Sample records for strengthen family planning

  1. Trial Regulations for strengthening family planning controls for the mobile population and individual entrepreneurs.


    In 1988 the Yunnan, China Family Planning Commission, the Public Security Department, and the Industrial and Commercial Administrative Bureau issued Trial Regulations aimed at getting a "good grasp of family planning controls" on individual entrepreneurs and the mobile population in the urban areas of Yunnan--groups in which there is a large number of excessive births. The Trial Regulations provide the following: "Individual entrepreneurs and the mobile population are great in number and work in a great variety of trades: their dwellings are scattered, and they are highly mobile. Thus the task of family planning regarding these people is heavy and difficult. Industrial and commercial administrative departments and public security and other departments must closely cooperate with family planning departments so as to strengthen family planning control over these people. At the same time, it is necessary to apply specific methods for strengthening family planning control when the mobile population, individual entrepreneurs, and temporary workers, forest workers, construction workers and so on apply for temporary residence permits, take out forestry licenses, and sign construction contracts."

  2. Strengthening Resilience in Families

    Guild, Diane; Espiner, Deborah


    Rolling with Resilience (RwR) provides a springboard for developing strategies that build strengths and supports to foster developmental assets in children and youth (Benson, Scales, & Roehlkepartain, 2011). In Circle of Courage terms, resilience is strengthened by opportunities for Belonging, Mastery, Independence, and Generosity (Brendtro,…

  3. Strengthening Family Practices for Latino Families

    Chartier, Karen G.; Negroni, Lirio K.; Hesselbrock, Michie N.


    This study examined the effectiveness of a culturally adapted Strengthening Families Program (SFP) for Latinos to reduce risks for alcohol and drug use in children. Latino families, predominantly Puerto Rican, with a 9- to 12-year-old child and a parent(s) with a substance abuse problem participated in the study. Pre- and post-tests were conducted…

  4. Strengthening Family Practices for Latino Families

    Chartier, Karen G.; Negroni, Lirio K.; Hesselbrock, Michie N.


    This study examined the effectiveness of a culturally adapted Strengthening Families Program (SFP) for Latinos to reduce risks for alcohol and drug use in children. Latino families, predominantly Puerto Rican, with a 9- to 12-year-old child and a parent(s) with a substance abuse problem participated in the study. Pre- and post-tests were conducted…

  5. Strengthening Government Leadership in Family Planning Programming in Senegal: From Proof of Concept to Proof of Implementation in 2 Districts.

    Aichatou, Barry; Seck, Cheikh; Baal Anne, Thierno Souleymane; Deguenovo, Gabrielle Clémentine; Ntabona, Alexis; Simmons, Ruth


    Given Senegal's limited resources, the country receives substantial support from externally funded partner organizations to provide family planning and maternal and child health services. These organizations often take a strong and sometimes independent role in implementing interventions with their own structures and personnel, thereby bypassing the government district health system. This article presents findings from the Initiative Sénégalaise de Santé Urbaine (ISSU) (Senegal Urban Health Initiative) that assessed in 2 districts, Diamniadio and Rufisque, the extent to which it was feasible to create stronger government ownership and leadership in implementing a simplified package of family planning interventions from among those previously tested in other districts. The simplified package consisted of both supply- and demand-side interventions, introduced in October 2014 and concluding at the end of 2015. The interventions included ensuring adequate human resources and contraceptive supplies, contraceptive technology updates for providers, special free family planning service days to bring services closer to where people live, family planning integration into other routine services, household visits for family planning education, religious sermons to clarify Islam's position on family planning, and radio broadcasts. District leadership in Diamniadio and Rufisque were actively involved in guiding and implementing interventions, and they also contributed some of their own resources to the project. However, reliance on external funding continued because district budgets were extremely limited. Monitoring data on the number of contraceptive methods provided by district facilities supported by a sister project, the Informed Push Model project, indicate overall improvement in contraceptive provision during the intervention period. In Diamniadio, contraceptive provision increased by 43% between the 6-month period prior to the ISSU interventions (November 2013 through

  6. Natural Family Planning

    ... Sex and Birth Control Birth Control Natural Family Planning Natural Family Planning Birth ControlPrevention and WellnessSex and Birth Control Share Natural Family Planning Natural Family PlanningWhat is natural family planning?Natural ...

