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Sample records for strengthening exercises stretching

  1. Exercise, especially combined stretching and strengthening exercise, reduces myofascial pain: a systematic review

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    Juliano Bergamaschine Mata Diz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Question: Among people with myofascial pain, does exercise reduce the intensity of the pain and disability? Design: Systematic review of randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials. Participants: People with myofascial pain of any duration. Intervention: Exercise versus minimal or no intervention and exercise versus other intervention. Outcome measures: Pain intensity and disability. Results: Eight studies involving 255 participants were included. Pooled estimates from six studies showed statistically significant effects of exercise when compared with minimal or no intervention (support and encouragement or no treatment on pain intensity at short-term follow-up. The weighted mean difference in pain intensity due to exercise was –1.2 points (95% CI –2.3 to –0.1 on a 0 to 10 scale. Pooled estimates from two studies showed a non-significant effect of exercise when compared with other interventions (electrotherapy or dry needling on pain intensity at short-term follow-up. The weighted mean difference in pain intensity due to exercise instead of other therapies was 0.4 points (95% CI –0.3 to 1.1 on a 0 to 10 scale. Individual studies reported no significant effects of exercise on disability compared with minimal intervention (–0.4, 95% CI –1.3 to 0.5 and other interventions (0.0, 95% CI –0.8 to 0.8 at short-term follow-up. Sensitivity analysis suggested that combining stretching and strengthening achieves greater short-term effects on pain intensity compared with minimal or no intervention (–2.3, 95% CI –4.1 to –0.5. Conclusion: Evidence from a limited number of trials indicates that exercise has positive small-to-moderate effects on pain intensity at short-term follow-up in people with myofascial pain. A combination of stretching and strengthening exercises seems to achieve greater effects. These estimates may change with future high-quality studies. [Mata Diz JB, de Souza JRLM, Leopoldino AAO, Oliveira VC (2016 Exercise

  2. EFFICACY OF CYRIAX PHYSIOTHERAPY VERSUS ECCENTRIC STRENGTHENING AND STRETCHING EXERCISES IN CHRONIC LATERAL EPICONDYLITIS PATIENTS

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    Madhusmita Koch

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lateral Epicondylitis is the most common lesion of the elbow, affecting the tendinous origin of the wrist extensors. Although conservative treatment of this condition has been the subject of numerous studies, there is no agreement as to the most effective management strategy. Therefore, this study was designed to compare the efficacy of Cyriax physiotherapy Versus Eccentric Strengthening and Stretching exercises in reducing the pain and improving the grip strength and functional status of the affected extremity in chronic lateral epicondylitis. Method: An experimental study design, 60 subjects meeting the inclusion criteria were selected for the study and were randomly assigned into two groups: Group A (N=30 received Cyriax Physiotherapy and Group B(N=30 received Eccentric strengthening and static stretching of Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis. Low Level Laser Therapy was a common treatment for both the groups. After 4 weeks of treatment, assessment was performed using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, Hand Held Dynamometer (HHD and Patient Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation Questionnaire (PRTEE at 0 week and at the end of 4 weeks. Results: Data analysis revealed that there is no statistically significant difference between the groups in VAS, HHD and PRTEE scores i.e. average improvement post treatment in both the groups are equal, but within group comparisons showed significant improvements in both the groups. Conclusion: The efficacy of Cyriax Physiotherapy is equal to Eccentric Strengthening and Stretching Exercises in chronic lateral epicondylitis.

  3. Chiropractic manipulative therapy of the thoracic spine in combination with stretch and strengthening exercises, in improving postural kyphosis in woman

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    Kim C. Branco

    2016-10-01

    Method: A randomised study design with thirty female participants between the ages of twenty and  thirty nine was selected. Group 1 (n = 10 received chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy to the thoracic spine. Group 2 (n = 10 received chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy to the thoracic spine as well as stretch and strengthening exercises i.e. stretching the pectoralis major muscles and strengthening the rhomboid, middle and inferior trapezius muscles. Group 3 (n = 10 received stretch and strengthening exercises. The stretch and strengthening exercises were performed in the consultation rooms to ensure that the participants were complying with the treatment and doing the exercises properly. The study consisted of seven consultations for Group 1 (they received treatment once a week for six weeks and for Groups 2 and 3 there were nineteen consultations (they received three treatments a week for six weeks. Objective data was recorded at the beginning of the first, fourth and seventh consultations for Group 1, and the first, tenth and nineteenth consultations for Groups 2 and 3. On the seventh consultation (for Group 1 and nineteenth consultation for Groups 2 and 3, only data collection was done. Objective data were obtained by using the Flexicurve® Ruler measurements for the angle of kyphosis. Visual analysis was done by taking lateral (sagittal view photographs at the beginning of the initial and final consultations. Results: Statistical analysis revealed significant statistical changes for the intragroup results for all three groups. No significant statistical difference was found between the groups for the inter-group analysis. Conclusion: The study showed that all three treatment protocols for Groups 1, 2, and 3 were effective. However, Group 1 had not shown a great improvement in their postural kyphosis, Group 3 had shown a relatively good improvement in their posture, while Group 2 had shown the best results with regards to improvement of the

  4. The Comparative Study of the Effect of Stabilization Exercise and Stretching-Strengthening Exercise on Balance Parameters in Forward Head Posture Patients

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    Solmaz Salehi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Balance disturbance is one of the observed impairments in patient with forward head posture (FHP. The aim of this study was comparing the effect of stabilization and stretching-strengthening exercises on the improvement of balance in these patients. Materials & Methods: Thirty three females with FHP were randomized into three groups of stabilization training, stretching-strengthening and control. The degree of FHP was measured using plumb line and the crania-vertebral angle. Balance tests performed in three different standing conditions on a force platform. The subjects were evaluated after 6 weeks training and 1 month follow-up by repeated measure ANOVA and T-test through SPSS software. Results: Balance parameters in both stretching-strengthening and control groups showed no significant changes (P>0.05 while in the stabilization group, significant decrease in displacement and velocity of center of pressure were seen under conditions of double-leg, eyes-open, foam-surface and single-leg, eyes-closed, rigid-surface (P0.05. Conclusion: In the conditions of standing that visual and proprioception information from plantar region of foot is challenged, stabilization exercises lead to more balance improvement than stretching-strengthening exercises.

  5. Chiropractic manipulative therapy of the thoracic spine in combination with stretch and strengthening exercises, in improving postural kyphosis in woman

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    Kim Castello Branco

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: The study showed that all three treatment protocols for Groups 1, 2, and 3 were effective. However, Group 1 had not shown a great improvement in their postural kyphosis, Group 3 had shown a relatively good improvement in their posture, while Group 2 had shown the best results with regards to improvement of the participants' posture. Therefore, in conclusion, Groups 2 and 3 treatment protocols can be used effectively to treat postural kyphosis but Group 2's treatment protocol, consisting of chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy to the thoracic spine in combination with stretch and strengthening exercises, will yield the best results.

  6. The Effect of a Stretching- Strengthening Exercise Program on Decreasing Pain Index on Workers with Musculoskeletal Complaints

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    AR Ashraf

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Musculoskeletal disorders are the leading cause of disability among people during working years which impose high expenses on the society in different aspects. this study was conducted to assess the effect of a stretching- strengthening exercise program on decreasing pain index on workers with musculoskeletal complaints. Materials & Methods: This quasi-experimental study was done on cleaning unit workers in one of the factories producing hygiene instruments in Shiraz in 2006. All the fifty four employees were considered in our study. First, all workers were evaluated by the physiatrist under complete musculoskeletal examination and pain intensity was assessed by VAS and BPI indices. After 3 months, to confirm the chronicity of symptoms, the second examination was done and then exercise program was recommended for 3 months. The collected results were analyzed by SPSS software and non-parametric Wilcoxon test. Results: The primary mean of the VAS index was 5.00±2.27cm while after 3 months it was raised to 5.32±2.76 cm and reduced to 1.98±2.07 after doing exercise program, which is a significant decline (p< 0.001. Mean of different indices of BPI showed significant decrease after completing exercise program (p< 0.001. Conclusion: Doing an exercise program based on type of work, and availability of facilities in work environment is effective in decreasing musculoskeletal complaints as a primary cause of disability among workers.

  7. Comparison of the effects of knee and hip and single knee muscles strengthening/ stretching exercises on pain intensity and function in athletes with patellofemoral pain syndrome

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    Vahid Mazloum

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS is a common musculoskeletal condition among athletes. The evidence emphasizes on the importance of hip musculature strengthening exercises for such patients. Objective: To investigate the effects of strengthening-stretching knee muscles exercises and hip posterolateral musculature exercises in athletes with PFPS. Methods: In this clinical trial, 28 athletes with age average of 22.7±2.4 years with PFPS were allocated into conventional knee muscles exercises (CKME (n=14 and posterolateral hip muscles exercises (PHME (n=14. The subjects of both groups performed the supervised exercise protocols in 12 sessions. The Visual Analogue Scale and 6-minute walking tests were administrated respectively to evaluate pain intensity and function. The data were analyzed using Shapiro-wilk test, Independent-sample t test, and Repeated Measure ANOVA test. Findings: Demographic, pain intensity, and physical function data were similar between groups at baseline. Both groups significantly improved in pain intensity and function following a 4-week exercise program. Additionally, the athletes in PHME group had higher level of decreased pain intensity and improved function in follow-up assessment than the subjects in CKME group. Conclusion: Using hip posterolateral musculature exercises in addition to the knee conventional exercises is more effective for athletes with PFPS.

  8. Strengthening and stretching for rheumatoid arthritis of the hand (SARAH: design of a randomised controlled trial of a hand and upper limb exercise intervention - ISRCTN89936343

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    Adams Jo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA commonly affects the hands and wrists with inflammation, deformity, pain, weakness and restricted mobility leading to reduced function. The effectiveness of exercise for RA hands is uncertain, although evidence from small scale studies is promising. The Strengthening And Stretching for Rheumatoid Arthritis of the Hand (SARAH trial is a pragmatic, multi-centre randomised controlled trial evaluating the clinical and cost effectiveness of adding an optimised exercise programme for hands and upper limbs to best practice usual care for patients with RA. Methods/design 480 participants with problematic RA hands will be recruited through 17 NHS trusts. Treatments will be provided by physiotherapists and occupational therapists. Participants will be individually randomised to receive either best practice usual care (joint protection advice, general exercise advice, functional splinting and assistive devices or best practice usual care supplemented with an individualised exercise programme of strengthening and stretching exercises. The study assessors will be blinded to treatment allocation and will follow participants up at four and 12 months. The primary outcome measure is the Hand function subscale of the Michigan Hand Outcome Questionnaire, and secondary outcomes include hand and wrist impairment measures, quality of life, and resource use. Economic and qualitative studies will also be carried out in parallel. Discussion This paper describes the design and development of a trial protocol of a complex intervention study based in therapy out-patient departments. The findings will provide evidence to support or refute the use of an optimised exercise programme for RA of the hand in addition to best practice usual care. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN89936343

  9. Concentric and eccentric time-under-tension during strengthening exercises: Validity and reliability of stretch-sensor recordings from an elastic exercise-band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathleff, Michael Skovdal; Thorborg, Kristian; Bandholm, Thomas Quaade

    2013-01-01

    Total, single repetition and contraction-phase specific (concentric and eccentric) time-under-tension (TUT) are important exercise-descriptors, as they are linked to the physiological and clinical response in exercise and rehabilitation....

  10. Prevention: Exercise

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    Full Text Available ... Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise Cervical Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly ... Committee Exercise Committee Core Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on ...

  11. Bruxism: Is There an Indication for Muscle-Stretching Exercises?

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    Gouw, Simone; de Wijer, Anton; Creugers, Nico Hj; Kalaykova, Stanimira I

    Bruxism is a common phenomenon involving repetitive activation of the masticatory muscles. Muscle-stretching exercises are a recommended part of several international guidelines for musculoskeletal disorders and may be effective in management of the jaw muscle activity that gives rise to bruxism. However, most studies of muscle-stretching exercises have mainly focused on their influence on performance (eg, range of motion, coordination, and muscle strength) of the limb or trunk muscles of healthy individuals or individuals with sports-related injuries. Very few have investigated stretching of the human masticatory muscles and none muscle-stretching exercises in the management of (sleep) bruxism. This article reviews the literature on muscle-stretching exercises and their potential role in the management of sleep bruxism or its consequences in the musculoskeletal system.

  12. Enhanced Age Strengthening of Mg-Nd-Zn-Zr Alloy via Pre-Stretching

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    Erjun Guo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pre-stretching was carried out to modify the microstructure of Mg-Nd-Zn-Zr alloy to enhance its age strengthening. The results indicated that more heterogeneous nucleation sites can be provided by the high density of dislocations caused by the plastic pre-stretching deformation, as well as speeding up the growth rate of precipitates. Comparison of microstructure in non-pre-stretched specimens after artificial aging showed that pre-stretched specimens exhibited a higher number density of precipitates. The fine and coarse plate-shaped precipitates were found in the matrix. Due to an increase in the number density of precipitates, the dislocation slipping during the deformation process is effectively hindered, and the matrix is strengthened. The yield strength stabilizes at 4% pre-stretching condition, and then the evolution is stable within the error bars. The 8% pre-stretched specimens can achieve an ultimate tensile strength of 297 MPa. However, further pre-stretching strains after 8% cannot supply any increase in strength. Tensile fracture surfaces of specimens subjected to pre-stretching strain mainly exhibit a trans-granular cleavage fracture. This work indicated that a small amount of pre-stretching strain can further increase strength of alloy and also effectively enhance the formation of precipitates, which can expand the application fields of this alloy.

  13. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... provide well-rounded core strengthening programs. Simple exercises can be done at home as well. Some specific ... benefit from this exercise... Sagittal Core Strengthening You can stretch and strengthen the low back muscles that ...

  14. Muscle damage induced by stretch-shortening cycle exercise.

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    Kyröläinen, H; Takala, T E; Komi, P V

    1998-03-01

    Strenuous stretch-shortening cycle exercise was used as a model to study the leakage of proteins from skeletal muscle. The analysis included serum levels of creatine kinase (S-CK), myoglobin (S-Mb), and carbonic anhydrase (S-CA III). Blood samples from power- (N=11) and endurance-trained (N=10) athletes were collected before, 0, and 2 h after the exercise, which consisted of a total of 400 jumps. The levels of all determined myocellular proteins increased immediately after the exercise (P exercise, and the ratio of S-CA III and S-Mb decreased (P recruitment order of motor units, and/or differences in training background.

  15. LABOR GYMNASTICS: STRETCHING EXERCISE X FLEXIONAMENT

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    Jacqueline Amorin Anchieta Borges da Silva, Isabel Cristina Taranto e Fernanda Piasecki

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there are many opportunities for the society to live a healthful and long life. At the same time, never people was so sedentary and without harmony. Without a healthy body and with “an occupied mind” the human loses exactly what more it needs: the disposal to produce, to coexist and to live a good life. In this context, the present research aimed to revise some terms related to labor gymnastics, which is focused in the prevention of risks related to hours of working and in the reduction of muscular tension levels that may be originated during a day of work. Thus, the present study will make a differentiation between the use of stretching and flexionament during labor gymnastic sessions.

  16. Prevention: Exercise

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    Full Text Available ... Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise Cervical Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy ...

  17. Immediate effects of different types of stretching exercises on badminton jump smash.

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    Jang, Hwi S; Kim, Daeho; Park, Jihong

    2018-01-01

    Since different types of stretching exercises may alter athletic performance, we compared the effects of three types of stretching exercises on badminton jump smash. Sixteen male collegiate badminton players performed one of three different stretching exercises in a counterbalanced order on different days. Static stretching had seven typical stretches, while dynamic stretching involved nine dynamic movements, and resistance dynamic stretching was performed with weighted vests and dumbbells. Before and after each stretching exercise, subjects performed 20 trials of jump smashes. Dependent measurements were the jump heights during jump smashes, velocities of jump-smashed shuttlecocks, and drop point of jump-smashed shuttlecocks. To test the effects of each stretching exercise, we performed mixed model ANOVAs and calculated between-time effect sizes (ES). Each stretching exercise improved the jump heights during jump smashes (type main effect: F(2,75)=1.19, P=0.31; static stretching: 22.1%, Pjump-smashed shuttlecocks (type main effect: F(2,75)=2.18, P=0.12; static stretching: 5.7%, P=0.61, ES=0.39; dynamic stretching: 3.4%, P=0.94, ES=0.28; resistance dynamic stretching: 6%, P=0.50, ES=0.66). However, there were no differences among the stretching exercises for any measurement. The drop point of jump-smashed shuttlecocks did not change (interaction: F(2,75)=0.88, P=0.42). All stretching exercises improved badminton jump smash performance, but we could not determine the best protocol. Since badminton requires high-speed movement and explosive force, we suggest performing dynamic stretching or resistance dynamic stretching.

  18. From Static Stretching to Dynamic Exercises: Changing the Warm-Up Paradigm

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    Young, Shawna

    2010-01-01

    In the United States, pre-exercise static stretching seems to have become common practice and routine. However, research suggests that it is time for a paradigm shift--that pre-exercise static stretching be replaced with dynamic warm-up exercises. Research indicates that a dynamic warm-up elevates body temperature, decreases muscle and joint…

  19. Stretching

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... after a workout. Stretching still can be a beneficial activity after you have sufficiently warmed up. The ... light aerobic activity and stretching. If you're running at a quick pace, you can slow down ...

  20. [Current trends in the effects of stretching: application to physical exercise in the workplace].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Yasumasa; Ohta, Masanori; Yamato, Hiroshi

    2011-09-01

    A review of the Survey on the State of Employees' Health by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (2008) shows that the most commonly implemented aspect as an activity of worksite health promotion is "Health counseling", and the second is "Workplace physical exercise." Physical exercise, "Taiso", is acceptable and sustainable for workers, as it is easy to do in a group or alone. Various modes of stretching are implemented for workplace physical exercise. However, articles suggesting negative or contradictory effects of stretching have increased in recent years. Several review articles have revealed that static stretching may induce impairments of muscle power performance and no stretching will prevent or reduce muscle soreness after exercise. There are various aims of workplace physical exercise, so we have to consider the situational method when we apply stretching to occupational health.

  1. Strengthening physical self-perceptions through exercise.

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    Caruso, C M; Gill, D L

    1992-12-01

    Two studies examined the effects of physical activity/exercise on physical self-perceptions, self-efficacy, body satisfaction, fitness and relationships among these variables. In study 1, 34 female undergraduates participated in a 10-week exercise/activity program. Participants were selected from existing classes forming a weight training, aerobic exercise and activity control group. Results revealed changes in physical self-perceptions, strength, and body composition over the 10-weeks. Improvements in physical self-perceptions and fitness occurred independent of exercise/activity group. Groups differed in the perceived importance attached to physical self-perceptions. Correlations among the measures revealed relationships among physical self-perceptions, body satisfaction, global self-esteem, and fitness. In study 2, we hypothesized that weight training would have a greater effect on physical self-perceptions and body image perceptions than physical education activity classes. Thirty-seven males and 28 females were selected from existing classes forming a weight training and activity group. Results revealed no significant changes in physical self-perceptions, body image, or global self-esteem over the 10-week program, while strength and physical self-efficacy improved. Correlations among measures from both studies offer preliminary support for Sonstroem and Morgan's model for the examination of self-esteem in exercise settings.

  2. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic ... Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain ...

  3. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility ... Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics Book RESOURCES Patient Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories ...

  4. Barriers to performing stretching exercises among Korean-Chinese female migrant workers in Korea.

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    Lee, Hyeonkyeong; Wilbur, JoEllen; Chae, Duckhee; Lee, Kyongeun; Lee, Meenhye

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the barriers to performing stretching exercise experienced by Korean-Chinese female migrant workers during a community-based 12-week stretching exercise intervention trial. Qualitative secondary data analysis was conducted using telephone counseling interview transcripts from 27 middle-aged, Korean-Chinese migrant women workers. A semistructured interview question asking barriers to performing stretching exercise was given to women who did not adhere to recommended stretching exercise. During the 12-week home-based stretching exercise intervention trial, six telephone calls were made to participants biweekly to elicit barriers to performing stretching exercise. Directed content analysis approach was utilized using three barrier categories: intrapersonal, interpersonal, and work-related environmental factors based on the ecological model. Participants experienced an average of 2.5 barriers during the study period. Intrapersonal barriers included lack of time and lack of motivation, and interpersonal barriers included no family to provide support and also a feeling resistance from coworkers. Work-related environmental barriers included frequent job changes, long working hours, lack of rest time, and unpredictable job demands. The findings highlight that migrant workers in Korea face unique work-related difficulties which present barriers to exercise. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. STRETCHING EXERCISES - EFFECT ON PASSIVE EXTENSIBILITY AND STIFFNESS IN SHORT HAMSTRINGS OF HEALTHY-SUBJECTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HALBERTSMA, JPK; GOEKEN, LNH

    Passive muscle stretch tests are common practice in physical therapy and rehabilitation medicine. However, the effects of stretching exercises are not well known. With an instrumental straight-leg-raising set-up the extensibility, stiffness, and electromyographic activity of the hamstring muscles

  6. THE EFFECT OF ADDING SPECIFIC HIP STRENGTHENING EXERCISES TO CONVENTIONAL KNEE EXERCISES IN PATIENTS WITH PATELLO FEMORAL PAIN SYNDROME

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    Raghav Monika

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patello femoral pain Syndrome is an over use injury and one of the commonest problems seen in adolescents who are physically active. Till date no study has been done comparing the effect of adding specific hip strengthening exercises (gluteus medius, gluteus maximus & lateral rotators to conventional exercises in patients with Patello femoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS while minimizing the effect of minimizing the activation of tensor fascia lata (TFL. Methods: 30 subjects were randomly allocated using convenience random sampling into 2 Groups Group A and Group B with 15 subjects in each group. Readings were taken for Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS, Manual Muscle Testing (MMT for hip abductors, extensors and external rotators muscles quadriceps and hamstrings, and Anterior Knee Pain Scale (AKPS on baseline and at the end of 4th week. Results: Analysis of the data collected for NPRS, AKPS and MMT of Quadriceps, Hamstrings, Hip Abductors and Hip External Rotators of 30 subjects was done by statistical analysis tests using STATA and software version 11.2. Although improvement was seen in both the groups but group B improved better compared to group A. Conclusion: Group B treatment protocol i.e. Hip specific strengthening (gluteus medius and gluteus maximus in addition to conventional treatment in patients with patello-femoral pain syndrome, was found to be effective in reducing pain, improving functional status and increasing muscle strength than Group A treatment protocol i.e. Knee strengthening and stretching.

  7. Randomized Trial of Modified Stretching Exercise Program for Menstrual Low Back Pain.

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    Chen, Huei-Mein; Hu, Hsou-Mei

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of a modified stretching exercise program on young women with menstrual low back pain. Overall, 127 young women were randomly assigned to the experimental ( n = 63) and control ( n = 64) groups. The experimental group followed the modified stretching exercise program, whereas the control group performed their usual activities. At 1, 4, 8, and 12 months, the experimental group had significantly lower scores on the visual analog scale for pain (95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.73, 1.96]; p < .05) and the Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire than the control group (95% CI = [0.68, 2.03]; p < .001). At 12 months, the experimental group showed significantly higher exercise self-efficacy than the control group (95% CI = [-6.87, 0.62]; p = .003). These findings can be used to enhance self-care capabilities by using the modified stretching exercise program for young women with menstrual low back pain.

  8. Feasibility of ballistic strengthening exercises in neurologic rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gavin; Clark, Ross A; Hansson, Jessica; Paterson, Kade

    2014-09-01

    Conventional methods for strength training in neurologic rehabilitation are not task specific for walking. Ballistic strength training was developed to improve the functional transfer of strength training; however, no research has investigated this in neurologic populations. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility of applying ballistic principles to conventional leg strengthening exercises in individuals with mobility limitations as a result of neurologic injuries. Eleven individuals with neurologic injuries completed seated and reclined leg press using conventional and ballistic techniques. A 2 × 2 repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to compare power measures (peak movement height and peak velocity) between exercises and conditions. Peak jump velocity and peak jump height were greater when using the ballistic jump technique rather than the conventional concentric technique (P ballistic principles was associated with increased peak height and peak velocities.

  9. The Effectiveness of an Additional Stretching Exercise Program in Improving Flexibility Level among Preschool Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wee Akina Sia Seng; Rengasamy, Shabeshan A/L; Raju, Subramaniam A/L

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of a two minutes' additional stretching exercise program in a 30 minutes games teaching lesson in improving the flexibility level of 6 year old preschool boys (M = 5.92, SD = 0.27) in a preschool in Malaysia. Fifty (50) preschool boys were selected for the study based on the intact sampling…

  10. Effects of acute static, ballistic, and PNF stretching exercise on the muscle and tendon tissue properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, A; Stafilidis, S; Tilp, M

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of a single static, ballistic, or proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching exercise on the various muscle-tendon parameters of the lower leg and to detect possible differences in the effects between the methods. Volunteers (n = 122) were randomly divided into static, ballistic, and PNF stretching groups and a control group. Before and after the 4 × 30 s stretching intervention, we determined the maximum dorsiflexion range of motion (RoM) with the corresponding fascicle length and pennation angle of the gastrocnemius medialis. Passive resistive torque (PRT) and maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) were measured with a dynamometer. Observation of muscle-tendon junction (MTJ) displacement with ultrasound allowed us to determine the length changes in the tendon and muscle, respectively, and hence to calculate stiffness. Although RoM increased (static: +4.3%, ballistic: +4.5%, PNF: +3.5%), PRT (static: -11.4%, ballistic: -11.5%, PNF: -13,7%), muscle stiffness (static: -13.1%, ballistic: -20.3%, PNF: -20.2%), and muscle-tendon stiffness (static: -11.3%, ballistic: -10.5%, PNF: -13.7%) decreased significantly in all the stretching groups. Only in the PNF stretching group, the pennation angle in the stretched position (-4.2%) and plantar flexor MVC (-4.6%) decreased significantly. Multivariate analysis showed no clinically relevant difference between the stretching groups. The increase in RoM and the decrease in PRT and muscle-tendon stiffness could be explained by more compliant muscle tissue following a single static, ballistic, or PNF stretching exercise. © 2017 The Authors Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science In Sports Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Effectiveness of Plantar Fascia-Specific Stretching Exercises in Plantar Fasciitis

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    Devrim Özer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Plantar fasciitis (PF is a painful and disabling disease that affects the quality of life and daily activities of patients and it is the most common cause of heel pain in adults. In primary treatment, conservative treatment is suggested and different conservative options are described in the literature. In our study, we evaluated the efficacy of plantar fascia-specific stretching exercises in the treatment of PF. Methods: Twenty-nine feet - 21 patients with the mean age of 49.3 years were included in the study. The mean length of follow-up was 19.8 months and the mean length of exercise period was 4.94 months. Non-weight bearing plantar fascia-specific stretching exercise was done twice daily, for 10 times at each session. In addition to exercises, silicone heel pad and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID were added. Visual analog scale (VAS was used for pain evaluation. Results: Full recovery detected in 15 feet in 10 patients (52% and a decrease in pain was seen in 10 feet in 8 patients (34%. There was no response in 4 feet in 3 patients (14%. There was statistically significant difference between pre-treatment and post-treatment visual analog scale scores (p=0.0001. Conclusion: Plantar fascia-specific stretching exercise is an effective treatment option in PF.

  12. Effect of Kinesiotaping and Stretching Exercise on Forward Shoulder Angle in Females with Rounded Shoulder Posture

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    Arghavan Hajibashi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rounded shoulder posture is a common abnormal posture in upper quarter. Kinesiotape is a new intervention that recently used in rehabilitation. There are no studies have examined the effect of kinesiotape on rounded shoulder posture. Therefore the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of scapular kinesiotaping and pectoralis minor stretching exercise on forward shoulder angle in female subjects with rounded shoulder posture. Methods: Twenty female students aged between 18 to 25 years old with rounded shoulder posture participated in this study. Then, the subjects were randomly and equally assigned to two groups: the stretch group and the stretch plus kinesiotape group. Both groups were trained for doing home exercise to stretch Pectoralis minor bilaterally for two weeks. Kinesiotape group received kinesiotape on scapular area additionally. Forward shoulder angle was measured in four sessions including pre-intervention (first session, immediately after the first intervention (second session, fourth day (third session and at the end of two weeks (fourth session. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA (4×2 was used for data analysis. Results: kinesiotape group showed significant within-group decrease in forward shoulder angle between first session with three other sessions (P≤0.05.There was no significant within-group difference in stretch group and between groups (P=0.20 forward shoulder angle-by-group interaction in measurement sessions was significantly different (P=0.02 Conclusion: scapular kinesiotaping along with pectoralis minor stretching exercise improved rounded shoulder posture in subjects of the present study. kinesiotape is suggested as a complem

  13. COMPARATIVE EFFECT OF STATIC AND DYNAMIC STRETCHING EXERCISE TO IMPROVE FLEXIBILITY OF HAMSTRING MUSCLES AMONG NON ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibi Paul

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stretching exercises have been routinely used in persons with hamstring tightness and athletes to increase flexibility of muscle and to reduce joint injuries. Many studies have reported effect of static and dynamic stretching on flexibility of this muscle. Finding the best method to improve flexibility of hamstring muscle is important for athletes and individuals to reduce their injuries. Objective of the study was to find out the effect of static stretching exercise and dynamic stretching exercise on flexibility of hamstring muscle and also to compare the effect of static and dynamic stretching exercise on flexibility of hamstring muscle. Methods: This was a comparative experimental study with seventy four female healthy subjects from physiotherapy department of KPJ Healthcare University College, Malaysia. Convenient sampling method used to select the samples. The subjects were selected by inclusion criteria and randomly divided equally in to two with 37 subjects in each group. Static stretching exercise and dynamic stretching exercise were given as intervention program for four weeks respectively for experimental and control group. Pre and post data of restricted range of movement for knee extension was measured using goniometry and documented separately for both group. Result: In experimental and control group, pre-post statistical analysis found significant effect in increase of hamstring flexibility with P<0.0001, for right and left side. Comparative study between experimental and control group found that static stretching exercise have significant effect in increase of hamstring flexibility for right and left side with P<0.04. Conclusion: This study concluded that static stretching exercise is more effective to improve hamstring flexibility compared to dynamic stretching exercise.

  14. The effects of two methods of reflexology and stretching exercises on the severity of restless leg syndrome among hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahgholian, Nahid; Jazi, Shahrzad Khojandi; Karimian, Jahangir; Valiani, Mahboubeh

    2016-01-01

    Restless leg syndrome prevalence is high among the patients undergoing hemodialysis. Due to several side effects of medicational treatments, the patients prefer non-medicational methods. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of two methods of reflexology and stretching exercises on the severity of restless leg syndrome among patients undergoing hemodialysis. This study is a randomized clinical trial that was done on 90 qualified patients undergoing hemodialysis in selected hospitals of Isfahan, who were diagnosed with restless leg syndrome through standard restless leg syndrome questionnaire. They were randomly assigned by random number table to three groups: Reflexology, stretching exercises, and control groups through random allocation. Foot reflexology and stretching exercises were conducted three times a week for 30-40 min within straight 4 weeks. Data analysis was performed by SPSS version 18 using descriptive and inferential statistical analyses [one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), paired t-test, and least significant difference (LSD) post hoc test]. There was a significant difference in the mean scores of restless leg syndrome severity between reflexology and stretching exercises groups, compared to control (P reflexology and stretching exercises groups compared to the control group (P reflexology massage and stretching exercises groups. Our obtained results showed that reflexology and stretching exercises can reduce the severity of restless leg syndrome. These two methods of treatment are recommended to the patients.

  15. Effect of Upper-Extremity Strengthening Exercises on the Lumbar Strength, Disability and Pain of Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalay, Erdem; Akova, Bedrettin; Gür, Hakan; Sekir, Ufuk

    2017-12-01

    The present study aimed to analyze the impacts of a low back rehabilitation program accompanied with neck, shoulder and upper back exercises on pain, disability, and physical characteristics of patients with chronic low back pain. Twenty sedentary male patients with chronic low back pain participated in the study on a voluntary basis. The patients were randomly allocated into two groups: a conventional low back exercise group (CE) and a supported exercise group (SE; CE plus upper back, neck, and shoulder exercises). The Modified Oswestry Disability Questionnaire (MODQ) was used to evaluate the disability status and the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) was used to identify the pain states of the patients. In addition, neck, lumbar and shoulder isokinetic and isometric strengths of the patients were evaluated. The CE group performed lumbar stretching, mobilization and stabilization exercises in addition to low-back and abdominal isometric and concentric strengthening exercises. The SE group performed static stretching and isotonic exercises for the neck, upper-back, and shoulder muscles, in addition to the exercises performed in CE group. The exercises were implemented 3 days a week for 6 weeks in both groups. Following the 6-week exercise periods in both groups, statistically significant (p disability. With respect to the levels of pain and disability, the improvements observed in the SE group was significantly (p disability in patients with chronic low back pain more prominently than conventional low back exercises.

  16. Cognitive health benefits of strengthening exercise for community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Nimon, Joseph P; Westen, Sarah C

    2010-11-01

    While aerobic exercise has been linked to improved performance on cognitive tasks of executive functioning among older adults, not all older adults can avail themselves of such exercise due to physical limitations. In this study, community-dwelling older adults were evaluated on tasks of executive functioning before and after a month-long strengthening, nonaerobic exercise program. A total of 16 participants who engaged in such exercise showed significantly improved scores on Digits Backward and Stroop C tasks when compared to 16 participants who were on an exercise waiting list. Positive benefits of strengthening exercise on cognition are supported. Additional research is needed to clarify the generalizability of these findings.

  17. A Study of Using Massage Therapy Accompanied with Stretching Exercise for Rehabilitation of Mammary Gland Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Pin; Chong, Yuping; Zou, Huagang; Chen, Xiangxian

    2016-01-01

    To apply massage therapy accompanied with stretching exercises for treatment of mammary gland hyperplasia, evaluate the clinical outcome in patients, and estimate the therapy as a novel treatment method for mammary hyperplasia. 28 adult female patients were selected and treated with massage therapy and stretching exercises focusing on skeleton muscles of chest, abdomen, and axilla. The mammary gland oxyhemoglobin (OxyHb) and deoxyhemoglobin (DeoxyHb) levels were detected before and after treatment after 15, 30, and 45 days. In this cohort, pretreatment OxyHb (mean ± SD) is 1.32 ± 0.14 (medium-high), and DeoxyHb is 0.87 ± 0.13 (normal). All patients were clinically diagnosed with benign mammary gland hyperplasia and mastitis. The posttreatment OxyHb levels are 1.23 ± 0.09 (normal-medium, 15-day), 1.16 ± 0.08 (normal, 30-day), and 1.05 ± 0.04 (normal, 45-day), and DeoxyHb levels are 0.90 ± 0.11 (normal, 15-day), 0.94 ± 0.18 (normal, 30-day), and 0.98 ± 0.12 (normal, 45-day). Patients were diagnosed with decreased hyperplasia 15 and 30 days after treatment and with no symptom of hyperplasia in mammary gland 45 days after treatment. Mammary gland hyperplasia is closely correlated with pathological changes of skeletal muscles and could be significantly improved by massage therapy and stretching exercises targeting neighboring skeletal muscles.

  18. Hemodynamic responses during and after multiple sets of stretching exercises performed with and without the Valsalva maneuver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Tainah P; Farinatti, Paulo T V; Rubini, Ercole C; Silva, Elirez B; Monteiro, Walace D

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the acute hemodynamic responses to multiple sets of passive stretching exercises performed with and without the Valsalva maneuver. Fifteen healthy men aged 21 to 29 years with poor flexibility performed stretching protocols comprising 10 sets of maximal passive unilateral hip flexion, sustained for 30 seconds with equal intervals between sets. Protocols without and with the Valsalva maneuver were applied in a random counterbalanced order, separated by 48-hour intervals. Hemodynamic responses were measured by photoplethysmography pre-exercise, during the stretching sets, and post-exercise. The effects of stretching sets on systolic and diastolic blood pressure were cumulative until the fourth set in protocols performed with and without the Valsalva maneuver. The heart rate and rate pressure product increased in both protocols, but no additive effect was observed due to the number of sets. Hemodynamic responses were always higher when stretching was performed with the Valsalva maneuver, causing an additional elevation in the rate pressure product. Multiple sets of unilateral hip flexion stretching significantly increased blood pressure, heart rate, and rate pressure product values. A cumulative effect of the number of sets occurred only for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, at least in the initial sets of the stretching protocols. The performance of the Valsalva maneuver intensified all hemodynamic responses, which resulted in significant increases in cardiac work during stretching exercises.

  19. Acute effect of passive rest intervals and stretching exercise on multiple set performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Claudio do Rosário Souza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2009v11n4p435 The objective of this study was to determine the acute effect of passive rest intervals and static stretching between resistance exercise sets on the number of maximal repetitions (RM, rating of perceived exertion (RPE, and cumulative number of repetitions in multiple sets with a workload adjusted by the 8RM test. Fourteen trained male subjects (24.4 ± 2.1 years; 79.1 ± 7.1 kg; 175.4 ± 5.6 cm were studied. On the first two visits, the subjects were submitted to the test and 8RM re-test using chest press (CP and squat (SQ exercises. On the two subsequent visits, all subjects were randomly assigned to two experimental situations: a 8RM test with a passive rest interval (PI; b 8RM test with static stretching (SS. The subjects performed three sets of CP and SQ, intercalated with 2 minutes of passive rest or 30 seconds of static stretching. ANOVA revealed a significant decrease (p < 0.05 in the second (PI = 6 ± 0.8 x SS = 5.2 ± 1.0 repetitions and third (PI = 4.1 ± 0.8 X SS = 3.3 ± 0.6 repetitions sets for CP and only in the third set (PI = 4.9 ± 0.8 X SS = 4.2 ± 1.0 repetitions for SQ. For RPE, the Wilcoxon test showed significant differences (p < 0.05 between all sets for CP and SQ. For the cumulative number of repetitions, the paired t-test revealed a significant decrease (p < 0.05 for CP (PI = 18.3 ± 1.5 X SS = 16.8 ± 1.6 repetitions. These results indicate that static stretching between resistance exercise sets decreases 8RM test performance.

  20. Exercise and quality of life: strengthening the connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Eileen

    2009-02-01

    Exercise improves quality of life (QOL) in people with cancer. Most oncology healthcare providers recognize the statement to be true because the research literature provides strong support for the physical and psychological benefits of exercise. Because the terms exercise, QOL, and people with cancer have different meanings, the contextual connections in which they are used are important to understanding the relationship between exercise and QOL in people with cancer. This article explores the links between exercise and QOL in people with cancer and examines issues that impact the development, implementation, and evaluation of exercise programs for people with cancer. Issues related to exercise goal development, exercise prescription, exercise testing, exercise adherence, and methods to evaluate the efficacy of exercise in relation to QOL are discussed.

  1. COMPARISON OF EFFECTS OF ABDOMINAL STRETCHING EXERCISE AND COLD COMPRESS THERAPY ON MENSTRUAL PAIN INTENSITY IN TEENAGE GIRLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desta Ayu Cahya Rosyida

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pain during menstruation is not uncommon, especially in young women, which has an impact on their life activities. Objective: To examine the effect of abdominal stretching exercise and cold compress therapy on decreasing intensity of menstrual pain in teenage girls at SMK Bakti Indonesia Medika. Design: A Quasy Experimental Study with two group comparison pretest-postest design. There were 46 respondents selected in this study by consecutive sampling that consisted of 23 samples in the abdominal stretching exercise group and 23 samples in the cold compress group. The menstrual pain was measured using VAS (visual analog scale. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney, Chi-Square, and Wilcoxon test. Results: Findings showed that the mean of menstrual pain before intervention in the abdominal stretching exercise was 7.04 and in the cold compress therapy was 6.74 with p-value 0.211 (<0.05, which indicated that there was no mean difference of pain between both groups. However, after intervention, the menstrual pain was reduced from 7.04 to 1.91 (5.09 difference in the abdominal stretching exercise group; and from 6.74 to 5.52 (1.22 difference in the cold compress group with p-value 0.000 (<0.05, which indicated that there was statistically significant difference of menstrual pain before and after intervention, both abdominal stretching exercise and cold compress therapy. Conclusion: There were statistically significant effects of abdominal stretching exercise and cold compress therapy on menstrual pain in teenage girls. The abdominal stretching exercise is more effective than cold compress therapy in reducing menstrual pain intensity. Thus, it is suggested that abdominal stretching exercise can be an alternative choice of management of dysmenorrhea in teenage girls, and can be a part of subject in the education as non-pharmacological medicine.

  2. Exercise and Quality of Life: Strengthening the Connections

    OpenAIRE

    Hacker, Eileen

    2009-01-01

    Exercise improves quality of life (QOL) in people with cancer. Most oncology healthcare providers recognize the statement to be true because the research literature provides strong support for the physical and psychological benefits of exercise. Because the terms exercise, QOL, and people with cancer have different meanings, the contextual connections in which they are used are important to understanding the relationship between exercise and QOL in people with cancer. This article explores th...

  3. A Study of Using Massage Therapy Accompanied with Stretching Exercise for Rehabilitation of Mammary Gland Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin Lv

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To apply massage therapy accompanied with stretching exercises for treatment of mammary gland hyperplasia, evaluate the clinical outcome in patients, and estimate the therapy as a novel treatment method for mammary hyperplasia. Methods. 28 adult female patients were selected and treated with massage therapy and stretching exercises focusing on skeleton muscles of chest, abdomen, and axilla. The mammary gland oxyhemoglobin (OxyHb and deoxyhemoglobin (DeoxyHb levels were detected before and after treatment after 15, 30, and 45 days. Results. In this cohort, pretreatment OxyHb (mean ± SD is 1.32±0.14 (medium-high, and DeoxyHb is 0.87±0.13 (normal. All patients were clinically diagnosed with benign mammary gland hyperplasia and mastitis. The posttreatment OxyHb levels are 1.23±0.09 (normal-medium, 15-day, 1.16±0.08 (normal, 30-day, and 1.05±0.04 (normal, 45-day, and DeoxyHb levels are 0.90±0.11 (normal, 15-day, 0.94±0.18 (normal, 30-day, and 0.98±0.12 (normal, 45-day. Patients were diagnosed with decreased hyperplasia 15 and 30 days after treatment and with no symptom of hyperplasia in mammary gland 45 days after treatment. Conclusion. Mammary gland hyperplasia is closely correlated with pathological changes of skeletal muscles and could be significantly improved by massage therapy and stretching exercises targeting neighboring skeletal muscles.

  4. The effects of two methods of reflexology and stretching exercises on the severity of restless leg syndrome among hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Shahgholian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Restless leg syndrome prevalence is high among the patients undergoing hemodialysis. Due to several side effects of medicational treatments, the patients prefer non-medicational methods. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of two methods of reflexology and stretching exercises on the severity of restless leg syndrome among patients undergoing hemodialysis. Materials and Methods: This study is a randomized clinical trial that was done on 90 qualified patients undergoing hemodialysis in selected hospitals of Isfahan, who were diagnosed with restless leg syndrome through standard restless leg syndrome questionnaire. They were randomly assigned by random number table to three groups: Reflexology, stretching exercises, and control groups through random allocation. Foot reflexology and stretching exercises were conducted three times a week for 30–40 min within straight 4 weeks. Data analysis was performed by SPSS version 18 using descriptive and inferential statistical analyses [one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, paired t-test, and least significant difference (LSD post hoc test]. Results: There was a significant difference in the mean scores of restless leg syndrome severity between reflexology and stretching exercises groups, compared to control (P < 0.001, but there was no significant difference between the two study groups (P < 0.001. Changes in the mean score of restless leg syndrome severity were significantly higher in reflexology and stretching exercises groups compared to the control group (P < 0.001, but it showed no significant difference between reflexology massage and stretching exercises groups. Conclusions: Our obtained results showed that reflexology and stretching exercises can reduce the severity of restless leg syndrome. These two methods of treatment are recommended to the patients.

  5. Effect of Upper-Extremity Strengthening Exercises on the Lumbar Strength, Disability and Pain of Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Atalay, Bedrettin Akova, Hakan Gür, Ufuk Sekir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to analyze the impacts of a low back rehabilitation program accompanied with neck, shoulder and upper back exercises on pain, disability, and physical characteristics of patients with chronic low back pain. Twenty sedentary male patients with chronic low back pain participated in the study on a voluntary basis. The patients were randomly allocated into two groups: a conventional low back exercise group (CE and a supported exercise group (SE; CE plus upper back, neck, and shoulder exercises. The Modified Oswestry Disability Questionnaire (MODQ was used to evaluate the disability status and the Visual Analog Scale (VAS was used to identify the pain states of the patients. In addition, neck, lumbar and shoulder isokinetic and isometric strengths of the patients were evaluated. The CE group performed lumbar stretching, mobilization and stabilization exercises in addition to low-back and abdominal isometric and concentric strengthening exercises. The SE group performed static stretching and isotonic exercises for the neck, upper-back, and shoulder muscles, in addition to the exercises performed in CE group. The exercises were implemented 3 days a week for 6 weeks in both groups. Following the 6-week exercise periods in both groups, statistically significant (p < 0.01 improvements were observed in the patients’ levels of pain and the scores of MODQ reflecting an easing of disability. With respect to the levels of pain and disability, the improvements observed in the SE group was significantly (p < 0.01 greater than the improvement observed in the CE group. Based on the findings of this study, we can conclude that a low back exercise program used in combination with neck, shoulder and upper back exercises reduces the level of pain and disability in patients with chronic low back pain more prominently than conventional low back exercises.

  6. Perceived loading and muscle activity during hip strengthening exercises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Mikkel; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Thorborg, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    hip muscle activity during hip abduction and hip adduction exercises using elastic resistance and isotonic machines, using electromyography (EMG). METHODS: EMG activity was recorded from 11 muscles at the hip, thigh and trunk during hip adduction and hip abduction exercises in 16 untrained women......, using elastic resistance and isotonic exercise machines. These recordings were normalized to maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) EMG (nEMG). The exercises were performed at four levels of perceived loading reported using the Borg CR10: light (Borg ≤2), moderate (Borg >2-... (r =0.62±0.54). The abduction exercise performed with elastic resistance displayed significantly higher gluteus medius nEMG recruitment than the in machine exercise. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study show that the Borg CR10 scale can be a useful tool for estimating intensity levels during...

  7. Fatigue and muscle-tendon stiffness after stretch-shortening cycle and isometric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumi, Hechmi; Poumarat, Georges; Best, Thomas M; Martin, Alain; Fairclough, John; Benjamin, Mike

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare vertical jump performance after 2 different fatigue protocols. In the first protocol, subjects performed consecutive sets of 10 repetitions of stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) contractions. In the second protocol, successive sets of 10 repetitions of isometric contractions were performed for 10 s with the knee at 90 degrees of flexion. The exercises were stopped when the subjects failed to reach 50% of their maximum voluntary isometric contractions. Maximal isometric force and maximal concentric power were assessed by performing supine leg presses, squat jumps, and drop jumps. Surface EMG was used to determine changes in muscle activation before and after fatigue. In both groups, the fatigue exercises reduced voluntary isometric force, maximal concentric power, and drop jump performance. Kinematic data showed a decrease in knee muscle-tendon stiffness accompanied by a lengthened ground contact time. EMG analysis showed that the squat and drop jumps were performed similarly before and after the fatigue exercise for both groups. Although it was expected that the stiffness would decrease more after SSC than after isometric fatigue (as a result of a greater alteration of the reflex sensitivity SSC), our results showed that both protocols had a similar effect on knee muscle stiffness during jumping exercises. Both fatigue protocols induced muscle fatigue, and the decrease in jump performance was linked to a decrease in the strength and stiffness of the knee extensor muscles.

  8. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic ... Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back ... Patient Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories ...

  9. Team Size and Stretching-Exercise Effects on Simulated Chest Compression Performance and Exertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica C. Schoen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Investigators conducted a prospective experimental study to evaluate the effect of team size and recovery exercises on individual providers’ compression quality and exertion. Investigators hypothesized that 1 larger teams would perform higher quality compressions with less exertion per provider when compared to smaller teams; and 2 brief stretching and breathing exercises during rest periods would sustain compressor performance and mitigate fatigue. Methods: In Phase I, a volunteer cohort of pre-clinical medical students performed four minutes of continuous compressions on a Resusci-Anne manikin to gauge the spectrum of compressor performance in the subject population. Compression rate, depth, and chest recoil were measured. In Phase II, the highest-performing Phase I subjects were placed into 2-, 3-, and/or 4-compressor teams; 2-compressor teams were assigned either to control group (no recovery exercises or intervention group (recovery exercises during rest. All Phase II teams participated in 20-minute simulations with compressor rotation every two minutes. Investigators recorded compression quality and real-time heart rate data, and calculated caloric expenditure from contact heart rate monitor measurements using validated physiologic formulas. Results: Phase I subjects delivered compressions that were 24.9% (IQR1–3: [0.5%–74.1%] correct with a median rate of 112.0 (IQR1–3: [103.5–124.9] compressions per minute and depth of 47.2 (IQR1–3: [35.7–55.2] mm. In their first rotations, all Phase II subjects delivered compressions of similar quality and correctness (p=0.09. Bivariate analyses of 2-, 3-, and 4-compressor teams’ subject compression characteristics by subsequent rotation did not identify significant differences within or across teams. On multivariate analyses, only subjects in 2-compressor teams exhibited significantly lower compression rates (control subjects; p<0.01, diminished chest release (intervention

  10. Effectiveness of different exercises and stretching physiotherapy on pain and movement in patellofemoral pain syndrome: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyano, F Revelles; Valenza, M C; Martin, L Martin; Caballero, Y Castellote; Gonzalez-Jimenez, E; Demet, G Valenza

    2013-05-01

    To compare the effectiveness of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation combined with exercise, classic stretching physiotherapy intervention, and educational intervention at improving patient function and pain in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. Randomized, controlled, blind trial over four months. Urban population, Spain. Patients undergoing primary care for retropatellar pain. Subjects were allocated on three different treatment options: a proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation and aerobic exercise group, a classic stretching group, and a control treatment were applied over four months under the supervision of a physiotherapist. Knee Society Score, pain reported (Visual analogue scale) and knee range of motion. Assessments were completed at baseline and after four months. 74 patients were enrolled in the study and distributed between groups. Both the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation and classic stretching group showed significant changes in all variables after four months intervention (p < 0.001). The difference in mean Kujala knee score changes between groups (classic stretching group vs. proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation group vs. control group) at four months was -24.05 (95% confidence interval (CI) -30.19, -17.90), p ≤ 0.001; vs. -39.03 (95% confidence interval (CI) -42.5, -35.5), p ≤ 0.001; vs. -0.238 (95% confidence interval (CI) -1.2, 0.726), p = 0.621, respectively. A proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation intervention protocol combined with aerobic exercise showed a better outcome than a classic stretching protocol after four months.

  11. Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial: tongue strengthening exercises in head and neck cancer patients, does exercise load matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nuffelen, Gwen; Van den Steen, Leen; Vanderveken, Olivier; Specenier, Pol; Van Laer, Carl; Van Rompaey, Diane; Guns, Cindy; Mariën, Steven; Peeters, Marc; Van de Heyning, Paul; Vanderwegen, Jan; De Bodt, Marc

    2015-09-04

    Reduced tongue strength is an important factor contributing to early and late dysphagia in head and neck cancer patients previously treated with chemoradiotherapy. The evidence is growing that tongue strengthening exercises can improve tongue strength and swallowing function in both healthy and dysphagic subjects. However, little is known about the impact of specific features of an exercise protocol for tongue strength on the actual outcome (strength or swallowing function). Previous research originating in the fields of sports medicine and physical rehabilitation shows that the degree of exercise load is an influential factor for increasing muscle strength in the limb skeletal muscles. Since the tongue is considered a muscular hydrostat, it remains to be proven whether the same concepts will apply. This ongoing randomized controlled trial in chemoradiotherapy-treated patients with head and neck cancer investigates the effect of three tongue strengthening exercise protocols, with different degrees of exercise load, on tongue strength and swallowing. At enrollment, 51 patients whose dysphagia is primarily related to reduced tongue strength are randomly assigned to a training schedule of 60, 80, or 100% of their maximal tongue strength. Patients are treated three times a week for 8 weeks, executing 120 repetitions of the assigned exercise once per training day. Exercise load is progressively adjusted every 2 weeks. Patients are evaluated before, during and after treatment by means of tongue strength measurements, fiber-optic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing and quality-of-life questionnaires. This randomized controlled trial is the first to systematically investigate the effect of different exercise loads in tongue strengthening exercise protocols. The results will allow the development of more efficacious protocols. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN14447678.

  12. Mechanical, hormonal, and hypertrophic adaptations to 10 weeks of eccentric and stretch-shortening cycle exercise training in old males

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaczi, Mark; Nagy, Szilvia A.; Koszegi, Tamas; Ambrus, Mira; Bogner, Peter; Perlaki, Gabor; Orsi, Gergely; Toth, Katalin; Hortobagyi, Tibor

    2014-01-01

    The growth promoting effects of eccentric (ECC) contractions are well documented but it is unknown if the rate of stretch per se plays a role in such muscular responses in healthy aging human skeletal muscle. We tested the hypothesis that exercise training of the quadriceps muscle with low rate ECC

  13. Scapular muscle activity from selected strengthening exercises performed at low and high intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christoffer H; Zebis, Mette K; Saervoll, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    A balanced level of muscle strength between the different parts of the scapular muscles is important to optimize performance and prevent injuries in athletes. Emerging evidence suggests that many athletes lack balanced strength in the scapular muscles. Evidence based recommendations are important...... for proper exercise prescription. This study determines scapular muscle activity during strengthening exercises for scapular muscles performed at low and high intensities (Borg-CR10 level 3 and 8). Surface electromyography (EMG) from selected scapular muscles was recorded during seven strengthening exercises...... and expressed as a percentage of the maximal EMG. Seventeen women (aged 24-55 years) without serious disorders participated. Several of the investigated exercises - press-up, prone flexion, one-arm row and prone abduction at Borg 3 and press-up, push-up plus and one-arm row at Borg 8 - predominantly activated...

  14. Neuromuscular versus quadriceps strengthening exercise in patients with medial knee osteoarthritis and varus malalignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennell, Kim L; Kyriakides, Mary; Metcalf, Ben

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of neuromuscular exercise (NEXA) and quadriceps strengthening (QS) on the knee adduction moment (an indicator of mediolateral distribution of knee load), pain, and physical function in patients with medial knee joint osteoarthritis (OA) and varus malalignment. ME...

  15. Effects of strengthening, stretching and functional training on foot function in patients with diabetic neuropathy: results of a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Foot musculoskeletal deficits are seldom addressed by preventive medicine despite their high prevalence in patients with diabetic polyneuropathy. AIM: To investigate the effects of strengthening, stretching, and functional training on foot rollover process during gait. Methods A two-arm parallel-group randomized controlled trial with a blinded assessor was designed. Fifty-five patients diagnosed with diabetic polyneuropathy, 45 to 65 years-old were recruited. Exercises for foot-ankle and gait training were administered twice a week, for 12 weeks, to 26 patients assigned to the intervention group, while 29 patients assigned to control group received recommended standard medical care: pharmacological treatment for diabetes and foot care instructions. Both groups were assessed after 12 weeks, and the intervention group at follow-up (24 weeks). Primary outcomes involved foot rollover changes during gait, including peak pressure (PP). Secondary outcomes involved time-to-peak pressure (TPP) and pressure–time integral (PTI) in six foot-areas, mean center of pressure (COP) velocity, ankle kinematics and kinetics in the sagittal plane, intrinsic and extrinsic muscle function, and functional tests of foot and ankle. Results Even though the intervention group primary outcome (PP) showed a not statistically significant change under the six foot areas, intention-to-treat comparisons yielded softening of heel strike (delayed heel TPP, p=.03), better eccentric control of forefoot contact (decrease in ankle extensor moment, pforefoot contact with respect to medial forefoot (TPP anticipation, p<.01), and increased participation of hallux (increased PP and PTI, p=.03) and toes (increase in PTI, medium effect size). A slower COP mean velocity (p=.05), and an increase in overall foot and ankle function (p<.05) were also observed. In most cases, the values returned to baseline after the follow-up (p<.05). Conclusions Intervention discreetly changed foot rollover towards a

  16. The development and evaluation of a program for leg-strengthening exercises and balance assessment using Kinect

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jin-Seung; Kang, Dong-Won; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Dae-Hyeok; Yang, Seung-Tae; Tack, Gye-Rae

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] In this study, a program was developed for leg-strengthening exercises and balance assessment using Microsoft Kinect. [Subjects and Methods] The program consists of three leg-strengthening exercises (knee flexion, hip flexion, and hip extension) and the one-leg standing test (OLST). The program recognizes the correct exercise posture by comparison with the range of motion of the hip and knee joints and provides a number of correct action examples to improve training. The program mea...

  17. The Ottawa panel clinical practice guidelines for the management of knee osteoarthritis. Part two: strengthening exercise programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosseau, Lucie; Taki, Jade; Desjardins, Brigit; Thevenot, Odette; Fransen, Marlene; Wells, George A; Mizusaki Imoto, Aline; Toupin-April, Karine; Westby, Marie; Álvarez Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Gifford, Wendy; Laferrière, Lucie; Rahman, Prinon; Loew, Laurianne; De Angelis, Gino; Cavallo, Sabrina; Shallwani, Shirin Mehdi; Aburub, Ala'; Bennell, Kim L; Van der Esch, Martin; Simic, Milena; McConnell, Sara; Harmer, Alison; Kenny, Glen P; Paterson, Gail; Regnaux, Jean-Philippe; Lefevre-Colau, Marie-Martine; McLean, Linda

    2017-05-01

    To identify effective strengthening exercise programs and provide rehabilitation teams and patients with updated, high-quality recommendations concerning traditional land-based exercises for knee osteoarthritis. A systematic search and adapted selection criteria included comparative controlled trials with strengthening exercise programs for patients with knee osteoarthritis. A panel of experts reached consensus on the recommendations using a Delphi survey. A hierarchical alphabetical grading system (A, B, C+, C, D, D+ or D-) was based on statistical significance ( p osteoarthritis management within a six-month period. Strengthening exercise programs demonstrated a significant improvement for pain relief (four Grade A, ten Grade B, two Grade C+), physical function (four Grade A, eight Grade B) and quality of life (three Grade B). Strengthening in combination with other types of exercises (coordination, balance, functional) showed a significant improvement in pain relief (three Grade A, 11 Grade B, eight Grade C+), physical function (two Grade A, four Grade B, three Grade C+) and quality of life (one Grade A, one Grade C+). There are a variety of choices for strengthening exercise programs with positive recommendations for healthcare professionals and knee osteoarthritis patients. There is a need to develop combined behavioral and muscle-strengthening strategies to improve long-term maintenance of regular strengthening exercise programs.

