.0-64.0% by IGRA. Occupational exposure was associated to TST (OR 2.72; 95% CI, 1.31-5.64 and IGRA (OR 2.38; 95% CI, 1.31-4.30 adjusting for relevant variables. Two subjects were diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis, both caused by M. bovis. In one case, the spoligotype was identical to a strain isolated from bovines. CONCLUSIONS: We documented a high prevalence of latent and pulmonary TB among workers exposed to cattle infected with M. bovis, and increased risk among those occupationally exposed in non-ventilated spaces. Interspecies transmission is frequent and represents an occupational hazard in this setting.

  10. Detection of Mycobacterium bovis in bovine and bubaline tissues using nested-PCR for TbD1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Cristina P; Osório, Ana Luiza A R; Jorge, Kláudia S G; Ramos, Carlos Alberto N; Filho, Antonio Francisco S; Vidal, Carlos Eugênio S; Roxo, Eliana; Nishibe, Christiane; Almeida, Nalvo F; Júnior, Antônio A F; Silva, Marcio R; Neto, José Diomedes B; Cerqueira, Valíria D; Zumárraga, Martín J; Araújo, Flábio R

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, a nested-PCR system, targeting the TbD1 region, involving the performance of conventional PCR followed by real-time PCR, was developed to detect Mycobacterium bovis in bovine/bubaline tissue homogenates. The sensitivity and specificity of the reactions were assessed with DNA samples extracted from tuberculous and non-tuberculous mycobacteria, as well as other actinomycetales species and DNA samples extracted directly from bovine and bubaline tissue homogenates. In terms of analytical sensitivity, the DNA of M. bovis AN5 was detected up to 1.56 ng with conventional PCR, 97.6 pg with real-time PCR, and 1.53 pg with nested-PCR in the reaction mixture. The nested-PCR exhibited 100% analytical specificity for M. bovis when tested with the DNA of reference strains of environmental mycobacteria and closely-related Actinomycetales. A clinical sensitivity value of 76.0% was detected with tissue samples from animals that exhibited positive results in the comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CITT), as well as from those with lesions compatible with tuberculosis (LCT) that rendered positive cultures. A clinical specificity value of 100% was detected with tissue samples from animals with CITT- results, with no visible lesions (NVL) and negative cultures. No significant differences were found between the nested-PCR and culture in terms of detecting CITT+ animals with LCT or with NVL. No significant differences were recorded in the detection of CITT- animals with NVL. However, nested-PCR detected a significantly higher number of positive animals than the culture in the group of animals exhibiting LCT with no previous records of CITT. The use of the nested-PCR assay to detect M. bovis in tissue homogenates provided a rapid diagnosis of bovine and bubaline tuberculosis.

  11. 40 CFR 180.1102 - Trichoderma harzianum KRL-AG2 (ATCC #20847) strain T-22; exemption from requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trichoderma harzianum KRL-AG2 (ATCC... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1102 Trichoderma harzianum KRL-AG2... of a tolerance is established for residues of the biofungicide Trichoderma harzianum KRL-AG2 (ATCC...

  12. Evaluation of an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kit for the detection of Babesia bovis antibodies in cattle in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echaide, S; Echaide, I E; Mangold, A J; Lugaresi, C I; Guglielmone, A A [Estacion Experimental Agropecuaria, Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria, Rafaela, Santa Fe (Argentina); Gaido, A B [Estacion Experimental Agropecuaria Salta, Salta (Argentina)

    1998-11-01

    An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of antibodies to Babesia bovis was evaluated by using sera of 874 cattle carrying B. bovis antibodies, 700 sera of uninfected cattle, and 357 sera from calves from 16 herds subjected to different B. bovis inoculation rates. The seropositive/ seronegative cut-off point set as double the mean percent positivity of negative cattle sera (= 16%). The sensitivity of the ELISA (four trials) ranged from 97.1% to 100% and the specificity (three trials) varied from 92.0% to 97.0%. The agreement between ELISA and immunofluorescent antibody test was {>=} 90.0% in 18 of 23 evaluations and it ranged from 86.0% to 88.0% in the remainder. The correlation coefficient between percentage of sera positive to ELISA and IFA test in 16 herds was 0.9958 (P<0.001). The ELISA has the advantages of a high sensitivity, objectivity and capacity to test large number of samples in short period of time and could replace the IFA test specially for epidemiological studies. (author) 11 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  13. The toxicity of rifampicin polylactic acid nanoparticles against Mycobacterium bovis BCG and human macrophage THP-1 cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erokhina, M; Rybalkina, E; Lepekha, L; Barsegyan, G; Onishchenko, G