  7. Family Strengthening Research: FY2014. OPRE Report 2015-22

    Administration for Children & Families, 2015


    This report provides detailed summaries of major research investments by OPRE's Division of Family Strengthening (DFS) along with brief overviews of past projects. The featured projects cover topics that include strengthening relationships within families, supporting fatherhood, nurturing children through their families, reducing teen pregnancy,…

  8. Defense Infrastructure: Actions Needed to Strengthen Utility Resilience Planning


    DEFENSE INFRASTRUCTURE Actions Needed to Strengthen Utility Resilience Planning Report to the Committee on Strengthen Utility Resilience Planning What GAO Found Based on GAO’s survey of Department of Defense (DOD) owned utility systems, there were...Evaluation 40 Appendix I Scope and Methodology 42 Appendix II Survey on DOD-Owned Utility Resilience 48 Appendix III Comments from the

  9. 5. Natural Family Planning


    influencing utilization of Natural Family Planning .... Because of the potential benefits of FP, it is important to any community ... Data was collected over a period of 4 months after approval ..... The DHMT to educate parents on the importance of.

  10. Strengthening Fragile Families through Research and Practice

    Bembry, James X.


    Almost one third of all children in the United States are born to unmarried parents. This figure is even higher among poor and minority populations. Because of their heightened risk for economic and social problems and family dissolution, disadvantaged, unmarried parents have been called "fragile families." In 2002 the Bush administration…

  11. Family planning Indonesia.

    Singarimbun, M


    The growth of family planning activities in Indonesia in the Postwar period is traced; and future prospects for family planning are assessed. Transmigration projects initiated by the Dutch and supported by President Sukarno after Indonesian independence as a means of decreasing population pressure on the island of Java, are identified as the only official response to the population problem until 1965. In the face of the government's opposition to the idea of birth control as a population control measure, the activities of the Indonesian Planned Parenthood Association (IPPA) after its founding in 1957 were limited to advising mothers on spacing of their children for health reasons. Statements made in support of a national family planning program by government officials at a 1967 IPPA Congress and on other occasions are noted. The major components of an approved national family planning program to start in 1969 are described. However, the government's policy as of late 1967 and early 1968 is characterized as one of mainly benevolent encouragement and help to voluntary organizations. The chief impediment to family planning in Indonesia is said to be a lack of motivation and the force of traditional values that favor large families. On the positive side are: 1) Studies showing considerable interest in birth control by the rural population; 2) A long history of traditional birth control practices; 3) The absence of outright opposition by religious groups to the principle of family planning. However, financial costs, the need for the training of personnel, and a general unawareness of the magnitude of the task lying ahead constitute other formidable obstacles.

  12. Programs for Strengthening Families of State Prison Staff

    Tripp, Paula J.


    This article describes "Training for Strong Families," a family strengthening program for officers working in the state prison system. The program was offered once per week on the same day and at the same time, and the sessions lasted 15-20 minutes. The new program included topics such as Budgeting 101, Relationships, and Stress Management.…

  13. Using Our Understanding of Families to Strengthen Family Involvement

    Knopf, Herman T.; Swick, Kevin J.


    The purpose of this article is to help teachers become more responsive to the changing needs and contexts of families in their efforts to establish relationships and encourage family participation. Through this article, the authors describe the changing landscape of parenting and the stressors experienced by contemporary families. The authors then…

  14. Family planning: where now?

    Saunders, L


    The focus is in terms of family planning as an exercise in induced social change; the objective is to alter the reproductive patterns of societies sufficiently to bring about a significant reduction in fertility. The year 1974 emerges as the year in which family planning as a social movement achieved maturity and was confirmed as a legitimate area for national policy and programming, a year of determined and varied efforts to reduce population growth. In affirming the rights and responsibilities of people and the obligations of governments in population concerns, the Bucharest Conference conferred its seal of approval on a movement that had made considerable progress since it began early in the 19th century. The evolution of birth control as a social movement which began with Francis Place's printing and distributing contraceptive bills in 1820 was encouraged by other writings in England and the U.S. over the next 50 years. Several overlapping phases can be distinguished in the global response to a new sense of urgence regarding population concerns following World War 2. Moving from a global perspective to consideration of family planning as it exists in the programs of individual countries, the achievement is not so great and the prospects are less hopeful. Although it has had success as a social movement and is now accepted as a government responsibility, family planning programs still have a long way to go before they develop the scope, vigor, and versatility that is required for there to be widespread demographic change. 1 change that is needed is for a stronger and more visible political commitment and commitment on the basis of demographic rather than health or welfare reasons.

