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Sample records for strenuous physical exercise

  1. Strenuous physical exercise adversely affects monocyte chemotaxis

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    Czepluch, Frauke S; Barres, Romain; Caidahl, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Physical exercise is important for proper cardiovascular function and disease prevention, but it may influence the immune system. We evaluated the effect of strenuous exercise on monocyte chemotaxis. Monocytes were isolated from blood of 13 young, healthy, sedentary individuals participating...... in a three-week training program which consisted of repeated exercise bouts. Monocyte chemotaxis and serological biomarkers were investigated at baseline, after three weeks training and after four weeks recovery. Chemotaxis towards vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and transforming growth factor...

  2. Effect of strenuous physical exercise on circulating cell-derived microparticles.

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    Chaar, Vicky; Romana, Marc; Tripette, Julien; Broquere, Cédric; Huisse, Marie-Geneviève; Hue, Olivier; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Connes, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Strenuous exercise is associated with an inflammatory response involving the activation of several types of blood cells. In order to document the specific activation of these cell types, we studied the effect of three maximal exercise tests conducted to exhaustion on the quantitative and qualitative pattern of circulating cell-derived microparticles and inflammatory molecules in healthy subjects. This study mainly indicated that the plasma concentration of microparticles from platelets and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) was increased immediately after the strenuous exercise. In addition, the increase in plasma concentration of microparticles from PMN and platelets was still observed after 2 hours of recovery. A similar pattern was observed for the IL-6 plasma level. In contrast, no change was observed for either soluble selectins or plasma concentration of microparticles from red blood cells, monocytes and endothelial cells. In agreement, sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 levels were not changed by the exercise. We conclude that a strenuous exercise is accompanied by platelet- and PMN-derived microparticle production that probably reflects the activation of these two cell types.

  3. Endothelial glycocalyx integrity is preserved in young, healthy men during a single bout of strenuous physical exercise.

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    Majerczak, J; Duda, K; Chlopicki, S; Bartosz, G; Zakrzewska, A; Balcerczyk, A; Smoleński, R T; Zoladz, J A

    2016-06-20

    In the present study we aimed to evaluate whether oxidative stress and inflammation induced by strenuous exercise affect glycocalyx integrity and endothelial function. Twenty one young, untrained healthy men performed a maximal incremental cycling exercise - until exhaustion. Markers of glycocalyx shedding (syndecan-1, heparan sulfate and hyaluronic acid), endothelial status (nitric oxide and prostacyclin metabolites - nitrate, nitrite, 6-keto-prostaglandin F(1alpha)), oxidative stress (8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine) and antioxidant capacity (uric acid, non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity) as well as markers of inflammation (sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1) were analyzed in venous blood samples taken at rest and at the end of exercise. The applied strenuous exercise caused a 5-fold increase in plasma lactate and hypoxanthine concentrations (p<0.001), a fall in plasma uric acid concentration and non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity (p<10(-4)), accompanied by an increase (p=0.003) in sVCAM-1 concentration. Plasma 6-keto-prostaglandin F(1alpha) concentration increased (p=0.006) at exhaustion, while nitrate and nitrite concentrations were not affected. Surprisingly, no significant changes in serum syndecan-1 and heparan sulfate concentrations were observed. We have concluded, that a single bout of severe-intensity exercise is well accommodated by endothelium in young, healthy men as it neither results in evident glycocalyx disruption nor in the impairment of nitric oxide and prostacyclin production.

  4. Inadequate cerebral oxygen delivery and central fatigue during strenuous exercise

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    Nybo, Lars; Rasmussen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Under resting conditions, the brain is protected against hypoxia because cerebral blood flow increases when the arterial oxygen tension becomes low. However, during strenuous exercise, hyperventilation lowers the arterial carbon dioxide tension and blunts the increase in cerebral blood flow, which...... can lead to an inadequate oxygen delivery to the brain and contribute to the development of fatigue....

  5. Inflammatory response to strenuous muscular exercise in man

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    G. Camus

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the humoral and cellular changes occurring during strenuous muscular work in humans, the concept of inflammatory response to exercise (IRE is developed. The main indices of IRE consist of signs of an acute phase response, leucocytosis and leucocyte activation, release of inflammatory mediators, tissue damage and cellular infiltrates, production of free radicals, activation of complement, and coagulation and fibrinolytic pathways. Depending on exercise intensity and duration, it seems likely that muscle and/or associated connective tissue damage, contact system activation due to shear stress on endothelium and endotoxaemia could be the triggering mechanisms of IRE. Although this phenomenon can be considered in most cases as a physiological process associated with tissue repair, exaggerated IRE could have physiopathological consequences. On the other hand, the influence of several factors such as age, sex, training, hormonal status, nutrition, anti-inflammatory drugs, and the extent to which IRE could be a potential risk for subjects undergoing intense physical training require further study.

  6. Sex differences in cardiac function after prolonged strenuous exercise.

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    Cote, Anita T; Phillips, Aaron A; Foulds, Heather J; Charlesworth, Sarah A; Bredin, Shannon S D; Burr, Jamie F; Koehle, Michael S; Warburton, Darren E R

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate sex differences in left ventricular (LV) function after an ultramarathon, and the association of vascular and training indices with the magnitude of exercise-induced cardiac fatigue. Descriptive field study. Fat Dog 100 Ultramarathon Trail Race, Canada. Thirty-four (13 women) recreational runners (aged 28-56 years). A 100-km or 160-km mountain marathon. Baseline baroreceptor sensitivity, heart rate variability, and arterial compliance; Pre-exercise and postexercise echocardiographic evaluations of LV dimensions, volumes, Doppler flow velocities, tissue velocities, strain, and strain rate. Finishers represented 17 men (44.8 ± 6.6 years) and 8 women (45.9 ± 10.2 years; P = 0.758). After ultraendurance exercise, significant reductions (P training status/experience. These findings suggest that vascular health is an important contributor to the degree of cardiovascular strain incurred as the result of an acute bout of prolonged strenuous exercise.

  7. The Influence of Methylsulfonylmethane on Inflammation-Associated Cytokine Release before and following Strenuous Exercise

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    Mariè van der Merwe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Inflammation is associated with strenuous exercise and methylsulfonylmethane (MSM has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties. Methods. Physically active men were supplemented with either placebo or MSM (3 grams per day for 28 days before performing 100 repetitions of eccentric knee extension exercise. Ex vivo and in vitro testing consisted of evaluating cytokine production in blood (whole blood and isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS, before and through 72 hours after exercise, while in vivo testing included the evaluation of cytokines before and through 72 hours after exercise. Results. LPS stimulation of whole blood after MSM supplementation resulted in decreased induction of IL-1β, with no effect on IL-6, TNF-α, or IL-8. After exercise, there was a reduced response to LPS in the placebo, but MSM resulted in robust release of IL-6 and TNF-α. A small decrease in resting levels of proinflammatory cytokines was noted with MSM, while an acute postexercise increase in IL-10 was observed with MSM. Conclusion. Strenuous exercise causes a robust inflammatory reaction that precludes the cells from efficiently responding to additional stimuli. MSM appears to dampen the release of inflammatory molecules in response to exercise, resulting in a less incendiary environment, allowing cells to still have the capacity to mount an appropriate response to an additional stimulus after exercise.

  8. Musical agency reduces perceived exertion during strenuous physical performance.

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    Fritz, Thomas Hans; Hardikar, Samyogita; Demoucron, Matthias; Niessen, Margot; Demey, Michiel; Giot, Olivier; Li, Yongming; Haynes, John-Dylan; Villringer, Arno; Leman, Marc

    2013-10-29

    Music is known to be capable of reducing perceived exertion during strenuous physical activity. The current interpretation of this modulating effect of music is that music may be perceived as a diversion from unpleasant proprioceptive sensations that go along with exhaustion. Here we investigated the effects of music on perceived exertion during a physically strenuous task, varying musical agency, a task that relies on the experience of body proprioception, rather than simply diverting from it. For this we measured psychologically indicated exertion during physical workout with and without musical agency while simultaneously acquiring metabolic values with spirometry. Results showed that musical agency significantly decreased perceived exertion during workout, indicating that musical agency may actually facilitate physically strenuous activities. This indicates that the positive effect of music on perceived exertion cannot always be explained by an effect of diversion from proprioceptive feedback. Furthermore, this finding suggests that the down-modulating effect of musical agency on perceived exertion may be a previously unacknowledged driving force for the development of music in humans: making music makes strenuous physical activities less exhausting.

  9. Strenuous exercise induces mitochondrial damage in skeletal muscle of old mice

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    Lee, Sangho; Kim, Minjung; Lim, Wonchung; Kim, Taeyoung; Kang, Chounghun

    2015-01-01

    Strenuous exercise is known to cause excessive ROS generation and inflammation. However, the mechanisms responsible for the regulation of mitochondrial integrity in the senescent muscle during high-intensity exercise (HE) are not well studied. Here, we show that HE suppresses up-regulation of mitochondrial function despite increase in mitochondrial copy number, following excessive ROS production, proinflammatory cytokines and NFκB activation. Moreover, HE in the old group resulted in the decreasing of both fusion (Mfn2) and fission (Drp1) proteins that may contribute to alteration of mitochondrial morphology. This study suggests that strenuous exercise does not reverse age-related mitochondrial damage and dysfunction by the increased ROS and inflammation. - Highlights: • Effect of exercise on mitochondrial function of aged skeletal muscles was studied. • Strenuous exercise triggered excessive ROS production and inflammatory cytokines. • Strenuous exercise suppressed mitochondrial function in senescent muscle

  10. Strenuous exercise induces mitochondrial damage in skeletal muscle of old mice

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    Lee, Sangho; Kim, Minjung [Department of Physical Education, Hankuk Univrsity of Foreign Studies, Seoul 130-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Wonchung [Department of Sports Medicine, College of Health Science, Cheongju University, Cheongju 363-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Taeyoung [Department of Physical Education, Hankuk Univrsity of Foreign Studies, Seoul 130-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Chounghun, E-mail: kangx119@umn.edu [Department of Physical Education, Hankuk Univrsity of Foreign Studies, Seoul 130-791 (Korea, Republic of); Laboratory of Physiological Hygiene and Exercise Science, School of Kinesiology, University of Minnesota at Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2015-05-29

    Strenuous exercise is known to cause excessive ROS generation and inflammation. However, the mechanisms responsible for the regulation of mitochondrial integrity in the senescent muscle during high-intensity exercise (HE) are not well studied. Here, we show that HE suppresses up-regulation of mitochondrial function despite increase in mitochondrial copy number, following excessive ROS production, proinflammatory cytokines and NFκB activation. Moreover, HE in the old group resulted in the decreasing of both fusion (Mfn2) and fission (Drp1) proteins that may contribute to alteration of mitochondrial morphology. This study suggests that strenuous exercise does not reverse age-related mitochondrial damage and dysfunction by the increased ROS and inflammation. - Highlights: • Effect of exercise on mitochondrial function of aged skeletal muscles was studied. • Strenuous exercise triggered excessive ROS production and inflammatory cytokines. • Strenuous exercise suppressed mitochondrial function in senescent muscle.

  11. The impact of acute and chronic strenuous exercise on pelvic floor muscle strength and support in nulliparous healthy women.

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    Middlekauff, Monique L; Egger, Marlene J; Nygaard, Ingrid E; Shaw, Janet M

    2016-09-01

    Strenuous physical activity, which is known to increase intraabdominal pressure and theoretically places stress on the pelvic floor, may affect pelvic support in nulliparous women. The aims of this study were to: (1) examine the differences in maximal vaginal descent (MVD), vaginal resting pressure (VRP), and pelvic floor muscle strength (PFMS) between women who habitually perform strenuous exercise vs women who refrain from performing strenuous exercise; and (2) compare MVD, VRP, and PFMS before and immediately following physical activity in the strenuous and nonstrenuous groups separately. Participants were healthy nulliparous women ages 18-35 years who were habitual strenuous or nonstrenuous exercisers. Women in the strenuous group participated in CrossFit (CrossFit, Inc., Washington, DC) at least 3 days per week for at least 6 months. We assessed anthropometric and body composition values using standardized procedures. Participants completed the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification examination and pelvic muscle strength assessment before and again within 15 minutes of completing exercise (CrossFit for the strenuous group and self-paced walking for the nonstrenuous). A research nurse masked to study group assignment recorded MVD, defined as the greatest value of anterior, posterior, or apical support, and VRP and PFMS using a perineometer. Maximal PFMS was recorded as the highest pressure measured in 3 vaginal contraction trials. Data were analyzed using parametric and nonparametric tests as appropriate. P < .05 was considered significant. Seventy nulliparous women participated in the study, 35 in each group. The mean age was 24.77 ± 4.3 years. Compared to the nonstrenuous group, strenuous participants were heavier (64.70 ± 7.78 kg vs 60.6 ± 8.99 kg, P = .027), had lower percent body fat (23.36 ± 5.88% vs 27.55 ± 7.07%, P = .003), and had higher handgrip strength (20.78 ± 5.97 kg vs 16.04 ± 11.04 kg, P = .001). Before exercise, there were no

  12. The Impaired Function of Macrophages Induced by Strenuous Exercise Could Not Be Ameliorated by BCAA Supplementation.

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    Xiao, Weihua; Chen, Peijie; Liu, Xiaoguang; Zhao, Linlin

    2015-10-21

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of strenuous exercise on the functions of peritoneal macrophages in rats and to test the hypothesis that branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation will be beneficial to the macrophages of rats from strenuous exercise. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: (C) Control, E) Exercise, (E1) Exercise with one week to recover, (ES) Exercise + Supplementation and (ES1) Exercise + Supplementation with 1 week to recover. All rats except those of the sedentary control were subjected to four weeks of strenuous exercise. Blood hemoglobin, serum testosterone and BCAA levels were tested. Peritoneal macrophages functions were also determined at the same time. The data showed that hemoglobin, testosterone, BCAA levels, and body weight in group E decreased significantly as compared with that of group C. Meanwhile, phagocytosis capacity (decreased by 17.07%, p = 0.031), reactive oxygen species (ROS) production (decreased by 26%, p = 0.003) and MHC II mRNA (decreased by 22%, p = 0.041) of macrophages decreased in the strenuous exercise group as compared with group C. However, the chemotaxis of macrophages did not change significantly. In addition, BCAA supplementation could slightly increase the serum BCAA levels of rats from strenuous exercise (increased by 6.70%, p > 0.05). Moreover, the body weight, the blood hemoglobin, the serum testosterone and the function of peritoneal macrophages in group ES did not change significantly as compared with group E. These results suggest that long-term intensive exercise impairs the function of macrophages, which is essential for microbicidal capability. This may represent a novel mechanism of immunosuppression induced by strenuous exercise. Moreover, the impaired function of macrophage induced by strenuous exercise could not be ameliorated by BCAA supplementation in the dosing and timing used for this study.

  13. The Impaired Function of Macrophages Induced by Strenuous Exercise Could Not Be Ameliorated by BCAA Supplementation

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    Weihua Xiao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of strenuous exercise on the functions of peritoneal macrophages in rats and to test the hypothesis that branched-chain amino acid (BCAA supplementation will be beneficial to the macrophages of rats from strenuous exercise. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: (C Control, E Exercise, (E1 Exercise with one week to recover, (ES Exercise + Supplementation and (ES1 Exercise + Supplementation with 1 week to recover. All rats except those of the sedentary control were subjected to four weeks of strenuous exercise. Blood hemoglobin, serum testosterone and BCAA levels were tested. Peritoneal macrophages functions were also determined at the same time. The data showed that hemoglobin, testosterone, BCAA levels, and body weight in group E decreased significantly as compared with that of group C. Meanwhile, phagocytosis capacity (decreased by 17.07%, p = 0.031, reactive oxygen species (ROS production (decreased by 26%, p = 0.003 and MHC II mRNA (decreased by 22%, p = 0.041 of macrophages decreased in the strenuous exercise group as compared with group C. However, the chemotaxis of macrophages did not change significantly. In addition, BCAA supplementation could slightly increase the serum BCAA levels of rats from strenuous exercise (increased by 6.70%, p > 0.05. Moreover, the body weight, the blood hemoglobin, the serum testosterone and the function of peritoneal macrophages in group ES did not change significantly as compared with group E. These results suggest that long-term intensive exercise impairs the function of macrophages, which is essential for microbicidal capability. This may represent a novel mechanism of immunosuppression induced by strenuous exercise. Moreover, the impaired function of macrophage induced by strenuous exercise could not be ameliorated by BCAA supplementation in the dosing and timing used for this study.

  14. Physically strenuous work during pregnancy and risk of preterm birth

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    Knudsen, Iben Risager; Bonde, Jens Peter; Bondo, Sesilje

    2017-01-01

    computed by logistic regression using a population sample of gainfully employed women as reference (n = 345,915). The risk of preterm birth was increased in women lifting heavy loads during pregnancy (OR 1.40, 95% CI [0.88, 2.23]) but not in women with physically strenuous work (OR 0.98, 95% CI [0.66, 1......The aim of the study was to examine the risk of preterm birth following physically strenuous work during pregnancy. We included 343 pregnant women referred to an occupational medical clinic. Data on preterm birth and covariates were retrieved from the Danish Birth Registry. Risk estimates were.......46]). The mean gestational age in the heavy-lifting group compared to the reference group was 2.4 days shorter (95% CI [0.36, 4.41]). The study challenges earlier reassuring findings as heavy-lifting pregnant women had a reduced gestational age, indicating a possibility of increased risk of preterm birth....

  15. Does intermittent pneumatic leg compression enhance muscle recovery after strenuous eccentric exercise?

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    Cochrane, D J; Booker, H R; Mundel, T; Barnes, M J

    2013-11-01

    Intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) has gained rapid popularity as a post-exercise recovery modality. Despite its widespread use and anecdotal claims for enhancing muscle recovery there is no scientific evidence to support its use. 10 healthy, active males performed a strenuous bout of eccentric exercise (3 sets of 100 repetitions) followed by IPC treatment or control performed immediately after exercise and at 24 and 48 h post-exercise. Muscular performance measurements were taken prior to exercise and 24, 48 and 72 h post-exercise and included single-leg vertical jump (VJ) and peak and average isometric [knee angle 75º] (ISO), concentric (CON) and eccentric (ECC) contractions performed at slow (30° · s⁻¹) and fast (180° · s⁻¹) velocities. Plasma creatine kinase (CK) samples were taken at pre- and post-exercise 24, 48 and 72 h. Strenuous eccentric exercise resulted in a significant decrease in peak ISO, peak and average CON (30° · s⁻¹) at 24 h compared to pre-exercise for both IPC and control, however VJ performance remained unchanged. There were no significant differences between conditions (IPC and control) or condition-time interactions for any of the contraction types (ISO, CON, ECC) or velocities (CON, ECC 30° · s⁻¹ and 180° · s⁻¹). However, CK was significantly elevated at 24 h compared to pre-exercise in both conditions (IPC and control). IPC did not attenuate muscle force loss following a bout of strenuous eccentric exercise in comparison to a control. While IPC has been used in the clinical setting to treat pathologic conditions, the parameters used to treat muscle damage following strenuous exercise in healthy participants are likely to be very different than those used to treat pathologic conditions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Evaluation of Dogs with Border Collie Collapse, Including Response to Two Standardized Strenuous Exercise Protocols.

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    Taylor, Susan; Shmon, Cindy; Su, Lillian; Epp, Tasha; Minor, Katie; Mickelson, James; Patterson, Edward; Shelton, G Diane

    2016-01-01

    Clinical and metabolic variables were evaluated in 13 dogs with border collie collapse (BCC) before, during, and following completion of standardized strenuous exercise protocols. Six dogs participated in a ball-retrieving protocol, and seven dogs participated in a sheep-herding protocol. Findings were compared with 16 normal border collies participating in the same exercise protocols (11 retrieving, five herding). Twelve dogs with BCC developed abnormal mentation and/or an abnormal gait during evaluation. All dogs had post-exercise elevations in rectal temperature, pulse rate, arterial blood pH, PaO2, and lactate, and decreased PaCO2 and bicarbonate, as expected with strenuous exercise, but there were no significant differences between BCC dogs and normal dogs. Electrocardiography demonstrated sinus tachycardia in all dogs following exercise. Needle electromyography was normal, and evaluation of muscle biopsy cryosections using a standard panel of histochemical stains and reactions did not reveal a reason for collapse in 10 dogs with BCC in which these tests were performed. Genetic testing excluded the dynamin-1 related exercise-induced collapse mutation and the V547A malignant hyperthermia mutation as the cause of BCC. Common reasons for exercise intolerance were eliminated. Although a genetic basis is suspected, the cause of collapse in BCC was not determined.

  17. Strenuous exercise decreases the percentage of type 1 T cells in the circulation

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    Steensberg, A; Toft, A D; Bruunsgaard, H

    2001-01-01

    -gamma and interleukin (IL)-2, and type 2 (Th2 and Tc2) cells, which produce IL-4. The question addressed in the present study was whether exercise affected the relative balance between the circulating levels of these cytokine-producing T cells. Nine male runners performed treadmill running for 2.5 h at 75% of maximal...... oxygen consumption. The intracellular expression of cytokines was detected following stimulation with ionomycin and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate in blood obtained before, during, and after exercise. The percentage of type 1 T cells in the circulation was suppressed at the end of exercise and 2 h after......Prolonged strenuous exercise is followed by a temporary functional immune impairment. Low numbers of CD4+ T helper (Th) and CD8+ T cytotoxic (Tc) cells are found in the circulation. These cells can be divided according to their cytokine profile into type 1 (Th1 and Tc1), which produce interferon...

  18. Effects of a single bout of strenuous exercise on platelet activation in female ApoE/LDLR-/- mice.

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    Przyborowski, K; Kassassir, H; Wojewoda, M; Kmiecik, K; Sitek, B; Siewiera, K; Zakrzewska, A; Rudolf, A M; Kostogrys, R; Watala, C; Zoladz, J A; Chlopicki, S

    2017-11-01

    Strenuous physical exercise leads to platelet activation that is normally counterbalanced by the production of endothelium-derived anti-platelet mediators, including prostacyclin (PGI 2 ) and nitric oxide (NO). However, in the case of endothelial dysfunction, e.g. in atherosclerosis, there exists an increased risk for intravascular thrombosis during exercise that might be due to an impairment in endothelial anti-platelet mechanisms. In the present work, we evaluated platelet activation at rest and following a single bout of strenuous treadmill exercise in female ApoE/LDLR - /- mice with early (3-month-old) and advanced (7-month-old) atherosclerosis compared to female age-matched WT mice. In sedentary and post-exercise groups of animals, we analyzed TXB 2 generation and the expression of platelet activation markers in the whole blood ex vivo assay. We also measured pre- and post-exercise plasma concentration of 6-keto-PGF 1α , nitrite/nitrate, lipid profile, and blood cell count. Sedentary 3- and 7-month-old ApoE/LDLR - /- mice displayed significantly higher activation of platelets compared to age-matched wild-type (WT) mice, as evidenced by increased TXB 2 production, expression of P-selectin, and activation of GPIIb/IIIa receptors, as well as increased fibrinogen and von Willebrand factor (vWf) binding. Interestingly, in ApoE/LDLR - /- but not in WT mice, strenuous exercise partially inhibited TXB 2 production, the expression of activated GPIIb/IIIa receptors, and fibrinogen binding, with no effect on the P-selectin expression and vWf binding. Post-exercise down-regulation of the activated GPIIb/IIIa receptor expression and fibrinogen binding was not significantly different between 3- and 7-month-old ApoE/LDLR - /- mice; however, only 7-month-old ApoE/LDLR - /- mice showed lower TXB 2 production after exercise. In female 4-6-month-old ApoE/LDLR - /- but not in WT mice, an elevated pre- and post-exercise plasma concentration of 6-keto-PGF 1α was observed. In turn

  19. Alcohol use and strenuous physical activity in college students: A longitudinal test of 2 explanatory models of health behavior.

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    Davis, Heather A; Riley, Elizabeth N; Smith, Gregory T; Milich, Richard; Burris, Jessica L

    2017-01-01

    To help clarify the effect of gender on the bidirectional relationship between alcohol use and strenuous physical activity in college students. Five hundred twenty-four (52% female) college students recruited in August 2008 and 2009 and followed up in April 2009 and April 2011, respectively. Participants reported their alcohol use and strenuous physical activity on 2 occasions (baseline and follow-up) spaced approximately 1 or 2 years apart. For females, alcohol use quantity at baseline was associated with increased strenuous physical activity at 1- and 2-year follow-ups, and alcohol use frequency at baseline was associated with decreased strenuous physical activity at 2-year follow-up. For males, alcohol use frequency at baseline predicted decreased strenuous physical activity at 1-year follow-up. Gender differences may be explained from an eating disorders perspective such that women use physical activity as a compensatory strategy to combat potential weight gain from calories consumed during alcohol use.

  20. Massage Alleviates Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness after Strenuous Exercise: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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    Jianmin Guo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of massage on alleviating delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS and muscle performance after strenuous exercise.Method: Seven databases consisting of PubMed, Embase, EBSCO, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CNKI and Wanfang were searched up to December 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs were eligible and the outcomes of muscle soreness, performance (including muscle maximal isometric force (MIF and peak torque and creatine kinase (CK were used to assess the effectiveness of massage intervention on DOMS.Results: Eleven articles with a total of 23 data points (involving 504 participants satisfied the inclusion criteria and were pooled in the meta-analysis. The findings demonstrated that muscle soreness rating decreased significantly when the participants received massage intervention compared with no intervention at 24 h (SMD: –0.61, 95% CI: –1.17 to –0.05, P = 0.03, 48 h (SMD: –1.51, 95% CI: –2.24 to –0.77, P < 0.001, 72 h (SMD: –1.46, 95% CI: –2.59 to –0.33, P = 0.01 and in total (SMD: –1.16, 95% CI: –1.60 to –0.72, P < 0.001 after intense exercise. Additionally, massage therapy improved MIF (SMD: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.21–0.90, P = 0.002 and peak torque (SMD: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.04–0.71, P = 0.03 as total effects. Furthermore, the serum CK level was reduced when participants received massage intervention (SMD: –0.64, 95% CI: –1.04 to –0.25, P = 0.001.Conclusion: The current evidence suggests that massage therapy after strenuous exercise could be effective for alleviating DOMS and improving muscle performance.

  1. Effect of strenuous maternal exercise before and during pregnancy on rat progeny renal function

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    Oliveira A.O.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of strenuous exercise before and during pregnancy on the renal function and morphological alterations of the progeny were determined in a study on female Wistar rats. This research was done based on a previous study carried out in our laboratory, which showed morphological alterations in rats submitted to this kind of exercise. As the form is related to the function, the physiological relevance of submitting a pregnant female to a high-intensity exercise training regimen could be explained by the fact that morphological alterations can influence kidney function. The animals were assigned to one of two groups: control animals that did not exercise during pregnancy and trained animals that swam for 120 min 5 days a week for 8 weeks before pregnancy and daily for 60 min over a period of 8 weeks starting on the second day of pregnancy. Seven rats of each group were analyzed for morphological alterations and for renal function. The progeny of the rats used for morphological evaluation were born by cesarean section and the progeny of the animals used to evaluate renal function were born normally. The progeny were two months old when renal function was evaluated. Fertility and morbidity were the same for both groups. Strenuous maternal exercise had no significant influence on glomerular filtration rate (GFR but renal plasma flow was lower in the progeny of the trained group (mean ± SD, 16.65 ± 3.77 ml min-1 kg-1 compared to the progeny of the control group (33.42 ± 2.56 ml min-1 kg-1. Antidiuretic and antinatriuretic effects on the progeny of the trained group were observed, since urine flow as percentage of GFR and the fraction of urinary sodium excretion were lower in this group (1.38 ± 0.10 and 0.60 ± 0.04%, respectively compared to the progeny of the control group (2.36 ± 0.11 and 1.55 ± 0.20%, respectively. Moreover, in this exercise program, fetuses from trained animals were small-sized (2.45 ± 0.19 vs 4.66 ± 2.45 g for

  2. Evaluation of anti-fatigue and immunomodulating effects of quercetin in strenuous exercise mice

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    Zhang, Wei-qiang

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the anti-fatigue and immunomodulating effects of quercetin in strenuous exercise mice. Mice were given orally either corn oil or quercetin (20, 40 and 60 mg/kg body weight suspended in corn oil) by gavage once a day for 28 day. All mice were sacrificed after rotarod test and the major biochemical parameters were analyzed in serum and liver. The results indicated that quercetin possessed anti-fatigue effects by prolonging retention times, decreasing levels of blood lactate and serum urea nitrogen, and increasing levels of blood glucose, tissue glycogen and serum glucagon. Furthermore, quercetin could improve the immune function of fatigue mice by decreasing tumor necrosis factor-α levels, and elevated interleukin-10 levels. Quercetin possessed anti-fatigue effects may be related to its immunomodulating effects.

  3. Rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure after strenuous exercise and alcohol abuse: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth De Francesco Daher

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Rhabdomyolysis is a severe and life-threatening condition in which skeletal muscle is damaged. Acute renal failure due to rhabdomyolysis has been widely described and its main pathophysiological mechanisms are renal vasoconstriction, intraluminal cast formation and direct myoglobin toxicity. OBJECTIVE: To report on a case of acute renal failure (ARF induced by rhabdomyolysis due to strenuous exercise and alcohol abuse and to describe the pathophysiology of this type of ARF. CASE REPORT: A 39-year-old man arrived at the hospital emergency service with swollen legs and lower extremity compartment syndrome. He was oliguric and had serum creatinine and urea levels of 8.1 mg/dl and 195 mg/dl, respectively. The diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis was made through clinical and laboratory findings (creatine kinase activity of 26320 IU/l. The initial treatment consisted of fluid replacement and forced diuresis. The specific treatment for compartment syndrome, such as fasciotomy, was avoided in order to prevent infection. Partial recovery of renal function was recorded, after ten hemodialysis sessions. Complete recovery was observed after two months of follow-up.

  4. Immersion pulmonary oedema in a healthy diver not exposed to cold or strenuous exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagna, Olivier; de Maistre, Sébastien; Schmid, Bruno; Caudal, Delphine; Regnard, Jacques

    2018-03-31

    In healthy divers, the occurrence of immersion pulmonary oedema (IPE) is commonly caused by contributory factors including strenuous exercise, cold water and negative-pressure breathing. Contrary to this established paradigm, this case reports on a 26-year-old, well-trained combat swimmer who succumbed to acute IPE during static immersion in temperate (21°C) water, while using a front-mounted counterlung rebreather. The incident occurred during repeated depth-controlled ascent practice at the French military diving school. It was discovered that the diver had attempted to stop any gas leakage into the system by over-tightening the automatic diluent valve (ADV) (25th notch of 27) during the dive, thus causing a high resistance to inspiratory flow. The ventilatory constraints imposed by this ADV setting were assessed as a 3.2 Joules·L⁻¹ inspiratory work of breathing and -5 kPa (-50 mbar) transpulmonary pressure. This report confirms the key role of negative pressure breathing in the development of interstitial pulmonary oedema. Such a breathing pattern can cause a lowering of thoracic, airway and interstitial lung pressure, leading to high capillary pressure during each inspiration. Repetition of the diving drills resulted in an accumulation of interstitial lung water extravasation, causing pathological decompensation and proven symptoms. Copyright: This article is the copyright of the authors who grant Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine a non-exclusive licence to publish the article in electronic and other forms.

  5. The Band Effect – physically strenuous music making increases aesthetic appreciation of music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hans Fritz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aesthetic appreciation of music is strongly influenced by cultural background and personal taste. One would expect that this would complicate the utilizability of musical feedback in paradigms, such that music would only be perceived as a reward if it complies to personal aesthetic appreciation. Here we report data where we assessed aesthetic appreciation of music after 1. a physically strenuous music improvisation and 2. after passive music listening (where participants aesthetically assessed similar music. Data are reported from two experiments where different patient groups performed Jymmin, a music feedback method where exercise equipment is modified in such a way that it can be played like musical instruments by modulating musical parameters in a composition software. This combines physical exertion with musical performance in a fashion that has previously been shown to have a number of positive psychological effects such as enhanced mood and reduced perceived exertion. In both experiments aesthetic appreciation of musical presentations during Jymmin and a control condition without musical agency were compared. Data show that both patient groups perceived the musical outcome of their own performance as more aesthetically pleasing than similar music they listened to passively. This suggests that the act of making music (when combined with physical exertion is associated with a positivity bias about the perceived aesthetical quality of the musical outcome. The outcome of personal musical agency thus tends to be perceived as rewarding even if it does not comply with personal aesthetic appreciation. This suggests that musical feedback interventions may not always have to be highly individualized because individual taste may not always be crucial. The results also suggest that the method applied here may be efficient at encouraging music listeners to actively explore new musical styles that they might otherwise be reluctant to listen to (e

  6. Strenuous exercise aggravates MDMA-induced skeletal muscle damage in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, Jose A.; Leao, Anabela; Magalhaes, Jose; Ascensao, Antonio; Bastos, Maria L.; Amado, Francisco L.; Vilarinho, Laura; Quelhas, Dulce; Appell, Hans J.; Carvalho, Felix

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of ecstasy (MDMA) administration on body temperature and soleus muscle histology in exercised and non-exercised mice. Charles-River mice were distributed into four groups: Control (C), exercise (EX), MDMA treated (M), and M + EX. The treated animals received an i.p. injection (10 mg/kg) of MDMA (saline for C and EX), and the exercise consisted of a 90 min level run at a velocity of 900 m/h, immediately after the MDMA or saline administration. Body temperature was recorded every 30 min via subcutaneous implanted transponder. Animals were sacrificed 1.5, 25.5, and 49.5 h after i.p. injection and the soleus muscles were removed and processed for light and electron microscopy. The MDMA-treated animals showed a significant increase in body temperature (similar in M and M + EX groups), reaching the peak 90 min after i.p. administration; their temperature remained higher than control for more than 5 h. The EX group evidenced a similar and parallel, yet lower temperature increase during exercise and recovery. Morphological signs of damage were rarely encountered in the EX group; they were more pronounced in M group and even aggravated in M + EX group. In conclusion, MDMA and exercise per se increased body temperature but in conjunction did not have a cumulated effect. However, ecstasy and concomitant physical activity might severely accumulate with regard to skeletal muscle toxicity and may lead to rhabdomyolysis

  7. Longitudinal changes in reproductive hormones and menstrual cyclicity in cynomolgus monkeys during strenuous exercise training: abrupt transition to exercise-induced amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, N I; Caston-Balderrama, A L; Helmreich, D L; Parfitt, D B; Nosbisch, C; Cameron, J L

    2001-06-01

    Cross-sectional studies of exercise-induced reproductive dysfunction have documented a high proportion of menstrual cycle disturbances in women involved in strenuous exercise training. However, longitudinal studies have been needed to examine individual susceptibility to exercise-induced reproductive dysfunction and to elucidate the progression of changes in reproductive function that occur with strenuous exercise training. Using the female cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis), we documented changes in menstrual cyclicity and patterns of LH, FSH, estradiol, and progesterone secretion as the animals developed exercise-induced amenorrhea. As monkeys gradually increased running to 12.3 +/- 0.9 km/day, body weight did not change significantly although food intake remained constant. The time spent training until amenorrhea developed varied widely among animals (7-24 months; mean = 14.3 +/- 2.2 months) and was not correlated with initial body weight, training distance, or food intake. Consistent changes in function of the reproductive axis occurred abruptly, one to two menstrual cycles before the development of amenorrhea. These included significant declines in plasma reproductive hormone concentrations, an increase in follicular phase length, and a decrease in luteal phase progesterone secretion. These data document a high level of interindividual variability in the development of exercise-induced reproductive dysfunction, delineate the progression of changes in reproductive hormone secretion that occur with exercise training, and illustrate an abrupt transition from normal cyclicity to an amenorrheic state in exercising individuals, that is not necessarily associated with weight loss.

  8. In dubio pro silentio – Even Loud Music Does Not Facilitate Strenuous Ergometer Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutz, Gunter; Schorer, Jörg; Sojke, Dominik; Neugebauer, Judith; Bullack, Antje

    2018-01-01

    Background: Music listening is wide-spread in amateur sports. Ergometer exercise is one such activity which is often performed with loud music. Aim and Hypotheses: We investigated the effects of electronic music at different intensity levels on ergometer performance (physical performance, force on the pedal, pedaling frequency), perceived fatigue and heart rate in healthy adults. We assumed that higher sound intensity levels are associated with greater ergometer performance and less perceived effort, particularly for untrained individuals. Methods: Groups of high trained and low trained healthy males (N = 40; age = 25.25 years; SD = 3.89 years) were tested individually on an ergometer while electronic dance music was played at 0, 65, 75, and 85 dB. Participants assessed their music experience during the experiment. Results: Majorities of participants rated the music as not too loud (65%), motivating (77.50%), appropriate for this sports exercise (90%), and having the right tempo (67.50%). Participants noticed changes in the acoustical environment with increasing intensity levels, but no further effects on any of the physical or other subjective measures were found for neither of the groups. Therefore, the main hypothesis must be rejected. Discussion: These findings suggest that high loudness levels do not positively influence ergometer performance. The high acceptance of loud music and perceived appropriateness could be based on erroneous beliefs or stereotypes. Reasons for the widespread use of loud music in fitness sports needs further investigation. Reducing loudness during fitness exercise may not compromise physical performance or perceived effort. PMID:29867622

  9. In dubio pro silentio – Even Loud Music Does Not Facilitate Strenuous Ergometer Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunter Kreutz

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Music listening is wide-spread in amateur sports. Ergometer exercise is one such activity which is often performed with loud music.Aim and Hypotheses: We investigated the effects of electronic music at different intensity levels on ergometer performance (physical performance, force on the pedal, pedaling frequency, perceived fatigue and heart rate in healthy adults. We assumed that higher sound intensity levels are associated with greater ergometer performance and less perceived effort, particularly for untrained individuals.Methods: Groups of high trained and low trained healthy males (N = 40; age = 25.25 years; SD = 3.89 years were tested individually on an ergometer while electronic dance music was played at 0, 65, 75, and 85 dB. Participants assessed their music experience during the experiment.Results: Majorities of participants rated the music as not too loud (65%, motivating (77.50%, appropriate for this sports exercise (90%, and having the right tempo (67.50%. Participants noticed changes in the acoustical environment with increasing intensity levels, but no further effects on any of the physical or other subjective measures were found for neither of the groups. Therefore, the main hypothesis must be rejected.Discussion: These findings suggest that high loudness levels do not positively influence ergometer performance. The high acceptance of loud music and perceived appropriateness could be based on erroneous beliefs or stereotypes. Reasons for the widespread use of loud music in fitness sports needs further investigation. Reducing loudness during fitness exercise may not compromise physical performance or perceived effort.

  10. Relationship between fatty acid delivery and fatty acid oxidation during strenuous exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn, J. A.; Coyle, E. F.; Sidossis, L. S.; Zhang, X. J.; Wolfe, R. R.

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the extent to which decreased plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentration contributes to the relatively low rates of fat oxidation during high-intensity exercise, we studied FFA metabolism in six endurance-trained cyclists during 20-30 min of exercise [85% of maximal O2 uptake (VO2max)].

  11. Enhanced cerebral CO2 reactivity during strenuous exercise in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter; Stie, Henrik; Nielsen, Bodil

    2006-01-01

    be accounted for by the reduction in the arterial CO(2) tension (P(a)CO(2)). This study evaluated whether the apparently large reduction in MCA V(mean) at the end of exhaustive exercise relates to an enhanced cerebrovascular CO(2) reactivity. The CO(2) reactivity was evaluated in six young healthy male......) at rest to 61.4 +/- 10.1% kPa(-1) during exercise with hyperthermia (P accounted for the 28 +/- 10% decrease in MCA V(mean). The results suggest that during...... exercise changes in cerebral blood flow are dominated by the arterial carbon dioxide tension....

  12. Effect of short-term strenuous exercise on erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in untrained men: a time-course study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odje, O E; Ramsey, J M

    1995-01-01

    The literature on the response of erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) following exercise is replete with inconsistencies, and recent studies have shown that the time of blood sampling during and following exercise, as well as the duration of exercise, are important in evaluating the response of 2,3-DPG. Experiments were designed to measure the response of 2,3-DPG following short-term strenuous exercise in two groups of untrained men. Twelve men, 19-22 years old (study 1), exercised on a bicycle ergometer at 122.5 W for 10 min and red blood cell (RBC) 2,3-DPG was measured at 0 and 50 min following exercise. The level of 2,3-DPG (mumol.ml-1 RBC) increased after exercise (P < 0.05), but this increase was not significant when 2,3-DPG was expressed as mol.mol-1 hemoglobin (Hb). However, following 50 min of rest, 2,3-DPG (mol.mol-1 Hb) decreased significantly. In a second group (study 2), nine other men, aged 18-19 years, exercised at the same workload for 15 min and 2,3-DPG was measured at 0, 30, 60, 180, and 330 min respectively after exercise, and no significant mean changes in the level of the phosphate were observed. Findings from these studies suggest that 2,3-DPG does not provide a compensatory adjustment to facilitate oxygen delivery in the hypoxia of short-term strenuous exercise in untrained males immediately following exercise and when recovery intervals of up to 330 min are also examined. It is suggested that 2,3-DPG be reported as mol.mol-1 Hb, since the phosphate exists on Hb in an equimolar ratio in normal physiological states.

  13. Vernonia cinerea Less. supplementation and strenuous exercise reduce smoking rate: relation to oxidative stress status and beta-endorphin release in active smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yankai Araya

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Vernonia cinerea Less. (VC supplementation and exercise on oxidative stress biomarkers, beta-endorphin release, and the rate of cigarette smoking. Methods Volunteer smokers were randomly divided into four groups: group 1: VC supplement; group 2: exercise with VC supplement; group 3: exercise; and group 4: control. VC was prepared by wash and dry techniques and taken orally before smoking, matching the frequency of strenuous exercise (three times weekly. Before and after a two month period, exhaled carbon monoxide (CO, blood oxidative stress (malondialdehyde [MDA], nitric oxide [NOx], protein hydroperoxide [PrOOH] and total antioxidant capacity [TAC], beta-endorphin and smoking rate were measured, and statistically analyzed. Results In Group 1, MDA, PrOOH, and NOx significantly decreased, whereas TAC increased (p 0.05. In Group 3, MDA, PrOOH, NOx, TAC, and beta-endorphin levels increased significantly (p 0.05. All groups had lower levels of CO after the intervention. The smoking rate for light cigarette decreased in group 2(62.7%, 1(59.52%, 3 (53.57% and 4(14.04%, whereas in self-rolled cigarettes it decreased in group 1 (54.47%, 3 (42.30%, 2 (40% and 4 (9.2%. Conclusion Supplementation with Vernonia cinerea Less and exercise provided benefit related to reduced smoking rate, which may be related to oxidaive stress and beta-endorphine levels.

  14. Vernonia cinerea Less. supplementation and strenuous exercise reduce smoking rate: relation to oxidative stress status and beta-endorphin release in active smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelarungrayub, Donrawee; Pratanaphon, Sainatee; Pothongsunun, Prapas; Sriboonreung, Thanyaluck; Yankai, Araya; Bloomer, Richard J

    2010-05-26

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Vernonia cinerea Less. (VC) supplementation and exercise on oxidative stress biomarkers, beta-endorphin release, and the rate of cigarette smoking. Volunteer smokers were randomly divided into four groups: group 1: VC supplement; group 2: exercise with VC supplement; group 3: exercise; and group 4: control. VC was prepared by wash and dry techniques and taken orally before smoking, matching the frequency of strenuous exercise (three times weekly). Before and after a two month period, exhaled carbon monoxide (CO), blood oxidative stress (malondialdehyde [MDA], nitric oxide [NOx], protein hydroperoxide [PrOOH] and total antioxidant capacity [TAC]), beta-endorphin and smoking rate were measured, and statistically analyzed. In Group 1, MDA, PrOOH, and NOx significantly decreased, whereas TAC increased (p 0.05). In Group 3, MDA, PrOOH, NOx, TAC, and beta-endorphin levels increased significantly (p stress variables or beta-endorphine levels (p > 0.05). All groups had lower levels of CO after the intervention. The smoking rate for light cigarette decreased in group 2(62.7%), 1(59.52%), 3 (53.57%) and 4(14.04%), whereas in self-rolled cigarettes it decreased in group 1 (54.47%), 3 (42.30%), 2 (40%) and 4 (9.2%). Supplementation with Vernonia cinerea Less and exercise provided benefit related to reduced smoking rate, which may be related to oxidaive stress and beta-endorphine levels.

  15. Effect of physical exercise on blood lipids and adipose tissue composition in young healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danner, S. A.; Wieling, W.; Havekes, L.; Leuven, J. G.; Smit, E. M.; Dunning, A. J.

    1984-01-01

    In a prospective, controlled study, the influence of strenuous physical exercise on plasma total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I, total triglycerides and fatty acid composition of adipose tissue was studied during 7 months of training in 15 senior oarsmen and 21 controls matched for

  16. Physical exercise and fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Chiden Bueno

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgic syndrome is a non-inflammatory rheumatic disease which affects primarily Caucasianwomen. Fibromyalgic syndrome can be classified as primary, when there is no other associated pathology; orsecondary, when it is diagnosed related to some other pathology. The fibromyalgic patient needs to receivemultidisciplinary treatment and different areas should work together to promote the improvement of symptoms.The most common classical symptom of this disease is the chronic and diffuse pain. The specialized literaturepresents several works that point out the effects and benefits of physical exercise as a non-pharmacologicaltreatment for patients with fibromyalgic syndrome. Aerobic activity, stretching and strength training are amongthe physical exercises. Thus, this review aimed to highlight the several ways physical exercise can be useful tothe fibromyalgic patient, especially concerning the improvement of symptoms.

  17. The influence of respiratory acid-base changes on muscle performance and excitability of the sarcolemma during strenuous intermittent hand grip exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, M; Shushakov, V; Maassen, N

    2012-02-01

    Acidification has been reported to provide protective effects on force production in vitro. Thus, in this study, we tested if respiratory acid-base changes influence muscle function and excitability in vivo. Nine subjects performed strenuous, intermittent hand grip exercises (10 cycles of 15 s of work/45 s of rest) under respiratory acidosis by CO(2) rebreathing, alkalosis by hyperventilation, or control. The Pco(2), pH, K(+) concentration ([K(+)]), and Na(+) concentration were measured in venous and arterialized blood. Compound action potentials (M-wave) were elicited to examine the excitability of the sarcolemma. The surface electromyogram (EMG) was recorded to estimate the central drive to the muscle. The lowest venous pH during the exercise period was 7.24 ± 0.03 in controls, 7.31 ± 0.05 with alkalosis, and 7.17 ± 0.04 with acidosis (P alkalosis, and, after the second cycle, it was smaller with acidosis than with the control condition (P Respiratory alkalosis stabilized the M-wave area without influencing performance. Thus, we did not find a direct link between performance and alteration of excitability of the sarcolemma due to changes in pH in vivo.

  18. Evidence for a causal role of low energy availability in the induction of menstrual cycle disturbances during strenuous exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, N I; Helmreich, D L; Parfitt, D B; Caston-Balderrama, A; Cameron, J L

    2001-11-01

    Cross-sectional and short-term prospective studies in humans support the concept that low energy availability, and not other factors associated with exercise, causes the development of exercise-induced reproductive dysfunction. To rigorously test this hypothesis, we performed a longitudinal study, examining the role of low energy availability on both the development and the reversal of exercise-induced amenorrhea, using a monkey model (Macaca fascicularis). Eight adult female monkeys developed amenorrhea (defined as absence of menses for at least 100 d, with low and unchanging concentrations of LH, FSH, E2, and P4) after gradually increasing their daily exercise to 12.3 +/- 0.9 km/d of running over a 7- to 24-month period. Food intake remained constant during exercise training. To test whether amenorrhea is caused by low energy availability, four of the eight amenorrheic monkeys were provided with supplemental calories (138-181% of calorie intake during amenorrhea) while they maintained their daily training. All four monkeys exhibited increased reproductive hormone levels and reestablished ovulatory cycles, with recovery times for circulating gonadotropin levels ranging from 12-57 d from the initiation of supplemental feeding. The rapidity of recovery within the reproductive axis in a given monkey was directly related to the amount of energy that was consumed during the period of supplemental feeding (r = -0.97; P amenorrhea (P exercise-induced amenorrhea.

  19. Physical exercise during adjuvant chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Waart, H.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis evaluates the effect of physical exercise during chemotherapy. In chapter two the study design, rationale and methods of the Physical exercise during Adjuvant Chemotherapy Study (PACES) are described. Chapter three presents the effects of the randomized controlled trial evaluating a

  20. Compliance with physical exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Anne Sofie; Bønnelycke, Julie; Rosenkilde Larsen, Mads

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Sixty-one healthy, sedentary, moderately overweight young men participated in a randomised controlled trial to examine the effects of two different doses of endurance exercise on health behaviour and exercise compliance. Methods: Participants were randomised to a sedentary control group......), a post hoc thematic analysis was conducted to connect qualitative and quantitative data in a joint analysis. Results: Of the subjects interviewed, exercise compliance expressed as 95% CI was [96.8; 103%] in the MOD group and [82.9; 99.6%] in the HIGH group. The different doses of daily exercise equally...... or quantitative methodology alone. The preconditions of the TBP were fulfilled, and it represents a methodological model to explain the high degree of compliance and motivation to exercise....

  1. Physical exercise in treating obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Keihan Rodrigues Matsudo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Undoubtedly, no regular practice of physical exercise is one of thefactors that determine the global epidemics of weight excess andobesity in all age groups. Taking up physical activities regularlysince the initial stages of life (childhood, during adolescence andmaintaining them in adulthood – from young adults to over 50 yearsof age - is essential to assure an appropriate control of weight andbody fat. The general recommendation of physical exercise for goodhealth is to practice at least 30 minutes of moderate activities, atleast five days a week, and preferably every day. When the purposeis to lose and control weight in overweighed and obese individuals,the minimum practice should last 60 minutes/day, preferably 90minutes/day, at least five days/week, in a continuous or accumulatedmanner. Physical exercise is associated with several physical,psychological and social benefits that justify it inclusion as a crucialstrategy to prevent and treat overweight and obesity in any agegroup. Apart from moderate aerobic physical exercise, such aswalking, cycling, swimming, or more vigorous activities, such asjogging or running, resistance exercises and changes in lifestyle areessential, together with re-education of eating habits, to fight theepidemics of overweight and obesity. Besides the effect of weightcontrol, reduced body fat, prevention of weight gain and maintenanceof lean mass, physical exercise is related to a better lipid profile andreduced risk of associated diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension,metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular diseases and, consequently,lower risk of death.

  2. Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise Home For Patients Search FAQs Staying ... Exercise FAQ045, November 2016 PDF Format Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise Women's Health What are the benefits ...

  3. Antioxidant capacity and physical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Marciniak

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is a presentation of current knowledge regarding the changes of plasma antioxidant capacity observed in response to physical exercise. Human body created the enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems, which play a protective role in the harmful impact of free radicals. Those two systems constitute what is known as the plasma total antioxidant capacity. The amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS and reactive nitrogen species (NOS in combination with oxidation processes increases in some tissues during physiological response to physical exercise. These changes are observed after single bout of exercise as well as after regular training. The response of human body to physical exercise can be analysed using various models of exercise test. Application of repeated type of exhaustion allows for characterizing the ability of human body to adjust to the increased energy loss and increased oxygen consumption. This article presents the characteristics of components of plasma antioxidant capacity, the mechanisms of free radicals production and their role in human body. It discusses also the currently used methods of detecting changes in total antioxidant capacity and its individual elements in response to single bout of exercise and regular training. It presents the review of literature about research performed in groups of both regularly training and low exercise activity individuals as well as in group of healthy subjects and patients with circulation diseases.

  4. The relationship of exercise to anovulatory cycles in female athletes: hormonal and physical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, J B; Mitchell, D; Musey, P I; Collins, D C

    1984-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the mechanisms by which physical activity affects the menstrual cycle. Women with high, medium, and low levels of physical activity were compared for menstrual function, physical characteristics, and urinary and serum levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, prolactin, estradiol-17 beta, and 2-hydroxyestrone. None of the physical characteristics other than age and muscle area were significantly different in the three groups. The percentage of body fat did not appear to be a factor in the amenorrhea induced by strenuous exercise, as the percent of body fat in all three groups was less than 22%. The group of athletes under strenuous exercise which correlated with oligomenorrhea had decreased serum levels of luteinizing hormone, prolactin, and estradiol-17 beta but elevated levels of 2-hydroxyestrone. These data suggest that anovulatory cycles are correlated with the amount of exercise and increased levels of catechol estrogens. Catecholamines and beta-endorphin elevated by exercise may interact to suppress luteinizing hormone release at the hypothalamic pituitary axis.

  5. Physical Exercise and MS Recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, U; Ingemann-Hansen, T; Stenager, E

    2009-01-01

    in a number of physiological functions, which ultimately can lead to functional improvements that have a positive effect on a patients daily life. The purpose of this review is, based on the existing research, to provide clinicians with some easily administrable recommendations for the application of exercise......The use of physical exercise programmes in the rehabilitation of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) has been a controversial issue for many years. During the last decade, however, evidence from a number of studies has suggested that exercise is a safe and efficient way to induce improvements...

  6. Exercise in Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Hinman, Sally K.; Smith, Kristy B.; Quillen, David M.; Smith, M. Seth

    2015-01-01

    Context: Health professionals who care for pregnant women should discuss potential health benefits and harms of exercise. Although most pregnant women do not meet minimal exercise recommendations, there are a growing number of physically active women who wish to continue training throughout pregnancy. Evidence Acquisition: A search of the Web of Science database of articles and reviews available in English through 2014. The search terms exercise pregnancy, strenuous exercise pregnancy, and vi...

  7. Effects of non-fatiguing respiratory muscle loading induced by expiratory flow limitation during strenuous incremental cycle exercise on metabolic stress and circulating natural killer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland-Debord, Camille; Morelot-Panzini, Capucine; Similowski, Thomas; Duranti, Roberto; Laveneziana, Pierantonio

    2017-12-01

    Exercise induces release of cytokines and increase of circulating natural killers (NK) lymphocyte during strong activation of respiratory muscles. We hypothesised that non-fatiguing respiratory muscle loading during exercise causes an increase in NK cells and in metabolic stress indices. Heart rate (HR), ventilation (VE), oesophageal pressure (Pes), oxygen consumption (VO 2 ), dyspnoea and leg effort were measured in eight healthy humans (five men and three women, average age of 31 ± 4 years and body weight of 68 ± 10 kg), performing an incremental exercise testing on a cycle ergometer under control condition and expiratory flow limitation (FL) achieved by putting a Starling resistor. Blood samples were obtained at baseline, at peak of exercise and at iso-workload corresponding to that reached at the peak of FL exercise during control exercise. Diaphragmatic fatigue was evaluated by measuring the tension time index of the diaphragm. Respiratory muscle overloading caused an earlier interruption of exercise. Diaphragmatic fatigue did not occur in the two conditions. At peak of flow-limited exercise compared to iso-workload, HR, peak inspiratory and expiratory Pes, NK cells and norepinephrine were significantly higher. The number of NK cells was significantly related to ΔPes (i.e. difference between the most and the less negative Pes) and plasmatic catecholamines. Loading of respiratory muscles is able to cause an increase of NK cells provided that activation of respiratory muscles is intense enough to induce a significant metabolic stress.

  8. Exercises in Practical Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Arthur; Lees, Charles H.

    2015-10-01

    Preface; Preface to the fifth edition; Part I. Preliminary: 1. Treatment of observations; 2. Measurement of length; 3. Measurement of intervals of time; 4. Calibration of a spirit level; 5. Calibration of a graduated tube; Part II. General Physics: 6. The balance; 7. Accurate weighing with the balance; 8. Density of a solid; 9. Density of a liquid; 10. Moments of inertia; 11. Gravitational acceleration by reversible pendulum; 12. Young's modulus by the bending of beams; 13. Modulus of rigidity; 14. Viscosity; 15. Surface tension; Part III. Heat: 16. Coefficient of expansion of a solid; 17. Thermal expansion of a liquid; 18. Coefficient of increase of pressure of a gas with temperature; 19. Coefficient of expansion of a gas as constant pressure; 20. Effect of pressure on the boiling point of a liquid; 21. Laws of cooling; 22. Cooling correction in calorimetry; 23. Specific heat of quartz; 24. Latent heat of water; 25. Latent heat of steam; 26. Heat of solution of a salt; 27. The mechanical equivalent of heat; Part IV. Sound: 28. Frequency of a tuning fork by the syren; 29. The velocity of sound in air and other bodies by Kundt's method; 30. Study of vibrations of tuning forks by means of Lissajous' figures; Part V. Light: 31. Angles by the optical method; 32. The sextant; 33. Curvatures and powers of lenses; 34. Index of refraction by total reflection; 35. Resolving power of a lens; 36. The prism spectroscope; 37. Reduction of spectroscopic measurements to an absolute scale; 38. The spectrometer; 39. Refractive index and dispersion of a solid by the spectrometer; 40. Refractive index and dispersion of a liquid. Specific refractive powers; 41. Photometry; 42. Interference of light. The biprism; 43. Newton's rings; 44. Wave length of light by the diffraction grating; 45. Rotation of plane by polarisation; 46. Saccharimetry; Part VI. Magnetism and Electricity: 47. Horizontal components of magnetic fields; 48. Magnetic dip; 49. Magnetisation curves; 50. The water

  9. Cancer, Physical Activity, and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Justin C.; Winters-Stone, Kerri; Lee, Augustine; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2014-01-01

    This review examines the relationship between physical activity and cancer along the cancer continuum, and serves as a synthesis of systematic and meta-analytic reviews conducted to date. There exists a large body of epidemiologic evidence that conclude those who participate in higher levels of physical activity have a reduced likelihood of developing a variety of cancers compared to those who engage in lower levels of physical activity. Despite this observational evidence, the causal pathway underling the association between participation in physical activity and cancer risk reduction remains unclear. Physical activity is also a useful adjunct to improve the deleterious sequelae experienced during cancer treatment. These deleterious sequelae may include fatigue, muscular weakness, deteriorated functional capacity, including many others. The benefits of physical activity during cancer treatment are similar to those experienced after treatment. Despite the growing volume of literature examining physical activity and cancer across the cancer continuum, a number of research gaps exist. There is little evidence on the safety of physical activity among all cancer survivors, as most trials have selectively recruited participants. It is also unclear the specific dose of exercise needed that is optimal for primary cancer prevention or symptom control during and after cancer treatment. PMID:23720265

  10. Treatment of dyslipidemia with statins and physical exercises: recent findings of skeletal muscle responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfim, Mariana Rotta; Oliveira, Acary Souza Bulle; do Amaral, Sandra Lia; Monteiro, Henrique Luiz

    2015-04-01

    Statin treatment in association with physical exercise practice can substantially reduce cardiovascular mortality risk of dyslipidemic individuals, but this practice is associated with myopathic event exacerbation. This study aimed to present the most recent results of specific literature about the effects of statins and its association with physical exercise on skeletal musculature. Thus, a literature review was performed using PubMed and SciELO databases, through the combination of the keywords "statin" AND "exercise" AND "muscle", restricting the selection to original studies published between January 1990 and November 2013. Sixteen studies evaluating the effects of statins in association with acute or chronic exercises on skeletal muscle were analyzed. Study results indicate that athletes using statins can experience deleterious effects on skeletal muscle, as the exacerbation of skeletal muscle injuries are more frequent with intense training or acute eccentric and strenuous exercises. Moderate physical training, in turn, when associated to statins does not increase creatine kinase levels or pain reports, but improves muscle and metabolic functions as a consequence of training. Therefore, it is suggested that dyslipidemic patients undergoing statin treatment should be exposed to moderate aerobic training in combination to resistance exercises three times a week, and the provision of physical training prior to drug administration is desirable, whenever possible.

  11. The Effects of an Acute Bout of Strenuous Aerobic Exercise on Plasma, Erythrocyte, Urinary and Dietary Values for Selected Trace Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-12-09

    associated with a decreased plasma level of the enzyme during and after two hours of soccer training (92). Increased Zn losses from acute exercise-induced...ascorbic acid (78,134). An interaction between dietary Cu and the macronutrients may exist (29,108). Carbohydrate as simple sugars, such as fructose or...Appendix F). Dietary intakes and percent RDA or ESADDI values were calculated for energy and selected macronutrients and minerals. Biochemical Analysis

  12. Leisure-time physical activity and breast cancer risk by hormone receptor status: effective life periods and exercise intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Reiko; Iwasaki, Motoki; Kasuga, Yoshio; Yokoyama, Shiro; Onuma, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Hideki; Kusama, Ritsu; Shimazu, Taichi; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2010-11-01

    Physical activity may decrease breast cancer risk. However, it is unclear what intensity of exercise and during which life periods this effect on decreasing risk is efficiently expressed, and whether the associations differ by the estrogen-/progesterone- receptor (ER/PR) status of tumors. We investigated associations between age- and intensity-specific leisure-time physical activity and ER/PR-defined breast cancer risk. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study in Nagano, Japan. Subjects were 405 cases newly diagnosed (>99% known ER/PR) from 2001 to 2005, who were age-/area-matched with 405 controls. Activity was assessed with a self-reported questionnaire which considered intensity level (moderate and/or strenuous) at different ages (at 12 and 20 years, and in the previous 5 years). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using logistic regression. Strenuous but not moderate physical activity at age 12 was inversely associated with pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer risk across ER/PR subtypes [overall OR(≥ 5 days/week vs. none) = 0.24 (0.14-0.43)]. Moderate physical activity in the previous 5 years was significantly associated with a decrease in risk for postmenopausal ER + PR + tumors only [OR(≥ 1 day/week vs. none) = 0.35 (0.18-0.67)]. Strenuous activity in teens and moderate activity after menopause may contribute to a reduction in breast cancer risk.