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis is rapidly becoming a major health problem. The rise in tuberculosis incidence stimulates efforts to develop more effective delivery systems for the existing antituberculous drugs while decreasing the side effects. The nanotechnology may provide novel drug delivery tools allowing controlled drug release. Rifampicin is one of the main antituberculous drugs, characterized by high toxicity, and Poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) is a biodegradable polymer used for the preparation of encapsulated drugs. The aim of our work was to evaluate the toxicity of rifampicin-PLLA nanoparticles against Mycobacterium bovis BCG using human macrophage THP-1 cell line. Our data demonstrate that rifampicin-PLLA is effective against M. bovis BCG in the infected macrophages. The drug is inducing the dysfunction of mitochondria and apoptosis in the macrophages and is acting as a potential substrate of Pgp thereby modulating cell chemosensitivity. The severity of the toxic effects of the rifampicin-PLLA nanoparticles is increasing in a dose-dependent manner. We suggest that free rifampicin induces death of M. bovis BCG after PLLA degradation and diffusion from phago-lysosomes to cytoplasm causing mitochondria dysfunction and affecting the Pgp activity. (paper)

  14. Cloning, expression, and purification of recombinant protein MPT-64 from a virulent strain of Mycobacterium bovis in a prokaryotic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashakkori, Maryam Mohammadi; Tebianian, Majid; Tabatabaei, Mohammad; Mosavari, Nader

    2016-12-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a zoonotic infectious disease common to humans and animals that is caused by the rod-shaped acid-fast bacterium Mycobacterium bovis. Rapid and sensitive detection of TB is promoted by specific antigens. Virulent strains of the TB complex from M. bovis contain 16 regions of difference (RD) in their genome that encode important proteins, including major protein of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis 64 (MBT-64, which is a primary immune-stimulating antigen encoded by RD-2. In this study, we cloned, expressed, and purified MPT-64 as a potent M. bovis antigen in a prokaryotic system for use in future diagnostic studies. The antigenic region of the Mpt64 gene was investigated by bioinformatics methods, cloned into the PQE-30 plasmid, and expressed in Escherichia coli M15 cells, followed by isopropyl β-d-1-thiogalactopyranoside induction. The expressed protein was analyzed sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and purified using a nickel-affinity column. Biological activity was confirmed by western blot using specific antibodies. Our data verified the successful cloning of the Mpt64 gene (687-bp segment) via the expression vector and purification of recombinant MPT-64 as a 24-kDa protein. These results indicated successful expression and purification of recombinant MPT-64 protein in a prokaryotic system. This protein can be used for serological diagnosis, improved detection of pathogenicity and non-pathogenicity between infected cattle, and for verification of suspected cases of bovine TB. Copyright © 2016.

  15. Evaluation of an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kit for the detection of Babesia bovis antibodies in cattle in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echaide, S.; Echaide, I.E.; Mangold, A.J.; Lugaresi, C.I.; Guglielmone, A.A.; Gaido, A.B.

    1998-01-01

    An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of antibodies to Babesia bovis was evaluated by using sera of 874 cattle carrying B. bovis antibodies, 700 sera of uninfected cattle, and 357 sera from calves from 16 herds subjected to different B. bovis inoculation rates. The seropositive/ seronegative cut-off point set as double the mean percent positivity of negative cattle sera (= 16%). The sensitivity of the ELISA (four trials) ranged from 97.1% to 100% and the specificity (three trials) varied from 92.0% to 97.0%. The agreement between ELISA and immunofluorescent antibody test was ≥ 90.0% in 18 of 23 evaluations and it ranged from 86.0% to 88.0% in the remainder. The correlation coefficient between percentage of sera positive to ELISA and IFA test in 16 herds was 0.9958 (P<0.001). The ELISA has the advantages of a high sensitivity, objectivity and capacity to test large number of samples in short period of time and could replace the IFA test specially for epidemiological studies. (author)

  16. [Identification and detection of trag: a new infection-related gene expressed in vivo from isolates of Streptococcus suis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haodan; Gu, Hongwei; Lu, Chengping

