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Sample records for strengthening native american

  1. 76 FR 76603 - Improving American Indian and Alaska Native Educational Opportunities and Strengthening Tribal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ..., including Native language immersion programs, that encourage the learning and development of AI/AN children... Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1059c). Sec. 3. White House Initiative on American Indian and Alaska Native Education. (a) Establishment. There is hereby established the White House Initiative on American Indian and...

  2. Native Americans with Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read the MMWR Science Clips Native Americans with Diabetes Better diabetes care can decrease kidney failure Language: ... between 1996 and 2013. Problem Kidney failure from diabetes was highest among Native Americans. Native Americans are ...

  3. Native American nurse leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Lee A

    2004-07-01

    To identify which characteristics, wisdom, and skills are essential in becoming an effective Native American nurse leader. This will lead to the development of a curriculum suitable for Native American nurses. A qualitative, descriptive design was used for this study. Focus groups were conducted in Polson, Montana. A total of 67 Native and non-Native nurses participated. Sixty-seven percent of them were members of Indian tribes. Data were content analyzed using Spradley's ethnographic methodology. Three domains of analysis emerged: point of reference for the leader (individual, family, community), what a leader is (self-actualized, wise, experienced, political, bicultural, recognized, quiet presence, humble, spiritual, and visionary), and what a leader does (mentors, role models, communicates, listens, demonstrates values, mobilizes, and inspires). Native nurse leaders lead differently. Thus, a leadership curriculum suitable for Native nurses may lead to increased work productivity and therefore improved patient care for Native Americans.

  4. Native American medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, K

    1998-11-01

    This article summarizes common principles, practices, and ethics of Native American healing, the traditional medicine of North America. Native American healing, spirituality, culture, and, in modern times, political, social, and economic concerns are closely intertwined. Intuition and spiritual awareness are a healer's most essential diagnostic tools. Therapeutic methods include prayer, music, ritual purification, herbalism, massage, ceremony, and personal innovations of individual healers. A community of friends, family, and helpers often participate in the healing intervention and help to alleviate the alienation caused by disease. A healthy patient has a healthy relationship with his or her community and, ultimately, with the greater community of nature known as "All Relations." The goal of Native American healing is to find wholeness, balance, harmony, beauty, and meaning. "Healing," making whole, is as important as curing disease; at times they are identical.

  5. The Native American Holocaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Russell

    1989-01-01

    Describes the American Indian "Holocaust," decimation of Indian populations following European discovery of the Americas. European and African diseases, warfare with Europeans, and genocide reduced native populations from 75 million to only a few million. Discusses population statistics and demographic effects of epidemics, continuing infection,…

  6. Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > American Indian/Alaska Native > Asthma Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives In 2015, 240, ... Native American adults reported that they currently have asthma. American Indian/Alaska Native children are 60% more ...

  7. Native Geosciences: Strengthening the Future Through Tribal Traditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolman, J. R.; Quigley, I.; Douville, V.; Hollow Horn Bear, D.

    2008-12-01

    Native people have lived for millennia in distinct and unique ways in our natural sacred homelands and environments. Tribal cultures are the expression of deep understandings of geosciences shared through oral histories, language and ceremonies. Today, Native people as all people are living in a definite time of change. The developing awareness of "change" brings forth an immense opportunity to expand and elevate Native geosciences knowledge, specifically in the areas of earth, wind, fire and water. At the center of "change" is the need to balance the needs of the people with the needs of the environment. Native tradition and our inherent understanding of what is "sacred above is sacred below" is the foundation for an emerging multi-faceted approach to increasing the representation of Natives in geosciences. The approach is also a pathway to assist in Tribal language revitalization, connection of oral histories and ceremonies as well as building an intergenerational teaching/learning community. Humboldt State University, Sinte Gleska University and South Dakota School of Mines and Technology in partnership with Northern California (Hoopa, Yurok, & Karuk) and Great Plains (Lakota) Tribes have nurtured Native geosciences learning communities connected to Tribal Sacred Sites and natural resources. These sites include the Black Hills (Mato Paha, Mato Tiplia, Hinhan Kaga Paha, Mako Sica etc.), Klamath River (Ishkêesh), and Hoopa Valley (Natinixwe). Native geosciences learning is centered on the themes of earth, wind, fire and water and Native application of remote sensing technologies. Tribal Elders and Native geoscientists work collaboratively providing Native families in-field experiential intergenerational learning opportunities which invite participants to immerse themselves spiritually, intellectually, physically and emotionally in the experiences. Through this immersion and experience Native students and families strengthen the circle of our future Tribal

  8. A Native American Theatre Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kent R.

    1973-01-01

    The ceremonial rituals American Indians have practiced for centuries are uncontestable testimony to how strongly they respond to theatre. These rituals, a pure and functional form of dramatic art, are practiced today by a Native American theater group. (FF)

  9. Native American Foods and Cookery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tom; Potter, Eloise F.

    Native Americans had a well-developed agriculture long before the arrival of the Europeans. Three staples--corn, beans, and squash--were supplemented with other gathered plants or cultivated crops such as white potatoes, sweet potatoes, pumpkins, and peanuts. Native Americans had no cows, pigs, or domesticated chickens; they depended almost…

  10. Native American youth and justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Laurence A. French

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Youth and delinquency issues have long been problematic among Native Americans groups both on- and off-reservation. This phenomenon is further complicated by the cultural diversity among American Indians and Alaska Natives scattered across the United States. In address these issues, the paper begins with a historical overview of Native American youth. This history presents the long tradition of federal policies that, how well intended, have resulted in discriminatory practices with the most damages attacks being those directed toward the destruction of viable cultural attributes – the same attributes that make Native Americans unique within United States society. Following the historical material, the authors contrast the pervasive Native American aboriginal ethos of harmony with that of Protestant Ethic that dominates the ethos of the larger United States society. In addition to providing general information on Native American crime and delinquency, the paper also provides a case study of Native American justice within the Navajo Nation, the largest tribe, in both size and population, in the United States. The paper concludes with a discussion of issues specific to Native American youth and efforts to address these problems.

  11. Charting Transnational Native American Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsinya Huang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction to the Special Forum entitled "Charting Transnational Native American Studies: Aesthetics, Politics, Identity," edited by Hsinya Huang, Philip J. Deloria, Laura M. Furlan, and John Gamber

  12. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders among Native Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A MERICANS Native American cultures, which encompass American Indian, Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian tribes, are rich with history, tradition, spirituality, and art. There are 562 Federally recognized tribes across the ...

  13. Native American Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabokov, Peter; Easton, Robert

    This book presents building traditions of the major Indian tribes in nine regions of the North American continent, from the huge, plankhouse villages of the Northwest Coast, to the moundbuilder towns and temples of the Southeast, to the Navajo hogans and adobe pueblos of the Southwest. Indian buildings are a central element of Indian culture, the…

  14. Native American Women: Living with Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, Rebecca

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the role of Native American women in the spiritual and cultural life of American Indians. Native American spirituality is deeply connected to the land through daily use, ritual, and respect for sacred space. Often Native American women act as conduits and keepers of this knowledge. (MJP)

  15. North Dakota Native American Essential Understandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, 2015

    2015-01-01

    In the spring of 2015, the North Dakota Department of Public Instruction brought together tribal Elders from across North Dakota to share stories, memories, songs, and wisdom in order to develop the North Dakota Native American Essential Understandings (NDNAEU) to guide the learning of both Native and non-Native students across the state. They…

  16. Exploring Aesthetics: Focus on Native Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrazin, Natalie

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that effectively presenting another culture in the classroom is one of the most fundamental problems facing teachers using a multicultural curriculum. Discusses the role of music and the arts in Native American culture. Provides suggestions for presenting traditional Native American music in Western classrooms. (CFR)

  17. Rapid City Native American Population Needs Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhi, Abdollah

    1993-01-01

    Interviews with 301 Native American households in Rapid City, South Dakota, examined demographic variables and attitudes and needs in the areas of education, housing, transportation, health care, recreation, and employment. The ultimate goals for Native American people are achieving empowerment and group determination through greater cultural…

  18. Stennis Space Center celebrates Native American culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Famie Willis (left), 2009-2010 Choctaw Indian Princess, displays artifacts during Native American Heritage Month activities at Stennis Space Center on Nov. 24. The celebration featured various Native American cultural displays for Stennis employees to view. Shown above are (l to r): Willis, Elaine Couchman of NASA Shared Services Center, John Cecconi of NSSC and Lakeisha Robertson of the Environmental Protection Agency.

  19. Native American Biographies. Multicultural Biographies Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Virginia, Ed.; And Others

    This book, appropriate for secondary students, includes brief biographies of 21 Native Americans of the 20th century. The biographies focus on childhood experiences, cultural heritage, and career goals. The book is divided into four units that feature Native Americans with successful careers in the fields of literature and drama; fine arts and…

  20. Native American Music and Curriculum: Controversies and Cultural Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyea, Andrea

    1999-01-01

    Discusses Native American music and curricula, the differences in Western and Native American perspectives of music, the role of music in Native American life, and music as art. Considers how Native Americans live in two worlds (the preserved and lived cultures) and how Native American music should be taught. (CMK)

  1. 76 FR 3120 - Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program; Office of English Language...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program; Office of English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement for Limited English Proficient Students; Overview Information; Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program...

  2. Native American Ceremonial Athletic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Wilma J.

    This is a report on the relationship of North American Indian athletic games to ceremonies. Data for this investigation were researched from 48 "Annual Reports of the Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution" published from 1881 to 1933, and the 84 volumes of the "American Anthropologist" published from 1888 to 1974. Observational…

  3. Dimensions of Native American Stereotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jeffery R.; Rouse, Linda P.

    1987-01-01

    Reports responses of 226 University of Texas undergraduates concerning their stereotypical perceptions of American Indians. Examines cultural stereotypes, personal stereotypes, perceived degree of Indian homogeneity, attitudes toward assimilation, and victim blaming. Suggests an emergent Indian stereotype based on cultural relativism prevailing…

  4. Infant Mortality and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American Indian/Alaska Native > Infant Health & Mortality Infant Mortality and American Indians/Alaska Natives American Indian/Alaska ... as compared to non-Hispanic white mothers. Infant Mortality Rate: Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live ...

  5. Jurisprudence, Peyote and the Native American Church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Paul E.; Scholes, Jennifer

    1986-01-01

    Examines federal and state governments' attempts to suppress peyote use in Indian rituals as historically Christian-inspired. Focuses on questions of morality versus criminal law. Explains history and development of Native American Church of North America. Examines nine contemporary peyote trials. Concludes larger questions of tribal sovereignty…

  6. Native American Culture: An Interdisciplinary Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troisi, Andrea

    1995-01-01

    Provides suggestions for a literature-based approach when integrating Native American culture into the middle school curriculum. Recommends resources in the following subjects: language arts, mathematics, physical education, health, home and career skills, technology, art, music, and second language. (AEF)

  7. Native American Media Needs: An Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuerman, Laurell E.; And Others

    Twenty five urban centers, 70 Indian tribes, and 60 public television stations responded to questionnaires in an attempt to collect information useful to the process of making programmatic decisions about future goals and activities of the Native American Public Broadcasting Consortium (NAPBC). The Tribal and Urban Center questionnaires were…

  8. Native Americans With Diabetes PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the January 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure and Native Americans have a greater chance of having diabetes than any other racial group in the U.S. Learn how to manage your diabetes to delay or prevent kidney failure.

  9. Coastal Culture Area. Native American Curriculum Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Cathy; Fernandes, Roger

    Background information, legends, games, illustrations, and art projects are provided in this booklet introducing elementary students to the history and culture of Indian tribes of the North Pacific Coast and Pacific Northwest. One in a series of Native American instructional materials, the booklet provides an overview of the coastal culture area,…

  10. Stylized Figures: Inspired by Native American Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Susie B.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching elementary-level art in the Pacific Northwest makes it natural for the author to develop a lesson based on Native American art of the area. The designs of the Northwest Indians can sometimes be a bit too sophisticated for the students to grasp, however, and it can be frustrating when developing such a project. Over a Labor Day weekend,…

  11. Challenges to Native American health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noren, J; Kindig, D; Sprenger, A

    1998-01-01

    Native American health care programs face complex and unprecedented challenges resulting from the increased assumption of clinical operations by tribal authorities, shortfalls in Federal funding, modifications in state and Federal health and welfare programs, and intensifying involvement with managed care organizations. These challenges are further complicated by service populations that are increasing at a faster rate than the growth in funding. The authors conducted onsite surveys of 39 Native American health programs in 10 states in order to assess the organizational and management problems they faced. The trend toward transfer of health programs from the Indian Health Service to tribal operation seems likely to continue and accelerate. The survey results indicate that in order for programs to be effective in the long run, they will need to be guided by skilled managers able to adapt to these powerful changes in the health care environment.

  12. Cultural Strengths to Persevere: Native American Women in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Stephanie J.; Lindley, Lorinda S.

    2013-01-01

    Beginning with an overview of historical perspectives of Native American women, this article includes some discussion of values and practices of contemporary Native American women, data pertaining to Native American women's participation in higher education, and an introduction of familial cultural capital, community cultural wealth, Native…

  13. 75 FR 49484 - Office of Postsecondary Education; Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander-Serving...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Office of Postsecondary Education; Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander-Serving Institutions (AANAPISI), Native American-Serving Nontribal Institutions (NASNTI), Hispanic Serving Institutions-STEM and Articulation (HSI-STEM), and Predominantly Black Institutions (PBI...

  14. Native Americans With Diabetes PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-01-10

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the January 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure and Native Americans have a greater chance of having diabetes than any other racial group in the U.S. Learn how to manage your diabetes to delay or prevent kidney failure.  Created: 1/10/2017 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/10/2017.

  15. Current Conditions in American Indian and Alaska Native Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, Margaret Connell

    The school experience of American Indian and Alaska Native children hinges on the context in which their schooling takes place. This context includes the health and well-being of their families, communities, and governments, as well as the relationship between Native and non-Native people. Many Native children are in desperate straits because of…

  16. Exploring Native American Students' Perceptions of Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubach, Timothy A.; Crofford, Geary Don; Marek, Edmund A.

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to explore Native American (NA) students' perceptions of scientists by using the Draw-A-Scientist Test and to determine if differences in these perceptions exist between grade level, gender, and level of cultural tradition. Data were collected for students in Grades 9-12 within a NA grant off-reservation boarding school. A total of 133 NA students were asked to draw a picture of a scientist at work and to provide a written explanation as to what the scientist was doing. A content analysis of the drawings indicated that the level of stereotype differed between all NA subgroups, but analysis of variance revealed that these differences were not significant between groups except for students who practised native cultural tradition at home compared to students who did not practise native cultural tradition at home (p educational and career science, technology, engineering, and mathematics paths in the future. The educational implication is that once initial perceptions are identified, researchers and teachers can provide meaningful experiences to combat the stereotypes.

  17. Socioeconomic profiles of native American communities: Duckwater Shoshone Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamby, M. [Cultural Resources Consultants Ltd., Reno, NV (United States)

    1991-10-01

    This report presents socioeconomic aspects of Native Americans of the Duckwater Shoshone Reservation. A survey is included concerning their views on the proposed Yucca Mountain waste repository. (CBS)

  18. Native Americans and state and local governments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusco, E.R. [Cultural Resources Consultants, Ltd. Reno, Nevada (United States)

    1991-10-01

    Native Americans` concerns arising from the possibility of establishment of a nuclear repository for high level wastes at Yucca Mountain fall principally into two main categories. First, the strongest objection to the repository comes from traditional Western Shoshones. Their objections are based on a claim that the Western Shoshones still own Yucca Mountain and also on the assertion that putting high level nuclear wastes into the ground is a violation of their religious views regarding nature. Second, there are several reservations around the Yucca Mountain site that might be affected in various ways by building of the repository. There is a question about how many such reservations there are, which can only be decided when more information is available. This report discusses two questions: the bearing of the continued vigorous assertion by traditionalist Western Shoshones of their land claim; and the extent to which Nevada state and local governments are able to understand and represent Indian viewpoints about Yucca Mountain.

  19. Native Americans and state and local governments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusco, E.R.

    1991-10-01

    Native Americans' concerns arising from the possibility of establishment of a nuclear repository for high level wastes at Yucca Mountain fall principally into two main categories. First, the strongest objection to the repository comes from traditional Western Shoshones. Their objections are based on a claim that the Western Shoshones still own Yucca Mountain and also on the assertion that putting high level nuclear wastes into the ground is a violation of their religious views regarding nature. Second, there are several reservations around the Yucca Mountain site that might be affected in various ways by building of the repository. There is a question about how many such reservations there are, which can only be decided when more information is available. This report discusses two questions: the bearing of the continued vigorous assertion by traditionalist Western Shoshones of their land claim; and the extent to which Nevada state and local governments are able to understand and represent Indian viewpoints about Yucca Mountain

  20. Native American Training Program in Petroleum Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Winifred M.; Kokesh, Judith H.

    1999-04-27

    This report outlines a comprehensive training program for members of Native American tribes whose lands have oil and gas resources. The program has two components: short courses and internships. Programs are proposed for: (1) adult tribes representatives who are responsible for managing tribal mineral holdings, setting policy, or who work in the oil and gas industry; (2) graduate and undergraduate college students who are tribal members and are studying in the appropriate fields; and (3) high school and middle school teachers, science teachers. Materials and program models already have been developed for some components of the projects. The plan is a coordinated, comprehensive effort to use existing resources to accomplish its goals. Partnerships will be established with the tribes, the BIA, tribal organizations, other government agencies, and the private sector to implement the program.

  1. Social Skills Efficacy and Proactivity among Native American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Sherri L.; Conkel, Julia L.; Reich, Allison N.; Trotter, Michelle J.; Siewart, Jason J.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses Native American urban adolescents' construal of social skills, and relationships between these skills and proactivity behaviors as identified in the Integrative Contextual Model of Career Development (Lapan, 2004). Recommendations that build upon the social skills strengths of Native American young people are included.…

  2. Dimensions of Acculturation in Native American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Amy L.; Sodano, Sandro M.; Ecklund, Timothy R.; Guyker, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were applied to the responses of two respective independent samples of Native American college students on the Native American Acculturation Scale (NAAS). Three correlated dimensions were found to underlie NAAS items and these dimensions may also comprise a broader higher order dimension of Native…

  3. Teaching Native American Music with Story for Multicultural Ends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyea, Andrea

    2000-01-01

    States that the alliance between story and music within Native American culture can be carried over into the curriculum. Provides a rationale for utilizing story while teaching Native American music, specifically related to the multicultural curriculum. Discusses the value of cultural music to the multicultural curriculum. (CMK)

  4. The Native American Studies Program at the University of Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Clara Sue

    2001-01-01

    Begun in 1994, the Native American Studies program at the University of Oklahoma is an interdisciplinary B.A. program with a liberal arts orientation and strong emphasis on contemporary American Indian policy. Program strengths include the number and diversity of the faculty involved, the four Native languages taught, connections to tribal…

  5. Native Americans in California Surveyed on Diets, Nutrition Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Joanne; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A survey of the diets of 51 Native Americans in California's Yosemite-Mariposa region was undertaken to develop a culturally relevant nutrition education and counseling program. Native Americans in this region have limited opportunities to obtain the foods they need for a healthy diet and also need information on obtaining help from federally…

  6. Victimization and Substance Use among Native American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Jillian; Livingston, Jennifer A.; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol; Patterson Silver Wolf, David A.

    2017-01-01

    According to Tribal Critical Race Theory, Native American students have low retention rates due to the structural barriers and racism inherent in colleges and universities. Similarly, structural barriers and racism could put Native American students at risk for victimization and substance use, thus influencing their academic success. The purposes…

  7. 75 FR 65611 - Native American Tribal Insignia Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Patent and Trademark Office Native American Tribal Insignia Database ACTION... comprehensive database containing the official insignia of all federally- and State- recognized Native American... to create this database. The USPTO database of official tribal insignias assists trademark attorneys...

  8. Give It Your Best! Profiles of Native American Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Russell; Kast, Sherry

    The purpose of this publication is to encourage and enhance the participation of American Indian and Alaska Native athletes in organized sports at the secondary, collegiate, and professional levels. Profiles are given of 37 young Native American women and men who are succeeding in competitive athletics, as well as in the classroom. One page is…

  9. Native American Visual Vocabulary: Ways of Thinking and Living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyc, Gloria; Milligan, Carolyn

    Visual literacy is a culturally-derived strength of Native American students. On a continent with more than 200 languages, Native Americans relied heavily on visual intelligence for trade and communication between tribes. Tribal people interpreted medicine paint, tattoos, and clothing styles to determine the social roles of those with whom they…

  10. The Function of Native American Storytelling as Means of Education in Luci Tapahonso's Selected Poems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddam, Widad Allawi; Ya, Wan Roselezam Wan

    2015-01-01

    Native American storytelling has become a very vital issue in education. It preserves Native American history for the next generation and teaches them important lessons about the Native American culture. It also conveys moral meanings, knowledge and social values of the Native American people to the universe. More importantly, Native American…

  11. Cultural Models of Education and Academic Performance for Native American and European American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryberg, Stephanie A.; Covarrubias, Rebecca; Burack, Jacob A.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the role of cultural representations of self (i.e., interdependence and independence) and positive relationships (i.e., trust for teachers) in academic performance (i.e., self-reported grades) for Native American ("N"?=?41) and European American ("N"?=?49) high school students. The Native American students endorsed…

  12. The Status of Native American Women in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Clara Sue

    A study of the status of Native American women in higher education obtained questionnaires from 61 undergraduate women at 4 colleges and 9 women with advanced degrees, interviewed 6 women in or about to enter graduate programs, and reviewed previous research and available statistical data. Results indicated that: relatively few Native American…

  13. "Borrowing" Activities from Another Culture: A Native American's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oles, Gordon W. A.

    1992-01-01

    Criticizes the practice in adventure education of using Native American rituals and practices without the proper cultural context. Suggests that western society uses rites and ceremonies initiated in its own culture for experiential education. (KS)

  14. Book Bonanza: Long before Columbus: Native American Culture and Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Lee Bennett

    1980-01-01

    Presented are a wide variety of current and older titles that teachers and students can use to better understand Native Americans. The following are included in the bibliography: planning aids, music, poetry, art, and fiction. (KC)

  15. Poor representation of Blacks, Latinos, and Native Americans in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, José E; Campbell, Kendall M; Adelson, Wendi J

    2015-04-01

    In this article, the authors discuss how various systems in medicine are limiting representation of blacks, Latinos, and Native Americans. Flat and decreasing percentages of Underrepresented Minorities in Medicine (URMM), especially in the black and Native American populations, is concerning for family medicine since members from URMM groups care for minority and underserved populations in greater numbers. Underrepresentation is not only noted in the medical community but also in our medical schools when it comes to numbers of URMM faculty. The changing definition of "disadvantaged" in medical school admissions has also played a part in limiting URMM representation. In addition, the Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT) excludes black, Latino, and Native American students in greater numbers. The authors support these arguments with evidence from the medical literature. Although unintentional, these systems effectively limit representation of blacks, Latinos, and Native Americans in medicine. Effective changes are suggested and can be implemented to ensure that URMM individuals have equal representation in careers in medicine.

  16. The Native American: Warriors in the U.S. Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    large as 95 percent.Ŗ Europeans brought measles, smallpox, cholera , and other diseases that reduced the Native American population and wiped out...Press, 1984. Clevenger, Steven. America’s First Warriors: Native Americans and Iraq. Museum of New Mexico Press. 2010. Clodfelter, MichaeL The Dakota...Autobiography of a Winnebago Indian. Dover Publications, Inc., 1963. Vandervort, Bruce. Indian Wars of Mexico , Canada, and the United States, 1812-1900

  17. Environmental racism: the US nuclear industry and native Americans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, Ulla

    1997-01-01

    The author argues that the United States nuclear industry has acted in a discriminatory fashion towards Native American peoples and the land they hold as reservations. Both uranium mining and nuclear weapons testing is commonplace and plans now exist to locate a low-level radioactive waste dump in the Mojave desert in California, a sacred site for many native people. Opposition to such plans is growing among the Native Americans, sharpened by their existing commitment to conservation of the environment, but on their own, they are not a lobby powerful enough to oppose the might of the nuclear industry. (UK)

  18. Environmental racism: the US nuclear industry and native Americans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtinen, Ulla [Organization of the Fourth World - First Peoples (Finland)

    1997-03-01

    The author argues that the United States nuclear industry has acted in a discriminatory fashion towards Native American peoples and the land they hold as reservations. Both uranium mining and nuclear weapons testing is commonplace and plans now exist to locate a low-level radioactive waste dump in the Mojave desert in California, a sacred site for many native people. Opposition to such plans is growing among the Native Americans, sharpened by their existing commitment to conservation of the environment, but on their own, they are not a lobby powerful enough to oppose the might of the nuclear industry. (UK).

  19. New Interpretations of Native American Literature: A Survival Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, Galen

    1980-01-01

    Uses examples from the work of several Native American authors, including N. Scott Momaday and Leslie Silko, to discuss five unique elements in American Indian literature: reverence for words, dependence on a sense of place, sense of ritual, affirmation of the need for community, and a significantly different world view. (SB)

  20. 77 FR 66527 - National Native American Heritage Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ... American dream. In paying tribute to Native American achievements, we must also acknowledge the parts of... to sign the Helping Expedite and Advance Responsible Tribal Homeownership (HEARTH) Act into law... succeed in college and careers. And under the Tribal Law and Order Act and the Safe Indian Communities...

  1. Correlates and Predictors of Binge Eating among Native American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Julie Dorton; Winterowd, Carrie

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and being overweight, as determined by body mass index (BMI), each continues to be of concern for many Native American/American Indians (NA/AI). According to the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders," binge eating is excessive eating or consuming large quantities of food over a short period of time and has been associated…

  2. Obesity and sexual abuse in American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, James A; McCrady-Spitzer, Shelly K; Bighorse, William

    2016-08-01

    Mainstream American culture frequently minimizes the prevalence and significance of sexual abuse. Unfortunately, this denial of extensive victimization of women is also present in many underserved populations. In June 2007, Amnesty International released its report on sexual abuse in indigenous women, which states that, "One in three Native American or Alaska Native women will be raped at some point in their lives. Most do not seek justice because they know they will be met with inaction or indifference." This report highlighted an infrequently discussed issue namely, very high levels of sexual abuse in Native American and Alaska Native women. The relationship between sexual abuse and obesity has been delineated in several studies; overall about one quarter to one half of women with high levels of obesity have been sexually abused and it has been postulated that weight-gain serves as an adaptive response for many survivors of sexual abuse. It is also well known in Native American and Alaskan Native women that there is a high prevalence of obesity (about 40% greater than the population average) and that this obesity is associated with a many-fold greater risk of diabetes and increased risks of hypertension, cancer and cardiovascular disease. The link between the concomitantly high rates of sexual abuse and obesity in this population may or may not be partial causality but the issue is nonetheless important. If approaches are to succeed in reversing the trend of increasing levels of obesity in Native American and Alaskan Native women, the high prevalence of sexual abuse will need to be specifically and comprehensively addressed.

  3. The Relationship between Native American Ancestry, Body Mass Index and Diabetes Risk among Mexican-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hao; Huff, Chad D; Yamamura, Yuko; Wu, Xifeng; Strom, Sara S

    2015-01-01

    Higher body mass index (BMI) is a well-established risk factor for type 2 diabetes, and rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes are substantially higher among Mexican-Americans relative to non-Hispanic European Americans. Mexican-Americans are genetically diverse, with a highly variable distribution of Native American, European, and African ancestries. Here, we evaluate the role of Native American ancestry on BMI and diabetes risk in a well-defined Mexican-American population. Participants were randomly selected among individuals residing in the Houston area who are enrolled in the Mexican-American Cohort study. Using a custom Illumina GoldenGate Panel, we genotyped DNA from 4,662 cohort participants for 87 Ancestry-Informative Markers. On average, the participants were of 50.2% Native American ancestry, 42.7% European ancestry and 7.1% African ancestry. Using multivariate linear regression, we found BMI and Native American ancestry were inversely correlated; individuals with ancestry were 2.5 times more likely to be severely obese compared to those with >80% Native American ancestry. Furthermore, we demonstrated an interaction between BMI and Native American ancestry in diabetes risk among women; Native American ancestry was a strong risk factor for diabetes only among overweight and obese women (OR = 1.190 for each 10% increase in Native American ancestry). This study offers new insight into the complex relationship between obesity, genetic ancestry, and their respective effects on diabetes risk. Findings from this study may improve the diabetes risk prediction among Mexican-American individuals thereby facilitating targeted prevention strategies.

  4. Upper Palaeolithic Siberian genome reveals dual ancestry of Native Americans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raghavan, Maanasa; Skoglund, Pontus; Graf, Kelly E.

    2014-01-01

    ,000-year-old individual (MA-1), from Mal'ta in south-central Siberia, to an average depth of 1×. To our knowledge this is the oldest anatomically modern human genome reported to date. The MA-1 mitochondrial genome belongs to haplogroup U, which has also been found at high frequency among Upper Palaeolithic......The origins of the First Americans remain contentious. Although Native Americans seem to be genetically most closely related to east Asians, there is no consensus with regard to which specific Old World populations they are closest to. Here we sequence the draft genome of an approximately 24...... that the region was continuously occupied by humans throughout the Last Glacial Maximum. Our findings reveal that western Eurasian genetic signatures in modern-day Native Americans derive not only from post-Columbian admixture, as commonly thought, but also from a mixed ancestry of the First Americans....

  5. Nativity, Chronic Health Conditions, and Health Behaviors in Filipino Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayog, Maria L G; Waters, Catherine M

    2018-05-01

    Nearly half of Americans have a chronic health condition related to unhealthful behavior. One in four Americans is an immigrant; yet immigrants' health has been studied little, particularly among Asian American subpopulations. Years lived in United States, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, walking, adiposity, and fruit/vegetable variables in the 2011-2012 California Health Interview Survey were analyzed to examine the influence of nativity on chronic health conditions and health behaviors in 555 adult Filipinos, the second largest Asian American immigrant subpopulation. Recent and long-term immigrant Filipinos had higher odds of having hypertension and diabetes, but lower odds of smoking and overweight/obesity compared with second-generation Filipinos. Being born in the United States may be protective against chronic health conditions, but not for healthful behaviors among Filipinos. Chronic disease prevention and health promotion strategies should consider nativity/length of residence, which may be a more consequential health determinant than other immigration and acculturation characteristics.

  6. Native American Death Taboo: Implications for Health Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colclough, Yoshiko Yamashita

    2017-07-01

    This study was conducted to highlight Native American (NA) perspectives on death taboo in order to examine the cultural appropriateness of hospice services for NA patients, if any. Searching literature that addressed taboo and death from historical, psychological, sociological, and anthropological aspects, a comparison of death perspectives was made between NAs and European Americans. A culturally sensitive transition from palliative care to hospice care was suggested for NA patients and their family.

  7. Native Americans in Cold War Public Diplomacy: Indian Politics, American History, and the US Information Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This essay examines the depiction of Native Americans by the US Information Agency (USIA), the bureau charged with explaining American politics to the international public during the Cold War. In the 1950s and 1960s, the USIA broadcast the message that Americans had begun to acknowledge their nation's history of conquest and were working to…

  8. Native American Religious Freedom and Federal Land Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Eric William

    1990-01-01

    Explains the importance of specific locations to the performance of ceremonies and rituals in traditional Native American religions. Discusses recent court decisions in favor of federal land management agencies denying protection to sacred sites because of economic or development considerations. Contains 15 references. (SV)

  9. This Path We Travel: Celebrations of Contemporary Native American Creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Pena, Frank

    1994-01-01

    An exhibition at the opening of the George Gustav Heye Center in New York City presents the talents of 15 contemporary Native American artists who during the past several years met at four different locations representing the cardinal directions. The exhibit combines sculpture, performance, poetry, music, and video to portray Indian world views…

  10. Promoting Books and Media: A Native American Indian Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses children's literature on Native American Indians and suggests ideas for using the literature in the school library media center or classroom by the library media specialist or by the classroom teacher. Activities and appropriate materials are suggested for the topics of housing, poetry, food, biography, crafts and music, and traditional…

  11. Peer Mentoring: Encouraging Persistence in Native American Postsecondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Susan D.

    2013-01-01

    Native Americans have endured historical and contemporary challenges that have adversely affected their achievement, including in the realm of postsecondary education. The difficulties have included, but are not limited to, the problems inherent in the process of assimilation into Caucasian culture, the repercussions of Indian Boarding Schools,…

  12. Ball Games of Native American Women of the Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Wilma J.

    The problem under investigation concerned (1) determining the ball games of Native American girls and women of the Great Plains, (2) determining the geographical spread of the games within the culture area, and (3) determining the characteristics of the various games. Data for this investigation were obtained from the 48 "Annual Reports of the…

  13. Red blood cell antigen genotype analysis for 9087 Asian, Asian American, and Native American blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Meghan; Harris, Samantha; Haile, Askale; Johnsen, Jill; Teramura, Gayle; Nelson, Karen

    2015-10-01

    There has yet to be a comprehensive analysis of blood group antigen prevalence in Asian Americans and Native Americans. There may be ethnic differences in blood group frequencies that would result in clinically important mismatches through transfusion. Blood donors who self-identified as Asian or Native American were tested using a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) DNA array (HEA BeadChip kit, Bioarray Solutions Ltd) that predicts expression of 38 human erythrocyte antigens (HEAs) and by serology for ABO, D, C, M, N, Jk(a) , and Jk(b) . The prevalence of blood group antigens was compared to published European prevalence. Discrepancies between SNP-predicted and serology-detected antigens were tallied. A total of 9087 blood donors were tested from nine Asian and Native American heritages. The predicted prevalence of selected antigens in the RHCE, JK, FY, MNS, LU, CO, and DO blood group systems were variable between Asian populations, but overall not significantly different than Europeans. Compared to European frequencies, Kell blood group allele frequencies were significantly different in the Chinese, Native American, Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, South Asian, and Southeast Asian heritage blood donors; Diego antigens Di(a) and Di(b) were different in donors of Native American and South Asian ancestries (p Asian and Native Americans donors. Several ethnic groups exhibited differences in HEA frequencies compared to Europeans. Genotype-serotype discrepancies were detected in all systems studied. © 2015 AABB.

  14. Native American plant resources in the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoffle, R.W.; Evans, M.J.; Halmo, D.B.

    1989-11-01

    This report presents Native American interpretations of and concerns for plant resources on or near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This one of three research reports regarding Native American cultural resources that may be affected by site characterization activities related to the Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Representatives of the sixteen involved American Indian tribes identified and interpreted plant resources as part of a consultation relationship between themselves and the US Department of Energy (DOE). Participants in the ethnobotany studies included botanists who have conducted, and continue to conduct, botanical studies for the Yucca Mountain Project. This report is to be used to review research procedures and findings regarding the process of consulting with the sixteen tribes, interviews with tribal plant specialists and elders, and findings from the ethnobotanical visits with representatives of the sixteen tribes. An annual report will include a chapter that summarizes the key findings from this plant resources study. 23 refs., 75 figs., 39 tabs

  15. Native American plant resources in the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoffle, R.W.; Evans, M.J.; Halmo, D.B. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (USA). Inst. for Social Research; Niles, W.E.; O`Farrell, J.T. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Goleta, CA (USA)

    1989-11-01

    This report presents Native American interpretations of and concerns for plant resources on or near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This one of three research reports regarding Native American cultural resources that may be affected by site characterization activities related to the Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Representatives of the sixteen involved American Indian tribes identified and interpreted plant resources as part of a consultation relationship between themselves and the US Department of Energy (DOE). Participants in the ethnobotany studies included botanists who have conducted, and continue to conduct, botanical studies for the Yucca Mountain Project. This report is to be used to review research procedures and findings regarding the process of consulting with the sixteen tribes, interviews with tribal plant specialists and elders, and findings from the ethnobotanical visits with representatives of the sixteen tribes. An annual report will include a chapter that summarizes the key findings from this plant resources study. 23 refs., 75 figs., 39 tabs.

  16. Mining and Environmental Health Disparities in Native American Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Johnnye; Hoover, Joseph; MacKenzie, Debra

    2017-06-01

    More than a century of hard rock mining has left a legacy of >160,000 abandoned mines in the Western USA that are home to the majority of Native American lands. This article describes how abrogation of treaty rights, ineffective policies, lack of infrastructure, and a lack of research in Native communities converge to create chronic exposure, ill-defined risks, and tribal health concerns. Recent results show that Native Americans living near abandoned uranium mines have an increased likelihood for kidney disease and hypertension, and an increased likelihood of developing multiple chronic diseases linked to their proximity to the mine waste and activities bringing them in contact with the waste. Biomonitoring confirms higher than expected exposure to uranium and associated metals in the waste in adults, neonates, and children in these communities. These sites will not be cleaned up for many generations making it critical to understand and prioritize exposure-toxicity relationships in Native populations to appropriately allocate limited resources to protect health. Recent initiatives, in partnership with Native communities, recognize these needs and support development of tribal research capacity to ensure that research respectful of tribal culture and policies can address concerns in the future. In addition, recognition of the risks posed by these abandoned sites should inform policy change to protect community health in the future.

  17. The Native American Persistence in Higher Education: A Journey through Story to Identify the Family Support to Native American Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisbee, Yolanda J. Guzman

    2013-01-01

    This Indigenous Framed Research will utilize counter-storytelling through shared collaborator stories provided by Nez Perce Native American Graduates. The methodology is shaped by an Indigenous Framework as this form of research promotes and develops a culturally resonant environment for constructing, analyzing and sharing information. The…

  18. Implications of the regional haze rule on renewable and wind energy development on native American lands in the west

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acker, T.L.; Auberle, W.M.; Duque, E.P.N.; Jeffery, W.D.; LaRoche, D.R.; Masayesva, V.; Smith, D.H.

    2003-01-01

    A study conducted at Northern Arizona University investigated the barriers and opportunities facing Native American tribes in the West when considering development of their renewable energy resources in order to reduce regional haze. This article summarizes some of the findings of that work with special attention to wind energy. Background information is presented concerning the Regional Haze Rule and the Western Regional Air Partnership, and some of the circumstances surrounding development of tribal energy resources. An assessment of tribal energy issues revealed that many Native American tribes are interested in developing their renewable resources. However, this development should occur within the context of maintaining and strengthening their cultural, social, economic and political integrity. Furthermore, it is shown that Native American lands possess an abundant wind resource. A list of potential actions in which tribes may participate prior to or during development of their wind or renewable resources is provided. (author)

  19. The Native American Experience. American Historical Images on File.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardwell, Lelia, Ed.

    This photo-documentation reference body presents more than 275 images chronicling the experiences of the American Indian from their prehistoric migrations to the present. The volume includes information and images illustrating the life ways of various tribes. The images are accompanied by historical information providing cultural context. The book…

  20. The Use in Experiential Education of Ceremonies and Rituals from Native American Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, McClellan; Couch, G. Owen

    1992-01-01

    McClellan Hall, a Native American, expresses distress and embarrassment at the improper use of Native cultural ceremonies at Association for Experiential Education conferences. G. Owen Couch, a non-Native, describes his personal experiences in using Native American philosophies inappropriately and his realization of the dangers in doing so. Both…

  1. Crying for a Vision: The Native American Sweat Lodge Ceremony as Therapeutic Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Michael Tlanusta; Torres-Rivera, Edil; Brubaker, Michael; Portman, Tarrell Awe Agahe; Brotherton, Dale; West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Conwill, William; Grayshield, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The Native American sweat lodge ceremony or sweat therapy is being used increasingly in various medical, mental health, correctional, and substance abuse treatment centers serving both Native and non-Native clients. This article explores the sweat lodge ceremony's background, elements of Native American spirituality, origin story, cultural…

  2. Renewable energy for federal facilities serving native Americans: preprint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiffert, P.; Sprunt Crawley, A.; Bartow, K.

    2000-01-01

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is targeting Federal facilities serving Native American populations for cost-effective renewable energy projects. These projects not only save energy and money, they also provide economic opportunities for the Native Americans who assist in producing, installing, operating, or maintaining the renewable energy systems obtained for the facilities. The systems include solar heating, solar electric (photovoltaic or PV), wind, biomass, and geothermal energy systems. In fiscal years 1998 and 1999, FEMP co-funded seven such projects, working with the Indian Health Service in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Bureau of Indian Affairs in the U.S. Department of the Interior, and their project partners. The new renewable energy systems are helping to save money that would otherwise be spent on conventional energy and reduce the greenhouse gases associated with burning fossil fuels

  3. An Exploration of Physiological Responses to the Native American Flute

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Eric B.; Goss, Clinton F.

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study explored physiological responses to playing and listening to the Native American flute. Autonomic, electroencephalographic (EEG), and heart rate variability (HRV) metrics were recorded while participants (N = 15) played flutes and listened to several styles of music. Flute playing was accompanied by an 84% increase in HRV (p < .001). EEG theta (4-8 Hz) activity increased while playing flutes (p = .007) and alpha (8-12 Hz) increased while playing lower-pitched flutes (p = .009...

  4. Conservation Implications of the Prevalence and Representation of Locally Extinct Mammals in the Folklore of Native Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Preston Matthew; Harcourt Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Many rationales for wildlife conservation have been suggested. One rationale not often mentioned is the impact of extinctions on the traditions of local people, and conservationists′ subsequent need to strongly consider culturally based reasons for conservation. As a first step in strengthening the case for this rationale, we quantitatively examined the presence and representation of eight potentially extinct mammals in folklore of 48 Native American tribes that live/lived near to 11 n...

  5. Native American Women Perceptions in Pk-12 Administrative Positions in North Dakota Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCoteau, Lanelia Irene

    2012-01-01

    Historically Native American women have experienced barriers in their rise to Pk-12 educational leadership positions. There is limited research available on Native American women in educational leadership. Therefore, the purpose for this survey study was to discover what inspired current Pk-12 Native American women educational leaders to choose…

  6. Broadening the Participation of Native Americans in Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno Watts, Nievita

    Climate change is not a thing of the future. Indigenous people are being affected by climate changes now. Native American Earth scientists could help Native communities deal with both climate change and environmental pollution issues, but are noticeably lacking in Earth Science degree programs. The Earth Sciences produce the lowest percentage of minority scientists when compared with other science and engineering fields. Twenty semi-structured interviews were gathered from American Indian/ Alaska Native Earth Scientists and program directors who work directly with Native students to broaden participation in the field. Data was analyzed using qualitative methods and constant comparison analysis. Barriers Native students faced in this field are discussed, as well as supports which go the furthest in assisting achievement of higher education goals. Program directors give insight into building pathways and programs to encourage Native student participation and success in Earth Science degree programs. Factors which impede obtaining a college degree include financial barriers, pressures from familial obligations, and health issues. Factors which impede the decision to study Earth Science include unfamiliarity with geoscience as a field of study and career choice, the uninviting nature of Earth Science as a profession, and curriculum that is irrelevant to the practical needs of Native communities or courses which are inaccessible geographically. Factors which impede progress that are embedded in Earth Science programs include educational preparation, academic information and counseling and the prevalence of a Western scientific perspective to the exclusion of all other perspectives. Intradepartmental relationships also pose barriers to the success of some students, particularly those who are non-traditional students (53%) or women (80%). Factors which support degree completion include financial assistance, mentors and mentoring, and research experiences. Earth scientists

  7. Long-term trends of native and non-native fish faunas in the American Southwest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olden, J. D.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental degradation and the proliferation of non-native fish species threaten the endemic, and highly unique fish faunas of the American Southwest. The present study examines long-term trends (> 160 years of fish species distributions in the Lower Colorado River Basin and identifies those native species (n = 28 exhibiting the greatest rates of decline and those non-native species (n = 48 exhibiting the highest rates of spread. Among the fastest expanding invaders in the basin are red shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas, green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides, western mosquitofish (Gambussia affinis and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus; species considered to be the most invasive in terms of their negative impacts on native fish communities. Interestingly, non-native species that have been recently introduced (1950+ have generally spread at substantially lower rates as compared to species introduced prior to this time (especially from 1920 to 1950, likely reflecting reductions in human-aided spread of species. We found general agreement between patterns of species decline and extant distribution sizes and official listing status under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. ‘Endangered’ species have generally experienced greater declines and have smaller present-day distributions compared to ‘threatened’ species, which in turn have shown greater declines and smaller distributions than those species not currently listed. A number of notable exceptions did exist, however, and these may provide critical information to help guide the future listing of species (i.e., identification of candidates and the upgrading or downgrading of current listed species that are endemic to the Lower Colorado River Basin. The strong correlation between probability estimates of local extirpation and patterns of native species decline and present-day distributions suggest a possible proactive

  8. Stomach cancer incidence rates among Americans, Asian Americans and Native Asians from 1988 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeerae Kim

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Stomach cancer is the second most common cancer in Eastern Asia, accounting for approximately 50% of all new cases of stomach cancer worldwide. Our objective was to compare the stomach cancer incidence rates of Asian Americans in Los Angeles with those of native Asians to assess the etiology of stomach cancer from 1988 to 2011. To examine these differences, Asian Americans (Korean, Japanese, Chinese, and Filipino Americans living in Los Angeles, California, USA and native Asians (from Korea, Japan, China, and the Philippines were selected for this study. Using the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents database, stomach cancer incidence rates were examined. Data from the National Cancer Registry of Korea were used for native Koreans. Between native countries, the incidence rates in Japan, China, the Philippines, and the US declined over time, but the incidence in Korea has remained constant. The incidences among Asian immigrants were lower than those among native Asians. The incidence rates of males were approximately 2 times higher than those among females in Asian countries were. The effect of immigration on stomach cancer incidence suggests that lifestyle factors are a significant determinant of stomach cancer risk. However, the incidence in Korea remains the highest of these countries

  9. Multi-generational perspectives on health, cancer, and biomedicine: Northeastern Native American perspectives shaped by mistrust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales, Mary K; Weiner, Diane; Samos, Markos; Wampler, Nina S

    2011-08-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death among Native Americans, who have-some of the poorest cancer survival rates of any race/ethnicity nationwide. Considering the cancer burden experienced by Native Americans and the lack of research exploring Northeastern tribal communities' cancer experiences, a qualitative investigation of Native Americans' cancer coping strategies and health education needs was undertaken. Data were collected through group (74) and individual (17) interviews with 91 Native Americans from the Northeast. Relationships between intergenerational mistrust, individual mistrust, and utilization of biomedical health care systems for Northeastern Native Americans are presented. Trust is central to the provider-patient relationship and the foundation for developing and maintaining connections to Native American communities. Intergenerational mistrust, shaped by historical and contemporary issues of prejudice and miscommunication, affect cancer health experiences and views. Approaches for reducing mistrust and building relationships between health care providers and Native communities are highlighted.

  10. The Depiction of Native Americans in Recent (1991-1998) Secondary American History Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Antonio R.

    As a follow-up to studies by R. Costo and J. Henry (1970) and J. Loewen (1995), this study examined 12 current secondary level U.S. history textbooks to evaluate their accuracy in depicting Native Americans. The criteria embodied an authenticity guideline based upon the "Five Great Values" (generosity and sharing, respect for elders and…

  11. Y-chromosome lineages in native South American population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Verea, A; Jaime, J C; Brión, M; Carracedo, A

    2010-04-01

    The present work tries to investigate the population structure and variation of the Amerindian indigenous populations living in Argentina. A total of 134 individuals from three ethnic groups (Kolla, Mapuche and Diaguitas) living in four different regions were collected and analysed for 26 Y-SNPs and 11 Y-STRs. Intra-population variability was analysed, looking for population substructure and neighbour populations were considered for genetic comparative analysis, in order to estimate the contribution of the Amerindian and the European pool, to the current population. We observe a high frequency of R1b1 and Q1a3a* Y-chromosome haplogroups, in the ethnic groups Mapuche, Diaguita and Kolla, characteristic of European and Native American populations, respectively. When we compare our native Argentinean population with other from the South America we also observe that frequency values for Amerindian lineages are relatively lower in our population. These results show a clear Amerindian genetic component but we observe a predominant European influence too, suggesting that typically European male lineages have given rise to the displacement of genuinely Amerindian male lineages in our South American population. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Trail of Tears Continues: Dispossession and Genocide of the Native American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Albert M.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the high cultural level of native American Indian populations at the time of conquest. Illustrates how cultural breakdown and demographic decimation have resulted from systematic policies that focused on exploiting natural resources at the expense of native peoples. (GC)

  13. The Function of Native American Storytelling as Means of Education in Luci Tapahonso’s Selected Poems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widad Allawi Saddam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Native American storytelling has become a very vital issue in education. It preserves Native American history for the next generation and teaches them important lessons about the Native American culture. It also conveys moral meanings, knowledge and social values of the Native American people to the universe. More importantly, Native American storytelling teaches people not to be isolated, and the key issues discussed in this paper are borrowed from the selected poems of Native American Luci Tapahonso: ‘The Holy Twins’ and ‘Remember the Things that you told.’   Keywords:  folklore, narrating, Native American, oral tradition, storytelling

  14. Remapping Place and Narrative in Native American Literature: David Treuer's "The Hiawatha"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, Padraig

    2007-01-01

    David Treuer's 1997 novel, "The Hiawatha," engages the traditional literary strategies employed by Native American writing, compares those strategies to earlier narratives (Native American and canonically American), offers a reassessment of indigenous novelistic structures, engages critical responses to tribal fiction, and does so in response to…

  15. Utilizing the Arts for Healing from a Native American Perspective: Implications for Creative Arts Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufrene, Phoebe

    This report on how Native American healing methods can be utilized in Western creative art therapy emphasizes that for Native Americans, art is an element of life--not a separate aesthetic ideal. Furthermore, American Indian philosophy does not separate healing from art or religion; the belief is that traditional healing, which uses shamanic…

  16. 76 FR 23331 - Native American Business Development Institute (NABDI) Funding Solicitations and Reporting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Native American Business Development Institute... Development (DED), Office of Indian Energy and Economic Development (IEED) seeks to spur job growth and sustainable economies on American Indian reservations. The DED created the Native American Business...

  17. Early Twentieth Century Arrow, Javelin, and Dart Games of the Western Native American.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Wilma J.

    The general purpose of this study was to determine whether the traditional native American ball games continued to be positive culture traits of the American Indian in the early twentieth century. The investigation was centered about (1) determining the current arrow, javelin, and dart games of western native Americans, (2) determining the…

  18. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2014, Series Information File for the Current American Indian/Alaska Native/Native Hawaiian Areas (AIANNH) National Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The American Indian/Alaska Native/Native Hawaiian (AIANNH) Areas Shapefile includes the following legal entities: federally recognized American Indian reservations...

  19. NAWIG News: The Quarterly Newsletter of the Native American Wind Interest Group; Summer 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-09-01

    The United States is home to more than 700 American Indian tribes and Native Alaska villages and corporations located on 96 million acres. Many of these tribes and villages have excellent wind resources that could be commercially developed to meet their electricity needs or for electricity export. The Wind Powering America program engages Native Americans in wind energy development, and as part of that effort, the NAWIG newsletter informs readers of events in the Native American/wind energy community.

  20. NAWIG News: The Quarterly Newsletter of the Native American Wind Interest Group; Summer 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-07-01

    The United States is home to more than 700 American Indian tribes and Native Alaska villages and corporations located on 96 million acres. Many of these tribes and villages have excellent wind resources that could be commercially developed to meet their electricity needs or for electricity export. The Wind Powering America program engages Native Americans in wind energy development, and as part of that effort, the NAWIG newsletter informs readers of events in the Native American/wind energy community.

  1. Blood politics, ethnic identity, and racial misclassification among American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haozous, Emily A; Strickland, Carolyn J; Palacios, Janelle F; Solomon, Teshia G Arambula

    2014-01-01

    Misclassification of race in medical and mortality records has long been documented as an issue in American Indian/Alaska Native data. Yet, little has been shared in a cohesive narrative which outlines why misclassification of American Indian/Alaska Native identity occurs. The purpose of this paper is to provide a summary of the current state of the science in racial misclassification among American Indians and Alaska Natives. We also provide a historical context on the importance of this problem and describe the ongoing political processes that both affect racial misclassification and contribute to the context of American Indian and Alaska Native identity.

  2. Native Americans and resource development: Third World brought home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, N.

    1978-03-01

    Indian reservations that are rich in uranium, oil, and coal deposits provide a development problem that is similar to that of Third World countries. The tribes have been cheated by government leasing of their lands for energy development without adequate payment, employment opportunities, environmental constraints, or prior consultation. Examples of this treatment illustrate the exploitation of Indian lands and tribes, but recent lawsuits indicate a growing awareness on the part of Native Americans of the impact that resource development has on their lives and a willingness to assert themselves. Government and industry opposition to this assertiveness is demonstrated by the bills in Congress that would revoke treaties with Indian tribes and would, under the guise of equal opportunity, strip them of their sovereignty over aboriginal lands.