  18. EFFECT OF ISOMETRIC QUADRICEPS STRENGTHENING EXERCISE AT MULTIPLE ANGLES IN KNEE JOINT AMONG NORMAL ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JibiPaul

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Strengthening exercises have been routinely used in persons with orthopaedic problems and athletes to increase force production or minimize muscle imbalance and joint injuries.Many studies have reported that isometric contractions can rapidly increases strength in quadriceps muscle. Objective: Objective of the study was to find out the effect of isometric strengthening exercise on strength of quadriceps at 45 and 90 degree of knee joint and also to compare the effect of strengthening exercise on strength of quadriceps at multiple angles of knee joint among control and experimental group. Methodology: This was a ccomparative experimental study with forty female healthy subjects from physiotherapy department of KPJ Healthcare University College, Malaysia. Convenient sampling method used to select the samples. The subjects were selected by inclusion criteria and randomly divided equally in to two with 20 subjects in each group. Isometric strengthening exercise and squatting exercise were given as intervention program for eight weeks respectively for experimental and control group. Pre and post data of quadriceps muscle strength measured were collected separately at 45 and 90 degree of knee joint using goniometry during resisted extension of knee in multi gym. Result: In experimental group Pre –Post statistical analysis found significant effect in increase of quadriceps strength at 45 and 90 degree with P<0.0001.****In control group quadriceps pre-post statistical analysis found no significant effect in increase of quadriceps strength at 45 and 90 degree with P<0.083NS and P<0.055 NS respectively. Comparative study between experimental and control groups for quadriceps strength at 90 degree of knee joint found significant effect in increase of quadriceps strength with P< 0.001.*** Comparative study between experimental and control groups for quadriceps strength at 45 degree of knee joint found significant effect in increase of

  19. Effects of Estrogen Fluctuation during the Menstrual Cycle on the Response to Stretch-Shortening Exercise in Females

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    Saulė Sipavičienė

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether variation in estrogen levels during the menstrual cycle influences susceptibility to exercise-induced muscle damage after stretch-shortening cycle exercise. Physically active women (n=18; age = 20.2 ± 1.7 yr participated in this research. The subjects performed one session of 100 maximal drop jumps on day 1 or 2 of the follicular phase and another identical session on day 1 or 2 of the ovulatory phase; the order of the sessions was randomized. Quadriceps femoris muscle peak torque evoked by electrical stimulation and maximal voluntary contraction, muscle pain, and CK activity were measured before and at various times up to 72 h after exercise. It was found that the high estrogen level during the ovulatory phase might be related to an earlier return to baseline muscle strength after strenuous stretch-shortening cycle exercise in that phase compared with the follicular phase. The estrogen effect appears to be highly specific to the damaged site because the differences in most EIMD markers (CK, soreness, and low-frequency fatigue between the two menstrual cycle phases were small.

  20. Novel stretch-sensor technology allows quantification of adherence and quality of home-exercises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathleff, Michael Skovdal; Bandholm, Thomas Quaade; Ahrendt, Peter

    2014-01-01

    , from exercises not performed as prescribed. METHODS: 10 participants performed four different shoulder-abduction exercises in two rounds (80 exercise scenarios in total). The scenarios were (1) low contraction speed, full range of motion (0-90°), (2) high contraction speed, full range of motion (0-90...

  1. An Evidence-Based Framework for Strengthening Exercises to Prevent Hamstring Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Matthew N; Timmins, Ryan G; Opar, David A; Pizzari, Tania; Ruddy, Joshua D; Sims, Casey; Williams, Morgan D; Shield, Anthony J

    2018-02-01

    Strength training is a valuable component of hamstring strain injury prevention programmes; however, in recent years a significant body of work has emerged to suggest that the acute responses and chronic adaptations to training with different exercises are heterogeneous. Unfortunately, these research findings do not appear to have uniformly influenced clinical guidelines for exercise selection in hamstring injury prevention or rehabilitation programmes. The purpose of this review was to provide the practitioner with an evidence-base from which to prescribe strengthening exercises to mitigate the risk of hamstring injury. Several studies have established that eccentric knee flexor conditioning reduces the risk of hamstring strain injury when compliance is adequate. The benefits of this type of training are likely to be at least partly mediated by increases in biceps femoris long head fascicle length and improvements in eccentric knee flexor strength. Therefore, selecting exercises with a proven benefit on these variables should form the basis of effective injury prevention protocols. In addition, a growing body of work suggests that the patterns of hamstring muscle activation diverge significantly between different exercises. Typically, relatively higher levels of biceps femoris long head and semimembranosus activity have been observed during hip extension-oriented movements, whereas preferential semitendinosus and biceps femoris short head activation have been reported during knee flexion-oriented movements. These findings may have implications for targeting specific muscles in injury prevention programmes. An evidence-based approach to strength training for the prevention of hamstring strain injury should consider the impact of exercise selection on muscle activation, and the effect of training interventions on hamstring muscle architecture, morphology and function. Most importantly, practitioners should consider the effect of a strength training programme on

  2. ACUTE EFFECTS OF STATIC STRETCHING, DYNAMIC EXERCISES, AND HIGH VOLUME UPPER EXTREMITY PLYOMETRIC ACTIVITY ON TENNIS SERVE PERFORMANCE

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    Ertugrul Gelen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effects of static stretching; dynamic exercises and high volume upper extremity plyometric activity on tennis serve performance. Twenty-six elite young tennis players (15.1 ± 4.2 years, 167.9 ± 5.8 cm and 61.6 ± 8.1 kg performed 4 different warm-up (WU routines in a random order on non-consecutive days. The WU methods consisted of traditional WU (jogging, rally and serve practice (TRAD; traditional WU and static stretching (TRSS; traditional WU and dynamic exercise (TRDE; and traditional WU and high volume upper extremity plyometric activity (TRPLYP. Following each WU session, subjects were tested on a tennis serve ball speed test. TRAD, TRSS, TRDE and TRPLYO were compared by repeated measurement analyses of variance and post-hoc comparisons. In this study a 1 to 3 percent increase in tennis serve ball speed was recorded in TRDE and TRPLYO when compared to TRAD (p 0.05. ICCs for ball speed showed strong reliability (0.82 to 0.93 for the ball speed measurements.The results of this study indicate that dynamic and high volume upper extremity plyometric WU activities are likely beneficial to serve speed of elite junior tennis players.

  3. DEMO-II trial. Aerobic exercise versus stretching exercise in patients with major depression-a randomised clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Jesper; Videbech, Poul; Thomsen, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    The effect of referring patients from a clinical setting to a pragmatic exercise intervention for depressive symptoms, cognitive function, and metabolic variables has yet to be determined.......The effect of referring patients from a clinical setting to a pragmatic exercise intervention for depressive symptoms, cognitive function, and metabolic variables has yet to be determined....

  4. No effect of forearm band and extensor strengthening exercises for the treatment of tennis elbow: a prospective randomised study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luginbühl, Rolf; Brunner, Florian; Schneeberger, Alberto G

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this prospective randomised study was to analyse the effect of the forearm support band and of strengthening exercises for the treatment of tennis elbow. Twenty-nine patients with 30 tennis elbows were randomised into 3 groups of treatment: (I) forearm support band, (II) strengthening exercises and (III) both methods. The patients had a standardised examination at their first visit, and then after 6 weeks, 3 months and 1 year. At the latest follow-up, there was a significant improvement of the symptoms compared to before treatment (p<0.0001), considering all patients independently of the methods of treatment. However, no differences in the scores were found between the 3 groups of treatment (p=0.27), indicating that no beneficial influence was found either for the strengthening exercises or for the forearm support band. Improvement seems to occur with time, independent of the method of treatment used.

  5. Shoulder strengthening exercises adapted to specific shoulder pathologies can be selected using new simulation techniques: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonnier, Caecilia; Lädermann, Alexandre; Kevelham, Bart; Chagué, Sylvain; Hoffmeyer, Pierre; Holzer, Nicolas

    2018-02-01

    Shoulder strength training exercises represent a major component of rehabilitation protocols designed for conservative or postsurgical management of shoulder pathologies. Numerous methods are described for exercising each shoulder muscle or muscle group. Limited information is available to assess potential deleterious effects of individual methods with respect to specific shoulder pathologies. Thus, the goal of this pilot study was to use a patient-specific 3D measurement technique coupling medical imaging and optical motion capture for evaluation of a set of shoulder strength training exercises regarding glenohumeral, labral and subacromial compression, as well as elongation of the rotator cuff muscles. One volunteer underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and motion capture of the shoulder. Motion data from the volunteer were recorded during three passive rehabilitation exercises and twenty-nine strengthening exercises targeting eleven of the most frequently trained shoulder muscles or muscle groups and using four different techniques when available. For each exercise, glenohumeral and labral compression, subacromial space height and rotator cuff muscles elongation were measured on the entire range of motion. Significant differences in glenohumeral, subacromial and labral compressions were observed between sets of exercises targeting individual shoulder muscles. Muscle lengths computed by simulation compared to MRI measurements showed differences of 0-5%. This study represents the first screening of shoulder strengthening exercises to identify potential deleterious effects on the shoulder joint. Motion capture combined with medical imaging allows for reliable assessment of glenohumeral, labral and subacromial compression, as well as muscle-tendon elongation during shoulder strength training exercises.

  6. Outcomes following Hip and Quadriceps Strengthening Exercises for Patellofemoral Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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    Adebisi Bisi-Balogun

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence to support change in the rehabilitation strategy of patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS from traditional quadriceps strengthening exercises to inclusion of hip musculature strengthening in individuals with PFPS. Several studies have evaluated effects of quadriceps and hip musculature strengthening on PFPS with varying outcomes on pain and function. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to synthesize outcomes of pain and function post-intervention and at follow-up to determine whether outcomes vary depending on the exercise strategy in both the short and long term. Electronic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, PubMed, Pedro database, Proquest, Science direct, and EBscoHost databases were searched for randomized control trials published between 1st of January 2005 and 31st of June 2015, comparing the outcomes of pain and function following quadriceps strengthening and hip musculature strengthening exercises in patients with PFPS. Two independent reviewers assessed each paper for inclusion and quality. Means and SDs were extracted from each included study to allow effect size calculations and comparison of results. Six randomized control trials met the inclusion criteria. Limited to moderate evidence indicates that hip abductor strengthening was associated with significantly lower pain post-intervention (SMD −0.88, −1.28 to −0.47 95% CI, and at 12 months (SMD −3.10, −3.71 to −2.50 95% CI with large effect sizes (greater than 0.80 compared to quadriceps strengthening. Our findings suggest that incorporating hip musculature strengthening in management of PFPS tailored to individual ability will improve short-term and long-term outcomes of rehabilitation. Further research evaluating the effects of quadriceps and hip abductors strengthening focusing on reduction in anterior knee pain and improvement in function in management of PFPS is needed.

  7. Effectiveness of Strengthening Exercises for the Elderly with Low Back Pain to Improve Symptoms and Functions: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Azizah Ishak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the effect of strengthening exercises for older people with low back pain (LBP. Methods. This study is a systematic review of experimental study which evaluated the evidence regarding exercises for older people with LBP by using EBSCO Academic Search Premier, EBSCO EconLit, Science Direct, PUBMED, and PEDro from 2006 to 2016. Search strategy for each database was conducted by using keywords such as “low back pain”, “older people”, and “strengthening exercise”. Boolean operators were used to combine keywords and manual exclusion was conducted to verify studies which met the inclusion criteria. The articles reviewed were evaluated and critically appraised by using PEDro scale and SPSS version 20 was used to analyze the data. Results. Three articles were found regarding strengthening exercise for older people with LBP whereas one study was conducted on multicomponent exercise. The mean, standard deviation, and variance of the PEDro score of all the studies were 5.67, 2.33, and 1.528, respectively. Overall, the qualities of all studies reviewed were fair. Two articles showed significant results when compared to control group (p<0.05. Conclusions. Strengthening exercise is a beneficial treatment for older people with LBP in reducing pain intensity, disability, and improved functional performances.

  8. Comparison of impacts of friction massage, stretching exercises and analgesics on pain relief in primary fibromyalgia syndrome: a randomized clinical trial

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    Amanollahi A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stretching exercises and massage therapy are both suggested for pain relief in fibromyalgia syndrome. Previous studies have not proved their superiority over each other. This study compared the therapeutic effects of friction massage, stretching exercises, and analgesics on pain relief in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome.Methods: We evaluated 129 female patients with the diagnosis of primary fibromyalgia visited at the physical medicine clinics of Baqiyatallah Hospital in Tehran, Iran during 2010- 2011. Patients were randomly divided into three groups: the first group received 400 mg ibuprofen P.O. (3 times per day and 25 mg nortriptyline (daily P.O. as analgesic, the second group was treated by friction massage and the third group performed stretching exercises. Patients were assessed three times (initially, after one and four weeks by visual analogue scale (VAS.Results: The mean age of participants was 60.46 years. The mean age in each treatment group was 46.66 years in medication group, 46.73 years in stretching group and 46.65 years in friction massage group. Changes in VAS score over 4 weeks were 2.4, 3.1 and 1.9, in the first, second, and third groups, respectively. The changes in VAS were significantly different in the first and second groups rather than the controls (P<0.05.Conclusion: The effect of stretch exercise on pain relief was similar to analgesics, but it was more effective than friction massage. Moreover, the therapeutic effect of stretching exercise on pain relief upon four weeks was more permanent than friction massage but it was similar to analgesics.

  9. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A SPECIALIST Prevention Strengthening Exercise Committee Exercise Committee Core Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on ... acute pain, you should stop doing it. Transverse Core Strengthening This strengthens the muscles that cross from ...

  10. Comparing the effects of eccentric training with eccentric training and static stretching exercises in the treatment of patellar tendinopathy. A controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrios, Stasinopoulos; Pantelis, Manias; Kalliopi, Stasinopoulou

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of eccentric training and eccentric training with static stretching exercises in the management of patellar tendinopathy. Controlled clinical trial. Rheumatology and rehabilitation centre. Forty-three patients who had patellar tendinopathy for at least three months. They were allocated to two groups by alternative allocation. Group A (n = 22) was treated with eccentric training of patellar tendon and static stretching exercises of quadriceps and hamstrings and Group B (n = 21) received eccentric training of patellar tendon. All patients received five treatments per week for four weeks. Pain and function were evaluated using the VISA-P score at baseline, at the end of treatment (week 4), and six months (week 24) after the end of treatment. At the end of treatment, there was a rise in VISA-P score in both groups compared with baseline (Peccentric training and static stretching exercises produced the largest effect (PEccentric training and static stretching exercises is superior to eccentric training alone to reduce pain and improve function in patients with patellar tendinopathy at the end of the treatment and at follow-up.

  11. Strengthening exercises improve symptoms and quality of life but do not change autonomic modulation in fibromyalgia: a randomized clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bernadete Renoldi Oliveira Gavi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Autonomic dysfunction is an important mechanism that could explain many symptoms observed in fibromyalgia (FM. Exercise is an effective treatment, with benefits potentially mediated through changes in autonomic modulation. Strengthening is one of the less studied exercises in FM, and the acute and chronic effects of strengthening on the autonomic system remain unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the chronic effects of strengthening exercises (STRE on autonomic modulation, pain perception and the quality of life (QOL of FM patients. METHODS: Eighty sedentary women with FM (ACR 1990 were randomly selected to participate in STRE or flexibility (FLEX exercises in a blinded controlled trial. The intensity of STRE was set at 45% of the estimated load of 1 Repetition Maximum (RM in 12 different exercises. Outcomes were Visual Analog Scale (VAS for pain, Heart Rate Variability (HRV analysis, treadmill test, the sit and reach test (Wells and Dillon's Bench, maximal repetitions test and handgrip dynamometry; and quality of life by the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ, the Beck and Idate Trait-State Inventory (IDATE, a short-form health survey (SF-36. RESULTS: The STRE group was more effective to strength gain for all muscles and pain control after 4 and 16 weeks (p<0.05. The FLEX group showed higher improvements in anxiety (p<0.05. Both groups showed improvements in the QOL, and there was no significant difference observed between the groups. There was no change in the HRV of the STRE and FLEX groups. CONCLUSIONS: Strengthening exercises show greater and more rapid improvements in pain and strength than flexibility exercises. Despite the benefits in fitness, pain, depression, anxiety and quality of life, no effect was observed on the autonomic modulation in both groups. This observation suggests that changes in autonomic modulation are not a target tobe clinically achieved in fibromyalgia. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical

  12. Stretching and joint mobilization exercises reduce call-center operators' musculoskeletal discomfort and fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Helena de Castro Lacaze

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: We sought to evaluate musculoskeletal discomfort and mental and physical fatigue in the call-center workers of an airline company before and after a supervised exercise program compared with rest breaks during the work shift. INTRODUCTION: This was a longitudinal pilot study conducted in a flight-booking call-center for an airline in São Paulo, Brazil. Occupational health activities are recommended to decrease the negative effects of the call-center working conditions. In practice, exercise programs are commonly recommended for computer workers, but their effects have not been studied in call-center operators. METHODS: Sixty-four call-center operators participated in this study. Thirty-two subjects were placed into the experimental group and attended a 10-min daily exercise session for 2 months. Conversely, 32 participants were placed into the control group and took a 10-min daily rest break during the same period. Each subject was evaluated once a week by means of the Corlett-Bishop body map with a visual analog discomfort scale and the Chalder fatigue questionnaire. RESULTS: Musculoskeletal discomfort decreased in both groups, but the reduction was only statistically significant for the spine and buttocks (p=0.04 and the sum of the segments (p=0.01 in the experimental group. In addition, the experimental group showed significant differences in the level of mental fatigue, especially in questions related to memory Rienzo, #181ff and tiredness (p=0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Our preliminary results demonstrate that appropriately designed and supervised exercise programs may be more efficient than rest breaks in decreasing discomfort and fatigue levels in call-center operators.

  13. Effort Thrombosis of the Upper Extremities Related to an Arm Stretching Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huey-Wen Liang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available “Effort” axillary-subclavian vein thrombosis (Paget-Schroetter syndrome is an uncommon deep venous thrombosis due to repetitive activity of the upper limbs. Most cases of this condition are related to strenuous or prolonged sport or occupational activities, while others are associated with endogenous or exogenous risk factors. We report the case of a 43-year-old, previously healthy, male who developed right axillary-subclavian venous thrombosis, which was possibly associated with an exercise involving arm extension and shaking in a posture of shoulder abduction and outstretched for 10 minutes on 2 consecutive days. The condition improved but returned with increased severity when he resumed the exercise after a 2-day break, when he presented with a swollen and bluish arm at the emergency department. Sonographic examination showed moderate thrombotic stenosis of the right axillary vein. Effort thrombosis was diagnosed after ruling out associated coagulopathy or concomitant malignancy. External compression of the accessory ribs or lymph nodes were not detected. He was treated with low molecular weight heparin, followed by oral anticoagulant therapy for 6 months. Only partial resolution of thrombosis was achieved after 6 months of anticoagulant therapy, but pulmonary embolism did not occur during 18 months of follow-up. This case illustrates that, although unusual, Paget-Schroetter syndrome can occur in a healthy patient as a result of mild to moderate exercise.

  14. Strengthening exercises improve symptoms and quality of life but do not change autonomic modulation in fibromyalgia: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavi, Maria Bernadete Renoldi Oliveira; Vassalo, Dalton Valentin; Amaral, Fabian Tadeu; Macedo, Danielle Constância Felício; Gava, Pablo Lúcio; Dantas, Eduardo Miranda; Valim, Valéria

    2014-01-01

    Autonomic dysfunction is an important mechanism that could explain many symptoms observed in fibromyalgia (FM). Exercise is an effective treatment, with benefits potentially mediated through changes in autonomic modulation. Strengthening is one of the less studied exercises in FM, and the acute and chronic effects of strengthening on the autonomic system remain unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the chronic effects of strengthening exercises (STRE) on autonomic modulation, pain perception and the quality of life (QOL) of FM patients. Eighty sedentary women with FM (ACR 1990) were randomly selected to participate in STRE or flexibility (FLEX) exercises in a blinded controlled trial. The intensity of STRE was set at 45% of the estimated load of 1 Repetition Maximum (RM) in 12 different exercises. Outcomes were Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for pain, Heart Rate Variability (HRV) analysis, treadmill test, the sit and reach test (Wells and Dillon's Bench), maximal repetitions test and handgrip dynamometry; and quality of life by the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), the Beck and Idate Trait-State Inventory (IDATE), a short-form health survey (SF-36). The STRE group was more effective to strength gain for all muscles and pain control after 4 and 16 weeks (pquality of life, no effect was observed on the autonomic modulation in both groups. This observation suggests that changes in autonomic modulation are not a target tobe clinically achieved in fibromyalgia. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02004405.

  15. The effects of isometric exercises and stretching on postural stability in Non–Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus patients with diffuse symmetrical sensory motor neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nenkova

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of isometric exercises and stretching on postural stability in Non – Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM patients with diffuse symmetrical sensory motor neuropathy. Patients were assigned to an experimental group and amatched control group. The experimental group received isometric exer-cises and stretching three times weekly for 12 weeks in addition to routine medication and dietary advice. A t the end of this period, this group wascompared with the control group, which received routine medication anddietary advice only. Measurements of muscle strength of quadriceps, ham-strings, ankle plantar and dorsiflexors, and Romberg’s test for postural sta-bility were carried out before and after the 12 weeks intervention. The study showed that isometric exercises and stretching for the lower extremities improved postural stability (p = 0.00and strength of the quadriceps (p = 0.001 hamstrings (p = 0.001 dorsiflexors (p = 0.001 plantarflexors (p = 0.001in NIDDM patients with diffuse symmetrical sensory motor neuropathy. This exercise regimen also had a loweringeffect on blood glucose level (p = 0.00.  In conclusion it seems that the simple exercise intervention described in thisstudy may be of benefit to these patients if incorporated into their management programmes.

  16. Effects of aerobic training combined with respiratory muscle stretching on the functional exercise capacity and thoracoabdominal kinematics in patients with COPD: a randomized and controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wada JT

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Juliano T Wada,1 Erickson Borges-Santos,1 Desiderio Cano Porras,1 Denise M Paisani,1 Alberto Cukier,2 Adriana C Lunardi,1 Celso RF Carvalho1 1Department of Physical Therapy, 2Department of Cardiopneumology, School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil Background: Patients with COPD present a major recruitment of the inspiratory muscles, predisposing to chest incoordination, increasing the degree of dyspnea and impairing their exercise capacity. Stretching techniques could decrease the respiratory muscle activity and improve their contractile capacity; however, the systemic effects of stretching remain unknown.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic training combined with respiratory muscle stretching on functional exercise capacity and thoracoabdominal kinematics in patients with COPD.Design: This study was a randomized and controlled trial.Participants: A total of 30 patients were allocated to a treatment group (TG or a control group (CG; n=15, each group.Intervention: The TG was engaged in respiratory muscle stretching and the CG in upper and lower limb muscle stretching. Both groups performed 24 sessions (twice a week, 12 weeks of aerobic training.Evaluations: Functional exercise capacity (6-minute walk test, thoracoabdominal kinematics (optoelectronic plethysmography, and respiratory muscle activity (surface electromyography were evaluated during exercise. Analysis of covariance was used to compare the groups at a significance level of 5%.Results: After the intervention, the TG showed improved abdominal (ABD contribution, compartmental volume, mobility, and functional exercise capacity with decreased dyspnea when compared with the CG (P<0.01. The TG also showed a decreased respiratory muscle effort required to obtain the same pulmonary volume compared to the CG (P<0.001.Conclusion: Our results suggest that aerobic training combined with respiratory muscle stretching increases the functional

  17. Comparison between Steroid Injection and Stretching Exercise on the Scalene of Patients with Upper Extremity Paresthesia: Randomized Cross-Over Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Wook; Yoon, Seo Yeon; Park, Yongbum; Chang, Won Hyuk; Lee, Sang Chul

    2016-03-01

    To compare the therapeutic effects on upper extremity paresthesia of intra-muscular steroid injections into the scalene muscle with those of stretching exercise only. Twenty patients with upper extremity paresthesia who met the criteria were recruited to participate in this single-blind, crossover study. Fourteen of 20 patients were female. The average age was 45.0 ± 10.5 years and duration of symptom was 12.2 ± 8.7 months. Each participant completed one injection and daily exercise program for 2 weeks. After randomization, half of all patients received ultrasound-guided injection of scalene muscles before exercise, while the other was invested for the other patients. After two weeks, there was a significant decrease of the visual analog scale score of treatment effect compared with baseline in both groups (6.90 to 2.85 after injection and 5.65 to 4.05 after stretching exercise, p50% reduction in post-treatment visual analog scale, was 18 of 20 (90.0%) after injection, compared to 5 of 20 (25.0%) after stretching exercise. There were no cases of unintended brachial plexus block after injection. Ultrasound-guided steroid injection or stretching exercise of scalene muscles led to reduced upper extremity paresthesia in patients who present with localized tenderness in the scalene muscle without electrodiagnostic test abnormalities, although injection treatment resulted in more improvements. The results suggest that symptoms relief might result from injection into the muscle alone not related to blockade of the brachial plexus.

  18. Effects of individual strengthening exercises for the stabilization muscles on the nutation torque of the sacroiliac joint in a sedentary worker with nonspecific sacroiliac joint pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] We investigated the effects of individual strengthening exercises for the stabilization muscles on the nutation torque of the sacroiliac joint in a sedentary worker with nonspecific sacroiliac joint pain. [Subject] A 36-year-old female complained of pain in the sacroiliac joints. [Methods] The subject performed individual strengthening exercises for the stabilization muscles for nutation torque of the sacroiliac joint for 3 weeks. Pain-provocation tests and visual analog scale (VAS) scores were evaluated before and after the exercises. [Results] After performing the individual strengthening exercises for the erector spinae, rectus abdominis, and biceps femoris muscles for 3 weeks, the subject displayed no pain in the pain provocation tests, and the VAS score was 2/10. [Conclusion] The individual strengthening exercises for the stabilization muscles of the sacroiliac joint performed in the present study appear to be effective for sedentary workers with sacroiliac joint pain.

  19. Exercise and the Prevention of Oesophageal Cancer (EPOC study protocol: a randomized controlled trial of exercise versus stretching in males with Barrett's oesophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeves Marina M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and excessive body fat are considered principal causes of Barrett's oesophagus (a metaplastic change in the cells lining the oesophagus and its neoplastic progression, oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Metabolic disturbances including altered levels of obesity-related cytokines, chronic inflammation and insulin resistance have also been associated with oesophageal cancer development, especially in males. Physical activity may have the potential to abrogate metabolic disturbances in males with Barrett's oesophagus and elicit beneficial reductions in body fat and gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms. Thus, exercise may be an effective intervention in reducing oesophageal adenocarcinoma risk. However, to date this hypothesis remains untested. The 'Exercise and the Prevention of Oesophageal Cancer Study' will determine whether 24 weeks of exercise training will lead to alterations in risk factors or biomarkers for oesophageal adenocarcinoma in males with Barrett's oesophagus. Our primary outcomes are serum concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 as well as insulin resistance. Body composition, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease symptoms, cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength will also be assessed as secondary outcomes. Methods/Design A randomized controlled trial of 80 overweight or obese, inactive males with Barrett's oesophagus will be conducted in Brisbane, Australia. Participants will be randomized to an intervention arm (60 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic and resistance training, five days per week or a control arm (45 minutes of stretching, five days per week for 24 weeks. Primary and secondary endpoints will be measured at baseline (week 0, midpoint (week 12 and at the end of the intervention (week 24. Discussion Due to the increasing incidence and very high mortality associated with oesophageal adenocarcinoma

  20. Exercise and the Prevention of Oesophageal Cancer (EPOC) study protocol: a randomized controlled trial of exercise versus stretching in males with Barrett's oesophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winzer, Brooke M; Paratz, Jennifer D; Reeves, Marina M; Whiteman, David C

    2010-01-01

    Chronic gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and excessive body fat are considered principal causes of Barrett's oesophagus (a metaplastic change in the cells lining the oesophagus) and its neoplastic progression, oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Metabolic disturbances including altered levels of obesity-related cytokines, chronic inflammation and insulin resistance have also been associated with oesophageal cancer development, especially in males. Physical activity may have the potential to abrogate metabolic disturbances in males with Barrett's oesophagus and elicit beneficial reductions in body fat and gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms. Thus, exercise may be an effective intervention in reducing oesophageal adenocarcinoma risk. However, to date this hypothesis remains untested. The 'Exercise and the Prevention of Oesophageal Cancer Study' will determine whether 24 weeks of exercise training will lead to alterations in risk factors or biomarkers for oesophageal adenocarcinoma in males with Barrett's oesophagus. Our primary outcomes are serum concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 as well as insulin resistance. Body composition, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease symptoms, cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength will also be assessed as secondary outcomes. A randomized controlled trial of 80 overweight or obese, inactive males with Barrett's oesophagus will be conducted in Brisbane, Australia. Participants will be randomized to an intervention arm (60 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic and resistance training, five days per week) or a control arm (45 minutes of stretching, five days per week) for 24 weeks. Primary and secondary endpoints will be measured at baseline (week 0), midpoint (week 12) and at the end of the intervention (week 24). Due to the increasing incidence and very high mortality associated with oesophageal adenocarcinoma, interventions effective in

  1. Respiratory muscle stretch gymnastics in patients with post coronary artery bypass grafting pain : Impact on respiratory muscle function, activity, mood and exercise capacity

    OpenAIRE

    會田, 信子; 渋谷, 優子; 吉野, 克樹; Komoda, Masaji; 井上, 智子

    2002-01-01

    A new rehabilitation (New-RH) program including respiratory muscle stretch gymnastics (RMSG) was developed to alleviate post-coronary artery bypass grafting pain (PCP). Effects on respiratory muscle function, pain, activities of daily living (ADL), mood and exercise capacity were investigated. Subjects were 16 consecutive patients undergoing median full sternotomy coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), and were randomly divided into equal New-RH (S-group) and conventional therapy (C-group) g...

  2. Effects of Pilates and trunk strengthening exercises on health-related quality of life in women with chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofotolis, Nikolaos; Kellis, Eleftherios; Vlachopoulos, Symeon P; Gouitas, Iraklis; Theodorakis, Yannis

    2016-11-21

    Pilates programs are widely used as a form of regular exercise in a broad range of populations investigating their effectiveness for chronic low back pain (CLBP) treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a Pilates program and a trunk strengthening exercise program on functional disability and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in women with nonspecific CLBP. A total of 101 volunteer women with CLBP provided data with a 3-month follow-up. They were randomized to either a Pilates (n= 37), trunk strengthening exercise (n= 36) or a control group (n= 28), exercising for a period of 8 weeks, three times a week. Data were collected on HRQOL using the Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36v2), and functional disability using the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire prior to program initiation, mid-intervention, immediately after program termination, and three months post-intervention. The Pilates participants reported greater improvements on self-reported functional disability and HRQOL compared with participants in the trunk strengthening exercise and control groups (p Pilates group and to a lesser extent for the trunk strengthening exercise group. An 8-week Pilates program improved HRQOL and reduced functional disability more than either a trunk strengthening exercise program or controls among women with CLBP.

  3. The role of muscle strengthening in exercise therapy for knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, Cecilie; Juhl, Carsten; Christensen, Robin

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To analyze if exercise interventions for patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) following the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) definition of muscle strength training differs from other types of exercise, and to analyze associations between changes in muscle strength, pain, a...

  4. Immediate effect of passive static stretching versus resistance exercises on postprandial blood sugar levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurudut, Peeyoosha; Rajan, Abey P

    2017-10-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is rapidly rising all over the globe at an alarming rate. In India, more than 61.3 million people have been presently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is possible to control the circulating blood glucose levels by reducing life style risk factors through physical activities comprising of muscle stretches, aerobic training, resistance exercises (REs), yoga, etc. The aim of this study is to identify and compare the immediate effect of passive static stretching (PSS) versus RE on blood glucose level in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The present study included 51 participants between the age of 40-65 years with type 2 diabetes mellitus, to study the immediate effect of 60-min PSS (n=25) and 60-min RE (n=26). The outcome measure was blood glucose level which was checked by glucometer (free-style neo). Blood sugar was assessed at 3 points of time that included fasting blood sugar level, 2 hr after the meal and immediately after the exercise regimen. Results of this study showed significant reduction in blood glucose level in subjects according to glucometer with PSS ( P =0.000) and RE ( P =0.00). However, both groups demonstrated equal effect in terms of lowering blood sugar level immediately after the exercise. The conclusion is both PSS and RE are effective in reducing postprandial blood glucose level in type 2 diabetes mellitus and must be prescribed for the patients who demonstrate difficulty in controlling post prandial spike.

  5. COMPARISON OF HAMSTRING MUSCLE ACTIVATION DURING HIGH-SPEED RUNNING AND VARIOUS HAMSTRING STRENGTHENING EXERCISES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solheim, Jens Asmund Brevik; Bencke, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    Purpose/Background Several studies have examined the effect of hamstring strength exercises upon hamstring strains in team sports that involve many sprints. However, there has been no cross comparison among muscle activation of these hamstring training exercises with actual sprinting. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine different hamstring exercises and compare the muscle activity in the hamstring muscle group during various exercises with the muscular activity produced during maximal sprints. Methods Twelve male sports students (age 25 ± 6.2 years, 1.80 ± 7.1 m, body mass 81.1 ± 15.6 kg) participated in this study. Surface EMG electrodes were placed on semimembranosus, semitendinosus and biceps femoris to measure muscle activity during seven hamstrings exercises and sprinting together with 3D motion capture to establish at what hip and knee angles maximal muscle activation (EMG) occurs. Maximal EMG activity during sprints for each muscle was used in order to express each exercise as a percentage of max activation during sprinting. Results The main findings were that maximal EMG activity of the different hamstring exercises were on average between 40-65% (Semitendinosus), 18-40% (biceps femoris) and 40-75% (Semimembranosus) compared with the max EMG activity in sprints, which were considered as 100%. The laying kick together with the Nordic hamstring exercises and its variations had the highest muscle activations, while the cranes showed the lowest muscle activation (in all muscles) together with the standing kick for the semimembranosus. In addition, angles at which the peak EMG activity of the hamstring muscle occurs were similar for the Nordic hamstring exercises and different for the two crane exercises (hip angle), standing kick (hip angle) and the laying kick (knee angle) compared with the sprint. Conclusions Nordic hamstring exercises with its variation together with the laying kick activates the hamstrings at high levels and

  6. EFFECTS OF KINESIOTAPING ALONG WITH QUADRICEPS STRENGTHENING EXERCISES ON PAIN, JOINT RANGE OF MOTION AND FUNCTIONAL ACTIVITIES OF KNEE IN SUBJECTS WITH PATELLOFEMORAL OSTEOARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Harshitha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patello femoral Osteoarthritis is the most common degenerative disease in older age group, causing pain, physical disability, and decreased quality of life.As many treatment options available, kinesiotaping is an efficacious treatment for management of pain & disability in patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis. Previous studies have shown that kinesiotaping as well as quadriceps strengthening significantly yields functional benefits. But there is lack of evidence revealing combined effectiveness & effects of kinesiotaping along with quadriceps strengthening in subjects with patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis. Methods: 30 subjects with symptoms of patellofemoral osteoarthritis fulfilled the inclusion criteria were randomly assigned into 2 groups of 15 in each group. Taping along with quadriceps strengthening program is compared to the quadriceps strengthening program alone. Pain were measured by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, knee ROM were measured by Goniometer, Functional status were measured by Western Ontario McMaster Universities index (WOMAC, score. Measurements were taken pre & post intervention. Results: The results indicated that kinesiotaping along with quadriceps strengthening exercises showed there was statistically significant improvement in pain (<0.05, knee ROM (<0.05 and functional activities (<0.05 after 6 weeks compared to quadriceps strengthening alone. Conclusion: Subjects with kinesiotaping along with quadriceps strengthening showed significant improvement in reducing pain, in improving ROM & functional activities at the end of 6th week treatment when compared to subjects with patellofemoral osteoarthritis underwent quadriceps strengthening exercises alone.

  7. The Strengthening Exercises in Shoulder Impingement trial (The SExSI-trial) investigating the effectiveness of a simple add-on shoulder strengthening exercise programme in patients with long-lasting subacromial impingement syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Mikkel Bek; Bandholm, Thomas; Rathleff, Michael Skovdal

    2018-01-01

    with pronounced and long-lasting SIS. However, the current rehabilitation of such strength impairments may be inadequate, with novel rehabilitation programmes including exercise therapy only improving external rotation strength by 4-13%. As these previous studies are the basis of current practice, this suggests...... that the strengthening component could be inadequate in the rehabilitation of these patients, and it seems likely that more emphasis should be placed on intensifying this part of the rehabilitation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of a programme consisting of progressive home...... with pronounced and long-lasting SIS, diagnosed using predefined criteria. Participants will be randomised to receive either an add-on intervention of progressive home-based resistance training using an elastic band in addition to usual care or usual care alone in a 1:1 allocation ratio. The randomisation...

  8. Low back pain : a comparative study on the value of core training versus traditional strengthening exercises

    OpenAIRE

    Schembri, Laura; Fenech, Pauline; Sacco, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This randomised controlled trial (RCT) employed a pre-test/post-test design to compare the effects of core training (Pilates method) and traditional back exercises on a population with low back pain (LBP). Therapeutic intervention related to the Pilates method has recently become popular, but there is little evidence to prove it works. In this study, 120 individuals with LBP were allocated to three different groups. Group A was the control group, Group B was given modifie...

  9. Muscle activity during knee-extension strengthening exercise performed with elastic tubing and isotonic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Andersen, Christoffer H; Bandholm, Thomas; Thorborg, Kristian; Zebis, Mette K; Andersen, Lars L

    2012-12-01

    While elastic resistance training, targeting the upper body is effective for strength training, the effect of elastic resistance training on lower body muscle activity remains questionable. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the EMG-angle relationship of the quadriceps muscle during 10-RM knee-extensions performed with elastic tubing and an isotonic strength training machine. 7 women and 9 men aged 28-67 years (mean age 44 and 41 years, respectively) participated. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded in 10 muscles during the concentric and eccentric contraction phase of a knee extension exercise performed with elastic tubing and in training machine and normalized to maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) EMG (nEMG). Knee joint angle was measured during the exercises using electronic inclinometers (range of motion 0-90°). When comparing the machine and elastic resistance exercises there were no significant differences in peak EMG of the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM) during the concentric contraction phase. However, during the eccentric phase, peak EMG was significantly higher (ptubing (5.7±0.6) compared with knee extensions performed in training machine (5.9±0.5). Knee extensions performed with elastic tubing induces similar high (>70% nEMG) quadriceps muscle activity during the concentric contraction phase, but slightly lower during the eccentric contraction phase, as knee extensions performed using an isotonic training machine. During the concentric contraction phase the two different conditions displayed reciprocal EMG-angle patterns during the range of motion. 5.

  10. Respiratory muscle stretch gymnastics in patients with post coronary artery bypass grafting pain: impact on respiratory muscle function, activity, mood and exercise capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aida, Nobuko; Shibuya, Masako; Yoshino, Katsuki; Komoda, Masaji; Inoue, Tomoko

    2002-12-01

    A new rehabilitation (New-RH) program including respiratory muscle stretch gymnastics (RMSG) was developed to alleviate post-coronary artery bypass grafting pain (PCP). Effects on respiratory muscle function, pain, activities of daily living (ADL), mood and exercise capacity were investigated. Subjects were 16 consecutive patients undergoing median full sternotomy coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), and were randomly divided into equal New-RH (S-group) and conventional therapy (C-group) groups. Rib cage dominant breathing was observed postoperatively in both groups. With preoperative tan deltaVrc/deltaVab, increases at 1-week postoperatively and decreases at discharge for S-group tended to exceed those of C-group (p > .05). Decreased maximum inspiratory and expiratory pressure status for functional residual capacity and percent forced expiratory volume in one second at discharge again only tended to be smaller for S-group (p > .05). S-group displayed significantly reduced pain around both scapulas at discharge (p = .049), and increased mean overall ADL and profile of mood states (POMS)/Vigor scores (p = .031 and p = .018, respectively). POMS/Tension-Anxiety scores at discharge for S-group were significantly smaller than those preoperatively (p = .025), and S-group displayed significantly increased distance walked over 6-minutes at discharge than C-group (p = .029). New-RH improves patient participation in exercise therapy and increases exercise capacity by reducing PCP, relieving anxiety and tension, and improving ADL.

  11. Corticosteroid or placebo injection combined with deep transverse friction massage, Mills manipulation, stretching and eccentric exercise for acute lateral epicondylitis: a randomised, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaussen, Morten; Holmedal, Øystein; Mdala, Ibrahimu; Brage, Søren; Lindbæk, Morten

    2015-05-20

    Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow is a frequent condition with long-lasting symptoms. Corticosteroid injection is increasingly discouraged and there is little knowledge on the combined effect of corticosteroid injection and physiotherapy for acute conditions. We wanted to investigate the efficacy of physiotherapy alone and combined with corticosteroid injection for acute lateral epicondylitis. A randomized, controlled study with one-year follow-up was conducted in a general practice setting in Sarpsborg, Norway. We included 177 men and women aged 18 to 70 with clinically diagnosed lateral epicondylitis of recent onset (2 weeks to 3 months). They were randomly assigned to one of three treatments: physiotherapy with two corticosteroid injections, physiotherapy with two placebo injections or wait-and-see (control). Physiotherapy consisted of deep transverse friction massage, Mills manipulation, stretching, and eccentric exercises. We used double blind injection of corticosteroid and single blind assessments. The main outcome measure was treatment success defined as patients rating themselves completely recovered or much better on a six-point scale. One hundred fifty-seven patients (89 %) completed the trial. Placebo injection with physiotherapy showed no significant difference compared to control or to corticosteroid injection with physiotherapy at any follow-up. Corticosteroid injection with physiotherapy had a 10.6 times larger odds for success at six weeks (odds ratio 10.60, p lateral epicondylitis is a self-limiting condition where 3/4 of patients recover within 52 weeks. Physiotherapy with deep transverse friction massage, Mills manipulation, stretching, and eccentric exercises showed no clear benefit, and corticosteroid injection gave no added effect. Corticosteroid injections combined with physiotherapy might be considered for patients needing a quick improvement, but intermediate (12 to 26 weeks) worsening of symptoms makes the treatment difficult to

  12. The use of electromyography and magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate a core strengthening exercise programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowska-Kucharska, Alicja; Szpala, Agnieszka

    2018-01-01

    The question that was asked in the study was whether a training routine based on curl-up exercises with a load provided by body mass of the person increases local muscle strength or local muscle endurance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 4 weeks training based on a small load and low movement velocity on electrical activity (EMG), cross-sectional area (CSA) of core stabilisers. The EMG activity was measured in the rectus abdominis (RA), obliquus abdominis externus and erector spinae (ES) muscles. CSA of the muscles: RA, anterolateral abdominal, psoas major, quadratus lumborum, ES, and multifidus at the level of L3-L4 were measured too. The training increased the CSA and thickness in most of the muscles studied. Statistically significant correlation was found only for the ES circumference (left side) and EMG activity for the right side (r= 0.627, p= 0.022) and left side (r= 0.624, p= 0.023). The training programme resulted in a increase in the number of curl-up repetitions revealing an endurance increase in abdominal muscles. Furthermore, there was a increase in the EMG activity of the RA. An increase of the CSA of all tested muscles showed an increase of muscle active force.

  13. MRI-Based Regional Muscle Use during Hamstring Strengthening Exercises in Elite Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Suarez-Arrones, Luis; Rodas, Gil; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; Tesch, Per; Linnehan, Richard; Kreider, Richard; Di Salvo, Valter

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined site-specific hamstring muscles use with functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in elite soccer players during strength training. Thirty-six players were randomized into four groups, each performing either Nordic hamstring, flywheel leg-curl, Russian belt or the hip-extension conic-pulley exercise. The transverse relaxation time (T2) shift from pre- to post-MRI were calculated for the biceps femoris long (BFl) and short (BFs) heads, semitendinosus (ST) and semimembranosus (SM) muscles at proximal, middle and distal areas of the muscle length. T2 values increased substantially after flywheel leg-curl in all regions of the BFl (from 9±8 to 16±8%), BFs (41±6-71±11%), and ST (60±1-69±7%). Nordic hamstring induced a substantial T2 increase in all regions of the BFs (13±8-16±5%) and ST (15±7-17±5%). T2 values after the Russian belt deadlift substantially increased in all regions of the BFl (6±4-7±5%), ST (8±3-11±2%), SM (6±4-10±4%), and proximal and distal regions of BFs (6±6-8±5%). T2 values substantially increased after hip-extension conic-pulley only in proximal and middle regions of BFl (11±5-7±5%) and ST (7±3-12±4%). The relevance of such MRI-based inter- and intra-muscle use in designing more effective resistance training for improving hamstring function and preventing hamstring injuries in elite soccer players should be explored with more mechanistic studies.

  14. MRI-Based Regional Muscle Use during Hamstring Strengthening Exercises in Elite Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Suarez-Arrones, Luis; Rodas, Gil; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; Tesch, Per; Linnehan, Richard; Kreider, Richard; Di Salvo, Valter

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined site-specific hamstring muscles use with functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in elite soccer players during strength training. Thirty-six players were randomized into four groups, each performing either Nordic hamstring, flywheel leg-curl, Russian belt or the hip-extension conic-pulley exercise. The transverse relaxation time (T2) shift from pre- to post-MRI were calculated for the biceps femoris long (BFl) and short (BFs) heads, semitendinosus (ST) and semimembranosus (SM) muscles at proximal, middle and distal areas of the muscle length. T2 values increased substantially after flywheel leg-curl in all regions of the BFl (from 9±8 to 16±8%), BFs (41±6–71±11%), and ST (60±1–69±7%). Nordic hamstring induced a substantial T2 increase in all regions of the BFs (13±8–16±5%) and ST (15±7–17±5%). T2 values after the Russian belt deadlift substantially increased in all regions of the BFl (6±4–7±5%), ST (8±3–11±2%), SM (6±4–10±4%), and proximal and distal regions of BFs (6±6–8±5%). T2 values substantially increased after hip-extension conic-pulley only in proximal and middle regions of BFl (11±5–7±5%) and ST (7±3–12±4%). The relevance of such MRI-based inter- and intra-muscle use in designing more effective resistance training for improving hamstring function and preventing hamstring injuries in elite soccer players should be explored with more mechanistic studies. PMID:27583444

  15. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen ...

  16. Managing knee osteoarthritis with yoga or aerobic/strengthening exercise programs in older adults: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Corjena; Wyman, Jean F; Bronas, Ulf; McCarthy, Teresa; Rudser, Kyle; Mathiason, Michelle A

    2017-03-01

    Although exercise is often recommended for managing osteoarthritis (OA), limited evidence-based exercise options are available for older adults with OA. This study compared the effects of Hatha yoga (HY) and aerobic/strengthening exercises (ASE) on knee OA. Randomized controlled trial with three arms design was used: HY, ASE, and education control. Both HY and ASE groups involved 8 weekly 45-min group classes with 2-4 days/week home practice sessions. Control group received OA education brochures and weekly phone calls from study staff. Standardized instruments were used to measure OA symptoms, physical function, mood, spiritual health, fear of falling, and quality of life at baseline, 4 and 8 weeks. HY/ASE adherences were assessed weekly using class attendance records and home practice video recordings. Primary analysis of the difference in the change from baseline was based on intent-to-treat and adjusted for baseline values. Eight-three adults with symptomatic knee OA completed the study (84% female; mean age 71.6 ± 8.0 years; mean BMI 29.0 ± 7.0 kg/m 2 ). Retention rate was 82%. Compared to the ASE group at 8 weeks, participants in the HY group had a significant improvement from baseline in perception of OA symptoms (-9.6 [95% CI -15.3, -4]; p = .001), anxiety (-1.4 [95% CI -2.7, -0]; p = .04), and fear of falling (-4.6 [-7.5, -1.7]; p = .002). There were no differences in class/home practice adherence between HY and ASE. Three non-serious adverse events were reported from the ASE group. Both HY and ASE improved symptoms and function but HY may have superior benefits for older adults with knee OA. Trial registration The full trial protocol is available at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02525341).

  17. Comparison of neuromuscular and quadriceps strengthening exercise in the treatment of varus malaligned knees with medial knee osteoarthritis: a randomised controlled trial protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennell Kim L

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoarthritis of the knee involving predominantly the medial tibiofemoral compartment is common in older people, giving rise to pain and loss of function. Many people experience progressive worsening of the disease over time, particularly those with varus malalignment and increased medial knee joint load. Therefore, interventions that can reduce excessive medial knee loading may be beneficial in reducing the risk of structural progression. Traditional quadriceps strengthening can improve pain and function in people with knee osteoarthritis but does not appear to reduce medial knee load. A neuromuscular exercise program, emphasising optimal alignment of the trunk and lower limb joints relative to one another, as well as quality of movement performance, while dynamically and functionally strengthening the lower limb muscles, may be able to reduce medial knee load. Such a program may also be superior to traditional quadriceps strengthening with respect to improved pain and physical function because of the functional and dynamic nature. This randomised controlled trial will investigate the effect of a neuromuscular exercise program on medial knee joint loading, pain and function in individuals with medial knee joint osteoarthritis. We hypothesise that the neuromuscular program will reduce medial knee load as well as pain and functional limitations to a greater extent than a traditional quadriceps strengthening program. Methods/Design 100 people with medial knee pain, radiographic medial compartment osteoarthritis and varus malalignment will be recruited and randomly allocated to one of two 12-week exercise programs: quadriceps strengthening or neuromuscular exercise. Each program will involve 14 supervised exercise sessions with a physiotherapist plus four unsupervised sessions per week at home. The primary outcomes are medial knee load during walking (the peak external knee adduction moment from 3D gait analysis, pain, and self

  18. Comparison of yoga versus stretching for chronic low back pain: protocol for the Yoga Exercise Self-care (YES) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Karen J; Cherkin, Daniel C; Cook, Andrea J; Hawkes, Rene J; Deyo, Richard A; Wellman, Robert; Khalsa, Partap S

    2010-03-31

    Back pain, one of the most prevalent conditions afflicting American adults, is the leading reason for using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies. Yoga is an increasingly popular "mind-body" CAM therapy often used for relieving back pain and several small studies have found yoga effective for this condition. This study will assess whether yoga is effective for treating chronic low back pain compared with self care and exercise and will explore the mechanisms responsible for any observed benefits. A total of 210 participants with low back pain lasting at least 3 months will be recruited from primary care clinics of a large healthcare system based in Seattle. They will be randomized in a 2:2:1 ratio to receive 12 weekly yoga classes, 12 weekly conventional therapeutic exercise classes of comparable physical exertion, or a self-care book. Interviewers masked to participants' treatment group will assess outcomes at baseline and 6, 12 and 26 weeks after randomization. Primary outcomes will be back-related dysfunction and symptom bothersomeness. In addition, data will be collected on physical measurements (e.g., flexion) at baseline and 12 weeks and saliva samples will be obtained at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Information will be collected on specific physical, psychological, and physiological factors to allow exploration of possible mechanisms of action through which yoga could relieve back pain and dysfunction. The effectiveness of yoga will be assessed using analysis of covariance (using general estimating equations - GEE) within an intention-to-treat context. If yoga is found effective, further analyses will explore whether yoga's benefits are attributable to physical, psychological and/or physiological factors. This study will provide the clearest evidence to date about the value of yoga as a therapeutic option for treating chronic back pain, and if the results are positive, will help focus future, more in-depth, research on the most promising

  19. Comparison of yoga versus stretching for chronic low back pain: protocol for the Yoga Exercise Self-care (YES trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawkes Rene J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Back pain, one of the most prevalent conditions afflicting American adults, is the leading reason for using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM therapies. Yoga is an increasingly popular "mind-body" CAM therapy often used for relieving back pain and several small studies have found yoga effective for this condition. This study will assess whether yoga is effective for treating chronic low back pain compared with self care and exercise and will explore the mechanisms responsible for any observed benefits. Methods/Design A total of 210 participants with low back pain lasting at least 3 months will be recruited from primary care clinics of a large healthcare system based in Seattle. They will be randomized in a 2:2:1 ratio to receive 12 weekly yoga classes, 12 weekly conventional therapeutic exercise classes of comparable physical exertion, or a self-care book. Interviewers masked to participants' treatment group will assess outcomes at baseline and 6, 12 and 26 weeks after randomization. Primary outcomes will be back-related dysfunction and symptom bothersomeness. In addition, data will be collected on physical measurements (e.g., flexion at baseline and 12 weeks and saliva samples will be obtained at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Information will be collected on specific physical, psychological, and physiological factors to allow exploration of possible mechanisms of action through which yoga could relieve back pain and dysfunction. The effectiveness of yoga will be assessed using analysis of covariance (using general estimating equations - GEE within an intention-to-treat context. If yoga is found effective, further analyses will explore whether yoga's benefits are attributable to physical, psychological and/or physiological factors. Conclusions This study will provide the clearest evidence to date about the value of yoga as a therapeutic option for treating chronic back pain, and if the results are positive, will help

  20. Stretch Marks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... completely without the help of a dermatologist or plastic surgeon. These doctors may use one of many types of treatments — from actual surgery to techniques like microdermabrasion and laser treatment — to reduce the appearance of stretch marks. These techniques are ...

  1. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body. Pilates, yoga and martial arts all provide well-rounded core strengthening programs. Simple exercises can be done at home as well. Some specific core strengthening exercises are described below. ...

  2. The effectiveness of combined prescription of ankle–foot orthosis and stretching program for the treatment of recalcitrant plantar fasciitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehab A.E. Sallam

    2016-01-01

    Combined prescription of night-stretch ankle–foot orthosis and stretching exercises for plantar flexors and fascia had greater therapeutic effects compared with each treatment alone. Stretching exercises alone are not beneficial in the treatment of recalcitrant plantar fasciitis.

  3. Effect of stretching and proprioceptive loading in hand function among patients with cerebellar tremor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariharasudhan Ravichandran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Tremor, the most common form of abnormal involuntary movement, affects the performance of activities of daily living. Evidence on effective form of physiotherapy techniques which can help manage intentional tremor and improve hand function among cerebellar dysfunction patients in inconclusive. Hence, this study aims to establish the effectiveness of stretching and proprioceptive loading among cerebellar patients with intentional tremors. The objective of this study is to compare the efficacy of stretching and proprioceptive loading among patients with cerebellar intention tremor. Materials and Methods: A total of thirty patients with intention tremor due to cerebellar lesion were recruited for this study. They were randomized into two groups, Group I received stretching exercise and Group II received proprioceptive loading exercise. Pre- and post-test outcome measures were taken at the end of duration of 3 weeks intervention. Outcome measures were Fahn's tremor rating scale and nine hole peg test. Results: Statistical analyses were done by McNemar test, Wilcoxon's signed rank test, and Mann–Whitney test. Post-test scores of both groups were compared and found that Group II treated with proprioceptive loading exercise had higher significant result than the group treated with strengthening exercise program. Conclusion: Proprioceptive loading exercise has demonstrated signifi cant effect on reducing cerebellar tremor and improving muscle coordination in reaching activities.

  4. Stretched Superintendents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Bill

    2011-01-01

    A story about superintendents hired to manage two districts finds they exercise good organizational skills--and a lot of hustle--to succeed in this unique role. They don't discount the downsides and do question the money savings involved. Superintendents doing double duty is nothing new, particularly among the hundreds of small districts scattered…

  5. Effects of hamstring stretch with pelvic control on pain and work ability in standing workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyun-Il; Choi, Ho-Suk; Shin, Won-Seob

    2016-11-21

    Hamstring tightness induces posterior pelvic tilt and decreased lumbar lordosis, which can result in low back painOBJECTIVE: We investigated effects of hamstring stretch with pelvic control on pain and work ability in standing workers. One hundred adult volunteers from a standing workers were randomly assigned to pelvic control hamstring stretching (PCHS) (n = 34), general hamstring stretching (GHS) (n = 34), control (n = 32) groups. The control group was performed self-home exercise. All interventions were conducted 3 days per week for 6 weeks, and included in the hamstring stretching and lumbopelvic muscle strengthening. Outcomes were evaluated through the visual analog scale (VAS), straight leg raise test (SLR), sit and reach test (SRT), Oswestry disability index (ODI), and work ability index (WAI). Significant difference in VAS, SLR, SRT, ODI, and WAI were found in the PCHS and GHS groups. The control group was a significant difference only in ODI. The PCHS group showed a greater difference than the GHS group and control group in VAS, SLR, SRT, and ODI. The pelvic control hamstring stretch exercise would be more helpful in back pain reduction and improvement of work ability in an industrial setting.

  6. Muscle activation levels of the gluteus maximus and medius during standing hip-joint strengthening exercises using elastic-tubing resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youdas, James W; Adams, Kady E; Bertucci, John E; Brooks, Koel J; Nelson, Meghan M; Hollman, John H

    2014-02-01

    No published studies have compared muscle activation levels simultaneously for the gluteus maximus and medius muscles of stance and moving limbs during standing hip-joint strengthening while using elastic-tubing resistance. To quantify activation levels bilaterally of the gluteus maximus and medius during resisted lower-extremity standing exercises using elastic tubing for the cross-over, reverse cross-over, front-pull, and back-pull exercise conditions. Repeated measures. Laboratory. 26 active and healthy people, 13 men (25 ± 3 y) and 13 women (24 ± 1 y). Subjects completed 3 consecutive repetitions of lower-extremity exercises in random order. Surface electromyographic (EMG) signals were normalized to peak activity in the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) trial and expressed as a percentage. Magnitudes of EMG recruitment were analyzed with a 2 × 4 repeated-measures ANOVA for each muscle (α = .05). For the gluteus maximus an interaction between exercise and limb factor was significant (F3,75 = 21.5; P tubing.

  7. Stretch Sensor Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for determining stretch values and movement of body parts, e.g. a foot, by analysing stretch data from a stretch sensor. By analysing data from the stretch sensor it is possible to determine stretch samples which are associated with particular motion phases...

  8. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cross from your ribs across your waist and helps support you in an upright position. Stand with ... stretch and strengthen the low back muscles that help you stand and lift. Stand with feet shoulder ...

  9. Stretching Safely and Effectively

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... shown that stretching immediately before an event weakens hamstring strength. Instead of static stretching, try performing a " ... If you play soccer, for instance, stretch your hamstrings as you're more vulnerable to hamstring strains. ...

  10. Effect of the Individual Strengthening Exercises for Posterior Pelvic Tilt Muscles on Back Pain, Pelvic Angle, and Lumbar ROM of a LBP Patient with Excessive Lordosis: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2014-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to document the effect of individual strengthening exercises for posterior pelvic tilt muscles on back pain, pelvic tilt angle, and lumbar ROM of a low back pain (LBP) patient with excessive lordosis. [Subjects] The subject was a 28 year-old male with excessive lordosis who complained of severe LBP at the L3 level. [Methods] He performed individual strengthening exercises for the posterior pelvic tilt muscles (rectus abdominis, gluteus maximus, hamstring). [Results] Pelvic tilt angles on the right and left sides recovered to his normal ranges. Limited lumbar ROM increased, and low back pain decreased. [Conclusion] We suggest that an approach of individual resistance exercises is necessary for the effective and fast strengthening of the pelvic posterior tilt muscles in case of LBP with excessive lordosis.