    2008-12-01

    The trag (transfer gene G) was one of the novel infection-related factors identified by in vivo-induced antigen technology (IVIAT) from Streptococcus suis type 2 expression libraries with swine convalesecent sera in our former research. We detected the distribution of trag in different Streptococcus suis isolates and identify the differential expression of the new infection-related factor between in vivo and in vitro condition. According to the sequence of trag of North American strain 89/1591, a pair of primers were designed to detect the distribution of trag in total 43 SS isolates. Another pair of primers were designed to amplify the ORF of trag of 5 SS representive strains (ZY05719, HA9801, 98012, SH040805, SH040917). Partial gene of trag was cloned and inserted into expression vector pET28a(+), and induced by IPTG to express recombinant TRAG. The recombinant protein was probed with swine convalescent sera and immune sera respectively. The trag was detected in the most of SS2 isolates (30/32), in SS9 isolates (4/6), and 1 isolate of SS7, while it was not found in SS2 European strain ATCC43765, avirulent strain SS2 T15, 1 isolates of SS1, 1 isolates of SS1/2 and 2 isolates of group C streptococcal strains from pigs. Comparisons between the sequences of TRAG of 5 isolates with that of SS isolates, showed a high homology (>97%) with North American strain 89/1589 and China strains 98HAH33, 05ZYH33. The immunoreactivity was only presented with convalescent sera. The trag was detected from virulent SS isolates but not from avirulent strain, which suggested that this gene may be related to the pathogenicity of SS. The special reactivity was only present with convalescent sera, and it indicated that TRAG might play a role during SS2 invasive course.

  17. Effect of Lippia alba and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils on biofilms of Streptococcus mutans and cytotoxicity in CHO cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofiño-Rivera, A; Ortega-Cuadros, M; Galvis-Pareja, D; Jiménez-Rios, H; Merini, L J; Martínez-Pabón, M C

    2016-12-24

    Caries is a public health problem, given that it prevails in 60 to 90% of the school-age global population. Multiple factors interact in its etiology, among them dental plaque is necessary to have lactic acid producing microorganisms like Streptococcus from he Mutans group. Existing prevention and treatment measures are not totally effective and generate adverse effects, which is why it is necessary to search for complementary strategies for their management. The study sought to evaluate the eradication capacity of Streptococcus mutans biofilms and the toxicity on eukaryotic cells of Lippia alba and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils. Essential oils were extracted from plant material through steam distillation and then its chemical composition was determined. The MBEC-high-throughput (MBEC-HTP) (Innovotech, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada) assay used to determine the eradication concentration of S. mutans ATCC 35668 strain biofilms. Cytotoxicity was evaluated on CHO cells through the MTT cell proliferation assay. The major components in both oils were Geraniol and Citral; in L. alba 18.9% and 15.9%, respectively, and in C. citratus 31.3% and 26.7%. The L. alba essential oils presented eradication activity against S. mutans biofilms of 95.8% in 0.01mg/dL concentration and C. citratus essential oils showed said eradication activity of 95.4% at 0.1, 0.01mg/dL concentrations and of 93.1% in the 0.001mg/dL concentration; none of the concentrations of both essential oils showed toxicity on CHO cells during 24h. The L. alba and C. citratus essential oils showed eradication activity against S. mutans biofilms and null cytotoxicity, evidencing the need to conduct further studies that can identify their active components and in order to guide a safe use in treating and preventing dental caries. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Isolation and partial characterization of protease from Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIDIJA IZRAEL-ŽIVKOVIĆ

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic characteristics of a protease from a medically important, referent strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 were determined. According to sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE, and gel filtration, it was estimated that the molecular mass of the purified enzyme was about 15 kDa. Other enzymatic properties were found to be: pH optimum 7.1, pH stability between 6.5 and 10; temperature optimum around 60 °C while the enzyme was stable at 60 °C for 30 min. Inhibition of the enzyme was observed with metal chelators, such as EDTA and 1,10-phenanthroline, suggesting that the protease is a metalloenzyme. Furthermore, the enzyme contains one mole of zinc ion per mole of enzyme. The protease was stable in the presence of different organic solvents, which enables its potential use for the synthesis of peptides.

  19. Long-term kinetics of Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 survival on peanuts and peanut confectionery products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela S Nascimento

    Full Text Available Due to recent large outbreaks, peanuts have been considered a product of potential risk for Salmonella. Usually, peanut products show a low water activity (aw and high fat content, which contribute to increasing the thermal resistance and survival of Salmonella. This study evaluated the long-term kinetics of Salmonella survival on different peanut products under storage at 28°C for 420 days. Samples of raw in-shell peanuts (aw = 0.29, roasted peanuts (aw = 0.39, unblanched peanut kernel (aw = 0.54, peanut brittle (aw = 0.30, paçoca (aw = 0.40 and pé-de-moça (aw = 0.68 were inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 at two inoculum levels (3 and 6 log cfu/ g. The Salmonella behavior was influenced (p420 days, especially in products with aw around 0.40.