  13. FastStats: Exercise or Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Exercise or Physical Activity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... adults aged 18 and over who met the Physical Activity Guidelines for aerobic physical activity: 51.7% Percent ...

  14. Treatment of Dyslipidemia with Statins and Physical Exercises: Recent Findings of Skeletal Muscle Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Rotta Bonfim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Statin treatment in association with physical exercise practice can substantially reduce cardiovascular mortality risk of dyslipidemic individuals, but this practice is associated with myopathic event exacerbation. This study aimed to present the most recent results of specific literature about the effects of statins and its association with physical exercise on skeletal musculature. Thus, a literature review was performed using PubMed and SciELO databases, through the combination of the keywords “statin” AND “exercise” AND “muscle”, restricting the selection to original studies published between January 1990 and November 2013. Sixteen studies evaluating the effects of statins in association with acute or chronic exercises on skeletal muscle were analyzed. Study results indicate that athletes using statins can experience deleterious effects on skeletal muscle, as the exacerbation of skeletal muscle injuries are more frequent with intense training or acute eccentric and strenuous exercises. Moderate physical training, in turn, when associated to statins does not increase creatine kinase levels or pain reports, but improves muscle and metabolic functions as a consequence of training. Therefore, it is suggested that dyslipidemic patients undergoing statin treatment should be exposed to moderate aerobic training in combination to resistance exercises three times a week, and the provision of physical training prior to drug administration is desirable, whenever possible.

  15. Treatment of Dyslipidemia with Statins and Physical Exercises: Recent Findings of Skeletal Muscle Responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonfim, Mariana Rotta, E-mail: mrb-unesp@yahoo.com.br [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Motricidade, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho” (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, Acary Souza Bulle [Setor de Doenças Neuromusculares, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Amaral, Sandra Lia do; Monteiro, Henrique Luiz [Departamento de Educação Física, Faculdade de Ciências, UNESP, Bauru, SP (Brazil)

    2015-04-15

    Statin treatment in association with physical exercise practice can substantially reduce cardiovascular mortality risk of dyslipidemic individuals, but this practice is associated with myopathic event exacerbation. This study aimed to present the most recent results of specific literature about the effects of statins and its association with physical exercise on skeletal musculature. Thus, a literature review was performed using PubMed and SciELO databases, through the combination of the keywords “statin” AND “exercise” AND “muscle”, restricting the selection to original studies published between January 1990 and November 2013. Sixteen studies evaluating the effects of statins in association with acute or chronic exercises on skeletal muscle were analyzed. Study results indicate that athletes using statins can experience deleterious effects on skeletal muscle, as the exacerbation of skeletal muscle injuries are more frequent with intense training or acute eccentric and strenuous exercises. Moderate physical training, in turn, when associated to statins does not increase creatine kinase levels or pain reports, but improves muscle and metabolic functions as a consequence of training. Therefore, it is suggested that dyslipidemic patients undergoing statin treatment should be exposed to moderate aerobic training in combination to resistance exercises three times a week, and the provision of physical training prior to drug administration is desirable, whenever possible.

  16. Treatment of Dyslipidemia with Statins and Physical Exercises: Recent Findings of Skeletal Muscle Responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonfim, Mariana Rotta; Oliveira, Acary Souza Bulle; Amaral, Sandra Lia do; Monteiro, Henrique Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Statin treatment in association with physical exercise practice can substantially reduce cardiovascular mortality risk of dyslipidemic individuals, but this practice is associated with myopathic event exacerbation. This study aimed to present the most recent results of specific literature about the effects of statins and its association with physical exercise on skeletal musculature. Thus, a literature review was performed using PubMed and SciELO databases, through the combination of the keywords “statin” AND “exercise” AND “muscle”, restricting the selection to original studies published between January 1990 and November 2013. Sixteen studies evaluating the effects of statins in association with acute or chronic exercises on skeletal muscle were analyzed. Study results indicate that athletes using statins can experience deleterious effects on skeletal muscle, as the exacerbation of skeletal muscle injuries are more frequent with intense training or acute eccentric and strenuous exercises. Moderate physical training, in turn, when associated to statins does not increase creatine kinase levels or pain reports, but improves muscle and metabolic functions as a consequence of training. Therefore, it is suggested that dyslipidemic patients undergoing statin treatment should be exposed to moderate aerobic training in combination to resistance exercises three times a week, and the provision of physical training prior to drug administration is desirable, whenever possible

  17. Importance of enjoyment when promoting physical exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagberg, L A; Lindahl, B; Nyberg, L; Hellénius, M-L

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the importance of enjoyment of exercise in a health care-based intervention aimed at promoting physical exercise in primary health care patients. In a controlled study design, the intervention group was offered a wide range of group exercises over 3 months, followed by support in designing their own exercise program. The control group received usual care. Enjoyment of exercise and exercise level were measured. Associations between enjoyment and exercise level were analyzed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. Changes in enjoyment between and within study groups were analyzed by the independent and paired t-test. Associations were found between enjoyment and exercise level (r=0.36, Pexercise level (r=0.34, Pexercise was 25% higher in the intervention group than in the control group (Phealth care patients, enjoyment of exercise was associated with exercise level. Enjoyment of exercise seems to be a mediator of exercise level. Furthermore, health care-based interventions seem to be able to affect enjoyment of exercise. Enjoyment of exercise may be important for the long-term effectiveness, of health care-based interventions.

  18. Physical exercise for people with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aamann, Luise; Dam, Gitte; Rinnov, Anders

    2017-01-01

    This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (Intervention). The objectives are as follows: To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of physical exercise versus no intervention for people with cirrhosis.......This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (Intervention). The objectives are as follows: To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of physical exercise versus no intervention for people with cirrhosis....

  19. Physical exercise : effects in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Physical exercise plays an important role in cancer prevention as well as in the prevention and treatment of cancer related fatigue during and after treatment. Some of these effects are presented in the thesis of M.J. Velthuis. In Part I effects of physical exercise on anthropometric measurements

  20. Links Between Psychological Factors And Physical Exercise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For diverse reasons, a large number of patients with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) are yet to imbibe regular physical exercise behaviour. In this study, we characterised the link between psychological factors and physical exercise behaviour of a sample of Nigerian T2D patients. Participants were 176 T2D patients with minimum of ...

  1. How to prescribe physical exercise in rheumatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Maddali Bongi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Physical exercise, aiming to improve range of movement, muscle strength and physical well being, lately substituted the immobilization previously prescribed in rheumatic diseases. International guidelines, recommendations of Scientific Societies, and structured reviews regard physical exercise as of pivotal importance in treating rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia syndrome, osteoporosis, and to be considered in connective tissue diseases. Therapeutic exercise should: aim to improve firstly local symptoms and then general health; respect the pain threshold; be a part of a treatment including pharmacological therapies and other rehabilitation techniques, be administered by skilled physiotherapist under the guide of a rheumatologist, be different according to different diseases, disease phases and patient expectations.

  2. Musical Agency during Physical Exercise Decreases Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Thomas H; Bowling, Daniel L; Contier, Oliver; Grant, Joshua; Schneider, Lydia; Lederer, Annette; Höer, Felicia; Busch, Eric; Villringer, Arno

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: When physical exercise is systematically coupled to music production, exercisers experience improvements in mood, reductions in perceived effort, and enhanced muscular efficiency. The physiology underlying these positive effects remains unknown. Here we approached the investigation of how such musical agency may stimulate the release of endogenous opioids indirectly with a pain threshold paradigm. Design: In a cross-over design we tested the opioid-hypothesis with an indirect measure, comparing the pain tolerance of 22 participants following exercise with or without musical agency. Method: Physical exercise was coupled to music by integrating weight-training machines with sensors that control music-synthesis in real time. Pain tolerance was measured as withdrawal time in a cold pressor test. Results: On average, participants tolerated cold pain for ~5 s longer following exercise sessions with musical agency. Musical agency explained 25% of the variance in cold pressor test withdrawal times after factoring out individual differences in general pain sensitivity. Conclusions: This result demonstrates a substantial pain reducing effect of musical agency in combination with physical exercise, probably due to stimulation of endogenous opioid mechanisms. This has implications for exercise endurance, both in sports and a multitude of rehabilitative therapies in which physical exercise is effective but painful.

  3. Musical Agency during Physical Exercise Decreases Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H. Fritz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: When physical exercise is systematically coupled to music production, exercisers experience improvements in mood, reductions in perceived effort, and enhanced muscular efficiency. The physiology underlying these positive effects remains unknown. Here we approached the investigation of how such musical agency may stimulate the release of endogenous opioids indirectly with a pain threshold paradigm.Design: In a cross-over design we tested the opioid-hypothesis with an indirect measure, comparing the pain tolerance of 22 participants following exercise with or without musical agency.Method: Physical exercise was coupled to music by integrating weight-training machines with sensors that control music-synthesis in real time. Pain tolerance was measured as withdrawal time in a cold pressor test.Results: On average, participants tolerated cold pain for ~5 s longer following exercise sessions with musical agency. Musical agency explained 25% of the variance in cold pressor test withdrawal times after factoring out individual differences in general pain sensitivity.Conclusions: This result demonstrates a substantial pain reducing effect of musical agency in combination with physical exercise, probably due to stimulation of endogenous opioid mechanisms. This has implications for exercise endurance, both in sports and a multitude of rehabilitative therapies in which physical exercise is effective but painful.

  4. Preparing Prospective Physical Educators in Exercise Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulger, Sean M.; Mohr, Derek J.; Carson, Linda M.; Robert, Darren L.; Wiegand, Robert L.

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the need for continued assessment of course content and instructional methods employed within physical education teacher education programs to deliver theoretical and applied information from the foundational subdiscipline of exercise physiology, describing an innovative course at one university (Exercise for School-Aged Children) which…

  5. Strengthening physical self-perceptions through exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, C M; Gill, D L

    1992-12-01

    Two studies examined the effects of physical activity/exercise on physical self-perceptions, self-efficacy, body satisfaction, fitness and relationships among these variables. In study 1, 34 female undergraduates participated in a 10-week exercise/activity program. Participants were selected from existing classes forming a weight training, aerobic exercise and activity control group. Results revealed changes in physical self-perceptions, strength, and body composition over the 10-weeks. Improvements in physical self-perceptions and fitness occurred independent of exercise/activity group. Groups differed in the perceived importance attached to physical self-perceptions. Correlations among the measures revealed relationships among physical self-perceptions, body satisfaction, global self-esteem, and fitness. In study 2, we hypothesized that weight training would have a greater effect on physical self-perceptions and body image perceptions than physical education activity classes. Thirty-seven males and 28 females were selected from existing classes forming a weight training and activity group. Results revealed no significant changes in physical self-perceptions, body image, or global self-esteem over the 10-week program, while strength and physical self-efficacy improved. Correlations among measures from both studies offer preliminary support for Sonstroem and Morgan's model for the examination of self-esteem in exercise settings.

  6. Exercise and Physical Fitness: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Learn to love exercise Make time to move Outdoor fitness routine Physical activity Working with a personal trainer Yoga for health Show More Show Less Related Health Topics Benefits of Exercise Exercise for Children Exercise for Seniors ...

  7. PRESCRIPTION OF PHYSICAL EXERCISES FOR ELDERLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheilla Tribess

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study has as objective investigates the prescription of exercises for elderly, constant in the literature in portuguese language, under form of books, newspapers, annals and publications electronics. For so much, it tried to collect data with relationship to the following aspects: a Impact of the aging in the human organism; b evaluation of the components of the functional aptitude; and, c composition of a program of physical exercise. The aging process evidences changes in the levels antropométrics, neuromuscular, cardiovascular, lung, neural, besides the decrease of the agility, coordination, balance, flexibility, mobility to articulate and increase in the cartilage rigidity, tendons and ligaments. Those changes associated to the low level of physical activity in the elderly take to the decline of the functional capacity. The evaluation of the level of functional dependence becomes important to the elderly, because it will provide a prescription of physical exercises more addressed your needs, increasing the effectiveness of the program and reducing the risks. The general beginnings for the prescription of physical exercises for elderly are based in the modalities appropriate, intensity, duration, frequency and progression of the physical activity, with the objective of improving the life quality, to minimize the physiologic alterations, to improve the motive capacity and to provide benefits social, psychological and physical. Therefore, in the prescription of physical exercises for older people is necessary the training of the capacity aerobics, of the force, of the balance, of the time of reaction and movement and of the agility.

  8. Exercises in experimental physics including complete solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischmann, R.; Loos, G.

    1978-01-01

    This collection of exercises is not only addressed to students of physics but also to scientists of other branches and to engineers. Possibilities are offered to the student to gain control on his growing knowledge from the beginning of his studies until the examination. The individual exercises are linked thematically and are mostly composed by several single tasks. Complete and detailed numerical solutions are presented. The topics covered are: (1) Mechanics, (2) thermodynamics, (3) oscillations and their propagation, (4) electricity and magnetism, (5) atomic physics, and (6) nuclear physics. (KBE)

  9. Fatigue mechanisms during physical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Gevaerd

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue can be defined as incapacity to maintain the required power output, with concomitant impairment of exercise performance, and it can be divided into chronic or acute. In acute fatigue a subdivision has been used to delimitate experimental studies. Thus, acute fatigue can be central or peripheral. We began the review process with a search on the Pubmed database, followed by selection of classical and more recent articles. As the fatigue mechanisms are linked to the predominant energy metabolism in the activity, the purpose of this paper was to review the main acute fatigue theories in activities with different metabolic demands. From this literature review, it was possible to infer that important metabolic alterations occurring during exercise, impair normal cellular activities,therefore, decreasing the speed of contraction and as well as energy replenishment. Many of those alterations give information to the central nervous system, limiting the time length of exercise. Theoretically, the elongation of exercise beyond biological limits can cause irreversible damages to the organism. RESUMO Fadiga pode ser definida como uma incapacidade na manutenção de uma determinada potência, com conseqüente redução no desempenho, podendo ser considerada como crônica ou aguda. Na fadiga aguda, uma subdivisão vem sendo utilizada para maior delimitação dos estudos experimentais. Nesse sentido, fadiga aguda pode ser descrita como central ou periférica. Nós iniciamos o processo de revisão sobre o assunto com uma busca no banco de dados Pubmed, seguido da seleção dos artigos clássicos e mais recentes. Como os mecanismos de fadiga estão intimamente ligados ao metabolismo energético predominante da atividade, a presente revisão destinou-se a levantar as principais teorias sobre fadiga aguda em atividades com diferentes exigências metabólicas. A partir desse apanhado bibliográfico podemos inferir que importantes alterações metab

  10. [High blood pressure and physical exercise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosner, P; Gremeaux, V; Bosquet, L; Herpin, D

    2014-06-01

    High blood pressure is a frequent pathology with many cardiovascular complications. As highlighted in guidelines, the therapeutic management of hypertension relies on non-pharmacological measures, which are diet and regular physical activity, but both patients and physicians are reluctant to physical activity prescription. To acquire the conviction that physical activity is beneficial, necessary and possible, we can take into account some fundamental and clinical studies, as well as the feedback of our clinical practice. Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and hypertension contributes to increase this risk. Conversely, regular practice of physical activity decreases very significantly the risk by up to 60%. The acute blood pressure changes during exercise and post-exercise hypotension differs according to the dynamic component (endurance or aerobic and/or strength exercises), but the repetition of the sessions leads to the chronic hypotensive benefit of physical activity. Moreover, physical activity prescription must take into account the assessment of global cardiovascular risk, the control of the hypertension, and the opportunities and desires of the patient in order to promote good adherence and beneficial lifestyle change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Selected exercises in particle and nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchini, Lorenzo

    2018-01-01

    This book presents more than 300 exercises, with guided solutions, on topics that span both the experimental and the theoretical aspects of particle physics. The exercises are organized by subject, covering kinematics, interactions of particles with matter, particle detectors, hadrons and resonances, electroweak interactions and flavor physics, statistics and data analysis, and accelerators and beam dynamics. Some 200 of the exercises, including 50 in multiple-choice format, derive from exams set by the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Research (INFN) over the past decade to select its scientific staff of experimental researchers. The remainder comprise problems taken from the undergraduate classes at ETH Zurich or inspired by classic textbooks. Whenever appropriate, in-depth information is provided on the source of the problem, and readers will also benefit from the inclusion of bibliographic details and short dissertations on particular topics. This book is an ideal complement to textbooks on experime...

  12. Muscle physiology changes induced by every other day feeding and endurance exercise in mice: effects on physical performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Rodríguez-Bies

    Full Text Available Every other day feeding (EOD and exercise induce changes in cell metabolism. The aim of the present work was to know if both EOD and exercise produce similar effects on physical capacity, studying their physiological, biochemical and metabolic effects on muscle. Male OF-1 mice were fed either ad libitum (AL or under EOD. After 18 weeks under EOD, animals were also trained by using a treadmill for another 6 weeks and then analyzed for physical activity. Both, EOD and endurance exercise increased the resistance of animals to extenuating activity and improved motor coordination. Among the groups that showed the highest performance, AL and EOD trained animals, ALT and EODT respectively, only the EODT group was able to increase glucose and triglycerides levels in plasma after extenuating exercise. No high effects on mitochondrial respiratory chain activities or protein levels neither on coenzyme Q levels were found in gastrocnemius muscle. However, exercise and EOD did increase β-oxidation activity in this muscle accompanied by increased CD36 levels in animals fed under EOD and by changes in shape and localization of mitochondria in muscle fibers. Furthermore, EOD and training decreased muscle damage after strenuous exercise. EOD also reduced the levels of lipid peroxidation in muscle. Our results indicate that EOD improves muscle performance and resistance by increasing lipid catabolism in muscle mitochondria at the same time that prevents lipid peroxidation and muscle damage.

  13. Physical exercise training for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Thomas; Nevitt, Sarah J; Hebestreit, Helge; Kriemler, Susi

    2017-11-01

    Physical exercise training may form an important part of regular care for people with cystic fibrosis. This is an update of a previously published review. To assess the effects of physical exercise training on exercise capacity by peak oxygen consumption, pulmonary function by forced expiratory volume in one second, health-related quality of life and further important patient-relevant outcomes in people with cystic fibrosis. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register which comprises references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings.Date of the most recent search: 04 May 2017.We searched ongoing trials registers (clinicaltrials.gov and the WHO ICTRP). Date of most recent search: 10 August 2017. All randomised and quasi-randomised controlled clinical trials comparing exercise training of any type and a minimum duration of two weeks with conventional care (no training) in people with cystic fibrosis. Two authors independently selected studies for inclusion, assessed methodological quality and extracted data. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE system. Of the 83 studies identified, 15 studies which included 487 participants, met the inclusion criteria. The numbers in each study ranged from nine up to 72 participants; two studies were in adults, seven were in children and adolescents and six studies included all age ranges. Four studies of hospitalised participants lasted less than one month and 11 studies were outpatient-based, lasting between two months and three years. The studies included participants with a wide range of disease severity and employed differing levels of supervision with a mixture of types of training. There was also wide variation in the quality of the included studies.This systematic review shows very low- to low-quality evidence from both short- and long-term studies that in people

  14. Acute Effects of Moderate and Strenuous Running on Trace Element Distribution in the Brain, Liver, and Spleen of Trained Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kıvanç Ergen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Trace elements such as manganese (Mn, cobalt (Co and chromium (Cr play key roles in metabolic reactions and are important in many physiological enzymatic processes. In this study, we aimed to investigate the acute effects of moderate and strenuous running (treadmill exercise on the levels of Mn, Co and Cr in the brain, liver, and spleen of trained rats. Study Design: Animal experiment. Material and Methods: Twenty-one Wistar-Albino adult male rats were used in the study. Rats were grouped as control group (no mandated exercise; n=8, moderate exercise group (30 min exercise duration; n=7, and strenuous exercise group (60 min exercise duration; n=6. The levels of Mn, Co, and Cr in the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, brain stem, liver, and spleen were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results: Cr levels in liver of rats increased in parallel to the time course of running supporting the exercise training effect on the action of insulin. Compared to the control group, the level of Co significantly decreased in the brain stem of rats in the moderate exercise group (p=0.009 and in the frontal lobe of rats in the strenuous exercise group (p=0.004. In the strenuous exercise group, an examination of the brain stem revealed that the level of Mn significantly decreased (p=0.001, and levels of Co and Cr were apparently depleted to the extent that these elements were no longer detectable. Conclusion: A notable finding is that during or after single bout strenuous exercise, levels of Co decreased in the spleen and particularly decreased in the brain stem of regularly trained rats. From this study, it can be inferred that sportsmen should aware trace element disturbances among the body parts or depletion of some trace elements after single bout of chronic strenuous running exercise.

  15. Simulation of General Physics laboratory exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aceituno, P; Hernández-Cabrera, A; Hernández-Aceituno, J

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory exercises are an important part of general Physics teaching, both during the last years of high school and the first year of college education. Due to the need to acquire enough laboratory equipment for all the students, and the widespread access to computers rooms in teaching, we propose the development of computer simulated laboratory exercises. A representative exercise in general Physics is the calculation of the gravity acceleration value, through the free fall motion of a metal ball. Using a model of the real exercise, we have developed an interactive system which allows students to alter the starting height of the ball to obtain different fall times. The simulation was programmed in ActionScript 3, so that it can be freely executed in any operative system; to ensure the accuracy of the calculations, all the input parameters of the simulations were modelled using digital measurement units, and to allow a statistical management of the resulting data, measurement errors are simulated through limited randomization

  16. Protein S100B and physical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Reischak Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein S100B has been used as a peripheral biochemical marker of brain injury and/or activity. However, recent studies have demonstrated that this protein is also increased in serum after physical exercise, although the interpretation of this finding remains controversial. Although predominantly released by astrocytes in the central nervous system, extracerebral sources of protein S100B have been suggested to contribute to the increase in serum levels of this protein. However, in the case of exercises that have an impact on the brain such as boxing, elevated levels are clearly associated with brain damage. More recently, some studies have proposed that protein S100B might be released by activated adipocytes and by damaged muscle cells. If confirmed experimentally, protein S100B might be potentially useful in sports training. We are currently investigating the potential role of serum protein S100B as an indicator of muscle damage. Therefore, the objective of this review was to discuss the current knowledge about the relationship between physical exercise and serum protein S100B and its possible leakage from muscle cells injured by exercise.

  17. Benefits of physical exercise in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Nicolás; De Teresa, Carlos; Cano, Antonio; Godoy, Débora; Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Lapotka, Maryna; Llaneza, Placido; Manonelles, Pedro; Martínez-Amat, Antonio; Ocón, Olga; Rodríguez-Alcalá, Laura; Vélez, Mercedes; Sánchez-Borrego, Rafael

    2016-11-01

    Physical inactivity not only places women's health at risk during menopause, but also increases menopausal problems. Abundant evidence links habitual physical exercise (PE) to a better status on numerous health indicators and better quality of life and to the prevention and treatment of the ailments that typically occur from mid-life onwards. We can infer that PE is something more than a lifestyle: it constitutes a form of therapy in itself. A panel of experts from various Spanish scientific societies related to PE and menopause (Spanish Menopause Society, Spanish Cardiology Society, Spanish Federation of Sports Medicine) met to reach a consensus on these issues and to decide the optimal timing of and methods of exercise, based on the best evidence available. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mastery-style exercises in physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Noah D.

    Mastery learning employs repeated cycles of instructional support and formative assessment to help students achieve desired skills. Instructional objectives are broken into small pieces, and students master those pieces in successive order by performing to a set standard on an assessment for each objective. If a student cannot master an objective, instructional support is provided, and the student is reassessed. Mastery learning has been proved effective in many subject areas, but comparatively little research has been done on applying it in physics instruction. This dissertation details the path taken that culminated in the use of mastery-inspired exercises to teach students basic skills in introductory physics courses. The path that led to our choice of mastery began with an attempt to provide students with extra practice and formative assessment through weekly practice tests with corresponding solutions, with the goal of helping them better prepare for summative exams in an introductory physics course. No effect was seen, and participation was very low. Investigating how students learn from solutions revealed that they are poor evaluators of their understanding of provided solutions and struggle to retain the skills taught in those solutions. In a follow-up clinical experiment that provided students with solutions, required them to recall the solutions from memory, and re-presented the solutions for restudy, students showed strong retention as well as the ability to transfer information from the solutions to new situations. These results inspired the formal use of mastery learning as an instructional paradigm due to its requirement that students repeatedly recall information from solutions and apply it to new situations. Mastery-style exercises were first created and tested in clinical trials, followed by two in-course implementations. In the clinical trials, students completed a set of questions on a particular skill, and if they failed to master that skill

  19. Outline of physical protection exercise field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawata, Norio; Wakabayashi, Shuji; Naito, Aisaku

    2012-01-01

    The Integrated Support Center for Nuclear Nonproliferation and Nuclear Security (ISCN) of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency set up exercise facilities for trainee of nuclear power emerging countries in Asia involved in Physical Protection (PP) including government officers in charge of nuclear security policy or nuclear security regulation, planning and management staff of PP facilities of operating companies, design professionals for PP facilities, and security personnel responsible for PP. After April in 2012, the facility started to be applied to actual ISCN's PP training and is expected as training field for not only Asian nuclear emerging country but also domestic nuclear energy companies and regulatory bodies. In order to provide effective and practical exercises, we set up the training facilities with basic measures and equipment typical of those used in actual PP facilities, e.g., protective fences, sensors, and cameras. This paper provides an outline of the facilities. (author)

  20. Perceived benefits and barriers to physical exercise participation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regular participation in exercise is associated with disease prevention and provides many benefits. Physical exercise plays a key role in the promotion of good health. However, very few young people participate in physical exercise. The purpose of this study was to identify the perceived benefits and barriers to participation ...

  1. Valuing Individuals? Preferences and Health Choices of Physical Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Aboagye, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    The efficacy of physical exercise for the prevention and treatment of non-specific low back pain (LBP) is well documented, but little is known about how individuals value specific components of physical exercise, such as the type and design or the intensity and frequency of exercise. Other factors that influence individual differences in health choices and adherence are associated with individuals? attitudes toward and likelihood of performing recommended exercise regimens. Current evidence s...

  2. Effects of Physical Fitness Exercise, Mental Exercise and Mindfulness Exercise on Static and Dynamic Balance in Elderly Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifeh Ghasempour

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion The study showed that physical exercises, mindfulness and mental training have a significant effect on the improvement of static and dynamic balance in elderly women, though the association of cognitive practices (mindfulness and mental training with motor training (physical exercises could cause a lasting impact. So, it is recommended to use physical exercises with cognitive training to improve static and dynamic balance in elderly people.

  3. Exercises with solutions in radiation physics

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Bo N

    2015-01-01

    The textbook begins with exercises related to radioactive sources and decay schemes. The problems covered include series decay and how to determine the frequency and energy of emitted particles in disintegrations. The next chapter deals with the interaction of ionizing radiation, including the treatment of photons and charged particles. The main focus is on applications based on the knowledge of interaction, to be used in subsequent work and courses. The textbook then examines detectors and measurements, including both counting statistics and properties of pulse detectors. The chapter that follows is dedicated to dosimetry, which is a major subject in medical radiation physics. It covers theoretical applications, such as different equilibrium situations and cavity theories, as well as experimental dosimetry, including ionization chambers and solid state and liquid dosimeters. A shorter chapter deals with radiobiology, where different cell survival models are considered. The last chapter concerns radiation pro...

  4. Do placebo expectations influence perceived exertion during physical exercise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Mothes

    Full Text Available This study investigates the role of placebo expectations in individuals' perception of exertion during acute physical exercise. Building upon findings from placebo and marketing research, we examined how perceived exertion is affected by expectations regarding a the effects of exercise and b the effects of the exercise product worn during the exercise. We also investigated whether these effects are moderated by physical self-concept. Seventy-eight participants conducted a moderate 30 min cycling exercise on an ergometer, with perceived exertion (RPE measured every 5 minutes. Beforehand, each participant was randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions and watched a corresponding film clip presenting "scientific evidence" that the exercise would or would not result in health benefits and that the exercise product they were wearing (compression garment would additionally enhance exercise benefits or would only be worn for control purposes. Participants' physical self-concept was assessed via questionnaire. Results partially demonstrated that participants with more positive expectations experienced reduced perceived exertion during the exercise. Furthermore, our results indicate a moderator effect of physical self-concept: Individuals with a high physical self-concept benefited (in terms of reduced perceived exertion levels in particular from an induction of generally positive expectations. In contrast, individuals with a low physical self-concept benefited when positive expectations were related to the exercise product they were wearing. In sum, these results suggest that placebo expectations may be a further, previously neglected class of psychological factors that influence the perception of exertion.

  5. Physical exercise, inflammatory process and adaptive condition: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Fernando Oliveira Catanho da; Macedo, Denise Vaz

    2011-01-01

    Physical exercise induces inflammation, a physiological response that is part of immune system activity and promotes tissue remodeling after exercise overload. The activation of the inflammatory process is local and systemic and is mediated by different cells and secreted compounds. The objective is to reestablish organ homeostasis after a single bout of exercise or after several exercise sessions. The acute-phase response involves the combined actions of activated leukocytes, cytokines, acut...

  6. Understanding the barriers to and reasons for physical exercise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... improving physical health, having confidence with their appearance and improving mental health. ... health benefits, it is important to understand the exercise behaviour of students.

  7. Physical exercise and return to work: cancer survivors' experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, Iris F.; de Boer, Angela G. E. M.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2013-01-01

    In this qualitative study, we aimed to explore cancer survivors' experiences with (1) return to work (RtW) and work performance, (2) a physical exercise program after treatment, and (3) the perceived link between physical exercise and work. Semi-structured individual interviews were held with ten

  8. Physical exercise and psychological wellness in health club ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper constitutes a comparative and longitudinal investigation of physical exercise and psychological wellness in a sample of health club members in Zululand, South Africa. The research was contextualized within a public health and community psychological model of mental health promotion. Physical exercise was ...

  9. University Student's Physical Strength and Amount of Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    高橋, ひとみ; Hitomi, TAKAHASHI; 桃山学院大学文学部

    1997-01-01

    To determine the importance of developing physical strength in health maintenance by unversity students, I conducted a simple examination of the physical strength and the living conditions of Momoyama Gakuin University students. I examined the relationship between the student's physical condition and the results of their strength test, between the importance of exercise and the student's evaluation of their own physical strength, and between the need for exercise and the test results. The res...

  10. Physical exercise in type 1 diabetes: recommendations and care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Paulo Gomes Mascarenhas

    Full Text Available Abstract The management of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is based on three pillars: insulin therapy, nutrition, and regular practice of physical activity. Physical exercises are associated with metabolic demands that depend on the individual's energy stores and level of physical conditioning, and vary according to environmental conditions and intensity, duration, and type of exercise. All these factors, added to eventual distress with competitions, exert influence on glucose metabolism. The athletic career of diabetic individuals is often hindered by a risk of hypoglycemia during and after the exercise, frequent hyperglycemia before, during, and after certain physical activities, occurrence of ketoacidosis, and presence of chronic microvascular and macrovascular complications. Aerobic exercises reduce the levels of blood glucose while anaerobic exercise may promote transient hyperglycemia. Although diabetic individuals may achieve excellence in sport, their physical performance should be maximized by strict blood glucose control, adequate modifications in insulin dose on the day of the exercise, and appropriate nutritional intake. This review discusses the impact of physical exercise on glucose metabolism, as well as nutritional considerations and strategies appropriate to the practice of physical exercises by patients with T1DM.

  11. Physical performance and motivation to exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błażej Stankiewicz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study is an attempt to assess the impact of self-evaluation and motivation on physical exercise. In the chapter, material and methods describe the specificity of the research methodology, their purpose being to compare the outcome of subjective evaluation after FMS with the objective outcome of FMS, self-esteem, and motivation analysis for sport, and the hypothesis that Additional activity does not affect the higher self-esteem and it can be assumed that the age range does not affect the result of external motivation. Materials and research tools such as questionnaire, FMS test and SMS scale were also defined. The research was done on a group of 30 people. The group included 14 women and 16 men. More than half of the respondents (53% are between 20 and 22 years of age, 27% are between 23 and 24 years old, and 20% are between 17 and 19 years of age. Analysis of the research revealed that as many as 19 people trained their discipline over 6 years, another 9 had a training period of 2-4 years, while only 2 respondents are beginners. It has also been reported that men in the research group practice up to 7 training units a week more than women. Up to half of the group, 15 people practice their amateur discipline without achieving any sports successes, 9 people are players and 2 and 3 league players, while only 6 are participating in the championship. In turn, 24 out of 30 respondents have additional physical activity. Participants in the study rated their physical fitness very high, 28 out of 30 rated it very good and good, and only 2 rated it sufficiently. The most subjectively assessed element of physical fitness was the strength that 22 people rated very good and good. This can be a testimony to the volleyballs grown by the test subjects - 43%; Other sports 27% (tennis, table tennis, hammering, rowing, basketball, football; Bodybuilding 17% and combat sports 13%. The lowest rated motor ability is flexibility, 20 respondents rated either

  12. Therapeutic physical exercise in neural injury: friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kanghui; Lee, Seunghoon; Hong, Yunkyung; Park, Sookyoung; Choi, Jeonghyun; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Kim, Joo-Heon; Hong, Yonggeun

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] The intensity of therapeutic physical exercise is complex and sometimes controversial in patients with neural injuries. This review assessed whether therapeutic physical exercise is beneficial according to the intensity of the physical exercise. [Methods] The authors identified clinically or scientifically relevant articles from PubMed that met the inclusion criteria. [Results] Exercise training can improve body strength and lead to the physiological adaptation of skeletal muscles and the nervous system after neural injuries. Furthermore, neurophysiological and neuropathological studies show differences in the beneficial effects of forced therapeutic exercise in patients with severe or mild neural injuries. Forced exercise alters the distribution of muscle fiber types in patients with neural injuries. Based on several animal studies, forced exercise may promote functional recovery following cerebral ischemia via signaling molecules in ischemic brain regions. [Conclusions] This review describes several types of therapeutic forced exercise and the controversy regarding the therapeutic effects in experimental animals versus humans with neural injuries. This review also provides a therapeutic strategy for physical therapists that grades the intensity of forced exercise according to the level of neural injury.

  13. Yoga and physical exercise - a review and comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraj, Ramajayam; Karmani, Sneha; Varambally, Shivarama; Gangadhar, B N

    2016-06-01

    Yoga is a multifaceted spiritual tool with enhanced health and well-being as one of its positive effects. The components of yoga which are very commonly applied for health benefits are asanas (physical postures), pranayama (regulated breathing) and meditation. In the context of asanas, yoga resembles more of a physical exercise, which may lead to the perception that yoga is another kind of physical exercise. This article aims at exploring the commonalities and differences between yoga and physical exercise in terms of concepts, possible mechanisms and effectiveness for health benefits. A narrative review is undertaken based on traditional and contemporary literature for yoga, along with scientific articles available on yoga and exercise including head-to-head comparative trials with healthy volunteers and patients with various disease conditions. Physical exercises and the physical components of yoga practices have several similarities, but also important differences. Evidence suggests that yoga interventions appear to be equal and/or superior to exercise in most outcome measures. Emphasis on breath regulation, mindfulness during practice, and importance given to maintenance of postures are some of the elements which differentiate yoga practices from physical exercises.

  14. Symptoms of exercise dependence and physical activity in students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLaren, Vance V; Best, Lisa A

    2007-12-01

    Health professionals recognize the benefits of moderate physical activity and encourage clients to engage in some form of activity on a regular basis. In spite of these recognized benefits, there are growing concerns that some may exercise at levels detrimental to health. The term exercise dependence refers to those individuals whose extreme exercise schedules interfere with their social, occupational, and family lives. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between weekly exercise habits and scores on the Exercise Dependence Questionnaire in a sample of undergraduate students (213 women and 79 men). Overall, participants who reported high activity scored higher than those reporting low activity on subscales measuring interference with family and social life, positive reward, withdrawal, exercise for social reasons, exercise for health reasons, and stereotyped behavior.

  15. PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS AND DEVELOPMENT OF PHYSICAL EXERCISE DEPENDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almedina Numanović

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Excessive physical exercise combined with certain psychic and sociodemographic factors can lead to dependence. Objective: To examine which factors lead to the emergence of exercise dependence. Methods: Sample consisted of 103 men (mean age 27.3 years, SD 6.127 who performed exercises at gyms at least three times a week in the last year or more in Novi Pazar, Sjenica, Raska and Tutin, Serbia. Participants completed questionnaires and took appropriate tests. Results: Our results showed that there is no association between exercise dependence and financial status, number of siblings, level of education, family stability, health, and medication use among the interviewees. However, it was found that the degree of exercise dependence is associated with marital status and problems with the law. Regression analysis showed that body dysmorphia, body mass index and aggressiveness are better predictors of exercise dependence. Conclusion: People whose self-perception is dismorphic have lower self-esteem, and exercise in gyms to improve their physical appearance. If we consider other characteristics, such as unfavorable BMI, problems with the lаw and being single, it is hardly surprising these individuals cross the line between healthy exercise and exercise dependence. An important finding is that aggressiveness and exercise dependence are related to problems with the law due to aggression, and body dysmorphia. Level of Evidence; Diagnostic studies - Investigating a diagnostic test.

  16. The Effects of Regular Exercise on the Physical Fitness Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirandi, Ozlem

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present research is investigating the effects of regular exercise on the physical fitness levels among sedentary individuals. The total of 65 sedentary male individuals between the ages of 19-45, who had never exercises regularly in their lives, participated in the present research. Of these participants, 35 wanted to be…

  17. Physical exercise and cognitive performance in the elderly: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk-Sanchez NJ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Neva J Kirk-Sanchez,1 Ellen L McGough21Department of Physical Therapy, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA; 2Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USAAbstract: In an aging population with increasing incidence of dementia and cognitive impairment, strategies are needed to slow age-related decline and reduce disease-related cognitive impairment in older adults. Physical exercise that targets modifiable risk factors and neuroprotective mechanisms may reduce declines in cognitive performance attributed to the normal aging process and protect against changes related to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementia. In this review we summarize the role of exercise in neuroprotection and cognitive performance, and provide information related to implementation of physical exercise programs for older adults. Evidence from both animal and human studies supports the role of physical exercise in modifying metabolic, structural, and functional dimensions of the brain and preserving cognitive performance in older adults. The results of observational studies support a dose-dependent neuroprotective relationship between physical exercise and cognitive performance in older adults. Although some clinical trials of exercise interventions demonstrate positive effects of exercise on cognitive performance, other trials show minimal to no effect. Although further research is needed, physical exercise interventions aimed at improving brain health through neuroprotective mechanisms show promise for preserving cognitive performance. Exercise programs that are structured, individualized, higher intensity, longer duration, and multicomponent show promise for preserving cognitive performance in older adults.Keywords: aging, neurodegeneration, dementia, brain, physical activity

  18. Psychological variables and physical exercise in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amabile Borges Dario

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to provide a literature review aiming to clarify the most prevalent psychological changes present in individuals suffering from rheumatoid arthritis (RA, the impact of exercise on such changes, and the exercise protocols commonly adopted to improve these individuals' mental health. The few studies available report anxiety disorders and depression as most prevalent and physical exercise as a significant therapeutic strategy for this population. There is some evidence of the beneficial effects of exercise on those psychological variables providing RA patients with more effective treatments.

  19. Physical exercise in treatment of AUDs – a dropout study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sari, Sengül; Roessler, Kirsten Kaya

    Background: The Healthy Lifestyle Study is one out of five alcohol research studies in the RESCueH research project. It is a randomized controlled study which aims to understand the effect of physical exercise on alcohol, fitness and wellness outcomes for outpatients in treatment of alcohol use...... disorders. Relapse rates in treatment of AUD ranges between 60 and 90 % in the first year after treatment. The Healthy Lifestyle Study offers physical exercise as add on treatment to better maintenance. However intervention studies with physical exercise can suffer from high dropout rates. To gain a better...... understanding of lived lives of dropouts from The Healthy Lifestyle Study, a qualitative interview study was conducted. Objective: This interview study aims to gain better understanding of and more in depth knowledge about how alcohol patients experience, think and feel about physical exercise when...

  20. Aerobic Exercise: Top 10 Reasons to Get Physical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can help you live longer and healthier. Need motivation? See how aerobic exercise affects your heart, lungs ... found that regular physical activity may help protect memory, reasoning, judgment and thinking skills (cognitive function) in ...

  1. Do patients with lung cancer benefit from physical exercise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Andreas Holst; Vinther, Anders; Poulsen, Lise-Lotte

    2011-01-01

    Patients with lung cancer are often burdened by dyspnoea, fatigue, decreased physical ability and loss of weight. Earlier studies of physical exercise of patients with COPD have shown promising results. The aim of this study was to investigate, if a well-documented COPD rehabilitation protocol can...... improve physical fitness and quality of life (QoL) in patients with lung cancer....

  2. Affect, exercise, and physical activity among healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Margaret; Dunn, Andrea; Cooper, Daniel

    2009-12-01

    Many adolescents do not meet public health recommendations for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). In studies of variables influencing adolescent MVPA, one that has been understudied is the affective response to exercise. We hypothesized that adolescents with a more positive affective response to acute exercise would be more active. Adolescents (N = 124; 46% male) completed two 30-min exercise tasks (above and below the ventilatory threshold [VT]), and wore ActiGraph accelerometers for 6.5 +/- 0.7 days. Affective valence was assessed before, during, and after each task. A more positive affective response during exercise below the VT was associated with greater participation in MVPA (p positive affective response to exercise will engage in more MVPA. To promote greater participation in MVPA among adolescents, programs should be designed to facilitate a positive affective experience during exercise.

  3. Effects of Physical Exercise on Alzheimer's Disease Biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Kristian Steen; Gjerum, Le; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2018-01-01

    Physical exercise may be an important adjunct to pharmacological treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Animal studies indicate that exercise may be disease modifying through several mechanisms including reduction of AD pathology. We carried out a systematic review of intervention studies...... of physical exercise with hippocampal volume (on MRI), amyloid-β, total tau, phosphorylated tau in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), 18F-FDG-PET or amyloid PET as outcome measures in healthy subjects, patients with subjective memory complaints, mild cognitive impairment, or AD. We identified a total of 8 studies...

  4. Relationship between daily physical activity and exercise capacity in patients with COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwerink, Marlies; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; van der Valk, P.; Brusse-Keizer, M.G.J.; Effing, T.W.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exercise training programmes for patients with COPD are effective in improving exercise capacity. The few trials that have investigated the effects of exercise programmes on daily physical activity show contradictory results. AIM: To investigate the relation between daily physical

  5. Attitudes of asthmatic and nonasthmatic children to physical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrakaki V

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vithleem Dimitrakaki,1 Konstantinos Porpodis,2 Evangelos Bebetsos,1 Paul Zarogoulidis,2 Antonis Papaiwannou,2 Theodora Tsiouda,2 Hlias Tsioulis,2 Konstantinos Zarogoulidis21Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, Democritus University of Thrace, Komotini, Greece; 2Pulmonary Department, G Papanikolaou General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, GreecePurpose: The aim of this study was to examine the physical activity of children with and without asthma in Greece, the factors affecting their intention to exercise, and the influence of gender.Method: The study involved 50 children with asthma and 50 children without asthma, aged 9–14-years old. We used the leisure time exercise questionnaire to assess the frequency and intensity of exercise. The planned behavior scale examined seven factors affecting physical activity: attitude, intention, self-identity, attitude strength, social role model, information, and knowledge.Results: Asthmatic children did not differ significantly in mild, moderate, and overall level of physical activity from children without asthma but they participated less in intense and systematic exercise. The two asthmatic groups did not differ in any of the planned behavior factors. Significant differences between genders occurred with respect to self-identity and social role model. Boys appeared to exercise more regularly and intensely compared to girls.Conclusion: Asthmatic children did not systematically participate in physical activity, preferring mostly mild and moderate intensity activities. Children with and without asthma had comparable positive attitudes and intentions toward exercise.Keywords: planned behavior theory, asthma, sports, health behavior

  6. Hypertension and physical exercise: The role of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsager Larsen, Monica; Matchkov, Vladimir V

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is associated with the pathogenesis of hypertension. Decreased bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) is one of the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis. It has been suggested that physical exercise could be a potential non-pharmacological strategy in treatment of hypertension because of its beneficial effects on oxidative stress and endothelial function. The aim of this review is to investigate the effect of oxidative stress in relation to hypertension and physical exercise, including the role of NO in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Endothelial dysfunction and decreased NO levels have been found to have the adverse effects in the correlation between oxidative stress and hypertension. Most of the previous studies found that aerobic exercise significantly decreased blood pressure and oxidative stress in hypertensive subjects, but the intense aerobic exercise can also injure endothelial cells. Isometric exercise decreases normally only systolic blood pressure. An alternative exercise, Tai chi significantly decreases blood pressure and oxidative stress in normotensive elderly, but the effect in hypertensive subjects has not yet been studied. Physical exercise and especially aerobic training can be suggested as an effective intervention in the prevention and treatment of hypertension and cardiovascular disease via reduction in oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 The Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  7. Physical activity level and exercise in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Camila Kümmel; Almeida, Jussara Carnevale de; Merker, Aline Juliana Schneider; Brauer, Fabiane de Oliveira; Rodrigues, Ticiana da Costa

    2012-01-01

    To compare physical activity level (PAL) and care related to exercise in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). DM outpatients (adult, insulin-user patients) were assessed for PAL (international questionnaire; moderate- and high-level activities, as well as walking, over a typical week) and questioned about formal exercise practice, self-care, and hypoglycemic episodes related to exercise or reasons for not exercising. Two hundred twenty five patients were assessed: 107 (47.6%) had type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and 118 (52.4%) had type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1), with a larger percentage of patients with DM2 being classified as poorly active [33 (30.7%) versus 12 (10.3%)] and a lower percentage being classified as highly active [9 (8.7%) versus 29 (25%)], compared with patients having DM1. Patients who do not exercise (n = 140) gave different reasons for not doing so: patients with DM2 claimed that they "felt uncomfortable", "presented medical restrictions", and "did not like it"; DM1 patients claimed that they "had no time to exercise", "were lazy", and "had hypoglycemic episodes". Only 85 patients exercised regularly, regardless of the PAL, and 38.8% performed self-care, such as eating, stretching, and capillary glucose monitoring. Patients with DM2 [5 (14.3%)] reported a lower number of hypoglycemic episodes related to exercise than those with DM1 [17 (34%)]. Patients with DM2 have different PAL and behavior related to exercise than those seen in DM1 patients.

  8. Physical Activity and Exercise: Perspectives of Adults With Ankylosing Spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dwyer, Tom; McGowan, Emer; O'Shea, Finbar; Wilson, Fiona

    2016-05-01

    Exercise is a key component of the management of ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Despite numerous benefits, compliance with exercise programs is low. Little attention has been accorded to the experiences of individuals with AS toward physical activity (PA). This study aimed to explore the attitudes toward PA and exercise of adults with AS. A qualitative descriptive design using thematic analysis was used. Seventeen adults with AS participated in individual, semistructured interviews. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, coded and analyzed for themes and subthemes. Four themes emerged from the analysis: (1) benefits, (2) barriers, (3) motivation, and (4) strategies and enablers. Benefits included amelioration of symptoms, improvements in general health, and enhancement of quality of life. Subthemes of barriers to PA included lack of resources, negative attitudes to exercise, misinformation, and condition-related factors. Motivation to exercise was influenced by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Participants proposed strategies to enhance PA participation and exercise engagement. Awareness of the benefits of PA appears insufficient to motivate individuals with AS to exercise; a number of factors influence individual motivation to exercise. Many perceived barriers to PA may be considered modifiable. Individually-tailored interventions, collaboratively developed by the individual and the healthcare professionals, were proposed as strategies for effective PA and exercise prescription.

  9. Psychosocial benefits of workplace physical exercise: cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Markus D; Sundstrup, Emil; Brandt, Mikkel; Andersen, Lars L

    2017-10-10

    While benefits of workplace physical exercise on physical health is well known, little is known about the psychosocial effects of such initiatives. This study evaluates the effect of workplace versus home-based physical exercise on psychosocial factors among healthcare workers. A total of 200 female healthcare workers (Age: 42.0, BMI: 24.1) from 18 departments at three hospitals were cluster-randomized to 10 weeks of: 1) home-based physical exercise (HOME) performed alone during leisure time for 10 min 5 days per week or 2) workplace physical exercise (WORK) performed in groups during working hours for 10 min 5 days per week and up to 5 group-based coaching sessions on motivation for regular physical exercise. Vitality and mental health (SF-36, scale 0-100), psychosocial work environment (COPSOQ, scale 0-100), work- and leisure disability (DASH, 0-100), control- (Bournemouth, scale 0-10) and concern about pain (Pain Catastrophizing Scale, scale 0-10) were assessed at baseline and at 10-week follow-up. Vitality as well as control and concern about pain improved more following WORK than HOME (all p health remained unchanged. Between-group differences at follow-up (WORK vs. HOME) were 7 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 3 to 10] for vitality, -0.8 [95% CI -1.3 to -0.3] for control of pain and -0.9 [95% CI -1.4 to -0.5] for concern about pain, respectively. Performing physical exercise together with colleagues during working hours was more effective than home-based exercise in improving vitality and concern and control of pain among healthcare workers. These benefits occurred in spite of increased work pace. NCT01921764 at ClinicalTrials.gov . Registered 10 August 2013.

  10. Physical exercise and osteoporosis: effects of different types of exercises on bone and physical function of postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Linda Denise Fernandes; Oliveira, Mônica Longo de; Lirani-Galvão, Ana Paula; Marin-Mio, Rosângela Villa; Santos, Rodrigo Nolasco dos; Lazaretti-Castro, Marise

    2014-07-01

    Physical exercise is an important stimulus for osteoporosis prevention and treatment. However, it is not clear yet which modality would be better to stimulate bone metabolism and enhance physical function of postmenopausal women. This review paper aims to summarize and update present knowledge on the effects of different kinds of aquatic and ground physical exercises on bone metabolism and physical function of postmenopausal women. Moderate to intense exercises, performed in a high speed during short intervals of time, in water or on the ground, can be part of a program to prevent and treat postmenopausal osteoporosis. Mechanical vibration has proven to be beneficial for bone microarchitecture, improving bone density and bone strength, as well as increasing physical function. Although impact exercises are recognized as beneficial for the stimulation of bone tissue, other variables such as muscle strength, type of muscle contraction, duration and intensity of exercises are also determinants to induce changes in bone metabolism of postmenopausal women. Not only osteoanabolic exercises should be recommended; activities aimed to develop muscle strength and body balance and improve the proprioception should be encouraged to prevent falls and fractures.

  11. Exercises and problems in mathematical methods of physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cicogna, Giampaolo

    2018-01-01

    This book presents exercises and problems in the mathematical methods of physics with the aim of offering undergraduate students an alternative way to explore and fully understand the mathematical notions on which modern physics is based. The exercises and problems are proposed not in a random order but rather in a sequence that maximizes their educational value. Each section and subsection starts with exercises based on first definitions, followed by groups of problems devoted to intermediate and, subsequently, more elaborate situations. Some of the problems are unavoidably "routine", but others bring to the forenontrivial properties that are often omitted or barely mentioned in textbooks. There are also problems where the reader is guided to obtain important results that are usually stated in textbooks without complete proofs. In all, some 350 solved problems covering all mathematical notions useful to physics are included. While the book is intended primarily for undergraduate students of physics, students...

  12. The impact of exercise performance dissatisfaction and physical exercise on symptoms of depression among college students: a gender comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edman, Jeanne L; Lynch, Wesley C; Yates, Alayne

    2014-01-01

    Depression is a common psychological problem and females have been found to be at greater risk for this disorder than males. Although numerous studies have found that physical exercise is negatively associated with risk of depression, some studies suggest that negative exercise attitudes may increase the risk of depression. The present study used the survey method to examine the relationship between depressive symptoms, exercise performance dissatisfaction, body dissatisfaction, and physical exercise among a sample of 895 undergraduate university students. Females reported higher depression and exercise performance dissatisfaction scores than males; however, there were no gender differences in body dissatisfaction. Exercise performance dissatisfaction was positively associated with depression among both males and females. Physical exercise was negatively associated with depression among males, but not among females. The possibility of screening participants enrolled in exercise programs for performance dissatisfaction is discussed as negative exercise attitudes may diminish the positive impact of exercise on depressed mood.

  13. Talking to patients with fibromyalgia about physical activity and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooks, Daniel S

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the application of basic exercise principles to individuals with fibromyalgia to encourage clinicians to discuss with their patients ways of becoming more physically active. The goals of increased physical activity and exercise for individuals with fibromyalgia are to improve or maintain general fitness, physical function, emotional well being, symptoms and overall health, and provide them with a feeling of control over their well being. Describing ways of increasing activity through home, work and leisure-related tasks or exercise provides a universal approach to increasing physical activity that applies to individuals with fibromyalgia and fits a counseling model of health behavior familiar to clinicians. The patient-clinician relationship provides a unique opportunity for health professionals to counsel individuals with fibromyalgia to become and remain more physically active. Regular physical activity and exercise has numerous physical, psychological, and functional benefits for individuals with fibromyalgia and should be included in treatment plans. Clinicians can help patients adopt a more physically active lifestyle through targeted discussions, support and consistent follow up.

  14. [Chronic fatigue syndrome--exercise and physical activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Shai; Frid, Mordechai

    2006-04-01

    One of the major symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is reduced exercise and functional capacity and increased fatigue symptoms following physical effort. A review of the literature indicates that patients that suffer from CFS are characterized by: low aerobic capacity, higher heart rate during sub-maximal exercise, higher subjective effort prescription, reduced muscle strength, and prolonged recovery period. Although several symptoms are a result of lack of physical activity, several mechanisms were suggested to explain those symptoms: pathological heart rate control, reduced aerobic metabolic capacity, reduced blood supply to the working muscles and nerve system dysfunction. Participating in guided exercise programs was found to be the most effective treatment in improving exercise and functional capacity, reducing fatigue syndromes and improving patients' daily function.

  15. Valuing Individuals' Preferences and Health Choices of Physical Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboagye, Emmanuel

    2017-06-01

    The efficacy of physical exercise for the prevention and treatment of non-specific low back pain (LBP) is well documented, but little is known about how individuals value specific components of physical exercise, such as the type and design or the intensity and frequency of exercise. Other factors that influence individual differences in health choices and adherence are associated with individuals' attitudes toward and likelihood of performing recommended exercise regimens. Current evidence shows that efficacy is similar among exercise interventions, but their features vary widely. Thus it may be difficult for clinicians to discriminate between available options in clinical practice. Considering the many challenges in determining the form of exercise best suited to the individual patient, this commentary discusses some of the practical methods that could be used to elicit individual preference for recommended health care interventions. Such methods have the advantage of providing more information for health care decision making, particularly with regard to exercise interventions for LBP. This commentary also advocates for the use of patient preference in health care decisions.

  16. A RIGHT NUTRITION AND PHYSICAL EXERCISE FOR A HEALTHY LIFE

    OpenAIRE

    Rela–Valentina CIOMAG; Ileana-Cãtãlina ILIE

    2013-01-01

    Bad nutrition and mostly overeating have become the main causes for diseases especially in the industrialized countries, which is why nowadays’ nutrition trends suggest finding natural remedies that highlight fruit and vegetables’ true value. The more and more frequent health problems have raised a lot of questions and have brought to people’s attention the importance of exercising as they slowly rediscovered the joys and advantages of an active and healthy lifestyle. Physical exercise revita...

  17. Effects of current physical activity on affective response to exercise: physical and social-cognitive mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnan, Renee E; Kwan, Bethany M; Bryan, Angela D

    2013-01-01

    Affective responses during exercise are often important determinants of exercise initiation and maintenance. Current physical activity may be one individual difference that is associated with the degree to which individuals have positive (or negative) affective experiences during exercise. The objective of this study was to explore physical and cognitive explanations of the relationship between current activity status (more versus less active) and affective response during a 30-minute bout of moderate-intensity exercise. Participants reported their current level of physical activity, exercise self-efficacy and affect during a 30-minute bout of moderate-intensity exercise. More active individuals experienced higher levels of positive affect and tranquillity and lower levels of negative affect and fatigue during exercise. Multivariate models for each affective state indicated separate processes through which physical activity may be associated with changes in affect during exercise. These models indicate that affect experienced during physical activity is related to the current activity level and these relationships can be partially explained by the physical and cognitive factors explored in this study. Recommendations for future research to elucidate whether positive affective response to physical activity improves as a function of becoming more active over time are discussed.

  18. Physical exercise as therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balducci, Stefano; Sacchetti, Massimo; Haxhi, Jonida; Orlando, Giorgio; D'Errico, Valeria; Fallucca, Sara; Menini, Stefano; Pugliese, Giuseppe

    2014-03-01

    Many studies have highlighted the importance of physical activity (PA) for health, and recent evidence now points to the positive improvements associated with exercise in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, few physicians are willing to prescribe exercise as a therapy for diabetic patients. In addition, there is a lack of information on how to implement exercise therapy especially in long-term exercise regimens. The purpose of this manuscript is to summarize standards of exercise therapy for patients with T2DM, both in terms of prescribing and monitoring, according to the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Diabetes Association guidelines. We present details of the exercise therapies used in long-term studies, describing how the parameters for exercise prescription were applied in clinical practice. These parameters are described in terms of frequency, intensity, duration, mode and rate of progression in long-term therapeutic prescriptions. Individual responses to exercise dose are discussed, and critical issues to be considered in patients with underlying disease and in T2DM patients are highlighted. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Physical Exercise for Treatment of Mood Disorders: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearing, CM; Chang, WC; Szuhany, KL; Deckersbach, T; Nierenberg, AA; Sylvia, LG

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of the review The purpose of this review is to critically assess the evidence for exercise as an adjunct intervention for major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder, chronic conditions characterized by frequent comorbid conditions as well as interepisodic symptoms with poor quality of life and impaired functioning. Individuals with these mood disorders are at higher risk of cardiovascular disease and premature death in part because of increased rates of obesity, inactivity, and diabetes mellitus compared to the general population. Exercise may not only mitigate the increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but could also potentially improve the long term outcomes of mood disorders. Recent findings We conducted a literature review on the impact of exercise on mood disorders and associated comorbid conditions as well as possible biological mechanisms. We found that exercise impacts both the physical health parameters of mood disorders as well as mental health outcomes. Exercise also positively impacts conditions frequently comorbid with mood disorders (i.e. anxiety, pain, and insomnia). There are multiple candidate biomarkers for exercise, with brain-derived neurotrophic factor and oxidative stress as two main promising components of exercise’s anti-depressant effect. Summary Exercise appears to be a promising adjunct treatment for mood disorders. We conclude with recommendations for future research of exercise as an adjunct intervention for mood disorders. PMID:28503402

  20. Physical exercise at the workplace reduces perceived physical exertion during healthcare work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Brandt, Mikkel

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High physical exertion during work is a risk factor for musculoskeletal pain and long-term sickness absence. Physical exertion (RPE) reflects the balance between physical work demands and physical capacity of the individual. Thus, increasing the physical capacity through physical......: 3.1 on a scale of 0 to 10, average WRPE: 3.6 on a scale of 0 to 10) from 18 departments at three participating hospitals. Participants were randomly allocated at the cluster level to 10 weeks of: (1) workplace physical exercise (WORK) performed in groups during working hours for 5×10 minutes per...... exercise may decrease physical exertion during work. This study investigates the effect of workplace-based versus home-based physical exercise on physical exertion during work (WRPE) among healthcare workers. METHODS: 200 female healthcare workers (age: 42.0, body mass index: 24.1, average pain intensity...

  1. Physical dose of therapeutic exercises in institutional neck rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasenius, Niko; Karapalo, Teppo; Sjögren, Tuulikki; Pekkonen, Mika; Mälkiä, Esko

    2013-03-01

    To determine the intensity and volume of therapeutic exercises during a standard 13-day inpatient neck rehabilitation course in relation to overall physical activity in rehabilitation and everyday life. Cross-sectional study. Subjects (n = 19; 16 women and 3 men; mean age 48.6 years, standard deviation (SD) 6.6) with chronic non-specific neck pain were recruited from two inpatient neck rehabilitation courses. Intensity and volume of therapeutic exercises and physical activity were measured in metabolic equivalents (METs) with an objective measurement device and all-time recall questionnaire. Maximum oxygen uptake was determined in METs (METc) by direct maximal cycle ergometer. Subjects' mean METc was 7.2 METs (SD 1.4) or 25.3 ml/kg/min (SD 4.8). Intensity of all therapeutic exercises was 1.9 METs or 27 %METc (SD 5.1) and volume 7.7 MET-hours/week. Intensity of specific neck and shoulder exercises was 2.0 METs or 28 %METc (SD 5.4) and volume 2.5 MET-hours/week. In addition, subjects were more active in everyday life than in inpatient rehabilitation. The therapeutic exercise dose failed to reach previously reported target values for pain relief. The dose of therapeutic exercises and confounding physical activity should be carefully controlled in pain rehabilitation programmes.