  3. Prevalence of astigmatism in Native American infants and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Erin M; Dobson, Velma; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E; Green, Tina K; Messer, Dawn H; Miller, Joseph M

    2010-06-01

    To describe the prevalence of high astigmatism in infants and young children who are members of a Native American tribe with a high prevalence of astigmatism. SureSight autorefraction measurements were obtained for 1461 Tohono O'odham children aged 6 months to 8 years. The prevalence of astigmatism >2.00 diopters was 30% in Tohono O'odham children during infancy (6 months to O'odham infants show a high prevalence of astigmatism, which decreases in the second year of life. However, the prevalence of high astigmatism in Tohono O'odham children increases by age 2 to <3 years to a level near that seen in infancy and remains at that level until at least age 8 years. Longitudinal data are needed to determine whether the increase in high astigmatism after infancy occurs in infants who had astigmatism as infants or is due to the development of high astigmatism in children who did not show astigmatism during infancy.

  4. Mentoring in Native American Communities using STEM Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angrum, A.; Alexander, C. J.; Martin, M.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we will present a concept for mentoring built on STEM principles, and applied to the Native American community in Chinle, AZ. Effective mentoring includes being sensitive, listening to, and advising mentees based upon a 'correct' appreciation not only of their needs but also of the desires of the community they come from. Our project is an outreach effort on the part of NASA's contribution to the International Rosetta mission. Our initial program design incorporated ambitious STEM materials developed by NASA/JPL for other communities that excite and engage future generations in geoscience careers, to be re-packaged and brought to the Navajo community in Chinle. We were cognizant of the communities' emphasis on the need to know themselves and their own culture when teaching their students. Recognizing that one of the most important near-term problems in Native American communities across the country is preservation of aboriginal language, a first step in our program involved defining STEM vocabulary. Community participation was required to identify existing words, write a STEM thesaurus, and also define contemporary words (what we called 'NASA words') that have no equivalent in the native tongue. This step critically involved obtaining approval of new words from tribal Elders. Finally, our objective was to put this newly defined STEM vocabulary to work, helping the kids to learn STEM curriculum in their own language. The communities' response to our approach was guarded interest, an invitation to return for further work, and finally a request that we co-sponsor a Summer Science Academy that was not focused on the subjects of space exploration originally envisioned by the project. Thus a first lesson learned was that ambitious material might not be the first step to a sustained educational program on the reservation. Understanding the end-users' environment, requirements and constraints is a major component to sustainability. After several months of

  5. Weight-Bearing Exercise and Foot Health in Native Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuaderes, Elena; DeShea, Lise; Lamb, W Lyndon

    2014-12-01

    Diabetes contributes to sensory peripheral neuropathy, which has been linked to lower limb abnormalities that raise the risk for foot ulcers and amputations. Because amputations are a reason for pain and hospitalization in those with diabetes, it is of critical importance to gain insight about prevention of ulcer development in this population. Although the American Diabetes Association (ADA) now recommends that individuals with neuropathy can engage in moderate-intensity weight-bearing activity (WBA), they must wear appropriate footwear and inspect their feet daily. The physical forces and inflammatory processes from WBA may contribute to plantar characteristics that lead to ulcers. The purpose of this study was to compare neuropathic status and foot characteristics in Native Americans according to WBA classification. The t tests for unequal sample sizes found that exercisers had more difficulty sensing baseline temperature than nonexercisers, except at the right foot (all p values Exercisers demonstrated higher surface skin temperature gradients at the first metatarsal head, a plantar site where wounds tend to form. The more consistently exercisers performed, the higher the plan-tar pressures were at the right second ( r = .24, p = .02) and third metatarsal heads ( r = .26, p = .01). Findings from this investigation do not refute current ADA recommendations and further intervention studies are needed that are longitudinal and measures WBA more accurately.

  6. Evaluation of log submergence to control EAB and preserve black ash for native American basketry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therese M. Poland; Damon J. Crook; Tina M. Ciaramitaro

    2011-01-01

    Many Native American cultures use black ash, Fraxinus nigra, for basket-making because its ring-porous wood allows the annual layers of xylem to be easily separated. The emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis) is threatening North America's ash resource including black ash, and a centuries-old native art form. Native...

  7. Women finding the way: American Indian women leading intervention research in Native communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brave Heart, Maria Yellow Horse; Chase, Josephine; Elkins, Jennifer; Martin, Jennifer; Nanez, Jennifer; Mootz, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Although there is literature concentrating on cross-cultural approaches to academic and community partnerships with Native communities, few address the process and experiences of American Indian women leading federally funded and culturally grounded behavioral health intervention research in Native communities. This paper summarizes relevant literature on community-engaged research with Native communities, examines traditional roles and modern challenges for American Indian women, describes the culturally grounded collaborative process for the authors' behavioral health intervention development with Native communities, and considers emergent themes from our own research experiences navigating competing demands from mainstream and Native communities. It concludes with recommendations for supporting and enhancing resilience.

  8. 77 FR 9216 - Native American Career and Technical Education Program; Proposed Waivers and Extension of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Native American Career and Technical Education Program; Proposed Waivers...) 2007 under the Native American Career and Technical Education Program (NACTEP), the Secretary proposes... secondary school career and technical education programs. \\1\\ Section 116(a)(2) of the Carl D. Perkins...

  9. 36 CFR 219.15 - Interaction with American Indian tribes and Alaska Natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interaction with American Indian tribes and Alaska Natives. 219.15 Section 219.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST... Collaborative Planning for Sustainability § 219.15 Interaction with American Indian tribes and Alaska Natives...

  10. Cultural plant harvests on federal lands: perspectives from members of the Northwest Native American Basketweavers Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca Dobkins; Ceara Lewis; Susan Hummel; Emily. Dickey

    2016-01-01

    Native Americans who wish to harvest forest plants for traditional uses report difficulties gaining access to federal lands in the northwestern United States. To learn more about this issue, we reviewed the published literature on site access and resource harvests by tribal members and discussed it with Native American traditional users of plant resources. Specifically...

  11. Strategies for the Recruitment and Retention of Native American Students. Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, Timothy C.; Thurber, Hanna J.

    This paper describes issues involved in increasing the number of Native American students in higher education, with a specific focus on psychology and rehabilitation training programs. The paper also describes many specific strategies for use by colleges and universities to recruit, retain, and graduate Native American students. Three sections…

  12. 78 FR 25292 - Announcement of Funding Awards; Office of Native American Programs Training and Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... Awards; Office of Native American Programs Training and Technical Assistance; Fiscal Year 2012 AGENCY... (NOFA) for the Office of Native American Programs Training and Technical Assistance (ONAP T&TA). This... nonprofit organizations, as well as for-profit entities to provide Training & Technical Assistance to the...

  13. Native American High School Seniors' Perceptions of Higher Education: Motivating and Demotivating Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogman, Calvin

    2013-01-01

    For many Native American students, particularly those from reservations, the pursuit of higher education is a formidable concept to grasp. Poverty, rural isolation, and a myriad of social ills all take a role as demotivational factors that act as barriers between Native American students and a college education. On the other hand, family,…

  14. Critical Contexts for Biomedical Research in a Native American Community: Health Care, History, and Community Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahota, Puneet Chawla

    2012-01-01

    Native Americans have been underrepresented in previous studies of biomedical research participants. This paper reports a qualitative interview study of Native Americans' perspectives on biomedical research. In-depth interviews were conducted with 53 members of a Southwest tribal community. Many interviewees viewed biomedical research studies as a…

  15. Embracing Intercultural Diversification: Teaching Young Adult Literature with Native American Themes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Kenan; Box, Andrea; Blasingame, James

    2013-01-01

    According to the most recent census, there are five million Native Americans in the United States. Of these, there are at least 500,000 Native Americans attending public schools. However, the educational system does not fully serve this population and in fact often ignores them. More importantly, each tribe and clan has its own distinct cultural…

  16. Native American Mascots in Contemporary Higher Education: Part 1--Politically Acceptable or Ethnically Objectionable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reamey, Becky Avery

    2009-01-01

    The battle of the Little Big Horn in 1876 was one of the last great wars fought by Native Americans on a grassy battlefield. The battle was fought over territory and the right to live in the Dakota and Montana territories. The Native Americans won the battle of Little Big Horn but eventually lost the war and were forced to live on a reservation…

  17. Native American Arts and Crafts of the United States. Bibliography 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indian Arts and Crafts Board, Washington, DC.

    The selected readings listed in this annotated bibliography are suggested as an introduction to the varied arts and crafts created from prehistoric to modern times by Native American peoples of the United States. The publications are organized by culture area to encompass major media practiced by Native American artists and craftsmen of these…

  18. A Qualitative Study of a Native American Mascot at "Public University"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, Michelle Lyn

    2010-01-01

    At the time this study began, there were approximately 60 senior colleges and universities using Native American mascots or nicknames to represent their athletic teams (Fournier, 2003). Many Native Americans, coalitions, organizations, and researchers (Connolly, 2000; Davis, 2002; King & Springwood, 2000; NCAA, 2001) believe that these mascots…

  19. Home Environment and Self-Efficacy Beliefs among Native American, African American, and Latino Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Robert H

    2018-05-07

    Context helps determine what individuals experience in the settings they inhabit. Context also helps determine the likelihood that those experiences will promote adaptive development. Theory suggests likely interplay between various aspects of home context and development of ideas about self that influence patterns of development for children. This study addressed relations between two aspects of home life (companionship and investment, modeling and encouragement) and three types of self-efficacy beliefs (enlisting social resources, independent learning, self-regulatory behavior) considered important for long-term adaptive functioning. The study focused on three groups of minority adolescents (Native American, African American, Latino). Relations were examined using regression models that also included four aspects of household risk that often hinder the development of self-efficacy. Although findings varied somewhat across the three groups, significant relations emerged between the two domains of home life examined and self-efficacy beliefs in all three groups, even controlling for overall household risk. Companionship and investment appeared particularly relevant for African American adolescents, while modeling and encouragement appeared particularly relevant for Native American adolescents. Both were relevant for Latino adolescents. © 2018 Family Process Institute.

  20. Mitochondrial DNA analysis reveals substantial Native American ancestry in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Cruzado, J C; Toro-Labrador, G; Ho-Fung, V; Estévez-Montero, M A; Lobaina-Manzanet, A; Padovani-Claudio, D A; Sánchez-Cruz, H; Ortiz-Bermúdez, P; Sánchez-Crespo, A

    2001-08-01

    To estimate the maternal contribution of Native Americans to the human gene pool of Puerto Ricans--a population of mixed African, European, and Amerindian ancestry--the mtDNAs of two sample sets were screened for restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) defining the four major Native American haplogroups. The sample set collected from people who claimed to have a maternal ancestor with Native American physiognomic traits had a statistically significant higher frequency of Native American mtDNAs (69.6%) than did the unbiased sample set (52.6%). This higher frequency suggests that, despite the fact that the native Taíno culture has been extinct for centuries, the Taíno contribution to the current population is considerable and some of the Taíno physiognomic traits are still present. Native American haplogroup frequency analysis shows a highly structured distribution, suggesting that the contribution of Native Americans foreign to Puerto Rico is minimal. Haplogroups A and C cover 56.0% and 35.6% of the Native American mtDNAs, respectively. No haplogroup D mtDNAs were found. Most of the linguistic, biological, and cultural evidence suggests that the Ceramic culture of the Taínos originated in or close to the Yanomama territory in the Amazon. However, the absence of haplogroup A in the Yanomami suggests that the Yanomami are not the only Taíno ancestors.

  1. A Preliminary Investigation of Dynamic Assessment With Native American Kindergartners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukrainetz, Teresa A; Harpell, Stacey; Walsh, Chandra; Coyle, Catherine

    2000-04-01

    This study examined dynamic assessment as a lessbiased evaluation procedure for assessing the languagelearning ability of Native American children. Twenty-three Arapahoe/Shoshone kindergartners were identified as stronger (n = 15) or weaker (n = 8) language learners through teacher report and examiner classroom observation. Through a test-teach-test protocol, participants were briefly taught the principles of categorization. Participant responses to learning were measured in terms of an index of modifiability and post-test categorization scores. The modifiability index, determined during the teaching phase, was a combined score reflecting the child's learning strategies, such as ability to attend, plan, and self-regulate, and the child's responses to the learning situation. Post-test scores consisted of performance on expressive and receptive subtests from a standardized categorization test after partialling out pretest score differences. Effect sizes and confidence intervals were also determined. Group and individual results indicated that modifiability and post-test scores were significantly greater for stronger than for weaker language learners. The response to modifiability components was a better discriminator than was the learner strategies components. These results provide support for the further development of dynamic assessment as a valid measure of language learning ability in minority children.

  2. Perceptions of Native Americans: Indigenous science and connections to ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellcourt, Mark Alan

    2005-11-01

    Indigenous peoples of Turtle Island (North America) have had a special connection to and understanding of Mother Earth and Father Sky, and a long tradition of respect for the earth's resources. Based on this connection, understanding and respect, they have developed and used their own scientific theories and methods, and have used sustainable environmental practices. However, the problem is that despite centuries of scientific environmental practice and knowledge, Indigenous wisdom is virtually absent from the dominant mainstream Western science curriculums, literature, and practice. The purpose of this study is to explore Indigenous wisdom and how it might be better integrated into science and ecology education programs which are currently taught almost exclusively from Western perspectives. This study addresses the following two research questions: (1) What are the worldviews of Native American and science? (2) How can these worldviews be brought into mainstream Western science? The study of Indigenous wisdom involves an exploration of the stories a population of people whose core beliefs can not be easily quantified. A qualitative research approach, in-depth interviews and observations, have been selected for this study. The interviews and observations will be transcribed and the text will be reviewed and analyzed to find Indigenous worldviews and strategies for including these worldviews in current science curriculums.

  3. Conservation Implications of the Prevalence and Representation of Locally Extinct Mammals in the Folklore of Native Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preston Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Many rationales for wildlife conservation have been suggested. One rationale not often mentioned is the impact of extinctions on the traditions of local people, and conservationists′ subsequent need to strongly consider culturally based reasons for conservation. As a first step in strengthening the case for this rationale, we quantitatively examined the presence and representation of eight potentially extinct mammals in folklore of 48 Native American tribes that live/lived near to 11 national parks in the United States. We aimed to confirm if these extinct animals were traditionally important species for Native Americans. At least one-third of the tribes included the extinct mammals in their folklore (N=45 of 124 and about half of these accounts featured the extinct species with positive and respectful attitudes, especially the carnivores. This research has shown that mammals that might have gone locally extinct have been prevalent and important in Native American traditions. Research is now needed to investigate if there indeed has been or might be any effects on traditions due to these extinctions. Regardless, due to even the possibility that the traditions of local people might be adversely affected by the loss of species, conservationists might need to consider not only all the biological reasons to conserve, but also cultural ones.

  4. American Indian and Alaska native aboriginal use of alcohol in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, P J

    1996-01-01

    Alcohol beverages prior to White contact originated with the Mayan and the Aztec Nations and spread to the American Indians of the Southwest. Surprisingly, there are a number of accounts of alcohol use among other American Indians and Alaska Natives. Beverages were limited to wine and beer, and included: balche, pulque, and "haren a pitahaya" wines, tulpi beer and other beverages. White contact brought dramatic shifts in the use and function of alcoholic beverages in American Indian and Alaska Native societies.

  5. The Politics of Native American Health Care and the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    This article examines an important but largely overlooked dimension of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), namely, its significance for Native American health care. The author maintains that reading the ACA against the politics of Native American health care policy shows that, depending on their regional needs and particular contexts, many Native Americans are well-placed to benefit from recent Obama-era reforms. At the same time, the kinds of options made available by the ACA constitute a departure from the service-based (as opposed to insurance-based) Indian Health Service (IHS). Accordingly, the author argues that ACA reforms--private marketplaces, Medicaid expansion, and accommodations for Native Americans--are best read as potential "supplements" to an underfunded IHS. Whether or not Native Americans opt to explore options under the ACA will depend in the long run on the quality of the IHS in the post-ACA era. Beyond understanding the ACA in relation to IHS funding, the author explores how Native American politics interacts with the key tenets of Obama-era health care reform--especially "affordability"--which is critical for understanding what is required from and appropriate to future Native American health care policy making. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  6. Literature review and ethnohistory of Native American occupancy and use of the Yucca Mountain Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoffle, R.W.; Olmsted, J.E.; Evans, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents a review of the literature concerning Native American occupancy and use of the Yucca Mountain area and vicinity. It draws on a wide range of material, including early traveler reports, government documents, ethnographic and historical works, and local newspapers. The report complements two other concurrent studies, one focused on the cultural resources of Native American people in the study area and the other an ethnobotanical study of plant resources used by Native American people in the study area. The literature review has had two principal purposes: to determine the completeness of the Yucca Mountain Native American study design and to contribute to the understanding of the presence of Native American people in the Yucca Mountain area. A review of the existing literature about the Yucca Mountain area and southern Nye County, supplemented by the broader literature about the Great Basin, has verified three aspects of the study design. First, the review has aided in assessing the completeness of the list of Native American ethnic groups that have traditional or historical ties to the site. Second, it has aided in the production of a chronology of Native American activities that occurred on or near the site during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Third, it has helped to identify the location of cultural resources, including burials and other archaeological sites, in the study area and vicinity. 200 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs

  7. Simple Enough--Even for Web Virgins: Lisa Mitten's Access to Native American Web Sites. Web Site Review Essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgarde, Mary Jiron

    1998-01-01

    A mixed-blood Mohawk urban Indian and university librarian, Lisa Mitten provides access to Web sites with solid information about American Indians. Links are provided to 10 categories--Native nations, Native organizations, Indian education, Native media, powwows and festivals, Indian music, Native arts, Native businesses, and Indian-oriented home…

  8. Denisovan Ancestry in East Eurasian and Native American Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Pengfei; Stoneking, Mark

    2015-10-01

    Although initial studies suggested that Denisovan ancestry was found only in modern human populations from island Southeast Asia and Oceania, more recent studies have suggested that Denisovan ancestry may be more widespread. However, the geographic extent of Denisovan ancestry has not been determined, and moreover the relationship between the Denisovan ancestry in Oceania and that elsewhere has not been studied. Here we analyze genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism data from 2,493 individuals from 221 worldwide populations, and show that there is a widespread signal of a very low level of Denisovan ancestry across Eastern Eurasian and Native American (EE/NA) populations. We also verify a higher level of Denisovan ancestry in Oceania than that in EE/NA; the Denisovan ancestry in Oceania is correlated with the amount of New Guinea ancestry, but not the amount of Australian ancestry, indicating that recent gene flow from New Guinea likely accounts for signals of Denisovan ancestry across Oceania. However, Denisovan ancestry in EE/NA populations is equally correlated with their New Guinea or their Australian ancestry, suggesting a common source for the Denisovan ancestry in EE/NA and Oceanian populations. Our results suggest that Denisovan ancestry in EE/NA is derived either from common ancestry with, or gene flow from, the common ancestor of New Guineans and Australians, indicating a more complex history involving East Eurasians and Oceanians than previously suspected. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Prenatal alcohol exposure among Alaska Native/American Indian infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Burhan A; Robinson, Renee F; Smith, Julia J; Dillard, Denise A

    2013-01-01

    Recent reports indicate a decline in rates of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) among Alaska Native and American Indian (AN/AI) infants. Nevertheless, AN/AI infants remain disproportionately impacted by the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure. AN/AI pregnant women in their 3rd trimester completed a questionnaire on demographic data and the amount and frequency of their alcohol consumption in the month prior to conception and during pregnancy. Differences across demographics and trimesters were tested with the Chi-square, Fisher's exact or McNemar's test as appropriate. Of the 125 participants, 56% (n = 71) reported no alcohol consumption in the 1st through 3rd trimesters of pregnancy; 30% (n = 38) of the 125 participants also reported no alcohol consumption in the month before pregnancy. Of the 43% (n = 54) who reported consuming alcohol during pregnancy (1st, 2nd and/or 3rd trimester), most (35%) reported alcohol use only in the 1st trimester. Binge drinking in the 1st or 2nd trimester was reported amongst 20% (n = 25) of participants with an additional 18% (n = 29) reporting binge drinking in the month prior to pregnancy. Women who reported pre-conception binge drinking were significantly more likely to report binge drinking during their 1st trimester (p pregnancy (p pregnancy. Among study participants, reported use of alcohol was primarily limited to pre-conception and the 1st trimester, with a dramatic decrease in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters. Prevention programmes, such as the Alaska FAS Prevention Project, may have contributed to observed decreases in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters. Additional study and focus on pre-conception, the 1st trimester and binge drinking, as well as tobacco use might augment Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder prevention efforts.

  10. Establishing an anthropogenic nitrogen baseline using Native American shell middens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Autumn eOczkowski

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, has been heavily influenced by anthropogenic nutrients for more than 200 years. Recent efforts to improve water quality have cut sewage nitrogen (N loads to this point source estuary by more than half. Given that the bay has been heavily fertilized for longer than monitoring programs have been in place, we sought additional insight into how N dynamics in the system have historically changed. To do this, we measured the N stable isotope (δ15N values in clam shells from as early as 3000 BP to the present. Samples from Native American middens were compared with those collected locally from museums, an archaeological company, and graduate student thesis projects, during a range of time periods. Overall, δ15N values in clam shells from Narragansett Bay have increased significantly over time, reflecting known patterns of anthropogenic nutrient enrichment. Pre-colonization midden shell δ15N values were significantly lower than those post-European contact. While there were no statistical differences among shells dated from the late 15th Century to 2005, there was a significant difference between 2005 and 2015 shells, which we attribute to the higher δ15N values in the effluent associated with recent sewage treatment upgrades. In contrast, the δ15N values of shells from the southern Rhode Island coast remained constant through time; while influenced by human activities, these areas are not directly influenced by point-source sewage discharge. Overall, our results show that this isotope technique for measuring δ15N values in clam shells provides useful insight into how N dynamics in coastal ecosystems have changed during thousands of years, providing managers vital historical information when setting goals for N reduction.

  11. Salish Kootenai College Project for Recruitment and Retention of Native Americans in Associate Degree Nursing. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolberry, Jacque

    The purpose of the Salish Koontenai College (SKC) Project for Recruitment and Retention of Native Americans in Associate Degree Nursing was to increase the numbers of Native American registered nurses providing health care to the Native American population of Montana and the northwest mountain states. Recruitment and retention efforts targeted…

  12. Native American  student perspectives of challenges in natural resource higher education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breanna Gervais; Chase R. Voirin; Chris Beatty; Grace Bulltail; Stephanie Cowherd; Shawn Defrance; Breana Dorame; Raymond Gutteriez; Jessica Lackey; Candy Lupe; April B. Negrette; Natalya C. Robbins Sherman; Ruth Swaney; Kevin Tso; Marvin Victor; Royale Wilson; Kimberly Yazzie; Jonathan W. Long; Serra J. Hoagland

    2017-01-01

    Native Americans have vital interests in promoting forest management decisions based on sound science and consistent with cultural values to sustain and conserve tribal natural resources. Advancing the next generation of natural resource professionals into key positions is essential to advance the self-determination of tribes; yet, there are unique challenges Native...

  13. 78 FR 76834 - Request for Public Comment on the Proposed Adoption of Administration for Native Americans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families [CFDA Numbers: 93.581, 93.587, 93.612] Request for Public Comment on the Proposed Adoption of Administration for Native... by members of the public at the Administration for Native Americans, 901 D Street SW., Washington, DC...

  14. Running the "Medicine Line": Images of the Border in Contemporary Native American Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Kate

    2011-01-01

    In this article the author is concerned with the intersection of two congruent phenomena: (1) an increasing number of references to borders in contemporary Native American art; and (2) an increasing occurrence of border-rights conflicts between Native nations and the governments of the United States and Canada. Focusing on the period roughly 1990…

  15. Recovery of native forest after removal of an invasive tree, Falcataria moluccana, in American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Flint Hughes; Amanda L. Uowolo; Tavita P. Togia

    2012-01-01

    Invasive species are among the greatest threats to global biodiversity. Unfortunately, meaningful control of invasive species is often difficult. Here, we present results concerning the effects of invasion by a non-native, N2-fixing tree, Falcataria moluccana, on native-dominated forests of American Samoa and the response of...

  16. 76 FR 35462 - Proposed Renewal of Information Collection; Source Directory of American Indian and Alaska Native...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... contact the business. Internet Web site address To identify whether the business advertises and/or sells...; Source Directory of American Indian and Alaska Native Owned and Operated Arts and Crafts Businesses... Alaska Native Owned and Operated Arts and Crafts Businesses (Source Directory) is a program of the Indian...

  17. Hemisphericity and information processing in North American Native (Ojibwa) and non-native adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, L L; Allen, J D; Williams, N H

    1994-04-01

    Thirty-two male and female adolescents of native ancestry (Ojibwa) and 32 controls were tested using (1) four WISC-R subtests and (2) two dichotic listening tasks which employed a focused-attention paradigm for processing consonant-vowel combinations (CVs) and musical melodies. On the WISC-R, natives scored higher than controls on Block Design and Picture Completion subtests but lower on Vocabulary and Similarities subtests. On laterality measures more native males showed a left ear advantage on the CV task and the melody task. For CVs the left ear advantage was due to native males' lower right ear (i.e., left hemisphere) involvement. For melodies, the laterality index pointed to less left hemisphere involvement for native males, however, the raw scores showed that natives were performing lower overall. The findings are consistent with culturally-based strategy differences, possibly linked to "hemisphericity," but additional clarifying research regarding the cause and extent of such differences is warranted. Thus, implications for education are premature but a focus on teaching "left hemisphere type" strategies to all individuals not utilizing such skills, including many native males, may prove beneficial.

  18. 78 FR 27078 - Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... traditional Native American religion by present-day adherents, which is recovered from Federal land after... agencies to consider regulatory approaches that reduce burdens and maintain flexibility and freedom of...

  19. FastStats: Health of American Indian or Alaska Native Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health of American Indian or Alaska Native Population Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... Source: Summary Health Statistics Tables for the U.S. Population: National Health Interview Survey, 2015, Table P-1c [ ...

  20. NAWIG News: The Quarterly Newsletter of the Native American Wind Interest Group, Summer 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-06-01

    DOE's Wind Powering America program has initiated a quarterly NAWIG newsletter to present Native American wind information, including projects, interviews with pioneers, issues, WPA activities, and related events.

  1. Lumbee Native American ancestry and the incidence of aggressive histologic subtypes of endometrial cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: In this retrospective cohort analysis, Lumbee Native American ancestry was not a significant independent predictor of rates of high-risk histological subtypes of endometrial cancer or poor survival outcomes.

  2. Recruitment and retention of Native American graduate students in school psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goforth, Anisa N; Brown, Jacqueline A; Machek, Greg R; Swaney, Gyda

    2016-09-01

    There is a clear underrepresentation of Native Americans in the field of school psychology. There are a number of factors that have led to this underrepresentation, including cultural and historical variables, barriers to accessing higher educational opportunities, and lack of financial support. Given the importance of having diverse perspectives in the field, as well as the need for mental health services and academic supports for Native American children and their families, school psychology trainers should consider actively recruiting and retaining Native American graduate students to doctoral and specialist programs. This article provides specific research-based recommendations for recruiting Native American students and strategies for supporting their success and matriculation in the program. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Native American Conference on Petroleum Energy; November 16-17, 1996; Bartlesville, Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-27

    Thirty-three Native American tribal members, council members, and other interested parties gathered in Bartlesville, Oklahoma, to attend the Native American Conference on Petroleum Energy on October 16 and 17 1996, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and BDM-Oklahoma, Inc. Tribes represented at the workshop included the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Hopi, Jicarilla Apache, Osage, Seminole, and Ute. Representatives of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the Minerals Management Service (MMS) also attended. BDM-Oklahoma developed and organized the Native American Conference on Petroleum Energy to help meet the goals of the U.S. Department of Energy's Domestic Gas and Oil Initiative to help Native American Tribes become more self-sufficient in developing and managing petroleum resources.

  4. 38 CFR 36.4527 - Direct housing loans to Native American veterans on trust lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... No service or brokerage fee shall be charged against the Native American veteran-borrower by any..., including, but not limited to, contracts of sale, installment contracts, deeds, leases, bills of sale...

  5. 78 FR 66619 - National Native American Heritage Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... violence, marginalization, broken promises, and upended justice. There was a time when native languages and... natural disasters strike their homelands. In March, I signed the Violence Against Women Reauthorization...

  6. The Depiction of Native Americans in Recent (1991-2004) Secondary American History Textbooks: How Far Have We Come?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Tony R.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined 15 secondary American history textbooks to evaluate their accuracy in depicting Native Americans as a follow-up to studies by Costo and Henry (1970) and Loewen (1995). The criteria embodied an authenticity guideline based upon the Five Great Values with a rating scale between 1 (lowest) and 5 (highest). The results indicate…

  7. Native Americans and cultural impact analysis: The proposed nuclear waste repository at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.E. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Beneath a surface patterning of legal, political, economic and other formal structures, Native American reservations and their tribes possess many culturally distinctive values and patterns of life. Generally it is this ancient underlying culture that Native American leaders wish to preserve and nourish. Their primary objective is tribal survival, and socioeconomic and cultural impact assessment theories and methods must reflect this objective. Conventional impact analysis rarely meets the needs of tribal leadership. Current, fragmented approaches must be replaced by integrative, holistic alternatives

  8. 76 FR 68623 - National Native American Heritage Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    .... In June, I signed an Executive Order establishing the White House Rural Council, to strengthen... of tribes and deliver long-awaited trust reform to Indian Country. To bring jobs and sustainable... at the White House Tribal Nations Conference held in Washington, D.C. next month. [[Page 68624

  9. The relevance of cultural activities in ethnic identity among California Native American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweigman, Kurt; Soto, Claradina; Wright, Serena; Unger, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed data from a large statewide sample of Native American adolescents throughout California to determine whether participation in cultural practices was associated with stronger ethnic identity. The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) scale was used to measure the ethnic identity of 945 Native American adolescents (416 male, 529 female) aged 13 - 19 across California. Respondents who participated in cultural activities including pow-wows, sweat lodge, drum group and roundhouse dance reported significantly higher Native American ethnic identity than their counterparts who did not take part in cultural activities. The association between cultural activities and ethnic identity was only significant among urban youth and not among reservation youth. Higher grades in school were associated with ethnic identity among females but not among males. Findings from this study show a strong association between cultural activities and traditional practices with tribal enculturation among Native American youth in California. Cultural-based practices to enhance Native identity could be useful to improve mental and behavioral health among Native American youth.

  10. Marital Patterns and Use of Mother Tongue at Home among Native-Born Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chigon; Min, Pyong Gap

    2010-01-01

    This article examines marital patterns and use of mother tongue at home among native-born Asian Americans using the 2005-2007 American Community Survey 3-Year Public Use Microdata Sample. There are variations in mother-tongue use across Asian ethnic groups, but variations among different types of marriage are even greater. Those who marry within…

  11. 77 FR 30512 - Native American Career and Technical Education Program; Final Waivers and Extension of Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Native American Career and Technical Education Program; Final Waivers and... American Career and Technical Education Program Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA) Number: 84... and Technical Education Program (NACTEP), the Secretary waives 34 CFR 75.250 and 75.261(c)(2) in order...

  12. Honoring the Past, Changing the Future: Bringing Native American Voices into Dance Theory Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Robin

    2016-01-01

    The inclusion of Native American perspectives adds an important voice in honoring the multiplicities of histories and cultures inherent in American society. And yet, teachers run the risk of committing unknown offenses if they are not familiar with the potential pitfalls that longstanding asymmetrical power relations between cultures can produce.…

  13. A Review of Child Psychiatric Epidemiology With Special Reference to American Indian and Alaska Native Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Ben Ezra; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Places the limited knowledge of the psychological problems of American Indian and Alaska Native children in context of general child psychiatric epidemiology, using the taxonomy of the American Psychiatric Association's third "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual." Available from: White Cloud Center, Gaines Hall UOHSC, 840 Southwest Gaines…

  14. Alcohol Use and American Indian/Alaska Native Student Academic Performance among Tribal Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cometsevah, Cecelia L.

    2013-01-01

    Student academic performance, persistence, and graduation among American Indian/Alaska Native students in higher education are very low compared to other racial groups. Studies have shown that American Indian students enter higher education with a lack of academic preparedness, financial challenges, lack of social skills development, and lack of…

  15. 75 FR 74077 - Information Collection for Native American Business Development Institute Funding for Economic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... Business Development Institute Funding for Economic Development Feasibility Studies and Long-Term Strategic...), Office of Indian Energy and Economic Development (IEED) seeks to spur job growth and sustainable economies on American Indian reservations. DED created the Native American Business Development Institute...

  16. 3 CFR 8449 - Proclamation 8449 of October 30, 2009. National Native American Heritage Month, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... lives. Native Americans have distinguished themselves as inventors, entrepreneurs, spiritual leaders... Americans. These programs will increase educational opportunities, address the scourge of alcohol abuse and... affordable health care. While funding increases do not make up for past deficiencies, they do reflect our...

  17. 78 FR 39539 - Establishing the White House Council on Native American Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... efforts to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of tribal justice systems and protect tribal communities; (d) expanding and improving lifelong educational opportunities for American Indians and Alaska... Executive Order 13592 of December 2, 2011 (Improving American Indian and Alaska Native Educational...

  18. Rock, Reservation and Prison: The Native American Occupation of Alcatraz Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklansky, Jeff

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes the 1969-71 occupation of Alcatraz Island by young radical American Indians as a set of metaphors for Indian America. Examines the central images of cultural revitalization through independence, protest against the position of Native Americans nationwide and rebellion against White oppression. Contains 47 references. (SV)

  19. Genomic evidence for the Pleistocene and recent population history of Native Americans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raghavan, Maanasa; Steinruecken, Matthias; Harris, Kelley

    2015-01-01

    Howand when the Americas were populated remains contentious. Using ancient and modern genome-wide data, we found that the ancestors of all present-day Native Americans, including Athabascans and Amerindians, entered the Americas as a single migration wave from Siberia no earlier than 23 thousand....... Subsequent gene flow resulted in some Native Americans sharing ancestry with present-day East Asians (including Siberians) and, more distantly, Australo-Melanesians. Putative "Paleoamerican" relict populations, including the historical Mexican Pericues and South American Fuego-Patagonians, are not directly...

  20. Genomic evidence for the Pleistocene and recent population history of Native Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Anders; Moltke, Ida; Metspalu, Mait; Homburger, Julian R.; Wall, Jeff; Cornejo, Omar E.; Moreno-Mayar, J. Víctor; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S.; Pierre, Tracey; Rasmussen, Morten; Campos, Paula F.; de Barros Damgaard, Peter; Allentoft, Morten E.; Lindo, John; Metspalu, Ene; Rodríguez-Varela, Ricardo; Mansilla, Josefina; Henrickson, Celeste; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Malmström, Helena; Stafford, Thomas; Shringarpure, Suyash S.; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Karmin, Monika; Tambets, Kristiina; Bergström, Anders; Xue, Yali; Warmuth, Vera; Friend, Andrew D.; Singarayer, Joy; Valdes, Paul; Balloux, Francois; Leboreiro, Ilán; Vera, Jose Luis; Rangel-Villalobos, Hector; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata; Davis, Loren G.; Heyer, Evelyne; Zollikofer, Christoph P. E.; Ponce de León, Marcia S.; Smith, Colin I.; Grimes, Vaughan; Pike, Kelly-Anne; Deal, Michael; Fuller, Benjamin T.; Arriaza, Bernardo; Standen, Vivien; Luz, Maria F.; Ricaut, Francois; Guidon, Niede; Osipova, Ludmila; Voevoda, Mikhail I.; Posukh, Olga L.; Balanovsky, Oleg; Lavryashina, Maria; Bogunov, Yuri; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Gubina, Marina; Balanovska, Elena; Fedorova, Sardana; Litvinov, Sergey; Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Mosher, M. J.; Archer, David; Cybulski, Jerome; Petzelt, Barbara; Mitchell, Joycelynn; Worl, Rosita; Norman, Paul J.; Parham, Peter; Kemp, Brian M.; Kivisild, Toomas; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Crawford, Michael; Villems, Richard; Smith, David Glenn; Waters, Michael R.; Goebel, Ted; Johnson, John R.; Malhi, Ripan S.; Jakobsson, Mattias; Meltzer, David J.; Manica, Andrea; Durbin, Richard; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Song, Yun S.; Nielsen, Rasmus; Willerslev, Eske

    2016-01-01

    How and when the Americas were populated remains contentious. Using ancient and modern genome-wide data, we find that the ancestors of all present-day Native Americans, including Athabascans and Amerindians, entered the Americas as a single migration wave from Siberia no earlier than 23 thousand years ago (KYA), and after no more than 8,000-year isolation period in Beringia. Following their arrival to the Americas, ancestral Native Americans diversified into two basal genetic branches around 13 KYA, one that is now dispersed across North and South America and the other is restricted to North America. Subsequent gene flow resulted in some Native Americans sharing ancestry with present-day East Asians (including Siberians) and, more distantly, Australo-Melanesians. Putative ‘Paleoamerican’ relict populations, including the historical Mexican Pericúes and South American Fuego-Patagonians, are not directly related to modern Australo-Melanesians as suggested by the Paleoamerican Model. PMID:26198033

  1. American Indian and Alaska Native Heart Disease and Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... percent have a bachelor’s degree or higher. The poverty rate of people who report American Indian and ... I11, I13, 120–151. Data Sources: National Vital Statistics System, CDC, and the U.S. Census Bureau. American ...

  2. Unexpected inverse correlation between Native American ancestry and Asian American variants of HPV16 in admixed Colombian cervical cancer cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopera, Esteban A; Baena, Armando; Florez, Victor; Montiel, Jehidys; Duque, Constanza; Ramirez, Tatiana; Borrero, Mauricio; Cordoba, Carlos M; Rojas, Fredy; Pareja, Rene; Bedoya, Astrid M; Bedoya, Gabriel; Sanchez, Gloria I

    2014-12-01

    European (E) variants of HPV 16 are evenly distributed among world regions, meanwhile Non-European variants such as European-Asian (EAs), Asian American (AA) and African (Af) are mostly confined to Eastern Asia, The Americas and African regions respectively. Several studies have shown that genetic variation of HPV 16 is associated with the risk of cervical cancer, which also seems to be dependent on the population. This relationship between ethnicity and variants have led to the suggestion that there is co-evolution of variants with humankind. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between the individual ancestry proportion and infection with HPV 16 variants in cervical cancer. We examined the association between ancestry and HPV 16 variants in samples of 82 cervical cancer cases from different regions of Colombia. Individual ancestry proportions (European, African and Native American) were estimated by genotyping 106 ancestry informative markers. Variants were identified by PCR amplification of the E6 gene, followed by reverse line blot hybridization (RLB) with variants specific probes. Overall European (E) and Asian American (AA) variants frequency was 66.5% and 33.5% respectively. Similar distribution was observed in cases with higher proportions of European or African ancestry. A higher Native American ancestry was significantly associated with higher frequency of E variants (median ancestry>23.6%, Age and place of birth adjusted OR: 3.55, 95% CI: 1.26-10.03, p=0.01). Even further, an inverse geographic correlation between Native American ancestry and frequency of infections with AA variants was observed (ρ=-0.825, p=0.008). Regions with higher proportion of Native American ancestry had a lower frequency of AA variants of HPV 16. This study suggests replacement of AA variants by E variants of human papillomavirus 16 in cervical cancer cases with high Native American ancestry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Chronic disease risk factors among American Indian/Alaska Native women of reproductive age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amparo, Pamela; Farr, Sherry L; Dietz, Patricia M

    2011-11-01

    The magnitude of chronic conditions and risk factors among American Indian/Alaska Native women of reproductive age is unknown. The objective of our study was to estimate this magnitude. We analyzed data for 2,821 American Indian/Alaska Native women and 105,664 non-Hispanic white women aged 18 to 44 years from the 2005 and 2007 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We examined prevalence of high cholesterol, high blood pressure, diabetes, body mass index (kg/m(2)) ≥25.0, physical inactivity, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and frequent mental distress, and the cumulative number of these chronic conditions and risk factors (≥3, 2, 1, or 0). In a multivariable, multinomial logistic regression model, we examined whether American Indian/Alaska Native race was associated with the cumulative number of chronic conditions and risk factors. American Indian/Alaska Native women, compared with white women, had significantly higher rates of high blood pressure, diabetes, obesity, smoking, and frequent mental distress. Of American Indian/Alaska Native women, 41% had 3 or more chronic conditions or risk factors compared with 27% of white women (χ(2), P Indian/Alaska Native race was not associated with having either 1, 2, or 3 or more chronic conditions or risk factors. Three out of every 5 American Indian/Alaska Native women aged 18 to 44 years have 3 or more chronic conditions or risk factors. Improving economic status and education for AI/AN women could help eliminate disparities in health status.

  4. Risk factors of suicide and depression among Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander youth: a systematic literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Laura C.; Ung, Tien; Park, Rebecca; Kwon, Simona C.; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2015-01-01

    Suicide has become an increasing public health challenge, with growing incidence among Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander (AA and NHPI) youth. Using an ecological framework, the purpose of this systematic review was to explicate risk and protective factors for depression or suicide among AA and NHPI youth from available peer reviewed research. The ecological framework provides a useful blueprint for translating social determinants of health to explain the experience of depression and suicidal behaviors among AA and NHPI youth. Sixty-six studies were extracted from PsychInfo, Ovid Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Web of Science. Policy and practice recommendations are offered in light of relevant themes that emerged. Further research and data disaggregation is needed to develop and strengthen population health strategies, interventions, and policies that address the underlying social conditions and cultural contexts of mental health disparities associated with depression and suicide among AA and NHPI youth. PMID:25981098

  5. Risk Factors of Suicide and Depression among Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander Youth: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Laura C; Ung, Tien; Park, Rebecca; Kwon, Simona C; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2015-05-01

    Suicide has become an increasing public health challenge, with growing incidence among Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander (AA and NHPI) youth. Using an ecological framework, the purpose of this systematic review was to explicate risk and protective factors for depression or suicide among AA and NHPI youth from available peer reviewed research. The ecological framework provides a useful blueprint for translating social determinants of health to explain the experience of depression and suicidal behaviors among AA and NHPI youth. Sixty-six studies were extracted from PsychInfo, Ovid Med-line, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Web of Science. Policy and practice recommendations are offered in light of relevant themes that emerged. Further research and data disaggregation is needed to develop and strengthen population health strategies, interventions, and policies that address the underlying social conditions and cultural contexts of mental health disparities associated with depression and suicide among AA and NHPI youth.

  6. Language of Science as a Bridge to Native American Educators and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C. J.; Angrum, A.; Martin, M.; Ali, N.; Kingfisher, J.; Treuer, A.; Grant, G.; Ciotti, J.

    2010-12-01

    In the Western tradition, words and vocabulary encapsulate much of how knowledge enters the public discourse, and is passed from one generation to the next. Much of Native American knowledge is passed along in an oral tradition. Chants and ceremonies contain context and long-baseline data on the environment (geology, climate, and astronomy) that may even surpasses the lifespan of a single individual. For Native American students and researchers, the concept of ‘modern research and science education’ may be wrapped up into the conundrum of assimilation and loss of cultural identification and traditional way of life. That conundrum is also associated with the lack of language and vocabulary with which to discuss 'modern research.' Native Americans emphasize the need to know themselves and their own culture when teaching their students. Many Native American communities recognize that the retention of their language - and need to make the language relevant to the technological age we live in, represents one of their largest and most urgent challenges. One strategy for making science education relevant to Native American learners is identifying appropriate terms that cross the cultural divide. More than just words and vocabulary, the thought processes and word/concept relationships can be quite different in the native cultures. The U.S. Rosetta Project has worked to identify words associated with Western 'STEM' concepts in three Native American communities: Navajo, Hawaiian, and Ojibwe. The U.S. Rosetta Project is NASA’s contribution to the International Rosetta Mission. The Rosetta stone, inspiration for the mission’s name, is expected to provide the keys to the primordial solar system the way the original Rosetta Stone provided a key to ancient language. Steps taken so far include identification and presentation of online astronomy, geology, and physical science vocabulary terms in the native language, identification of teachers and classrooms - often in

  7. Committee opinion no. 515: Health care for urban American Indian and Alaska Native women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Sixty percent of American Indian and Alaska Native women live in metropolitan areas. Most are not eligible for health care provided by the federal Indian Health Service (IHS). The IHS partly funds 34 Urban Indian Health Organizations, which vary in size and services. Some are small informational and referral sites that are limited even in the scope of outpatient services provided. Compared with other urban populations, urban American Indian and Alaska Native women have higher rates of teenaged pregnancy, late or no prenatal care, and alcohol and tobacco use in pregnancy. Their infants have higher rates of preterm birth, mortality, and sudden infant death syndrome than infants in the general population. Barriers to care experienced by American Indian and Alaska Native women should be addressed. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists encourages Fellows to be aware of the risk profile of their urban American Indian and Alaska Native patients and understand that they often are not eligible for IHS coverage and may need assistance in gaining access to other forms of coverage. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists also recommends that Fellows encourage their federal legislators to support adequate funding for the Indian Health Care Improvement Act, permanently authorized as part of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

  8. Landscape, Memory and Myth: An Interview with Native American Artist, Jeremy Dennis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis, Jeremy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Jeremy Dennis is a photographer and visual artist living and working in Southampton, New York. He is a member of the Shinnecock Indian Nation; a federally recognised tribe of historically Algonquian-speaking Native Americans based at the eastern end of Long Island, New York. He received his MFA from Pennsylvania State University in 2016, and in the same year, was one of only two artists in the USA awarded the Harpo Native American Residency Fellowship. In his work, Jeremy channels his experiences as an indigenous artist to explore and expand upon issues relating to identity, assimilation and post-colonialism. Through a combination of digitally manipulated photography, site-specific installation, performance and documentation, Dennis attempts to create multi-dimensional conversations around local and broader contemporary Native American issues, whilst also referencing its rich and complex history. jeremynative.com

  9. NAWIG News: The Quarterly Newsletter of the Native American Wind Interest Group, Spring 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranowski, R.

    2008-03-01

    The United States is home to more than 700 American Indian tribes and Native Alaska villages and corporations located on 96 million acres. Many of these tribes and villages have excellent wind resources that could be commercially developed to meet their electricity needs or for electricity export. The Wind Powering America program engages Native Americans in wind energy development, and as part of that effort, the NAWIG newsletter informs readers of events in the Native American/wind energy community. This issue features an interview with Steven J. Morello, director of DOE's newly formed Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs, and a feature on the newly installed Vestas V-47 turbine at Turtle Mountain Community College.

  10. Evaluation of a health sciences internship for Latino and Native American library students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keselman, Alla; Quasem, Sanjana; Kelly, Janice E; Dutcher, Gale A

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a qualitative evaluation of a graduate-level internship for Latino and Native American library science students or students who are interested in serving those populations. The authors analyzed semi-structured interviews with thirteen internship program graduates or participants. The analysis suggests that the program increased participants' interest in health sciences librarianship and led to improved career opportunities, both in health sciences libraries and other libraries with health information programming. It also highlights specific factors that are likely to contribute to the strength of career pipeline programs aiming to bring Latino and Native American students and students who are interested in serving those communities into health librarianship. Exposing graduate-level interns to a broad range of health sciences librarianship tasks, including outreach to Latino and Native American communities and formal mentorship, is likely to maximize interns' interests in both health sciences librarianship and service to these communities.

  11. 'Snag bags': adapting condoms to community values in Native American communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilley, Brian Joseph

    2006-01-01

    HIV/AIDS researchers working among Native Americans have consistently noted resistance to discussions of sexuality and the distribution of condoms. This resistance is inspired by long held values about shame and public discussions of sexuality. Also, American Indians have been reluctant to welcome public discussions of HIV/AIDS and sexuality from external entities, such as governmental agencies. As a result, Native peoples have some of the lowest documented condom use rates. However, innovations in culturally integrating condoms and safe sex messages into Native cultural ideals are proving beneficial. One such innovation is the snag bag, which incorporates popular Native sexual ideology while working within local ideals of shame to distribute condoms and safe sex materials to sexually active young people and adults. Using snag bags as an example, this research proposes that an effective approach to HIV prevention among Native peoples is not cultural sensitivity but cultural integration. That is, HIV prevention strategies must move beyond the empty promise of merely culturally-sensitizing ideas about disease cause. Instead of simply 'translating' HIV/AIDS programming into Native culture, prevention strategies must be integrated by Native peoples into their own disease theories and contemporary culture.

  12. Ohoyo Makachi: Words of Today's American Indian Women. A First Collection of Oratory by American Indian/Alaska Native Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verble, Sedelta, Ed.

    The volume presents a collection of 39 conference speeches symbolizing an effort by American Indian and Alaska Native women to speak for themselves, about themselves and to each other. Topics of speeches presented at Tahlequah consist of: past positives and present problems of Indian women; squaw image stereotyping; status of Indian women in…

  13. American Indian Tribal Values: A Critical Consideration in the Education of American Indians/Alaska Natives Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippeconnic, John W., III; Tippeconnic Fox, Mary Jo

    2012-01-01

    The education of American Indians and Alaska Natives has increasingly become more complex given the differences in tribal languages and cultures, especially as changing demographics and issues of Indian identity are considered. There are over 200 languages and vast cultural differences between and within the 565 federally recognized tribes in…

  14. Using Photo-Elicitation with Native American Students to Explore Perceptions of the Physical Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Neurohr

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective – This research project explored Native American students’ perceptions of the Edmon Low Library at Oklahoma State University (OSU. The study sought to understand how Native American students perceived the role of the academic library in their lives, and which elements of the library students depicted and described as holding meaning for them. Methods – Photo-elicitation, a form of visual research and a participatory research method, was the primary method chosen to explore students’ perceptions of the library. To qualify for this study, students self-identified as Native American and as frequent library users. They also had completed three or more semesters of study at OSU. Five students followed a photo prompt for taking at least fifteen pictures of the library, then participated in two separate interviews with the primary researcher. Participants also completed a demographic/questionnaire form, answered semi-structured questions, and ranked the photos they took. Results – This study produced several emergent findings. First, students expressed uncertainty about the library’s books. Second, functional library tools such as express printers and library signage played a valuable role for facilitating student work. Third, the method of photo-elicitation was enjoyable for students and served as library discovery. Fourth, Native American resources and exhibits in the library had varied salience for students. Conclusion – Limited research focuses on Native American students in academic libraries, particularly on how students use and experience the library. Exploring how individual students who identify as Native American perceive the university library enhanced our understanding of how libraries in Predominantly White Institutions (PWIs can best serve and support students. This study provided insight into the method of photo-elicitation interviews. This research also provided practical benefits for student

  15. Tobacco Industry Promotional Strategies Targeting American Indians/Alaska Natives and Exploiting Tribal Sovereignty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempert, Lauren K; Glantz, Stanton A

    2018-03-12

    American Indians/Alaska Natives have the highest commercial tobacco use in the United States, resulting in higher tobacco-caused deaths and diseases than the general population. Some American Indians/Alaska Natives use commercial tobacco for ceremonial as well as recreational uses. Because federally-recognized Tribal lands are sovereign, they are not subject to state cigarette taxes and smokefree laws. This study analyzes tobacco industry promotional efforts specifically targeting American Indians/Alaska Natives and exploiting Tribal lands to understand appropriate policy responses in light of American Indians'/Alaska Natives' unique sovereign status and culture. We analyzed previously secret tobacco industry documents available at the Truth Tobacco Documents Library (https://industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/). Tobacco companies used promotional strategies targeting American Indians/Alaska Natives and exploiting Tribal lands that leveraged the federally-recognized Tribes' unique sovereign status exempting them from state cigarette taxes and smokefree laws, and exploited some Tribes' existing traditional uses of ceremonial tobacco and poverty. Tactics included price reductions, coupons, giveaways, gaming promotions, charitable contributions and sponsorships. Additionally, tobacco companies built alliances with Tribal leaders to help improve their corporate image, advance ineffective "youth smoking prevention" programs, and defeat tobacco control policies. The industry's promotional tactics likely contribute to disparities in smoking prevalence and smoking-related diseases among American Indians//Alaska Natives. Proven policy interventions to address these disparities including tobacco price increases, cigarette taxes, comprehensive smokefree laws, and industry denormalization campaigns to reduce smoking prevalence and smoking-related disease could be considered by Tribal communities. The sovereign status of federally-recognized Tribes does not prevent them

  16. 77 FR 71396 - Council for Native American Farming and Ranching

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ... American Farming and Ranching (CNAFR) a public advisory committee of the Office of Tribal Relations (OTR... documents other than rules #0;or proposed rules that are applicable to the public. Notices of hearings #0..., filing of petitions and applications and agency #0;statements of organization and functions are examples...