  11. STRENGTHENING THE SUSTAINABILITY OF PUBLIC FINANCES BY MEANS OF FINANCIAL LAW FOCUSED ON THE CONTROL AND AUDIT EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel BOSTAN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The activity to prevent embrittlement sustainability of public finances should manifest itself permanently, regardless of economic circumstances - national or European. This, more so as it was set by the Stability and Growth Pact (SGP, which introduces new rules on fiscal policy. Regulations and exercise adequate of financial control and public audit are intended to give certain guarantees on landing approach this topic (most on enhancing sustainability of public finances. Therefore, our approach aims to reveal some aspects of fiscal consolidation by means of financial law focused on exercise fiscal control and public audit. Our references aim the current regulatory of this important organization and functioning rule of law activities and results reported.

  12. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... support for your body. Pilates, yoga and martial arts all provide well-rounded core strengthening programs. Simple ... use progressively heavier balls, you will experience more benefit from this exercise... Sagittal Core Strengthening You can ...

  13. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physical Therapy Postural Training Traction Watchful Waiting and Education Injection Treatments for ... Core Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on core strengthening, or building the muscles that provide ...

  14. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! ... in a straight line. Hold for 10 seconds working towards 30 seconds. Repeat 1-5 times or ...

  15. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Core Strengthening Exercises in U.S. Air Force Helicopter Crewmembers with Low Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-13

    from July 2012 to September 2013 who responded to an electronic solicitation for volunteers for a study investigating the effect of exercises in...about the type (i.e., cigarettes, cigars , chewing tobacco, other tobacco products) and quantity of tobacco use. Six items characterized participants...principal investigator. Upon receipt of the signed ICD, each participant was e-mailed the URL for the electronic study questionnaire. Participants who

  16. Urban-Rural Differences in Aerobic Physical Activity, Muscle Strengthening Exercise, and Screen-Time Sedentary Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Michael C; Song, Jaejoon; Taylor, Wendell C; Durand, Casey P; Basen-Engquist, Karen M

    2018-02-16

    Compared to their urban counterparts, US residents in rural settings face an increased risk of premature mortality and health problems that have been linked to insufficient physical activity (PA) levels. There is limited literature regarding urban-rural differences in adherence to national guidelines for all 3 PA-related behaviors. We investigated urban-rural differences in aerobic PA, leisure-time muscle strengthening PA, and leisure screen-time sedentary behavior in a combined data set of the 2011-2014 waves (N = 14,188) of the nationally representative National Cancer Institute's Health Information National Trends Survey. We found no evidence of a difference between large urban and rural residents' aerobic PA levels. The typical number of weekly bouts of leisure-time muscle strengthening PA was 25% lower for rural residents (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.751, P rural residents to engage in 6.6% less daily leisure screen-time sedentary behavior than their large urban counterparts (IRR = 0.934, P = .031). Taken together with previous literature, these results suggest that rural residents may engage in comparable levels of total PA, but less leisure-time PA, than their urban counterparts. © 2018 National Rural Health Association.

  17. Muscle-strengthening and conditioning activities and risk of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Pan, An; Mekary, Rania A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well established that aerobic physical activity can lower the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but whether muscle-strengthening activities are beneficial for the prevention of T2D is unclear. This study examined the association of muscle-strengthening activities with the risk of T2D...... at baseline. Participants reported weekly time spent on resistance exercise, lower intensity muscular conditioning exercises (yoga, stretching, toning), and aerobic moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) at baseline and in 2004/2005. Cox regression with adjustment for major determinants for T2D...... include that muscle-strengthening and conditioning activity and other types of physical activity were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire and that the study population consisted of registered nurses with mostly European ancestry. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that engagement in muscle...

  18. DYNAMIC HIP ADDUCTION, ABDUCTION AND ABDOMINAL EXERCISES FROM THE HOLMICH GROIN-INJURY PREVENTION PROGRAM ARE INTENSE ENOUGH TO BE CONSIDERED STRENGTHENING EXERCISES - A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krommes, Kasper; Bandholm, Thomas; Jakobsen, Markus D

    2017-01-01

    and external obliques during isometric adduction against a football placed between the ankles (IBA), isometric adduction against a football placed between the knees (IBK), folding knife (FK), cross-country skiing on one leg (CCS), adduction partner (ADP) and abduction partner (ABP). The EMG-signals were...... normalized (nEMG) to an isometric maximal voluntary contraction for each tested muscle. RESULTS: Adductor longus activity during IBA was 84% nEMG (95% CI: 70-98) and during IBK it was 118% nEMG (95% CI 106-130). For the dynamic exercises, ADP evoked 87% nEMG (95% CI 69-105) in adductor longus, ABP evoked 88...

  19. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prescribe an exercise program that matches your abilities. Neck Press This is an isometric exercise to strengthen your neck. Press your palm against your forehead, then use ...

  20. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... programs. Simple exercises can be done at home as well. Some specific core strengthening exercises are described ... times... Abdominal Crunch Draw abdominal wall inward, exhale as you lift chest area. This can be done ...

  1. Muscle activity during leg strengthening exercise using free weights and elastic resistance: effects of ballistic vs controlled contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Andersen, Christoffer H; Aagaard, Per; Andersen, Lars L

    2013-02-01

    The present study's aim was to evaluate muscle activity during leg exercises using elastic vs. isoinertial resistance at different exertion and loading levels, respectively. Twenty-four women and eighteen men aged 26-67 years volunteered to participate in the experiment. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded in nine muscles during a standardized forward lunge movement performed with dumbbells and elastic bands during (1) ballistic vs. controlled exertion, and (2) at low, medium and high loads (33%, 66% and 100% of 10 RM, respectively). The recorded EMG signals were normalized to MVC EMG. Knee joint angle was measured using electronic inclinometers. The following results were obtained. Loading intensity affected EMG amplitude in the order: lowBallistic contractions always produced greater EMG activity than slow controlled contractions, and for most muscles ballistic contractions with medium load showed similar EMG amplitude as controlled contractions with high load. At flexed knee joint positions with elastic resistance, quadriceps and gluteus EMG amplitude during medium-load ballistic contractions exceeded that recorded during high-load controlled contractions. Quadriceps and gluteus EMG amplitude increased at flexed knee positions. In contrast, hamstrings EMG amplitude remained constant throughout ROM during dumbbell lunge, but increased at more extended knee joint positions during lunges using elastic resistance. Based on these results, it can be concluded that lunges performed using medium-load ballistic muscle contractions may induce similar or even higher leg muscle activity than lunges using high-load slow-speed contractions. Consequently, lunges using elastic resistance appear to be equally effective in inducing high leg muscle activity as traditional lunges using isoinertial resistance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Kinesiotape and quadriceps strengthening with elastic band in women with knee osteoarthritis and overweight or obesity. A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Ballesteros, Saúl; Espinosa-Morales, Rolando; Clark-Peralta, Patricia; Gómez-Pineda, Ascención Guadalupe; Guadarrama-Becerril, Jaime Horacio

    2018-04-07

    The beneficial effects of exercise in the treatment of Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee have been verified in several studies. Kinesiotaping (KT) has been popularized due to its reducing local pressure and increasing circulation, resulting in decreased pain. Determine the clinical effectiveness of strengthening therapy with KT in women with knee OA for pain reduction. Thirty two women with knee OA, aged 50-70 years, with overweight or obesity grade I, who were randomized into two groups: one with exercise and KT, and the other, with exercise and placebo technique. Both groups performed stretching and quadriceps strengthening exercise with the elastic band 3 days weekly for 6 weeks. Measurement of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain subscale was taken as primary outcome. Stiffness and functionality of the same index and the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for pain intensity were measured. At the end of the study, there were no significant differences between the groups. Both groups had a difference of 2.7 points with respect to the baseline measurement, change percentage of 32.2% and 31.1% for placebo and experimental respectively (p=0.2). KT plus quadriceps strengthening exercise does not offer advantages for improvement of pain compared with quadriceps strengthening exercise alone in knee OA. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Espaola de Reumatologa y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatologa. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Intervention program in college instrumental musicians, with kinematics analysis of cello and flute playing: a combined program of yogic breathing and muscle strengthening-flexibility exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hie; Carey, Stephanie; Dubey, Rajiv; Matz, Rachel

    2012-06-01

    College musicians encounter health risks not dissimilar to those of professional musicians. Fifteen collegiate instrumental musicians participated in the intervention program of yogic-breathing and muscle-strengthening and flexibility exercises for 8 weeks. Pre- and post-intervention data from the Health-Pain-Injury Inventory (HPI) and the Physical & Musical-Performance Efficacy Assessment Survey (PME) were analyzed for the effects of the program on the musicians' physical and musical-performance efficacy. HPI results showed that the majority of our sample had healthy lifestyles and minimal pain and injuries but irregular eating and exercise habits. The pre-intervention PME data showed a high level of musical efficacy (i.e., awareness of music technique, tone, and flow) but a low-level of physical efficacy (i.e., awareness of posture, tension, and movement flexibility). Post-intervention data showed that the program improved physical efficacy by increased awareness of posture and tension. In 2 volunteer musicians, kinematics motion analysis was conducted for exploratory purposes. Our cellist played the scale using a larger range of motion (ROM) in right shoulder flexion and abduction and slightly increased rotation while keeping decreased right elbow ROM after the intervention program. The flutist shifted the body weight from one foot to the other more in the second playing post-intervention. These changes can be attributed to the increased physical efficacy that allowed freedom to express musicality. Findings from these case scenarios provide empirically based hypotheses for further study. We share our experience so that others may use our model and instruments to develop studies with larger samples.

  4. Cardiovascular fitness strengthening using portable device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqudah, Hamzah; Kai Cao; Tao Zhang; Haddad, Azzam; Su, Steven; Celler, Branko; Nguyen, Hung T

    2016-08-01

    The paper describes a reliable and valid Portable Exercise Monitoring system developed using TI eZ430-Chronos watch, which can control the exercise intensity through audio stimulation in order to increase the Cardiovascular fitness strengthening.

  5. Exercise Prescriptions to Prevent Musculoskeletal Disorders in Dentists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dodda Kiran; Mohan, Sreevalli; Begum, Mohammadi; Prasad, Bhanu; Prasad, Eswar Ravi Vara

    2014-01-01

    Since the number of dental patients is increasing day by day dentists are forced to spend longer times in dental chairs. This is increasing the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in dentists. This article reviews the mechanisms causing musculoskeletal disorders among dentists and also covers the exercises that can be done to prevent them. Exercises that increase the fitness of a dentist are divided into aerobic exercises – concentrating on total body fitness, stretching exercises – that concentrate on the muscles that tend to tighten in prolonged dental postures and strengthening exercises – that concentrate on the muscles that are opposite to the tight muscles. These exercises are made simple and of minimal intensity so that a dentist can practice them independently. PMID:25177661

  6. Knotting in stretched polygons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rensburg, E J Janse van; Orlandini, E; Tesi, M C; Whittington, S G

    2008-01-01

    The knotting in a lattice polygon model of ring polymers is examined when a stretching force is applied to the polygon. By examining the incidence of cut-planes in the polygon, we prove a pattern theorem in the stretching regime for large applied forces. This theorem can be used to examine the incidence of entanglements such as knotting and writhing. In particular, we prove that for arbitrarily large positive, but finite, values of the stretching force, the probability that a stretched polygon is knotted approaches 1 as the length of the polygon increases. In the case of writhing, we prove that for stretched polygons of length n, and for every function f(n)=o(√n), the probability that the absolute value of the mean writhe is less than f(n) approaches 0 as n → ∞, for sufficiently large values of the applied stretching force

  7. Effects of neck exercise on high-school students' neck-shoulder posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myoung-Hyo; Park, Su-Jin; Kim, Jin-Sang

    2013-05-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of deep flexor muscle-strengthening exercise on the neck-shoulder posture, and the strength and endurance of the deep flexor muscles of high-school students. [Subjects] The subjects were 30 seventeen-year-old female high-school students who complained about bad posture and chronic neck-shoulder pain. They were randomly divided into an experimental group of 15 subjects, who performed a deep flexor muscle-strengthening exercise and a control group of 15 subjects, who performed a basic stretching exercise. [Methods] The experimental group of 15 subjects performed a deep flexor muscle-strengthening exercise consisting of low-load training of the cranio-cervical flexor muscle, and the control group of 15 subjects performed a basic stretching exercise consisting of seven motions. [Results] The experimental group showed statistically significant changes in head tilt angle, neck flexion angle, forward shoulder angle, and the result of the cranio-cervical flexion test after the training. In contrast, the control group showed no statistically significant changes in these measures following the training. When the results of the groups were compared, statistically significant differences were found for all items between the experimental group and the control group. [Conclusion] Strengthening cranio-cervical flexor muscles is important for the adjustment of neck posture, and maintaining their stability is required to improve neck-shoulder posture.

  8. Effects of Static Stretching and Playing Soccer on Knee Laxity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgart, Christian; Gokeler, Alli; Donath, Lars; Hoppe, Matthias W.; Freiwald, Juergen

    Objective: This study investigated exercise-induced effects of static stretching and playing soccer on anterior tibial translation (ATT) of the knee joint. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: University biomechanics laboratory. Participants: Thirty-one athletes were randomly assigned into

  9. Effects of Static Stretching and Playing Soccer on Knee Laxity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgart, Christian; Gokeler, Alli; Donath, Lars; Hoppe, Matthias W.; Freiwald, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated exercise-induced effects of static stretching and playing soccer on anterior tibial translation (ATT) of the knee joint. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: University biomechanics laboratory. Participants: Thirty-one athletes were randomly assigned into

  10. Foot muscles strengthener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris T. Glavač

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous experience in the correction of flat feet consisted of the use of insoles for shoes and exercises with toys, balls, rollers, inclined planes, etc. A device for strengthening foot muscles is designed for the correction of flat feet in children and, as its name suggests, for strengthening foot muscles in adults. The device is made of wood and metal, with a mechanism and technical solutions, enabling the implementation of specific exercises to activate muscles responsible for the formation of the foot arch. It is suitable for home use with controlled load quantities since it has calibrated springs. The device is patented with the Intellectual Property Office, Republic of Serbia, as a petty patent.

  11. Summary of the stretching tectonics research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Dagan

    1994-01-01

    The rise of stretching tectonics is established on the basis of recent structural geology theory, the establishment of metamorphic nucleus complex structural model on one hand plays an important promoting art to the development of stretching structure, on the other hand, it needs constant supplement and perfection in practice. Metamorphic nucleus complex is the carrier of comparatively deep geological information in vertical section of the crust and has wide distribution in the era of south China. Evidently, it can be taken as the 'key' to understanding the deep and studying the basement, Strengthening the study will play the important promoting role to the deep prospecting. The study of stretching tectonics is not only limited within the range of structure and metamorphism, but combine with the studies of sedimentation, magmatism, metamorphism and mineralization, thus form a new field of tectonic geology of self-developing system

  12. Short Durations of Static Stretching when Combined with Dynamic Stretching do not Impair Repeated Sprints and Agility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Del P; Chaouachi, Anis; Lau, Patrick W C; Behm, David G

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the effect of different static stretching durations followed by dynamic stretching on repeated sprint ability (RSA) and change of direction (COD). Twenty-five participants performed the RSA and COD tests in a randomized order. After a 5 min aerobic warm up, participants performed one of the three static stretching protocols of 30 s, 60 s or 90 s total duration (3 stretches x 10 s, 20 s or 30 s). Three dynamic stretching exercises of 30 s duration were then performed (90 s total). Sit-and-reach flexibility tests were conducted before the aerobic warm up, after the combined static and dynamic stretching, and post- RSA/COD test. The duration of static stretching had a positive effect on flexibility with 36.3% and 85.6% greater sit-and-reach scores with the 60 s and 90 s static stretching conditions respectively than with the 30 s condition (p ≤ 0.001). However there were no significant differences in RSA and COD performance between the 3 stretching conditions. The lack of change in RSA and COD might be attributed to a counterbalancing of static and dynamic stretching effects. Furthermore, the short duration (≤ 90 s) static stretching may not have provided sufficient stimulus to elicit performance impairments. Key pointsThe duration of combined static and dynamic stretching had a positive effect on flexibility with 36.3% and 85.6% greater sit and reach scores with the 60 s and 90 s static stretching conditions respectively than with the 30 s condition (p ≤ 0.001).No significant differences in RSA and COD between the 3 stretching conditions.The lack of change in RSA and COD might be attributed to a counterbalancing of static and dynamic stretching effects.The short duration (≤ 90 s) static stretching may not have provided sufficient stimulus to elicit performance impairments.

  13. Short Durations of Static Stretching when Combined with Dynamic Stretching do not Impair Repeated Sprints and Agility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Del P.; Chaouachi, Anis; Lau, Patrick W.C.; Behm, David G.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the effect of different static stretching durations followed by dynamic stretching on repeated sprint ability (RSA) and change of direction (COD). Twenty-five participants performed the RSA and COD tests in a randomized order. After a 5 min aerobic warm up, participants performed one of the three static stretching protocols of 30 s, 60 s or 90 s total duration (3 stretches x 10 s, 20 s or 30 s). Three dynamic stretching exercises of 30 s duration were then performed (90 s total). Sit-and-reach flexibility tests were conducted before the aerobic warm up, after the combined static and dynamic stretching, and post- RSA/COD test. The duration of static stretching had a positive effect on flexibility with 36.3% and 85.6% greater sit-and-reach scores with the 60 s and 90 s static stretching conditions respectively than with the 30 s condition (p ≤ 0.001). However there were no significant differences in RSA and COD performance between the 3 stretching conditions. The lack of change in RSA and COD might be attributed to a counterbalancing of static and dynamic stretching effects. Furthermore, the short duration (≤ 90 s) static stretching may not have provided sufficient stimulus to elicit performance impairments. Key points The duration of combined static and dynamic stretching had a positive effect on flexibility with 36.3% and 85.6% greater sit and reach scores with the 60 s and 90 s static stretching conditions respectively than with the 30 s condition (p ≤ 0.001). No significant differences in RSA and COD between the 3 stretching conditions. The lack of change in RSA and COD might be attributed to a counterbalancing of static and dynamic stretching effects. The short duration (≤ 90 s) static stretching may not have provided sufficient stimulus to elicit performance impairments. PMID:24149890

  14. Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... decreased bone density with an increased risk of fracture, and shallow, inefficient breathing. An exercise program needs ... and-Soul (Feb. 2013 issue) (.pdf) Download Document Rehabilitation: Recommendations for Persons with MS (.pdf) Download Brochure ...

  15. SHORT DURATIONS OF STATIC STRETCHING WHEN COMBINED WITH DYNAMIC STRETCHING DO NOT IMPAIR REPEATED SPRINTS AND AGILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del P. Wong

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the effect of different static stretching durations followed by dynamic stretching on repeated sprint ability (RSA and change of direction (COD. Twenty-five participants performed the RSA and COD tests in a randomized order. After a 5 min aerobic warm up, participants performed one of the three static stretching protocols of 30 s, 60 s or 90 s total duration (3 stretches x 10 s, 20 s or 30 s. Three dynamic stretching exercises of 30 s duration were then performed (90 s total. Sit-and-reach flexibility tests were conducted before the aerobic warm up, after the combined static and dynamic stretching, and post- RSA/COD test. The duration of static stretching had a positive effect on flexibility with 36.3% and 85.6% greater sit-and-reach scores with the 60 s and 90 s static stretching conditions respectively than with the 30 s condition (p < 0.001. However there were no significant differences in RSA and COD performance between the 3 stretching conditions. The lack of change in RSA and COD might be attributed to a counterbalancing of static and dynamic stretching effects. Furthermore, the short duration (< 90 s static stretching may not have provided sufficient stimulus to elicit performance impairments

  16. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... weights (hand-held or training machines) or using isometric techniques. Common household items (like small canned goods) ... matches your abilities. Neck Press This is an isometric exercise to strengthen your neck. Press your palm ...

  17. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories Definitions Anatomy of the Spine Definitions A-Z Spine ... Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on core strengthening, or building the muscles that provide support for your body. Pilates, yoga ...

  18. Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Manja; thor Straten, Eivind Per

    2016-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that voluntary exercise leads to an influx of immune cells in tumors and a greater than 60% reduction in tumor incidence and growth across several mouse models. Improved immunological control of tumor progression may have important clinical implications in the prevention...

  19. Self-regulatory skills usage strengthens the relations of self-efficacy for improved eating, exercise, and weight in the severely obese: toward an explanatory model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J

    2011-07-01

    Lack of success with behavioral weight-management treatments indicates a need for a better understanding of modifiable psychological correlates. Adults with class 2 and 3 obesity (N = 183; Mean(BMI) = 42.0 kg/m(2)) volunteered for a 26-week nutrition and exercise treatment, based on social cognitive theory, that focused on self-efficacy and self-regulation applied to increasing cardiovascular exercise and fruit and vegetable consumption. Improved self-efficacy for controlled eating significantly predicted increased fruit and vegetable consumption (R(2) = .15). Improved self-efficacy for exercise significantly predicted increased exercise (R(2) = .46). When changes in self-regulatory skill usage were stepped into the 2 previous equations, the variances accounted for significantly increased. Increases in fruit and vegetable consumption and exercise significantly predicted weight loss (R(2) = .38). Findings suggest that behavioral theory should guide research on weight-loss treatment, and a focus on self-efficacy and self-regulatory skills applied to specific nutrition and exercise behaviors is warranted.

  20. Polycrystalline strengthening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels

    1985-01-01

    for the understanding of polycrystalline strengthening is obtained mainly from surface relief patterns and from bulk structures observed by transmission electron microscopy of thin foils. The results obtained by these methods are discussed and correlations are proposed. A number of features characterizing the deformed...... structure are summarized and the behavior of a number of metals and alloys is reviewed with emphasis on the structural changes in the interior of the grains and in the vicinity of the grain boundaries. The models for strain accommodation during deformation are discussed on the basis of the microstructures...

  1. Aerobic exercise (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerobic exercise gets the heart working to pump blood through the heart more quickly and with more ... must be oxygenated more quickly, which quickens respiration. Aerobic exercise strengthens the heart and boosts healthy cholesterol ...

  2. Isometric exercise (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isometric exercise works muscles and strengthens bone. Increased muscle mass elevates metabolism, which in turn burns fat. Strength training is also called anaerobic exercise, as opposed to aerobic, because increased oxygen production is not ...

  3. Comparing the effects of 3 weeks of upper-body vibration training, vibration and stretching, and stretching alone on shoulder flexibility in college-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Steven L; Kim, Eonho; Seo, Dong-Il; Bemben, Michael G

    2013-12-01

    This study compared the effects of 3 weeks of upper-body vibration training, vibration and stretching, and stretching alone on shoulder flexibility in college-aged men. Twenty-one men were randomly assigned to vibration-stretching (VS; n = 8), vibration only (VO; n = 6), or stretching only (SO; n = 7) groups that trained 3 times per week for 3 weeks. All 3 groups performed 9 total sets of 30-second stretches. The VS group performed four 30-second upper-body vibration exercises and five 30-second upper-body stretching exercises. The VO group performed nine 30-second upper-body vibration exercises. The SO group performed nine 30-second upper-body stretching exercises. Shoulder flexion (SF), shoulder extension (SE), and shoulder transverse extension (STE) were assessed by a Leighton Flexometer and back scratch tests bilaterally (BSR, BSL) were measured via tape measure. A 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) evaluated groups at baseline and a 2-way repeated-measures ANOVA evaluated the interventions over time. At baseline, there were no group differences in age, height, or weight. There was a significant (p alone or combined with stretching, is a viable alternative to a standard stretching routine when attempting to increase shoulder flexibility. Adding vibration training to a flexibility regimen may improve the likelihood of regularly performing flexibility sessions because of increased variety.

  4. EFFECTS OF KINESIOTAPING ALONG WITH QUADRICEPS STRENGTHENING EXERCISES ON PAIN, JOINT RANGE OF MOTION AND FUNCTIONAL ACTIVITIES OF KNEE IN SUBJECTS WITH PATELLOFEMORAL OSTEOARTHRITIS

    OpenAIRE

    M. Harshitha; K. Senthil kumar; K. Madhavi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patello femoral Osteoarthritis is the most common degenerative disease in older age group, causing pain, physical disability, and decreased quality of life.As many treatment options available, kinesiotaping is an efficacious treatment for management of pain & disability in patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis. Previous studies have shown that kinesiotaping as well as quadriceps strengthening significantly yields functional benefits. But there is lack of evidence revealing combined ...

  5. Dispersion strengthening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scattergood, R.O.; Das, E.S.P.

    1976-01-01

    Using digital computer-based methods, models for dispersion strengthening can now be developed which take into account many of the important effects that have been neglected in the past. In particular, the self interaction of a dislocation can be treated, and a computer simulation method was developed to determine the flow stress of a random distribution of circular, impenetrable obstacles, taking into account all such interactions. The flow stress values depended on the obstacle sizes and spacings, over and above the usual 1/L dependence where L is the average obstacle spacing. From an analysis of the results, it was found that the main effects of the self interactions can be captured in a line tension analogue in which the obstacles appear to be penetrable

  6. Stretching & Flexibility: An Interactive Encyclopedia of Stretching. [CD-ROM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    This CD-ROM offers 140 different stretches in full-motion video sequences. It focuses on the proper techniques for overall physical fitness, injury prevention and rehabilitation, and 23 different sports (e.g., golf, running, soccer, skiing, climbing, football, and baseball). Topics include stretching for sports; stretching awareness and education…

  7. Therapeutic exercises for the control of temporomandibular disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto da Rocha Moraes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Temporomandibular disorder (TMD is a multifactorial disease. For this reason, it is difficult to obtain an accurate and correct diagnosis. In this context, conservative treatments, including therapeutic exercises classified as stretching, relaxation, coordination, strengthening and endurance, are oftentimes prescribed. OBJECTIVE: Thus, the aim of the present article was to conduct a literature review concerning the types of exercises available and the efficacy for the treatment of muscular TMD. METHODS: The review included researches carried out between 2000 and 2010, indexed on Web of Science, PubMed, LILACS and BBO. Moreover, the following keywords were used: Exercise, physical therapy, facial pain, myofascial pain syndrome, and temporomandibular joint dysfunction syndrome. Studies that did not consider the subject "TMD and exercises", used post-surgery exercises and did not use validated criteria for the diagnosis of TMD (RDC/TMD were not included. RESULTS: The results comprised seven articles which proved therapeutic exercises to be effective for the treatment of muscular TMD. However, these studies are seen as limited, since therapeutic exercises were not applied alone, but in association with other conservative procedures. In addition, they present some drawbacks such as: Small samples, lack of control group and no detailed exercise description which should have included intensity, repetition, frequency and duration. CONCLUSION: Although therapeutic exercises are considered effective in the management of muscular TMD, the development of randomized clinical trials is necessary, since many existing studies are still based on the clinical experience of professionals.

  8. Stretching the Border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horstmann, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I hope to add a complementary perspective to James Scott’s recent work on avoidance strategies of subaltern mountain people by focusing on what I call the refugee public. The educated Karen elite uses the space of exile in the Thai borderland to reconstitute resources and to re-ent......-based organizations succeed to stretch the border by establishing a firm presence that is supported by the international humanitarian economy in the refugee camps in Northwestern Thailand....

  9. Heart-Healthy Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also important to perform stretches, resistance training, and balance exercises on a regular basis; these will help to improve flexibility, increase strength, and reduce fall risk ( Table ). View this table: View inline View popup ...

  10. Strengthening Mechanisms in Microtruss Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Evelyn K.

    Microtrusses are hybrid materials composed of a three-dimensional array of struts capable of efficiently transmitting an externally applied load. The strut connectivity of microtrusses enables them to behave in a stretch-dominated fashion, allowing higher specific strength and stiffness values to be reached than conventional metal foams. While much attention has been given to the optimization of microtruss architectures, little attention has been given to the strengthening mechanisms inside the materials that make up this architecture. This thesis examines strengthening mechanisms in aluminum alloy and copper alloy microtruss systems with and without a reinforcing structural coating. C11000 microtrusses were stretch-bend fabricated for the first time; varying internal truss angles were selected in order to study the accumulating effects of plastic deformation and it was found that the mechanical performance was significantly enhanced in the presence of work hardening with the peak strength increasing by a factor of three. The C11000 microtrusses could also be significantly reinforced with sleeves of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni-53wt%Fe. It was found that the strength increase from work hardening and electrodeposition were additive over the range of structures considered. The AA2024 system allowed the contribution of work hardening, precipitation hardening, and hard anodizing to be considered as interacting strengthening mechanisms. Because of the lower formability of AA2024 compared to C11000, several different perforation geometries in the starting sheet were considered in order to more effectively distribute the plastic strain during stretch-bend fabrication. A T8 condition was selected over a T6 condition because it was shown that the plastic deformation induced during the final step was sufficient to enhance precipitation kinetics allowing higher strengths to be reached, while at the same time eliminating one annealing treatment. When hard anodizing

  11. Mediators of Yoga and Stretching for Chronic Low Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen J. Sherman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although yoga is an effective treatment for chronic low back pain, little is known about the mechanisms responsible for its benefits. In a trial comparing yoga to intensive stretching and self-care, we explored whether physical (hours of back exercise/week, cognitive (fear avoidance, body awareness, and self-efficacy, affective (psychological distress, perceived stress, positive states of mind, and sleep, and physiological factors (cortisol, DHEA mediated the effects of yoga or stretching on back-related dysfunction (Roland-Morris Disability Scale (RDQ. For yoga, 36% of the effect on 12-week RDQ was mediated by increased self-efficacy, 18% by sleep disturbance, 9% by hours of back exercise, and 61% by the best combination of all possible mediators (6 mediators. For stretching, 23% of the effect was mediated by increased self-efficacy, 14% by days of back exercise, and 50% by the best combination of all possible mediators (7 mediators. In open-ended questions, ≥20% of participants noted the following treatment benefits: learning new exercises (both groups, relaxation, increased awareness, and the benefits of breathing (yoga, benefits of regular practice (stretching. Although both self-efficacy and hours of back exercise were the strongest mediators for each intervention, compared to self-care, qualitative data suggest that they may exert their benefits through partially distinct mechanisms.

  12. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT STRETCHING PROTOCOLS ON VERTICAL JUMP PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Serin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the effect of different stretching exercises on vertical jump performance. A total of 14 national male athletes sporting in the elite level took part in the study. The age average of the participants was 20.25±1.03 year, the average height was 1.80±.08 m, the average body weight was 77.14±18.91 kg, average of sporting age was 9.87±3.31 year and the average number of participation in international games was 10.0±3.31. As stretching protocol: Method 1 (5 minutes of jogging and 2 minutes of active rest followed by Method 2 (static stretching for 4 different muscle groups 3 repetitions for 15 seconds of static stretching, rest for 10 seconds between groups and then consecutively, Method 3 (Dynamic stretching exercises with 3 repetitions for 15 seconds and 10 seconds rest between different muscle groups were applied in the study. The vertical jump performance before and after different stretching exercises of the participants was determined by means of the vertical jump test using the smart speed lite system. Before and after the training of all athletes, HR was recorded with a heart rate monitor (RS 800, Polar Vantage NV, Polar Electro Oy, Finland with 5 seconds intervals. Before the study, the chest band of the heartbeat monitor was placed on the chest of the athlete and the HR was recorded from the monitor. SPSS 15.0 statistical package program was used for evaluation and calculation of the data. In this study in addition to descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation paired samples t-test was used to determine the difference between the vertical jump performance of the participants before and after different stretching exercises. As a result, this study showed that; applying the dynamic and static stretching exercises consecutively affected the vertical jump performance 4.5 cm positively (p<.05. It is suggested that different dynamic and static stretching exercises should be included in the vertical jump.

  13. Comparison between static stretching and the Pilates method on the flexibility of older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Laís Campos de; Oliveira, Raphael Gonçalves de; Pires-Oliveira, Deise Aparecida de Almeida

    2016-10-01

    Flexibility decreases with advancing age and some forms of exercise, such as static stretching and Pilates, can contribute to the improvement of this physical ability. To compare the effects of static stretching and Pilates on the flexibility of healthy older women, over the age of 60 years. Thirty-two volunteers were randomized into two groups (Static stretching or Pilates) to perform exercises for 60 min, twice a week, for three months. Evaluations to analyze the movements of the trunk (flexion and extension), hip flexion and plantar and dorsiflexion of the ankle were performed before and after the intervention, using a fleximeter. The static stretching exercises improved the trunk flexion and hip flexion movements, while the Pilates improved all evaluated movements. However, over time, the groups presented differences only for the trunk extension movement. For some body segments, Pilates may be more effective for improving flexibility in older women compared to static stretching. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Japanese Stretching Intervention Can Modify Lumbar Lordosis Curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadono, Norio; Tsuchiya, Kazushi; Uematsu, Azusa; Kamoshita, Hiroshi; Kiryu, Kazunori; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Suzuki, Shuji

    2017-08-01

    Eighteen healthy male adults were assigned to either an intervention or control group. Isogai dynamic therapy (IDT) is one of Japanese stretching interventions and has been practiced for over 70 years. However, its scientific quantitative evidence remains unestablished. The objective of this study was to determine whether IDT could modify lumbar curvature in healthy young adults compared with stretching exercises used currently in clinical practice. None of previous studies have provided data that conventional stretching interventions could modify spinal curvatures. However, this study provides the first evidence that a specific form of a Japanese stretching intervention can acutely modify the spinal curvatures. We compared the effects of IDT, a Japanese stretching intervention (n=9 males), with a conventional stretching routine (n=9 males) used widely in clinics to modify pelvic tilt and lumbar lordosis (LL) angle. We measured thoracic kyphosis (TK) and LL angles 3 times during erect standing using the Spinal Mouse before and after each intervention. IDT consisted of: (1) hip joint correction, (2) pelvic tilt correction, (3) lumbar alignment correction, and (4) squat exercise stretch. The control group performed hamstring stretches while (1) standing and (2) sitting. IDT increased LL angle to 25.1 degrees (±5.9) from 21.2 degrees (±6.9) (P=0.047) without changing TK angle (pretest: 36.8 degrees [±6.9]; posttest: 36.1 degrees [±6.5]) (P=0.572). The control group showed no changes in TK (P=0.819) and LL angles (P=0.744). IDT can thus be effective for increasing LL angle, hence anterior pelvic tilt. Such modifications could ameliorate low back pain and improve mobility in old adults with an unfavorable pelvic position.

  15. Equibiaxial cyclic stretch stimulates fibroblasts to rapidly remodel fibrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Jenna Leigh; Billiar, Kristen Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the effects of the mechanical environment on wound healing is critical for developing more effective treatments to reduce scar formation and contracture. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dynamic mechanical stretch on cell-mediated early wound remodeling independent of matrix alignment which obscures more subtle remodeling mechanisms. Cyclic equibiaxial stretch (16% stretch at 0.2 Hz) was applied to fibroblast-populated fibrin gel in vitro wound models for eight days. Compaction, density, tensile strength, and collagen content were quantified as functional measures of remodeling. Stretched samples were approximately ten times stronger, eight-fold more dense, and eight times thinner than statically cultured samples. These changes were accompanied by a 15% increase in net collagen but no significant differences in cell number or viability. When collagen crosslinking was inhibited in stretched samples, the extensibility increased and the strength decreased. The apparent weakening was due to a reduction in compaction rather than a decrease in ability of the tissue to withstand tensile forces. Interestingly, inhibiting collagen crosslinking had no measurable effects on the statically cultured samples. These results indicate that amplified cell-mediated compaction and even a slight addition in collagen content play substantial roles in mechanically induced wound strengthening. These findings increase our understanding of how mechanical forces guide the healing response in skin, and the methods employed in this study may also prove valuable tools for investigating stretch-induced remodeling of other planar connective tissues and for creating mechanically robust engineered tissues.

  16. Duration Dependent Effect of Static Stretching on Quadriceps and Hamstring Muscle Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla Alizadeh Ebadi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the acute effect of static stretching on hamstring and quadriceps muscles’ isokinetic strength when applied for various durations to elite athletes, to investigate the effect of different static stretching durations on isokinetic strength, and finally to determine the optimal stretching duration. Fifteen elite male athletes from two different sport branches (10 football and five basketball participated in this study. Experimental protocol was designed as 17 repetitive static stretching exercises for hamstring and quadriceps muscle groups according to the indicated experimental protocols; ((A 5 min jogging; (B 5 min jogging followed by 15 s static stretching; (C 5 min jogging followed by 30 s static stretching; (D 5 min jogging, followed by static stretching for 45 s. Immediately after each protocol, an isokinetic strength test consisting of five repetitions at 60°/s speed and 20 repetitions at 180°/s speed was recorded for the right leg by the Isomed 2000 device. Friedman variance analysis test was employed for data analysis. According to the analyzes, it was observed that 5 min jogging and 15 s stretching exercises increased the isokinetic strength, whereas 30 and 45 s stretching exercises caused a decrease.

  17. Comparing Physical Therapy Accompanying Exercise with Only Exercise Treatments in Patients with Chronic Mechanical Low Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Yılmaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Investigating and comparing the effects of exercise and physical therapy accompanying exercise treatments in patients with chronic low back pain. Materials and Methods: Twenty three patients with mechanical type low back existing more than 3 months were included one of the exercise or the physical therapy+exercise groups according to their application sequence. Both of the groups performed lumbar flexion and extension exercises, strengthening of the lumbar and abdominal muscle exercises and iliopsoas, hamstring and quadriceps stretching exercises two times a day for 14 days. The physical therapy group was given hot pack+therapeutic ultrasound+ interferential current for 10 days additionally. Degree of the low back pain was evaluated with visual analog scale (VAS, range of joint motion was evaluated with hand finger floor distance (HFFD and Modified Schober test, functional status was evaluated with Modified Oswestry Low Back Pain Scale and quality of life was evaluated with Short form-36 (SF-36 before and a month after the treatments. Results: In both groups (exercise group: average age 59 years, 21 females, 2 males; physical therapy group: average age 60 years, 20 females, 3 males pain intensity and HFFD decreased and Modified Schober increased, functionality recovered, pain and physical functions of SF-36 improved after the treatments. SF-36-physical role difficulty also improved in the exercise group. Decrease in pain, increase in HFFD andimproving of the functional status were all significantly more in the physical therapy group. There were no difference between the groups in terms of Modified Schober measurement and changes of the quality of life. Conclusions: Exercises and exercise+physical therapy are both effective in chronic low back pain. Successful results can be taken by addition of the physical therapy in patients who do not benefit sufficiently from exercise therapy. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2015;21: 73-8

  18. Physiotherapeutic scoliosis-specific exercises for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettany-Saltikov, J; Parent, E; Romano, M; Villagrasa, M; Negrini, S

    2014-02-01

    The use of exercises for the treatment of Adolescents with Idiopathic Scoliosis is controversial. Whilst exercises are routinely used in a number of central and southern European countries, most centres in the rest of the world (mainly in Anglo-Saxon countries), do not advocate its use. One of the reasons for this is that many health care professionals are usually not conversant with the differences between generalised physiotherapy exercises and physiotherapeutic scoliosis-specific exercises (PSSE): while the former are generic exercises usually consisting of low-impact stretching and strengthening activities like yoga, Pilates and the Alexander technique, PSSE consist of a program of curve-specific exercise protocols which are individually adapted to a patients' curve site, magnitude and clinical characteristics. PSSEs are performed with the therapeutic aim of reducing the deformity and preventing its progression. It also aims to stabilise the improvements achieved with the ultimate goal of limiting the need for corrective braces or the necessity of surgery. This paper introduces the different 'Schools' and approaches of PSSE currently practiced (Scientific Exercise Approach to Scoliosis - SEAS, Schroth, Barcelona Scoliosis Physical Therapy School - BSPTS, Dobomed, Side Shift, Functional Individual Therapy of Scoliosis - FITS and Lyon) and discusses their commonalities and differences.

  19. Eccentric exercise in treatment of Achilles tendinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, J; Larsen, C C; Bieler, T

    2007-01-01

    Prognosis and treatment of Achilles tendon pain (achillodynia) has been insufficiently studied. The purpose of the present study was to examine the long-term effect of eccentric exercises compared with stretching exercises on patients with achillodynia.......Prognosis and treatment of Achilles tendon pain (achillodynia) has been insufficiently studied. The purpose of the present study was to examine the long-term effect of eccentric exercises compared with stretching exercises on patients with achillodynia....

  20. Efficacy of hamstring stretching programs in schoolchildren. A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos-Alberto BECERRA FERNANDEZ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present review was to examine the scientific literature on the effects of physical education-based stretching programs on hamstring extensibility in schoolchildren aged 6-11 years. For this purpose relevant studies were searched from ten electronic databases dated up through May 2015. Of the 25 potentially relevant articles identified and retrieved for more detailed evaluation, only eight studies were included in the present review because they met the inclusion criteria. The overall results showed that incorporating hamstring stretching as a part of physical education classes produces a significant improvement in the scores of the tests: straight leg raise and classic sit-and-reach, for the experimental groups, but not for control groups. Stretching programs can be included in Physical Education classes, specifically during the warm-up and the cool down periods in order to improve hamstring extensibility. Although it seems that the stretching exercises in the warm-up period could be less effective in gaining flexibility in school children. Studies that use a stretching volume between 4 and 7 minutes per session and 2-4 training classes per week, obtain statistically significant improvements on the levels of hamstring flexibility in the experimental groups. However, after a five-week detraining period, children revert back to their initial flexibility levels. Therefore, it seems appropriate that physical education teachers should implement stretching programs to improve the students´ flexibility during the Physical Education classes.

  1. Stretch-minimising stream surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Barton, Michael; Kosinka, Jin; Calo, Victor M.

    2015-01-01

    We study the problem of finding stretch-minimising stream surfaces in a divergence-free vector field. These surfaces are generated by motions of seed curves that propagate through the field in a stretch minimising manner, i.e., they move without stretching or shrinking, preserving the length of their arbitrary arc. In general fields, such curves may not exist. How-ever, the divergence-free constraint gives rise to these 'stretch-free' curves that are locally arc-length preserving when infinitesimally propagated. Several families of stretch-free curves are identified and used as initial guesses for stream surface generation. These surfaces are subsequently globally optimised to obtain the best stretch-minimising stream surfaces in a given divergence-free vector field. Our algorithm was tested on benchmark datasets, proving its applicability to incompressible fluid flow simulations, where our stretch-minimising stream surfaces realistically reflect the flow of a flexible univariate object. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Stretch-minimising stream surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Barton, Michael

    2015-05-01

    We study the problem of finding stretch-minimising stream surfaces in a divergence-free vector field. These surfaces are generated by motions of seed curves that propagate through the field in a stretch minimising manner, i.e., they move without stretching or shrinking, preserving the length of their arbitrary arc. In general fields, such curves may not exist. How-ever, the divergence-free constraint gives rise to these \\'stretch-free\\' curves that are locally arc-length preserving when infinitesimally propagated. Several families of stretch-free curves are identified and used as initial guesses for stream surface generation. These surfaces are subsequently globally optimised to obtain the best stretch-minimising stream surfaces in a given divergence-free vector field. Our algorithm was tested on benchmark datasets, proving its applicability to incompressible fluid flow simulations, where our stretch-minimising stream surfaces realistically reflect the flow of a flexible univariate object. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Progressive resistance training and stretching following surgery for breast cancer: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Leigh C

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently 1 in 11 women over the age of 60 in Australia are diagnosed with breast cancer. Following treatment, most breast cancer patients are left with shoulder and arm impairments which can impact significantly on quality of life and interfere substantially with activities of daily living. The primary aim of the proposed study is to determine whether upper limb impairments can be prevented by undertaking an exercise program of prolonged stretching and resistance training, commencing soon after surgery. Methods/design We will recruit 180 women who have had surgery for early stage breast cancer to a multicenter single-blind randomized controlled trial. At 4 weeks post surgery, women will be randomly assigned to either an exercise group or a usual care (control group. Women allocated to the exercise group will perform exercises daily, and will be supervised once a week for 8 weeks. At the end of the 8 weeks, women will be given a home-based training program to continue indefinitely. Women in the usual care group will receive the same care as is now typically provided, i.e. a visit by the physiotherapist and occupational therapist while an inpatient, and receipt of pamphlets. All subjects will be assessed at baseline, 8 weeks, and 6 months later. The primary measure is arm symptoms, derived from a breast cancer specific questionnaire (BR23. In addition, range of motion, strength, swelling, pain and quality of life will be assessed. Discussion This study will determine whether exercise commencing soon after surgery can prevent secondary problems associated with treatment of breast cancer, and will thus provide the basis for successful rehabilitation and reduction in ongoing problems and health care use. Additionally, it will identify whether strengthening exercises reduce the incidence of arm swelling. Trial Registration The protocol for this study is registered with the Australian Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN012606000050550.

  4. Effects of Static Stretching and Playing Soccer on Knee Laxity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Christian; Gokeler, Alli; Donath, Lars; Hoppe, Matthias W; Freiwald, Jürgen

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated exercise-induced effects of static stretching and playing soccer on anterior tibial translation (ATT) of the knee joint. Randomized controlled trial. University biomechanics laboratory. Thirty-one athletes were randomly assigned into a stretching (26.9 ± 6.2 years, 1.77 ± 0.09 m, 67.9 ± 10.7 kg) and a control group (27.9 ± 7.4 years, 1.75 ± 0.08 m, 72.0 ± 14.9 kg). Thirty-one amateur soccer players in an additional soccer group (25.1 ± 5.6 years, 1.74 ± 0.10 m, 71.8 ± 14.8 kg). All participants had no history of knee injury requiring surgery and any previous knee ligament or cartilage injury. The stretching group performed 4 different static stretching exercises with a duration of 2 × 20 seconds interspersed with breaks of 10 seconds. The soccer group completed a 90-minute soccer-specific training program. The control group did not perform any physical activity for approximately 30 minutes. Anterior tibial translation was measured with the KT-1000 knee arthrometer at forces of 67 N, 89 N, and maximal manual force (Max) before and after the intervention. There was a significant increase in ATT after static stretching and playing soccer at all applied forces. Maximal manual testing revealed a mean increase of ATT after static stretching of 2.1 ± 1.6 mm (P soccer of 1.0 ± 1.5 mm (P = 0.001). The ATT increase after static stretching at 67 and 89 N is significantly higher than in controls. At maximum manual testing, significant differences were evident between all groups. Static stretching and playing soccer increase ATT and may consequently influence mechanical factors of the anterior cruciate ligament. The ATT increase after static stretching was greater than after playing soccer. The observed increase in ATT after static stretching and playing soccer may be associated with changes in kinesthetic perception and sensorimotor control, activation of muscles, joint stability, overall performance, and higher injury risk.

  5. ACUTE EFFECTS OF THREE DIFFERENT STRETCHING PROTOCOLS ON THE WINGATE TEST PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno L. Franco

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of different stretching exercises on the performance of the traditional Wingate test (WT. Fifteen male participants performed five WT; one for familiarization (FT, and the remaining four after no stretching (NS, static stretching (SS, dynamic stretching (DS, and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF. Stretches were targeted for the hamstrings, quadriceps, and calf muscles. Peak power (PP, mean power (MP, and the time to reach PP (TP were calculated. The MP was significantly lower when comparing the DS (7.7 ± 0.9 W/kg to the PNF (7.3 ± 0.9 W/kg condition (p < 0.05. For PP, significant differences were observed between more comparisons, with PNF stretching providing the lowest result. A consistent increase of TP was observed after all stretching exercises when compared to NS. The results suggest the type of stretching, or no stretching, should be considered by those who seek higher performance and practice sports that use maximal anaerobic power.

  6. Strengthening exercises for old cruciate ligament tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegner, Y; Lysholm, J; Lysholm, M; Gillquist, J

    1986-04-01

    Fifty-three consecutive patients with troublesome old cruciate ligament lesions underwent a 3-month thigh and calf muscle training program. Before training, the diagnosis was established by arthroscopy and clinical examination under anesthesia. Significant improvement in strength, performance, knee score, and activity level took place; the majority were improved and declined surgery. A period of strength training is recommended before the decision to undertake surgery for cruciate ligament injury.

  7. The acute effect of static and dynamic stretching during warm-ups on anaerobic performance in trained women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    rouhollah haghshenas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of static stretching, dynamic stretching and no stretching methods on power and speed in volleyball players. Therefore, Twenty-four volleyball players (height: 173.29 ± 7.81 m; mass: 62.12 ± 8.73 kg; age: 22.66 ± 4.02 years; experience: 3.27 ± 6.37 were tested for speed performance using the 20 meter sprint test and also for power using vertical jump test after static stretching, dynamic stretching and no stretching. The results analyzed using ANOVA showed that There was a significant increase in height jump after dynamic stretching against static stretching. But, there were no significant differences between no stretching and static stretching groups. In addition, there was a significant decrease in time 20 meter sprint after dynamic stretching against static stretching and no stretching groups. The results of this study suggest that it may be desirable for volleyball players to perform dynamic exercises before the performance of activities that require a high power output.

  8. Atomic Stretch: Optimally bounded real-time stretching and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Nielsen, Jannik Boll

    2016-01-01

    Atomic Stretch is a plugin for your preferred Adobe video editing tool, allowing real-time smooth and optimally bounded retarget-ting from and to any aspect ratio. The plugin allows preserving of high interest pixels through a protected region, attention redirection through color-modification, co......Atomic Stretch is a plugin for your preferred Adobe video editing tool, allowing real-time smooth and optimally bounded retarget-ting from and to any aspect ratio. The plugin allows preserving of high interest pixels through a protected region, attention redirection through color...

  9. The influence of foot position on stretching of the plantar fascia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanigan, Ryan M; Nawoczenski, Deborah A; Chen, Linlin; Wu, Hulin; DiGiovanni, Benedict F

    2007-07-01

    A recent study found nonweightbearing stretching exercises specific to the plantar fascia to be superior to the standard program of weightbearing Achilles tendon-stretching exercises in patients with chronic plantar fasciitis. The present study used a cadaver model to demonstrate the influence of foot and ankle position on stretching of the plantar fascia. Twelve fresh-frozen lower-leg specimens were tested in 15 different configurations representing various combinations of ankle and metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint dorsiflexion, midtarsal transverse plane abduction and adduction, and forefoot varus and valgus. Measurements were recorded by a differential variable reluctance transducer (DVRT) implanted into the medial band of the plantar fascia, and primary measurement was a percent deformation of the plantar fascia (stretch) with respect to a reference position (90 degrees ankle dorsiflexion, 0 degrees midtarsal and forefoot orientation, and 0 degrees MTP dorsiflexion). Ankle and MTP joint dorsiflexion produced a significant increase (14.91%) in stretch compared to the position of either ankle dorsiflexion alone (9.31% increase, p plantar fascia tissue-specific stretching exercises and lends support to the use of ankle and MTP joint dorsiflexion when employing stretching protocols for nonoperative treatment in patients with chronic proximal plantar fasciitis.

  10. Strengthening of Shear Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg

    The theory for concrete structures strengthened with fiber reinforced polymer materials has been developing for approximately two decades, and there are at the present time numerous guidelines covering strengthening of many commonly encountered structural building elements. Strengthening of in...... that describes a unit width strip of a strengthened disk. The unit width strip is named a strengthened concrete tension member and contains a single tensile crack and four debonding cracks. Analysis of the member results in closed form expressions for the load-crack opening relationship. Further analysis...... of the response, results in the ability to determine and characterize the two-way crack propagation, i.e. the relationship between tensile cracking in the concrete and interface debonding between strengthening and concrete. Using the load-crack opening relationship from the strengthened concrete tension member...

  11. Acute effect of different stretching methods on flexibility and jumping performance in competitive artistic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas, G; Smirniotou, A; Tsiganos, G; Tsopani, D; Di Cagno, A; Tsolakis, Ch

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of 3 different warm up methods of stretching (static, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation, and stretching exercises on a Vibration platform) on flexibility and legs power-jumping performance in competitive artistic gymnasts. Eighteen competitive artistic gymnasts were recruited to participate in this study. Subjects were exposed to each of 3 experimental stretching conditions: static stretching (SS), proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching (PNF), and stretching exercises on a Vibration platform (S+V). Flexibility assessed with sit and reach test (S & R) and jumping performance with squat jump (SJ) and counter movement jump (CMJ) and were measured before, immediately after and 15 min after the interventions. Significant differences were observed for flexibility after all stretching conditions for S+V (+1.1%), SS (+5.7%) and PNF (+6.8%) (P=0.000), which remained higher 15 min after interventions (S+V (1.1%), SS (5.3%) and PNF (5.5%), respectively (P=0.000). PNF stretching increased flexibility in competitive gymnasts, while S+V maintained jumping performance when both methods were used as part of a warm-up procedure.

  12. Passive Repetitive Stretching for a Short Duration within a Week Increases Myogenic Regulatory Factors and Myosin Heavy Chain mRNA in Rats' Skeletal Muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurie Kamikawa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stretching is a stimulation of muscle growth. Stretching for hours or days has an effect on muscle hypertrophy. However, differences of continuous stretching and repetitive stretching to affect muscle growth are not well known. To clarify the difference of continuous and repetitive stretching within a short duration, we investigated the gene expression of muscle-related genes on stretched skeletal muscles. We used 8-week-old male Wistar rats ( for this study. Animals medial gastrocnemius muscle was stretched continuously or repetitively for 15 min daily and 4 times/week under anesthesia. After stretching, muscles were removed and total RNA was extracted. Then, reverse transcriptional quantitative real-time PCR was done to evaluate the mRNA expression of MyoD, myogenin, and embryonic myosin heavy chain (MyHC. Muscles, either stretched continuously or repetitively, increased mRNA expression of MyoD, myogenin, and embryonic MyHC more than unstretched muscles. Notably, repetitive stretching resulted in more substantial effects on embryonic MyHC gene expression than continuous stretching. In conclusion, passive stretching for a short duration within a week is effective in increasing myogenic factor expression, and repetitive stretching had more effects than continuous stretching for skeletal muscle on muscle growth. These findings are applicable in clinical muscle-strengthening therapy.

  13. Effects of special composite stretching on the swing of amateur golf players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joong-Chul; Lee, Sung-Wan; Yeo, Yun-Ghi; Park, Gi Duck

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] The study investigated stretching for safer a golf swing compared to present stretching methods for proper swings in order to examine the effects of stretching exercises on golf swings. [Subjects] The subjects were 20 amateur golf club members who were divided into two groups: an experimental group which performed stretching, and a control group which did not. The subjects had no bone deformity, muscle weakness, muscle soreness, or neurological problems. [Methods] A swing analyzer and a ROM measuring instrument were used as the measuring tools. The swing analyzer was a GS400-golf hit ball analyzer (Korea) and the ROM measuring instrument was a goniometer (Korea). [Results] The experimental group showed a statistically significant improvement in driving distance. After the special stretching training for golf, a statistically significant difference in hit-ball direction deviation after swings were found between the groups. The experimental group showed statistically significant decreases in hit ball direction deviation. After the special stretching training for golf, statistically significant differences in hit-ball speed were found between the groups. The experimental group showed significant increases in hit-ball speed. [Conclusion] To examine the effects of a special stretching program for golf on golf swing-related factors, 20 male amateur golf club members performed a 12-week stretching training program. After the golf stretching training, statistically significant differences were found between the groups in hit-ball driving distance, direction deviation, deflection distance, and speed.

  14. Transient filament stretching rheometer II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Mette Irene; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole

    1997-01-01

    The Lagrangian sspecification is used to simulate the transient stretching filament rheometer. Simulations are performed for dilute PIB-solutions modeled as a four mode Oldroyd-B fluid and a semidilute PIB-solution modeled as a non-linear single integral equation. The simulations are compared...

  15. Soleus stretch reflex during cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grey, Michael James; Pierce, C. W.; Milner, T. E.

    2001-01-01

    The modulation and strength of the human soleus short latency stretch reflex was investigated by mechanically perturbing the ankle during an unconstrained pedaling task. Eight subjects pedaled at 60 rpm against a preload of 10 Nm. A torque pulse was applied to the crank at various positions durin...

  16. Optical tweezers stretching of chromatin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pope, L.H.; Bennink, Martin L.; Greve, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Recently significant success has emerged from exciting research involving chromatin stretching using optical tweezers. These experiments, in which a single chromatin fibre is attached by one end to a micron-sized bead held in an optical trap and to a solid surface or second bead via the other end,

  17. Influence of acute static stretching on the behavior of maximum muscle strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lúcia Borges Bastos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the influence of acute static stretching on maximal muscle strength (1RM. The non-probabilistic sample consisted of 30 subjects split into two groups: static stretching (SS= 15 and without stretching group (WS= 15. Muscle strength evaluation (1RM was conducted with a Dynamometer model 32527pp400 Pound push / pull devices coupled in knee extension (KE and bench press (BP. The Wilcoxon test for intragroup comparisons and the Kruskal-Wallis test for comparisons between groups (p< 0.05 were selected. There were no significant differences (p> 0.05 between the SS and WS in exercise KE and BP. Therefore, it can be concluded that there was no reduction in the performance of 1RM performing the exercises KE and BP when preceded by static stretching.

  18. A Systematic Review on the Effect of Mechanical Stretch on Hypertrophic Scars after Burn Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-ting Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: From extensive literature search, there was no strong evidence indicating the positive effect of mechanical stretch using stretching exercise, massage, or splinting on hypertrophic scars. A firm conclusion cannot be drawn for the discrepancy of outcome measures and varied effectiveness. Most of the included studies lacked objective evaluation or control group for comparison. Further high quality studies with larger sample size and using standardized measurements are needed.