  2. Accuracy of physical self-description among chronic exercisers and non-exercisers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Berning

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study addressed the role of chronic exercise to enhance physical self-description as measured by self-estimated percent body fat. Accuracy of physical self-description was determined in normal-weight, regularly exercising and non-exercising males with similar body mass index (BMI’s and females with similar BMI’s (n=42 males and 45 females of which 23 males and 23 females met criteria to be considered chronic exercisers. Statistical analyses were conducted to determine the degree of agreement between self-estimated percent body fat and actual laboratory measurements (hydrostatic weighing. Three statistical techniques were employed: Pearson correlation coefficients, Bland and Altman plots, and regression analysis. Agreement between measured and self-estimated percent body fat was superior for males and females who exercised chronically, compared to non-exercisers. The clinical implications are as follows. Satisfaction with one’s body can be influenced by several factors, including self-perceived body composition. Dissatisfaction can contribute to maladaptive and destructive weight management behaviors. The present study suggests that regular exercise provides a basis for more positive weight management behaviors by enhancing the accuracy of self-assessed body composition.

  3. Non-allergic activation of eosinophils after strenuous endurance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    training are associated with muscle adaptations and dam- ... 1Department of Sport and Physical Rehabilitation Sciences, Tshwane University of ... ing values with before-exercise levels. ..... phase response (APR) to muscle/tissue damage, specifical- .... dence of exercise-induced bronchospasm in competitive figure skaters.

  4. Smoking, physical exercise, BMI and late foetal death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, Maria; Nohr, Ellen A; Bech, Bodil H

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to estimate the effect of maternal and paternal smoking on foetal death (miscarriage and stillbirth) and to estimate potential interactions with physical exercise and pre-pregnancy body mass index. We selected 87,930 pregnancies from the population-based Danish National......) for predominantly late foetal death (miscarriage and stillbirth). An interaction contrast ratio was used to assess potential effect measure modification of smoking by physical exercise and body mass index. The adjusted hazard ratio of foetal death was 1.22 (95 % CI 1.02-1.46) for couples where both parents smoked...... with a slightly higher hazard ratio for foetal death if both parents smoked. This study suggests that smoking may increase the negative effect of a high BMI on foetal death, but results were not statistically significant for the interaction between smoking and physical exercise....

  5. Physical exercise and pelvic girdle pain in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Linda Kahr; Backhausen, Mette; Hegaard, Hanne Kristine

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pelvic girdle pain is a frequent cause of sick leave among pregnant women in Denmark. Studies regarding prevention of pelvic girdle pain are sparse. The aim of this study was to examine the association between physical exercise and pelvic girdle pain in pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: A nested...... case-control study within the Danish National Birth Cohort (n = 5304). METHODS: This study used self-reported data on pelvic girdle pain obtained from an interview six months after childbirth. Information on physical exercise was obtained from the pregnancy interview around gestational week 16....... The association was estimated using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Physical exercise in pregnancy was associated with decreased risk of overall pelvic girdle pain (OR = 0.87; 95% CI: 0.77-0.99, p = 0.028). Tests for trend indicated decreasing odds for pelvic girdle pain with increasing number of hours per...

  6. [Effects of exercise and physical activity on vital age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kiyoji; Matsuo, Tomoaki

    2009-07-01

    Advances in medical care have enabled many middle-aged and older adults to live for long periods of time. However, considerable variability is present among those people with regards to both longevity and physical health status. Physical inactivity is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, while exercise habituation is beneficial for the maintenance of good health and high vitality. The authors have developed the concept of so-called vital age for the assessment of health and functional status in middle-aged and older adults. The vital age is estimated using a variety of bio-medical, primarily cardiovascular risk factor parameters. Previous research has compared vital age between sedentary persons and those with obesity and chronic diseases and between sedentary persons and those with exercise habituation, and found that exercise habituation can certainly contribute to better physical vitality in previously sedentary persons as well as diseased persons.

  7. Five months of physical exercise in hemodialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molsted, Stig; Eidemak, Inge; Sorensen, Helle Tauby

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The number of chronic renal failure patients treated by hemodialysis (HD) is continuously increasing. Most patients have reduced physical capacity and have a high risk of cardiac and vascular diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of 5 months physical exercise...... limitations, severe peripheral polyneuropathy, inability to speak Danish or English, dementia or other mental disorders. The patients were randomly assigned to an exercise group (EG, n = 22) or a control group (CG, n = 11). Prior to randomization, baseline testing was performed. The effects were measured...... by aerobic capacity, '2-min stair climbing', 'squat test', self-rated health (SF36), blood pressure and lipids. All tests were carried out by blinded testers. The intervention consisted of 1 h of physical exercise twice a week for 5 months. RESULTS: 20 patients completed the intervention. Attendance was 74...

  8. Andrological aspects of physical exercise and sport medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Luigi, Luigi; Romanelli, Francesco; Sgrò, Paolo; Lenzi, Andrea

    2012-10-01

    Appropriate physical activity is one of the bases of healthy lifestyle. In fact, physical exercise and playing sport may be associated with both improvements and injury to both general and reproductive health. A biologically normal testosterone secretion appears fundamental in males to guarantee both a physiological exercise adaptation and safe sport participation. The reproductive system is highly sensitive to the effects of exercise-related stress and the reproductive hormones may both increase and decrease after different acute or chronic exercises. Exercise and sport participation may positively or negatively influence andrological health status depending on the type, intensity and duration of performed physical activity and on individual health status. In addition, prohibited substances administration (e.g. androgenic-anabolic steroids, and so forth) in competitive and non-competitive athletes represents the main cause of iatrogenic andrological diseases. Preventing and treating andrological problems in active healthy and unhealthy individuals is as important as promoting a correct lifestyle. Physicians need to be educated on the relationships between the male reproductive system and sport participation and on the great role of the pre-participation physical examination in the prevention of andrological diseases.

  9. Effects of Moderate Aerobic Exercise Combined With Caloric Restriction on Circulating Estrogens and IGF-1 in Premenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    cyclicity in cynomolgus monkeys during strenuous exercise training: rapid transition to exercise - induced amenorrhea Endocrinology 142: 2381- 2389...and menstrual cyclicity in cynomolgus monkeys during strenuous exercise training: rapid transition to exercise - induced amenorrhea Endocrinology 142...Spain. p. 155, 1992 Williams, N.I., A.L. Caston, and J.L. Cameron. Induction and reversal of exercise - induced amenorrhea : Temporal correlation

  10. Childhood Obesity, Physical Activity, and Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemet, Dan

    2017-02-01

    As the incidence of childhood obesity increases, there is a need to promote leisure time physical activity. Traditional approaches to promote the population physical activity levels have shown at best moderate improvements. High percentage of children today carry a cell phone, thus the use of this portable device seems promising for enhancing physical activity. Pokémon Go, is a smartphone game that uses augmented reality, where players are incentivized to get out and walk significant distances to catch the Pokémon. Initial reports suggested increases in the number of steps that players performed, yet this effect of the game was not sustained. Incorporating physical activity into modern technology seems promising, clearly there is need to explore creative ways to achieve a longer term effect.

  11. Physical activity and exercise after stoma surgery: overcoming the barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Sarah

    2017-03-09

    This article presents the results from a large nationwide survey completed in 2016 that investigated the physical health and wellbeing of people living with stomas in the UK. In particular, the survey looked at physical activity and exercise, general attitudes and opinions about exercise, whether or not advice about physical activity had been received and other general questions about parastomal hernia and quality of life. There were 2631 respondents making it one of the largest known surveys to date. The findings were concerning yet unsurprising, highlighting a trend toward inactivity after stoma surgery and a fear of exercise in general. People also seem to have poor knowledge about appropriate activities, with many suggesting that the fear of developing a parastomal hernia is a major barrier to activity. Unsurprisingly, those who have a stoma owing to cancer seem to fare worse, reporting even lower levels of physical activity and worse quality of life compared to those with other conditions. This indicates that people who have a combination of a cancer diagnosis and also a stoma may need more specific or additional support in the longer term. The most concerning finding, however, was that the majority of patients could not recall being given any advice about exercise or physical activity by their nurse or surgeon. While this survey presents some initial findings, it raises questions for further research and work. It also highlights a significantly neglected area in both research and support for stoma patients and the health professionals caring for them.

  12. EFFECT OF PHYSICAL EXERCISE ON LIPID PEROXIDATION AND ANTIOXIDANT ASCORBIC ACID DEFENSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana M. Popović

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Strenuous exercises greatly increase oxygen consumption in the whole body, especially in skeletal muscles. Large part of oxygen consumption is reduced to H2O and ATP, but smaller part (2-5% results in an increased leakage of electrons from the mitochondrial respiratory chain, forming various reactive oxygen species ─ ROS (O2˙¯, H2O2 i OH˙. These free radicals are capable of triggering a chain of damaging biochemical and physiological reactions (oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation,as a base for skeletal muscles damage after exercise. MDA (malondialdehide is a marker of exercise induced lipid peroxidation process. L–ascorbic acid is a major aqueous-phase antioxidant. To estimate antioxidant role of ascorbic acid we use rate between dehidroascorbate and ascorbate. In this paper those markers were determinated in 30 students, in rest and after treadmill running protocol (Bruce Treadmill Protocol. It was found that after the treadmill test , plasma MDA level had increased from 3,04 to 4,39 μM/L. Plasma ascorbic acid was also found to be higher after the treadmill test comparing to rest level (from 55,4 to 67,6 μM/L. DHA/A level in rest was 1,62 and after treadmill test it increased to 2,05. These results suggests that strenuous exercise increased process of lipid peroxidation, but in the same time increased ascorbic acid level in plasma and DHA/A rate indicates stronger antioxidant defense system.

  13. Cookbook Procedures in MBL Physics Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royuk, Brent; Brooks, David W.

    2003-01-01

    Presents results of a controlled experiment comparing the conceptual mechanics learning gains as measured by the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) between two laboratory groups. One group completed cookbook labs while the other completed Interactive-Engagement (IE) labs in RealTime Physics. Suggests that laboratory activities should engage students in…

  14. Effect of physical and flexibility exercise on certain hormones and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0.05) in both sexes. Progesterone levels increased in male participants and decreased in female ... relationship between mental alertness and physical ... used to determine the mean, standard error of mean for ..... Exercise and the Stress System. Hormones ... Effect of concurrent strength and endurance training on skeletal ...

  15. Physiology of Exercise for Physical Education and Athletics. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deVries, Herbert A.

    This three-part text, which is concerned with human functions under stress of muscular activity, provides a basis for the study of physical fitness and athletic training. Part 1 reviews pertinent areas of basic physiology. Muscles, the nervous system, the heart, respiratory system, exercise metabolism, and the endocrine system are reviewed. Part 2…

  16. Teaching Physiology of Exercise to Reluctant Physical Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawbridge, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    Exercise physiology seems to be a course that students love or hate. Many physical education students and others involved in the related areas of health, teaching, recreation, dance, athletic training, fitness, and motor learning and development find this course a requirement at some point in their curriculum. Inquiry-based learning is an…

  17. Change in energy expenditure and physical activity in response to aerobic and resistance exercise programs

    OpenAIRE

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Grieve, George L.; DeMello, Madison M.

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is considered an important component of a healthy lifestyle but there remains controversy on effects of exercise on non-exercise physical activity (PA). The present study examined the prospective association of aerobic and resistance exercise with total daily energy expenditure and PA in previously sedentary, young men. Nine men (27.0???3.3?years) completed two 16-week exercise programs (3 exercise sessions per week) of aerobic and resistance exercise separated by a minimum of 6?week...

  18. Design of the sex hormones and physical exercise (SHAPE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peeters Petra HM

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity has been associated with a decreased risk for breast cancer. The biological mechanismn(s underlying the association between physical activity and breast cancer is not clear. Most prominent hypothesis is that physical activity may protect against breast cancer through reduced lifetime exposure to endogenous hormones either direct, or indirect by preventing overweight and abdominal adiposity. In order to get more insight in the causal pathway between physical activity and breast cancer risk, we designed the Sex Hormones and Physical Exercise (SHAPE study. Purpose of SHAPE study is to examine the effects of a 1-year moderate-to-vigorous intensity exercise programme on endogenous hormone levels associated with breast cancer among sedentary postmenopausal women and whether the amount of total body fat or abdominal fat mediates the effects. Methods/Design In the SHAPE study, 189 sedentary postmenopausal women, aged 50–69 years, are randomly allocated to an intervention or a control group. The intervention consists of an 1-year moderate-to-vigorous intensity aerobic and strenght training exercise programme. Partcipants allocated to the control group are requested to retain their habitual exercise pattern. Primary study parameters measured at baseline, at four months and at 12 months are: serum concentrations of endogenous estrogens, endogenous androgens, sex hormone binding globuline and insuline. Other study parameters include: amount of total and abdominal fat, weight, BMI, body fat distribution, physical fitness, blood pressure and lifestyle factors. Discussion This study will contribute to the body of evidence relating physical activity and breast cancer risk and will provide insight into possible mechanisms through which physical activity might be associated with reduced risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Trial registration NCT00359060

  19. Comprehensive Assessment of Step Aerobics Exercises Effect on Women’s Physical Performance and Physical Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. П. Масляк

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the dynamics of physical performance and physical health indicators in young and middle-aged women under the effect of step aerobics exercises. Material and methods. The grounds for the study were Kharkiv fitness club “Zorianyi”. The participants were 28 women aged 20-35. The study used the following methods: theoretical analysis of scientific and methodical literature, pedagogical experiment, methods of mathematical statistics, methods of determining physical performance (Harvard step test and physical health (anthropometry, pulsometry, tonometry, spirometry, dynamometry. Results: The study assessed the level of physical performance and physical health; analyzed age-related performance differences; determined the level of the effect of step aerobics on women’s physical performance and physical health. Conclusions: Step-aerobics exercises proved to have a positive effect on the level of physical performance and physical health of the young and middle-aged women.

  20. Physical Educators' Habitual Physical Activity and Self-Efficacy for Regular Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xihe; Haegele, Justin A.; Davis, Summer

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine physical education teachers' habitual physical activity and self-efficacy for regular exercise. In-service physical education teachers (N = 168) voluntarily completed an online questionnaire that included items to collect demographic information (gender, race/ethnicity, years of teaching experience, and…

  1. Finding golden mean in a physics exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, Elmo

    2017-07-01

    The golden mean is an algebraic irrational number that has captured the popular imagination and is discussed in many books. Indeed, some scientists believe that it appears in some patterns in nature, including the spiral arrangement of leaves and other plant parts. Generally, the golden mean is introduced in geometry and the textbooks give the definition showing a graphical method to determine it. In this short note, we want to find this number by studying projectile motion. This could be a way to introduce the golden mean (also said to be the golden ratio, golden section, Fidia constant, divine proportion or extreme and mean ratio) in a physics course.

  2. Aerobic physical exercise for adult patients with haematological malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergenthal, Nils; Will, Andrea; Streckmann, Fiona; Wolkewitz, Klaus-Dieter; Monsef, Ina; Engert, Andreas; Elter, Thomas; Skoetz, Nicole

    2014-11-11

    Although people with haematological malignancies have to endure long phases of therapy and immobility which is known to diminish their physical performance level, the advice to rest and avoid intensive exercises is still common practice. This recommendation is partly due to the severe anaemia and thrombocytopenia from which many patients suffer. The inability to perform activities of daily living restricts them, diminishes their quality of life and can influence medical therapy. To evaluate the efficacy, safety and feasibility of aerobic physical exercise for adults suffering from haematological malignancies. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, 2014, Issue 1) and MEDLINE (1950 to January 2014) as well as conference proceedings for randomised controlled trials (RCTs). We included RCTs comparing an aerobic physical exercise intervention, intending to improve the oxygen system, in addition to standard care with standard care only for adults suffering from haematological malignancies. We also included studies that evaluated aerobic exercise in addition to strength training. We excluded studies that investigated the effect of training programmes that were composed of yoga, tai chi chuan, qigong or similar types of exercise. We also excluded studies exploring the influence of strength training without additive aerobic exercise. Additionally, we excluded studies assessing outcomes without any clinical impact. Two review authors independently screened search results, extracted data and assessed the quality of trials. We used risk ratios (RRs) for adverse events and 100-day survival, standardised mean differences for quality of life (QoL), fatigue, and physical performance, and mean differences for anthropometric measurements. Our search strategies identified 1518 potentially relevant references. Of these, we included nine RCTs involving 818 participants. The potential risk of bias in these trials is unclear, due

  3. Chicken Essence Improves Exercise Performance and Ameliorates Physical Fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ching Huang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chicken essence (CE is a liquid nutritional supplement made from cooking whole chickens. In traditional Chinese medicine, CE is used to support health, promote healing, increase metabolism, and relieve fatigue. However, few studies have examined the effect of CE on exercise performance and physical fatigue. We aimed to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of CE on fatigue and ergogenic functions following physical challenge in mice. Male ICR mice were divided into four groups to receive vehicle or CE by oral gavage at 0, 845, 1690, or 4225 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. Exercise performance and anti-fatigue function were evaluated by forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of physical fatigue-related biomarkers serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase (CK after physical challenge. CE supplementation dose-dependently elevated endurance and grip strength. CE supplementation significantly decreased lactate, ammonia, and CK levels after physical challenge. Tissue glycogen content, an important energy source for exercise, was significantly increased with CE supplementation. In addition, CE supplementation had few subchronic toxic effects. The supplementation with CE can have a wide spectrum of bioactivities on health promotion, performance improvement and anti-fatigue.

  4. Effects of physical exercise programme on happiness among older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaee-Pool, M; Sadeghi, R; Majlessi, F; Rahimi Foroushani, A

    2015-02-01

    This randomized-controlled trial investigated the effect of physical exercise programme (PEP) on happiness among older adults in Nowshahr, Iran. Results of this study on 120 male and female volunteers showed that an 8-week group physical exercise programme was significantly effective in older adults' happiness. Findings showed that physical exercise programme is so beneficial for increasing older adults' happiness. Physical activity is associated with well-being and happiness. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an 8-week long physical exercise programme (PEP) on happiness among older adults in Nowshahr, Iran. This was a randomized control trial study. The participants consisted of a group of 120 male and female volunteers (mean ± SD age: 71 ± 5.86 years) in a convenience sampling among older adults in public parks in Nowshahr, Iran. We randomly allocated them into experimental (n = 60) and control (n = 60) groups. A validated instrument was used to measure well-being and happiness [Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI)]. Respondents were asked to complete the OHI before and 2 months after implementing PEP. The 8-week PEP was implemented with the intervention group. The statistical analysis of the data was conducted using paired t-test, Fisher's exact test and χ(2). Before the intervention, there was no significant difference in the happiness mean score between the case and control groups; however, after implementing PEP, happiness significantly improved among the experimental group (P = 0.001) and did not improve within the control group (P = 0.79). It can be concluded that PEP had positive effects on happiness among older adults. Planning and implementing of physical activity is so important for older happiness. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Soldier Performance and Mood States Following a Strenuous Road March

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    13) and the more intense the exercise, the greater the elevation (14). Reductions in heart rate through the use of beta - blockers can substantially...extreme physical fatigue. Shooting accuracy degraded severely under these conditions. An increase in body tremors due to fatigue or elevated post...exercise (9) and this may effect shooting accuracy. Muscle tremors increase after brief or prolonged muscular contractions (10, 11) and such tremors

  6. [Physical exercise in the frail elderly: an update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas Herrero, Álvaro; Cadore, Eduardo L; Martínez Velilla, Nicolás; Izquierdo Redin, Mikel

    2015-01-01

    Frailty is a state of vulnerability that involves an increased risk of adverse events and disability in older adults. It is a condition with a complex etiology and pathophysiology. Skeletal muscle power decreases earlier than muscle strength with advancing age and is more strongly associated with functional capacity than muscle strength in frail elderly populations. Multicomponent exercise programs, and especially resistance exercise that includes muscle power training, are currently the most relevant interventions to slow down disability and other adverse outcomes, even in the oldest-old. Moreover, these programs are valuable interventions in other frailty domains, such as falls and cognitive decline. Physical exercise, in the frail elderly, should be prescribed with a progressive individualized plan and just like other medical treatments. Copyright © 2014 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. [The influence of physical exercise on heart rate variability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, Jacek; Zyśko, Dorota; Negrusz-Kawecka, Marta; Halawa, Bogumił

    2003-03-01

    Heart rate variability is controlled by the influence of autonomic nervous system, whereas one part of the system modulates the activity of the other. There is evidence of increased sympathetic activity in patients (pts) with essential hypertension. The aim of the study was to assess the persisting influence of increased sympathetic activity 30 min after moderate physical exercise on heart rate variability in patients with arterial hypertension. The study was performed in 19 patients (10 women, mean age 52.7 +/- 9.5 years and 9 men, mean age 37.7 +/- 8.8 years) with stage I (6 pts) and stage II (13 pts) arterial hypertension. All studied pts had sinus rhythm, were free of diabetes, coronary heart disease and congestive heart failure. 24-hour Holter monitoring was performed and for 30 min before the exercise test the pts stayed in supine rest. The exercise tests were performed between 10 and 11 a.m. Immediately after the exercise all pts stayed in supine position for 30 min. The heart rate variability parameters were studied using Holter monitoring system Medilog Optima Jet and were then analysed statistically. The mean energy expenditure during the exercise was 5.8 +/- 1.1 METs and the maximal heart rate was 148.1 +/- 20.3 bpm. All studied HRV parameters were significantly different in the assessed time period compared to the baseline values (p < 0.001). Significant correlation was found between the age of the studied patients and the mean RR interval, what can be considered as a hyperkinetic (hyperadrenergic) circulatory status and shorter RR interval in younger pts. Significant negative correlation between the age and SDNN parameter (r = -0.65, p < 0.001), 30 min after the exercise mirrors the prolonged adrenergic influence in older pts. The present study shows that the influence of moderate physical exercise on heart rate variability in pts with essential hypertension is extended over 30 min period after exercise and is more pronounced in older pts. The studies

  8. Regular physical exercise improves cardiac autonomic and muscle vasodilatory responses to isometric exercise in healthy elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmento, Adriana de Oliveira; Santos, Amilton da Cruz; Trombetta, Ivani Credidio; Dantas, Marciano Moacir; Oliveira Marques, Ana Cristina; do Nascimento, Leone Severino; Barbosa, Bruno Teixeira; Dos Santos, Marcelo Rodrigues; Andrade, Maria do Amparo; Jaguaribe-Lima, Anna Myrna; Brasileiro-Santos, Maria do Socorro

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate cardiac autonomic control and muscle vasodilation response during isometric exercise in sedentary and physically active older adults. Twenty healthy participants, 10 sedentary and 10 physically active older adults, were evaluated and paired by gender, age, and body mass index. Sympathetic and parasympathetic cardiac activity (spectral and symbolic heart rate analysis) and muscle blood flow (venous occlusion plethysmography) were measured for 10 minutes at rest (baseline) and during 3 minutes of isometric handgrip exercise at 30% of the maximum voluntary contraction (sympathetic excitatory maneuver). Variables were analyzed at baseline and during 3 minutes of isometric exercise. Cardiac autonomic parameters were analyzed by Wilcoxon and Mann–Whitney tests. Muscle vasodilatory response was analyzed by repeated-measures analysis of variance followed by Tukey’s post hoc test. Sedentary older adults had higher cardiac sympathetic activity compared to physically active older adult subjects at baseline (63.13±3.31 vs 50.45±3.55 nu, P=0.02). The variance (heart rate variability index) was increased in active older adults (1,438.64±448.90 vs 1,402.92±385.14 ms, P=0.02), and cardiac sympathetic activity (symbolic analysis) was increased in sedentary older adults (5,660.91±1,626.72 vs 4,381.35±1,852.87, P=0.03) during isometric handgrip exercise. Sedentary older adults showed higher cardiac sympathetic activity (spectral analysis) (71.29±4.40 vs 58.30±3.50 nu, P=0.03) and lower parasympathetic modulation (28.79±4.37 vs 41.77±3.47 nu, P=0.03) compared to physically active older adult subjects during isometric handgrip exercise. Regarding muscle vasodilation response, there was an increase in the skeletal muscle blood flow in the second (4.1±0.5 vs 3.7±0.4 mL/min per 100 mL, P=0.01) and third minute (4.4±0.4 vs 3.9±0.3 mL/min per 100 mL, P=0.03) of handgrip exercise in active older adults. The results indicate that

  9. Effects of group exercise on functional abilities: Differences between physically active and physically inactive women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokorilo, Nebojsa; Mikalacki, Milena; Satara, Goran; Cvetkovic, Milan; Marinkovic, Dragan; Zvekic-Svorcan, Jelena; Obradovic, Borislav

    2018-03-30

    Aerobic exercises to music can have a positive effect on functional and motor skills of an exerciser, their health, as well as an aesthetic and socio-psychological component. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of reactive exercising in a group on functional capabilities in physically active and physically inactive women. A prospective study included 64 healthy women aged 40-60 years. The sample was divided into the experimental group (n= 36), i.e. physically active women who have been engaged in recreational group exercises at the Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Novi Sad, Serbia, and the control group (n= 28), which consisted of physically inactive women. All the participants were monitored using the same protocol before and after the implementation of the research. All women had their height, weight, body mass index measured as well as spiroergometric parameters determined according to the Bruce protocol. A univariate analysis of variance has shown that there is a statistically significant difference between the experimental group and the control group in maximum speed, the total duration of the test, relative oxygen consumption, absolute oxygen consumption and ventilation during the final measurement. After the training intervention, the experimental group showed improvements in all the parameters analyzed compared with pretest values. The recreational group exercise model significantly improves aerobic capacity and functioning of the cardiovascular system. Therefore, it is essential for women to be involved more in any form of recreational group exercising in order to improve functional capacity and health.

  10. Effects of physical exercise on the female reproductive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orio, F; Muscogiuri, G; Ascione, A; Marciano, F; Volpe, A; La Sala, G; Savastano, S; Colao, A; Palomba, S

    2013-09-01

    The excess in physical activity could be closely linked to considerable negative consequences on the whole body. These dysfunctions called as "female athlete triad"' by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) include amenorrhea, osteoporosis and disorder eating. The female athlete triad poses serious health risks, both on the short and on the long term, to the overall well-being of affected individuals. Sustained low energy availability can impair health, causing many medical complications within skeletal, endocrine, cardiovascular, reproductive and central nervous system. On the contrary, several studies have shown, that physical activity improves cardiovascular risk factors, hormonal profile and reproductive function. These improvements include a decrease in abdominal fat, blood glucose, blood lipids and insulin resistance, as well as improvements in menstrual cyclicity, ovulation and fertility, decreases in testosterone levels and Free Androgen Index (FAI) and increases in sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Other studies reported that physical activity improved self-esteem, depression and anxiety. Thus, the aim of this review is to elucidate the effect of physical exercise on female reproductive system and viceversa the impact of hormonal status on physical activity and metabolism. In addition this review supports the idea that physical exercise is a helpful tool for the management of obesity, prevention of cardiovascular, metabolic diseases and female reproductive organs related diseases (e.g. breast cancer). When the excess in physical activity leads up to the female athlete triad, it is imperative to treat each component of the triad by employing both pharmacological and non pharmacological treatments.

  11. Comparing Physical Therapy Accompanying Exercise with Only Exercise Treatments in Patients with Chronic Mechanical Low Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Yılmaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Investigating and comparing the effects of exercise and physical therapy accompanying exercise treatments in patients with chronic low back pain. Materials and Methods: Twenty three patients with mechanical type low back existing more than 3 months were included one of the exercise or the physical therapy+exercise groups according to their application sequence. Both of the groups performed lumbar flexion and extension exercises, strengthening of the lumbar and abdominal muscle exercises and iliopsoas, hamstring and quadriceps stretching exercises two times a day for 14 days. The physical therapy group was given hot pack+therapeutic ultrasound+ interferential current for 10 days additionally. Degree of the low back pain was evaluated with visual analog scale (VAS, range of joint motion was evaluated with hand finger floor distance (HFFD and Modified Schober test, functional status was evaluated with Modified Oswestry Low Back Pain Scale and quality of life was evaluated with Short form-36 (SF-36 before and a month after the treatments. Results: In both groups (exercise group: average age 59 years, 21 females, 2 males; physical therapy group: average age 60 years, 20 females, 3 males pain intensity and HFFD decreased and Modified Schober increased, functionality recovered, pain and physical functions of SF-36 improved after the treatments. SF-36-physical role difficulty also improved in the exercise group. Decrease in pain, increase in HFFD andimproving of the functional status were all significantly more in the physical therapy group. There were no difference between the groups in terms of Modified Schober measurement and changes of the quality of life. Conclusions: Exercises and exercise+physical therapy are both effective in chronic low back pain. Successful results can be taken by addition of the physical therapy in patients who do not benefit sufficiently from exercise therapy. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2015;21: 73-8

  12. Feasibility test on green energy harvesting from physical exercise devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafi, Nirendra N.; Mourshed, M.; Masud, M. H.; Hossain, M. S.; Kamal, M. R.

    2017-06-01

    The demand of power is increasing day by day due to the increase of world population as well as the industrialization and modernization. Depletion of the world's fossil fuel reserves and the adverse effects of their uses on the environment insist the researchers to find out some means of efficient and cost effective alternative energy sources from small to large scales. In a gymnasium the human metabolism power is used to drive the physical exercise devices. However there are a number of exercise device which can have the potential to generate electricity during physical exercise. By converting the available mechanical energy from these exercise devices into kinetic energy, electric power can be produced. In this work, energy was harvested from the most commonly used physical exercise devices used in the gymnasium - paddling and chin up. The paddle pulley and the chin up pulley were connected to the couple pulley which in turn coupled to an alternator by a V-belt to produce electrical energy and a rechargeable battery was used to store electrical energy. The power generation from the device depends upon the speed at which the alternator runs and the age limit. The electrical energy output was observed 83.6 watt at 1300 rpm and 62.5 watt at1150 rpm alternator speed for the paddling and chin up respectively recorded for an average adult. The device was designed for a constant 49N load on the alternator for both paddling and chin up operation. By running each of these devices for about 12 hours in a day, any gymnasium can avoid burning of almost 23.67 kg and 31.6 kg of diesel fuel per year for chin up and paddling respectively. Also it can cut off the CO2 emission to the environment which reveals itself a standalone green micro gym.

  13. Workplace exercise for changing health behavior related to physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Antonio José; Cieslak, Fabrício; Silva, Valter

    2015-01-01

    Physical Activity in the workplace has received special attention from researchers who are looking to promote lifelong health and well-being. The workplace is being investigated as a possible place to assess and create strategies to help people to become healthier. The transtheoretical model and stages of change has been adapted as a tool to assess the stages of behavioral change towards exercising. To assess the change in health behavior following a three-month exercise program based in the workplace. A quasi-experimental study design was used in which 165 employees participated in the study. An intervention program of workplace exercise was applied for three months. Participants were assessed through the transtheoretical model and stages of change questionnaire before and after intervention to understand changes in their position on the behavioral change continuum. The number of employees who were physically active increased after the workplace exercise intervention (13.9% , 95% CI 9.5 to 20.1; P = 0.009). There was a significant decrease in the proportion of employees in the pre-contemplation stage (-6.1% , 95% CI 3.3 to 10.8; P = 0.045) and contemplation stage (-11.5% , 95% CI 7.5 to 17.3; P = 0.017), and a significant increase in the action stage (10.9% , 95% CI 7.0 to 16.6; P = 0.003). Engaging in workplace exercise has a significant positive effect on health behavior and willingness to become more physically active.

  14. Regular physical exercise improves cardiac autonomic and muscle vasodilatory responses to isometric exercise in healthy elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmento AO

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Adriana de Oliveira Sarmento,1–3 Amilton da Cruz Santos,1,4 Ivani Credidio Trombetta,2,5 Marciano Moacir Dantas,1 Ana Cristina Oliveira Marques,1,4 Leone Severino do Nascimento,1,4 Bruno Teixeira Barbosa,1,2 Marcelo Rodrigues Dos Santos,2 Maria do Amparo Andrade,3 Anna Myrna Jaguaribe-Lima,3,6 Maria do Socorro Brasileiro-Santos1,3,4 1Laboratory of Physical Training Studies Applied to Health, Department of Physical Education, Federal University of Paraiba, João Pessoa, Brazil; 2Unit of Cardiovascular Rehabilitation and Exercise Physiology – Heart Institute (InCor/HC-FMUSP, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Graduate Program in Physiotherapy, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil; 4Associate Graduate Program in Physical Education UPE/UFPB, João Pessoa, Brazil; 5Graduate Program in Medicine, Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE, São Paulo, Brazil; 6Department of Morphology and Animal Physiology, Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate cardiac autonomic control and muscle vasodilation response during isometric exercise in sedentary and physically active older adults. Twenty healthy participants, 10 sedentary and 10 physically active older adults, were evaluated and paired by gender, age, and body mass index. Sympathetic and parasympathetic cardiac activity (spectral and symbolic heart rate analysis and muscle blood flow (venous occlusion plethysmography were measured for 10 minutes at rest (baseline and during 3 minutes of isometric handgrip exercise at 30% of the maximum voluntary contraction (sympathetic excitatory maneuver. Variables were analyzed at baseline and during 3 minutes of isometric exercise. Cardiac autonomic parameters were analyzed by Wilcoxon and Mann–Whitney tests. Muscle vasodilatory response was analyzed by repeated-measures analysis of variance followed by Tukey’s post hoc test. Sedentary older adults had higher cardiac

  15. Possible Link between Medical Students' Motivation for Academic Work and Time Engaged in Physical Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Myo Nyein; Somboonwong, Juraiporn; Jaroonvanichkul, Vorapol; Wannakrairot, Pongsak

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise results in an active well-being. It is likely that students' engagement in physical exercise keeps them motivated to perform academic endeavors. This study aimed to assess the relation of time engaged in physical exercise with medical students' motivation for academic work. Prospectively, 296 second-year medical students…

  16. Supplementation prevalence and adverse effects in physical exercise practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Walkíria Valeriano; de Andrade Gomes Silva, Maria Irene; Tavares Toscano, Luciana; Dantas de Oliveira, Klébya Hellen; de Lacerda, Lavoisiana Mateus; Sérgio Silva, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    The use of nutritional supplements is prevalent among physical exercise practitioners and some adverse effects have been reported, however not sufficiently substantial, because they originate from isolated cases. Investigate nutritional supplements consumption prevalence and adverse effects of the use of such products. An epidemiological, representative and transversal study, with 180 physical exercise practitioners in gyms, who answered questionnaires about sports supplementation, associated factors and self-perceived adverse effects. In a subsample of 86 individuals, blood pressure was measured and blood was collected for the evaluation of lipid profile markers, hepatic and renal function. The supplementation prevalence level was 58.3%, whereas the physicians and nutritionists indicated only 21.9%. The reported adverse effects were observed only by supplement users (acne, insomnia, aggressiveness, headaches and tachycardia). Systolic blood pressure was higher in the supplemented group when compared to the control group (p = 0.04), as in the subgroup of thermogenic users (p nutritional supplements without specialized orientation was elevated among physical exercise practitioners, being associated to adverse effects both by the users themselves and by clinical diagnosis.

  17. Exercise, physical activity, and exertion over the business cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Gregory; Dave, Dhaval

    2013-09-01

    Shifts in time and income constraints over economic expansions and contractions would be expected to affect individuals' behaviors. We explore the impact of the business cycle on individuals' exercise, time use, and total physical exertion, utilizing information on 112,000 individual records from the 2003-2010 American Time Use Surveys. In doing so, we test a key causal link that has been hypothesized in the relation between unemployment and health, but not heretofore assessed. Using more precise measures of exercise (and other activities) than previous studies, we find that as work-time decreases during a recession, recreational exercise, TV-watching, sleeping, childcare, and housework increase. This, however, does not compensate for the decrease in work-related exertion due to job-loss, and total physical exertion declines. These effects are strongest among low-educated men, which is validating given that employment in the Great Recession has declined most within manufacturing, mining, and construction. We also find evidence of intra-household spillover effects, wherein individuals respond to shifts in spousal employment conditional on their own labor supply. The decrease in total physical activity during recessions is especially problematic for vulnerable populations concentrated in boom-and-bust industries, and may have longer-term effects on obesity and related health outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The effects of stress on physical activity and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stults-Kolehmainen, Matthew A; Sinha, Rajita

    2014-01-01

    Psychological stress and physical activity (PA) are believed to be reciprocally related; however, most research examining the relationship between these constructs is devoted to the study of exercise and/or PA as an instrument to mitigate distress. The aim of this paper was to review the literature investigating the influence of stress on indicators of PA and exercise. A systematic search of Web of Science, PubMed, and SPORTDiscus was employed to find all relevant studies focusing on human participants. Search terms included "stress", "exercise", and "physical activity". A rating scale (0-9) modified for this study was utilized to assess the quality of all studies with multiple time points. The literature search found 168 studies that examined the influence of stress on PA. Studies varied widely in their theoretical orientation and included perceived stress, distress, life events, job strain, role strain, and work-family conflict but not lifetime cumulative adversity. To more clearly address the question, prospective studies (n = 55) were considered for further review, the majority of which indicated that psychological stress predicts less PA (behavioral inhibition) and/or exercise or more sedentary behavior (76.4 %). Both objective (i.e., life events) and subjective (i.e., distress) measures of stress related to reduced PA. Prospective studies investigating the effects of objective markers of stress nearly all agreed (six of seven studies) that stress has a negative effect on PA. This was true for research examining (a) PA at periods of objectively varying levels of stress (i.e., final examinations vs. a control time point) and (b) chronically stressed populations (e.g., caregivers, parents of children with a cancer diagnosis) that were less likely to be active than controls over time. Studies examining older adults (>50 years), cohorts with both men and women, and larger sample sizes (n > 100) were more likely to show an inverse association. 85.7 % of higher

  19. Increasing Physical Activity in Mothers Using Video Exercise Groups and Exercise Mobile Apps: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Maya Nina; Chan, June Maylin; Vittinghoff, Eric; Van Blarigan, Erin Lynn; Hecht, Frederick

    2018-05-18

    Women significantly decrease their activity levels in the transition to motherhood. Digital health technologies are low cost, scalable, and can provide an effective delivery mechanism for behavior change. This is the first study that examines the use of videoconferencing and mobile apps to create exercise groups for mothers. The aim of the study was to test the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of an individually adaptive and socially supportive physical activity intervention incorporating videoconferencing and mobile apps for mothers. The Moms Online Video Exercise Study was an 8-week, 2-armed, Web-based randomized trial comparing the effectiveness of a group exercise intervention with a waitlist control. Healthy mothers with at least 1 child under the age of 12 years were recruited through Facebook and email listservs. Intervention participants joined exercise groups using videoconferencing (Google Hangouts) every morning on weekdays and exercised together in real time, guided by exercise mobile apps (eg, Nike+, Sworkit) of their choice. Waitlist control participants had access to recommended mobile apps and an invitation to join an exercise group after the 8-week study period. Main outcomes assessed included changes in self-reported moderate, vigorous, and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) minutes per week in aggregate and stratified by whether women met Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for sufficient aerobic activity at baseline. Outcomes were measured through self-assessed Web-based questionnaires at baseline and 8 weeks. The intervention was effective at increasing exercise for inactive women and proved to be feasible and acceptable to all participants. A total of 64 women were randomized, 30 to intervention and 34 to control. Women attended 2.8 sessions per week. There was a strong, but not statistically significant, trend toward increasing moderate, vigorous, and MVPA minutes for all women. As hypothesized, in

  20. Exercising the self : On the Role of Exercise, Gender and Culture in Physical Self-Perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Lindwall, Magnus

    2004-01-01

    In modern society, individuals constantly pass judgments on their own body and physical competence as well as that of other people. All too often, the verdict is less favourable. For the person, these physical self-perceptions (PSP) may negatively affect global self-esteem, identity, and general mental well being. The overall aim of this thesis is to examine primarily the role that exercise, but also the roles that gender and culture, play in the formation of PSP. In Study I, using confirmato...

  1. Physical exercise program for children with bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szentágothai, K; Gyene, I; Szócska, M; Osváth, P

    1987-01-01

    A long-term physical exercise program was established for a large number of children with bronchial asthma. Asthmatic children were first taught to swim on their backs to prevent breathing problems customary for beginners using other strokes. They concurrently participated in gymnasium exercises, and the program was later completed with outdoor running. Program effectiveness was evaluated by monitoring asthmatic symptoms, changes in medication, and changes in the activity and physical fitness of the children. Data collected from 121 children showed that during the first year in the program the number of days with asthmatic symptoms decreased in a large majority of the patients while medication was decreased. School absenteeism and hospitalization dropped markedly. Parental evaluation of the children indicated much improvement in 51.2%, improvement in 40.5%, unchanged condition in 7.4%, and deterioration of general health was only reported in one child (0.8%). The same extent of improvement continued during the second year. The Cooper test was applied for the first time to such an exercise program and indicated that the participating asthmatic children performed as well as a control group of nonasthmatic children, and the cardiovascular efficiency of the asthmatics was actually better.

  2. Design of the Physical exercise during Adjuvant Chemotherapy Effectiveness Study (PACES):A randomized controlled trial to evaluate effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of physical exercise in improving physical fitness and reducing fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Waart, Hanna; Stuiver, Martijn M.; van Harten, Willem H.; Sonke, Gabe S.; Aaronson, Neil K.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Cancer chemotherapy is frequently associated with a decline in general physical condition, exercise tolerance, and muscle strength and with an increase in fatigue. While accumulating evidence suggests that physical activity and exercise interventions during chemotherapy treatment may

  3. Design of the Physical exercise during Adjuvant Chemotherapy Effectiveness Study (PACES): a randomized controlled trial to evaluate effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of physical exercise in improving physical fitness and reducing fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Waart, Hanna; Stuiver, Martijn M.; van Harten, Wim H.; Sonke, Gabe S.; Aaronson, Neil K.

    2010-01-01

    Cancer chemotherapy is frequently associated with a decline in general physical condition, exercise tolerance, and muscle strength and with an increase in fatigue. While accumulating evidence suggests that physical activity and exercise interventions during chemotherapy treatment may contribute to

  4. The Effects of Stress on Physical Activity and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stults-Kolehmainen, Matthew A.; Sinha, Rajita

    2013-01-01

    Background Psychological stress and physical activity (PA) are believed to be reciprocally related; however, most research examining the relationship between these constructs is devoted to the study of exercise and/or PA as an instrument to mitigate distress. Objective The aim of this paper was to review the literature investigating the influence of stress on indicators of PA and exercise. Methods A systematic search of Web of Science, Pub-Med, and SPORTDiscus was employed to find all relevant studies focusing on human participants. Search terms included “stress”, “exercise”, and “physical activity”. A rating scale (0–9) modified for this study was utilized to assess the quality of all studies with multiple time points. Results The literature search found 168 studies that examined the influence of stress on PA. Studies varied widely in their theoretical orientation and included perceived stress, distress, life events, job strain, role strain, and work–family conflict but not lifetime cumulative adversity. To more clearly address the question, prospective studies (n = 55) were considered for further review, the majority of which indicated that psychological stress predicts less PA (behavioral inhibition) and/or exercise or more sedentary behavior (76.4 %). Both objective (i.e., life events) and subjective (i.e., distress) measures of stress related to reduced PA. Prospective studies investigating the effects of objective markers of stress nearly all agreed (six of seven studies) that stress has a negative effect on PA. This was true for research examining (a) PA at periods of objectively varying levels of stress (i.e., final examinations vs. a control time point) and (b) chronically stressed populations (e.g., caregivers, parents of children with a cancer diagnosis) that were less likely to be active than controls over time. Studies examining older adults (>50 years), cohorts with both men and women, and larger sample sizes (n > 100) were more likely

  5. Tabletop exercise as a tool of evaluating physical protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzawa, Reina

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of designed and implemented physical protection system (PPS) is essential for ensuring the effectiveness of PPS. In Japan, nuclear facility operators, which are required to assess performance of PPS, have conducted performance test of PPS element and periodical trainings as well as annual PPS exercise with relevant agencies. In addition to these practical or field efforts, non-field tool for evaluating PPS effectiveness such as tabletop exercise (TTX) can be utilized as it is applied in the USA and other countries. This paper discusses the potential advantage of TTX as an evaluation tool of PPS effectiveness, looking at the characterizations of TTX in comparison to field evaluations, and potential cases where operator would get benefit from TTX especially. (author)

  6. Therapeutic validity and effectiveness of supervised physical exercise training on exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vooijs, M.; Siemonsma, P.C.; Heus, I.; Sont, J.K.; Rövekamp, T.A.; Meeteren, N.L. van

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Our aim was to determine the effectiveness of supervised physical exercise training on exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease taken into consideration indices such as therapeutic validity of interventions, methodological quality of studies, and exercise

  7. Evaluation of post-exercise magnetic resonance images of the rotator cuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahoy, P.M.; Orwin, J.F.; Tuite, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Objective. To examine the effect of strenuous exercise on the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of the rotator cuff tendon. A second objective was to define an optimal time to image the rotator cuff and possibly eliminate exercise-induced false positives. Design and patients. Five male subjects from 24 to 38 years old with normal rotator cuffs by history, physical examination, and screening MRI underwent a rotator cuff exercise session on the Biodex System 2 (Biodex, Shirley, New York). The exercise sessions were followed by sequential MRI scans of the exercised shoulder. These were performed immediately and at 8 h and 24 h after exercise. Results and conclusions. The rotator cuff tendon and subacromial-subdeltoid bursal signal remained unchanged from the pre-exercise through the 24-h post-exercise scans. The rotator cuff muscle signal was increased in five of five subjects on the immediate post-exercise fat-suppressed T2-weighted images. This signal returned to baseline by the 8-h scan. Positive findings of rotator cuff pathology on MRI after strenuous athletic activity should not be discounted as normal exercise-induced changes. Also, diagnostic MRI scanning may take place after a practice session without an increased risk of false positives. (orig.). With 1 fig

  8. Evaluation of post-exercise magnetic resonance images of the rotator cuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahoy, P M [Division of Orthopedic Surgery G5/358, University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics, Madison, WI (United States); Orwin, J F [Division of Orthopedic Surgery G5/358, University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics, Madison, WI (United States); Tuite, M J [Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics, Madison, WI (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Objective. To examine the effect of strenuous exercise on the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of the rotator cuff tendon. A second objective was to define an optimal time to image the rotator cuff and possibly eliminate exercise-induced false positives. Design and patients. Five male subjects from 24 to 38 years old with normal rotator cuffs by history, physical examination, and screening MRI underwent a rotator cuff exercise session on the Biodex System 2 (Biodex, Shirley, New York). The exercise sessions were followed by sequential MRI scans of the exercised shoulder. These were performed immediately and at 8 h and 24 h after exercise. Results and conclusions. The rotator cuff tendon and subacromial-subdeltoid bursal signal remained unchanged from the pre-exercise through the 24-h post-exercise scans. The rotator cuff muscle signal was increased in five of five subjects on the immediate post-exercise fat-suppressed T2-weighted images. This signal returned to baseline by the 8-h scan. Positive findings of rotator cuff pathology on MRI after strenuous athletic activity should not be discounted as normal exercise-induced changes. Also, diagnostic MRI scanning may take place after a practice session without an increased risk of false positives. (orig.). With 1 fig.

  9. Effect of Physical and Flexibility Exercise on Plasma Levels of Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of physical and flexibility exercise on plasma levels of some liver enzymes and biomolecules of young Nigerian adults. Methods: Participants were subjected to a 2-h daily continuous physical and flexibility exercise for 6 weeks. Pre- and post-exercise blood samples were obtained and the ...

  10. Impact of physical exercises on ethos of student during the physical exercises

    OpenAIRE

    Makusev O.; Dmitrieva O.

    2018-01-01

    Based on the study of the influence of physical culture on the health of students, it is established that scientific and technological progress, along with positive effects, has brought a huge spectrum of negative influences to the modern student. Especially in a difficult situation are students who, for the successful implementation of the training program and passing the exams, are forced to mobilize all the reserves of the body’s capabilities. Physical education removes the fatigue...

  11. Biochemical Markers of Physical Exercise on Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla Steen; Hasselbalch, Steen Gregers; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The cognitive effects of physical exercise in patients with dementia disorders or mild cognitive impairment have been examined in various studies; however the biochemical effects of exercise from intervention studies are largely unknown. The objective of this systematic review...

  12. Reasons for participation and satisfaction in physical activity, physical exercises, and sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmer Garita Azofeifa

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Motivation in physical activity constitutes a multidimensional psychological characteristic that is influenced by the person’s internal aspects (preferences, desires, fears, etc. and his/her experiences in the external environment (social acceptance, friends, skills, etc..  In a period in which physical activity is globally increasing among people of all ages, it is important for physical educators, sports trainers, or physical instructors to know the main reasons for their trainees to exercise with the purpose of preparing ideal workout plans that would help them continue exercising.  These plans should encourage subjects to enjoy and be satisfied with their participation, therefore, extending their active life cycle and avoiding quitting, which are closely related to a sedentary lifestyle and the risk of having chronic and degenerative diseases.  Consequently, children prefer to exercise to have fun and make friends, adolescents to compete and make friends, college students for adventure and fun, adults to have regular physical activity, and senior citizens to obtain health benefits.  Women are motivated by their appearance and social reasons, while men do it for competition and status.  Subjects who practice sports are motivated by competition, while those who exercise do it for body image.  The more physical activity is practiced the more value is given to competition.  Finally, having fun, competing, learning skills, and being in good physical condition are the most relevant reasons for American, European, and Asian subjects to participate in physical activity.  This research was conducted with the purpose of letting professionals of human movement sciences know the variables that determine the reasons for subjects of distinctive ages, gender, culture, and level of activity to participate in the different types of physical activities.

  13. [Leptin: aspects on energetic balance, physical exercise and athletic amenorhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Sandra Maria Lima; dos Santos, Zirlene Adriana; da Silva, Renata Juliana; Louzada, Eliana; Donato, José; Tirapegui, Julio

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this manuscript was to review the knowledge about leptin, detailing its relationship with energetic intake and physical activity. Leptin is an adipocyte hormone, recognized mainly for its putative role in control of energy expenditure, food intake, body weight and reproductive function. Leptin has still important peripheral actions, including its role on the ovarian tissue. The intracellular signaling mechanisms are recognized in hypothalamus, but in peripheral tissue are not fully understood. The exercise, when practiced by women, if not appropriately planned according to food intake, can modify the leptin release. When energy imbalances induced by exercise and/or deficient food ingestion occurs, low leptin levels are observed, leading to a reduction in GnRH (gonadotropin-release hormone), in LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) in pituitary, and consequently a minor release of ovarian estrogens. This process is named hypothalamic amenorrhea, and has repercussions in the woman's health. In this perspective, it is important to emphasize the need to evaluate the energy expenditure from exercise and to formulate adequate alimentary plans to these individuals.

  14. The Role of Physical Exercise in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Bilski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed and analyzed the relationship between physical exercise and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD which covers a group of chronic, relapsing, and remitting intestinal disorders including Crohn’s disease (CD and ulcerative colitis. The etiology of IBD likely involves a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental risk factors. Physical training has been suggested to be protective against the onset of IBD, but there are inconsistencies in the findings of the published literature. Hypertrophy of the mesenteric white adipose tissue (mWAT is recognized as a characteristic feature of CD, but its importance for the perpetuation of onset of this intestinal disease is unknown. Adipocytes synthesize proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Hypertrophy of mWAT could play a role as a barrier to the inflammatory process, but recent data suggest that deregulation of adipokine secretion is involved in the pathogenesis of CD. Adipocytokines and macrophage mediators perpetuate the intestinal inflammatory process, leading to mucosal ulcerations along the mesenteric border, a typical feature of CD. Contracting skeletal muscles release biologically active myokines, known to exert the direct anti-inflammatory effects, and inhibit the release of proinflammatory mediators from visceral fat. Further research is required to confirm these observations and establish exercise regimes for IBD patients.

  15. Balanced Physical Exercise Increase Physical Fitness, Optimize Endorphin Levels, and Decrease Malondialdehyde Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Adams Pangkahila

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical fitness determines the level of human health. A good physical fitness can be achieved if conducted with a balance and active physical fitness. The aims of this study was to elucidate the effect of balanced physical exercise on physical fitness, endorphin levels, and malondialdehyde (MDA levels. Methods: This study was a true experimental with pretest-posttest control group design using 24 students of IKIP PGRI Denpasar. Selected samples divided into two groups: the control group given conventional physical training (P0 and the treatment group given balanced physical training (P1. Physical fitness tests was performed using Cooper method and blood sampling was done to evaluate the level of endorphins and MDA before (pre test and after (post test treatment of 8 weeks. The data of endorphin and MDA levels were analyzed using independent T test. Whereas, the physical fitness was analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Physical fitness of the group given a balanced physical training was significantly higher compare to the group given a conventional physical training (p < 0.05. Balanced physical training was proven to enhance physical fitness as measured by the Cooper method better than conventional physical training. In contrast, the levels of endorphins of the balanced physical training group did not different with the conventional physical training group (p > 0.05. Levels of MDA of balanced physical training group also did not different with the conventional physical training group (p > 0.05. Conclusions: balanced physical training can maintain physical fitness of people and improve the health and quality of life. 

  16. The effect of physical fitness and physical exercise training on work productivity among health care workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongstad, Malte Bue; Christensen, Jeanette Reffstrup; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    THE EFFECT OF PHYSICAL FITNESS AND PHYSICAL EXERCISE TRAINING ON WORK PRODUCTIVITY AMONG HEALTH CARE WORKERS Kongstad, M. 1, Sjøgaard, G. 1, Søgaard, K. 1, Christensen, JR. 1 1: SDU (Odense, Denmark) Introduction Workplace health promotion involving physical exercise training may negate lifestyle......-sectional sample of health care workers, as well as 2) the change in WP in relation to changes in the before mentioned physiological variables following workplace health promotion. Methods Secondary analyses were performed on a subsample of 139 Danish, female health care workers participating in a cluster...... randomized controlled trial. WP was assessed as a summed score using selected, validated questions from three questionnaires (Health and Work Performance Questionnaire, Work Ability, and Quantity and Quality Method). Height and weight were measured to calculate BMI, CRF was measured using a bicycle ergometer...

  17. THE EFFECTS OF ACUTE PHYSICAL EXERCISE TRAINING ON MATHEMATICAL COMPUTATION IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustav Bala

    2014-12-01

    The results showed that the children’s computation performance was enhanced significantly in the groups with 30, or 45, or 60 min of physical exercise, but not in the groups without physical exercise. This means that even acute intensive physical training can yield positive effects on children's mathematical abilities.

  18. Non-Exercise Estimation of VO[subscript 2]max Using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schembre, Susan M.; Riebe, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    Non-exercise equations developed from self-reported physical activity can estimate maximal oxygen uptake (VO[subscript 2]max) as well as sub-maximal exercise testing. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire is the most widely used and validated self-report measure of physical activity. This study aimed to develop and test a VO[subscript…

  19. Physical fitness, weight, smoking, and exercise patterns in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyk, Dieter; Rüther, Thomas; Witzki, Alexander; Sievert, Alexander; Moedl, Anne; Blettner, Maria; Hackfort, Dieter; Löllgen, Herbert

    2012-11-01

    The health and physical fitness of adolescents and young adults are important not just to the individuals concerned, but also to society as a whole. Many studies from many different countries have dealt with the prevalence of overweight, the risk factors for it, and the morbidity it causes, but no more than a few have addressed the effects of unhealthy lifestyles on physical fitness. In this study, we show that young adults' physical performance depends on the number of risk factors they possess. We also compare the young adults' physical performance with that of adolescents aged 10 to 17. We obtained cross-sectional data on the weight, smoking status, athletic activity, time to run 1 km, and ability to perform a chin-up on a horizontal bar of 8048 subjects aged 10 to 25. The young adults were divided into groups depending on the number of risk factors they possessed from the following list: overweight, smoking, and lack of exercise. 28.4% of the men and 35.4% of the women aged 18 to 25 had none of these risk factors and exhibited the best physical performance. The more risk factors were present, the worse physical performance became. The 24- and 25-year-olds performed at the same level as the 14- and 15-year-olds. Unhealthy lifestyles can impair physical fitness even before any chronic disease arises. Possession of even a single risk factor is associated with significantly worse performance. Unless comprehensive and effective interventions are introduced in school and at work, the further cementation and worsening of unhealthy lifestyles will be hard to stop.

  20. The role of physical exercise in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Flávio Maciel Dias de; Pedrosa, Rodrigo Pinto

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common clinical condition, with a variable and underestimated prevalence. OSA is the main condition associated with secondary systemic arterial hypertension, as well as with atrial fibrillation, stroke, and coronary artery disease, greatly increasing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Treatment with continuous positive airway pressure is not tolerated by all OSA patients and is often not suitable in cases of mild OSA. Hence, alternative methods to treat OSA and its cardiovascular consequences are needed. In OSA patients, regular physical exercise has beneficial effects other than weight loss, although the mechanisms of those effects remain unclear. In this population, physiological adaptations due to physical exercise include increases in upper airway dilator muscle tone and in slow-wave sleep time; and decreases in fluid accumulation in the neck, systemic inflammatory response, and body weight. The major benefits of exercise programs for OSA patients include reducing the severity of the condition and daytime sleepiness, as well as increasing sleep efficiency and maximum oxygen consumption. There are few studies that evaluated the role of physical exercise alone for OSA treatment, and their protocols are quite diverse. However, aerobic exercise, alone or combined with resistance training, is a common point among the studies. In this review, the major studies and mechanisms involved in OSA treatment by means of physical exercise are presented. In addition to systemic clinical benefits provided by physical exercise, OSA patients involved in a regular, predominantly aerobic, exercise program have shown a reduction in disease severity and in daytime sleepiness, as well as an increase in sleep efficiency and in peak oxygen consumption, regardless of weight loss. RESUMO A apneia obstrutiva do sono (AOS) é uma condição clínica comum, possuindo prevalência variável e subestimada. Principal condição associada à hipertens

  1. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and physical activity for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek J; Proctor, David N; Fiatarone Singh, Maria A; Minson, Christopher T; Nigg, Claudio R; Salem, George J; Skinner, James S

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this Position Stand is to provide an overview of issues critical to understanding the importance of exercise and physical activity in older adult populations. The Position Stand is divided into three sections: Section 1 briefly reviews the structural and functional changes that characterize normal human aging, Section 2 considers the extent to which exercise and physical activity can influence the aging process, and Section 3 summarizes the benefits of both long-term exercise and physical activity and shorter-duration exercise programs on health and functional capacity. Although no amount of physical activity can stop the biological aging process, there is evidence that regular exercise can minimize the physiological effects of an otherwise sedentary lifestyle and increase active life expectancy by limiting the development and progression of chronic disease and disabling conditions. There is also emerging evidence for significant psychological and cognitive benefits accruing from regular exercise participation by older adults. Ideally, exercise prescription for older adults should include aerobic exercise, muscle strengthening exercises, and flexibility exercises. The evidence reviewed in this Position Stand is generally consistent with prior American College of Sports Medicine statements on the types and amounts of physical activity recommended for older adults as well as the recently published 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. All older adults should engage in regular physical activity and avoid an inactive lifestyle.

  2. Physical Exercise and Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Russell; Koegel, Lynn Kern; Ashbaugh, Kristen; Regester, April; Ence, Whitney; Smith, Whitney

    2010-01-01

    Studies involving physical exercise and individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were reviewed. Systematic search procedures identified 18 studies meeting predetermined inclusion criteria. These studies were evaluated in terms of: (a) participant characteristics, (b) type of exercise, (c) procedures used to increase exercise, (d) outcomes,…

  3. The Effects Of An Exercise Physiology Program on Physical Fitness Variables, Body Satisfaction, and Physiology Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Arlette C.; Rosenblatt, Evelyn S.; Kempner, Lani; Feldman, Brandon B.; Paolercio, Maria A.; Van Bemden, Angie L.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of an exercise physiology program on high school students' physical fitness, body satisfaction, and physiology knowledge. Intervention students received exercise physiology theory and active aerobic and resistance exercise within their biology course. Data from student surveys and measurements indicated that the integrated…

  4. Review: Multiple sclerosis and physical exercise: recommendations for the application of resistance-, endurance- and combined training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, U; Stenager, E; Ingemann-Hansen, T

    2008-01-01

    This review summarizes the existing knowledge regarding the effects of physical exercise in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS). Furthermore, recommendations are given regarding exercise prescription for MS patients and for future study directions. Previously, MS patients were advised...... not to participate in physical exercise. During recent years, it has been increasingly acknowledged that exercise benefits MS patients. The requirement for exercise in MS patients is emphasized by their physiological profile, which probably reflects both the effects of the disease per se and the reversible effects...