  17. Native American Technical Assistance and Training for Renewable Energy Resource Development and Electrical Generation Facilities Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. David Lester

    2008-10-17

    The Council of Energy Resource Tribes (CERT) will facilitate technical expertise and training of Native Americans in renewable energy resource development for electrical generation facilities, and distributed generation options contributing to feasibility studies, strategic planning and visioning. CERT will also provide information to Tribes on energy efficiency and energy management techniques.This project will provide facilitation and coordination of expertise from government agencies and private industries to interact with Native Americans in ways that will result in renewable energy resource development, energy efficiency program development, and electrical generation facilities management by Tribal entities. The intent of this cooperative agreement is to help build capacity within the Tribes to manage these important resources.

  18. A NASA Community of Practice for Scientists and Educators Working with American Indians and Alaskan Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalice, D.; Sparrow, E. B.; Johnson, T. A.; Allen, J. E.; Gho, C. L.

    2016-12-01

    One size does not fit all. This is especially true in education, where each learner meets new information from a unique standpoint, bringing prior experiences and understandings to the learning space. It is the job of the educator to be sensitive to these unique perspectives, and work with them to bring learners to new levels of knowledge. This principle is foundational to conducting science education with Native American communities, as they have a distinct history in the US, especially where education is concerned. Many scientists and educators at agencies like NASA are engaging in science education with Native communities across the US, and are approaching the work from varied prior experiences, levels of knowledge of the history of Native America, and desired outcomes. Subsequently, there are varied levels of success, and in some cases, oppressive patterns may be perpetuated. It is therefore the responsibility of the science educator to become informed and sensitized to the unique situation of Native Americans and their history with education and science. It is incumbent on science educators to ensure that the goals they have for Native youth are derived from the goals Native leaders have for their youth, and programming is co-created with Native partners. Toward supporting its science education community to do this, NASA's Science Mission Directorate has initiated a Working Group of individuals, teams, and organizations that are involved in science education with Native American communities via K-12 and/or tribal college programming, and/or grant-making. The purpose is to cultivate a Community of Practice through the sharing of information, knowledge, wisdom, ideas, experience, and best practices, and through the leveraging of resources, assets, and networks. The ultimate goal is the improvement and increased cultural competence of the programs implemented and managed by the group's members.

  19. The Issue of Compatibility between Cultural Integrity and Economic Development among Native American Tribes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dean Howard

    1994-01-01

    Argues that economic development on American Indian reservations can strengthen a tribe's ability to maintain its culture if all development plans are formulated with consideration for their total societal impact. Discusses holistic approaches to development and business management, spiritual concerns, implications for higher education, and…

  20. U.S. Geological Survey Activities Related to American Indians and Alaska Natives: Fiscal Year 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Susan M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction This report describes the activities that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted with American Indian and Alaska Native governments, educational institutions, and individuals during Federal fiscal year (FY) 2005. Most of these USGS activities were collaborations with Tribes, Tribal organizations, or professional societies. Others were conducted cooperatively with the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) or other Federal entities. The USGS is the earth and natural science bureau within the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI). The USGS does not have regulatory or land management responsibilities. As described in this report, there are many USGS activities that are directly relevant to American Indians, Alaska Natives, and to Native lands. A USGS website, dedicated to making USGS more accessible to American Indians, Alaska Natives, their governments, and institutions, is available at www.usgs.gov/indian. This website includes information on how to contact USGS American Indian/Alaska Native Liaisons, training opportunities, and links to other information resources. This report and previous editions are also available through the website. The USGS realizes that Native knowledge and cultural traditions of living in harmony with nature result in unique Native perspectives that enrich USGS studies. USGS seeks to increase the sensitivity and openness of its scientists to the breadth of Native knowledge, expanding the information on which their research is based. USGS scientific studies include data collection, mapping, natural resource modeling, and research projects. These projects typically last 2 or 3 years, although some are parts of longer-term activities. Some projects are funded cooperatively, with USGS funds matched or supplemented by individual Tribal governments, or by the BIA. These projects may also receive funding from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the Indian Health Service (part of the Department of Health and Human Services

  1. "The Poison That Ruined the Nation": Native American Men-Alcohol, Identity, and Traditional Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matamonasa-Bennett, Arieahn

    2017-07-01

    Alcoholism and destructive drinking patterns are serious social problems in many Native American reservation and urban communities. This qualitative study of men from a single Great Lakes reservation community examined the social, cultural, and psychological aspects of their alcohol problems through their life stories. The men were in various stages of recovery and sobriety, and data collection consisted of open-ended interviews and analysis utilizing principles and techniques from grounded theory and ethnographic content analysis. Alcoholism and other serious social problems facing Native American communities need to be understood in the sociocultural and historical contexts of colonization and historical grief and trauma. This study suggests that for Native American men, there are culturally specific perspectives on alcohol that have important implications for prevention and treatment of alcohol abuse. The participants' narratives provided insight into the ways reconnecting with traditional cultural values (retraditionalization) helped them achieve sobriety. For these men, alcohol was highly symbolic of colonization as well as a protest to it. Alcohol was a means for affirming "Indian" identity and sobriety a means for reaffirming traditional tribal identity. Their narratives suggested the ways in which elements of traditional cultural values and practices facilitate healing in syncretic models and Nativized treatment. Understanding the ways in which specific Native cultural groups perceive their problems with drinking and sobriety can create more culturally congruent, culturally sensitive, and effective treatment approaches and inform future research.

  2. 20 CFR 668.100 - What is the purpose of the programs established to serve Native American peoples (INA programs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... them more competitive in the workforce; (3) Promote the economic and social development of Indian... LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN PROGRAMS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Purposes and... support comprehensive employment and training activities for Indian, Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian...

  3. Idea Bank: The Native American Flute--A Possibility for Your Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacanek, Hal

    2011-01-01

    The sound of the Native American flute seems to convey care, sadness, loneliness, longing, heartfelt emotion, a sense of the natural world, wisdom, the human spirit, and a sense of culture. It is a sound that competes for attention, dramatically punctuating messages about First Nation peoples on television and in movies. A relatively small group…

  4. 78 FR 12955 - Final Requirements, Definitions, and Selection Criteria-Native American Career and Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... career and technical education programs (20 U.S.C. 2326(e)). This notice does not preclude us from... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 34 CFR Chapter IV [Docket ID ED-2012-OVAE-0053] Final Requirements, Definitions, and Selection Criteria--Native American Career and Technical Education Program (NACTEP) [Catalog...

  5. Methamphetamine Use among Rural White and Native American Adolescents: An Application of the Stress Process Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitle, David J.; Eitle, Tamela McNulty

    2013-01-01

    Methamphetamine use has been identified as having significant adverse health consequences, yet we know little about the correlates of its use. Additionally, research has found that Native Americans are at the highest risk for methamphetamine use. Our exploratory study, informed by the stress process model, examines stress and stress buffering…

  6. School Psychologists Working with Native American Youth: Training, Competence, and Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson-Zanartu, Carol; Butler-Byrd, Nola; Cook-Morales, Valerie; Dauphinais, Paul; Charley, Elvina; Bonner, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Despite growing emphases on multicultural competence, Native American youth remain tremendously underserved by schools: low achievement, high dropout rates, and over-identification for special education persist. The authors analyzed responses of 403 school psychologists to a national survey regarding their competence gained in training, in current…

  7. Body Mass Index and Cancer Screening in Older American Indian and Alaska Native Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muus, Kyle J.; Baker-Demaray, Twyla; McDonald, Leander R.; Ludtke, Richard L.; Allery, Alan J.; Bogart, T. Andy; Goldberg, Jack; Ramsey, Scott D.; Buchwald, Dedra S.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Regular screenings are important for reducing cancer morbidity and mortality. There are several barriers to receiving timely cancer screening, including overweight/obesity. No study has examined the relationship between overweight/obesity and cancer screening among American Indian/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs). Purpose: To describe the…

  8. Incorporating the Culture of American Indian/Alaska Native Students into the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillory, Raphael M.; Williams, Garnet L.

    2014-01-01

    Focus group interviews were conducted with educators and stakeholders for American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) students, including teachers, elementary and high school principals, tribal community leaders, and parents, to determine a global definition of culture and ways of infusing culture into curriculum to better educate AI/AN students. Focus…

  9. Using Self-Regulated Learning Methods to Increase Native American College Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, David A.; Ahuna, Kelly H.; Tinnesz, Christine Gray; Vanzile-Tamsen, Carol

    2014-01-01

    A big challenge facing colleges and university programs across the United States is retaining students to graduation. This is especially the case for Native American students, who have had one of the highest dropout rates over the past several decades. Using data from a large university that implemented a self-regulated learning course for…

  10. CDC Vital Signs–Native Americans With Diabetes

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the January 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure and Native Americans have a greater chance of having diabetes than any other racial group in the U.S. Learn how to manage your diabetes to delay or prevent kidney failure.

  11. Protocol for Appraisal of Petroleum Producing Properties on Native American Tribal Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-27

    Petroleum is currently produced on Native American Tribal Lands and has been produced on some of these lands for approximately 100 years. As these properties are abandoned at a production level that is considered the economic limit by the operator, Native American Tribes are considering this an opportunity to assume operator status to keep the properties producing. In addition to operating properties as they are abandoned, Native American Tribes also are assuming liabilities of the former operator(s) and ownership of equipment left upon abandonment. Often, operators are assumed by Native American Tribes without consideration of the liabilities left by the former operators. The purpose of this report is to provide protocols for the appraisal of petroleum producing properties and analysis of the petroleum resource to be produced after assuming operations. The appraisal protocols provide a spreadsheet for analysis of the producing property and a checklist of items to bring along before entering the property for onsite appraisal of the property. The report will provide examples of some environmental flags that may indicate potential liabilities remaining on the property left unaddressed by previous operators. It provides a starting point for appraisal and analysis of a property with a basis to make the decision to assume operations or to pursue remediation and/or closure of the liabilities of previous operators.

  12. Native American Students in U.S. Higher Education: A Look from Attachment Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simi, Demi; Matusitz, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the behavioral patterns of Native American college students in U.S. higher education. Attachment theory is the theoretical framework used in this analysis. Developed by Bowlby ("Attachment and loss: Separation, anxiety and anger," 1973), attachment theory postulates that behaviors can be predicted based on one's…

  13. Challenges to Evaluating Physical Activity Programs in American Indian/Alaska Native Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Erica Blue; Butler, James; Green, Kerry M.

    2018-01-01

    Despite the importance of evaluation to successful programming, a lack of physical activity program (PAP) evaluation for American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) programs exists, which is significant given the high rates of obesity and diabetes in this population. While evaluation barriers have been identified broadly among AI/AN programs, challenges…

  14. 75 FR 13595 - Workforce Investment Act; Native American Employment and Training Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Committee Act (FACA) (Pub. L. 92-463), as amended, and Section 166(h)(4) of the Workforce Investment Act.... Campbell, Designated Federal Official (DFO), U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW., Room S...: Mrs. Campbell, DFO, Indian and Native American Program, Employment and Training Administration, U.S...

  15. 77 FR 22003 - Workforce Investment Act; Native American Employment and Training Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... Committee Act (FACA) (Pub. L. 92-463), as amended, and Section 166 (h)(4) of the Workforce Investment Act.... Evangeline M. Campbell, Designated Federal Official (DFO), U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue... INFORMATION CONTACT: Mrs. Evangeline M. Campbell, DFO, Division of Indian and Native American Programs...

  16. 75 FR 7524 - Workforce Investment Act; Native American Employment and Training Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... Committee Act (FACA) (Pub. L. 92-463), as amended, and Section 166(h)(4) of the Workforce Investment Act.... Evangeline M. Campbell, Designated Federal Official (DFO), U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue... Recommendations. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mrs. Evangeline M. Campbell, DFO, Indian and Native American...

  17. 78 FR 3031 - Workforce Investment Act; Native American Employment and Training Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA) (Pub. L. 92-463), as amended, and Section 166(h)(4) of the Workforce... to Mrs. Evangeline M. Campbell, Designated Federal Official (DFO), U.S. Department of Labor, 200.... Evangeline M. Campbell, DFO, Division of Indian and Native American Programs, Employment and Training...

  18. Reflections on the Elusive Promise of Religious Freedom for the Native American Church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Steven C.

    1991-01-01

    Analyzes the April 1990 Supreme Court decision that a member of a religion may not challenge, under the First Amendment free exercise clause, a generally applicable criminal law that infringes on a specific religious practice. Discusses political and legal implications for the Native American Church and other minority religions. (SV)

  19. Native American Business Participation in E-Commerce: An Assessment of Technical Assistance and Training Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregendahl, Corry; Flora, Cornelia

    A combined outreach and research initiative addressed the participation of Native American business owners in electronic commerce. E-commerce can provide many benefits to producers and consumers but does not ensure unmitigated economic success. It is only one part of a development process leading to achievement of tribes' broader social goals,…

  20. Does the Worm Live in the Ground? Reflections on Native American Spirituality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Michael Tlanusta; Wilbur, Michael P.

    1999-01-01

    Describes Native American spirituality through the four basic cultural elements of Medicine, Harmony, Relation, and Vision. With these elements in mind, practical implications for counseling are offered concerning greeting, hospitality, silence, space, eye contact, intention, and collaboration. States that once a counselor has some understanding…

  1. 40 CFR 255.33 - Inclusion of Federal facilities and Native American Reservations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inclusion of Federal facilities and Native American Reservations. 255.33 Section 255.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Responsibilities of Identified Agencies and Relationship to Other Programs § 255.33 Inclusion of Federal facilities...

  2. Working across cultures to protect Native American natural and cultural resources from invasive species in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janice M. Alexander; Susan J. Frankel; Nina Hapner; John L. Phillips; Virgil Dupuis

    2017-01-01

    Invasive species know no boundaries; they spread regardless of ownership, and actions by neighboring landowners can influence local and regional populations and impacts. Native Americans and mainstream Western society (representing the prevalent attitudes, values, and practices of US society) both depend on forests for food, fiber, and emotional well-being, but in...

  3. Cross-Cultural Service Learning with Native Americans: Pedagogy for Building Cultural Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolea, Patricia S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper articulates a curricular approach that centers on a Native American service learning course. Social work students engaged in cross-cultural immersion on a reservation in the United States. By examination of historical United States policy impacting Indian tribes and contemporary experiences that challenge basic instruction in public…

  4. Substance Use and Sexual Risk Behaviors among American Indian and Alaska Native High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ravello, Lori; Everett Jones, Sherry; Tulloch, Scott; Taylor, Melanie; Doshi, Sonal

    2014-01-01

    Background: We describe the prevalence of behaviors that put American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) high school students at risk for teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and the relationships among race/ethnicity and these behaviors. Methods: We analyzed merged 2007 and 2009 data from the national Youth Risk Behavior…

  5. Perceptions of Lakota Native American Students Taking Online Business Course at Oglala Lakota College (OLC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Asfour, Ahmed; Bryant, Carol

    2011-01-01

    This research examined the perceptions of Lakota Native American students taking a Business online course at the Oglala Lakota College on the Pine Ridge Reservation. The study was conducted in the fall of 2010 and spring of 2011. The themes found in this study were flexibility, transportation, communication, and technical support. Furthermore, the…

  6. 78 FR 15008 - Applications for New Awards; Native American Career and Technical Education Program (NACTEP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Applications for New Awards; Native American Career and Technical Education Program (NACTEP); Correction AGENCY: Office of Vocational and Adult Education, Department of... the Code of Federal Regulations is available via the Federal Digital System at: www.gpo.gov/fdsys . At...

  7. Risk Factors for Physical Assault and Rape among Six Native American Tribes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Nicole P.; Koss, Mary P.; Polacca, Mona; Goldman, David

    2006-01-01

    Prevalence and correlates of adult physical assault and rape in six Native American tribes are presented (N = 1,368). Among women, 45% reported being physically assaulted and 14% were raped since age 18 years. For men, figures were 36% and 2%, respectively. Demographic characteristics, adverse childhood experiences, adulthood alcohol dependence,…

  8. Javelin, Arrow, Dart and Pin Games of Native American Women of the Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Wilma J.; Pesavento, Lisa C.

    This study was designed to determine (1) the arrow, dart, javelin, and pin games of Native American girls and women of the Great Plains, (2) the geographical spread of the games within the culture area, and (3) the characteristics of the various games. Data for this investigation were researched from "Annual Reports of the Bureau of American…

  9. Strategy and Resistance: How Native American Students Engage in Accommodation in Mainstream Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masta, Stephanie

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the experiences of a group of Native American 8th graders who attend a mainstream school and how they engage in accommodation as an act of agency and resistance to protect and maintain their identities in their school environment. By using tribal critical race theory to examine these experiences, this study raises important…

  10. "Not at the Expense of Their Culture": Graduating Native American Youth from High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Kristen Campbell

    2015-01-01

    What kinds of challenges do educators face in increasing Native American high school graduation rates, and what kinds of adaptations to a traditional high school are understood as necessary to achieve this outcome? This case study explored these questions as part of a larger multiple case study that investigated practices and processes related to…

  11. Virginia Driving Hawk Sneve, Sioux Author. With Teacher's Guide. Native Americans of the Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

    A biography for elementary school students describes the life and career of Virginia Driving Hawk Sneve (Sioux), a Native American free-lance writer, and includes her photograph and a map of South Dakota reservations. A story by Mrs. Sneve tells about a half-Sioux boy who confronts his heritage when his grandfather makes a long journey between his…

  12. Regrounding in Place: Paths to Native American Truths at the Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Margin acts as ground to receive the figure of the text. Margin is initially unreadable, but as suggested by gestalt studies, may be reversed, or regrounded. A humanities course, "Native American Architecture and Place," was created for a polytechnic student population, looking to place as an inroad for access to the margins of a better…

  13. Hierarchical modeling of genome-wide Short Tandem Repeat (STR) markers infers native American prehistory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cecil M

    2010-02-01

    This study examines a genome-wide dataset of 678 Short Tandem Repeat loci characterized in 444 individuals representing 29 Native American populations as well as the Tundra Netsi and Yakut populations from Siberia. Using these data, the study tests four current hypotheses regarding the hierarchical distribution of neutral genetic variation in native South American populations: (1) the western region of South America harbors more variation than the eastern region of South America, (2) Central American and western South American populations cluster exclusively, (3) populations speaking the Chibchan-Paezan and Equatorial-Tucanoan language stock emerge as a group within an otherwise South American clade, (4) Chibchan-Paezan populations in Central America emerge together at the tips of the Chibchan-Paezan cluster. This study finds that hierarchical models with the best fit place Central American populations, and populations speaking the Chibchan-Paezan language stock, at a basal position or separated from the South American group, which is more consistent with a serial founder effect into South America than that previously described. Western (Andean) South America is found to harbor similar levels of variation as eastern (Equatorial-Tucanoan and Ge-Pano-Carib) South America, which is inconsistent with an initial west coast migration into South America. Moreover, in all relevant models, the estimates of genetic diversity within geographic regions suggest a major bottleneck or founder effect occurring within the North American subcontinent, before the peopling of Central and South America. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. The Growth of the Native American Gaming Industry: What Has the Past Provided, and What Does the Future Hold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, James I.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a review which embodies a general inquiry about the growth of the Native American gaming industry and possibilities the future may hold for America's indigenous people. Tribal gaming is different from other forms of gaming. It is conducted by Native American governments as a way to carry out their natural self-governing…

  15. A Model of Successful Adaptation to Online Learning for College-Bound Native American High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaler, Collier Butler

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the conditions for Native American high school students that result in successful adaptation to an online learning environment. Design/methodology/approach: In total, eight Native American students attending high schools located on Montana Indian reservations, and one urban city, were interviewed.…

  16. Language Preservation: the Language of Science as a bridge to the Native American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C. J.; Martin, M.; Grant, G.

    2009-12-01

    Many Native American communities recognize that the retention of their language, and the need to make the language relevant to the technological age we live in, represents one of their largest and most urgent challenges. Almost 70 percent of Navajos speak their tribal language in the home, and 25 per cent do not know English very well. In contrast, only 30 percent of Native Americans as a whole speak their own tribal language in the home. For the Cherokee and the Chippewa, less than 10 percent speak the native language in the home. And for the Navajo, the number of first graders who solely speak English is almost four times higher than it was in 1970. The U.S. Rosetta Project is the NASA contribution to the International Rosetta Mission. The Rosetta stone is the inspiration for the mission’s name. As outlined by the European Space Agency, Rosetta is expected to provide the keys to the primordial solar system the way the original Rosetta Stone provided a key to ancient language. The concept of ancient language as a key provides a theme for this NASA project’s outreach to Native American communities anxious for ways to enhance and improve the numbers of native speakers. In this talk we will present a concept for building on native language as it relates to STEM concepts. In 2009, a student from the Dine Nation interpreted 28 NASA terms for his senior project at Chinle High School in Chinle, AZ. These terms included such words as space telescope, weather satellite, space suit, and the planets including Neptune and Uranus. This work represents a foundation for continued work between NASA and the Navajo Nation. Following approval by the tribal elders, the U.S. Rosetta project would host the newly translated Navajo words on a web-site, and provide translation into both Navajo and English. A clickable map would allow the user to move through all the words, see Native artwork related to the word, and hear audio translation. Extension to very remote teachers in the

  17. POPULATION GENETICS. Genomic evidence for the Pleistocene and recent population history of Native Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Maanasa; Steinrücken, Matthias; Harris, Kelley; Schiffels, Stephan; Rasmussen, Simon; DeGiorgio, Michael; Albrechtsen, Anders; Valdiosera, Cristina; Ávila-Arcos, María C; Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Eriksson, Anders; Moltke, Ida; Metspalu, Mait; Homburger, Julian R; Wall, Jeff; Cornejo, Omar E; Moreno-Mayar, J Víctor; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S; Pierre, Tracey; Rasmussen, Morten; Campos, Paula F; de Barros Damgaard, Peter; Allentoft, Morten E; Lindo, John; Metspalu, Ene; Rodríguez-Varela, Ricardo; Mansilla, Josefina; Henrickson, Celeste; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Malmström, Helena; Stafford, Thomas; Shringarpure, Suyash S; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Karmin, Monika; Tambets, Kristiina; Bergström, Anders; Xue, Yali; Warmuth, Vera; Friend, Andrew D; Singarayer, Joy; Valdes, Paul; Balloux, Francois; Leboreiro, Ilán; Vera, Jose Luis; Rangel-Villalobos, Hector; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata; Davis, Loren G; Heyer, Evelyne; Zollikofer, Christoph P E; Ponce de León, Marcia S; Smith, Colin I; Grimes, Vaughan; Pike, Kelly-Anne; Deal, Michael; Fuller, Benjamin T; Arriaza, Bernardo; Standen, Vivien; Luz, Maria F; Ricaut, Francois; Guidon, Niede; Osipova, Ludmila; Voevoda, Mikhail I; Posukh, Olga L; Balanovsky, Oleg; Lavryashina, Maria; Bogunov, Yuri; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Gubina, Marina; Balanovska, Elena; Fedorova, Sardana; Litvinov, Sergey; Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Mosher, M J; Archer, David; Cybulski, Jerome; Petzelt, Barbara; Mitchell, Joycelynn; Worl, Rosita; Norman, Paul J; Parham, Peter; Kemp, Brian M; Kivisild, Toomas; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Crawford, Michael; Villems, Richard; Smith, David Glenn; Waters, Michael R; Goebel, Ted; Johnson, John R; Malhi, Ripan S; Jakobsson, Mattias; Meltzer, David J; Manica, Andrea; Durbin, Richard; Bustamante, Carlos D; Song, Yun S; Nielsen, Rasmus; Willerslev, Eske

    2015-08-21

    How and when the Americas were populated remains contentious. Using ancient and modern genome-wide data, we found that the ancestors of all present-day Native Americans, including Athabascans and Amerindians, entered the Americas as a single migration wave from Siberia no earlier than 23 thousand years ago (ka) and after no more than an 8000-year isolation period in Beringia. After their arrival to the Americas, ancestral Native Americans diversified into two basal genetic branches around 13 ka, one that is now dispersed across North and South America and the other restricted to North America. Subsequent gene flow resulted in some Native Americans sharing ancestry with present-day East Asians (including Siberians) and, more distantly, Australo-Melanesians. Putative "Paleoamerican" relict populations, including the historical Mexican Pericúes and South American Fuego-Patagonians, are not directly related to modern Australo-Melanesians as suggested by the Paleoamerican Model. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Genomic evidence for the Pleistocene and recent population history of Native Americans

    KAUST Repository

    Raghavan, Maanasa

    2015-07-21

    How and when the Americas were populated remains contentious. Using ancient and modern genome-wide data, we found that the ancestors of all present-day Native Americans, including Athabascans and Amerindians, entered the Americas as a single migration wave from Siberia no earlier than 23 thousand years ago (ka) and after no more than an 8000-year isolation period in Beringia. After their arrival to the Americas, ancestral Native Americans diversified into two basal genetic branches around 13 ka, one that is now dispersed across North and South America and the other restricted to North America. Subsequent gene flow resulted in some Native Americans sharing ancestry with present-day East Asians (including Siberians) and, more distantly, Australo-Melanesians. Putative "Paleoamerican" relict populations, including the historical Mexican Pericúes and South American Fuego-Patagonians, are not directly related to modern Australo-Melanesians as suggested by the Paleoamerican Model. © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science. All rights reserved.

  19. Genomic evidence for the Pleistocene and recent population history of Native Americans

    KAUST Repository

    Raghavan, Maanasa; Steinrü cken, Matthias; Harris, Kelley; Schiffels, Stephan; Rasmussen, Simon; DeGiorgio, Michael; Albrechtsen, Anders; Valdiosera, Cristina; Á vila-Arcos, Marí a C.; Malaspinas, Anna Sapfo; Eriksson, Anders; Moltke, Ida; Metspalu, Mait; Homburger, Julian R.; Wall, Jeff; Cornejo, Omar E.; Moreno-Mayar, J. Ví ctor; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S.; Pierre, Tracey; Rasmussen, Morten; Campos, Paula F.; De Barros Damgaard, Peter; Allentoft, Morten E.; Lindo, John; Metspalu, Ene; Rodrí guez-Varela, Ricardo; Mansilla, Josefina; Henrickson, Celeste; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Malmstö m, Helena; Stafford, Thomas; Shringarpure, Suyash S.; Moreno-Estrada, André s; Karmin, Monika; Tambets, Kristiina; Bergströ m, Anders; Xue, Yali; Warmuth, Vera; Friend, Andrew D.; Singarayer, Joy; Valdes, Paul; Balloux, Francois; Leboreiro, Ilá n; Vera, Jose Luis; Rangel-Villalobos, Hector; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata; Davis, Loren G.; Heyer, Evelyne; Zollikofer, Christoph P E; Ponce De Leó n, Marcia S.; Smith, Colin I.; Grimes, Vaughan; Pike, Kelly Anne; Deal, Michael; Fuller, Benjamin T.; Arriaza, Bernardo; Standen, Vivien; Luz, Maria F.; Ricaut, Francois; Guidon, Niede; Osipova, Ludmila; Voevoda, Mikhail I.; Posukh, Olga L.; Balanovsky, Oleg; Lavryashina, Maria; Bogunov, Yuri; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Gubina, Marina; Balanovska, Elena; Fedorova, Sardana; Litvinov, Sergey; Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Mosher, M. J.; Archer, David; Cybulski, Jerome

    2015-01-01

    How and when the Americas were populated remains contentious. Using ancient and modern genome-wide data, we found that the ancestors of all present-day Native Americans, including Athabascans and Amerindians, entered the Americas as a single migration wave from Siberia no earlier than 23 thousand years ago (ka) and after no more than an 8000-year isolation period in Beringia. After their arrival to the Americas, ancestral Native Americans diversified into two basal genetic branches around 13 ka, one that is now dispersed across North and South America and the other restricted to North America. Subsequent gene flow resulted in some Native Americans sharing ancestry with present-day East Asians (including Siberians) and, more distantly, Australo-Melanesians. Putative "Paleoamerican" relict populations, including the historical Mexican Pericúes and South American Fuego-Patagonians, are not directly related to modern Australo-Melanesians as suggested by the Paleoamerican Model. © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science. All rights reserved.

  20. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Preterm Birth Among American Indian and Alaska Native Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raglan, Greta B; Lannon, Sophia M; Jones, Katherine M; Schulkin, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth disproportionately affects American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) women. This disparity in birth outcomes may stem from higher levels of exposure to psychosocial, sociodemographic, and medical risk factors. This paper reviews relevant research related to preterm birth in American Indian and Alaska Native women. This narrative review examines disparities in preterm birth rates between AI/AN and other American women, and addresses several maternal risk factors and barriers that contribute to elevated preterm birth rates among this racial minority group. Additionally, this paper focuses on recent evidence that geographical location can significantly impact preterm birth rates among AI/AN women. In particular, access to care among AI/AN women and differences between rural and urban areas are discussed.

  1. Cartographies of the Voice: Storying the Land as Survivance in Native American Oral Traditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanna Yi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how Native places are made, named, and reconstructed after colonization through storytelling. Storying the land is a process whereby the land is invested with the moral and spiritual perspectives specific to Native American communities. As seen in the oral traditions and written literature of Native American storytellers and authors, the voices of indigenous people retrace and remap cartographies for the land after colonization through storytelling. This article shows that the Americas were storied by Native American communities long before colonial contact beginning in the fifteenth century and demonstrates how the land continues to be storied in the present as a method of decolonization and cultural survivance. The article examines manifestations of the oral tradition in multiple forms, including poetry, interviews, fiction, photography, and film, to demonstrate that the land itself, through storytelling, becomes a repository of the oral tradition. The article investigates oral narratives from precontact and postcolonial time periods and across numerous nations and geographical regions in the Americas, including stories from the Mayan Popol Vuh; Algonkian; Western Apache; Hopi; Haudenosaunee/Iroquois; and Laguna Pueblo stories; and the contemporary poetry and fiction of Joy Harjo (Mvskoke/Creek Nation and Leslie Marmon Silko (Laguna Pueblo.

  2. Motivating Young Native American Students to Pursue STEM Learning Through a Culturally Relevant Science Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Sally; Andrade, Rosi; Page, Melissa

    2016-12-01

    Data indicate that females and ethnic/race minority groups are underrepresented in the science and engineering workforce calling for innovative strategies to engage and retain them in science education and careers. This study reports on the development, delivery, and outcomes of a culturally driven science, technology, engineering, mathematics (STEM) program, iSTEM, aimed at increasing engagement in STEM learning among Native American 3rd-8th grade students. A culturally relevant theoretical framework, Funds of Knowledge, informs the iSTEM program, a program based on the contention that the synergistic effect of a hybrid program combining two strategic approaches (1) in-school mentoring and (2) out-of-school informal science education experiences would foster engagement and interest in STEM learning. Students are paired with one of three types of mentors: Native American community members, university students, and STEM professionals. The iSTEM program is theme based with all program activities specifically relevant to Native people living in southern Arizona. Student mentees and mentors complete interactive flash STEM activities at lunch hour and attend approximately six field trips per year. Data from the iSTEM program indicate that the program has been successful in engaging Native American students in iSTEM as well as increasing their interest in STEM and their science beliefs.

  3. The problems inherent in teaching technical writing and report writing to native Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukowski/faust, J.

    1981-01-01

    Teaching technical writing to Native Americans contending with a second language and culture is addressed. Learning difficulties arising from differences between native and acquired language and cultural systems are examined. Compartmentalized teaching, which presents the ideals of technical writing in minimal units, and skills development are considered. Rhetorical problems treated include logic of arrangement, selection of support and scope of detail, and time and space. Specific problems selected include the concept of promptness, the contextualization of purpose, interpersonal relationships, wordiness, mixture of registers, and the problem of abstracting. Four inductive procedures for students having writing and perception problems are included. Four sample exercises and a bibliography of 13 references are also included.

  4. Field and laboratory guide to freshwater cyanobacteria harmful algal blooms for Native American and Alaska Native communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Barry H.; St. Amand, Ann

    2015-09-14

    Cyanobacteria can produce toxins and form harmful algal blooms. The Native American and Alaska Native communities that are dependent on subsistence fishing have an increased risk of exposure to these cyanotoxins. It is important to recognize the presence of an algal bloom in a waterbody and to distinguish a potentially toxic harmful algal bloom from a non-toxic bloom. This guide provides field images that show cyanobacteria blooms, some of which can be toxin producers, as well as other non-toxic algae blooms and floating plants that might be confused with algae. After recognition of a potential toxin-producing cyanobacterial bloom in the field, the type(s) of cyanobacteria present needs to be identified. Species identification, which requires microscopic examination, may help distinguish a toxin-producer from a non-toxin producer. This guide also provides microscopic images of the common cyanobacteria that are known to produce toxins, as well as images of algae that form blooms but do not produce toxins.

  5. Are immigrants more likely than native-born Americans to perpetrate intimate partner violence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Michael G; Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Cooper-Sadlo, Shannon; Maynard, Brandy R; Larson, Matthew

    2015-07-01

    Despite an emerging body of research indicating that immigrants are less likely than native-born Americans to engage in crime and antisocial behavior, less attention has focused specifically on intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration among immigrant populations. We address this gap by using data from Wave II of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) and compare immigrants from Asia, Africa, Europe, and Latin America to native-born Americans with respect to multiple forms of IPV. After controlling for an extensive array of confounds, results indicate that in the aggregate, immigrants are significantly more likely to perpetrate IPV. However, examination of major world regions indicates these results are driven by Latin American immigrants. Immigrants from Asia, Africa, and Europe report a lower prevalence of IPV perpetration than native-born Americans. This study extends prior research on the immigrant paradox and suggests that future studies take into account regional heterogeneity when examining IPV and other forms of violence in immigrant populations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Effect of Nutrition Education by Paraprofessionals on Dietary Intake, Maternal Weight Gain, and Infant Birth Weight in Pregnant Native American and Caucasian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Janice; Williams, Glenna; Hunt, Donna

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of nutrition instruction provided to 366 pregnant Native American and Caucasian teens by paraprofessionals determined that it effectively improved their dietary intake, maternal weight gain, and infant birth weight. Further modifications for Native Americans were suggested. (SK)

  7. Genetic ancestry and indigenous heritage in a Native American descendant community in Bermuda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaieski, Jill B; Owings, Amanda C; Vilar, Miguel G; Dulik, Matthew C; Gaieski, David F; Gittelman, Rachel M; Lindo, John; Gau, Lydia; Schurr, Theodore G

    2011-11-01

    Discovered in the early 16th century by European colonists, Bermuda is an isolated set of islands located in the mid-Atlantic. Shortly after its discovery, Bermuda became the first English colony to forcibly import its labor by trafficking in enslaved Africans, white ethnic minorities, and indigenous Americans. Oral traditions circulating today among contemporary tribes from the northeastern United States recount these same events, while, in Bermuda, St. David's Islanders consider their histories to be linked to a complex Native American, European, and African past. To investigate the influence of historical events on biological ancestry and native cultural identity, we analyzed genetic variation in 111 members of Bermuda's self-proclaimed St. David's Island Native Community. Our results reveal that the majority of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y-chromosome haplotypes are of African and West Eurasian origin. However, unlike other English-speaking New World colonies, most African mtDNA haplotypes appear to derive from central and southeast Africa, reflecting the extent of maritime activities in the region. In light of genealogical and oral historical data from the St. David's community, the low frequency of Native American mtDNA and NRY lineages may reflect the influence of genetic drift, the demographic impact of European colonization, and historical admixture with persons of non-native backgrounds, which began with the settlement of the islands. By comparing the genetic data with genealogical and historical information, we are able to reconstruct the complex history of this Bermudian community, which is unique among New World populations. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. CDC Vital Signs–Native Americans With Diabetes

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-01-10

    This podcast is based on the January 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure and Native Americans have a greater chance of having diabetes than any other racial group in the U.S. Learn how to manage your diabetes to delay or prevent kidney failure.  Created: 1/10/2017 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/10/2017.

  9. Estimation of body fat from anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance in Native American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, T G; Caballero, B; Himes, J H; Davis, C E; Stewart, D; Houtkooper, L; Going, S B; Hunsberger, S; Weber, J L; Reid, R; Stephenson, L

    2000-08-01

    Obesity, as measured by body mass index, is highly prevalent in Native American children, yet there are no valid equations to estimate total body fatness for this population. This study was designed to develop equations to estimate percentage body fat from anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance as a critical part of Pathways, a multi-site study of primary prevention of obesity in Native American children. Percentage fat was estimated from deuterium oxide dilution in 98 Native American children (Pima/Maricopa, Tohono O'odham and White Mountain Apache tribes) between 8 and 11 y of age. The mean fat content (38.4%+/-8. 1%) was calculated assuming the water content of the fat-free body was 76%. Initial independent variables were height, weight, waist circumference, six skinfolds and whole-body resistance and reactance from bioelectrical impedance (BIA). Using all-possible-subsets regressions with the Mallows C (p) criterion, and with age and sex included in each regression model, waist circumference, calf and biceps skinfolds contributed least to the multiple regression analysis. The combination of weight, two skinfolds (any two out of the four best: triceps, suprailiac, subscapular and abdomen) and bioelectrical impedance variables provided excellent predictability. Equations without BIA variables yielded r2 almost as high as those with BIA variables. The recommended equation predicts percentage fat with a root mean square error=3.2% fat and an adjusted r2=0.840. The combination of anthropometry and BIA variables can be used to estimate total body fat in field studies of Native American children. The derived equation yields considerably higher percentage fat values than other skinfold equations in children.

  10. A caution to Native American institutional review boards about scientism and censorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askland, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Native American Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) promote the health and welfare of tribes by reviewing protocols for research studies that focus on their tribes. The benefits of approved protocols should not be overstated lest good studies disappoint because they do not satisfy unachievable expectations. IRBs also should avoid the temptation to censor the outcomes of those studies. Science relies on candor and clarity about results and methods to move forward.

  11. Millennial-scale sustainability of the Chesapeake Bay Native American oyster fishery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick, Torben C; Reeder-Myers, Leslie A; Hofman, Courtney A; Breitburg, Denise; Lockwood, Rowan; Henkes, Gregory; Kellogg, Lisa; Lowery, Darrin; Luckenbach, Mark W; Mann, Roger; Ogburn, Matthew B; Southworth, Melissa; Wah, John; Wesson, James; Hines, Anson H

    2016-06-07

    Estuaries around the world are in a state of decline following decades or more of overfishing, pollution, and climate change. Oysters (Ostreidae), ecosystem engineers in many estuaries, influence water quality, construct habitat, and provide food for humans and wildlife. In North America's Chesapeake Bay, once-thriving eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) populations have declined dramatically, making their restoration and conservation extremely challenging. Here we present data on oyster size and human harvest from Chesapeake Bay archaeological sites spanning ∼3,500 y of Native American, colonial, and historical occupation. We compare oysters from archaeological sites with Pleistocene oyster reefs that existed before human harvest, modern oyster reefs, and other records of human oyster harvest from around the world. Native American fisheries were focused on nearshore oysters and were likely harvested at a rate that was sustainable over centuries to millennia, despite changing Holocene climatic conditions and sea-level rise. These data document resilience in oyster populations under long-term Native American harvest, sea-level rise, and climate change; provide context for managing modern oyster fisheries in the Chesapeake Bay and elsewhere around the world; and demonstrate an interdisciplinary approach that can be applied broadly to other fisheries.

  12. Justifications for caregiving in white, Asian American, and native Hawaiian grandparents raising grandchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancura, Loriena A

    2013-01-01

    Race has been found to predict justifications for caregiving in family caregivers for older adults. However, little is known about this relationship in another type of family caregiver, Grandparents Raising Grandchildren (GRG). This study examined relationships between race and justifications for caregiving in Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and White GRG. A sample of 259 GRG registered as students' primary caregivers with a public school system completed a modified version of the 10-item Cultural Justifications for Caregiving (CJCG) scale. CJCG items did not load onto a single analytic factor. Two factors, custom and responsibility, emerged. Race was predictive of custom, with Native Hawaiian GRG having significantly higher scores than White or Asian American GRG. Native Hawaiian GRG also scored higher than Asian American, but not White, GRG on responsibility. Justifications for raising grandchildren appear to differ among groups based on racial identification. Findings elucidate cultural justification for caregiving in understudied GRG populations and suggest that justifications for caregiving are configured differently in GRG and family caregivers for older adults. Future studies should examine justifications for caregiving in GRG of other races.

  13. Analysis of admixture and genetic structure of two Native American groups of Southern Argentinean Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Andrea; Corach, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Argentinean Patagonia is inhabited by people that live principally in urban areas and by small isolated groups of individuals that belong to indigenous aboriginal groups; this territory exhibits the lowest population density of the country. Mapuche and Tehuelche (Mapudungun linguistic branch), are the only extant Native American groups that inhabit the Argentinean Patagonian provinces of Río Negro and Chubut. Fifteen autosomal STRs, 17 Y-STRs, mtDNA full length control region sequence and two sets of Y and mtDNA-coding region SNPs were analyzed in a set of 434 unrelated individuals. The sample set included two aboriginal groups, a group of individuals whose family name included Native American linguistic root and urban samples from Chubut, Río Negro and Buenos Aires provinces of Argentina. Specific Y Amerindian haplogroup Q1 was found in 87.5% in Mapuche and 58.82% in Tehuelche, while the Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups were present in all the aboriginal sample contributors investigated. Admixture analysis performed by means of autosomal and Y-STRs showed the highest degree of admixture in individuals carrying Mapuche surnames, followed by urban populations, and finally by isolated Native American populations as less degree of admixture. The study provided novel genetic information about the Mapuche and Tehuelche people and allowed us to establish a genetic correlation among individuals with Mapudungun surnames that demonstrates not only a linguistic but also a genetic relationship to the isolated aboriginal communities, representing a suitable proxy indicator for assessing genealogical background.

  14. From Marginalized to Validated: An In-Depth Case Study of an Asian American, Native American and Pacific Islander Serving Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thai-Huy; Nguyen, Mike Hoa; Nguyen, Bach Mai Dolly; Gasman, Marybeth; Conrad, Clifton

    2018-01-01

    This article highlights the capacity of an Asian American, Native American and Pacific Islander Institution (AANAPISI) to serve as an institutional convertor--by addressing challenges commonly associated with marginalized students--for low-income, Asian American and Pacific Islander students entering college. Through an in-depth case study, we…

  15. Experiential Learning for Native American Students at Tribal Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauve, M. L.; Moore, K.

    2003-12-01

    In reaffirming its commitment to Indian tribes and Alaska Native entities, the Federal Government issued Executive Order 13270 of July 3, 2002, stating the policy that " this Nation's commitment to education excellence and opportunity must extend as well to the tribal colleges and universities." Further, the Federal Government has called on the private sector to contribute to these colleges' educational and cultural mission. American University, through its American Indian Internship Program, has responded to this call. American University, a private liberal arts institution of higher education in the Nation's capital, has long ago recognized the importance of experiential learning in undergraduate education. For over 50 years, its Washington Semester Program brings students from other universities around the country and the world to American University's campus and to Washington, D.C. for a unique academic experience. The Washington Semester Program combines academic seminars in various fields of concentration with internship work in government agencies, congressional offices, non-profit organizations, foundations and research institutions in the Nation's capital. Students in this Program get to meet the Nation's leaders, experts in the field, and notable newsmakers while incorporating their academic skills and courses in practice at their internship assignments. The American Indian Internship Program (also knows as Washington Internship for Native Students-WINS) is one of the programs in Washington Semester. This program is designed to give American Indian students the chance to study issues of interest to the Native community and to gain valuable work experience through an internship in the Nation's capital. All costs to attend the program are paid by the internship sponsors and American University, including transportation between the students' home and Washington, DC, tuition and program fees for 6 credit hours in the summer and 12 credit hours in fall

  16. 1,3-Butadiene exposure and metabolism among Japanese American, Native Hawaiian, and White smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungshim Lani; Kotapati, Srikanth; Wilkens, Lynne R; Tiirikainen, Maarit; Murphy, Sharon E; Tretyakova, Natalia; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2014-11-01

    We hypothesize that the differences in lung cancer risk in Native Hawaiians, whites, and Japanese Americans may, in part, be due to variation in the metabolism of 1,3-butadiene, one of the most abundant carcinogens in cigarette smoke. We measured two biomarkers of 1,3-butadiene exposure, monohydroxybutyl mercapturic acid (MHBMA) and dihydroxybutyl mercapturic acid (DHBMA), in overnight urine samples among 584 Native Hawaiians, Japanese Americans, and white smokers in Hawaii. These values were normalized to creatinine levels. Ethnic-specific geometric means were compared adjusting for age at urine collection, sex, body mass index, and nicotine equivalents (a marker of total nicotine uptake). We found that mean urinary MHBMA differed by race/ethnicity (P = 0.0002). The values were highest in whites and lowest in Japanese Americans. This difference was only observed in individuals with the GSTT1-null genotype (P = 0.0001). No difference across race/ethnicity was found among those with at least one copy of the GSTT1 gene (P ≥ 0.72). Mean urinary DHBMA did not differ across racial/ethnic groups. The difference in urinary MHBMA excretion levels from cigarette smoking across three ethnic groups is, in part, explained by the GSTT1 genotype. Mean urinary MHBMA levels are higher in whites among GSTT1-null smokers. The overall higher excretion levels of MHBMA in whites and lower levels of MHBMA in Japanese Americans are consistent with the higher lung cancer risk in the former. However, the excretion levels of MHBMA in Native Hawaiians are not consistent with their disease risk and thus unlikely to explain their high risk of lung cancer. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Strategic Plans for Use of Modern Technology in the Education of American Indian and Alaska Native Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Paul K.; Ohler, Jason

    The American school system is an invention of the Industrial Revolution. Schools were organized like industries to train workers for an industrial society. The resulting large, low-context, industrial schools institutionally discriminate against Native students. Also antagonistic to Native students is the dogma of Western science, a reductionist…

  18. Mexican-American Disciplinary Practices and Attitudes toward Child Maltreatment: A Comparison of Foreign- and Native-Born Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buriel, Raymond; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examines disciplinary practices and child-maltreatment attitudes in foreign- and native-born Mexican-American mothers. Subjects responded to accounts of child misconduct and mistreatment. Foreign-born mothers more likely than natives to use spanking and verbal reasoning. Spanking not preferred by either group. Child-mistreatment-response…

  19. Problem-gambling severity and psychiatric disorders among American-Indian/Alaska native adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Grace; Smith, Philip H; Pilver, Corey; Hoff, Rani; Potenza, Marc N

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the association between problem-gambling severity and psychiatric disorders among American-Indian/Alaska-Native (AI/AN) individuals. Thus, we examined these factors among a nationally representative sample of AI/AN and other American adults in the USA. Using the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) data, we conducted separate Wald tests and multinomial logistic regression analyses comparing AI/AN to black/African American, white/Caucasian, and all other racial/ethnic groups, respectively. Relative to other American adults, AI/AN adults were least likely to report non-/low-frequency gambling (NG: AI/AN 66.5%, white/Caucasian 70.5%, black/African American 72.8%, other racial/ethnic group 72.3%) and most likely to report low-risk gambling (LRG: AI/AN 30.1%, white/Caucasian 26.5%, black/African American 23.4%, other racial/ethnic group 24.7%). The association between at-risk/problem-gambling (ARPG) and any past-year Axis-I disorder was stronger among AI/AN versus other American adults. Although ARPG and LRG were associated with multiple past-year Axis-I and lifetime Axis-II psychiatric disorders in both AI/AN and other American adults, LRG was more strongly associated with both Axis-I disorders (particularly major depression, generalized anxiety disorder and nicotine dependence) and Cluster-B Axis-II (particularly antisocial personality disorder) disorders in AI/AN versus other American adults. A stronger association between problem-gambling severity and past-year psychiatric disorders among AI/AN relative to other American adults suggests the importance of enhancing mental health and problem-gambling prevention and treatment strategies that may help AI/AN individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Burden of Diagnosed and Undiagnosed Diabetes in Native Hawaiian and Asian American Hospitalized Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentell, T L; Cheng, Y; Saito, E; Seto, T B; Miyamura, J; Mau, M; Juarez, D T

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about diabetes in hospitalized Native Hawaiians and Asian Americans. We determined the burden of diabetes (both diagnosed and undiagnosed) among hospitalized Native Hawaiian, Asian (Filipino, Chinese, Japanese), and White patients. Diagnosed diabetes was determined from discharge data from a major medical center in Hawai'i during 2007-2008. Potentially undiagnosed diabetes was determined by Hemoglobin A1c ≥6.5% or glucose ≥200 mg/dl values for those without diagnosed diabetes. Multivariable log-binomial models predicted diabetes (potentially undiagnosed and diagnosed, separately) controlling for socio-demographic factors. Of 17,828 hospitalized patients, 3.4% had potentially undiagnosed diabetes and 30.5% had diagnosed diabetes. In multivariable models compared to Whites, Native Hawaiian and all Asian subgroups had significantly higher percentages of diagnosed diabetes, but not of potentially undiagnosed diabetes. Potentially undiagnosed diabetes was associated with significantly more hospitalizations during the study period compared to both those without diabetes and those with diagnosed diabetes. In all racial/ethnic groups, those with potentially undiagnosed diabetes also had the longest length of stay and were more likely to die during the hospitalization. Hospitalized Native Hawaiians (41%) and Asian subgroups had significantly higher overall diabetes burdens compared to Whites (23%). Potentially undiagnosed diabetes was associated with poor outcomes. Hospitalized patients, irrespective of race/ethnicity, may require more effective inpatient identification and management of previously undiagnosed diabetes to improve clinical outcomes.

  1. NAWIG News: The Quarterly Newsletter of the Native American Wind Interest Group, Fall 2008, Wind & Hydropower Technologies Program (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-09-01

    As part of its Native American outreach, DOE?s Wind Powering America program produces a newsletter to present Native American wind information, including projects, interviews with pioneers, issues, WPA activities, and related events. This issue features an interview with Dave Danz, a tribal planner for the Grand Portage Band of Chippewa in northeastern Minnesota, and a feature on the new turbine that powers the KILI radio station on the Pine Ridge Reservation.

  2. Academic achievement of American Indian and Alaska native students: Does social-emotional competence reduce the impact of poverty?

    OpenAIRE

    Chain, J; Shapiro, VB; LeBuffe, PA; Bryson, AMK

    2017-01-01

    © Centers for American Indian and Alaska Native Health. Social-emotional competence may be a protective factor for academic achievement among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) students. This study used Fisher's r to Z transformations to test for group differences in the magnitude of relationships between socialemotional competence and achievement. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to det ermine the variance in academic achievement explained by student race, poverty, and social-emo...

  3. The assessment of radiation exposures in native American communities from nuclear weapons testing in Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frohmberg, E.; Goble, R.; Sanchez, V.; Quigley, D.

    2000-01-01

    Native Americans residing in a broad region downwind from the Nevada Test Site during the 1950s and 1960s received significant radiation exposures from nuclear weapons testing. Because of differences in diet, activities, and housing, their radiation exposures are only very imperfectly represented in the Department of Energy dose reconstructions. There are important missing pathways, including exposures to radioactive iodine from eating small game. The dose reconstruction model assumptions about cattle feeding practices across a year are unlikely to apply to the native communities as are other model assumptions about diet. Thus exposures from drinking milk and eating vegetables have not yet been properly estimated for these communities. Through consultations with members of the affected communities, these deficiencies could be corrected and the dose reconstruction extended to Native Americans. An illustration of the feasibility of extending the dose reconstruction is provided by a sample calculation to estimate radiation exposures to the thyroid from eating radio-iodine-contaminated rabbit thyroids after the Dedan test. The illustration is continued with a discussion of how the calculation results may be used to make estimates for other tests and other locations

  4. The American mink (Neovison vison) is a competent host for native European parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Rondán, F J; Ruiz de Ybáñez, M R; Tizzani, P; López-Beceiro, A M; Fidalgo, L E; Martínez-Carrasco, C

    2017-11-30

    The American mink (Neovison vison) is a mustelid native to North America that was introduced in Europe and the former USSR for fur farming. Throughout the last century, accidental or deliberate escapes of mink from farms caused the establishment of stable feral populations. In fact, the American mink is considered an invasive alien species in 28 European countries. The present study evaluates the gastrointestinal and cardiopulmonary helminth fauna of the American mink in Galicia (NW Spain) to understand its role as a potential reservoir for parasites affecting other autochthonous mustelids. In the period 2008-2014, fifty American mink (35 males and 15 females) of different ages (22 immature and 28 adults) from the provinces of Lugo, Ourense and Pontevedra were captured and sacrificed. Eight parasite species were found (6 nematodes and 2 trematodes) with the following prevalences: Molineus patens (68%), Aonchotheca putorii (54%), Crenosoma melesi (10%), Aonchotheca annulosa (8%), Angiostrongylus daskalovi (6%), Aelurostrongylus spp. (2%), Troglotrema acutum (2%) and an unidentified trematode (2%). Eighty-two per cent of the mink harboured helminths, including 15 animals (30%) infected by only one parasite species, 19 (38%) by two species, 5 (10%) by three species and 2 mink (4%) by four species. All helminth species identified are native to European mustelids. Statistical models were used to evaluate if animal characteristics (age, sex and weight), date and capture area influenced the prevalence, intensity or parasite richness. Statistical differences were detected only in models for intensity of M. patens, A. putorii and C. melesi. This is the first report of Angiostrongylus daskalovi, a cardiopulmonary nematode, and A. annulosa, a gastrointestinal nematode specific of rodents, in American mink. Moreover, although the fluke T. acutum has already been cited in American mink, to our knowledge, the present study represents the first report of this trematode in the

  5. A culturally appropriate program that works: Native Americans in Marine and Space Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergun, J. R.