  20. Crude glycerol from biodiesel industry as substrate for biosurfactant production by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marylane de Sousa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Glycerol, a co-product of the biodiesel industry, may be a suitable raw material for the production of high added-value compounds by the microorganisms. This study aimed to use the glycerol obtained from the biodiesel production process as the main carbon source for biosurfactant production by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633. Results indicated that the strain lowered the surface tension of the cell-free fermented broth to 31.5 ± 1.6 mN/m, indicating the production of biosurfactant. The critical micelle concentration (CMC = 33.6 mN/m obtained was similar to the previously reported for biossurfactants isolated from other Bacillus. The produced biosurfactant was able to emulsify n-hexadecane and soybean oil.

  1. Influence of temperature on flavour compound production from citrate by Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Figueroa, R M; Oliver, G; Benito de Cárdenas, I L

    2001-03-01

    The citrate utilization by Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 was found to be temperature-dependent. The maximum citrate utilization and incorporation of [1,5-14C]citrate rate were observed at 37 degreesC. At this temperature, maximum citrate lyase activity and specific diacetyl and acetoin production (Y(DA%)) were observed. The high levels of alpha-acetolactate synthase and low levels of diacetyl reductase, acetoin reductase and L-lactate dehydrogenase found at 37 degreesC led to an accumulation of diacetyl and acetoin. Optimum lactic acid production was observed at 45 degreesC, according to the high lactate dehydrogenase activity. The NADH oxidase activity increased with increasing culture temperature from 22 degreesC to 37 degreesC. Thus there are greater quantities of pyruvate available for the production of alpha-acetolactate, diacetyl and aceotin, and less diacetyl and acetoin are reduced.

  2. Microbial conversion of ethylbenzene to 1-phenethanol and acetophenone by Nocardia tartaricans ATCC 31190.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, D P; Goldsmith, C D

    1979-09-01

    A culture of Nocardia tartaricans ATCC 31190 was capable of catalyzing the conversion of ethylbenzene to 1-phenethanol and acetophenone while growing in a shake flask culture with hexadecane as the source of carbon and energy. This subterminal oxidative reaction with ethylbenzene appears not to have been previously reported for Nocardia species. When N. tartaricans was grown on glucose as its source of carbon and energy and ethylbenzene was added, no subsequent production of 1-phenethanol or acetophenone was observed. The mechanisms of 1-phenethanol and acetophenone production from ethylbenzene are thought to involve a subterminal oxidation of the alpha-carbon of the alkyl group to 1-phenethanol followed by biological oxidation of the latter to acetophenone.

  3. Response of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 to low-shear modeled microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Wallace, Sarah; Stahl, Sarah; Voorhies, Alexander; Lorenzi, Hernan; Douglas, Grace L.

    2017-10-01

    The introduction of probiotic microbes into the spaceflight food system has the potential for use as a safe, non-invasive, daily countermeasure to crew microbiome and immune dysregulation. However, the microgravity effects on the stress tolerances and gene expression of probiotic bacteria must be investigated to confirm that benefits of selected strains will still be conveyed under microgravity conditions. The goal of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of the probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 in a microgravity analog environment. L. acidophilus was cultured anaerobically under modeled microgravity conditions and assessed for differences in growth, survival through stress challenge, and gene expression compared to control cultures. No significant differences were observed between the modeled microgravity and control grown L. acidophilus, suggesting that this strain will behave similarly in spaceflight.

  4. Microencapsulation of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 spores in gellan gum microspheres for the production of biobutanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Sweta; Wan Sia Heng, Paul; Chan, Lai Wah

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to provide further insights on the applicability of microencapsulation using emulsification method, to immobilise Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 spores, for biobutanol production. The encapsulated spores were revived using heat shock treatment and the fermentation efficiency of the resultant encapsulated cells was compared with that of the free (non-encapsulated) cells. The microspheres were easily recovered from the fermentation medium by filtration and reused up to five cycles of fermentation. In contrast, the free (non-encapsulated) cells could be reused for two cycles only. The microspheres remained intact throughout repeated use. Although significant cell leakage was observed during the course of fermentation, the microspheres could be reused with relatively high butanol yield, demonstrating their role as microbial cell nurseries. Both encapsulated and liberated cells contributed to butanol production.