  5. Effect of yoga or physical exercise on physical, cognitive and emotional measures in children: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telles, Shirley; Singh, Nilkamal; Bhardwaj, Abhishek Kumar; Kumar, Ankur; Balkrishna, Acharya

    2013-11-07

    Previous studies have separately reported the effects of physical exercise and yoga in children, showing physical, cognitive and emotional benefits. The present randomized controlled trial assessed the effects of yoga or physical exercise on physical fitness, cognitive performance, self-esteem, and teacher-rated behavior and performance, in school children. 98 school children between 8 to 13 years were randomized as yoga and physical exercise groups {n = 49 each; (yoga: 15 girls, group mean age 10.4 ± 1.2 years), (physical exercise: 23 girls, group mean age 10.5 ± 1.3 years)}. Both groups were blind assessed after allocation, using: (i) the Eurofit physical fitness test battery, (ii) Stroop color-word task for children, (iii) Battle's self-esteem inventory and (iv) the teachers' rating of the children's obedience, academic performance, attention, punctuality, and behavior with friends and teachers. After assessments the yoga group practiced yoga (breathing techniques, postures, guided relaxation and chanting), 45 minutes each day, 5 days a week. During this time the physical exercise group had jogging-in-place, rapid repetitive movements and relay races or games. Both groups were assessed at the end of 3 months. Data were analyzed with RM ANOVA and post-hoc tests were Bonferroni adjusted. There was one significant difference between groups. This was in social self-esteem which was higher after physical exercise compared to yoga (p exercise group, while plate tapping improved in the yoga group (p exercise group showed higher interference scores. Total, general and parental self-esteem improved in the yoga group (p exercise are useful additions to the school routine, with physical exercise improving social self-esteem. The study was registered in the Clinical Trials Registry of India (CTRI/2012/11/003112).

  6. Special Physical Preparation of High Schoolers for Performing Parkour Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. М. Кравчук

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to ground and develop a methodology of special physical preparation of high schoolers for performing parkour elements, and to experimentally verify its effectiveness. Materials and methods: Kharkiv secondary school No. 84 served as the grounds for the study. The participants in the study were boys aged 15-17: 10 persons – in the reference group, and 10 persons – in the experimental group. The methods of the study: theoretical analysis and collation of scientific and methodological literature; pedagogical observation; video recording; biomechanical analysis; talks with experts; pedagogical experiment; mathematical and statistical methods of research materials processing. Results: The experimental group showed positive improvement in the balancing technique from 3.5 points before the experiment to 6.3 after the experiment (p < 0.05; a considerable increase in points in the jumping technique, including jumps onto the wall bars hand-gripping its edge, jumps into landing with a roll, and jumps over obstacle – from 2.9, 4.2 and 4.6 points respectively at the beginning of the experiment to 5.9, 6.7 and 7.8 points respectively after the experiment (p < 0.05; positive significant improvement in the wall bars running results – from 3.2 points at the beginning of the experiment to 6.7 after the experiment (p < 0.05. Conclusions: special sets of exercises have been designed to develop and improve these abilities in parkour, and the effectiveness of the designed methodology has been experimentally verified. The study has proved that, when used in physical training of high schoolers, the special sets of exercises intended to develop parkourists’ speed, strength and coordination abilities contribute to a significant increase in the level of the technique of execution of the main parkour elements.

  7. Change in energy expenditure and physical activity in response to aerobic and resistance exercise programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Grieve, George L; DeMello, Madison M

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is considered an important component of a healthy lifestyle but there remains controversy on effects of exercise on non-exercise physical activity (PA). The present study examined the prospective association of aerobic and resistance exercise with total daily energy expenditure and PA in previously sedentary, young men. Nine men (27.0 ± 3.3 years) completed two 16-week exercise programs (3 exercise sessions per week) of aerobic and resistance exercise separated by a minimum of 6 weeks in random order. Energy expenditure and PA were measured with the SenseWear Mini Armband prior to each intervention as well as during week 1, week 8 and week 16 of the aerobic and resistance exercise program. Body composition was measured via dual x-ray absorptiometry. Body composition did not change in response to either exercise intervention. Total daily energy expenditure on exercise days increased by 443 ± 126 kcal/d and 239 ± 152 kcal/d for aerobic and resistance exercise, respectively (p change in total daily energy expenditure and PA on non-exercise days with aerobic exercise while resistance exercise was associated with an increase in moderate-to-vigorous PA during non-exercise days (216 ± 178 kcal/d, p = 0.01). Results of the present study suggest a compensatory reduction in PA in response to aerobic exercise. Resistance exercise, on the other hand, appears to facilitate non-exercise PA, particularly on non-exercise days, which may lead to more sustainable adaptations in response to an exercise program.

  8. Physical Exercise Practice and Associated Factors Among Undergraduate Students from a Southern Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira Marcio

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the study was to analyse the prevalence and factors associated with not performing physical exercise in undergraduate students. Methods. The sample was composed of 2738 undergraduate students of Londrina city, Parana, Brazil. The dependent variables were: not performing physical exercise of moderate intensity for at least 30 minutes per week; not performing vigorous physical exercise for at least 20 minutes per week; not performing muscular strengthening exercises (8-12 repetitions in a week. The independent variables were gender, age, skin colour, marital status, housing, study pattern, year of course, paid work, and area of the course. Odds ratio (OR was estimated by multivariate analysis with the use of binary logistic regression. Results. The prevalence of undergraduate students not performing physical exercise of moderate intensity, of vigorous intensity, or muscular strengthening exercises was 47.3, 61.0, and 66.2%, respectively. Female sex was associated with a risk of not performing moderate physical exercise (OR = 1.23, vigorous physical exercise (OR = 1.47, and strengthening exercises (OR = 1.22. Undergraduate students of exact sciences (OR = 1.40 and 1.52, juridical sciences (OR = 1.48 and 1.51, and humanities (OR = 1.45 and 1.52 were at risk of not performing physical exercise of moderate or vigorous intensity, respectively. Being a 2nd (OR = 0.79, 3rd (OR = 0.74, or 4th (OR = 0.71 year student was bound with a lower likelihood of not performing physical exercise of moderate intensity. Conclusions. Intervention programmes with the aim of promoting physical exercise practice in undergraduate students should consider gender, year, and area of the course.

  9. Physical Exercise as an Adjunct Treatment for Adolescent Depression

    OpenAIRE

    SARA RADOVIC

    2017-01-01

    There is evidence that exercise is effective in the treatment of depression amongst adults, however limited research has explored the role of exercise in the treatment of adolescent depression. This thesis demonstrated that an individualised, self-directed exercise intervention is feasible and effective in reducing depressive symptoms amongst depressed adolescents. Additionally, this thesis demonstrated that mental health clinicians hold favourable attitudes towards the use of exercise in the...

  10. Factors influencing participation in physical exercise by the elderly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regular exercise has been recommended as a partial solution to improving health and wellness among many groups of people including the elderly. Unfortunately, information on the participation of elderly in exercise in Kenya is lacking. This study sought to explore measures for enhancing participation in exercise by the ...

  11. Stepping Up Physical Exercise Among Nigerian Patients With Type ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To investigate the impact of a type 2 diabetes-oriented exercise ... Materials and Methods: The patients (n=86) were randomized into either the ... increased aerobic, resistance, joint mobilization and foot care exercise times by ... Keywords: Type 2 diabetes, exercise education, joint mobilization, aerobic activities, ...

  12. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science: A Brief Report on 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Nicholas D.; Lee, Seungmin; Kostelis, Kimberly T.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this annual report is to provide a summary of measurement in physical education and exercise science-related activities in 2017. A recent trend for an annual increase in manuscript submissions to measurement in physical education and exercise science continued in 2017. Twenty-nine countries were represented (i.e., corresponding…

  13. Moderators of the effects of group-based physical exercise on cancer survivors' quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalter, Joeri; Buffart, Laurien M.; Korstjens, Irene; van Weert, Ellen; Brug, Johannes; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M.; Mesters, Ilse; van den Borne, Bart; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.; Ros, Wynand J. G.; May, Anne M.

    This study explored demographic, clinical, and psychological moderators of the effect of a group-based physical exercise intervention on global quality of life (QoL) among cancer survivors who completed treatment. Cancer survivors were assigned to a 12-week physical exercise (n = 147) or a wait-list

  14. The Relationship between Attitude toward Physical Education and Leisure-Time Exercise in High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Min-hau; Phillips, D. Allen

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between U.S. and Taiwanese high school students' attitudes toward physical education and leisure time exercise, noting the influence of nationality and gender. Student surveys indicated significant relationships between attitudes toward physical education and leisure time exercise, regardless of nationality or gender.…

  15. The Impact of Rope Jumping Exercise on Physical Fitness of Visually Impaired Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Chien; Lin, Shih-Yen

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of rope jumping exercise on the health-related physical fitness of visually impaired students. The participants' physical fitness was examined before and after the training. The exercise intensity of the experimental group was controlled with Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) (values…

  16. The interpretation of physical activity, exercise, and sedentary behaviours by persons with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnett-Hopkins, Dominique; Learmonth, Yvonne; Hubbard, Elizabeth; Pilutti, Lara; Roberts, Sarah; Fanning, Jason; Wójcicki, Thomas; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert

    2017-11-07

    This study adopted a qualitative research design with directed content analysis and examined the interpretations of physical activity, exercise, and sedentary behaviour by persons with multiple sclerosis. Fifty three persons with multiple sclerosis who were enrolled in an exercise trial took part in semi-structured interviews regarding personal interpretations of physical activity, exercise, and sedentary behaviours. Forty three percent of participants indicated a consistent understanding of physical activity, 42% of participants indicated a consistent understanding of exercise, and 83% of participants indicated a consistent understanding of sedentary behaviour with the standard definitions. There was evidence of definitional ambiguity (i.e., 57, 58, and 11% of the sample for physical activity, exercise, and sedentary behaviour, respectively); 6% of the sample inconsistently defined sedentary behaviour with standard definitions. Some participants described physical activity in a manner that more closely aligned with exercise and confused sedentary behaviour with exercise or sleeping/napping. Results highlight the need to provide and utilise consistent definitions for accurate understanding, proper evaluation and communication of physical activity, exercise, and sedentary behaviours among persons with multiple sclerosis. The application of consistent definitions may minimise ambiguity, alleviate the equivocality of findings in the literature, and translate into improved communication about these behaviours in multiple sclerosis. Implications for Rehabilitation The symptoms of multiple sclerosis can be managed through participation in physical activity and exercise. Persons with multiple sclerosis are not engaging in sufficient levels of physical activity and exercise for health benefits. Rehabilitation professionals should use established definitions of physical activity, exercise, and sedentary behaviours when communicating about these behaviours among persons with

  17. Self-management of mood and/or anxiety disorders through physical activity/exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Louise; Shanmugasegaram, Shamila; Patten, Scott B; Demers, Alain

    2017-05-01

    Physical activity/exercise is regarded as an important self-management strategy for individuals with mental illness. The purpose of this study was to describe individuals with mood and/or anxiety disorders who were exercising or engaging in physical activity to help manage their disorders versus those who were not, and the facilitators for and barriers to engaging in physical activity/exercise. For this study, we used data from the 2014 Survey on Living with Chronic Diseases in Canada-Mood and Anxiety Disorders Component. Selected respondents (n = 2678) were classified according to the frequency with which they exercised: (1) did not exercise; (2) exercised 1 to 3 times a week; or (3) exercised 4 or more times a week. We performed descriptive and multinomial multiple logistic regression analyses. Estimates were weighted to represent the Canadian adult household population living in the 10 provinces with diagnosed mood and/or anxiety disorders. While 51.0% of the Canadians affected were not exercising to help manage their mood and/or anxiety disorders, 23.8% were exercising from 1 to 3 times a week, and 25.3% were exercising 4 or more times a week. Increasing age and decreasing levels of education and household income adequacy were associated with increasing prevalence of physical inactivity. Individuals with a mood disorder (with or without anxiety) and those with physical comorbidities were less likely to exercise regularly. The most important factor associated with engaging in physical activity/exercise was to have received advice to do so by a physician or other health professional. The most frequently cited barriers for not exercising at least once a week were as follows: prevented by physical condition (27.3%), time constraints/too busy (24.1%) and lack of will power/self-discipline (15.8%). Even though physical activity/exercise has been shown beneficial for depression and anxiety symptoms, a large proportion of those with mood and/or anxiety disorders did

  18. Self-management of mood and/or anxiety disorders through physical activity/exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Pelletier

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physical activity/exercise is regarded as an important self-management strategy for individuals with mental illness. The purpose of this study was to describe individuals with mood and/or anxiety disorders who were exercising or engaging in physical activity to help manage their disorders versus those who were not, and the facilitators for and barriers to engaging in physical activity/exercise. Methods: For this study, we used data from the 2014 Survey on Living with Chronic Diseases in Canada-Mood and Anxiety Disorders Component. Selected respondents (n = 2678 were classified according to the frequency with which they exercised: (1 did not exercise; (2 exercised 1 to 3 times a week; or (3 exercised 4 or more times a week. We performed descriptive and multinomial multiple logistic regression analyses. Estimates were weighted to represent the Canadian adult household population living in the 10 provinces with diagnosed mood and/or anxiety disorders. Results: While 51.0% of the Canadians affected were not exercising to help manage their mood and/or anxiety disorders, 23.8% were exercising from 1 to 3 times a week, and 25.3% were exercising 4 or more times a week. Increasing age and decreasing levels of education and household income adequacy were associated with increasing prevalence of physical inactivity. Individuals with a mood disorder (with or without anxiety and those with physical comorbidities were less likely to exercise regularly. The most important factor associated with engaging in physical activity/exercise was to have received advice to do so by a physician or other health professional. The most frequently cited barriers for not exercising at least once a week were as follows: prevented by physical condition (27.3%, time constraints/too busy (24.1% and lack of will power/self-discipline (15.8%. Conclusion: Even though physical activity/exercise has been shown beneficial for depression and anxiety symptoms, a large

  19. Comparative study of change in physical activity on exercise performance and mental well being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaman Mohan Harsoda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of aerobic exercises training with different modes of physical activity on cardiovascular fitness and mental health. In this regard, 20 young healthy male participants (18 to 30 years were included in this study. They were divided into 2 groups, 10 in each, groups A and group B. Group A participated in combined limb exercise while Group B participated in walking exercise training under the supervision of a physical trainer. Resting and maximum pulse, resting and maximum systolic and diastolic blood pressure, Treadmill walking exercise fatigue time (TWEFT and general health questionnaire GHQ-12 were analyzed in both groups before and after the exercise training. Students paired t test was applied for pre and post data analysis. Results showed resting pulse, resting and maximum SBP and TWEFT decrease significantly (p<0.05 after combined limb exercise. Walking exercise alone causes decrease in resting pulse and GHQ score. In conclusion combined limb exercise is more beneficial than walking exercise alone. The cardiovascular fitness is improved after combined limb exercise while the mental well being is more pronounced after walking exercise alone. It can be suggested that combination of both forms of physical activity is the proper way to improve cardiovascular fitness and mental well being simultaneously, if practiced regularly.

  20. An investigation and research on influencing factors of college students’ physical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiarong Wu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available College students’ consciousness of physical exercise is so weak in recent years. The exercising habit is hard to form and physique conditions decline year by year. Combining practical teaching experience and considering influencing factors of college students, the author carries out an investigation and a statistical analysis on the college students’ participation of physical exercise through methods of documents, questionnaire survey and mathematical statistics according to personalities of college students. The result indicates that the lack of fields and facilities, the lack of leisure time, the lack of companions, the lack of sport specialties and the lack of teachers’ guidance and extracurricular sports competitions are major factors influencing physical exercise of college students. So, how to form the habit of college students participating in physical exercise should be reexamined so as to form the consciousness of lifelong physical exercise. A more particular knowledge of college students’ awareness and needs of physical exercise provide references for sports work of colleges and universi-ties, provide theoretical and practical supports for college students participating in physical exercise, and promote college students’ development of qualities from all aspects.

  1. Treatment of NAFLD with diet, physical activity and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Gómez, Manuel; Zelber-Sagi, Shira; Trenell, Michael

    2017-10-01

    Lifestyle intervention can be effective when treating non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) patients. Weight loss decreases cardiovascular and diabetes risk and can also regress liver disease. Weight reductions of ⩾10% can induce a near universal non-alcoholic steatohepatitis resolution and fibrosis improvement by at least one stage. However, modest weight loss (>5%) can also produce important benefits on the components of the NAFLD activity score (NAS). Additionally, we need to explore the role of total calories and type of weight loss diet, micro- and macronutrients, evidence-based benefits of physical activity and exercise and finally support these modifications through established behavioural change models and techniques for long-term maintenance of lifestyle modifications. Following a Mediterranean diet can reduce liver fat even without weight loss and is the most recommended dietary pattern for NAFLD. The Mediterranean diet is characterised by reduced carbohydrate intake, especially sugars and refined carbohydrates (40% of the calories vs. 50-60% in a typical low fat diet), and increased monounsaturated and omega-3 fatty acid intake (40% of the calories as fat vs. up-to 30% in a typical low fat diet). Both TV sitting (a reliable marker of overall sedentary behaviour) and physical activity are associated with cardio-metabolic health, NAFLD and overall mortality. A 'triple hit behavioural phenotype' of: i) sedentary behaviour, ii) low physical activity, and iii) poor diet have been defined. Clinical evidence strongly supports the role of lifestyle modification as a primary therapy for the management of NAFLD and NASH. This should be accompanied by the implementation of strategies to avoid relapse and weight regain. Copyright © 2017 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Estimation of Exercise Intensity in “Exercise and Physical Activity Reference for Health Promotion”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkubo, Tomoyuki; Kurihara, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Kazuyuki; Watanabe, Kajiro

    To maintain or promote the health condition of elderly citizens is quite important for Japan. Given the circumstances, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare has established the standards for the activities and exercises for promoting the health, and quantitatively determined the exercise intensity on 107 items of activities. This exercise intensity, however, requires recording the type and the duration of the activity to be calculated. In this paper, the exercise intensities are estimated using 3D accelerometer for 25 daily activities. As the result, the exercise intensities were estimated to be within the root mean square error of 0.83 METs for all 25 activities.

  3. Physical activity and exercise priorities in community dwelling people with multiple sclerosis: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stennett, Andrea; De Souza, Lorraine; Norris, Meriel

    2018-07-01

    Exercise and physical activity have been found to be beneficial in managing disabilities caused by multiple sclerosis. Despite the known benefits, many people with multiple sclerosis are inactive. This study aimed to identify the prioritised exercise and physical activity practices of people with multiple sclerosis living in the community and the reasons why they are engaged in these activities. A four Round Delphi questionnaire scoped and determined consensus of priorities for the top 10 exercise and physical activities and the reasons why people with multiple sclerosis (n = 101) are engaged in these activities. Data were analysed using content analysis, descriptive statistics, and non-parametric tests. The top 10 exercise and physical activity practices and the top 10 reasons why people with multiple sclerosis (n = 70) engaged in these activities were identified and prioritised. Consensus was achieved for the exercise and physical activities (W = 0.744, p multiple sclerosis engaged in exercise and physical activity were diverse. These self-selected activities and reasons highlighted that people with multiple sclerosis might conceptualise exercise and physical activity in ways that may not be fully appreciated or understood by health professionals. Considerations of the views of people with multiple sclerosis may be essential if the goal of increasing physical activity in this population is to be achieved. Implications for Rehabilitation Health professionals should work collaboratively with people with multiple sclerosis to understand how they prioritise activities, the underlying reasons for their prioritisations and embed these into rehabilitation programmes. Health professionals should utilise activities prioritised by people with multiple sclerosis in the community as a way to support, promote, and sustain exercise and physical activity in this population. Rehabilitation interventions should include both the activities people with multiple

  4. Is the relationship between increased knee muscle strength and improved physical function following exercise dependent on baseline physical function status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Michelle; Hinman, Rana S; van der Esch, Martin; van der Leeden, Marike; Kasza, Jessica; Wrigley, Tim V; Metcalf, Ben R; Dobson, Fiona; Bennell, Kim L

    2017-12-08

    Clinical guidelines recommend knee muscle strengthening exercises to improve physical function. However, the amount of knee muscle strength increase needed for clinically relevant improvements in physical function is unclear. Understanding how much increase in knee muscle strength is associated with improved physical function could assist clinicians in providing appropriate strength gain targets for their patients in order to optimise outcomes from exercise. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an increase in knee muscle strength is associated with improved self-reported physical function following exercise; and whether the relationship differs according to physical function status at baseline. Data from 100 participants with medial knee osteoarthritis enrolled in a 12-week randomised controlled trial comparing neuromuscular exercise to quadriceps strengthening exercise were pooled. Participants were categorised as having mild, moderate or severe physical dysfunction at baseline using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). Associations between 12-week changes in physical function (dependent variable) and peak isometric knee extensor and flexor strength (independent variables) were evaluated with and without accounting for baseline physical function status and covariates using linear regression models. In covariate-adjusted models without accounting for baseline physical function, every 1-unit (Nm/kg) increase in knee extensor strength was associated with physical function improvement of 17 WOMAC units (95% confidence interval (CI) -29 to -5). When accounting for baseline severity of physical function, every 1-unit increase in knee extensor strength was associated with physical function improvement of 24 WOMAC units (95% CI -42 to -7) in participants with severe physical dysfunction. There were no associations between change in strength and change in physical function in participants with mild or moderate physical

  5. [Current trends in the effects of stretching: application to physical exercise in the workplace].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Yasumasa; Ohta, Masanori; Yamato, Hiroshi

    2011-09-01

    A review of the Survey on the State of Employees' Health by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (2008) shows that the most commonly implemented aspect as an activity of worksite health promotion is "Health counseling", and the second is "Workplace physical exercise." Physical exercise, "Taiso", is acceptable and sustainable for workers, as it is easy to do in a group or alone. Various modes of stretching are implemented for workplace physical exercise. However, articles suggesting negative or contradictory effects of stretching have increased in recent years. Several review articles have revealed that static stretching may induce impairments of muscle power performance and no stretching will prevent or reduce muscle soreness after exercise. There are various aims of workplace physical exercise, so we have to consider the situational method when we apply stretching to occupational health.

  6. Exercise and well-being: a review of mental and physical health benefits associated with physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penedo, Frank J; Dahn, Jason R

    2005-03-01

    This review highlights recent work evaluating the relationship between exercise, physical activity and physical and mental health. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, as well as randomized clinical trials, are included. Special attention is given to physical conditions, including obesity, cancer, cardiovascular disease and sexual dysfunction. Furthermore, studies relating physical activity to depression and other mood states are reviewed. The studies include diverse ethnic populations, including men and women, as well as several age groups (e.g. adolescents, middle-aged and older adults). Results of the studies continue to support a growing literature suggesting that exercise, physical activity and physical-activity interventions have beneficial effects across several physical and mental-health outcomes. Generally, participants engaging in regular physical activity display more desirable health outcomes across a variety of physical conditions. Similarly, participants in randomized clinical trials of physical-activity interventions show better health outcomes, including better general and health-related quality of life, better functional capacity and better mood states. The studies have several implications for clinical practice and research. Most work suggests that exercise and physical activity are associated with better quality of life and health outcomes. Therefore, assessment and promotion of exercise and physical activity may be beneficial in achieving desired benefits across several populations. Several limitations were noted, particularly in research involving randomized clinical trials. These trials tend to involve limited sample sizes with short follow-up periods, thus limiting the clinical implications of the benefits associated with physical activity.

  7. Using social cognitive theory to explain discretionary, "leisure-time" physical exercise among high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Eric R; Petosa, Rick L; Charlton, Thomas E

    2003-06-01

    To examine whether knowledge of high school students' actions of self-regulation, and perceptions of self-efficacy to overcome exercise barriers, social situation, and outcome expectation will predict non-school related moderate and vigorous physical exercise. High school students enrolled in introductory Physical Education courses completed questionnaires that targeted selected Social Cognitive Theory variables. They also self-reported their typical "leisure-time" exercise participation using a standardized questionnaire. Bivariate correlation statistic and hierarchical regression were conducted on reports of moderate and vigorous exercise frequency. Each predictor variable was significantly associated with measures of moderate and vigorous exercise frequency. All predictor variables were significant in the final regression model used to explain vigorous exercise. After controlling for the effects of gender, the psychosocial variables explained 29% of variance in vigorous exercise frequency. Three of four predictor variables were significant in the final regression equation used to explain moderate exercise. The final regression equation accounted for 11% of variance in moderate exercise frequency. Professionals who attempt to increase the prevalence of physical exercise through educational methods should focus on the psychosocial variables utilized in this study.

  8. The Effect of Structured Exercise Intervention on Intensity and Volume of Total Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niko Wasenius

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of a 12-week structured exercise intervention on total physical activity and its subcategories. Twenty-three overweight or obese middle aged men with impaired glucose regulation were randomized into a 12-week Nordic walking group, a power-type resistance training group, and a non-exercise control group. Physical activity was measured with questionnaires before the intervention (1–4 weeks and during the intervention (1–12 weeks and was expressed in metabolic equivalents of task. No significant change in the volume of total physical activity between or within the groups was observed (p > 0.050. The volume of total leisure-time physical activity (structured exercises + non-structured leisure-time physical activity increased significantly in the Nordic walking group (p 0.050 compared to the control group. In both exercise groups increase in the weekly volume of total leisure-time physical activity was inversely associated with the volume of non-leisure-time physical activities. In conclusion, structured exercise intervention did not increase the volume of total physical activity. Albeit, endurance training can increase the volume of high intensity physical activities, however it is associated with compensatory decrease in lower intensity physical activities. To achieve effective personalized exercise program, individuality in compensatory behavior should be recognised.

  9. Metrics for Performance Evaluation of Patient Exercises during Physical Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakanski, Aleksandar; Ferguson, Jake M; Lee, Stephen

    2017-06-01

    The article proposes a set of metrics for evaluation of patient performance in physical therapy exercises. Taxonomy is employed that classifies the metrics into quantitative and qualitative categories, based on the level of abstraction of the captured motion sequences. Further, the quantitative metrics are classified into model-less and model-based metrics, in reference to whether the evaluation employs the raw measurements of patient performed motions, or whether the evaluation is based on a mathematical model of the motions. The reviewed metrics include root-mean square distance, Kullback Leibler divergence, log-likelihood, heuristic consistency, Fugl-Meyer Assessment, and similar. The metrics are evaluated for a set of five human motions captured with a Kinect sensor. The metrics can potentially be integrated into a system that employs machine learning for modelling and assessment of the consistency of patient performance in home-based therapy setting. Automated performance evaluation can overcome the inherent subjectivity in human performed therapy assessment, and it can increase the adherence to prescribed therapy plans, and reduce healthcare costs.

  10. Exercise-induced amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, B R

    1989-02-01

    Strenuous exercise may cause menstrual abnormalities, including amenorrhea. The hypoestrogenemia that accompanies amenorrhea has been associated with a low bone mineral content and an increased incidence of stress fractures. With the resumption of menses, which usually occurs soon after female athletes decrease the intensity of their training or increase their body weight, bone mineral content increases and the incidence of stress fractures decreases.

  11. Effects of elastic band exercises on physical ability and muscular topography of elderlyfemales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Won; Kim, Suk Bum; Kim, Seong Wook

    2018-02-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of band exercise types on the physical ability and muscular topography for elderly females. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-six females older than 65 years were divided into the dynamic band exercise (DBE; n=13) group and the Static band exercise (SBE; n=13) group. Each participant performed 12 weeks of elastic band exercises. Physical abilities were measured by leg extension power, sitting trunk flexion, closed eyes foot balance, and time to get up. Changes in muscle topography were evaluated with Moire measurement equipment for the chest, abdomen, and lumbar region. All results were compared before and after 12 weeks of exercise. [Results] Changes in physical ability were significantly increased in both groups. The scores for the muscular topography of the chest, abdomen, lumbar region, and all body parts was significantly improved in both groups for closed eyes foot balance. There were more improvements in the DBE group. [Conclusion] Two types of static and dynamic elastic band exercises effectively changed the physical fitness and muscle topography of elderly females. Therefore, to increase the effects of exercise, dynamic band exercises are considered useful. Because band exercises are simple, they can be used to maintain the health of elderly people.

  12. Intensity of recreational physical activity throughout life and later life cognitive functioning in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Mary C; Moineddin, Rahim; Morra, Angela; Manson, Judith; Blake, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Long-term physical activity may affect risk of cognitive impairment but few studies have examined later life cognition in relation to intensity of life-long physical activity. We examined the associations between the intensity of long-term recreational physical activity and neuropsychological functioning in 90 healthy postmenopausal women on tests found to be useful in the early identification of dementia. Information was collected about their participation in strenuous and moderate activities between high school and menopause. Summary measures of long-term strenuous and moderate activity were constructed for each participant. All analyses were adjusted for relevant covariates. The six linear regression analyses showed significant positive associations between moderate activity and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Revised (WAIS-R), Digit Span backward, WAIS-R Digit Symbol, and Trail Making Test Part B. Significant negative relationships were found between strenuous activity and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test delayed verbal recall, Complex Figure Test delayed visual memory, WAIS-R Digit Span backward, category fluency, and WAIS-R Digit Symbol. The associations found in the present study suggest that while moderate activity may be protective, long-term strenuous activity before menopause may lower cognitive performance later in life. These results support further investigation of the effects of life-long exercise intensity on cognition in later life.

  13. Exercise Testing Reveals Everyday Physical Challenges of Bariatric Surgery Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, David B; Schuh, Leslie M; Newton, Robert L; Stote, Joseph J; Cacucci, Brenda M

    2017-12-01

    Few studies have quantified cardiorespiratory fitness among individuals seeking bariatric surgery. Treadmill testing allows researchers to determine exercise capacity through metabolic equivalents. These findings can assist clinicians in understanding patients' capabilities to carry out various activities of daily living. The purpose of this study was to determine exercise tolerance and the variables associated with fitness, among individuals seeking bariatric surgery. Bariatric surgery candidates completed submaximal treadmill testing and provided ratings of perceived exertion. Each participant also completed questionnaires related to history of exercise, mood, and perceived barriers/benefits of exercise. Over half of participants reported that exercise was "hard to very hard" before reaching 70% of heart rate reserve, and one-third of participants reported that exercise was "moderately hard" at less than 3 metabolic equivalents (light activity). Body mass index and age accounted for the majority of the variance in exercise tolerance, but athletic history, employment status, and perceived health benefits also contributed. Perceived benefit scores were higher than barrier scores. Categories commonly used to describe moderate-intensity exercise (3-6 metabolic equivalents) do not coincide with perceptions of intensity among many bariatric surgery candidates, especially those with a body mass index of 50 or more.

  14. Minimum recommended physical activity, and perceived barriers and benefits of exercise in methadone maintained persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caviness, Celeste M; Bird, Jessica L; Anderson, Bradley J; Abrantes, Ana M; Stein, Michael D

    2013-04-01

    Methadone-maintained persons are at increased risk for many physical and mental health disorders compared to the general population. Increased physical activity could offset these risks. We assessed physical activity level, and perceived benefits and barriers to exercise in a group of 305 methadone-maintained smokers. Mean participant age was 39.9 years, 50.2% were male, 79.7% were non-Hispanic White, and mean body mass index was 29.8. Nearly 45% endorsed fair or poor physical health. Although participants perceived many benefits of exercise and few barriers, only 38% of participants met weekly recommendations for physical activity, and nearly 25% reported no physical activity. Those who met recommended guidelines were significantly more likely to endorse relapse prevention as a benefit of exercise. Motivating MMT patients to increase physical activity could have important physical, mental health, and drug treatment benefits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Predictors of physical activity and barriers to exercise in nursing and medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Holly; Stanulewicz, Natalia; Mcgill, Francesca

    2017-04-01

    To investigate physical activity levels of nursing and medicine students, examine predictors of physical activity level and examine the most influential benefits and barriers to exercise. Healthcare professionals have low levels of physical activity, which increases their health risk and may influence their health promotion practices with patients. We surveyed 361 nursing (n = 193) and medicine (n = 168) students studying at a UK medical school. Questionnaire survey, active over 12 months in 2014-2015. Measures included physical activity level, benefits and barriers to exercise, social support, perceived stress and self-efficacy for exercise. Many nursing and medicine students did not achieve recommended levels of physical activity (nursing 48%; medicine 38%). Perceived benefits of exercise were health related, with medicine students identifying additional benefits for stress relief. Most notable barriers to exercise were as follows: lack of time, facilities having inconvenient schedules and exercise not fitting around study or placement schedules. Nursing students were less active than medicine students; they perceived fewer benefits and more barriers to exercise and reported lower social support for exercise. Physical activity of nursing and medicine students was best predicted by self-efficacy and social support, explaining 35% of the variance. Physical activity should be promoted in nursing and medicine students. Interventions should aim to build self-efficacy for exercise and increase social support. Interventions should be developed that are targeted specifically to shift-working frontline care staff, to reduce schedule-related barriers to exercise and to increase accessibility to workplace health and well-being initiatives. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Clinically Relevant Physical Benefits of Exercise Interventions in Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkham, Amy A; Bland, Kelcey A; Sayyari, Sarah; Campbell, Kristin L; Davis, Margot K

    2016-02-01

    Evidence is currently limited for the effect of exercise on breast cancer clinical outcomes. However, several of the reported physical benefits of exercise, including peak oxygen consumption, functional capacity, muscle strength and lean mass, cardiovascular risk factors, and bone health, have established associations with disability, cardiovascular disease risk, morbidity, and mortality. This review will summarize the clinically relevant physical benefits of exercise interventions in breast cancer survivors and discuss recommendations for achieving these benefits. It will also describe potential differences in intervention delivery that may impact outcomes and, lastly, describe current physical activity guidelines for cancer survivors.

  17. Perceived neighborhood walkability and physical exercise: An examination of casual communication in a social process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masahiro; Jo, Hyerim

    2018-05-01

    Despite the accumulated evidence for the environmental correlates of physical activity, social processes underlying this association are not entirely clear. This study positions communication characterized by weak ties as a social mechanism linking neighborhood walkability with physical exercise. Data from a survey of Chicago residents show that perceived neighborhood walkability is positively related to frequency of weak-tie communication. Frequency of weak-tie communication is related positively to perceived social cohesion and negatively to anonymity, both of which are significantly related to frequency of physical exercise in the neighborhood. Data also show a sequential indirect relationship involving perceived neighborhood walkability, weak-tie communication, anonymity, and physical exercise. Implications are discussed in terms of the role of communication in promoting locality-based physical exercise. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. High intensity physical exercise and pain in the neck and upper limb among slaughterhouse workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D.; Andersen, Kenneth Jay

    2014-01-01

    and pain among 595 slaughterhouse workers in Denmark, Europe. Using logistic regression analyses, odds ratios for pain and work disability as a function of physical exercise, gender, age, BMI, smoking, and job position were estimated. The prevalence of pain in the neck, shoulder, elbow, and hand...... about the effect among workers with repetitive and forceful work demands. Before performing randomized controlled trials it may be beneficial to assess the cross-sectional connection between exercise and musculoskeletal pain. We investigated the association between high intensity physical exercise....../wrist was 48%, 60%, 40%, and 52%, respectively. The odds for experiencing neck pain were significantly lower among slaughterhouse workers performing physical exercise (OR = 0.70, CI: 0.49-0.997), whereas the odds for pain in the shoulders, elbow, or hand/wrist were not associated with exercise. The present...

  19. Classification of physical exercises using a triaxial accelerometer in a smartphone and an artificial neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cakić Nikola

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of smartphones and their adequate computer skills can be used for detecting everyday physical exercises. Acquired information on performed exercises can be used in the field of Health Informatics. For identification of particular physical activity a number of sensors and their repositioning during exercises are needed. This paper presents a way to classify the type of exercise using only triaxial built-in accelerometric sensor in the smartphone. The smartphone itself is free to move inside the subject pocket. The problem of using a number of sensors and their repositioning during exercise is solved by raw signal filtering and by defining a set of signal descriptors. Nine characteristic exercises have been analyzed for different programs and levels of exercise. To filter the raw accelerometer signal a low-pass 10-th order Butterworth filter is used. The filtered signals are described in terms of five descriptors which are used to train an artificial neural network (ANN. Classification of the type of exercise is performed using ANN with an error of 0.7%. Some exercises can be performed with only left or right leg. The classification accuracy of proposed approach is tested in a way that the smartphone was always in the subject's right pocket even when the exercise is performed using left leg only.

  20. Effects of a new sports companion on received social support and physical exercise: an intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackow, Pamela; Scholz, Urte; Hornung, Rainer

    2014-11-01

    The role of social support in physical exercise is well documented. However, the majority of studies that investigate the associations between social support and physical exercise target perceived instead of received social support. Moreover, most studies investigate the effects of received social support using a descriptive correlational design. Thus, our study aimed at investigating the effects of received social support by conducting an intervention study. Participants were randomly assigned to an intervention (n = 118) or control group (n = 102). The intervention comprised regularly exercising with a new sports companion for eight weeks. To investigate the time course of physical exercise and received social support, growth curve modelling was employed. Generally, both groups were able to improve their physical exercise. However, the control group tended to decrease again during the final point of measurement. Received social support, however, decreased slightly in the control group, but remained stable in the intervention group. The intervention was suitable to sustain received social support for physical exercise across a two-month interval. Overall, these findings highlight the importance of further investigating social support for physical exercise applying an experimental approach. © 2014 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  1. Physical Exercise During Pregnancy - How Active Are Pregnant Women in Germany and How Well Informed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Thorsten; Heilmann, Thorsten; Savelsberg, Luisa; Maass, Nicolai; Weisser, Burkhard; Eckmann-Scholz, Christel

    2017-05-01

    There is sufficient evidence showing the positive effects of physical exercise on various aspects of pregnancy. This study evaluates knowledge and status of physical exercise among pregnant women. The standardised paper-pencil questionnaire "Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire" (PPAQ) as well as general demographic questions were used to assess the exercise behaviour of study participants. 83 questionnaires completed by women presenting to the Kiel University Hospital for antenatal assessment were included in the analysis. At the time of questionnaire completion 10 women were in the first trimester of pregnancy, 64 in the second, and 9 in the third. Just less than 90% of participants felt they had been informed "sufficiently" on the topic physical exercise during pregnancy, over 50% felt they were "well" or "very well" informed. Just less than half of participants received their information from a doctor (either their gynaecologist or general practitioner) and none of these felt "insufficiently" informed. Almost 80% of participants reported still doing no sport or less exercise than before falling pregnant. The maximum proportional energy expenditure for recreational activity - just under 20% - was in the third trimester. Women who felt they had been well counselled tended to have higher activity levels. Study participants demonstrated a clear decline in physical exercise during pregnancy despite clear evidence of the benefits of regular exercise for pregnant women, and despite participants feeling they were well informed. Detailed information on the recommendations for physical exertion in pregnancy should form an integral part of antenatal counselling.

  2. "Social Networkout": Connecting Social Features of Wearable Fitness Trackers with Physical Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yaguang; Dailey, Stephanie L; Kreitzberg, Daniel; Bernhardt, Jay

    2017-12-01

    Despite widespread understanding of the benefits of physical activity, many adults in the United States do not meet recommended exercise guidelines. Burgeoning technologies, including wearable fitness trackers (e.g., Fitbit, Apple watch), bring new opportunities to influence physical activity by encouraging users to track and share physical activity data and compete against their peers. However, research has not explored the social processes that mediate the relationship between the use of wearable fitness trackers and intention to exercise. In this study, we applied the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991) to explore the effects of two communicative features of wearable fitness devices-social sharing and social competing-on individuals' intention to exercise. Drawing upon surveys from 238 wearable fitness tracker users, we found that the relationship between the two communication features (social sharing and competing) and exercise intention was mediated by attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. The results suggest that the ways in which exercise data are shared significantly influence the exercise intentions, and these intentions are mediated by individuals' evaluation of exercise, belief about important others' approval of exercise, and perceived control upon exercise.

  3. Leisure time physical activity participation in individuals with spinal cord injury in Malaysia: barriers to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Rosly, Maziah; Halaki, Mark; Hasnan, Nazirah; Mat Rosly, Hadi; Davis, Glen M; Husain, Ruby

    2018-02-06

    Cross-sectional. An epidemiological study describing leisure time physical activities (LTPA) and the associations of barriers, sociodemographic and injury characteristics to moderate-vigorous aerobic exercise participation among individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) in a developing Southeast Asian country. SCI community in Malaysia. The study sample consisted of 70 participants with SCI. Questionnaires were distributed containing an abbreviated Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (items 2-6) and the Barriers to Exercise Scale using a 5-tier Likert format. Statistical analyses were χ 2 tests, odds ratios, and binary forward stepwise logistic regression to assess the association and to predict factors related to participation in moderate-vigorous intensity aerobic exercise (items 4 and 5). Seventy-three percent of the study sample did not participate in any form of moderate or vigorous LTPA. The top three barriers to undertaking LTPA (strongly agree and agree descriptors) were expensive exercise equipment (54%), pain (37%) and inaccessible facilities (36%). Participants over the age of 35 years, ethnicity, health concerns, perceiving exercise as difficult and indicating lack of transport were significantly different (p exercise type of LTPA. Age, ethnicity, indicated health concerns and lack of transport were the significant predictors in likelihood of participating in moderate-vigorous LTPA (p exercising is too difficult, pain while exercising, age more than 35), interpersonal (different ethnicity), community (expensive exercise equipment), and policy levels (lack of or poor access to transportation, inaccessible facilities) that prevent LTPA participation.

  4. Influence of Two Different Exercise Programs on Physical Fitness and Cognitive Performance in Active Older Adults: Functional Resistance-Band Exercises vs. Recreational Oriented Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce-Bravo, Hernán; Ponce, Christian; Feriche, Belén; Padial, Paulino

    2015-12-01

    This study examines the impact of a resistance-band functional exercise program, compared with a recreational exercise program, on physical fitness and reaction times in persons older than 60 years. Fifty-four community-dwelling volunteers (71.76 ± 6.02 years) were assigned to a specific exercise program: Functional activity program (focused on resistance-band multi-joint activities; experimental group, EG), or recreational physical activity program (with gross motor activities of ludic content; control group, CG). Before and after the intervention, we determined cognitive capacity in terms of simple reaction time (S-RT), choice reaction time (C-RT) and fitness. In both groups physical performance improved, though this improvement was more marked in the EG for grip strength, arm strength and gross motor abilities (p program using a resistance band improves fitness and cognitive performance in healthy older adults. Key pointsBetter cognitive processes can be achieved as physical condition improvesExercise sessions of a more recreational type do not seem to constitute a stimulus able to improve both physical and cognitive performance in healthy active older adultsThe improvement of cognitive function, as assessed through reaction times, seems more linked to the workload and strength component of the training program.

  5. Differences in regional adiposity, bone mineral density, and physical exercise participation based on exercise self-efficacy among senior adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, J M; Gray, M; Vincenzo, J L

    2015-10-01

    The impact of exercise self-efficacy levels (ESE) on exercise participation, levels of body fat (BF), and bone mineral density (BMD) are unclear in senior-aged adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of ESE on exercise participation, regional distribution of BF, and BMD among seniors. Senior adults (N.=76; 36 males, 40 females) were separated into tertiles (T1, age=60.4±1.4; T2, age=61.3±1.4; T3, age=60.4±1.5) based on self-reported levels of ESE. BMD and regional BF were measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and exercise participation levels were measured using the Rapid Physical-Activity Questionnaire. MANOVA revealed a significant Wilks Lambda (p exercise participation levels, android BF, gynoid BF, and spinal BMD. ANOVA revealed T3 was significantly lower for android BF (p=0.002) than T1 and T2 (30% and 26%, respectively) while gynoid BF was significantly lower (p=0.012) for T3 (24%) compared to T1. When evaluating exercise participation levels, T3 was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than T1 or T2. Spinal BMD was significantly higher (p=0.030) between T2 (10%) and T1. ESE is an important factor in senior adults ability to maintain longitudinal health.

  6. Maternal Cardiac Adaptations to a Physical Exercise Program during Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, María; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Luaces, María; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Garatachea, Nuria; Barakat, Rubén; Lucia, Alejandro

    2016-05-01

    Scarce evidence exists regarding the effects of regular pregnancy exercise on maternal cardiovascular health. We aimed to study, using a randomized controlled trial design, the effects of pregnancy exercise on echocardiographic indicators of hemodynamics, cardiac remodeling, left ventricular (LV) function, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Two hundred forty-one healthy pregnant women were assigned to a control (standard care) or intervention (exercise) group (initial n = 121/120). The intervention (weeks 9-11 to 38-39) included three supervised sessions per week (55-60 min, with light-moderate intensity aerobic and strength exercises). The main findings were as follows: (i) the proportion of women with excessive weight gain at end pregnancy was lower in the exercise group compared with controls (18% vs 40%, P = 0.005), and (ii) there was a tendency toward lower prevalence of depression at end pregnancy in the former (P = 0.029, threshold P value set at 0.013). No significant exercise training effect was essentially found for echocardiographic variables, CVD risk factors, type/duration of labor, or newborn's outcomes (weight, height, head circumference, Apgar scores, and umbilical cord pH). Light-moderate intensity supervised exercise is safe for healthy pregnant women and does not impose an additional cardiac overload beyond gestation or affect the main pregnancy outcomes. Such intervention might help decrease, at least partly, the risk of two CVD-associated conditions, excessive weight gain and depression.

  7. Meditative Movement, Energetic, and Physical Analyses of Three Qigong Exercises: Unification of Eastern and Western Mechanistic Exercise Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Penelope; Picard, George; Baumgarden, Joseph; Schneider, Roger

    2017-09-23

    Abstract : Qigong is the meditative movement and therapeutic exercise of Eastern medicine. A growing body of evidence is validating its health benefits leading to mechanistic questions of how it works. The purpose of this article is to explore mechanisms of action related to Qigong, with the intent of unifying Eastern and Western exercise theory and to present a model for Qigong exercise analysis. Three exercises from a standardized Qigong form: 'Plucking the Stars', 'Lotus Leaves Rustle in the Wind', and 'Pacing Forwards and Backwards' were selected for meditative, energetic, and physical analyses. Meditative aspects include relaxation response, interoception and exteroception. Energetic aspects include stimulation of meridians through mental intent, acupressure, and self-massage. Physical aspects include flexibility, strength, articular stimulation, neuro-integration, respiratory effect, fascial stretch, visceral massage, balance challenge CranioSacral pump, lymphatic and venous return and glandular stimulation, and physiologic response to relaxation. Knowledge of mechanisms of action for specific Qigong exercises can guide operational definition of Qigong, selection of outcomes assessment in future research, inform prescriptive practice addressing clinical health issues, and advance adoption of Qigong practice within integrative health care. The model of analysis demonstrated in this discussion may assist in these endeavors.

  8. Cardiopulmonary exercise capacity, muscle strength, and physical activity in children and adolescents with achondroplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, Tim; van Bergen, Monique W. M.; Sakkers, Ralph J. B.; Helders, Paul J. M.; Engelbert, Raoul H. H.

    2007-01-01

    To study in children with achondroplasia the response to exercise and muscle strength compared with healthy peers and to describe the relation between exercise capacity, anthropometric factors, and physical activity. Patients (7 boys and 10 girls; mean age, 11.8 +/- 3.3 years) with achondroplasia

  9. Effects of Cardio-Pilates Exercise Program on Physical Characteristics of Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevimli, Dilek; Sanri, Murat

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This study aims to investigate the effects of four weeks cardio-Pilates exercise program on physical characteristics in females. Material and methods: The total 40 female participants were tested before and after four weeks regular exercise of 3 × 1 hr. sessions/week. Body height and weight, waist and hip circumferences, body fat percent and…

  10. Moderate-to-high intensity physical exercise in patients with Alzheimer’s disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kristine; Sobol, Nanna A.; Frederiksen, Kristian S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies of physical exercise in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are few and results have been inconsistent. Objective: To assess the effects of a moderate-to-high intensity aerobic exercise program in patients with mild AD. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial, we recruited...

  11. Influence of Age, Sex, and Race on College Students' Exercise Motivation of Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egli, Trevor; Bland, Helen W.; Melton, Bridget F.; Czech, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined differences in exercise motivation between age, sex, and race for college students. Participants: Students from 156 sections of physical activity classes at a midsize university were recruited (n = 2,199; 1,081 men, 1,118 women) in 2005-2006 and volunteered to complete the Exercise Motivation Inventory. Methods:…

  12. The Influence of Physical Activity, Sport and Exercise Motives among UK-Based University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Simon; Reeves, Matthew; Ryrie, Angus

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the majority of the adult population fails to achieve the recommended target of 30-minutes moderate intensity exercise, days a week. This includes university students who often have the time to engage in physical activity. The aim of this study was to determine exercise motives for a UK-based student population. The…

  13. Dietary supplements and physical exercise affecting bone and body composition in frail elderly persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de N.; Chin A Paw, M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Hiddink, G.J.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2000-01-01

    This study determined the effect of enriched foods and all-around physical exercise on bone and body composition in frail elderly persons. Methods. A 17-week randomized, controlled intervention trial, following a 2 x 2 factorial design—(1) enriched foods, (2) exercise, (3) both, or (4) neither— was

  14. Strongwomen® Program Evaluation: Effect of Strength Training Exercises on Physical Fitness of Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Anil Kumar; Van Horn, Beth; Corbin, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    The Strongwomen® Program (SWP) is a nationally disseminated group strength-training exercise and nutrition education program delivered by Extension. The study reported here examined the effect of strength training exercises in SWP on improvement in physical fitness of program participants. Senior Fitness Test was used to collect data. Upon…

  15. Differences in the Intensity and Duration of Adolescents' Sports and Exercise across Physical and Social Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunton, Genevieve Fridlund; Berrigan, David; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Perna, Frank; Graubard, Barry I.; Atienza, Audie A.

    2012-01-01

    We used data from the American Time Use Survey (years 2003-06) to analyze whether the intensity and duration of high school students' (ages 15-18 years) sports and exercise bouts differed across physical and social environments. Boys' sports and exercise bouts were more likely to reach a vigorous intensity when taking place at school and with…

  16. Effect of aerobic exercise on physical performance in patients with Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobol, N A; Hoffmann, K; Frederiksen, K S

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Knowledge about the feasibility and effects of exercise programs to persons with Alzheimer's disease is lacking. This study investigated the effect of aerobic exercise on physical performance in community-dwelling persons with mild Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: The single blinded...

  17. Effects of a 12-Week Resistance Exercise Program on Physical Self-Perceptions in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Justin B.; Mitchell, Nathanael G.; Bibeau, Wendy S.; Bartholomew, John B.

    2011-01-01

    There is an increase in literature suggesting exercise can promote positive changes in physical self-perceptions that can manifest as an increase in global self-esteem. In the present study, we assessed self-esteem using the hierarchical framework of the Exercise and Self-Esteem Model (EXSEM) along with cognitive facets at the subdomain level…

  18. Anxiety Sensitivity Uniquely Predicts Exercise Behaviors in Young Adults Seeking to Increase Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshier, Samantha J; Szuhany, Kristin L; Hearon, Bridget A; Smits, Jasper A J; Otto, Michael W

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with elevated levels of anxiety sensitivity (AS) may be motivated to avoid aversive emotional or physical states, and therefore may have greater difficulty achieving healthy behavioral change. This may be particularly true for exercise, which produces many of the somatic sensations within the domain of AS concerns. Cross-sectional studies show a negative association between AS and exercise. However, little is known about how AS may prospectively affect attempts at behavior change in individuals who are motivated to increase their exercise. We recruited 145 young adults who self-identified as having a desire to increase their exercise behavior. Participants completed a web survey assessing AS and additional variables identified as important for behavior change-impulsivity, grit, perceived behavioral control, and action planning-and set a specific goal for exercising in the next week. One week later, a second survey assessed participants' success in meeting their exercise goals. We hypothesized that individuals with higher AS would choose lower exercise goals and would complete less exercise at the second survey. AS was not significantly associated with exercise goal level, but significantly and negatively predicted exercise at Time 2 and was the only variable to offer significant prediction beyond consideration of baseline exercise levels. These results underscore the importance of considering AS in relation to health behavior intentions. This is particularly apt given the absence of prediction offered by other traditional predictors of behavior change. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Physical activity interventions differentially affect exercise task and barrier self-efficacy: A meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Torrance J.; Middleton, Kathryn R.; Winner, Larry; Janelle, Christopher M.; Middleton, Kathryn R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Researchers have yet to establish how interventions to increase physical activity influence specific self-efficacy beliefs. The current study sought to quantify the effect of interventions to increase physical activity among healthy adults on exercise task (EXSE) and barrier self-efficacy (BSE) via meta-analysis. Intervention characteristics associated with self-efficacy and physical activity changes were also identified. Methods A systematic database search and manual searches through reference lists of related publications were conducted for articles on randomized, controlled physical activity interventions. Published intervention studies reporting changes in physical activity behavior and either EXSE or BSE in healthy adults were eligible for inclusion. Results Of the 1,080 studies identified, 20 were included in the meta-analyses. Interventions had a significant effect of g = 0.208, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.027, 0.388], p physical activity. Moderator analyses indicated shorter interventions that did not include structured exercise sessions effectively increased EXSE and physical activity, whereas long interventions improved BSE. Interventions that did not provide support increased BSE and physical activity levels. Further, interventions that did not require the use of daily exercise logs improved EXSE and physical activity behavior. Conclusion Interventions designed to increase physical activity differentially influenced EXSE and BSE. EXSE appeared to play a more significant role during exercise adoption, whereas BSE was involved in the maintenance of exercise behavior. Recommendations are offered for the design of future interventions. PMID:23957904

  20. Examining cerebral angiogenesis in response to physical exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Kiersten L; Kay, Jacob J M; Swain, Rodney A

    2014-01-01

    Capillary growth and expansion (angiogenesis) is a prerequisite for many forms of neural and behavioral plasticity. It is commonly observed in both brain and muscle of aerobically exercising animals. As such, several histological methods have been used to quantify capillary density, including perfusion with India ink, various Nissl stains, and immunohistochemistry. In this chapter, we will describe these histological procedures and describe the stereological analysis used to quantify vessel growth in response to aerobic exercise.

  1. Effect of physical exercise prelabyrinthectomy on locomotor balance compensation in the squirrel monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, M.; Ohashi, K.; Yoshihara, T.; MacDonald, S.

    1989-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of physical exercise, during a prepathology state, on locomotor balance compensation after subsequent unilateral labyrinthectomy in squirrel monkeys. An experimental group underwent 3 hr. of daily running exercise on a treadmill for 3 mo. prior to the surgery, whereas a control group was not exercised. Postoperatively, the locomotor balance function of both groups was tested for 3 mo. There was no significant difference in gait deviation counts in the acute phase of compensation. However, in the chronic compensation maintenance phase, the number of gait deviation counts was fewer in the exercise group, which showed significantly better performance stability.

  2. Tailored cognitive-behavioural therapy and exercise training improves the physical fitness of patients with fibromyalgia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spillekom-van Koulil, S.; Lankveld, W.G.J.M. van; Kraaimaat, F.W.; Helmond, T. van; Vedder, A.; Hoorn, H. van; Donders, A.R.T.; Wirken, L.; Cats, H.; Riel, P.L.C.M. van; Evers, A.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Patients with fibromyalgia have diminished levels of physical fitness, which may lead to functional disability and exacerbating complaints. Multidisciplinary treatment comprising cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and exercise training has been shown to be effective in improving

  3. Effect of workplace- versus home-based physical exercise on pain in healthcare workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Brandt, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence and consequences of musculoskeletal pain is considerable among healthcare workers, allegedly due to high physical work demands of healthcare work. Previous investigations have shown promising results of physical exercise for relieving pain among different occupational......, physical exercise performed during working hours at the workplace may be costly for the employers in terms of time spend. Thus, it seems relevant to compare the efficacy of workplace- versus home-based training on musculoskeletal pain. This study is intended to investigate the effect of workplace...... to increase adherence and avoid contamination between interventions. Two hundred healthcare workers from 18 departments located at three different hospitals is allocated to 10 weeks of 1) workplace based physical exercise performed during working hours (using kettlebells, elastic bands and exercise balls...

  4. Mindfulness Meditation Versus Physical Exercise in the Management of Depression Among Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaraireh, Faris Abdelkarim; Aloush, Sami Mohammad

    2017-10-01

    Depression among nursing students is an ongoing problem. Several psychotherapies have been suggested as alternatives to antidepressants in the management of depression. The aim of this randomized controlled study was to compare the effectiveness of mindfulness meditation versus physical exercise in the management of depression among nursing students. A sample of 181 soon-to-graduate nursing students participated in the study and were assigned at random to one of two therapies: physical exercise (n = 90) or mindfulness meditation (n = 91). The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale was completed by the participants in both groups prior to the therapies and after completion. The findings indicated that both therapies were effective in the management of depression. However, mindfulness meditation is more effective than physical exercise. Mindfulness meditation is recommended over physical exercise in the management of depression among undergraduate nursing students. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(10):599-604.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Influence of Two Different Exercise Programs on Physical Fitness and Cognitive Performance in Active Older Adults: Functional Resistance-Band Exercises vs. Recreational Oriented Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Ponce-Bravo, Christian Ponce, Belén Feriche, Paulino Padial

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the impact of a resistance-band functional exercise program, compared with a recreational exercise program, on physical fitness and reaction times in persons older than 60 years. Fifty-four community-dwelling volunteers (71.76 ± 6.02 years were assigned to a specific exercise program: Functional activity program (focused on resistance-band multi-joint activities; experimental group, EG, or recreational physical activity program (with gross motor activities of ludic content; control group, CG. Before and after the intervention, we determined cognitive capacity in terms of simple reaction time (S-RT, choice reaction time (C-RT and fitness. In both groups physical performance improved, though this improvement was more marked in the EG for grip strength, arm strength and gross motor abilities (p < 0.05. Reaction times were better only in EG (S-RT = 10.70%, C-RT = 14.34%; p < 0.05 after the corresponding physical training intervention. The training period showed no effect on the moderate relationship between both RT and gross motor abilities in the CG, whereas the EG displayed an enhanced relationship between S-RT and grip-strength as well as the C-RT with arm strength and aerobic capacity (r ~ 0.457; p < 0.05. Our findings indicate that a functional exercise program using a resistance band improves fitness and cognitive performance in healthy older adults.

  6. Physical activity interventions differentially affect exercise task and barrier self-efficacy: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Torrance J; Middleton, Kathryn R; Winner, Larry; Janelle, Christopher M

    2014-08-01

    Researchers have yet to establish how interventions to increase physical activity influence specific self-efficacy beliefs. The current study sought to quantify the effect of interventions to increase physical activity among healthy adults on exercise task (EXSE) and barrier self-efficacy (BSE) via meta-analysis. Intervention characteristics associated with self-efficacy and physical activity changes were also identified. A systematic database search and manual searches through reference lists of related publications were conducted for articles on randomized, controlled physical activity interventions. Published intervention studies reporting changes in physical activity behavior and either EXSE or BSE in healthy adults were eligible for inclusion. Of the 1,080 studies identified, 20 were included in the meta-analyses. Interventions had a significant effect of g = 0.208, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.027, 0.388], p exercise sessions effectively increased EXSE and physical activity, whereas long interventions improved BSE. Interventions that did not provide support increased BSE and physical activity levels. Further, interventions that did not require the use of daily exercise logs improved EXSE and physical activity behavior. Interventions designed to increase physical activity differentially influenced EXSE and BSE. EXSE appeared to play a more significant role during exercise adoption, whereas BSE was involved in the maintenance of exercise behavior. Recommendations are offered for the design of future interventions.

  7. Physical activity after surgery for severe obesity: the role of exercise cognitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junilla Larsen; MD E.J.M. Wouters; Rinie Geenen; Hanna Zijlstra; Bert van Ramshorst

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical activity after bariatric surgery is associated with sustained weight loss and improved quality of life. Some bariatric patients engage insufficiently in physical activity. The aim of this study was to examine whether and to what extent both physical activity and exercise

  8. Physical Activity After Surgery for Severe Obesity: The Role of Exercise Cognitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, E.J.M.; Larsen, J.K.; Zijlstra, H.; Ramshorst, B. van; Geenen, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical activity after bariatric surgery is associated with sustained weight loss and improved quality of life. Some bariatric patients engage insufficiently in physical activity. This may be due to exercise cognitions, i.e., specific beliefs about benefits of and barriers to physical

  9. Psychosocial effects of workplace physical exercise among workers with chronic pain:Randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Lars L.; Persson, Roger; Jakobsen, Markus D.; Sundstrup, Emil

    2017-01-01

    Abstract While workplace physical exercise can help manage musculoskeletal disorders, less is known about psychosocial effects of such interventions. This aim of this study was to investigate the effect of workplace physical exercise on psychosocial factors among workers with chronic musculoskeletal pain. The trial design was a 2-armed parallel-group randomized controlled trial with allocation concealment. A total of 66 slaughterhouse workers (51 men and 15 women, mean age 45 years [standard ...

  10. Physical exercise during pregnancy and fetal growth measures: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Olsen, Jørn; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to examine the association between physical exercise during pregnancy and fetal growth measures. STUDY DESIGN: Data on 79,692 liveborn singletons from the Danish National Birth Cohort were collected between 1996 and 2002. Mean differences in birthweight, ...... effects on fetal growth measures related to exercise apart from a modest decreased risk of small- and large-for-gestational-age infants. These findings do not speak against advising pregnant women to be physically active during pregnancy....

  11. The effect of various physical exercise modes on perceived psychological stress

    OpenAIRE

    Magalhaes Das Neves, M K; Loots, J M; van Niekerk, R L

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stress is an integral part of daily living, but chronic activation of the stress response without the ability to express the physical response results in overloading of the physiological and psychological systems OBJECTIVE: To decrease perceived stress by means of one known and/or one relatively unknown physical activity, namely aerobic exercise and somatic awareness exercise METHODS: This investigation made use of a quantitative, comparative, experimental research design over an ...