    2001-05-01

    For more than ten years, the College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences at Oregon State University has carried out the Native Americans in Marine and Space Sciences (NAMSS) Program. Its long-term goal is to increase the number of American Indian and Native Alaskan undergraduates in science who complete degrees, continue to graduate school and enter the professional scientific work force. Ninety-eight percent of NAMSS students have earned BS degrees and almost forty percent have continued in graduate school. These are impressive results considering the high national drop-out rate for Native American studentsaround 70% according to the Chronicle of Higher Education (26 May 1993, page A29). Most often, Native students wishing to earn degrees in science find few programs that fit with their traditional sense of place and community. Most programs are narrowly focused and do not support or nurture Native views of interrelationship of all things. While Western science's recent ecological systems thinking approach more closely resembles the traditional Native view, Traditional Ecological Knowledge is often perceived as anecdotal or storytelling and not real science. This is a problem for Native students who are strongly underrepresented in the U.S. scientific community as a whole and nearly absent from the marine sciences. Undergraduates from this group are without scientific career models or mentors from their ethnic group and experience difficulty establishing contacts with majority scientists. They have limited access to opportunities to explore career possibilities in the sciences through research participation. Once on campus they have difficulty establishing a sense of belonging in the University community and do not have an organized way to enter into the scientific activities that initially attracted them. Representation of Native Americans in the ranks of U.S. scientists will not be increased without special efforts to retain them as undergraduates and to recruit

  6. Internet cigarette sales and Native American sovereignty: political and public health contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Kari A; Ribisl, Kurt M; Williams, Rebecca S

    2012-05-01

    Internet cigarette vendors (ICVs) advertise low prices for tobacco products, subverting public health policy efforts to curtail smoking by raising prices. Many online retailers in the United States claim affiliation with Native American tribes and share in tribal tax-free status. Sales of discounted cigarettes from both online vendors and brick-and-mortar stores have angered non-Native retailers and triggered enforcement actions by state and federal governments in the United States concerned over lost cigarette excise tax revenue. Examination of the history and politics of cigarette sales on reservations and attempts to regulate Internet cigarette sales highlights the potential role for greater use of negotiated intergovernmental agreements to address reservation-based tobacco sales. Our review notes global parallels and explicates history and politics of such regulation in the United States, and offers background for collaborative efforts to regulate tobacco sales and decrease tobacco use.

  7. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) alleles in the Quechua, a high altitude South American native population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert, J L; Devine, D V; Monsalve, M V; Hochachka, P W

    1999-01-01

    Recently it was reported that an allelic variant of the gene encoding angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) was significantly over-represented in a cohort of elite British mountaineers. It was proposed that this may be evidence for a specific genetic factor influencing the human capacity for physical performance. The implication that this allele could enhance performance at high altitude prompted us to determine its frequency in Quechua speaking natives living at altitudes greater than 3000m on the Andean Altiplano in South America. We found that the frequency of the putative performance allele in the Quechuas, although significantly higher than in Caucasians, was not different from lowland Native American populations. This observation suggests that, although the higher frequency of the 'performance allele' may have facilitated the migration of the ancestral Quechua to the highlands, the ACE insertion allele has not been subsequently selected for in this high altitude population.

  8. Creating a Culturally Appropriate Web-Based Behavioral Intervention for American Indian/Alaska Native Women in Southern California: The Healthy Women Healthy Native Nation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Jessica R.; Clapp, John D.; Calac, Daniel; Kolander, Chelsea; Nyquist, Corinna; Chambers, Christina D.

    2013-01-01

    Health disparities in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are of high importance to American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities. We conducted focus groups and interviews with 21 AI/AN women and key informants in Southern California to modify a brief, Web-based program for screening and prevention of prenatal alcohol use. This process…

  9. Native American interpretation of cultural resources in the area of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoffle, R.W.; Evans, M.J.; Harshbarger, C.L.

    1989-03-01

    This report presents the location and interpretation of Native American cultural resources on or near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This work builds on the archaeological reconnaissance and identifications of cultural resources by the Desert Research Institute (for a summary, see Pippin and Zerga, 1983; Pippin, 1984). Interpretations provided by Native American Indian people are not intended to refute other scientific studies, such as botanical, wildlife, and archaeological studies. Rather, they provide additional hypotheses for future studies, and they provide a more complete cultural understanding of the Yucca Mountain area. Representatives of sixteen American Indian tribes identified the cultural value of these resources as part of a consultation relationship with the US Department of Energy (DOE). This interim report is to be used to review research procedures and findings regarding initial consultation with the sixteen tribes, in-depth interviews with tribal elders, and findings from the first on-site visit with representatives of the sixteen tribes. As additional information is collected, it will be reviewed separately. An annual report will integrate all findings. 44 refs., 58 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Cultivating Native American scientists: an application of an Indigenous model to an undergraduate research experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Tracey R.; Griese, Emily R.; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete

    2018-03-01

    With growing evidence demonstrating the impact of undergraduate research experiences on educational persistence, efforts are currently being made to expand these opportunities within universities and research institutions throughout the United States. Recruiting underrepresented students into these programs has become an increasingly popular method of promoting diversity in science. Given the low matriculation into postsecondary education and completion rates among Native Americans, there is a great need for Native American undergraduate research internships. Although research has shown that Western education models tend to be less effective with Native populations, the implementation of indigenous epistemologies and pedagogies within higher education, including research experiences, is rare. This study explores the applicability of a cognitive apprenticeship merged with an indigenous approach, the Circle of Courage, to build a scientific learning environment and enhance the academic and professional development of Native students engaged in an undergraduate research experience in the health sciences. Data were drawn from focus groups with 20 students who participated in this program in 2012-2014. Questions explored the extent to which relational bonds between students and mentors were cultivated as well as the impact of this experience on the development of research skills, intellectual growth, academic and professional self-determination, and the attachment of meaning to their research experiences. Data were analyzed via deductive content analysis, allowing for an assessment of how the theoretical constructs inherent to this model (belonging, mastery, independence, and generosity) impacted students. Findings suggest that engaging Native students in research experiences that prioritize the needs of belonging, mastery, independence, and generosity can be a successful means of fostering a positive learning environment, in which students felt like significant members

  11. Mitochondrial Genome Diversity of Native Americans Supports a Single Early Entry of Founder Populations into America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Jr., Wilson A.; Bonatto, Sandro L.; Holanda, Adriano J.; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Andrea K.; Paixão, Beatriz M.; Goldman, Gustavo H.; Abe-Sandes, Kiyoko; Rodriguez-Delfin, Luis; Barbosa, Marcela; Paçó-Larson, Maria Luiza; Petzl-Erler, Maria Luiza; Valente, Valeria; Santos, Sidney E. B.; Zago, Marco A.

    2002-01-01

    There is general agreement that the Native American founder populations migrated from Asia into America through Beringia sometime during the Pleistocene, but the hypotheses concerning the ages and the number of these migrations and the size of the ancestral populations are surrounded by controversy. DNA sequence variations of several regions of the genome of Native Americans, especially in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region, have been studied as a tool to help answer these questions. However, the small number of nucleotides studied and the nonclocklike rate of mtDNA control-region evolution impose several limitations to these results. Here we provide the sequence analysis of a continuous region of 8.8 kb of the mtDNA outside the D-loop for 40 individuals, 30 of whom are Native Americans whose mtDNA belongs to the four founder haplogroups. Haplogroups A, B, and C form monophyletic clades, but the five haplogroup D sequences have unstable positions and usually do not group together. The high degree of similarity in the nucleotide diversity and time of differentiation (i.e., ∼21,000 years before present) of these four haplogroups support a common origin for these sequences and suggest that the populations who harbor them may also have a common history. Additional evidence supports the idea that this age of differentiation coincides with the process of colonization of the New World and supports the hypothesis of a single and early entry of the ancestral Asian population into the Americas. PMID:12022039

  12. Solar Energy Technologies and the Utilization on Native American Tribal Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Kathryn [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    2017-08-31

    As an undergraduate researcher, I worked on a new technology called nanofluid-based direct absorption solar collectors (DASC) which is a type of solar water heater that has the potential to be more efficient than traditional solar water heaters. Because of my experience with this type of technology, I decided to look into other types of solar energy technologies which could be used on Native American tribal lands. Some types of solar energy technologies that I wanted to focus on are photovoltaic solar energy systems, passive solar design, and solar water heaters.

  13. Radiological risk from consuming fish and wildlife to Native Americans on the Hanford Site (USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delistraty, Damon, E-mail: DDEL461@ecy.wa.gov [Washington State Department of Ecology, N. 4601 Monroe, Spokane, WA 99205-1295 (United States); Verst, Scott Van [Washington State Department of Health, Olympia, WA (United States); Rochette, Elizabeth A. [Washington State Department of Ecology, Richland, WA (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Historical operations at the Hanford Site (Washington State, USA) have released a wide array of non-radionuclide and radionuclide contaminants into the environment. As a result of stakeholder concerns, Native American exposure scenarios have been integrated into Hanford risk assessments. Because its contribution to radiological risk to Native Americans is culturally and geographically specific but quantitatively uncertain, a fish and wildlife ingestion pathway was examined in this study. Adult consumption rates were derived from 20 Native American scenarios (based on 12 studies) at Hanford, and tissue concentrations of key radionuclides in fish, game birds, and game mammals were compiled from the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) database for a recent time interval (1995-2007) during the post-operational period. It was assumed that skeletal muscle comprised 90% of intake, while other tissues accounted for the remainder. Acknowledging data gaps, median concentrations of eight radionuclides (i.e., Co-60, Cs-137, Sr-90, Tc-99, U-234, U-238, Pu-238, and Pu-239/240) in skeletal muscle and other tissues were below 0.01 and 1 pCi/g wet wt, respectively. These radionuclide concentrations were not significantly different (Bonferroni P>0.05) on and off the Hanford Site. Despite no observed difference between onsite and offsite tissue concentrations, radiation dose and risk were calculated for the fish and wildlife ingestion pathway using onsite data. With median consumption rates and radionuclide tissue concentrations, skeletal muscle provided 42% of the dose, while other tissues (primarily bone and carcass) accounted for 58%. In terms of biota, fish ingestion was the largest contributor to dose (64%). Among radionuclides, Sr-90 was dominant, accounting for 47% of the dose. At median intake and radionuclide levels, estimated annual dose (0.36 mrem/yr) was below a dose limit of 15 mrem/yr recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA

  14. National Conference on High Blood Pressure Control in Native American Communities (2nd, Tulsa, Oklahoma, November 6-7, 1980). Summary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD. National High Blood Pressure Education Program.

    As part of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program effort, the conference explored the impact of high blood pressure (hypertension) on Native Americans. Participants, including health professionals, health service consumers, and volunteers providing health services to Native Americans, discussed these issues: traditional Native American…

  15. The Appropriateness of Using Three Measures of Self-Beliefs with European American, Latino/a, and Native American College Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurpius, Sharon E. Robinson; Payakkakom, Anusorn; Rayle, Andrea Dixon; Chee, Christine; Arredondo, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    The authors investigated the psychometric appropriateness of the Valuing/ Commitment to Education scale (A. M. Gloria, 1993), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (M. Rosenberg, 1965), and the Educational Self-Efficacy Scale (A. M. Gloria, 1993) for use with European American, Latina/o, and Native American college freshmen. Strong to moderate…

  16. "We Don't Live like that Anymore": Native Peoples at the Smithsonian's Festival of American Folklife, 1970-1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, William S.

    2011-01-01

    In the summer of 1970, the Smithsonian's Festival of American Folklife, an annual event on the National Mall featuring tradition bearers from around the country, premiered a new American Indian program that combined presentations of Native traditions with panel discussions of contemporary social, political, and economic issues facing Native…

  17. American Indian and Alaska Native Children and Mental Health: Development, Context, Prevention, and Treatment. Child Psychology and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarche, Michelle C., Ed.; Spicer, Paul, Ed.; Farrell, Patricia, Ed.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This unique book examines the physical, psychological, social, and environmental factors that support or undermine healthy development in American Indian children, including economics, biology, and public policies. American Indian and Alaska Native youth suffer disproportionately higher rates of trauma, substance abuse, and youth suicide. At the…

  18. Assessment training for practice in American Indian and Alaska Native settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, James

    2002-10-01

    The collaborative assessment model is extended as a training model. The experience of psychological assessment in American Indian and Alaska Native communities is often negative due to culturally inappropriate services and test interpretation. It is productive to address this negative experience, using it as a catalyst for learning. Training in measurement and construct validation provides initial basis for critique of negative experience. Training in collaborative assessment procedures then focuses on culturally appropriate assessment service practices, cultural orientation's affect on test interpretation, and multicultural assessment ethics. Writing skills are emphasized, including procedures in report writing for description of local adaptations, norms, and interpretative rules, and integration of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (4th ed., text revision; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) cultural formulation. Development of local norms and emic tests are emphasized.

  19. Eye gaze during comprehension of American Sign Language by native and beginning signers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmorey, Karen; Thompson, Robin; Colvin, Rachael

    2009-01-01

    An eye-tracking experiment investigated where deaf native signers (N = 9) and hearing beginning signers (N = 10) look while comprehending a short narrative and a spatial description in American Sign Language produced live by a fluent signer. Both groups fixated primarily on the signer's face (more than 80% of the time) but differed with respect to fixation location. Beginning signers fixated on or near the signer's mouth, perhaps to better perceive English mouthing, whereas native signers tended to fixate on or near the eyes. Beginning signers shifted gaze away from the signer's face more frequently than native signers, but the pattern of gaze shifts was similar for both groups. When a shift in gaze occurred, the sign narrator was almost always looking at his or her hands and was most often producing a classifier construction. We conclude that joint visual attention and attention to mouthing (for beginning signers), rather than linguistic complexity or processing load, affect gaze fixation patterns during sign language comprehension.

  20. Astronomy and Geology Vocabulary, I.e. "NASA Words" in Native American Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angrum, A.; Alexander, C. J.; Martin, M.

    2014-12-01

    The US Rosetta Project has developed a program in Native American communities in which contemporary STEM vocabulary is taught alongside the same vocabulary in Navajo. NASA images and science are used and described in the native language, alongside both lay English, and scientific English. Additionally, science curriculum (geology/chemistry/botany/physics) elements drawn from the reservation environment, including geomorphology, geochemistry, soil physics, are included and discussed in the native language as much as possible — with their analogs in other planetary environments (such as Mars). The program began with a student defining 30 Navajo words to describe what he called 'NASA' words, such as: cell phone, astronaut, space suit, computer, and planets not visible to the naked eye. The use of NASA material and imagery have a positive impact on the accessibility of the overall STEM material but community involvement, and buy-in, is criti! cal to the success of the program. The US Rosetta Project modified its goals, and curriculum, to accommodate the programmatic desires of teachers in the district, and the capabilities of the medicine men that agreed to participate. In this presentation we will report on lessons learned, as well as metrics and successes associated with our most recent Summer Science Academy [2014].

  1. Beautiful Earth: Inspiring Native American students in Earth Science through Music, Art and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasanto, V.; Rock, J.; Hallowell, R.; Williams, K.; Angell, D.; Beautiful Earth

    2011-12-01

    The Beautiful Earth program, awarded by NASA's Competitive Opportunities in Education and Public Outreach for Earth and Space Science (EPOESS), is a live multi-media performance at partner science centers linked with hands-on workshops featuring Earth scientists and Native American experts. It aims to inspire, engage and educate diverse students in Earth science through an experience of viewing the Earth from space as one interconnected whole, as seen through the eyes of astronauts. The informal education program is an outgrowth of Kenji Williams' BELLA GAIA Living Atlas Experience (www.bellagaia.com) performed across the globe since 2008 and following the successful Earth Day education events in 2009 and 2010 with NASA's DLN (Digital Learning Network) http://tinyurl.com/2ckg2rh. Beautiful Earth takes a new approach to teaching, by combining live music and data visualizations, Earth Science with indigenous perspectives of the Earth, and hands-on interactive workshops. The program will utilize the emotionally inspiring multi-media show as a springboard to inspire participants to learn more about Earth systems and science. Native Earth Ways (NEW) will be the first module in a series of three "Beautiful Earth" experiences, that will launch the national tour at a presentation in October 2011 at the MOST science museum in collaboration with the Onandaga Nation School in Syracuse, New York. The NEW Module will include Native American experts to explain how they study and conserve the Earth in their own unique ways along with hands-on activities to convey the science which was seen in the show. In this first pilot run of the module, 110 K-12 students with faculty and family members of the Onandaga Nations School will take part. The goal of the program is to introduce Native American students to Earth Sciences and STEM careers, and encourage them to study these sciences and become responsible stewards of the Earth. The second workshop presented to participants will be the

  2. Native American depopulation, reforestation, and fire regimes in the Southwest United States, 1492-1900 CE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebmann, Matthew J; Farella, Joshua; Roos, Christopher I; Stack, Adam; Martini, Sarah; Swetnam, Thomas W

    2016-02-09

    Native American populations declined between 1492 and 1900 CE, instigated by the European colonization of the Americas. However, the magnitude, tempo, and ecological effects of this depopulation remain the source of enduring debates. Recently, scholars have linked indigenous demographic decline, Neotropical reforestation, and shifting fire regimes to global changes in climate, atmosphere, and the Early Anthropocene hypothesis. In light of these studies, we assess these processes in conifer-dominated forests of the Southwest United States. We compare light detection and ranging data, archaeology, dendrochronology, and historical records from the Jemez Province of New Mexico to quantify population losses, establish dates of depopulation events, and determine the extent and timing of forest regrowth and fire regimes between 1492 and 1900. We present a new formula for the estimation of Pueblo population based on architectural remains and apply this formula to 18 archaeological sites in the Jemez Province. A dendrochronological study of remnant wood establishes dates of terminal occupation at these sites. By combining our results with historical records, we report a model of pre- and post-Columbian population dynamics in the Jemez Province. Our results indicate that the indigenous population of the Jemez Province declined by 87% following European colonization but that this reduction occurred nearly a century after initial contact. Depopulation also triggered an increase in the frequency of extensive surface fires between 1640 and 1900. Ultimately, this study illustrates the quality of integrated archaeological and paleoecological data needed to assess the links between Native American population decline and ecological change after European contact.

  3. Self-reported injury history in Native American professional rodeo competitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichlow, Renée; Williamson, Steve; Geurin, Mike; Heggem, Heather

    2006-07-01

    Evaluation of rodeo injury and the use of protective equipment. Cross-sectional survey. Indian National Finals Rodeo 2004 in San Jacinto, CA. One hundred sixty-nine native American, professional rodeo competitors. On-site survey completed before competition. A total of 180 native American competitors received the survey. Respondents reported the event of participation, prior injury histories (including number, type and disability), use of protective equipment, and access to health care. Main outcomes were determined before survey distribution and included self-reported injury rate, time away from rodeo secondary to injury, and protective equipment usage during competition. Total 94% response rate. There was a range of injury history-from 100% of bull riders to only 24% of tie-down ropers-reporting a history of injuries. Forty percent of competitors reported using protective equipment; of these, 32% reported wearing vests. Twenty-six percent of the competitors had a history of injury that prevented them from working an average of 3.2 months. As hypothesized, a greater injury rate resulted from rough stock events; older competitors are more likely to have had work time loss from injury; and vests are the most frequently used protective equipment in rodeo.

  4. No Parent Left Behind: Strengthening Ties between Educators and African American Parents/Guardians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Gail L.

    2003-01-01

    Used regression analyses to identify variables predicting the six most frequently cited problems that concerned African American parents and guardians of children enrolled in urban schools. Data from parent/guardian surveys highlighted six problems: school district racial climate; math problems; suspension; writing problems; reading comprehension…

  5. Insomnia Symptoms and Cardiovascular Disease among Older American Indians: The Native Elder Care Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabanayagam, Ch.; Shankar, A.; Sabanayagam, Ch.; Buchwald, D.; Goins, R.T.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death among American Indians. It is not known if symptoms of insomnia are associated with CVD in this population. Methods. We examined 449 American Indians aged =55 years from the Native Elder Care Study. The main outcome-of-interest was self-reported CVD. Results. Short sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and difficulty falling asleep were positively associated with CVD after adjusting for demographic, lifestyle, and clinical risk factors. Compared with a sleep duration of 7 h, the multivariable odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) of CVD among those with sleep duration =5 h was 2.89 (1.17-7.16). Similarly, the multivariable OR (95% CI) of CVD was 4.45 (1.85-10.72) and 2.60 (1.25-5.42) for daytime sleepiness >2 h and difficulty falling asleep often/always. Conclusion. Symptoms of insomnia including short sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and difficulty falling asleep are independently associated with CVD in American Indians aged =55 years

  6. Valuation of environmental quality and eco-cultural attributes in Northwestern Idaho: Native Americans are more concerned than Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Valuation of features of habitats and ecosystems usually encompasses the goods and services that ecosystems provide, but rarely also examine how people value ecological resources in terms of eco-cultural and sacred activities. The social, sacred, and cultural aspects of ecosystems are particularly important to Native Americans, but western science has rarely examined the importance of eco-cultural attributes quantitatively. In this paper I explore differences in ecosystem evaluations, and compare the perceptions and evaluations of places people go for consumptive and non-consumptive resource use with evaluations of the same qualities for religious and sacred places. Qualities of ecosystems included goods (abundant fish and crabs, butterflies and flowers, clean water), services (complexity of nature, lack of radionuclides that present a health risk), and eco-cultural attributes (appears unspoiled, scenic horizons, noise-free). Native Americans and Caucasians were interviewed at a Pow Wow at Post Falls, Idaho, which is in the region with the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, known for its storage of radioactive wastes and contamination. A higher percentage of Native American subjects engaged in consumptive and religious activities than did Caucasians. Native Americans engaged in higher rates of many activities than did Caucasians, including commune with nature, pray or meditate, fish or hunt, collect herbs, and conduct vision quests or other ceremonies. For nearly all attributes, there was no difference in the relative ratings given by Native Americans for characteristics of sites used for consumption/non-consumptive activities compared to religious/sacred places. However, Caucasians rated nearly all attributes lower for religious/sacred places than they did for places where they engaged in consumptive or non-consumptive activities. Native Americans were less concerned with distance from home for consumptive/non-consumptive activities, compared to religious

  7. Genomic African and Native American Ancestry and Chagas Disease: The Bambui (Brazil) Epigen Cohort Study of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Costa, M Fernanda; Macinko, James; Mambrini, Juliana Vaz de Mello; Peixoto, Sérgio Viana; Pereira, Alexandre Costa; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz Pinho

    2016-05-01

    The influence of genetic ancestry on Trypanosoma cruzi infection and Chagas disease outcomes is unknown. We used 370,539 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) to examine the association between individual proportions of African, European and Native American genomic ancestry with T. cruzi infection and related outcomes in 1,341 participants (aged ≥ 60 years) of the Bambui (Brazil) population-based cohort study of aging. Potential confounding variables included sociodemographic characteristics and an array of health measures. The prevalence of T. cruzi infection was 37.5% and 56.3% of those infected had a major ECG abnormality. Baseline T. cruzi infection was correlated with higher levels of African and Native American ancestry, which in turn were strongly associated with poor socioeconomic circumstances. Cardiomyopathy in infected persons was not significantly associated with African or Native American ancestry levels. Infected persons with a major ECG abnormality were at increased risk of 15-year mortality relative to their counterparts with no such abnormalities (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.80; 95% 1.41, 2.32). African and Native American ancestry levels had no significant effect modifying this association. Our findings indicate that African and Native American ancestry have no influence on the presence of major ECG abnormalities and had no influence on the ability of an ECG abnormality to predict mortality in older people infected with T. cruzi. In contrast, our results revealed a strong and independent association between prevalent T. cruzi infection and higher levels of African and Native American ancestry. Whether this association is a consequence of genetic background or differential exposure to infection remains to be determined.

  8. Impact of disability and other physical health issues on academic outcomes among American Indian and Alaskan Native college students: an exploratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson Silver Wolf Adelv Unegv Waya, David A; Vanzile-Tamsen, Carol; Black, Jessica; Billiot, Shanondora M; Tovar, Molly

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether self-identified disabilities among American Indian and Alaskan Native college students impact academic performance and persistence to graduation and explored the differences in health and academic grades between American Indian and Alaskan Native students and students of other racial and ethnic identities using the National College Health Assessment. Findings indicate that American Indian or Alaskan Native students have significantly lower grades than White and Asian students, and American Indian and Alaskan Native women report the highest incidence of health problems of any demographic group. Exploratory results point to future research to determine the full impact of disabilities and poor health on academic success.

  9. Valuation of environmental quality and eco-cultural attributes in Northwestern Idaho: Native Americans are more concerned than Caucasians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna [Division of Life Sciences, Nelson Biological Laboratory, Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8082 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8082 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Valuation of features of habitats and ecosystems usually encompasses the goods and services that ecosystems provide, but rarely also examine how people value ecological resources in terms of eco-cultural and sacred activities. The social, sacred, and cultural aspects of ecosystems are particularly important to Native Americans, but western science has rarely examined the importance of eco-cultural attributes quantitatively. In this paper I explore differences in ecosystem evaluations, and compare the perceptions and evaluations of places people go for consumptive and non-consumptive resource use with evaluations of the same qualities for religious and sacred places. Qualities of ecosystems included goods (abundant fish and crabs, butterflies and flowers, clean water), services (complexity of nature, lack of radionuclides that present a health risk), and eco-cultural attributes (appears unspoiled, scenic horizons, noise-free). Native Americans and Caucasians were interviewed at a Pow Wow at Post Falls, Idaho, which is in the region with the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, known for its storage of radioactive wastes and contamination. A higher percentage of Native American subjects engaged in consumptive and religious activities than did Caucasians. Native Americans engaged in higher rates of many activities than did Caucasians, including commune with nature, pray or meditate, fish or hunt, collect herbs, and conduct vision quests or other ceremonies. For nearly all attributes, there was no difference in the relative ratings given by Native Americans for characteristics of sites used for consumption/non-consumptive activities compared to religious/sacred places. However, Caucasians rated nearly all attributes lower for religious/sacred places than they did for places where they engaged in consumptive or non-consumptive activities. Native Americans were less concerned with distance from home for consumptive/non-consumptive activities, compared to religious

  10. Valuation of environmental quality and eco-cultural attributes in Northwestern Idaho: Native Americans are more concerned than Caucasians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Valuation of features of habitats and ecosystems usually encompasses the goods and services that ecosystems provide, but rarely also examine how people value ecological resources in terms of eco-cultural and sacred activities. The social, sacred, and cultural aspects of ecosystems are particularly important to Native Americans, but western science has rarely examined the importance of eco-cultural attributes quantitatively. In this paper I explore differences in ecosystem evaluations, and compare the perceptions and evaluations of places people go for consumptive and non-consumptive resource use with evaluations of the same qualities for religious and sacred places. Qualities of ecosystems included goods (abundant fish and crabs, butterflies and flowers, clean water), services (complexity of nature, lack of radionuclides that present a health risk), and eco-cultural attributes (appears unspoiled, scenic horizons, noise-free). Native Americans and Caucasians were interviewed at a Pow Wow at Post Falls, Idaho, which is in the region with the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, known for its storage of radioactive wastes and contamination. A higher percentage of Native American subjects engaged in consumptive and religious activities than did Caucasians. Native Americans engaged in higher rates of many activities than did Caucasians, including commune with nature, pray or meditate, fish or hunt, collect herbs, and conduct vision quests or other ceremonies. For nearly all attributes, there was no difference in the relative ratings given by Native Americans for characteristics of sites used for consumption/non-consumptive activities compared to religious/sacred places. However, Caucasians rated nearly all attributes lower for religious/sacred places than they did for places where they engaged in consumptive or non-consumptive activities. Native Americans were less concerned with distance from home for consumptive/non-consumptive activities, compared to religious

  11. Valuation of environmental quality and eco-cultural attributes in Northwestern Idaho: Native Americans are more concerned than Caucasians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna, E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu [Division of Life Sciences, Nelson Biological Laboratory, Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8082 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8082 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Valuation of features of habitats and ecosystems usually encompasses the goods and services that ecosystems provide, but rarely also examine how people value ecological resources in terms of eco-cultural and sacred activities. The social, sacred, and cultural aspects of ecosystems are particularly important to Native Americans, but western science has rarely examined the importance of eco-cultural attributes quantitatively. In this paper I explore differences in ecosystem evaluations, and compare the perceptions and evaluations of places people go for consumptive and non-consumptive resource use with evaluations of the same qualities for religious and sacred places. Qualities of ecosystems included goods (abundant fish and crabs, butterflies and flowers, clean water), services (complexity of nature, lack of radionuclides that present a health risk), and eco-cultural attributes (appears unspoiled, scenic horizons, noise-free). Native Americans and Caucasians were interviewed at a Pow Wow at Post Falls, Idaho, which is in the region with the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, known for its storage of radioactive wastes and contamination. A higher percentage of Native American subjects engaged in consumptive and religious activities than did Caucasians. Native Americans engaged in higher rates of many activities than did Caucasians, including commune with nature, pray or meditate, fish or hunt, collect herbs, and conduct vision quests or other ceremonies. For nearly all attributes, there was no difference in the relative ratings given by Native Americans for characteristics of sites used for consumption/non-consumptive activities compared to religious/sacred places. However, Caucasians rated nearly all attributes lower for religious/sacred places than they did for places where they engaged in consumptive or non-consumptive activities. Native Americans were less concerned with distance from home for consumptive/non-consumptive activities, compared to religious

  12. Detection of avian malaria (Plasmodium spp.) in native land birds of American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvi, S.I.; Farias, M.E.M.; Baker, H.; Freifeld, H.B.; Baker, P.E.; Van Gelder, E.; Massey, J.G.; Atkinson, C.T.

    2003-01-01

    This study documents the presence of Plasmodium spp. in landbirds of central Polynesia. Blood samples collected from eight native and introduced species from the island of Tutuila, American Samoa were evaluated for the presence of Plasmodium spp. by nested rDNA PCR, serology and/or microscopy. A total of 111/188 birds (59%) screened by nested PCR were positive. Detection of Plasmodium spp. was verified by nucleotide sequence comparisons of partial 18S ribosomal RNA and TRAP (thrombospondin-related anonymous protein) genes using phylogenetic analyses. All samples screened by immunoblot to detect antibodies that cross-react with Hawaiian isolates of Plasmodium relictum (153) were negative. Lack of cross-reactivity is probably due to antigenic differences between the Hawaiian and Samoan Plasmodium isolates. Similarly, all samples examined by microscopy (214) were negative. The fact that malaria is present, but not detectable by blood smear evaluation is consistent with low peripheral parasitemia characteristic of chronic infections. High prevalence of apparently chronic infections, the relative stability of the native land bird communities, and the presence of mosquito vectors which are considered endemic and capable of transmitting avian Plasmodia, suggest that these parasites are indigenous to Samoa and have a long coevolutionary history with their hosts.

  13. Regular tobacco use among American Indian and Alaska native adolescents: an examination of protective mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osilla, Karen Chan; Lonczak, Heather S; Mail, Patricia D; Larimer, Mary E; Marlatt, G Alan

    2007-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) adolescents use tobacco at earlier ages and in larger quantities compared to non-AIAN peers. Regular tobacco use was examined against five protective factors (peer networks supportive of not using drugs, college aspirations, team sports, playing music, and volunteerism). Participants consisted of 112 adolescents between the ages of 13 and 19 who participated in a study testing the efficacy of a life-skills program aimed at reducing substance-related consequences. Findings indicated that, with the exception of prosocial peer networks and volunteerism, each of the above factors was significantly associated with a reduced probability of being a regular tobacco user. Gender differences were notable. These results hold important treatment implications regarding the reduction and prevention of tobacco use among AIAN youth.

  14. Native American adolescents' views of fetal alcohol syndrome prevention in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, G X; Toubbeh, J; Cline, J; Chisholm, A

    1998-04-01

    Alcohol is the most commonly abused substance among adolescents in the United States. Adolescent females are recognized as one group at risk for giving birth to babies with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Sixth through eighth grade Native Americans were surveyed about their attitudes toward and knowledge of FAS risk factors and prevention strategies. Data revealed that 52% of students drank alcohol prior to the survey. Though sexually active, students lacked knowledge about the relationship between alcohol and FAS. The study revealed 1) limited prevention programs in middle schools and 2) the most influential factor in determining attitudes and decisions about alcohol use was the immediate family. Students felt FAS prevention is an important topic in school health education, noting the important role peers play in teaching and role modeling. Various strategies incorporating music and communication technology such as videotape and computer-assisted interactive tools into prevention materials are discussed.

  15. Similarities and Differences Between Yoruba Traditional Healers (YTH) and Native American and Canadian Healers (NACH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekson, Mary Olufunmilayo

    2016-10-01

    Indigenous people of the world have used the services of medicine men and traditional healers from time immemorial. According to the World Health Organization, 80 % of the world's populations consult traditional healers. With an emerging globalization of health services in the world, there is a need for western mental health practitioners to learn and understand the practices of indigenous healers across the globe. This paper will not only highlight the similarities and differences between Yoruba traditional healers of Western Nigeria and Native American and First Nation Canadian traditional healers, but it will also allow practitioners to gain clearer perspectives of indigenous clients from Yoruba land and those from the United States of America and Canada. This ultimately will inform culturally sensitive clinical practice with these populations.

  16. Sun-Earth Scientists and Native Americans Collaborate on Sun-Earth Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, C. Y.; Lopez, R. E.; Hawkins, I.

    2004-12-01

    Sun-Earth Connection scientists have established partnerships with several minority professional societies to reach out to the blacks, Hispanics and Native American students. Working with NSBP, SACNAS, AISES and NSHP, SEC scientists were able to speak in their board meetings and national conferences, to network with minority scientists, and to engage them in Sun-Earth Day. Through these opportunities and programs, scientists have introduced NASA research results as well indigenous views of science. They also serve as role models in various communities. Since the theme for Sun-Earth Day 2005 is Ancient Observatories: Timeless Knowledge, scientists and education specialists are hopeful to excite many with diverse backgrounds. Sun-Earth Day is a highly visible annual program since 2001 that touches millions of students and the general public. Interviews, classroom activities and other education resources are available on the web at sunearthday.nasa.gov.

  17. The prostitution and trafficking of American Indian/Alaska Native women in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Melissa; Deer, Sarah; Golding, Jacqueline M; Matthews, Nicole; Lopez, Guadalupe; Stark, Christine; Hudon, Eileen

    2016-01-01

    We examined social and physical violence experienced by American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) women in prostitution and their impacts on the mental and physical health of 105 women (81% Anishinaabe, mean age = 35 years) recruited through service agencies in three Minnesota cities. In childhood, abuse, foster care, arrests, and prostitution were typical. Homelessness, rape, assault, racism, and pimping were common. The women's most prevalent physical symptoms included muscle pain, impaired memory or concentration, and headaches. Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and dissociation were common, with more severe psychological symptoms associated with worse health. Most of the women wanted to leave prostitution and they most often identified counseling and peer support as necessary to accomplish this. Most saw colonization and prostitution of AI/AN women as connected.

  18. Mortality patterns among a Native American population in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalek, A M; Mahoney, M C; Cummings, K M; Hanley, J; Snyder, R

    1989-10-01

    This study investigated patterns of mortality among a Native American tribe, the Seneca Nation of Indians (SNI). The names of 962 tribal members reported to have died in New York State between 1955 and the end of 1984 were identified through a review of tribal roll books maintained by the Seneca Nation. Positive matches were obtained for 796 (83%) of these individuals using New York State mortality files for the period under investigation. Standardized Proportionate Mortality Ratios (PMR) were computed for major causes of death based on cause-specific mortality patterns in the New York State population for each sex during the same time period. Significantly elevated risks of mortality were observed for all infectious diseases, tuberculosis, diabetes mellitus, cirrhosis, and accidents. Depressed mortality ratios were noted for deaths due to all cancers combined, and for cancers of the lung, pancreas, breast, and lymphatic/hematopoietic cancers. Changes in mortality risks over time were also observed.

  19. Religion and suicide: Buddhism, Native American and African religions, Atheism, and Agnosticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizardi, D; Gearing, R E

    2010-09-01

    Research has repeatedly demonstrated that religiosity can potentially serve as a protective factor against suicidal behavior. A clear understanding of the influence of religion on suicidality is required to more fully assess for the risk of suicide. The databases PsycINFO and MEDLINE were used to search peer-reviewed journals prior to 2008 focusing on religion and suicide. Articles focusing on suicidality across Buddhism, Native American and African religions, as well as on the relationship among Atheism, Agnosticism, and suicide were utilized for this review. Practice recommendations are offered for conducting accurate assessment of religiosity as it relates to suicidality in these populations. Given the influence of religious beliefs on suicide, it is important to examine each major religious group for its unique conceptualization and position on suicide to accurately identify a client's suicide risk.

  20. Native American depopulation, reforestation, and fire regimes in the Southwest United States, 1492–1900 CE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebmann, Matthew J.; Farella, Joshua; Roos, Christopher I.; Stack, Adam; Martini, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Native American populations declined between 1492 and 1900 CE, instigated by the European colonization of the Americas. However, the magnitude, tempo, and ecological effects of this depopulation remain the source of enduring debates. Recently, scholars have linked indigenous demographic decline, Neotropical reforestation, and shifting fire regimes to global changes in climate, atmosphere, and the Early Anthropocene hypothesis. In light of these studies, we assess these processes in conifer-dominated forests of the Southwest United States. We compare light detection and ranging data, archaeology, dendrochronology, and historical records from the Jemez Province of New Mexico to quantify population losses, establish dates of depopulation events, and determine the extent and timing of forest regrowth and fire regimes between 1492 and 1900. We present a new formula for the estimation of Pueblo population based on architectural remains and apply this formula to 18 archaeological sites in the Jemez Province. A dendrochronological study of remnant wood establishes dates of terminal occupation at these sites. By combining our results with historical records, we report a model of pre- and post-Columbian population dynamics in the Jemez Province. Our results indicate that the indigenous population of the Jemez Province declined by 87% following European colonization but that this reduction occurred nearly a century after initial contact. Depopulation also triggered an increase in the frequency of extensive surface fires between 1640 and 1900. Ultimately, this study illustrates the quality of integrated archaeological and paleoecological data needed to assess the links between Native American population decline and ecological change after European contact. PMID:26811459

  1. Cultural adaptation, psychometric properties, and outcomes of the Native American Spirituality Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Brenna L; Hallgren, Kevin A; Venner, Kamilla L; Hagler, Kylee J; Simmons, Jeremiah D; Sheche, Judith N; Homer, Everett; Lupee, Donna

    2015-05-01

    Spirituality is central to many Native Americans (NAs) and has been associated with recovery from substance use disorders (SUDs). However, no published questionnaire uniquely taps tribal-specific spiritual beliefs and practices. This hinders efforts to integrate traditional NA spirituality into SUD treatment and track spiritual outcomes. As part of a randomized controlled trial examining SUD treatment for NAs, we adapted the Daily Spiritual Experience Scale (DSES) in collaboration with members of a Southwest tribe to create the Native American Spirituality Scale (NASS) and measured changes in the NASS over the course of treatment. The 83 participants (70% male) were from a single Southwest tribe and seeking SUD treatment. They completed the NASS at baseline, 4, 8, and 12 months. Exploratory factor analysis of the NASS was conducted and its temporal invariance, construct validity, and longitudinal changes in the factor and item scores were examined. The NASS yielded a 2-factor structure that was largely invariant across time. Factor 1 reflected behavioral practices, while Factor 2 reflected more global beliefs. Both factors significantly increased across 12 months, albeit at different assessment points. At baseline, Factor 1 was negatively related to substance use and positively associated with measures of tribal identification while Factor 2 was unrelated to these measures. Given the importance of tribal spirituality to many NAs, the development of this psychometrically sound measure is a key precursor and complement to the incorporation of tribal spirituality into treatment, as well as research on mechanisms of change for SUD treatment among NAs and assessment of NA spirituality in relation to other aspects of health. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. A bayesian approach to genome/linguistic relationships in native South Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Carlos Eduardo Guerra; Bisso-Machado, Rafael; Ramallo, Virginia; Bortolini, Maria Cátira; Bonatto, Sandro Luis; Salzano, Francisco Mauro; Hünemeier, Tábita

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between the evolution of genes and languages has been studied for over three decades. These studies rely on the assumption that languages, as many other cultural traits, evolve in a gene-like manner, accumulating heritable diversity through time and being subjected to evolutionary mechanisms of change. In the present work we used genetic data to evaluate South American linguistic classifications. We compared discordant models of language classifications to the current Native American genome-wide variation using realistic demographic models analyzed under an Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) framework. Data on 381 STRs spread along the autosomes were gathered from the literature for populations representing the five main South Amerindian linguistic groups: Andean, Arawakan, Chibchan-Paezan, Macro-Jê, and Tupí. The results indicated a higher posterior probability for the classification proposed by J.H. Greenberg in 1987, although L. Campbell's 1997 classification cannot be ruled out. Based on Greenberg's classification, it was possible to date the time of Tupí-Arawakan divergence (2.8 kya), and the time of emergence of the structure between present day major language groups in South America (3.1 kya).

  3. Correlates of social support in older American Indians: the Native Elder Care Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Kathleen P.; Schure, Marc B.; Goins, R. Turner

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study examined social support and identified demographic and health correlates among American Indians aged 55 years and older. Methods Data were derived from the Native Elder Care Study, a cross-sectional study of 505 community-dwelling American Indians aged ≥55 years. Social support was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey measure (MOS-SSS) of which psychometric properties were examined through factor analyses. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify associations between age, sex, educational attainment, marital status, depressive symptomatology, lower body physical functioning, and chronic pain and social support. Results Study participants reported higher levels of affectionate and positive interaction social support (88.2% and 81.8%, respectively) than overall (75.9%) and emotional (69.0%) domains. Increased age, being married/partnered, and female sex were associated with high social support in the final model. Decreased depressive symptomatology was associated with high overall, affectionate, and positive interaction support, and decreased chronic pain with affectionate support. The count of chronic conditions and functional disability were not associated with social support. Conclusions Overall, we found high levels of social support for both men and women in this population, with the oldest adults in our study exhibiting the highest levels of social support. Strong cultural values of caring for older adults and a historical tradition of community cooperation may explain this finding. Future public health efforts may be able to leverage social support to reduce health disparities and improve mental and physical functioning. PMID:25322933

  4. Challenges of hepatitis C treatment in Native Americans in two North Dakota medical facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, S; Jalil, S; Guerrero, D M; Sahmoun, A E

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic liver disease (CLD) in the Aboriginal North American population is disproportionately higher than that of the non-indigenous population. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the second leading cause of CLD in American Indians or Alaska Natives (AIANs). This study described the experience of two teaching community medical centers in North Dakota in treating HCV infection among AIANs and compared treatment outcomes to a cohort of Caucasian patients. The retrospective study described the characteristics and proportion of AIAN patients with HCV who received treatment. Documented reasons for not receiving treatment were analyzed. For those AIAN patients treated for HCV infection, responses to treatment, including rapid, early and sustained virological responses (SVRs), were compared with those of Caucasians. Only 22 (18%) of 124 AIANs with HCV infection received treatment. Common reasons for not receiving treatment include lack of access to specialists, concomitant or decompensated liver disease, alcohol and drug abuse and cost. There were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics and key predictors of SVR in AIANs compared to Caucasian controls. Most AIAN patients with HCV infection do not receive treatment despite comparable treatment response rates to Caucasians. Further population-based studies, addressing access to specialized hepatitis C treatment and public health concerns are warranted, as it is crucial to treat chronic HCV infection to decrease the burden of disease in the AIAN community.

  5. Behavioral symptoms of eating disorders in Native Americans: results from the ADD Health Survey Wave III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striegel-Moore, Ruth H; Rosselli, Francine; Holtzman, Niki; Dierker, Lisa; Becker, Anne E; Swaney, Gyda

    2011-09-01

    To examine prevalence and correlates (gender, Body Mass Index) of disordered eating in American Indian/Native American (AI/NA) and white young adults. We examined data from the 10,334 participants (mean age 21.93 years, SD = 1.8) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (ADD Health) Wave III for gender differences among AI/NA participants (236 women, 253 men) and ethnic group differences on measures of eating pathology. Among AI/NA groups, women were significantly more likely than men to report loss of control and embarrassment due to overeating. In gender-stratified analyses, a significantly higher prevalence of AI/NA women reported disordered eating behaviors compared with white women; there were no between group differences in prevalence for breakfast skipping or having been diagnosed with an eating disorder. Among men, disordered eating behaviors were uncommon and no comparison was statistically significant. Our study offers a first glimpse into the problem of eating pathology among AI/NA individuals. Gender differences among AI/NA participants are similar to results reported in white samples. That AI/NA women were as likely as white women to have been diagnosed with an eating disorder is striking in light of well documented under-utilization of mental health care among AI/NA individuals. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. A Review of Tenure for Black, Latino, and Native American Faculty in Academic Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Zedeena E; Rodríguez, José E; Campbell, Kendall M

    2017-01-01

    Tenure policies in US medical schools have been under scrutiny for decades while black/African American, Latino, and Native American faculty continue to be underrepresented in medicine. As medical institutions seek to improve diversity, tenure continues to be a major retention tool. We undertook a systematic review of the literature to investigate the role that tenure plays in the recruitment, retention, and advancement of underrepresented minorities in medicine (URMM) faculty in academic medicine. We searched PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Knowledge, the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and the Education Resources Information Center for articles relating to URMM faculty and tenure. Articles published in the last 20 years, in English, that discussed recruitment or retention of women, URMM faculty, and tenure in academic medicine, and were of high quality based on data were included in the study. Narrative reviews, opinion, editorials, and letters to the editor were excluded. Of the 1038 articles we reviewed, 23 met the criteria for inclusion. Tenure was associated with leadership, higher salaries, and comfort in the work environment. URMM faculty comprised the lowest percentage of tenured faculty in academic medicine, with the highest percentage pertaining to white men. More research needs to be done to determine whether tenure status can improve the number of URMM faculty in academic medicine. Tenure may provide URMM faculty the benefits that they need to progress in their careers and remain in academic medicine.

  7. Native American Indian Successes in Natural Resources, Science and Engineering: PreK through Ph.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolman, J. R.

    2005-12-01

    We are living in a definite time of change. Distinct changes are being experienced in our most sacred and natural environments. This is especially true on Native lands. Native people have lived for millennia in distinct and unique ways. The knowledge of balancing the needs of people with the needs of our natural environments is paramount in all tribal societies. This inherent knowledge has become the foundation on which to build a "blended" contemporary understanding of western science. The Dakota's and Northern California have recognized the critical need in understanding successful tribal strategies to engage educational systems (K-12 and higher education), to bring to prominence the professional development opportunities forged through working with tribal peoples and ensure the growth of Native people in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) professions. The presentation will highlight: 1) current philosophies on building a STEM Native workforce; 2) successful educational programs/activities in PreK-Ph.D. systems; 3) current Native professionals, their research and tribal applicability; and 4) forwarding thinking for creating sustainable environmental and social infrastructures for all people. South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (SDSM&T) and Humboldt State University (HSU) have been recognized nationally for their partnerships with Native communities. SDSM&T has set record numbers for graduating Native students in science and engineering. SDSM&T had 27 graduates in five years (2000-2005) and hosted more than 1000+ Native students for programs and activities. Humboldt State University is the only university in the CSU system with a program focusing specifically on Natives in natural resources, science and engineering as well as a Native American Studies degree. Both universities have designed programs to meet current needs and address challenging issues in Earth, Wind, Fire and Water. The programs are funded through NASA, NSF, NIH and

  8. Rating the YouTube Indian: Viewer Ratings of Native American Portrayals on a Viral Video Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopacz, Maria A.; Lawton, Bessie Lee

    2011-01-01

    Online outlets for user-generated content (UGC) like YouTube have created environments for alternative depictions of marginalized groups, as UGC can be contributed by anyone with basic technology access. Preliminary findings on UGC relating to Native Americans confirm some favorable departures from the distortions prevalent in the old media. The…

  9. English Learners (ELs) Who Are American Indian and/or Alaska Native (AI/AN). Fast Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The topics for this report on English Learners (ELs) Who Are American Indian and/or Alaska Native (AI/AN) include: (1) States With the Highest Percentage of ELs Who Were AI/AN:…

  10. Mathematical Contributions of the Mayas, Aztecs & Incas: A Native American Curriculum Unit for Middle and High School. NATAM XIX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodola, Janet

    Written to fulfill the requirements for a University of Minnesota College of Education off-campus Indian education course for public school teachers, this Native American curriculum unit for middle and high school reflects the mathematical achievements of the Maya, Aztec, and Inca Indians. The number systems, notation, and calendar techniques of…

  11. Native American and Hispanic Students: Recruitment, Enrollment, Retention and Graduation Trends; Institutional Performance Measures and Targets; Institutional Action Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Mexico Higher Education Department, 2005

    2005-01-01

    New Mexicans of Native American and Hispanic ancestry participate less often and less successfully in the higher education system than do other groups. This fact has been demonstrated repeatedly in various studies and is exacerbated by a cycle of poverty, inadequate academic and financial preparation for college, and other issues related to…

  12. Urban American Indian/Alaskan Natives Compared to Non-Indians in Out-of-Home Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Vernon B.

    2011-01-01

    Historically, American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN) children have been disproportionately represented in the foster care system. In this study, nationally representative child welfare data from October 1999 was used to compare urban AI/AN children to non-Indian children placed into out-of-home care. Compared to non-Indian children, urban AI/AN…

  13. Defining Economic Success as It Pertains to Native American Owned Businesses Located on/or Adjacent to North Dakota Reservations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Barbara Elise

    2013-01-01

    Successful economic development is essential in building and sustaining a healthy community. The purpose of this study was to identify indicators of successful economic development as it pertained to Native American owned businesses located on/or adjacent to North Dakota reservations. More specifically this study sought to explore specific…

  14. An Overview of the Labor Market Problems of Indians and Native Americans. Research Report No. 89-02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, Robert G.

    This booklet provides an overview of the labor market problems facing Indians and Native Americans, the most economically disadvantaged ethnic group in the United States. It summarizes Indian policy, particularly major policies and laws that relate to early trade restrictions and the exploitation of Indians through trade; their forced removal from…

  15. Conceptualizing American Indian/Alaska Native College Student's Classroom Experiences: Negotiating Cultural Identity between Faculty and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Nanci M.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. dominant culture's values and ways of knowing depicted in college curriculum assume that American Indian/Alaska Native college students will assimilate to dominant cultural beliefs and values in order to acquire a degree in higher education. Representative of this hegemonic pedagogical paradigm is the prescribed basic communication course…

  16. Native American gene continuity to the modern admixed population from the Colombian Andes: Implication for biomedical, population and forensic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criollo-Rayo, Angel A; Bohórquez, Mabel; Prieto, Rodrigo; Howarth, Kimberley; Culma, Cesar; Carracedo, Angel; Tomlinson, Ian; Echeverry de Polnaco, Maria M; Carvajal Carmona, Luis G

    2018-06-07

    Andean populations have variable degrees of Native American and European ancestry, representing an opportunity to study admixture dynamics in the populations from Latin America (also known as Hispanics). We characterized the genetic structure of two indigenous (Nasa and Pijao) and three admixed (Ibagué, Ortega and Planadas) groups from Tolima, in the Colombian Andes. DNA samples from 348 individuals were genotyped for six mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), seven non-recombining Y-chromosome (NRY) region and 100 autosomal ancestry informative markers. Nasa and Pijao had a predominant Native American ancestry at the autosomal (92%), maternal (97%) and paternal (70%) level. The admixed groups had a predominant Native American mtDNA ancestry (90%), a substantial frequency of European NRY haplotypes (72%) and similar autosomal contributions from Europeans (51%) and Amerindians (45%). Pijao and nearby Ortega were indistinguishable at the mtDNA and autosomal level, suggesting a genetic continuity between them. Comparisons with multiple Native American populations throughout the Americas revealed that Pijao, had close similarities with Carib-speakers from distant parts of the continent, suggesting an ancient correlation between language and genes. In summary, our study aimed to understand Hispanic patterns of migration, settlement and admixture, supporting an extensive contribution of local Amerindian women to the gene pool of admixed groups and consistent with previous reports of European-male driven admixture in Colombia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. 77 FR 34194 - Advance Notification to Native American Tribes of Transportation of Certain Types of Nuclear Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... Notification to Native American Tribes of Transportation of Certain Types of Nuclear Waste AGENCY: Nuclear... fuel and certain nuclear wastes for any shipment that passes within or across their reservations. The... irradiated reactor fuel and certain nuclear waste passing through or across the boundary of their States...