  15. Family Planning Services



    According to the China national programme of economic and social development, by 2000 the standard of living of Chinese people will have been fairly welloff. In order to accomplish the goal, the government has comprised the population development in the national social economic development programme. Family planning (FP) work will contribute to the general goal of social economy and development. Reform and open policy and establishment of socialist market economy sys

  16. Family Planning in China



    China is a developing country with vast territory, numerous population and relatively poor economic foundation. The basic features of China's population are of great quantity and considerable annual increase of population as well as its uneven distribution in different regions. For improvement of living standard of the people,Chinese Government began to advocate family planning throughout this country in the beginning of the 1970s while a strenuous effort was made to develop economy.


    Jael Alejandra Vargas Rubilar


    Full Text Available The psychological consequences from relational styles characterized by lack of affection and interactional mismanagement between family members can inhibit or block the attempt by members to achieve their full potential for healthy psy -chosocial development. In this context, emotional strengthening families would become a key condition for overcoming these dysfunctional patterns.The aim of this work is to show why psychoeducation and emotional stimula-tion can be particularly useful in the context of psychosocial risk due to poverty and present some strategies to approach such goal from the school environment. This approach is mainly focused on the strengthening of emotional resources in parents and primary caregivers to achieve a direct impact on the children’s emo-tional development.

  18. Why family planning matters.

    Jensen, Jeffrey T


    Family planning is one of the principle tools of human development. Ensuring that all babies are wanted and planned reduces health care and social costs. Human numbers will increase to 11 billion by the end of this century, and human activities are the leading cause of environmental change that threaten our health and happiness. Therefore, the provision of highly effective contraceptive methods represents an important priority of primary medical care. Since women and men with complicated medical problems remain interested in sex, medical and surgical specialists need to understand how contraception and pregnancy will interact with the underlying condition. This paper discusses the interaction between population growth and the environment, and reviews modern methods of contraception.

  19. Religion and family planning.

    Pinter, Bojana; Hakim, Marwan; Seidman, Daniel S; Kubba, Ali; Kishen, Meera; Di Carlo, Costantino


    Religion is embedded in the culture of all societies. It influences matters of morality, ideology and decision making, which concern every human being at some point in their life. Although the different religions often lack a united view on matters such contraception and abortion, there is sometimes some dogmatic overlap when general religious principles are subject to the influence of local customs. Immigration and population flow add further complexities to societal views on reproductive issues. For example, present day Europe has recently faced a dramatic increase in refugee influx, which raises questions about the health care of immigrants and the effects of cultural and religious differences on reproductive health. Religious beliefs on family planning in, for example, Christianity, Judaism, Islam and Hinduism have grown from different backgrounds and perspectives. Understanding these differences may result in more culturally competent delivery of care by health care providers. This paper presents the teachings of the most widespread religions in Europe with regard to contraception and reproduction.

  20. Main points for 1991 family planning work.


    The main points for 1991 Family Planning (FP) Work in China are discussed as follows: 1) strengthen leadership, 2) strengthen grass roots buildup, 3 intensify population plan management and improve the responsibility system, 4) strengthen publicity and promote population and FP education in rural areas, 5) strengthen and establish the legal system for FP management, 6) provide excellent contraceptive and birth control services, 7 perform inservice training conscientiously and technical secondary education earnestly, and 8) coordinate efforts among related departments. Leadership changes involve the 2 top leaders of the Communist Party Committees and governments at each level taking personal responsibility for the implementation of their local population plans and FP work. FP work must have a prominent place on all agendas. The FP service network needs to be accelerated in countries, townships, and villages and grass roots units strengthened in urban areas. Provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities must work out their local population plans for 1991-95 and 1991-99 according to the national population target. Rational apportionment needs to be considered for prefectures and counties. The emphasis should be on timely and accurate feedback and statistical supervision. The 1990 national population census data should be used to inform everyone about the current population situation. Legal needs entail standardizing documentation and developing local laws and regulations within a comprehensive system. Improvements are needed in such areas as rules and regulations pertaining to the administration of charges for unplanned births, identification of disabled children and approval of the birth quota. Abortion and unplanned births are to be averted through prepregnancy management. The emphasis is on voluntary use of contraception by couples of childbearing age. Inservice training should improve the political, ideological, professional proficiency, and ability to

  1. Population Growth: Family Planning Programs.

    Doberenz, Alexander R., Ed.; Taylor, N. Burwell G., Ed.