  12. Physical activity and exercise dependence during inpatient treatment of longstanding eating disorders: an exploratory study of excessive and non-excessive exercisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Rø, Øyvind; Rosenvinge, Jan H; Hoffart, Asle; Martinsen, Egil W

    2010-04-01

    To describe changes in physical activity (PA) and exercise dependence score during treatment of eating disorders (ED), and to explore correlations among changes in PA, exercise motivation, exercise dependence score and ED psychopathology in excessive and non-excessive exercisers. Thirty-eight adult females receiving inpatient treatment for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa or ED not otherwise specified participated in this prospective study. Assessments included accelerometer assessed PA, Exercise Dependence Scale, Reasons for Exercise Inventory, ED Examination, and ED Inventory. Amount of PA was significantly reduced in non-excessive exercisers during treatment, in excessive exercisers there was a trend towards reduced amount of PA from admission to discharge. In excessive exercisers, reduced ED psychopathology was correlated with reduction in exercise dependence score and perceived importance of exercise to regulate negative affects, but not with importance of exercise for weight/appearance. These associations were not found in non-excessive exercisers. Excessive exercise is an important issue in longstanding ED, and the excessive exercising patients need help to develop alternative strategies to regulate negative affects.

  13. Comparison study of resistance exercise nomenclature adopted among professionals and undergraduate physical education students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Mendes de Souza

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n2p233   In the past few years, increased popularity of resistance training (RT and a significant increase in the number of professionals and undergraduate in Physical Education students have been observed. A variety of names has been usually adopted for the same resistance exercise in fields. The aim of the study was to compare the resistance exercise nomenclature adopted by physical education professionals and students, and also to identify the frequencies of names adopted for these resistance exercises. The study included 191 graduate students and active physical education professionals of RT centers and gyms in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Ten exercises traditionally performed on RT programs were selected. The results indicated that there was no association between the nomenclature of exercises and academic degree for all exercises included in the survey. However, there was significant difference (p <0.001 among response frequencies for each exercise, for the whole sample. In this sense, this study enabled identifying significant differences in the nomenclature of resistance exercises. Therefore, nomenclature standardization is essential to establish a direction and clearness in communication among professionals.

  14. [Development and Evaluation of a Motivational Interviewing Program for Exercise Improvement in Persons with Physical Disabilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jeong Hee; Jeong, Ihn Sook

    2017-06-01

    The aims of this study were to develop a motivational interviewing program for exercise improvement in persons with physical disabilities and to examine the effect of this motivational interviewing intervention. The study employed a nonequivalent control group pretest and posttest design. A total of 62 persons with physical disabilities (30 in the experimental group, 32 in the control group) were recruited from 2 community rehabilitation centers. The experimental group received 8 sessions of a group motivational interviewing program, scheduled once a week, with each session lasting 60 minutes. Test measures were completed before the intervention, immediately after the end of the intervention, 2 weeks later, and 6 weeks after the end of the intervention. Measures included self-efficacy for exercise, decisional balance for exercise, stage of change for exercise, regularity of exercise, exercise maintenance, and independent living ability. Data were analyzed using the χ²-test, Fisher's exact test, Independent samples t-test, and repeated measures ANOVA, conducted using IBM SPSS Statistics version 18. The experimental group showed a significant increase in self-efficacy for exercise (F=50.98, pmotivational interviewing program has the potential to improve exercise levels in persons with physical disabilities. © 2017 Korean Society of Nursing Science

  15. Acute physical exercise affected processing efficiency in an auditory attention task more than processing effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutke, Stephan; Jaitner, Thomas; Berse, Timo; Barenberg, Jonathan

    2014-02-01

    Research on effects of acute physical exercise on performance in a concurrent cognitive task has generated equivocal evidence. Processing efficiency theory predicts that concurrent physical exercise can increase resource requirements for sustaining cognitive performance even when the level of performance is unaffected. This hypothesis was tested in a dual-task experiment. Sixty young adults worked on a primary auditory attention task and a secondary interval production task while cycling on a bicycle ergometer. Physical load (cycling) and cognitive load of the primary task were manipulated. Neither physical nor cognitive load affected primary task performance, but both factors interacted on secondary task performance. Sustaining primary task performance under increased physical and/or cognitive load increased resource consumption as indicated by decreased secondary task performance. Results demonstrated that physical exercise effects on cognition might be underestimated when only single task performance is the focus.

  16. Exercise and Physical Activity in the Therapy of Substance Use Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Zschucke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise and physical activity are constantly gaining attention as adjuvant treatment for substance use disorders, supplementing classical pharmacological and psychotherapeutic approaches. The present work reviews studies addressing the therapeutic effects of exercise in alcohol abuse/dependence, nicotine abuse/dependence, and illicit drug abuse/dependence. In the field of smoking cessation, evidence is strong for exercise as an effective adjuvant treatment, whereas no generalizable and methodologically strong studies have been published for alcohol and drug treatment so far, allowing only preliminary conclusions about the effectiveness of exercise in these disorders. A couple of potential mechanisms are discussed, by which exercise may act as an effective treatment, as well as future directions for studies investigating exercise as a treatment strategy for substance use disorders.

  17. Is the public healthcare sector a more strenuous working environment than the private sector for a physician?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heponiemi, Tarja; Kouvonen, Anne; Sinervo, Timo; Elovainio, Marko

    2013-02-01

    The present study examined the differences between physicians working in public and private health care in strenuous working environments (presence of occupational hazards, physical violence, and presenteeism) and health behaviours (alcohol consumption, body mass index, and physical activity). In addition, we examined whether gender or age moderated these potential differences. Cross-sectional survey data were compiled on 1422 female and 948 male randomly selected physicians aged 25-65 years from The Finnish Health Care Professionals Study. Logistic regression and linear regression analyses were used with adjustment for gender, age, specialisation status, working time, managerial position, and on-call duty. Occupational hazards, physical violence, and presenteeism were more commonly reported by physicians working in the public sector than by their counterparts in the private sector. Among physicians aged 50 years or younger, those who worked in the public sector consumed more alcohol than those who worked in the private sector, whereas in those aged 50 or more the reverse was true. In addition, working in the private sector was most strongly associated with lower levels of physical violence in those who were older than 50 years, and with lower levels of presenteeism among those aged 40-50 years. The present study found evidence for the public sector being a more strenuous work environment for physicians than the private sector. Our results suggest that public healthcare organisations should pay more attention to the working conditions of their employees.

  18. The Pleiotropic Effect of Physical Exercise on Mitochondrial Dynamics in Aging Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Barbieri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Decline in human muscle mass and strength (sarcopenia is one of the principal hallmarks of the aging process. Regular physical exercise and training programs are certain powerful stimuli to attenuate the physiological skeletal muscle alterations occurring during aging and contribute to promote health and well-being. Although the series of events that led to these muscle adaptations are poorly understood, the mechanisms that regulate these processes involve the “quality” of skeletal muscle mitochondria. Aerobic/endurance exercise helps to maintain and improve cardiovascular fitness and respiratory function, whereas strength/resistance-exercise programs increase muscle strength, power development, and function. Due to the different effect of both exercises in improving mitochondrial content and quality, in terms of biogenesis, dynamics, turnover, and genotype, combined physical activity programs should be individually prescribed to maximize the antiaging effects of exercise.

  19. Self-Determination and Physical Exercise Adherence in the Contexts of Fitness Academies and Personal Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klain, Ingi Petitemberte; de Matos, Dihogo Gama; Leitão, José Carlos; Cid, Luís; Moutão, João

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to analyze the validity of the relations hypothesized by the theory of self-determination in predicting adherence to physical exercise in fitness academy users and subjects following personal training. A total of 588 persons from Pelotas / RS / Brazil (405 gym users and 183 subjects following personal training) completed the Portuguese version of the three questionnaires, i.e. the Perceived Autonomy Support Climate Exercise Questionnaire, Basic Psychological Needs in the Exercise Scale and Behavioral Regulation in the Exercise Questionnaire −2. The results support the factorial structure of the questionnaires used in this sample. There was a significant multivariate effect of context on self-determination for physical exercise training [Wilks’ λ = 0.934, F (10, 576.000) = 4.03, p amotivation and external regulation were significantly higher in the context of fitness academies. PMID:26240667

  20. Exercise dependence score in patients with longstanding eating disorders and controls: the importance of affect regulation and physical activity intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Martinsen, Egil W; Rosenvinge, Jan H; Rø, Oyvind; Hoffart, Asle; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn

    2011-01-01

    To examine associations among exercise dependence score, amount of physical activity and eating disorder (ED) symptoms in patients with longstanding ED and non-clinical controls. Adult female inpatients (n = 59) and 53 age-matched controls participated in this cross sectional study. Assessments included the eating disorders examination, eating disorders inventory, exercise dependence scale, reasons for exercise inventory, and MTI Actigraph accelerometer. Positive associations were found among vigorous, not moderate, physical activity, exercise dependence score and ED symptoms in patients. In the controls, ED symptoms were negatively associated with vigorous physical activity and not correlated with exercise dependence score. Exercise for negative affect regulation, not weight/appearance, and amount of vigorous physical activity were explanatory variables for exercise dependence score in both groups. The positive associations among exercise dependence score, vigorous physical activity and ED symptoms need proper attention in the treatment of longstanding ED. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  1. EFFECT OF HIGH & LOW INTENSITIES OF AEROBIC EXERCISE ON PHYSICAL FITNESS INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudhan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aerobic exercise reduces body fat and improves weight control, increases HDL&Vo2 max. Also improves PFI (physical fitness index which is defined as ability to carry out daily tasks with vigour and alertness without undue fatigue. Though aerobic exercise is found to improve physical fitness, the relative merits of different intensities of aerobi c exercise in improving physical fitness is still uncertain. AIM: The present study was conducted to know the Effect of High & low intensity aerobic training on physical fitness index. MATERIALS & METHODS : 80 sedentary men (18 - 40 years were randomized in to 2 equal groups (High Intensity & low intensity group . The High [80% HR max] & Low intensity [50 % HR max] groups underwent aerobic exercise training using Bicycle ergo meter (COSCO at 900kpm & 540kpm, for 15mins/day & 30mins/day respectively, 5days a week, for a period of 14weeks. Physical fitness index of each subject was recorded by Modified Harvard step test before & after intervention. RESULTS : After 14 weeks of aerobic training both the exercise groups had improvement in PFI, but high intensity gr oup had a significant (p<0.05 improvement in PFI (97.18 - 101.14 than low intensity group (98.12 - 100.6. CONCLUSION : High intensity aerobic exercise is effective in improving physical fitness.

  2. Chronic stress and decreased physical exercise: impact on weight for African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore-Greene, Gracie M; Gross, Susan M; Silver, Kristi D; Perrino, Carrol S

    2012-01-01

    African American women continue to have the highest prevalence of obesity in the United States and in the state of Maryland they are disproportionately affected by overweight and obesity. There are many contributing factors including chronic stress and the use of health behaviors such as physical exercise that play a role in increased weight for African American women. We examined the relationship of stress to weight and the role of physical exercise in African American paraprofessional women. Cross-sectional study African American paraprofessionals were asked about their perspectives regarding association with chronic stress and physical exercise. The three most salient stressors for the women were finances (33%), work (28%) and family/friends (19%). Ninety percent of the women were overweight or obese. Significant predictors of increased BMI were lack of physical exercise (P = .004) and health compared to others (P = .006). Ethnic discrimination was a form of chronic stress (r = .319) but was not correlated with BMI (r = .095). Decreased physical exercise (P = .02) mediated the relationship between chronic stress and BMI. Findings regarding finance and work stress suggest the need for employers to consider the impact of job strain when implementing employee health programs to decrease stress and improve health. A focus on decreased physical exercise, unhealthy eating habits and misperceptions regarding increased risk for obesity related diseases with health status may be helpful to include in intervention strategies to decrease obesity for this population.

  3. The Effects of Physical Exercise and Cognitive Training on Memory and Neurotrophic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisz, Jennifer J; Clark, Ilana B; Bonin, Katija; Paolucci, Emily M; Michalski, Bernadeta; Becker, Suzanna; Fahnestock, Margaret

    2017-11-01

    This study examined the combined effect of physical exercise and cognitive training on memory and neurotrophic factors in healthy, young adults. Ninety-five participants completed 6 weeks of exercise training, combined exercise and cognitive training, or no training (control). Both the exercise and combined training groups improved performance on a high-interference memory task, whereas the control group did not. In contrast, neither training group improved on general recognition performance, suggesting that exercise training selectively increases high-interference memory that may be linked to hippocampal function. Individuals who experienced greater fitness improvements from the exercise training (i.e., high responders to exercise) also had greater increases in the serum neurotrophic factors brain-derived neurotrophic factor and insulin-like growth factor-1. These high responders to exercise also had better high-interference memory performance as a result of the combined exercise and cognitive training compared with exercise alone, suggesting that potential synergistic effects might depend on the availability of neurotrophic factors. These findings are especially important, as memory benefits accrued from a relatively short intervention in high-functioning young adults.

  4. Systematic, Evidence-Based Review of Exercise, Physical Activity, and Physical Fitness Effects on Cognition in Persons with Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandroff, Brian M; Motl, Robert W; Scudder, Mark R; DeLuca, John

    2016-09-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is highly prevalent, disabling, and poorly-managed in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Recent evidence suggests that exercise might have beneficial effects on cognition in this population. The current systematic, evidence-based review examined the existing literature on exercise, physical activity, and physical fitness effects on cognition in MS to accurately describe the current status of the field, offer recommendations for clinicians, and identify study-specific and participant-specific characteristics for providing future direction for ongoing MS research. We performed an open-dated search of Medline, PsychInfo, and CINAHL in December 2015. The search strategy involved using the terms 'exercise' OR 'physical activity' OR 'physical fitness' OR 'aerobic' OR 'resistance' OR 'balance' OR 'walking' OR 'yoga' OR 'training' OR 'rehabilitation' AND 'multiple sclerosis'. Articles were eliminated from the systematic review if it was a review article, theoretical paper, or textbook chapter; did not involve persons with MS; involved only persons with pediatric-onset MS; did not involve neuropsychological outcomes; did not include empirical data to evaluate outcomes; involved pharmacological interventions; or was not available in English. The selected articles were first classified as examining exercise, physical activity, or physical fitness, and were then randomly assigned to 2 independent reviewers who rated each article for level of evidence based on American Academy of Neurology criteria. Reviewers further completed a table to characterize important elements of each study (i.e., intervention characteristics), the cognitive domain(s) that were targeted, participant-specific characteristics, outcome measures, and study results. The present review resulted in 26 studies on the effects of exercise, physical activity, and physical fitness on cognition in persons with MS. This included 1 Class I study, 3 Class II studies, 8 Class III studies, and

  5. Influence of antenatal physical exercise on haemodynamics in pregnant women: a flexible randomisation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Rhiannon Emma; Emery, Simon J; Uzun, Orhan; D'Silva, Lindsay A; Lewis, Michael J

    2015-08-22

    Normal pregnancy is associated with marked changes in haemodynamic function, however the influence and potential benefits of antenatal physical exercise at different stages of pregnancy and postpartum remain unclear. The aim of this study was therefore to characterise the influence of regular physical exercise on haemodynamic variables at different stages of pregnancy and also in the postpartum period. Fifty healthy pregnant women were recruited and randomly assigned (2 × 2 × 2 design) to a land or water-based exercise group or a control group. Exercising groups attended weekly classes from the 20th week of pregnancy onwards. Haemodynamic assessments (heart rate, cardiac output, stroke volume, total peripheral resistance, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and end diastolic index) were performed using the Task Force haemodynamic monitor at 12-16, 26-28, 34-36 and 12 weeks following birth, during a protocol including postural manoeurvres (supine and standing) and light exercise. In response to an acute bout of exercise in the postpartum period, stroke volume and end diastolic index were greater in the exercise group than the non-exercising control group (p = 0.041 and p = 0.028 respectively). Total peripheral resistance and diastolic blood pressure were also lower (p = 0.015 and p = 0.007, respectively) in the exercise group. Diastolic blood pressure was lower in the exercise group during the second trimester (p = 0.030). Antenatal exercise does not appear to substantially alter maternal physiology with advancing gestation, speculating that the already vast changes in maternal physiology mask the influences of antenatal exercise, however it does appear to result in an improvement in a woman's haemodynamic function (enhanced ventricular ejection performance and reduced blood pressure) following the end of pregnancy. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02503995. Registered 20 July 2015.

  6. "The effect of supervised exercise training on psychological characteristics and physical fitness after myocardial infarction "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Boshtam M

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the increasing prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD especially myocardial infarction (MI, and the insufficiency of information in the field of physical rehabilitation, this study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a course of physical rehabilitation on the psychological status and physical characteristics f cardiac patients. In this study, the effect of 8 weeks exercise training, 3 sessions of 45 minutes duration per week, on the physical and psychological function of MI patients was evaluated. Eighty patients who were referred to the rehabilitation unit of Isfahan cardiovascular Research Center were randomly divided into two groups of exercise and non-exercise. The data of pre and post exercise course were analyzed with the SPSS software using the two-sample t-test and multiple liner regression. The comparison of the mean changes of functional capacity. Weight, body mass index (BMI, heart rate, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures between exercise and non-exercise groups after 8 weeks showed significant difference for all studied factors (P<0.05. Also, investigating the psychological characteristics such as depression, anxiety and hostility scores indicated a significant change after exercise training (P<0.05. Personality and behavior showed no significant difference. This study suggests the functional has a significant effect on improving the function capacity and psychological behavior in post MI patients.

  7. Physical activity and exercise on diabetic foot related outcomes: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Monica; Mendes, Romeu; Silva, André B; Sousa, Nelson

    2018-05-01

    Diabetic foot is one of the most common complications of diabetes. It has the potential risk of pathologic consequences including infection, ulceration and amputation, but a growing body of evidence suggests that physical activity and exercise may improve diabetic foot outcomes. To analyze de effects of exercise and physical activity interventions on diabetic foot outcomes. A comprehensive and systematic search was conducted according to PRISMA recommendations. Only controlled clinical trials with patients with diabetes were included. Six studies, involving 418 patients with diabetes, were included. Two studies used only aerobic exercise; two studies combined aerobic, resistance and balance exercise; and two studies combined aerobic and balance exercise by Thai Chin Chuan methods. Physical activity and exercise significantly improved nerve velocity conduction, peripheral sensory function and foot peak pressure distribution. Moreover, the ulcers incidence rate per year was lower in the intervention groups, compared with the controls [0.02 vs. 0.12]. This review suggests evidence that physical activity and exercise is an effective non-pharmacological intervention to improve diabetic foot related outcomes. Combined multi-disciplinary treatments are more effective in the prevention of foot complications in patients with diabetes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Acute physical exercise under hypoxia improves sleep, mood and reaction time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aquino-Lemos, Valdir; Santos, Ronaldo Vagner T; Antunes, Hanna Karen Moreira; Lira, Fabio S; Luz Bittar, Irene G; Caris, Aline V; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Tulio

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to assess the effect of two sessions of acute physical exercise at 50% VO2peak performed under hypoxia (equivalent to an altitude of 4500 m for 28 h) on sleep, mood and reaction time. Forty healthy men were randomized into 4 groups: Normoxia (NG) (n = 10); Hypoxia (HG) (n = 10); Exercise under Normoxia (ENG) (n = 10); and Exercise under Hypoxia (EHG) (n = 10). All mood and reaction time assessments were performed 40 min after awakening. Sleep was reassessed on the first day at 14 h after the initiation of hypoxia; mood and reaction time were measured 28 h later. Two sessions of acute physical exercise at 50% VO2peak were performed for 60 min on the first and second days after 3 and 27 h, respectively, after starting to hypoxia. Improved sleep efficiency, stage N3 and REM sleep and reduced wake after sleep onset were observed under hypoxia after acute physical exercise. Tension, anger, depressed mood, vigor and reaction time scores improved after exercise under hypoxia. We conclude that hypoxia impairs sleep, reaction time and mood. Acute physical exercise at 50% VO2peak under hypoxia improves sleep efficiency, reversing the aspects that had been adversely affected under hypoxia, possibly contributing to improved mood and reaction time.

  9. Participation by US adults in sports, exercise, and recreational physical activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Sandra A; Kruger, Judy; Tudor-Locke, Catrine

    2009-01-01

    Given the evidence that regular physical activity produces substantial health benefits, participation in sports, exercise, and recreation is widely encouraged. The objective of this study was to describe participation in sports, exercise, and recreational physical activities among US adults. Data from 2 national surveys of respondents age 18 years and older were analyzed. Respondents to the American Time Use Survey (ATUS) from 2003 through 2005 (N=45,246) reported all activities on 1 randomly selected survey day. Respondents to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999 through 2004 (N=17,061) reported leisure-time physical activities in the 30 days before the interview. One-quarter of adults participated in any sport, exercise, or recreational activity on a random day, and 60.9% of adults participated in any leisure-time activity in the previous 30 days. The most common types of activities were walking, gardening and yard work, and other forms of exercise. The sports and recreational activities had typical durations of 1/2 to 3 hours per session, and the exercise activities typically lasted 1 hour or less. The prevalence of sports, exercise, and recreational physical activities is generally low among US adults; exercise is the most commonly reported type of activity.

  10. The Influence of Creatine Monohydrate on Strength and Endurance After Doing Physical Exercise With Maximum Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asrofi Shicas Nabawi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was: (1 to analyze the effect of creatine monohydrate to give strength after doing physical exercise with maximum intensity, towards endurance after doing physical exercise with maximum intensity, (2 to analyze the effect of non creatine monohydrate to give strength after doing physical exercise with maximum intensity, towards endurance after doing physical exercise with maximum intensity, (3 to analyze the results of the difference by administering creatine and non creatine on strength and endurance after exercise with maximum intensity. This type of research used in this research was quantitative with quasi experimental research methods. The design of this study was using pretest and posttest control group design, and data analysis was using a paired sample t-test. The process of data collection was done with the test leg muscle strength using a strength test with back and leg dynamometer, sit ups test with 1 minute sit ups, push ups test with push ups and 30 seconds with a VO2max test cosmed quart CPET during the pretest and posttest. Furthermore, the data were analyzed using SPSS 22.0 series. The results showed: (1 There was the influence of creatine administration against the strength after doing exercise with maximum intensity; (2 There was the influence of creatine administration against the group endurance after doing exercise with maximum intensity; (3 There was the influence of non creatine against the force after exercise maximum intensity; (4 There was the influence of non creatine against the group after endurance exercise maximum intensity; (5 The significant difference with the provision of non creatine and creatine from creatine group difference delta at higher against the increased strength and endurance after exercise maximum intensity. Based on the above analysis, it can be concluded that the increased strength and durability for each of the groups after being given a workout.

  11. Exercise self-efficacy and the relation with physical behavior and physical capacity in wheelchair-dependent persons with subacute spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooijen, Carla F J; Post, Marcel W M; Spooren, Annemie L; Valent, Linda J; Broeksteeg, Rogier; Sluis, Tebbe A; Stam, Henk J; van den Berg-Emons, Rita J G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since physical activity and exercise levels are known to be generally low in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI), there seems to be a need for intervention. Exercise self-efficacy (ESE), the confidence persons have in their ability to be physically active and exercise, is an important

  12. Exercise self-efficacy and the relation with physical behavior and physical capacity in wheelchair-dependent persons with subacute spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooijen, Carla F. J.; Post, Marcel W. M.; Spooren, Annemie L.; Valent, Linda J.; Broeksteeg, Rogier; Sluis, Tebbe A.; Stam, Henk J.; van den Berg-Emons, Rita J. G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since physical activity and exercise levels are known to be generally low in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI), there seems to be a need for intervention. Exercise self-efficacy (ESE), the confidence persons have in their ability to be physically active and exercise, is an important

  13. Exercise self-efficacy and the relation with physical behavior and physical capacity in wheelchair-dependent persons with subacute spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.F.J. Nooijen (Carla); M.W. Post (Marcel); Spooren, A.L. (Annemie L.); L. Valent (Linda); R. Broeksteeg (Rogier); T.A.R. Sluis (Tebbe); H.J. Stam (Henk); H.J.G. van den Berg-Emons (Rita)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Since physical activity and exercise levels are known to be generally low in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI), there seems to be a need for intervention. Exercise self-efficacy (ESE), the confidence persons have in their ability to be physically active and exercise, is

  14. [Physical Exercise and Depression in the Elderly : A Systematic Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño Villada, Fredy Alonso; Arango Vélez, Elkin Fernando; Baena, Lucidia Zuleta

    2013-06-01

    The literature supports the benefits of exercise in people with depressive disorders, but there is controversy over these benefits in depressed elderly. To determine the effect of different types of exercise on depression in older adults using a systematic review of clinical trials. The Cochrane Library; PubMed-MEDLINE (1966-dic 2010); EMBASE (1980-dic 2010); LILACS (1986-dic 2010); SCIELO (1998-dic 2010); Register of Controlled Trials; manual search in other sources. Clinical trials with people >60 years with diagnosis of depression were included, without restriction by year of publication, language and sex, with exercise intervention structures, controlled with usual care (medication, psychotherapy, electric shock therapy), placebo or non-intervention. Three independent reviewers conducted the search, applied inclusion and exclusion criteria, assessed methodological quality and extracted data; discrepancies were resolved by consensus. The primary outcome was the score for depressive symptoms. A total of 11 studies (n=7195) were identified. In general, exercise produces an improvement in depression in older adults with more evidence in the short-term (3 months) and strength training at high intensity. Exercise is beneficial for older persons with depression, but studies that support this are of low methodological quality and heterogeneous, which makes it necessary to develop clinical trials to clarify the magnitude of the effect and the levels at which it is beneficial. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  15. Extracellular hyperosmolality and body temperature during physical exercise in dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, S.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Turlejska, E.; Nazar, K.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that thermoregulation during exercise can be affected by extracellular fluid hyperosmolality without changing the plasma Na(+) concentration. The effects of preexercise venous infusions of hypertonic mannitol and NaCl solutions on rectal temperature responses were compared in dogs running at moderate intensity for 60 min on a treadmill. Plasma Na(+) concentration was increased by 12 meq after NaCl infusion, and decreased by 9 meq after mannitol infusion. Both infusions increased plasma by 15 mosmol/kg. After both infusions, rectal temperature was essentially constant during 60 min rest. However, compared with the noninfusion exercise increase in osmolality of 1.3 C, rectal temperature increased by 1.9 C after both postinfusion exercise experiments. It was concluded that inducing extracellular hyperosmolality, without elevating plasma, can induce excessive increases in rectal temperature during exericse but not at rest.

  16. Differential effects of acute and regular physical exercise on cognition and affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, M E; Davis, F C; Vantieghem, M R; Whalen, P J; Bucci, D J

    2012-07-26

    The effects of regular exercise versus a single bout of exercise on cognition, anxiety, and mood were systematically examined in healthy, sedentary young adults who were genotyped to determine brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) allelic status (i.e., Val-Val or Val66Met polymorphism). Participants were evaluated on novel object recognition (NOR) memory and a battery of mental health surveys before and after engaging in either (a) a 4-week exercise program, with exercise on the final test day, (b) a 4-week exercise program, without exercise on the final test day, (c) a single bout of exercise on the final test day, or (d) remaining sedentary between test days. Exercise enhanced object recognition memory and produced a beneficial decrease in perceived stress, but only in participants who exercised for 4 weeks including the final day of testing. In contrast, a single bout of exercise did not affect recognition memory and resulted in increased perceived stress levels. An additional novel finding was that the improvements on the NOR task were observed exclusively in participants who were homozygous for the BDNF Val allele, indicating that altered activity-dependent release of BDNF in Met allele carriers may attenuate the cognitive benefits of exercise. Importantly, exercise-induced changes in cognition were not correlated with changes in mood/anxiety, suggesting that separate neural systems mediate these effects. These data in humans mirror recent data from our group in rodents. Taken together, these current findings provide new insights into the behavioral and neural mechanisms that mediate the effects of physical exercise on memory and mental health in humans. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Differential Effects of Acute and Regular Physical Exercise on Cognition and Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Michael E.; Davis, F. Caroline; VanTieghem, Michelle R.; Whalen, Paul J.; Bucci, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of regular exercise versus a single bout of exercise on cognition, anxiety, and mood were systematically examined in healthy, sedentary young adults who were genotyped to determine brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) allelic status (i.e., Val-Val or Val66Met polymorphism). Participants were evaluated on novel object recognition (NOR) memory and a battery of mental health surveys before and after engaging in either a) a four-week exercise program, with exercise on the final test day, b) a four-week exercise program, without exercise on the final test day, c) a single bout of exercise on the final test day, or d) remaining sedentary between test days. Exercise enhanced object recognition memory and produced a beneficial decrease in perceived stress, but only in participants who exercised for four weeks including the final day of testing. In contrast, a single bout of exercise did not affect recognition memory and resulted in increased perceived stress levels. An additional novel finding was that the improvements on the NOR task were observed exclusively in participants who were homozygous for the BDNF Val allele, indicating that altered activity-dependent release of BDNF in Met allele carriers may attenuate the cognitive benefits of exercise. Importantly, exercise-induced changes in cognition were not correlated with changes in mood/anxiety, suggesting that separate neural systems mediate these effects. These data in humans mirror recent data from our group in rodents. Taken together, these current findings provide new insights into the behavioral and neural mechanisms that mediate the effects of physical exercise on memory and mental health in humans. PMID:22554780

  18. Physical Exercise Habits Correlate with Gray Matter Volume of the Hippocampus in Healthy Adult Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killgore, William D. S.; Olson, Elizabeth A.; Weber, Mareen

    2013-12-01

    Physical activity facilitates neurogenesis of dentate cells in the rodent hippocampus, a brain region critical for memory formation and spatial representation. Recent findings in humans also suggest that aerobic exercise can lead to increased hippocampal volume and enhanced cognitive functioning in children and elderly adults. However, the association between physical activity and hippocampal volume during the period from early adulthood through middle age has not been effectively explored. Here, we correlated the number of minutes of self-reported exercise per week with gray matter volume of the hippocampus using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in 61 healthy adults ranging from 18 to 45 years of age. After controlling for age, gender, and total brain volume, total minutes of weekly exercise correlated significantly with volume of the right hippocampus. Findings highlight the relationship between regular physical exercise and brain structure during early to middle adulthood.

  19. Feasibility, physical capacity, and health benefits of a multidimensional exercise program for cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, Lis; Midtgaard, Julie; Rorth, Mikael

    2003-01-01

    Cancer patients frequently experience considerable loss of physical capacity and general wellbeing when diagnosed and treated for their disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, physical capacity, and health benefits of a multidimensional exercise program for cancer patients...... during advanced stages of disease who are undergoing adjuvant or high-dose chemotherapy. The supervised program included high- and low-intensity activities (physical exercise, relaxation, massage, and body-awareness training). A total of 23 patients between 18 and 65 years of age (median 40 years...... significance. It is concluded that an exercise program, which combines high- and low-intensity physical activities, may be used to prevent and/or minimize physical inactivity, fatigue, muscle wasting and energy loss in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy....

  20. Optimizing the benefits of exercise on physical function in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buford, Thomas W; Anton, Stephen D; Clark, David J; Higgins, Torrance J; Cooke, Matthew B

    2014-06-01

    As the number of older adults continues to rise worldwide, the prevention of physical disability among seniors is an increasingly important public health priority. Physical exercise is among the best known methods of preventing disability, but accumulating evidence indicates that considerable variability exists in the responsiveness of older adults to standard training regimens. Accordingly, a need exists to develop tailored interventions to optimize the beneficial effects of exercise on the physical function of older adults at risk for becoming disabled. The present review summarizes the available literature related to the use of adjuvant or alternative strategies intended to enhance the efficacy of exercise in improving the physical function of older adults. Within this work, we also discuss potential future research directions in this area. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Exercise, physical activity, and self-determination theory: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira Pedro J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Motivation is a critical factor in supporting sustained exercise, which in turn is associated with important health outcomes. Accordingly, research on exercise motivation from the perspective of self-determination theory (SDT has grown considerably in recent years. Previous reviews have been mostly narrative and theoretical. Aiming at a more comprehensive review of empirical data, this article examines the empirical literature on the relations between key SDT-based constructs and exercise and physical activity behavioral outcomes. Methods This systematic review includes 66 empirical studies published up to June 2011, including experimental, cross-sectional, and prospective studies that have measured exercise causality orientations, autonomy/need support and need satisfaction, exercise motives (or goal contents, and exercise self-regulations and motivation. We also studied SDT-based interventions aimed at increasing exercise behavior. In all studies, actual or self-reported exercise/physical activity, including attendance, was analyzed as the dependent variable. Findings are summarized based on quantitative analysis of the evidence. Results The results show consistent support for a positive relation between more autonomous forms of motivation and exercise, with a trend towards identified regulation predicting initial/short-term adoption more strongly than intrinsic motivation, and intrinsic motivation being more predictive of long-term exercise adherence. The literature is also consistent in that competence satisfaction and more intrinsic motives positively predict exercise participation across a range of samples and settings. Mixed evidence was found concerning the role of other types of motives (e.g., health/fitness and body-related, and also the specific nature and consequences of introjected regulation. The majority of studies have employed descriptive (i.e., non-experimental designs but similar results are found across

  2. Exercise, physical activity, and self-determination theory: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Motivation is a critical factor in supporting sustained exercise, which in turn is associated with important health outcomes. Accordingly, research on exercise motivation from the perspective of self-determination theory (SDT) has grown considerably in recent years. Previous reviews have been mostly narrative and theoretical. Aiming at a more comprehensive review of empirical data, this article examines the empirical literature on the relations between key SDT-based constructs and exercise and physical activity behavioral outcomes. Methods This systematic review includes 66 empirical studies published up to June 2011, including experimental, cross-sectional, and prospective studies that have measured exercise causality orientations, autonomy/need support and need satisfaction, exercise motives (or goal contents), and exercise self-regulations and motivation. We also studied SDT-based interventions aimed at increasing exercise behavior. In all studies, actual or self-reported exercise/physical activity, including attendance, was analyzed as the dependent variable. Findings are summarized based on quantitative analysis of the evidence. Results The results show consistent support for a positive relation between more autonomous forms of motivation and exercise, with a trend towards identified regulation predicting initial/short-term adoption more strongly than intrinsic motivation, and intrinsic motivation being more predictive of long-term exercise adherence. The literature is also consistent in that competence satisfaction and more intrinsic motives positively predict exercise participation across a range of samples and settings. Mixed evidence was found concerning the role of other types of motives (e.g., health/fitness and body-related), and also the specific nature and consequences of introjected regulation. The majority of studies have employed descriptive (i.e., non-experimental) designs but similar results are found across cross

  3. Conceptualization of physical exercise and keeping fit by child wheelchair users and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Jane; Spencer, Llinos Haf; Bray, Nathan; Kubis, Hans-Peter; Hastings, Richard P; Jackson, Matthew; O'Brien, Thomas D

    2017-05-01

    To gain a better understanding of how children aged 6-18 years who use wheelchairs and their families conceptualized physical exercise and keeping fit. Disabled children with reduced mobility are commonly overweight and unfit. Nurse-led health screening programmes in schools commonly exclude disabled children if they cannot use standard weighing scales or stand against height measuring sticks. Qualitative interview study at two time points over 6 months with children who use wheelchairs and their families. Framework analysis using the theory of planned behaviour. Mainly physically active participants were recruited (24 children and 23 parents) 2013-2014. Despite engaging in high levels of physical exercise, children were assessed as fit but had elevated body fat and did not realize how fit they were or that they were slightly overweight and nor did their parents. Children enjoyed the social benefits of exercise. Unlike their parents, children confused the purpose and outcomes of physical exercise with therapy (e.g. physiotherapy) and incorrectly understood the effects of physical exercise on body function and strength, preventing stiffness, increasing stamina and reducing fatigue. A new model was developed to show children's misconceptions. Proactive parents can overcome barriers to enable their children to benefit from physical exercise. Professionals need to increase communication clarity to improve children's understanding of therapy compared with physical exercise outcomes. Inclusion of children who use wheelchairs in health education policy; routine health screening; physical education classes and teacher training requires improvement. Body composition measurement is recommended, for which nurses will need training. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Factors affecting pain relief in response to physical exercise interventions among healthcare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, M D; Sundstrup, E; Brandt, M; Andersen, L L

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is to identify factors associated with musculo-skeletal pain reduction during workplace-based or home-based physical exercise interventions among healthcare workers. Two hundred female healthcare workers (age: 42.0, BMI: 24.1, average pain intensity: 3.1 on a scale of 0-10) from three hospitals participated. Participants were randomly allocated at the cluster level (18 departments) to 10 weeks of (i) workplace physical exercise (WORK) performed in groups during working hours for 5 × 10 minutes per week and up to five group-based coaching sessions on motivation for regular physical exercise, or (ii) home-based physical exercise (HOME) performed alone during leisure-time for 5 × 10 minutes per week. Linear mixed models accounting for cluster identified factors affecting pain reduction. On average 2.2 (SD: 1.1) and 1.0 (SD: 1.2) training sessions were performed per week in WORK and HOME, respectively. The multi-adjusted analysis showed a significant effect on pain reduction of both training adherence (P=.04) and intervention group (P=.04) with participants in WORK experiencing greater reductions compared with HOME. Obesity at baseline was associated with better outcome. Leisure-time exercise, daily patient transfer, age, and chronic pain did not affect the changes in pain. In conclusion, even when adjusted for training adherence, performing physical exercise at the workplace is more effective than home-based exercise in reducing musculo-skeletal pain in healthcare workers. Noteworthy, obese individuals may especially benefit from physical exercise interventions targeting musculo-skeletal pain. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Motivational and evolutionary aspects of a physical exercise training program: a longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, João P. P.; de Souza, Altay A. L.; de Lima, Giscard H. O.; Rodrigues, Dayane F.; de Aquino Lemos, Valdir; da Silva Alves, Eduardo; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco T.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that motivational level and prior expectations influence one’s commitment to physical activity. Moreover, these aspects are not properly described in terms of proximal (SDT, Self Determination Theory) and distal (evolutionary) explanations in the literature. This paper aims to verify if level of motivation (BREQ-2, Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2) and expectations regarding regular physical exercise (IMPRAF-54) before starting a 1-year exercise program could determine likelihood of completion. Ninety-four volunteers (53 women) included a completed protocol group (CPG; n = 21) and drop-out group (n = 73). The IMPRAF-54 scale was used to assess six different expectations associated with physical activity, and the BREQ-2 inventory was used to assess the level of motivation in five steps (from amotivation to intrinsic motivation). Both questionnaires were assessed before starting a regular exercise program. The CPG group presented higher sociability and lower pleasure scores according to IMPRAF-54 domains. A logistic regression analysis showed that a one-point increment on sociability score increased the chance of completing the program by 10%, and the same one-point increment on pleasure score reduced the chance of completing the protocol by 16%. ROC curves were also calculated to establish IMPRAF-54 cutoffs for adherence (Sociability – 18.5 points – 81% sensibility/50% specificity) and dropout (Pleasure – 25.5 points – 86% sensibility/20% specificity) of the exercise protocol. Our results indicate that an expectation of social interaction was a positive factor in predicting adherence to exercise. Grounded in SDT and its innate needs (competence, autonomy, relatedness), physical exercise is not an end; it is a means to achieve autonomy and self-cohesion. The association of physical activity with social practices, as occurs in hunter-gathering groups, can engage people to be physically active and can provide

  6. Strenuous running exacerbates knee cartilage erosion induced by low amount of mono-iodoacetate in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Saito, Ryusuke; Muneta, Takeshi; Ozeki, Nobutake; Nakagawa, Yusuke; Udo, Mio; Yanagisawa, Katsuaki; Tsuji, Kunikazu; Tomita, Makoto; Koga, Hideyuki; Sekiya, Ichiro

    2017-01-01

    Background It is still debated whether strenuous running in the inflammatory phase produces beneficial or harmful effect in rat knees. We examined (1) the dropout rate of rats during a 30-km running protocol, (2) influences of strenuous running and/or low amounts of mono-iodoacetate injection on cartilage, and (3) the effect of strenuous running on synovitis. Methods Rats were forced to run 30?km over 6?weeks and the dropout rate was examined. One week after 0.1?mg mono-iodoacetate was inject...

  7. The Effects of Acute Physical Exercise on Memory, Peripheral BDNF, and Cortisol in Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Hötting

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In animals, physical activity has been shown to induce functional and structural changes especially in the hippocampus and to improve memory, probably by upregulating the release of neurotrophic factors. In humans, results on the effect of acute exercise on memory are inconsistent so far. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the effects of a single bout of physical exercise on memory consolidation and the underlying neuroendocrinological mechanisms in young adults. Participants encoded a list of German-Polish vocabulary before exercising for 30 minutes with either high intensity or low intensity or before a relaxing phase. Retention of the vocabulary was assessed 20 minutes after the intervention as well as 24 hours later. Serum BDNF and salivary cortisol were measured at baseline, after learning, and after the intervention. The high-intensity exercise group showed an increase in BDNF and cortisol after exercising compared to baseline. Exercise after learning did not enhance the absolute number of recalled words. Participants of the high-intensity exercise group, however, forgot less vocabulary than the relaxing group 24 hours after learning. There was no robust relationship between memory scores and the increase in BDNF and cortisol, respectively, suggesting that further parameters have to be taken into account to explain the effects of exercise on memory in humans.

  8. The Effects of Acute Physical Exercise on Memory, Peripheral BDNF, and Cortisol in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hötting, Kirsten; Schickert, Nadine; Kaiser, Jochen; Röder, Brigitte; Schmidt-Kassow, Maren

    2016-01-01

    In animals, physical activity has been shown to induce functional and structural changes especially in the hippocampus and to improve memory, probably by upregulating the release of neurotrophic factors. In humans, results on the effect of acute exercise on memory are inconsistent so far. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the effects of a single bout of physical exercise on memory consolidation and the underlying neuroendocrinological mechanisms in young adults. Participants encoded a list of German-Polish vocabulary before exercising for 30 minutes with either high intensity or low intensity or before a relaxing phase. Retention of the vocabulary was assessed 20 minutes after the intervention as well as 24 hours later. Serum BDNF and salivary cortisol were measured at baseline, after learning, and after the intervention. The high-intensity exercise group showed an increase in BDNF and cortisol after exercising compared to baseline. Exercise after learning did not enhance the absolute number of recalled words. Participants of the high-intensity exercise group, however, forgot less vocabulary than the relaxing group 24 hours after learning. There was no robust relationship between memory scores and the increase in BDNF and cortisol, respectively, suggesting that further parameters have to be taken into account to explain the effects of exercise on memory in humans.

  9. Perceptions about exercise and intrinsic motivation of students attending a health-related physical education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papacharisis, Vassilios; Goudas, Marios

    2003-12-01

    The present study examined effects of sex, attitude towards physical activity, perceived barriers for participation in physical activity, and students' perception of their parents' participation in physical activity on the intrinsic motivation of students participating in a health related program in physical education. 643 students (303 boys and 340 girls) responded to questionnaires measuring intrinsic motivation, attitudes towards physical activity, perceived barriers to exercise and perceived parents' participation in physical activity. Mean age was 12.9 yr. (SD=1.2, range 11-14 years). Analysis indicated that students' intrinsic motivation towards the program was influenced by perceived barriers to exercise. Sex, attitudes towards physical activity, and perceived parents' participation in physical activity seem to be less important.

  10. Physical activity in the school setting: cognitive performance is not affected by three different types of acute exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, Vera; Saliasi, Emi; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle; Chin A Paw, Mai; Singh, Amika

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that a single bout of physical exercise can have immediatepositive effects on cognitive performance of children and adolescents. However, thetype of exercise that affects cognitive performance the most in young adolescents isnot fully understood. Therefore, this controlled

  11. Using probability density function in the procedure for recognition of the type of physical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cakić Nikola

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for recognition of physical exercises, using only a triaxial accelerometer of a smartphone. The smartphone itself is free to move inside subject's pocket. Exercises for leg muscle strengthening from subject's standing position squat, right knee rise and lunge with right leg were analyzed. All exercises were performed with the accelerometric sensor of a smartphone placed in the pocket next to the leg used for exercises. In order to test the proposed recognition method, the knee rise exercise of the opposite leg with the same position of the sensor was randomly selected. Filtering of the raw accelerometric signals was carried out using Butterworth tenth-order low-pass filter. The filtered signals from each of the three axes were described using three signal descriptors. After the descriptors were calculated, a probability density function was constructed for each of the descriptors. The program that implemented the proposed recognition method was executed online within an Android application of the smartphone. Signals from two male and two female subjects were considered as a reference for exercise recognition. The exercise recognition accuracy was 94.22% for three performed exercises, and 85.33% for all four considered exercises.

  12. Motives for physical exercise participation as a basis for the development of patient-oriented exercise interventions in osteoarthritis: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Inga; Katzmarek, Uwe; Rieger, Monika A; Sudeck, Gorden

    2017-08-01

    Physical exercises are effective in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). There is consensus that exercise interventions should take into account the patient's preferences and needs in order to improve compliance to exercise regimes. One important personal factor is the patient's motivation for physical exercise. Health improvement is a relevant motive for exercise participation. Accordingly, exercise interventions primarily focus on health related needs such as strengthening and pain reduction. However exercising provides further many-faceted incentives that may foster exercise adherence. The present study aimed to characterize target groups for person-tailored exercise interventions in OA according to the International Classification of Functioning and Disability and Health (ICF). Target groups should be classified by similar individual exercise participation motive profiles and further described by their disease-related symptoms, limitations and psychological determinants of exercise behavior. Observational study via self-administered questionnaires. Community. We enrolled 292 adults with hip/knee OA living independently of assistance. Participants completed the Bernese Motive and Goal Inventory in Leisure and Health Sports (BMZI), the Hannover Functional Ability Questionnaire for Osteoarthritis, the WOMAC-Index (pain/stiffness), the General Self-efficacy Scale and a questionnaire on perceived barriers to exercise participation. The BMZI-scales served as active variables for cluster analysis (Ward's method), other scales were used as passive variables to further describe the identified clusters. Four clusters were defined using five exercise participation motives: health, body/appearance, esthetics, nature, and contact. Based on the identified motive profiles the target groups are labelled health-focused sports people; sporty, nature-oriented individualists; functionalists primarily motivated by maintaining or improving health through exercise; and nature

  13. Effects of gender, education and health communication on the regularity of physical exercise: a 2016 Vietnamese cross-section survey

    OpenAIRE

    Vuong, Quan-Hoang; Pham, Hiep-Hung; Vuong, Thu Trang

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, physical exercise and sports activities are regarded as the best means for people to keep fit and boost their health. In Vietnam, exercising on a daily basis is still underappreciated as twothirds of the population only exercise at trivial or low levels. Based on applying the baseline category logit model, we conduct an analysis to figure out the factors affecting people’s level of exercise. The findings show that males tend to engage in physical activities more than females, with t...

  14. Perceived benefits and barriers to exercise among persons with physical disabilities or chronic health conditions within action or maintenance stages of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Laurie A; Barfield, J P; Brasher, Joel D

    2012-10-01

    Information regarding factors that affect the initial step to exercise behavior change among persons with physical disabilities or chronic health conditions is available in the literature but much less is known regarding perceived benefits and barriers to exercise among those who are regularly active. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceived benefits and barriers to exercise among persons with physical disabilities or chronic health conditions within action or maintenance stages of exercise. Participants (n = 152) completed the Exercise Benefits and Barriers Scale (EBBS). For data analyses, disabilities and health conditions were grouped as neuromuscular, orthopedic, cardiovascular/pulmonary, or multiple conditions. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was conducted to determine if mean differences on EBBS benefits and barriers scores existed among disability types, between sexes, among age groups, and between physical activity levels. Sum scores were computed to determine the strongest benefit and barrier responses. No significant mean differences in EBBS scores were found between disability types, sexes, age groups, or physical activity levels (p > 0.05). Strongest benefit responses varied by group. Strongest barrier responses were the same for all demographic groups: "Exercise tires me," "Exercise is hard work for me," and "I am fatigued by exercise." EBBS scores were similar across disability/health condition, sex, age, and physical activity level. Primary benefits reported were in the areas of improved physical performance and psychological outlook whereas the primary barriers were in the area of physical exertion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, George

    2014-11-03

    Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis, or exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER), is a clinical entity typically considered when someone presents with muscle stiffness, swelling, and pain out of proportion to the expected fatigue post exercise. The diagnosis is confirmed by myoglobinuria, and an elevated serum Creatinine Phosphokinase (CPK) level, usually 10 times the normal range. However, an elevation in CPK is seen in most forms of strenuous exercise, up to 20 times the upper normal range. Therefore, there is no definitive pathologic CPK cut-off. Fortunately the dreaded complication of acute renal failure is rare compared to other forms rhabdomyolysis. We review the risks, diagnosis, clinical course and treatment for exercise- induced rhabdomyolysis.

  16. Physical exercise and executive functions in preadolescent children, adolescents and young adults: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verburgh, Lot; Königs, Marsh; Scherder, Erik J A; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2014-06-01

    The goal of this meta-analysis was to aggregate available empirical studies on the effects of physical exercise on executive functions in preadolescent children (6-12 years of age), adolescents (13-17 years of age) and young adults (18-35 years of age). The electronic databases PubMed, EMBASE and SPORTDiscus were searched for relevant studies reporting on the effects of physical exercise on executive functions. Nineteen studies were selected. There was a significant overall effect of acute physical exercise on executive functions (d=0.52, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.76, pexercise (d=0.14, 95%CI -0.04 to 0.32, p=0.19) on executive functions (Q (1)=5.08, pexercise on the domain's inhibition/interference control (d=0.46, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.60, pexercise on planning (d=0.16, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.89, p=0.18). Results suggest that acute physical exercise enhances executive functioning. The number of studies on chronic physical exercise is limited and it should be investigated whether chronic physical exercise shows effects on executive functions comparable to acute physical exercise. This is highly relevant in preadolescent children and adolescents, given the importance of well-developed executive functions for daily life functioning and the current increase in sedentary behaviour in these age groups. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Modulation of Energy Intake and Expenditure Due to Habitual Physical Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Matoulek; Krystof, Slaby; Jiri, Radvansky; Martina, Dankova; Renata, Vetrovska; Ondrej, Mikes; Stepan, Svacina; Vladimir, Tuka

    2016-01-01

    The 20th and 21st centuries are marked by an increase in life expectancy on one hand and on the other hand by the increase of so called civilization diseases. Their share one common trait: the energy metabolism imbalance, with low energy expenditure and high energy uptake. Our age can be viewed as the age of inactivity and wealth. The aim of the present review is to highlight the influence of habitual physical activity on energy metabolism and balance. Energy balance is the difference between energy intake and energy expenditure, where energy expenditure further divides into resting metabolic rate, thermic effect of feeding and energy used by physical activity. In general population, resting metabolic rate remains constant and proportional to muscle body mass. Muscle mass increases with exercise, especially resistance exercise, concomitantly with increasing energy expenditure. The effect of exercise on appetite is very strong, proportional to exercise intensity. An acute bout of aerobic exercise suppresses appetite by decreasing ghrelin plasma levels, and increasing gut hormones. Different subgroups of patients respond differently to the same exercise or habitual activity and have thus distinct effects on energy balance. Different myokines plasma levels after exercise could explain these different reactions although most of their effect is still unclear. Physical activity plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of many disorders, like obesity, type 1 and type 2 diabetes, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, coronary heart disease, osteoporosis, psychiatric and neurologic disorders. It is evident, that physical activity has an effect not only on energy balance but also has a direct effect on other body organ via its own molecules - myokines. The pharmacological effect of myokines gives hope that one day we could have a "myokine drug" that could be used in patients who are unable to exercise. Until then we should use our "muscle-pharmacy" and try to convince

  18. Maintenance of exercise-induced benefits in physical functioning and bone among elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karinkanta, S; Heinonen, A; Sievänen, H; Uusi-Rasi, K; Fogelholm, M; Kannus, P

    2009-04-01

    This study showed that about a half of the exercise-induced gain in dynamic balance and bone strength was maintained one year after cessation of the supervised high-intensity training of home-dwelling elderly women. However, to maintain exercise-induced gains in lower limb muscle force and physical functioning, continued training seems necessary. Maintenance of exercise-induced benefits in physical functioning and bone structure was assessed one year after cessation of 12-month randomized controlled exercise intervention. Originally 149 healthy women 70-78 years of age participated in the 12-month exercise RCT and 120 (81%) of them completed the follow-up study. Self-rated physical functioning, dynamic balance, leg extensor force, and bone structure were assessed. During the intervention, exercise increased dynamic balance by 7% in the combination resistance and balance-jumping training group (COMB). At the follow-up, a 4% (95% CI: 1-8%) gain compared with the controls was still seen, while the exercise-induced isometric leg extension force and self-rated physical functioning benefits had disappeared. During the intervention, at least twice a week trained COMB subjects obtained a significant 2% benefit in tibial shaft bone strength index compared to the controls. A half of this benefit seemed to be maintained at the follow-up. Exercise-induced benefits in dynamic balance and rigidity in the tibial shaft may partly be maintained one year after cessation of a supervised 12-month multi-component training in initially healthy elderly women. However, to maintain the achieved gains in muscle force and physical functioning, continued training seems necessary.

  19. Effects of Physical Exercise on the Intestinal Mucosa of Rats Submitted to a Hypothalamic Obesity Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, J R; Freitas, J R; Grassiolli, S

    2016-10-01

    The small intestine plays a role in obesity as well as in satiation. However, the effect of physical exercise on the morphology and function of the small intestine during obesity has not been reported to date. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of physical exercise on morphological aspects of the rat small intestine during hypothalamic monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced obesity. The rats were divided into four groups: Sedentary (S), Monosodium Glutamate (MSG), Exercised (E), and Exercised Monosodium Glutamate (EMSG). The MSG and EMSG groups received a daily injection of monosodium glutamate (4 g/kg) during the 5 first days after birth. The S and E groups were considered as control groups and received injections of saline. At weaning, at 21 days after birth, the EMSG and E groups were submitted to swimming practice 3 times a week until the 90th day, when all groups were sacrificed and the parameters studied recorded. Exercise significantly reduced fat deposits and the Lee Index in MSG-treated animals, and also reduced the thickness of the intestinal wall, the number of goblet cells and intestinal alkaline phosphatase activity. However, physical activity alone increased the thickness and height of villi, and the depth of the crypts. In conclusion, regular physical exercise may alter the morphology or/and functions of the small intestine, reducing the prejudicial effects of hypothalamic obesity. Anat Rec, 299:1389-1396, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Effects of physical exercise interventions in frail older adults: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Labra, Carmen; Guimaraes-Pinheiro, Christyanne; Maseda, Ana; Lorenzo, Trinidad; Millán-Calenti, José C

    2015-12-02

    Low physical activity has been shown to be one of the most common components of frailty, and interventions have been considered to prevent or reverse this syndrome. The purpose of this systematic review of randomized, controlled trials is to examine the exercise interventions to manage frailty in older people. The PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched using specific keywords and Medical Subject Headings for randomized, controlled trials published during the period of 2003-2015, which enrolled frail older adults in an exercise intervention program. Studies where frailty had been defined were included in the review. A narrative synthesis approach was performed to examine the results. The Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro scale) was used to assess the methodological quality of the selected studies. Of 507 articles, nine papers met the inclusion criteria. Of these, six included multi-component exercise interventions (aerobic and resistance training not coexisting in the intervention), one included physical comprehensive training, and two included exercises based on strength training. All nine of these trials included a control group receiving no treatment, maintaining their habitual lifestyle or using a home-based low level exercise program. Five investigated the effects of exercise on falls, and among them, three found a positive impact of exercise interventions on this parameter. Six trials reported the effects of exercise training on several aspects of mobility, and among them, four showed enhancements in several measurements of this outcome. Three trials focused on the effects of exercise intervention on balance performance, and one demonstrated enhanced balance. Four trials investigated functional ability, and two showed positive results after the intervention. Seven trials investigated the effects of exercise intervention on muscle strength, and five of them reported increases; three trials

  1. A Data Set of Human Body Movements for Physical Rehabilitation Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakanski, Aleksandar; Jun, Hyung-Pil; Paul, David; Baker, Russell

    2018-03-01

    The article presents University of Idaho - Physical Rehabilitation Movement Data (UI-PRMD) - a publically available data set of movements related to common exercises performed by patients in physical rehabilitation programs. For the data collection, 10 healthy subjects performed 10 repetitions of different physical therapy movements, with a Vicon optical tracker and a Microsoft Kinect sensor used for the motion capturing. The data are in a format that includes positions and angles of full-body joints. The objective of the data set is to provide a basis for mathematical modeling of therapy movements, as well as for establishing performance metrics for evaluation of patient consistency in executing the prescribed rehabilitation exercises.

  2. Optimizing the Benefits of Exercise on Physical Function in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buford, Thomas W.; Anton, Stephen D.; Clark, David J.; Higgins, Torrance J.; Cooke, Matthew B.

    2014-01-01

    As the number of older adults continues to rise worldwide, the prevention of physical disability among seniors is an increasingly important public health priority. Physical exercise is among the best known methods of preventing disability, but accumulating evidence indicates that considerable variability exists in the responsiveness of older adults to standard training regimens. Accordingly, a need exists to develop tailored interventions to optimize the beneficial effects of exercise on the physical function of older adults at risk for becoming disabled. The present review summarizes the available literature related to the use of adjuvant or alternative strategies intended to enhance the efficacy of exercise in improving the physical function of older adults. Within this work, we also discuss potential future research directions in this area. PMID:24361365

  3. Prevalence and predictors of physical exercise among nurses. A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad A. Al-Tannir

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To identify the prevalence and predictors of physical exercise among nurses. Methods: This study was conducted at 2 hospitals selected randomly from tertiary hospitals in King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA and Makassed General Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon in 2014. The study included nurses with at least one year of nursing experience. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was divided into 2 sections, one covering the respondents’ demographics, and the other one assessing the prevalence and the characteristics of physical exercise. Results: A total of 412 participants responded, of whom 248 (60.2% are engaged in physical exercise. On multivariate analysis, normal weight and smoking were independently associated with physical exercise. Most 66.1% of respondents reported practicing walking as the most common type of physical activity. One hundred eighty (72.6% respondents relied on their own motivation to perform physical activity and 64.6% reported the lack of availability of physical activity facilities. Conclusion: Smoking and obesity were the significant predictors associated with physical inactivity. Encouraging nurses to adopt a healthy lifestyle for their role modeling to patients as health promoters is recommended.

  4. Personal Exercise Behavior and Attitudes Towards Physical Activity Among Physiotherapy Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Michalak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study was designed to obtain information about the personal exercise behavior and to evaluate the relationship between attitudes towards physical activity and personal exercise practices of future physiotherapists and to determine whether physiotherapy specialty is associated with physical activity. Material and methods The study involved 196 first year students of Division of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Military Medicine, Medical University of Lodz. Personal exercise practice and attitudes towards physical activity were assessed by questionnaire. Results Taking professional sports training was declared only by 4 % of respondents and amateur sports training by more than half of the physiotherapy students (57%. Only 3% of future physiotherapist practiced sports 5 times a week or more, 19% 3-4 times a week, 32% - rarely, but steadily. Almost half of respondents (46 % said that they do not take physical activity regularly. 39% of future physiotherapists admitted that apart from compulsory classes at the University they practiced no additional physical activity. Statistically significant difference was found in sports participation between man and women (p<0.00378. Conclusions Physiotherapy students are aware about the beneficial effects of regular physical activity on health but this knowledge is not correlated with personal exercise behavior. The level of physical activity among future physiotherapists is not greater than among the rest of the society. In the education of future physiotherapists the emphasis should be placed on increasing the level of physical activity, so necessary in this profession.

  5. Physical Education Teachers' Continuing Professional Development in Health-Related Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfrey, Laura; Cale, Lorraine; Webb, Louisa A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: As a component of the physical education curriculum, Health-Related Exercise (HRE) has been subject to intensive critique in terms of its status, organisation and expression in schools. Concerns and questions have also been raised about physical education teachers' professional knowledge of health and the extent to which HRE features…

  6. Cost–utility and cost-effectiveness of physical exercise during adjuvant chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Waart, Hanna; van Dongen, Johanna M.; van Harten, Wim H.; Stuiver, Martijn M.; Huijsmans, Rosalie; Hellendoorn-van Vreeswijk, Jeannette A.J.H.; Sonke, Gabe S.; Aaronson, Neil K.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: A home-based, low-intensity physical activity program (Onco-Move) and a supervised, moderate-to-high intensity, combined resistance and aerobic exercise program (OnTrack) have proven to be effective in maintaining physical fitness and reducing fatigue among breast cancer patients

  7. Cost-utility and cost-effectiveness of physical exercise during adjuvant chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Waart, Hanna; van Dongen, Johanna M.; van Harten, Wim H.; Stuiver, Martijn M.; Huijsmans, Rosalie; Hellendoorn-van Vreeswijk, Jeannette A. J. H.; Sonke, Gabe S.; Aaronson, Neil K.