  18. The Rural Special Education Project: A School-Based Program That Prepares Special Educators to Teach Native American Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, Greg; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A Northern Arizona University program prepares preservice special education teachers to work with Native American children and families. University students live on the Navajo reservation and receive practical classroom experience at Kayenta Unified School District (Arizona). Anglo students are paired with Navajo students who act as "cultural…

  19. Native American Women Leaders' Use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) for Work-Life Balance (WLB) and Capacity Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Crystal C.

    2013-01-01

    Native American women's leadership, information communication technologies (ICTs), work-life balance (WLB) and human capacity building (HCB) are grounded in social justice issues due to their long history of overall cultural decimation, inequitable access to technology, monetary resources, and social power (agency), and influence. Currently, there…

  20. A Cultural Approach to Conducting HIV/AIDS and Hepatitis C Virus Education among Native American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, John

    2008-01-01

    This pilot study tests the feasibility of using a Talking Circle approach and measures cultural values and beliefs within a HIV/AIDS and hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevention program conducted among a Native American (Cherokee) youth population. A descriptive correlation design was used to examine the relationship between Cherokee self-reliance and…

  1. 75 FR 74056 - Request for Public Comment on the Proposed Adoption of Administration for Native Americans (ANA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Request for Public Comment on the Proposed Adoption of Administration for Native Americans (ANA) Program Policies and...) 690-7441. Comments will be available for inspection by members of the public at the Administration for...

  2. Native American Students' Understanding of Geologic Time Scale: 4th-8th Grade Ojibwe Students' Understanding of Earth's Geologic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Younkyeong; Karahan, Engin; Roehrig, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    Geologic time scale is a very important concept for understanding long-term earth system events such as climate change. This study examines forty-three 4th-8th grade Native American--particularly Ojibwe tribe--students' understanding of relative ordering and absolute time of Earth's significant geological and biological events. This study also…

  3. Influence of Remedial Education Policies: Experiences of Low-Income Native American Women at a Midwestern Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Armour, Carole Cristine

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how policies regarding remedial education can influence the experiences of students who identify as low socioeconomic (SES) Native American women at a Midwestern community college. This study proposed to use interpretive policy analysis and phenomenological qualitative research to learn more about how low…

  4. Factor Structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children-Fourth Edition among Referred Native American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Selena; Watkins, Marley W.

    2013-01-01

    The Native American population is severely underrepresented in empirical test validity research despite being overrepresented in special education programs and at increased risk for psychoeducational evaluation. The structural validity of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) was investigated with a sample of 176,…

  5. Association of Contextual Factors with Drug Use and Binge Drinking among White, Native American, and Mixed-Race Adolescents in the General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsing-Jung; Balan, Sundari; Price, Rumi Kato

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale surveys have shown elevated risk for many indicators of substance abuse among Native American and Mixed-Race adolescents compared to other minority groups in the United States. This study examined underlying contextual factors associated with substance abuse among a nationally representative sample of White, Native American, and…

  6. A functional ABCA1 gene variant is associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels and shows evidence of positive selection in Native Americans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acuña-Alonzo, Víctor; Flores-Dorantes, Teresa; Kruit, Janine K; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Arellano-Campos, Olimpia; Hünemeier, Tábita; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Ortiz-López, Ma Guadalupe; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; León-Mimila, Paola; Villalobos-Comparan, Marisela; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Ramírez-Jiménez, Salvador; Sikora, Martin; Zhang, Lin-Hua; Pape, Terry D; Granados-Silvestre, Ma de Angeles; Montufar-Robles, Isela; Tito-Alvarez, Ana M; Zurita-Salinas, Camilo; Bustos-Arriaga, José; Cedillo-Barrón, Leticia; Gómez-Trejo, Celta; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; Vieira-Filho, Joao P; Granados, Julio; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Huertas-Vázquez, Adriana; González-Martín, Antonio; Gorostiza, Amaya; Bonatto, Sandro L; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Wang, Li; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Lisker, Ruben; Moises, Regina S; Menjivar, Marta; Salzano, Francisco M; Knowler, William C; Bortolini, M Cátira; Hayden, Michael R; Baier, Leslie J; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that the higher susceptibility of Hispanics to metabolic disease is related to their Native American heritage. A frequent cholesterol transporter ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) gene variant (R230C, rs9282541) apparently exclusive to Native American individuals was

  7. Disparities in Smoking-Related Mortality Among American Indians/Alaska Natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowery, Paul D; Dube, Shanta R; Thorne, Stacy L; Garrett, Bridgette E; Homa, David M; Nez Henderson, Patricia

    2015-11-01

    Smoking-related disparities continue to be a public health problem among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) population groups and data documenting the health burden of smoking in this population are sparse. The purpose of this study was to assess mortality attributable to cigarette smoking among AI/AN adults relative to non-Hispanic white adults (whites) by calculating and comparing smoking-attributable fractions and mortality. Smoking-attributable fractions and mortality among AI/ANs (n=1.63 million AI/ANs) and whites were calculated for people living in 637 Indian Health Service Contract Health Service Delivery Area counties in the U.S., from mortality data collected during 2001-2009. Differences in smoking-attributable mortality between AI/ANs and whites for five major causes of smoking-related deaths were examined. All data analyses were carried out in 2013-2014. Overall, from 2001 to 2009, age-adjusted death rates, smoking-attributable fractions, and smoking-attributable mortality for all-cause mortality were higher among AI/ANs than among whites for adult men and women aged ≥35 years. Smoking caused 21% of ischemic heart disease, 15% of other heart disease, and 17% of stroke deaths in AI/AN men, compared with 15%, 10%, and 9%, respectively, for white men. Among AI/AN women, smoking caused 18% of ischemic heart disease deaths, 13% of other heart diseases deaths, and 20% of stroke deaths, compared with 9%, 7%, and 10%, respectively, among white women. These findings underscore the need for comprehensive tobacco control and prevention efforts that can effectively reach and impact the AI/AN population to prevent and reduce smoking. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  8. Native South American genetic structure and prehistory inferred from hierarchical modeling of mtDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cecil M; Long, Jeffrey C

    2008-03-01

    Genetic diversity in Native South Americans forms a complex pattern at both the continental and local levels. In comparing the West to the East, there is more variation within groups and smaller genetic distances between groups. From this pattern, researchers have proposed that there is more variation in the West and that a larger, more genetically diverse, founding population entered the West than the East. Here, we question this characterization of South American genetic variation and its interpretation. Our concern arises because others have inferred regional variation from the mean variation within local populations without taking into account the variation among local populations within the same region. This failure produces a biased view of the actual variation in the East. In this study, we analyze the mitochondrial DNA sequence between positions 16040 and 16322 of the Cambridge reference sequence. Our sample represents a total of 886 people from 27 indigenous populations from South (22), Central (3), and North America (2). The basic unit of our analyses is nucleotide identity by descent, which is easily modeled and proportional to nucleotide diversity. We use a forward modeling strategy to fit a series of nested models to identity by descent within and between all pairs of local populations. This method provides estimates of identity by descent at different levels of population hierarchy without assuming homogeneity within populations, regions, or continents. Our main discovery is that Eastern South America harbors more genetic variation than has been recognized. We find no evidence that there is increased identity by descent in the East relative to the total for South America. By contrast, we discovered that populations in the Western region, as a group, harbor more identity by descent than has been previously recognized, despite the fact that average identity by descent within groups is lower. In this light, there is no need to postulate separate founding

  9. U.S. Geological Survey activities related to American Indians and Alaska Natives: Fiscal years 2007 and 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    In the late 1800s, John Wesley Powell, the second director of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), followed his interest in the tribes of the Great Basin and Colorado Plateau and studied their cultures, languages, and surroundings. From that early time, the USGS has recognized the importance of Native knowledge and living in harmony with nature as complements to the USGS mission to better understand the Earth. Combining traditional ecological knowledge with empirical studies allows the USGS and Native American governments, organizations, and people to increase their mutual understanding and respect for this land. The USGS is the earth and natural science bureau within the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) and is not responsible for regulations or land management. Climate change is a major current issue affecting Native lives and traditions throughout the United States. Climate projections for the coming century indicate an increasing probability for more frequent and more severe droughts in the Southwest, including the Navajo Nation. Erosion has claimed Native homes in Alaska. Fish have become inedible due to diseases that turn their flesh mushy. Native people who rely on or who are culturally sustained by hunting, fishing, and using local plants are living with climate change now. The traditional knowledge of Native peoples enriches and confirms the work of USGS scientists. The results are truly synergistic-greater than the sum of their parts. Traditional ecological knowledge is respected and increasingly used in USGS studies-when the holders of that knowledge choose to share it. The USGS respects the rights of Native people to maintain their patrimony of traditional ecological knowledge. The USGS studies can help Tribes, Native organizations, and natural resource professionals manage Native lands and resources with the best available unbiased data and information that can be added to their traditional knowledge. Wise Native leaders have noted that traditional

  10. The University of Minnesota Morris (UMM) STEP Program: an initiative to encourage the participation of Native Americans in the sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, J. F.

    2009-12-01

    The goal of the UMM STEP program is to increase the number of graduates in STEM fields through innovative curricular, recruiting and mentoring strategies. A unique focus of the UMM STEP program is increasing the number of Native American science majors. The STEP program fosters a summer research environment where peer interaction and mentoring creates a web of support. To do so we will establish a supportive and fulfilling pipeline that: 1) Identifies Native American students and involves them in research while they are high school; 2) Mentors and prepares participants for university academics the summer before their freshman year; 3) Provides a complete tuition waiver, mentoring and a support network throughout their undergraduate career; and 4) Involves participants in an active and dynamic summer undergraduate research environment where under-represented individuals are in the majority. The third and fourth components of this pipeline are in very good shape. The Morris campus was originally established as an Indian School in 1887. When the federal government deeded the Indian school campus to the University of Minnesota a stipulation was that Native American students attend the college for free. At present, 196 Native Americans are enrolled at UMM (50 are STEM majors). The UMM STEP research experience provides the unique opportunity to interact with a scientific community that both breaks down a number of traditional barriers and aids in the maturation of these students as scientists. In Summer 2008, 4 students were involved in summer research and in 2009 seven Native American students participated. Early efforts of the UMM STEP program are encouraging. UMM Admissions staff used the UMM STEP program to recruit Native American students and the P.I. phoned “uncommitted admits”, visited reservations and hosted reservation student visits. The result was an increase in freshman Native American Science majors from 7 in Fall 2007, 15 in fall 2008 and 20 in fall

  11. Childhood asthma and indoor allergens in Native Americans in New York

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarbell Alice

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to assess the correlation between childhood asthma and potential risk factors, especially exposure to indoor allergens, in a Native American population. Methods A case-control study of St. Regis Mohawk tribe children ages 2–14 years, 25 diagnosed with asthma and 25 controls was conducted. Exposure was assessed based on a personal interview and measurement of mite and cat allergens (Der p 1, Fel d 1 in indoor dust. Results A non-significant increased risk of childhood asthma was associated with self-reported family history of asthma, childhood environmental tobacco smoke exposure, and air pollution. There was a significant protective effect of breastfeeding against current asthma in children less than 14 years (5.2 fold lower risk. About 80% of dust mite and 15% of cat allergen samples were above the threshold values for sensitization of 2 and 1 μg/g, respectively. The association between current asthma and exposure to dust mite and cat allergens was positive but not statistically significant. Conclusion This research identified several potential indoor and outdoor risk factors for asthma in Mohawks homes, of which avoidance may reduce or delay the development of asthma in susceptible individuals.

  12. Cervical cancer incidence and mortality among American Indian and Alaska Native women, 1999-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Meg; Benard, Vicki; Thomas, Cheryll; Brayboy, Annie; Paisano, Roberta; Becker, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    We analyzed cervical cancer incidence and mortality data in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) women compared with women of other races. We improved identification of AI/AN race, cervical cancer incidence, and mortality data using Indian Health Service (IHS) patient records; our analyses focused on residents of IHS Contract Health Service Delivery Area (CHSDA) counties. Age-adjusted incidence and death rates were calculated for AI/AN and White women from 1999 to 2009. AI/AN women in CHSDA counties had a death rate from cervical cancer of 4.2, which was nearly twice the rate in White women (2.0; rate ratio [RR] = 2.11). AI/AN women also had higher incidence rates of cervical cancer compared with White women (11.0 vs 7.1; RR = 1.55) and were more often diagnosed with later-stage disease (RR = 1.84 for regional stage and RR = 1.74 for distant stage). Death rates decreased for AI/AN women from 1990 to 1993 (-25.8%/year) and remained stable thereafter. Although rates decreased over time, AI/AN women had disproportionately higher cervical cancer incidence and mortality. The persistently higher rates among AI/AN women compared with White women require continued improvements in identifying and treating cervical cancer and precancerous lesions.

  13. Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality Among American Indian and Alaska Native Women, 1999–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benard, Vicki; Thomas, Cheryll; Brayboy, Annie; Paisano, Roberta; Becker, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We analyzed cervical cancer incidence and mortality data in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) women compared with women of other races. Methods. We improved identification of AI/AN race, cervical cancer incidence, and mortality data using Indian Health Service (IHS) patient records; our analyses focused on residents of IHS Contract Health Service Delivery Area (CHSDA) counties. Age-adjusted incidence and death rates were calculated for AI/AN and White women from 1999 to 2009. Results. AI/AN women in CHSDA counties had a death rate from cervical cancer of 4.2, which was nearly twice the rate in White women (2.0; rate ratio [RR] = 2.11). AI/AN women also had higher incidence rates of cervical cancer compared with White women (11.0 vs 7.1; RR = 1.55) and were more often diagnosed with later-stage disease (RR = 1.84 for regional stage and RR = 1.74 for distant stage). Death rates decreased for AI/AN women from 1990 to 1993 (−25.8%/year) and remained stable thereafter. Conclusions. Although rates decreased over time, AI/AN women had disproportionately higher cervical cancer incidence and mortality. The persistently higher rates among AI/AN women compared with White women require continued improvements in identifying and treating cervical cancer and precancerous lesions. PMID:24754650

  14. Female Sterilization and Poor Mental Health: Rates and Relatedness among American Indian and Alaska Native Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cackler, Christina J J; Shapiro, Valerie B; Lahiff, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    To describe the reproductive and mental health of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) women, an understudied population. Data from the 2004 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey were analyzed to determine the 1) prevalence of female sterilization among a nationally representative sample of reproductive age AI/AN women and 2) the association of female sterilization and poor mental health among AI/AN women compared with non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic women. Nearly 25% of AI/AN women reported female sterilization, a prevalence higher than the comparison racial/ethnic groups (p women reporting female sterilization had nearly 2.5 times the odds of poor mental health compared with AI/AN women not reporting female sterilization (p = .001). The same magnitude of relationship between female sterilization and poor mental health was not found for non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic women. The prevalence of female sterilization is greater among AI/AN women compared with non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic women, and AI/AN women reporting female sterilization have higher odds of reporting poor mental health. Common cultural experiences, such as a shared ancestral history of forced sterilizations, may be relevant, and could be considered when providing reproductive and mental health services to AI/AN women. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Breast Cancer Mortality Among American Indian and Alaska Native Women, 1990–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Arica; Richardson, Lisa C.; Li, Chunyu; Ekwueme, Donatus U.; Kaur, Judith S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We compared breast cancer death rates and mortality trends among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) and White women using data for which racial misclassification was minimized. Methods. We used breast cancer deaths and cases linked to Indian Health Service (IHS) data to calculate age-adjusted rates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) by IHS-designated regions from 1990 to 2009 for AI/AN and White women; Hispanics were excluded. Mortality-to-incidence ratios (MIR) were calculated for 1999 to 2009 as a proxy for prognosis after diagnosis. Results. Overall, the breast cancer death rate was lower in AI/AN women (21.6 per 100 000) than in White women (26.5). However, rates in AI/ANs were higher than rates in Whites for ages 40 to 49 years in the Alaska region, and ages 65 years and older in the Southern Plains region. White death rates significantly decreased (annual percent change [APC] = −2.1; 95% CI = −2.3, −2.0), but regional and overall AI/AN rates were unchanged (APC = 0.9; 95% CI = 0.1, 1.7). AI/AN women had higher MIRs than White women. Conclusions. There has been no improvement in death rates among AI/AN women. Targeted screening and timely, high-quality treatment are needed to reduce mortality from breast cancer in AI/AN women. PMID:24754658

  16. Fertility change in the American Indian and Alaska Native population, 1980-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Cannon

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since 1990, Vital Statistics reports show a dramatic decline in the total fertility rates (TFRs of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN women in the United States. Objective: We study whether the decrease in TFRs is due to a real change in fertility for a stable population; a compositional change in who identifies as AI/AN; or a methodological issue stemming from differences in identifying race across the data systems used to calculate fertility rates. Methods: We use data from the decennial US Census to study change in AI/AN fertility from 1980-2010. Results: We find declining TFRs when fertility is calculated within a single data system. Additionally, although TFRs are relatively stable within the subgroups of married and unmarried AI/AN women, the proportion of AI/AN women who are married has declined across birth cohorts. Conclusions: The decrease in TFRs for AI/AN women is a real change in fertility patterns and is not due to differences in racial identification across data systems. Contribution: We update knowledge of AI/AN fertility to include the decline in TFRs between 1980 and 2010.

  17. Traumatic Stress, Social Support, and Health Among Older American Indians: The Native Elder Care Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehee, Melissa; Buchwald, Dedra; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Omidpanah, Adam; Manson, Spero M; Goins, R Turner

    2017-01-03

    To estimate the prevalence of lifetime traumatic experiences, describe related symptoms of traumatic stress, and examine their association with perceived social support and physical and mental health among older American Indians. Analyses of existing interview data from the Native Elder Care Study, a random age-stratified sample of 505 tribal members ≥55 years of age conducted in partnership with a large Southeastern tribe. Interviews assessed trauma exposure, traumatic stress, measures of social support, and physical and mental health status. Overall, 31% of participants had experienced a traumatic event; of these, 43% reported traumatic stress at the time of the interview. Higher perceived social support was associated with a reduced prevalence of traumatic stress. Compared to their counterparts without traumatic stress, women participants reporting traumatic stress reported more symptoms of depression, and both symptomatic men and women had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease and chronic pain. Traumatic stress was associated with less perceived social support and poorer health. Social support was not found to moderate the relationship between traumatic stress and physical and mental health. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Resilience in American Indian and Alaska Native Public Health: An Underexplored Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teufel-Shone, Nicolette I; Tippens, Julie A; McCrary, Hilary C; Ehiri, John E; Sanderson, Priscilla R

    2018-02-01

    To conduct a systematic literature review to assess the conceptualization, application, and measurement of resilience in American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) health promotion. We searched 9 literature databases to document how resilience is discussed, fostered, and evaluated in studies of AIAN health promotion in the United States. The article had to (1) be in English; (2) peer reviewed, published from January 1, 1980, to July 31, 2015; (3) identify the target population as predominantly AIANs in the United States; (4) describe a nonclinical intervention or original research that identified resilience as an outcome or resource; and (5) discuss resilience as related to cultural, social, and/or collective strengths. Sixty full texts were retrieved and assessed for inclusion by 3 reviewers. Data were extracted by 2 reviewers and verified for relevance to inclusion criteria by the third reviewer. Attributes of resilience that appeared repeatedly in the literature were identified. Findings were categorized across the lifespan (age group of participants), divided by attributes, and further defined by specific domains within each attribute. Nine articles (8 studies) met the criteria. Currently, resilience research in AIAN populations is limited to the identification of attributes and pilot interventions focused on individual resilience. Resilience models are not used to guide health promotion programming; collective resilience is not explored. Attributes of AIAN resilience should be considered in the development of health interventions. Attention to collective resilience is recommended to leverage existing assets in AIAN communities.

  19. Using Storytelling to Address Oral Health Knowledge in American Indian and Alaska Native Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Brenda; Gebel, Christina; Crawford, Andrew; Barker, Judith C; Henshaw, Michelle; Garcia, Raul I; Riedy, Christine; Wimsatt, Maureen A

    2018-05-24

    We conducted a qualitative analysis to evaluate the acceptability of using storytelling as a way to communicate oral health messages regarding early childhood caries (ECC) prevention in the American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) population. A traditional story was developed and pilot tested among AIAN mothers residing in 3 tribal locations in northern California. Evaluations of the story content and acceptability followed a multistep process consisting of initial feedback from 4 key informants, a focus group of 7 AIAN mothers, and feedback from the Community Advisory Board. Upon story approval, 9 additional focus group sessions (N = 53 participants) were held with AIAN mothers following an oral telling of the story. Participants reported that the story was culturally appropriate and used relatable characters. Messages about oral health were considered to be valuable. Concerns arose about the oral-only delivery of the story, story content, length, story messages that conflicted with normative community values, and the intent to target audiences. Feedback by focus group participants raised some doubts about the relevance and frequency of storytelling in AIAN communities today. AIAN communities value the need for oral health messaging for community members. However, the acceptability of storytelling as a method for the messaging raises concerns, because the influence of modern technology and digital communications may weaken the acceptability of the oral tradition. Careful attention must be made to the delivery mode, content, and targeting with continual iterative feedback from community members to make these messages engaging, appropriate, relatable, and inclusive.

  20. Obesity, Diabetes, and Birth Outcomes Among American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kermyt G; Spicer, Paul; Peercy, Michael T

    2016-12-01

    Objectives To examine the relationships between prepregnancy diabetes mellitus (DM), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and prepregnancy body mass index, with several adverse birth outcomes: preterm delivery (PTB), low birthweight (LBW), and macrosomia, comparing American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/AN) with other race/ethnic groups. Methods The sample includes 5,193,386 singleton US first births from 2009-2013. Logistic regression is used to calculate adjusted odds ratios controlling for calendar year, maternal age, education, marital status, Kotelchuck prenatal care index, and child's sex. Results AI/AN have higher rates of diabetes than all other groups, and higher rates of overweight and obesity than whites or Hispanics. Neither overweight nor obesity predict PTB for AI/AN, in contrast to other groups, while diabetes predicts increased odds of PTB for all groups. Being overweight predicts reduced odds of LBW for all groups, but obesity is not predictive of LBW for AI/AN. Diabetes status also does not predict LBW for AI/AN; for other groups, LBW is more likely for women with DM or GDM. Overweight, obesity, DM, and GDM all predict higher odds of macrosomia for all race/ethnic groups. Conclusions for Practice Controlling diabetes in pregnancy, as well as prepregnancy weight gain, may help decrease preterm birth and macrosomia among AI/AN.

  1. Obesity and Overweight in American Indian and Alaska Native Children, 2006-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Ann; Sheff, Karen; Moore, Kelly; Manson, Spero

    2017-09-01

    To estimate obesity and overweight prevalence in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) children across genders, ages, and geographic regions in the Indian Health Service active clinical population. We obtained data from the Indian Health Service National Data Warehouse. At least 184 000 AI/AN children aged 2 to 19 years had body mass index data for each year studied, 2006 to 2015. We calculated body mass index percentiles with the 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts. In 2015, the prevalence of overweight and obesity in AI/AN children aged 2 to 19 years was 18.5% and 29.7%, respectively. Boys had higher obesity prevalence than girls (31.5% vs 27.9%). Children aged 12 to 19 years had a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity than younger children. The AI/AN children in our study had a higher prevalence of obesity than US children overall in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results for 2006 through 2014 were similar. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among AI/AN children in this population may have stabilized, while remaining higher than prevalence for US children overall.

  2. The immigrant paradox: immigrants are less antisocial than native-born Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Michael G; Salas-Wright, Christopher P; DeLisi, Matt; Maynard, Brandy R

    2014-07-01

    Although recent research on crime and violence among immigrants suggests a paradox--where immigrants are more socially disadvantaged yet less likely to commit crime--previous research is limited by issues of generalizability and assessment of the full depth of antisocial behavior. We surmount these limitations using data from waves I and II of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) and compare immigrants (N = 7,320) from Asia, Africa, Europe, and Latin America to native-born Americans (N = 34,622) with respect to violent and nonviolent forms of antisocial behavior. After controlling for an extensive array of confounds, results indicate that immigrants are significantly less antisocial despite being more likely to have lower levels of income, less education, and reside in urban areas. These findings hold for immigrants from major regions of the world including Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin America. This study confirms and extends prior research on crime and antisocial behavior, but suggests that it is premature however to think of immigrants as a policy intervention for treating high crime areas.

  3. Phytochemical Composition and Metabolic Performance Enhancing Activity of Dietary Berries Traditionally Used by Native North Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns Kraft, Tristan F.; Dey, Moul; Rogers, Randy B.; Ribnicky, David M.; Gipp, David M.; Cefalu, William T.; Raskin, Ilya; Lila, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    Four wild berry species, Amelanchier alnifolia, Viburnum trilobum, Prunus virginiana, and Shepherdia argentea, all integral to the traditional subsistence diet of Native American tribal communities, were evaluated to elucidate phytochemical composition and bioactive properties related to performance and human health. Biological activity was screened using a range of bioassays that assessed the potential for these little-known dietary berries to affect diabetic microvascular complications, hyperglycemia, pro-inflammatory gene expression, and metabolic syndrome symptoms. Non-polar constituents from berries, including carotenoids, were potent inhibitors of aldose reductase (an enzyme involved in the etiology of diabetic microvascular complications) whereas the polar constituents, mainly phenolic acids, anthocyanins, and proanthocyanidins, were hypoglycemic agents and strong inhibitors of IL-1β and COX-2 gene expression. Berry samples also showed the ability to modulate lipid metabolism and energy expenditure in a manner consistent with improving metabolic syndrome. The results demonstrate that these berries traditionally consumed by tribal cultures contain a rich array of phytochemicals that have the capacity to promote health and protect against chronic diseases, such as diabetes. PMID:18211018

  4. Deviations in energy sensing predict long-term weight change in overweight Native Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basolo, Alessio; Votruba, Susanne B; Heinitz, Sascha; Krakoff, Jonathan; Piaggi, Paolo

    2018-05-01

    Energy expenditure (EE), as reflective of body energy demand, has been proposed to be the key driver of food intake, possibly influencing weight change in humans. Variation in this energy-sensing link (overeating relative to weight-maintaining energy requirements) may lead to weight gain over time. Sixty-one overweight otherwise healthy Native Americans (age: 34.0 ± 7.9 years, body fat: 39.7 ± 9.5%, 36 males) were admitted to our clinical research unit for measurements of body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and 24-h EE and respiratory quotient (RQ) in a whole-room indirect calorimeter during energy balance and weight stability. Following this, ad libitum food intake was assessed for three days using computerized vending machines. Body weight change under unrestricted free-living conditions was assessed at an outpatient follow-up visit (median follow-up time = 1.7 years). Total ad libitum food intake (3-day average) was positively associated with 24-h EE (r = 0.44, p energy requirements can be assessed and predicts long-term weight gain, suggesting that variation in energy sensing may influence appetite by favoring overeating thus promoting obesity development. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. A Survey of Self-Management and Intrusiveness of Illness in Native Americans with Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ann F; Page, Evaren E; Norris, Ann I; Kim, Sue E; Thompson, David M; Roswell, Robert H

    2014-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) has emerged as an important focus of national public health efforts because of the rapid increase in the burden of this disease. In particular, DM disproportionately affects Native Americans. Adequate management of DM requires that patients participate as active partners in their own care and much of patient activation and empowerment can be attributed to their experience with DM and self-care. That is, the degree to which the patient feels the disease intrudes on his or her daily life would impact the motivation for self-care. We conducted a study in collaboration with 2 tribal nations in Oklahoma, collecting data on survey questions regarding intrusiveness of illness and self-management behaviors from a sample of 159 members of the Chickasaw and Choctaw Nations. Previously validated variables measuring intrusiveness of illness and self-care were included in the survey. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses illustrated the distribution of these variables and identified possible tribal and gender differences. Our findings showed that our sample adjusted well to DM and in general exhibited high compliance to self-care. However, our findings also revealed striking gender differences where female respondents were better adjusted to their disease, whereas male respondents reported higher adherence to self-management. Findings from our study, particularly those that describe tribal differences and gender disparities, can inform strategies for case management and patient interactions with providers and the health care system.

  6. Evaluating Disparities in Inpatient Surgical Cancer Care Among American Indian/Alaska Native Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simianu, Vlad V.; Morris, Arden M.; Varghese, Thomas K.; Porter, Michael P.; Henderson, Jeffrey A.; Buchwald, Dedra S.; Flum, David R.; Javid, Sara H.

    2016-01-01

    Background American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) patients with cancer have the lowest survival rates of all racial and ethnic groups, possibly because they are less likely to receive “best practice” surgical care than patients of other races. Methods Prospective cohort study comparing adherence to generic and cancer-specific guidelines on processes of surgical care between AI/AN and non-Hispanic white (NHW) patients in Washington State (2010–2014). Results 156 AI/AN and 6,030 NHW patients underwent operations for 10 different cancers, and had similar mean adherence to generic surgical guidelines (91.5% vs 91.9%, p=0.57). AI/AN patients with breast cancer less frequently received preoperative diagnostic core-needle biopsy (81% versus 94%, p=0.004). AI/AN patients also less frequently received care adherent to prostate cancer-specific guidelines (74% versus 92%,p=0.001). Conclusions While AI/ANs undergoing cancer operations in Washington receive similar overall best practice surgical cancer care to NHW patients, there remain important, modifiable disparities that may contribute to their lower survival. PMID:26846176

  7. Contested Domains of Science and Science Learning in Contemporary Native American Communities: Three Case Studies from a National Science Foundation grant titled, "Archaeology Pathways for Native Learners"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Nancy Brossard

    This dissertation provides a critical analysis of three informal science education partnerships that resulted from a 2003-2006 National Science Foundation grant titled, "Archaeology Pathways for Native Learners" (ESI-0307858), hosted by the Mashantucket Pequot Museum and Research Center. This dissertation is designed to contribute to understandings of learning processes that occur within and at the intersection of diverse worldviews and knowledge systems, by drawing upon experiences derived from three disparate contexts: 1) The Navajo Nation Museum in Window Rock, Arizona; 2) The A:shiwi A:wan Museum and Heritage Center on the Zuni Reservation in Zuni, New Mexico; and 3) Science learning camps at the Mashantucket Pequot Museum and Research Center for Native youth of southern New England. While informal science education is increasingly moving toward decolonizing and cross-cutting institutional boundaries of learning through critical thinking and real-world applications, the construction of "science" (even within diverse contexts) continues to be framed within a homogenous, predominantly Euro-American perspective. This study analyzes the language of Western science employed in these partnerships, with particular attention to the use of Western/Native binaries that shape perceptions of Native peoples and communities, real or imagined. Connections are drawn to broader nation-state interests in education, science, and the global economy. The role of educational evaluation in these case studies is also critically analyzed, by questioning the ways in which it is constructed, conducted, and evaluated for the purposes of informing future projects and subsequent funding. This study unpacks problems of the dominant language of "expert" knowledge embedded in Western science discourse, and highlights the possibilities of indigenous knowledge systems that can inform Western science frameworks of education and evaluation. Ultimately, this study suggests that research

  8. Factors affecting the quality of fish caught by Native Americans in the Zone 6 fishery 1991 through 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abernethy, C.S.

    1994-09-01

    A program to monitor the salmon and steelhead (Oncorhynchus spp.) fishery in the lower Columbia River (Zone 6 fishery) was initiated in 1991 to respond to questions and comments frequently made by Native Americans at public meetings. Native Americans were concerned that the quality of the Columbia River had deteriorated and that the poor environmental conditions had affected the health and quality of fish they relied on for subsistence, ceremonial, religious, and commercial purposes. They also feared that eating contaminated fish might endanger the health of their children and future generations. Operations at the Hanford Site were listed as one of many causes of the deteriorating environment. Fisheries pathologists concluded that most of the external symptoms on fish were related to bacterial infection of gill net abrasions and pre-spawning trauma, and were not caused by pollution or contamination of the Columbia River. The pathologists also stated that consumption of the fish posed no threat to human consumers.

  9. Ectopic pregnancy among American Indian and Alaska Native women, 2002-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ravello, Lori; Folkema, Arianne; Tulloch, Scott; Taylor, Melanie; Reilley, Brigg; Hoover, Karen; Holman, Robert; Creanga, Andreea

    2015-04-01

    To examine rates of ectopic pregnancy (EP) among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) women aged 15-44 years seeking care at Indian Health Service (IHS), Tribal, and urban Indian health facilities during 2002-2009. We used 2002-2009 inpatient and outpatient data from the IHS National Patient Information Reporting System to identify EP-associated visits and obtain the number of pregnancies among AI/AN women. Repeat visits for the same EP were determined by calculating the interval between visits; if more than 90 days between visits, the visit was considered related to a new EP. We identified 229,986 pregnancies among AI/AN women 15-44 years receiving care at IHS-affiliated facilities during 2002-2009. Of these, 2,406 (1.05 %) were coded as EPs, corresponding to an average annual rate of 10.5 per 1,000 pregnancies. The EP rate among AI/AN women was lowest in the 15-19 years age group (5.5 EPs per 1,000 pregnancies) and highest among 35-39 year olds (18.7 EPs per 1,000 pregnancies). EP rates varied by geographic region, ranging between 6.9 and 24.4 per 1,000 pregnancies in the Northern Plains East and the East region, respectively. The percentage of ectopic pregnancies found among AI/AN women is within the national 1-2 % range. We found relatively stable annual rates of EP among AI/AN women receiving care at IHS-affiliated facilities during 2002-2009, but considerable variation by age group and geographic region. Coupling timely diagnosis and management with public health interventions focused on tobacco use and sexually transmitted diseases may provide opportunities for reducing EP and EP-associated complications among AI/AN women.

  10. Assessment of Mammography Experiences and Satisfaction among American Indian/Alaska Native Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndikum-Moffor, Florence M.; Braiuca, Stacy; Daley, Christine Makosky; Gajewski, Byron J.; Engelman, Kimberly K.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) women have lower breast cancer (BCA) screening and 5-year survival rates than non-Hispanic Whites. Understanding reasons for low screening rates is important to combat later stage diagnoses. The purpose of this study was to assess mammography experiences and satisfaction among AI/AN women. METHODS Nine focus groups were held with rural (N=15) and urban (N=38) AI/AN women 40 years and older in Kansas and Kansas City, Missouri, living both near and far from Indian Health Service (IHS) and tribal facilities, to examine experiences and satisfaction with mammography. Transcripts were coded and themes identified using a community-based participatory research approach. FINDINGS Themes were classified under knowledge, communication, and awareness of breast cancer, barriers to mammography, mammogram facility size, impressions of mammogram technologist, motivations to getting a mammogram, and how to improve the mammogram experience. Participants had knowledge of prevention, but described cultural reasons for not discussing it and described better experiences in smaller facilities. Participants indicated having a mammogram technologist who was friendly, knowledgeable, respectful, competent, and explained the test was a determining factor in satisfaction. Other factors included family history, physician recommendation, and financial incentives. Barriers included transportation, cost, perceptions of prejudice, and time constraints. Participants on reservations or near IHS facilities preferred IHS over mainstream providers. Suggestions for improvement included caring technologists, better machines with less discomfort, and education. CONCLUSIONS Interventions to enhance the professionalism, empathy, and cultural awareness of mammogram technologists, reduce barriers, and provide positive expectations and incentives could improve satisfaction and compliance with screening mammography. PMID:24183414

  11. Ectopic Pregnancy Among American Indian and Alaska Native Women, 2002–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkema, Arianne; Tulloch, Scott; Taylor, Melanie; Reilley, Brigg; Hoover, Karen; Holman, Robert; Creanga, Andreea

    2015-01-01

    To examine rates of ectopic pregnancy (EP) among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) women aged 15–44 years seeking care at Indian Health Service (IHS), Tribal, and urban Indian health facilities during 2002–2009. We used 2002–2009 inpatient and outpatient data from the IHS National Patient Information Reporting System to identify EP-associated visits and obtain the number of pregnancies among AI/AN women. Repeat visits for the same EP were determined by calculating the interval between visits; if more than 90 days between visits, the visit was considered related to a new EP. We identified 229,986 pregnancies among AI/AN women 15–44 years receiving care at IHS-affiliated facilities during 2002–2009. Of these, 2,406 (1.05 %) were coded as EPs, corresponding to an average annual rate of 10.5 per 1,000 pregnancies. The EP rate among AI/AN women was lowest in the 15–19 years age group (5.5 EPs per 1,000 pregnancies) and highest among 35–39 year olds (18.7 EPs per 1,000 pregnancies). EP rates varied by geographic region, ranging between 6.9 and 24.4 per 1,000 pregnancies in the Northern Plains East and the East region, respectively. The percentage of ectopic pregnancies found among AI/AN women is within the national 1–2 % range. We found relatively stable annual rates of EP among AI/AN women receiving care at IHS-affiliated facilities during 2002–2009, but considerable variation by age group and geographic region. Coupling timely diagnosis and management with public health interventions focused on tobacco use and sexually transmitted diseases may provide opportunities for reducing EP and EP-associated complications among AI/AN women. PMID:25023759

  12. Education, Income, and Employment and Prevalence of Chronic Disease Among American Indian/Alaska Native Elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamsen, Collette; Schroeder, Shawnda; LeMire, Steven; Carter, Paula

    2018-03-22

    Chronic disease studies have omitted analyses of the American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) population, relied on small samples of AI/ANs, or focused on a single disease among AI/ANs. We measured the influence of income, employment status, and education level on the prevalence of chronic disease among 14,632 AI/AN elders from 2011 through 2014. We conducted a national survey of AI/AN elders (≥55 y) to identify health and social needs. Using these data, we computed cross-tabulations for each independent variable (annual personal income, employment status, education level), 2 covariates (age, sex), and presence of any chronic disease. We also compared differences in values and used a binary logistic regression model to control for age and sex. Most AI/AN elders (89.7%) had been diagnosed with at least one chronic disease. AI/AN elders were also more than twice as likely to have diabetes and more likely to have arthritis. AI/AN elders with middle-to-low income levels and who were unemployed were more likely to have a chronic disease than were high-income and employed AI/AN elders. Addressing disparities in chronic disease prevalence requires focus on more than access to and cost of health care. Economic development and job creation for all age cohorts in tribal communities may decrease the prevalence of long-term chronic diseases and may improve the financial status of the tribe. An opportunity exists to address health disparities through social and economic equity among tribal populations.

  13. Cultural Identity among Urban American Indian/Native Alaskan Youth: Implications for Alcohol and Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ryan A.; Dickerson, Daniel L.; D’Amico, Elizabeth J.

    2016-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth exhibit high rates of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use, which is often linked to the social and cultural upheaval experienced by AI/ANs during the colonization of North America. Urban AI/AN youth may face unique challenges, including increased acculturative stress due to lower concentrations of AI/AN populations in urban areas. Few existing studies have explored cultural identity among urban AI/AN youth and its association with AOD use. Objectives This study used systematic qualitative methods with AI/AN communities in two urban areas within California to shed light on how urban AI/AN youth construct cultural identity and how this relates to AOD use and risk behaviors. Methods We conducted 10 focus groups with a total of 70 youth, parents, providers, and Community Advisory Board members and used team-based structured thematic analysis in the Dedoose software platform. Results We identified 12 themes: intergenerational stressors, cultural disconnection, AI/AN identity as protective, pan-tribal identity, mixed racial-ethnic identity, rural vs. urban environments, the importance of AI/AN institutions, stereotypes and harassment, cultural pride, developmental trajectories, risks of being AI/AN, and mainstream culture clash. Overall, youth voiced curiosity about their AI/AN roots and expressed interest in deepening their involvement in cultural activities. Adults described the myriad ways in which involvement in cultural activities provides therapeutic benefits for AI/AN youth. Conclusions Interventions that provide urban AI/AN youth with an opportunity to engage in cultural activities and connect with positive and healthy constructs in AI/AN culture may provide added impact to existing interventions. PMID:27450682

  14. The role of culture in substance abuse treatment programs for American Indian and Alaska Native communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legha, Rupinder Kaur; Novins, Douglas

    2012-07-01

    Culture figures prominently in discussions regarding the etiology of alcohol and substance abuse in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities, and a substantial body of literature suggests that it is critical to developing meaningful treatment interventions. However, no study has characterized how programs integrate culture into their services. Furthermore, reports regarding the associated challenges are limited. Twenty key informant interviews with administrators and 15 focus groups with clinicians were conducted in 18 alcohol and substance abuse treatment programs serving AI/AN communities. Transcripts were coded to identify relevant themes. Substance abuse treatment programs for AI/AN communities are integrating culture into their services in two discrete ways: by implementing specific cultural practices and by adapting Western treatment models. More important, however, are the fundamental principles that shape these programs and their interactions with the people and communities they serve. These foundational beliefs and values, defined in this study as the core cultural constructs that validate and incorporate AI/AN experience and world view, include an emphasis on community and family, meaningful relationships with and respect for clients, a homelike atmosphere within the program setting, and an “open door” policy for clients. The primary challenges for integrating these cultural practices include AI/AN communities' cultural diversity and limited socioeconomic resources to design and implement these practices. The prominence of foundational beliefs and values is striking and suggests a broader definition of culture when designing services. This definition of foundational beliefs and values should help other diverse communities culturally adapt their substance abuse interventions in more meaningful ways.

  15. Developmental changes in anterior corneal astigmatism in Tohono O'odham Native American infants and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Erin M; Miller, Joseph M; Schwiegerling, Jim; Sherrill, Duane; Messer, Dawn H; Dobson, Velma

    2013-04-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To describe change in corneal astigmatism in infants and children of a Native American tribe with a high prevalence of astigmatism. Longitudinal measurements of corneal astigmatism were obtained in 960 Tohono O'odham children aged 6 months to <8 years. Change in corneal astigmatism (magnitude (clinical notation), J0, J45) across age in children with high astigmatism (≥2 diopter (D) corneal astigmatism) or low/no astigmatism (<2 D corneal astigmatism) at their baseline measurement was assessed. Regression analyses indicated that early in development (6 months to <3 years), astigmatism magnitude decreased in the high astigmatism group (0.37 D/year) and remained stable in the low/no astigmatism group. In later development (3 to <8 years), astigmatism decreased in the high (0.11 D/year) and low/no astigmatism groups (0.03 D/year). In 52 children who had data at all three of the youngest ages (6 months to <1 year, 1 to <2 years, 2 to <3 years) astigmatism decreased after infancy in those with high astigmatism (p = 0.021), and then remained stable from age 1-2 years, whereas astigmatism was stable from infancy through age 1 year and increased from age 1-2 years in the low/no astigmatism group (p = 0.026). J0 results were similar, but results on J45 yielded no significant effects. The greatest change occurred in highly astigmatic infants and toddlers (0.37 D/year). By age 3 years, change was minimal and not clinically significant. Changes observed were due primarily to change in the J0 component of astigmatism.

  16. Astigmatism and myopia in Tohono O'odham Native American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twelker, J Daniel; Miller, Joseph M; Sherrill, Duane L; Harvey, Erin M

    2013-11-01

    To describe change in spherical equivalent (M) in a longitudinal sample of Tohono O'odham students ages 3 to 18 years and to test the hypothesis that astigmatism creates complex cues to emmetropization, resulting in increased change in M in the direction of increasing myopia and increased occurrence of myopia. Subjects were 777 Tohono O'odham Native American children on whom cycloplegic right eye autorefraction was measured on at least two study encounters between ages 3 and 18 years (first encounter prior to age 5.5 years, final encounter ≥3 years later). Regression lines were fit to individual subjects' longitudinal M data to estimate rate of change in M (regression slope, D/yr). Regression was also used to predict if a subject would be myopic (≤-0.75 D M) by age 18 years. Analysis of covariance was used to assess the relation between M slope and magnitude of baseline M and astigmatism. Chi-square analyses were used to assess the relation between predicted myopia onset and magnitude of baseline M and astigmatism. Mean M slope was significantly more negative for hyperopes (M ≥ +2.00) than for myopes (M ≤ -0.75) or for subjects neither hyperopic nor myopic (NHM, M > -0.75 and < +2.00), but there was no significant difference between the myopic and NHM groups. Chi-square analysis indicated that final myopia status varied across level of baseline astigmatism. Subjects with high astigmatism were more likely to be predicted to have significant myopia by age 18 years. The association between greater shift in M towards myopia with age in subjects who were hyperopic at baseline is consistent with continued emmetropization in the school years. Results regarding predicted myopia development imply that degradation of image quality due to refractive astigmatism creates complex cues to emmetropization, resulting in increased occurrence of myopia.

  17. Prevalence of high astigmatism, eyeglass wear, and poor visual acuity among Native American grade school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Erin M; Dobson, Velma; Miller, Joseph M

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of astigmatism and poor visual acuity and rate of eyeglass wear in grade school children who are members of a Native American tribe reported to have a high prevalence of large amounts of astigmatism. Vision screening was conducted on 1,327 first through eighth grade children attending school on the Tohono O'odham Reservation. Noncycloplegic autorefraction was conducted on the right and left eye of each child using the Nikon Retinomax K+ autorefractor, and monocular recognition acuity was tested using ETDRS logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) letter charts. Tohono O'odham children had a high prevalence of high astigmatism (42% had > or = 1.00 D in the right or left eye) and the axis of astigmatism was uniformly with-the-rule. However, only a small percentage of children arrived at the vision screening wearing glasses, and the prevalence of poor visual acuity (20/40 or worse in either eye) was high (35%). There was a significant relation between amount of astigmatism and uncorrected visual acuity with each additional diopter of astigmatism resulting in an additional 1 logMAR line reduction in visual acuity. Uncorrected astigmatism and poor visual acuity are prevalent among Tohono O'odham children. The results highlight the importance of improving glasses-wearing compliance, determining barriers to receiving eye care, and initiating public education programs regarding the importance of early identification and correction of astigmatism in Tohono O'odham children.

  18. Astigmatism and Amblyopia among Native American Children (AANAC): design and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J M; Dobson, V M; Harvey, E M; Sherrill, D L

    2000-09-01

    The overall goal of the AANAC study is to improve detection of astigmatism and prevention of amblyopia in populations with a high prevalence of astigmatism. To meet this goal, the study will evaluate four methods of screening for astigmatism in preschool children and will assess both the short-term and long-term benefits of early correction of astigmatism in improving acuity and preventing amblyopia. This paper presents an overview of the design and methodology of the AANAC study. Subjects are members of the Tohono O'Odham Nation, a Native American tribe with a high prevalence of astigmatism. Preschool-age children who attend Head Start are screened with four tools: the Marco Nidek KM-500 autokeratometer, the MTI photoscreener, the Nikon Retinomax K-Plus autorefractor, and the Lea Symbols acuity chart. Sensitivity and specificity for detection of significant astigmatism, as measured by a technique that uses both cycloplegic retinoscopy and cycloplegic autorefraction, is determined for each of the four screening tools. Presence of amblyopia is evaluated by measurement of best-corrected recognition acuity and acuity for orthogonal gratings. Spectacles are provided to all 3-year-old children with > or =2.00 diopters (D) of astigmatism and all 4- and 5-year-old children with > or =1.50 D of astigmatism. Persistence of amblyopia after glasses wearing is evaluated by follow-up measurement of best-corrected recognition acuity and acuity for orthogonal gratings, conducted 2-5 months after glasses are prescribed. Long-term effectiveness of early screening and glasses prescription is evaluated through measurement of recognition acuity in two groups of first-grade children: one group who participated in the Head Start program before the intensive vision screening program was initiated, and a second group who participated in the study's Head Start vision screening program.

  19. Cultural Identity Among Urban American Indian/Alaska Native Youth: Implications for Alcohol and Drug Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ryan A; Dickerson, Daniel L; D'Amico, Elizabeth J

    2016-10-01

    American Indian / Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth exhibit high rates of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use, which is often linked to the social and cultural upheaval experienced by AI/ANs during the colonization of North America. Urban AI/AN youth may face unique challenges, including increased acculturative stress due to lower concentrations of AI/AN populations in urban areas. Few existing studies have explored cultural identity among urban AI/AN youth and its association with AOD use. This study used systematic qualitative methods with AI/AN communities in two urban areas within California to shed light on how urban AI/AN youth construct cultural identity and how this relates to AOD use and risk behaviors. We conducted 10 focus groups with a total of 70 youth, parents, providers, and Community Advisory Board members and used team-based structured thematic analysis in the Dedoose software platform. We identified 12 themes: intergenerational stressors, cultural disconnection, AI/AN identity as protective, pan-tribal identity, mixed racial-ethnic identity, rural vs. urban environments, the importance of AI/AN institutions, stereotypes and harassment, cultural pride, developmental trajectories, risks of being AI/AN, and mainstream culture clash. Overall, youth voiced curiosity about their AI/AN roots and expressed interest in deepening their involvement in cultural activities. Adults described the myriad ways in which involvement in cultural activities provides therapeutic benefits for AI/AN youth. Interventions that provide urban AI/AN youth with an opportunity to engage in cultural activities and connect with positive and healthy constructs in AI/AN culture may provide added impact to existing interventions.

  20. Disparities in Infectious Disease Hospitalizations for American Indian/Alaska Native People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Robert C.; Folkema, Arianne M.; Singleton, Rosalyn J.; Redd, John T.; Christensen, Krista Y.; Steiner, Claudia A.; Schonberger, Lawrence B.; Hennessy, Thomas W.; Cheek, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives We described disparities in infectious disease (ID) hospitalizations for American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) people. Methods We analyzed hospitalizations with an ID listed as the first discharge diagnosis in 1998–2006 for AI/AN people from the Indian Health Service National Patient Information Reporting System and compared them with records for the general U.S. population from the Nationwide Inpatient Survey. Results The ID hospitalization rate for AI/AN people declined during the study period. The 2004–2006 mean annual age-adjusted ID hospitalization rate for AI/AN people (1,708 per 100,000 populiation) was slightly higher than that for the U.S. population (1,610 per 100,000 population). The rate for AI/AN people was highest in the Southwest (2,314 per 100,000 population), Alaska (2,063 per 100,000 population), and Northern Plains West (1,957 per 100,000 population) regions, and among infants (9,315 per 100,000 population). ID hospitalizations accounted for approximately 22% of all AI/AN hospitalizations. Lower-respiratory--tract infections accounted for the largest proportion of ID hospitalizations among AI/AN people (35%) followed by skin and soft tissue infections (19%), and infections of the kidney, urinary tract, and bladder (11%). Conclusions Although the ID hospitalization rate for AI/AN people has declined, it remains higher than that for the U.S. general population, and is highest in the Southwest, Northern Plains West, and Alaska regions. Lower-respiratory-tract infections; skin and soft tissue infections; and kidney, urinary tract, and bladder infections contributed most to these health disparities. Future prevention strategies should focus on high-risk regions and age groups, along with illnesses contributing to health disparities. PMID:21800745

  1. Treatment eligibility in Alaska Native and American Indian persons with hepatitis C virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen E. Livingston

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Treatment with pegylated interferon and ribavirin may prevent progression of liver disease among patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection (HCV. Treatment initiation is based on published clinical eligibility criteria, patients’ willingness to undergo treatment and likelihood of success. We examined treatment eligibility in a cohort of Alaska Native and American Indian persons with chronic HCV infection. Study design. Retrospective cohort study. Methods. Medical records of all treatment naïve HCV RNA positive patients given an appointment by hepatology specialty clinic staff in 2003 and 2007 were evaluated by a hepatology provider to investigate documented reasons for treatment deferral. Results. Treatment was initiated in 4 of 94 patients (4% in 2003 and 14 of 146 patients (10% in 2007. Major reasons for treatment deferral in 2003 versus 2007 included inconsistent appointment attendance (36% of deferrals vs. 18%, active substance abuse (17% vs. 22%, patient decision (17% vs. 27%, liver biopsy without fibrosis or normal ALT (8% vs. 3%, uncontrolled psychiatric condition (7% vs. 7% and concurrent medical condition (6% vs. 9%. There was significant improvement in proportion of appointments attended in 2007 versus 2003 (76% vs. 67%, p = 0.04 and the percentage of patients attending at least 1 appointment (84% vs. 66%, p = 0.002. Conclusions. Multiple reasons for treatment deferral were documented. Despite a significant improvement in hepatology clinic attendance and an increase in the number of patients started on treatment in 2007 compared to 2003, the overall percentage of those treated remained low.