  5. Involvement of Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502 sigma factor K in early-stage sporulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, David G; Dahlsten, Elias; Zhang, Zhen; Korkeala, Hannu; Lindström, Miia

    2012-07-01

    A key survival mechanism of Clostridium botulinum, the notorious neurotoxic food pathogen, is the ability to form heat-resistant spores. While the genetic mechanisms of sporulation are well understood in the model organism Bacillus subtilis, nothing is known about these mechanisms in C. botulinum. Using the ClosTron gene-knockout tool, sigK, encoding late-stage (stage IV) sporulation sigma factor K in B. subtilis, was disrupted in C. botulinum ATCC 3502 to produce two different mutants with distinct insertion sites and orientations. Both mutants were unable to form spores, and their elongated cell morphology suggested that the sporulation pathway was blocked at an early stage. In contrast, sigK-complemented mutants sporulated successfully. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of sigK in the parent strain revealed expression at the late log growth phase in the parent strain. Analysis of spo0A, encoding the sporulation master switch, in the sigK mutant and the parent showed significantly reduced relative levels of spo0A expression in the sigK mutant compared to the parent strain. Similarly, sigF showed significantly lower relative transcription levels in the sigK mutant than the parent strain, suggesting that the sporulation pathway was blocked in the sigK mutant at an early stage. We conclude that σ(K) is essential for early-stage sporulation in C. botulinum ATCC 3502, rather than being involved in late-stage sporulation, as reported for the sporulation model organism B. subtilis. Understanding the sporulation mechanism of C. botulinum provides keys to control the public health risks that the spores of this dangerous pathogen cause through foods.

  6. Group B Streptococcus and the Vaginal Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Geoffrey H; Randis, Tara M; Desai, Purnahamsi V; Sapra, Katherine J; Ma, Bing; Gajer, Pawel; Humphrys, Michael S; Ravel, Jacques; Gelber, Shari E; Ratner, Adam J

    2017-09-15

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus [GBS]) is an important neonatal pathogen and emerging cause of disease in adults. The major risk factor for neonatal disease is maternal vaginal colonization. However, little is known about the relationship between GBS and vaginal microbiota. Vaginal lavage samples from nonpregnant women were tested for GBS, and amplicon-based sequencing targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA V3-V4 region was performed. Four hundred twenty-eight of 432 samples met the high-quality read threshold. There was no relationship between GBS carriage and demographic characteristics, α-diversity, or overall vaginal microbiota community state type (CST). Within the non-Lactobacillus-dominant CST IV, GBS positive status was significantly more prevalent in CST IV-A than CST IV-B. Significant clustering by GBS status was noted on principal coordinates analysis, and 18 individual taxa were found to be significantly associated with GBS carriage by linear discriminant analysis. After adjusting for race/ethnicity, 4 taxa were positively associated with GBS, and 6 were negatively associated. Vaginal microbiota CST and α-diversity are not related to GBS status. However, specific microbial taxa are associated with colonization of this important human pathogen, highlighting a potential role for the microbiota in promotion or inhibition of GBS colonization. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Influence of glutamate on growth, sporulation, and spore properties of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 in defined medium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Y.P.; Atmadja, R.D.; Hornstra, L.M.; Vos, de W.M.; Abee, T.

    2005-01-01

    A chemically defined medium in combination with an airlift fermentor system was used to study the growth and sporulation of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579. The medium contained six amino acids and lactate as the main carbon sources. The amino acids were depleted during exponential growth, while lactate

  8. Construction of expression vectors for metabolic engineering of the vanillin-producing actinomycete Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleige, Christian; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 is able to synthesize the important flavoring agent vanillin from cheap natural substrates. The bacterium is therefore of great interest for the industry and used for the fermentative production of vanillin. In order to improve the production of natural vanillin with Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116, the strain has been genetically engineered to optimize the metabolic flux towards the desired product. Extensive metabolic engineering was hitherto hampered, due to the lack of genetic tools like functional promoters and expression vectors. In this study, we report the establishment of a plasmid-based gene expression system for Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 that allows a further manipulation of the genotype. Four new Escherichia coli-Amycolatopsis shuttle vectors harboring different promoter elements were constructed, and the functionality of these regulatory elements was proven by the expression of the reporter gene gusA, encoding a β-glucuronidase. Glucuronidase activity was detected in all plasmid-harboring strains, and remarkable differences in the expression strength of the reporter gene depending on the used promoter were observed. The new expression vectors will promote the further genetic engineering of Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 to get insight into the metabolic network and to improve the strain for a more efficient industrial use.

  9. Growth and sporulation of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 under defined conditions: temporal expression of genes for key sigma factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Y.P.; Hornstra, L.M.; Vos, de W.M.; Abee, T.