  19. To Stretch and Search for Better Ways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    2000-06-01

    Ambassadors. The response has been wonderful. Many people are willing and eager to show others what JCE has to offer and encourage them to subscribe. The program began in the latter half of 1999, and there were 37 Journal Ambassadors by year's end. Some are located as far away as South America and Europe, and requests for information packets for meetings and workshops now arrive several times a week. We thank everyone who has been involved in this program for getting it off to a great start. Our authors and reviewers actively search for better ways to teach chemistry and for better ways to communicate to other teachers what they have learned. This enriches their own classes first and then a much wider audience. Others have volunteered to help make JCE articles easier to find and more accessible on the Web. The ACS student affiliates at one college have taken on the project of assigning keywords to articles published in some of the years before 1995. We will add these to the JCE Index online, making it an even more effective means for finding articles on specified topics. There are many possibilities for collaboration with JCE. If you would like to contribute to an ongoing project or would like to initiate a new one, please let us know. We welcome anyone who would like to help us make this Journal better. It is important that students learn how to stretch and search for better ways. This will not happen unless we challenge them within a humane and supportive learning environment. We should expect more than memorization or unthinking application of algorithmic solutions to exercises. We should provide means by which those who do not succeed at first can try again and again. And we should provide an intellectual scaffold for those whose climb toward understanding is difficult. These are not easy goals to achieve, but the more we try and the more we communicate with others who are attempting similar tasks, the more likely we are to be successful. Most important of all is that

  20. Comparison electrical stimulation and passive stretching for blood glucose control type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsianti, Rika Wahyuni; Parman, Dewy Haryanti; Lesmana, Hendy

    2018-04-01

    Physical exercise is one of the cornerstones for management and treatment type 2 diabetes mellitus. But not all people are able to perform physical exercise because of their physical limitation condition. The strategy for those people in this study is electrical stimulation and passive stretching. The aim of this study is to find out the effect of electrical stimulation and passive stretching to lowering blood glucose level. 20 subjects is divided into electrical stimulation and passive stretching group. The provision of electrical stimulation on lower extremities muscles for 30 minutes for electrical stimulation group (N=10). And other underwent passive stretching for 30 minutes (N=10). The result shows that blood glucose level is decrease from 192.9 ± 10.7087 mg/dL to 165.3 ± 10.527 mg/dL for electrical stimulation intervention group while for the passive stretching group the blood glucose decrease from 153 ± 12.468 mg/dL to 136.1 ± 12.346 mg/dL. Both electrical stimulation and passive stretching are effective to lowering blood glucose level and can be proposed for those people restricted to perform exercise.

  1. Acute effect of different time periods of passive static stretching on the hamstring flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cini, Anelize; de Vasconcelos, Gabriela Souza; Lima, Claudia Silveira

    2017-01-01

    Several factors are associated with the presence of chronic low back pain; one of them is the flexibility of the hamstring muscles that influences the posture of the pelvic spine. Investigate the influence of two different time periods of passive static stretching on the flexibility of the hamstring. Forty-six physiotherapy students were divided into two groups performing stretching exercises: 30 s and 60 s duration. The collections consisted of: (1) pre-test: evaluation of the flexibility of the hip and knee, using a manual goniometer by means of the following tests: Straight Leg Raise Test (SLR), Passive Hip Flexion Test (PHFT) and Modified Knee Extension Test (MKET), (2) intervention: stretching with different runtimes, (3) post-test: reappraisal of flexibility, conducted immediately after the intervention. Significant difference was observed intra groups, group that did stretching exercises lasting 30 seconds (G30) (SLR p = 0.000. PHFT p = 0.003 and MKET p = 0.000) and group that did stretching exercises lasting 60 seconds (G60) (SLR p = 0.000. PHFT p = 0.001 and MKET p = 0.002). Comparing the groups, no significant difference was found (SLR p = 0.307; PHFT p = 0.904; MKET p = 0.132). Thus it can be inferred that 30 seconds are sufficient for increased flexibility of young women. Therefore the time-treatment sessions can be optimized. Only the acute effect of stretching was observed; further investigation of the long-term effect is required.

  2. Time stretch and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjoubfar, Ata; Churkin, Dmitry V.; Barland, Stéphane; Broderick, Neil; Turitsyn, Sergei K.; Jalali, Bahram

    2017-06-01

    Observing non-repetitive and statistically rare signals that occur on short timescales requires fast real-time measurements that exceed the speed, precision and record length of conventional digitizers. Photonic time stretch is a data acquisition method that overcomes the speed limitations of electronic digitizers and enables continuous ultrafast single-shot spectroscopy, imaging, reflectometry, terahertz and other measurements at refresh rates reaching billions of frames per second with non-stop recording spanning trillions of consecutive frames. The technology has opened a new frontier in measurement science unveiling transient phenomena in nonlinear dynamics such as optical rogue waves and soliton molecules, and in relativistic electron bunching. It has also created a new class of instruments that have been integrated with artificial intelligence for sensing and biomedical diagnostics. We review the fundamental principles and applications of this emerging field for continuous phase and amplitude characterization at extremely high repetition rates via time-stretch spectral interferometry.

  3. Analysis of a filament stretching rheometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Mette Irene; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole

    1996-01-01

    A finite element analysis of the stretching filament rheometer of Tirtaadmadja and Sridhar (1993) is presenetd. Simulations of the stretching of a filament of the polymet test solution, fluid A, between two plates are shown.......A finite element analysis of the stretching filament rheometer of Tirtaadmadja and Sridhar (1993) is presenetd. Simulations of the stretching of a filament of the polymet test solution, fluid A, between two plates are shown....

  4. BSDB: the Biomolecule Stretching Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieplak, Marek; Sikora, Mateusz; Sulkowska, Joanna I.; Witkowski, Bartlomiej

    2011-03-01

    Despite more than a decade of experiments on single biomolecule manipulation, mechanical properties of only several scores of proteins have been measured. A characteristic scale of the force of resistance to stretching, Fmax , has been found to range between ~ 10 and 480 pN. The Biomolecule Stretching Data Base (BSDB) described here provides information about expected values of Fmax for, currently, 17 134 proteins. The values and other characteristics of the unfolding proces, including the nature of identified mechanical clamps, are available at www://info.ifpan.edu.pl/BSDB/. They have been obtained through simulations within a structure-based model which correlates satisfactorily with the available experimental data on stretching. BSDB also lists experimental data and results of the existing all-atom simulations. The database offers a Protein-Data-Bank-wide guide to mechano-stability of proteins. Its description is provided by a forthcoming Nucleic Acids Research paper. Supported by EC FUNMOL project FP7-NMP-2007-SMALL-1, and European Regional Development Fund: Innovative Economy (POIG.01.01.02-00-008/08).

  5. Local and Systemic Changes in Pain Sensitivity After 4 Weeks of Calf Muscle Stretching in a Nonpainful Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, Cecilie; Zangger, Graziella; Hansen, Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stretching is often used in clinical practice for a variety of purposes, including pain therapy. The possible mechanism behind the effect of stretching remains to be clarified. AIM: To investigate whether 4 weeks of unilateral stretching of the calf muscles would affect local...... and central pain sensitivity. METHOD: This study was a randomized assessor-blinded clinical study. Healthy participants (age 18 to 40) were included and randomized. Participants in the intervention group were instructed to perform 2 stretching exercises targeting the calf muscles; 3 times 30 seconds, 7 days...... a week for 4 weeks on the dominant leg. Participants in the control group were instructed not to do any stretching for 4 weeks. Pressure pain threshold (PPT) and temporal summation (TS) of pressure pain were measured on the stretched calf, the contra-lateral calf, and contra-lateral lower arm using...

  6. Endovascular rescue method for undesirably stretched coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae Hoon

    2014-10-01

    Undesirable detachment or stretching of coils within the parent artery during aneurysm embolization can be related with thrombus formation, which can be caused occlusion of parent artery or embolic event(s). To escape from this situation, several rescue methods have been reported. A case with undesirably stretched coil in which another rescue method was used, is presented. When the stretched coil is still located in the coil delivery microcatheter, the stretched coil can be removed safely using a snare and a handmade monorail microcatheter. After a snare is lodged in the handmade monorail microcatheter, the snare is introduced over the coil delivery micorcatheter and located in the distal part of the stretched coil. After then, the handmade monorail microcatheter captures the stretched coil and the snare as one unit. This technique using a handmade monorail microcatheter and a snare can be a good rescue modality for the undesirably stretched coil, still remained within the coil delivery microcatheter.

  7. Bending and stretching of plates

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, E H; Hemp, W S

    1964-01-01

    The Bending and Stretching of Plates deals with elastic plate theory, particularly on small- and large-deflexion theory. Small-deflexion theory concerns derivation of basic equations, rectangular plates, plates of various shapes, plates whose boundaries are amenable to conformal transformation, plates with variable rigidity, and approximate methods. Large-deflexion theory includes general equations and some exact solutions, approximate methods in large-deflexion theory, asymptotic large-deflexion theories for very thin plates. Asymptotic theories covers membrane theory, tension field theory, a

  8. Stretching of macromolecules and proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strick, T R; Dessinges, M-N; Charvin, G; Dekker, N H; Allemand, J-F; Bensimon, D; Croquette, V

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we review the biophysics revealed by stretching single biopolymers. During the last decade various techniques have emerged allowing micromanipulation of single molecules and simultaneous measurements of their elasticity. Using such techniques, it has been possible to investigate some of the interactions playing a role in biology. We shall first review the simplest case of a non-interacting polymer and then present the structural transitions in DNA, RNA and proteins that have been studied by single-molecule techniques. We shall explain how these techniques permit a new approach to the protein folding/unfolding transition

  9. Range of Motion and Plantar Pressure Evaluation for the Effects of Self-Care Foot Exercises on Diabetic Patients with and Without Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrahoglu, Lale; Koşan, Umut; Sirin, Tuba Cerrahoglu; Ulusoy, Aslihan

    2016-05-01

    We aimed to investigate whether a home exercise for self-care program that consists of range of motion (ROM), stretching, and strengthening exercises could improve ROM for foot joints and plantar pressure distribution during walking in diabetic patients to prevent diabetic foot complications. Seventy-six diabetic patients were recruited (38 with neuropathy and 38 without neuropathy). Neuropathy and nonneuropathy groups were randomly divided into a home exercise group (n = 19) and a control group (n = 19). Exercise groups performed their own respective training programs for 4 weeks, whereas no training was done in the control group. Total contact area and plantar pressure under six foot areas before and after the exercise program were measured. Ankle and first metatarsophalangeal joint ROM were measured before and after the exercise program. In the exercise group, there were significant improvements in ROM for the ankle and first metatarsophalangeal joints (P .05). A home exercise program could be an effective preventive method for improving ROM for foot joints and plantar pressure distribution in diabetic patients independent of the presence of neuropathy.

  10. Biaxial stretching of film principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Demeuse, M T

    2011-01-01

    Biaxial (having two axes) stretching of film is used for a range of applications and is the primary manufacturing process by which products are produced for the food packaging industry. Biaxial stretching of film: principles and applications provides an overview of the manufacturing processes and range of applications for biaxially stretched films. Part one reviews the fundamental principles of biaxial stretching. After an introductory chapter which defines terms, chapters discuss equipment design and requirements, laboratory evaluations, biaxial film structures and typical industrial processes for the biaxial orientation of films. Additional topics include post production processing of biaxially stretched films, the stress-strain behaviour of poly(ethylene terephthalate) and academic investigations of biaxially stretched films. Part two investigates the applications of biaxial films including fresh cut produce, snack packaging and product labelling. A final chapter investigates potential future trends for bi...

  11. Contact angles on stretched solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensink, Liz; Snoeijer, Jacco

    2017-11-01

    The surface energy of solid interfaces plays a central role in wetting, as they dictate the liquid contact angle. Yet, it has been challenging to measure the solid surface energies independently, without making use of Young's law. Here we present Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations by which we measure the surface properties for all interfaces, including the solids. We observe change in contact angles upon stretching the solid substrates, showing that the surface energy is actually strain dependent. This is clear evidence of the so-called Shuttleworth effect, making it necessary to distinguish surface energy from surface tension. We discuss how this effect gives rise to a new class of elasto-capillary phenomena. ERC Consolidator Grant No. 616918.

  12. Effects of muscular and aqua aerobic combined exercise on metabolic indices in elderly women with metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Yong-Kwon; Kim, Soo-Keun; Song, Min-Sun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of muscle strengthening exercise using elastic thera-band and aquatic aerobic combined exercise on metabolic syndrome index in elderly with metabolic syndrome. Fifty-four were assigned to muscle strengthening exercise group (n = 19), aquatic aerobic exercise group (n = 19), and combined exercise group (n = 16). The muscle strength exercise, aquatic aerobic exercise and combined exercise were provided three times a week for 12 weeks. Met...

  13. Cable strengthened arches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamerling, M.W.

    2013-01-01

    The structural efficiency of arches, subjected to several variable loads, can be increased by strengthening these arches with cables. For these structures it can be necessary, especially in case the permanent load is small, to post-tension the cables to avoid any compression acting on the cables. A

  14. Exercise Alters Gait Pattern but Not Knee Load in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ssu-Yu Chang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Six female patients with bilateral medial knee OA and 6 healthy controls were recruited. Patients with knee OA received a 6-week physiotherapist-supervised and home-based exercise program. Outcome measures, including the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index and Short Form-36 Health Survey as well as objective biomechanical indices were obtained at baseline and follow-up. After treatment, no significant difference was observed in the knee abductor moment (KAM, lever arm, and ground reaction force. We, however, observed significantly improved pain and physical function as well as altered gait patterns, including a higher hip flexor moment and hip extension angle with a faster walking speed. Although KAM was unchanged, patients with bilateral knee OA showed an improved walking speed and altered the gait pattern after 6 weeks of supervised exercise. This finding suggests that the exercise intervention improves proximal joint mechanics during walking and can be considered for patients with bilateral knee OA. Non-weight-bearing strengthening without external resistance combined with stretching exercise may be an option to improve pain and function in individuals with OA who cannot perform high resistance exercises owing to pain or other reasons.

  15. Kegel Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exercised my pelvic muscles ____ times. I spent ____ minutes exercising. At each exercise session, I squeezed my pelvic ... exercised my pelvic muscles ____ times. I spent ____ minutes exercising. At each exercise session, I squeezed my pelvic ...

  16. Stretching and jamming of finite automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijer, de N.; Kourie, D.G.; Watson, B.W.; Cleophas, L.G.W.A.; Watson, B.W.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present two transformations on automata, called stretching and jamming. These transformations will, under certain conditions, reduce the size of the transition table, and under other conditions reduce the string processing time. Given a finite automaton, we can stretch it by

  17. Hyperglycemia Augments the Adipogenic Transdifferentiation Potential of Tenocytes and Is Alleviated by Cyclic Mechanical Stretch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Fu; Huang, Yu-Ting; Wang, Hsing-Kuo; Yao, Chung-Chen Jane; Sun, Jui-Sheng; Chao, Yuan-Hung

    2017-12-28

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with damage to tendons, which may result from cellular dysfunction in response to a hyperglycemic environment. Tenocytes express diminished levels of tendon-associated genes under hyperglycemic conditions. In contrast, mechanical stretch enhances tenogenic differentiation. However, whether hyperglycemia increases the non-tenogenic differentiation potential of tenocytes and whether this can be mitigated by mechanical stretch remains elusive. We explored the in vitro effects of high glucose and mechanical stretch on rat primary tenocytes. Specifically, non-tenogenic gene expression, adipogenic potential, cell migration rate, filamentous actin expression, and the activation of signaling pathways were analyzed in tenocytes treated with high glucose, followed by the presence or absence of mechanical stretch. We analyzed tenocyte phenotype in vivo by immunohistochemistry using an STZ (streptozotocin)-induced long-term diabetic mouse model. High glucose-treated tenocytes expressed higher levels of the adipogenic transcription factors PPAR γ and C/EBPs. PPARγ was also highly expressed in diabetic tendons. In addition, increased adipogenic differentiation and decreased cell migration induced by high glucose implicated a fibroblast-to-adipocyte phenotypic change. By applying mechanical stretch to tenocytes in high-glucose conditions, adipogenic differentiation was repressed, while cell motility was enhanced, and fibroblastic morphology and gene expression profiles were strengthened. In part, these effects resulted from a stretch-induced activation of ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinases) and a concomitant inactivation of Akt. Our results show that mechanical stretch alleviates the augmented adipogenic transdifferentiation potential of high glucose-treated tenocytes and helps maintain their fibroblastic characteristics. The alterations induced by high glucose highlight possible pathological mechanisms for diabetic tendinopathy

  18. Integrated crisis management exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callen, R.B.; DeHart, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes some of the steps that Mobil has taken to enhance their crisis management capability and to improve their readiness. The approach stretches from the individual plant level to Mobil's Corporate offices in Fairfax, Virginia. Some of the lessons learned from several integrated crisis management exercises are outlined and some areas where additional industry co-operation in crisis management could pay dividends are suggested

  19. Prolonged static stretching does not influence running economy despite changes in neuromuscular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Sarah J; Bailey, David M; Folland, Jonathan P

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the acute effects of prolonged static stretching (SS) on running economy. Ten male runners (VO2(peak) 60.1 +/- 7.3 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) performed 10 min of treadmill running at 70% VO2(peak) before and after SS and no stretching interventions. For the stretching intervention, each leg was stretched unilaterally for 40 s with each of eight different exercises and this was repeated three times. Respiratory gas exchange was measured throughout the running exercise with an automated gas analysis system. On a separate day, participants were tested for sit and reach range of motion, isometric strength and countermovement jump height before and after SS. The oxygen uptake, minute ventilation, energy expenditure, respiratory exchange ratio and heart rate responses to running were unaffected by the stretching intervention. This was despite a significant effect of SS on neuromuscular function (sit and reach range of motion, +2.7 +/- 0.6 cm; isometric strength, -5.6% +/- 3.4%; countermovement jump height -5.5% +/- 3.4%; all P influence running economy despite changes in neuromuscular function.

  20. Strategy as stretch and leverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, G; Prahalad, C K

    1993-01-01

    Global competition is not just product versus product or company versus company. It is mind-set versus mind-set. Driven to understand the dynamics of competition, we have learned a lot about what makes one company more successful than another. But to find the root of competitiveness--to understand why some companies create new forms of competitive advantage while others watch and follow--we must look at strategic mind-sets. For many managers, "being strategic" means pursuing opportunities that fit the company's resources. This approach is not wrong, Gary Hamel and C.K. Prahalad contend, but it obscures an approach in which "stretch" supplements fit and being strategic means creating a chasm between ambition and resources. Toyota, CNN, British Airways, Sony, and others all displaced competitors with stronger reputations and deeper pockets. Their secret? In each case, the winner had greater ambition than its well-endowed rivals. Winners also find less resource-intensive ways of achieving their ambitious goals. This is where leverage complements the strategic allocation of resources. Managers at competitive companies can get a bigger bang for their buck in five basic ways: by concentrating resources around strategic goals; by accumulating resources more efficiently; by complementing one kind of resource with another; by conserving resources whenever they can; and by recovering resources from the market-place as quickly as possible. As recent competitive battles have demonstrated, abundant resources can't guarantee continued industry leadership.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Exercise and Activity: Key Elements in the Management of OI

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with peers. Children and adults with OI will benefit from a regular program of physical activity to promote optimal function through muscle strengthening, aerobic exercise, and recreational pursuits. Specifics of the exercise program vary depending ...

  2. Stretch due to Penile Prosthesis Reservoir Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Baten

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A 43-year old patient presented to the emergency department with stretch, due to impossible deflation of the penile prosthesis, 4 years after successful implant. A CT-scan showed migration of the reservoir to the left rectus abdominis muscle. Refilling of the reservoir was inhibited by muscular compression, causing stretch. Removal and replacement of the reservoir was performed, after which the prosthesis was well-functioning again. Migration of the penile prosthesis reservoir is extremely rare but can cause several complications, such as stretch.

  3. The Relation Between Stretching Typology and Stretching Duration: The Effects on Range of Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ewan; Bianco, Antonino; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio

    2018-04-01

    Different stretching strategies and protocols are widely used to improve flexibility or maintain health, acting on the muscle tendon-unit, in order to improve the range of motion (ROM) of the joints. This review aims to evaluate the current body of literature in order to understand the relation between stretching typology and ROM, and secondly to evaluate if a relation exists between stretching volume (either as a single training session, weekly training and weekly frequency) and ROM, after long-term stretching. Twenty-three articles were considered eligible and included in the quantitative synthesis. All stretching typologies showed ROM improvements over a long-term period, however the static protocols showed significant gains (p<0.05) when compared to the ballistic or PNF protocols. Time spent stretching per week seems fundamental to elicit range of movement improvements when stretches are applied for at least or more than 5 min, whereas the time spent stretching within a single session does not seem to have significant effects for ROM gains. Weekly frequency is positively associated to ROM. Evaluated data indicates that performing stretching at least 5 days a week for at least 5 min per week using static stretching may be beneficial to promote ROM improvements. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Acute effects of static stretching on peak and end-range hamstring-to-quadriceps functional ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekir, Ufuk; Arabaci, Ramiz; Akova, Bedrettin

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate if static stretching influences peak and end-range functional hamstring-to-quadriceps (H/Q) strength ratios in elite women athletes. METHODS: Eleven healthy female athletes in an elite competitive level participated to the study. All the participants fulfilled the static stretching or non-stretching (control) intervention protocol in a randomized design on different days. Two static unassisted stretching exercises, one in standing and one in sitting position, were used to stretch both the hamstring and quadriceps muscles during these protocols. The total time for the static stretching was 6 ± 1 min. The isokinetic peak torque measurements for the hamstring and quadriceps muscles in eccentric and concentric modes and the calculations for the functional H/Q strength ratios at angular velocities of 60°/s and 180°/s were made before (pre) and after (post) the control or stretching intervention. The strength measurements and functional strength ratio calculations were based during the entire- and end-range of knee extension. RESULTS: The pre-test scores for quadriceps and hamstring peak torque and end range values were not significantly different between the groups (P > 0.05). Subsequently, although the control group did not exhibit significant changes in quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength (P > 0.05), static stretching decreased eccentric and concentric quadriceps muscle strength at both the 60°/s and 180°/s test speeds (P hamstring muscle strength at both the 60°/s and 180°/s test speeds (P 0.05). Furthermore, the functional H/Q strength ratios exhibited no significant alterations during the entire and end ranges of knee extension both in the static stretching or the control intervention (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: According to our results, static stretching routine does not influence functional H/Q ratio. Athletes can confidently perform static stretching during their warm-up routines. PMID:26495249

  5. The effect of warm-ups with stretching on the isokinetic moments of collegiate men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyoung-Kil; Jung, Min-Kyung; Park, Eunkyung; Lee, Chang-Young; Jee, Yong-Seok; Eun, Denny; Cha, Jun-Youl; Yoo, Jaehyun

    2018-02-01

    Performing warm-ups increases muscle temperature and blood flow, which contributes to improved exercise performance and reduced risk of injuries to muscles and tendons. Stretching increases the range of motion of the joints and is effective for the maintenance and enhancement of exercise performance and flexibility, as well as for injury prevention. However, stretching as a warm-up activity may temporarily decrease muscle strength, muscle power, and exercise performance. This study aimed to clarify the effect of stretching during warm-ups on muscle strength, muscle power, and muscle endurance in a nonathletic population. The subjects of this study consisted of 13 physically active male collegiate students with no medical conditions. A self-assessment questionnaire regarding how well the subjects felt about their physical abilities was administered to measure psychological readiness before and after the warm-up. Subjects performed a non-warm-up, warm-up, or warm-up regimen with stretching prior to the assessment of the isokinetic moments of knee joints. After the measurements, the respective variables were analyzed using nonparametric tests. First, no statistically significant intergroup differences were found in the flexor and extensor peak torques of the knee joints at 60°/sec, which were assessed to measure muscle strength. Second, no statistically significant intergroup differences were found in the flexor and extensor peak torques of the knee joints at 180°/sec, which were assessed to measure muscle power. Third, the total work of the knee joints at 240°/sec, intended to measure muscle endurance, was highest in the aerobic-stretch-warm-ups (ASW) group, but no statistically significant differences were found among the groups. Finally, the psychological readiness for physical activity according to the type of warm-up was significantly higher in ASW. Simple stretching during warm-ups appears to have no effect on variables of exercise physiology in nonathletes

  6. Investing in a Large Stretch Press

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choate, M.; Nealson, W.; Jay, G.; Buss, W.

    1986-01-01

    Press for forming large aluminum parts from plates provides substantial economies. Study assessed advantages and disadvantages of investing in large stretch-forming press, and also developed procurement specification for press.

  7. Foam topology. Bending versus stretching dominated architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, V.; Ashby, M.; Fleck, N.

    2000-01-01

    Cellular solids can deform by either the bending or stretching of the cell walls. While most cellular solids are bending-dominated, those that are stretching-dominated are much more weight-efficient for structural applications. In this study we have investigated the topological criteria that dictate the deformation mechanism of a cellular solid by analysing the rigidity (or otherwise) of pin-jointed frameworks comprising inextensional struts. We show that the minimum node connectivity for a special class of lattice structured materials to be stretching-dominated is 6 for 2D foams and 12 for 3D foams. Similarly, sandwich plates comprising of truss cores faced with planar trusses require a minimum node connectivity of 9 to undergo stretching-dominated deformation for all loading states. (author)

  8. Excluded Volume Effects in Gene Stretching

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Pui-Man

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the effects excluded volume on the stretching of a single DNA in solution. We find that for small force F, the extension h is not linear in F but proportion to F^{\\chi}, with \\chi=(1-\

  9. Physical exercise: does it help in relieving pain and increasing mobility among older adults with chronic pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Mimi M Y; Wan, Vanessa T C; Ho, Suki S K

    2011-03-01

    To provide a physical exercise programme for older adults living in nursing homes. Pain is common among older persons and for those already in long-term care and having difficulty in coping with pain will be at risk of further reducing their optimal independent function. A quasi-experimental single group pretest-posttest design. Older persons from a nursing home were invited to join an eight-week physical exercise programme. Each session lasted an hour and sessions were conducted once a week by physiotherapist and nurses. Physical exercise programme consisted of stretching, strengthening, balancing, towel dancing and self-administered massage to various acupressure points. On completion of each session, older persons were given a pamphlet with pictures to illustrate the exercise of the day and they were encouraged to practise these exercises by themselves. Outcome measures including pain intensity, range of movement, activities of daily living and mobility were collected before and after the physical exercise programme. There were 75 older adult participants (57 female and 18 male, mean age 85.14 SD 5.30). Seventy-three percent (n = 55) of them had pain in the previous three months and were referred as pain group, while 25% (n = 20) were no pain group. Pain scores of 4.89 (on a 10-point scale) indicated medium pain intensity before the intervention for the pain group; the location of pain was mainly in the knee, back and shoulder. On completion of the physical exercise programme, there was a significant decrease in pain intensity to 2.89 (SD 2.14) (p daily living remained unchanged. The present study demonstrated the effectiveness of a physical exercise programme in relieving pain and enhancing functional mobility for older persons. Relevance to clinical practice.  It is important to educate older persons, especially those living in nursing homes, on the importance of engaging in regular physical exercise and maintaining mobility. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Strengthening regional safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palhares, L.; Almeida, G.; Mafra, O.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear cooperation between Argentina and Brazil has been growing since the early 1980's and as it grew, so did cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) was formed in December 1991 to operate the Common System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (SCCC). In April 1994, ABACC and the DOE signed an Agreement of Cooperation in nuclear material safeguards. This cooperation has included training safeguards inspectors, exchanging nuclear material measurement and containment and surveillance technology, characterizing reference materials, and studying enrichment plant safeguards. The goal of the collaboration is to exchange technology, evaluate new technology in Latin American nuclear facilities, and strengthen regional safeguards. This paper describes the history of the cooperation, its recent activities, and future projects. The cooperation is strongly supported by all three governments: the Republics of Argentina and Brazil and the United States

  11. Strengthening nuclear security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Hiroyoshi

    2003-01-01

    The international situation after the end of the Cold-War has been quite unstable, due to the occurrence of frequent regional conflicts and domestic wars based on ethnic, religious or racial reasons. Further, threats to the would peace and security by non-state actors, like international terrorist groups, have been recognized after 9.11 terrorist attacks to the World Trade Center buildings and to the Pentagon. Utilization of nuclear energy, which encompasses both peaceful uses and military ones, required an establishment of regulatory system, by which risks associated with the development of nuclear energy can be controlled. Accordingly, nuclear safety control system, and then non-proliferation control system has been developed, both in the international level and notional level. In recognition of the present unstable international situations, it is required to establish, maintain and strengthen a system which control nuclear security aspect, in addition to the present systems. (author)

  12. Physical exercise and fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Chiden Bueno

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgic syndrome is a non-inflammatory rheumatic disease which affects primarily Caucasianwomen. Fibromyalgic syndrome can be classified as primary, when there is no other associated pathology; orsecondary, when it is diagnosed related to some other pathology. The fibromyalgic patient needs to receivemultidisciplinary treatment and different areas should work together to promote the improvement of symptoms.The most common classical symptom of this disease is the chronic and diffuse pain. The specialized literaturepresents several works that point out the effects and benefits of physical exercise as a non-pharmacologicaltreatment for patients with fibromyalgic syndrome. Aerobic activity, stretching and strength training are amongthe physical exercises. Thus, this review aimed to highlight the several ways physical exercise can be useful tothe fibromyalgic patient, especially concerning the improvement of symptoms.

  13. Acute Effect of Static Stretching on Lower Limb Movement Performance by Using STABL Virtual Reality System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameer, Mariam A; Muaidi, Qassim I

    2017-07-17

    The effect of acute static stretch (ASS) on the lower limb RT has been recently questioned to decrease the risk of falling and injuries in situations requiring a rapid reaction, as in the cases of balance disturbance. The main purpose of this study was to detect the effect of ASS on the lower limb RT by using virtual reality device. Two Group Control Group design. Research laboratory. The control and experimental groups were formed randomly from sixty female university students. Each participant in the experimental group was tested before and after ASS for the quadriceps, hamstrings and planter flexor muscles, and compared with the control group with warming-up exercise only. The stretching program involved warming-up in the form of circular running inside the lab for 5 minutes followed by stretching of each muscle group thrice, to the limit of discomfort of 45 s, with resting period of 15s between stretches. The measurements included the RT of the dominant lower extremity by using the dynamic stability program, STABL Virtual Reality System (Model No. DIZ 2709, Motek Medical and Force Link Merged Co., Amsterdam). There was statistically significant reduction (F = 162, P= .00) in post-test RT between the two groups, and significant decrease in RT after stretching, in the experimental group (7.5%) (P= .00). ASS of the lower limb muscles tends to decrease the lower limb RT and improve movement performance.

  14. Stretched polygons in a lattice tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atapour, M [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, York University, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3 (Canada); Soteros, C E [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E6 (Canada); Whittington, S G [Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H6 (Canada)], E-mail: atapour@mathstat.yorku.ca, E-mail: soteros@math.usask.ca, E-mail: swhittin@chem.utoronto.ca

    2009-08-14

    We examine the topological entanglements of polygons confined to a lattice tube and under the influence of an external tensile force f. The existence of the limiting free energy for these so-called stretched polygons is proved and then, using transfer matrix arguments, a pattern theorem for stretched polygons is proved. Note that the tube constraint allows us to prove a pattern theorem for any arbitrary value of f, while without the tube constraint it has so far only been proved for large values of f. The stretched polygon pattern theorem is used first to show that the average span per edge of a randomly chosen n-edge stretched polygon approaches a positive value, non-decreasing in f, as n {yields} {infinity}. We then show that the knotting probability of an n-edge stretched polygon confined to a tube goes to one exponentially as n {yields} {infinity}. Thus as n {yields} {infinity} when polygons are influenced by a force f, no matter its strength or direction, topological entanglements, as defined by knotting, occur with high probability. (fast track communication)

  15. Stretched polygons in a lattice tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atapour, M; Soteros, C E; Whittington, S G

    2009-01-01

    We examine the topological entanglements of polygons confined to a lattice tube and under the influence of an external tensile force f. The existence of the limiting free energy for these so-called stretched polygons is proved and then, using transfer matrix arguments, a pattern theorem for stretched polygons is proved. Note that the tube constraint allows us to prove a pattern theorem for any arbitrary value of f, while without the tube constraint it has so far only been proved for large values of f. The stretched polygon pattern theorem is used first to show that the average span per edge of a randomly chosen n-edge stretched polygon approaches a positive value, non-decreasing in f, as n → ∞. We then show that the knotting probability of an n-edge stretched polygon confined to a tube goes to one exponentially as n → ∞. Thus as n → ∞ when polygons are influenced by a force f, no matter its strength or direction, topological entanglements, as defined by knotting, occur with high probability. (fast track communication)

  16. Influence of the stretch wrapping process on the mechanical behavior of a stretch film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Daniel; Stommel, Markus; Zimmer, Johannes

    2018-05-01

    Lightweight construction is an ongoing task in packaging development. Consequently, the stability of packages during transport is gaining importance. This study contributes to the optimization of lightweight packaging concepts regarding their stability. A very widespread packaging concept is the distribution of goods on a pallet whereas a Polyethylene (PE) stretch film stabilizes the lightweight structure during the shipment. Usually, a stretch wrapping machine applies this stretch film to the pallet. The objective of this study is to support packaging development with a method that predicts the result of the wrapping process, based on the mechanical characterization of the stretch film. This result is not only defined by the amount of stretch film, its spatial distribution on the pallet and its internal stresses that result in a containment force. More accurate, this contribution also considers the influence of the deformation history of the stretch film during the wrapping process. By focusing on similarities of stretch wrappers rather than on differences, the influence of generalized process parameters on stretch film mechanics and thereby on pallet stability can be determined experimentally. For a practical use, the predictive method is accumulated in an analytic model of the wrapping process that can be verified experimentally. This paves the way for experimental and numerical approaches regarding the optimization of pallet stability.

  17. Strengthening quitter self-identity: An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Eline; Gebhardt, Winifred A; van Laar, Colette; van den Putte, Bas; Evers, Andrea W M

    2018-06-10

    Smoking-related self-identity processes are important for smoking cessation. We examined whether quitter self-identity (i.e. identification with quitting smoking) could be strengthened through a writing exercise, and whether expected social support for quitting, manipulated through vignettes, could facilitate identification with quitting. Participants (N = 339 daily smokers) were randomly assigned to a 2 (identity: strengthened quitter self-identity vs. control) × 3 (social support: present vs. absent vs. neutral control) between-participants design. The main outcome was post-test quitter self-identity. Post-test quitter self-identity was not strengthened successfully. Only a small and marginally significant intervention effect was found on quitter self-identity, which did not generalise to positively influence quit-intention or behaviour. The social support manipulation did not facilitate quitter self-identity. Secondary content analyses showed that quitter self-identity was strengthened among participants who linked quitting smoking to their lifestyle, wanted to become quitters for health reasons, and whose reasons for becoming quitters included approach of positive aspects of quitting, but not among participants who linked quitter self-identity to their self-perceptions. Results provide insight into the content of smokers' self-conceptualizations as quitters. Writing exercises should be improved and tested to eventually successfully strengthen quitter identities.

  18. Stretch-stimulated glucose transport in skeletal muscle is regulated by Rac1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylow, Lykke; Møller, Lisbeth L V; Kleinert, Maximilian; Richter, Erik A; Jensen, Thomas E

    2015-02-01

    Rac1 regulates stretch-stimulated (i.e. mechanical stress) glucose transport in muscle. Actin depolymerization decreases stretch-induced glucose transport in skeletal muscle. Rac1 is a required part of the mechanical stress-component of the contraction-stimulus to glucose transport in skeletal muscle. An alternative to the canonical insulin signalling pathway for glucose transport is muscle contraction/exercise. Mechanical stress is an integrated part of the muscle contraction/relaxation cycle, and passive stretch stimulates muscle glucose transport. However, the signalling mechanism regulating stretch-stimulated glucose transport is not well understood. We recently reported that the actin cytoskeleton regulating GTPase, Rac1, was activated in mouse muscle in response to stretching. Rac1 is a regulator of contraction- and insulin-stimulated glucose transport, however, its role in stretch-stimulated glucose transport and signalling is unknown. We therefore investigated whether stretch-induced glucose transport in skeletal muscle required Rac1 and the actin cytoskeleton. We used muscle-specific inducible Rac1 knockout mice as well as pharmacological inhibitors of Rac1 and the actin cytoskeleton in isolated soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles. In addition, the role of Rac1 in contraction-stimulated glucose transport during conditions without mechanical load on the muscles was evaluated in loosely hanging muscles and muscles in which cross-bridge formation was blocked by the myosin ATPase inhibitors BTS and Blebbistatin. Knockout as well as pharmacological inhibition of Rac1 reduced stretch-stimulated glucose transport by 30-50% in soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscle. The actin depolymerizing agent latrunculin B similarly decreased glucose transport in response to stretching by 40-50%. Rac1 inhibition reduced contraction-stimulated glucose transport by 30-40% in tension developing muscle but did not affect contraction-stimulated glucose transport in

  19. Strengthening safeguards information evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harry, J.; Hudson, P.

    2001-01-01

    The strengthening of safeguards should not be limited to the verification of explicit declarations made by the States. Additional information should guide the IAEA to set priorities for further investigations. Not only all aspects of the State's nuclear programme, including the application of safe, secure and transparent nuclear management, but also the level of compliance with other verifiable treaties, political motivation, economic capabilities, international relations and ties, co-operative attitude to safeguards, and general openness and transparency should be included. The evaluation of the diverse forms of information from different sources requires new reliable processes that will result in a high credibility and detection probability. The IAEA uses the physical model for the evaluation of the technical information, and proposed also Fuzzy Logic, or Calculation with Words, to handle the information. But for the evaluation it is questioned whether fuzziness could lead to a crisp judgement. In this paper an objective method of information evaluation is proposed, which allows to integrate different kinds of information and to include calibration and tests in the establishment of the evaluation process. This method, Delta, uses elicitation of a syndicate of experienced inspectors to integrate obvious indicators together with apparently innocent indicators, into a database that forms the core of the evaluation process. Nominal or ordinal scales could be applied to come to an objective and quantifiable result. Experience with this method can in the course of time result in predictive conclusions. 9 refs

  20. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials on exercise parameters in the treatment of patellofemoral pain: what works?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar S

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Harvie, Timothy O'Leary, Saravana Kumar International Centre for Allied Health Evidence (iCAHE, City East Campus, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia Purpose: There is research evidence which supports the effectiveness of exercise in reducing pain and increasing function in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. However, what is unclear are the parameters underpinning this intervention. This has led to uncertainty when operationalizing exercises for patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome in clinical practice. The aim of this review was to evaluate the parameters of exercise programs reported in primary research, to provide clinicians with evidence-based recommendations for exercise prescription for patellofemoral pain. Methods: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials was undertaken. Only trials that identified exercise to be effective in treating patellofemoral pain were included. Appropriate databases and reference lists were searched using established keywords. Data relating to common exercise parameters such as the type of exercise, length, and frequency of intervention, intensity, repetitions, sets, and specific technique were extracted, along with details of co-interventions that may have been used. Results: A total of ten randomized controlled trials were included in this review and from these trials 14 interventions arms were evaluated. All 14 interventions focused on active exercises, all but two of which also included a passive stretching component. The current body of evidence demonstrates positive results with exercise interventions such as knee extension, squats, stationary cycling, static quadriceps, active straight leg raise, leg press, and step-up and down exercises for patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. A progressive regime of daily exercises of two to four sets of ten or more repetitions over an intervention period of 6 weeks or more, combined with exercises to address

  1. Optofluidic time-stretch quantitative phase microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Baoshan; Lei, Cheng; Wu, Yi; Kobayashi, Hirofumi; Ito, Takuro; Yalikun, Yaxiaer; Lee, Sangwook; Isozaki, Akihiro; Li, Ming; Jiang, Yiyue; Yasumoto, Atsushi; Di Carlo, Dino; Tanaka, Yo; Yatomi, Yutaka; Ozeki, Yasuyuki; Goda, Keisuke

    2018-03-01

    Innovations in optical microscopy have opened new windows onto scientific research, industrial quality control, and medical practice over the last few decades. One of such innovations is optofluidic time-stretch quantitative phase microscopy - an emerging method for high-throughput quantitative phase imaging that builds on the interference between temporally stretched signal and reference pulses by using dispersive properties of light in both spatial and temporal domains in an interferometric configuration on a microfluidic platform. It achieves the continuous acquisition of both intensity and phase images with a high throughput of more than 10,000 particles or cells per second by overcoming speed limitations that exist in conventional quantitative phase imaging methods. Applications enabled by such capabilities are versatile and include characterization of cancer cells and microalgal cultures. In this paper, we review the principles and applications of optofluidic time-stretch quantitative phase microscopy and discuss its future perspective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Lattice stretching bistability and dynamic heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter Leth; Savin, A. V.; Zolotaryuk, A. V.

    2012-01-01

    A simple one-dimensional lattice model is suggested to describe the experimentally observed plateau in force-stretching diagrams for some macromolecules. This chain model involves the nearest-neighbor interaction of a Morse-like potential (required to have a saturation branch) and a harmonic second......-neighbor coupling. Under an external stretching applied to the chain ends, the intersite Morse-like potential results in the appearance of a double-well potential within each chain monomer, whereas the interaction between the second neighbors provides a homogeneous bistable (degenerate) ground state, at least...... stretched bonds with a double-well potential. This case allows us to explain the existence of a plateau in the force-extension diagram for DNA and α-helix protein. Finally, the soliton dynamics are studied in detail....

  3. Optofluidic time-stretch microscopy: recent advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Cheng; Nitta, Nao; Ozeki, Yasuyuki; Goda, Keisuke

    2018-04-01

    Flow cytometry is an indispensable method for valuable applications in numerous fields such as immunology, pathology, pharmacology, molecular biology, and marine biology. Optofluidic time-stretch microscopy is superior to conventional flow cytometry methods for its capability to acquire high-quality images of single cells at a high-throughput exceeding 10,000 cells per second. This makes it possible to extract copious information from cellular images for accurate cell detection and analysis with the assistance of machine learning. Optofluidic time-stretch microscopy has proven its effectivity in various applications, including microalga-based biofuel production, evaluation of thrombotic disorders, as well as drug screening and discovery. In this review, we discuss the principles and recent advances of optofluidic time-stretch microscopy.

  4. Comparison of the Effects of Local Cryotherapy and Passive Cross-Body Stretch on Extensibility in Subjects with Posterior Shoulder Tightness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyue-nam Park

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to compare the immediate effects of local cryotherapy (LC and passive cross-body stretch on the extensibility of the posterior shoulder muscle in individuals with posterior shoulder tightness. Eighty-seven healthy subjects with a between-shoulder difference in internal rotation (IR range of motion (ROM greater than 10° were randomly divided into three groups: LC group, stretching group, and control group (n = 29 in each group. Subjects in the LC group received LC on infraspinatus and posterior deltoid muscles and subjects in the stretching group performed passive cross-body stretch. Stretch sensation was measured at the end range of passive IR and horizontal adduction (HA using numerical rating scale, and the pressure pain threshold (PPT at the infraspinatus and posterior deltoid muscles was measured using pressure algometry. Passive and active ROM of IR and HA of the glenohumeral joint were measured using an inclinometer. All measurements were performed at pre-intervention, post- intervention, and 10-min follow-up. Stretch sensation was significantly decreased and PPT was significantly increased in the LC and stretching groups at post-intervention, and these effects were maintained at 10-min follow-up, compared to the control group. Both the LC group and stretching group had a significantly greater increase in passive and active ROM of IR and HA, compared to the control group at post-intervention and 10-min follow-up. However, there were no significant differences in stretch sensation, PPT, or ROM of IR and HA between the LC group and stretching group. LC can be used to decrease the stretch sensation and increase PPT and ROM of IR and HA as much as a stretching exercise. LC could be an alternative method for increasing the restricted ROM of glenohumeral IR and HA for individuals with posterior shoulder tightness, especially for patients and sports players who have severe stretching discomfort.

  5. Stretching and folding mechanism in foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tufaile, Alberto; Pedrosa Biscaia Tufaile, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    We have described the stretching and folding of foams in a vertical Hele-Shaw cell containing air and a surfactant solution, from a sequence of upside-down flips. Besides the fractal dimension of the foam, we have observed the logistic growth for the soap film length. The stretching and folding mechanism is present during the foam formation, and this mechanism is observed even after the foam has reached its respective maximum fractal dimension. Observing the motion of bubbles inside the foam, large bubbles present power spectrum associated with random walk motion in both directions, while the small bubbles are scattered like balls in a Galton board

  6. Filament stretching rheometer: inertia compensation revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabo, Peter; McKinley, Gareth H.

    2003-01-01

    The necessary inertia compensation used in the force balance for the filament stretching rheometer is derived for an arbitrary frame of reference. This enables the force balance to be used to extract correctly the extensional viscosity from measurements of the tensile force at either end of the e......The necessary inertia compensation used in the force balance for the filament stretching rheometer is derived for an arbitrary frame of reference. This enables the force balance to be used to extract correctly the extensional viscosity from measurements of the tensile force at either end...

  7. Stretching and folding mechanism in foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tufaile, Alberto [Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades, Soft Matter Laboratory, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 03828-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: tufaile@usp.br; Pedrosa Biscaia Tufaile, Adriana [Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades, Soft Matter Laboratory, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 03828-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-10-13

    We have described the stretching and folding of foams in a vertical Hele-Shaw cell containing air and a surfactant solution, from a sequence of upside-down flips. Besides the fractal dimension of the foam, we have observed the logistic growth for the soap film length. The stretching and folding mechanism is present during the foam formation, and this mechanism is observed even after the foam has reached its respective maximum fractal dimension. Observing the motion of bubbles inside the foam, large bubbles present power spectrum associated with random walk motion in both directions, while the small bubbles are scattered like balls in a Galton board.

  8. The Effect of Anabolic Steroid Administration on Passive Stretching-Induced Expression of Mechano-Growth Factor in Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Ikeda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Stretching of skeletal muscle induces expression of the genes which encode myogenic transcription factors or muscle contractile proteins and results in muscle growth. Anabolic steroids are reported to strengthen muscles. We have previously studied the effects of muscle stretching on gene expression. Here, we studied the effect of a combination of passive stretching and the administration of an anabolic steroid on mRNA expression of a muscle growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-I autocrine variant, or mechano-growth factor (MGF. Methods. Twelve 8-week-old male Wistar rats were used. Metenolone was administered and passive repetitive dorsiflexion and plantar flexion of the ankle joint performed under deep anesthesia. After 24 h, the gastrocnemius muscles were removed and the mRNA expression of insulin-like growth factor-I autocrine variant was measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results. Repetitive stretching in combination with metenolone, but not stretching alone, significantly increased MGF mRNA expression. Conclusion. Anabolic steroids enhance the effect of passive stretching on MGF expression in skeletal muscle.

  9. STRENGTHENING THE GLUTEUS MAXIMUS IN SUBJECTS WITH SACROILIAC DYSFUNCTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Added, Marco Aurélio N; de Freitas, Diego G; Kasawara, Karina T; Martin, Robroy L; Fukuda, Thiago Y

    2018-02-01

    Case series. The literature has emphasized the use of exercise as an intervention for individuals with lumbopelvic pain. However, there is limited information to guide clinicians in exercise selection for those with sacroiliac (SI) joint dysfunction. Altered function of the gluteus maximus has been found in those with SI joint dysfunction. The objective of this case series was to assess the effectiveness of an exercise program directed at increasing gluteus maximus strength in those with clinical tests positive for SI joint dysfunction. The eight subjects in this series presented with lumbopelvic pain and clinical evidence of SI joint dysfunction. Each subject underwent 10 treatments over five weeks consisting of five exercises directed at strengthening the gluteus maximus. Radiological assessment and clinical examination were performed to rule out potential concurrent pathologies. Visual analog pain scale, the Oswestry Disability Index, and strength assessed via hand held dynamometry were measured pre- and post-intervention. A significant (pjoint dysfunction.

  10. Comparison of the effects of local cryotherapy and passive cross-body stretch on extensibility in subjects with posterior shoulder tightness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyue-Nam; Kwon, Oh-Yun; Weon, Jong-Hyuck; Choung, Sung-Dae; Kim, Si-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to compare the immediate effects of local cryotherapy (LC) and passive cross-body stretch on the extensibility of the posterior shoulder muscle in individuals with posterior shoulder tightness. Eighty-seven healthy subjects with a between-shoulder difference in internal rotation (IR) range of motion (ROM) greater than 10° were randomly divided into three groups: LC group, stretching group, and control group (n = 29 in each group). Subjects in the LC group received LC on infraspinatus and posterior deltoid muscles and subjects in the stretching group performed passive cross-body stretch. Stretch sensation was measured at the end range of passive IR and horizontal adduction (HA) using numerical rating scale, and the pressure pain threshold (PPT) at the infraspinatus and posterior deltoid muscles was measured using pressure algometry. Passive and active ROM of IR and HA of the glenohumeral joint were measured using an inclinometer. All measurements were performed at pre-intervention, post- intervention, and 10-min follow-up. Stretch sensation was significantly decreased and PPT was significantly increased in the LC and stretching groups at post-intervention, and these effects were maintained at 10-min follow-up, compared to the control group. Both the LC group and stretching group had a significantly greater increase in passive and active ROM of IR and HA, compared to the control group at post-intervention and 10-min follow-up. However, there were no significant differences in stretch sensation, PPT, or ROM of IR and HA between the LC group and stretching group. LC can be used to decrease the stretch sensation and increase PPT and ROM of IR and HA as much as a stretching exercise. LC could be an alternative method for increasing the restricted ROM of glenohumeral IR and HA for individuals with posterior shoulder tightness, especially for patients and sports players who have severe stretching discomfort. Key PointsLocal cryotherapy (LC) decreased the

  11. The passive hamstring stretch test: clinical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, J W

    1979-03-28

    The passive hamstring stretch test is described. Using a modified goniometer it is shown that independent measurements taken by trained examiners approximate very closely to each other. This establishes the test as a valid objective measurement. The possible value of this test as a research tool in low back pain problems is discussed.

  12. Optical stretching on chip with acoustophoretic prefocusing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury Arvelo, Maria; Laub Busk, L.; Bruus, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    in the microchannel. Trapping and manipulation is demonstrated for dielectric beads. In addition, we show trapping, manipulation and stretching of red blood cells and vesicles, whereby we extract the elastic properties of these objects. Our design points towards the construction of a low-cost, high-throughput lab...

  13. Filament stretching rheometry of polymer melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassager, Ole; Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    2005-01-01

    The Filament Stretching Rheometry (FSR) method developed by Sridhar, McKinley and coworkers for polymer solutions has been extended to be used also for polymer melts. The design of a melt-FSR will be described and differences to conventional melt elongational rheometers will be pointed out. Results...

  14. Strain Analysis of Stretched Tourmaline Crystals Using ImageJ, Microsoft Excel and PowerPoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosbyshell, H.

    2012-12-01

    This poster describes an undergraduate structural geology lab exercise utilizing the Mohr's circle diagram for finite strain, constructed using measurements obtained from stretched tourmaline crystals. A small building housing HVAC equipment at the south end of West Chester University's Recitation Hall (itself made of serpentinite) is constructed of early-Cambrian Chickies Quartzite. Stretched tourmaline crystals, with segments joined by fibrous quartz, are visible on many surfaces (presumably originally bedding). While the original orientation of any stone is unknown, these rocks provide an opportunity for a short field exercise during a two-hour lab period and a great base for conducting strain analysis. It is always fun to ask how many in the class have ever noticed the tourmaline (few have). Students take photos using their cell phones or cameras. Since strain is a ratio the absolute size of the tourmaline crystals is immaterial. Nonetheless, this is a good opportunity to remind students of the importance of including a scale in their photographs. The photos are opened in ImageJ and the line tool is used to determine the original and final lengths of selected crystals. Students calculate strain parameters using Microsoft Excel. Then, we use Adobe Illustrator or the drafting capabilities of Microsoft PowerPoint 2010 to follow Ramsay and Huber's techniques using a Mohr's circle construction to determine the finite strain ellipse. If a stretching direction can be estimated, elongation of two crystals is all that is required to determine the strain ratio. If no stretching direction is apparent, three crystals are required for a more complicated analysis that allows for determination of the stretching direction, as well as the strain ratio.

  15. Stretching single fibrin fibers hampers their lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Lucioni, Tomas; Li, Rongzhong; Bonin, Keith; Cho, Samuel S; Guthold, Martin

    2017-09-15

    Blood clots, whose main structural component is a mesh of microscopic fibrin fibers, experience mechanical strain from blood flow, clot retraction and interactions with platelets and other cells. We developed a transparent, striated and highly stretchable substrate made from fugitive glue (a styrenic block copolymer) to investigate how mechanical strain affects lysis of single, suspended fibrin fibers. In this suspended fiber assay, lysis manifested itself by fiber elongation, thickening (disassembly), fraying and collapse. Stretching single fibrin fibers significantly hampered their lysis. This effect was seen in uncrosslinked and crosslinked fibers. Crosslinking (without stretching) also hampered single fiber lysis. Our data suggest that strain is a novel mechanosensitive factor that regulates blood clot dissolution (fibrinolysis) at the single fiber level. At the molecular level of single fibrin molecules, strain may distort, or hinder access to, plasmin cleavage sites and thereby hamper lysis. Fibrin fibers are the major structural component of a blood clot. We developed a highly stretchable substrate made from fugitive glue and a suspended fibrin fiber lysis assay to investigate the effect of stretching on single fibrin fibers lysis. The key findings from our experiments are: 1) Fibers thicken and elongate upon lysis; 2) stretching strongly reduces lysis; 3) this effect is more pronounced for uncrosslinked fibers; and 4) stretching fibers has a similar effect on reducing lysis as crosslinking fibers. At the molecular level, strain may distort plasmin cleavage sites, or restrict access to those sites. Our results suggest that strain may be a novel mechanobiological factor that regulates fibrinolysis. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Distribution of Body Weight Force on Toe and Heel before and after Exercise Therapy in Children with Spastic Diplegia Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyvan Sharif-Moradi

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the distribution of body weight force on toe and heel before and after exercise therapy and its effects on relaxation of children with spastic diplegia cerebral palsy. Materials & Methods: Ten children with spastic diplegia cerebral palsy between 8 to15 years of age participated in this study. Their mean weight and height were (30.8kg ± 5.7kg and (1.35m±0.09m respectively. Subjects underwent a 12 weeks of exercise therapy. A dynamic stability platform system (BIODEX was used to measure the mean percentage of body weight pressure on toe and heal. The balance tests were repeated on stable, almost stable and unstable base of support as well as with and without shoes. Results: Showed that the mean percentage of body weight pressure on toe and heal after exercise therapy was not significant (p>0.05. The mean percentage of body weight pressure on toe and heal was significantly decrease after exercise therapy in both with and without shoes (p<0.05. The greatest improvement achieved on almost stable and unstable conditions. Wearing shoes resulted in a balance percentage of body weight pressure on toe and heal on stable situation of stability platform the percentage of body weight pressure on toe and heal has no difference before and after exercise therapy. After exercise therapy strengthening the muscle of the ankle joint balance the percentage of body weight pressure on toe and heal. Wearing shoes decrease the muscle stretch and therefore balance the percentage of body weight pressure on toe and heal. Conclusion: The flexibility of spastic muscle and strengthening of the relax muscle must be perform. This result provides good information for physician in recognizing and therapy impacts on cerebral palsy children.

  17. EFFECTIVENESS OF INSTUMENTAL ASSISTED SOFT TISSUE MOBILIZATION TECHNIQUE WITH STATIC STRETCHING IN SUBJECTS WITH PLANTAR FASCIITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Babu. K

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Instrumental assisted soft tissue mobilization and static stretching found to be effective in plantar fasciitis, however the combined effectiveness of these techniques were unknown. The purpose of this study is to find the effect of Instrumental assisted soft tissue mobilization technique for plantar fascia combined with static stretching of triceps surae for subjects with chronic stage of Plantar Fasciitis on pain intensity, ankle dorsiflexion range of motion and functional disability. Methods: An experimental study design, selected subjects with chronic Plantar Fasciitis randomized subjects into each Study and Control group. Total of 40 subject’s data who completed study, 20 in each group, was used for analysis. Control group received conventional exercise while Study group received conventional exercises with Instrumental assisted soft tissue mobilization combined with static stretching of triceps surae muscle. Outcome measurements such as Intensity of pain using Numerical Pain Rating Scale-101 (NPRS-101, function disability using Foot Function Index Pain Subscale (FFI and ankle dorsiflexion active range of motion using Goniometer was measured before and after 2 weeks of intervention. Results: There is statistically significant improvement in means of NRS-101, ankle dorsiflexion active range of motion and Foot Function Index Pain Subscale after intervention in both groups. When the post-intervention means were compared between Study and Control group after 2 weeks of treatment there is statistically significant difference in means between the groups whereas study group showed greater percentage of improvement than control group. Conclusion: It is concluded that Instrumental assisted soft tissue mobilization technique combined with static stretching of triceps surae muscle is significantly effective than conventional exercises on reducing pain, improving ankle dorsiflexion range of motion and functional disability for subjects

  18. How to determine local stretching and tension in a flow-stretched DNA molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jonas Nyvold; Marie, Rodolphe; Kristensen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    We determine the nonuniform stretching of and tension in amega base pairs-long fragment of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that is flow stretched in a nanofluidic chip. We use no markers, do not know the contour length of the DNA, and do not have the full DNA molecule inside our field of view. Instead......, we analyze the transverse thermal motion of the DNA. Tension at the center of the DNA adds up to 16 pN, giving almost fully stretched DNA. This method was devised for optical mapping of DNA, specifically, DNA denaturation patterns. It may be useful also for other studies, e.g., DNA......-protein interactions, specifically, their tension dependence. Generally, wherever long strands of DNA—e.g., native DNA extracted from human cells or bacteria—must be stretched with ease for inspection, this method applies....

  19. EFFECTIVENESS OF PNF STRETCHING AND CYCLIC STRETCHING OF CALF TIGHTNESS ON COLLEGE GOING GIRLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlesha Sirari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Flexibility helps with injury prevention, the reduction of soreness following a workout, and a general sense of well-being. There are different stretching techniques and protocols for improvements in calf extensibility and flexibility. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of two techniques i.e. CYCLIC and PNF stretching which improves calf flexibility. This study was done to find the effectiveness of calf Cyclic and PNF stretching technique to improve calf flexibility. Methods: 30 subjects with age group 21-22 years were randomly allocated to 2 groups equally. Group 1(n=15 were given CYCLIC and group 2(n=15 were given PNF stretching technique. Plantar flexion was used to measure the calf tightness which was done before and after the treatment. Treatment was given for 7 days and on the 7th day the calf tightness was again measured. Results: The mean difference of the CYCLIC is 4.6 and mean difference of PNF is 4.7 which indicate that CYCLIC and PNF both are effective to improve calf flexibility but PNF is more effective than CYCLIC to improve calf flexibility. Conclusion: The neurophysiological basis of PNF, stating that the excitatory efficient of the neuromuscular spindle or the inhibitory afferent of the Golgi tendon organ (GTO or both are responsible for the effects. During PNF stretch and isometric contraction of stretched agonists for extended period may cause activation of its neuromuscular spindle. The increase in tension created during the isometric contraction of the pre – lengthened agonist contracts concentrically. Both the fascia & the spindle of the agonist adjust to the nearly lengthened position. These impulses travel via causing post synaptic inhibition of the motor neuron to agonist increasing the tension from the GTO. These impulses can override the impulses coming from the neuromuscular spindles arousing the muscle to reflexly resist to the change in length, thus helping in lengthening

  20. Flexibility and stretching physiology : responses and adaptations to different stretching intensities.

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas, Sandro Remo Martins Neves Ramos

    2014-01-01

    Doutoramento em Motricidade Humana, especialidade de Biomecânica Research and reported literature regarding the conceptual, methodological, and training effects of stretching with different intensities are scarce. The purposes of this thesis were to: i) explore and develop methodological conditions to achieve the second purpose (studies: 1 to 3); ii) characterize the acute and chronic effects induced by different stretching intensities on skeletal muscle and joint mechanical properti...