    These proceedings of the second annual symposium on population growth bring together speeches and panel discussions on family planning programs. Titles of speeches delivered are: Communicating Family Planning (Mrs. Jean Hutchinson); Effects of New York's Abortion Law Change (Dr. Walter Rogers); The Law and Birth Control, Sterilization and Abortion…

  2. Integration of family planning with poverty alleviation.

    Peng, P


    The Chinese Communist Central Committee and the State Council aim to solve food and clothing problems among impoverished rural people by the year 2000. This goal was a priority on the agenda of the recent October 1996 National Conference on Poverty Alleviation and Development and the 1996 National Conference of the State Family Planning Commission. Poverty is attributed to rapid population growth and underdevelopment. Poverty is concentrated in parts of 18 large provinces. These provinces are characterized by Family Planning Minister Peng as having high birth rates, early marriage and childbearing, unplanned births, and multiple births. Overpopulation is tied to overconsumption, depletion of resources, deforestation, soil erosion, pollution, shortages of water, decreases in shares of cultivated land, degraded grasslands, and general destruction of the environment. Illiteracy in poor areas is over 20%, compared to the national average of 15%. Mortality and morbidity are higher. Family planning is harder to enforce in poor areas. Pilot programs in Sichuan and Guizhou provinces are promoting integration of family planning with poverty alleviation. Several conferences have addressed the integrated program strategies. Experience has shown that poverty alleviation occurs by controlled population growth and improved quality of life. Departments should "consolidate" their development efforts under Communist Party leadership at all levels. Approaches should emphasize self-reliance and public mobilization. The emphasis should be on women's participation in development. Women's income should be increased. Family planning networks at the grassroots level need to be strengthened simultaneously with increased poverty alleviation and development. The government strategy is to strengthen leadership, mobilize the public, and implement integrated programs.

  3. [Private enterprise and family planning].


    In the city of Tebicuary, Paraguay, the main local private industry, a sugar refinery, has organized for its workers and their families a consultory for family planning and for materno-infant services. The consultory not only offers advice and services on prenatal diagnosis, medical assistance to infants and children and maternal health, but it sponsors lectures and distributes literature related to family planning problems.

  4. [The press and family planning].

    Abraham De D'ornellas, R


    The treatment in the press of family planning hinges on two fundamental factors: the taboo of the leftist groups and the taboo of the Catholic Church, whose head is against abortion under any circumstances. Leftist views insinuate that family planning is the genocidal plan of North American imperialists against the Third World and, in particular, against Latin America. This genocidal plan is supposed to subject poor populations to international schemes. In the press family planning is often treated in a sanctimonious fashion, lumping it together with topics like pornography, sex, and violence. In 1983 the daily newspaper Expreso published a supplement running every week for almost three months about the issue of population, which dealt fairly extensively with such topics as population and housing, education, employment, and urban proliferation, as well as responsible parenthood and child survival. In addition, there was a detailed description of contraceptive methods. In October 1986 another surprising thing happened: the President of Peru talked about the topic of family planning, which at the time was an act of courage. Since then much has changed; the whole world is interested in family planning and certain aspects of population. Since October 1986 more has been published in this domain than during the preceding 20 years. In contrast, the Church reacted differently to this issue: after some initial caution, the conference of Peruvian bishops attacked all methods of modern contraceptives and private institutions of family planning. The information boom in family planning will certainly continue. At the moment this flood of articles and editorials about the issue is an expression of the anxiety of families related to uncontrolled reproduction and the fear of overpopulation in large cities devoid of minimal services.

  5. Birth control and family planning

    ... page: // Birth control and family planning To use the sharing features ... please enable JavaScript. Your choice of a birth control method depends on a number of factors, including ...