    2004-01-01

    An airlift fermentor system allowing precise regulation of pH and aeration combined with a chemically defined medium was used to study growth and sporulation of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579. Sporulation was complete and synchronous. Expression of sigA, sigB, sigF, and sigG was monitored with real-time

  10. Formation and conversion of oxygen metabolites by Lactococcus lactis subsp lactis ATCC 19435 under different growth conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niel, van E.W.J.; Hofvendahl, K.; Hahn Hagerdal, B.

    2002-01-01

    A semidefined medium based on Casamino Acids allowed Lactococcus lactis ATCC 19435 to grow in the presence of oxygen at a slow rate (0.015 h-1). Accumulation of H2O2 in the culture prevented a higher growth rate. Addition of asparagine to the medium increased the growth rate, whereby H2O2

  11. Direct-Imaging-Based Quantification of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 Population Heterogeneity at a Low Incubation Temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besten, den H.M.W.; Garcia, D.; Moezelaar, R.; Zwietering, M.H.; Abee, T.

    2010-01-01

    Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 was cultured in microcolonies on Anopore strips near its minimum growth temperature to directly image and quantify its population heterogeneity at an abusive refrigeration temperature. Eleven percent of the microcolonies failed to grow during low-temperature incubation,

  12. Distinct substrate specificities of three glycoside hydrolase family 42 β-galactosidases from Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis ATCC 15697

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viborg, Alexander Holm; Katayama, Takane; Abou Hachem, Maher

    2014-01-01

    resembling various milk and plant galactooligosaccharides distinguishes the three GH42 members, Bga42A, Bga42B and Bga42C, encoded by the probiotic B. longum subsp. infantis ATCC 15697 and revealed the glycosyl residue at subsite +1 and its linkage to the terminal Gal at subsite −1 to be key specificity...

  13. Draft genome sequences of four uropathogenic escherichia coli 04:H5 isolates (ATCC 700414,700415,700416 and 700417)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli O4: H5 isolates ATCC 700414, 700415, 700416, and 700417 were recovered from women with first-time urinary tract infections. Here, we report the draft genome sequences for these four E. coli isolates, which are currently being used to validate food safety processing tec...

  14. Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 and L22 display probiotic potential in vitro and protect against Salmonella-induced pullorum disease in a chick model of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dexian; Li, Rui; Li, Jichang

    2012-08-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 (L. reuteri ATCC 55730) and L. reuteri L22 were studied for their probiotic potential. These two strains were able to produce an antimicrobial substance, termed reuterin, the maximum production of reuterin by these two strains was detected in the late logarithmic growth phase (16 h in MRS and 20 h in LB broths). These two strains could significantly reduce the growth of Salmonella pullorum ATCC 9120 in MRS broth, L. reuteri ATCC 55730 with a reduction of 48.2±4.15% (in 5 log) and 89.7±2.59% (in 4 log) respectively, at the same time, L. reuteri L22 was 69.4±3.48% (in 5 log) and 80.4±3.22% respectively. L. reuteri ATCC 55730 was active against the majority of the pathogenic species, including S. pullorum ATCC 9120 and Escherichia coli O(78), while L. reuteri L22 was not as effective as L. reuteri ATCC 55730. The two potential strains were found to survive variably at pH 2.5 and were unaffected by bile salts, while neither of the strains was haemolytic. Moreover, L. reuteri ATCC 55730 exhibited variable susceptibility towards commonly used antibiotics; but L. reuteri L22 showed resistant to most antibiotics in this study. L. reuteri ATCC 55730 consequently was found to significantly increase survival rate in a Salmonella-induced pullorum disease model in chick. To conclude, strain L. reuteri ATCC 55730 possesses desirable probiotic properties, such as antimicrobial activity and immunomodulation in vitro, which were confirmed in vivo by the use of animal models. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Babesia bovis hap2 gene is not required for blood stage replication, but expressed upon in vitro sexual stage induction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala E Hussein