  1. Passive Stretch Versus Active Stretch on Intervertebral Movement in Non - Specific Neck Pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El - Aziz, A.H.; Amin, D.I.; Moustafa, I.

    2016-01-01

    Neck pain is one of the most common and painful musculoskeletal conditions. Point prevalence ranges from 6% to 22% and up to 38% of the elderly population, while lifetime prevalence ranges from 14,2% to 71%. Up till now no randomized study showed the effect between controversy of active and passive stretch on intervertebral movement. The purpose: the current study was to investigate the effect of the passive and active stretch on intervertebral movement in non - specific neck pain. Material and methods: Forty five subjects from both sexes with age range between 18 and 30 years and assigned in three groups, group I (15) received active stretch, ultrasound and TENS. Group II (15) received passive stretch, ultrasound and TENS. Group III (15) received ultrasound and TENS. The radiological assessment was used to measure rotational and translational movement of intervertebral movement before and after treatment. Results: MANOVA test was used for radiological assessment before and after treatment there was significant increase in intervertebral movement in group I as p value =0.0001. Conclusion: active stretch had a effect in increasing the intervertebral movement compared to the passive stretch

  2. The influence of stretching on tensile strength and solubility of poly(vinyl alcohol) fibres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heikens, D.; Bleijenberg, A.C.A.M.; Hoppenbrouwers, J.J.M.; Barentsen, W.M.

    1971-01-01

    The strength of wet-spun poly(vinyl alcohol) (pva) fibres is given as function of bath-stretching, wet-stretching and hot-stretching. In the two equations derived for strength of wet-stretching and hot-stretching the complex influence of the bath-stretching and hot-stretching is demonstrated. The

  3. Stretch strength of Al-Li alloy sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K.; Sawa, Y.; Yokoyama, T.; Fujimoto, S. [Science Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Mech. Eng.; Sakamoto, T. [Kobe Steel Works, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    Stretch test on Al-Li alloy sheet was carried out in stretch rate of 0.01 to 0.2 mm/sec. The limiting stretch depth was measured in various conditions and the following results were obtained. (1) Stretch rate does not affect the limiting stretch depth of Al-Li alloy. (2) The limiting stretch depth is increased with increase of the profile radius. (3) Strain hardening exponent(n-value) and r-value of Lankford do not affect the limiting stretch depth. (4) Rapture pattern in stretch test of Al is {alpha} type rapture and that of Al-Li alloy is straight line type rapture. (orig.) 4 refs.

  4. String Stretching, Frequency Modulation, and Banjo Clang

    OpenAIRE

    Politzer, David

    2014-01-01

    The banjo’s floating bridge, string break angle, and flexible drumhead all contribute to substantial audio range frequency modulation. From the world of electronic music synthesis, it is known that modulating higher frequency sounds with lower acoustic frequencies leads to metallic and bell-like tone. The mechanics of the banjo does just that quite naturally, modulating fundamentals and harmonics with the motion of the bridge. In technical terms, with a floating bridge, string stretching is f...

  5. The stretch zone of automotive steel sheets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The stretch zone of automotive steel sheets. L' AMBRIŠKO1,∗ and L PEŠEK2. 1Institute of Structural Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering,. Technical University of Košice, Vysokoškolská 4, 042 00 Košice, Slovak Republic. 2Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Metallurgy,. Technical University of Košice, Letná 9, ...

  6. [Calcium and bone metabolism across women's life stages. Exercise and sport to increase bone strength in accordance with female lifecycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Jun

    Among females who require the strategies for preventing osteoporosis, appropriate exercise and sport through all their life are important to increase or maintain bone mass. However, the type of exercise and sport applied to females is different in accordance with the lifecycle. Jumping exercise increases bone mineral content(BMC)in prepubescent children(premenarcheal girls). Bone mineral density(BMD)is higher in adolescent athletes who are engaged in weight-bearing activities. Jumping exercise, muscle strengthening exercise, and weight-bearing plus muscle strengthening exercises increase BMD in young adults and premenopausal women. Walking, aerobic weight-bearing exercise, muscle strengthening exercise, and weight-bearing plus muscle strengthening exercises maintain or increase BMD in postmenopausal women. Thus, appropriate exercise and sport in accordance with the lifecycle are important strategies for preventing osteoporosis in females.

  7. Spontaneous bending of pre-stretched bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSimone, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    We discuss spontaneously bent configurations of pre-stretched bilayer sheets that can be obtained by tuning the pre-stretches in the two layers. The two-dimensional nonlinear plate model we use for this purpose is an adaptation of the one recently obtained for thin sheets of nematic elastomers, by means of a rigorous dimensional reduction argument based on the theory of Gamma-convergence (Agostiniani and DeSimone in Meccanica. doi:10.1007/s11012-017-0630-4, 2017, Math Mech Solids. doi:10.1177/1081286517699991, arXiv:1509.07003, 2017). We argue that pre-stretched bilayer sheets provide us with an interesting model system to study shape programming and morphing of surfaces in other, more complex systems, where spontaneous deformations are induced by swelling due to the absorption of a liquid, phase transformations, thermal or electro-magnetic stimuli. These include bio-mimetic structures inspired by biological systems from both the plant and the animal kingdoms.

  8. Dynamics and structure of stretched flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, C.K. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This program aims to gain fundamental understanding on the structure, geometry, and dynamics of laminar premixed flames, and relate these understanding to the practical issues of flame extinction and stabilization. The underlying fundamental interest here is the recent recognition that the response of premixed flames can be profoundly affected by flame stretch, as manifested by flow nonuniformity, flame curvature, and flame/flow unsteadiness. As such, many of the existing understanding on the behavior of premixed flames need to be qualitatively revised. The research program consists of three major thrusts: (1) detailed experimental and computational mapping of the structure of aerodynamically-strained planar flames, with emphasis on the effects of heat loss, nonequidiffusion, and finite residence time on the flame thickness, extent of incomplete reaction, and the state of extinction. (2) Analytical study of the geometry and dynamics of stretch-affected wrinkled flame sheets in simple configurations, as exemplified by the Bunsen flame and the spatially-periodic flame, with emphasis on the effects of nonlinear stretch, the phenomena of flame cusping, smoothing, and tip opening, and their implications on the structure and burning rate of turbulent flames. (3) Stabilization and blowoff of two-dimensional inverted premixed and stabilization and determining the criteria governing flame blowoff. The research is synergistically conducted through the use of laser-based diagnostics, computational simulation of the flame structure with detailed chemistry and transport, and mathematical analysis of the flame dynamics.

  9. Strategy for Strengthening Farmer Groups by Institutional Strengthening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purbayu Budi Santoso

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture sector becomes a spotlight because this sector will be full of potential but the welfare of farmers who become the leading actor is not guaranteed and has a poor tendency. The purpose of this study is to formulate strategies to strengthen farmers' groups in order to create the marketing of the agricultural sector that benefit farmers. The method used to achieve this goal is to use a qualitative approach and Analytical Network Process. In addition to the secondary data obtained from several agencies, this study also uses primary data obtained by in-depth interviews and observations. This research results a priority of aspects of the institutional strengthening of farmer groups as well as priority issues and priorities of the solution of each aspect. In addition, the priority of alternative strategies resulted based on the problems and solutions that have been analyzed in order to solve the problems in the institutional strengthening of farmer groups in Demak.

  10. The majority are not performing home-exercises correctly two weeks after their initial instruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Mathilde; Andersen, Malene H.; Sevel, Claus

    2015-01-01

    -up assessment of TUT and exercise form while performing the shoulder abduction exercise. A stretch sensor attached to the elastic band was used to measure TUT at baseline and follow-up. A physiotherapist used a predefined clinical observation protocol to determine if participants used the correct exercise form...

  11. Psychological Effects of Light Exercise for Elderly Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    山田, 裕章; 峰松, 修; 冷川, 昭子; 吉川, 和利; 緒方, 道彦

    1987-01-01

    Psychological effects of light exercise were evaluated in healthy elderly, middle aged women and elderly with borderline hypertension. The exercises were walking and stretching for healthy elderly, elderly with hypertension and playing beginner's tennis for healty middle aged women. The subjects took exercise three hours a day, twice a week during three months period. Psychometric test battery was used Yatabe-Guilford Personality Inventry (Y-G test). Manifest Anxiety Scale (MAS), Maudsely Per...

  12. Ion exchange for glass strengthening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gy, Rene

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a short overview of silicate glass strengthening by exchange of alkali ions in a molten salt, below the glass transition temperature (chemical tempering). The physics of alkali inter-diffusion is briefly explained and the main parameters of the process, which control the glass reinforcement, are reviewed. Methods for characterizing the obtained residual stress state and the strengthening are described, along with the simplified modelling of the stress build-up. The fragmentation of chemically tempered glass is discussed. The concept of engineered stress profile glass is presented, and finally, the effect of glass and salt compositions is overviewed

  13. Acute effect of static stretching on muscle force in older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Demantova Gurjão

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the acute effect of static stretching on the peak rate of force development (PRFD and maximum voluntary contraction (MVC in older women. Ten women (68.5 ± 7.0 years; 70.9 ± 8.1 kg; 159.4 ± 6.0 cm; body mass index: 28.0 ± 3.8 kg/m2 were studied. MVC and PRFD were determined by leg press exercise before and after the control or stretching condition (three sets of 30 seconds of static stretching of the quadriceps on two different days (interval of 24 hours. PRFD was determined as the steepest slope of the curve, calculated within regular windows of 20 milliseconds (∆force/∆time for the first 200 milliseconds after the onset of contraction. MVC was determined as the highest value recorded in each set. Only one condition was tested on each day and the order of application of each condition was determined randomly. The stretching intensity was evaluated by the muscle pain threshold. Four post-condition assessments (post-treatment, 10, 20, and 30 minutes were performed to monitor muscle strength. ANCOVA 2x5, followed by the Scheffé post-hoc test, showed no significant interactions between conditions vs. times (P > 0.05 for PRFD or MVC. In conclusion, acute bouts of static stretching of the quadriceps femoris do not affect the ability of rapid and maximum muscle force production in older women.

  14. Ballistic stretching increases flexibility and acute vertical jump height when combined with basketball activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolstenhulme, Mandy T; Griffiths, Christine M; Woolstenhulme, Emily M; Parcell, Allen C

    2006-11-01

    Stretching is often included as part of a warm-up procedure for basketball activity. However, the efficacy of stretching with respect to sport performance has come into question. We determined the effects of 4 different warm-up protocols followed by 20 minutes of basketball activity on flexibility and vertical jump height. Subjects participated in 6 weeks (2 times per week) of warm-up and basketball activity. The warm-up groups participated in ballistic stretching, static stretching, sprinting, or basketball shooting (control group). We asked 3 questions. First, what effect does 6 weeks of warm-up exercise and basketball play have on both flexibility and vertical jump height? We measured sit and reach and vertical jump height before (week -1) and after (week 7) the 6 weeks. Flexibility increased for the ballistic, static, and sprint groups compared to the control group (p vertical jump height did not change for any of the groups. Our second question was what is the acute effect of each warm-up on vertical jump height? We measured vertical jump immediately after the warm-up on 4 separate occasions during the 6 weeks (at weeks 0, 2, 4, and 6). Vertical jump height was not different for any group. Finally, our third question was what is the acute effect of each warm-up on vertical jump height following 20 minutes of basketball play? We measured vertical jump height immediately following 20 minutes of basketball play at weeks 0, 2, 4, and 6. Only the ballistic stretching group demonstrated an acute increase in vertical jump 20 minutes after basketball play (p basketball play, as it is beneficial to vertical jump performance.

  15. Stretched horizons, quasiparticles, and quasinormal modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iizuka, Norihiro; Kabat, Daniel; Lifschytz, Gilad; Lowe, David A.

    2003-01-01

    We propose that stretched horizons can be described in terms of a gas of noninteracting quasiparticles. The quasiparticles are unstable, with a lifetime set by the imaginary part of the lowest quasinormal mode frequency. If the horizon arises from an AdS-CFT style duality the quasiparticles are also the effective low-energy degrees of freedom of the finite-temperature CFT. We analyze a large class of models including Schwarzschild black holes, nonextremal Dp-branes, the rotating BTZ black hole and de Sitter space, and we comment on degenerate horizons. The quasiparticle description makes manifest the relationship between entropy and area

  16. Viscous flows stretching and shrinking of surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Mehmood, Ahmer

    2017-01-01

    This authored monograph provides a detailed discussion of the boundary layer flow due to a moving plate. The topical focus lies on the 2- and 3-dimensional case, considering axially symmetric and unsteady flows. The author derives a criterion for the self-similar and non-similar flow, and the turbulent flow due to a stretching or shrinking sheet is also discussed. The target audience primarily comprises research experts in the field of boundary layer flow, but the book will also be beneficial for graduate students.

  17. Bias of purine stretches in sequenced chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ussery, David; Soumpasis, Dikeos Mario; Brunak, Søren

    2002-01-01

    /pur tracts was slightly less than expected, with an average of 0.8%. One of the most surprising findings is a clear difference in the length distributions of the regions studied between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Whereas short-range correlations can explain the length distributions in prokaryotes......, in eukaryotes there is an abundance of long stretches of purines or alternating purine/pyrimidine tracts, which cannot be explained in this way; these sequences are likely to play an important role in eukaryotic chromosome organisation....

  18. Cardiovascular benefits of exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal SK

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Shashi K AgarwalMedical Director, Agarwal Health Center, NJ, USAAbstract: Regular physical activity during leisure time has been shown to be associated with better health outcomes. The American Heart Association, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine all recommend regular physical activity of moderate intensity for the prevention and complementary treatment of several diseases. The therapeutic role of exercise in maintaining good health and treating diseases is not new. The benefits of physical activity date back to Susruta, a 600 BC physician in India, who prescribed exercise to patients. Hippocrates (460–377 BC wrote “in order to remain healthy, the entire day should be devoted exclusively to ways and means of increasing one's strength and staying healthy, and the best way to do so is through physical exercise.” Plato (427–347 BC referred to medicine as a sister art to physical exercise while the noted ancient Greek physician Galen (129–217 AD penned several essays on aerobic fitness and strengthening muscles. This article briefly reviews the beneficial effects of physical activity on cardiovascular diseases.Keywords: exercise, cardiovascular disease, lifestyle changes, physical activity, good health

  19. Strengthening the sports data infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Jos de Haan; with contributions from Remco van den Dool

    2012-01-01

    Original title: Versterking data-infrastructuur sport Sports research in the Netherlands has developed rapidly over the last ten years; strengthening the data infrastructure will facilitate its further growth in the future. Currently, however, there is no clear overall picture of the available

  20. Twist-stretch profiles of DNA chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoli, Marco

    2017-06-01

    Helical molecules change their twist number under the effect of a mechanical load. We study the twist-stretch relation for a set of short DNA molecules modeled by a mesoscopic Hamiltonian. Finite temperature path integral techniques are applied to generate a large ensemble of possible configurations for the base pairs of the sequence. The model also accounts for the bending and twisting fluctuations between adjacent base pairs along the molecules stack. Simulating a broad range of twisting conformation, we compute the helix structural parameters by averaging over the ensemble of base pairs configurations. The method selects, for any applied force, the average twist angle which minimizes the molecule’s free energy. It is found that the chains generally over-twist under an applied stretching and the over-twisting is physically associated to the contraction of the average helix diameter, i.e. to the damping of the base pair fluctuations. Instead, assuming that the maximum amplitude of the bending fluctuations may decrease against the external load, the DNA molecule first over-twists for weak applied forces and then untwists above a characteristic force value. Our results are discussed in relation to available experimental information albeit for kilo-base long molecules.

  1. Stretched Exponential relaxation in pure Se glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, S.; Ravindren, S.; Boolchand, P.

    A universal feature of glasses is the stretched exponential relaxation, f (t) = exp[ - t / τ ] β . The model of diffusion of excitations to randomly distributed traps in a glass by Phillips1 yields the stretched exponent β = d[d +2] where d, the effective dimensionality. We have measured the enthalpy of relaxation ΔHnr (tw) at Tg of Se glass in modulated DSC experiments as glasses age at 300K and find β = 0.43(2) for tw in the 0

  2. Stretch sensors for human body motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Ben; Gisby, Todd; Anderson, Iain A.

    2014-03-01

    Sensing motion of the human body is a difficult task. From an engineers' perspective people are soft highly mobile objects that move in and out of complex environments. As well as the technical challenge of sensing, concepts such as comfort, social intrusion, usability, and aesthetics are paramount in determining whether someone will adopt a sensing solution or not. At the same time the demands for human body motion sensing are growing fast. Athletes want feedback on posture and technique, consumers need new ways to interact with augmented reality devices, and healthcare providers wish to track recovery of a patient. Dielectric elastomer stretch sensors are ideal for bridging this gap. They are soft, flexible, and precise. They are low power, lightweight, and can be easily mounted on the body or embedded into clothing. From a commercialisation point of view stretch sensing is easier than actuation or generation - such sensors can be low voltage and integrated with conventional microelectronics. This paper takes a birds-eye view of the use of these sensors to measure human body motion. A holistic description of sensor operation and guidelines for sensor design will be presented to help technologists and developers in the space.

  3. Curved Piezoelectric Actuators for Stretching Optical Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Sidney G.; Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Assemblies containing curved piezoceramic fiber composite actuators have been invented as means of stretching optical fibers by amounts that depend on applied drive voltages. Piezoceramic fiber composite actuators are conventionally manufactured as sheets or ribbons that are flat and flexible, but can be made curved to obtain load-carrying ability and displacement greater than those obtainable from the flat versions. In the primary embodiment of this invention, piezoceramic fibers are oriented parallel to the direction of longitudinal displacement of the actuators so that application of drive voltage causes the actuator to flatten, producing maximum motion. Actuator motion can be transmitted to the optical fiber by use of hinges and clamp blocks. In the original application of this invention, the optical fiber contains a Bragg grating and the purpose of the controlled stretching of the fiber is to tune the grating as part of a small, lightweight, mode-hop-free, rapidly tunable laser for demodulating strain in Bragg-grating strain-measurement optical fibers attached to structures. The invention could also be used to apply controllable tensile force or displacement to an object other than an optical fiber.

  4. Epidemiological investigation of muscle-strengthening activities and cognitive function among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D

    2016-06-01

    Limited research has examined the association of muscle-strengthening activities and executive cognitive function among older adults, which was this study's purpose. Data from the 1999-2002 NHANES were employed (N = 2157; 60-85 years). Muscle-strengthening activities were assessed via self-report, with cognitive function assessed using the digit symbol substitution test. After adjusting for age, age-squared, gender, race-ethnicity, poverty level, body mass index, C-reactive protein, smoking, comorbid illness and physical activity, muscle-strengthening activities were significantly associated with cognitive function (βadjusted = 3.4; 95% CI: 1.7-5.1; P cognitive function score. In conclusion, muscle-strengthening activities are associated with executive cognitive function among older U.S. adults, underscoring the importance of promoting both aerobic exercise and muscle-strengthening activities to older adults. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. [Effectiveness of a stretching program on anxiety levels of workers in a logistic platform: a randomized controlled study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Marín, Jesús; Asún, Sonia; Estrada-Marcén, Nerea; Romero, Rosario; Asún, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    To study the influence of a short programme of stretching exercises on anxiety levels of workers in a Spanish logistic company. A controlled clinical trial was carried out by means of an inter-subject design of random homogeneous blocks. Participants were assigned to the experimental group (n=67), treated with a programme of stretching exercises of 10-minute duration after working hours for a period of 3 months, or to the untreated control group (n=67). The primary result variable was anxiety, and the secondary variables were burnout syndrome, quality of life and flexibility. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) by intention to treat was performed on each of the result variables by controlling the baseline scores, the age and the practice of introjective activities outside the program, with the size effect calculated by means of the partial eta-squared value (η(2)). The results of the ANCOVA showed a moderate effect of the stretching exercise programme on the levels of anxiety (η(2)=0,06; P=.004). Other effects found were substantial for flexibility (η(2)=0,13; P<.001); moderately high for bodily pain (η(2)=0,08; P=.001), and moderate for vitality (η(2)=0,05; P=.016); mental health (η(2)=0,05; P=.017); general health (η(2)=0,04; P=.028) and exhaustion (η(2)=0,04; P=.025). The implementation of a short programme of stretching exercises in the work place was effective for reducing levels of anxiety, bodily pain and exhaustion, and for raising levels of vitality, mental health, general health and flexibility. This type of intervention could be seen as a low-cost strategy for improving the well-being of workers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of Functional Training and Calf Stretching on Risk of Falls in Older People: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Rosario, Jailton Thulher; da Fonseca Martins, Natalia Santos; Peixinho, Carolina Carneiro; Oliveira, Liliam Fernandes

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of a functional training and ankle stretching program in triceps surae torque, passive stiffness index, and in the risk for fall indicators in older adults. Twenty women (73.4 ± 7.3 years) were allocated into an intervention or control group. The 12-week intervention consisted of functional training and calf stretching exercises performed twice a week. Measurements of peak passive and active torque, passive stiffness, maximum dorsiflexion angle, and indexes of risk for falls (Timed Up and Go, functional reach test, QuickScreen-test) were collected. There were no significant differences for all variables, except the maximum dorsiflexion angle, which increased in the intervention group from 33.78 ± 8.57° to 38.89 ± 7.52°. The exercise program was not sufficient to enhance performance on functional tests and decrease the risk for falls in older adults. The significant increase in the maximum dorsiflexion indicates a positive impact of stretching exercises.

  7. Strengthening method of concrete structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inge, Wewin; Audrey; Nugroho, Sofie; Njo, Helen

    2018-03-01

    Building extension in Indonesia is not favored, and not many people know the advantages of the method because architects and engineers tend to lack the knowledge and experience. The aim of this paper is to explain a method on how to strengthen a concrete building structure that people can use/learn as a better way to cut potential cost and save time. The strengthening method explained in this paper is steel jacketing, providing a case study of this method in the extension of a restaurant located in Medan, Indonesia. In this study, engineers calculated that the tensile stress of the existing RC column and beam is not strong enough to reinforce the building extension applied load. Therefore, the steel jacketing method can be applied to improve the column and beam strength and ductility. The result of the case study proves that this is one of the best methods for building extension applied in Indonesia.

  8. Initial Semantics for Strengthened Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Hirschowitz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We give a new general definition of arity, yielding the companion notions of signature and associated syntax. This setting is modular in the sense requested by Ghani and Uustalu: merging two extensions of syntax corresponds to building an amalgamated sum. These signatures are too general in the sense that we are not able to prove the existence of an associated syntax in this general context. So we have to select arities and signatures for which there exists the desired initial monad. For this, we follow a track opened by Matthes and Uustalu: we introduce a notion of strengthened arity and prove that the corresponding signatures have initial semantics (i.e. associated syntax. Our strengthened arities admit colimits, which allows the treatment of the λ-calculus with explicit substitution.

  9. Austenite strengthening and softening during hot deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tushinskij, L.I.; Vlasov, V.S.; Kazimirova, I.E.; Tokarev, A.O.

    1981-01-01

    Processes of formation of austenite structure of 20 and 12Kh18N10T steels during hot deformation and postdeformation isothermal holdings have been investigated by the methods of analysis of curves of hot deformation, high-temperature metallography and light microscopy. Deformation has been exercised by extention in vacuum with average 4x10 -2 s -1 rate. Deformation temperatures of steel 20 are 930 and 1000 deg C, of steel 12Kh18N10T - 1100 deg C. It is stated that dynamic recrystallization takes place in both investigated steels during hot deformation. In the carbonic steel it is developed by shifting sections of high-angular boundaries, flow stress in this case remains constant. Recrystallization is developed by subgrain coalescence in austenite steel, that brings about preservation of increased defect density in recrystallized volumes. As a result strengthening of steel is continued up to fracture during the increase of the deformation degree. Postdeformation weakening of 12Kh18N10T steel is slowed down as compared with weakening of carbonic steel [ru

  10. Constellation Stretch Goals: Review of Industry Inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, John

    2006-01-01

    Many good ideas received based on industry experience: a) Shuttle operations; b) Commercial aircraft production; c) NASA's historical way of doing business; d) Military and commercial programs. Aerospace performed preliminary analysis: a) Potential savings; b) Cost of implementation; c) Performance or other impact/penalties; d) Roadblocks; e) Unintended consequences; f) Bottom line. Significant work ahead for a "Stretch Goal"to become a good, documented requirement: 1) As a group, the relative "value" of goals are uneven; 2) Focused analysis on each goal is required: a) Need to ensure that a new requirement produces the desired consequence; b) It is not certain that some goals will not create problems elsewhere. 3) Individual implementation path needs to be studied: a) Best place to insert requirement (what level, which document); b) Appropriate wording for the requirement. Many goals reflect "best practices" based on lessons learned and may have value beyond near-term CxP requirements process.

  11. Linear viscoelastic characterization from filament stretching rheometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wingstrand, Sara Lindeblad; Alvarez, Nicolas J.; Hassager, Ole

    to measure both linear and nonlinear dynamics on a single apparatus. With a software modification to the FSR motor control, we show that linear viscoelasticity can be measured via small amplitude squeeze flow (SASF). Squeeze flow is a combination of both shear and extensional flow applied by axially......Traditionally, linear viscoelasticity is measured using small amplitude oscillatory shear flow. Due to experimental difficulties, shear flows are predominately confined to the linear and mildly nonlinear regime. On the other hand, extensional flows have proven more practical in measuring...... viscoelasticity well into the nonlinear regime. Therefore at present, complete rheological characterization of a material requires two apparatuses: a shear and an extensional rheometer. This work is focused on developing a linear viscoelastic protocol for the filament stretching rheometer (FSR) in order...

  12. Buckling and stretching of thin viscous sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kiely, Doireann; Breward, Chris; Griffiths, Ian; Howell, Peter; Lange, Ulrich

    2016-11-01

    Thin glass sheets are used in smartphone, battery and semiconductor technology, and may be manufactured by producing a relatively thick glass slab and subsequently redrawing it to a required thickness. The resulting sheets commonly possess undesired centerline ripples and thick edges. We present a mathematical model in which a viscous sheet undergoes redraw in the direction of gravity, and show that, in a sufficiently strong gravitational field, buckling is driven by compression in a region near the bottom of the sheet, and limited by viscous resistance to stretching of the sheet. We use asymptotic analysis in the thin-sheet, low-Reynolds-number limit to determine the centerline profile and growth rate of such a viscous sheet.

  13. Loads applied to fixations for chain stretching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, K; Brychta, P

    1985-06-01

    The chains of scraper chain conveyors must be pre-stretched during standstill in order to compensate the elongations occurring during operation. They require frequent retensiening in order to meet the varying operational requirements. During tensioning, the chains are fixed in a point in the top run by means of fixation elements. The authors present a method for calculating the retaining force needed in the fixations. There are three different initial conditions of the chain before trensioning: Tensionsfree chain, pretensioned chain (stressed chain), slack chain. In all three cases, it is important to find out whether or nor the tensioning drive reaches full speed. The method of calculation is illustrated by the example of a scraper chain conveyor; it enables the establishment of rules for tensioning without damaging the chain and is a good basis for the dimensioning of new types of fixation elements.

  14. Aerothermodynamic properties of stretched flames in enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotman, D. A.; Oppenheim, A. K.

    Flames are stretched by being pulled along their frontal surface by the flow field in which they reside. Their trajectories tend to approach particle paths, acquiring eventually the role of contact boundaries, -interfaces between the burnt and unburnt medium that may broaden solely as a consequence of diffusion. Fundamental properties of flow fields governing such flames are determined here on the basis of the zero Mach number model, providng a rational method of approach to the computational analysis of combustion fields in enclosures where, besides the aerodynamic properties flow, the thermodynamic process of compression must be taken into account. To illustrate its application, the method is used to reveal the mechanism of formation of a tulip-shape flame in a rectangular enclosure under nonturbulent flow conditions.

  15. Correlation between structure and conductivity in stretched Nafion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahyarov, Elshad; Taylor, Philip

    2008-03-01

    We have used coarse-grained simulation methods to investigate the effect of stretching-induced structure orientation on the proton conductivity of Nafion-like polyelectrolyte membranes. Recent experimental data on the morphology of ionomers describe Nafion as an aggregation of polymeric backbone chains forming elongated objects embedded in a continuous ionic medium. Uniaxial stretching of a recast Nafion film causes a preferential orientation of these objects in the direction of stretching. Our simulations of humid Nafion show that this has a strong effect on the proton conductivity, which is enhanced along the stretching direction, while the conductivity perpendicular to the stretched polymer backbone is strongly reduced. Stretching also causes the perfluorinated side chains to orient perpendicular to the stretching axis. The sulphonate multiplets shrink in diameter as the stretching is increased and show a spatially periodic ordering in their distribution. This in turn affects the distribution of contained water at low water contents. The water forms a continuous network with narrow bridges between small water clusters absorbed in head-group multiplets. We find the morphological changes in the stretched Nafion to be retained upon removal of the uniaxial stress.

  16. EFFECTS OF CYCLIC STATIC STRETCH ON FATIGUE RECOVERY OF TRICEPS SURAE IN FEMALE BASKETBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Ghasemia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Static stretch is a safe and feasible method which usually is used before exercise to avoid muscle injury and to improve muscle performance. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of cyclic static stretch (CSS on fatigue recovery of triceps surae (TS in female basketball players.Nine athlete volunteers between 20 and 30 years participated in this study containing two sessions. After warm-up a pressure cuff was fastened above the knee joint and its pressure was increased to 140 mmHg. The subjects were asked to perform one maximum voluntary contraction (MVC followed by a fatigue test including maximum isometric fatiguing contraction of TS. These steps were similar in both sessions. Then, a two-minute rest was included in the first session while 4 static stretches were performed to TS in the second session. After interventions, one MVC was done and the pressure cuff was released. During these steps, peak torque (PT and electromyography (EMG were recorded. The amount of lower leg pain was determined by the visual analogue scale (VAS. The value of PT increased significantly after CSS but its increase was not significant after rest. It seems that the effects of rest and CSS on the EMG parameters, PT and pain are similar.

  17. Active stretching for lower extremity muscle tightness in pediatric patients with lumbar spondylolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Masahiro; Mase, Yasuyoshi; Sairyo, Koichi

    2017-01-01

    It was reported that hamstring muscle tightness may increase mechanical loading on the lumbar spine. Therefore, we attempt to decrease tightness in the leg muscles in pediatric patients. Forty-six pediatric patients with spondylolysis underwent rehabilitation. We applied active stretching to the hamstrings, quadriceps, and triceps surae. Tightness in each muscle was graded as good, fair, or poor. We educated each patient on how to perform active stretching at home. They were re-evaluated for muscle tightness 2 months later. Tightness at baseline and after 2 months was as follows: for the hamstrings, good in 3 patients, fair in 9, and poor in 34 and significant improved after 2 months (p<0.05), with improvement by least 1 grade seen in 86% of patients with fair or poor at baseline; for the quadriceps, 7, 3, and 30 patients had good, fair and poor, with significant improvements in 72% (p<0.05). For the triceps surae, 6, 3 and 10 patients had good, fair and poor, which improved significantly (p<0.05). Home-based active stretching was effective for relieving muscle tightness in the leg in a pediatric population. Adolescent athletes should perform such exercise to maintain flexibility and prevent lumbar disorders. J. Med. Invest. 64: 136-139, February, 2017.

  18. Effectiveness of Therapeutic Exercise in Fibromyalgia Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dolores Sosa-Reina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to summarize evidence on the effectiveness of therapeutic exercise in Fibromyalgia Syndrome. Design. Studies retrieved from the Cochrane Plus, PEDro, and Pubmed databases were systematically reviewed. Randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses involving adults with fibromyalgia were included. The primary outcomes considered in this systematic review were pain, global well-being, symptoms of depression, and health-related quality of life. Results. Effects were summarized using standardized mean differences with 95% confidence intervals using a random effects model. This study provides strong evidence that physical exercise reduces pain (−1.11 [95% CI] −1.52; −0.71; overall effect p<0.001, global well-being (−0.67 [95% CI] −0.89, −0.45; p<0.001, and symptoms of depression (−0.40 [95% CI] −0.55, −0.24; p<0.001 and that it improves both components of health-related quality of life (physical: 0.77 [95% CI] 0.47; 1.08; p<0.001; mental: 0.49 [95% CI] 0.27; 0.71; p<0.001. Conclusions. This study concludes that aerobic and muscle strengthening exercises are the most effective way of reducing pain and improving global well-being in people with fibromyalgia and that stretching and aerobic exercises increase health-related quality of life. In addition, combined exercise produces the biggest beneficial effect on symptoms of depression.

  19. Compulsive Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... negative thinking and low self-esteem. Why Is Exercising Too Much a Bad Thing? We all know ... spent with friends. Warning Signs Someone may be exercising compulsively if he or she: won't skip ...

  20. Exercise Headaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... headaches may require emergency medical attention. Symptoms Primary exercise headaches These headaches: Are usually described as throbbing ... sides of the head in most cases Secondary exercise headaches These headaches may cause: The same symptoms ...

  1. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disc Replacement (ADR) Bone Graft Alternatives Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMP) Cervical Disc Replacement Cervical Laminoplasty Lumbar (Open) ... Flexibility Aerobic Exercise Cervical Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back ...

  2. EFFECTIVENESS OF PNF STRETCHING VERSUS STATIC STRETCHING ON PAIN AND HAMSTRING FLEXIBILITY FOLLOWING MOIST HEAT IN INDIVIDUALS WITH KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena .V

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoarthritis (OA is a degenerative joint disease and one of the major public health problem that causesfunctional impairment and reduced quality of life. To compare the effectiveness of PNF Hold relax stretching versus Static stretching on pain and flexibility of hamstring following moist heat in individuals with knee osteoarthritis. Hamstring tightness is the major problem in knee osteoarthritis individuals. Therefore the need of study is comparing the effectiveness of PNF Hold relax stretching versus static stretching on pain and flexibility of hamstrings following moist heat in knee osteoarthritis participants. Determining the effects of PNF Hold relax stretching versus Static stretching along with moist heat on pain and hamstring flexibility by VAS and Active knee extension range of motion in knee osteoarthritis individuals. Methods: 30 subjects with symptoms of knee osteoarthritis were randomly distributed into 2 groups 15 in each group. PNF Hold relax stretching along with moist heat is compared to Static stretching along with moist heat. Pain was measured by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS and hamstring flexibility by Active knee Extension Range of Motion (AKEROM by universal goniometer. Measurements are taken pre and post intervention. Results: The results indicated PNF Hold relax stretching along with moist heat showed a statistically significant improvement in pain (p<0.05 and improvement in hamstring flexibility (p<0.05 when compared to Static stretching along with moist heat. Conclusion: Subjects with PNF Hold relax stretching along with moist heat showed significant improvement in pain reduction and improving hamstring flexibility than Static stretching along with moist heat.

  3. Sleep On It: How Snoozing Strengthens Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Special Issues Subscribe April 2013 Print this issue Sleep On It How Snoozing Strengthens Memories Send us ... the best way to remember it is to sleep on it. That’s because sleeping helps strengthen memories ...

  4. Exercise Habit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chunks of time. Exercise has so many health benefits that any amount is better than none. Try exercising for 10 minutes at a time throughout your ... second hand. Most people will get the greatest benefit and lower their risks if ... rate when exercising. To figure out your maximum heart rate, subtract ...

  5. EFFICACY OF MODIFIED PROPRIOCEPTIVE NEUROMUSCULAR FACILITATION STRETCHING WITH CRYOTHERAPY OVER MANUAL PASSIVE STRETCHING WITH CRYOTHERAPY ON HAMSTRING FLEXIBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamik Bhattacharjee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Healthy individuals, to ease and accomplish their activities of daily living they need flexible body without any tightness in the muscles, particularly those used for a definite function. Cooling soft tissues in a lengthened position after stretching has been shown to promote more lasting increases in soft tissue length and minimize post stretch muscle soreness. There are less documented studies which compared modified proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF stretch over passive manual stretch with cold application commonly after the interventions. Methods: Thirty high school going healthy students were divided into two groups- Group I received Passive Manual stretching (n=15 and Group II received modified PNF stretching (n=15 and both groups received cold application after the interventions for 10 minutes commonly for 5 days. ROM was taken on day 1, day 5 and day 7. Results: After day 7, Group II with Modified PNF stretching along with cold application showed a significant increase in range of motion tested with active knee extension test (AKET. Conclusion: Modified PNF stretching is considered to be the effective intervention in increasing and maintaining ROM in AKET over passive manual stretching with cold applications commonly after the interventions.

  6. Eccentric exercise in treatment of Achilles tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørregaard, J; Larsen, C C; Bieler, T; Langberg, H

    2007-04-01

    Prognosis and treatment of Achilles tendon pain (achillodynia) has been insufficiently studied. The purpose of the present study was to examine the long-term effect of eccentric exercises compared with stretching exercises on patients with achillodynia. Patients with achillodynia for at least 3 months were randomly allocated to one of two exercise regimens. Exercise was performed daily for a 3-month period. Symptom severity was evaluated by tendon tenderness, ultrasonography, a questionnaire on pain and other symptoms, and a global assessment of improvement. Follow-up was performed at time points 3, 6, 9, 12 weeks and 1 year. Of 53 patients with achillodynia 45 patients were randomized to either eccentric exercises or stretching exercises. Symptoms gradually improved during the 1-year follow-up period and were significantly better assessed by pain and symptoms after 3 weeks and all later visits. However, no significant differences could be observed between the two groups. Women and patients with symptoms from the distal part of the tendon had significantly less improvement. Marked improvement in symptoms and findings could be gradually observed in both groups during the 1-year follow-up period. To that extent this is due to effect of both regimens or the spontaneous improvement is unsettled.

  7. Segmental stabilization and muscular strengthening in chronic low back pain: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Renovato França

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To contrast the efficacy of two exercise programs, segmental stabilization and strengthening of abdominal and trunk muscles, on pain, functional disability, and activation of the transversus abdominis muscle (TrA, in individuals with chronic low back pain. DESIGN: Our sample consisted of 30 individuals, randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: segmental stabilization, where exercises focused on the TrA and lumbar multifidus muscles, and superficial strengthening, where exercises focused on the rectus abdominis, abdominus obliquus internus, abdominus obliquus externus, and erector spinae. Groups were examined to discovere whether the exercises created contrasts regarding pain (visual analogical scale and McGill pain questionnaire, functional disability (Oswestry disability questionnaire, and TrA muscle activation capacity (Pressure Biofeedback Unit = PBU. The program lasted 6 weeks, and 30-minute sessions occurred twice a week. Analysis of variance was used for inter- and intra-group comparisons. The significance level was established at 5%. RESULTS: As compared to baseline, both treatments were effective in relieving pain and improving disability (p<0.001. Those in the segmental stabilization group had significant gains for all variables when compared to the ST group (p<0.001, including TrA activation, where relative gains were 48.3% and -5.1%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Both techniques lessened pain and reduced disability. Segmental stabilization is superior to superficial strengthening for all variables. Superficial strengthening does not improve TrA activation capacity.

  8. The stretch reflex and the contributions of C David Marsden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan B Bhattacharyya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The stretch reflex or myotatic reflex refers to the contraction of a muscle in response to its passive stretching by increasing its contractility as long as the stretch is within physiological limits. For ages, it was thought that the stretch reflex was of short latency and it was synonymous with the tendon reflex, subserving the same spinal reflex arc. However, disparities in the status of the two reflexes in certain clinical situations led Marsden and his collaborators to carry out a series of experiments that helped to establish that the two reflexes had different pathways. That the two reflexes are dissociated has been proved by the fact that the stretch reflex and the tendon reflex, elicited by stimulation of the same muscle, have different latencies, that of the stretch reflex being considerably longer. They hypothesized that the stretch reflex had a transcortical course before it reached the spinal motor neurons for final firing. Additionally, the phenomenon of stimulus-sensitive cortical myoclonus lent further evidence to the presence of the transcortical loop where the EEG correlate preceded the EMG discharge. This concept has been worked out by later neurologists in great detail , and the general consensus is that indeed, the stretch reflex is endowed with a conspicuous transcortical component.

  9. Possible stretched exponential parametrization for humidity absorption in polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacinliyan, A; Skarlatos, Y; Sahin, G; Atak, K; Aybar, O O

    2009-04-01

    Polymer thin films have irregular transient current characteristics under constant voltage. In hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymers, the irregularity is also known to depend on the humidity absorbed by the polymer sample. Different stretched exponential models are studied and it is shown that the absorption of humidity as a function of time can be adequately modelled by a class of these stretched exponential absorption models.

  10. Exercise addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Christiansen, Erik; Elklit, Ask

    2014-01-01

    Exercise addiction is characterized by excessive exercise patterns with potential negative consequences such as overuse injuries. The aim of this study was to compare eating disorder symptoms, quality of life, personality traits and attachments styles in exercisers with and without indications...... of exercise addiction. A case-control study with 121 exercisers was conducted. The exercisers were categorized into an addiction group (n=41) or a control group (n=80) on the basis of their responses to the Exercise Addiction Inventory. The participants completed the Eating Disorder Inventory 2, the Short......-Form 36, the NEO Personality Inventory Revised and the Adult Attachment Scale. The addiction group scored higher on eating disorder symptoms, especially on perfectionism but not as high as eating disorder populations. The characteristic personality traits in the addiction group were high levels...

  11. Exercise addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolfi, Emilio

    2013-02-01

    This article examines the nature of exercise addiction. It presents a broad, congruent and discerning narrative literature review with the aim of providing a deeper understanding of the condition 'exercise addiction', including symptoms and options for treatment. In addition, guidelines are provided with respect to 'healthy' levels of exercise. Criteria used for determining the eligibility of studies evaluated in the review included the provision of relevant information in studies identified using pertinent search terms. The review highlights some of the key distinctions between healthy levels of exercise and exercise addiction. The findings suggest that an individual who is addicted to exercise will continue exercising regardless of physical injury, personal inconvenience or disruption to other areas of life including marital strain, interference with work and lack of time for other activities. 'Addicted' exercisers are more likely to exercise for intrinsic rewards and experience disturbing deprivation sensations when unable to exercise. In contrast, 'committed' exercisers engage in physical activity for extrinsic rewards and do not suffer severe withdrawal symptoms when they cannot exercise. Exercisers must acquire a sense of life-balance while embracing an attitude conducive to sustainable long-term physical, psychological and social health outcomes. Implementation of recommendations by the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology, which states that all apparently healthy adults between 18 and 64 years of age should accumulate at least 150 minutes of moderate (5 or 6 on a scale of 0-10) to vigorous (7 or 8 on a scale of 0-10) intensity aerobic physical activity per week in bouts of 10 minutes or more, also expressed as 30 minutes per day distributed over 5 days per week, would be a good start.

  12. Acute effect of different stretching methods on isometric muscle strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Vasconcellos de Lima Costa e Silva

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the acute effect of static stretching methods (SS and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF on the static muscle strength (SMS. Eleven young male subjects with strength training experience, performed 3 tests with a 48h interval between them, randomly selected, where each one subject carried out all procedures: a hand grip without stretching; b hand grip preceded by static stretching of wrist flexors muscles; c hand grip preceded by PNF stretching of wrist flexors muscles. The Shapiro-Wilk test verified the normality of data, and a one-way ANOVA with repeated measures, followed by Tukey’s post hoc test, evaluated the differences between the groups. The significance was set at p 0.05. In conclusion, both stretching methods had caused negative effects on isometric strength, reducing its levels.

  13. Acute exercise and motor memory consolidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Richard; Korsgaard Johnsen, Line; Geertsen, Svend Sparre

    2016-01-01

    where low to moderate intensities may be more suitable. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of intensity in mediating the effects of acute cardiovascular exercise on motor skill learning. We investigated the effects of different exercise intensities on the retention (performance score...... an important role in modulating the effects that a single bout of cardiovascular exercise has on the consolidation phase following motor skill learning. There appears to be a dose-response relationship in favour of higher intensity exercise in order to augment off-line effects and strengthen procedural memory.......A single bout of high intensity aerobic exercise (~90% VO2peak) was previously demonstrated to amplify off-line gains in skill level during the consolidation phase of procedural memory. High intensity exercise is not always a viable option for many patient groups or in a rehabilitation setting...

  14. Microstructural influences on strengthening in a naturally aged and overaged Al–Cu–Li–Mg based alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovri, Henry; Jägle, Eric A.; Stark, Andreas; Lilleodden, Erica T.

    2015-01-01

    A combination of transmission electron microscopy, atom probe tomography and high-energy X-ray diffraction was employed to investigate the influence of local microstructural changes on strengthening in a commercial Al–Cu–Li–Mg based alloy, AA2198, in the stretched and naturally aged, and overaged states. Strengthening in the stretched and naturally aged temper was shown to be governed by a combination of Cu–Cu clusters, δ′/β′ phase and solution strengthening. This is in contrast to another report which suggests that strength in this temper is only due to Cu-rich clusters [B. Decreus, et al., Acta Mater., 61 (2013) 2207]. On the other hand, although large volume fractions of equilibrium phases such as T B , and θ were present in the overaged temper, its strengthening was largely governed by order hardening, which is the strengthening mechanism associated with the δ′/β′ phase. The δ′/β′ phase remained in the matrix even after extensive overaging

  15. Microstructural influences on strengthening in a naturally aged and overaged Al–Cu–Li–Mg based alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovri, Henry, E-mail: henry.ovri@hzg.de [Helmholtz Zentrum Geesthacht, Institute of Materials Research, Materials Mechanics, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Jägle, Eric A. [Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH, Department of Microstructure Physics and Alloy Design, 40237 Düsseldorf (Germany); Stark, Andreas [Helmholtz Zentrum Geesthacht, Institute of Materials Research, Materials Physics, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Lilleodden, Erica T. [Helmholtz Zentrum Geesthacht, Institute of Materials Research, Materials Mechanics, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany)

    2015-06-18

    A combination of transmission electron microscopy, atom probe tomography and high-energy X-ray diffraction was employed to investigate the influence of local microstructural changes on strengthening in a commercial Al–Cu–Li–Mg based alloy, AA2198, in the stretched and naturally aged, and overaged states. Strengthening in the stretched and naturally aged temper was shown to be governed by a combination of Cu–Cu clusters, δ′/β′ phase and solution strengthening. This is in contrast to another report which suggests that strength in this temper is only due to Cu-rich clusters [B. Decreus, et al., Acta Mater., 61 (2013) 2207]. On the other hand, although large volume fractions of equilibrium phases such as T{sub B}, and θ were present in the overaged temper, its strengthening was largely governed by order hardening, which is the strengthening mechanism associated with the δ′/β′ phase. The δ′/β′ phase remained in the matrix even after extensive overaging.

  16. Electromyographic evaluation of high-intensity elastic resistance exercises for lower extremity muscles during bed rest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinstrup, Jonas; Skals, Sebastian; Calatayud, Joaquin

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Prolonged hospital bed rest after severe injury or disease leads to rapid muscle atrophy and strength loss. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of lower extremity strengthening exercises using elastic resistance that can be performed while lying in a hospit......, the present study has the potential to provide a reference table of exercises to select from when individualizing and progressing strengthening exercises during the early rehabilitation of bedridden individuals....

  17. Effects of contract-relax vs static stretching on stretch-induced strength loss and length-tension relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, S S; Magnusson, S P; McHugh, M P

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the acute effects of contract-relax stretching (CRS) vs static stretching (SS) on strength loss and the length-tension relationship. We hypothesized that there would be a greater muscle length-specific effect of CRS vs SS. Isometric hamstring strength wa...

  18. Medium-/Long-Term Effects of a Specific Exercise Protocol Combined with Patient Education on Spine Mobility, Chronic Fatigue, Pain, Aerobic Fitness and Level of Disability in Fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Giannotti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To propose a rehabilitation protocol able to produce immediate and long-term beneficial effects on level of disability and overall performance in ADLs. Materials and Methods. Forty-one FM patients were randomized to an exercise and educational-behavioral programme group (experimental group, EG = 21 or to a control group (CG = 20. Each subject was evaluated before, at the end (T1, and after 6 months (T6 from the conclusion of the rehabilitation treatment using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ, the visual analogue scale (VAS, the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ, the fatigue severity scale (FSS, the 6-minute walking test (6MWT, tender points count (TPC, and spinal active range of motion. The exercise protocol included 20 sessions consisting in self-awareness, stretching, strengthening, spine flexibility, and aerobic exercises, which patients were subsequently educated to perform at home. Results. The two groups were comparable at baseline. At T1, the EG showed a positive trend in FIQ, VAS, HAQ, and FSS scales and significant improvement in 6MWT and in most spinal active range of motion measurements (P between 0.001 and 0.04. The positive results were maintained at the follow-up. Conclusion. The proposed programme was well tolerated and produced immediate and medium-term beneficial effects improving function and strain endurance. This trial is registered with DRKS00005071 on DRKS.

  19. Characterization of mechanical behavior of a porcine pulmonary artery strip using a randomized uniaxial stretch and stretch-rate protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Criscione John C

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much of the experimental work in soft tissue mechanics has been focused on fitting approximate relations for specific tissue types from aggregate data on multiple samples of the tissue. Such relations are needed for modeling applications and have reasonable predictability – especially given the natural variance in specimens. There is, however, much theoretical and experimental work to be done in determining constitutive behaviors for particular specimens and tissues. In so doing, it may be possible to exploit the natural variation in tissue ultrastructure – so to relate ultrastructure composition to tissue behavior. Thus, this study focuses on an experimental method for determining constitutive behaviors and illustrates the method with analysis of a porcine pulmonary artery strip. The method characterizes the elastic part of the response (implicitly in terms of stretch and the inelastic part in terms of short term stretch history (i.e., stretch-rate Ht2, longer term stretch history Ht1, and time since the start of testing T. Methods A uniaxial testing protocol with a random stretch and random stretch-rate was developed. The average stress at a particular stretch was chosen as the hyperelastic stress response, and deviation from the mean at this particular stretch is chosen as the inelastic deviation. Multivariable Linear Regression Analysis (MLRA was utilized to verify if Ht2, Ht1, and T are important factors for characterizing the inelastic deviation. For acquiring Ht2 and Ht1, an integral function type of stretch history was employed with time constants chosen from the relaxation spectrum of an identical size strip from the same tissue with the same orientation. Finally, statistical models that characterize the inelasticity were developed at various, nominal values of stretch, and their predictive capability was examined. Results Inelastic deviation from hyperelasticity was high (31% for low stretch and declined

  20. Exercise Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Vardar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Exercise dependence define a condition in which a person performs excessive exercise resulting in deterioration of his or her physical and mental health wellness. Despite many clinical research studies on exercise dependence, exact diagnostic criteria has not been developed yet. Clinical evidences concerning etiology, epidemiology, underlying mechanisms and treatment of exercise dependence are still not sufficient. Moreover, evaluation of this clinical disorder within dependency perspective is a fairly new concept. Recent studies have shown that exercise dependence has similar features like chemical substance dependence with regards to withdrawal and tolerance symptoms. The aim of this review was to briefly evaluate diagnostic and clinical features of exercise dependence. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(3.000: 163-173

  1. Biaxial Stretch Improves Elastic Fiber Maturation, Collagen Arrangement, and Mechanical Properties in Engineered Arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Angela H; Balestrini, Jenna L; Udelsman, Brooks V; Zhou, Kevin C; Zhao, Liping; Ferruzzi, Jacopo; Starcher, Barry C; Levene, Michael J; Humphrey, Jay D; Niklason, Laura E

    2016-06-01

    Tissue-engineered blood vessels (TEVs) are typically produced using the pulsatile, uniaxial circumferential stretch to mechanically condition and strengthen the arterial grafts. Despite improvements in the mechanical integrity of TEVs after uniaxial conditioning, these tissues fail to achieve critical properties of native arteries such as matrix content, collagen fiber orientation, and mechanical strength. As a result, uniaxially loaded TEVs can result in mechanical failure, thrombus, or stenosis on implantation. In planar tissue equivalents such as artificial skin, biaxial loading has been shown to improve matrix production and mechanical properties. To date however, multiaxial loading has not been examined as a means to improve mechanical and biochemical properties of TEVs during culture. Therefore, we developed a novel bioreactor that utilizes both circumferential and axial stretch that more closely simulates loading conditions in native arteries, and we examined the suture strength, matrix production, fiber orientation, and cell proliferation. After 3 months of biaxial loading, TEVs developed a formation of mature elastic fibers that consisted of elastin cores and microfibril sheaths. Furthermore, the distinctive features of collagen undulation and crimp in the biaxial TEVs were absent in both uniaxial and static TEVs. Relative to the uniaxially loaded TEVs, tissues that underwent biaxial loading remodeled and realigned collagen fibers toward a more physiologic, native-like organization. The biaxial TEVs also showed increased mechanical strength (suture retention load of 303 ± 14.53 g, with a wall thickness of 0.76 ± 0.028 mm) and increased compliance. The increase in compliance was due to combinatorial effects of mature elastic fibers, undulated collagen fibers, and collagen matrix orientation. In conclusion, biaxial stretching is a potential means to regenerate TEVs with improved matrix production, collagen organization, and mechanical

  2. [Comparison between aquatic-biodanza and stretching for improving quality of life and pain in patients with fibromyalgia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rodríguez, María del Mar; Castro-Sánchez, Adelaida María; Fernández-Martínez, Manuel; Matarán-Peñarrocha, Guillermo A; Rodríguez-Ferrer, María Encarnación

    2012-11-01

    To determine the level of improvement, as regards pain, impact on fibromyalgia and depression, achieved by patients with fibromyalgia by comparing aquatic biodanza and stretching exercises. Randomised controlled trial with two intervention groups. Five health centres (Almeria). A total of 82 fibromyalgia patients between 18 and 65 years old, diagnosed by American College of Rheumatology criteria, were included, with 12 patients declining to take part in the study. The 70 remaining patients were randomly assigned to two groups of 35 patients each: aquatic biodanza and stretching exercises. Those who did not attend in at least 14 sessions or changed their treatment during the studio were excluded. The final sample consisted of 19 patients in aquatic biodanza group and 20 in stretching group. The limitations of the study included, the open evaluation design and a sample size reduced by defaults. The outcome measures were sociodemographic data, quality of life (Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire), pain (McGill-Melzack questionnaire; and Visual Analogue Scale), pressure algometry (Wagner FPI10 algometer) and depression (Beck Inventory). These were carried out before and after a 12-week therapy. The mean age of the sample was 55.41 years. The mean period from diagnosis was 13.44 years. The sample consisted mainly of housewives. There were significant differences (Pfibromyalgia impact (Pquality of life in fibromyalgia patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  3. STRENGTHENING BIOTECHNOLOGY RESEARCH IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sastrapradja

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The wave of biotechnology promises has struck not only the developed countries but the developing countries as well. The scientific community in Indonesia is aware of the opportunities and is eager to take an active part in this particular endeavour. Meanwhile resources are required to welcoming the biotech­nology era. The need of trained manpower, appropriate infrastructure and equipment, operational and maintenance costs requires serious consideration if a unit or a laboratory is expected to be functional in biotechnology. There is a good opportunity of applying biotechnology in the field of agriculture and industry considering the availability of biological resources in Indonesia. This paper outlines what have been done so far, the difficulties encountered and the efforts made to strengthening biotechnology research in Indonesia.

  4. Structural Transitions in Supercoiled Stretched DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    v, Croquette

    1998-03-01

    Using magnetic micromanipulation techniques [Strick 96]( uc(T.R.) Strick, J.-F. Allemand, D. Bensimon, A. Bensimon) and uc(V.) Croquette, "The elasticity of a single supercoiled DNA molecule", Science, 271, 1835 (1996)., we have studied the mechanical properties (force versus extension) of single DNA molecules under a wide range of torsional stresses (supercoiling). We show that unwinding the DNA double helix leads to a phase separation between regular B-DNA and denaturation bubbles. The fraction of denatured molecule increases linearly with the degree of unwinding, beginning at a value of 1% unwinding. We have confirmed this denatured state by hybridization of homologous single-stranded DNA probes and by a chemical attack of the exposed bases. Surprisingly, when we overwind the molecule, the elasticity curves we obtain may also be interpreted by the coexistence of two phases, B-DNA and a new phase which we note P-DNA. The fraction of this new phase increases smoothly with overwinding, beginning at 3 % and continuing up to 300 %. Our results indicate that this new phase is four times more twisted that the standard B-DNA and is 1.75 times longer. Although the structure of this phase is not yet known, such a high twisting can only be attained if the sugar-phosphate backbones of the two strands are twisted closely while the bases are expelled outside of the molecule's core, in a structure reminiscent of the one proposed by Pauling. Indeed we have shown that this new phase is sensitive to chemical attack whereas the B-DNA is not. This new phase begins to appear on a molecule overwound by 3 % and stretched by a force of 5 pN, conditions typically encountered in vivo during gene transcription. This new phase may thus play a biological role (for more details).

  5. Alongamento muscular segmentar melhora função e alinhamento do joelho de indivíduos com síndrome femoropatelar: estudo preliminar Segmental muscular stretching improves knee function and alignment in subjects with patellofemoral syndrome: preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Cristiane Miyamoto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A síndrome femoropatelar (SFP é uma desordem dolorosa comum do joelho e para seu tratamento normalmente são utilizados exercícios de fortalecimento do músculo quadríceps femoral, sendo que poucos trabalhos encontrados na literatura investigaram os efeitos diretos do alongamento muscular. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos do alongamento muscular segmentar no tratamento de pacientes com SFP. MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 12 voluntários com SFP, dominância de membro inferior direito e idade média de 20 anos. As variáveis funcionais avaliadas antes e depois do tratamento foram: ângulo Q, intensidade da dor, capacidade funcional pela escala de contagem de Lysholm, sensação de posição articular (SPA a 40 e 50 graus de flexão do joelho, trabalho total e momento de força concêntrico dos músculos quadríceps femoral e isquiotibiais a 60 e 180º/s. Após a avaliação inicial, foi realizado o tratamento que consistiu em alongamento muscular segmentar bilateral dos músculos isquiotibiais, tríceps sural e quadríceps femoral, com duração de 30 segundos e 10 repetições para cada músculo. As variáveis avaliadas antes e após o tratamento foram analisadas pelo teste t para amostras dependentes (α INTRODUCTION: Patellofemoral syndrome (PFS is a common painful knee disorder and for its treatment, quadriceps femoris strengthening exercises are normally used; however, few studies in the literature investigate the direct effects of stretching exercises. OBJECTIVE: In order to fill this gap, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of segmental stretching exercises on the treatment of patients with PFS. METHODS: Twelve PFS patients with right foot dominance and mean age of 20 years were evaluated. The following functional variables were assessed, before and after treatment: Q angle, pain intensity, knee functional injury level (Lysholm scale, joint position sense (JPS at 40 and 50

  6. Magnitude and duration of stretch modulate fibroblast remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Jenna L; Billiar, Kristen L

    2009-05-01

    Mechanical cues modulate fibroblast tractional forces and remodeling of extracellular matrix in healthy tissue, healing wounds, and engineered matrices. The goal of the present study is to establish dose-response relationships between stretch parameters (magnitude and duration per day) and matrix remodeling metrics (compaction, strength, extensibility, collagen content, contraction, and cellularity). Cyclic equibiaxial stretch of 2-16% was applied to fibroblast-populated fibrin gels for either 6 h or 24 h/day for 8 days. Trends in matrix remodeling metrics as a function of stretch magnitude and duration were analyzed using regression analysis. The compaction and ultimate tensile strength of the tissues increased in a dose-dependent manner with increasing stretch magnitude, yet remained unaffected by the duration in which they were cycled (6 h/day versus 24 h/day). Collagen density increased exponentially as a function of both the magnitude and duration of stretch, with samples stretched for the reduced duration per day having the highest levels of collagen accumulation. Cell number and failure tension were also dependent on both the magnitude and duration of stretch, although stretch-induced increases in these metrics were only present in the samples loaded for 6 h/day. Our results indicate that both the magnitude and the duration per day of stretch are critical parameters in modulating fibroblast remodeling of the extracellular matrix, and that these two factors regulate different aspects of this remodeling. These findings move us one step closer to fully characterizing culture conditions for tissue equivalents, developing improved wound healing treatments and understanding tissue responses to changes in mechanical environments during growth, repair, and disease states.