  6. EAMJ-March Family Plan

    iMac User


    Mar 3, 2008 ... FAMILY PLANNING AMONG HIV POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE CLIENTS IN A RESOURCE ... Conclusion: High pregnancy desires, low contraceptive and condom use were found ... sexual partner's expectations for fertility.

  7. Family planning costs and benefits.


    Government sponsored family planning programs have had major success in declining birth rates in Barbados, China, Cuba, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Korea, Mexico, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, and Thailand. Non- government programs have had similar success in Brazil and Colombia. These programs have been estimated as preventing over 100 million births in China and 80 million in India. Research indicates that family planning programs can produce a 30-50% drop in fertility. Family planning information and some contraceptives can be best distributed through community organizations. Research also indicates male opposition has been a major factor in wider acceptance of family planning. Surveys indicate that 50% of the woman who want no additional children are not using any birth control. Many governments do not have the resource and money to implement programs. In the developing countries if those who were able to prevent the unwanted births had birth control, the population increases in those countries would have been 1.3% versus 2.2%. In earlier family planning programs foreign assistance paid over 80% of the cost, and national governments 20%; today this is reversed. The World Bank estimates that for major improvements in population growth and women's health, $7 billion will be needed yearly by the year 2000. The countries that have had the similar goals in development of human resources, social services, health, and education. They have attended to the status of women, female employment, and maternal and child health. Estimates are that 1.3 billion couples and individuals will need family planning services by the year 2000, and this will be a formidable task. This key elements of successful family planning programs are community participation, decentralization, and training.

  8. USA aborts international family planning.

    Potts, M


    The US Agency for International Development (USAID) has been a leader in international family planning for almost 30 years, accounting for 46% of all funds in international family planning provided by OECD countries during 1991. Moreover, relative to other donor countries, the US supplies worldwide a disproportionate amount of contraceptives. While international family planning activities received $546 million in 1995, the budget was slashed in 1996 to $72 million. This unprecedented cut will have a profound effect upon the reproductive health and family planning choices of tens of millions of people in developing countries. Millions of additional unintended pregnancies and maternal and child deaths may result. 1996 began with the White House and Congress in political gridlock, with negotiations on foreign aid stalled on the issue of abortion. The Republican-led House of Representatives wanted to bar support of any nongovernmental organization (NGO) which also provided information on abortion, while Democratic President Bill Clinton affirmed that he would veto such legislation. At the end of January, the House passed the Balanced Budget and Down Payment Act (HR 2880) containing clauses which cut the aid budget by 35% and barring new money in the area of family planning until July 1. Spending was limited to the allocation of 6.5% of the total budget each month. Some social marketing programmers who distribute condoms and oral contraceptives are already feeling the pinch, and some programs will simply run out of contraceptives. This cut in funding also bodes ill for achieving the goals of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. There is, however, hope that the cuts will be reversed for the next fiscal year. The author notes survey findings which indicate that US citizens support higher budgets for family planning.

  9. Effectiveness of Family Planning Methods

    ... of Public Health/Center for Communication Programs (CCP). Knowledge for health project. Family planning: a global handbook for providers (2011 update). Baltimore, MD; Geneva, Switzerland: CCP and WHO; 2011; and Trussell J. Contraceptive failure in the United States. Contraception 2011;83:397–404.

  10. The "planned" families of Tunisia.

    Habchi, M


    30 years ago Tunisia achieved independence, and 20 years ago it adopted a family planning policy designed to bring about a balance between demographic and economic growth. Birth control and family planning continue to be a major concern, and services now are provided in over 800 public sector centers -- dispensaries, hospitals, family planning clinics, and mobile teams. 4 out of 10 married women use some form of contraception, and some 30,000 abortions are performed per year by services of the National Office for Family Planning and Population. 2/3 of Tunisians believe that religion has a favorable view of birth control, but there are other sources of resistance to birth control -- sources related to a woman's level of education, her status, and socioeconomic level. The average number of children/woman decreases according to her level of education, from 6.9 among illiterate women to 2.6 among women with a university education. The proportion of illiterate women in Tunisia is close to 50%; the level is as high as 75% among women over age 30. These figures provide the explanation as to why the decline in the birthrate has been so slow. Another major determinant of reproduction rates among Tunisian women is access to employment. Women with jobs have an average of 2 children in contract to women without jobs who normally have more than 4 children. A marked decline occurred in the birthrate between 1966-76, and about 2/3 of Tunisian women now subscribe to the modern family model, i.e., a smaller family oriented toward consumption and comfort. Yet, despite improvements, under the best-case scenario the reproduction rate would be 3.8 children/family at 2000, and a rate of 2.9 would not be achieved until 2020, which is still higher than the rate necessary for simple population replacement -- 2.1. This downward trend would be realized under the combined effects of socioeconomic and cultural changes, i.e., better education, urbanization, declining infant mortality, the