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Babesia bovis, is a tick borne apicomplexan parasite responsible for important cattle losses globally. Babesia parasites have a complex life cycle including asexual replication in the mammalian host and sexual reproduction in the tick vector. Novel control strategies aimed at limiting transmission of the parasite are needed, but transmission blocking vaccine candidates remain undefined. Expression of HAP2 has been recognized as critical for the fertilization of parasites in the Babesia-related Plasmodium, and is a leading candidate for a transmission blocking vaccine against malaria. Hereby we identified the B. bovis hap2 gene and demonstrated that it is widely conserved and differentially transcribed during development within the tick midgut, but not by blood stage parasites. The hap2 gene was disrupted by transfecting B. bovis with a plasmid containing the flanking regions of the hap2 gene and the GPF-BSD gene under the control of the ef-1α-B promoter. Comparison of in vitro growth between a hap2-KO B. bovis clonal line and its parental wild type strain showed that HAP2 is not required for the development of B. bovis in erythrocytes. However, xanthurenic acid-in vitro induction experiments of sexual stages of parasites recovered after tick transmission resulted in surface expression of HAP2 exclusively in sexual stage induced parasites. In addition, hap2-KO parasites were not able to develop such sexual stages as defined both by morphology and by expression of the B. bovis sexual marker genes 6-Cys A and B. Together, the data strongly suggests that tick midgut stage differential expression of hap2 is associated with the development of B. bovis sexual forms. Overall these studies are consistent with a role of HAP2 in tick stages of the parasite and suggest that HAP2 is a potential candidate for a transmission blocking vaccine against bovine babesiosis.

  16. The Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus Bm86 gene plays a critical role in the fitness of ticks fed on cattle during acute Babesia bovis infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knowles Donald P

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus is an economically important tick of cattle involved in the transmission of Babesia bovis, the etiological agent of bovine babesiosis. Commercial anti-tick vaccines based on the R. microplus Bm86 glycoprotein have shown some effect in controlling tick infestation; however their efficacy as a stand-alone solution for tick control has been questioned. Understanding the role of the Bm86 gene product in tick biology is critical to identifying additional methods to utilize Bm86 to reduce R. microplus infestation and babesia transmission. Additionally, the role played by Bm86 in R. microplus fitness during B. bovis infection is unknown. Results Here we describe in two independent experiments that RNA interference-mediated silencing of Bm86 decreased the fitness of R. microplus females fed on cattle during acute B. bovis infection. Notably, Bm86 silencing decreased the number and survival of engorged females, and decreased the weight of egg masses. However, gene silencing had no significant effect on the efficiency of transovarial transmission of B. bovis from surviving female ticks to their larval offspring. The results also show that Bm86 is expressed, in addition to gut cells, in larvae, nymphs, adult males and ovaries of partially engorged adult R. microplus females, and its expression was significantly down-regulated in ovaries of ticks fed on B. bovis-infected cattle. Conclusion The R. microplus Bm86 gene plays a critical role during tick feeding and after repletion during blood digestion in ticks fed on cattle during acute B. bovis infection. Therefore, the data indirectly support the rationale for using Bm86-based vaccines, perhaps in combination with acaricides, to control tick infestation particularly in B. bovis endemic areas.

  17. The Babesia bovis hap2 gene is not required for blood stage replication, but expressed upon in vitro sexual stage induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Hala E.; Bastos, Reginaldo G.; Schneider, David A.; Johnson, Wendell C.; Adham, Fatma K.; Davis, William C.; Laughery, Jacob M.; Herndon, David R.; Alzan, Heba F.

    2017-01-01

    Babesia bovis, is a tick borne apicomplexan parasite responsible for important cattle losses globally. Babesia parasites have a complex life cycle including asexual replication in the mammalian host and sexual reproduction in the tick vector. Novel control strategies aimed at limiting transmission of the parasite are needed, but transmission blocking vaccine candidates remain undefined. Expression of HAP2 has been recognized as critical for the fertilization of parasites in the Babesia-related Plasmodium, and is a leading candidate for a transmission blocking vaccine against malaria. Hereby we identified the B. bovis hap2 gene and demonstrated that it is widely conserved and differentially transcribed during development within the tick midgut, but not by blood stage parasites. The hap2 gene was disrupted by transfecting B. bovis with a plasmid containing the flanking regions of the hap2 gene and the GPF-BSD gene under the control of the ef-1α-B promoter. Comparison of in vitro growth between a hap2-KO B. bovis clonal line and its parental wild type strain showed that HAP2 is not required for the development of B. bovis in erythrocytes. However, xanthurenic acid-in vitro induction experiments of sexual stages of parasites recovered after tick transmission resulted in surface expression of HAP2 exclusively in sexual stage induced parasites. In addition, hap2-KO parasites were not able to develop such sexual stages as defined both by morphology and by expression of the B. bovis sexual marker genes 6-Cys A and B. Together, the data strongly suggests that tick midgut stage differential expression of hap2 is associated with the development of B. bovis sexual forms. Overall these studies are consistent with a role of HAP2 in tick stages of the parasite and suggest that HAP2 is a potential candidate for a transmission blocking vaccine against bovine babesiosis. PMID:28985216