  7. Characterizing the stretch-flangeability of hot rolled multiphase steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, N.; Butcher, C.; Worswick, M.; Gao, J.

    2013-01-01

    Hole expansion tests are commonly used to characterize the edge stretching limit of a material. Traditionally, a conical punch is used to expand a punched hole until a through-thickness crack appears. However, many automotive stretch flanging operations involve in-plane edge stretching that is best captured with a flat punch. In this paper, hole expansion tests were carried out on two different hot-rolled multiphase steels using both flat and conical punches. The fracture mechanisms for both punch types were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

  8. Brain Network Modularity Predicts Exercise-Related Executive Function Gains in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniqued, Pauline L; Gallen, Courtney L; Voss, Michelle W; Burzynska, Agnieszka Z; Wong, Chelsea N; Cooke, Gillian E; Duffy, Kristin; Fanning, Jason; Ehlers, Diane K; Salerno, Elizabeth A; Aguiñaga, Susan; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F; D'Esposito, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Recent work suggests that the brain can be conceptualized as a network comprised of groups of sub-networks or modules. The extent of segregation between modules can be quantified with a modularity metric, where networks with high modularity have dense connections within modules and sparser connections between modules. Previous work has shown that higher modularity predicts greater improvements after cognitive training in patients with traumatic brain injury and in healthy older and young adults. It is not known, however, whether modularity can also predict cognitive gains after a physical exercise intervention. Here, we quantified modularity in older adults ( N = 128, mean age = 64.74) who underwent one of the following interventions for 6 months (NCT01472744 on ClinicalTrials.gov): (1) aerobic exercise in the form of brisk walking (Walk), (2) aerobic exercise in the form of brisk walking plus nutritional supplement (Walk+), (3) stretching, strengthening and stability (SSS), or (4) dance instruction. After the intervention, the Walk, Walk+ and SSS groups showed gains in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), with larger effects in both walking groups compared to the SSS and Dance groups. The Walk, Walk+ and SSS groups also improved in executive function (EF) as measured by reasoning, working memory, and task-switching tests. In the Walk, Walk+, and SSS groups that improved in EF, higher baseline modularity was positively related to EF gains, even after controlling for age, in-scanner motion and baseline EF. No relationship between modularity and EF gains was observed in the Dance group, which did not show training-related gains in CRF or EF control. These results are consistent with previous studies demonstrating that individuals with a more modular brain network organization are more responsive to cognitive training. These findings suggest that the predictive power of modularity may be generalizable across interventions aimed to enhance aspects of cognition and that

  9. Brain Network Modularity Predicts Exercise-Related Executive Function Gains in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline L. Baniqued

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent work suggests that the brain can be conceptualized as a network comprised of groups of sub-networks or modules. The extent of segregation between modules can be quantified with a modularity metric, where networks with high modularity have dense connections within modules and sparser connections between modules. Previous work has shown that higher modularity predicts greater improvements after cognitive training in patients with traumatic brain injury and in healthy older and young adults. It is not known, however, whether modularity can also predict cognitive gains after a physical exercise intervention. Here, we quantified modularity in older adults (N = 128, mean age = 64.74 who underwent one of the following interventions for 6 months (NCT01472744 on ClinicalTrials.gov: (1 aerobic exercise in the form of brisk walking (Walk, (2 aerobic exercise in the form of brisk walking plus nutritional supplement (Walk+, (3 stretching, strengthening and stability (SSS, or (4 dance instruction. After the intervention, the Walk, Walk+ and SSS groups showed gains in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF, with larger effects in both walking groups compared to the SSS and Dance groups. The Walk, Walk+ and SSS groups also improved in executive function (EF as measured by reasoning, working memory, and task-switching tests. In the Walk, Walk+, and SSS groups that improved in EF, higher baseline modularity was positively related to EF gains, even after controlling for age, in-scanner motion and baseline EF. No relationship between modularity and EF gains was observed in the Dance group, which did not show training-related gains in CRF or EF control. These results are consistent with previous studies demonstrating that individuals with a more modular brain network organization are more responsive to cognitive training. These findings suggest that the predictive power of modularity may be generalizable across interventions aimed to enhance aspects of cognition and

  10. VITEX 2016 : Evaluation of learning objectives and exercise set-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijk, R. van; Stubbé-Alberts, H.E.

    2016-01-01

    To strengthen awareness of the need for cooperation, between public and private partners, and between countries, a new exercise set-up was developed. The VITEX exercise set-up is a table top exercise that aims to bring relevant networks together, and supports cooperation and collaboration between

  11. [Sciatica. From stretch rack to microdiscectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, P; Böni, T

    2015-12-01

    In ancient times as well as in the Middle Ages treatment options for discogenic nerve compression syndrome were limited and usually not very specific because of low anatomical and pathophysiological knowledge. The stretch rack (scamnum Hippocratis) was particularly prominent but was widely used as a therapeutic device for very different spinal disorders. Since the beginning of the nineteenth century anatomical knowledge increased and the advances in the fields of asepsis, anesthesia and surgery resulted in an increase in surgical interventions on the spine. In 1908 the first successful lumbar discectomy was initiated and performed by the German neurologist Heinrich O. Oppenheim (1858-1919) and the surgeon Fedor Krause (1857-1937); however, neither recognized the true pathological condition of discogenic nerve compression syndrome. With the landmark report in the New England Journal of Medicine in 1934, the two American surgeons William Jason Mixter (1880-1958) and Joseph Seaton Barr (1901-1963) finally clarified the pathomechanism of lumbar disc herniation and furthermore, propagated discectomy as the standard therapy. Since then interventions on intervertebral discs rapidly increased and the treatment options for lumbar disc surgery quickly evolved. The surgical procedures changed over time and were continuously being refined. In the late 1960s the surgical microscope was introduced for spinal surgery by the work of the famous neurosurgeon Mahmut Gazi Yasargil and his colleague Wolfhard Caspar and so-called microdiscectomy was introduced. Besides open discectomy other interventional techniques were developed to overcome the side effects of surgical procedures. In 1964 the American orthopedic surgeon Lyman Smith (1912-1991) introduced chemonucleolysis, a minimally invasive technique consisting only of a cannula and the proteolytic enzyme chymopapain, which is injected into the disc compartment to dissolve the displaced disc material. In 1975 the Japanese orthopedic

  12. PHYSIOTHERAPY EXERCISES DURING ANTENATAL AND POSTNATAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Rajsekhar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: It’s a well-known fact that exercise is good for the mind and body making it beneficial for expectant and new mothers. The challenge of pregnancy, labor and looking after a new born is not an easy task. So the fitter you are the better you will cope with this life changing event. Method: Aerobic and strengthening exercises help in adjusting to the increasing weight and posture changes to cope effectively with the labor and the postnatal period. Although exercises in pregnancy are extremely beneficial, they can cause more harm than good if not done correctly. Medical screening for exercise should be done by the Doctor as well as the Physiotherapist to ensure that the patient underwent a basic screening, assessment or continued monitoring for the right exercise protocol for avoidance of any complications and to ensure the benefits of staying healthy and fit. Results: Evidence shows that exercise training programs designed and delivered by the Physiotherapists can relieve the prenatal post natal problems. Conclusion: Number of studies has shown the positive effects of aerobic and strengthening exercises on pregnant women. The physical changes to a pregnant woman’s body are multiple. There are center of mass changes, pressure on the organs and increased weight gain. In fact, over two thirds of pregnant women experience back pain, one fifth experience pelvic pain and over 40% experience urinary incontinence in their first pregnancy.

  13. Optimal stretching in the reacting wake of a bluff body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinge; Tithof, Jeffrey; Nevins, Thomas D; Colón, Rony O; Kelley, Douglas H

    2017-12-01

    We experimentally study spreading of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction behind a bluff body in a laminar flow. Locations of reacted regions (i.e., regions with high product concentration) correlate with a moderate range of Lagrangian stretching and that range is close to the range of optimal stretching previously observed in topologically different flows [T. D. Nevins and D. H. Kelley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 164502 (2016)]. The previous work found optimal stretching in a closed, vortex dominated flow, but this article uses an open flow and only a small area of appreciable vorticity. We hypothesize that optimal stretching is common in advection-reaction-diffusion systems with an excitation threshold, including excitable and bistable systems, and that the optimal range depends on reaction chemistry and not on flow shape or characteristic speed. Our results may also give insight into plankton blooms behind islands in ocean currents.

  14. Guidelines for Stretch Flanging Advanced High Strength Steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriram, S.; Chintamani, J.

    2005-01-01

    Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) are currently being considered for use in closure and structural panels in the automotive industry because of their high potential for affordable weight reduction and improved performance. AHSS such as dual phase steels are currently being used in some vehicle platforms. From a manufacturing perspective, stretch flanging during stamping is an important deformation mode requiring careful consideration of geometry and the die process. This paper presents some geometric and process guidelines for stretch flanging AHSS. Hole expansion experiments were conducted to determine the failure limit for a sheared edge condition. Effects of punching clearance, prestrain and prior strain path on hole expansion were explored in these experiments. In addition, dynamic explicit FE calculations using LS-DYNA were also conducted for a typical stretch flange by varying some key geometric parameters. The experimental and FEA results were then analyzed to yield process and geometric guidelines to enable successful stretch flanging of AHSS

  15. Damage percolation during stretch flange forming of aluminum alloy sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zengtao; Worswick, Michael J.; Keith Pilkey, A.; Lloyd, David J.

    2005-12-01

    A multi-scale finite element (FE)-damage percolation model was employed to simulate stretch flange forming of aluminum alloys AA5182 and AA5754. Material softening and strain gradients were captured using a Gurson-based FE model. FE results were then fed into the so-called damage percolation code, from which the damage development was modelled within measured microstructures. The formability of the stretch flange samples was predicted based upon the onset of catastrophic failure triggered by profuse void coalescence within the measured second-phase particle field. Damage development is quantified in terms of crack and void areal fractions, and compared to metallographic results obtained from interrupted stretch flange specimens. Parametric study is conducted on the effect of void nucleation strain in the prediction of formability of stretch flanges to "calibrate" proper nucleation strains for both alloys.

  16. Stretched flow of Carreau nanofluid with convective boundary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. January 2016 physics pp. 3–17. Stretched flow of Carreau nanofluid with ... fluid over a flat plate subjected to convective surface condition. ... the steady laminar boundary layer flow over a permeable plate with a convective boundary.

  17. Adaptive force regulation of muscle strengthening rehabilitation device with magnetorheological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shufang; Lu, Ke-Qian; Sun, Jian Qiao; Rudolph, Katherine

    2006-03-01

    In rehabilitation from neuromuscular trauma or injury, strengthening exercises are often prescribed by physical therapists to recover as much function as possible. Strengthening equipment used in clinical settings range from low-cost devices, such as sandbag weights or elastic bands to large and expensive isotonic and isokinetic devices. The low-cost devices are incapable of measuring strength gains and apply resistance based on the lowest level of torque that is produced by a muscle group. Resistance that varies with joint angle can be achieved with isokinetic devices in which angular velocity is held constant and variable torque is generated when the patient attempts to move faster than the device but are ineffective if a patient cannot generate torque rapidly. In this paper, we report the development of a versatile rehabilitation device that can be used to strengthen different muscle groups based on the torque generating capability of the muscle that changes with joint angle. The device is low cost, is smaller than other commercially available machines, and can be programmed to apply resistance that is unique to a particular patient and that will optimize strengthening. The core of the device, a damper with smart magnetorheological fluids, provides passive exercise force. A digital adaptive control is capable of regulating exercise force precisely following the muscle strengthening profile prescribed by a physical therapist. The device could be programmed with artificial intelligence to dynamically adjust the target force profile to optimize rehabilitation effects. The device provides both isometric and isokinetic strength training and can be developed into a small, low-cost device that may be capable of providing optimal strengthening in the home.

  18. The Ottawa panel clinical practice guidelines for the management of knee osteoarthritis. Part three: aerobic exercise programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosseau, Lucie; Taki, Jade; Desjardins, Brigit; Thevenot, Odette; Fransen, Marlene; Wells, George A; Mizusaki Imoto, Aline; Toupin-April, Karine; Westby, Marie; Álvarez Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Gifford, Wendy; Laferrière, Lucie; Rahman, Prinon; Loew, Laurianne; De Angelis, Gino; Cavallo, Sabrina; Shallwani, Shirin Mehdi; Aburub, Ala'; Bennell, Kim L; Van der Esch, Martin; Simic, Milena; McConnell, Sara; Harmer, Alison; Kenny, Glen P; Paterson, Gail; Regnaux, Jean-Philippe; Lefevre-Colau, Marie-Martine; McLean, Linda

    2017-05-01

    To identify effective aerobic exercise programs and provide clinicians and patients with updated, high-quality recommendations concerning traditional land-based exercises for knee osteoarthritis. A systematic search and adapted selection criteria included comparative controlled trials with strengthening exercise programs for patients with knee osteoarthritis. A panel of experts reached consensus on the recommendations using a Delphi survey. A hierarchical alphabetical grading system (A, B, C+, C, D, D+, or D-) was used, based on statistical significance ( P osteoarthritis within a 12-week period. An aerobic exercise program demonstrated significant improvement for pain relief (Grade B), physical function (Grade B) and quality of life (Grade C+). Aerobic exercise in combination with strengthening exercises showed significant improvement for pain relief (3 Grade A) and physical function (2 Grade A, 2 Grade B). A short-term aerobic exercise program with/without muscle strengthening exercises is promising for reducing pain, improving physical function and quality of life for individuals with knee osteoarthritis.

  19. The effect of warm-up, static stretching and dynamic stretching on hamstring flexibility in previously injured subjects.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, Kieran

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Warm-up and stretching are suggested to increase hamstring flexibility and reduce the risk of injury. This study examined the short-term effects of warm-up, static stretching and dynamic stretching on hamstring flexibility in individuals with previous hamstring injury and uninjured controls. METHODS: A randomised crossover study design, over 2 separate days. Hamstring flexibility was assessed using passive knee extension range of motion (PKE ROM). 18 previously injured individuals and 18 uninjured controls participated. On both days, four measurements of PKE ROM were recorded: (1) at baseline; (2) after warm-up; (3) after stretch (static or dynamic) and (4) after a 15-minute rest. Participants carried out both static and dynamic stretches, but on different days. Data were analysed using Anova. RESULTS: Across both groups, there was a significant main effect for time (p < 0.001). PKE ROM significantly increased with warm-up (p < 0.001). From warm-up, PKE ROM further increased with static stretching (p = 0.04) but significantly decreased after dynamic stretching (p = 0.013). The increased flexibility after warm-up and static stretching reduced significantly (p < 0.001) after 15 minutes of rest, but remained significantly greater than at baseline (p < 0.001). Between groups, there was no main effect for group (p = 0.462), with no difference in mean PKE ROM values at any individual stage of the protocol (p > 0.05). Using ANCOVA to adjust for the non-significant (p = 0.141) baseline difference between groups, the previously injured group demonstrated a greater response to warm-up and static stretching, however this was not statistically significant (p = 0.05). CONCLUSION: Warm-up significantly increased hamstring flexibility. Static stretching also increased hamstring flexibility, whereas dynamic did not, in agreement with previous findings on uninjured controls. The effect of warm-up and static stretching on flexibility was greater in those with reduced

  20. Velocities and joint angles during double backward stretched salto performed with stable landing and in combination with tempo salto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Sadowski

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the values of velocity an joint angles obtained during performance of double salto backward stretched with a stable landing and its combination with salto tempo. Seven top level acrobats (track jumpers participated in study. Mean values of body height, mass and age had a value of: 170 cm ± 4.0 cm, 72.4 kg ± 3.6 kg, 20.4±1.7 years, respectively. The studies were conducted on a standard acrobatic path (type PTS 2000. Two digital video cameras (240 Hz and APAS 2000 (Ariel Dynamics Inc. were used during studies. Markers were placed in ankle, knee, hip, arm, elbow and wrist joints. All marker positions were tracked and reconstructed using the APAS system. Two sequences with the following elements were analysed: round-off - double salto backward stretched (A and round-off - double salto backward stretched - tempo salto (B. The highest differences between the key components describing performance of presented exercises exist for joint angles during launching and landing position, and resultant velocities during touchdown. In version A the athlete created prerequisites for “gliding” double salto backward stretched by means of the body segments motions, whereas in version B he executes faster motions of the body segments accentuating his actions upon backward rotation of the body. During the final phase of double salto backward stretched in combination with tempo salto the athlete performed courbette “under himself” (almost straight feet are placed in front of vertical line, pushes directly back and in 0,1 s executes stable arm swing upward-backward to tempo salto.

  1. The effect of warm-up, static stretching and dynamic stretching on hamstring flexibility in previously injured subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Elaine

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Warm-up and stretching are suggested to increase hamstring flexibility and reduce the risk of injury. This study examined the short-term effects of warm-up, static stretching and dynamic stretching on hamstring flexibility in individuals with previous hamstring injury and uninjured controls. Methods A randomised crossover study design, over 2 separate days. Hamstring flexibility was assessed using passive knee extension range of motion (PKE ROM. 18 previously injured individuals and 18 uninjured controls participated. On both days, four measurements of PKE ROM were recorded: (1 at baseline; (2 after warm-up; (3 after stretch (static or dynamic and (4 after a 15-minute rest. Participants carried out both static and dynamic stretches, but on different days. Data were analysed using Anova. Results Across both groups, there was a significant main effect for time (p 0.05. Using ANCOVA to adjust for the non-significant (p = 0.141 baseline difference between groups, the previously injured group demonstrated a greater response to warm-up and static stretching, however this was not statistically significant (p = 0.05. Conclusion Warm-up significantly increased hamstring flexibility. Static stretching also increased hamstring flexibility, whereas dynamic did not, in agreement with previous findings on uninjured controls. The effect of warm-up and static stretching on flexibility was greater in those with reduced flexibility post-injury, but this did not reach statistical significance. Further prospective research is required to validate the hypothesis that increased flexibility improves outcomes. Trial Registration ACTRN12608000638336

  2. Exercise and Posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Spondylitis › Treatment Information › Exercise & Posture Print Page Exercise Exercise is an integral part of any spondylitis ... For First Responders For Chiropractors Research Article Archive Exercise Guidelines Having an exercise program that accomplishes your ...

  3. Crew Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafalik, Kerrie K.

    2017-01-01

    Johnson Space Center (JSC) provides research, engineering, development, integration, and testing of hardware and software technologies for exercise systems applications in support of human spaceflight. This includes sustaining the current suite of on-orbit exercise devices by reducing maintenance, addressing obsolescence, and increasing reliability through creative engineering solutions. Advanced exercise systems technology development efforts focus on the sustainment of crew's physical condition beyond Low Earth Orbit for extended mission durations with significantly reduced mass, volume, and power consumption when compared to the ISS.

  4. Exercise KATRINE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clahane, Darren; Burgoyne, William

    1995-01-01

    Based on a hypothetical incident at the Scottish Nuclear Ltd Torness AGR nuclear power station, Exercise KATRINE was the 1994 national civil nuclear exercise and the biggest simulation of a nuclear accident to take place in Britain last year. The exercise, held on 17 and 18 November, was based on a series of postulated faults which resulted in an uncontrolled release of radioactivity. It commenced at 07.00 on Thursday and continued for about 33 hours, until around 15.30 on Friday. Activity focused on the Torness Off-site Centre (TOSC), in Cockenzie near Edinburgh, and the brand new Torness Media Briefing Centre (TMBC) located nearby. (author)

  5. Effect of stretching program in an industrial workplace on hamstring flexibility and sagittal spinal posture of adult women workers: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyor, José M; López-Miñarro, Pedro A; Casimiro, Antonio J

    2012-01-01

    To determine the effect of a stretching program performed in the workplace on the hamstring muscle extensibility and sagittal spinal posture of adult women. Fifty-eight adult women volunteers (mean age of 44.23 ± 8.87 years) from a private fruit and vegetable company were randomly assigned to experimental (n=27) or control (n=31) groups. The experimental group performed three exercises of hamstrings stretching of 20 seconds per exercise, three sessions a week for a period of 12 weeks. The control group did not participate in any hamstring stretching program. Hamstring flexibility was evaluated through the passive straight leg raise test and toe-touch test, performed both before and after the stretching program. Thoracic and lumbar curvatures and pelvic inclination were measured in relaxed standing and toe-touch test with a Spinal Mouse. Significant increases (p < 0.01) in toe-touch score and straight leg raise angle (in both legs) were found in the experimental group during post-test, while the control group showed a non-significant decrease for both toe-touch score and straight leg raise test. A significant decrease in thoracic curve and significant increase in pelvic inclination were found in the toe-touch test for the experimental group (p <0.05). However, no significant changes were found in standing posture for any group. Hamstring stretching exercises performed in the working place are effective for increasing hamstring muscle extensibility. This increase generates a more aligned thoracic curve and more anterior pelvic inclination when maximal trunk flexion is performed.

  6. Intercomparison exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunachalam, J.

    2007-01-01

    Intercomparison exercises are vital to many a national programmes. These are only tools available with the laboratories to prove their competence to an international audience and also for the accrediting agencies to assess a laboratory

  7. Compulsive exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Hinze, Cecilie Juul; Emborg Jannsen, Bolette

    2017-01-01

    found that compulsive exercise is associated with eating disorder pathology, perfectionism, neuroticism, narcissism, and obsessive compulsive traits. The most prominent negative consequences were injuries, social impairment, and depression, but more research is needed to uncover the potential......Compulsive exercise is a condition described since 1970s. It is characterized by a craving for physical training, resulting in uncontrollable excessive exercise behavior with harmful consequences, such as injuries and impaired social relations. It has not been accepted as a mental disorder...... dysfunction resulting from compulsive exercise. As the condition is not recognized as a psychiatric disorder, studies on treatment interventions are sparse. Problems with compliance have been reported; therefore, motivational interviewing has been proposed as a treatment approach, in combination...

  8. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... following suggested exercises increases your back pain after five repetitions, or causes acute pain, you should stop ... 10 seconds working towards 30 seconds. Repeat 1-5 times or to fatigue... Prone Bridge/Plank Prop ...

  9. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Chronic Low Back Pain SI Joint Pain Other Scoliosis Back Pain and Emotional Distress Muscle Spasms Pinched ... DC Directional Exercises Electrothermal Modalities Ergonomic Changes Hydrotherapy Manual Therapy Physical Therapy Postural Training Traction Watchful Waiting and ...

  10. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... slow full movements. Repeat 10-15 times, to fatigue... Abdominal Exercise Lay on your back with both ... Return leg and extend other leg. Repeat to fatigue, about 10-15 repetitions at a slow and ...

  11. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 15 repetitions at a slow and controlled pace... Resistance Training Resistance training is exercise done against something providing resistance. It can be done with weights (hand-held ...

  12. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... legs to touch the wall, keeping hips and knees bent. Use your hips to push your body ... Abdominal Exercise Lay on your back with both knees bent. Draw abdominal wall in. Maintaining abdominal wall ...

  13. Acute effect of passive static stretching on lower-body strength in moderately trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergley, Jeffrey C

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was conducted to determine the acute effect of passive static stretching (PSS) of the lower-body musculature on lower-body strength in a 1 repetition maximum (1RM) squat exercise in young (18-24 years.) moderately trained men (n = 17). Two supervised warm-up treatments were applied before each performance testing session using a counterbalanced design on nonconsecutive days. The first treatment consisted of an active dynamic warm-up (AD) with resistance machines (i.e., leg extension/leg flexion) and free weights (i.e., barbell squat), whereas the second treatment added PSS of the lower body plus the AD treatment. One repetition maximum was determined using the maximum barbell squat following a progressive loading protocol. Subjects were also asked to subjectively evaluate their lower-body stability during 1RM testing sessions for both the AD and PSS treatments. A significant decrease in 1RM (8.36%) and lower-body stability (22.68%) was observed after the PSS treatment. Plausible explanations for this observation may be related to a more compliant muscle tendon unit and/or altered or impaired neurologic function in the active musculature. It is also possible that strength was impaired by the PSS because of joint instability. The findings of this study suggest that intensive stretching such as lower-body PSS should be avoided before training the lower body or performing the 1RM in the squat exercise in favor of an AD dynamic warm-up using resistance training equipment in the lower-body musculature.

  14. Cyclic Stretch Alters Vascular Reactivity of Mouse Aortic Segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Leloup

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Large, elastic arteries buffer the pressure wave originating in the left ventricle and are constantly exposed to higher amplitudes of cyclic stretch (10% than muscular arteries (2%. As a crucial factor for endothelial and smooth muscle cell function, cyclic stretch has, however, never been studied in ex vivo aortic segments of mice. To investigate the effects of cyclic stretch on vaso-reactivity of mouse aortic segments, we used the Rodent Oscillatory Tension Set-up to study Arterial Compliance (ROTSAC. The aortic segments were clamped at frequencies of 6–600 bpm between two variable preloads, thereby mimicking dilation as upon left ventricular systole and recoiling as during diastole. The preloads corresponding to different transmural pressures were chosen to correspond to a low, normal or high amplitude of cyclic stretch. At different time intervals, cyclic stretch was interrupted, the segments were afterloaded and isometric contractions by α1-adrenergic stimulation with 2 μM phenylephrine in the absence and presence of 300 μM L-NAME (eNOS inhibitor and/or 35 μM diltiazem (blocker of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels were measured. As compared with static or cyclic stretch at low amplitude (<10 mN or low frequency (0.1 Hz, cyclic stretch at physiological amplitude (>10 mN and frequency (1–10 Hz caused better ex vivo conservation of basal NO release with time after mounting. The relaxation of PE-precontracted segments by addition of ACh to stimulate NO release was unaffected by cyclic stretch. In the absence of basal NO release (hence, presence of L-NAME, physiological in comparison with aberrant cyclic stretch decreased the baseline tension, attenuated the phasic contraction by phenylephrine in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ and shifted the smaller tonic contraction more from a voltage-gated Ca2+ channel-mediated to a non-selective cation channel-mediated. Data highlight the need of sufficient mechanical activation of endothelial and

  15. Clinical Evidence of Exercise Benefits for Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Peipei; Zhang, Wen; Kang, Li; Ma, Yixuan; Fu, Liyuan; Jia, Liye; Yu, Hairui; Chen, Xiaoyu; Hou, Lin; Wang, Lu; Yu, Xing; Kohzuki, Masahiro; Guo, Qi

    2017-01-01

    Even though stroke is the third, not the first, most common cause of disability-adjusted life years in developed countries, it is one of the most expensive to treat. Part of the expense is due to secondary problems in the post-stroke period including: cognition, memory, attention span, pain, sensation loss, psychological issues, and problems with mobility and balance. Research has identified that exercise has both positive physical and psychosocial effects for post-stroke patients. Therefore, this scientific statement provides an overview on exercise rehabilitation for post-stroke patients.We will use systematic literature reviews, clinical and epidemiology reports, published morbidity and mortality studies, clinical and public health guidelines, patient files, and authoritative statements to support this overview.Evidence clearly supports the use of various kinds of exercise training (e.g., aerobic, strength, flexibility, neuromuscular, and traditional Chinese exercise) for stroke survivors. Aerobic exercise, the main form of cardiac rehabilitation, may play an important role in improving aerobic fitness, cardiovascular fitness, cognitive abilities, walking speed and endurance, balance, quality of life, mobility, and other health outcomes among stroke patients. Strength exercise, included in national stroke guidelines and recommended for general health promotion for stroke survivors, can lead to improvements in functionality, psychosocial aspects, and quality of life for post-stroke patients. Flexibility exercises can relieve muscle spasticity problems, improve motor function, range of motion, and prevent contractures. Stretching exercises can also prevent joint contractures, muscle shortening, decrease spasticity, reduce joint stiffness and improve a post-stroke patient's overall function. Neuromuscular exercises can improve activities of daily living (ADL) through coordination and balance activities. Traditional Chinese exercises are used to improve walking and

  16. Static versus dynamic stretching: Chronic and acute effects on Agility performance in male athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Taleb-Beydokhti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the acute and chronic effects of static & dynamic stretching protocols on agility performance in amateur handball players. Twelve male amateur handball players (age: 19.66 ± 4.02 years old, weight: 67.12 ± 8.73 kg, height: 178.29 ± 7.81 cm participated in this study. The athletes were randomly allocated into two groups: static stretching or dynamic stretching. All of them underwent an initial evaluation and were submitted to the first intervention. They were evaluated once again and at the end of 12 training sessions. The results analyzed using ANOVA showed that there was a significant decrease in agility time after dynamic stretching against no stretching in the acute phase; but, there were no significant differences between dynamic stretching and no stretching in the chronic phase. In addition, there was no a significant difference between no stretching and static stretching in the acute phase; while, There was a significant decrease in agility time after no stretching against static stretching in the chronic phase. It was concluded that acute dynamic stretching as part of a warm-up may decrease agility time performance, whereas static stretching seems to increase agility time performance. Consequently, the acute and chronic static stretching should not be performed prior to an explosive athletic performance. Keywords: Handball, Agility, Dynamic stretching, Static stretching

  17. Stretch-sensitive paresis and effort perception in hemiparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinti, Maria; Bayle, Nicolas; Hutin, Emilie; Burke, David; Gracies, Jean-Michel

    2015-08-01

    In spastic paresis, stretch applied to the antagonist increases its inappropriate recruitment during agonist command (spastic co-contraction). It is unknown whether antagonist stretch: (1) also affects agonist recruitment; (2) alters effort perception. We quantified voluntary activation of ankle dorsiflexors, effort perception, and plantar flexor co-contraction during graded dorsiflexion efforts at two gastrocnemius lengths. Eighteen healthy (age 41 ± 13) and 18 hemiparetic (age 54 ± 12) subjects performed light, medium and maximal isometric dorsiflexion efforts with the knee flexed or extended. We determined dorsiflexor torque, Root Mean Square EMG and Agonist Recruitment/Co-contraction Indices (ARI/CCI) from the 500 ms peak voluntary agonist recruitment in a 5-s maximal isometric effort in tibialis anterior, soleus and medial gastrocnemius. Subjects retrospectively reported effort perception on a 10-point visual analog scale. During gastrocnemius stretch in hemiparetic subjects, we observed: (1) a 25 ± 7 % reduction of tibialis anterior voluntary activation (maximum reduction 98 %; knee extended vs knee flexed; p = 0.007, ANOVA); (2) an increase in dorsiflexion effort perception (p = 0.03, ANCOVA). Such changes did not occur in healthy subjects. Effort perception depended on tibialis anterior recruitment only (βARI(TA) = 0.61, p hemiparesis, voluntary ability to recruit agonist motoneurones is impaired--sometimes abolished--by antagonist stretch, a phenomenon defined here as stretch-sensitive paresis. In addition, spastic co-contraction increases effort perception, an additional incentive to evaluate and treat this phenomenon.

  18. Stretch activates myosin light chain kinase in arterial smooth muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barany, K.; Rokolya, A.; Barany, M.

    1990-01-01

    Stretching of porcine carotid arterial muscle increased the phosphorylation of the 20 kDa myosin light chain from 0.23 to 0.68 mol [32P]phosphate/mol light chain, whereas stretching of phorbol dibutyrate treated muscle increased the phosphorylation from 0.30 to 0.91 mol/mol. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by two-dimensional tryptic phosphopeptide mapping was used to identify the enzyme involved in the stretch-induced phosphorylation. Quantitation of the [32P]phosphate content of the peptides revealed considerable light chain phosphorylation by protein kinase C only in the phorbol dibutyrate treated arterial muscle, whereas most of the light chain phosphorylation was attributable to myosin light chain kinase. Upon stretch of either the untreated or treated muscle, the total increment in [32P]phosphate incorporation into the light chain could be accounted for by peptides characteristic for myosin light chain kinase catalyzed phosphorylation, demonstrating that the stretch-induced phosphorylation is caused by this enzyme exclusively

  19. HIV communication capacity strengthening: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettenmaier, Cheryl; Kraft, Joan Marie; Raisanen, Keris; Serlemitsos, Elizabeth

    2014-08-15

    HIV communication is most effective and sustainable when it is designed and implemented locally and tailored to the local context. This requires capacity strengthening at national, subnational, and community levels. Through a review of the published and selected "grey" literature, we examine HIV communication capacity strengthening: definitions, measurements, implementation, and effects. We found limited documentation of HIV communication capacity needs or systematic approaches to address them. Most HIV communication capacity strengthening to date has focused on building individual competencies to design and manage social and behavior change communication programs through training courses, often coupled with networking opportunities for participants, post-training mentoring, and technical assistance. A few of these efforts have been evaluated through pre- and post-training tests and qualitative interviews with participants and have shown potential for improvement in individual skills and knowledge. Health communication capacity assessment tools that measure individual and organizational competencies exist, but they have most often been used to identify capacity building needs, not for evaluating capacity strengthening efforts. A new definition of capacity strengthening, grown out of recent efforts to improve effectiveness of international health and development programs, focuses on improving organizational and societal systems that support performance and individual competencies. We propose a holistic model for HIV communication capacity strengthening and call for rigorous documentation and evaluation to determine and scale-up optimal capacity building interventions for strengthening social and behavior change communication for HIV prevention, care, and treatment in developing countries.

  20. Strengthening leadership as a catalyst for enhanced patient safety culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Solvejg; Christensen, Karl Bang; Jaquet, Annette

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Current literature emphasises that clinical leaders are in a position to enable a culture of safety, and that the safety culture is a performance mediator with the potential to influence patient outcomes. This paper aims to investigate staff's perceptions of patient safety culture...... in a Danish psychiatric department before and after a leadership intervention. METHODS: A repeated cross-sectional experimental study by design was applied. In 2 surveys, healthcare staff were asked about their perceptions of the patient safety culture using the 7 patient safety culture dimensions...... in the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire. To broaden knowledge and strengthen leadership skills, a multicomponent programme consisting of academic input, exercises, reflections and discussions, networking, and action learning was implemented among the clinical area level leaders. RESULTS: In total, 358 and 325...

  1. Effects of Stretching by P.N.F and Harmonic Techniques on Hamstring Flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Shakeri

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Improving of muscle flexibility is an important issue in physiotherapy and sport sciences. There are many methods for increasing muscle length and decreasing muscle stiffness. In research findings, PNF method has been found to be better than static and ballistic methods. There is another method named Harmonic technique (introduced by E. Lederman 1997 that has been claimed to be more effective, but there is not enough documentation about this claim. Aim of this study was to compare effects of stretching by PNF and harmonic techniques on hamstring flexibility. Materials & Methods: This research is a RCT study in that 45 colledge students aged 18-35 years were arranged in three groups (Harmonic, P.N.F, and control. Subjects haven’t had any painful pathology in low-back and lower extremities for last six months. Subjects had limited hamstring length (20 degrees deficiency in Active-Knee-Extension test and hadn’t professional sport activities. Dependent variablies were muscle stiffness and hamstring length which popliteal angle in AKE test was its indirect index. In pilot study, reliability of measurement of these variables were approved. Then hamstring muscle of subjects in harmonic and PNF groups were stretched by harmonic and PNF methods for six weeks, 5 minute per day and 3d/wks, whereas control group hadn’t any exercise. Results: Findings of this study showed that in both used techniques, changes of hamstring length were significant (P=0.000, but in control group there wasn’t significant change. There wasn’t significant differences between changes of hamstring length in PNF and Harmonic groups. Only in harmonic group, muscle stiffness had significant changes (P<0.03. Conclusion: According to findings of this research, both harmonic and PNF methods equally increased length of hamstring, and harmonic technique can be used as an alternative stretching method for other techniques. Maybe harmonic technique is better than PNF

  2. Timber Elements: Traditional and Modern Strengthening Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Hohan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main idea of this paper is to analyse the means for the rehabilitation of our cultural heritage timber structures. Several methods together with their application techniques are described, and also, the reasons for what these strengthening operations become imminent at a point. First of all, the necessity of the timber structural elements strengthening is explained through a short presentation of the factors which are degrading the material. Then, certain precautions and strengthening procedures are presented, all involving the usage of traditional materials like wood, metal, or concrete, and of modern materials like fiber reinforced polymeric composite.

  3. The effects of hip external rotator exercises and toe-spread exercises on lower extremity muscle activities during stair-walking in subjects with pronated foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, Young-Mi; Kim, Da-Yeon; Kim, Tae-Ho

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of toe-spread (TS) exercises and hip external rotator strengthening exercises for pronated feet on lower extremity muscle activities during stair-walking. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were 20 healthy adults with no present or previous pain, no past history of surgery on the foot or the ankle, and no foot deformities. Ten subjects performed hip external rotator strengthening exercises and TS exercises and the remaining ten subjects performed only TS exercises five times per week for four weeks. [Results] Less change in navicular drop height occurred in the group that performed hip external rotator exercises than in the group that performed only TS exercises. The group that performed only TS exercises showed increased abductor hallucis muscle activity during both stair-climbing and -descending, and the group that performed hip external rotator exercises showed increased muscle activities of the vastus medialis and abductor hallucis during stair-climbing and increased muscle activity of only the abductor hallucis during stair-descending after exercise. [Conclusion] Stair-walking can be more effectively performed if the hip external rotator muscle is strengthened when TS exercises are performed for the pronated foot.

  4. Immediate effect of exercise on achilles tendon properties: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obst, Steven J; Barrett, Rod S; Newsham-West, Richard

    2013-08-01

    Understanding the mechanical and morphological adaptation of the Achilles tendon (AT) in response to acute exercise could have important implications for athletic performance, injury prevention, and rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review and critical evaluation of the literature to determine the immediate effect of a single bout of exercise on the mechanical and morphological properties of the AT in vivo. Five electronic research databases were systematically searched for intervention-based studies reporting mechanical and morphological properties of the AT after a single bout of exercise. Searches revealed 3292 possible articles; 21 met the inclusion criteria. There is evidence that maximal isometric contractions and prolonged static stretching (>5 min) of the triceps surae complex cause an immediate decrease in AT stiffness, whereas prolonged running and hopping have minimal effect. Limited but consistent evidence exists, indicating that AT hysteresis is reduced after prolonged static stretching. Consistent evidence supports a reduction in free AT diameter (anterior-posterior) after dynamic ankle exercise, and this change appears most pronounced in the healthy tendon and after eccentric exercise. The mechanical and morphological properties of the AT in vivo are affected by acute exercise in a mode- and dose-dependent manner. Transient changes in AT stiffness, hysteresis, and diameter after unaccustomed exercise modes and doses may expose the tendon to increased risk of strain injury and impact on the mechanical function of the triceps surae muscle-tendon unit.

  5. DNA analysis by single molecule stretching in nanofluidic biochips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abad, E.; Juarros, A.; Retolaza, A.

    2011-01-01

    Imprint Lithography (NIL) technology combined with a conventional anodic bonding of the silicon base and Pyrex cover. Using this chip, we have performed single molecule imaging on a bench-top fluorescent microscope system. Lambda phage DNA was used as a model sample to characterize the chip. Single molecules of λ-DNA......Stretching single DNA molecules by confinement in nanofluidic channels has attracted a great interest during the last few years as a DNA analysis tool. We have designed and fabricated a sealed micro/nanofluidic device for DNA stretching applications, based on the use of the high throughput Nano...... stained with the fluorescent dye YOYO-1 were stretched in the nanochannel array and the experimental results were analysed to determine the extension factor of the DNA in the chip and the geometrical average of the nanochannel inner diameter. The determination of the extension ratio of the chip provides...

  6. Cell volume and membrane stretch independently control K+ channel activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bomholtz, Sofia Hammami; Willumsen, Niels J; Olsen, Hervør L

    2009-01-01

    A number of potassium channels including members of the KCNQ family and the Ca(2+) activated IK and SK, but not BK, are strongly and reversibly regulated by small changes in cell volume. It has been argued that this general regulation is mediated through sensitivity to changes in membrane stretch...... was not affected by membrane stretch. The results indicate that (1) activation of BK channels by local membrane stretch is not mimicked by membrane stress induced by cell swelling, and (2) activation of KCNQ1 channels by cell volume increase is not mediated by local tension in the cell membrane. We conclude....... To test this hypothesis we have studied the regulation of KCNQ1 and BK channels after expression in Xenopus oocytes. Results from cell-attached patch clamp studies (approximately 50 microm(2) macropatches) in oocytes expressing BK channels demonstrate that the macroscopic volume-insensitive BK current...

  7. Directional Cell Migration in Response to Repeated Substratum Stretching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okimura, Chika; Iwadate, Yoshiaki

    2017-10-01

    Crawling migration plays an essential role in a variety of biological phenomena, including development, wound healing, and immune system function. Migration properties such as anterior-posterior polarity, directionality, and velocity are regulated not only by the reception of a chemoattractant but also by sensing mechanical inputs from the external environment. In this review, we describe the mechanical response of migrating cells, particularly under repeated stretching of the elastic substratum, highlighting the fact that there appear to be two independent mechanosensing systems that generate the polarity needed for migration. Cells that have no stress fibers, such as Dictyostelium cells and neutrophil-like differentiated HL-60 cells, migrate perpendicular to the stretching direction via myosin II localization. Cells that do possess stress fibers, however, such as fish keratocytes, migrate parallel to the stretching via a stress-fiber-dependent process.

  8. Probabilistic model of ligaments and tendons: Quasistatic linear stretching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontempi, M.

    2009-03-01

    Ligaments and tendons have a significant role in the musculoskeletal system and are frequently subjected to injury. This study presents a model of collagen fibers, based on the study of a statistical distribution of fibers when they are subjected to quasistatic linear stretching. With respect to other methodologies, this model is able to describe the behavior of the bundle using less ad hoc hypotheses and is able to describe all the quasistatic stretch-load responses of the bundle, including the yield and failure regions described in the literature. It has two other important results: the first is that it is able to correlate the mechanical behavior of the bundle with its internal structure, and it suggests a methodology to deduce the fibers population distribution directly from the tensile-test data. The second is that it can follow fibers’ structure evolution during the stretching and it is possible to study the internal adaptation of fibers in physiological and pathological conditions.

  9. Stretching of red blood cells at high strain rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, J. E.; Ristenpart, W. D.

    2017-10-01

    Most work on the mechanical behavior of red blood cells (RBCs) in flow has focused on simple shear flows. Relatively little work has examined RBC deformations in the physiologically important extensional flow that occurs at the entrance to a constriction. In particular, previous work suggests that RBCs rapidly stretch out and then retract upon entering the constriction, but to date no model predicts this behavior for the extremely high strain rates typically experienced there. In this Rapid Communication, we use high speed video to perform systematic measurements of the dynamic stretching behavior of RBCs as they enter a microfluidic constriction. We demonstrate that both the Kelvin-Voigt and Skalak viscoelastic models capture the observed stretching dynamics, up to strain rates as high as 2000 s-1. The results indicate that the effective elastic modulus of the RBC membrane at these strain rates is an order of magnitude larger than moduli measured by micropipette aspiration or other low strain rate techniques.

  10. Numerical and experimental investigation of stretch-flange forming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cinotti, N.; Shakeri, H.R.; Worswick, M.J.; Truttmann, S.; Finn, M.J.; Jain, M.; Lloyd, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    Simulations of stretch flange forming operations are undertaken using explicit dynamic finite element calculations incorporating anisotropic yield criteria. Simple circular stretch flanges utilizing a single circular punch to expand the cut-out were considered. Experiments were performed using 101mm diameter tooling on AA 5754 and AA 5182 aluminum alloy sheets, with varying cut-out and gauge size. Metallurgical aspects of the formability of these aluminum alloys and damage mechanisms were studied. Both optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were used to study ductile fracture behaviour in these materials during the forming operation. The limit strains obtained from the circular stretch flange formability experiments are compared to forming limit diagram (FLD) data from hemispherical dome specimens. (author)

  11. Investigating the role of musical genre in human perception of music stretching resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jun; Wang, Chaokun

    2017-01-01

    To stretch a music piece to a given length is a common demand in people's daily lives, e.g., in audio-video synchronization and animation production. However, it is not always guaranteed that the stretched music piece is acceptable for general audience since music stretching suffers from people's perceptual artefacts. Over-stretching a music piece will make it uncomfortable for human psychoacoustic hearing. The research on music stretching resistance attempts to estimate the maximum stretchab...

  12. Effects of physical exercise on serum levels of serotonin and its metabolite in fibromyalgia: a randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valim, Valéria; Natour, Jamil; Xiao, Yangming; Pereira, Abraão Ferraz Alves; Lopes, Beatriz Baptista da Cunha; Pollak, Daniel Feldman; Zandonade, Eliana; Russell, Irwin Jon

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of aerobic training and stretching on serum levels of serotonin (5HT) and its main metabolite 5-hydroxindolacetic acid (5HIAA). Twenty-two women with FM were randomized into one of two exercise modalities (aerobic walking exercise or stretching exercise) to be accomplished three times a week for 20 weeks. The serum levels of 5HT and 5HIAA were evaluated before and after the exercise program by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with colorimetric detection. Within group analysis (pre-post) showed that serum levels of both 5HT and 5HIAA changed significantly in the aerobic group during the 20-week course of therapy (5HT: P = 0,03; 5HIAA: P = 0,003). In the stretching group, however, no statistically significant change was observed (5HT: P=0,491; 5HIAA: P=0,549). Between group statistical comparisons of laboratory measures disclosed that aerobic training was superior to stretching in that it significantly increased the levels of 5HIAA (F test = 6.61; P = 0.01), but the average difference between groups on the levels of 5HT did not meet significance criteria (F test = 3.42; P = 0.08). Aerobic training increases the 5HIAA and 5HT levels and it could explain why aerobic exercise can improve symptoms in fibromyalgia syndrome patient more than stretching exercise.

  13. Dynamic Contractility and Efficiency Impairments in Stretch-Shortening Cycle Are Stretch-Load-Dependent After Training-Induced Muscle Damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaczi, Mark; Racz, Levente; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Tihanyi, Jozsef

    Vaczi, M, Racz, L, Hortobagyi, T, and Tihanyi, J. Dynamic contractility and efficiency impairments in stretch-shortening cycle are stretch-load-dependent after training-induced muscle damage. J Strength Cond Res 27(8): 2171-2179, 2013To determine the acute task and stretch-load dependency of

  14. Strengthening primary healthcare through community involvement in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strengthening primary healthcare through community involvement in Cross River State, Nigeria: a descriptive study. Hilary Adie, Thomas Igbang, Akaninyene Otu, Ekanem Braide, Okpok Okon, Edet Ikpi, Charles Joseph, Alexander Desousa, Johannes Sommerfeld ...

  15. Strengthening rural health placements for medical students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strengthening rural health placements for medical students: Lessons for South Africa ... rural health, primary healthcare and National Health Insurance strategies. ... preferential selection of students with a rural background, positioning rural ...

  16. Strengthening Governance in Health Systems for Reproductive ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Home · What we do ... As a result, Pakistan's health system has suffered and health service delivery has worsened. ... This four-year project aims to strengthen health systems governance for reproductive health and rights in Pakistan.

  17. Strengthening Agricultural Research Capacity for Viable Extension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strengthening Agricultural Research Capacity for Viable Extension Policies in Nigeria: An Exploration of Ricoeur's Hermeneutic Theory for Analysing Extension Research. ... Progressively more, researchers use hermeneutic philosophy to inform the conduct of interpretive research. Analogy between the philosophical ...

  18. Strengthening entrepreneurship through coaching and developing competencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beldman, A.C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Strengthening entrepreneurship is an important strategy for stimulating the transition to sustainable agriculture. But how is that done? One example is the Interactive Strategic Management method, which supports entrepreneurs in the creation and execution of future-focused strategies.

  19. Strengthening Democratic Governance through ICTs : Post Election ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Strengthening Democratic Governance through ICTs : Post Election ... has had several consequences, culminating in the disputed general elections of December 2007. ... Linking research to urban planning at the ICLEI World Congress 2018.

  20. Oxide dispersion-strengthened ferritic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asbroeck, P. van.

    1976-10-01

    The publication gives the available data on the DTO2 dispersion-strengthened ferritic alloy developed at C.E.N./S.C.K. Mol, Belgium. DTO2 is a Fe-Cr-Mo ferritic alloy, strengthened by addition of titanium oxide and of titanium leading to the formation of Chi phase. It was developed for use as canning material for fast breeder reactors. (author)

  1. Numerical Investigation of Masonry Strengthened with Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Ramaglia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, two main fiber strengthening systems typically applied in masonry structures have been investigated: composites made of basalt and hemp fibers, coupled with inorganic matrix. Starting from the experimental results on composites, the out-of-plane behavior of the strengthened masonry was assessed according to several numerical analyses. In a first step, the ultimate behavior was assessed in terms of P (axial load-M (bending moment domain (i.e., failure surface, changing several mechanical parameters. In order to assess the ductility capacity of the strengthened masonry elements, the P-M domain was estimated starting from the bending moment-curvature diagrams. Key information about the impact of several mechanical parameters on both the capacity and the ductility was considered. Furthermore, the numerical analyses allow the assessment of the efficiency of the strengthening system, changing the main mechanical properties. Basalt fibers had lower efficiency when applied to weak masonry. In this case, the elastic properties of the masonry did not influence the structural behavior under a no tension assumption for the masonry. Conversely, their impact became non-negligible, especially for higher values of the compressive strength of the masonry. The stress-strain curve used to model the composite impacted the flexural strength. Natural fibers provided similar outcomes, but a first difference regards the higher mechanical compatibility of the strengthening system with the substrate. In this case, the ultimate condition is due to the failure mode of the composite. The stress-strain curves used to model the strengthening system are crucial in the ductility estimation of the strengthened masonry. However, the behavior of the composite strongly influences the curvature ductility in the case of higher compressive strength for masonry. The numerical results discussed in this paper provide the base to develop normalized capacity models able to

  2. The effects of Bobath-based trunk exercises on trunk control, functional capacity, balance, and gait: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılınç, Muhammed; Avcu, Fatma; Onursal, Ozge; Ayvat, Ender; Savcun Demirci, Cevher; Aksu Yildirim, Sibel

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Bobath-based individually designed trunk exercises on trunk control, upper and lower extremity function, and walking and balance in stroke patients. The main aim of treatment was to eliminate individual trunk impairments during various patient functions. The study was planned as an assessor-blinded, randomized controlled trial. A total of 22 patients volunteered to participate in the study. Trunk function, functional capacity, and gait were assessed with the Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS), stroke rehabilitation assessment of movement (STREAM), and a 10-m walking test, respectively. The Berg Balance Test (BBT), functional reach (FR), and timed up-and-go (TUG) tests were used to evaluate balance. After the initial assessment, the patients were divided randomly into two groups, the study group (12 patients) and the control group (10 patients). The mean age of the patients in the study group was 55.91 years (duration of stroke 58.66 months) and that of the control group was 54.00 years (duration of stroke 67.20 months). Individual training programs were determined for the patients in the study group, taking into consideration their evaluation results; and strengthening, stretching, range of motion, and mat exercises were determined for the control group according to their functional level. The participants in both groups were taken into the physiotherapy program for 12 weeks, 3 days a week for 1 hour a day. In group analyses, both groups showed improvement in STREAM, TIS, and TUG tests. Only the study group produced significant gains in the BBT, FR, and 10 m walking tests (P 0.05). Individually developed exercise programs in the Bobath concept improve trunk performance, balance, and walking ability in stroke patients more than do conventional exercises.

  3. Effects of a physical therapy home-based exercise program for Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Vieira Santos

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Parkinson's disease (PD is a neurological disorder that causes loss of functional abilities and independence. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a physical therapist-supervised home-based exercise program in patients with PD using the UPDRS scale. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-three PD patients in the 1.5 to 3 Hoehn and Yahr stages participated in the trial. The patients and their relatives received a booklet with a 12-week home program, with a series of strengthening, stretching and flexibility exercises. The patients were trained by a physical therapist, and each session took 60 minutes, three times a week. RESULTS: We classified our patients in four groups: Group 1 - patients under 60 years of age and less than five years of PD; Group 2 - patients under 60 years of age and more than five years of PD; Group 3 - patients over 60 years of age and less than five years of the disease; and Group 4 - patients over 60 years of age and more than five years of PD. Significant improvement was found in group 1 in mentation, activities of daily living and motor function (p > 0.05. Group 3 presented statistically significant differences in motor function subscale (p > 0.05 and Group 4 showed no worsening in mentation subscale (p > 0.05. Group 2, however, presented no difference in all subscales (p < 0.05. CONCLUSION: Although not all patients improved their UPDRS scores, our data support the use of a home program as an alternative method of physical therapy treatment for PD patients.

  4. The Effects of Stretching Exercises during Rehearsals on String Students' Self-Reported Perceptions of Discomfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Shelly C.; Hamann, Donald L.; Frost, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Musicians have recognized that physical problems often accompany playing, yet examinations of performance-related injuries and medical problems remain relatively new. The type of instrument played can affect musicians' pain-related problems as well as physical stature. The focus of this study was to determine whether physical intervention--easily…

  5. Exercise at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Insights Exercise & Weight Exercise at Home Exercise at Home Make an Appointment Ask a Question ... with the movement and contact your provider. Posture Exercises Better posture means better breathing and movement. Axial ...

  6. Entropy generation in MHD flow of a uniformly stretched vertical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the analytical calculation of the entropy generation due to heat and mass transfer and fluid friction in steady state of a uniformly stretched vertical permeable surface with heat and mass diffusive walls, by solving analytically the mass, momentum, species concentration and energy balance equation, using ...

  7. Effect of Mechanical Stretching of the Skin on Collagen Fibril ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stabilization of collagen fibres during development and through growth to maturation has now become fairly documented. In vitro effect of mechanical stretching of ratsf skin on oxidative deamination of ε-NH2-groups of lysine and hydroxylysine, and functional properties of its type . collagen were studied. Experiments were ...

  8. Flow of viscous fluid along an exponentially stretching curved surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.F. Okechi

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the boundary layer analysis of flow induced by rapidly stretching curved surface with exponential velocity. The governing boundary value problem is reduced into self-similar form using a new similarity transformation. The resulting equations are solved numerically using shooting and Runge-Kutta methods. The numerical results depicts that the fluid velocity as well as the skin friction coefficient increases with the surface curvature, similar trend is also observed for the pressure. The dimensionless wall shear stress defined for this problem is greater than that of a linearly stretching curved surface, but becomes comparably less for a surface stretching with a power-law velocity. In addition, the result for the plane surface is a special case of this study when the radius of curvature of the surface is sufficiently large. The numerical investigations presented in terms of the graphs are interpreted with the help of underlying physics of the fluid flow and the consequences arising from the curved geometry. Keywords: Boundary layer flow, Curved surface, Exponential stretching, Curvature

  9. Contact of a spherical probe with a stretched rubber substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frétigny, Christian; Chateauminois, Antoine

    2017-07-01

    We report on a theoretical and experimental investigation of the normal contact of stretched neo-Hookean substrates with rigid spherical probes. Starting from a published formulation of surface Green's function for incremental displacements on a prestretched, neo-Hookean, substrate [J. Mech. Phys. Solids 56, 2957 (2008), 10.1016/j.jmps.2008.07.002], a model is derived for both adhesive and nonadhesive contacts. The shape of the elliptical contact area together with the contact load and the contact stiffness are predicted as a function of the in-plane stretch ratios λx and λy of the substrate. The validity of this model is assessed by contact experiments carried out using an uniaxally stretched silicone rubber. For stretch ratio below about 1.25, a good agreement is observed between theory and experiments. Above this threshold, some deviations from the theoretical predictions are induced as a result of the departure of the mechanical response of the silicone rubber from the neo-Hokeean description embedded in the model.

  10. Sport stretching : Effect on passive muscle stiffness of short hamstrings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halbertsma, JPK; vanBolhuis, AI; Goeken, LNH

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of one 10-minute stretch on muscle stiffness in subjects with short hamstrings. Design: Randomized control trial. Setting: Laboratory for human movement sciences in the department of rehabilitation of a university hospital. Subjects: Sixteen students from the

  11. Automation of a single-DNA molecule stretching device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kristian Tølbøl; Lopacinska, Joanna M.; Tommerup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    We automate the manipulation of genomic-length DNA in a nanofluidic device based on real-time analysis of fluorescence images. In our protocol, individual molecules are picked from a microchannel and stretched with pN forces using pressure driven flows. The millimeter-long DNA fragments free...

  12. Measuring the curvature of space with stretched strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyth, D.H.

    1983-01-01

    The equilibrium of a stretched string in curved space is studied. The problem is first formulated without detailed assumptions, then the force of gravity on the string is calculated from general relativity with a static metric. Apart from the latter calculation everything is done in ordinary space rather than in space-time. A number of simple cases are worked out explicitly. (author)

  13. A Japanese Stretching Intervention Can Modify Lumbar Lordosis Curvature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kadono, Norio; Tsuchiya, Kazushi; Uematsu, Azusa; Kamoshita, Hiroshi; Kiryu, Kazunori; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Suzuki, Shuji

    Study Design: Eighteen healthy male adults were assigned to either an intervention or control group. Objectives: Isogai dynamic therapy (IDT) is one of Japanese stretching interventions and has been practiced for over 70 years. However, its scientific quantitative evidence remains unestablished. The

  14. OH stretching frequencies in systems with intramolecular hydrogen bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanget-Larsen, Jens; Hansen, Bjarke Knud Vilster; Hansen, Poul Erik

    2011-01-01

    OH stretching wavenumbers were investigated for 30 species with intramolecularly hydrogen bonded hydroxyl groups, covering the range from 3600 to ca. 1900 cm-1. Theoretical wavenumbers were predicted with B3LYP/6-31G(d) density functional theory using the standard harmonic approximation, as well...