  2. The role of variants from the innate immune system genes in tuberculosis and skin test response in a Native American population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenau, Juliana D; Salzano, Francisco M; Hurtado, Ana M; Hill, Kim R; Hutz, Mara H

    2016-10-01

    Native American populations show higher tuberculosis (TB) mortality and infectivity rates than non-Native populations. Variants in the innate immune system seem to have an important role on TB susceptibility. The role of some innate immune system variants in TB susceptibility and/or skin test response (PPD) were investigated in the Aché, a Native American population. Complement receptor 1 and toll like receptor 9 variants were associated with anergy to PPD and protection to TB, respectively. These findings demonstrate an important role of the innate immune system variants in TB susceptibility. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Incidence of Molluscum contagiosum among American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary G Reynolds

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of Molluscum contagiosum (MC in the United States is largely unknown, despite the fact that the virus is directly communicable and large outbreaks occur. This study provides population-based estimates to describe the epidemiology of MC in the United States among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN persons. This population was selected because of the comprehensiveness and quality of available data describing utilization of out-patient services.Outpatient visits listing MC as a diagnosis in the Indian Health Service National Patient Information Reporting System during 2001-2005 were analyzed to assess patient characteristics, visit frequency and concurrent skin conditions. Outpatient visit rates and incidence rates were calculated based on known population denominators (retrospective cohort. Overall outpatient visit rates were also calculated for the general US population using national data. The average annual rate of MC-associated outpatient visits was 20.15/10,000 AI/AN persons for 2001-2005 (13,711 total visits, which was similar to the rate for the general US population (22.0/10,000 [95% CI: 16.9-27.1]. The incidence of MC-associated visits was 15.34/10,000. AI/AN children 1-4 years old had the highest incidence (77.12, more than twice that for children 5-14 years old (30.79; the incidence for infants (<1 year was higher than that for adults. AI/AN persons living in the West region had the highest incidence, followed by those in the East and Alaska regions (26.96, 22.88 and 21.38, respectively. There were age-specific associations between MC and concurrent skin conditions (e.g., atopic dermatitis, eczema.This study highlights the need for periodic population-based measurements to assess trends in incidence and healthcare utilization for MC in the United States. High rates of MC were found among AI/AN persons, especially among children <15 years old. The AI/AN population would benefit from greater availability of

  4. Guideline-Concordant Cancer Care and Survival Among American Indian/Alaskan Native Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javid, Sara H.; Varghese, Thomas K.; Morris, Arden M.; Porter, Michael P.; He, Hao; Buchwald, Dedra; Flum, David R.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND American Indians/Alaskan Natives (AI/ANs) have the worst 5-year cancer survival of all racial/ethnic groups in the United States. Causes for this disparity are unknown. The authors of this report examined the receipt of cancer treatment among AI/AN patients compared with white patients. METHODS This was a retrospective cohort study of 338,204 patients who were diagnosed at age ≥65 years with breast, colon, lung, or prostate cancer between 1996 and 2005 in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare database. Nationally accepted guidelines for surgical and adjuvant therapy and surveillance were selected as metrics of optimal, guideline-concordant care. Treatment analyses compared AI/ANs with matched whites. RESULTS Across cancer types, AI/ANs were less likely to receive optimal cancer treatment and were less likely to undergo surgery (P ≤ .025 for all cancers). Adjuvant therapy rates were significantly lower for AI/AN patients with breast cancer (P <.001) and colon cancer (P = .001). Rates of post-treatment surveillance also were lower among AI/ANs and were statistically significantly lower for AI/AN patients with breast cancer (P = .002) and prostate cancer (P <.001). Nonreceipt of optimal cancer treatment was associated with significantly worse survival across cancer types. Disease-specific survival for those who did not undergo surgery was significantly lower for patients with breast cancer (hazard ratio [HR], 0.62), colon cancer (HR, 0.74), prostate cancer (HR, 0.52), and lung cancer (HR, 0.36). Survival rates also were significantly lower for those patients who did not receive adjuvant therapy for breast cancer (HR, 0.56), colon cancer (HR, 0.59), or prostate cancer (HR, 0.81; all 95% confidence intervals were <1.0). CONCLUSIONS Fewer AI/AN patients than white patients received guideline-concordant cancer treatment across the 4 most common cancers. Efforts to explain these differences are critical to improving cancer care and

  5. A functional ABCA1 gene variant is associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels and shows evidence of positive selection in Native Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña-Alonzo, Víctor; Flores-Dorantes, Teresa; Kruit, Janine K.; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Arellano-Campos, Olimpia; Hünemeier, Tábita; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Ortiz-López, Ma Guadalupe; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; León-Mimila, Paola; Villalobos-Comparan, Marisela; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Ramírez-Jiménez, Salvador; Sikora, Martin; Zhang, Lin-Hua; Pape, Terry D.; de Ángeles Granados-Silvestre, Ma; Montufar-Robles, Isela; Tito-Alvarez, Ana M.; Zurita-Salinas, Camilo; Bustos-Arriaga, José; Cedillo-Barrón, Leticia; Gómez-Trejo, Celta; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; Vieira-Filho, Joao P.; Granados, Julio; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Huertas-Vázquez, Adriana; González-Martín, Antonio; Gorostiza, Amaya; Bonatto, Sandro L.; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Wang, Li; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Lisker, Ruben; Moises, Regina S.; Menjivar, Marta; Salzano, Francisco M.; Knowler, William C.; Bortolini, M. Cátira; Hayden, Michael R.; Baier, Leslie J.; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that the higher susceptibility of Hispanics to metabolic disease is related to their Native American heritage. A frequent cholesterol transporter ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) gene variant (R230C, rs9282541) apparently exclusive to Native American individuals was associated with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, obesity and type 2 diabetes in Mexican Mestizos. We performed a more extensive analysis of this variant in 4405 Native Americans and 863 individuals from other ethnic groups to investigate genetic evidence of positive selection, to assess its functional effect in vitro and to explore associations with HDL-C levels and other metabolic traits. The C230 allele was found in 29 of 36 Native American groups, but not in European, Asian or African individuals. C230 was observed on a single haplotype, and C230-bearing chromosomes showed longer relative haplotype extension compared with other haplotypes in the Americas. Additionally, single-nucleotide polymorphism data from the Human Genome Diversity Panel Native American populations were enriched in significant integrated haplotype score values in the region upstream of the ABCA1 gene. Cells expressing the C230 allele showed a 27% cholesterol efflux reduction (P< 0.001), confirming this variant has a functional effect in vitro. Moreover, the C230 allele was associated with lower HDL-C levels (P = 1.77 × 10−11) and with higher body mass index (P = 0.0001) in the combined analysis of Native American populations. This is the first report of a common functional variant exclusive to Native American and descent populations, which is a major determinant of HDL-C levels and may have contributed to the adaptive evolution of Native American populations. PMID:20418488

  6. The Labor Market Status of Native Born Filipino\\a Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Linus Yamane

    2001-01-01

    This paper finds that Filipino Americans face significant discrimination in the labor market. Filipino Americans face both wage discrimination and occupational discrimination. But the amount of discrimination faced by Filipino Americans depends on combinations of gender, region of residence, and level of education.

  7. A day of immersive physiology experiments increases knowledge and excitement towards physiology and scientific careers in Native American students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Bryan K; Schiller, Alicia M; Zucker, Irving H; Eager, Eric A; Bronner, Liliana P; Godfrey, Maurice

    2017-03-01

    Underserved minority groups are disproportionately absent from the pursuit of careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. One such underserved population, Native Americans, are particularly underrepresented in STEM fields. Although recent advocacy and outreach designed toward increasing minority involvement in health care-related occupations have been mostly successful, little is known about the efficacy of outreach programs in increasing minority enthusiasm toward careers in traditional scientific professions. Furthermore, very little is known about outreach among Native American schools toward increasing involvement in STEM. We collaborated with tribal middle and high schools in South Dakota and Nebraska through a National Institutes of Health Science Education Partnership Award to hold a day-long physiology, activity-based event to increase both understanding of physiology and enthusiasm to scientific careers. We recruited volunteer biomedical scientists and trainees from the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Nebraska Wesleyan University, and University of South Dakota. To evaluate the effectiveness of the day of activities, 224 of the ~275-300 participating students completed both a pre- and postevent evaluation assessment. We observed increases in both students self-perceived knowledge of physiology and enthusiasm toward scientific career opportunities after the day of outreach activities. We conclude that activity-based learning opportunities in underserved populations are effective in increasing both knowledge of science and interest in scientific careers. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Speaking out about physical harms from tobacco use: response to graphic warning labels among American Indian/Alaska Native communities

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson Silver Wolf, David A; Tovar, Molly; Thompson, Kellie; Ishcomer, Jamie; Kreuter, Matthew W; Caburnay, Charlene; Boyum, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study is the first to explore the impact of graphic cigarette labels with physical harm images on members of American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities. The aim of this article is to investigate how AI/AN respond to particular graphic warning labels. Methods The parent study recruited smokers, at-risk smokers and non-smokers from three different age groups (youths aged 13?17?years, young adults aged 18?24?years and adults aged 25+ years) and five population subgroups wit...

  9. An Evaluation of Native-speaker Judgements of Foreign-accented British and American English

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doel, W.Z. van den

    2006-01-01

    This study is the first ever to employ a large-scale Internet survey to investigate priorities in English pronunciation training. Well over 500 native speakers from throughout the English-speaking world, including North America, the British Isles, Australia and New Zealand, were asked to detect and

  10. The influence of inoculated and native ectomycorrhizal fungi on morphology, physiology and survival of American chestnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenise M. Bauman; Carolyn H. Keiffer; Shiv. Hiremath

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of five different species of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi on root colonization of native fungi on putatively blight resistant chestnut hybrids (Castanea dentata x C. mollissima) in a reclaimed mine site in central Ohio. The five species were Hebeloma crustuliniforme, Laccaria bicolor,...

  11. The burden of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes in Native Hawaiian and Asian American hospitalized patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.L. Sentell

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Hospitalized Native Hawaiians (41% and Asian subgroups had significantly higher overall diabetes burdens compared to Whites (23%. Potentially undiagnosed diabetes was associated with poor outcomes. Hospitalized patients, irrespective of race/ethnicity, may require more effective inpatient identification and management of previously undiagnosed diabetes to improve clinical outcomes.

  12. 78 FR 48441 - Office of Urban Indian Health Programs Proposed Single Source Grant With Native American...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ AN) residing in the Boston metropolitan area. This program is authorized.... Emergency Response: We have learned from the past and are better prepared for the future. There is an ethic...) those recognized now or in the future by the State in which they reside; or (b) Is a descendant, in the...

  13. 75 FR 13140 - Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Review Committee: Nomination Solicitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... that Indian tribe or Native Hawaiian organization, or (ii) Exercising a leadership role in an Indian... signature and daytime telephone number. The nominator must indicate how he or she meets the definition of... of an advisory board. c. how the nominee meets the definition of traditional religious leader found...

  14. 77 FR 59990 - Workforce Investment Act; Native American Employment and Training Council Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... Committee Act (FACA) (Pub. L. 92-463), as amended, and Section 166(h)(4) of the Workforce Investment Act... written statements to Mrs. Evangeline M. Campbell, Designated Federal Official (DFO), U.S. Department of.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mrs. Evangeline M. Campbell, DFO, Division of Indian and Native...

  15. 78 FR 69879 - Workforce Investment Act: Native American Employment and Training Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ... Committee Act (FACA) (Pub. L. 92-463), as amended, and Section 166(h)(4) of the Workforce Investment Act... written statements to Mrs. Evangeline M. Campbell, Designated Federal Official (DFO), U.S. Department of... Recommendations. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mrs. Evangeline M. Campbell, DFO, Division of Indian and Native...

  16. Attitudes toward Science (ATS): An Examination of Scientists' and Native Americans' Cultural Values and ATS and Their Effect on Action Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murry, Adam T.

    Science has been identified as a crucial element in the competitiveness and sustainability of America in the global economy. American citizens, especially minority populations, however, are not pursuing science education or careers. Past research has implicated ‘attitudes toward science’ as an important factor in the public’s participation in science. I applied Ajzen’s (1991) Theory of Planned Behavior to attitudes toward science to predict science-related sustainability-action intentions and evaluated whether scientists and Native Americans differed in their general attitudes toward science, cultural values, and specific beliefs about science. Analyses revealed that positive attitude toward science and the cultural value of individualism predicted intentions to engage with science-related sustainability actions. Unexpectedly, scientists and Native Americans did not differ in their cultural values or positive attitude toward science. However, Natives Americans held significantly more negative attitude toward science than scientists. Implications for science education and attitudes towards science theory and application are discussed.

  17. The Construction, Negotiation, and Transformation of Racial Identity in American Football: A Study of Native and African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gems, Gerald R.

    1998-01-01

    Traces and compares the histories of Black and American-Indian participation in collegiate and professional football. Discusses athletic participation by minority groups as a challenge to segregation and notions of White superiority; as a challenge to the persistence of racist stereotypes in media coverage; and as a foundation for the…

  18. The Policing of Native Bodies and Minds: Perspectives on Schooling from American Indian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijada Cerecer, Patricia D.

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates that high school campus climates are contentious for students of color, particularly as they negotiate institutional and personal racism. Unfortunately, minimal research centers on the experiences of American Indian youth. In response, this qualitative study explores American Indian responses to hostile campus climates. Using a…

  19. Prevalence of corneal astigmatism in Tohono O'odham Native American children 6 months to 8 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Erin M; Dobson, Velma; Miller, Joseph M; Schwiegerling, Jim; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E; Green, Tina K; Messer, Dawn H

    2011-06-21

    To describe the prevalence of corneal astigmatism in infants and young children who are members of a Native American tribe with a high prevalence of refractive astigmatism. The prevalence of corneal astigmatism was assessed by obtaining infant keratometer (IK4) measurements from 1235 Tohono O'odham children, aged 6 months to 8 years. The prevalence of corneal astigmatism >2.00 D was lower in the 1- to <2-year-old age group when compared with all other age groups, except the 6- to <7-year-old group. The magnitude of mean corneal astigmatism was significantly lower in the 1- to <2-year age group than in the 5- to <6-, 6- to <7-, and 7- to <8-year age groups. Corneal astigmatism was with-the-rule (WTR) in 91.4% of astigmatic children (≥1.00 D). The prevalence and mean amount of corneal astigmatism were higher than reported in non-Native American populations. Mean astigmatism increased from 1.43 D in 1-year-olds to nearly 2.00 D by school age.

  20. A cost comparison of travel models and behavioural telemedicine for rural, Native American populations in New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Brady P; Barragan, Gary N; Fore, Chis; Bonham, Caroline A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to model the cost of delivering behavioural health services to rural Native American populations using telecommunications and compare these costs with the travel costs associated with providing equivalent care. Behavioural telehealth costs were modelled using equipment, transmission, administrative and IT costs from an established telecommunications centre. Two types of travel models were estimated: a patient travel model and a physician travel model. These costs were modelled using the New Mexico resource geographic information system program (RGIS) and ArcGIS software and unit costs (e.g. fuel prices, vehicle depreciation, lodging, physician wages, and patient wages) that were obtained from the literature and US government agencies. The average per-patient cost of providing behavioural healthcare via telehealth was US$138.34, and the average per-patient travel cost was US$169.76 for physicians and US$333.52 for patients. Sensitivity analysis found these results to be rather robust to changes in imputed parameters and preliminary evidence of economies of scale was found. Besides the obvious benefits of increased access to healthcare and reduced health disparities, providing behavioural telehealth for rural Native American populations was estimated to be less costly than modelled equivalent care provided by travelling. Additionally, as administrative and coordination costs are a major component of telehealth costs, as programmes grow to serve more patients, the relative costs of these initial infrastructure as well as overall per-patient costs should decrease. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Through the Lens of TEK - Building GeoScience Pathways for American Indian/Alaska Native Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, W. J.; van Cooten, S.; Wrege, B.; Wildcat, D.

    2017-12-01

    Native American or American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) students come from diverse communities with indigenous knowledges, perspectives and worldviews. These communities and the students they send into our nation's education systems have cultural connectivity to oral histories, documents, and artwork that details climate cycles and weather events prior to colonization through eras of forced relocation and assimilation. Today, these students are the trailblazers as tribal governments exercise their ownership rights to natural resources and the welfare of their citizens as sovereign nations. In universities, especially tribal colleges, our nation's indigenous students are bridge builders. Through the lens of Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK), these students have a unique yet overlooked perspective to merge mainstream research with indigenous knowledge systems to develop practical sustainable solutions for local, regional and international resource management issues. The panel will discuss barriers, such as underdeveloped geophysical science curricula at tribal colleges, that limit the pool of indigenous geoscience graduates and examine possible strategies such as entry point opportunities and partnerships, mentoring, and community relevant research experiences, to eliminate barriers that limit the influx of TEK in resiliency planning.

  2. Work Disability Among Native-born and Foreign-born Americans: On Origins, Health, and Social Safety Nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelman, Michal; Kestenbaum, Bert M; Zuelsdorff, Megan L; Mehta, Neil K; Lauderdale, Diane S

    2017-12-01

    Public debates about both immigration policy and social safety net programs are increasingly contentious. However, little research has explored differences in health within America's diverse population of foreign-born workers, and the effect of these workers on public benefit programs is not well understood. We investigate differences in work disability by nativity and origins and describe the mix of health problems associated with receiving Social Security Disability Insurance benefits. Our analysis draws on two large national data sources-the American Community Survey and comprehensive administrative records from the Social Security Administration-to determine the prevalence and incidence of work disability between 2001 and 2010. In sharp contrast to prior research, we find that foreign-born adults are substantially less likely than native-born Americans to report work disability, to be insured for work disability benefits, and to apply for those benefits. Overall and across origins, the foreign-born also have a lower incidence of disability benefit award. Persons from Africa, Northern Europe, Canada, and parts of Asia have the lowest work disability benefit prevalence rates among the foreign-born; persons from Southern Europe, Western Europe, the former Soviet Union, and the Caribbean have the highest rates.

  3. Community-Based Research as a Mechanism to Reduce Environmental Health Disparities in American Indian and Alaska Native Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Agumanu McOliver

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Racial and ethnic minority communities, including American Indian and Alaska Natives, have been disproportionately impacted by environmental pollution and contamination. This includes siting and location of point sources of pollution, legacies of contamination of drinking and recreational water, and mining, military and agricultural impacts. As a result, both quantity and quality of culturally important subsistence resources are diminished, contributing to poor nutrition and obesity, and overall reductions in quality of life and life expectancy. Climate change is adding to these impacts on Native American communities, variably causing drought, increased flooding and forced relocation affecting tribal water resources, traditional foods, forests and forest resources, and tribal health. This article will highlight several extramural research projects supported by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA Science to Achieve Results (STAR tribal environmental research grants as a mechanism to address the environmental health inequities and disparities faced by tribal communities. The tribal research portfolio has focused on addressing tribal environmental health risks through community based participatory research. Specifically, the STAR research program was developed under the premise that tribal populations may be at an increased risk for environmentally-induced diseases as a result of unique subsistence and traditional practices of the tribes and Alaska Native villages, community activities, occupations and customs, and/or environmental releases that significantly and disproportionately impact tribal lands. Through a series of case studies, this article will demonstrate how grantees—tribal community leaders and members and academic collaborators—have been addressing these complex environmental concerns by developing capacity, expertise and tools through community-engaged research.

  4. Community-Based Research as a Mechanism to Reduce Environmental Health Disparities in American Indian and Alaska Native Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McOliver, Cynthia Agumanu; Camper, Anne K.; Doyle, John T.; Eggers, Margaret J.; Ford, Tim E.; Lila, Mary Ann; Berner, James; Campbell, Larry; Donatuto, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Racial and ethnic minority communities, including American Indian and Alaska Natives, have been disproportionately impacted by environmental pollution and contamination. This includes siting and location of point sources of pollution, legacies of contamination of drinking and recreational water, and mining, military and agricultural impacts. As a result, both quantity and quality of culturally important subsistence resources are diminished, contributing to poor nutrition and obesity, and overall reductions in quality of life and life expectancy. Climate change is adding to these impacts on Native American communities, variably causing drought, increased flooding and forced relocation affecting tribal water resources, traditional foods, forests and forest resources, and tribal health. This article will highlight several extramural research projects supported by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Science to Achieve Results (STAR) tribal environmental research grants as a mechanism to address the environmental health inequities and disparities faced by tribal communities. The tribal research portfolio has focused on addressing tribal environmental health risks through community based participatory research. Specifically, the STAR research program was developed under the premise that tribal populations may be at an increased risk for environmentally-induced diseases as a result of unique subsistence and traditional practices of the tribes and Alaska Native villages, community activities, occupations and customs, and/or environmental releases that significantly and disproportionately impact tribal lands. Through a series of case studies, this article will demonstrate how grantees—tribal community leaders and members and academic collaborators—have been addressing these complex environmental concerns by developing capacity, expertise and tools through community-engaged research. PMID:25872019

  5. Subtypes of Native American ancestry and leading causes of death: Mapuche ancestry-specific associations with gallbladder cancer risk in Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justo Lorenzo Bermejo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Latin Americans are highly heterogeneous regarding the type of Native American ancestry. Consideration of specific associations with common diseases may lead to substantial advances in unraveling of disease etiology and disease prevention. Here we investigate possible associations between the type of Native American ancestry and leading causes of death. After an aggregate-data study based on genome-wide genotype data from 1805 admixed Chileans and 639,789 deaths, we validate an identified association with gallbladder cancer relying on individual data from 64 gallbladder cancer patients, with and without a family history, and 170 healthy controls. Native American proportions were markedly underestimated when the two main types of Native American ancestry in Chile, originated from the Mapuche and Aymara indigenous peoples, were combined together. Consideration of the type of Native American ancestry was crucial to identify disease associations. Native American ancestry showed no association with gallbladder cancer mortality (P = 0.26. By contrast, each 1% increase in the Mapuche proportion represented a 3.7% increased mortality risk by gallbladder cancer (95%CI 3.1-4.3%, P = 6×10-27. Individual-data results and extensive sensitivity analyses confirmed the association between Mapuche ancestry and gallbladder cancer. Increasing Mapuche proportions were also associated with an increased mortality due to asthma and, interestingly, with a decreased mortality by diabetes. The mortality due to skin, bladder, larynx, bronchus and lung cancers increased with increasing Aymara proportions. Described methods should be considered in future studies on human population genetics and human health. Complementary individual-based studies are needed to apportion the genetic and non-genetic components of associations identified relying on aggregate-data.

  6. Subtypes of Native American ancestry and leading causes of death: Mapuche ancestry-specific associations with gallbladder cancer risk in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo Bermejo, Justo; Boekstegers, Felix; González Silos, Rosa; Marcelain, Katherine; Baez Benavides, Pablo; Barahona Ponce, Carol; Müller, Bettina; Ferreccio, Catterina; Koshiol, Jill; Fischer, Christine; Peil, Barbara; Sinsheimer, Janet; Fuentes Guajardo, Macarena; Barajas, Olga; Gonzalez-Jose, Rolando; Bedoya, Gabriel; Cátira Bortolini, Maria; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Gallo, Carla; Ruiz Linares, Andres; Rothhammer, Francisco

    2017-05-01

    Latin Americans are highly heterogeneous regarding the type of Native American ancestry. Consideration of specific associations with common diseases may lead to substantial advances in unraveling of disease etiology and disease prevention. Here we investigate possible associations between the type of Native American ancestry and leading causes of death. After an aggregate-data study based on genome-wide genotype data from 1805 admixed Chileans and 639,789 deaths, we validate an identified association with gallbladder cancer relying on individual data from 64 gallbladder cancer patients, with and without a family history, and 170 healthy controls. Native American proportions were markedly underestimated when the two main types of Native American ancestry in Chile, originated from the Mapuche and Aymara indigenous peoples, were combined together. Consideration of the type of Native American ancestry was crucial to identify disease associations. Native American ancestry showed no association with gallbladder cancer mortality (P = 0.26). By contrast, each 1% increase in the Mapuche proportion represented a 3.7% increased mortality risk by gallbladder cancer (95%CI 3.1-4.3%, P = 6×10-27). Individual-data results and extensive sensitivity analyses confirmed the association between Mapuche ancestry and gallbladder cancer. Increasing Mapuche proportions were also associated with an increased mortality due to asthma and, interestingly, with a decreased mortality by diabetes. The mortality due to skin, bladder, larynx, bronchus and lung cancers increased with increasing Aymara proportions. Described methods should be considered in future studies on human population genetics and human health. Complementary individual-based studies are needed to apportion the genetic and non-genetic components of associations identified relying on aggregate-data.

  7. Use of Media Technologies by Native American Teens and Young Adults: Evaluating Their Utility for Designing Culturally-Appropriate Sexual Health Interventions Targeting Native Youth in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig Rushing, Stephanie Nicole

    2010-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth are disproportionally burdened by high rates of sexually transmitted infections and teen pregnancy, heightening their need for sexual health interventions that are aligned to their unique culture and social context. Media technologies, including the Internet, cell phones, and video games, offer new…

  8. Teaching a Growing a Population of Non-Native English-Speaking Students in American Universities: Cultural and Linguistic Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Cristina Fava

    2016-01-01

    The increasing number of non-native English speaking students in American universities, mostly from Asian countries, presents unprecedented challenges and calls for an in-depth study on how we teach western art music history. This essay challenges some aspects of liberal multiculturalism and proposes the creation of channels of communication that allow non-native English speaking students to understand the premises of a Eurocentric system of knowledge without undermining their own cultural ba...

  9. Teaching a Growing a Population of Non-Native English-Speaking Students in American Universities: Cultural and Linguistic Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Fava

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of non-native English speaking students in American universities, mostly from Asian countries, presents unprecedented challenges and calls for an in-depth study on how we teach western art music history. This essay challenges some aspects of liberal multiculturalism and proposes the creation of channels of communication that allow non-native English speaking students to understand the premises of a Eurocentric system of knowledge without undermining their own cultural backgrounds.

  10. Studying Legacy Uranium Contamination On Navajo, Laguna, and Isleta Lands In Collaboration With Native American Undergraduate Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadol, D. D.; Frey, B.; Chee, C.

    2017-12-01

    Personally relevant research experiences at key points in a student's education are potentially powerful influences on their long-term career path. With this in mind, New Mexico EPSCoR created the STEM Advancement Program (STEMAP) to provide a summer research experience for students from the non-graduate-degree granting institutions in New Mexico. Recruitment focused on underrepresented minorities, primarily Native American and Hispanic students, who applied to work with one of six research components. Our research component focused on understanding the fate and transport of environmental uranium in the Four Corners region. The geosciences are especially amenable to providing meaningful research experiences, particularly for groups that have a strong cultural connection with the land. Uranium mining activities were extensive on several reservations in the 1950s to 1980s, and many of the sites have not been remediated. The impact of mining likely contributed to the high interest among Native American (especially Navajo) STEMAP applicants in this research topic. In four years of summer research we mentored four Native American students (two male and two female) and one white non-Hispanic female. Following their work in our research group, one student extended her research, three graduated, and one transferred to a research institution. This success likely reflects a combination of recruitment efforts, which built on community connections, as well as efforts to provide personal mentoring and to create an inclusive environment. The work of these students has advanced our understanding of fluvial transport of uranium from inactive mining districts, an important pathway given the role of these streams in providing water for agriculture and aggregate for construction. Findings demonstrate an affinity of uranium to sorb to fine-grained sediment, meaning standing water in stock ponds is of particular concern. The students also studied uranium-bearing dust generated from

  11. Integrating geoscience and Native American experiences through a multi-state geoscience field trip for high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, P. R.; Brown, L. M.; Spencer, M.; Sabatine, S.; Goetz, E. R.

    2012-12-01

    Lake Superior State University (LSSU) developed the GRANITE (Geological Reasoning And Natives Investigating The Earth) to engage high school students in the geosciences. The GRANITE program's target audience is Native American high school students and other populations underrepresented in the geosciences. Through the GRANITE program students undertake a variety of field and laboratory geosciences activities that culminates in a two week summer geoscience field experience during which they travel from Michigan to Wyoming. The sites students visit were selected because of their interesting and diverse geologic features and because in many cases they have special significance to Native American communities. Examples of the processes and localities studied by GRANITE students include igneous processes at Bear Butte, SD (Mato Paha) and Devil's Tower, WY (Mato Tipila); sedimentary processes in the Badlands, SD (Mako Sica) and Black Hills, SD (Paha Sapa); karst processes at Wind Cave, SD (Wasun Niye) and Vore Buffalo Jump; structural processes at Van Hise rock, WI and Dillon normal fault Badlands, SD; hydrologic and laucustrine processes along the Great Lakes and at the Fond du Lac Reservation, MN; fluvial processes along the Mississippi and Missouri rivers; geologic resources at the Homestake Mine, SD and Champion Mine, MI; and metamorphic processes at Pipestone, MN and Baraboo, WI. Through the GRANITE experience students develop an understanding of how geoscience is an important part of their lives, their communities and the world around them. The GRANITE program also promotes each student's growth and confidence to attend college and stresses the importance of taking challenging math and science courses in high school. Geoscience career opportunities are discussed at specific geologic localities and through general discussions. GRANITE students learn geosciences concepts and their application to Native communities and society in general through activities and

  12. Imported Asian swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus) in North American live food markets: Potential vectors of non-native parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nico, Leo G.; Sharp, Paul; Collins, Timothy M.

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1990s, possibly earlier, large numbers of Asian swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus spp.), some wild-caught, have been imported live from various countries in Asia and sold in ethnic food markets in cities throughout the USA and parts of Canada. Such markets are the likely introduction pathway of some, perhaps most, of the five known wild populations of Asian swamp eels present in the continental United States. This paper presents results of a pilot study intended to gather baseline data on the occurrence and abundance of internal macroparasites infecting swamp eels imported from Asia to North American retail food markets. These data are important in assessing the potential role that imported swamp eels may play as possible vectors of non-native parasites. Examination of the gastrointestinal tracts and associated tissues of 19 adult-sized swamp eels—identified as M. albus "Clade C"—imported from Vietnam and present in a U.S. retail food market revealed that 18 (95%) contained macroparasites. The 394 individual parasites recovered included a mix of nematodes, acanthocephalans, cestodes, digeneans, and pentastomes. The findings raise concern because of the likelihood that some parasites infecting market swamp eels imported from Asia are themselves Asian taxa, some possibly new to North America. The ecological risk is exacerbated because swamp eels sold in food markets are occasionally retained live by customers and a few reportedly released into the wild. For comparative purposes, M. albus "Clade C" swamp eels from a non-native population in Florida (USA) were also examined and most (84%) were found to be infected with internal macroparasites. The current level of analysis does not allow us to confirm whether these are non-native parasites.

  13. Carl Gawboy, Ojibwe Regional Painter. With Teacher's Guide. Native Americans of the Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

    A biography for the elementary grades of Carl Gawboy (Ojibwe), an American Indian painter, includes photographs of the artist and some of his work. A teacher's guide following the bibilography contains information on watercolor painting and the Ojibwe people, learning objectives and study questions, instructions for doing a watercolor painting and…

  14. Infectivity and sporulation potential of Phytophthora kernoviae to select North American native plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. J. Fichtner; D. M. Rizzo; S. A. Kirk; J. F. Webber

    2011-01-01

    Phytophthora kernoviae exhibits comparable epidemiology to Phytophthora ramorum in invaded UK woodlands. Because both pathogens have an overlapping geographic range in the UK and often concurrently invade the same site, it is speculated that P. kernoviae may also invade North American (NA) forests...

  15. Enacting Red Power: The Consummatory Function in Native American Protest Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Randall A.

    1983-01-01

    Analyzes the American Indian Movement (AIM) with respect to (1) the role of tradition in AIM demands; (2) militant Indian rhetoric as a form of ritual self-address; (3) how Indian religious/cultural beliefs restrict the ability of language to persuade Whites; and (4) how militant Indian rhetoric fulfills its function. (PD)

  16. American Native Oral Tradition: Legal Safeguards and Public Domain--A Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Laurel LeMieux

    Demonstrating the fact that the United States recognizes tribal groups (American Indians, Eskimos, and/or Aleuts) as sovereign bodies and conducts business and civil affairs with them accordingly, this paper examines an area in U.S. Law that is either unclear or entirely lacking--the treatment of tribal right to ownership or control of the…

  17. 77 FR 74875 - Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Review Committee Findings Related to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    ... to convene the parties to a dispute relating to the identity and return of cultural items, and to... American Graves Protection and Repatriation Review Committee Findings Related to the Identity and Return of Cultural Items in the Possession of the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology...

  18. Tom Beaver, Creek Television Reporter. With Teacher's Guide. Native Americans of the Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

    A biography for elementary school students presents an account of an American Indian television reporter, Tom Beaver (Creek), and includes a map of Oklahoma showing the location of Indian tribes. A teacher's guide following the biography contains information about the Creek tribe and the history of television, learning objectives and directions…

  19. Investigation of Factors Contributing to Diabetes Risk in American Indian/Alaska Native Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam-Zwart, Kayleen; Cawston, Alvina

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between family history, sedentary behaviors, and childhood risk for type 2 diabetes. Participants were 480 students attending schools on or near an American Indian reservation. Data were collected through survey and BMI measurement. Children who frequently watched television or played video games did not…

  20. Balancing Culture and Professional Education: American Indians/Alaska Natives and the Helping Professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Hilary N.

    2000-01-01

    Surveys of 132 American Indian social workers, nurses, psychologists, and college students in those fields examined their experiences of professional education. Themes included extent of cultural content within professional training; types of support for indigenous identities; and struggles with stereotypes, institutional and faculty insensitivity…

  1. Differing Cognitive Trajectories of Mexican American Toddlers: The Role of Class, Nativity, and Maternal Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Bruce; Bein, Edward; Kim, Yoonjeon; Rabe-Hesketh, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies reveal early and wide gaps in cognitive and oral language skills--whether gauged in English or Spanish--among Latino children relative to White peers. Yet, other work reports robust child health and social development, even among children of Mexican American immigrants raised in poor households, the so-called "immigrant…

  2. Indian boarding school experience, substance use, and mental health among urban two-spirit American Indian/Alaska natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Campbell, Teresa; Walters, Karina L; Pearson, Cynthia R; Campbell, Christopher D

    2012-09-01

    Systematic efforts of assimilation removed many Native children from their tribal communities and placed in non-Indian-run residential schools. To explore substance use and mental health concerns among a community-based sample of 447 urban two-spirit American Indian/Alaska Native adults who had attended boarding school as children and/or who were raised by someone who attended boarding school. Eighty-two respondents who had attended Indian boarding school as children were compared to respondents with no history of boarding school with respect to mental health and substance use. Former boarding school attendees reported higher rates of current illicit drug use and living with alcohol use disorder, and were significantly more likely to have attempted suicide and experienced suicidal thoughts in their lifetime compared to non-attendees. About 39% of the sample had been raised by someone who attended boarding school. People raised by boarding school attendees were significantly more likely to have a general anxiety disorder, experience posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, and have suicidal thoughts in their lifetime compared to others.

  3. Wayfinding as a concept for understanding success among Native Americans in STEM: " learning how to map through life"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page-Reeves, Janet; Marin, Ananda; Moffett, Maurice; DeerInWater, Kathy; Medin, Douglas

    2018-03-01

    This paper discusses findings from 40 ethnographically inspired interviews with 21 Native science professionals conducted in two iterative phases (21 in Phase I and 19 in Phase II), and a structured dialogue workgroup session with a six-member subset of the interviewees. Interview and group questions were open-ended to allow the participants to drive the conversation. We approached our interpretation of the data as an opportunity for deriving insights into the nature and meanings of participant narratives and experiences, why they present their stories in a particular way, and what this can tell us about the research questions we are exploring. We identify how the way they view themselves and the way they engage with the world has been transformed through their experience in obtaining a STEM degree at historically white institutions and working as a STEM professional. We argue that these changes allow for repurposing of STEM content knowledge to (re)connect with culturally defined values and goals. We discuss this transformative process as involving wayfinding and the accumulation of what we call experiential wisdom. We contend that the dimensions of this process are not sufficiently captured in concepts widely used to discuss situations of intercultural encounter. Our research builds on research of indigenous scholars who have provided a new way of thinking about Native Americans and science education.

  4. Native Americans and Yucca Mountain: A revised and updated summary report on research undertaken between 1987 and 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes data collected between September 1986 and September 1988 relative to Native American concerns involving the potential siting of a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The data were collected from Western Shoshone and Southern Paiute people upon whose aboriginal lands the repository potentially is to be located. Western Shoshone people involved in the study were those resident or affiliated with reservation communities at Yomba and Duckwater, Nevada, and Death Valley, California. Southern Paiute people were at reservation communities at Moapa and Las Vegas. Additional persons of Western Shoshone and Southern Paiute descent were interviewed at Beatty, Tonopah, Caliente, Pahrump, and Las Vegas, Nevada. The work was part of a larger project of socioeconomic studies for the State of Nevada's Nuclear Waste Projects office, conducted by Mountain West of Phoenix, Arizona

  5. Native Americans and Yucca Mountain: A revised and updated summary report on research undertaken between 1987 and 1991; Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, C.S. [Cultural Resources Consultants Ltd., Reno, NV (United States)

    1991-10-15

    This report summarizes data collected between September 1986 and September 1988 relative to Native American concerns involving the potential siting of a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The data were collected from Western Shoshone and Southern Paiute people upon whose aboriginal lands the repository potentially is to be located. Western Shoshone people involved in the study were those resident or affiliated with reservation communities at Yomba and Duckwater, Nevada, and Death Valley, California. Southern Paiute people were at reservation communities at Moapa and Las Vegas. Additional persons of Western Shoshone and Southern Paiute descent were interviewed at Beatty, Tonopah, Caliente, Pahrump, and Las Vegas, Nevada. The work was part of a larger project of socioeconomic studies for the State of Nevada`s Nuclear Waste Projects office, conducted by Mountain West of Phoenix, Arizona.

  6. Native Americans and Yucca Mountain: A revised and updated summary report on research undertaken between 1987 and 1991; Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, C.S. [Cultural Resources Consultants Ltd., Reno, NV (United States)

    1991-10-15

    This report consists of Yucca Mountain Project bibliographies. It is the appendix to a report that summarizes data collected between September 1986 and September 1988 relative to Native American concerns involving the potential siting of a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The data were collected from Western Shoshone and Southern Paiute people upon whose aboriginal lands the repository potentially is to be located. Western Shoshone people involved in the study were those resident or affiliated with reservation communities at Yomba and Duckwater, Nevada, and Death Valley, California. Southern Paiute people were at reservation communities at Moapa and Las Vegas. Additional persons of Western Shoshone and Southern Paiute descent were interviewed at Beatty, Tonopah, Caliente, Pahrump, and Las Vegas, Nevada. The work was part of a larger project of socioeconomic studies for the State of Nevada`s Nuclear Waste Projects office, conducted by Mountain West of Phoenix, Arizona.

  7. Miami's Tequesta Site: Could It Be a Native American Study Site For Natural Periodicities Associated With Tornados, Hurricanes, or Earthquakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Dougall, Jean S.; Mc Leod, David M.; Mc Leod, Roger D.

    2002-10-01

    Florida invested in preserving the Tequesta Indians' "Stonehenge-like" site along the Miami River. Direct observation, and telecast reports, show that a strong association exists between this area and Native American place names, hurricanes, tornados, a waterspout, and other nearby phenomena. Electromagnetic stimulation of human nervous systems in areas like these, discernable by appropriately sensitive individuals when these types of events occur, could plausibly account for some correct "predictions" of events like earthquakes. Various sensory modalities may be activated there. It may be important to understand other historic aspects associated with cultural artifacts like Miami's Tequesta remains. If it also generates instrumentally detectable signals that correlate with visual, "auditory," or nerve ending "tinglings" like those cited by the psychiatrist Arthur Guirdham in books like his Obsessions, applied physicists could partly vindicate the investment and also provide a net return. Society and comparative religious study may benefit.

  8. Academic Achievement of American Indian and Alaska Native Students: Does Social Emotional Competence Reduce the Impact of Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chain, Jennifer; Shapiro, Valerie B; LeBuffe, Paul A; Bryson, Ann McKay

    2017-01-01

    Social-emotional competence may be a protective factor for academic achievement among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) students. This study used Fisher's r to Z transformations to test for group differences in the magnitude of relationships between social-emotional competence and achievement. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to determine the variance in academic achievement explained by student race, poverty, and social-emotional competence, and the schoolwide percentage of students by race. Data are from 335 students across 6 schools. This study suggests that promoting social-emotional competence among AI/AN students could be a strategy for reducing disparities in academic achievement and the consequences of these disparities.

  9. Traditional Healing, Biomedicine and the Treatment of HIV/AIDS: Contrasting South African and Native American Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Traditional healing remains an important aspect of many people’s engagement with healthcare and, in this, responses to the treatment of HIV/AIDS are no different. However, given the gravity of the global HIV/AIDS pandemic, there has been much debate as to the value of traditional healing in this respect. Accordingly, this paper explores the extent to which meaningful accommodation between the biomedical and traditional sectors is possible (and/or even desirable). It does this through a consideration of Native American and South African experiences, looking at how the respective groups, in which medical pluralism is common, have addressed the issue of HIV/AIDS. The paper points to the importance of developing “culturally appropriate” forms of treatment that emphasise complementary rather than adversarial engagement between the traditional and biomedical systems and how policymakers can best facilitate this. PMID:25903057

  10. Stac3 is a component of the excitation-contraction coupling machinery and mutated in Native American myopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstick, Eric J.; Linsley, Jeremy W.; Dowling, James J.; Hauser, Michael A.; McDonald, Kristin K.; Ashley-Koch, Allison; Saint-Amant, Louis; Satish, Akhila; Cui, Wilson W.; Zhou, Weibin; Sprague, Shawn M.; Stamm, Demetra S.; Powell, Cynthia M.; Speer, Marcy C.; Franzini-Armstrong, Clara; Hirata, Hiromi; Kuwada, John Y.

    2013-01-01

    Excitation-contraction coupling, the process that regulates contractions by skeletal muscles, transduces changes in membrane voltage by activating release of Ca2+ from internal stores to initiate muscle contraction. Defects in EC coupling are associated with muscle diseases. Here we identify Stac3 as a novel component of the EC coupling machinery. Using a zebrafish genetic screen, we generate a locomotor mutation that is mapped to stac3. We provide electrophysiological, Ca2+ imaging, immunocytochemical and biochemical evidence that Stac3 participates in excitation-contraction coupling in muscles. Furthermore, we reveal that a mutation in human STAC3 as the genetic basis of the debilitating Native American myopathy (NAM). Analysis of NAM stac3 in zebrafish shows that the NAM mutation decreases excitation-contraction coupling. These findings enhance our understanding of both excitation-contraction coupling and the pathology of myopathies. PMID:23736855

  11. Native Americans and Yucca Mountain: A revised and updated summary report on research undertaken between 1987 and 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    This report consists of Yucca Mountain Project bibliographies. It is the appendix to a report that summarizes data collected between September 1986 and September 1988 relative to Native American concerns involving the potential siting of a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The data were collected from Western Shoshone and Southern Paiute people upon whose aboriginal lands the repository potentially is to be located. Western Shoshone people involved in the study were those resident or affiliated with reservation communities at Yomba and Duckwater, Nevada, and Death Valley, California. Southern Paiute people were at reservation communities at Moapa and Las Vegas. Additional persons of Western Shoshone and Southern Paiute descent were interviewed at Beatty, Tonopah, Caliente, Pahrump, and Las Vegas, Nevada. The work was part of a larger project of socioeconomic studies for the State of Nevada's Nuclear Waste Projects office, conducted by Mountain West of Phoenix, Arizona

  12. Traditional Healing, Biomedicine and the Treatment of HIV/AIDS: Contrasting South African and Native American Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Flint

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditional healing remains an important aspect of many people’s engagement with healthcare and, in this, responses to the treatment of HIV/AIDS are no different. However, given the gravity of the global HIV/AIDS pandemic, there has been much debate as to the value of traditional healing in this respect. Accordingly, this paper explores the extent to which meaningful accommodation between the biomedical and traditional sectors is possible (and/or even desirable. It does this through a consideration of Native American and South African experiences, looking at how the respective groups, in which medical pluralism is common, have addressed the issue of HIV/AIDS. The paper points to the importance of developing “culturally appropriate” forms of treatment that emphasise complementary rather than adversarial engagement between the traditional and biomedical systems and how policymakers can best facilitate this.

  13. American Indian/Alaska Native Elders: A Growing Demographic that Is Changing How We View Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jordan P

    2016-01-01

    Today, AIAN Elders are more actively engaged in their families and communities, encouraging the development of intergenerational programs, language and cultural revitalization, being stewards in research conducted in their communities, as well passing on their knowledge and experiences on how to live as healthy Native people. Elders have traditionally been quiet and observant of their environment, but the current and future cohorts of Elders are advocates, leaders, and culture bearers for their families and communities and they are now in positions of leadership. Western society acknowledges the value of traditional knowledge and AIAN Elders are viewed as exemplars of healthy aging and their lessons and experiences can be attributed to our own lives. This commentary highlights the paradigm shift in how society views older adults, specifically AIAN Elders and their role in health and wellbeing.

  14. Y-STR haplotypes of Native American populations from the Brazilian Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palha, Teresinha Jesus Brabo Ferreira; Rodrigues, Elzemar Martins Ribeiro; dos Santos, Sidney Emanuel Batista

    2010-10-01

    The allele and haplotype frequencies of nine Y-STRs (DYS19, DYS389 I, DYS389 II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385 I/II) were determined in a sample of six native tribes from the Brazilian Amazon (Tiriyó, Awa-Guajá, Waiãpi, Urubu-Kaapor, Zoé and Parakanã). Forty-eight different haplotypes were identified, 28 of which unique. Five haplotypes are very frequent and were shared by over 10 individuals. The estimated haplotype diversity (0.9114) was very low compared to other geographic groups, including Africans, Europeans and Asians. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Land, language, and loci: mtDNA in Native Americans and the genetic history of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cecil M; Tito, Raúl Y; Lizárraga, Beatriz; Stone, Anne C

    2005-07-01

    Despite a long history of complex societies and despite extensive present-day linguistic and ethnic diversity, relatively few populations in Peru have been sampled for population genetic investigations. In order to address questions about the relationships between South American populations and about the extent of correlation between genetic distance, language, and geography in the region, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hypervariable region I sequences and mtDNA haplogroup markers were examined in 33 individuals from the state of Ancash, Peru. These sequences were compared to those from 19 American Indian populations using diversity estimates, AMOVA tests, mismatch distributions, a multidimensional scaling plot, and regressions. The results show correlations between genetics, linguistics, and geographical affinities, with stronger correlations between genetics and language. Additionally, the results suggest a pattern of differential gene flow and drift in western vs. eastern South America, supporting previous mtDNA and Y chromosome investigations. (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  16. Archeology and Native American Religion at the Leon River Medicine Wheel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-02-01

    varieties of plants. The eastern side of including pecan (Carya illinoinensis), slippery elm the facility (East Range) is typified by dense (Ulmus rubra...southern part of the Cross Timbers and Prairies texana), and cedar elm (Ulmus crassifolia). A Vegetation Area. Alired and Mitchell (1955) term variety of...south (West Fort americana), American elm (Ulmus americana), Hood) are generally more open, ranging from TRC MARIAH ASSOCIATES, INC. (662-21

  17. Assessment of elder mistreatment in two American Indian samples: psychometric characteristics of the HS-EAST and the Native Elder Life-Financial Exploitation and -Neglect measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jervis, Lori L; Fickenscher, Alexandra; Beals, Janette

    2014-04-01

    Although elder mistreatment among ethnic minorities is increasingly gaining attention, our empirical knowledge of this phenomenon among American Indians remains quite limited, especially with respect to measurement. The Shielding American Indian Elders (SAIE) Project used a collaborative approach to explore culturally informed measurement of elder mistreatment in two American Indian elder samples (a Northern Plains reservation and a South Central metropolitan area). The project sought to investigate the performance characteristics of the commonly used Hwalek-Sengstock Elder Abuse Screening Test (HS-EAST), as well as to examine the psychometric properties of a new measure developed to capture culturally salient aspects of mistreatment in American Indian contexts--the Native Elder Life Scale (NELS). Using methods and samples comparable to those in the literature, the HS-EAST performed adequately in these Native samples. The NELS also shows promise for use with this population and assesses different aspects of elder mistreatment than does the HS-EAST.

  18. Spirometric reference values for Hopi Native American children ages 4-13 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnall, David A; Nelson, Arnold G; Hearon, Christopher M; Interpreter, Christina; Kanuho, Verdell

    2016-04-01

    Spirometry is the most important tool in diagnosing pulmonary disease and is the most frequently performed pulmonary function test. Respiratory disease is also one of the greatest causes for morbidity and mortality on the Hopi Nation, but no specific reference equations exist for this unique population. The purpose of this study was to determine if population reference equations were necessary for these children and, if needed, to create new age and race-specific pulmonary nomograms for Hopi children. Two hundred and ninety-two healthy children, ages 4-13 years, attending Hopi Nation elementary schools in Arizona, were asked to perform spirometry for a full battery of pulmonary volumes and capacities of which the following were analyzed: forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1 ), FEV1 % (FEV1 /FVC), FEF25-75% and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR). Spirometric data from Navajo children living in the same geographical region as the Hopi children were compared as well as spirometric data from common reference values used for other ethnic groups in the USA. Spirometry tests from 165 girls and 127 boys met American Thoracic Society quality control standards. We found that the natural log of height, body mass and age were significant predictors of FEV1 , FVC, and FEF25-75% in the gender-specific models and that lung function values all increased with height and age as expected. The predictions using the equations derived for Navajo, Caucasian, Mexican-American, African-American youth were significantly different (P ≤ 0.05) from the predictions derived from the Hopi equations for all of the variables across both genders, with the exceptions of Hopi versus Navajo FEV1 /FVC in the males and Hopi versus Caucasians FEF25-75% in the females. Thus it would appear for this population important to have specific formulae to provide more accurate reference values. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Genetic relationships among native americans based on beta-globin gene cluster haplotype frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cassia Mousinho-Ribeiro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of b-globin gene haplotypes was studied in 209 Amerindians from eight tribes of the Brazilian Amazon: Asurini from Xingú, Awá-Guajá, Parakanã, Urubú-Kaapór, Zoé, Kayapó (Xikrin from the Bacajá village, Katuena, and Tiriyó. Nine different haplotypes were found, two of which (n. 11 and 13 had not been previously identified in Brazilian indigenous populations. Haplotype 2 (+ - - - - was the most common in all groups studied, with frequencies varying from 70% to 100%, followed by haplotype 6 (- + + - +, with frequencies between 7% and 18%. The frequency distribution of the b-globin gene haplotypes in the eighteen Brazilian Amerindian populations studied to date is characterized by a reduced number of haplotypes (average of 3.5 and low levels of heterozygosity and intrapopulational differentiation, with a single clearly predominant haplotype in most tribes (haplotype 2. The Parakanã, Urubú-Kaapór, Tiriyó and Xavante tribes constitute exceptions, presenting at least four haplotypes with relatively high frequencies. The closest genetic relationships were observed between the Brazilian and the Colombian Amerindians (Wayuu, Kamsa and Inga, and, to a lesser extent, with the Huichol of Mexico. North-American Amerindians are more differentiated and clearly separated from all other tribes, except the Xavante, from Brazil, and the Mapuche, from Argentina. A restricted pool of ancestral haplotypes may explain the low diversity observed among most present-day Brazilian and Colombian Amerindian groups, while interethnic admixture could be the most important factor to explain the high number of haplotypes and high levels of diversity observed in some South-American and most North-American tribes.