    2017-01-01

    A home-based, low-intensity physical activity program (Onco-Move) and a supervised, moderate-to-high intensity, combined resistance and aerobic exercise program (OnTrack) have proven to be effective in maintaining physical fitness and reducing fatigue among breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant

  8. Effects of Exercise on Physical Fitness in Children with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubovic, Spela; Maksimovic, Jasna; Golubovic, Boris; Glumbic, Nenad

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the study which examined the effects of carefully designed physical exercise programs on the development of physical fitness in children with ID. The study sample consisted of 42 children with ID and 45 typically developing children. All the participants were assessed using Eurofit Test Battery. The results were…

  9. Effects of Physical Exercise on Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowa, Michelle; Meulenbroek, Ruud

    2012-01-01

    It is generally agreed that regular physical exercise promotes physical and mental health, but what are the benefits in people with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)? This meta-analysis evaluates 16 behavioural studies reporting on a total of 133 children and adults with various variants of the syndrome who were offered structured physical…

  10. [Heart rate variability and physical exercise. Current status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hottenrott, Kuno; Hoos, Olaf; Esperer, Hans Dieter

    2006-09-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has long been used in risk stratification for sudden cardiac death and diabetic autonomic neuropathy. In recent years, both time and frequency domain indices of HRV also gained increasing interest in sports and training sciences. In these fields, HRV is currently used for the noninvasive assessment of autonomic changes associated with short-term and long-term endurance exercise training in both leisure sports activity and high-performance training. Furthermore, HRV is being investigated as a diagnostic marker of overreaching and overtraining.A large body of evidence shows that, in healthy subjects and cardiovascular patients of all ages (up to an age of 70 years), regular aerobic training usually results in a significant improvement of overall as well as instantaneous HRV. These changes, which are accompanied by significant reductions in heart rates both at rest and during submaximal exercise, reflect an increase in autonomic efferent activity and a shift in favor of enhanced vagal modulation of the cardiac rhythm. Regular aerobic training of moderate volume and intensity over a minimum period of 3 months seems to be necessary to ensure these effects, which might be associated with a prognostic benefit regarding overall mortality.At present, available data does not allow for final conclusions with respect to the usefulness of traditional HRV indices in assessing an individual's exercise performance and monitoring training load. The discrepant results published so far are due to several factors including insufficient study size and design, and different HRV methods. Large-sized and prospectively designed studies are necessary for clarification. It also remains to be seen, whether the traditional HRV indices prove useful in the diagnosis of overreaching and overtraining. Preliminary results, though promising, need to be confirmed in larger cohorts.A basic problem in HRV analysis is nonstationarity of the heart rate signal, which holds

  11. NAFLD, Estrogens, and Physical Exercise: The Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Lavoie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One segment of the population that is particularly inclined to liver fat accumulation is postmenopausal women. Although nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis is more common in men than in women, after menopause there is a reversal in gender distribution. At the present time, weight loss and exercise are regarded as first line treatments for NAFLD in postmenopausal women, as it is the case for the management of metabolic syndrome. In recent years, there has been substantial evidence coming mostly from the use of the animal model, that indeed estrogens withdrawal is associated with modifications of molecular markers favouring the activity of metabolic pathways ultimately leading to liver fat accumulation. In addition, the use of the animal model has provided physiological and molecular evidence that exercise training provides estrogens-like protective effects on liver fat accumulation and its consequences. The purpose of the present paper is to present information relative to the development of a state of NAFLD resulting from the absence of estrogens and the role of exercise training, emphasizing on the contribution of the animal model on these issues.

  12. Leisure-time exercise, physical activity during work and commuting, and risk of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Keisuke; Honda, Toru; Nakagawa, Tohru; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Akter, Shamima; Hayashi, Takeshi; Mizoue, Tetsuya

    2016-09-01

    Data are limited regarding effect of intensity of leisure-time physical activity on metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, no prospective data are available regarding effect of occupational and commuting physical activity on metabolic syndrome. We compared metabolic syndrome risk by intensity level of leisure-time exercise and by occupational and commuting physical activity in Japanese workers. We followed 22,383 participants, aged 30-64 years, without metabolic syndrome until 2014 March (maximum, 5 years of follow-up). Physical activity was self-reported. Metabolic syndrome was defined by the Joint Statement criteria. We used Cox regression models to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of metabolic syndrome. During a mean follow-up of 4.1 years, 5361 workers developed metabolic syndrome. After adjustment for covariates, compared with engaging in no exercise, the HRs (95 % CIs) for metabolic equivalent hours of exercise per week were 0.99 (0.90, 1.08), 0.99 (0.90, 1.10), and 0.95 (0.83, 1.08), respectively, among individuals engaging in moderate-intensity exercise alone; 0.93 (0.75, 1.14), 0.81 (0.64, 1.02), and 0.84 (0.66, 1.06), among individuals engaging in vigorous-intensity exercise alone; and 0.90 (0.70, 1.17), 0.74 (0.62, 0.89), and 0.81 (0.69, 0.96) among individuals engaging in the two intensities. Higher occupational physical activity was weakly but significantly associated with lower risk of metabolic syndrome. Walking to and from work was not associated with metabolic syndrome. Vigorous-intensity exercise alone or vigorous-intensity combined with moderate-intensity exercise and worksite intervention for physical activity may help prevent metabolic syndrome for Japanese workers.

  13. Motivational and evolutionary aspects of a physical exercise training program: a longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Pereira Rosa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have indicated that motivational level and prior expectations are relevant aspects to increase commitment to physical activity. Moreover, these aspects are not properly described in terms of proximal (Self Determination Theory and distal (evolutionary explanations in the literature. This paper aims to verify if level of motivation (BREQ-2 and expectations regarding regular physical exercise (IMPRAF-54 before starting a one-year exercise program could determine likelihood of completion. Ninety-four volunteers (53 women included a completed protocol group (CPG n=21 and drop-out group (DG n=73. The IMPRAF-54 scale was used to assess six different expectations associated with physical activity, and the BREQ-2 inventory was used to assess the level of motivation in five steps (from amotivation to intrinsic motivation. Both questionnaires were assessed before the regular exercise program. The CPG group presented higher sociability and lower pleasure scores according to IMPRAF-54 domains. A logistic regression showed that a one-point increment on sociability score increased the chance of completing the program by 10%, and the same one-point increment on pleasure score reduced the chance of completing the protocol by 16%. ROC curves were also calculated to establish IMPRAF-54 cutoffs for adherence (Sociability - 18.5 points – 81% sensibility/50% specificity and dropout (Pleasure – 25.5 points – 86% sensibility/20% specificity of the exercise protocol. Our results indicate that an expectation of social interaction was a positive factor in predicting adherence to exercise. Grounded in SDT and its innate needs (competence, autonomy, relatedness, physical exercise is not an end; it is a means to achieve autonomy and self-cohesion. The association of physical activity with social practices, like in hunter-gathering groups, can engage people to be physically active and can provide better results in adherence exercise programs for the

  14. [Physical activity and exercise training in the prevention and therapy of type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francesconi, Claudia; Lackinger, Christian; Weitgasser, Raimund; Haber, Paul; Niebauer, Josef

    2016-04-01

    Lifestyle in general (nutrition, exercise, smoking habits), besides the genetic predisposition, is known to be a strong predictor for the development of diabetes. Exercise in particular is not only useful in improving glycaemia by lowering insulin resistance and positively affect insulin secretion, but to reduce cardiovascular risk.To gain substantial health benefits a minimum of 150 min of moderate or vigorous intense aerobic physical activity and muscle strengthening activities per week are needed. The positive effect of training correlates directly with the amount of fitness gained and lasts only as long as the fitness level is sustained. The effect of exercise is independent of age and gender. It is reversible and reproducible.Based on the large evidence of exercise referral and prescription the Austrian Diabetes Associations aims to implement the position of a "physical activity adviser" in multi-professional diabetes care.

  15. Physical exercise, salivary IgA and mood states of elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Martins

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that the aging process is associated with immunosenescence. On the other hand, physical activity has been consistently associated with positive states of affection and mood which also implies gains on psychological well-being. However, more studies are needed to support the benefit effect of exercise on specific population groups like the elderly. The purpose of the present work is to study the functional fitness, mood states and salivary IgA chronic adaptations after a physical exercise program. 28 subjects aged between 65 and 95 years old participated in this study. The experimental group exercised during 16 weeks, 3 times per week. The Wilcoxon test was used to compare the data. The results showed positive changes on the functional fitness that reinforce the trainability principle of the older person. The data shows also an improvement in mood states and chronic positive effects on salivary IgA after the exercise program.

  16. Cardiorespiratory fitness and physical function in children with cancer from diagnosis throughout treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Troels; Larsen, Hanne Baekgaard; Schmiegelow, Kjeld

    2017-01-01

    treatment as well as the feasibility of physical activity intervention in the Rehabilitation including Social and Physical activity and Education in Children and Teenagers with Cancer study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included children diagnosed from January 2013 to April 2016 with paediatric cancer...... programme with no dropouts. Strenuous physical exercise and physiological testing during paediatric cancer treatment was safe and feasible, with only five minor adverse events during the intervention. Cardiorespiratory fitness was significantly lower in children with cancer than norms for healthy age...... with cancer have significantly lower physical capacity and functionality than healthy age-matched norms. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01772862....

  17. Oxidative stress: role of physical exercise and antioxidant nutraceuticals in adulthood and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simioni, Carolina; Zauli, Giorgio; Martelli, Alberto M; Vitale, Marco; Sacchetti, Gianni; Gonelli, Arianna; Neri, Luca M

    2018-03-30

    Physical exercise is considered to be one of the beneficial factors of a proper lifestyle and is nowadays seen as an indispensable element for good health, able to lower the risk of disorders of the cardiovascular, endocrine and osteomuscular apparatus, immune system diseases and the onset of potential neoplasms. A moderate and programmed physical exercise has often been reported to be therapeutic both in the adulthood and in aging, since capable to promote fitness. Regular exercise alleviates the negative effects caused by free radicals and offers many health benefits, including reduced risk of all-cause mortality, sarcopenia in the skeletal muscle, chronic disease, and premature death in elderly people. However, physical performance is also known to induce oxidative stress, inflammation, and muscle fatigue. Many efforts have been carried out to identify micronutrients and natural compounds, also known as nutraceuticals, able to prevent or attenuate the exercise-induced oxidative stress and inflammation. The aim of this review is to discuss the benefits deriving from a constant physical activity and by the intake of antioxidant compounds to protect the body from oxidative stress. The attention will be focused mainly on three natural antioxidants, which are quercetin, resveratrol and curcumin. Their properties and activity will be described, as well as their benefits on physical activity and on aging, which is expected to increase through the years and can get favorable benefits from a constant exercise activity.

  18. Moderate physical exercise protects myenteric metabolically more active neurons in mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Neide Martins; de Moraes, Solange Marta Franzói; Dalálio, M M O; Gomes, Mônica Lúcia; Sant'ana, D M G; de Araújo, Silvana Marques

    2014-02-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi causes neuronal myenteric depopulation compromising intestinal function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of moderate physical exercise on NADH diaphorase (NADH-d)-positive neurons in the myenteric plexus and intestinal wall of the colon in mice infected with T. cruzi. Forty 30-day-old male Swiss mice were divided into the following groups: trained infected (TI), sedentary infected (SI), trained control (TC), and sedentary control. The TC and TI groups were subjected to a moderate physical exercise program on a treadmill for 8 weeks. Three days after finishing physical exercise, the TI and SI groups were intraperitoneally inoculated with 1,300 blood trypomastigotes of the Y strain of Trypanosoma cruzi. Parasitemia was evaluated from days 4 to 61 after inoculation. On day 75 of infection, myenteric neurons in the colon were quantified (NADH-d), and inflammatory foci were counted. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) levels were evaluated in plasma. The results were compared using analysis of variance and the Kruskal-Wallis test at a 5 % significance level. Moderate physical exercise reduced the parasite peak on day 8 of infection (p = 0.0132) and total parasitemia (p = 0.0307). It also prevented neuronal depopulation (p  0.05). These results reinforce the therapeutic benefits of moderate physical exercise for T. cruzi infection.

  19. Sleep quality, sleep duration and physical activity in obese adolescents: effects of exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, M; Borowik, A; Michallet, A-S; Perrin, C; Monneret, D; Faure, P; Levy, P; Pépin, J-L; Wuyam, B; Flore, P

    2016-02-01

    Decreased sleep duration and altered sleep quality are risk factors for obesity in youth. Structured exercise training has been shown to increase sleep duration and improve sleep quality. This study aimed at evaluating the impact of exercise training for improving sleep duration, sleep quality and physical activity in obese adolescents (OB). Twenty OB (age: 14.5 ± 1.5 years; body mass index: 34.0 ± 4.7 kg m(-2) ) and 20 healthy-weight adolescents (HW) completed an overnight polysomnography and wore an accelerometer (SenseWear Bodymedia) for 7 days. OB participated in a 12-week supervised exercise-training programme consisting of 180 min of exercise weekly. Exercise training was a combination of aerobic exercise and resistance training. Sleep duration was greater in HW compared with OB (P < 0.05). OB presented higher apnoea-hypopnoea index than HW (P < 0.05). Physical activity (average daily metabolic equivalent of tasks [METs]) by accelerometer was lower in OB (P < 0.05). After exercise training, obese adolescents increased their sleep duration (+64.4 min; effect size: 0.88; P = 0.025) and sleep efficiency (+7.6%; effect size: 0.76; P = 0.028). Physical activity levels were increased in OB as evidenced by increased steps per day and average daily METs (P < 0.05). Improved sleep duration was associated with improved average daily METs (r = 0.48, P = 0.04). The present study confirms altered sleep duration and quality in OB. Exercise training improves sleep duration, sleep quality and physical activity. © 2015 World Obesity.

  20. Simulated physical inventory verification exercise at a mixed-oxide fuel fabrication facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, D.; Augustson, R.

    1985-01-01

    A physical inventory verification (PIV) was simulated at a mixed-oxide fuel fabrication facility. Safeguards inspectors from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) conducted the PIV exercise to test inspection procedures under ''realistic but relaxed'' conditions. Nondestructive assay instrumentation was used to verify the plutonium content of samples covering the range of material types from input powders to final fuel assemblies. This paper describes the activities included in the exercise and discusses the results obtained. 5 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs

  1. [Impacts of physical exercise on remodeling and hypertrophy of skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakashita, Yoshihiro; Uchida, Takayuki; Nikawa, Takeshi

    The skeletal muscle has high sensitivity for the mechanical stress. Because it is enlarged by training, whereas it is easily withered by lack of exercise. When we exercise, skeletal muscle cells per se sense mechanical loading, and muscular remodeling and the muscular hypertrophy occur. It has been revealed that the intracellular signaling through PGC-1α participates in the remodeling of the skeletal muscle, while PGC-1α4, an isoform of PGC-1α, and the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex play important roles in muscular hypertrophy. This review describes the impact of physical exercise gives on the remodeling and hypertrophy of muscle through the signaling.

  2. Analysis of physical exercises and exercise protocols for space transportation system operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, A. E.

    1982-01-01

    A quantitative evaluation of the Thornton-Whitmore treadmill was made so that informed management decisions regarding the role of this treadmill in operational flight crew exercise programs could be made. Specific tasks to be completed were: The Thornton-Whitmore passive treadmill as an exercise device at one-g was evaluated. Hardware, harness and restraint systems for use with the Thornton-Whitmore treadmill in the laboratory and in Shuttle flights were established. The quantitative and qualitative performance of human subjects on the Thorton-Whitmore treadmill with forces in excess of one-g, was evaluated. The performance of human subjects on the Thornton-Whitmore treadmill in weightlessness (onboard Shuttle flights) was also determined.

  3. Exercise induced rhabdomyolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ružič Maja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Rhabdomyolysis is a potentially life threatening disease, characterized by the release of intracellular calcium from skeletal muscles and can result in acute renal failure. Case report. A nineteen year old boy was admitted to the Clinic for Infective Diseases of Clinical Center Novi Sad. The disease was developing gradually and the symptoms were dizziness, muscle pain and dark color of urine. Due to the pathological level of aminotransferase he was hospitalized on the fourth day of the disease beginning with a suspicious diagnosis of acute viral hepatitis. In the hospital course of the disease, a further elevation of serum aminotransferases, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase were registered. Additional serological analyses were done to exclude other possible causes of acute liver lesion. In the neurological status prolonged decontraction of quadriceps muscle was detected and the electromyography was suspicious on neuromyositis. Conclusion. Excessive muscular activity with the strenuous exercise is the leading, but very frequently overlooked, cause of rhabdomyolysis in healthy people. Excessive physical exercise may lead to elevation of the serum activity of aminotransferases and to suspicion of hepatitis.

  4. Long-term and baseline recreational physical activity and risk of endometrial cancer: the California Teachers Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieli-Conwright, C M; Ma, H; Lacey, J V; Henderson, K D; Neuhausen, S; Horn-Ross, P L; Deapen, D; Sullivan-Halley, J; Bernstein, L

    2013-08-06

    Physical activity may be associated with decreasing endometrial cancer risk; it remains unclear whether the association is modified by body size. Among 93 888 eligible California Teachers Study participants, 976 were diagnosed with incident endometrial cancer between 1995-1996 and 2007. Cox proportional hazards regression methods were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for endometrial cancer associated with long-term (high school through age 54 years) and baseline (3 years prior to joining the cohort) strenuous and moderate recreational physical activity, overall and by body size. Increased baseline strenuous recreational physical activity was associated with decreased endometrial cancer risk (Ptrend=0.006) with approximately 25% lower risk among women exercising >3 h per week per year than among those exercising activity was associated with lower risk among overweight/obese women. Increasing physical activity, particularly strenuous activity, may be a lifestyle change that overweight and obese women can implement to reduce their endometrial cancer risk.

  5. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PROGRAMS OF PHYSICAL EXERCISE IN THE CONTROL OF THE CORPORAL WEIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Matos de Souza

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this bibliographical rising was analyzing the effectiveness of exercises in the control of the corporal weight. This revision study approached studies published among the years from 1991 to 2005, through systematic searches using electronic database: Medline, Science Direct and bibliographical collection of Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia. The weigh loss process depends on several factors as the number of fatty cells, hereditariness, normality of hormonal system and mainly to the energy expense. The analyzed studies demonstrated that the physical exercise is an mechanism efficiente that contributes in the reduction of corporal weight, allied the other health positive habits. However the intensity, duration and even the ideal modality of physical exercise is controversial in the half specialized, having a certain predominance of studies that they appear for exercises drop aerobics the moderate intensity due to minimizes risks the health. The studies addressed for the anaerobic exercises they demonstrated to be more efficient in the control of corporal weight, because besides contributing for loss of corporal fat it favors the maintenance and/our increase of thin corporal mass. Experimental studies are recommended with wider delineamento than it favors to investigate the relationship of different types of physical exercise in the control of corporal weight.

  6. The influence of strenuous muscle stimulation on the menarche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuuchi, F; Ichikawa, Y; Arakawa, M; Chiba, G

    1984-03-01

    Nowadays, the average age at which menarche begins is lowering by three to four years every century, that is, four months every decade, according to both Japanese, and European and American annual changes of the average age. It emerged that the menarche shows a tendency to occur later in female gymnasts, because of the influence of strenuous muscle stimulation, and the fact that a higher level of technic is required in gymnastic games each year. These conclusions have been drawn from replies submitted to a questionnaire distributed among a relatively small number of gymnasts who participated in the competitions including the Inter High School Championship and the World Cup Championship. For example, at the age of 14, the percentage of women who had menstruated is almost 100% among women in general, but only 24% among World Cup Championship gymnasts, the average age at menarche of the latter being later than that of the former by as many as 3 years. At the age of 16, the percentage of women who had menstruated is 100% among women in general, but on the other hand, it is only 60% among World Cup Championship gymnasts, in other words, only a low percentage of women, of the latter group, had menstruated. Finally in our study, we established that the age at menarche of gymnasts is three or five years later than that of women in general. From our study, we concluded that the excessive burden imposed on muscles might cause an abnormal menstrual cycle, and the influence on menstruation would be considerable.

  7. The benefits of exercise for patients with haemophilia and recommendations for safe and effective physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrier, C; Seuser, A; Forsyth, A; Lobet, S; Llinas, A; Rosas, M; Heijnen, L

    2013-07-01

    Most health care professionals involved in the management of people with haemophilia (PWH) believe that exercise is beneficial and its practice is widely encouraged. This article aims to demonstrate that appropriate exercise (adapted to the special needs of the individual PWH) may be beneficial for all PWH through improved physical, psychosocial and medical status. Based on evidence gathered from the literature, many PWH, particularly those using long-term prophylaxis or exhibiting a mild/moderate bleeding phenotype, are as active as their healthy peers. PWH experience the same benefits of exercise as the general population, being physically healthier than if sedentary and enjoying a higher quality of life (QoL) through social inclusion and higher self-esteem. PWH can also gain physically from increased muscle strength, joint health, balance and flexibility achieved through physiotherapy, physical activity, exercise and sport. Conversely, very little data exist on activity levels of PWH in countries with limited resources. However, regarding specific exercise recommendations in PWH, there is a lack of randomized clinical trials, and consequently formal, evidence-based guidelines have not been produced. Based on published evidence from this review of the literature, together with the clinical experience of the authors, a series of recommendations for the safe participation of PWH in regular physical activities, exercises and sport are now proposed. In summary, we believe that appropriately modified programmes can potentially allow all PWH to experience the physical and psychosocial benefits of being physically active which may ultimately lead to an improved QoL. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Psychosocial and Physical Benefits of Exercise Among Rural Secondary School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntwanano Alliance Kubayi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the benefits of physical exercise among secondary school students. Participants in the study were 251 students (120 boys and 131 girls attending three public secondary schools in the Hlanganani rural area of South Africa. A validated questionnaire was used to collect data. Results of this study indicated that students exercised to be with their friends, to be physically attractive and compete with others. The findings of this study have practical implications for promoting participation in physical activity among students in rural schools. In an effort to promote physical activity participation, schools should be provided with quality sports infrastructure and funding so that they can implement school sport programmes. Finally, the teaching of physical education should be emphasised in schools as it is the cornerstone for children’s involvement in physical activity.

  9. Modeling of Teaching 5th-7th-Grade Boys Physical Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. Г. Абдулхалікова

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The research objective is to determine the effectiveness of orthogonal variants of teaching 5th-7th graders physical exercises. Materials and methods. The participants in the research were boys of the 5th grade (n = 32, 6th grade (n = 40, 7th grade (n = 52. To achieve the tasks set, the research used the following methods: analysis of scientific and methodological literature; pedagogical testing, pedagogical observation, timing of educational tasks; pedagogical experiment, medical and biological research methods; methods of mathematical statistics, methods of mathematical experiment planning. In order to achieve the objective set, the research has studied the effect of different variants of the educational process structure, namely: the number of repetitions (х1 and rest intervals (х2 when learning the technique of performing physical exercises. The research has conducted a complete factor experiment of type 22. According to the experiment plan, the 5th-7th graders were divided into training groups. In total, there were 12 experimental groups organized. Research results. The analysis of the regression equations shows that the teaching of physical exercises to the 5th-7th-grade boys is mostly influenced by rest intervals between repetitions (х2. The number of repetitions (х1 has somewhat less influence. The interaction of these factors is insignificant when teaching physical exercises and becomes much more influential only when teaching a switch leg pull-over exercise (х1х2. Conclusions. To increase the effectiveness of teaching 5th-7th graders physical exercises, it is necessary to shorten rest intervals between repetition to 60 s and to reduce the number of repetitions to six. When teaching boys the switch leg pull-over exercise, rest intervals should be increased to 120 s and the number of repetitions — to twelve.

  10. Barriers to participation in physical activity and exercise among middle-aged and elderly individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justine, Maria; Azizan, Azliyana; Hassan, Vaharli; Salleh, Zoolfaiz; Manaf, Haidzir

    2013-10-01

    INTRODUCTION Although the benefits of physical activity and exercise are widely acknowledged, many middle-aged and elderly individuals remain sedentary. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the external and internal barriers to physical activity and exercise participation among middle-aged and elderly individuals, as well as identify any differences in these barriers between the two groups. METHODS Recruited individuals were categorised into either the middle-aged (age 45-59 years, n = 60) or elderly (age ≥ 60 years, n = 60) group. Data on demographics, anthropometry, as well as external and internal barriers to participation in physical activity and exercise were collected. RESULTS Analysis showed no significant differences in the total scores of all internal barriers between the two groups (p > 0.05). The total scores for most external barriers between the two groups also showed no significant differences (p > 0.05); only 'cost' (p = 0.045) and 'exercise interferes with social/family activities' (p = 0.011) showed significant differences. The most common external barriers among the middle-aged and elderly respondents were 'not enough time' (46.7% vs. 48.4%), 'no one to exercise with' (40.0% vs. 28.3%) and 'lack of facilities' (33.4% vs. 35.0%). The most common internal barriers for middle-aged respondents were 'too tired' (48.3%), 'already active enough' (38.3%), 'do not know how to do it' (36.7%) and 'too lazy' (36.7%), while those for elderly respondents were 'too tired' (51.7%), 'lack of motivation' (38.4%) and 'already active enough' (38.4%). CONCLUSION Middle-aged and elderly respondents presented with similar external and internal barriers to physical activity and exercise participation. These factors should be taken into account when healthcare policies are being designed and when interventions such as the provision of facilities to promote physical activity and exercise among older people are being considered.

  11. Effects of physical exercise on articular range of motion of the lower limb in the Parkinson's disease individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Barbieri, Fabio Augusto; Batistela, Rosangela Alice; Rinaldi, Natália Madalena; Teixeira-Arroyo, Claudia; Stella, Florindo; Gobbi, Lilian Teresa Bucken

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of eight months of a multimodal program of physical exercise on articular range of motion of the lower limb of patients with Parkinson disease (PD), considering gender and disease stage. Seventeen individuals with PD participated in this study. Participants were assessed before of multimodal program of the physical exercise and after four and eight months of physical exercise. In these periods were evaluated the clinical aspects and articula...

  12. Normalization of aberrant resting state functional connectivity in fibromyalgia patients following a three month physical exercise therapy

    OpenAIRE

    P. Flodin; S. Martinsen; K. Mannerkorpi; M. Löfgren; I. Bileviciute-Ljungar; E. Kosek; P. Fransson

    2015-01-01

    Physical exercise is one of the most efficient interventions to mitigate chronic pain symptoms in fibromyalgia (FM). However, little is known about the neurophysiological mechanisms mediating these effects. In this study we investigated resting-state connectivity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after a 15 week standardized exercise program supervised by physical therapists. Our aim was to gain an understanding of how physical exercise influences previously shown ...

  13. Predictors of physical activity and barriers to exercise in nursing and medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Blake, Holly; Stanulewicz, Natalia; McGill, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Aims\\ud \\ud To investigate physical activity levels of nursing and medicine students; examine predictors of physical activity level; and examine the most influential benefits and barriers to exercise.\\ud Background\\ud \\ud Healthcare professionals have low levels of physical activity, which increases their health risk and may influence their health promotion practices with patients.\\ud Design\\ud \\ud We surveyed 361 nursing (n=193) and medicine (n=168) students studying at a UK medical school.\\...

  14. Facilitating adherence to physical activity: exercise professionals' experiences of the National Exercise Referral Scheme in Wales. a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore Graham F

    2011-12-01

    internalisation of motivation amongst less motivated patients deserves attention. As well as providing the knowledge to advise patients on how to exercise safely given their conditions, professionals' training should focus on providing the skills to meet the interpersonal support needs of patients, particularly where ERS are used as a means of improving mental health outcomes. The effectiveness of emerging activities, such as post-scheme maintenance classes, in fostering long-term social networks supportive of physical activity deserve attention. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN47680448

  15. Physical exercise at the workplace prevents deterioration of work ability among healthcare workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Markus D.; Sundstrup, Emil; Brandt, Mikkel

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Imbalance between individual resources and work demands can lead to musculoskeletal disorders and reduced work ability. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of workplace- versus home-based physical exercise on work ability among healthcare workers. METHODS: Two......) performed during working hours for 5x10 min per week and up to 5 group-based coaching sessions on motivation for regular physical exercise, or 2) home-based physical exercise (HOME) performed during leisure time for 5x10 min per week. Both groups received ergonomic counseling on patient handling and use...... of lifting aides. The main outcome measure was the change from baseline to 10-week follow-up in WAI. RESULTS: Significant group by time interaction was observed for WAI (p 

  16. The importance of supporting adolescents' autonomy in promoting physical-sport exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Murcia, Juan Antonio; Hernández, Elisa Huéscar

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted toward the objective of analyzing certain factors that influence physical activity in Spanish adolescent students using self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985; 2000) as a framework. Participants included 698 physical education students whose perception of the autonomy support provided by their teachers was assessed in and out of the class context. Also assessed were social goals of responsibility and relationship with others, basic psychological needs, and intrinsic motivation, which is part of self-determination theory (SDT). Finally, the "intention" factor posited by the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and students' rate of exercise in the last twelve months were considered. The results of structural equations modeling suggest autonomy education, autonomy support, and social goals positively predicted certain psychological mediators, which in turn positively predicted students' intrinsic motivation, which was a positive predictor of intention, and that of rate of exercise. The results also highlight the benefit of promoting autonomy to enhance students' physical exercise practice.

  17. Health-Improving Potential of Dancing Exercises in Physical Education of Students of Higher Educational Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. М. Кравчук

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Research objective: to determine the health-improving potential of dancing exercises used in physical education of female students of higher educational institutions.  Research methods: study and analysis of pedagogical, scientific and methodological literature on the subject matter of the research; observations, questionnaires, functional tests; statistical methods of data reduction. Conclusions. As part of the study, the use of dancing exercises in the physical education of female students of higher educational institutions proved contributing to a significant increase in the level of their physical health in general and improvement of some of its indicators, including strength and life indices, heart rate recovery time after 20 squats. Dancing exercises also boost spirits, improve health and activity of the female students, which the study proved statistically.

  18. EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL EXERCISES ON TRIACYLGLYCEROL LEVEL IN SKELETAL MUSCLES IN DIETARY-INDUCED OBESE RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Yu. Yakimovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation of triacylglycerol in peripheral tissues is one of mechanisms of insulin resistance. This paper presents the investigation of the influence of aerobic and anaerobic physical exercises on triacylglycerol level in skeletal muscles and on insulin resistance in dietary-induced obese rats. It is estimated that a high-energy (HE diet causes the accumulation of triacylglycerols in skeletal muscles that leads to high resistance to insulin. Aerobic and anaerobic physical exercises reduce the level of triacylglycerols in skeletal  muscles  and  raise  sensitivity to  insulin  in  obese  rats.  Physical  exercises  raise  the  level  of triacylglycerols in skeletal muscles in standard-diet rats that probably is the adaptation to high energy expenditure, but does not lead to high insulin resistance.

  19. Physical exercise and oxidative stress in muscular dystrophies: is there a good balance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chico, L; Ricci, G; Cosci O Di Coscio, M; Simoncini, C; Siciliano, G

    2017-07-01

    The effect of oxidative stress on muscle damage inducted by physical exercise is widely debated. It is generally agreed that endurance and intense exercise can increase oxidative stress and generate changes in antioxidant power inducing muscle damage; however, regular and moderate exercise can be beneficial for the health improving the antioxidant defense mechanisms in the majority of cases. Growing evidences suggest that an increased oxidative/nitrosative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of several muscular dystrophies (MDs). Notably, physical training has been considered useful for patients with these disorders. This review will focus on the involvement of oxidative stress in MDs and on the possible effects of physical activities to decrease oxidative damage and improve motor functions in MDs patients.

  20. Enhancement of daily physical activity increases physical fitness of outclinic COPD patients : Results of an exercise counseling program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hospes, Gieneke; Bossenbroek, Linda; ten Hacken, Nick H. T.; van Hengel, Peter; de Greef, Mathieu H. G.

    Objective: To investigate whether a 12-week pedometer-based exercise counseling strategy is feasible and effectively enhances daily physical activity in outclinic Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) patients who do not participate in a rehabilitation program in a controlled way. Methods: 35

  1. Physical Exercise and Patients with Chronic Renal Failure: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhenzhen; Zheng, Kai; Zhang, Haoxiang; Feng, Ji; Wang, Lizhi; Zhou, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Chronic renal failure is a severe clinical problem which has some significant socioeconomic impact worldwide and hemodialysis is an important way to maintain patients' health state, but it seems difficult to get better in short time. Considering these, the aim in our research is to update and evaluate the effects of exercise on the health of patients with chronic renal failure. The databases were used to search for the relevant studies in English or Chinese. And the association between physical exercise and health state of patients with chronic renal failure has been investigated. Random-effect model was used to compare the physical function and capacity in exercise and control groups. Exercise is helpful in ameliorating the situation of blood pressure in patients with renal failure and significantly reduces VO 2 in patients with renal failure. The results of subgroup analyses show that, in the age >50, physical activity can significantly reduce blood pressure in patients with renal failure. The activity program containing warm-up, strength, and aerobic exercises has benefits in blood pressure among sick people and improves their maximal oxygen consumption level. These can help patients in physical function and aerobic capacity and may give them further benefits.

  2. Physical Exercise and Patients with Chronic Renal Failure: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhenzhen; Zheng, Kai; Zhang, Haoxiang; Feng, Ji; Wang, Lizhi

    2017-01-01

    Chronic renal failure is a severe clinical problem which has some significant socioeconomic impact worldwide and hemodialysis is an important way to maintain patients' health state, but it seems difficult to get better in short time. Considering these, the aim in our research is to update and evaluate the effects of exercise on the health of patients with chronic renal failure. The databases were used to search for the relevant studies in English or Chinese. And the association between physical exercise and health state of patients with chronic renal failure has been investigated. Random-effect model was used to compare the physical function and capacity in exercise and control groups. Exercise is helpful in ameliorating the situation of blood pressure in patients with renal failure and significantly reduces VO2 in patients with renal failure. The results of subgroup analyses show that, in the age >50, physical activity can significantly reduce blood pressure in patients with renal failure. The activity program containing warm-up, strength, and aerobic exercises has benefits in blood pressure among sick people and improves their maximal oxygen consumption level. These can help patients in physical function and aerobic capacity and may give them further benefits. PMID:28316986

  3. [Prevalence of performing and prescribing physical exercise in patients diagnosed with anxiety and depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias Martínez, Bibiana; Olaya Velázquez, Inés; Gómez Castro, María José

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of physical exercise practice in patients diagnosed with anxiety and/or depression. Cross-sectional, observational study. Sabugo and la Magdalena primary care centers in Avilés. Patients aged 18 to 75 years diagnosed with anxiety and/or depression, consumers of psychoactive drugs in the three months previous to the realization of the study. We selected 376 patients by simple random sampling stratified by health center, making them a telephone survey. Age, sex, physical exercise realization, type and duration of exercise, diagnosis of anxiety and/or depression, exercise prescription, prescriber health personnel and use of psychotropic medication. 294 participants (78.19% of selected) with a mean age of 55.33 years (55.32±12.53 SD) and 78.2% were female. 60.9% were diagnosed with anxiety, 59.5% with depression and 20.4% both diagnoses. 62.9% used antidepressants, benzodiazepines 76.9% and 39.79% both treatments. 58.5% (95%CI: 52.70-64.31) performed exercise of which 44.77% did it 3-5 times/week. The mean duration was 1.24h each time (95%CI: 0.53-1.96). The physical exercise was prescribed to the 59.18% (95%CI: 53.39-64.97); 90.23% by the family physician, 63.22% primary care nurse, 17.24% psychiatrist and 5.17% psychologist. The adherence to the prescription was 59.77% (95%CI: 52.20-67.34). The percentage of anxious and/or depressed patients who practiced exercise is similar to the general population but should be higher. The exercise prescription by health personnel is insufficient. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Measures for enhancing participation in physical exercise and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical activity is beneficial for the physical and mental health of the elderly by ... of data collection were interviews, questionnaires and focused group discussions. ... Finally, it was established that the elders lacked time, money; space among ... to be provided with opportunities and facilities and moral support for them to ...

  5. Benefits of physical exercise on the aging brain: the role of the prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchicci, Marika; Lucci, Giuliana; Di Russo, Francesco

    2013-11-01

    Motor planning in older adults likely relies on the overengagement of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and is associated with slowness of movement and responses. Does a physically active lifestyle counteract the overrecruitment of the PFC during action preparation? This study used high-resolution electroencephalography to measure the effect of physical exercise on the executive functions of the PFC preceding a visuomotor discriminative task. A total of 130 participants aged 15-86 were divided into two groups based on physical exercise participation. The response times and accuracy and the premotor activity of the PFC were separately correlated with age for the two groups. The data were first fit with a linear function and then a higher order polynomial function. We observed that after 35-40 years of age, physically active individuals have faster response times than their less active peers and showed no signs of PFC hyperactivity during motor planning. The present findings show that physical exercise could speed up the response of older people and reveal that also in middle-aged people, moderate-to-high levels of physical exercise benefits the planning/execution of a response and the executive functions mediated by the PFC, counteracting the neural overactivity often observed in the elderly adults.

  6. CARDIOVASCULAR BENEFITS AND POTENTIAL HAZARDS OF PHYSICAL EXERCISE IN ELDERLY PEOPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauri Kallinen

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Large and consistent beneficial effects with few adverse effects have been found in relation to physical exercise in selected samples of elderly subjects. However, thus far, it has not been confirmed to what extent the effects of physical exercise among elderly people are beneficial or even harmful in population-based studies. Additionally, the role of exercise testing among elderly people remains unclear. Firstly, the effects of prolonged physical training on cardiovascular fitness in 66-85-year-old women were examined in a cross-sectional study. Secondly, the predictive value of exercise-test status and results, including exercise capacity for survival, were studied in 75-year-old men and women. Thirdly, the effects of an endurance and strength training programme were examined in women aged 76 to 78 years in a population-based randomized controlled trial. Finally, the cardiac-adverse effects of acute exercise in the form of a cycle ergometer test were clarified in 75-year-old men and women. In the maximal exercise tests the mean peak oxygen uptake was respectively 26.2 and 18.7 ml·kg-1·min-1 among the physically active and less active control women. High cycling power (Watts per kg body weight in the completed ergometer test was associated with decreased risk for death (multivariate HR 0.20; CI 0.08 - 0.50. The 18-week strength training resulted in a 9.4% increase in peak oxygen uptake while the endurance training improved peak oxygen uptake by 6.8%. A significant increase in cycling power in W/kg was found in the strength and endurance training groups compared to controls. Five cases of cardio- or cerebrovascular health problems emerged in the exercise training groups. These health problems were not directly related to physical exertion. In the final study 23 and 7% of the exercise tests in men and women, respectively, were prematurely terminated because of cardiac arrhythmia or ST segment depressions. Using various study designs and

  7. Endocrine Responses to Exercise in the Developing Child and Adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Erick; Rogol, Alan D

    2016-01-01

    The impact of exercise training on the neuroendocrine control of the pituitary in the developing child is complex and the exact mechanisms are not fully understood. Multiple determinants influence adaptive hypothalamic-pituitary secretory responses to physical stress, namely, training intensity and duration, nutrition and energy balance, gender, age, sex, and sexual maturation status. The increase in growth hormone (GH) in response to acute exercise is dependent on pubertal status; children in more advanced pubertal stages respond with larger peak GH concentrations compared to those in earlier stages. The adolescent female athlete is more prone to menstrual disorders than the more mature athlete, and recent data suggest that athletes may be able to reverse menstrual disorders by increasing their dietary energy intake without decreasing their exercise levels. The thyroid changes observed are of minor impact, practically reflecting the relative negative energy balance during strenuous exercise. Studies that evaluated changes in cortisol secretion during aerobic exercise in children and adolescents show either an increase or no change in response to the exercise bout. Recent research showed that physical activity is an important contributor to bone strength prior to adolescence and increasing levels of physical activity during childhood likely enhance optimal bone strength. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Benefits of physical exercise on basic visuo-motor functions across age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika eBerchicci

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Motor performance deficits of older adults are due to dysfunction at multiple levels. Age-related differences have been documented on executive functions; motor control becomes more reliant on cognitive control mechanisms, including the engagement of the prefrontal cortex (PFC, possibly compensating for age-related sensorimotor declines. Since at functional level the PFC showed the largest age-related differences during discriminative response task, we wonder whether those effects are mainly due to the cognitive difficulty in stimulus discrimination or they could be also detected in a much easier task. In the present study, we measured the association of physical exercise with the PFC activation and response times (RTs using a simple response task (SRT, in which the participants were asked to respond as quickly as possible by manual key-press to visual stimuli. Simultaneous behavioral (RTs and electroencephalographic (EEG recordings were performed on 84 healthy participants aged 19-86 years. The whole sample was divided into three cohorts (young, middle-aged and older; each cohort was further divided into two equal sub-cohorts (exercise and not-exercise based on a self-report questionnaire measuring physical exercise. The EEG signal was segmented in epochs starting 1100 prior to stimulus onset and lasting 2-s. Behavioral results showed age effects, indicating a slowing of RTs with increasing age. The EEG results showed a significant interaction between age and exercise on the activities recorded on the PFC. The results indicates that: a the brain of older adults needs the PFC engagement also to perform elementary task, such as the SRT, while this activity is not necessary in younger adults, b physical exercise could reduce this age-related reliance on extra cognitive control also during the performance of a SRT, and c the activity of the PFC is a sensitive index of the benefits of physical exercise on sensorimotor decline.

  9. A study of exercise modality and physical self-esteem in breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musanti, Rita

    2012-02-01

    This study, theoretically based on the Exercise Self-Esteem Model, EXSEM, examined effects of exercise modality on physical and global self-esteem (PSE, GSE) in breast cancer survivors. The EXSEM posits GSE at the apex with PSE feeding into GSE. PSE has three subdomains: physical condition (PC), attractive body (AB), and physical strength (PS). The goals were to compare the effect of combination modality versus single-modality exercise on PSE and GSE and to explore the relationship between exercise modality and the subdomains of PSE. Survivors were randomly allocated to flexibility (F), aerobic (A), resistance (R), or aerobic plus resistance (AR), 12-wk, individualized, home-based exercise program. Pre/posttesting included submaximal treadmill test, six-repetition maximum chest press and leg press, YMCA bench press, shoulder/hip flexibility, and bioelectric impedance analysis body composition. Esteem measures were the Physical Self-Perception Profile and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Forty-two women completed the study (F = 12, A = 10, R = 9, and AR = 11). Fitness improvements congruent with exercise modality were seen in all groups. PSE and GSE outcomes did not reveal a greater effect from the combination modality program, AR, compared with the single-modality programs A and R. The relationships between the single-modality groups and the subdomains of PC, PS, and AB were supported in the R group (PS and AB increased) and were partially supported in the A group (PC, not AB, increased). A single-modality R program significantly improved all domains of PSE, and participation in the A program improved the PC subdomain. The combination exercise program did not enhance PSE greater than the single-modality programs. EXSEM was a useful framework for exploring esteem in breast cancer survivors.

  10. The influence of a steroid hormone and of physical exercise on protein metabolism in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menschikowski, M.; Jung, K.; Junghans, P.; Petzke, K.J.; Albrecht, V.; Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Potsdam

    1989-01-01

    The influence of an anabolic steroid hormone preparation and of a physical exercise training program was studied on the nitrogen and protein metabolism in rats with the help of the 15 N tracer technique and the emission spectrometric 15 N isotope analysis. For the determination of the dynamic parameters of the protein metabolism graphic (stochastic) and computer-aided compartmental methods wer compared. Using the area method as a stochastic approach the animals showed significant differences in the protein turnover parameters under the influence of hormone treatment and (or) physical stress by swimming exercise in comparison to the controls. (author)

  11. Moderate-to-High Intensity Physical Exercise in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kristine; Sobol, Nanna A; Frederiksen, Kristian S

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of physical exercise in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are few and results have been inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of a moderate-to-high intensity aerobic exercise program in patients with mild AD. METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial, we recruite...... reduced neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with mild AD, with possible additional benefits of preserved cognition in a subgroup of patients exercising with high attendance and intensity.......BACKGROUND: Studies of physical exercise in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are few and results have been inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of a moderate-to-high intensity aerobic exercise program in patients with mild AD. METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial, we recruited...... 200 patients with mild AD to a supervised exercise group (60-min sessions three times a week for 16 weeks) or to a control group. Primary outcome was change from baseline in cognitive performance estimated by Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) in the intention-to-treat (ITT) group. Secondary outcomes...

  12. What's new since Hippocrates? Preventing type 2 diabetes by physical exercise and diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, J A; Gibala, M J

    2012-03-01

    Since the work of Eriksson and Lindgärde, published over two decades ago (Diabetologia 1991;34:891-898), we have known that type 2 diabetes can be prevented or delayed by supervised lifestyle interventions (physical exercise and diet modification) in persons at risk of the disease. Here we discuss a novel, time-efficient approach to physical exercise prescription, low-volume, high-intensity interval training (LVHIT), and its efficacy for inducing a range of health benefits in a variety of populations at risk of inactivity-related diseases. We look to the future and suggest that current guidelines for exercise may need to be revised to include different training techniques to deliver the optimum exercise prescription. Indeed, we predict that subsequent exercise guidelines will include LVHIT as part of a comprehensive 'fitness menu' that allows individuals to select the exercise regimen that best fulfils their medical needs, is suited to their lifestyle and daily time restraints, and meets their personal goals.

  13. Increasing physical activity and exercise in lung cancer: reviewing safety, benefits, and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bade, Brett C; Thomas, D David; Scott, JoAnn B; Silvestri, Gerard A

    2015-06-01

    Lung cancer continues to be a difficult disease frequently diagnosed in late stages with a high mortality and symptom burden. In part because of frequent lung comorbidity, even lung cancer survivors often remain symptomatic and functionally limited. Though targeted therapy continues to increase treatment options for advanced-stage disease, symptom burden remains high with few therapeutic options. In the last several decades, exercise and physical activity have arisen as therapeutic options for obstructive lung disease and lung cancer. To date, exercise has been shown to reduce symptoms, increase exercise tolerance, improve quality of life, and potentially reduce length of stay and postoperative complications. Multiple small trials have been performed in perioperative non-small-cell lung cancer patients, although fewer studies are available for patients with advanced-stage disease. Despite the increased interest in this subject over the last few years, a validated exercise regimen has not been established for perioperative or advanced-stage disease. Clinicians underutilize exercise and pulmonary rehabilitation as a therapy, in part because of the lack of evidence-based consensus as to how and when to implement increasing physical activity. This review summarizes the existing evidence on exercise in lung cancer patients.

  14. Vibrotactile Stimulation as an Instructor for Mimicry-Based Physical Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Lylykangas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present aim was to investigate functionality of vibrotactile stimulation in mimicry-based behavioral regulation during physical exercise. Vibrotactile stimuli communicated instructions from an instructor to an exerciser to perform lower extremity movements. A wireless prototype was tested first in controlled laboratory conditions (Study 1 and was followed by a user study (Study 2 that was conducted in a group exercise situation for elderly participants with a new version of the system with improved construction and extended functionality. The results of Study 1 showed that vibrotactile instructions were successful in both supplementing and substituting visual knee lift instructions. Vibrotactile stimuli were accurately recognized, and exercise with the device received affirmative ratings. Interestingly, tactile stimulation appeared to stabilize acceleration magnitude of the knee lifts in comparison to visual instructions. In Study 2 it was found that user experience of the system was mainly positive by both the exercisers and their instructors. For example, exercise with vibrotactile instructions was experienced as more motivating than conventional exercise session. Together the results indicate that tactile instructions could increase possibilities for people having difficulties in following visual and auditory instructions to take part in mimicry-based group training. Both studies also revealed development areas that were primarily related to a slight delay in triggering the vibrotactile stimulation.

  15. Effect of aerobic exercise training on fatigue and physical activity in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Ali A; Chin, Lisa M K; Keyser, Randall E; Kennedy, Michelle; Nathan, Steven D; Woolstenhulme, Joshua G; Connors, Gerilynn; Chan, Leighton

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of an exercise intervention for decreasing fatigue severity and increasing physical activity in individuals with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). A small, phase 2 randomized clinical trial of the effect of aerobic exercise training on fatigue severity and physical activity in patients with idiopathic or PAH associated with other conditions was conducted. Twenty-four patients with PAH (24 female; age: 54.4 ± 10.4 years; BMI: 30.8 ± 7.2 kg/m(2)) participated in the study. A convenience sample was recruited in which 9% (28 of 303) of screened patients were enrolled. The project was carried out in a clinical pulmonary rehabilitation clinic during existing pulmonary rehabilitation program sessions. Patients with PH were randomized into a 10-week program that consisted of patient education only or patient education plus an aerobic exercise-training regimen. Both groups received 20 lectures, two per week over the 10-weeks, on topics related to PAH and its management. The aerobic exercise training consisted of 24-30 sessions of treadmill walking for 30-45 min per session at an intensity of 70-80% of heart rate reserve, three days per week over the 10 weeks. After 10-weeks of intervention, patients receiving aerobic exercise training plus education reported routinely engaging in higher levels of physical activity (p decrease in fatigue severity (p = 0.03). Patients in the education only group did not report changes in fatigue severity or participation in physical activity. The 10-week aerobic exercise training intervention resulted in increased physical activity and decreased fatigue in individuals with PAH. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00678821. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Factors associated with regular physical exercise and consumption of fruits and vegetables among Mexican older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V. Doubova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To analyze the factors associated with regular physical exercise and routine consumption of fruits and vegetables, and both healthy behaviors among Mexican older adults. Methods We conducted a secondary data analysis of the baseline data (2014 of the Study on Obesity, Sarcopenia and Fragility in older adults affiliated with the Mexican Institute of Social Security. The study included 948 adults who were ≥60 years of age. Multiple Poisson regression was performed. Results Routine consumption of fruits and vegetables was reported by 53.8 % of older adults, 42.7 % reported engaging in regular physical exercise and 23.1 % reported participating in both types of healthy behaviors. Women, adults with a stable income, those with a self-perception of good health and those with a history of physical exercise at the age of 50 years had an increased likelihood of engaging in healthy eating and regular physical activity. Conclusions Many older adults do not routinely consume fruits and vegetables or engage in regular physical exercise despite the fact that most have a fixed income and a social network. It is relevant to conduct research-based interventions that take into account the contextual factors to promote healthy behaviors.

  17. Factors associated with regular physical exercise and consumption of fruits and vegetables among Mexican older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubova, Svetlana V; Sánchez-García, Sergio; Infante-Castañeda, Claudia; Pérez-Cuevas, Ricardo

    2016-09-09

    To analyze the factors associated with regular physical exercise and routine consumption of fruits and vegetables, and both healthy behaviors among Mexican older adults. We conducted a secondary data analysis of the baseline data (2014) of the Study on Obesity, Sarcopenia and Fragility in older adults affiliated with the Mexican Institute of Social Security. The study included 948 adults who were ≥60 years of age. Multiple Poisson regression was performed. Routine consumption of fruits and vegetables was reported by 53.8 % of older adults, 42.7 % reported engaging in regular physical exercise and 23.1 % reported participating in both types of healthy behaviors. Women, adults with a stable income, those with a self-perception of good health and those with a history of physical exercise at the age of 50 years had an increased likelihood of engaging in healthy eating and regular physical activity. Many older adults do not routinely consume fruits and vegetables or engage in regular physical exercise despite the fact that most have a fixed income and a social network. It is relevant to conduct research-based interventions that take into account the contextual factors to promote healthy behaviors.

  18. Exercise videogames for physical activity and fitness: Design and rationale of the Wii Heart Fitness trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Beth C; Thind, Herpreet; Dunsiger, Shira I; Serber, Eva R; Ciccolo, Joseph T; Cobb, Victoria; Palmer, Kathy; Abernathy, Sean; Marcus, Bess H

    2015-05-01

    Despite numerous health benefits, less than half of American adults engage in regular physical activity. Exercise videogames (EVG) may be a practical and attractive alternative to traditional forms of exercise. However there is insufficient research to determine whether EVG play alone is sufficient to produce prolonged engagement in physical activity or improvements in cardiovascular fitness and overall health risk. The goal of the present study is to test the efficacy of exercise videogames to increase time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and to improve cardiovascular risk indices among adults. Wii Heart Fitness is a rigorous 3-arm randomized controlled trial with adults comparing three 12-week programs: (1) supervised EVGs, (2) supervised standard exercise, and (3) a control condition. Heart rate is monitored continuously throughout all exercise sessions. Assessments are conducted at baseline, end of intervention (week 12), 6 and 9 months. The primary outcome is time spent in MVPA physical activity. Secondary outcomes include changes in cardiovascular fitness, body composition, blood lipid profiles and maintenance of physical activity through six months post-treatment. Changes in cognitive and affective constructs derived from Self Determination and Social Cognitive Theories will be examined to explain the differential outcomes between the two active treatment conditions. The Wii Heart Fitness study is designed to test whether regular participation in EVGs can be an adequate source of physical activity for adults. This study will produce new data on the effect of EVGs on cardiovascular fitness indices and prolonged engagement with physical activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of exercise, walking, cycling, and overall nonexercise physical activity on mortality in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Charles E; Jurj, Adriana L; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Li, Hong-Lan; Yang, Gong; Li, Qi; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

    2007-06-15

    This investigation described the effects of exercise, walking, and cycling for transportation, as well as the effect of overall nonexercise physical activity, on mortality in the Shanghai Women's Health Study (1997-2004). Women without heart disease, stroke, or cancer were followed for an average of 5.7 years (n = 67,143), and there were 1,091 deaths from all causes, 537 deaths from cancer, and 251 deaths from cardiovascular diseases. Information about physical activity and relevant covariates was obtained by interview. Proportional hazards models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Exercise and cycling for transportation were both inversely and independently associated with all-cause mortality (p(trend) activity were at 25-50% reduced risk (p(trend) active women (0-9.9 MET-hours/day). Among women reporting the least nonexercise activity (0-9.9 MET-hours/day) but reporting regular exercise participation, exercise was associated with reduced mortality (hazard ratio = 0.78, 95% confidence interval: 0.62, 0.99). These findings add new evidence that overall physical activity levels are an important determinant of longevity, and that health benefit can be obtained through an active lifestyle, exercise, or combinations of both.

  20. Functional Exercise and Physical Fitness Post Stroke: The Importance of Exercise Maintenance for Motor Control and Physical Fitness after Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta Langhammer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is argued that all stroke patients, indifferent of disability, have the same possibility to improve with training. The aim of the study was to follow and register functional improvements in two groups with different functional capacities at baseline for a period of 36 months. Stroke patients were recruited and divided into groups related to their functional status at baseline. During the acute rehabilitation, both groups received functional task-oriented training, followed by regular self- or therapeutic driven training the first year after stroke and varied exercise patterns the following 24 months. The participants were tested on admission, and at three, six, twelve, and thirty-six months after the onset of stroke. Both groups improved functional activity up to six months which then stabilized up to twelve months to decline somewhat at thirty-six months after stroke. Change scores indicate a greater potential for rehabilitation in the MAS ≤35 in relation to group MAS >35 although the functional capacity was higher in the latter. This indicates the importance of maintaining exercise and training for all persons after stroke.

  1. A Pilot Test of the Additive Benefits of Physical Exercise to CBT for OCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Neil A; Richter, Margaret A; Lerman, Bethany; Regev, Rotem

    2015-01-01

    The majority of "responders" to first-line cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and pharmacological treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are left with residual symptoms that are clinically relevant and disabling. Therefore, there is pressing need for widely accessible efficacious alternative and/or adjunctive treatments for OCD. Accumulating evidence suggests that physical exercise may be one such intervention in the mood and anxiety disorders broadly, although we are aware of only two positive small-scale pilot studies that have tested its clinical benefits in OCD. This pilot study aimed to test the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of adding a structured physical exercise programme to CBT for OCD. A standard CBT group was delivered concurrently with a 12-week customized exercise programme to 11 participants. The exercise regimen was individualized for each participant based on peak heart rate measured using an incremental maximal exercise test. Reports of exercise adherence across the 12-week regimen exceeded 80%. A paired-samples t-test indicated very large treatment effects in Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale scores from pre- to post-treatment in CBT group cohorts led by expert CBT OCD specialists (d = 2.55) and junior CBT clinician non-OCD specialists (d = 2.12). These treatment effects are very large and exceed effects typically observed with individual and group-based CBT for OCD based on leading meta-analytic reviews, as well as previously obtained treatment effects for CBT using the same recruitment protocol without exercise. As such, this pilot work demonstrates the feasibility and significant potential clinical utility of a 12-week aerobic exercise programme delivered in conjunction with CBT for OCD.

  2. Dependence and physical exercise: Spanish validation of the Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised (EDS-R).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicilia, Alvaro; González-Cutre, David

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the Spanish version of the Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised (EDS-R). To achieve this goal, a sample of 531 sport center users was used and the psychometric properties of the EDS-R were examined through different analyses. The results supported both the first-order seven-factor model and the higher-order model (seven first-order factors and one second-order factor). The structure of both models was invariant across age. Correlations among the subscales indicated a related factor model, supporting construct validity of the scale. Alpha values over .70 (except for Reduction in Other Activities) and suitable levels of temporal stability were obtained. Users practicing more than three days per week had higher scores in all subscales than the group practicing with a frequency of three days or fewer. The findings of this study provided reliability and validity for the EDS-R in a Spanish context.

  3. The reinforcing value and liking of resistance training and aerobic exercise as predictors of adult's physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, Kyle D; Johnson, LuAnn; Roemmich, James N

    2017-10-01

    Reinforcing value (motivating value) is a stronger predictor than hedonic value (liking) for engaging in drug use, gambling, and eating. The associations of reinforcing value and liking with physical activity of adults have not yet been studied and may depend on the modes of exercise (e.g., aerobic/cardiovascular exercise, resistance training) under consideration. The purpose of this study was to test associations of the reinforcing value and liking of aerobic exercise training (AT) and resistance exercise training (RT) modes of exercise with usual participation in aerobic and resistance exercise in adults. Men (n=38) and women (n=50) were measured for their liking and relative reinforcing value (RRV) of AT and RT, for their usual vigorous physical activity (VPA) participation, and for usual resistance exercise behavior (Yale physical activity questionnaire). The RRV of AT (RRVAT) and liking of AT were correlated, (r=0.22, pvalue for, but not the liking of, a mode of exercise predicted how much an individual engaged in that mode of exercise. RRVAT (p˂0.01) was positively associated with usual VPA. RRVRT (p˂0.01) was positively associated with RT behavior. The hedonic value of AT and of RT were not associated (p>0.30) with VPA or RT behavior. Reinforcing value of a mode of exercise is a stronger predictor than the liking of that mode of exercise for usual amount of participation in the exercise. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Effects of Pregnancy on Responses to Exercise Above and Below the Ventilatory Anaerobic THreshold

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wolfe, Larry

    1999-01-01

    ... vent). Results from Study #1 support the hypothesis that cardiac vagal/parasympathetic modulation is reduced in the resting state and that sympathoadrenal modulation is blunted during strenuous exercise above T to the vent in late gestation...

  5. Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... decreased bone density with an increased risk of fracture, and shallow, inefficient breathing. An exercise program needs ... and-Soul (Feb. 2013 issue) (.pdf) Download Document Rehabilitation: Recommendations for Persons with MS (.pdf) Download Brochure ...

  6. What is the role played by physical activity and exercise in the frailty syndrome? Perspectives for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souto Barreto, Philipe

    2010-01-01

    Exercise and physical activity play an important role in physical frailty, but we do not know if they are markers, components and/or correlates of this syndrome. The purpose of this paper is briefly to discuss the potential roles played by physical activity and exercise on the development and progression of frailty, and to propose directions for future research in this field. Exercise practice lowers the levels of some frailty markers, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, and uric acid, and also resistance to insulin. The influence of exercise on the main frailty domains is also well established in the literature. Exercise improves muscle strength, gait speed, cognition (particularly executive control related-tasks), weight maintenance, mood and, to a lesser extent, feelings of energy. Although exercise and physical activity positively influence the main frailty markers and domains, most findings were obtained for other elderly populations (e.g., healthy elderly, clinical populations). For future research, efforts must be made to define some key concepts (exercise or physical activity) in selecting study samples and in establishing intervention length. Attention must also be paid to identifying the most efficacious exercise interventions regarding type, frequency, intensity and session duration, and approaching a dose-response relationship between a physically active life-style and frailty. Thus, further research, especially longitudinal randomized controlled trials, is needed to understand the role of physical activity and exercise in the frailty syndrome.

  7. Benefits of physical exercise training on cognition and quality of life in frail older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Francis; Vu, Thien Tuong Minh; Chassé, Kathleen; Dupuis, Gilles; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne; Bherer, Louis

    2013-05-01

    Frailty is a state of vulnerability associated with increased risks of fall, hospitalization, cognitive deficits, and psychological distress. Studies with healthy senior suggest that physical exercise can help improve cognition and quality of life. Whether frail older adults can show such benefits remains to be documented. A total of 83 participants aged 61-89 years were assigned to an exercise-training group (3 times a week for 12 weeks) or a control group (waiting list). Frailty was determined by a complete geriatric examination using specific criteria. Pre- and post-test measures assessed physical capacity, cognitive performance, and quality of life. Compared with controls, the intervention group showed significant improvement in physical capacity (functional capacities and physical endurance), cognitive performance (executive functions, processing speed, and working memory), and quality of life (global quality of life, leisure activities, physical capacity, social/family relationships, and physical health). Benefits were overall equivalent between frail and nonfrail participants. Physical exercise training leads to improved cognitive functioning and psychological well-being in frail older adults.