  15. Transient filament stretching rheometer I: force balance analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabo, Peter

    1997-01-01

    The filament stretching device which is used increasingly as an apparatus for measuring extensional properties of polymeric liquids isanalysed. A force balance that includes the effects of inertia and surface tension is derived.The force balance may be used to correct for the effects of inertia...

  16. Theory of high-force DNA stretching and overstretching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, C; Nelson, P C

    2003-05-01

    Single-molecule experiments on single- and double-stranded DNA have sparked a renewed interest in the force versus extension of polymers. The extensible freely jointed chain (FJC) model is frequently invoked to explain the observed behavior of single-stranded DNA, but this model does not satisfactorily describe recent high-force stretching data. We instead propose a model (the discrete persistent chain) that borrows features from both the FJC and the wormlike chain, and show that it resembles the data more closely. We find that most of the high-force behavior previously attributed to stretch elasticity is really a feature of the corrected entropic elasticity; the true stretch compliance of single-stranded DNA is several times smaller than that found by previous authors. Next we elaborate our model to allow coexistence of two conformational states of DNA, each with its own stretch and bend elastic constants. Our model is computationally simple and gives an excellent fit through the entire overstretching transition of nicked, double-stranded DNA. The fit gives the first value for the bend stiffness of the overstretched state. In particular, we find the effective bend stiffness for DNA in this state to be about 12 nm k(B)T, a value quite different from either the B-form or single-stranded DNA.

  17. Acute effects of active isolated stretching on vertical jump ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to determine the acute effects of active isolated stretching on muscular peak power production. Sixty healthy, physically active volunteers (aged 18-28) participated as subjects in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned to two groups; the control group and the experimental group. Subjects ...

  18. On zero variance Monte Carlo path-stretching schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lux, I.

    1983-01-01

    A zero variance path-stretching biasing scheme proposed for a special case by Dwivedi is derived in full generality. The procedure turns out to be the generalization of the exponential transform. It is shown that the biased game can be interpreted as an analog simulation procedure, thus saving some computational effort in comparison with the corresponding nonanalog game

  19. Effect of hexane treatment and uniaxial stretching on bending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PVDF) film was studied. The quantity, β31, defined as the bending piezoelectric stress constant, was calculated. After hexane treatment and uniaxial stretching of the PVDF film, the value of β31 was 5.75 mV/m and 8.00 mV/m for draw ratio of ...

  20. The health of benthic diatom assemblages in lower stretch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This study examines the ecological state of epilithic diatom assemblages along the lower stretch of Mandakini, a glacier-fed Himalayan river. The diatoms were sampled at four stations during winter and summer, only once in each season. Valve counts were obtained from Naphrax mounts prepared from each sample.

  1. MHD flow of a uniformly stretched vertical permeable membrane in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a magneto - hydrodynamic flow of a uniformly stretched vertical permeable surface undergoing Arrhenius heat reaction. The analytical solutions are obtained for concentration, temperature and velocity fields using an asymptotic approximation, similar to that of Ayeni et al 2004. It is shown that the temperature ...

  2. A single molecule DNA flow stretching microscope for undergraduates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, Kelly; Grafe, Brendan; Burke, Kathryn M.; Tanner, Nathan; van Oijen, Antoine M.; Loparo, Joseph; Price, Allen C.

    2011-01-01

    The design of a simple, safe, and inexpensive single molecule flow stretching instrument is presented. The instrument uses a low cost upright microscope coupled to a webcam for imaging single DNA molecules that are tethered in an easy to construct microfluidic flow cell. The system requires no

  3. Serial casting versus stretching technique to treat knee flexion contracture in children with spina bifida: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Oraibi, S; Tariah, Hashem Abu; Alanazi, Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Severe knee contractures that develop soon after muscle imbalance may not improve with stretching exercises and splinting. An alternative treatment is serial casting, which has been used to promote increased range of motion. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of using serial casting and passive stretching approaches to treat knee flexion contracture in children with spina bifida. In a pre/post randomized controlled study, ten participants were included in the serial casting group, while eight participants were included in the passive stretching intervention group. The degree of knee extension was measured at baseline, immediately after intervention, and at a one-year follow-up using a standard goniometer. Both groups showed significant improvements in the degree of flexion contracture at the post-treatment evaluation and the follow-up evaluation. The serial casting group showed significant improvements in knee flexion contracture at the post-treatment evaluation, t (9)=13.4, p casting group compared with passive stretching group in relation to the degree of flexion contracture were found at the immediate post-treatment evaluation, F(1, 15)=246, p=0.0001, and the one-year follow-up evaluation, F (1, 15)=51.5, p=0.0001. The outcomes of this study provide the first evidence that serial casting may be a useful intervention in treating knee flexion contracture in children with spina bifida. However, further investigations into serial casting, as well as investigations into the use of serial casting with other interventions, are warranted.

  4. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abdominal wall inward, exhale as you lift chest area. This can be done with quick short movements, or slow full movements. Repeat 10-15 times, to fatigue... Abdominal Exercise Lay on your back with both knees ... © 2018 North ...

  5. Evacuation exercise

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2094367

    2017-01-01

    In the event of an emergency, it is important that staff and visitors are evacuated safely and efficiently. Hence CERN organises regularly emergency response and evacuation exercise (also known as an ‘evacuation drill’) in different buildings across the sites.

  6. Compulsive Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... compulsive habit when it is done for the wrong reasons. Some people start exercising with weight loss as their main ... developing normally. This is especially true if the person also has an eating disorder. Girls who overexercise and restrict their eating ...

  7. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories Definitions Anatomy of the Spine Definitions A-Z Spine Specialists Videos 9 for Spine Epidural Steroid Injections Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Prevention ...

  8. Why Exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... strength, boosts energy, and can help you reduce stress. It can also help you maintain a healthy body weight and curb ... well-being and help treat depression. Help relieve stress and anxiety. Increase ... Can anyone exercise? Everyone can benefit from physical activity. ...

  9. Force encoding in muscle spindles during stretch of passive muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle P Blum

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Muscle spindle proprioceptive receptors play a primary role in encoding the effects of external mechanical perturbations to the body. During externally-imposed stretches of passive, i.e. electrically-quiescent, muscles, the instantaneous firing rates (IFRs of muscle spindles are associated with characteristics of stretch such as length and velocity. However, even in passive muscle, there are history-dependent transients of muscle spindle firing that are not uniquely related to muscle length and velocity, nor reproduced by current muscle spindle models. These include acceleration-dependent initial bursts, increased dynamic response to stretch velocity if a muscle has been isometric, and rate relaxation, i.e., a decrease in tonic IFR when a muscle is held at a constant length after being stretched. We collected muscle spindle spike trains across a variety of muscle stretch kinematic conditions, including systematic changes in peak length, velocity, and acceleration. We demonstrate that muscle spindle primary afferents in passive muscle fire in direct relationship to muscle force-related variables, rather than length-related variables. Linear combinations of whole muscle-tendon force and the first time derivative of force (dF/dt predict the entire time course of transient IFRs in muscle spindle Ia afferents during stretch (i.e., lengthening of passive muscle, including the initial burst, the dynamic response to lengthening, and rate relaxation following lengthening. Similar to acceleration scaling found previously in postural responses to perturbations, initial burst amplitude scaled equally well to initial stretch acceleration or dF/dt, though later transients were only described by dF/dt. The transient increase in dF/dt at the onset of lengthening reflects muscle short-range stiffness due to cross-bridge dynamics. Our work demonstrates a critical role of muscle cross-bridge dynamics in history-dependent muscle spindle IFRs in passive muscle

  10. Stretching skeletal muscle: chronic muscle lengthening through sarcomerogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M Zöllner

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle responds to passive overstretch through sarcomerogenesis, the creation and serial deposition of new sarcomere units. Sarcomerogenesis is critical to muscle function: It gradually re-positions the muscle back into its optimal operating regime. Animal models of immobilization, limb lengthening, and tendon transfer have provided significant insight into muscle adaptation in vivo. Yet, to date, there is no mathematical model that allows us to predict how skeletal muscle adapts to mechanical stretch in silico. Here we propose a novel mechanistic model for chronic longitudinal muscle growth in response to passive mechanical stretch. We characterize growth through a single scalar-valued internal variable, the serial sarcomere number. Sarcomerogenesis, the evolution of this variable, is driven by the elastic mechanical stretch. To analyze realistic three-dimensional muscle geometries, we embed our model into a nonlinear finite element framework. In a chronic limb lengthening study with a muscle stretch of 1.14, the model predicts an acute sarcomere lengthening from 3.09[Formula: see text]m to 3.51[Formula: see text]m, and a chronic gradual return to the initial sarcomere length within two weeks. Compared to the experiment, the acute model error was 0.00% by design of the model; the chronic model error was 2.13%, which lies within the rage of the experimental standard deviation. Our model explains, from a mechanistic point of view, why gradual multi-step muscle lengthening is less invasive than single-step lengthening. It also explains regional variations in sarcomere length, shorter close to and longer away from the muscle-tendon interface. Once calibrated with a richer data set, our model may help surgeons to prevent muscle overstretch and make informed decisions about optimal stretch increments, stretch timing, and stretch amplitudes. We anticipate our study to open new avenues in orthopedic and reconstructive surgery and enhance

  11. Force encoding in muscle spindles during stretch of passive muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kyle P; Lamotte D'Incamps, Boris; Zytnicki, Daniel; Ting, Lena H

    2017-09-01

    Muscle spindle proprioceptive receptors play a primary role in encoding the effects of external mechanical perturbations to the body. During externally-imposed stretches of passive, i.e. electrically-quiescent, muscles, the instantaneous firing rates (IFRs) of muscle spindles are associated with characteristics of stretch such as length and velocity. However, even in passive muscle, there are history-dependent transients of muscle spindle firing that are not uniquely related to muscle length and velocity, nor reproduced by current muscle spindle models. These include acceleration-dependent initial bursts, increased dynamic response to stretch velocity if a muscle has been isometric, and rate relaxation, i.e., a decrease in tonic IFR when a muscle is held at a constant length after being stretched. We collected muscle spindle spike trains across a variety of muscle stretch kinematic conditions, including systematic changes in peak length, velocity, and acceleration. We demonstrate that muscle spindle primary afferents in passive muscle fire in direct relationship to muscle force-related variables, rather than length-related variables. Linear combinations of whole muscle-tendon force and the first time derivative of force (dF/dt) predict the entire time course of transient IFRs in muscle spindle Ia afferents during stretch (i.e., lengthening) of passive muscle, including the initial burst, the dynamic response to lengthening, and rate relaxation following lengthening. Similar to acceleration scaling found previously in postural responses to perturbations, initial burst amplitude scaled equally well to initial stretch acceleration or dF/dt, though later transients were only described by dF/dt. The transient increase in dF/dt at the onset of lengthening reflects muscle short-range stiffness due to cross-bridge dynamics. Our work demonstrates a critical role of muscle cross-bridge dynamics in history-dependent muscle spindle IFRs in passive muscle lengthening conditions

  12. Exercise Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Martin G; Sharman, James E

    2014-05-01

    Irrespective of apparent 'normal' resting blood pressure (BP), some individuals may experience an excessive elevation in BP with exercise (i.e. systolic BP ≥210 mm Hg in men or ≥190 mm Hg in women or diastolic BP ≥110 mm Hg in men or women), a condition termed exercise hypertension or a 'hypertensive response to exercise' (HRE). An HRE is a relatively common condition that is identified during standard exercise stress testing; however, due to a lack of information with respect to the clinical ramifications of an HRE, little value is usually placed on such a finding. In this review, we discuss both the clinical importance and underlying physiological contributors of exercise hypertension. Indeed, an HRE is associated with an increased propensity for target organ damage and also predicts the future development of hypertension, cardiovascular events and mortality, independent of resting BP. Moreover, recent work has highlighted that some of the elevated cardiovascular risks associated with an HRE may be related to high-normal resting BP (pre-hypertension) or ambulatory 'masked' hypertension and that an HRE may be an early warning signal of abnormal BP control that is otherwise undetected with clinic BP. Whilst an HRE may be amenable to treatment via pharmacological and lifestyle interventions, the exact physiological mechanism of an HRE remains elusive, but it is likely a manifestation of multiple factors including large artery stiffness, increased peripheral resistance, neural circulatory control and metabolic irregularity. Future research focus may be directed towards determining threshold values to denote the increased risk associated with an HRE and further resolution of the underlying physiological factors involved in the pathogenesis of an HRE.

  13. The Effect of Static Stretch on Elastin Degradation in Arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Ming-Jay; Choi, Myunghwan; Yun, Seok Hyun; Zhang, Yanhang

    2013-01-01

    Previously we have shown that gradual changes in the structure of elastin during an elastase treatment can lead to important transition stages in the mechanical behavior of arteries [1]. However, in vivo arteries are constantly being loaded due to systolic and diastolic pressures and so understanding the effects of loading on the enzymatic degradation of elastin in arteries is important. With biaxial tensile testing, we measured the mechanical behavior of porcine thoracic aortas digested with a mild solution of purified elastase (5 U/mL) in the presence of a static stretch. Arterial mechanical properties and biochemical composition were analyzed to assess the effects of mechanical stretch on elastin degradation. As elastin is being removed, the dimensions of the artery increase by more than 20% in both the longitude and circumference directions. Elastin assays indicate a faster rate of degradation when stretch was present during the digestion. A simple exponential decay fitting confirms the time constant for digestion with stretch (0.11±0.04 h−1) is almost twice that of digestion without stretch (0.069±0.028 h−1). The transition from J-shaped to S-shaped stress vs. strain behavior in the longitudinal direction generally occurs when elastin content is reduced by about 60%. Multiphoton image analysis confirms the removal/fragmentation of elastin and also shows that the collagen fibers are closely intertwined with the elastin lamellae in the medial layer. After removal of elastin, the collagen fibers are no longer constrained and become disordered. Release of amorphous elastin during the fragmentation of the lamellae layers is observed and provides insights into the process of elastin degradation. Overall this study reveals several interesting microstructural changes in the extracellular matrix that could explain the resulting mechanical behavior of arteries with elastin degradation. PMID:24358135

  14. Stretched versus compressed exponential kinetics in α-helix folding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, Peter; Helbing, Jan; Bredenbeck, Jens

    2006-01-01

    In a recent paper (J. Bredenbeck, J. Helbing, J.R. Kumita, G.A. Woolley, P. Hamm, α-helix formation in a photoswitchable peptide tracked from picoseconds to microseconds by time resolved IR spectroscopy, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci USA 102 (2005) 2379), we have investigated the folding of a photo-switchable α-helix with a kinetics that could be fit by a stretched exponential function exp(-(t/τ) β ). The stretching factor β became smaller as the temperature was lowered, a result which has been interpreted in terms of activated diffusion on a rugged energy surface. In the present paper, we discuss under which conditions diffusion problems occur with stretched exponential kinetics (β 1). We show that diffusion problems do have a strong tendency to yield stretched exponential kinetics, yet, that there are conditions (strong perturbation from equilibrium, performing the experiment in the folding direction) under which compressed exponential kinetics would be expected instead. We discuss the kinetics on free energy surfaces predicted by simple initiation-propagation models (zipper models) of α-helix folding, as well as by folding funnel models. We show that our recent experiment has been performed under condition for which models with strong downhill driving force, such as the zipper model, would predict compressed, rather than stretched exponential kinetics, in disagreement with the experimental observation. We therefore propose that the free energy surface along a reaction coordinate that governs the folding kinetics must be relatively flat and has a shape similar to a 1D golf course. We discuss how this conclusion can be unified with the thermodynamically well established zipper model by introducing an additional kinetic reaction coordinate

  15. The basis for the strengthening of safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, P.

    1999-01-01

    For the past 30 years, the International Atomic Energy Agency's safeguards system has contributed to the international non-proliferation regime, by providing, inter alia, assurances regarding the peaceful uses of declared nuclear material. However, the discovery of a clandestine nuclear weapons programme in Iraq in 1991 drew world-wide attention to the need to strengthen the system to address the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities. Efforts to strengthen the IAEA's safeguards system began in 1991 and culminated in 1997 when the IAEA's Board of Governors approved a Model Protocol Additional to IAEA Safeguards Agreements which greatly expands the legal basis and scope of IAEA safeguards. Within this strengthened system it is expected that the IAEA be able to provide assurance not only of the absence of diversion of declared nuclear material but also on the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities. This is to be done within a safeguards system that uses an optimal combination of all safeguards measures available, thereby achieving maximum effectiveness and efficiency within the available resources. This paper will summarize the evolution of the safeguards system, describe strengthened safeguards, report on the status of implementing the strengthening measures, and outline plans for integrating all available safeguards measures. (author)

  16. Safeguards implementation and strengthening in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudakou, I.; Piotukh, O.

    2001-01-01

    transportation of nuclear materials is carried out by Promatomnadzor. Promatomnadzor also issues permits on movement of nuclear materials across the borders of Belarus. State Customs Committee is responsible for detection of unauthorised imports and exports of nuclear and other radioactive materials at the customs border of the Republic of Belarus. They report each case to other responsible authorities. Belarus is a transport corridor between the East and West, and the issues relating to regulation of export and import, exercising control over export, import of nuclear materials, prevention of smuggling of nuclear materials and maintaining of international co-operation are very important for us. Further development of the safeguards system - It should be noted that control over use of nuclear materials and facilities, which is still of crucial importance can not ensure the absence of undeclared nuclear activities as required. The IAEA has developed the strengthened safeguards system (INFIRC/590) the essence of which is to expand control over relevant technologies, dual use commodities and services. Of course, the implementation of the system provides for more effective and efficient safeguards. Co-operation with the IAEA and other international organisations is regarded as one of the conditions of further improvement of reliability and efficiency of the safeguards. In conclusion I would like to express my profound gratitude to the IAEA and donor countries, in particular Japan, USA and Sweden, for their assistance aimed at strengthening safeguards in Belarus. (author)

  17. Stretch induced endothelin-1 secretion by adult rat astrocytes involves calcium influx via stretch-activated ion channels (SACs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrow, Lyle W.; Suchyna, Thomas M.; Sachs, Frederick

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Endothelin-1 expression by adult rat astrocytes correlates with cell proliferation. → Stretch-induced ET-1 is inhibited by GsMtx-4, a specific inhibitor of Ca 2+ permeant SACs. → The less specific SAC inhibitor streptomycin also inhibits ET-1 secretion. → Stretch-induced ET-1 production depends on a calcium influx. → SAC pharmacology may provide a new class of therapeutic agents for CNS pathology. -- Abstract: The expression of endothelins (ETs) and ET-receptors is often upregulated in brain pathology. ET-1, a potent vasoconstrictor, also inhibits the expression of astrocyte glutamate transporters and is mitogenic for astrocytes, glioma cells, neurons, and brain capillary endothelia. We have previously shown that mechanical stress stimulates ET-1 production by adult rat astrocytes. We now show in adult astrocytes that ET-1 production is driven by calcium influx through stretch-activated ion channels (SACs) and the ET-1 production correlates with cell proliferation. Mechanical stimulation using biaxial stretch ( 2+ threshold. This coupling of mechanical stress to the astrocyte endothelin system through SACs has treatment implications, since all pathology deforms the surrounding parenchyma.

  18. The effectiveness of manual stretching in the treatment of plantar heel pain: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parish Ben

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plantar heel pain is a commonly occurring foot complaint. Stretching is frequently utilised as a treatment, yet a systematic review focusing only on its effectiveness has not been published. This review aimed to assess the effectiveness of stretching on pain and function in people with plantar heel pain. Methods Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, and The Cochrane Library were searched from inception to July 2010. Studies fulfilling the inclusion criteria were independently assessed, and their quality evaluated using the modified PEDro scale. Results Six studies including 365 symptomatic participants were included. Two compared stretching with a control, one study compared stretching to an alternative intervention, one study compared stretching to both alternative and control interventions, and two compared different stretching techniques and durations. Quality rating on the modified Pedro scale varied from two to eight out of a maximum of ten points. The methodologies and interventions varied significantly between studies, making meta-analysis inappropriate. Most participants improved over the course of the studies, but when stretching was compared to alternative or control interventions, the changes only reached statistical significance in one study that used a combination of calf muscle stretches and plantar fascia stretches in their stretching programme. Another study comparing different stretching techniques, showed a statistically significant reduction in some aspects of pain in favour of plantar fascia stretching over calf stretches in the short term. Conclusions There were too few studies to assess whether stretching is effective compared to control or other interventions, for either pain or function. However, there is some evidence that plantar fascia stretching may be more effective than Achilles tendon stretching alone in the short-term. Appropriately powered randomised controlled trials, utilizing validated outcome

  19. Physiological and Neural Adaptations to Eccentric Exercise: Mechanisms and Considerations for Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosratollah Hedayatpour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eccentric exercise is characterized by initial unfavorable effects such as subcellular muscle damage, pain, reduced fiber excitability, and initial muscle weakness. However, stretch combined with overload, as in eccentric contractions, is an effective stimulus for inducing physiological and neural adaptations to training. Eccentric exercise-induced adaptations include muscle hypertrophy, increased cortical activity, and changes in motor unit behavior, all of which contribute to improved muscle function. In this brief review, neuromuscular adaptations to different forms of exercise are reviewed, the positive training effects of eccentric exercise are presented, and the implications for training are considered.

  20. Effects of Bed Rest on Conduction Velocity of the Triceps Surae Stretch Reflex and Postural Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, M. F.; Wood, S. J.; Cerisano, J. M.; Kofman, I. S.; Fisher, E. A.; Esteves, J. T.; Taylor, L. C.; DeDios, Y. E.; Harm, D. L.

    2011-01-01

    Despite rigorous exercise and nutritional management during space missions, astronauts returning from microgravity exhibit neuromuscular deficits and a significant loss in muscle mass in the postural muscles of the lower leg. Similar changes in the postural muscles occur in subjects participating in long-duration bed rest studies. These adaptive muscle changes manifest as a reduction in reflex conduction velocity during head-down bed rest. Because the stretch reflex encompasses both the peripheral (muscle spindle and nerve axon) and central (spinal synapse) components involved in adaptation to calf muscle unloading, it may be used to provide feedback on the general condition of neuromuscular function, and might be used to evaluate the effectiveness of countermeasures aimed at preserving muscle mass and function during periods of unloading. Stretch reflexes were measured on 18 control subjects who spent 60 to 90 days in continuous 6 deg head-down bed rest. Using a motorized system capable of rotating the foot around the ankle joint (dorsiflexion) through an angle of 10 degrees at a peak velocity of about 250 deg/sec, a stretch reflex was recorded from the subject's left triceps surae muscle group. Using surface electromyography, about 300 reflex responses were obtained and ensemble-averaged on 3 separate days before bed rest, 3 to 4 times in bed, and 3 times after bed rest. The averaged responses for each test day were examined for reflex latency and conduction velocity (CV) across gender. Computerized posturography was also conducted on these same subjects before and after bed rest as part of the standard measures. Peak-to-peak sway was measured during Sensory Organization Tests (SOTs) to evaluate changes in the ability to effectively use or suppress visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive information for postural control. Although no gender differences were found, a significant increase in reflex latency and a significant decrease in CV were observed during the bed

  1. Eccentric exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Michael; Heinemeier, Katja Maria

    2014-01-01

    to differences in type and/or amount of mechanical stimulus with regard to expression of collagen, regulatory factors for collagen, and cross-link regulators. In overused (tendinopathic) human tendon, eccentric exercise training has a beneficial effect, but the mechanism by which this is elicited is unknown......Eccentric exercise can influence tendon mechanical properties and matrix protein synthesis. mRNA for collagen and regulatory factors thereof are upregulated in animal tendons, independent of muscular contraction type, supporting the view that tendon, compared with skeletal muscle, is less sensitive......, and slow concentric loading appears to have similar beneficial effects. It may be that tendinopathic regions, as long as they are subjected to a certain magnitude of load at a slow speed, independent of whether this is eccentric or concentric in nature, can reestablish their normal tendon fibril alignment...

  2. New concept of critical infrastructure strengthening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazizov, Talgat R.; Orlov, Pavel E.; Zabolotsky, Alexander M.; Kuksenko, Sergey P.

    2016-01-01

    Strengthening of critical infrastructure is considered. Modal reservation of electronics is proposed as a new concept of the strengthening. The concept combines a widely used cold backup and a recently proposed modal filtration. It makes electronics reliable as well as protected against electromagnetic interference, especially the ultra-wide band pulses. New printed circuit board structure is suggested for implementation of the proposed concept. Results of simulation in time and frequency domains are presented for the suggested structures. Considerable attenuation of dangerous excitations shows that the new concept and structure are promising.

  3. FRP strengthening of RC walls with openings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg; Sas, Gabriel; Täljsten, Björn

    2009-01-01

    Strengthening reinforced concrete (RC) walls with openings using fibre reinforced polymers (FRP) has been experimentally proven to be a viable rehabilitation method. However, very few theoretical investigations are reported. In this paper two methods of analysis are presented. Since openings vary...... in size, the analysis of a strengthened wall can be divided into frame idealization method for large openings, and combined disk and frame analysis for smaller openings. The first method provides an easy to use tool in practical engineering, where the latter describes the principles of a ductile...

  4. New concept of critical infrastructure strengthening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazizov, Talgat R.; Orlov, Pavel E.; Zabolotsky, Alexander M.; Kuksenko, Sergey P. [Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, 634050, Lenin Ave., Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-08

    Strengthening of critical infrastructure is considered. Modal reservation of electronics is proposed as a new concept of the strengthening. The concept combines a widely used cold backup and a recently proposed modal filtration. It makes electronics reliable as well as protected against electromagnetic interference, especially the ultra-wide band pulses. New printed circuit board structure is suggested for implementation of the proposed concept. Results of simulation in time and frequency domains are presented for the suggested structures. Considerable attenuation of dangerous excitations shows that the new concept and structure are promising.

  5. Differential effects of water-based exercise on the cognitive function in independent elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Daisuke; Seko, Chihiro; Hashitomi, Tatsuya; Sengoku, Yasuo; Nomura, Takeo

    2015-04-01

    Physical exercise has been reported to be the most effective method to improve cognitive function and brain health, but there is as yet no research on the effect of water-based exercise. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of water-based exercise with and without cognitive stimuli on cognitive and physical functions. The design is a single-blind randomized controlled study. Twenty-one participants were randomly assigned to a normal water-based exercise (Nor-WE) group or a cognitive water-based exercise (Cog-WE) group. The exercise sessions were divided into two exercise series: a 10-min series of land-based warm-up, consisting of flexibility exercises, and a 50-min series of exercises in water. The Nor-WE consisted of 10 min of walking, 30 min of strength and stepping exercise, including stride over, and 10 min of stretching and relaxation in water. The Cog-WE consisted of 10 min of walking, 30 min of water-cognitive exercises, and 10 min of stretching and relaxation in water. Cognitive function, physical function, and ADL were measured before the exercise intervention (pre-intervention) and 10 weeks after the intervention (post-intervention). Participation in the Cog-WE performed significantly better on the pegboard test and the choice stepping reaction test and showed a significantly improved attention, memory, and learning, and in the general cognitive function (measured as the total score in the 5-Cog test). Participation in the Nor-WE dramatically improved walking ability and lower limb muscle strength. Our results reveal that the benefits elderly adults may obtain from water-based exercise depend on the characteristics of each specific exercise program. These findings highlight the importance of prescription for personalized water-based exercises to elderly adults to improve cognitive function.

  6. Physical activity level and exercise in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Camila Kümmel; Almeida, Jussara Carnevale de; Merker, Aline Juliana Schneider; Brauer, Fabiane de Oliveira; Rodrigues, Ticiana da Costa

    2012-01-01

    To compare physical activity level (PAL) and care related to exercise in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). DM outpatients (adult, insulin-user patients) were assessed for PAL (international questionnaire; moderate- and high-level activities, as well as walking, over a typical week) and questioned about formal exercise practice, self-care, and hypoglycemic episodes related to exercise or reasons for not exercising. Two hundred twenty five patients were assessed: 107 (47.6%) had type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and 118 (52.4%) had type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1), with a larger percentage of patients with DM2 being classified as poorly active [33 (30.7%) versus 12 (10.3%)] and a lower percentage being classified as highly active [9 (8.7%) versus 29 (25%)], compared with patients having DM1. Patients who do not exercise (n = 140) gave different reasons for not doing so: patients with DM2 claimed that they "felt uncomfortable", "presented medical restrictions", and "did not like it"; DM1 patients claimed that they "had no time to exercise", "were lazy", and "had hypoglycemic episodes". Only 85 patients exercised regularly, regardless of the PAL, and 38.8% performed self-care, such as eating, stretching, and capillary glucose monitoring. Patients with DM2 [5 (14.3%)] reported a lower number of hypoglycemic episodes related to exercise than those with DM1 [17 (34%)]. Patients with DM2 have different PAL and behavior related to exercise than those seen in DM1 patients.

  7. Aerobic exercise improves gastrointestinal motility in psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Soo; Song, Bong Kil; Oh, Ji Sun; Woo, Seung Seok

    2014-08-14

    To evaluate the benefit of aerobic exercise on colonic transit time (CTT) for psychiatric inpatients in a closed ward. Sixty consecutive adult inpatients of the Somang Hospital Psychiatry Unit (Eumsung-gun, South Korea), without CTT-related diseases or drug therapies, were recruited for study from March to June of 2012. Upon enrollment, the patients were randomly assigned to partake in a 12-wk instructor-led group aerobic exercise program (exercise group; n = 30) or to maintain their ordinary daily activities (control group; n = 30). The exercise program was structured as 10 min warm-up (stretching), 40 min exercise, and 10 min cool-down (stretching) for three days each week. The exercise sessions consisted of walking only in week one and aerobics from weeks two to 12, with increasing intensity (50% heart rate reserve (HRR) for weeks one to four, 60% HRR for weeks five to eight, and 70% HRR for weeks nine to 12). CTT was measured before (baseline) and after (week 12) the exercise program, in duplicate (on days four and seven), using abdominal radiography and the multiple radio-opaque marker technique. Changes in the exercising patients' CTT and weight-, cardiovascular- and fitness-related parameters were statistically assessed. The study dropout rate was 30.0%, with 23 patients in the exercise group and 19 patients in the control group completing the study. At week 12, the exercise group showed decreases in body weight (mean ± SE) baseline: 69.4 ± 2.8 vs study-end: 67.6 ± 2.7; P exercise group showed significant improvements in leg muscle strength (baseline: 41.7 ± 4.3 vs study-end: 64.1 ± 5.0; P exercise group showed an exercise-induced reduction in total CTT (baseline: 54.2 ± 8.0 vs 30.3 ± 6.1), which was significantly different from that experienced by the control group over the 12-wk period (48.6 ± 9.3 vs 48.3 ± 12.3; P = 0.027); however, the exercise-induced decreases in CTT involving the three colonic segments examined (right, left and recto

  8. Interset stretching does not influence the kinematic profile of consecutive bench-press sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-López, David; Izquierdo, Mikel; Rodríguez, Sergio; González-Calvo, Gustavo; Sainz, Nuria; Abadía, Olaia; Herrero, Azael J

    2010-05-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the role of interset stretching on the time course of acceleration portion AP and mean velocity profile during the concentric phase of 2 bench-press sets with a submaximal load (60% of the 1 repetition maximum). Twenty-five college students carried out, in 3 different days, 2 consecutive bench-press sets leading to failure, performing between sets static stretching, ballistic stretching, or no stretching. Acceleration portion and lifting velocity patterns of the concentric phase were not altered during the second set, regardless of the stretching treatment performed. However, when velocity was expressed in absolute terms, static stretching reduced significantly (p velocity during the second set compared to the first one. Therefore, if maintenance of a high absolute velocity over consecutive sets is important for training-related adaptations, static stretching should be avoided or replaced by ballistic stretching.

  9. Comparative effectiveness of lumbar stabilization, dynamic strengthening, and Pilates on chronic low back pain: randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadauria, Esha A; Gurudut, Peeyoosha

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare three different forms of exercises namely lumbar stabilization, dynamic strengthening, and Pilates on chronic low back pain (LBP) in terms of pain, range of motion, core strength and function. In this study, 44 subjects suffering from non-specific LBP for more than 3 months were randomly allocated into the lumbar stabilization group, the dynamic strengthening group, and the Pilates group. Ten sessions of exercises for 3 weeks were prescribed along with interferential current and hot moist pack. Pain was assessed by visual analog scale, functional affection by modified Oswestry Disability Questionnaire, range of motion by assessing lumbar flexion and extension by modified Schober test and core strength was assessed by pressure biofeedback on day 1 and day 10 of the treatment. There was reduction of pain, improvement in range of motion, functional ability and core strength in all the 3 exercise groups. The improvement was significantly greater in the lumbar stabilization group for all the outcome measures, when compared the posttreatment after 10th session. Pairwise comparison showed that there was greater reduction of disability in the Pilates group than the dynamic strengthening group. It was concluded that the lumbar stabilization is more superior compared to the dynamic strengthening and Pilates in chronic nonspecific LBP. However, long-term benefits need to be assessed and compared with prospective follow-up studies.

  10. On MHD nonlinear stretching flow of Powell–Eyring nanomaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasawar Hayat

    Full Text Available This communication addresses the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD flow of Powell–Eyring nanomaterial bounded by a nonlinear stretching sheet. Novel features regarding thermophoresis and Brownian motion are taken into consideration. Powell–Eyring fluid is electrically conducted subject to non-uniform applied magnetic field. Assumptions of small magnetic Reynolds number and boundary layer approximation are employed in the mathematical development. Zero nanoparticles mass flux condition at the sheet is selected. Adequate transformation yield nonlinear ordinary differential systems. The developed nonlinear systems have been computed through the homotopic approach. Effects of different pertinent parameters on velocity, temperature and concentration fields are studied and analyzed. Further numerical data of skin friction and heat transfer rate is also tabulated and interpreted. Keywords: Powell–Eyring fluid, Magnetohydrodynamics, Nanomaterial, Nonlinear stretching surface

  11. FUZZY BASED CONTRAST STRETCHING FOR MEDICAL IMAGE ENHANCEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.C. Raja Kumar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Contrast Stretching is an important part in medical image processing applications. Contrast is the difference between two adjacent pixels. Fuzzy statistical values are analyzed and better results are produced in the spatial domain of the input image. The histogram mapping produces the resultant image with less impulsive noise and smooth nature. The probabilities of gray values are generated and the fuzzy set is determined from the position of the input image pixel. The result indicates the good performance of the proposed fuzzy based stretching. The inverse transform of the real values are mapped with the input image to generate the fuzzy statistics. This approach gives a flexible image enhancement for medical images in the presence of noises.

  12. An economical analysis of stretch-out for Angra 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, M.; Mascarenhas, H.A.

    1990-01-01

    An economical assessment of Angra 1 fuel cycle stretch-out is performed by means of NUCOST 1.0, a PWR power cost calculation code. International basic costs and an interest rate of 10%a were utilized. During the natural part of the fuel cycle an hypothetical capacity factor of 70% and in the stretch-out part a decrease in Plant's thermal efficiency have also been taken into account. The neutronic data were generated by FASER, MULTIMEDIUM, MEDIUM and PINPOW code system, simulating Angra 1 in the CAOC (constant Axial-Offset Control) operation. Assumming no proplems in the Plant's strecth-out phase, an optimum extension pont of 1 MWd/kg would be attained, what affords an US$700,000 savings by cycle when fuel and operation and maintenance costs are considered. (author) [pt

  13. ACUTE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT STATIC STRETCHING PROTOCOLS ON PEAK TORQUE, CONVENTIONAL AND FUNCTIONAL HAMSTRINGS-TO-QUADRICEPS RATIOS IN ACTIVE WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada M. ALQaslah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study might have been directed to some degree because of clashing results in the past studies regarding the impacts for different SS protocols on muscle strength and possibility for injury. The objective of the study was to investigate the acute effects of different static stretching (SS durations (20, 30, and 60s on isokinetic concentric quadriceps (Q and hamstrings (H peak torque (PT, eccentric H PT and conventional and functional H:Q ratios under different stretching conditions and angular velocities (60°and180°/s in active women. Methods: Isokinetic tests were performed on 108 active women. A HUMAC system was used to measure unilateral concentric Q and H PT, and eccentric H PT at 60 and 180º/s at baseline and after a bout of H-only, Q-only, and combined H and Q muscles SS. The data were statistically treated using five separate three-way (time x conditions x velocity ANOVA. Results: There were no significant differences among groups at baseline (P > 0.05. Significant reductions of all outcome measures have been shown to occur after 30 and 60s of SS (P 0.05. Conclusion: Short-lasting stretching can be done before exercises that require strength. However, since 30s or 60s stretching protocols adversely affect the muscle strength, performance and lower H:Q ratios they are not recommended prior to activities demanding the production of high forces.

  14. Exercise for lower limb osteoarthritis: systematic review incorporating trial sequential analysis and network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthman, Olalekan A; van der Windt, Danielle A; Jordan, Joanne L; Dziedzic, Krysia S; Healey, Emma L; Peat, George M; Foster, Nadine E

    2014-11-01

    Which types of exercise intervention are most effective in relieving pain and improving function in people with lower limb osteoarthritis? As of 2002 sufficient evidence had accumulated to show significant benefit of exercise over no exercise. An approach combining exercises to increase strength, flexibility, and aerobic capacity is most likely to be effective for relieving pain and improving function. Current international guidelines recommend therapeutic exercise (land or water based) as "core" and effective management of osteoarthritis. Evidence from this first network meta-analysis, largely based on studies in knee osteoarthritis, indicates that an intervention combining strengthening exercises with flexibility and aerobic exercise is most likely to improve outcomes of pain and function. Further trials of exercise versus no exercise are unlikely to overturn this positive result. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Anomalies in the coil-stretch transition of flexible polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Aishani; Cherayil, Binny J.

    2018-03-01

    The flow-induced coil-stretch transition of high molecular weight polymers has generally been held to be of first order. But evidence of significant slowing down in the rate at which the polymers relax to equilibrium in the vicinity of the transition suggests that the thermodynamic character of the transition may be less clear-cut. The above slowing down effect is actually characteristic of a second-order transition, and it points to the existence of a broad spectrum of conformational states in the transition region, analogous to the existence of fluctuations of all length scales at a critical point. In this paper, using a path integral approach based on a free-draining finitely extensible chain model, we calculate various polymer properties as a function of elongational flow as a way of exploring different statistical mechanical details of the coil-stretch transition. These properties include the molecular weight dependence of the flow-extension curve of the polymer, the distribution of its steady-state end-to-end distances, and the characteristic relaxation time τR of these distances. Among other findings, our calculations indicate that the coil-stretch transition is discontinuous in the N → ∞ limit, that the effective free energy of the chain is unimodal at all values of the flow, becoming broad and flat in the immediate vicinity of the transition, and that the ratio of τR to the Rouse relaxation time increases abruptly at the transition before eventually reaching a plateau value at large flow strengths. These aspects of the coil-stretch transition place it among a larger class of unconventional nominally first-order single chain transitions that include the adsorption transition of surface-tethered polymers and the escape transition of compressed polymers.

  16. Device for stretching tapes or cables intended for manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudoin, J.-C.; Oger, Robert.

    1975-01-01

    The invention relates to a device for stretching tapes (or cables) intended for remote handling devices. Said equipment consists of a spring system continuously applying a constant tensile stress to said tapes (or cables) in view of taking up the slack in the latter. Said spring system is fastened to a supporting bar able to be rigidly connected to a member of the remote handling device [fr

  17. Device for stretching tapes or cables intended for manipulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudoin, J C; Oger, R

    1975-03-06

    The invention relates to a device for stretching tapes (or cables) intended for remote handling devices. Said equipment consists of a spring system continuously applying a constant tensile stress to said tapes (or cables) in view of taking up the slack in the latter. Said spring system is fastened to a supporting bar able to be rigidly connected to a member of the remote handling device.

  18. Stretched exponentials and power laws in granular avalanching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, D. A.; Rodgers, G. J.

    1999-02-01

    We introduce a model for granular surface flow which exhibits both stretched exponential and power law avalanching over its parameter range. Two modes of transport are incorporated, a rolling layer consisting of individual particles and the overdamped, sliding motion of particle clusters. The crossover in behaviour observed in experiments on piles of rice is attributed to a change in the dominant mode of transport. We predict that power law avalanching will be observed whenever surface flow is dominated by clustered motion.

  19. COMPARISON OF PATHWAY AND CENTER OF GRAVITY OF THE CALCANEUS ON NON-INVOLVED AND INVOLVED SIDES ACCORDING TO ECCENTRIC AND CONCENTRIC STRENGTHENING IN PATIENTS WITH ACHILLES TENDINOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JaeHo Yu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the changes in pathway and center of gravity (COG on the calcaneus of non-involved and involved sides according to eccentric and concentric strengthening in patients with unilateral Achilles tendinopathy. The goal was to define the biomechanical changes according to eccentric strengthening for the development of clinical guidelines. Eighteen patients with Achilles tendinopathy were recruited at the K Rehabilitation Hospital in Seoul. The subjects were instructed to perform 5 sessions of concentric strengthening. The calcaneal pathway was measured using a three-dimensional (3D motion analyzer, and COG was measured by a force plate. Subsequently, eccentric strengthening was implemented, and identical variables were measured. Concentric and eccentric strengthening was carried out on both the involved and non-involved sides. There was no significant difference in the calcaneal pathway in patients with Achilles tendinopathy during concentric and eccentric strengthening. However, during eccentric strengthening, the calcaneal pathway significantly increased on the involved side compared to the non-involved side for all variables excluding the z-axis. COG significantly decreased on the involved side when compared to the non-involved side in patients with Achilles tendinopathy during eccentric and concentric strengthening. During concentric strengthening, all variables of the COG significantly increased on the involved side compared to the non-involved side. Compared with eccentric strengthening, concentric strengthening decreased the stability of ankle joints and increased the movement distance of the calcaneus in patients with Achilles tendinopathy. Furthermore, eccentric strengthening was verified to be an effective exercise method for prevention of Achilles tendinopathy through the reduction of forward and backward path length of foot pressure. The regular application of eccentric strengthening was found to be effective in the

  20. Fibril orientation redistribution induced by stretching of cellulose nanofibril hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josefsson, Gabriella; Gamstedt, E. Kristofer; Ahvenainen, Patrik; Mushi, Ngesa Ezekiel

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical performance of materials reinforced by cellulose nanofibrils is highly affected by the orientation of these fibrils. This paper investigates the nanofibril orientation distribution of films of partly oriented cellulose nanofibrils. Stripes of hydrogel films were subjected to different amount of strain and, after drying, examined with X-ray diffraction to obtain the orientation of the nanofibrils in the films, caused by the stretching. The cellulose nanofibrils had initially a random in-plane orientation in the hydrogel films and the strain was applied to the films before the nanofibrils bond tightly together, which occurs during drying. The stretching resulted in a reorientation of the nanofibrils in the films, with monotonically increasing orientation towards the load direction with increasing strain. Estimation of nanofibril reorientation by X-ray diffraction enables quantitative comparison of the stretch-induced orientation ability of different cellulose nanofibril systems. The reorientation of nanofibrils as a consequence of an applied strain is also predicted by a geometrical model of deformation of nanofibril hydrogels. Conversely, in high-strain cold-drawing of wet cellulose nanofibril materials, the enhanced orientation is promoted by slipping of the effectively stiff fibrils

  1. Tail modeling in a stretched magnetosphere 1. Methods and transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    A new method is developed for representing the magnetospheric field B as a distorted dipole field. Because delxB = 0 must be maintained,such a distortion may be viewed as a transformation of the vector potential A. The simplest form is a one-dimensional ''stretch transformation'' along the x axis, a generalization of a method introduced by Voigt. The transformation is concisely represented by the ''stretch function'' f(x), which is also a convenient tool for representing features of the substorm cycle. Onedimensional stretch transformations are extended to spherical, cylindrical, and parabolic coordinates and then to arbitrary coordinates. It is next shown that distortion transformations can be viewed as mappings of field lines from one pattern to another: Euler potentials are used in the derivation, but the final result only requires knowledge of the field and not of the potentials. General transformations in Cartesian and arbitrary coordinates are then derived,and applications to field modeling, field line motion, MHD modeling, and incompressible fluid dynamics are considered. copyrightAmerican Geophysical Union 1987

  2. Longitudinal Stretching for Maturation of Vascular Tissues Using Magnetic Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy R. Olsen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cellular spheroids were studied to determine their use as “bioinks” in the biofabrication of tissue engineered constructs. Specifically, magnetic forces were used to mediate the cyclic longitudinal stretching of tissues composed of Janus magnetic cellular spheroids (JMCSs, as part of a post-processing method for enhancing the deposition and mechanical properties of an extracellular matrix (ECM. The purpose was to accelerate the conventional tissue maturation process via novel post-processing techniques that accelerate the functional, structural, and mechanical mimicking of native tissues. The results of a forty-day study of JMCSs indicated an expression of collagen I, collagen IV, elastin, and fibronectin, which are important vascular ECM proteins. Most notably, the subsequent exposure of fused tissue sheets composed of JMCSs to magnetic forces did not hinder the production of these key proteins. Quantitative results demonstrate that cyclic longitudinal stretching of the tissue sheets mediated by these magnetic forces increased the Young’s modulus and induced collagen fiber alignment over a seven day period, when compared to statically conditioned controls. Specifically, the elastin and collagen content of these dynamically-conditioned sheets were 35- and three-fold greater, respectively, at seven days compared to the statically-conditioned controls at three days. These findings indicate the potential of using magnetic forces in tissue maturation, specifically through the cyclic longitudinal stretching of tissues.

  3. Stretching Diagnostics and Mixing Properties In The Stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legras, B.; Shuckburgh, E.

    The "finite size Lyapunov exponent" and the "effective diffusivity" are two diagnos- tics of mixing which have been recently introduced to investigate atmospheric flows. Both have been used to successfully identify the barriers to transport, for instance at the edge of the stratospheric polar vortex. Here we compare the two diagnostics in detail. The equivalent length has the advantage of arising as a mixing quantification from a rigid theoretical framework, however it has the disadvantage of being an aver- age quantity (the average around a tracer contour). The finite size Lyapunov exponent may be defined at any point in the flow, and quantifies the stretching properties expe- rienced by a fluid parcel both in its past and future evolution. In particular, the lines of maximum stretching at any time delineate the building blocks of the chaotic stirring. However the interpretation of the finite size Lyapunov exponent as a mixing time is less direct and depends on the alignment of tracer contours with the stretching lines.

  4. A Novel Stretch Sensor to Measure Venous Hemodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syrpailyne Wankhar

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronic venous insufficiency is a debilitating condition causing varicose veins and venous ulcers. The pathophysiology includes reflux and venous obstruction. The diagnosis is often made by clinical examination and confirmed by Venous Doppler studies. Plethysmography helps to quantitatively examine the reflux and diagnose the burden of deep venous pathology to better understand venous hemodynamics, which is not elicited by venous duplex examination alone. However, most of these tests are qualitative, expensive, and not easily available. In this paper, we demonstrate the potential use of a novel stretch sensor in the assessment of venous hemodynamics during different maneuvers by measuring the change in calf circumference. We designed the stretch sensor by using semiconductor strain gauges pasted onto a small metal bar to form a load cell. The elastic and Velcro material attached to the load cell form a belt. It converts the change in limb circumference to a proportional tension (force of distension when placed around the calf muscle. We recorded the change in limb circumference from arrays of stretch sensors by using an in-house data acquisition system. We calculated the venous volume (VV, venous filling index (VFI, ejection fraction (EF and residual venous volume (RVV on two normal subjects and on two patients to assess venous hemodynamics. The values (VV > 60 ml, VFI 60%, RVV 2ml/s, EF 35% in patients were comparable to those reported in the literature.

  5. Strengthening Nordic-Baltic Defense Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenbauch, Henrik Ø.

    2014-01-01

    and troubling challenge to the way international security has been structured in Europe since the end of the Cold War. While most of the existing defense cooperation with a view of strengthening defense capabilities has been carried out within the internationally renowned framework of NORDEFCO...

  6. Strengthening Family Practices for Latino Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Karen G.; Negroni, Lirio K.; Hesselbrock, Michie N.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a culturally adapted Strengthening Families Program (SFP) for Latinos to reduce risks for alcohol and drug use in children. Latino families, predominantly Puerto Rican, with a 9- to 12-year-old child and a parent(s) with a substance abuse problem participated in the study. Pre- and post-tests were conducted…

  7. Strengthening Equity through Applied Research Capacity Building ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    There exists limited understanding of how e-Health solutions are perceived, designed, implemented and used. ... The Strengthening Equity through Applied Research Capacity Building in e-Health (SEARCH) program will cultivate local research capacity to examine e-health and ... Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine.

  8. Strengthening Information Society Research Capacity Alliance ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-09-13

    The project is expected to strengthen the body of theoretically based, methodologically sound, interdisciplinary research on information society issues. Project ID. 106618. Project status. Closed. Start Date. September 13, 2011. End Date. August 12, 2014. Duration. 24 months. IDRC Officer. Smith, Matthew. Total funding.

  9. Strengthening Social and Emotional Intelligences through Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burth, Jeanne Hager; McConnell, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Using writing to allow children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) to express how they are feeling or to stimulate thinking about a social situation will allow the students the opportunity to strengthen social and emotional intelligences. By giving prompts about different social and emotional situations or ideas to children, the teacher allows…

  10. Does transparent government agencies strengthen trust?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimmelikhuijsen, S.G.

    2009-01-01

    Trust in government has been shown to be volatile in recent years and Internet transparency is seen as a solution to strengthen trust. However, critics argue that transparency will only lead to less trust, and sceptics say that it has no effect at all. This debate on transparency is lacking

  11. Condition assessment and strengthening of residential units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatheer Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available About 40, ground plus one (G+1 residential units were designed using a hybrid structural framing system (RC frame and load bearing walls. A few months after the completion of the ground floor of the residential units, cracks appeared at several locations in the structure. Field and Laboratory testing was conducted to ascertain the in situ strength of concrete and steel reinforcement. The results of the experimental work were used in the analytical ETABS model for the structural stability calculations. The results indicated that residential units were marginally safe in the existing condition (completed ground floor, but the anticipated construction of the floor above the ground floor (G+1 could not be carried out as the strength of the structural system was inadequate. To increase the safety of existing ground floor and to provide the option of the construction of one floor above, rehabilitation and strengthening design was performed. The proposed strengthening design made use of welded wire fabric (WWF and carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP laminates/sheets for the strengthening of walls, columns and slabs. The residential units will be strengthened in the near future.

  12. Strengthening partnerships among Africa's science granting ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The project will support regional training courses and on-site coaching to strengthen the capacity of participating councils to design and manage collaborative agreements. It will also co-fund demand-led collaborative research projects in selected areas of interest to the private sector. Sharing of evidence, lessons learned ...

  13. Institutional strengthening in Egyptian development aid projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walbeek, M.M.; Vlotman, W.F.

    2003-01-01

    In recent years Dutch aid projects have focused more on institutional strengthening. The overall impact of this type of aid has been limited. This paper explores possible reasons for this. In Egypt, it appeared to be difficult to make significant changes in the institutional setting. Main

  14. Strengthening Community Land Rights and Responses to ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Strengthening Community Land Rights and Responses to Involuntary Displacement Caused by Development Projects in Zimbabwe ... The construction of hydro-electric dams and other large mining and agricultural projects, for example, have led to negative consequences due to weak land tenure rights and a more general ...

  15. Strengthening 4-H by Analyzing Enrollment Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Stephen F.; Northern, Angela; Neff, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The study reported here used data from the ACCESS 4-H Enrollment System to gain insight into strengthening New York State's 4-H programming. Member enrollment lists from 2009 to 2012 were analyzed using Microsoft Excel to determine trends and dropout rates. The descriptive data indicate declining 4-H enrollment in recent years and peak enrollment…

  16. Working Together for Children: Strengthening Transition Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collie, Louise; Willis, Felicity; Paine, Crystal; Windsor, Corina

    2007-01-01

    The "Working Together for Children: Strengthening Transition Pathways" Team has identified that there is a gap between the Early Childhood settings and schools within the Dubbo area. Through meetings with early childhood professionals within Dubbo the authors have identified that the current landscape of care and education within their community…

  17. Strengthening Environmental Economics Capacity in Research on ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Strengthening Environmental Economics Capacity in Research on Climate Change Adaptation ... They will develop environmental economics methods to address specific climate change challenges caused by extreme weather stressors. ... Initiative Villes ciblées : gestion des déchets urbains à Cochabamba, en Bolivie.

  18. EFFECTIVENESS OF FLOOR EXERCISES VERSES BALL EXERCISES ON SPINAL MOBILITY IN SPASTIC DIPLEGIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumitra Sakhawalkar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this present study was to determine the Effectiveness of Floor Exercises versus Ball Exercises on spinal mobility in Spastic Diplegic. Methods: Institutional ethical committee permission was taken before starting the study. A sample of 70 Diplegic CP children was screened, and 40 meeting the inclusion criteria were selected for study were then randomly divided into two groups one control other experimental i.e. 20 in each group by chit method. Both the groups were assessed with spinal goniometry using Tape measurements for Thoracolumbar spine and Modified Schober's Test (MMSTbefore and after the treatment. Control group were given Floor exercise on a mat, and Swiss ball was giving experimental group Ball exercises for ten repetitions with 10-second hold, treatment time was 40 min per session for 3days per week for six weeks. Same sustained stretching technique for both groups in bilateral lower extremities for ten repetitions with 30 sec hold was given for, TA, Iliopsoas, Hamstrings, Hip Adductor, Rectus femoris. Result: Significant improvement was noted in the Intra-group comparison of both the groups from baseline to post six weeks of intervention p-value 0.001*** in both groups, and the Intergroup analysis using with tape measurements for Thoracolumbar spine (p-value and MMST (p-value 0.133NS. Conclusion: The present study concludes that there is a similar effect of both Floor Exercises versus Ball Exercises on spinal mobility in Spastic Diplegic.

  19. Simulation of stretch forming with intermediate heat treatments of aircraft skins - A physically based modeling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurukuri, S.; Miroux, Alexis; Wisselink, H.H.; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.

    2011-01-01

    In the aerospace industry stretch forming is often used to produce skin parts. During stretch forming a sheet is clamped at two sides and stretched over a die, such that the sheet gets the shape of the die. However for complex shapes it is necessary to use expensive intermediate heat-treatments in

  20. A discrete electromechanical model for human cardiac tissue: effects of stretch-activated currents and stretch conditions on restitution properties and spiral wave dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, Louis D; Panfilov, Alexander V

    2013-01-01

    We introduce an electromechanical model for human cardiac tissue which couples a biophysical model of cardiac excitation (Tusscher, Noble, Noble, Panfilov, 2006) and tension development (adjusted Niederer, Hunter, Smith, 2006 model) with a discrete elastic mass-lattice model. The equations for the excitation processes are solved with a finite difference approach, and the equations of the mass-lattice model are solved using Verlet integration. This allows the coupled problem to be solved with high numerical resolution. Passive mechanical properties of the mass-lattice model are described by a generalized Hooke's law for finite deformations (Seth material). Active mechanical contraction is initiated by changes of the intracellular calcium concentration, which is a variable of the electrical model. Mechanical deformation feeds back on the electrophysiology via stretch-activated ion channels whose conductivity is controlled by the local stretch of the medium. We apply the model to study how stretch-activated currents affect the action potential shape, restitution properties, and dynamics of spiral waves, under constant stretch, and dynamic stretch caused by active mechanical contraction. We find that stretch conditions substantially affect these properties via stretch-activated currents. In constantly stretched medium, we observe a substantial decrease in conduction velocity, and an increase of action potential duration; whereas, with dynamic stretch, action potential duration is increased only slightly, and the conduction velocity restitution curve becomes biphasic. Moreover, in constantly stretched medium, we find an increase of the core size and period of a spiral wave, but no change in rotation dynamics; in contrast, in the dynamically stretching medium, we observe spiral drift. Our results may be important to understand how altered stretch conditions affect the heart's functioning.

  1. A discrete electromechanical model for human cardiac tissue: effects of stretch-activated currents and stretch conditions on restitution properties and spiral wave dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis D Weise

    Full Text Available We introduce an electromechanical model for human cardiac tissue which couples a biophysical model of cardiac excitation (Tusscher, Noble, Noble, Panfilov, 2006 and tension development (adjusted Niederer, Hunter, Smith, 2006 model with a discrete elastic mass-lattice model. The equations for the excitation processes are solved with a finite difference approach, and the equations of the mass-lattice model are solved using Verlet integration. This allows the coupled problem to be solved with high numerical resolution. Passive mechanical properties of the mass-lattice model are described by a generalized Hooke's law for finite deformations (Seth material. Active mechanical contraction is initiated by changes of the intracellular calcium concentration, which is a variable of the electrical model. Mechanical deformation feeds back on the electrophysiology via stretch-activated ion channels whose conductivity is controlled by the local stretch of the medium. We apply the model to study how stretch-activated currents affect the action potential shape, restitution properties, and dynamics of spiral waves, under constant stretch, and dynamic stretch caused by active mechanical contraction. We find that stretch conditions substantially affect these properties via stretch-activated currents. In constantly stretched medium, we observe a substantial decrease in conduction velocity, and an increase of action potential duration; whereas, with dynamic stretch, action potential duration is increased only slightly, and the conduction velocity restitution curve becomes biphasic. Moreover, in constantly stretched medium, we find an increase of the core size and period of a spiral wave, but no change in rotation dynamics; in contrast, in the dynamically stretching medium, we observe spiral drift. Our results may be important to understand how altered stretch conditions affect the heart's functioning.