  11. Service Locator - Family Planning Title X

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This locator tool will help you find Title X family planning centers that provide high quality and cost-effective family planning and related preventive health...

  12. The Filipino male as a target audience in family planning.

    Vitug, W


    Since the official launching of the Philippine Population Program in 1970, family planning campaigns have substantially addressed themselves to women. The suggestion to devote equal, if not more, attention to men as family planning targets had been raised by Dr. Mercado as early as 1971. It was not until 1978, that the deliberate inclusion of males as a target audience in family planning became a matter of policy. The Population Center Foundation (PCF), from 1979 to 1982, carried out research projects to determine the most suitable approaches and strategies to reach Filipino men. The objectives of the PCF's Male Specific Program are: 1) to test alternative schemes in promoting male family planning methods through pilot-testing of family planning clinics for men, 2) to develop teaching materials geared toward specific segments of the male population, 3) to undertake skills training in male-specific motivational approaches for program professionals, and 4) to assess the extent of the husband's role in family planning. An important finding of 1 study was that most outreach workers were female stood in the way of the motivation process, thus hampering the campaign. While the consultative motivational skills training improved knowledge, attitudes, and skills of outreach workers with regard to vasectomy and the motivation process, there were certain predispositions that were hindering the fieldworkers' effectiveness in motivating target clients. Overall, in-depth, 1-to-1 motivation in dealing with men is needed to strengthen internalization of family planning values.

  13. [Sichuan adopts family planning measures].


    The revolutionary committee of Sichuan Province recently issued a series of measures on family planning, which came into effect on a trial basis from March 1. Sichuan is the province with the biggest population in China, accounting for 10% of the country's total. The trial measures provide for working parents who have only 1 child and who guarantee not to have a 2nd to receive 5 yuan a month in child welfare subsidies till the child is 14 years old. Such 1 child families will also be entitled to an equal amount of living space as a family of 4 and the child will have priority of admission to schools and factories provided they meet the entrance requirements. Peasant families which have only 1 child and guarantee not to have a 2nd are eligible for the following: Production teams give a sum of money equal to 3 workdays/month till the child is 14 years old and the child received an adult's grain ration and counts as 1.5 persons in distributions of plots of private use. If a child becomes disabled or dies, parents may have another child and enjoy the same treatment. In addition, the new regulations state that the "state and the people's communes guarantee that the standard of living of old widows and widowers will be a little higher than that of other commune peasants in the locality. People of the province in every walk of life warmly support the publication of the new measures. It is estimated that about 24% of the families with only 1 child in a Chongqing District will not have the 2nd. 86 1-child families in 1 rural people's commune have taken birth control measures. Women cadres and medical workers throughout the province have been very active in carrying out educational programs on family planning. Population growth in the province was 3.11% in 1970 and 0.867 in 1977. It dropped to 0.606 last year. The figure is slightly higher than for Beijing, Shanghai, and Tianjin. Speaking about the importance of the new economic measures, Liu Haiquan, vice-chairman of the

  14. Income-generating activities for family planning acceptors.


    The Income Generating Activities program for Family Planning Acceptors was introduced in Indonesia in 1979. Capital input by the Indonesian National Family Planning Coordination Board and the UN Fund for Population Activities was used to set up small businesses by family planning acceptors. In 2 years, when the businesses become self-sufficient, the loans are repaid, and the money is used to set up new family planning acceptors in business. The program strengthens family planning acceptance, improves the status of women, and enhances community self-reliance. The increase in household income generated by the program raises the standards of child nutrition, encourages reliance on the survival of children, and decreases the value of large families. Approximately 18,000 Family Planning-Income Generating Activities groups are now functioning all over Indonesia, with financial assistance from the central and local governments, the World Bank, the US Agency for International Development, the UN Population Fund, the Government of the Netherlands, and the Government of Australia through the Association of South East Asian Nations.