  8. Influence of age, sex, and race on college students' exercise motivation of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egli, Trevor; Bland, Helen W; Melton, Bridget F; Czech, Daniel R

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined differences in exercise motivation between age, sex, and race for college students. Students from 156 sections of physical activity classes at a midsize university were recruited (n = 2,199; 1,081 men, 1,118 women) in 2005-2006 and volunteered to complete the Exercise Motivation Inventory. Quantitative, cross-sectional descriptive research design was employed. Significant differences were found in 3 of 14 exercise motivational subscales by age (affiliation, health pressures, and ill health avoidance) (p motivated by intrinsic factors (strength, competition, and challenge) (p motivations (p motivations in college-aged population by demographics were documented. Understanding these differences is important for college health professionals for programming strategies and promoting physical activity.

  9. Physical exercise associated with improved BMD independently of sex and vitamin D levels in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Rune; Schwarz, Peter; Hovind, Peter Hambak

    2016-01-01

    -scan sites (p trend = 0.0001) and with equal benefit; there was no interaction between exercise and the DXA-scan site (p = 0.09). The male participants did not have a systematically higher BMD than the female participants for all scan sites; only for hips total and femoral neck bilaterally, while......PURPOSE: Young men and women accrue the majority of their bone mass in their teens and twenties, where their bone mass peaks (PBM), yet little is known about the roles of physical exercise, vitamin D levels and bone mineral density (BMD) near PBM. METHODS: To comparatively examine the effect...... of physical exercise and two vitamin D levels (insufficient s-25[OH]D 80 nmol/L) on the BMD measured at the femoral neck, total hip (bilaterally) and the lumbar spine (L2-L4) in male and female participants approaching PBM. RESULTS: The insufficient s-25[OH]D group, median...

  10. The effects of hormones and physical exercise on hippocampal structural plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triviño-Paredes, Juan; Patten, Anna R; Gil-Mohapel, Joana; Christie, Brian R

    2016-04-01

    The hippocampus plays an integral role in certain aspects of cognition. Hippocampal structural plasticity and in particular adult hippocampal neurogenesis can be influenced by several intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Here we review how hormones (i.e., intrinsic modulators) and physical exercise (i.e., an extrinsic modulator) can differentially modulate hippocampal plasticity in general and adult hippocampal neurogenesis in particular. Specifically, we provide an overview of the effects of sex hormones, stress hormones, and metabolic hormones on hippocampal structural plasticity and adult hippocampal neurogenesis. In addition, we also discuss how physical exercise modulates these forms of hippocampal plasticity, giving particular emphasis on how this modulation can be affected by variables such as exercise regime, duration, and intensity. Understanding the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the modulation of hippocampal structural plasticity by intrinsic and extrinsic factors will impact the design of new therapeutic approaches aimed at restoring hippocampal plasticity following brain injury or neurodegeneration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Hippocrates' counselling with regard to physical exercise, gymnastics, dietetics and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritikos, A; Bekiari, A; Nikitaras, N; Famissis, K; Sakellariou, K

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study is the investigation of Hippocrates' consultative theory with regard to man's physical exercise, gymnastics, diet and health, on the basis of his work "Regimen" and his other works. The aforementioned issues are thematised in the works in question. By means of this thematisation, a medical counselling is formed, according to which exercise, gymnastics and diet aim at the maintenance and restoration of man's health; dietetics, maintenance of well-being, recovery and amelioration of man's health are involved in this thematisation. Hippocrates' views on the aforementioned issues constitute a basis for the discussion and pedagogical exploitation of them in contemporary education and, particularly, in sports education and physical exercise.

  12. 1000 Solved Problems in Classical Physics An Exercise Book

    CERN Document Server

    Kamal, Ahmad A

    2011-01-01

    This book basically caters to the needs of undergraduate and graduate physics students in classical physics, especially Classical Mechanics and Electricity and Electromagnetism. Lecturers/Tutors may use it as a resource book. The contents of the book are based on the syllabi currently used in the undergraduate courses in the USA, U.K., and other countries. The book consists of 15 chapters, each one beginning with a brief but adequate summary and necessary formulas and Line diagrams followed by a variety of typical problems useful for assignments and exams. Detailed solutions are provided at the end of each chapter.

  13. Exercise and physical training improve physical function in older adults with visual impairments but their effect on falls is unclear: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gleeson

    2014-09-01

    [Gleeson M, Sherrington C, Keay L (2014 Exercise and physical training improve physical function in older adults with visual impairments but their effect on falls is unclear: a systematic review. Journal of Physiotherapy 60: 130–135

  14. [Physical exercise and food habits: a study of adolescents in Cádiz].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Martín, A; Martínez Nieto, J M; Novalbos Ruiz, J P; Ruiz Jiménez, M A; Jiménez Benítez, D

    1999-01-01

    A increased number of eating disorders among teen-agers are currently being reported. Physical exercise, especially when done individually, is one of the methods chosen for losing weight. We are basing this study on the hypothesis of a larger number of eating habit disorders (EHD's) in subjects who do physical exercise alone. This study describes and compares eating habits among teen-agers that do individual exercise as opposed to athletes who work out in groups or on teams. Cross-section study of 532 teen-agers ages 14-18 who are enrolled in school and who do physical exercise, having been selected at random by means of a two-stage, stratified sampling process. The subjects were divided into two groups according whether they did individual physical exercise alone (Number: 216) or in groups (Number: 316). The eating habits of both groups were analyzed based on a questionnaire filled out by the subjects themselves. In the group preferring individual sports, females were predominant (degree of males 0.44). Of these females, their being on diets in order to lose weight was 3.12 times more frequent, compulsive eating episodes being 3.73 times more frequent. As regards behaviors which might be considered to be compensatory, there is a clear concentration thereof among those who do sports individually, hence 43% stated to voluntarily undergo periods of fasting (4.96 times more than those who exercise in groups), 46% stating to have brought on vomiting at one time or another for "dieting" purposes (3.76 more) and up to 26% have used laxatives with the intention of losing weight (2.56 times more than among athletes who play on teams). The existence of EHD's seems to be associated with teen-agers who play individual sports as opposed to those who play on teams.

  15. Protective effects of physical exercise on MDMA-induced cognitive and mitochondrial impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, Ghorban; Pourahmad, Jalal; Mehdizadeh, Hajar; Foroumadi, Alireza; Torkaman-Boutorabi, Anahita; Hassani, Shokoufeh; Naserzadeh, Parvaneh; Shariatmadari, Reyhaneh; Gholami, Mahdi; Rouini, Mohammad Reza; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad

    2016-10-01

    Debate continues about the effect of 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) on cognitive and mitochondrial function through the CNS. It has been shown that physical exercise has an important protective effect on cellular damage and death. Therefore, we investigated the effect of physical exercise on MDMA-induced impairments of spatial learning and memory as well as MDMA effects on brain mitochondrial function in rats. Male wistar rats underwent short-term (2 weeks) or long-term (4 weeks) treadmill exercise. After completion of exercise duration, acquisition and retention of spatial memory were evaluated by Morris water maze (MWM) test. Rats were intraperitoneally (I.P) injected with MDMA (5, 10, and 15mg/kg) 30min before the first training trial in 4 training days of MWM. Different parameters of brain mitochondrial function were measured including the level of ROS production, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), mitochondrial swelling, mitochondrial outermembrane damage, the amount of cytochrome c release from the mitochondria, and ADP/ATP ratio. MDMA damaged the spatial learning and memory in a dose-dependent manner. Brain mitochondria isolated from the rats treated with MDMA showed significant increase in ROS formation, collapse of MMP, mitochondrial swelling, and outer membrane damage, cytochrome c release from the mitochondria, and finally increased ADP/ATP ratio. This study also found that physical exercise significantly decreased the MDMA-induced impairments of spatial learning and memory and also mitochondrial dysfunction. The results indicated that MDMA-induced neurotoxicity leads to brain mitochondrial dysfunction and subsequent oxidative stress is followed by cognitive impairments. However, physical exercise could reduce these deleterious effects of MDMA through protective effects on brain mitochondrial function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Health status, physical activity, and orthorexia nervosa: A comparison between exercise science students and business students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmborg, Julia; Bremander, Ann; Olsson, M Charlotte; Bergman, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    Orthorexia nervosa is described as an exaggerated fixation on healthy food. It is unclear whether students in health-oriented academic programs, highly focused on physical exercise, are more prone to develop orthorexia nervosa than students in other educational areas. The aim was to compare health status, physical activity, and frequency of orthorexia nervosa between university students enrolled in an exercise science program (n = 118) or a business program (n = 89). The students completed the Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36), the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and ORTO-15, which defines orthorexia nervosa as a sensitive and obsessive behavior towards healthy nutrition. The SF-36 showed that exercise science students scored worse than business students regarding bodily pain (72.8 vs. 82.5; p = 0.001), but better regarding general health (83.1 vs. 77.1; p = 0.006). Of 188 students, 144 (76.6%) had an ORTO-15 score indicating orthorexia nervosa, with a higher proportion in exercise science students than in business students (84.5% vs. 65.4%; p = 0.002). Orthorexia nervosa in combination with a high level of physical activity was most often seen in men in exercise science studies and less often in women in business studies (45.1% vs. 8.3%; p orthorexia nervosa in exercise science students may cause problems in the future, since they are expected to coach others in healthy living. Our findings may be valuable in the development of health-oriented academic programs and within student healthcare services. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of regular aerobic exercise on physical characteristics, body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... did not participate in any special kind of physical activity. In addition to administering the Body Image Satisfaction Questionnaire and the Self-efficacy Scale, anthropometric variables were assessed before the commencement of the study and again immediately afterwards. The data were analysed by a one-way ANCOVA.

  18. Empowering Girls with Chemistry, Exercise and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapham, Emily D.; Ciccomascolo, Lori E.; Clapham, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that a girl's career interests in the areas of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) declines between grades 6 and 8. Similarly, in middle school, there is a decrease in physical activity among girls. Researchers at the University of Rhode Island (URI) conducted a chemistry-based science camp that took place…

  19. Similarities between pre-eclampsia and atherosclerosis: a protective effect of physical exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belo, Luís; Santos-Silva, Alice; Quintanilha, Alexandre; Rebelo, Irene

    2008-01-01

    Pre-eclampsia (PE), a characteristic hypertensive disorder of human pregnancy and a leading cause of maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity worldwide, shares some similarities with atherosclerosis, namely the involvement of oxidative stress and of endothelial dysfunction in their pathophysiologies, the presence of similar typical lesions and of common risk factors. Although it is widely accepted that regular physical exercise protects against cardiovascular events, few studies have addressed the impact of physical activity in reducing PE risk. In this paper, similarities between atherosclerosis and PE, involving pathogenic mechanisms, are described. This paper also reviews the studies performed until now that evaluated the impact of regular physical exercise (prenataly or during pregnancy) in reducing risk of PE. The potential mechanisms underlying physical activity as a prophylactic approach of PE, as observed with cardiovascular diseases, are discussed.

  20. Influence of the physical environment on treatment effect in exercise therapy for knee or hip pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandal, Louise Fleng

    treatment outcomes in other health-care settings, such as rehabilitation and exercise therapy settings. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the role of the physical environment as a contributor to context effects in the treatment response from exercise therapy as treatment for muskuloskeletal pain......Context effects are defined as the effects of a given treatment, not directly caused by the treatment itself, but, rather, caused by the context in which the treatment is delivered. The patient-practitioner relationship is a known context factor, but it is hard to standardize across health-care...... settings. The physical environment is easier to standardize and may act as a context factor and influence treatment outcomes. Studies from hospital environments have shown that the physical environment influences health outcomes, patients, and clinicians. It is unknown if the physical environment affects...

  1. The effects of regular physical exercise on the human body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavrić Fahrudin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Regular physical activities should be an integral part of an active lifestyle and the proper use of one's time. Programs including such activities are more effectively being applied in the prevention and elimination of health problems, especially those that are the result of decreased movement, inadequate nutrition and excessive nervous tension. Numerous studies have revealed new information about the link between physical activity and quality of life. Each person would have to be involved in physical activity of moderate intensity most days for 30 to 60 minutes, because active people are more healthier and have higher endurance levels, have a positive attitude towards work and cope with everyday stress better. Activity helps you look better, makes you happier and more vital. Studies have clearly shown that physical activity affects health and reduces the risk of many diseases. An active life increases energy, vitality, helps change bad habits, improves health, and strengthens one's energy and desire for life. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of regular physical activity on the human body. The subject matter of this study is the collection and analysis of results which the authors of various studies have obtained. The reviewed literature was collected using a web browser, and consisted of research work available in the Kobson database, through Google Scholar and in journals available in the field of sports science. The method of treatment is descriptive because the studies involved a variety of training programs, people of different ages, and tests carried out by different measuring instruments, so there is no possibility of a comparison of the results by other means.

  2. A Laboratory Exercise Using a Physical Model for Demonstrating Countercurrent Heat Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudon, Catherine; Davis-Berg, Elizabeth C.; Botz, Jason T.

    2012-01-01

    A physical model was used in a laboratory exercise to teach students about countercurrent exchange mechanisms. Countercurrent exchange is the transport of heat or chemicals between fluids moving in opposite directions separated by a permeable barrier (such as blood within adjacent blood vessels flowing in opposite directions). Greater exchange of…

  3. Cofactors in allergic reactions to food : physical exercise and alcohol are the most important

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versluis, Astrid; van Os-Medendorp, Harmieke; Kruizinga, Astrid G; Blom, W Marty; Houben, Geert F; Knulst, André C

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Involvement of cofactors, like physical exercise, alcohol consumption and use of several types of medication, are associated with more severe food allergic symptoms. However, there is limited evidence on how often cofactors play a role in food allergic reactions. The study aimed to get

  4. Self-Regulation of Physical Education Teacher Education Students' Attitudes towards Exercise and Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Carol; Prusak, Keven

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess differences in self-regulation of attitudes towards engaging in exercise and eating a healthy diet between physical education teacher education (PETE) students and general education (GE) students, and between male students and female students. Participants were university students (n = 194) at a university…

  5. Peculiarities of Use of Dancing Exercises in Physical Education of Female High Schoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. М. Кравчук

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to ground and develop the methods of the use of dancing exercises at physical training classes in high school and to experimentally verify their effectiveness. Research methods. Theoretical ones: study and analysis of pedagogical, scientific and methodological literature on the problems under research; a complex of empirical research methods: research and experimental work, observations, questionnaires, testing; statistical methods of research and data reduction. Research results. The paper reveals the peculiarities of the use of dancing exercises at physical training classes in high school. It shows that dancing exercises can and must be part of the physical education of high schoolers to develop their strength, flexibility, endurance, coordination abilities and to cultivate movement culture, musicality, dancing abilities and aesthetic taste. The study proves that the use of dancing exercises of classical choreography, rhythmic gymnastics and health-improving aerobics at the physical training classes in high school helps increase the level of development of flexibility, strength and agility.

  6. Physical exercise and executive functions in preadolescent children, adolescents and young adults: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburgh, L.; Konigs, M.; Scherder, E.J.A.; Oosterlaan, J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this meta-analysis was to aggregate available empirical studies on the effects of physical exercise on executive functions in preadolescent children (6-12 years of age), adolescents (13-17 years of age) and young adults (18-35 years of age). Method: The electronic databases

  7. Physical exercise and executive functions in preadolescent children, adolescents and young adults: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburgh, L.; Konigs, M.; Scherder, E.J.A.; Oosterlaan, J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this meta-analysis was to aggregate available empirical studies on the effects of physical exercise on executive functions in preadolescent children (6-12 years of age), adolescents (13-17 years of age) and young adults (18-35 years of age). Method: The electronic databases

  8. Acute effects of walking exercise on stair negotiation in sedentary and physically active older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunzler, Marcos R.; Da Rocha, Emmanuel S.; Bobbert, Maarten F.; Duysens, Jacques; Carpes, Felipe P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In negotiating stairs, low foot clearance increases the risk of tripping and a fall. Foot clearance may be related to physical fitness, which differs between active and sedentary participants, and be acutely affected by exercise. Impaired stair negotiation could be an acute response to

  9. Prevalence and correlates of participation in fall prevention exercise/physical activity by older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merom, D.; Pye, V.; Macniven, R.; van der Ploeg, H.; Milat, A.; Sherrington, C.; Lord, S.; Bauman, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine older people's participation in fall prevention exercise/physical activities. Methods: Participants comprised 5,681 randomly selected older people (≥ 65. years) who took part in the 2009 New South Wales (Australia) Fall Prevention telephone survey (61% response-rate). The

  10. Effects of integrated physical exercises and gestures on preschool children’s foreign language vocabulary learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.-F. Mavilidi (Myrto-Foteini); A.D. Okely (Anthony D.); P. Chandler (Paul); D.P. Cliff (Dylan P.); G.W.C. Paas (Fred)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractResearch suggests that integrating human movement into a cognitive learning task can be effective for learning due to its cognitive and physiological effects. In this study, the learning effects of enacting words through whole-body movements (i.e., physical exercise) and part-body

  11. Effects of Integrated Physical Exercises and Gestures on Preschool Children's Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavilidi, Myrto-Foteini; Okely, Anthony D.; Chandler, Paul; Cliff, Dylan P.; Paas, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that integrating human movement into a cognitive learning task can be effective for learning due to its cognitive and physiological effects. In this study, the learning effects of enacting words through whole-body movements (i.e., physical exercise) and part-body movements (i.e., gestures) were investigated in a foreign language…

  12. Monitoring Change of Body Fluid during Physical Exercise using Bioimpedance Spectroscopy and Finite Element Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Röthlingshöfer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Athletes need a balanced body composition in order to achieve maximum performance. Especially dehydration reduces power and endurance during physical exercise. Monitoring the body composition, with a focus on body fluid, may help to avoid reduction in performance and other health problems.For this, a potential measurement method is bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS. BIS is a simple, non-invasive measurement method that allows to determine different body compartments (body fluid, fat, fat-free mass. However, because many physiological changes occur during physical exercise that can influence impedance measurements and distort results, it cannot be assumed that the BIS data are related to body fluid loss alone.To confirm that BIS can detect body fluid loss due to physical exercise, finite element (FE simulations were done. Besides impedance, also the current density contribution during a BIS measurement was modeled to evaluate the influence of certain tissues on BIS measurements.Simulations were done using CST EM Studio (Computer Simulation Technology, Germany and the Visible Human Data Set (National Library of Medicine, USA. In addition to the simulations, BIS measurements were also made on athletes. Comparison between the measured bioimpedance data and simulation data, as well as body weight loss during sport, indicates that BIS measurements are sensitive enough to monitor body fluid loss during physical exercise.doi:10.5617/jeb.178 J Electr Bioimp, vol. 2, pp. 79-85, 2011

  13. Physical Education Teachers' Continuing Professional Development in Health-Related Exercise: A Figurational Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfrey, Laura; Webb, Louisa; Cale, Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses figurational sociology to explain why Secondary Physical Education teachers' engagement with Health Related Exercise (HRE) is often limited. Historically-rooted concerns surround the teaching of HRE, and these have recently been linked to teachers' limited continuing professional development (CPD) in HRE (HRE-CPD). A two-phase,…

  14. Exercise training improves physical fitness and vascular function in children with type 1 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seeger, J.P.H.; Thijssen, D.H.J.; Noordam, K.; Cranen, M.E.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.

    2011-01-01

    Children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) show endothelial dysfunction and mild artery wall thickening compared to their age-matched healthy peers. In this study, we examined the effect of 18-week exercise training on physical fitness and vascular function and structure in children with DM1. We

  15. Physical inventory verification exercise at a light-water reactor facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosler, G.E.; Menlove, H.O.; Halbig, J.K.

    1986-04-01

    A simulated physical inventory verification exercise was performed at the Three Mile Island (TMI) Unit 1 reactor. Inspectors from the Internatinal Atomic Energy Agency made measurements on fresh- and spent-fuel assemblies and verified the special nuclear material inventory at TMI. Simulated inspection log sheets and computerized inspection reports were prepared

  16. Anxiety sensitivity uniquely predicts exercise behaviors in young adults seeking to increase physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moshier, S.J.; Szuhany, K.L.; Hearon, B.A.; Smits, J.A.J.; Otto, M.W.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with elevated levels of anxiety sensitivity (AS) may be motivated to avoid aversive emotional or physical states, and therefore may have greater difficulty achieving healthy behavioral change. This may be particularly true for exercise, which produces many of the somatic sensations

  17. Physical and Emotional Benefits of Different Exercise Environments Designed for Treadmill Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hsiao-Pu; Stone, Joseph A; Churchill, Sarah M; Brymer, Eric; Davids, Keith

    2017-07-11

    (1) Background: Green physical activity promotes physical health and mental wellbeing and interesting questions concern effects of this information on designing indoor exercise environments. This study examined the physical and emotional effects of different nature-based environments designed for indoor treadmill running; (2) Methods: In a counterbalanced experimental design, 30 participants performed three, twenty-minute treadmill runs at a self-selected pace while viewing either a static nature image, a dynamic nature image or self-selected entertainment. Distance ran, heart rate (HR) and five pre-and post-exercise emotional states were measured; (3) Results: Participants ran farther, and with higher HRs, with self-selected entertainment compared to the two nature-based environment designs. Participants attained lowered anger, dejection, anxiety and increased excitement post exercise in all of the designed environments. Happiness increased during the two nature-based environment designs compared with self-selected entertainment; (4) Conclusions: Self-selected entertainment encouraged greater physical performances whereas running in nature-based exercise environments elicited greater happiness immediately after running.

  18. Leisure time physical exercise during pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, M; Jørgensen, T; Jensen, M L

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between leisure time physical exercise during pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage. DESIGN: Prospective study with elements of retrospective data collection. SETTING: Denmark 1996-2002. POPULATION: A total of 92,671 pregnant women enrolled in the Danish...

  19. From the Outside In: Getting Physical with Exercises Inspired by Stella Adler and Uta Hagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Proposes that teaching students to find and play appropriate actions helps them tell the story of a play and create character better than if they focused on emotions. Discusses Stella Adler and Uta Hagen, two acting teachers who advocated this physical approach. Presents two exercises: "justify and connect," and "enter a room." (PM)

  20. The functional effects of physical exercise training in frail older people : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; van Uffelen, J.G.Z.; Riphagen, I.; van Mechelen, W.

    2008-01-01

    This systematic review describes the effect of exercise training on physical performance in frail older people. Randomized controlled trials were identified from searches in PubMed, EMBASE and CENTRAL from January 1995 through August 2007. Two reviewers independently screened the trials for

  1. Benefits of Physical Exercise on Executive Functions in Older People with Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Katia; de Quadros, Antonio Carlos, Jr.; Santos, Ruth Ferreira; Stella, Florindo; Gobbi, Lilian Teresa Bucken; Gobbi, Sebastiao

    2009-01-01

    The benefits of physical exercise on cognitive functioning have been reported in the literature, but the potential benefits to slow the eventual decline in executive functioning (EF) caused by neurodegeneration from Parkinson's Disease (PD) have rarely been studied. Thus the objective of this study was to analyze the effects of a multimodal…

  2. Guidelines for Undergraduate Exercise Physiology in a Physical Education Teacher Education Program. Guidance Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association for Sport and Physical Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    A course in Exercise Physiology is a common requirement among undergraduate students preparing for a career in physical education, adult fitness, or athletic training. Often, such courses are taught to an assortment of students from a variety of disciplines (Van Donselaar & Leslie, 1990) with an emphasis on physiological principles applied to…

  3. Programming of employments physical exercises for the improvement of bodily condition of children of midchildhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sljusarchuk V.V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Approaches are considered on forming and realization of maintenance of physical education of students of initial school. The algorithm of programming of maintenance of lessons of physical culture is developed. The program foresees implementation of requirements of general and methodical principles of physical education, positions of theory of adaptation, requirements of the operating program. It is marked that employments must provide for: differentiated going near students, account of interests and to the wishes, motivation to independent employments by physical exercises, to providing of motor high-density. It is recommended to take into account the features of dynamics of indexes of bodily condition of children of different somatotype.

  4. The effects of physical activity and exercise on brain-derived neurotrophic factor in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, T; Larsen, K T; Ried-Larsen, M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to summarize the effects of physical activity and exercise on peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in healthy humans. Experimental and observational studies were identified from PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Scopus, and SPORT Discus. A total of 32 articles...... studies suggested an inverse relationship between the peripheral BDNF level and habitual physical activity or cardiorespiratory fitness. More research is needed to confirm the findings from the observational studies....

  5. Effects of an outpatient physical exercise program on hematopeoetic stem-cell transplantation recipients: a randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knols, R.H.; de Bruin, E.D.; Uebelhart, D.; Aufdemkampe, G.; Schanz, U.; Stenner-Liewen, F.; Hitz, F.; Taverna, C.; Aaronson, N.K.

    2011-01-01

    Patients who undergo hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) often experience physical and psychological problems, even long after treatment has been completed. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of a 12-week outpatient physical exercise (PE) program, incorporating aerobic and strength exercises, as

  6. Psychosocial effects of workplace physical exercise among workers with chronic pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lars L.; Persson, Roger; Jakobsen, Markus D.; Sundstrup, Emil

    2017-01-01

    Abstract While workplace physical exercise can help manage musculoskeletal disorders, less is known about psychosocial effects of such interventions. This aim of this study was to investigate the effect of workplace physical exercise on psychosocial factors among workers with chronic musculoskeletal pain. The trial design was a 2-armed parallel-group randomized controlled trial with allocation concealment. A total of 66 slaughterhouse workers (51 men and 15 women, mean age 45 years [standard deviation (SD) 10]) with upper limb chronic musculoskeletal pain were randomly allocated to group-based strength training (physical exercise group) or individual ergonomic training and education (reference group) for 10 weeks. Social climate was assessed with the General Nordic Questionnaire for Psychological and Social Factors at Work, and vitality and mental health were assessed with the 36-item Short Form Health Survey. All scales were converted to 0 to 100 (higher scores are better). Between-group differences from baseline to follow-up were determined using linear mixed models adjusted for workplace, age, gender, and baseline values of the outcome. Mean baseline scores of social climate, mental health, and vitality were 52.2 (SD 14.9), 79.5 (SD 13.7), and 53.9 (SD 19.7), respectively. Complete baseline and follow-up data were obtained from 30 and 31 from the physical exercise and reference groups, respectively. The between-group differences from baseline to follow-up between physical exercise and reference were 7.6 (95% CI 0.3 to 14.9), −2.3 (95% CI -10.3 to 5.8), and 10.1 (95% CI 0.6 to 19.5) for social climate, mental health, and vitality, respectively. For social climate and vitality, this corresponded to moderate effect sizes (Cohen d = 0.51 for both) in favor of physical exercise. There were no reported adverse events. In conclusion, workplace physical exercise performed together with colleagues improves social climate and vitality among workers with chronic

  7. Psychosocial effects of workplace physical exercise among workers with chronic pain: Randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lars L; Persson, Roger; Jakobsen, Markus D; Sundstrup, Emil

    2017-01-01

    While workplace physical exercise can help manage musculoskeletal disorders, less is known about psychosocial effects of such interventions. This aim of this study was to investigate the effect of workplace physical exercise on psychosocial factors among workers with chronic musculoskeletal pain.The trial design was a 2-armed parallel-group randomized controlled trial with allocation concealment. A total of 66 slaughterhouse workers (51 men and 15 women, mean age 45 years [standard deviation (SD) 10]) with upper limb chronic musculoskeletal pain were randomly allocated to group-based strength training (physical exercise group) or individual ergonomic training and education (reference group) for 10 weeks. Social climate was assessed with the General Nordic Questionnaire for Psychological and Social Factors at Work, and vitality and mental health were assessed with the 36-item Short Form Health Survey. All scales were converted to 0 to 100 (higher scores are better). Between-group differences from baseline to follow-up were determined using linear mixed models adjusted for workplace, age, gender, and baseline values of the outcome.Mean baseline scores of social climate, mental health, and vitality were 52.2 (SD 14.9), 79.5 (SD 13.7), and 53.9 (SD 19.7), respectively. Complete baseline and follow-up data were obtained from 30 and 31 from the physical exercise and reference groups, respectively. The between-group differences from baseline to follow-up between physical exercise and reference were 7.6 (95% CI 0.3 to 14.9), -2.3 (95% CI -10.3 to 5.8), and 10.1 (95% CI 0.6 to 19.5) for social climate, mental health, and vitality, respectively. For social climate and vitality, this corresponded to moderate effect sizes (Cohen d = 0.51 for both) in favor of physical exercise. There were no reported adverse events.In conclusion, workplace physical exercise performed together with colleagues improves social climate and vitality among workers with chronic musculoskeletal

  8. Non-allergic activation of eosinophils after strenuous endurance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the effect of prolonged endurance exercise on the serum concentrations of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), immunoglobulin E (IgE) and upper respiratory tract symptoms (URTS). Design. In 11 healthy, experienced volunteers (6 males, 5 females, age 43 ± 9.8 years) the serum concentrations of ...

  9. American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand. Exercise and physical activity for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    ACSM Position Stand on Exercise and Physical Activity for Older Adults. Med. Sci. Sports. Exerc., Vol. 30, No. 6, pp. 992-1008, 1998. By the year 2030, the number of individuals 65 yr and over will reach 70 million in the United States alone; persons 85 yr and older will be the fastest growing segment of the population. As more individuals live longer, it is imperative to determine the extent and mechanisms by which exercise and physical activity can improve health, functional capacity, quality of life, and independence in this population. Aging is a complex process involving many variables (e.g., genetics, lifestyle factors, chronic diseases) that interact with one another, greatly influencing the manner in which we age. Participation in regular physical activity (both aerobic and strength exercises) elicits a number of favorable responses that contribute to healthy aging. Much has been learned recently regarding the adaptability of various biological systems, as well as the ways that regular exercise can influence them. Participation in a regular exercise program is an effective intervention/ modality to reduce/prevent a number of functional declines associated with aging. Further, the trainability of older individuals (including octo- and nonagenarians) is evidenced by their ability to adapt and respond to both endurance and strength training. Endurance training can help maintain and improve various aspects of cardiovascular function (as measured by maximal VO2, cardiac output, and arteriovenous O2 difference), as well as enhance submaximal performance. Importantly, reductions in risk factors associated with disease states (heart disease, diabetes, etc.) improve health status and contribute to an increase in life expectancy. Strength training helps offset the loss in muscle mass and strength typically associated with normal aging. Additional benefits from regular exercise include improved bone health and, thus, reduction in risk for osteoporosis; improved

  10. Patients' mental models and adherence to outpatient physical therapy home exercise programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Jon

    2015-05-01

    Within physical therapy, patient adherence usually relates to attending appointments, following advice, and/or undertaking prescribed exercise. Similar to findings for general medical adherence, patient adherence to physical therapy home exercise programs (HEP) is estimated between 35 and 72%. Adherence to HEPs is a multifactorial and poorly understood phenomenon, with no consensus regarding a common theoretical framework that best guides empirical or clinical efforts. Mental models, a construct used to explain behavior and decision-making in the social sciences, may serve as this framework. Mental models comprise an individual's tacit thoughts about how the world works. They include assumptions about new experiences and expectations for the future based on implicit comparisons between current and past experiences. Mental models play an important role in decision-making and guiding actions. This professional theoretical article discusses empirical research demonstrating relationships among mental models, prior experience, and adherence decisions in medical and physical therapy contexts. Specific issues related to mental models and physical therapy patient adherence are discussed, including the importance of articulation of patients' mental models, assessment of patients' mental models that relate to exercise program adherence, discrepancy between patient and provider mental models, and revision of patients' mental models in ways that enhance adherence. The article concludes with practical implications for physical therapists and recommendations for further research to better understand the role of mental models in physical therapy patient adherence behavior.

  11. Tailored cognitive-behavioural therapy and exercise training improves the physical fitness of patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Koulil, S; van Lankveld, W; Kraaimaat, F W; van Helmond, T; Vedder, A; van Hoorn, H; Donders, A R T; Wirken, L; Cats, H; van Riel, P L C M; Evers, A W M

    2011-12-01

    Patients with fibromyalgia have diminished levels of physical fitness, which may lead to functional disability and exacerbating complaints. Multidisciplinary treatment comprising cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and exercise training has been shown to be effective in improving physical fitness. However, due to the high drop-out rates and large variability in patients' functioning, it was proposed that a tailored treatment approach might yield more promising treatment outcomes. High-risk fibromyalgia patients were randomly assigned to a waiting list control group (WLC) or a treatment condition (TC), with the treatment consisting of 16 twice-weekly sessions of CBT and exercise training tailored to the patient's cognitive-behavioural pattern. Physical fitness was assessed with two physical tests before and 3 months after treatment and at corresponding intervals in the WLC. Treatment effects were evaluated using linear mixed models. The level of physical fitness had improved significantly in the TC compared with the WLC. Attrition rates were low, effect sizes large and reliable change indices indicated a clinically relevant improvement among the TC. A tailored multidisciplinary treatment approach for fibromyalgia consisting of CBT and exercise training is well tolerated, yields clinically relevant changes, and appears a promising approach to improve patients' physical fitness. ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT00268606.

  12. Aerobic exercise did not have compensatory effects on physical activity levels in type 2 diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Bruno Pereira; Marins, João Carlos Bouzas; Franceschini, Sylvia Do Carmo Castro; Reis, Janice Sepúlveda; Amorim, Paulo Roberto Dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Although exercise promotes beneficial effects in diabetic patients, some studies have questioned the degree of their importance in terms of the increase in total energy expenditure. In these studies, the decrease of physical activity levels (PAL) was referred as "compensatory effect of exercise". However, our aim was to investigate whether aerobic exercise has compensatory effects on PAL in type 2 diabetes patients. Eight volunteers (51.1 ± 8.2 years) were enrolled in a supervised exercise programme for 8 weeks (3 d · wk(-1), 50-60% of VO2 peak for 30-60 min). PAL was measured using tri-axial accelerometers in the 1st, 8th and 12th weeks. Biochemical tests, cardiorespiratory fitness, anthropometric assessment and body composition were measured in the 2nd and 11th weeks. Statistical analysis was performed using non-parametric tests (Friedman and Wilcoxon, P exercise programme generated a significant 14.8% increase in VO2 peak and a 15% reduction in fructosamine. The exercise programme had no compensatory effects on PAL in type 2 diabetes patients, but improved their cardiorespiratory fitness and glycaemic control.

  13. Synergistic effect of social support and self-efficacy on physical exercise in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Lisa M; Ziegelmann, Jochen P; Schüz, Benjamin; Wurm, Susanne; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine whether the effects of social support on physical exercise in older adults depend on individual perceptions of self-efficacy. Three hundred nine older German adults (age 65-85) were assessed at 3 points in time (3 months apart). In hierarchical-regression analyses, support received from friends and exercise self-efficacy were specified as predictors of exercise frequency while baseline exercise, sex, age, and physical functioning were controlled for. Besides main effects of self-efficacy and social support, an interaction between social support and self-efficacy emerged. People with low self-efficacy were less likely to be active in spite of having social support. People with low support were less likely to be active even if they were high in self-efficacy. This points to the importance of both social support and self-efficacy and implies that these resources could be targets of interventions to increase older adults' exercise.

  14. Self-Determination and Physical Exercise Adherence in the Contexts of Fitness Academies and Personal Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klain Ingi Petitemberte

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to analyze the validity of the relations hypothesized by the theory of self-determination in predicting adherence to physical exercise in fitness academy users and subjects following personal training. A total of 588 persons from Pelotas / RS / Brazil (405 gym users and 183 subjects following personal training completed the Portuguese version of the three questionnaires, i.e. the Perceived Autonomy Support Climate Exercise Questionnaire, Basic Psychological Needs in the Exercise Scale and Behavioral Regulation in the Exercise Questionnaire −2. The results support the factorial structure of the questionnaires used in this sample. There was a significant multivariate effect of context on self-determination for physical exercise training [Wilks’ λ = 0.934, F (10, 576.000 = 4.03, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.01]. The hypothesized structural equation model, which considered the self-determination theory, showed a good fit to the data (S-B χ2 = 234.703; p= .001; df = 52; χ2/df = 4.514; SRMS = .049; NNFI = .906; CFI = .926; RMSEA = .077; RMSEA 90% CI = .067 − .088. However, in the comparative analysis, the perception of autonomy support, relatedness and competence were significantly higher in the context of personal training, while the amotivation and external regulation were significantly higher in the context of fitness academies.

  15. Physical and Psychological Effects of a 12-Session Cancer Rehabilitation Exercise Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tricia M; Broomhall, Christine N; Crecelius, Anne R

    2016-12-01

    The positive effects of regular exercise for cancer survivors are becoming increasingly apparent. However, comprehensive examination of the benefits of modest levels of physical activity is somewhat lacking. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that participating in a 12-session exercise program will improve depression, fatigue, aerobic endurance, muscular strength, and quality of life (QOL) in patients with cancer. A group of 20 older adult women with a prior cancer diagnosis were evaluated during a 6- to 10-week exercise program that occurred twice weekly. The majority of patients had breast cancer (n = 14), but treatment status varied (11 were currently undergoing treatment, and 9 were post-treatment). Each patient completed initial and exit assessments, which consisted of three physical function tests and three psychosocial questionnaires. Patient charts contained the initial and final assessment scores and personal demographics. Analyses of pre- and postprogram data using paired t tests revealed that 12 exercise sessions (each lasting about an hour) significantly improved six-minute walk test, 30-second sit-and-stand test, hand grip strength test (dominant and nondominant hand), and overall QOL scores in patients. As a result, moderate levels of exercise have a beneficial effect in this population.

  16. Review and analysis of physical exercise at hormonal and brain level, and its influence on appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Escribano, Laura; Gálvez Casas, Arancha; Escribá Fernández-Marcote, Antonio R; Tárraga López, Pedro; Tárraga Marcos, Loreto

    Due to the currently growing rate of obesity, it is important to maintain good control of food intake. The main purpose of the present study is to determine the influence of physical exercise on appetite, changes in hormone concentrations, and changes in certain neuronal regions. To achieve this, a literature search was conducted using different data bases. The results show how exercise produces changes in the appetite perception, in the amount of energy intake, and in different weight-control related hormones, as well as in specific neuronal responses. In conclusion, it can be shown that exercise leads to changes in appetite, hunger, and energy intake. In addition, exercise decreases the ghrelin levels and increases concentrations of leptin. Likewise, it is shown how physical exercise alters the responses of certain neuronal regions after visualizing specific food elements decreasing so the appetite or the intake of them. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Physical exercise during pregnancy and its related factors: An observational study in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megumi Haruna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the exercise habits of pregnant women in the third trimester (N = 303. We assessed participation in physical activities, including exercise or sports, using the Japanese version of the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire. A total of 183 (60.4% pregnant Japanese women participated in some form of exercise and 87 (28.7% exercised for 2 hours or more, per week, in the third trimester. Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that women who set themselves a gestational weight gain target (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 8.10, 95% CI [2.82, 23.4], p< .001, were more likely to participate in exercise or sports. In contrast, multiparous women (AOR = 0.44, 95% CI [0.26, 0.72], p = .001, and those whose pre-pregnancy body weights suggested obesi-ty (AOR = 0.51, 95% CI [0.30 0.87], p = .013 were less likely to participate in such activities. We found a relation-ship between non-participation for 2 hours or more, per week, to being multiparous (AOR = 0.33, 95% CI [0.18, 0.94], p< .001 and the presence of anemia in the second trimester (AOR = 0.51, 95% CI [0.28, 0.94], p = .031. Working status, seasonal differences, concerns about being overweight, and individual dietary nutritional guidance were not related to participation in exercise or sports. While setting a target for gestational weight gain may motivate participation in exercise or sports, women who were multiparous and those who perceived themselves as obese be-fore pregnancy, showed a negative association with participation.

  18. Physical Exercise Improves Heart Rate Variability in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafaina, Santos; Collado-Mateo, Daniel; Fuentes, Juan Pedro; Merellano-Navarro, Eugenio; Gusi, Narcis

    2017-09-23

    The aim of the present systematic review is to provide an up-to-date analysis of the research on the effects of exercise programs on heart rate variability (HRV) in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). An electronic search of the literature (PubMed, PEDro and Web of Science) was performed. "HRV", "heart rate variability", "exercise", "physical" and "diabetes" were the terms used for article retrieval. Lastly, 15 articles were selected. PRISMA methodology was employed and data were extracted according to the PICOS approach. Although HRV is not routinely measured in the management of T2DM, it is an important measure due to its relation with mortality and diabetic neuropathy. Physical exercise has become a therapy for T2DM, because it improves physical fitness and functional capacity, enhances metabolic control and insulin sensitivity, reduces inflammatory markers and neuropathy symptoms and can increase the regenerative capacity of cutaneous axons, slowing or preventing neuropathy progression. However, it is not clear to what extent physical exercise can improve HRV in this population. Participation in the 15 selected studies was similar in men and women (48.01% men and 51.99% women). All the intervention programs included aerobic training, and it was complemented by strength training in four studies. Duration of physical exercise sessions ranged between 30 and 75 min, the frequency being between 2 and 7 days/week. Statistically significant improvements in groups with diabetes, relative to baseline, were observed in nine studies. More than 3 days per week of aerobic training, complemented by strength training, during at least 3 months seems to improve HRV in T2DM. Weekly frequency might be the most important factor to improve HRV. These aspects could help to design better programs based in scientific evidence, incorporating HRV as an important variable associated with diabetic neuropathy and mortality.

  19. The role of exercise and gender for physical self-perceptions and importance ratings in Swedish university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindwall, Magnus; Hassmén, Peter

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how scores on the Physical Self-Perception Profile (PSPP), including scores on the Perceived Importance Profile (PIP), were related to self-reported exercise frequency, duration, and gender in sample of Swedish university students. A total of 164 participants completed the PSPP, PIP, and a questionnaire focusing on frequency and duration of exercise. Exercise frequency, duration, and gender predicted best the PSPP sub-domains of Sport Competence and Physical Conditioning. Exercising more frequently, and for a longer time on each occasion was associated with higher PSPP and PIP scores. Women generally displayed lower PSPP scores than men. These results suggest that exercise professionals need to master a range of appropriate exercise strategies, since doubts concerning self-presentation may work against establishing a regular exercise routine.

  20. Effect of gamma radiation on the concentration of pyruvate and lactate in erythrocytes of healthy men after submaximal physical exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorski, T.; Dudek, I.; Berkan, L.; Chmielewski, H.; Kedziora, J.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of gamma radiation and submaximal physical exercise on the concentration of final products of anaerobic glycolytic pathway in erythrocytes of healthy men. Twenty one men aged 20-22 were examined. They underwent physical exercise at doses of 2 w/kg body weight for 15 min. Erythrocytes were taken in the rest and after physical exercise and were exposed to gamma radiation (500 Gy doses) from 60 Co source. The concentration of pyruvate was estimated by Fermognost tests and the concentration of lactate by Boehringer Mannheim tests. The submaximal physical exercise was found to cause a significantly increased concentration of pyruvate and lactate in the non-radiated and irradiated erythrocytes. Gamma radiation at 500 Gy dose was found to increase concentration of pyruvate in erythrocytes (in the rest and after physical exercise) with simultaneous decrease of lactate concentration. (author). 17 refs, 1 tab

  1. Physical exercise for late life depression: effects on cognition and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neviani, Francesca; Belvederi Murri, Martino; Mussi, Chiara; Triolo, Federico; Toni, Giulio; Simoncini, Elisabetta; Tripi, Ferdinando; Menchetti, Marco; Ferrari, Silvia; Ceresini, Graziano; Cremonini, Alessandro; Bertolotti, Marco; Neri, Giovanni; Squatrito, Salvatore; Amore, Mario; Zanetidou, Stamatula; Neri, Mirco

    2017-07-01

    Late-life depression is often associated with cognitive impairments and disability, which may persist even after adequate antidepressant drug treatment. Physical exercise is increasingly recognized as an effective antidepressant agent, and may exert positive effects on these features too. However, few studies examined this issue, especially by comparing different types of exercises. We performed secondary analyses on data from the Safety and Efficacy of Exercise for Depression in Seniors study, a trial comparing the antidepressant effectiveness of sertraline (S), sertraline plus thrice-weekly non-progressive exercise (S+NPE), and sertraline plus thrice-weekly progressive aerobic exercise (S+PAE). Exercise was conducted in small groups and monitored by heart rate meters. Patients with late-life depression without severe cognitive impairment were recruited from primary care and assessed at baseline and 24 weeks, using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA, total and subdomain scores) and Brief Disability Questionnaire. Analyses were based on Generalized Linear Models. In total, 121 patients (mean age 75, 71% females) were randomized to the study interventions. Compared with the S group, patients in the S+PAE group displayed greater improvements of MOCA total scores (p=0.006, effect size=0.37), visuospatial/executive functions (p=0.001, effect size=0.13), and disability (p=0.02, effect size=-0.31). Participants in the S+NPE group did not display significant differences with the control group. Adding aerobic, progressive exercise to antidepressant drug treatment may offer significant advantages over standard treatment for cognitive abilities and disability. These findings suggest that even among older patients exercise may constitute a valid therapeutic measure to improve patients' outcomes.

  2. Can exercise or physical activity help improve postnatal depression and weight loss? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saligheh, Maryam; Hackett, Daniel; Boyce, Philip; Cobley, Stephen

    2017-10-01

    Despite exercise or physical activity (PA) being effective on depression and weight management generally, its effectiveness remains uncertain during postpartum. This systematic review aimed to determine the efficacy of exercise or PA interventions on postnatal depression (PND) and weight loss, with a subsequent aim to identify more effective intervention approaches. Using PRISMA guidelines, data searches conducted across six databases. Nine studies fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Based on identified studies (some with high-quality RCT designs), there was inconsistency as to whether exercise or PA simultaneously reduced PND symptoms and assisted weight loss (or related body composition indices). Two (22.2%) identified changes in both outcomes with small effect sizes. Four studies (44.4%) reported changes in one outcome, typically PND with variable effect sizes, while three studies (33.3%) reported no effect. Studies implemented different exercise/PA modalities (commonly walking) and incorporated various support strategies to assist intervention participation and adherence. Studies identified as most likely to associate with PND and/or weight loss changes were those with supervision (1-1, group), structure (weekly frequency, scheduled durations and moderate intensity), which adhered to specific exercise/PA guidelines over an extended postpartum period (e.g. 12 weeks +) and were supplemented by several psycho-social support strategies (e.g. educational information, exercise/PA advice, and counselling). Future studies need to carefully address prior study methodological weaknesses (e.g. study design, inclusion criteria, measurement, reporting, assessing confounding factors), further examine proposed more beneficial exercise/PA intervention approaches, and consider how exercise/PA could be best delivered in practice to benefit women's postpartum health.

  3. Flight Hours in 7 Consecutive Days and Physical Exercise among the Civil Pilot in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Wicaksana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Latar belakang Tidak tersedianya waktu merupakan salah satu hambatan melakukan latihan fisik yang sering dilaporkan di negara berkembang. Berdasarkan Peraturan Keselamatan Penerbangan Sipil bagian 121, jam terbang maksimal pilot sipil komersial dalam 7 hari terakhir adalah 30 jam. Oleh karena itu perlu dilakukan penelitian mengenai hubungan jam terbang 7 hari terakhir terhadap kebiasaan latihan fisik pada pilot sipil di Indonesia. Metode Penelitian potong lintang terhadap 600 orang pilot sipil yang melakukan pengujian kesehatan personil penerbangan di Balai Kesehatan Penerbangan pada bulan April 2016 dan memenuhi kriteria inklusi/ekslusi.  Data yang dikumpulkan yaitu karakteristik demografi, pekerjaan, kebiasaan olahraga, tinggi dan berat badan. Pengambilan data dilakukan dengan wawancara dan pemeriksaan fisik. Pilot dikategorikan memiliki kebiasaan latihan fisik sesuai rekomendasi ACSM apabila melakukan latihan fisik dengan intensitas sedang selama 150 menit per minggu atau latihan fisik dengan intensitas berat selama 75 menit per minggu. Hasil Jam terbang 7 hari terakhir merupakan faktor dominan terhadap kebiasaan latihan fisik. Jika dibandingkan dengan pilot dengan jam terbang 7 hari terakhir < 3,5 jam, maka pilot dengan jam terbang 7 hari terakhir 3,5-14 jam berisiko 24% lebih rendah memiliki kebiasaan latihan fisik sesuai [RRa= 0,76; p=0,032]. Simpulan Faktor risiko yang berpengaruh terhadap kebiasaan latihan fisik adalah jam terbang 7 hari terakhir. Kata kunci: Jam terbang 7 hari terakhir, kebiasaan latihan fisik, pilot sipil Indonesia  Background The most frequently reported barrier of doing physical exercise in developed countries is lack of time. Based on the Civil Aviation Safety Regulation part 121, the maximum working hour for commercial pilot in 7 consecutive days is 30 hours. The study objective is to identify the relation between flight hours in 7 consecutive days and the physical exercise habit among the civil pilots in

  4. Physical Stress Echocardiography: Prediction of Mortality and Cardiac Events in Patients with Exercise Test showing Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carla Pereira de Araujo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have demonstrated the diagnostic accuracy and prognostic value of physical stress echocardiography in coronary artery disease. However, the prediction of mortality and major cardiac events in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia is limited. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of physical stress echocardiography in the prediction of mortality and major cardiac events in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort in which 866 consecutive patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia, and who underwent physical stress echocardiography were studied. Patients were divided into two groups: with physical stress echocardiography negative (G1 or positive (G2 for myocardial ischemia. The endpoints analyzed were all-cause mortality and major cardiac events, defined as cardiac death and non-fatal acute myocardial infarction. Results: G2 comprised 205 patients (23.7%. During the mean 85.6 ± 15.0-month follow-up, there were 26 deaths, of which six were cardiac deaths, and 25 non-fatal myocardial infarction cases. The independent predictors of mortality were: age, diabetes mellitus, and positive physical stress echocardiography (hazard ratio: 2.69; 95% confidence interval: 1.20 - 6.01; p = 0.016. The independent predictors of major cardiac events were: age, previous coronary artery disease, positive physical stress echocardiography (hazard ratio: 2.75; 95% confidence interval: 1.15 - 6.53; p = 0.022 and absence of a 10% increase in ejection fraction. All-cause mortality and the incidence of major cardiac events were significantly higher in G2 (p < 0. 001 and p = 0.001, respectively. Conclusion: Physical stress echocardiography provides additional prognostic information in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia.

  5. Rethinking exercise identity: a qualitative study of physically inactive cancer patients’ transforming process while undergoing chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamsen, Lis; Andersen, Christina; Lillelund, Christian; Bloomquist, Kira; Møller, Tom

    2017-01-01

    Objective To explore physically inactive breast and colon cancer patients’ prediagnosis exercise history and attitudes to physical activity (PA) and experiences in initiating PA while undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy. Design An explorative qualitative study guided the interpretive analysis of semistructured, open-ended interviews conducted at initiation of chemotherapy and after 12 weeks. The study was embedded in a pilot randomised controlled trial. Setting Participants were recruited from the Oncological Department at a hospital in Copenhagen, Denmark. Participants 33 patients with cancer, median age 49 years: 25 patients with breast cancer and 8 with colon cancer, 72% with a low cardiac respiratory fitness level and the majority with a high level of education. Patients received adjuvant chemotherapy, oncologist’s PA recommendation and exercise, cancer nurse specialist’s counselling prior to allocation to PA interventions or waitlist control group. Results Prediagnosis exercise had been excluded from patients’ daily lives due to perceptions of exercise as boring, lack of discipline and stressful work conditions for both genders. Recommendations from oncologists and nurses inspired the patients to reconsider their attitudes and behaviour by accepting recruitment and participation in PA interventions during chemotherapy. Despite extensive side effects, most patients adhered to their PA commitment due to their perception of the bodily, emotional and social benefits and support of healthcare professionals, peers and family. Conclusion The patients’ attitude towards exercise transformed from having no priority in patients’ daily lives prediagnosis to being highly prioritised. This study identified four important phases in the exercise transformation process during the patients’ treatment trajectory of relevance to clinicians in identifying, motivating and supporting physically inactive patients with cancer at long-term risk. Clinicians should address

  6. Physical exercise reduces pyruvate carboxylase (PCB) and contributes to hyperglycemia reduction in obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Vitor Rosetto; Gaspar, Rafael Calais; Crisol, Barbara Moreira; Formigari, Guilherme Pedron; Sant'Ana, Marcella Ramos; Botezelli, José Diego; Gaspar, Rodrigo Stellzer; da Silva, Adelino S R; Cintra, Dennys Esper; de Moura, Leandro Pereira; Ropelle, Eduardo Rochete; Pauli, José Rodrigo

    2018-07-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of exercise training on pyruvate carboxylase protein (PCB) levels in hepatic tissue and glucose homeostasis control in obese mice. Swiss mice were distributed into three groups: control mice (CTL), fed a standard rodent chow; diet-induced obesity (DIO), fed an obesity-inducing diet; and a third group, which also received an obesity-inducing diet, but was subjected to an exercise training protocol (DIO + EXE). Protocol training was carried out for 1 h/d, 5 d/wk, for 8 weeks, performed at an intensity of 60% of exhaustion velocity. An insulin tolerance test (ITT) was performed in the last experimental week. Twenty-four hours after the last physical exercise session, the animals were euthanized and the liver was harvested for molecular analysis. Firstly, DIO mice showed increased epididymal fat and serum glucose and these results were accompanied by increased PCB and decreased p-Akt in hepatic tissue. On the other hand, physical exercise was able to increase the performance of the mice and attenuate PCB levels and hyperglycemia in DIO + EXE mice. The above findings show that physical exercise seems to be able to regulate hyperglycemia in obese mice, suggesting the participation of PCB, which was enhanced in the obese condition and attenuated after a treadmill running protocol. This is the first study to be aimed at the role of exercise training in hepatic PCB levels, which may be a novel mechanism that can collaborate to reduce the development of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes in DIO mice.

  7. [Physical exercise is a help for lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisgaard, Helene; Dela, Flemming

    2017-06-05

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 12-21% of women in the childbearing age and is the most common cause of hyperandrogenaemia and anovulatory infertility. There is an increase in insulin resistance in both overweight and lean women with PCOS. Exercise treatment is mandatory among the overweight women due to sufficient evidence that it can improve the signs and symptoms of PCOS. This has not been fully investigated among the lean. However, new randomized controlled trials show that structured physical exercise can also improve insulin sensitivity, hyperandrogenaemia and menstrual frequency in lean women with PCOS.

  8. Effects of High Fat Diet and Physical Exercise on Glucose Tolelance and Insulin Sensitivity in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    福田,哲也

    1987-01-01

    To investigate the interrelationships between the westernized diet and physical exercise as they affect the development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), adiposity, glucose tolerance and insulin response to an intraperitoneal glucose load (1.5g/kg bw) and insulin sensitivity to exogenous insulin (0.2U/kg bw) were studied in spontaneously exercised and sedentary rats fed either a high fat diet (40% fat, modern western type) or a low fat diet (10% fat, traditional Japanese typ...

  9. Resistance exercise improves physical fatigue in women with fibromyalgia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, Anna; Palstam, Annie; Larsson, Anette; Löfgren, Monika; Bileviciute-Ljungar, Indre; Bjersing, Jan; Gerdle, Björn; Kosek, Eva; Mannerkorpi, Kaisa

    2016-07-30

    Fibromyalgia (FM) affects approximately 1-3 % of the general population. Fatigue limits the work ability and social life of patients with FM. A few studies of physical exercise have included measures of fatigue in FM, indicating that exercise can decrease fatigue levels. There is limited knowledge about the effects of resistance exercise on multiple dimensions of fatigue in FM. The present study is a sub-study of a multicenter randomized controlled trial in women with FM. The purpose of the present sub-study was to examine the effects of a person-centered progressive resistance exercise program on multiple dimensions of fatigue in women with FM, and to investigate predictors of the potential change in fatigue. A total of 130 women with FM (age 22-64 years) were included in this assessor-blinded randomized controlled multicenter trial examining the effects of person-centered progressive resistance exercise compared with an active control group. The intervention was performed twice a week for 15 weeks. Outcomes were five dimensions of fatigue measured with the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20). Information about background was collected and the women also completed several health-related questionnaires. Multiple linear stepwise regression was used to analyze predictors of change in fatigue in the total population. A higher improvement was found at the post-treatment examination for change in the resistance exercise group, as compared to change in the active control group in the MFI-20 subscale of physical fatigue (resistance group Δ -1.7, SD 4.3, controls Δ 0.0, SD 2.7, p = 0.013), with an effect size of 0.33. Sleep efficiency was the strongest predictor of change in the MFI-20 subscale general fatigue (beta = -0.54, p = 0.031, R (2) = 0.05). Participating in resistance exercise (beta = 1.90, p = 0.010) and working fewer hours per week (beta = 0.84, p = 0.005) were independent significant predictors of change in physical

  10. [Physical exercise and mental health: cognition, anxiety, depression and self-concept].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan-Lin; Wang, John; Yao, Jia-Xin; Ji, Cheng-Shu; Dai, Qun; Jin, Ya-Hong

    2014-10-01

    This review focuses on the benefits of regular physical activity participation have mainly focused on cognitive functioning, anxiety and depression, and self-concept. It is well documented that ex- ercise can enhance cognitive functioning, improve executive function at old age, and improve mental abil- ity of children labeled as educational subnormal or disability. Regular exercise has been used to reduce stress and ward off anxiety and feelings of depression. In addition, exercise can improve self-esteem and positive outlook in life. Studies in these three main areas were reviewed and issues and future directions were highlighted.

  11. [MicroRNAs: circulating biomarkers in type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and physical exercise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Banoy, Nicolás; Mockus, Ismena

    2016-03-01

    MicroRNAs are small, non-coding molecules with a crucial function in the cell´s biologic regulation. Circulating levels of miRNAs may be useful biomarkers in metabolic diseases such as type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM2), which alters the circulating concentrations of several types of miRNA. Specific serum profiles of these molecules have been identified in high-risk patients before the development of DM2 and its chronic complications. Most importantly, these profiles can be modified with physical exercise, which is crucial in the treatment of metabolic diseases. Acute physical activity alone can induce changes in tissue specific miRNAs, and responses are different in aerobic or non-aerobic training. Muscle and cardiovascular miRNAs, which may play an important role in the adap tation to exercise, are predominantly altered. Even further, there is a correlation between serum levels of miRNAs and fitness, suggesting a role for chronic exercise in their regulation. Thus, miRNAs are molecules of growing importance in exercise physiology, and may be involved in the mechanisms behind the beneficial effects of physical activity for patients with metabolic diseases.

  12. Dizziness, Physical Exercise, Falls, and Depression in Adults and the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira, Adriane Ribeiro

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Dizziness is a symptom that can lead to falls, which, in turn, undermine onés independence and autonomy, leading to several comorbidities. The practice of physical exercise, however, can help prevent falls. Objective The objective of this study is to confirm the association between physical exercise, dizziness, probability of falling, and depressive symptoms in a group of middle-aged adults and seniors. Methods The authors evaluated subjects based on history, the Geriatric Depression Scale, and functional reach test. Results The sample consisted of 90 individuals with a mean age of 69.3 ± 6.8 years. The authors found that 37.8% had been practicing exercise, 33.7% had depressive symptoms, and their probability of falling was above average in the functional reach test. Conclusion The results of this study indicated an association between dizziness, exercise practice and depressive symptoms, indicating that physical activity is a beneficial factor for the aging population.

  13. Acute Effects of Walking Exercise on Stair Negotiation in Sedentary and Physically Active Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzler, Marcos R; da Rocha, Emmanuel S; Bobbert, Maarten F; Duysens, Jacques; Carpes, Felipe P

    2017-07-01

    In negotiating stairs, low foot clearance increases the risk of tripping and a fall. Foot clearance may be related to physical fitness, which differs between active and sedentary participants, and be acutely affected by exercise. Impaired stair negotiation could be an acute response to exercise. Here we determined acute changes in foot clearances during stair walking in sedentary (n = 15) and physically active older adults (n = 15) after prolonged exercise. Kinematic data were acquired during negotiation with a 3-steps staircase while participants walked at preferred speed, before and after 30 min walking at preferred speed and using a treadmill. Foot clearances were compared before and after exercise and between the groups. Sedentary older adults presented larger (0.5 cm for lead and 2 cm for trail leg) toe clearances in ascent, smaller (0.7 cm) heel clearance in the leading foot in descent, and larger (1 cm) heel clearance in the trailing foot in descent than physically active. Sedentary older adults negotiate stairs in a slightly different way than active older adults, and 30 min walking at preferred speed does not affect clearance in stair negotiation.