  18. Silencing of a putative immunophilin gene in the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus increases the infection rate of Babesia bovis in larval progeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knowles Donald P

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus is involved in the transmission of the protozoan Babesia bovis, the etiological agent of bovine babesiosis. Interactions between ticks and protozoa are poorly understood and the investigation of tick genes that affect tick fitness and protozoan infection can set the stage for dissecting the molecular interactions between the two species. Results In this study, RNA interference was used to silence R. microplus genes that had been previously shown to be up-regulated in response to B. bovis infection. The silencing of a putative immunophilin gene (Imnp in female ticks fed on a calf acutely infected with B. bovis decreased the hatching rate and survival of larval progeny. Interestingly, Imnp was up-regulated significantly in ovaries of R. microplus in response to B. bovis infection and its silencing in female ticks significantly increased the infection rate of the protozoan in larval progeny. The results also showed that the silencing of a putative Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor (Spi gene and a putative lipocalin (Lpc gene decreased the fitness of R. microplus females, but had no significant effect on the infection rate of B. bovis in larval progeny. Conclusion The silencing of the Imnp, Spi or Lpc genes decreased the fitness of R. microplus females fed on a calf during acute B. bovis infection. The Imnp gene data suggest that this putative immunophilin gene is involved in the defense system of R. microplus against B. bovis and may play a role in controlling the protozoan infection in tick ovaries and larval progeny.

  19. Tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis in humans in the south-west region of Ireland: is there a relationship with infection prevalence in cattle?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cotter, T P

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the incidence of tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis in humans to the prevalence of M. bovis infection in cattle in south-west Ireland and discuss possible links between them. SETTING: In the south-west region of Ireland, a mixed urban and rural community (pop. 536,000), there is a residuum of human tuberculosis caused by M. bovis. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the incidence of culture-positive M. bovis disease in humans in south-west Ireland from 1983 to 1994 and of the results of tuberculin testing in cattle from 1978 to 1994 for the same region. RESULTS: One to five cases of human tuberculosis due to M. bovis were recorded per year while the overall prevalence of bovine infection fell gradually during the period of study from 467 tuberculin-positive animals per 100,000 cattle tested in 1983 to 158 per 100,000 in 1994. CONCLUSION: The low incidence plateau of human tuberculosis due to M. bovis together with the decline in prevalence of animal infection in the overall period studied suggest a cut-off in the animal to human chain of infection at two points; the animal source and the ingestion of (now pasteurized) milk. This would suggest that disease in humans is now due to reactivation of previous foci of infection which were acquired when milk pasteurization was not compulsory. Based on this, we would anticipate a further reduction and possible elimination of human tuberculosis due to M. bovis in this region in the next 10-15 years.

  20. Comparative Bioinformatics Analysis of Transcription Factor Genes Indicates Conservation of Key Regulatory Domains among Babesia bovis, Babesia microti, and Theileria equi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzan, Heba F; Knowles, Donald P; Suarez, Carlos E

    2016-11-01

    Apicomplexa tick-borne hemoparasites, including Babesia bovis, Babesia microti, and Theileria equi are responsible for bovine and human babesiosis and equine theileriosis, respectively. These parasites of vast medical, epidemiological, and economic impact have complex life cycles in their vertebrate and tick hosts. Large gaps in knowledge concerning the mechanisms used by these parasites for gene regulation remain. Regulatory genes coding for DNA binding proteins such as members of the Api-AP2, HMG, and Myb families are known to play crucial roles as transcription factors. Although the repertoire of Api-AP2 has been defined and a HMG gene was previously identified in the B. bovis genome, these regulatory genes have not been described in detail in B. microti and T. equi. In this study, comparative bioinformatics was used to: (i) identify and map genes encoding for these transcription factors among three parasites' genomes; (ii) identify a previously unreported HMG gene in B. microti; (iii) define a repertoire of eight conserved Myb genes; and (iv) identify AP2 correlates among B. bovis and the better-studied Plasmodium parasites. Searching the available transcriptome of B. bovis defined patterns of transcription of these three gene families in B. bovis erythrocyte stage parasites. Sequence comparisons show conservation of functional domains and general architecture in the AP2, Myb, and HMG proteins, which may be significant for the regulation of common critical parasite life cycle transitions in B. bovis, B. microti, and T. equi. A detailed understanding of the role of gene families encoding DNA binding proteins will provide new tools for unraveling regulatory mechanisms involved in B. bovis, B. microti, and T. equi life cycles and environmental adaptive responses and potentially contributes to the development of novel convergent strategies for improved control of babesiosis and equine piroplasmosis.