  20. Vaccine-preventable, hospitalizations among American Indian/Alaska Native children using the 2012 Kid's Inpatient Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, Amanda J; Puumala, Susan E; Kharbanda, Anupam B

    2018-02-08

    Our aim was to assess the odds of hospitalization for a vaccine-preventable, infectious disease (VP-ID) in American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) children compared to other racial and ethnic groups using the 2012 Kid's Inpatient Database (KID) The KID is a nationally representative sample, which allows for evaluation of VP-ID in a non-federal, non-Indian Health Service setting. In a cross-sectional analysis, we evaluated the association of race/ethnicity and a composite outcome of hospitalization due to vaccine-preventable infection using multivariate logistic regression. AI/AN children were more likely (OR=1.81, 95% CI=1.34, 2.45) to be admitted to the hospital in 2012 for a VP-ID compared to Non-Hispanic white children after adjusting for age, sex, chronic disease status, metropolitan location, and median household income. This disparity highlights the necessity for a more comprehensive understanding of immunization and infectious disease exposure among American Indian children, especially those not covered or evaluated by Indian Health Service. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessing the impact of Native American elders as co-educators for university students in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkholy, Sarah Omar

    Introduction: Minorities are underrepresented in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) workforce, post-secondary STEM education, and show high academic attrition rates. Academic performance and retention improve when culturally relevant support is provided. The interface of Western Science and Indigenous Science provides an opportunity for bridging this divide. This three parts project is an example of Community-based participatory research (CBPR) that aims to support academic institutions that serve minority students in STEM, and implement educational components (pedagogy) to serve the needs of the underserved community. Method: Part 1: was a cross-sectional used a survey given to participants designed to assess prevalence of natural health products use by students, and to determine how students learn about NHPs. Part 2: was a longitudinal survey pilot study based upon an online STEM course offer at four universities to determine the differences between U.S. vs. Canadian and minority vs. non-minority university students regarding their perceptions of traditional Elders as STEM co-educators, interest in STEM, and science identity by using a pre-and post- course survey. Part 3: was a longitudinal quasi-experiment based upon an online STEM course offered at four universities show what Indigenous science claims regarding: Elders are viewed as valuable STEM co-educators; Elders increase student interest in STEM; students exposed to Indigenous science improve their identity as a scientist; students exposed to Indigenous Science/Elders show improved learning outcomes. Result: We found that Native/Aboriginal students learn information about natural health products from traditional Elders significantly more so than non-Native/Aboriginal students. There were no statistically significant results from the pilot study. Findings from the quasi-experiment show that students taught with Indigenous science Elder co-educators have significantly greater

  2. Minority Student Enrollments in Higher Education: A Guide to Institutions with Highest Percent of Asian, Black, Hispanic, and Native American Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett Park Press, MD.

    This resource guide provides data on minorities enrolled in 500 colleges and universities. Descriptions of each institution are followed by total student enrollment and the percentage of students from four minority groups: Asian, Black, Hispanic, and Native American. The types of academic programs offered by the institution are illustrated by…

  3. Use of Media Technologies by Native American Teens and Young Adults in the Pacific Northwest: Exploring Their Utility for Designing Culturally Appropriate Technology-Based Health Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushing, Stephanie Craig; Stephens, David

    2011-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth are disproportionally burdened by many common adolescent health issues, including drug and alcohol use, injury and violence, sexually transmitted infections, and teen pregnancy. Media technologies, including the Internet, cell phones, and video games, offer new avenues for reaching adolescents on a…

  4. Formative Assessment Using Social Marketing Principles to Identify Health and Nutrition Perspectives of Native American Women Living within the Chickasaw Nation Boundaries in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Stephany; Hunter, Toma; Briley, Chiquita; Miracle, Sarah; Hermann, Janice; Van Delinder, Jean; Standridge, Joy

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify health product and promotion channels for development of a Chickasaw Nation Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Education Program (SNAP-Ed) social marketing program. Methods: The study was qualitative and used social marketing principles to assess Native American women's views of health and nutrition. Focus groups (n = 8) and…

  5. Hybridization among three native North American Canis species in a region of natural sympatry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Hailer

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Population densities of many species throughout the world are changing due to direct persecution as well as anthropogenic habitat modification. These changes may induce or increase the frequency of hybridization among taxa. If extensive, hybridization can threaten the genetic integrity or survival of endangered species. Three native species of the genus Canis, coyote (C. latrans, Mexican wolf (C. lupus baileyi and red wolf (C. rufus, were historically sympatric in Texas, United States. Human impacts caused the latter two to go extinct in the wild, although they survived in captive breeding programs. Morphological data demonstrate historic reproductive isolation between all three taxa. While the red wolf population was impacted by introgressive hybridization with coyotes as it went extinct in the wild, the impact of hybridization on the Texas populations of the other species is not clear.We surveyed variation at maternally and paternally inherited genetic markers (mitochondrial control region sequence and Y chromosome microsatellites in coyotes from Texas, Mexican wolves and red wolves from the captive breeding programs, and a reference population of coyotes from outside the historic red wolf range. Levels of variation and phylogenetic analyses suggest that hybridization has occasionally taken place between all three species, but that the impact on the coyote population is very small.Our results demonstrate that the factors driving introgressive hybridization in sympatric Texan Canis are multiple and complex. Hybridization is not solely determined by body size or sex, and density-dependent effects do not fully explain the observed pattern either. No evidence of hybridization was identified in the Mexican wolf captive breeding program, but introgression appears to have had a greater impact on the captive red wolves.

  6. Illicit and nonmedical drug use among Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and mixed-race individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Blazer, Dan G.; Swartz, Marvin S.; Burchett, Bruce; Brady, Kathleen T.

    2013-01-01

    Background The racial/ethnic composition of the United States is shifting rapidly, with non-Hispanic Asian-Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs), and mixed-race individuals the fastest growing segments of the population. We determined new drug use estimates for these rising groups. Prevalences among Whites were included as a comparison. Methods Data were from the 2005–2011 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. Substance use among respondents aged ≥12 years was assessed by computer-assisted self-interviewing methods. Respondents’ self-reported race/ethnicity, age, gender, household income, government assistance, county type, residential stability, major depressive episode, history of being arrested, tobacco use, and alcohol use were examined as correlates. We stratified the analysis by race/ethnicity and used logistic regression to estimate odds of drug use. Results Prevalence of past-year marijuana use among Whites increased from 10.7% in 2005 to 11.6–11.8% in 2009–2011 (PAsian-Americans, NHs/PIs, and mixed-race people; but use of any drug, especially marijuana, was prevalent among NHs/PIs and mixed-race people (21.2% and 23.3%, respectively, in 2011). Compared with Asian-Americans, NHs/PIs had higher odds of marijuana use, and mixed-race individuals had higher odds of using marijuana, cocaine, hallucinogens, stimulants, sedatives, and tranquilizers. Compared with Whites, mixed-race individuals had greater odds of any drug use, mainly marijuana, and NHs/PIs resembled Whites in odds of any drug use. Conclusions Findings reveal alarmingly prevalent drug use among NHs/PIs and mixed-race people. Research on drug use is needed in these rising populations to inform prevention and treatment efforts. PMID:23890491

  7. Native American lithic procurement along the international border in the boot heel region of southwestern New Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Zeigler

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Multidisciplinary field projects can be very useful to a more fundamental understanding of the world around us, though these projects are not as common as they should be. In particular, the combination of archeology and geology combines our understanding of human behavior and human use of the landscape with an intimate knowledge of geologic processes and the materials available for human use in order to gain a broader understanding of human-Earth interaction. Here we present data from a cross-disciplinary project that uses a common dataset, archeological artifacts, to explore the anthropological and geologic implications of useage patterns. Archeological excavations and surveys conducted by the Office of Contract Archeology in 2007 along the route of the proposed international border fence reveal patterns of use of geologic materials by Archaic, Formative and Protohistoric Native Americans in the Boot Heel of southwestern New Mexico. Thousands of artifacts were recorded in multiple sites from Guadalupe Pass in the southern Peloncillo Mountains to the Carrizalillo Hills west of Columbus. We identified the lithologies of artifacts, ranging from projectile points to groundstones, and then constructed material movement maps based on either known procurement sites ("quarries" or outcrops identified as the closest source to a given site for each lithology. Not unexpectedly, the majority of the rock types utilized by native peoples are local siliceous volcanic materials. However, several artifacts constructed from obsidian were transported into the region from northern Mexico and eastern Arizona, indicating long-distance travel and/or trade routes. We also examine useage pattern difference between Archaic, Formative and Protohistoric sites. Additionally, a dramatic change in distribution of sources for geologic materials occurs between one pre-Spanish site and one post-Spanish site that are adjacent to one another.

  8. Prevalence and Disparities in Tobacco Product Use Among American Indians/Alaska Natives - United States, 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odani, Satomi; Armour, Brian S; Graffunder, Corinne M; Garrett, Bridgette E; Agaku, Israel T

    2017-12-22

    An overarching goal of Healthy People 2020 is to achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve health among all groups.* Although significant progress has been made in reducing overall commercial tobacco product use, † disparities persist, with American Indians or Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) having one of the highest prevalences of cigarette smoking among all racial/ethnic groups (1,2). Variations in cigarette smoking among AI/ANs have been documented by sex and geographic location (3), but not by other sociodemographic characteristics. Furthermore, few data exist on use of tobacco products other than cigarettes among AI/ANs (4). CDC analyzed self-reported current (past 30-day) use of five tobacco product types among AI/AN adults from the 2010-2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH); results were compared with six other racial/ethnic groups (Hispanic; non-Hispanic white [white]; non-Hispanic black [black]; non-Hispanic Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander [NHOPI]; non-Hispanic Asian [Asian]; and non-Hispanic multirace [multirace]). Prevalence of current tobacco product use was significantly higher among AI/ANs than among non-AI/ANs combined for any tobacco product, cigarettes, roll-your-own tobacco, pipes, and smokeless tobacco. Among AI/ANs, prevalence of current use of any tobacco product was higher among males, persons aged 18-25 years, those with less than a high school diploma, those with annual family income product use and eliminate disparities in tobacco product use among AI/ANs (1).

  9. Distribution of native and exotic branchiobdellidans (Annelida: Clitellata) on their respective crayfish hosts in northern Italy, with the first record of native Branchiobdella species on an exotic North American crayfish.

    OpenAIRE

    Joy N. RAYBURN; Giovanni B. DELMASTRO; Stuart R. GELDER

    1999-01-01

    Branchiobdellidans were found on crayfish at the 18 sites examined in northern Italy. At 15 of the sites the native crayfish, Austropotamobius pallipes, was collected and all supported specimens of Branchiobdella italica. A few specimens of B. parasita were found at only two of these sites and no specimens of B. hexodonta were observed during the survey. The North American Louisiana red swamp crayfish, Procambarus (Scapulicambarus) clarkii has been found in three additional sites around Carma...

  10. "His Native, Hot Country"1: Racial Science and Environment in Antebellum American Medical Thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Christopher D

    2017-07-01

    Relying on a close reading of more than 4,000 medicals student theses, this essay explores the evolving medical approaches to race and environment in the early national and antebellum United States and highlights the role that medical school pedagogy played in disseminating and elaborating racial theory. Specifically, it considers the influence of racial science on medical concepts of the relationship of bodies to climates. At their core, monogenesis-belief in a single, unified human race-and polygenesis-the belief that each race was created separately-were theories about the human body's connections to the natural world. As polygenesis became influential in Atlantic medical thought, physicians saw environmental treatments as a matter of matching bodies to their natural ecology. In the first decades of the nineteenth century, Atlantic physicians understood bodies and places as in constant states of flux. Through proper treatment, people and environments could suffer either degradation or improvement. Practitioners saw African Americans and whites as the same species with their differences being largely superficial and produced by climate. However, by the 1830s and 1840s medical students were learning that each race was inherently different and unalterable by time or temperature. In this paradigm, medical students articulated a vision of racial health rooted in organic relationships between bodies and climates. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Traditional cultural use as a tool for inferring biogeography and provenance: a case study involving painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) and Hopi Native American culture in Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovich, Jeffrey E.; LaRue, Charles T.; Drost, Charles A.; Arundel, Terence R.

    2014-01-01

    Inferring the natural distribution and native status of organisms is complicated by the role of ancient and modern humans in utilization and translocation. Archaeological data and traditional cultural use provide tools for resolving these issues. Although the painted turtle (Chrysemys picta) has a transcontinental range in the United States, populations in the Desert Southwest are scattered and isolated. This pattern may be related to the fragmentation of a more continuous distribution as a result of climate change after the Pleistocene, or translocation by Native Americans who used turtles for food and ceremonial purposes. Because of these conflicting or potentially confounded possibilities, the distribution and status of C. picta as a native species in the state of Arizona has been questioned in the herpetological literature. We present evidence of a population that once occurred in the vicinity of Winslow, Arizona, far from current remnant populations on the upper Little Colorado River. Members of the Native American Hopi tribe are known to have hunted turtles for ceremonial purposes in this area as far back as AD 1290 and possibly earlier. Remains of C. picta are known from several pueblos in the vicinity including Homol'ovi, Awatovi, and Walpi. Given the great age of records for C. picta in Arizona and the concordance of its fragmented and isolated distribution with other reptiles in the region, we conclude that painted turtles are part of the native fauna of Arizona.

  12. Mexican-American adolescents' gender role attitude development: the role of adolescents' gender and nativity and parents' gender role attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updegraff, Kimberly A; McHale, Susan M; Zeiders, Katharine H; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Perez-Brena, Norma J; Wheeler, Lorey A; Rodríguez De Jesús, Sue A

    2014-12-01

    Gender development has long term implications for education and career endeavors and family formation behaviors, but we know very little about the role of sociocultural factors in developmental and individual differences. In this study, we investigated one domain of gender development, gender role attitudes, in Mexican-American adolescents (N = 246; 51 % female), using four phases of longitudinal data across 8 years. Data were collected when adolescents averaged 12.51 years (SD = 0.58), 14.64 years (SD = 0.59), 17.72 years (SD = 0.57), and 19.60 years of age (SD = 0.66). Mothers' and fathers' gender role attitudes also were assessed in Phases 1, 3, and 4. Findings revealed that gender attitude development varied as a function of the interaction between adolescents' nativity and gender. Among Mexico-born adolescents, females exhibited significant declines in traditional attitudes from early to late adolescence, but males' attitudes were stable over time. U.S.-born females and males, in contrast, did not differ in their gender attitude trajectories. Examining the links between mothers', fathers', and adolescents' gender role attitudes revealed within-person associations between mothers' and adolescents' gender role attitudes: on occasions when mothers reported more traditional attitudes relative to their own cross-time average, adolescents also reported more traditional attitudes than usual. In addition, fathers' more traditional gender role attitudes were associated with daughters', but not sons', more traditional gender role attitudes at the between-person level. The discussion focuses on the interpretation of Mexican-American adolescents' gender role attitude development from a cultural ecological perspective.

  13. Mexican American Adolescents’ Gender Role Attitude Development: The Role of Adolescents’ Gender and Nativity and Parents’ Gender Role Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updegraff, Kimberly A.; McHale, Susan M.; Zeiders, Katharine H.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Perez-Brena, Norma J.; Wheeler, Lorey A.; Rodríguez De Jesús, Sue A.

    2014-01-01

    Gender development has long term implications for education and career endeavors and family formation behaviors, but we know very little about the role of sociocultural factors in developmental and individual differences. In this study, we investigated one domain of gender development, gender role attitudes, in Mexican American adolescents (N = 246; 51% female), using four phases of longitudinal data across eight years. Data were collected when adolescents averaged 12.51 years (SD = 0.58), 14.64 years (SD = 0.59), 17.72 years (SD = 0.57), and 19.60 years of age (SD = 0.66). Mothers’ and fathers’ gender role attitudes also were assessed in Phases 1, 3, and 4. Findings revealed that gender attitude development varied as a function of the interaction between adolescents’ nativity and gender. Among Mexico-born adolescents, females exhibited significant declines in traditional attitudes from early to late adolescence, but males’ attitudes were stable over time. U.S.-born females and males, in contrast, did not differ in their gender attitude trajectories. Examining the links between mothers’, fathers’, and adolescents’ gender role attitudes revealed within-person associations between mothers’ and adolescents’ gender role attitudes: on occasions when mothers reported more traditional attitudes relative to their own cross-time average, adolescents also reported more traditional attitudes than usual. In addition, fathers’ more traditional gender role attitudes were associated with daughters’, but not sons’, more traditional gender role attitudes at the between-person level. The discussion focuses on the interpretation of Mexican American adolescents’ gender role attitude development from a cultural ecological perspective. PMID:24777649

  14. Disparities in Prostate, Lung, Breast, and Colorectal Cancer Survival and Comorbidity Status among Urban American Indians and Alaskan Natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Marc A; Banegas, Matthew P; Chawla, Neetu; Achacoso, Ninah; Alexeeff, Stacey E; Adams, Alyce S; Habel, Laurel A

    2017-12-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death among American Indians and Alaskan Natives (AIAN), although cancer survival information in this population is limited, particularly among urban AIAN. In this retrospective cohort study, we compared all-cause and prostate, breast, lung, and colorectal cancer-specific mortality among AIAN ( n = 582) and non-Hispanic white (NHW; n = 82,696) enrollees of Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) diagnosed with primary invasive breast, prostate, lung, or colorectal cancer from 1997 to 2015. Tumor registry and other electronic health records provided information on sociodemographic, comorbidity, tumor, clinical, and treatment characteristics. Cox regression models were used to estimate adjusted survival curves and hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). AIAN had a significantly higher comorbidity burden compared with NHW ( P cancer-specific mortality were significantly higher for AIAN than NHW patients with breast cancer (HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.13-1.92) or with prostate cancer (HR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.14-3.06) but not for AIAN patients with lung and colorectal cancer. Despite approximately equal access to preventive services and cancer care in this setting, we found higher mortality for AIAN than NHW with some cancers, and a greater proportion of AIAN cancer patients with multiple comorbid conditions. This study provides severely needed information on the cancer experience of the 71% of AIANs who live in urban areas and access cancer care outside of the Indian Health Services, from which the vast majority of AIAN cancer information comes. Cancer Res; 77(23); 6770-6. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Higher-order aberrations and best-corrected visual acuity in Native American children with a high prevalence of astigmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joseph M; Harvey, Erin M; Schwiegerling, Jim

    2015-08-01

    To determine whether higher-order aberrations (HOAs) in children from a highly astigmatic population differ from population norms and whether HOAs are associated with astigmatism and reduced best-corrected visual acuity. Subjects were 218 Tohono O'odham Native American children 5-9 years of age. Noncycloplegic HOA measurements were obtained with a handheld Shack-Hartmann sensor (SHS). Signed (z06s to z14s) and unsigned (z06u to z14u) wavefront aberration Zernike coefficients Z(3,-3) to Z(4,4) were rescaled for a 4 mm diameter pupil and compared to adult population norms. Cycloplegic refraction and best-corrected logMAR letter visual acuity (BCVA) were also measured. Regression analyses assessed the contribution of astigmatism (J0) and HOAs to BCVA. The mean root-mean-square (RMS) HOA of 0.191 ± 0.072 μm was significantly greater than population norms (0.100 ± 0.044 μm). All unsigned HOA coefficients (z06u to z14u) and all signed coefficients except z09s, z10s, and z11s were significantly larger than population norms. Decreased BCVA was associated with astigmatism (J0) and spherical aberration (z12u) but not RMS coma, with the effect of J0 about 4 times as great as z12u. Tohono O'odham children show elevated HOAs compared to population norms. Astigmatism and unsigned spherical aberration are associated with decreased acuity, but the effects of spherical aberration are minimal and not clinically significant. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Periodontal disease and its connection to systemic biomarkers of cardiovascular disease in young American Indian/Alaskan natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delange, Nicole; Lindsay, Suzanne; Lemus, Hector; Finlayson, Tracy L; Kelley, Scott T; Gottlieb, Roberta A

    2018-02-01

    Periodontal disease has been shown to be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). No known studies evaluate the relationship between periodontal disease status and biomarkers of CVD risk in the American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN) population despite their disproportionately high rates of poor oral health and cardiovascular disease-related outcomes. This study compared levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP) across increasing severity of periodontal disease status among younger adults between the ages of 21 and 43 years. Plasma levels of IL-6 and CRP were measured in adult participants (ages 21 to 43 years) as part of a study of periodontal disease and CVD risk among an AI/AN population in southern California (n = 59). Periodontal evaluations were performed and disease status was classified into three categories based on highest probing depth (none/mild: disease or active infection were excluded. Severe periodontitis was significantly associated with increased levels of IL-6 compared with those with none or mild periodontitis before controlling for other variables (P = 0.02), but lacked significance after controlling for sex, BMI, smoking status, and high-density lipoprotein (P = 0.09). Moderate periodontal disease was positively associated with IL-6 levels after controlling for potential confounders (P = 0.01). Periodontal status was not associated with CRP, before or after adjusting for covariates. In this otherwise healthy AI/AN adult sample, moderate periodontal disease compared with none or mild periodontal disease was associated with increased levels of IL-6. High levels of CRP found in this population warrant further research. © 2018 American Academy of Periodontology.

  17. A Comparison of Colorectal Cancer Screening Uptake Among Average-Risk Insured American Indian/Alaska Native and White Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdue, David G.; Chubak, Jessica; Bogart, Andy; Dillard, Denise A.; Garroutte, Eva Marie; Buchwald, Dedra

    2014-01-01

    Introduction American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) women have among the lowest rates of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Whether screening disparities persist with equal access to health care is unknown. Methods Using administrative data from 1996-2007, we compared CRC screening events for 286 AI/AN and 14,042 White women aged 50 years and older from a health maintenance organization in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. Results The proportion of AI/AN and White women screened for CRC at age 50 was similar (13.3% vs. 14.0%, p =.74). No differences were seen in the type of screening test. Time elapsed to first screening among AI/AN women who were not screened at age 50 did not differ from White women (hazard ratio 1.0, 95% confidence interval 0.8-1.3). Conclusions Uptake for CRC screening was similar among insured AI/AN and White women, suggesting that when access to care is equal, racial disparities in screening diminish. PMID:23974386

  18. Tailoring an Alcohol Intervention for American Indian Alaska Native Women of Childbearing Age: Listening to the Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Annika C; Dusek, Marlené L; Ortega, Marina L; Camp-Mazzetti, Alexandrea; Calac, Dan J; Chambers, Christina D

    2017-11-01

    Reduction of risky drinking in women of childbearing age is 1 strategy that may be employed to prevent fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, a sequela of prenatal alcohol exposure. Communities differ in risk and protective factors, necessitating culturally informed interventions for maximal efficacy. This article describes the modification of an existing web-based screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment intervention to reduce risky drinking among American Indian Alaska Native (AIAN) women of childbearing age in Southern California into a peer-to-peer-based intervention using motivational interviewing (MI). The modification process was iterative and included various community focus groups, interviews, and a final review. Intervention modification was required for cultural congruence. Components of the peer-to-peer intervention designed by this project included a flip chart used to guide the motivational interviewing, charts of the financial and physical costs of alcohol consumption, revised baseline and follow-up questionnaires, and guidance regarding the application of MI techniques. This study may inform the modification of future interventions among AIAN communities. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  19. Psychosocial Predictors of Weight Loss among American Indian and Alaska Native Participants in a Diabetes Prevention Translational Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J. Dill

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The association of psychosocial factors (psychological distress, coping skills, family support, trauma exposure, and spirituality with initial weight and weight loss among American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs in a diabetes prevention translational project was investigated. Participants (n=3,135 were confirmed as prediabetic and subsequently enrolled in the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Diabetes Prevention (SDPI-DP demonstration project implemented at 36 Indian health care programs. Measures were obtained at baseline and after completing a 16-session educational curriculum focusing on weight loss through behavioral changes. At baseline, psychological distress and negative family support were linked to greater weight, whereas cultural spirituality was correlated with lower weight. Furthermore, psychological distress and negative family support predicted less weight loss, and positive family support predicted greater weight loss, over the course of the intervention. These bivariate relationships between psychosocial factors and weight remained statistically significant within a multivariate model, after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. Conversely, coping skills and trauma exposure were not significantly associated with baseline weight or change in weight. These findings demonstrate the influence of psychosocial factors on weight loss in AI/AN communities and have substantial implications for incorporating adjunctive intervention components.

  20. Mortality Caused by Chronic Liver Disease Among American Indians and Alaska Natives in the United States, 1999–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryaprasad, Anil; Byrd, Kathy K.; Redd, John T.; Perdue, David G.; Manos, M. Michele; McMahon, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We compared chronic liver disease (CLD) mortality from 1999 to 2009 between American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) and Whites in the United States after improving CLD case ascertainment and AI/AN race classification. Methods. We defined CLD deaths and causes by comprehensive death certificate-based diagnostic codes. To improve race classification, we linked US mortality data to Indian Health Service enrollment records, and we restricted analyses to Contract Health Service Delivery Areas and to non-Hispanic populations. We calculated CLD death rates (per 100 000) in 6 geographic regions. We then described trends using linear modeling. Results. CLD mortality increased from 1999 to 2009 in AI/AN persons and Whites. Overall, the CLD death rate ratio (RR) of AI/AN individuals to Whites was 3.7 and varied by region. The RR was higher in women (4.7), those aged 25 to 44 years (7.4), persons residing in the Northern Plains (6.4), and persons dying of cirrhosis (4.0) versus hepatocellular carcinoma (2.5), particularly those aged 25 to 44 years (7.7). Conclusions. AI/AN persons had greater CLD mortality, particularly from premature cirrhosis, than Whites, with variable mortality by region. Comprehensive prevention and care strategies are urgently needed to stem the CLD epidemic among AI/AN individuals. PMID:24754616

  1. Phytochemical composition and metabolic performance-enhancing activity of dietary berries traditionally used by Native North Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns Kraft, Tristan F; Dey, Moul; Rogers, Randy B; Ribnicky, David M; Gipp, David M; Cefalu, William T; Raskin, Ilya; Lila, Mary Ann

    2008-02-13

    Four wild berry species, Amelanchier alnifolia, Viburnum trilobum, Prunus virginiana, and Shepherdia argentea, all integral to the traditional subsistence diet of Native American tribal communities, were evaluated to elucidate phytochemical composition and bioactive properties related to performance and human health. Biological activity was screened using a range of bioassays that assessed the potential for these little-known dietary berries to affect diabetic microvascular complications, hyperglycemia, pro-inflammatory gene expression, and metabolic syndrome symptoms. Nonpolar constituents from berries, including carotenoids, were potent inhibitors of aldose reductase (an enzyme involved in the etiology of diabetic microvascular complications), whereas the polar constituents, mainly phenolic acids, anthocyanins, and proanthocyanidins, were hypoglycemic agents and strong inhibitors of IL-1beta and COX-2 gene expression. Berry samples also showed the ability to modulate lipid metabolism and energy expenditure in a manner consistent with improving metabolic syndrome. The results demonstrate that these berries traditionally consumed by tribal cultures contain a rich array of phytochemicals that have the capacity to promote health and protect against chronic diseases, such as diabetes.

  2. America's Stonehenge, (A.S.), May Also Provide a Window Into a Past Of Ancient, Native American Applied Physicists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Kimberely E.; McLeod, David M.; McLeod, Roger D.

    2001-11-01

    New phenomena detected at A.S. in North Salem, NH. indicates that others may have mistakenly attributed an 1800's construction of A.S. to Jonathan Pattee. Stonework there seems to have been to enhance implicit applied astronomy, and may be ``datable", at least in a relative way, by the effect we choose to divulge now. Various team members have detected numerous phenomena here in several different ways. The particular phenomenon we prefer to emphasize at this time may be periodic. It also seems triggered by natural events involving the earth. It, (and ``fish"), can not be ``observed" unless the particular periodicity holds, or if other generating activity occurs. It consists of precursor ``points" or ``blotches" of exceedingly faint blue light. These are followed by distinct and specific detail of a full-size, face-like ``apparition" of an ancient Native American with appropriate decoration: decidedly not an implicit artifact inducible by the purported construction of a ``modern" Irish eccentric. It is certainly not a ghost, either!

  3. Racial discrimination's influence on smoking rates among American Indian Alaska Native two-spirit individuals: does pain play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Jennings, Michelle D; Belcourt, Annie; Town, Matthew; Walls, Melissa L; Walters, Karina L

    2014-11-01

    High rates of racial discrimination and non-ceremonial tobacco smoking exist among American Indian/Alaska Native (AIAN) Two-Spirit/LGBT (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender) populations. The authors examined whether or not pain mediates between racial discrimination and smoking among Two-Spirits. Two-Spirit adults (n=447) from seven urban U.S. locations were surveyed during the HONOR project. The Indigenist stress coping model was used as framework in which to conduct descriptive, bivariate and regression analyses. A majority of the participants reported smoking (45.2%) and pain (57%). Pain was found to mediate the association between racial discrimination and smoking. Racial discrimination appears to be a significant factor influencing tobacco smoking and health behaviors within Two-Spirit populations. Effective tobacco cessation and/or prevention planning for Two-Spirits and others who experience frequent racial discrimination, stress, and trauma should also consider the influence of pain. Pain may serve as the embodiment of discrimination, and this possibility requires future research

  4. Native and Non-native Teachers’ Pragmatic Criteria for Rating Request Speech Act: The Case of American and Iranian EFL Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoo Alemi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Over the last few decades, several aspects of pragmatic knowledge and its effects on teaching  and  learning  a  second  language  (L2  have  been  explored  in  many  studies.  However, among  various  studies,  the  area  of  interlanguage  pragmatic  (ILP  assessment  is  quite  novel issue and many features of it have remained unnoticed. As ILP assessment has received more attention recently, the necessity of investigation on the EFL teachers‟ rating criteria for rating various  speech  acts  has  become  important.  In  this  respect,  the  present  study  aimed  to investigate  the  native  and  non-native EFL teachers‟ rating scores and criteria  regarding  the speech  act  of  request.  To  this  end,  50  American  ESL  teachers  and  50  Iranian  EFL  teachers participated to rate the EFL learners‟ responses to video-prompted Discourse Completion Tests (DCTs  regarding  the  speech  act  of  request.  Raters  were  supposed to rate the EFL learners‟ responses and mention their criteria for assessment. The results of the content analysis of raters‟ comments revealed nine criteria that they considered in their assessment. Moreover, the result of  the  t-test  and  chi-square analyses of raters‟ rating scores and criteria proved that there are significant differences between native and non-native EFL teachers‟ rating pattern. The results of this study also shed light on importance of sociopragmatic and pragmalinguistic features in native  and  non-native teachers‟ pragmatic rating, which can have several implications for L2 teachers, learners, and material developers. معیارهای معلمان زبان بومی و غیربومی در نمره دهی کنش کلامی درخواست : مورد معلمان انگلیسی زبان آمریکایی و ایرانی چکیده: طی چند دهه اخیر،  جنبه های 

  5. Focus groups to increase the cultural acceptability of a contingency management intervention for American Indian and Alaska Native Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirchak, Katherine A; Leickly, Emily; Herron, Jalene; Shaw, Jennifer; Skalisky, Jordan; Dirks, Lisa G; Avey, Jaedon P; McPherson, Sterling; Nepom, Jenny; Donovan, Dennis; Buchwald, Dedra; McDonell, Michael G

    2018-07-01

    Many American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) people seek evidence-based, cost-effective, and culturally acceptable solutions for treating alcohol use disorders. Contingency management (CM) is a feasible, low-cost approach to treating alcohol use disorders that uses "reinforcers" to promote and support alcohol abstinence. CM has not been evaluated among AI/AN communities. This study explored the cultural acceptability of CM and adapted it for use in diverse AI/AN communities. We conducted a total of nine focus groups in three AI/AN communities: a rural reservation, an urban health clinic, and a large Alaska Native healthcare system. Respondents included adults in recovery, adults with current drinking problems, service providers, and other interested community members (n = 61). Focus group questions centered on the cultural appropriateness of "reinforcers" used to incentivize abstinence and the cultural acceptability of the intervention. Focus groups were audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded independently by two study team members using both a priori and emergent codes. We then analyzed coded data. Across all three locations, focus group participants described the importance of providing both culturally specific (e.g., bead work and cultural art work supplies), as well as practical (e.g., gas cards and bus passes) reinforcers. Focus group participants underscored the importance of providing reinforcers for the children and family of intervention participants to assist with reengaging with family and rebuilding trust that may have been damaged during alcohol use. Respondents indicated that they believed CM was in alignment with AI/AN cultural values. There was consensus that Elders or a well-respected community member implementing this intervention would enhance participation. Focus group participants emphasized use of the local AI/AN language, in addition to the inclusion of appropriate cultural symbols and imagery in the delivery of the intervention. A CM

  6. Did the Great Recession Downsize Immigrants and Native-Born Americans Differently? Unemployment Differentials by Nativity, Race and Gender from 2007 to 2013 in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharron Xuanren Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We use data from the Current Population Survey from 2007 and 2013 to investigate demographic differentials in unemployment during the Great Recession in the U.S. Although our analysis is primarily exploratory and descriptive, our major research objective is to illuminate the unemployment differential between the foreign born and the native born. The findings indicate that during the height of the Great Recession, the foreign born had higher unemployment rates than the native born. However, this differential is statistically explained by their observed characteristics, such as race/ethnicity, gender, age and education. With the net of those variables and a few other demographic covariates, foreign born workers as an overall group actually had somewhat lower chances of being unemployed than native born workers. This finding is discussed in terms of the selectivity of immigrant workers and the possibility that they are somewhat more immediately dependent on having a job. After breaking down the foreign born into major racial/ethnic groups, the results suggest that foreign-born blacks and foreign-born Hispanics are particularly selective with the net of their observed characteristics. The possible sources of such differentials by race/ethnicity and by gender are discussed.

  7. Mathematics beliefs and achievement of a national sample of Native American students: results from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003 United States assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, J Daniel

    2009-04-01

    Recent mathematics assessment findings indicate that Native American students tend to score below students of the ethnic majority. Findings suggest that students' beliefs about mathematics are significantly related to achievement outcomes. This study examined relations between self-beliefs and mathematics achievement for a national sample of 130 Grade 8 Native American students from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003 United States sample of (M age = 14.2 yr., SD = 0.5). Multiple regression indicated several significant relations of mathematics beliefs with achievement and accounted for 26.7% of the variance in test scores. Students who earned high test scores tended to hold more positive beliefs about their ability to learn mathematics quickly, while students who earned low scores expressed negative beliefs about their ability to learn new mathematics topics.

  8. Distribution of native and exotic branchiobdellidans (Annelida: Clitellata on their respective crayfish hosts in northern Italy, with the first record of native Branchiobdella species on an exotic North American crayfish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy N. RAYBURN

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Branchiobdellidans were found on crayfish at the 18 sites examined in northern Italy. At 15 of the sites the native crayfish, Austropotamobius pallipes, was collected and all supported specimens of Branchiobdella italica. A few specimens of B. parasita were found at only two of these sites and no specimens of B. hexodonta were observed during the survey. The North American Louisiana red swamp crayfish, Procambarus (Scapulicambarus clarkii has been found in three additional sites around Carmagnola, south of Torino. The exotic Cambarincola mesochoreus was recovered from red crayfish at two sites. However, no specimens of C. mesochoreus were found at the third site, but specimens B. italica and B. parasita were identified. This is the first record of native Branchiobdella spp. on an exotic and wild crayfish in northern Italy.

  9. Utilizing Science to Ensure Safe Access to Cultural Resources on Public Lands: The Portland Native American Community and Traditional Gathering of Camas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, C.

    2017-12-01

    Native Americans have been conducting and contributing to science for millenia. We have observed nature and passed on evidence-based Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) from generation to generation. Prior to colonization, this knowledge enabled our people to live with ample nutritional resources. Our long-standing relationship to nature continues today in tribal, rural, and urban communities, yet access to cultural resources (traditional food and medicines) proves challenging due to modern land management practices. The Native American community and public land managers in Portland, Oregon are addressing this challenge through the restoration of cultural resources across the landscape. One focus in these efforts is the camas plant (Camssia quamash), which grows in wetland and prairie ecosystems. The harvested bulbs are traditionally pit roasted, converting the indigestible inulin into carbohydrates of high nutritional value. Access to local natural areas has been granted for Native American community members to gather camas, yet pesticide and herbicide application as land management practices have created uncertainty regarding the safety of ingesting the camas bulbs. The Native American community gathered camas bulbs in November 2015 for analysis, which resulted in glyphosate (pesticide) and triclopyr (herbicide). There are various factors which may influence the uptake of pesticide and herbicide residuals in camas which need further investigation, including pesticide/herbicide application details (date, location), preferential uptake of pesticide/herbicides in camas among the present plant community, the impact of pit roasting bulbs on residuals, and traditional land management practices like prescribed burning. Utilizing TEK and science to ensure safe access to cultural resources is paramount in preserving our cultures and enhancing the value of indigenous perspectives on land management practices and policies.

  10. Correlates of Overweight and Obesity Among American Indian/Alaska Native and Non-Hispanic White Children and Adolescents: National Survey of Children’s Health, 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Ness, Maria; Barradas, Danielle T.; Irving, Jennifer; Manning, Susan E.

    2012-01-01

    Risk factors for overweight and obesity may be different for American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) children compared to children of other racial/ethnic backgrounds, as obesity prevalence among AI/AN children remains much higher. Using data from the 2007 National Survey of Children’s Health, behavioral (child’s sport team participation, vigorous physical activity, television viewing, and computer use), household (parental physical activity, frequency of family meals, rules limiting televis...

  11. Using evidence-based policy, systems, and environmental strategies to increase access to healthy food and opportunities for physical activity among Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shilpa; Kwon, Simona; Arista, Pedro; Tepporn, Ed; Chung, Marianne; Ko Chin, Kathy; Rideout, Catlin; Islam, Nadia; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2015-07-01

    Recent initiatives have focused on the dissemination of evidence-based policy, systems, and environmental (EBPSE) strategies to reduce health disparities. Targeted, community-level efforts are needed to supplement these approaches for comparable results among Asian Americans and Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPIs).The STRIVE Project funded 15 Asian American and NHPI community-based organizations (CBOs) to implement culturally adapted strategies. Partners reached more than 1.4 million people at a cost of $2.04 per person. CBOs are well positioned to implement EBPSE strategies to reduce health disparities.

  12. Speaking out about physical harms from tobacco use: response to graphic warning labels among American Indian/Alaska Native communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson Silver Wolf, David A; Tovar, Molly; Thompson, Kellie; Ishcomer, Jamie; Kreuter, Matthew W; Caburnay, Charlene; Boyum, Sonia

    2016-03-23

    This study is the first to explore the impact of graphic cigarette labels with physical harm images on members of American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities. The aim of this article is to investigate how AI/AN respond to particular graphic warning labels. The parent study recruited smokers, at-risk smokers and non-smokers from three different age groups (youths aged 13-17 years, young adults aged 18-24 years and adults aged 25+ years) and five population subgroups with high smoking prevalence or smoking risk. Using nine graphic labels, this study collected participant data in the field via an iPad-administered survey and card sorting of graphic warning labels. This paper reports on findings for AI/AN participants. After viewing graphic warning labels, participants rated their likelihood of talking about smoking risks to friends, parents and siblings higher than their likelihood of talking to teachers and doctors. Further, this study found that certain labels (eg, the label of the toddler in the smoke cloud) made them think about their friends and family who smoke. Given the influence of community social networks on health beliefs and attitudes, health communication using graphic warning labels could effect change in the smoking habits of AI/AN community members. Study findings suggest that graphic labels could serve as stimuli for conversations about the risks of smoking among AI/AN community members, and could be an important element of a peer-to-peer smoking cessation effort. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Assessing follow-up care after prostate-specific antigen elevation in American Indian / Alaska Native Men: a partnership approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilburt, Jon C; James, Katherine M; Koller, Kathryn; Lanier, Anne P; Hall, Ingrid J; Smith, Judith Lee; Ekwueme, Donatus U; Nicometo, Ann M; Petersen, Wesley O

    2013-01-01

    Although many studies conducted among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations may help to advance medical science and lead to improvements in health and health care, historically few have endeavored to share their findings, benefits, and/or expected outcomes with the communities in which they are conducted. This perceived lack of responsiveness has contributed to a perception in some AI/AN communities that researchers are disrespectful and may not make community needs a priority. In the context of a study assessing the care received by AI/AN men with incident elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, this paper describes our experience building collaborative relationships, planning, conducting analyses, and disseminating findings with four AI/AN communities. We established formal partnerships with three Northern Plains AI communities and one AN tribal health organization, convened a 12-member Community Advisory Board (CAB), and obtained study approvals from all necessary tribal and institutional review bodies before implementing our study. A menu of options for study implementation was given to key collaborators at each site. CAB members and collaborating tribes contributed to each phase of the study. After data analysis, results were shared with tribal and institutional leaders. Face-to-face communication, flexibility, and adaptability, as well as clearly defined, respectful roles contributed to the success of the study on the part of both the researchers and community partners. This study demonstrates the importance and feasibility of forging collaborative relationships with AI/AN community leaders in regions of Alaska and the Northern Plains in cancer control initiatives for AI/AN men.

  14. Meta-analysis reveals association between most common class II haplotype in full-heritage Native Americans and rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R C; Jacobsson, L T; Knowler, W C; del Puente, A; Kostyu, D; McAuley, J E; Bennett, P H; Pettitt, D J

    1995-01-01

    The association of RA with the alleles at the HLA system was tested among Pima and Tohono O'odham Indians (Pimans) of the Gila River Indian Community of Arizona. Serologic class I (HLA-A, -B, and -C) alleles were typed in 51 individuals with RA and in 302 without RA. Serologic class II (HLA-DR, DQ; DR52 DR53) alleles were typed in a subset of 47 with RA and 147 without RA. Molecular subtypes of DR3X6, DRB1*1402, and *1406 were determined in 29 individuals, 16 with RA and 13 without RA. Among the cases with RA, 46 of 47 had the serologic antigen HLA-DR3X6, as did 140 of 147 of those without the disease. However, this association was not statistically significant because of the high prevalence of the antigen in the controls. Data from Pimans were analyzed with similar results from the Tlingit and Yakima Indians. A meta-analysis employing the Mantel-Haenszel procedure, stratified by tribe, revealed a statistically significant association between the most common haplotype, DRB1*1402 DQA1*0501 DQB1*0301 DRB3*0101, and RA (summary odds ratio = 2.63, 95% confidence interval = 1.08, 6.46). There was also a statistically significant difference in the genotype distributions of one class I locus, HLA-C, between those with and without RA (chi 2 = 12.4, 5 df; p = 0.03). It is concluded that the association with the most common class II haplotype in full-heritage Native Americans might help explain their high prevalence of RA.

  15. Serum PCB profiles in Native Americans from Wisconsin based on region, diet, age, and gender: Implications for epidemiology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeffer, David J.; Dellinger, John A.; Needham, Larry L.; Hansen, Larry G.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Different PCB congeners and different mixtures of congeners have been demonstrated to have different biological actions. More complete characterization of congener profiles in exposure sources may assist in predicting health outcomes. Methods: Thirty-six (36) polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were measured by gas chromatography isotope-dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) in 314 serum samples from Native Americans in Wisconsin, Michigan and Minnesota. Five dietary groups were established based on the quantity and species of fish consumed and the waters from which the fish were caught. Multivariate statistical methods were able to resolve gender and dietary differences in PCB homologue and PCB congener patterns. Results: Females had higher proportions of lower chlorinated homologues, including a consistently higher proportion of pentaCB 118. The relative presence of the very labile and volatile PCB 18, above 1% of the total PCB in females from the minimal fish consumption and 'other' groups, suggests possible exposure to PCBs in the atmosphere. The dietary group consuming predatory fishes from Lakes Michigan and Superior had the highest serum concentrations of total PCB (mean of 3.1 ng/ml) and the most distinct congener profile. The two dietary groups least dependent on fishing or fishing mostly from inland lakes (non-Great Lakes) had the lowest total PCB concentrations, both with means of 1.4 ng/ml. Conclusions: These serum PCB concentrations were less than those found in earlier studies of fish consumers in the Great Lakes region and may reflect the decrease in PCBs in these lakes

  16. Native American Ancestry Affects the Risk for Gene Methylation in the Lungs of Hispanic Smokers from New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yushi; Thomas, Cynthia L.; Gauderman, W. James; Picchi, Maria A.; Bruse, Shannon E.; Zhang, Xiequn; Flores, Kristina G.; Van Den Berg, David; Stidley, Christine A.; Gilliland, Frank D.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Gene promoter methylation detected in sputum predicts lung cancer risk in smokers. Compared with non-Hispanic whites (NHW), Hispanics have a lower age-standardized incidence for lung cancer. Objectives: This study compared the methylation prevalence in sputum of NHWs with Hispanics using the Lovelace Smokers cohort (n = 1998) and evaluated the effect of Native American ancestry (NAA) and diet on biomarkers for lung cancer risk. Methods: Genetic ancestry was estimated using 48 ancestry markers. Diet was assessed by the Harvard University Dietary Assessment questionnaire. Methylation of 12 genes was measured in sputum using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. The association between NAA and risk for methylation was assessed using generalized estimating equations. The ethnic difference in the association between pack-years and risk for lung cancer was assessed in the New Mexico lung cancer study. Measurements and Main Results: Overall Hispanics had a significantly increased risk for methylation across the 12 genes analyzed (odds ratio, 1.18; P = 0.007). However, the risk was reduced by 32% (P = 0.032) in Hispanics with high versus low NAA. In the New Mexico lung cancer study, Hispanic non–small cell lung cancer cases have significantly lower pack-years than NHW counterparts (P = 0.007). Furthermore, compared with NHW smokers, Hispanic smokers had a more rapidly increasing risk for lung cancer as a function of pack-years (P = 0.058). Conclusions: NAA may be an important risk modifier for methylation in Hispanic smokers. Smoking intensity may have a greater impact on risk for lung cancer in Hispanics compared with NHWs. PMID:24032348

  17. Results of interferon-based treatments in Alaska Native and American Indian population with chronic hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen E. Livingston

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: There have been few reports of hepatitis C virus (HCV treatment results with interferon-based regimens in indigenous populations. Objective: To determine interferon-based treatment outcome among Alaska Native and American Indian (AN/AI population. Design: In an outcomes study of 1,379 AN/AI persons with chronic HCV infection from 1995 through 2013, we examined treatment results of 189 persons treated with standard interferon, interferon plus ribavirin, pegylated interferon plus ribavirin and triple therapy with a protease inhibitor. For individuals treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin, the effect of patient characteristics on response was also examined. Results: Sustained virologic response (SVR with standard interferon was 16.7% (3/18 and with standard interferon and ribavirin was 29.7% (11/37. Of 119 persons treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin, 61 achieved SVR (51.3%, including 10 of 46 with genotype 1 (21.7%, 38 of 51 with genotype 2 (74.5% and 13 of 22 with genotype 3 (59.1%. By multivariate analysis, SVR in the pegylated interferon group was associated with female sex (p=0.002, estimated duration of infection (p=0.034 and HCV genotype (p<0.0001. There was a high discontinuation rate due to side effects in those treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin for genotype 1 (52.2%. Seven of 15 genotype 1 patients treated with pegylated interferon, ribavirin and telaprevir or boceprevir achieved SVR (46.7%. Conclusions: We had success with pegylated interferon-based treatment of AN/AI people with genotypes 2 and 3. However, there were low SVR and high discontinuation rates for those with genotype 1.

  18. Native American Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... racial or ethnic group has specific health concerns. Differences in the health of groups can result from: Genetics Environmental factors Access to care Cultural factors On this page, you'll find links ...

  19. Investigating temporal patterns of a native bee community in a remnant North American bunchgrass prairie using blue vane traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimoto, Chiho; Debano, Sandra J; Thorp, Robbin W; Rao, Sujaya; Stephen, William P

    2012-01-01

    Native bees are important ecologically and economically because their role as pollinators fulfills a vital ecosystem service. Pollinators are declining due to various factors, including habitat degradation and destruction. Grasslands, an important habitat for native bees, are particularly vulnerable. One highly imperiled and understudied grassland type in the United States is the Pacific Northwest Bunchgrass Prairie. No studies have examined native bee communities in this prairie type. To fill this gap, the bee fauna of the Zumwalt Prairie, a large, relatively intact remnant of the Pacific Northwest Bunchgrass Prairie, was examined. Native bees were sampled during the summers of 2007 and 2008 in sixteen 40-ha study pastures on a plateau in northeastern Oregon, using a sampling method not previously used in grassland studies-blue vane traps. This grassland habitat contained an abundant and diverse community of native bees that experienced marked seasonal and inter-annual variation, which appears to be related to weather and plant phenology. Temporal variability evident over the entire study area was also reflected at the individual trap level, indicating a consistent response across the spatial scale of the study. These results demonstrate that temporal variability in bee communities can have important implications for long-term monitoring protocols. In addition, the blue vane trap method appears to be well-suited for studies of native bees in large expanses of grasslands or other open habitats, and may be a useful tool for monitoring native bee communities in these systems.

  20. Repertoire, Authenticity, and Instruction: The Presentation of American Indian Music in Oklahoma's Elementary Schools. Native Americans: Interdisciplinary Perspectives--A Garland Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, Robert J.

    This book examines the presentation of American Indian music by elementary music educators in Oklahoma, which has the largest American Indian population of any state. A literature review covers an historical profile of multicultural music education, ethnomusicological studies of American Indian music, dissertations pertaining to American Indian…

  1. A Library Matter of Genocide: The Library of Congress and the Historiography of the Native American Holocaust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Q. Dudley

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available For decades, Indigenous experiences of mass killings, atrocities, ethnic cleansing, and assimilation have been marginalized from genocide studies due to the ways in which knowledge is constructed in the field, specifically in terms of its focus on definitions and prototype-based conceptions. This article argues that these exclusions are not merely owed to discourses internal to genocide studies, but are affirmed by conventional library terminologies for the purposes of knowledge organization and information retrieval in the form of Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH and classification, as applied to books regarding genocidal colonial encounters with Indigenous Peoples. These headings largely exhibit euphemistic tendencies and omissions that often fail to reflect the contents of the materials they seek to describe, not only impeding retrieval of books on this subject, but also their incorporation into current scholarship. To determine the extent to which the assignment of LCSH and call numbers corresponded reasonably to the stated intent of the authors, searches in OCLC’s global WorldCat catalogue were conducted for books related to the Library of Congress subject “Indians of North America” and some variation of the keywords genocide, holocaust, or extermination, yielding a list of 34 titles. The subject headings and classification designations assigned to these books were then analyzed, with particular attention paid to euphemisms for genocide, colonial narratives, the exercise of double standards when compared to non-Indigenous genocides, or outright erasure of genocide-related content. The article argues that Western epistemologies in both genocide studies and library science have marginalized Indigenous genocides, reproducing barriers to discovery and scholarship, and contributing to a social discourse of Native American Holocaust denial. Instead a pragmatic view in library science is proposed, in which claims of genocide on the

  2. Lower respiratory tract infection hospitalizations among American Indian/Alaska Native children and the general United States child population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M. Foote

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI-associated hospitalization rate in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN children aged <5 years declined during 1998–2008, yet remained 1.6 times higher than the general US child population in 2006–2008. Purpose: Describe the change in LRTI-associated hospitalization rates for AI/AN children and for the general US child population aged <5 years. Methods: A retrospective analysis of hospitalizations with discharge ICD-9-CM codes for LRTI for AI/AN children and for the general US child population <5 years during 2009–2011 was conducted using Indian Health Service direct and contract care inpatient data and the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, respectively. We calculated hospitalization rates and made comparisons to previously published 1998–1999 rates prior to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction. Results: The average annual LRTI-associated hospitalization rate declined from 1998–1999 to 2009–2011 in AI/AN (35%, p<0.01 and the general US child population (19%, SE: 4.5%, p<0.01. The 2009–2011 AI/AN child average annual LRTI-associated hospitalization rate was 20.7 per 1,000, 1.5 times higher than the US child rate (13.7 95% CI: 12.6–14.8. The Alaska (38.9 and Southwest regions (27.3 had the highest rates. The disparity was greatest for infant (<1 year pneumonia-associated and 2009–2010 H1N1 influenza-associated hospitalizations. Conclusions: Although the LRTI-associated hospitalization rate declined, the 2009–2011 AI/AN child rate remained higher than the US child rate, especially in the Alaska and Southwest regions. The residual disparity is likely multi-factorial and partly related to household crowding, indoor smoke exposure, lack of piped water and poverty. Implementation of interventions proven to reduce LRTI is needed among AI/AN children.