  14. The Effects of Partnered Exercise on Physical Intimacy in Couples Coping with Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Karen S.; Winters-Stone, Kerri M.; Bennett, Jill A.; Beer, Tomasz M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The study examined whether couples coping with prostate cancer participating in a partnered exercise program - Exercising Together (ET) - experienced higher levels of physical intimacy (i.e., affectionate & sexual behavior) than couples in a usual care (UC) control group. Method Men and their wives (n=64 couples) were randomly assigned to either the ET or UC group. Couples in the ET group engaged in partnered strength-training twice weekly for six months. Multilevel modeling was used to explore the effects of ET on husband and wife engagement in both affectionate and sexual behaviors over time. Results Controlling for relationship quality, wives in ET showed significant increases in engagement in affectionate behaviors compared to wives in UC. No intervention effects were found for husbands. Conclusion Couple-based approaches to physical intimacy, after a cancer diagnosis, that facilitate collaborative engagement in non-sexual physical activities for the couple have potential to be effective for wives. More research is needed in this area to determine couples most amenable to such exercise strategies, optimal timing in the cancer trajectory, and the benefits of combining partnered exercise with more traditional relationship-focused strategies. PMID:26462060

  15. Punjabi Sikh patients' perceived barriers to engaging in physical exercise following myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdas, Paul M; Oliffe, John L; Kang, H Bindy K; Kelly, Mary T

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this research was to describe Punjabi Sikh patients' perceived barriers to engaging in physical exercise following myocardial infarction (MI). A qualitative, interpretive descriptive methodology was used. The sample included 15 Punjabi Sikh patients who were attending a cardiac rehabilitation education program in an urban center of British Columbia, Canada, following MI. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews and were audio recorded, translated from Punjabi to English, and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using an interpretive thematic approach that involved a process of coding and constant comparison. Four key factors emerged that related to participants' perceived barriers to sustained engagement in physical activity: (1) difficulty in determining safe exertion levels independently; (2) fatigue and weakness; (3) preference for 'informal' exercise; and (4) migration-related challenges. The findings have implications for the design and delivery of health promotion strategies aimed at Punjabi Sikh patients' post-MI that is contingent on the use of 'formal' exercise settings to promote regular physical activity. The willingness among Punjabi Sikh patients to practise brisk walking offers a positive direction that public health nurses and other healthcare professionals may want to capitalize on in the delivery of exercise-related health promotion. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. A Data Set of Human Body Movements for Physical Rehabilitation Exercises

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    Aleksandar Vakanski

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents University of Idaho-Physical Rehabilitation Movement Data (UI-PRMD, a publically available data set of movements related to common exercises performed by patients in physical rehabilitation programs. For the data collection, 10 healthy subjects performed 10 repetitions of different physical therapy movements with a Vicon optical tracker and a Microsoft Kinect sensor used for the motion capturing. The data are in a format that includes positions and angles of full-body joints. The objective of the data set is to provide a basis for mathematical modeling of therapy movements, as well as for establishing performance metrics for evaluation of patient consistency in executing the prescribed rehabilitation exercises.

  17. Comparing the effects of an acute bout of physical exercise with an acute bout of interactive mental and physical exercise on electrophysiology and executive functioning in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Julia; Hogan, Michael; Khader, Patrick; O'Hora, Denis; Kilmartin, Liam; Walsh, Jane C; Roche, Richard; Anderson-Hanley, Cay

    2017-10-01

    Physical exercise has been shown to improve cognitive and neural functioning in older adults. The current study compared the effects of an acute bout of physical exercise with a bout of interactive mental and physical exercise (i.e., "exergaming") on executive (Stroop) task performance and event-related potential (ERP) amplitudes in younger and older adults. Results revealed enhanced executive task performance in younger and older adults after exercise, with no differences in performance between exercise conditions. Stroop (RT) performance in older adults improved more than in younger adults from pre- to post-exercise. A significant increase in EEG amplitude from pre- to post-exercise was found at the Cz site from 320 to 700 ms post-stimulus for both younger and older adults, with older adults demonstrating a larger Stroop interference effect. While younger adults exhibited overall greater EEG amplitudes than older adults, they showed no differences between congruent and incongruent trials (i.e., minimal interference). Compared to peers with higher BMI (body mass index), older adults with lower BMI showed a greater reduction in Stroop interference effects from pre- to post-exercise. The beneficial effects of an acute bout of physical exercise on cognitive and neural functioning in younger and older adults were confirmed, with no difference between standard exercise and exergaming. Findings suggest that BMI, sometimes used as a proxy for fitness level, may modulate benefits that older adults derive from an acute bout of exercise. Findings have implications for future research that seeks to investigate unique effects of exergaming when compared to standard physical exercise.

  18. Implementing intelligent physical exercise training at the workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalager, Tina; Justesen, Just Bendix; Murray, Mike

    2016-01-01

    every week within working hours for 1 year, and was recommended to perform 30-min of moderate intensity physical activity 6 days a week during leisure. The training program was based on baseline health check measures of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), body composition, blood pressure, blood profile......, and musculoskeletal health. RESULTS: There were no baseline differences between groups. CRF assessed as VO2max in absolute values and relative to body weight was (mean ± SD): 3.0 ± 0.8 l/min and 35.4 ± 10.9 ml/min/kg for females, 3.9 ± 1.0 l/min and 37.9 ± 11.79 ml/min/kg for males. Intention to treat analysis...

  19. Older adult perspectives on physical activity and exercise: voices from multiple cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belza, Basia; Walwick, Julie; Shiu-Thornton, Sharyne; Schwartz, Sheryl; Taylor, Mary; LoGerfo, James

    2004-10-01

    Increasing physical activity is a goal of Healthy People 2010. Although the health benefits of physical activity are documented, older adults are less physically active than any other age group. The purpose of this study was to examine barriers and facilitators to physical activity and exercise among underserved, ethnically diverse older adults. Seventy-one older adults were recruited through community agencies to participate in seven ethnic-specific focus groups: American Indian/Alaska Native, African American, Filipino, Chinese, Latino, Korean, and Vietnamese. Groups were conducted in the participants' primary language and ranged in size from 7-13 participants. Mean age was 71.6 years (range from 52 to 85 years; SD +/- 7.39). Professional translators transcribed audiotapes into the language of the group and then translated the transcript into English. Transcripts were systematically reviewed using content analysis. Suggested features of physical activity programs to enhance participation among ethnically diverse minority older adults included fostering relationships among participants; providing culture-specific exercise; offering programs at residential sites; partnering with and offering classes prior to or after social service programs; educating families about the importance of physical activity for older adults and ways they could help; offering low- or no-cost classes; and involving older adults in program development. Walking was the exercise of choice across all ethnic groups. Health served as both a motivator and a barrier to physical activity. Other factors influencing physical activity were weather, transportation, and personal safety. Findings from this study suggest strategies for culture-specific programming of community-based physical activity programs.

  20. Exercising choice: the economic determinants of physical activity behaviour of an employed population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Heather; Roberts, Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    Lack of physical activity is a major contributing factor to the worldwide obesity epidemic, and to the overall burden of disease. The deindustrialisation of developed economies and move to more sedentary employment has impacted on the opportunities of working individuals to participate in physical activity. This can have negative effects on productivity and worker health potentially influencing economic growth. Thus, it is important to determine the factors influencing the frequency of participation in physical activity for employed individuals. This paper uses a modified time allocation framework to explore this issue. We use data from the first six waves of the Household Income and Labour Dynamics of Australia survey (HILDA). The analysis examines frequency of participation in physical activity using a generalised random effects ordered probit model. We control for non-parallel cut-points between the physical activity categories and individual heterogeneity, as well as exploring differences across gender. The results indicate that there is a time trade-off between non-market work, market work, and the frequency of physical activity participation. This effect is moderated by gender. For example, dependent children have a larger negative effect on the frequency of physical activity participation for women. Education and marriage have a larger negative effect on the frequency of participation for men. The findings suggests that policies which make exercise more convenient, and hence decrease the opportunity cost of exercise, will help to encourage more frequent participation in physical activity for working adults. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Manja; thor Straten, Eivind Per

    2016-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that voluntary exercise leads to an influx of immune cells in tumors and a greater than 60% reduction in tumor incidence and growth across several mouse models. Improved immunological control of tumor progression may have important clinical implications in the prevention...

  2. One-single physical exercise session after object recognition learning promotes memory persistence through hippocampal noradrenergic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva de Vargas, Liane; Neves, Ben-Hur Souto das; Roehrs, Rafael; Izquierdo, Iván; Mello-Carpes, Pâmela

    2017-06-30

    Previously we showed the involvement of the hippocampal noradrenergic system in the consolidation and persistence of object recognition (OR) memory. Here we show that one-single physical exercise session performed immediately after learning promotes OR memory persistence and increases norepinephrine levels in the hippocampus. Additionally, effects of exercise on memory are avoided by an intra-hippocampal beta-adrenergic antagonist infusion. Taken together, these results suggest that exercise effects on memory can be related to noradrenergic mechanisms and acute physical exercise can be a non-pharmacological intervention to assist memory consolidation and persistence, with few or no side effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of physical exercise therapy on mobility, physical functioning, physical activity and quality of life in a population of community dwelling elderly patients with impaired mobility, physical disability and/ or multi morbidity: a meta analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Nienke; Staal, Bart; van Ravensburg, Dorine; Hobbelen, Hans; Olde Rikkert, Marcel; Nijhuis-van der Sande, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This is the first meta-analysis focusing on elderly patients with mobility problems, physical disability and/or multi-morbidity. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of physical exercise therapy on mobility, physical functioning, physical activity and quality of life. A broad systematic

  4. Factors Influencing Adaptation and Performance at Physical Exercise in Complex Congenital Heart Diseases after Surgical Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Bassareo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last thirty years, steady progress in the diagnostic tools and care of subjects affected by congenital heart diseases (CHD has resulted in a significant increase in their survival to adulthood, even for those affected by complex CHD. Based on these premises, a number of teenagers and adults affected by corrected (surgically or through interventional techniques CHD ask to be allowed to undertake sporting activities, both at a recreational and competitive level. The purpose of this review is to examine the mechanisms influencing the adaption at physical exercise of patients suffering from complex CHD. The conclusion is that even if there are some modest risks with exercise, they should be seen in perspective, and the life-long benefits of regular exercise on general health, mood, and well-being should be emphasized.

  5. Exercise at an onsite facility with or without direct exercise supervision improves health-related physical fitness and exercise participation: An 8-week randomised controlled trial with 15-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jayden R; Gordon, Brett A; Lythgo, Noel; Bird, Stephen R; Benson, Amanda C

    2018-04-01

    Physical activity and exercise participation is limited by a perceived lack of time, poor access to facilities and low motivation. The aim was to assess whether providing an exercise program to be completed at the workplace with or without direct supervision was effective for promoting health-related physical fitness and exercise participation. Fifty university employees aged (Mean ± SD) 42.5 ± 11.1 years were prescribed a moderate- to vigorous-intensity aerobic and resistance exercise program to be completed at an onsite facility for 8 weeks. Participants were randomly allocated to receive direct exercise supervision or not. Cardiorespiratory fitness (V̇O 2max ) and maximal muscular strength were assessed at baseline and 8 weeks. Self-report physical activity was assessed at baseline, 8 weeks and 15 months post-intervention. Attendance or exercise session volume were not different between groups. Cardiorespiratory fitness (Mean ± 95% CI); +1.9 ± 0.7 mL·kg·min -1 ; P exercise facility to complete an individually-prescribed 8-week exercise program is sufficient to improve health-related physical fitness in the short-term independent to the level of supervision provided, but does not influence long-term participation. SO WHAT?: Lower cost onsite exercise facility supervision is as effective at improving physical health and fitness as directly supervised exercise, however ongoing support may be required for sustained physical activity behaviour change. © 2017 Australian Health Promotion Association.

  6. Role of the pediatric exercise scientist in physical education, sports training and physiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, H C

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to present an overview of the research devoted to the relations of physical activity in children and exercise. The results of experimental studies on the benefits of extra, more intensive physical activity or with different styles of teaching are summarized. Most valid studies using the school environment do not reveal significant and beneficial effects. Longitudinal studies contrasting physically active and inactive children always show higher physiological characteristics in the highly active groups; however, these results are not conclusive because self-selection may have caused the differences. Training studies on aerobic power and on muscle strength show always significant improvements in both sexes, regardless of their level of biologic maturation. The general lack of physical activity in youths nowadays needs strategies to promote physical activity. Motivationally oriented programs with emphasis on the determinants of physical activity behavior of children are supposed to be the most effective and also to be long lasting.

  7. Understanding exercise self-efficacy and barriers to leisure-time physical activity among postnatal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramp, Anita G; Bray, Steven R

    2011-07-01

    Studies have demonstrated that postnatal women are at high risk for physical inactivity and generally show lower levels of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) compared to prepregnancy. The overall purpose of the current study was to investigate social cognitive correlates of LTPA among postnatal women during a 6-month period following childbirth. A total of 230 women (mean age = 30.9) provided descriptive data regarding barriers to LTPA and completed measures of LTPA and self-efficacy (exercise and barrier) for at least one of the study data collection periods. A total of 1,520 barriers were content analyzed. Both exercise and barrier self-efficacy were positively associated with subsequent LTPA. Exercise self-efficacy at postnatal week 12 predicted LTPA from postnatal weeks 12 to 18 (β = .40, R (2) = .18) and exercise self-efficacy at postnatal week 24 predicted LTPA during weeks 24-30 (β = .49, R (2) = .30). Barrier self-efficacy at week 18 predicted LTPA from weeks 18 to 24 (β = .33, R (2) = .13). The results of the study identify a number of barriers to LTPA at multiple time points closely following childbirth which may hinder initiation, resumption or maintenance of LTPA. The results also suggest that higher levels of exercise and barrier self-efficacy are prospectively associated with higher levels of LTPA in the early postnatal period. Future interventions should be designed to investigate causal effects of developing participants' exercise and barrier self-efficacy for promoting and maintaining LTPA during the postnatal period.

  8. The importance of non-exercise physical activity for cardiovascular health and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekblom-Bak, Elin; Ekblom, Björn; Vikström, Max; de Faire, Ulf; Hellénius, Mai-Lis

    2014-02-01

    Sedentary time is increasing in all societies and results in limited non-exercise physical activity (NEPA) of daily life. The importance of low NEPA for cardiovascular health and longevity is limited, especially in elderly. To examine the association between NEPA and cardiovascular health at baseline as well as the risk of a first cardiovascular disease (CVD) event and total mortality after 12.5 years. Cohort study. Every third 60-year-old man and woman in Stockholm County was invited to a health screening study; 4232 individuals participated (78% response rate). At baseline, NEPA and exercise habits were assessed from a self-administrated questionnaire and cardiovascular health was established through physical examinations and laboratory tests. The participants were followed for an average of 12.5 years for the assessment of CVD events and mortality. At baseline, high NEPA was, regardless of regular exercise and compared with low NEPA, associated with more preferable waist circumference, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides in both sexes and with lower insulin, glucose and fibrinogen levels in men. Moreover, the occurrence of the metabolic syndrome was significantly lower in those with higher NEPA levels in non-exercising and regularly exercising individuals. Furthermore, reporting a high NEPA level, compared with low, was associated with a lower risk of a first CVD event (HR=0.73; 95% CI 0.57 to 0.94) and lower all-cause mortality (0.70; 0.53 to 0.98). A generally active daily life was, regardless of exercising regularly or not, associated with cardiovascular health and longevity in older adults.

  9. Effect of physical training on the recovery of acute exercise, among patients with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Saldivia, Marianna; Ilarraza-Lomelí, Hermes; Myers, Jonathan; Lara, Jorge; Bueno, Leopoldo

    Physical training programs (PTP) have shown several beneficial effects for patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD), particularly by increasing survival and quality of life. Physiological response during the effort and recovery phases of an exercise testing, is one of the strongest prognostic markers among patients with CVD. A reasonable mechanism that explains those training effects on survival is through the adaptations seen on heart rate recovery (HRR) and oxygen uptake kinetics at the post-exertional phase (RVO 2 ). Compare the HRR and RVO 2 values before and after a PTP in patients with CVD. We studied a cohort of patients included in a cardiac rehabilitation program, whom performed a cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX). Then, risk stratification and an individualized exercise training program were performed. The exercise training program included 20 sessions of aerobic exercise, 30min a day, five times a week, at moderate intensity. Finally, a second CPX was performed. A total of 215 patients were included. Peak oxygen uptake values rose 2.2±5.2ml/kg/min (p<0.001), HRR increased 1.6±10bpm (p<0.05) and RVO 2 improved -21±98s (p<0.001). A post-hoc analysis show that the percentage of maximum heart rate remained statistically associated with HRR increment. Furthermore, diabetes and sedentarism were strongly related to RVO 2 improvement. No correlation between HRR and RVO 2 was found (R 2 =0.002). Physical exercise was associated with a beneficial effect on HRR and RVO 2 . Nevertheless, both variables were statistically unrelated. Copyright © 2016 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. All rights reserved.

  10. Social support and social norms: do both contribute to predicting leisure-time exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okun, Morris A; Ruehlman, Linda; Karoly, Paul; Lutz, Rafer; Fairholme, Chris; Schaub, Rachel

    2003-01-01

    To clarify the contribution of social support and social norms to exercise behavior. A sample of 363 college students completed a questionnaire that assessed social support and social negativity from friends, descriptive and injunctive social norms related to friends, perceived behavioral control, attitude, intention, and leisure-time exercise. Esteem social support was the strongest predictor of total and strenuous leisure-time exercise (P leisure-time exercise. Social support and social norms contribute independently to our understanding of variation in the frequency of strenuous leisure-time exercise.

  11. Specific Physical Exercise Improves Energetic Metabolism in the Skeletal Muscle of Amyotrophic-Lateral- Sclerosis Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Desseille

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disease characterized by the specific loss of motor neurons, leading to muscle paralysis and death. Although the cellular mechanisms underlying amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS-induced toxicity for motor neurons remain poorly understood, growing evidence suggest a defective energetic metabolism in skeletal muscles participating in ALS-induced motor neuron death ultimately destabilizing neuromuscular junctions. In the present study, we report that a specific exercise paradigm, based on a high intensity and amplitude swimming exercise, significantly improves glucose metabolism in ALS mice. Using physiological tests and a biophysics approach based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, we unexpectedly found that SOD1(G93A ALS mice suffered from severe glucose intolerance, which was counteracted by high intensity swimming but not moderate intensity running exercise. Furthermore, swimming exercise restored the highly ALS-sensitive tibialis muscle through an autophagy-linked mechanism involving the expression of key glucose transporters and metabolic enzymes, including GLUT4 and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH. Importantly, GLUT4 and GAPDH expression defects were also found in muscles from ALS patients. Moreover, we report that swimming exercise induced a triglyceride accumulation in ALS tibialis, likely resulting from an increase in the expression levels of lipid transporters and biosynthesis enzymes, notably DGAT1 and related proteins. All these data provide the first molecular basis for the differential effects of specific exercise type and intensity in ALS, calling for the use of physical exercise as an appropriate intervention to alleviate symptoms in this debilitating disease.

  12. Efeitos agudos do exercício físico prolongado: avaliação após ultramaratona de 24 horas Acute effects of prolonged physical exercise: evaluation after a twenty-four-hour ultramarathon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Guinther Passaglia

    2013-01-01

    physical exercise is associated with metabolic and cardiovascular alterations. Cardiac abnormalities found in our study suggest that cardiac fatigue may occur in this specific race modality. The long-term effect of these alterations, while maintaining the routine practice of prolonged strenuous physical activity, is still unknown.

  13. Efeitos agudos do exercício físico prolongado: avaliação após ultramaratona de 24 horas Acute effects of prolonged physical exercise: evaluation after a twenty-four-hour ultramarathon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Guinther Passaglia

    2012-01-01

    physical exercise is associated with metabolic and cardiovascular alterations. Cardiac abnormalities found in our study suggest that cardiac fatigue may occur in this specific race modality. The long-term effect of these alterations, while maintaining the routine practice of prolonged strenuous physical activity, is still unknown.

  14. Frailty, Disability and Physical Exercise in the Aging Process and in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Greco

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Frailty in the elderly is a state of vulnerability to poor resolution of homoeostasis after a stressor event and is a consequence of cumulative decline in many physiological systems during a lifetime. This cumulative decline depletes homoeostatic reserves until minor stressor events trigger disproportionate changes in health status. It is usually associated to adverse health outcomes and to one-year mortality risk. Physical exercise has found to be effective in preventing frailty and disability in this population. Chronic kidney disease (CKD is also a clinical condition where protein energy-wasting, sarcopenia and dynapenia ,very common symptoms in the frail elderly, may occur. Moreover elderly and CKD patients are both affected by an impaired physical performance that may be reversed by physical exercise with an improvement of the survival rate. These similarities suggest that frailty may be a common pathway of aging and CKD that may induce disability and that can be prevented by a multidimensional approach in which physical exercise plays an important role.

  15. Health, physical exercise and fear of aging: anti-aging problematizations in amateur bodybuilders speeches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Luís Santos Teixeira

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Scientific arguments in favour of applying physical exercise as an intervention on "aging" insists on relying on the biological concept of health. Considering the hegemony of this concept in physical education, the present study questions in what extent it must be accepted that the relationship between health/aging remains summarized in the mere search for maintaining physiological capabilities? The aim was to analyse the problematizations on the relationship between health and exercise in a group of physically active women from the city of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil, in the context of aging process. Forty-five amateur bodybuilders were selected utilizing the sample snowball technique. They answered an interview guide with pictures according to the photo elicitation technique, individually. It was utilized the speech analysis proposed by Foucault. The group understands the relationship health/aging as a way to build identities, overcoming the negative perception of old age as vital and negative process. The fear of aging denotes the presence of self-centred healthcare practices carried over the years. Physical exercise plays a role that transcends the mere control of biological variables, being a resource to strengthen the experience to look and feel younger.

  16. Perception of barriers to physical exercise in women population over 60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Bianca Aily

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims This study evaluated the possible barriers to the permanence of physical exercise (PE of old women. Methods The study population comprised 61 old women participants for at least one year of a supervised PE program, who underwent anamnesis, and applied the Barriers Questionnaire to Physical Activity Practice in the Elderly (QBPAFI. Exploratory factorial analysis was used to evaluate QBPAFI data. The analysis of principal component was applied to the 22 questions through orthogonal rotation to analyze the correlation between the questions. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin test was applied to evaluate the suitability of the sample size, and the Bartlett's test to assess whether the original matrix correlation is an identity matrix. Eigenvalues greater than 1 were considered for analysis. Results The motivational factor was the major determinant of perceived barriers (43.3%, followed by psychosocial (12.29%, facilities and appearance (8.75%, and exercise conditions (8.10% factors. Conclusion Knowing the benefits of physical activity, and the main barriers that prevent the permanence of active old people to physical exercise programs, new strategies must be taken to increase the rate of adherence of this group.

  17. Inflammatory Mechanisms Associated with Skeletal Muscle Sequelae after Stroke: Role of Physical Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho Junior, Hélio José; Gambassi, Bruno Bavaresco; Diniz, Tiego Aparecido; Fernandes, Isabela Maia da Cruz; Caperuto, Érico Chagas; Uchida, Marco Carlos; Lira, Fabio Santos

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory markers are increased systematically and locally (e.g., skeletal muscle) in stroke patients. Besides being associated with cardiovascular risk factors, proinflammatory cytokines seem to play a key role in muscle atrophy by regulating the pathways involved in this condition. As such, they may cause severe decrease in muscle strength and power, as well as impairment in cardiorespiratory fitness. On the other hand, physical exercise (PE) has been widely suggested as a powerful tool for treating stroke patients, since PE is able to regenerate, even if partially, physical and cognitive functions. However, the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of physical exercise in poststroke patients remain poorly understood. Thus, in this study we analyze the candidate mechanisms associated with muscle atrophy in stroke patients, as well as the modulatory effect of inflammation in this condition. Later, we suggest the two strongest anti-inflammatory candidate mechanisms, myokines and the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, which may be activated by physical exercise and may contribute to a decrease in proinflammatory markers of poststroke patients. PMID:27647951

  18. Regular multi-component exercise increases physical fitness and muscle protein anabolism in frail, obese, older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Villareal, Dennis T.; Smith, Gordon I.; Sinacore, David R.; Shah, Krupa; Mittendorfer, Bettina

    2010-01-01

    Aging is associated with a decline in strength, endurance, balance, and mobility. Obesity worsens the age-related impairment in physical function and often leads to frailty. The American College of Sports Medicine recommends a multi-component (strength, endurance, flexibility, and balance) exercise program to maintain physical fitness. However, the effect of such an exercise program on physical fitness in frail, obese older adults is not known. We therefore determined the effect of a 3 month-...

  19. Aerobic physical exercise as a possible treatment for neurocognitive dysfunction in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucyi, Aaron; Alsuwaidan, Mohammad T; Liauw, Samantha S; McIntyre, Roger S

    2010-11-01

    Neurocognitive dysfunction associated with bipolar disorder (BD) is pervasive, persistent across illness phases, and is demonstrated to predispose and portend psychosocial impairment. Moreover, no approved therapies for various phases of BD have been shown to reliably improve any dimension of neurocognitive performance. In this article, we emphasize that aerobic physical exercise is a viable neurocognitive-enhancing adjunctive treatment for patients with BD. The overarching aim of this review is to emphasize that aerobic physical exercise is a viable neurocognitive-enhancing adjunctive treatment for patients with BD. We conducted PubMed and Google Scholar searches of all English-language articles published between January 1966 and February 2010 using the search terms bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, depression, exercise, and physical activity cross-referenced with each other and the following terms: cognition, executive function, learning, memory, attention, emotion, and behavior. Articles selected for review were based on adequacy of sample size, use of standardized experimental procedures, validated assessment measures, and overall quality. Available studies have documented an array of persisting neurocognitive deficits across disparate bipolar populations. Abnormalities in verbal working memory are highly replicated; deficits in executive function, learning, attention, and processing speed are also a consistent abnormality. The effect sizes of neurocognitive deficits in BD are intermediate between those reported in schizophrenia and major depressive disorder. Several original reports and reviews have documented the neurocognitive-enhancing effects of aerobic exercise in the general population as well as across diverse medical populations and ages. Proposed mechanisms involve nonexclusive effects on neurogenesis, neurotrophism, immunoinflammatory systems, insulin sensitivity, and neurotransmitter systems. Each of these effector systems are implicated

  20. Does physical exercise reduce excessive daytime sleepiness by improving inflammatory profiles in obstructive sleep apnea patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Eduardo da Silva; Ackel-D'Elia, Carolina; Luz, Gabriela Pontes; Cunha, Thays Crosara Abrahão; Carneiro, Gláucia; Tufik, Sergio; Bittencourt, Lia Rita Azeredo; de Mello, Marco Tulio

    2013-05-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with a variety of long-term consequences such as high rates of morbidity and mortality, due to excessive diurnal somnolence as well as cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Obesity, recurrent episodes of upper airway obstruction, progressive hypoxemia, and sleep fragmentation during sleep cause neural, cardiovascular, and metabolic changes. These changes include activation of peripheral sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, insulin sensitivity, and inflammatory cytokines alterations, which predispose an individual to vascular damage. Previous studies proposed that OSAS modulated the expression and secretion of inflammatory cytokines from fat and other tissues. Independent of obesity, patients with OSAS exhibited elevated levels of C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6, which are associated with sleepiness, fatigue, and the development of a variety of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. OSAS and obesity are strongly associated with each other and share many common pathways that induce chronic inflammation. Previous studies suggested that the protective effect of exercise may be partially attributed to the anti-inflammatory effect of regular exercise, and this effect was observed in obese patients. Although some studies assessed the effects of physical exercise on objective and subjective sleep parameters, the quality of life, and mood in patients with OSAS, no study has evaluated the effects of this treatment on inflammatory profiles. In this review, we cited some studies that directed our opinion to believe that since OSAS causes increased inflammation and has excessive daytime sleepiness as a symptom and being that physical exercise improves inflammatory profiles and possibly OSAS symptoms, it must be that physical exercise improves excessive daytime sleepiness due to its improvement in inflammatory profiles.

  1. Does physical exercise improve obstacle negotiation in the elderly? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadagnin, Eliane C; da Rocha, Emmanuel S; Duysens, Jacques; Carpes, Felipe P

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise improves walking in the elderly but much less is known about its effect on more challenged gait, such as obstacle negotiation. We conducted a systematic review to discuss the effects of regular physical exercise on kinematics and kinetics of obstacle negotiation in the elderly. A comprehensive literature search revealed 859 citations for review, whereof 206 studies entered the full-text analysis. After application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 13 studies were included in this systematic review. Most of them presented a reasonable quality (average 0.68) but none of them reached the level of a randomized control trial. Interventions were heterogeneous, with training periods lasting from 5 days to 10 months. Studies assessed obstacle negotiation basically considering 3 types of testing paradigm, namely a walkway with either a single obstacle crossing, or with multiple obstacles, or else a treadmill with an obstacle avoidance task under time pressure. In general, longer training programs had better results and very short ones were not effective. A weekly frequency of 2-3 times was the most common among the studies showing positive effects. Regardless of exercises types performed, most of them were effective and so far, there is no consensus about the best exercise for improving obstacle negotiation. A lack of studies on this topic still is evident. Including a record of fall score can further help in deciding which programs are to be preferred. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. An Examination of Exercise-Induced Feeling States and Their Association With Future Participation in Physical Activity Among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, Jennifer; Guérin, Eva; Speranzini, Nicolas

    2018-01-01

    Although exercise-induced feeling states may play a role in driving future behavior, their role in relation to older adults' participation in physical activity (PA) has seldom been considered. The objectives of this study were to describe changes in older adults' feeling states during exercise, and examine if levels of and changes in feeling states predicted their future participation in PA. Self-reported data on feeling states were collected from 82 older adults immediately before, during, and after a moderate-intensity exercise session, and on participation in PA 1 month later. Data were analyzed using latent growth modeling. Feelings of revitalization, positive engagement, and tranquility decreased during exercise, whereas feelings of physical exhaustion increased. Feelings of revitalization immediately before the exercise session predicted future participation in PA; changes in feeling states did not. This study does not provide empirical evidence that older adults' exercise-induced feeling states predict their future participation in PA.

  3. Exercise Preserves Physical Function in Prostate Cancer Patients with Bone Metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Daniel A; Taaffe, Dennis R; Spry, Nigel; Cormie, Prue; Joseph, David; Chambers, Suzanne K; Chee, Raphael; Peddle-McIntyre, Carolyn J; Hart, Nicolas H; Baumann, Freerk T; Denham, James; Baker, Michael; Newton, Robert U

    2018-03-01

    The presence of bone metastases has excluded participation of cancer patients in exercise interventions and is a relative contraindication to supervised exercise in the community setting because of concerns of fragility fracture. We examined the efficacy and safety of a modular multimodal exercise program in prostate cancer patients with bone metastases. Between 2012 and 2015, 57 prostate cancer patients (70.0 ± 8.4 yr; body mass index, 28.7 ± 4.0 kg·m) with bone metastases (pelvis, 75.4%; femur, 40.4%; rib/thoracic spine, 66.7%; lumbar spine, 43.9%; humerus, 24.6%; other sites, 70.2%) were randomized to multimodal supervised aerobic, resistance, and flexibility exercises undertaken thrice weekly (EX; n = 28) or usual care (CON; n = 29) for 3 months. Physical function subscale of the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 was the primary end point as an indicator of patient-rated physical functioning. Secondary end points included objective measures of physical function, lower body muscle strength, body composition, and fatigue. Safety was assessed by recording the incidence and severity of any adverse events, skeletal complications, and bone pain throughout the intervention. There was a significant difference between groups for self-reported physical functioning (3.2 points; 95% confidence interval, 0.4-6.0 points; P = 0.028) and lower body muscle strength (6.6 kg; 95% confidence interval, 0.6-12.7; P = 0.033) at 3 months favoring EX. However, there was no difference between groups for lean mass (P = 0.584), fat mass (P = 0.598), or fatigue (P = 0.964). There were no exercise-related adverse events or skeletal fractures and no differences in bone pain between EX and CON (P = 0.507). Multimodal modular exercise in prostate cancer patients with bone metastases led to self-reported improvements in physical function and objectively measured lower body muscle strength with no skeletal complications or increased bone pain. ACTRN12611001158954.

  4. Maternal obesity and physical activity and exercise levels as pregnancy advances: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, N; Mitchell, C; Farren, M; Kennelly, M M; Hussey, J; Turner, M J

    2016-05-01

    Increases in clinical complications associated with maternal obesity have generated interest in increasing physical activity (PA) and exercise levels as an intervention to improve pregnancy outcomes. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between BMI categorisation and PA and exercise levels as pregnancy advances. This was an observational study in a large university maternity hospital. Women were recruited at their convenience before they left hospital after delivering a baby weighing 500 g or more. They completed a detailed customised physical activity and exercise questionnaire. BMI categorisation was based on the measurement of weight and height in early pregnancy. Of the 155 women recruited, 42.5 % (n = 66) were primigravidas and 10.3 % (n = 16) were smokers. Mean Body Mass Index (BMI) was 24.6 kg/m(2) and 14.2 % (n = 22) were obese, based on a BMI >29.9 kg/m(2). Overall, women decreased their exercise from an average 194 min (range 0-650 min) per week pre-pregnancy to 98 min antenatally (range 0-420 min) (p Obese women exercised least pre-pregnancy and antenatally at 187.5 and 75 min per week, respectively, compared with 193.2 and 95.5 min per week in the normal BMI group and 239.3 and 106.7 min per week in the overweight group. The mean gestation at which all women reduced their activity levels was 29 weeks. We found that women decreased their PA  and exercise levels significantly in the third trimester and, thus, in the absence of a medical contra-indication there is considerable scope for an exercise intervention to improve activity  and exercise levels as pregnancy advances. However, an increase in PA levels in obese women needs further studies to determine whether it will improve the clinical outcomes for the woman and her offspring.

  5. Self-Regulation and Implicit Attitudes Toward Physical Activity Influence Exercise Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padin, Avelina C; Emery, Charles F; Vasey, Michael; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K

    2017-08-01

    Dual-process models of health behavior posit that implicit and explicit attitudes independently drive healthy behaviors. Prior evidence indicates that implicit attitudes may be related to weekly physical activity (PA) levels, but the extent to which self-regulation attenuates this link remains unknown. This study examined the associations between implicit attitudes and self-reported PA during leisure time among 150 highly active young adults and evaluated the extent to which effortful control (one aspect of self-regulation) moderated this relationship. Results indicated that implicit attitudes toward exercise were unrelated to average workout length among individuals with higher effortful control. However, those with lower effortful control and more negative implicit attitudes reported shorter average exercise sessions compared with those with more positive attitudes. Implicit and explicit attitudes were unrelated to total weekly PA. A combination of poorer self-regulation and negative implicit attitudes may leave individuals vulnerable to mental and physical health consequences of low PA.

  6. Physical Exercise-Induced Adult Neurogenesis: A Good Strategy to Prevent Cognitive Decline in Neurodegenerative Diseases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk-yu Yau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cumulative evidence has indicated that there is an important role for adult hippocampal neurogenesis in cognitive function. With the increasing prevalence of cognitive decline associated with neurodegenerative diseases among the ageing population, physical exercise, a potent enhancer of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, has emerged as a potential preventative strategy/treatment to reduce cognitive decline. Here we review the functional role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in learning and memory, and how this form of structural plasticity is altered in neurodegenerative diseases known to involve cognitive impairment. We further discuss how physical exercise may contribute to cognitive improvement in the ageing brain by preserving adult neurogenesis, and review the recent approaches for measuring changes in neurogenesis in the live human brain.

  7. Sluggish vagal brake reactivity to physical exercise challenge in children with selective mutism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilman, Keri J; Connolly, Sucheta D; Padilla, Wendy O; Wrzosek, Marika I; Graczyk, Patricia A; Porges, Stephen W

    2012-02-01

    Cardiovascular response patterns to laboratory-based social and physical exercise challenges were evaluated in 69 children and adolescents, 20 with selective mutism (SM), to identify possible neurophysiological mechanisms that may mediate the behavioral features of SM. Results suggest that SM is associated with a dampened response of the vagal brake to physical exercise that is manifested as reduced reactivity in heart rate and respiration. Polyvagal theory proposes that the regulation of the vagal brake is a neurophysiological component of an integrated social engagement system that includes the neural regulation of the laryngeal and pharyngeal muscles. Within this theoretical framework, sluggish vagal brake reactivity may parallel an inability to recruit efficiently the structures involved in speech. Thus, the findings suggest that dampened autonomic reactivity during mobilization behaviors may be a biomarker of SM that can be assessed independent of the social stimuli that elicit mutism.

  8. The effect of shape on drag: a physics exercise inspired by biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingerut, Jonathan; Johnson, Nicholas; Mongeau, Eric; Habdas, Piotr

    2017-07-01

    As part of a biomechanics course aimed at upper-division biology and physics majors, but applicable to a range of student learning levels, this laboratory exercise provides an insight into the effect of shape on hydrodynamic performance, as well an introduction to computer aided design (CAD) and 3D printing. Students use hydrodynamic modeling software and simple CAD programs to design a shape with the least amount of drag based on strategies gleaned from the study of natural forms. Students then print the shapes using a 3D printer and test their shapes against their classmates in a friendly competition. From this exercise, students gain a more intuitive sense of the challenges that organisms face when moving through fluid environments, the physical phenomena involved in moving through fluids at high Reynolds numbers and observe how and why certain morphologies, such as streamlining, are common answers to the challenge of swimming at high speeds.

  9. Physical exercise at the workplace prevents deterioration of work ability among healthcare workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Markus D; Sundstrup, Emil; Brandt, Mikkel

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Imbalance between individual resources and work demands can lead to musculoskeletal disorders and reduced work ability. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of workplace- versus home-based physical exercise on work ability among healthcare workers. METHODS: Two...... hundred female healthcare workers (Age: 42.0, BMI: 24.1, work ability index [WAI]: 43.1) from 18 departments at three Danish hospitals participated (Copenhagen, Denmark, Aug 2013-Jan 2014). Participants were randomly allocated at the cluster level to 10 weeks of: 1) workplace physical exercise (WORK...... of lifting aides. The main outcome measure was the change from baseline to 10-week follow-up in WAI. RESULTS: Significant group by time interaction was observed for WAI (p effect size (Cohens'd = 0...

  10. The role of self-determined motivation in the understanding of exercise-related behaviours, cognitions and physical self-evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2006-01-01

    Grounded in self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985), the purpose of the present study was to examine whether motivation, self-determined and controlling types of motivation could predict a range of exercise-related behaviours, cognitions and physical self-evaluations. Exercisers (n¼375) from ten health clubs in the North of England completed questionnaires measuring exercise motivation, exercise stages of change, number of relapses from exercise, future intention to exercise, barriers s...

  11. The Long Run: Neuroprotective Effects of Physical Exercise on Adult Neurogenesis from Youth to Old Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraulli, Daniele; Costanzi, Marco; Mastrorilli, Valentina; Farioli-Vecchioli, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Background The rapid lengthening of life expectancy has raised the problem of providing social programs to counteract the age-related cognitive decline in a growing number of older people. Physical activity stands among the most promising interventions aimed at brain wellbeing, because of its effective neuroprotective action and low social cost. The purpose of this review is to describe the neuroprotective role exerted by physical activity in different life stages. In particular, we focus on adult neurogenesis, a process which has proved being highly responsive to physical exercise and may represent a major factor of brain health over the lifespan. Methods The most recent literature related to the subject has been reviewed. The text has been divided into three main sections, addressing the effects of physical exercise during childhood/adolescence, adulthood and aging, respectively. For each one, the most relevant studies, carried out on both human participants and rodent models, have been described. Results The data reviewed converge in indicating that physical activity exerts a positive effect on brain functioning throughout the lifespan. However, uncertainty remains about the magnitude of the effect and its biological underpinnings. Cellular and synaptic plasticity provided by adult neurogenesis are highly probable mediators, but the mechanism for their action has yet to be conclusively established. Conclusion Despite alternative mechanisms of action are currently debated, age-appropriate physical activity programs may constitute a large-scale, relatively inexpensive and powerful approach to dampen the individual and social impact of age-related cognitive decline. PMID:27000776

  12. Impact of the "Planning to be Active" leisure time physical exercise program on rural high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortz, Brian; Petosa, Rick

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of a Social Cognitive Theory-based intervention designed to increase the frequency of leisure time planned moderate and vigorous physical exercise among rural high school students attending physical education class. Students in treatment and comparison groups were exposed to an activity-based physical education curricula. The treatment group received eight behavioral skill-building lessons integrated into the existing curriculum. The Social Cognitive Theory-based educational treatment increased levels of moderate physical exercise occurring outside the classroom. This study demonstrated an impact on adolescent leisure time moderate physical exercise using classroom instruction. The intervention was most effective with students who were previously sedentary. The curricular approaches used to promote regular moderate exercise may be useful for sedentary adolescents.

  13. Impact of habitual physical activity and type of exercise on physical performance across ages in community-living people.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Landi

    Full Text Available The maintenance of muscle function into late life protects against various negative health outcomes. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of habitual physical activity and exercise types on physical performance across ages in community-living adults. The Longevity check-up 7+ (Lookup 7+ project is an ongoing cross-sectional survey conducted in unconventional settings (e.g., exhibitions, malls, and health promotion campaigns across Italy that began on June 1st 2015. The project was designed to raise awareness in the general population on major lifestyle behaviors and risk factors for chronic diseases. Candidate participants are eligible for enrolment if they are at least 18 years of age and provide written informed consent. Physical performance is evaluated through the 5-repetition chair stand test. Analyses were conducted in 6,242 community-living adults enrolled between June 1st 2015 and June 30th 2017, after excluding 81 participants for missing values of the variables of interest. The mean age of the 6,242 participants was 54.4 years (standard deviation 15.2, range 18-98 years, and 3552 (57% were women. The time to complete the chair stand test was similar from 18 to 40-44 years, and declined progressively across subsequent age groups. Overall, the performance on the chair stand test was better in physically active participants, who completed the test with a mean of 0.5 s less than sedentary enrollees (p < .001. After adjusting for potential confounders, a different distribution of physical performance across exercise intensities was observed, with better performance being recorded in participants engaged in more vigorous activities. Our findings suggest that regular physical activity modifies the age-related pattern of decline in physical performance, with greater benefits observed for more intensive activities. Efforts are needed from health authorities and healthcare providers to promote the large-scale adoption of an

  14. Excessive physical exercise in tourism and recreation and its metabolic effects

    OpenAIRE

    Szczepanowska, Ewa; Umiastowska, Danuta; Czapla, Zbigniew

    2008-01-01

    An excessive physical exercise destructively influences on humans. This question has now a not overpriced meaning because there are more and more popular extreme kinds of tourism, recreation and sport, and far shifting limits of results attained in elite sport, and there are wider range of time and loads of professional work, which can lead even to work holism. If compare human body organization to not oversized device or building construction, one has to say that human body is...

  15. Physical exercise, salivary IgA and mood states of elderly people

    OpenAIRE

    R. Martins; F. Rosado; M.R. Cunha; M. Martins; A.M. Teixeira

    2008-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the aging process is associated with immunosenescence. On the other hand, physical activity has been consistently associated with positive states of affection and mood which also implies gains on psychological well-being. However, more studies are needed to support the benefit effect of exercise on specific population groups like the elderly. The purpose of the present work is to study the functional fitness, mood states and salivary IgA chronic adaptations after...

  16. Potential Effect of Physical Activity Calorie Equivalent (PACE) Labeling on Adult Fast Food Ordering and Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Antonelli, Ray; Viera, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Numeric calorie content labels show limited efficacy in reducing the number of calories ordered from fast food meals. Physical activity calorie equivalent (PACE) labels are an alternative that may reduce the number of calories ordered in fast food meals while encouraging patrons to exercise. Methods A total of 1000 adults from 47 US states were randomly assigned via internet survey to one of four generic fast food menus: no label, calories only, calories + minutes, or calories + ...

  17. Activity-dependent neurorehabilitation beyond physical trainings: "mental exercise" through mirror neuron activation

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Ti-Fei; Chen, Wei; Shan, Chunlei; Rocha, Nuno; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Paes, Flávia; de Sa, Alberto Souza; Machado, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    The activity dependent brain repair mechanism has been widely adopted in many types of neurorehabilitation. The activity leads to target specific and non-specific beneficial effects in different brain regions, such as the releasing of neurotrophic factors, modulation of the cytokines and generation of new neurons in adult hood. However physical exercise program clinically are limited to some of the patients with preserved motor functions; while many patients suffered from paralysis cannot mak...

  18. Video game-based exercise, Latino children's physical health, and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zan; Hannan, Peter; Xiang, Ping; Stodden, David F; Valdez, Verónica E

    2013-03-01

    There is a paucity of research investigating the effects of innovative physical activity programs on physical health and academic performance in the Latino population. To examine the impact of Dance Dance Revolution [DDR]-based exercise on Latino children's physical fitness and academic achievement. A repeated-measures crossover design was used. In Year 1, Grade-4 students were assigned to the intervention group and offered 30 minutes of exercise (DDR, aerobic dance) three times per week. Grade-3 and Grade-5 students made up the comparison group and were offered no structured exercise at school. In Year 2, the Grade-4 students were again assigned to the intervention, whereas Grade-5 and Grade-6 students were in the comparison group. Assessments were conducted with 208 Latino school children. The baseline measures included time to complete a 1-mile run, BMI, and reading and math scores. Data were collected again 9 months later. Overall, data were collected in 2009-2011 and analyzed in 2012. Data yielded significant differences between the intervention and comparison groups in differences in 1-mile run and math scores in Year 1 and Year 2. The results also revealed net differences in the intervention versus comparison group scores on the 1-mile run for Grade 3 (p<0.01). Additionally, children's yearly pre-test and post-test BMI group changes differed (χ(2)((2)) = 6.6, p<0.05) only for the first year of intervention. The DDR-based exercise intervention improved children's cardiorespiratory endurance and math scores over time. Professionals should consider integrating exergaming at schools to achieve the goals of promoting a physically active lifestyle and enhancing academic success among Latino children. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of physical exercise interventions in frail older adults: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    OpenAIRE

    de Labra, Carmen; Guimaraes-Pinheiro, Christyanne; Maseda, Ana; Lorenzo, Trinidad; Mill?n-Calenti, Jos? C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Low physical activity has been shown to be one of the most common components of frailty, and interventions have been considered to prevent or reverse this syndrome. The purpose of this systematic review of randomized, controlled trials is to examine the exercise interventions to manage frailty in older people. Methods The PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched using specific keywords and Medical Subject Headings for random...

  20. A natural user interface to integrate citizen science and physical exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Palermo, Eduardo; Laut, Jeffrey; Nov, Oded; Cappa, Paolo; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Citizen science enables volunteers to contribute to scientific projects, where massive data collection and analysis are often required. Volunteers participate in citizen science activities online from their homes or in the field and are motivated by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Here, we investigated the possibility of integrating citizen science tasks within physical exercises envisaged as part of a potential rehabilitation therapy session. The citizen science activity entailed envir...

  1. [Influence of an 8-week exercise intervention on body composition, physical fitness, and mental health in female nursing students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Fumio; Yamada, Hisao; Morikawa, Sachiko

    2013-03-01

    To determine the effectiveness of habitual exercise on the health promotion of college students, we measured the body composition and physical fitness of female nursing students before (Pre) and after (Post) an 8-week low-intensity exercise intervention. We also conducted a questionnaire survey of their mental health condition before and at every 4 weeks during the intervention. The quantity of physical exercise increased (P exercise intervention did not alter the body weight, but decreased the body fat (Pre, 26.8 ± 0.5%; Post, 24.9 ± 0.5%, P health were significantly raised by the intervention. These results suggest that habitual exercise for 8 weeks was effective for the promotion of physical and mental health in female nursing students.

  2. Combined short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise training improves cardiovascular function and physical working capacity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chang-Bin; Zhang, Shu; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Bing; Yao, Yong-Jie; Wang, Yong-Chun; Wu, Yan-Hong; Liang, Wen-Bin; Sun, Xi-Qing

    2010-12-01

    Musculoskeletal and cardiovascular deconditioning occurring in long-term spaceflight gives rise to the needs to develop new strategies to counteract these adverse effects. Short-arm centrifuge combined with ergometer has been proposed as a strategy to counteract adverse effects of microgravity. This study sought to investigate whether the combination of short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise training have advantages over short-arm centrifuge or aerobic exercise training alone. One week training was conducted by 24 healthy men. They were randomly divided into 3 groups: (1) short-arm centrifuge training, (2) aerobic exercise training, 40 W, and (3) combined short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise training. Before and after training, the cardiac pump function represented by stroke volume, cardiac output, left ventricular ejection time, and total peripheral resistance was evaluated. Variability of heart rate and systolic blood pressure were determined by spectral analysis. Physical working capacity was surveyed by near maximal physical working capacity test. The 1-week combined short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise training remarkably ameliorated the cardiac pump function and enhanced vasomotor sympathetic nerve modulation and improved physical working capacity by 10.9% (Pcentrifuge nor the aerobic exercise group showed improvements in these functions. These results demonstrate that combined short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise training has advantages over short-arm centrifuge or aerobic exercise training alone in influencing several physiologically important cardiovascular functions in humans. The combination of short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise offers a promising countermeasure to microgravity.

  3. Paraventricular hypothalamic adrenoceptors and energy metabolism in exercising rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheurink, Anton J.W.; Steffens, Anton B.; Gaykema, Ron P.A.

    The role of adrenoceptors in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in the exercise-induced changes in plasma norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), corticosterone, free fatty acids (FFA), and blood glucose was investigated in rats. Exercise consisted of strenuous swimming against a countercurrent for 15

  4. Cerebral oxygenation is reduced during hyperthermic exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter; Nybo, Lars; Volianitis, S.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Aim: Cerebral mitochondrial oxygen tension (P(mito)O(2)) is elevated during moderate exercise, while it is reduced when exercise becomes strenuous, reflecting an elevated cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO(2)) combined with hyperventilation-induced attenuation of cerebral blood flo...

  5. Perceived Barriers, Facilitators and Benefits for Regular Physical Activity and Exercise in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuijzen van Zanten, Jet J C S; Rouse, Peter C; Hale, Elizabeth D; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Metsios, George S; Duda, Joan L; Kitas, George D

    2015-10-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease, which not only affects the joints but can also impact on general well-being and risk for cardiovascular disease. Regular physical activity and exercise in patients with RA have numerous health benefits. Nevertheless, the majority of patients with RA are physically inactive. This indicates that people with RA might experience additional or more severe barriers to physical activity or exercise than the general population. This narrative review provides an overview of perceived barriers, benefits and facilitators of physical activity and exercise in RA. Databases were searched for articles published until September 2014 using the terms 'rheumatoid arthritis', 'physical activity', 'exercise', 'barriers', 'facilitators', 'benefits', 'motivation', 'motivators' and 'enablers'. Similarities were found between disease-specific barriers and benefits of physical activity and exercise, e.g. pain and fatigue are frequently mentioned as barriers, but reductions in pain and fatigue are perceived benefits of physical activity and exercise. Even though exercise does not influence the existence of barriers, physically active patients appear to be more capable of overcoming them. Therefore, exercise programmes should enhance self-efficacy for exercise in order to achieve long-term physical activity and exercise behaviour. Encouragement from health professionals and friends/family are facilitators for physical activity and exercise. There is a need for interventions that support RA patients in overcoming barriers to physical activity and exercise and help sustain this important health behaviour.

  6. Physical Exercise Modulates L-DOPA-Regulated Molecular Pathways in the MPTP Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemann, Cornelius J H M; Xicoy, Helena; Poelmans, Geert; Bloem, Bas R; Martens, Gerard J M; Visser, Jasper E

    2018-07-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), resulting in motor and non-motor dysfunction. Physical exercise improves these symptoms in PD patients. To explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of physical exercise, we exposed 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyrimidine (MPTP)-treated mice to a four-week physical exercise regimen, and subsequently explored their motor performance and the transcriptome of multiple PD-linked brain areas. MPTP reduced the number of DA neurons in the SNpc, whereas physical exercise improved beam walking, rotarod performance, and motor behavior in the open field. Further, enrichment analyses of the RNA-sequencing data revealed that in the MPTP-treated mice physical exercise predominantly modulated signaling cascades that are regulated by the top upstream regulators L-DOPA, RICTOR, CREB1, or bicuculline/dalfampridine, associated with movement disorders, mitochondrial dysfunction, and epilepsy-related processes. To elucidate the molecular pathways underlying these cascades, we integrated the proteins encoded by the exercise-induced differentially expressed mRNAs for each of the upstream regulators into a molecular landscape, for multiple key brain areas. Most notable was the opposite effect of physical exercise compared to previously reported effects of L-DOPA on the expression of mRNAs in the SN and the ventromedial striatum that are involved in-among other processes-circadian rhythm and signaling involving DA, neuropeptides, and endocannabinoids. Altogether, our findings suggest that physical exercise can improve motor function in PD and may, at the same time, counteract L-DOPA-mediated molecular mechanisms. Further, we hypothesize that physical exercise has the potential to improve non-motor symptoms of PD, some of which may be the result of (chronic) L-DOPA use.

  7. The relationship between smoking and exercise among physical education teachers in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogdu, Cemal; Oguzoncul, A Ferdane

    2013-07-04

    We studied the relationship between smoking and exercise among physical education teachers in Turkey. An online questionnaire was used to collect data. The responses of 1,995 teachers who completed the questionnaire were evaluated. The mean age of the participants was 31.0 +/- 4.7 years; 67.4% of the participants were male. The smoking rate was 65.2%. The mean age of onset of smoking was 16.6 +/- 2.6 years. The age of starting smoking increased with higher parental education level. There were no differences between smokers and nonsmokers with respect to gender. Of smokers, 51.2% were married; 52.4% were in the 30-39 year old age group. The most common reasons for starting smoking were the influence of friends and emulation. The most common reason for trying to quit smoking among men was future health concerns and among women was current health concerns. We found smoking was less common among participants who exercised regularly. The level of nicotine dependence was significantly lower among participants who exercised regularly compared to those who did not. This study suggests physical education teachers, who are role models for their students, have a high smoking rate. We believe urgent action is needed to reduce the smoking rate and increase the quit rate among physical education teachers.

  8. Smoking, physical exercise, BMI and late foetal death: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, Maria; Nohr, Ellen A; Bech, Bodil H; Wu, Chunsen; Olsen, Jørn

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this paper was to estimate the effect of maternal and paternal smoking on foetal death (miscarriage and stillbirth) and to estimate potential interactions with physical exercise and pre-pregnancy body mass index. We selected 87,930 pregnancies from the population-based Danish National Birth Cohort. Information about lifestyle, occupational, medical and obstetric factors was obtained from a telephone interview and data on pregnancy outcomes came from the Danish population based registries. Cox regression was used to estimate the hazard ratios (adjusted for potential confounders) for predominantly late foetal death (miscarriage and stillbirth). An interaction contrast ratio was used to assess potential effect measure modification of smoking by physical exercise and body mass index. The adjusted hazard ratio of foetal death was 1.22 (95 % CI 1.02-1.46) for couples where both parents smoked compared to non-smoking parents (miscarriage: 1.18, 95 % CI 0.96-1.44; stillbirth: 1.32, 95 % CI 0.93-1.89). On the additive scale, we detected a small positive interaction for stillbirth between smoking and body mass index (overweight women). In conclusion, smoking during pregnancy was associated with a slightly higher hazard ratio for foetal death if both parents smoked. This study suggests that smoking may increase the negative effect of a high BMI on foetal death, but results were not statistically significant for the interaction between smoking and physical exercise.

  9. Physical activity and exercise for chronic pain in adults: an overview of Cochrane Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geneen, Louise J; Moore, R Andrew; Clarke, Clare; Martin, Denis; Colvin, Lesley A; Smith, Blair H

    2017-04-24

    Chronic pain is defined as pain lasting beyond normal tissue healing time, generally taken to be 12 weeks. It contributes to disability, anxiety, depression, sleep disturbances, poor quality of life, and healthcare costs. Chronic pain has a weighted mean prevalence in adults of 20%.For many years, the treatment choice for chronic pain included recommendations for rest and inactivity. However, exercise may have specific benefits in reducing the severity of chronic pain, as well as more general benefits associated with improved overall physical and mental health, and physical functioning.Physical activity and exercise programmes are increasingly being promoted and offered in various healthcare systems, and for a variety of chronic pain conditions. It is therefore important at this stage to establish the efficacy and safety of these programmes, and furthermore to address the critical factors that determine their success or failure. To provide an overview of Cochrane Reviews of adults with chronic pain to determine (1) the effectiveness of different physical activity and exercise interventions in reducing pain severity and its impact on function, quality of life, and healthcare use; and (2) the evidence for any adverse effects or harm associated with physical activity and exercise interventions. We searched theCochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) on the Cochrane Library (CDSR 2016, Issue 1) for systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials (RCTs), after which we tracked any included reviews for updates, and tracked protocols in case of full review publication until an arbitrary cut-off date of 21 March 2016 (CDSR 2016, Issue 3). We assessed the methodological quality of the reviews using the AMSTAR tool, and also planned to analyse data for each painful condition based on quality of the evidence.We extracted data for (1) self-reported pain severity, (2) physical function (objectively or subjectively measured), (3) psychological function, (4) quality of

  10. Improvements to executive function during exercise training predict maintenance of physical activity over the following year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eBest

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that exercise training benefits cognitive, neural, and physical health markers in older adults. It is likely that these positive effects will diminish if participants return to sedentary lifestyles following training cessation. Theory posits that that the neurocognitive processes underlying self-regulation, namely executive function (EF, are important to maintaining positive health behaviors. Therefore, we examined whether better EF performance in older women would predict greater adherence to routine physical activity (PA over 1 year following a 12-month resistance exercise training randomized controlled trial. The study sample consisted of 125 community-dwelling women aged 65 to 75 years old. Our primary outcome measure was self-reported PA, as measured by the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE, assessed on a monthly basis from month 13 to month 25. Executive function was assessed using the Stroop Test at baseline (month 0 and post-training (month 12. Latent growth curve analyses showed that, on average, PA decreased during the follow-up period but at a decelerating rate. Women who made greater improvements to EF during the training period showed better adherence to PA during the 1-year follow-up period (β = -.36, p .10. Overall, these findings suggest that improving EF plays an important role in whether older women maintain higher levels of PA following exercise training and that this association is only apparent after training when environmental support for PA is low.

  11. POSITIVE study: physical exercise program in non-operable lung cancer patients undergoing palliative treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiskemann, Joachim; Hummler, Simone; Diepold, Christina; Keil, Melanie; Abel, Ulrich; Steindorf, Karen; Beckhove, Philipp; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Steins, Martin; Thomas, Michael

    2016-07-19

    Patients with advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) or small cell lung cancer (SCLC) often experience multidimensional impairments, affecting quality of life during their course of disease. In lung cancer patients with operable disease, several studies have shown that exercise has a positive impact on quality of life and physical functioning. There is limited evidence regarding efficacy for advanced lung cancer patients undergoing palliative treatment. Therefore, the POSITIVE study aims to evaluate the benefit of a 24-week exercise intervention during palliative treatment in a randomized controlled setting. The POSITIVE study is a randomized, controlled trial investigating the effects of a 24-week exercise intervention during palliative treatment on quality of life, physical performance and immune function in advanced, non-operable lung cancer patients. 250 patients will be recruited in the Clinic for Thoracic Diseases in Heidelberg, enrolment begun in November 2013. Main inclusion criterion is histologically confirmed NSCLC (stage IIIa, IIIb, IV) or SCLC (Limited Disease-SCLC, Extensive Disease-SCLC) not amenable to surgery. Patients are randomized into two groups. Both groups receive weekly care management phone calls (CMPCs) with the goal to assess symptoms and side effects. Additionally, one group receives a combined resistance and endurance training (3x/week). Primary endpoints are quality of life assessed by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy for patients with lung cancer (FACT-L, subcategory Physical Well-Being) and General Fatigue measured by the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20). Secondary endpoints are physical performance (maximal voluntary isometric contraction, 6-min walk distance), psychosocial (depression and anxiety) and immunological parameters and overall survival. The aim of the POSITIVE trial is the evaluation of effects of a 24-week structured and guided exercise intervention during palliative treatment stages

  12. Is generic physical activity or specific exercise associated with motor abilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinne, Marjo; Pasanen, Matti; Miilunpalo, Seppo; Mälkiä, Esko

    2010-09-01

    Evidence of the effect of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) modes on the motor abilities of a mature population is scarce. The purpose of this study was to compare the motor abilities of physically active and inactive men and women and to examine the associations of different exercise modes and former and recent LTPA (R-LTPA) with motor ability and various physical tests. The LTPA of the participants (men n = 69, women n = 79; aged 41-47 yr) was ascertained by a modified Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire, including questions on the frequency, duration, and intensity of R-LTPA and former LTPA and on exercise modes. Motor abilities in terms of balance, agility, and coordination were assessed with a battery of nine tests supplemented with five physical fitness tests. Multiple statistical methods were used in analyses that were conducted separately for men and women. The MET-hours per week of R-LTPA correlated statistically significantly with the tests of agility and static balance (rs = -0.28, P = 0.022; rs = -0.25, P = 0.043, respectively) among men and with the static balance (rs = 0.41), 2-km walking (rs = 0.36), step squat (rs = 0.36) (P women. In the stepwise regression among men, the most frequent statistically significant predictor was the playing of several games. For women, a history of LTPA for more than 3 yr was the strongest predictor for good results in almost all tests. Participants with long-term and regular LTPA had better motor performance, and especially a variety of games improve components of motor ability. Diverse, regular, and long-term exercise including both specific training and general activity develops both motor abilities and physical fitness.

  13. Reasons for participation and satisfaction in physical activity, physical exercises, and sports

    OpenAIRE

    Elmer Garita Azofeifa

    2006-01-01

    Motivation in physical activity constitutes a multidimensional psychological characteristic that is influenced by the person’s internal aspects (preferences, desires, fears, etc.) and his/her experiences in the external environment (social acceptance, friends, skills, etc.).  In a period in which physical activity is globally increasing among people of all ages, it is important for physical educators, sports trainers, or physical instructors to know the main reasons for their trainees to exer...