  2. Micropatterning stretched and aligned DNA for sequence-specific nanolithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Cecilia Anna Paulette

    Techniques for fabricating nanostructured materials can be categorized as either "top-down" or "bottom-up". Top-down techniques use lithography and contact printing to create patterned surfaces and microfluidic channels that can corral and organize nanoscale structures, such as molecules and nanorods in contrast; bottom-up techniques use self-assembly or molecular recognition to direct the organization of materials. A central goal in nanotechnology is the integration of bottom-up and top-down assembly strategies for materials development, device design; and process integration. With this goal in mind, we have developed strategies that will allow this integration by using DNA as a template for nanofabrication; two top-down approaches allow the placement of these templates, while the bottom-up technique uses the specific sequence of bases to pattern materials along each strand of DNA. Our first top-down approach, termed combing of molecules in microchannels (COMMIC), produces microscopic patterns of stretched and aligned molecules of DNA on surfaces. This process consists of passing an air-water interface over end adsorbed molecules inside microfabricated channels. The geometry of the microchannel directs the placement of the DNA molecules, while the geometry of the airwater interface directs the local orientation and curvature of the molecules. We developed another top-down strategy for creating micropatterns of stretched and aligned DNA using surface chemistry. Because DNA stretching occurs on hydrophobic surfaces, this technique uses photolithography to pattern vinyl-terminated silanes on glass When these surface-, are immersed in DNA solution, molecules adhere preferentially to the silanized areas. This approach has also proven useful in patterning protein for cell adhesion studies. Finally, we describe the use of these stretched and aligned molecules of DNA as templates for the subsequent bottom-up construction of hetero-structures through hybridization

  3. Ca2+ influx and ATP release mediated by mechanical stretch in human lung fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Naohiko; Ito, Satoru; Furuya, Kishio; Takahara, Norihiro; Naruse, Keiji; Aso, Hiromichi; Kondo, Masashi; Sokabe, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Uniaxial stretching activates Ca 2+ signaling in human lung fibroblasts. • Stretch-induced intracellular Ca 2+ elevation is mainly via Ca 2+ influx. • Mechanical strain enhances ATP release from fibroblasts. • Stretch-induced Ca 2+ influx is not mediated by released ATP or actin cytoskeleton. - Abstract: One cause of progressive pulmonary fibrosis is dysregulated wound healing after lung inflammation or damage in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. The mechanical forces are considered to regulate pulmonary fibrosis via activation of lung fibroblasts. In this study, the effects of mechanical stretch on the intracellular Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ) and ATP release were investigated in primary human lung fibroblasts. Uniaxial stretch (10–30% in strain) was applied to fibroblasts cultured in a silicone chamber coated with type I collagen using a stretching apparatus. Following stretching and subsequent unloading, [Ca 2+ ] i transiently increased in a strain-dependent manner. Hypotonic stress, which causes plasma membrane stretching, also transiently increased the [Ca 2+ ] i . The stretch-induced [Ca 2+ ] i elevation was attenuated in Ca 2+ -free solution. In contrast, the increase of [Ca 2+ ] i by a 20% stretch was not inhibited by the inhibitor of stretch-activated channels GsMTx-4, Gd 3+ , ruthenium red, or cytochalasin D. Cyclic stretching induced significant ATP releases from fibroblasts. However, the stretch-induced [Ca 2+ ] i elevation was not inhibited by ATP diphosphohydrolase apyrase or a purinergic receptor antagonist suramin. Taken together, mechanical stretch induces Ca 2+ influx independently of conventional stretch-sensitive ion channels, the actin cytoskeleton, and released ATP

  4. Ca{sup 2+} influx and ATP release mediated by mechanical stretch in human lung fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, Naohiko [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Ito, Satoru, E-mail: itori@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Furuya, Kishio [Mechanobiology Laboratory, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Takahara, Norihiro [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Naruse, Keiji [Department of Cardiovascular Physiology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Aso, Hiromichi; Kondo, Masashi [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Sokabe, Masahiro [Mechanobiology Laboratory, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Hasegawa, Yoshinori [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan)

    2014-10-10

    Highlights: • Uniaxial stretching activates Ca{sup 2+} signaling in human lung fibroblasts. • Stretch-induced intracellular Ca{sup 2+} elevation is mainly via Ca{sup 2+} influx. • Mechanical strain enhances ATP release from fibroblasts. • Stretch-induced Ca{sup 2+} influx is not mediated by released ATP or actin cytoskeleton. - Abstract: One cause of progressive pulmonary fibrosis is dysregulated wound healing after lung inflammation or damage in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. The mechanical forces are considered to regulate pulmonary fibrosis via activation of lung fibroblasts. In this study, the effects of mechanical stretch on the intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) and ATP release were investigated in primary human lung fibroblasts. Uniaxial stretch (10–30% in strain) was applied to fibroblasts cultured in a silicone chamber coated with type I collagen using a stretching apparatus. Following stretching and subsequent unloading, [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} transiently increased in a strain-dependent manner. Hypotonic stress, which causes plasma membrane stretching, also transiently increased the [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}. The stretch-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} elevation was attenuated in Ca{sup 2+}-free solution. In contrast, the increase of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} by a 20% stretch was not inhibited by the inhibitor of stretch-activated channels GsMTx-4, Gd{sup 3+}, ruthenium red, or cytochalasin D. Cyclic stretching induced significant ATP releases from fibroblasts. However, the stretch-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} elevation was not inhibited by ATP diphosphohydrolase apyrase or a purinergic receptor antagonist suramin. Taken together, mechanical stretch induces Ca{sup 2+} influx independently of conventional stretch-sensitive ion channels, the actin cytoskeleton, and released ATP.

  5. Writing Strengthens Orthography and Alphabetic-Coding Strengthens Phonology in Learning to Read Chinese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guan, C.Q.; Liu, Y.; Chan, D.H.L.; Ye, F.F.; Perfetti, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning to write words may strengthen orthographic representations and thus support word-specific recognition processes. This hypothesis applies especially to Chinese because its writing system encourages character-specific recognition that depends on accurate representation of orthographic form.

  6. Core strengthening and synchronized swimming: TRX® suspension training in young female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinto, Amalia; Campanella, Marta; Fasano, Milena

    2017-06-01

    Developing muscle strength and full body stability is essential for the efficient execution of technical moves in synchronized swimming. However, many swimmers find it difficult to control body stability while executing particular figures in water. We evaluated the effects of TRX® suspension training (2 sessions weekly for 6 months on core strength and core stability in young female. Twenty synchronized swimmers (Beginners A category, mean age 10±1 years) are divided in experimental group (EG; N.=10 athletes) and control group (CG; N.=10 athletes). EG received suspension training twice weekly (each session lasting about 15 min) as dryland exercises for 6 months in addition to routine training. CG completed routine training with conventional dryland exercises. Before (T1) and after (T2) completion of the study oblique and transversus abdominis muscle force was measured using a Stabilizer Pressure Biofeedback unit, in prone and supine positions, and isotonic muscle endurance was evaluated with the McGill Test. Non-parametric statistical analysis showed a significant increase (Ptraining in dryland exercises for muscle strengthening in young athletes practicing synchronized swimming, and in general reiterates the importance of strengthening the core area to ensure stability and specific adaptations, improve the quality of the movement and prevent against injury.

  7. Open versus closed kinetic chain exercises for patellar chondromalacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiary, A H; Fatemi, E

    2008-02-01

    Conservative treatment of patellar chondromalacia has been the subject of several studies. One recommended treatment is a strengthening exercise of the quadriceps muscle, which may be performed in closed or open kinetic chains. This study was designed to compare the effect of straight leg raise (SLR) and semi-squat exercises on the treatment of patellar chondromalacia, which has not been done to date. 32 female university students with a diagnosis of patellar chondromalacia were randomly assigned to two experimental groups: SLR and semi-squat exercise. Before starting exercise protocols, Q angle, maximal isometric voluntary contraction force (MIVCF) of quadriceps, crepitation, circumference of thigh 5 and 10 cm above the patella and patellofemoral pain according to the visual analogue scale (VAS) were assessed. Both groups then followed a 3-week programme of quadriceps muscle strengthening exercises (SLR or semi-squat) starting with 20 exercises twice a day and increasing each session by 5 exercises every 2 days. All measurements were repeated at the end of each week and then again 2 weeks after the 3-week exercise programme. Reduced Q angle (mean differences (SD) 0.8 (0.3), p = 0.016) and crepitation (19.9 (8.5), p = 0.04), and an increase in the MIVCF of the quadriceps (15.8 (5.6), p = 0.01) and thigh circumference (1.5 (0.3), p = 0.001) were found in semi-squat group compared with SLR group. However, patellofemoral pain was decreased significantly in both groups. The results of this study indicate that semi-squat exercises (closed kinetic chain) are more effective than SLR exercise (open kinetic chain) in the treatment of patellar chondromalacia. More studies are needed to investigate the long-term effect of these types of exercise.

  8. Exercise and immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007165.htm Exercise and immunity To use the sharing features on ... take a daily walk or follow a simple exercise routine a few times a week. Exercise helps ...

  9. Editable Supercapacitors with Customizable Stretchability Based on Mechanically Strengthened Ultralong MnO2 Nanowire Composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zhisheng; Luo, Yifei; Tang, Yuxin; Wei, Jiaqi; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Xinran; Li, Wenlong; Zeng, Yi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yanyan; Qi, Dianpeng; Pan, Shaowu; Loh, Xian Jun; Chen, Xiaodong

    2018-01-01

    Although some progress has been made on stretchable supercapacitors, traditional stretchable supercapacitors fabricated by predesigning structured electrodes for device assembling still lack the device-level editability and programmability. To adapt to wearable electronics with arbitrary configurations, it is highly desirable to develop editable supercapacitors that can be directly transferred into desirable shapes and stretchability. In this work, editable supercapacitors for customizable shapes and stretchability using electrodes based on mechanically strengthened ultralong MnO 2 nanowire composites are developed. A supercapacitor edited with honeycomb-like structure shows a specific capacitance of 227.2 mF cm -2 and can be stretched up to 500% without degradation of electrochemical performance, which is superior to most of the state-of-the-art stretchable supercapacitors. In addition, it maintains nearly 98% of the initial capacitance after 10 000 stretch-and-release cycles under 400% tensile strain. As a representative of concept for system integration, the editable supercapacitors are integrated with a strain sensor, and the system exhibits a stable sensing performance even under arm swing. Being highly stretchable, easily programmable, as well as connectable in series and parallel, an editable supercapacitor with customizable stretchability is promising to produce stylish energy storage devices to power various portable, stretchable, and wearable devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Mechanical stretching for tissue engineering: two-dimensional and three-dimensional constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehl, Brandon D; Park, Jae-Hong; Kwon, Il Keun; Lim, Jung Yul

    2012-08-01

    Mechanical cell stretching may be an attractive strategy for the tissue engineering of mechanically functional tissues. It has been demonstrated that cell growth and differentiation can be guided by cell stretch with minimal help from soluble factors and engineered tissues that are mechanically stretched in bioreactors may have superior organization, functionality, and strength compared with unstretched counterparts. This review explores recent studies on cell stretching in both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) setups focusing on the applications of stretch stimulation as a tool for controlling cell orientation, growth, gene expression, lineage commitment, and differentiation and for achieving successful tissue engineering of mechanically functional tissues, including cardiac, muscle, vasculature, ligament, tendon, bone, and so on. Custom stretching devices and lab-specific mechanical bioreactors are described with a discussion on capabilities and limitations. While stretch mechanotransduction pathways have been examined using 2D stretch, studying such pathways in physiologically relevant 3D environments may be required to understand how cells direct tissue development under stretch. Cell stretch study using 3D milieus may also help to develop tissue-specific stretch regimens optimized with biochemical feedback, which once developed will provide optimal tissue engineering protocols.

  11. Influence of breathing exercises using method of Body Flex by Greer Childers on to the selected somatic traits of women with overweight and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Radziejowska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction . Overweight and obesity are without any doubts an epidemic of our times, resulting from a change in the living style of the people. Majority of the people reduces the physical activity to the minimum, because of the lack of time they have after the work. That is why we are attacked from time to time by various publications about miraculous methods how to throw away an excessive body weight. In this work is made a close investigation of the method of Greer Childers “Body Flex”, which has become very popular among other in the United States and in Russia, because of the simplicity of exercises to be done and the short time necessary to perform them. The essence of exercises of „‘Body Flex’’ type are the breathing exercises connected with isometric and stretching exercising. The main stress is applied to the lower breathing path with keeping the abdominal muscles tone as well as adding the posture muscles operations, what is as consequence to reduce the body weight, selected body circumferences and to strengthen the muscles exercised. Purpose: The aim of presented work was the comparative assessment of the selected somatic traits of the persons making regularly exercises, at least 5 times a week, using the modified „‘Body Flex’’ method as well as the assessment of effectiveness of the application of those exercises. Material and methods: The examination has covered a group of 25 persons, which was women in the age range 36 – 63, average age amounted to 58,45 +- 8,92 years, including 16 persons of them constituting the tested group and 9 persons being a control group, which has not made regular exercises. In the tested group was separated: 4 persons’ group of women with BMI indicating their obesity, 8 persons’ group of women with BMI indicating overweight and 4 persons’ group of women with BMI within the limits of the norm. Before and after 1 month’s, and for 9 persons – after 2 months’ therapy, their

  12. Mechanical stretching effect on the actuator performance of cellulose electroactive paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung-Hwan; Yun, Ki-Ju; Kim, Joo-Hyung; Kim, Jaehwan

    2009-01-01

    The mechanical stretching effect on the actuating performance of electroactive cellulose paper (EAPap) was studied. A lattice elongation of cellulose fibrils due to in-plane tensile stress along the stretching direction was observed by the x-ray diffraction method. The shrinkage of the fibril diameter as a function of stretching ratio was confirmed by surface and cross-sectional images. While the actuator performance in terms of bending displacement decreased as the stretching ratio increased, the resonance frequency linearly increased as the stretching ratio increased, which was compared with the theoretical frequency data found from a cantilever beam model. The actuator efficiency was evaluated from the electrical input power consumption and the mechanical output power of an EAPap actuator. It was revealed that the stretching process increased the electro-mechanical efficiency of the EAPap actuator. The mechanism of the influence of the stretching effect on the performance of an EAPap actuator is discussed

  13. Exercise Equipment: Neutral Buoyancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Linda; Valle, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Load Bearing Equipment for Neutral Buoyancy (LBE-NB) is an exercise frame that holds two exercising subjects in position as they apply counter forces to each other for lower extremity and spine loading resistance exercises. Resistance exercise prevents bone loss on ISS, but the ISS equipment is too massive for use in exploration craft. Integrating the human into the load directing, load generating, and motion control functions of the exercise equipment generates safe exercise loads with less equipment mass and volume.

  14. Strengthening of the Cooperative Framework for ANENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, K. W.; Lee, E. J.; Min, B. J.

    2007-01-01

    The Asian Network for Education in Nuclear Technology (ANENT) was established in February 2004 to promote nuclear education and training in Asia. Initially ANENT member countries cooperated with 5 group activities encompassing broad areas. As of 2006, the cooperative framework was strengthened in a way to focus on web-based nuclear education and training for a period of several years to come. In this context, the Nuclear Training Center (NTC) of KAERI has contributed, in particular, to the development of the ANENT web-portal including a cyber platform, and making available relevant courses and materials on the web-portal. This paper discusses details of the strengthened cooperative framework in terms of NTC's effort for realizing web-based education and training through regional networking

  15. Strengthening Regulatory Competence through Techno-managerial Knowledge Integration: Indian Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchibhotla, S.

    2016-01-01

    Competence development is the process of identifying the competencies required to perform a given job, role or set of tasks successfully at workplace. Strengthening regulatory competence, for the nuclear regulator, is essential to ensure skilled and competent human resources for performing the functions of the Regulatory Body. The strengthening of existing competence level for the Indian nuclear regulator, takes into account the understanding of the elements such as legal basis and regulatory processes governing operations of regulatory body, technological competences for performing regulatory functions, competences pertinent to regulatory practices, and competences related to personal and interpersonal effectiveness within the organization. Competency data from AERB divisions was compiled to identify gaps at various positions with recommendations for making specialized training modules and modifications to basic and refresher training modules. The exercise is aimed at providing continual improvement in skills and knowledge of human resources at AERB in a phased manner. (author)

  16. Eccentric strengthening effect of hip-adductor training with elastic bands in soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper; Hölmich, Per; Bandholm, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    programme, including one hip-adduction exercise, on eccentric and isometric hip-adduction strength, using elastic bands as external load. METHODS: Thirty-four healthy, sub-elite soccer players, mean (±SD) age of 22.1 (±3.3) years, were randomised to either training or control. During the mid-season break......BACKGROUND: Soccer players with weak hip-adductor muscles are at increased risk of sustaining groin injuries. Therefore, a simple hip-adductor strengthening programme for prevention of groin injuries is needed. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the effect of an 8-week hip-adductor strengthening...... sessions per week (weeks 7-8) with 3×8 RM. Eccentric hip-adduction (EHAD), isometric hip-adduction (IHAD) and isometric hip-abduction (IHAB) strength, and the IHAD/IHAB ratio were measured assessor-blinded preintervention and postintervention, using reliable hand-held dynamometry procedures. RESULTS...

  17. Titanium oxide dispersion-strengthened ferritic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrix, W.; Vandermeulen, W.

    1980-04-01

    The available data on the DT02 and DT3911 ferritic dispersion strengthened alloys, developed at SCK/CEN, Mol, Belgium, are presented. Both alloys consist of Fe - 13% Cr - 1.5% Mo to which 2% TiO 2 and about 3.5% Ti are added (wt.%). Their main use is for the fabrication of fast breeder reactor cladding tubes but their application as turbine blade material is also envisaged for cases where high damping is important. (auth.)

  18. Manufacturing Experience for Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Wendy D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Doherty, Ann L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Henager, Charles H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lavender, Curt A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Montgomery, Robert O. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Omberg, Ronald P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smith, Mark T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Webster, Ryan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-22

    This report documents the results of the development and the manufacturing experience gained at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) while working with the oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) materials MA 956, 14YWT, and 9YWT. The Fuel Cycle Research and Development program of the Office of Nuclear Energy has implemented a program to develop a Uranium-Molybdenum metal fuel for light water reactors. ODS materials have the potential to provide improved performance for the U-Mo concept.

  19. Strengthening the non proliferation regime: French views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaune, P.

    2013-01-01

    3 main issues can be identified in the French policy concerning the backing of non proliferation: 1) responding resolutely to proliferation crises, 2) reinforcing substantive efforts to prevent and impede proliferation, and 3) strengthening the non-proliferation regime. The first issue is very important because combating proliferation is vital to the security of all. Concerning the second issue, France attaches particular importance to strengthening specific measures to prevent and check proliferation. Let me mention a few proposals that we put forward: exports need to be controlled more effectively, proliferation activities have to be criminalized, or the development of proliferation-resistant technologies should be supported. Concerning the third issue it means the strengthening of the non-proliferation regime, France proposes several means: -) aiming at the universalization of the additional protocol; -) ensuring that the Agency continues to have sufficient human, financial and technical resources to fulfill its verification mission effectively; -) encouraging the IAEA to make full use of the authority available to it; -) enhancing the use of information relevant to the delivery of the IAEA mandate; and -) sharing more accurate information concerning the breaches of commitments that happen. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (A.C.)

  20. Acute Changes in Creatine Kinase Serum Levels in Adults Submitted a Static Stretching and Maximal Strength Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Bara Filho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Strength and flexibility are common components of a training program and their maximal values are obtained through specific tests. However, little information about the damage effect of these training procedures in a skeletal muscle is known. Objective: To verify a serum CK changes 24 h after a sub maximal stretching routine and after the static flexibility and maximal strength tests. Methods: the sample was composed by 14 subjects (man and women, 28 ± 6 yr. physical education students. The volunteers were divided in a control group (CG and experimental group (EG that was submitted in a stretching routine (EG-ST, in a maximal flexibility static test (EG-FLEX and in 1-RM test (EG-1-RM, with one week interval among tests. The anthropometrics characteristics were obtained by digital scale with stadiometer (Filizola, São Paulo, Brasil, 2002. The blood samples were obtained using the IFCC method with reference values 26-155 U/L. The De Lorme and Watkins technique was used to access maximal maximal strength through bench press and leg press. The maximal flexibility test consisted in three 20 seconds sets until the point of maximal discomfort. The stretching was done in normal movement amplitude during 6 secons. Results: The basal and post 24 h CK values in CG and EG (ST; Flex and 1 RM were respectively 195,0 ± 129,5 vs. 202,1 ± 124,2; 213,3 ± 133,2 vs. 174,7 ± 115,8; 213,3 ± 133,2 vs. 226,6 ± 126,7 e 213,3 ± 133,2 vs. 275,9 ± 157,2. It was only observed a significant difference (p = 0,02 in the pre and post values inGE-1RM. Conclusion: only maximal strength dynamic exercise was capable to cause skeletal muscle damage.

  1. Elastography Study of Hamstring Behaviors during Passive Stretching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Le Sant

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of hamstring muscles are usually inferred from global passive torque/angle relationships, in combination with adjoining tissues crossing the joint investigated. Shear modulus measurement provides an estimate of changes in muscle-tendon stiffness and passive tension. This study aimed to assess the passive individual behavior of each hamstring muscle in different stretching positions using shear wave elastography.The muscle shear modulus of each hamstring muscle was measured during a standardized slow passive knee extension (PKE, 80% of maximal range of motion on eighteen healthy male volunteers. Firstly, we assessed the reliability of the measurements. Results were good for semitendinosus (ST, CV: 8.9%-13.4%, semimembranosus (SM, CV: 10.3%-11.2% and biceps femoris long-head (BF-lh, CV: 8.6%-13.3%, but not for biceps femoris short-head (BF-sh, CV: 20.3%-44.9%. Secondly, we investigated each reliable muscle in three stretch positions: 70°, 90° and 110° of hip flexion. The results showed different values of shear modulus for the same amount of perceived stretch, with the highest measurements in the high-flexed hip situation. Moreover, individual muscles displayed different values, with values increasing or BF-lh, SM and ST, respectively. The inter-subject variability was 35.3% for ST, 27.4% for SM and 30.2% for BF-lh.This study showed that the hip needs to be high-flexed to efficiently tension the hamstrings, and reports a higher muscle-tendon stress tolerance at 110° of hip angle. In addition muscles have different passive behaviors, and future works will clarify if it can be linked with rate of injury.

  2. Elastography Study of Hamstring Behaviors during Passive Stretching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Sant, Guillaume; Ates, Filiz; Brasseur, Jean-Louis; Nordez, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The mechanical properties of hamstring muscles are usually inferred from global passive torque/angle relationships, in combination with adjoining tissues crossing the joint investigated. Shear modulus measurement provides an estimate of changes in muscle-tendon stiffness and passive tension. This study aimed to assess the passive individual behavior of each hamstring muscle in different stretching positions using shear wave elastography. Methods/Results The muscle shear modulus of each hamstring muscle was measured during a standardized slow passive knee extension (PKE, 80% of maximal range of motion) on eighteen healthy male volunteers. Firstly, we assessed the reliability of the measurements. Results were good for semitendinosus (ST, CV: 8.9%-13.4%), semimembranosus (SM, CV: 10.3%-11.2%) and biceps femoris long-head (BF-lh, CV: 8.6%-13.3%), but not for biceps femoris short-head (BF-sh, CV: 20.3%-44.9%). Secondly, we investigated each reliable muscle in three stretch positions: 70°, 90° and 110° of hip flexion. The results showed different values of shear modulus for the same amount of perceived stretch, with the highest measurements in the high-flexed hip situation. Moreover, individual muscles displayed different values, with values increasing or BF-lh, SM and ST, respectively. The inter-subject variability was 35.3% for ST, 27.4% for SM and 30.2% for BF-lh. Conclusion This study showed that the hip needs to be high-flexed to efficiently tension the hamstrings, and reports a higher muscle-tendon stress tolerance at 110° of hip angle. In addition muscles have different passive behaviors, and future works will clarify if it can be linked with rate of injury. PMID:26418862

  3. Preloading Effect on Strengthening Efficiency of RC Beams Strengthened with Non- and Pretensioned NSM Strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Kotynia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The near surface mounted (NSM technique has been shown to be one of the most promising methods for upgrading reinforced concrete (RC structures. Many tests carried out on RC members strengthened in flexure with NSM fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP systems have demonstrated greater strengthening efficiency than the use of externally-bonded (EB FRP laminates. Strengthening with simultaneous pretensioning of the FRP results in improvements in the serviceability limit state (SLS conditions, including the increased cracking moment and decreased deflections. The objective of the reported experimental program, which consisted of two series of RC beams strengthened in flexure with NSM CFRP strips, was to investigate the influence of a number of parameters on the strengthening efficiency. The test program focused on an analysis of the effects of preloading on the strengthening efficiency which has been investigated very rarely despite being one of the most important parameters to be taken into account in strengthening design. Two preloading levels were considered: the beam self-weight only, which corresponded to stresses on the internal longitudinal reinforcement of 25% and 14% of the yield stress (depending on a steel reinforcement ratio, and the self-weight with the additional superimposed load, corresponding to 60% of the yield strength of the unstrengthened beam and a deflection equal to the allowable deflection at the SLS. The influence of the longitudinal steel reinforcement ratio was also considered in this study. To reflect the variability seen in existing structures, test specimens were varied by using different steel bar diameters. Finally, the impact of the composite reinforcement ratio and the number of pretensioned FRP strips was considered. Specimens were divided into two series based on their strengthening configuration: series “A” were strengthened with one pretensioned and two non-pretensioned carbon FRP (CFRP strips, while series

  4. Computation of nuclear reactor parameters using a stretch Kalman filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwingelstein, G.; Poujol, A.

    1976-01-01

    A method of nonlinear stochastic filtering, the stretched Karman filter, is used for the estimation of two basic parameters involved in the control of nuclear reactor start-up. The corresponding algorithm is stored in a small Multi-8 computer and tested with data recorded for the Ulysse reactor (I.N.S.T.N.). The various practical problems involved in using the algorithm are examined: filtering initialization, influence of the model... The quality and time saving obtained in the computation make it possible for a real time operation, the computer being connected with the reactor [fr

  5. Identification of the Process of Dynamic Stretching of Threads in Warp Knitting Technology Part II: Experimental Identification of the Process of Stretching Threads, with Verification of Rheological Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prążyńska Aleksandra

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The study is a continuation of the first part of the publication, concerning the theoretical analysis of sensitivity of rheological models of dynamically stretched thread. This part presents the experimental research on the characteristics of stretching forces as a function of time, in the context of comparing the obtained results with theoretical data.

  6. Augmentation of Deglutitive Thyrohyoid Muscle Shortening by the Shaker Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mepani, Rachel; Antonik, Stephen; Massey, Benson; Kern, Mark; Logemann, Jerilyn; Pauloski, Barbara; Rademaker, Alfred; Easterling, Caryn

    2010-01-01

    Earlier studies of the effect of 6 weeks of the Shaker Exercise have shown significant increase in UES opening and anterior excursion of larynx and hyoid during swallowing in patients with upper esophageal sphincter (UES) dysfunction, resulting in elimination of aspiration and resumption of oral intake. This effect is attributed to strengthening of the suprahyoid muscles, as evidenced by comparison of electromyographic changes in muscle fatigue before and after completion of the exercise regime. The effect of this exercise on thyrohyoid muscle shortening is unknown. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine the effect of the exercise on thyrohyoid muscle shortening. We studied 11 dysphagic patients with UES dysfunction. Six were randomized to traditional swallowing therapy and five to the Shaker Exercise. Videofluoroscopy was used to measure deglutitive thyrohyoid shortening before and after completion of assigned therapy regimen. Maximum thyrohyoid muscle shortening occurred at close temporal proximity to the time of maximal thyroid cartilage excursion. The percent change in thyrohyoid distance from initiation of deglutition to maximal anterior/superior hyoid excursion showed no statistically significant difference between the two groups prior to either therapy (p = 0.54). In contrast, after completion of therapy, the percent change in thyrohyoid distance in the Shaker Exercise group was significantly greater compared to the traditional therapy (p = 0.034). The Shaker Exercise augments the thyrohyoid muscle shortening in addition to strengthening the suprahyoid muscles. The combination of increased thyrohyoid shortening and suprahyoid strengthening contributes to the Shaker Exercise outcome of deglutitive UES opening augmentation. PMID:18685891

  7. Self-regulation strategies may enhance the acute effect of exercise on smoking delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzigeorgiadis, Antonis; Pappa, Vassiliki; Tsiami, Anastasia; Tzatzaki, Theodora; Georgakouli, Kalliopi; Zourbanos, Nikos; Goudas, Marios; Chatzisarantis, Nikos; Theodorakis, Yannis

    2016-06-01

    The present study examined the acute effect of a moderate intensity aerobic exercise session combined with self-regulation on smoking delay in physically inactive smokers. Participants were 11 adults (5 males and 6 females) that completed three experimental conditions: control, exercise, and exercise using self-regulation strategies (SR). Following the experimental treatment smoking for the two exercise conditions delayed significantly more than for the control condition; in addition exercise SR delayed smoking marginally more that the plain exercise condition. Findings supported previous research that acute exercise reduces cravings to smoke, and suggests that the use of self-regulation strategies may strengthen exercise for smoking cessation interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Can exercise mimetics substitute for exercise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Kiens, Bente; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    Exercise leads to changes in muscle phenotype with important implications for exercise performance and health. A recent paper in Cell by Narkar et al. (2008) shows that many of the adaptations in muscle phenotype elicited by exercise can be mimicked by genetic manipulation and drug treatment...

  9. Strengthening CRTD-A's Organizational and Program Capacity ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Strengthening CRTD-A's Organizational and Program Capacity (Lebanon) ... Women's Rights and Citizenship framework; to strengthen and rationalize its institutional ... IDRC “unpacks women's empowerment” at McGill University Conference.

  10. Tangential stretching rate (TSR) analysis of non premixed reactive flows

    KAUST Repository

    Valorani, Mauro

    2016-10-16

    We discuss how the Tangential stretching rate (TSR) analysis, originally developed and tested for spatially homogeneous systems (batch reactors), is extended to spatially non homogeneous systems. To illustrate the effectiveness of the TSR diagnostics, we study the ignition transient in a non premixed, reaction–diffusion model in the mixture fraction space, whose dependent variables are temperature and mixture composition. The reactive mixture considered is syngas/air. A detailed H2/CO mechanism with 12 species and 33 chemical reactions is employed. We will discuss two cases, one involving only kinetics as a model of front propagation purely driven by spontaneous ignition, the other as a model of deflagration wave involving kinetics/diffusion coupling. We explore different aspects of the system dynamics such as the relative role of diffusion and kinetics, the evolution of kinetic eigenvalues, and of the tangential stretching rates computed by accounting for the combined action of diffusion and kinetics as well for kinetics only. We propose criteria based on the TSR concept which allow to identify the most ignitable conditions and to discriminate between spontaneous ignition and deflagration front.

  11. Analysis of a Stretched Derivative Aircraft with Open Rotor Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.; Hendricks, Eric S.; Haller, William J.; Guynn, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Research into advanced, high-speed civil turboprops received significant attention during the 1970s and 1980s when fuel efficiency was the driving focus of U.S. aeronautical research. But when fuel prices declined sharply there was no longer sufficient motivation to continue maturing the technology. Recent volatility in fuel prices and increasing concern for aviation's environmental impact, however, have renewed interest in unducted, open rotor propulsion and revived research by NASA and a number of engine manufacturers. Recently, NASA and General Electric have teamed to conduct several investigations into the performance and noise of an advanced, single-aisle transport with open rotor propulsion. The results of these initial studies indicate open rotor engines have the potential to provide significant reduction in fuel consumption compared to aircraft using turbofan engines with equivalent core technology. In addition, noise analysis of the concept indicates that an open rotor aircraft in the single-aisle transport class would be able to meet current noise regulations with margin. The behavior of derivative open rotor transports is of interest. Heavier, "stretched" derivative aircraft tend to be noisier than their lighter relatives. Of particular importance to the business case for the concept is how the noise margin changes relative to regulatory limits within a family of similar open rotor aircraft. The subject of this report is a performance and noise assessment of a notional, heavier, stretched derivative airplane equipped with throttle-push variants of NASA's initial open rotor engine design.

  12. MHD biconvective flow of Powell Eyring nanofluid over stretched surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseem, Faiza; Shafiq, Anum; Zhao, Lifeng; Naseem, Anum

    2017-06-01

    The present work is focused on behavioral characteristics of gyrotactic microorganisms to describe their role in heat and mass transfer in the presence of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) forces in Powell-Eyring nanofluids. Implications concerning stretching sheet with respect to velocity, temperature, nanoparticle concentration and motile microorganism density were explored to highlight influential parameters. Aim of utilizing microorganisms was primarily to stabilize the nanoparticle suspension due to bioconvection generated by the combined effects of buoyancy forces and magnetic field. Influence of Newtonian heating was also analyzed by taking into account thermophoretic mechanism and Brownian motion effects to insinuate series solutions mediated by homotopy analysis method (HAM). Mathematical model captured the boundary layer regime that explicitly involved contemporary non linear partial differential equations converted into the ordinary differential equations. To depict nanofluid flow characteristics, pertinent parameters namely bioconvection Lewis number Lb, traditional Lewis number Le, bioconvection Péclet number Pe, buoyancy ratio parameter Nr, bioconvection Rayleigh number Rb, thermophoresis parameter Nt, Hartmann number M, Grashof number Gr, and Eckert number Ec were computed and analyzed. Results revealed evidence of hydromagnetic bioconvection for microorganism which was represented by graphs and tables. Our findings further show a significant effect of Newtonian heating over a stretching plate by examining the coefficient values of skin friction, local Nusselt number and the local density number. Comparison was made between Newtonian fluid and Powell-Eyring fluid on velocity field and temperature field. Results are compared of with contemporary studies and our findings are found in excellent agreement with these studies.

  13. Harmonics analysis of the photonic time stretch system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yuan; Xu, Boyu; Chi, Hao; Jin, Tao; Zheng, Shilie; Jin, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Xianmin

    2016-09-10

    Photonic time stretch (PTS) has been intensively investigated in recent decades due to its potential application to ultra-wideband analog-to-digital conversion. A high-speed analog signal can be captured by an electronic analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with the help of the PTS technique, which slows down the speed of signal in the photonic domain. Unfortunately, the process of the time stretch is not linear due to the nonlinear modulation of the electro-optic intensity modulator in the PTS system, which means the undesired harmonics distortion. In this paper, we present an exact analytical model to fully characterize the harmonics generation in the PTS systems for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. We obtain concise and closed-form expressions for all harmonics of the PTS system with either a single-arm Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) or a push-pull MZM. The presented model can largely simplify the PTS system design and the system parameters estimation, such as system bandwidth, harmonics power, time-bandwidth product, and dynamic range. The correctness of the mathematic model is verified by the numerical and experimental results.

  14. Static stretching does not alter pre and post-landing muscle activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moss Wesley R

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Static stretching may result in various strength and power deficiencies. Prior research has not determined, however, if static stretching causes a change in muscle activation during a functional task requiring dynamic stability. The purpose of this study was to determine if static stretching has an effect on mean pre and postlanding muscle (vastus medialis VM, vastus lateralis VL, medial hamstring MH, and biceps femoris BF activity. Methods 26 healthy, physically active subjects were recruited, from which 13 completed a 14-day static stretching regimen for the quadriceps and hamstrings. Using the data from the force plate and EMG readings, a mean of EMG amplitude was calculated for 150 msec before and after landing. Each trial was normalized to an isometric reference position. Means were calculated for the VM, VL, MH, and BF from 5 trials in each session. Measures were collected pre, immediately following the 1st stretching session, and following 2 weeks of stretching. Results A 14-day static stretching regimen resulted in no significant differences in pre or postlanding mean EMG amplitude during a drop landing either acutely or over a 14-day period. Conclusions Static stretching, done acutely or over a 14-day period does not result in measurable differences of mean EMG amplitude during a drop landing. Static stretching may not impede dynamic stability of joints about which stretched muscles cross.

  15. Strengthening of Back Muscles Using a Module of Flexible Strain Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Chun Chuang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at developing a flexible strain module applied to the strengthening of back muscles. Silver films were sputtered onto flexible substrates to produce a flexible sensor. Assuming that back muscle elongation is positively correlated with the variations in skin surface length, real-time resistance changes exhibited by the sensor during simulated training sessions were measured. The results were used to identify the relationship between resistance change of sensors and skin surface stretch. In addition, muscle length changes from ultrasound images were used to determine the feasibility of a proof of concept sensor. Furthermore, this module is capable of detecting large muscle contractions, some of which may be undesirable for the prescribed training strategy. Therefore, the developed module can facilitate real-time assessments of the movement accuracy of users during training, and the results are instantly displayed on a screen. People using the developed training system can immediately adjust their posture to the appropriate position. Thus, the training mechanism can be constructed to help user improve the efficiency of back muscle strengthening.

  16. Effect of exercise intensity on exercise and post exercise energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine if exercise and post exercise energy expenditure are affected by the intensity of exercise during a set distance of 4km walking and/or jogging. Subjects for this study were 12 moderately obese females with mean fat percentage of 31.7±6.3% and mean age of 38.2±4.6 years. For the low ...

  17. Emergency exercise scenario tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeblom, K.

    1998-03-01

    Nuclear power plant emergency exercises require a realistically presented accident situation which includes various aspects: plant process, radioactivity, radiation, weather and people. Experiences from nuclear power plant emergency exercises show that preparing accident scenarios even for relatively short exercises is tedious. In the future modern computer technology and past experience could be used for making exercise planning more effective. (au)

  18. Exercise and Fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ament, Wim; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J.

    2009-01-01

    Physical exercise affects the equilibrium of the internal environment. During exercise the contracting muscles generate force or power and heat. So physical exercise is in fact a form of mechanical energy. This generated energy will deplete the energy stocks within the body. During exercise,

  19. Exercise-Induced Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Exercise-Induced Asthma KidsHealth / For Parents / Exercise-Induced Asthma What's in ... Exercise-Induced Asthma Print What Is Exercise-Induced Asthma? Most kids and teens with asthma have symptoms ...

  20. A 'water walkers' exercise program for the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyneman, C A; Premo, D E

    1992-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that older people, stereotyped as weak, frail, and inactive, demonstrate an equal capacity to reap the physical and psychological benefits of recreational exercise. A low cost aquatic exercise program is proposed that is geared towards those persons who, because of their physical limitations, are unable to participate in the more traditional walking or low-impact aerobics programs currently available for seniors. A water-based program would allow these people to gain all the advantages of land-based exercise with out stress or strain on arthritic joints. In addition, the use of water walkers (a buoyancy device which attaches easily around the waist) would allow total freedom of movement without fear of deep water. Those with various levels of disability could, therefore, participate at their own pace. Two programs, including transportation, would be provided twice a week for 8 weeks each. An individual 45-minute session would consist of a warm-up period with gentle stretching, a cardiovascular segment, a cool-down period, strength-training, and a final stretching time. All exercises would be conducted with participants wearing the water walkers, allowing total immersion to the shoulder. Free to move about the pool, they would be encouraged to interact socially with one another. The results of the program would be determined by measuring range of motion, cardiovascular endurance, and strength before and after each 8-week session. Participants' level of self confidence and life satisfaction will be estimated and any psychological improvement will be documented.

  1. Pumping Iron in Australia: Prevalence, Trends and Sociodemographic Correlates of Muscle Strengthening Activity Participation from a National Sample of 195,926 Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A Bennie

    Full Text Available The current Australian Physical Activity Guidelines recommend that adults engage in regular muscle-strengthening activity (e.g. strength or resistance training. However, public health surveillance studies describing the patterns and trends of population-level muscle-strengthening activity participation are sparse. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence, trends and sociodemographic correlates of muscle-strengthening activity participation in a national-representative sample of Australians aged 15 years and over.Between 2001 and 2010, quarterly cross-sectional national telephone surveys were conducted as part of the Australian Sports Commission's 'Exercise, Recreation and Sport Survey'. Pooled population-weighted proportions were calculated for reporting: [i] no muscle-strengthening activity; [ii] insufficient muscle-strengthening activity, and [iii] sufficient muscle-strengthening activity. Associations with sociodemographic variables were assessed using multiple logistic regression analyses.Out of 195,926 participants, aged 15-98 years, only 10.4% (95% CI: 10.1-10.7 and 9.3% (95% CI: 9.1-9.5 met the muscle-strengthening activity recommendations in the past two weeks and in the past year, respectively. Older adults (50+ years, and those living in socioeconomically disadvantaged, outer regional/remote areas and with lower education were less likely to report sufficient muscle-strengthening activity (p<0.001. Over the 10-year monitoring period, there was a significant increase in the prevalence of sufficient muscle-strengthening activity (6.4% to 12.0%, p-value for linear trend <0.001.A vast majority of Australian adults did not engage in sufficient muscle-strengthening activity. There is a need for public health strategies to support participation in muscle-strengthening activity in this population. Such strategies should target older and lower educated adults, and those living in socioeconomically disadvantaged, outer regional

  2. Antenatal care strengthening in Jimma, Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted; Tersbøl, Britt Pinkowski; Negussie, Dereje

    2014-01-01

    Objective. We assessed how health system priorities matched user expectations and what the needs for antenatal care (ANC) strengthening were for improved maternal health in Jimma, Ethiopia. Methods. A questionnaire survey among all recent mothers in the study area was conducted to study the content...... was given high priority, and that contributed to a lack of continuity and privacy. To the women, poor user-provider interaction was a serious concern hindering the trust in the health care providers. Further, the care provision was compromised by the inadequate laboratory facilities, unstructured health...

  3. Strengthening Family Practices for Latino Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Karen G; Negroni, Lirio K; Hesselbrock, Michie N

    2010-01-01

    The study examined the effectiveness of a culturally-adapted Strengthening Families Program (SFP) for Latinos to reduce risks for alcohol and drug use in children. Latino families, predominantly Puerto Rican, with a 9-12 year old child and a parent(s) with a substance abuse problem participated in the study. Pre- and post-tests were conducted with each family. Parental stress, parent-child dysfunctional relations, and child behavior problems were reduced in the families receiving the intervention; family hardiness and family attachment were improved. Findings contribute to the validation of the SFP with Latinos, and can be used to inform social work practice with Puerto Rican families.

  4. Bullialdus - Strengthening the case for lunar plutons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Carle M.

    1991-01-01

    Although many craters expose materials of a composition different from that of the local surroundings, Bullialdus has excavated material representing three distinct stratigraphic zones that occur in the upper 6 km of crust, the top two of which are gabbroic and the deepest of which is noritic. This three-component stratigraphy at Bullialdus provides strong evidence that the lunar crust includes pockets of compositionally layered material reminiscent of mafic layered plutons. When combined with previous information on the compositional diversity at other large craters, these remote analyses obtained in a geologic context substantially strengthen the hypothesis suggested from lunar samples that plutons play an integral role in lunar crustal evolution.

  5. Catalysis-enhanced strengthening of porous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolova, L.N.; Shchukin, E.D.; Burenkova, L.N.; Romanovskij, B.V.

    2000-01-01

    Change in the strength of compressed tablets of the catalyst on the basis of ZrO 2 (84 mass %) and Y 2 O 3 (16 mass %) after conducting the endothermal reaction of the methanol and ethanol dehydration at 700-800 deg C is studied. It is shown, that the key factor, determining the strengthening effect by 65-88% is not at all the reaction exothermal nature, which could lead to local heating of the catalyst surface. In reality significant increase in concentration of surface defects, as compared to the equilibrium at the given temperature is achieved on the account of conjugation of processes of catalysis and surface defects formation [ru

  6. Strengthening health promotion in Australian workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, K J; Deeds, S; Siebel, R; Allen, J

    1997-01-01

    The Australian workplace has emerged as an important venue for influencing the health of employees through regulations and behaviour change programs. Recent surveys have highlighted a growth in this activity but the effectiveness of these programs in changing unhealthy work practices and policies is questionable. The need for strengthening programs by stronger designs and evaluation, and addressing organisational factors and employee participation in planning and implementation processes is documented. Efforts in that direction in Queensland are cited, Building on these existing foundations, redirecting existing resources, and building intersectoral cooperation in public-private partnerships hold a creative, exemplary vision of the future for Australian workplace programming.

  7. Gold's monetary roll will be strengthened - Plumbridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Delivering his Presidential address at the Chamber's annual general meeting, Mr Plumbridge said the gold market would enter a new phase and listed seven reasons why gold's monetary role would be strengthened. There was a dramatic increase in the demand for gold jewellery. He also forecasted that South African uranium production would again attain its former peak annual production of about 6000t. There is an essential need for a sustained growth in nuclear power and the prospects for uranium mining industry remain encouraging

  8. Plasticity of oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakine, C.; Prioul, C.; Alamo, A.; Francois, D.

    1993-01-01

    Two 13%Cr oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic alloys, DT and DY, exhibiting different oxide particle size distribution and a χ phase precipitation were studied. Their tensile properties have been tested from 20 to 700 C. Experimental observations during room temperature tensile tests performed in a scanning electronic microscope have shown that the main damage mechanism consists in microcracking of the χ phase precipitates on grain boundaries. These alloys are high tensile and creep resistant between 500 and 700 C. Their strongly stress-sensitive creep behaviour can be described by usual creep laws and incorporating a threshold stress below which the creep rate is negligible. (orig.)

  9. Aerobic Exercise Improves Mood, Cognition, and Language Function in Parkinson's Disease: Results of a Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Lori J P; Stegemöller, Elizabeth; Hazamy, Audrey A; Wilson, Jonathan P; Bowers, Dawn; Okun, Michael S; Hass, Chris J

    2016-10-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) results in a range of non-motor deficits that can affect mood, cognition, and language, and many of these issues are unresponsive to pharmacological intervention. Aerobic exercise can improve mood and cognition in healthy older adults, although only a few studies have examined exercise effects on these domains in PD. The current study assesses the effects of aerobic exercise on aspects of cognition, mood, and language production in people with PD. This study compares the effects of aerobic exercise to stretch-balance training and a no-contact control group in participants with idiopathic PD. The aerobic and stretch-balance groups trained three times a week for 16 weeks, while controls continued normal activities. Outcome measures included disease severity, mood, cognition (speed of processing, memory, and executive function), and language production (picture descriptions). Cognition and language were assessed in single and dual task conditions. Depressive symptoms increased only in the control group (pimproved in the aerobic exercise group only in the single task (p=.007) and declined in controls in the dual task. Completeness of picture descriptions improved significantly more in the aerobic group than in the stretch-balance group (pexercise is a viable intervention for PD that can be protective against increased depressive symptoms, and can improve several non-motor domains, including executive dysfunction and related aspects of language production. (JINS, 2016, 22, 878-889).

  10. Mechanical behavior and strengthening mechanisms in ultrafine grain precipitation-strengthened aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Kaka; Wen, Haiming; Hu, Tao; Topping, Troy D.; Isheim, Dieter; Seidman, David N.; Lavernia, Enrique J.; Schoenung, Julie M.

    2014-01-01

    To provide insight into the relationships between precipitation phenomena, grain size and mechanical behavior in a complex precipitation-strengthened alloy system, Al 7075 alloy, a commonly used aluminum alloy, was selected as a model system in the present study. Ultrafine-grained (UFG) bulk materials were fabricated through cryomilling, degassing, hot isostatic pressing and extrusion, followed by a subsequent heat treatment. The mechanical behavior and microstructure of the materials were analyzed and compared directly to the coarse-grained (CG) counterpart. Three-dimensional atom-probe tomography was utilized to investigate the intermetallic precipitates and oxide dispersoids formed in the as-extruded UFG material. UFG 7075 exhibits higher strength than the CG 7075 alloy for each equivalent condition. After a T6 temper, the yield strength (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of UFG 7075 achieved 734 and 774 MPa, respectively, which are ∼120 MPa higher than those of the CG equivalent. The strength of as-extruded UFG 7075 (YS: 583 MPa, UTS: 631 MPa) is even higher than that of commercial 7075-T6. More importantly, the strengthening mechanisms in each material were established quantitatively for the first time for this complex precipitation-strengthened system, accounting for grain-boundary, dislocation, solid-solution, precipitation and oxide dispersoid strengthening contributions. Grain-boundary strengthening was the predominant mechanism in as-extruded UFG 7075, contributing a strength increment estimated to be 242 MPa, whereas Orowan precipitation strengthening was predominant in the as-extruded CG 7075 (∼102 MPa) and in the T6-tempered materials, and was estimated to contribute 472 and 414 MPa for CG-T6 and UFG-T6, respectively

  11. Intraplaque stretch in carotid atherosclerotic plaque--an effective biomechanical predictor for subsequent cerebrovascular ischemic events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongzhao Teng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stretch is a mechanical parameter, which has been proposed previously to affect the biological activities in different tissues. This study explored its utility in determining plaque vulnerability. METHODS: One hundred and six patients with mild to moderate carotid stenosis were recruited in this study (53 symptomatic and 53 asymptomatic. High resolution, multi-sequence magnetic resonance (MR imaging was performed to delineate various plaque components. Finite element method was used to predict high stretch concentration within the plaque. RESULTS: During a two-year follow-up, 11 patients in symptomatic group and 3 in asymptomatic group experienced recurrent cerebrovascular events. Plaque stretch at systole and stretch variation during one cardiac cycle was greater in symptomatic group than those in the asymptomatic. Within the symptomatic group, a similar trend was observed in patients with recurrent events compared to those without. CONCLUSION: Plaques with high stretch concentration and large stretch variation are associated with increased risk of future cerebrovascular events.

  12. Lewis lung carcinoma regulation of mechanical stretch-induced protein synthesis in cultured myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Song; Carson, James A

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical stretch can activate muscle and myotube protein synthesis through mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling. While it has been established that tumor-derived cachectic factors can induce myotube wasting, the effect of this catabolic environment on myotube mechanical signaling has not been determined. We investigated whether media containing cachectic factors derived from Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) can regulate the stretch induction of myotube protein synthesis. C2C12 myotubes preincubated in control or LLC-derived media were chronically stretched. Protein synthesis regulation by anabolic and catabolic signaling was then examined. In the control condition, stretch increased mTORC1 activity and protein synthesis. The LLC treatment decreased basal mTORC1 activity and protein synthesis and attenuated the stretch induction of protein synthesis. LLC media increased STAT3 and AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in myotubes, independent of stretch. Both stretch and LLC independently increased ERK1/2, p38, and NF-κB phosphorylation. In LLC-treated myotubes, the inhibition of ERK1/2 and p38 rescued the stretch induction of protein synthesis. Interestingly, either leukemia inhibitory factor or glycoprotein 130 antibody administration caused further inhibition of mTORC1 signaling and protein synthesis in stretched myotubes. AMP-activated protein kinase inhibition increased basal mTORC1 signaling activity and protein synthesis in LLC-treated myotubes, but did not restore the stretch induction of protein synthesis. These results demonstrate that LLC-derived cachectic factors can dissociate stretch-induced signaling from protein synthesis through ERK1/2 and p38 signaling, and that glycoprotein 130 signaling is associated with the basal stretch response in myotubes. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Strengthening the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heung, Carly M; Rempel, Benjamin; Krank, Marvin

    2012-05-24

    Research evidence points to harmful effects from alcohol advertising among children and youth. In particular, exposure to alcohol advertising has been associated with adolescents drinking both earlier and heavier. Although current federal and provincial guidelines have addressed advertising practices to prevent underage drinking, practice has not been supported by existing policy. While protective measures such as social marketing campaigns have the potential for counteracting the effects from alcohol advertising, the effectiveness of such measures can be easily drowned out with increasing advertising activities from the alcohol industry, especially without effective regulation. Research reviewed by the European Focus on Alcohol Safe Environment (FASE) Project has identified a set of key elements that are necessary to make alcohol advertising policy measures effective at protecting children and youth from the harmful effects of alcohol marketing. Using these key elements as an evaluation framework, there are critical components in the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system that clearly require strengthening. To protect impressionable children and youth against the harmful effects of alcohol advertising, 13 recommendations to strengthen current alcohol advertising regulations in Canada are provided for Canadian policy-makers, advertising standard agencies, and public health groups.

  14. The strengthening effect of percutaneous vertebroplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, J.R.; Ison, K.T.; Gishen, P

    2000-06-01

    AIM: To examine whether single-needle vertebroplasty is effective in strengthening vertebrae. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four adjacent intact lumbar vertebrae were removed from each of nine adult post-mortem subjects. One or two vertebra of each set was injected with low viscosity acrylic bone cement using a single-track posterolateral approach. Vertebral strength was measured during constant rate axial compression. RESULTS: Single-needle injection delivered different quantities of cement (1-8 ml) in an asymmetric distribution. Injected vertebrae were stronger than controls in 10 out of 12 cases (P < 0.01), suggesting that cement injection increases the load needed to cause initial vertebral fracture. Compression was continued past the point of initial failure, to simulate progressive vertebral collapse. Injected specimens were more resistant to deformation than control specimens (P < 0.05), most of which initially deformed with little increase in load. CONCLUSION: Single-track injection of bone cement appeared to strengthen vertebrae against both initial failure and subsequent collapse. The magnitude of strength increase from vertebroplasty was variable, and did not correlate with the volume of cement injected. Further investigation is needed to optimize the technique. Gishen, P. (2000)

  15. Exercising is like flogging a dead horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molhoek, W.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: To explore the international aspects of nuclear accidents, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency initiated and established an international nuclear emergency 'exercise culture', starting with the INEX 1 table-top exercise, the first international nuclear emergency exercise in 1993, followed by the series of real time command-post exercises INEX 2 and INEX 2000 (five exercises between 1996 - 2001). Deficiencies in the area of communication and information exchange were the most significant findings of the INEX 2 series and corrective actions represent a major step forward in nuclear emergency management. The development of a new communication and information exchange strategy, which is currently implemented by various countries as well as by the international community, has strengthened our preparedness and response to nuclear emergencies. In addition, one of these exercises explored for the first time third party liability procedures and compensation after a nuclear accident. Regarding the role of international organizations, the INEX 2 series contributed to a better clarification regarding the roles of relevant international organizations, their obligations and responsibilities, and how their response in the case of a nuclear emergency are co-ordinated and harmonized. On the national level, many countries participating in INEX 1 and INEX 2 exercises used the experiences and lessons learned to modify and improve national procedures for nuclear emergency preparedness and management. Countries also used the outcome of the exercises to update bilateral agreements and arrangements. As an important follow-up of the lessons learned, an OECD/NEA-working group established the report: monitoring and data management strategies for nuclear emergencies. To test the implementation of the features of the outcome of the report, e.g. the effectiveness of developed data matrix and the effectiveness of proposed communication strategies employing new technologies, the INEX-2000

  16. Physical Exercise Practice and Associated Factors Among Undergraduate Students from a Southern Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira Marcio

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the study was to analyse the prevalence and factors associated with not performing physical exercise in undergraduate students. Methods. The sample was composed of 2738 undergraduate students of Londrina city, Parana, Brazil. The dependent variables were: not performing physical exercise of moderate intensity for at least 30 minutes per week; not performing vigorous physical exercise for at least 20 minutes per week; not performing muscular strengthening exercises (8-12 repetitions in a week. The independent variables were gender, age, skin colour, marital status, housing, study pattern, year of course, paid work, and area of the course. Odds ratio (OR was estimated by multivariate analysis with the use of binary logistic regression. Results. The prevalence of undergraduate students not performing physical exercise of moderate intensity, of vigorous intensity, or muscular strengthening exercises was 47.3, 61.0, and 66.2%, respectively. Female sex was associated with a risk of not performing moderate physical exercise (OR = 1.23, vigorous physical exercise (OR = 1.47, and strengthening exercises (OR = 1.22. Undergraduate students of exact sciences (OR = 1.40 and 1.52, juridical sciences (OR = 1.48 and 1.51, and humanities (OR = 1.45 and 1.52 were at risk of not performing physical exercise of moderate or vigorous intensity, respectively. Being a 2nd (OR = 0.79, 3rd (OR = 0.74, or 4th (OR = 0.71 year student was bound with a lower likelihood of not performing physical exercise of moderate intensity. Conclusions. Intervention programmes with the aim of promoting physical exercise practice in undergraduate students should consider gender, year, and area of the course.

  17. Aquatic exercise training for fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidonde, Julia; Busch, Angela J; Webber, Sandra C; Schachter, Candice L; Danyliw, Adrienne; Overend, Tom J; Richards, Rachel S; Rader, Tamara

    2014-10-28

    reported. Aquatic versus land-basedThere were no statistically significant differences between interventions for multidimensional function, self reported physical function, pain or stiffness: 0.91 units (95% CI -4.01 to 5.83), -5.85 units (95% CI -12.33 to 0.63), -0.75 units (95% CI -10.72 to 9.23), and two units (95% CI -8.88 to 1.28) respectively (all based on a 100-point scale), or in submaximal cardiorespiratory function (three seconds on a 100-meter walk test, 95% CI -1.77 to 7.77). We found a statistically significant difference between interventions for strength, favoring land-based training (2.40 kilo pascals grip strength, 95% CI 4.52 to 0.28). None of the outcomes in the aquatic versus land comparison reached clinically relevant differences of 15%. Withdrawals were similar in the aquatic and land groups and adverse effects were poorly reported, with no serious adverse effects in either group. Aquatic versus aquatic (Ai Chi versus stretching in the water, exercise in pool water versus exercise in sea water)Among the major outcomes the only statistically significant difference between interventions was for stiffness, favoring Ai Chi (1.00 on a 100-point scale, 95% CI 0.31 to 1.69). Low to moderate quality evidence relative to control suggests that aquatic training is beneficial for improving wellness, symptoms, and fitness in adults with fibromyalgia. Very low to low quality evidence suggests that there are benefits of aquatic and land-based exercise, except in muscle strength (very low quality evidence favoring land). No serious adverse effects were reported.

  18. Drop dynamics on a stretched viscoelastic filament: An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixinho, Jorge; Renoult, Marie-Charlotte; Crumeyrolle, Olivier; Mutabazi, Innocent

    2016-11-01

    Capillary pressure can destabilize a thin liquid filament during breakup into a succession of drops. Besides, the addition of a linear, high molecular weight, flexible and soluble polymer is enough to modify the morphology of this instability. In the time period preceding the breakup, the development of beads-on-a-string structures where drops are connected by thin threads is monitored. The drops dynamics involve drop formation, drop migration and drop coalescence. Experiments using a high-speed camera on stretched bridges of viscoelastic polymeric solutions were conducted for a range of viscosities and polymer concentrations. The rheological properties of the solutions are also quantified through conventional shear rheology and normal stress difference. The overall goal of this experimental investigation is to gain more insight into the formation and time evolution of the drops. The project BIOENGINE is co-financed by the European Union with the European regional development fund and by the Normandie Regional Council.

  19. Mechanical response of human female breast skin under uniaxial stretching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaraswamy, N; Khatam, Hamed; Reece, Gregory P; Fingeret, Michelle C; Markey, Mia K; Ravi-Chandar, Krishnaswamy

    2017-10-01

    Skin is a complex material covering the entire surface of the human body. Studying the mechanical properties of skin to calibrate a constitutive model is of great importance to many applications such as plastic or cosmetic surgery and treatment of skin-based diseases like decubitus ulcers. The main objective of the present study was to identify and calibrate an appropriate material constitutive model for skin and establish certain universal properties that are independent of patient-specific variability. We performed uniaxial tests performed on breast skin specimens freshly harvested during mastectomy. Two different constitutive models - one phenomenological and another microstructurally inspired - were used to interpret the mechanical responses observed in the experiments. Remarkably, we found that the model parameters that characterize dependence on previous maximum stretch (or preconditioning) exhibited specimen-independent universal behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Motion of Knots in DNA Stretched by Elongational Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Alexander R.; Soh, Beatrice W.; Doyle, Patrick S.

    2018-05-01

    Knots in DNA occur in biological systems, serve as a model system for polymer entanglement, and affect the efficacy of modern genomics technologies. We study the motion of complex knots in DNA by stretching molecules with a divergent electric field that provides an elongational force. We demonstrate that the motion of knots is nonisotropic and driven towards the closest end of the molecule. We show for the first time experimentally that knots can go from a mobile to a jammed state by varying an applied strain rate, and that this jamming is reversible. We measure the mobility of knots as a function of strain rate, demonstrating the conditions under which knots can be driven towards the ends of the molecule and untied.