  3. Association between long work hours and poor self-reported general health among Latin American immigrant and native workers in the United States and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Sadie H; Cayuela, Ana; Delclos, George L; Pompeii, Lisa A; Ronda, Elena

    2016-12-01

    The relationship between hours worked per week and self-reported general health (SRGH) has not been assessed in Latin American immigrant and native workers across host countries. Cross-sectional study of the association between long work hours (LWH) (i.e., >51 hr per week) and poor SRGH using data from 2,626 workers in the United States (immigrants = 10.4%) and 8,306 workers in Spain (immigrants = 4.1%). Both countries' natives working >51 hr per week had increased odds of reporting poor SRGH compared to those working fewer hours (U.S.: OR = 1.59; 95%CI = 1.01-2.49; Spain: OR = 2.17; 95%CI = 1.71-2.75); when stratified by sex, increased odds also were observed among immigrant female workers in Spain (OR = 3.47; 95%CI = 1.15-10.5). LWH were associated with differential health outcomes in populations of native and Latin American immigrant workers in the United States and Spain, which may reflect social or occupational inequalities in general or resulting from the 2008 financial crisis. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:1105-1111, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Native Knowledge in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Clara Sue

    1985-01-01

    Native American science is defined as activities of native peoples of the New World in observing physical phenomena and attempting to explain and control them. Problems in studying native science, ethnoscience and native science, archaeostronomy and ethnoastronomy, ethnobotany, agriculture, technology, and future directions are discussed. (JN)

  5. Mitochondrial genome diversity in the Tubalar, Even, and Ulchi: contribution to prehistory of native Siberians and their affinities to Native Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukernik, Rem I; Volodko, Natalia V; Mazunin, Ilya O; Eltsov, Nikolai P; Dryomov, Stanislav V; Starikovskaya, Elena B

    2012-05-01

    To fill remaining gaps in mitochondrial DNA diversity in the least surveyed eastern and western flanks of Siberia, 391 mtDNA samples (144 Tubalar from Altai, 87 Even from northeastern Siberia, and 160 Ulchi from the Russian Far East) were characterized via high-resolution restriction fragment length polymorphism/single nucleotide polymorphisms analysis. The subhaplogroup structure was extended through complete sequencing of 67 mtDNA samples selected from these and other related native Siberians. Specifically, we have focused on the evolutionary histories of the derivatives of M and N haplogroups, putatively reflecting different phases of settling Siberia by early modern humans. Population history and phylogeography of the resulting mtDNA genomes, combined with those from previously published data sets, revealed a wide range of tribal- and region-specific mtDNA haplotypes that emerged or diversified in Siberia before or after the last glacial maximum, ∼18 kya. Spatial distribution and ages of the "east" and "west" Eurasian mtDNA haploclusters suggest that anatomically modern humans that originally colonized Altai derived from macrohaplogroup N and came from Southwest Asia around 38,000 years ago. The derivatives of macrohaplogroup M, which largely emerged or diversified within the Russian Far East, came along with subsequent migrations to West Siberia millennia later. The last glacial maximum played a critical role in the timing and character of the settlement of the Siberian subcontinent. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Polycrystalline strengthening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels

    1985-01-01

    for the understanding of polycrystalline strengthening is obtained mainly from surface relief patterns and from bulk structures observed by transmission electron microscopy of thin foils. The results obtained by these methods are discussed and correlations are proposed. A number of features characterizing the deformed...... structure are summarized and the behavior of a number of metals and alloys is reviewed with emphasis on the structural changes in the interior of the grains and in the vicinity of the grain boundaries. The models for strain accommodation during deformation are discussed on the basis of the microstructures...

  7. "I'm in this world for a reason": Resilience and recovery among American Indian and Alaska Native two-spirit women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elm, Jessica H L; Lewis, Jordan P; Walters, Karina L; Self, Jen M

    2016-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native sexual minority (two-spirit) women are vulnerable to substance misuse and mental health challenges due to multiple minority oppressed status and exposure to stress and trauma. Yet, these women find pathways toward healing and wellness. We conducted a qualitative data analysis of interviews derived from a national health study and gained an understanding of 11 two-spirit women's resilience and recovery patterns. Emergent from the data, a braided resiliency framework was developed which elucidates multilayered abilities, processes, and resources involved in their resiliency. We recommend that resilience-promoting strategies be incorporated into substance misuse and mental health interventions.

  8. Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition. M-X/MPS (M-X/Multiple Protective Shelter) Environmental Technical Report. Native Americans Nevada/Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-02

    The malevolent goals of an evil shaman were accomplished primarily through psychic activity (i.e., by willing that a person fall ill). In some cases...older) Employed Unemployed Rate Duckwater 62 27 35 56.0 Yomba 39 21 18 53.8 Goshute 53 28 25 47.0 Moapa 98 63 35 36.0 Las Vegas 32 29 3 9.4 Ely 79 40 39... unemployed Native Americans who are enrolled at reservations and colonies in the study areas. The Region of Influence (RO) and the AOAs are defined in

  9. Dispersion strengthening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scattergood, R.O.; Das, E.S.P.

    1976-01-01

    Using digital computer-based methods, models for dispersion strengthening can now be developed which take into account many of the important effects that have been neglected in the past. In particular, the self interaction of a dislocation can be treated, and a computer simulation method was developed to determine the flow stress of a random distribution of circular, impenetrable obstacles, taking into account all such interactions. The flow stress values depended on the obstacle sizes and spacings, over and above the usual 1/L dependence where L is the average obstacle spacing. From an analysis of the results, it was found that the main effects of the self interactions can be captured in a line tension analogue in which the obstacles appear to be penetrable

  10. 78 FR 23769 - Notice of Final Issuance on the Adoption of Administration for Native Americans (ANA) Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... of the applicant organization's governing body. In addition, there should be a separation of duties... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families [CFDA Numbers: 93... as SEEDS), Native Language Preservation and Maintenance (hereinafter referred to as Language...

  11. 76 FR 25703 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment on the Assessment of Native American...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... populations. The level of housing need is of particular interest to HUD and the Congress has mandated this... staff; housing agency, homeless shelter, and social service agency staff. Group discussions: Native... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5486-N-11] Notice of Proposed...

  12. 77 FR 61761 - Announcement of the Award of a Single-Source Grant to the Native American Fatherhood and Families...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... and Families Association (NAFFA) in Mesa, AZ to conduct a national outreach campaign focused on promoting the importance of fatherhood in Native communities. Included in the national outreach campaign... Strategies. DATES: The award will be issued for the time period of September 30, 2012 to September 29, 2013...

  13. Production of lexical stress in non-native speakers of American English: kinematic correlates of stress and transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Rahul; Goffman, Lisa

    2011-06-01

    To assess the influence of second language (L2) proficiency on production characteristics of rhythmic sequences in the L1 (Bengali) and L2 (English), with emphasis on linguistic transfer. One goal was to examine, using kinematic evidence, how L2 proficiency influences the production of iambic and trochaic words, focusing on temporal and spatial aspects of prosody. A second goal was to assess whether prosodic structure influences judgment of foreign accent. Twenty Bengali-English bilingual individuals, 10 with low proficiency in English and 10 with high proficiency in English, and 10 monolingual English speakers, participated. Lip and jaw movements were recorded while the bilingual participants produced Bengali and English words embedded in sentences. Lower lip movement amplitude and duration were measured in trochaic and iambic words. Six native English listeners judged the nativeness of the bilingual speakers. Evidence of L1-L2 transfer was observed through duration but not amplitude cues. More proficient L2 speakers varied duration to mark iambic stress. Perceptually, the high-proficiency group received relatively higher native-like accent ratings. Trochees were judged as more native than iambs. Even in the face of L1-L2 lexical stress transfer, nonnative speakers demonstrated knowledge of prosodic contrasts. Movement duration appears to be more amenable than amplitude to modifications.

  14. Endometrial cancer in Asian and American Indian/Alaskan Native women: tumor characteristics, treatment and outcome compared to non-Hispanic white women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Haider; Schlick, Cary Jo; Kowk, Li-Lian; Moslemi-Kebria, Mehdi; Michener, Chad

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study is to compare survival of Asian (AS), American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN) and non-Hispanic white (NHW) women with endometrial adenocarcinoma (EC). Patients with EC were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program from 1988 to 2009. Kaplan-Meier survival methods and Cox proportional hazards regression were performed. Of the 105,083 women, 97,763 (93%) were NHW, 6699 (6.4%) were AS and 621 (0.6%) were AI/AN. AS and AI/AN were younger than NHW with mean age of 57.7 and 56.5 vs. 64.3 years (p Asian immigrants were younger than Asian natives (mean age 57 vs. 60.5 years, p Asian immigrants had better OS (HR 0.83, 95% CI 0.73-0.94, p = 0.002) and CSS (HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.54-0.80, p Asian natives. In contrast, AI/AN had worse OS (HR 1.35, 95% CI 1.15-1.59, p Asians were younger at presentation, more likely to have lymphadenectomy and had an improved outcome compared to NHW. Interestingly, Asian immigrants had more favorable outcome than Asians born in the US. Further studies are warranted to find possible explanations for such a difference. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Do Native American Culture, Life Experiences, Physics and the Bible Provide Supportive Evidence For Julian Barbour's Thesis About Anachronisms Relating to The End of Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Paul C.; Mc Leod, Roger D.

    2002-10-01

    Historic, and current Native American attitude considers that time can be considered in a cyclic sense that contrasts against a majority view of physicists that time varies in a linear algebraic sense. Precognition experiences offer evidence that time has a more subtle substance. The Bible clearly delineates "prophetic awareness of the future." Embedded "Bible codes" are touted as mathematical evidence for the existence of God. His existence is better served if "past-tense" information of events can propagate backward relative to our "present-tense" time. Barbour, p39: [some] " physicists entertain the idea time truly does not exist applies to motion .suggestion; it too is pure illusion." The concept of prophecy has been interpreted as evidence or "proof" of the existence of "Manitou" or God. Our interpretation is that, according to Native American legends, or the Bible, for as yet unspecified reasons, time behaves as though it can convey information in a backward, or forward, sense. It is like an f (t ± ti).

  16. The Relationship of Adverse Childhood Experiences to PTSD, Depression, Poly-Drug Use and Suicide Attempt in Reservation-Based Native American Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockie, Teresa N; Dana-Sacco, Gail; Wallen, Gwenyth R; Wilcox, Holly C; Campbell, Jacquelyn C

    2015-06-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with numerous risk behaviors and mental health outcomes among youth. This study examines the relationship between the number of types of exposures to ACEs and risk behaviors and mental health outcomes among reservation-based Native Americans. In 2011, data were collected from Native American (N = 288; 15-24 years of age) tribal members from a remote plains reservation using an anonymous web-based questionnaire. We analyzed the relationship between six ACEs, emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, physical and emotional neglect, witness to intimate partner violence, for those drug use, and suicide attempt. Seventy-eight percent of the sample reported at least one ACE and 40 % reported at least two. The cumulative impact of the ACEs were significant (p suicide attempt (37 %), poly-drug use (51 %), PTSD symptoms (55 %), and depression symptoms (57 %). To address these findings culturally appropriate childhood and adolescent interventions for reservation-based populations must be developed, tested and evaluated longitudinally.

  17. Few differences in diet and health behaviors and perceptions were observed in adult urban Native American Indians by tribal association, gender, and age grouping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Tina L; Morse, Kristin L; Giraud, David W; Driskell, Judy A

    2008-12-01

    Diet and health behaviors and perceptions of adult urban Native American Indians in a large Midwestern city were evaluated for differences by tribal association, gender, and age grouping. The hypothesis was that human behavior is influenced by tribal association, gender, and age grouping in the subject population. The subjects included 33 men and 32 women, with 26 being Sioux; 22 Omaha; and 17 a combination of other tribes. The descriptive survey included two interviewer-administered 24-hour recalls. The majority of subjects were overweight or obese. Significant differences (Por=10% kcal from saturated fat, and >or=300 mg cholesterol/d. Less than Estimated Average Requirements for vitamin A, vitamin C, and iron were consumed by 31%, 59%, and 6%, respectively; 79% consumed less than Adequate Intakes for calcium. Ninety-two percent consumed more than the Tolerable Upper Intake Level for sodium. Few differences were observed in the kilocalorie, vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, and sodium intakes of these Native American Indians by tribal association, gender, or age grouping. Significant differences in percentages consuming alcohol were observed by gender (Page grouping (Page grouping.

  18. Building research capacity with members of underserved American Indian/Alaskan Native communities: training in research ethics and the protection of human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetter, Karen M; Yarborough, Mark; Cassady, Diana L; Styne, Dennis M

    2015-05-01

    To develop a research ethics training course for American Indian/Alaskan Native health clinic staff and community researchers who would be conducting human subjects research. Community-based participatory research methods were used in facilitated discussions of research ethics centered around topics included in the Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative research ethics course. The community-based participatory research approach allowed all partners to jointly develop a research ethics training program that was relevant for American Indian/Alaskan Native communities. All community and clinic partners were able to pass the Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative course they were required to pass so that they could be certified to conduct research with human subjects on federally funded projects. In addition, the training sessions provided a foundation for increased community oversight of research. By using a collaborative process to engage community partners in research ethics discussions, rather than either an asynchronous online or a lecture/presentation format, resulted in significant mutual learning about research ethics and community concerns about research. This approach requires university researchers to invest time in learning about the communities in which they will be working prior to the training. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  19. Cross-Cultural Filmmaking as a Process of Self-Reflection: Filming Native Americans within Central European Space’s Prevailing Imagery of the “Noble Savage”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šavelková Lívia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Said´s notion of “Orientalism” as a set of discursive practices through which the West structured the imagined East, the Czech Republic (or former Czechoslovakia in particular, and so called Eastern Europe in general, has been viewed by “the West” as a space inhabited by “exotic other”. The former socialist countries (and the so called post-socialist countries have been constructing their own “Orients” and “exotic others” as well including Noble Savage stereotype of Native Americans. This paper focuses on a visual (representation of a meeting between people who might have mutually constructed each other as the “exotic other”. Based on filming of a visit of a Native American sport team competing in the Czech Republic, the paper would like to discuss who are the “exotic ones” and for whom and the methodological issues related to the creation of the cross-cultural ethnographic films.

  20. Encountering Complexity: Native Musics in the Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyea, Andrea

    1999-01-01

    Describes Native American musics, focusing on issues such as music and the experience of time, metaphor and metaphorical aspects, and spirituality and sounds from nature. Discusses Native American metaphysics and its reflection in the musics. States that an effective curriculum would provide a new receptivity to Native American musics. (CMK)

  1. Recruiting Native Journalists: The New Storytellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Candy

    1996-01-01

    In an effort to increase the number of Native American journalists, summer programs at the University of North Dakota and the University of Wisconsin give Native American high school students hands-on, culturally relevant journalism experience. The Native American Journalists Association offers college scholarships in journalism for American…

  2. Surrounded by Beauty: Arts of Native America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    Native American languages have no equivalent for the word "art." Yet the objects Native Americans have used and still use suggest that they are a highly spiritual people who create objects of extraordinary beauty. In Native American thought, there is no distinction between what is beautiful or functional, and what is sacred or secular.…

  3. Healthy Native Community Fellowship: An Indigenous Leadership Program to Enhance Community Wellness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Rae

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Healthy Native Communities Fellowship (HNCF is a grassroots evidence-based mentorship and leadership program that develops the skills and community-building capacities of leaders and community teams to improve health status through several intermediate social and cultural mechanisms: (a strengthening social participation (also known as social capital or cohesion; (b strengthening cultural connectedness and revitalization of cultural identity; and (c advocating for health-enhancing policies, practices, and programs that strengthen systems of prevention and care, as well as address the structural social determinants of health. This leadership program uses a community-based participatory research (CBPR approach and participatory evaluation to investigate how the work of local American Indian and Alaska Native leaders (fellows and their community coalitions contributes to individual, family, and community level health outcomes.

  4. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in native South American Atlantic coast populations of smooth shelled mussels: hybridization with invasive European Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbawicka, Małgorzata; Trucco, María I; Wenne, Roman

    2018-02-22

    Throughout the world, harvesting of mussels Mytilus spp. is based on the exploitation of natural populations and aquaculture. Aquaculture activities include transfers of spat and live adult mussels between various geographic locations, which may result in large-scale changes in the world distribution of Mytilus taxa. Mytilus taxa are morphologically similar and difficult to distinguish. In spite of much research on taxonomy, evolution and geographic distribution, the native Mytilus taxa of the Southern Hemisphere are poorly understood. Recently, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been used to clarify the taxonomic status of populations of smooth shelled mussels from the Pacific coast of South America. In this paper, we used a set of SNPs to characterize, for the first time, populations of smooth shelled mussels Mytilus from the Atlantic coast of South America. Mytilus spp. samples were collected from eastern South America. Six reference samples from the Northern Hemisphere were used: Mytilus edulis from USA and Northern Ireland, Mytilus trossulus from Canada, and Mytilus galloprovincialis from Spain and Italy. Two other reference samples from the Southern Hemisphere were included: M. galloprovincialis from New Zealand and Mytilus chilensis from Chile. Fifty-five SNPs were successfully genotyped, of which 51 were polymorphic. Population genetic analyses using the STRUCTURE program revealed the clustering of eight populations from Argentina (Mytilus platensis) and the clustering of the sample from Ushuaia with M. chilensis from Chile. All individuals in the Puerto Madryn (Argentina) sample were identified as M. platensis × M. galloprovincialis F2 (88.89%) hybrids, except one that was classified as Mediterranean M. galloprovincialis. No F1 hybrids were observed. We demonstrate that M. platensis (or Mytilus edulis platensis) and M. chilensis are distinct native taxa in South America, which indicates that the evolutionary histories of Mytilus taxa along the

  5. Native mycorrhizal fungi replace introduced fungal species on Virginia pine and American chestnut planted on reclaimed mine sites of Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivanand Hiremath; Kirsten Lehtoma; Jenise M. Bauman

    2014-01-01

    Plant-microbe community dynamics influence the natural succession of plant species where pioneer vegetation facilitates the establishment of a distantly related, later successional plant species. This has been observed in the case of restoration of the American chestnut (Castanea dentata) on abandoned mine land where Virginia pine (Pinus...

  6. The Association of Resilience with Mental and Physical Health among Older American Indians: The Native Elder Care Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schure, Marc B.; Odden, Michelle; Goins, R. Turner

    2013-01-01

    We examined the association of resilience with measures of mental and physical health in a sample of older American Indians (AIs). A validated scale measuring resilience was administered to 185 noninstitutionalized AIs aged greater than or equal to 55 years. Unadjusted analyses revealed that higher levels of resilience were associated with lower…

  7. Between Native American and Continental Philosophy: A Comparative Approach to Narrative and the Emergence of Responsible Selves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Troy

    2012-01-01

    This essay explores some of the affinities between current theories of North American Indigenous trickster narratives and continental philosophy where they are both concerned with the question of responsibility in subject formations. Taking up the work of Judith Butler, Franz Kafka and Gerald Vizenor, the author works to show how both continental…

  8. Coyote Papers: The University of Arizona Working Papers in Linguistics, Volume 11. Special Volume on Native American Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Jessica P., Ed.; O'Bryan, Erin L., Ed.; Moll, Laura A., Ed.; Haugan, Jason D., Ed.

    The five papers included in this volume approach the study of American Indian languages from a diverse array of methodological and theoretical approaches to linguistics. Two papers focus on approaches that come from the applied linguistics tradition, emphasizing ethnolinguistics and discourse analysis: Sonya Bird's paper "A Cross Cultural…

  9. Traditional Native American Ball Games in the Early 20th Century Recorded by Edward S. Curtis, Artist with a Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Wilma J.

    The work of Edward S. Curtis, who studied and recorded American Indian culture with a camera, is described in this paper. Curtis recorded on film, with explanatory text, a photo-history of eighty tribes west of the Missouri River. The role of games and their accompanying mythology was one of the salient features of Curtis's work. The general…

  10. Update on exotic ash collection for hybrid breeding and survey for EAB-resistance in native North American species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary E. Mason; Daniel A. Herms; David W. Carey; Kathleen S. Knight; Nurul I. Faridi; Jennifer. Koch

    2011-01-01

    Contrary to the high levels of devastation observed on North American ash species infested with emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), reports from Asia indicate that EAB-induced destruction of Asian ash species is limited to stressed trees. This indicates that Asian ash species have co-evolved resistance, or at least a high degree...

  11. The interleukin-6 (-174) G/C promoter polymorphism is associated with type-2 diabetes mellitus in Native Americans and Caucasians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vozarova, Barbora; Fernández-Real, José-Manuel; Knowler, William C

    2003-01-01

    Chronic low-grade activation of the immune system may play a role in the pathogenesis of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Interleukin-6 (IL6), a powerful inducer of hepatic acute phase response, has been implicated in the etiology of insulin resistance and T2DM. Recently, an IL6 promoter...... polymorphism (G/C) at position -174 was found to be associated with measures of insulin sensitivity. Because we have previously found an association between high IL6 levels and insulin resistance in both Pima Indians - a population with high rates of insulin resistance and T2DM - and Caucasians, we aimed...... to assess whether the IL6 promoter polymorphism is associated with T2DM in these populations. We genotyped the IL6 (-174) G/C polymorphism using pyrosequencing in 463 Native Americans and by PCR-RFLP in 329 Spanish Caucasians. Among the Spanish Caucasian subjects, there was a significant difference...

  12. A comparison of self-reported physical health and health conditions of American Indian/Alaskan Natives to other college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson-Silver Wolf, David A; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol; Black, Jessica; Billiot, Shanondora M; Tovar, Molly

    2013-12-01

    American Indian/Alaska Natives comprise a small portion of the general college student population, but often have the poorest health and wellness, as well as the highest dropout rates compared to any other race or ethnicity. Despite the well-documented issues this group faces in higher education, they are often ignored in studies due to their status as the minority within the minority, comprising only 0.8% of all college students in the US. This study examines the differences in college students' overall ratings of health across racial and ethnic groups, focusing specifically on the health and wellness of AI/AN students compared to their counterparts. This paper also investigates the physical health issues students experienced in the past 12 months and the health issues' impact on their academic achievement. Results showed that AI/AN students reported the lowest overall health ratings and the most health issues in the past year.

  13. Numerous Sinusoidal and Other EMF Phenomena, At Present and Former Native American Sites, May Be Superimposing Themselves onto Regional Power Grids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadran, Lawrence R.; Mc Leod, Roger D.; Mc Leod, David M.

    2003-10-01

    Periodic electromagnetic field signals (EMF), sometimes noticeable as faint blue-light or other phenomena, frequently are also detected at sites associated with Native Americans. We first noticed this sort of information in the vicinity of Wendell, MA about fourteen years ago. Similar and other signals are apparent at Americas Stonehenge, AS, in North Salem, NH. Connecticut provided our first evidence of superposition of two such waves at the Gungywamp site north of Groton, CT. A Maine location first showed orthogonally oriented trajectories in neighborhoods formerly frequented by Molocket and Metallak and their relatives near Rumford and Rangeley, ME. Florida exhibits similar signals in the vicinity of Hollywood and at Miamis Tequesta instrument, as does a separate site in CT. Powerful thunderstorms in the vicinity of a stone serpent effigy in Ohio cause EMF pulsations. Such signals are possibly superimposing themselves onto power-grids, where frequency changes and system instabilities may occur, according to the elementary physics involved.

  14. Relationship Satisfaction in Native Koreans and Korean Americans as a Function of Alexithymia, Emotional Intelligence, and Marital Vows Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Lee

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The common stereotype of the inexpressive Asian, holding all emotions at bay, continues in our expectations of how Asian couples relate in intimate relationships. There is also a widely held belief that Asian marriages embrace more covenant-oriented commitments, compromising individual freedom and expression for the sake of harmony and integration of the couple. The current study attempted to test these stereotypes among Koreans living in the United States and Native Koreans. Results indicated that the dominant culture significantly shapes the expression and importance of alexithymia among Koreans, but when Koreans are a minority group, traditional beliefs may exert an even greater influence on the covenantal aspects of the couple relationship. Most interestingly, couples with only one Korean member had very different results than the other groups; most notably in a strong significant negative relationship between emotional intelligence and relationship satisfaction.

  15. Odor Learning and Its Experience-Dependent Modulation in the South American Native Bumblebee Bombus atratus (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palottini, Florencia; Estravis Barcala, María C.; Farina, Walter M.

    2018-01-01

    Learning about olfactory stimuli is essential in bumblebees’ life since it is involved in orientation, recognition of nest sites, foraging efficiency and food yield for the colony as a whole. To evaluate associative learning abilities in bees under controlled environmental conditions, the proboscis extension response (PER) assay is a well-established method used in honey bees, stingless bees and successfully adapted to bumblebees of the genus Bombus. However, studies on the learning capacity of Bombus atratus (Hymenoptera: Apidae), one of the most abundant native species in South America, are non-existent. In this study, we examined the cognitive abilities of worker bees of this species, carrying out an olfactory PER conditioning experiment. Bumblebees were able to learn a pure odor when it was presented in paired association with sugared reward, but not when odor and reward were presented in an unpaired manner. Furthermore, if the bees were preexposed to the conditioned odor, the results differed depending on the presence of the scent either as a volatile in the rearing environment or diluted in the food. A decrement in learning performance results from the non-reinforced pre-exposure to the to-be-conditioned odor, showing a latent inhibition phenomenon. However, if the conditioned odor has been previously offered diluted in sugared reward, the food odor acts as a stimulus that improves the learning performance during PER conditioning. The native bumblebee B. atratus is thus a new hymenopteran species capable of being trained under controlled experimental conditions. Since it is an insect increasingly reared for pollination service, this knowledge could be useful in its management in crops. PMID:29755391

  16. The population genetics of Quechuas, the largest native South American group: autosomal sequences, SNPs, and microsatellites evidence high level of diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scliar, Marilia O; Soares-Souza, Giordano B; Chevitarese, Juliana; Lemos, Livia; Magalhães, Wagner C S; Fagundes, Nelson J; Bonatto, Sandro L; Yeager, Meredith; Chanock, Stephen J; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo

    2012-03-01

    Elucidating the pattern of genetic diversity for non-European populations is necessary to make the benefits of human genetics research available to individuals from these groups. In the era of large human genomic initiatives, Native American populations have been neglected, in particular, the Quechua, the largest South Amerindian group settled along the Andes. We characterized the genetic diversity of a Quechua population in a global setting, using autosomal noncoding sequences (nine unlinked loci for a total of 16 kb), 351 unlinked SNPs and 678 microsatellites and tested predictions of the model of the evolution of Native Americans proposed by (Tarazona-Santos et al.: Am J Hum Genet 68 (2001) 1485-1496). European admixture is Quechua or Melanesian populations, which is concordant with the African origin of modern humans and the fact that South America was the last part of the world to be peopled. The diversity in the Quechua population is comparable with that of Eurasian populations, and the allele frequency spectrum based on resequencing data does not reflect a reduction in the proportion of rare alleles. Thus, the Quechua population is a large reservoir of common and rare genetic variants of South Amerindians. These results are consistent with and complement our evolutionary model of South Amerindians (Tarazona-Santos et al.: Am J Hum Genet 68 (2001) 1485-1496), proposed based on Y-chromosome data, which predicts high genomic diversity due to the high level of gene flow between Andean populations and their long-term effective population size. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Anthropology. Response to Comment on "Late Pleistocene human skeleton and mtDNA link Paleoamericans and modern Native Americans".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Brian M; Lindo, John; Bolnick, Deborah A; Malhi, Ripan S; Chatters, James C

    2015-02-20

    Prüfer and Meyer raise concerns over the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) results we reported for the Hoyo Negro individual, citing failure of a portion of these data to conform to their expectations of ancient DNA (aDNA). Because damage patterns in aDNA vary, outright rejection of our findings on this basis is unwarranted, especially in light of our other observations. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. MORPHOLOGICAL INTEGRATION OF NATIVE SOUTH AMERICAN UNGULATE MANDIBLES. A TRIBUTE TO D’ARCY THOMPSON IN THE CENTENNIAL OF “ON GROWTH AND FORM”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassini, Guillermo H.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available South American native ungulates include several extinct lineages that evolved within the context of South American Cenozoic geographic isolation. By the late early Miocene Santacrucian Age, the orders Notoungulata, Litopterna, and Astrapotheria were differentiated. Recent ecomorphological studies highlighted complex functional patterns between their habitat/diet and hypsodonty. In order to understand these relationships in an evolutionary context we used geometric morphometrics methods (27 3-D landmarks to evaluate the morphological integration of two of the primary functional units of the mandible: the alveolar region and the ascending ramus. Principal component analyses (PCA and two blocks Partial Least Squares analyses (PLS were used to explore the patterns of variation and covariation between these two modules. The main variation in shape is related to the robusticity and curvature of the mandibular corpus, and the relative size of the angular and coronoid process. The PLS analyses show a very strong morphological integration within the Litopterna, but a pattern of modularity in the Notoungulata. There is a common pattern of covariation in Astrapotheria and Litopterna, which might be due to similar constraints. The different covariation patterns in notoungulates with respect to litopterns are in concordance with both the taxonomic and morphological diversity of the clades, particularly in the typotheres. The modularity present in notoungulates could have allowed specializations in each module of the mandible, related to crown height or muscle attachments, without a high morphological constrain. This could have resulted in their high morphological diversity, in contrast with the more conservative morphology present in litopterns.

  19. Contesting History and Pursuing "Other" Knowledge: A Study of Hip-Hop and Non-Formal Education among Native American Youth in San Francisco and Black Portuguese Youth in Lisbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, Miye Nadya

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a broad-reaching effort to interrogate enduring colonial legacies as experienced by Native American youth in the United States of America and Black Portuguese youth of Cape Verdean origin in Portugal. As part of its methodological approach, it uses hip-hop--a cultural movement composed of four elements including rap music--to…

  20. Strengthening regional safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palhares, L.; Almeida, G.; Mafra, O.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear cooperation between Argentina and Brazil has been growing since the early 1980's and as it grew, so did cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) was formed in December 1991 to operate the Common System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (SCCC). In April 1994, ABACC and the DOE signed an Agreement of Cooperation in nuclear material safeguards. This cooperation has included training safeguards inspectors, exchanging nuclear material measurement and containment and surveillance technology, characterizing reference materials, and studying enrichment plant safeguards. The goal of the collaboration is to exchange technology, evaluate new technology in Latin American nuclear facilities, and strengthen regional safeguards. This paper describes the history of the cooperation, its recent activities, and future projects. The cooperation is strongly supported by all three governments: the Republics of Argentina and Brazil and the United States

  1. Advancing research in transitional care: challenges of culture, language and health literacy in Asian American and native Hawaiian elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishita, Christy; Browne, Colette

    2013-02-01

    Recent federal policy supports an individual's preference for home and community-based long-term care, even among nursing home residents. Optimizing transitions from the nursing home to home is a complex undertaking that requires addressing the interrelationships between health literacy and cultural-linguistic factors in the nation's increasingly diverse older adult population. We look at four Asian American and Pacific Islander elder populations to illustrate that differing health profiles and cultural-linguistic values can affect the type of care and support needed and preferred. A research gap exists that links these factors together for optimal transitional care. The paper presents a conceptual framework and proposes a six-point research agenda that includes family assessments of health literacy abilities, exploring the relationship between culture, health, and decision-making, and the development/adaptation of transition planning tools.

  2. To Break Away or Strengthen Ties to Home: A Complex Issue for African American College Students Attending a Predominantly White Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiffrida, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    African American students and former students from a predominantly white institution (PWI) were interviewed to understand their perceptions regarding the impact of their families on their academic achievement and persistence. The characteristics of families that students perceived to support and hinder their academic success at college are…

  3. Development of an Educational Network to Strengthen Education, Training and Outreach in Latin America: LANENT-Latin American Network for Education in Nuclear Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Silva, A.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: In the current century, networks have played an important role in the dissemination of experiences, information exchange and training of human resources for different area of expertise. The IAEA has encouraged in regions, through its member states, the creation of educational networks to meet rapidly and efficiently the dissemination and exchange of knowledge between professionals and students in the nuclear area. With this vision, the Latin American Network for Education in Nuclear Technology (LANENT) was established to contribute to preserving, promoting and sharing nuclear knowledge as well as fostering nuclear knowledge transfer in the Latin American region. LANENT seeks to increase technical and scientific cooperation among its members in so far as to promote the benefits of nuclear technology and foster the progress and development of nuclear technology in areas such as education, health, the industry, the government, the environment, the mining industry, among others. By means of LANENT, the participating institutions of this network, devoted to education and training of professionals and technicians in the Latin American region, may have access to major information on nuclear technology so as to make their human resources broaden their nuclear knowledge. Moreover, this network seeks to communicate the benefits of nuclear technology to the public with the aim of arousing interest in nuclear technology of the younger generations. This paper will present and analyze results and initiatives developed by LANENT in Latin America. (author

  4. Nonmedical Stimulant Use among Young Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and Mixed-Race Individuals Aged 12–34 years In the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Swartz, Marvin S.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Blazer, Dan G.; Hoyle, Rick H.

    2014-01-01

    There are concerns over nonmedical use of prescription stimulants among youths, but little is known about the extent of use among young Asian-Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs), and mixed-race individuals—the fastest growing segments of the U.S. population. We examined prevalences and correlates of nonmedical stimulant use (NMSU) and disorder (StiUD) for these underrecognized groups. Whites were included as a comparison. Data were from young individuals aged 12–34 years in the 2005–2012 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. We used logistic regression to estimate odds of past-year NMSU status. Significant yearly increases in lifetime NMSU prevalence were noted in Whites only. NHs/PIs (lifetime 7.33%, past-year 2.72%) and mixed-race individuals (10.20%, 2.82%) did not differ from Whites in NMSU prevalence (11.68%, 3.15%). Asian-Americans (lifetime 3.83%, past-year 0.90%) had lower prevalences than Whites. In each racial/ethnic group, “Methamphetamine/Desoxyn/Methedrine or Ritalin” was more commonly used than other stimulant groups; “got them from a friend/relative for free” and “bought them from a friends/relative” were among the most common sources. Females had greater odds than males of NMSU (among White, NH/PI, mixed-race individuals) and StiUD (among mixed-race individuals). Young adults (aged 18–25) had elevated odds of NMSU (White, NH/PI); adolescents had elevated odds of StiUD (White, mixed-race). Other substance use (especially marijuana, other prescription drugs) increased odds of NMSU and StiUD. NHs/PIs and mixed-race individuals were as likely as Whites to misuse stimulants. Research is needed to delineate health consequences of NMSU and inform prevention efforts for these understudied, rapidly-growing populations. PMID:25263275

  5. Case management to reduce cardiovascular disease risk in American Indians and Alaska Natives with diabetes: results from the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Healthy Heart Demonstration Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kelly; Jiang, Luohua; Manson, Spero M; Beals, Janette; Henderson, William; Pratte, Katherine; Acton, Kelly J; Roubideaux, Yvette

    2014-11-01

    We evaluated cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) with diabetes in the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Healthy Heart (SDPI-HH) Demonstration Project. Multidisciplinary teams implemented an intensive case management intervention among 30 health care programs serving 138 tribes. The project recruited 3373 participants, with and without current CVD, between 2006 and 2009. We examined data collected at baseline and 1 year later to determine whether improvements occurred in CVD risk factors and in Framingham coronary heart disease (CHD) risk scores, aspirin use, and smoking status. A1c levels decreased an average of 0.2% (P risk scores also decreased significantly. Aspirin therapy increased significantly, and smoking decreased. Participants with more case management visits had significantly greater reductions in LDL cholesterol and A1c values. SDPI-HH successfully translated an intensive case management intervention. Creative retention strategies and an improved understanding of organizational challenges are needed for future Indian health translational efforts.

  6. Alcohol Misuse and Associations with Childhood Maltreatment and Out-of-Home Placement among Urban Two-Spirit American Indian and Alaska Native People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Nicole P.; Duran, Bonnie M.; Walters, Karina L.; Pearson, Cynthia R.; Evans-Campbell, Tessa A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined associations between alcohol misuse and childhood maltreatment and out-of-home placement among urban lesbian, gay, and bisexual (referred to as two-spirit) American Indian and Alaska Native adults. In a multi-site study, data were obtained from 294 individuals who consumed alcohol during the past year. The results indicated that 72.3% of men and 62.4% of women engaged in hazardous and harmful alcohol use and 50.8% of men and 48.7% of women met criteria for past-year alcohol dependence. The most common types of childhood maltreatment were physical abuse among male drinkers (62.7%) and emotional abuse (71.8%) among female drinkers. Men and women reported high percentages of out-of-home placement (39% and 47%, respectively). Logistic multiple regressions found that for male drinkers boarding school attendance and foster care placement were significant predictors of past-year alcohol dependence. For female drinkers, being adopted was significantly associated with a decreased risk of past-year drinking binge or spree. Dose-response relationships, using number of childhood exposures as a predictor, were not significant. The results highlight the need for alcohol and violence prevention and intervention strategies among urban two-spirit individuals. PMID:25317980

  7. Alcohol Misuse and Associations with Childhood Maltreatment and Out-of-Home Placement among Urban Two-Spirit American Indian and Alaska Native People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole P. Yuan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined associations between alcohol misuse and childhood maltreatment and out-of-home placement among urban lesbian, gay, and bisexual (referred to as two-spirit American Indian and Alaska Native adults. In a multi-site study, data were obtained from 294 individuals who consumed alcohol during the past year. The results indicated that 72.3% of men and 62.4% of women engaged in hazardous and harmful alcohol use and 50.8% of men and 48.7% of women met criteria for past-year alcohol dependence. The most common types of childhood maltreatment were physical abuse among male drinkers (62.7% and emotional abuse (71.8% among female drinkers. Men and women reported high percentages of out-of-home placement (39% and 47%, respectively. Logistic multiple regressions found that for male drinkers boarding school attendance and foster care placement were significant predictors of past-year alcohol dependence. For female drinkers, being adopted was significantly associated with a decreased risk of past-year drinking binge or spree. Dose-response relationships, using number of childhood exposures as a predictor, were not significant. The results highlight the need for alcohol and violence prevention and intervention strategies among urban two-spirit individuals.

  8. Formative assessment using social marketing principles to identify health and nutrition perspectives of Native American women living within the Chickasaw Nation boundaries in Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Stephany; Hunter, Toma; Briley, Chiquita; Miracle, Sarah; Hermann, Janice; Van Delinder, Jean; Standridge, Joy

    2011-01-01

    To identify health product and promotion channels for development of a Chickasaw Nation Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Education Program (SNAP-Ed) social marketing program. The study was qualitative and used social marketing principles to assess Native American women's views of health and nutrition. Focus groups (n = 8) and interviews (n = 4) were conducted to identify indigenous views of product, promotion, price, and place related to SNAP-Ed behavioral objectives. The major theme identified for product was diabetes prevention. Participants (n = 42) indicated a preference for family-based education with promotion by elders, tribal leaders, and "everyday people." Participants identified tribe-specific community sites for program implementation at times conducive to work schedules. Culturally appropriate social marketing programs are necessary to address diabetes prevention with a focus on family, heritage, and tribal community. Additional research is necessary to explore the role of elders and tribal leaders in diabetes prevention efforts. Copyright © 2011 Society for Nutrition Education. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. On the history of cultural psychiatry: Georges Devereux, Henri Ellenberger, and the psychological treatment of Native Americans in the 1950s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delille, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    Henri Ellenberger (1905-1993) wrote the first French-language synthesis of transcultural psychiatry ("Ethno-psychiatrie") for the French Encyclopédie Médico-Chirurgicale in 1965. His work casts new light on the early development of transcultural psychiatry in relation to scientific communities and networks, particularly on the role of Georges Devereux (1908-1985). The Ellenberger archives offer the possibility of comparing published texts with archival ones to create a more nuanced account of the history of transcultural psychiatry, and notably of the psychological treatment of Native Americans. This paper examines some key moments in the intellectual trajectories of Devereux and Ellenberger, including Devereux's dispute with Ackerknecht, the careers of Devereux and Ellenberger as therapists at the Menninger Foundation (Topeka, Kansas) in the 1950s, and their respective positions in the research network developed by McGill University (Montreal, Quebec) with the newsletter Transcultural Research in Mental Health Problems Finally, I consider their ties to other important figures in this field as it transitioned from colonial medicine to academic medicine, including Roger Bastide (France), Henri Collomb and the Ortigues (France and Africa), as well as Eric Wittkower and Brian Murphy (Canada) and Alexander Leighton (United States and Canada). © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. THE SURVEY OF WELL-BEING OF YOUNG CHILDREN: RESULTS OF A FEASIBILITY STUDY WITH AMERICAN INDIAN AND ALASKA NATIVE COMMUNITIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitesell, Nancy Rumbaugh; Sarche, Michelle; Trucksess, Caitlin

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility of the Survey of Well-Being of Young Children (SWYC), a new screener for socioemotional and developmental problems and family risk in children birth to age 5 years, for use in American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) communities. A Community of Learning within the Tribal Early Childhood Research Center, composed of university researchers, tribal early childhood program staff and evaluators, and federal partners, utilized a community-based participatory research approach to guide this qualitative study. Thirty-two focus groups and 20 key informant interviews (N = 199) were conducted with staff from Head Start, Home Visiting, and Child Care programs; pediatricians; behavioral health providers; parents of young children; tribal leaders; and other stakeholders in seven diverse AIAN communities. Three themes emerged: (a) a strong need to screen early for socioemotional and developmental problems and family risk; (b) the importance of a carefully designed process for screening; and (c) the importance of examining the content of the SWYC for cultural fit specific to tribal communities. Findings support two recommendations: (a) the development of guidelines for using the SWYC in tribal early childhood settings and (b) a full-scale validation study to determine appropriate use with and norms for children in tribal communities. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  11. Challenges to recruit and retain American Indian and Alaskan Natives into social work programs: the impact on the child welfare workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Suzanne L; Day, Angelique; Gogliotti, Lucas J; Pung, Justin J

    2013-01-01

    There is a shortage of professionally trained American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN) social workers available to provide services including child welfare services to tribal communities. This study used a mixed-model survey design to examine the perceptions of 47 AI/AN BSW and MSW students enrolled in social work programs across the to determine the challenges associated with recruitment and retention. The findings are supported in the literature. Findings indicate that social work academic programs have not made substantial gains in the recruitment and retention of AI/AN students over several decades. Students identified the following seven major barriers to successful recruitment and retention: (1) a lack of AI/AN professors; (2) a shortage of field placement agencies that serve AI/AN clients; (3) conflicts between students' academic obligations and responsibilities to their families and tribal communities; (4) students' feelings of cultural isolation; (5) the need for AI/AN role models and mentors; (6) a lack of understanding by universities of cultural customs and traditional values; and (7) racism. Implications for policy and practice are offered.

  12. Characterization of different native american physalis species and evaluation of their processing potential as jelly in combination with brie-type cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Nogueira CURI

    Full Text Available Abstract Faced with the need for greater knowledge of the different physalis species, the aim of this study was to characterize different Native American physalis species (Physalis peruviana L., Physalis pubescens L., Physalis angulata L., Physalis mínimos L. and Physalis ixocarpa Brot as to their physicochemical characteristics, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. Besides that, in order to increase their use and add even more value to this fruit, we also evaluate the influence of these different species on the physicochemical, rheological and sensory characteristics of physalis jelly. In addition, this study evaluated the sensory acceptance of the combination of physalis jellies obtained from different species with brie-type cheese. The Peruviana, Pubences and Angulata, are highlighted for being the nutritionally richest species, with the highest levels of phenolic compounds, vitamin C and antioxidant. Moreover, they stand out for originating the most widely sensory accepted jellies, either in pure form or in combination with brie-type cheese.

  13. Scott Richard Lyons, X-marks: Native Signatures of Assent. , Steve Russell, Sequoyah Rising: Problems in Post-Colonial Tribal Governance. , Sean Kicummah Teuton, Red Land, Red Power: Grounding Knowledge in the American Indian Novel. , Gerald Vizenor, Native Liberty: Natural Reason and Cultural Survivance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Mackay

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available That American Indian nations have survived into the 21st century should be an occasion for celebration, given how truly close Native America came to a total obliteration. A combination of disease, vicious colonial warfare and the use of education as a weapon to “kill the Indian, save the man” had by the beginning of the 19th century reduced the number of people in the United States willing to claim Native ancestry in the census to just 250,000. (There were, of course, many more, but Indian bl...

  14. Strengthening of Shear Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg

    The theory for concrete structures strengthened with fiber reinforced polymer materials has been developing for approximately two decades, and there are at the present time numerous guidelines covering strengthening of many commonly encountered structural building elements. Strengthening of in...... that describes a unit width strip of a strengthened disk. The unit width strip is named a strengthened concrete tension member and contains a single tensile crack and four debonding cracks. Analysis of the member results in closed form expressions for the load-crack opening relationship. Further analysis...... of the response, results in the ability to determine and characterize the two-way crack propagation, i.e. the relationship between tensile cracking in the concrete and interface debonding between strengthening and concrete. Using the load-crack opening relationship from the strengthened concrete tension member...

  15. Native Music in College Curricula?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Loran

    1986-01-01

    Culminating a 10-year effort to include the study of Native Americans and their music as it reflects cultural realities, life, thought, religion, and history as a choice in requirements for graduation, the elective course, "Native Music of North America," is now recognized at Washington State University as meeting both…

  16. Bridging the gap between tribal risk perceptions and scientific decision-making for uranium legacy sites located in Native American communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, C.; Waugh, W.; Glenn, E.; Chief, K.

    2017-12-01

    There are approximately 15,000 abandoned uranium mines (AUM) in the western United States, of which 500 AUMs are located in the Colorado Plateau Four-Corners region. Uranium mill tailings, referred to as legacy waste, compromise the largest volume of any category of radioactive waste in the nation. Today, the Department of Energy Legacy Management is responsible for long-term stewardship and maintenance of inactive uranium processing sites that have been remediated to prevent further migration and exposure of tailings to the environment and surrounding communities. In collaboration with the DOE-LM, I am investigating the impact of climate change and community adaptation on the long-term performance of disposal cell covers for uranium mill tailings located in Native American communities, as well as how these communities have adapted to and perceive these areas. I am interested in how abiotic engineered cell covers may be candidate sites for future conversion to vegetated evapotranspirative caps for arid to semi-arid climates. The objectives are to: 1) assess above-ground tissue of plants encroaching engineered cell covers for concentrations of uranium, radium, selenium, molybdenum, thorium, arsenic, lead, and manganese and compare them to control sites; 2) determine if above-cell plant tissue is accumulating to toxic levels that may create an exposure pathway, 3) identify climate scenarios for site locations and determine how short-and long-scale climate projections will influence spatial and temporal plant distribution for specific woody species; and 4) evaluate the risk perceptions of Hopi villages located five miles downstream of one site location. To date, risk perception and stakeholder outreach to the Hopi communities has been absent. This study will help inform how land use, water use, and sustenance practices may contribute to environmental health disparities for one of the few tribes that has maintained physical continuity within their ancestral homeland.

  17. The Association Between Diabetes Mellitus Among American Indian/Alaska Native Populations with Preterm Birth in Eight US States from 2004-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorfman, Haley; Srinath, Meghna; Rockhill, Karilynn; Hogue, Carol

    2015-11-01

    Assess risk of preterm birth associated with diabetes mellitus (DM) among American Indian and Alaska Natives (AI/AN), a population with increased risk of DM and preterm birth, and examine whether this association differed by state of residence. We used surveillance data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System from 12,400 AI/AN respondents with singleton births in Alaska, Minnesota, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Oregon, Utah, and Washington from 2004-2011. We conducted multivariable logistic regression models to estimate the odds ratio adjusted for maternal age and prepregnancy BMI with all observations and then stratified by state. DM was reported in 5.92 % of the study population and preterm birth occurred in 8.95 % of births. Women with DM had 1.92 times higher odds of having a preterm birth than women without DM [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.21-2.78]. After stratifying on state, women with DM in Nebraska had the greatest odds of preterm birth [aOR 6.63, (95 % CI 3.80-11.6)] while women in Alaska saw a protective effect from DM [aOR 0.17, (95 % CI 0.07-0.42)] compared to women without DM. Overall, AI/AN women with DM had significantly greater odds of preterm birth compared to AI/AN women without DM across states. Substantial differences in this association between states calls for increased public health efforts in high-risk areas as well as further research to assess whether differences are attributable to diagnosis, reporting, tribal, healthcare or lifestyle factors.

  18. The Effects of Prepregnancy Body Mass Index and Gestational Weight Gain on Fetal Macrosomia Among American Indian/Alaska Native Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockhill, Karilynn; Dorfman, Haley; Srinath, Meghna; Hogue, Carol

    2015-11-01

    The American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) population is a high-risk group across many health indicators, including fetal macrosomia. We aimed to investigate the effects of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) on macrosomia and explore possible racial and geographical variations among AI/AN women. This retrospective cohort study was conducted from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System in eight states (2004-2011) among live, singleton, term births to AI/AN women 20 years or older. Prevalence of macrosomia (birth weight ≥ 4000 g) by select characteristics were estimated; differences were assessed with Chi-squares. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for effects on macrosomia of BMI and GWG (enumerating the pounds women deviated from the Institute of Medicine guidelines for GWG) controlling for other factors in the total sample and stratified by race and state of residence. The prevalence of macrosomia was 14 %, ranging from 8 to 21 % (Utah-Alaska). Among AI/AN women, 30 % were obese prepregnancy and 50 % had excess GWG. Significant independent effects were found for macrosomia of prepregnancy overweight (aOR 1.27; 95 % Confidence Interval 1.01-1.59), obesity (aOR 1.63; 1.29-2.07), and excess GWG (aOR 1.16; 1.13-1.20 per five pounds gained beyond appropriate). Adjusted estimates varied between race and state. Prepregnancy BMI and GWG are independent factors for macrosomia among AI/AN women. Future research should prioritize development, testing, and implementation of weight management programs, which account for variations among AI/AN women, both before and during pregnancy for BMI regulation and GWG control.

  19. The Design of a Multi-component Intervention to Promote Screening Mammography in an American Indian Community: The Native Women's Health Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolma, Eleni L.; Engelman, Kimberly; Stoner, Julie A.; Thomas, Cara; Joseph, Stephanie; Li, Ji; Blackwater, Cecily; Henderson, J. Neil; Carson, L. D.; Neely, Norma; Edwards, Tewanna

    2016-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is an important public health issue among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) women in the US. This article describes the design and implementation of a culturally sensitive intervention to promote breast health among AI/AN women through a hybrid model that incorporates clinical and community-based approaches. This is one of the first studies using this model addressing breast cancer disparities among AI/AN populations in the US. Methods The Theory of Planned Behavior was used as the guiding framework of the intervention and Community Based Participatory Research was the primary vehicle for the intervention planning and implementation. Three preliminary studies took place that aimed to identify qualitatively and quantitatively what deterred or encouraged AI women to get past or future mammograms. The research results were shared with community members who, through a prioritization process, identified the theoretical focus of the intervention and its corresponding activities. The priority population consisted of AI women ages 40–74, with no recent mammogram, and no breast cancer history. Results The intervention centered on the promotion of social modeling and physician recommendation. The main corresponding activities included enhancing patient-physician communication about screening mammography through a structured dialogue, receipt of a breast cancer brochure, participation in an inter-generational discussion group, and a congratulatory bracelet upon receipt of a mammogram. Environmental and policy related changes also were developed. Conclusion Creating a theory-based, culturally-sensitive intervention through tribal participatory research is a challenging approach towards eliminating breast cancer disparities among hard-to-reach populations. PMID:29546205

  20. Atividade anti-helmíntica de plantas nativas do continente americano: uma revisão Anthelmintic activity of native American plants: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G. Sousa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho faz uma revisão de plantas nativas do continente americano com atividade anti-helmíntica com a finalidade de subsidiar pesquisas e o desenvolvimento de novos medicamentos na área de produtos naturais. Na literatura, foram citadas 22 famílias de plantas, tais como: Moraceae, Asteraceae e Cucurbitaceae, e estudadas cerca de 35 espécies, como a Ficus sp, Cucurbita máxima, e Ruta graveolens, usadas por sua alegada atividade anti-helmíntica. Destas espécies, 26 foram ativas contra alguns helmintos: Strongyloides stercolaris, Ancylostomidae, Trichostrongylus sp, Capillaria sp, Ascaris lumbricoides, Taenia saginata, Haemonchus contortus, e Hymenolepsis diminuta. Foi verificado maior número de estudos com parasitas de animais, possivelmente devido ao desenvolvimento de resistência dos helmintos aos tratamentos convencionais disponíveis.This paper is a review of native American plants showing anthelmintic activity in order to give support to research and development of new drugs in the field of natural products. In the literature, 22 plant families were cited, such as: Moraceae, Asteraceae and Cucurbitaceae, and around 35 species were studied, including Ficus sp, Cucurbita maxima and Ruta graveolens, used for their putative anthelmintic activity. From these species, 26 were active against some helminthes: Strongyloides stercolaris, Ancylostomidae, Trichostrongylus sp, Capillaria sp, Ascaris lumbricoides, Taenia saginata, Haemonchus contortus and Hymenolepsis diminuta. Data indicated a larger number of studies with animal parasites, probably due to the resistance of these helminthes to the conventional treatments available.