  15. Market research and family planning.

    Smith, W


    Market research into contraceptive distribution (especially condoms) has been carried out in Britain by private manufacturers, but the results of this research are generally unavailable. Academics have not used the techniques of market research, preferring their own forms of sociological research and being hampered by limited resources. Attempts to design programs to introduce the provision of free family planning services proved unsuccessful, even though the programs offered supplies, sympathetic personnel, and publicity. Part of this failure is attributed to the lack of any baseline research on the demand for and acceptability of these services in the project areas. These failures are contrasted to a very successful commercial marketing campaign for a brand of condom, and with a commercially designed Dutch program aimed at teenagers. The author urges that those who have a message of social importance to deliver look into the techniques of market research used by industry to alter people's attitudes and buying habits. This will require the provision by local and central government of adequate funds for research into attitudes and needs, which ought to be essential before any family planning campaigns are launched.

  16. Strengthening Our Military Families: Meeting America’s Commitment


    mental health services, pharmacists , local government, private practice physicians and other providers deemed necessary to provide access to services and...its mental health clinicians to Veteran families who live in rural areas. Through its Traumatic Brain Injury Program Implementation Partnership

  17. Strengthening of competence planning truss through instructional media development details

    Handayani, Sri; Nurcahyono, M. Hadi


    Competency-Based Learning is a model of learning in which the planning, implementation, and assessment refers to the mastery of competencies. Learning in lectures conducted in the framework for comprehensively realizing student competency. Competence means the orientation of the learning activities in the classroom must be given to the students to be more active learning, active search for information themselves and explore alone or with friends in learning activities in pairs or in groups, learn to use a variety of learning resources and printed materials, electronic media, as well as environment. Analysis of learning wooden structure known weakness in the understanding of the truss detail. Hence the need for the development of media that can provide a clear picture of what the structure of the wooden horses and connection details. Development of instructional media consisted of three phases of activity, namely planning, production and assessment. Learning Media planning should be tailored to the needs and conditions necessary to provide reinforcement to the mastery of competencies, through the table material needs. The production process of learning media is done by using hardware (hardware) and software (software) to support the creation of a medium of learning. Assessment of the media poduk yan include feasibility studies, namely by subject matter experts, media experts, while testing was done according to the student's perception of the product. The results of the analysis of the materials for the instructional aspects of the results obtained 100% (very good) and media analysis for the design aspects of the media expressed very good with a percentage of 88.93%. While the analysis of student perceptions expressed very good with a percentage of 84.84%. Media Learning Truss Details feasible and can be used in the implementation of learning wooden structure to provide capacity-building in planning truss

  18. Family Planning: Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, Nuer.

    Anoka County Community Health and Environmental Services, Coon Rapids, MN.

    This guide provides information in English, Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, and Nuer on family planning. Topics covered include a variety of birth control methods: abstinence, condoms, contraceptive foam, birth control pills, the Depo-Provera shot, the Norplant implant, diaphragms, intrauterine devices, natural family planning, sterilization, and the…

  19. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Family Planning

    Knowledge and approval of family planning was high, 81.7% and 86.2% respectiveljï, but the practice of ... the regional average of 2.8"/cz.1 The effects of .... Method Number Perccntage .... In fact some people have pictured family planning.

  20. and Family Planning in Kaduna State, Nigeria

    planning familial et du planning familial dans Pétat de Kaduna, Nigéria. Ce travail étudie à la fois les .... unmarried Atyap women (two urban and three ru- ral FGDs). ..... Johnstone P. Operaiion [Ver/d Australia: Crossroad Dis- tributors, 1993.

  1. Family Planning Associations Educate by Example


    LI Zuomin has been engaged in family planning for 26 years. During the first 16 years, she was a cadre with the public health department in Chongqing, Sichuan Province. There she worked to teach the masses how to carry out the state family planning policy. For the past ten years, after

  2. Family Planning: Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, Nuer.

    Anoka County Community Health and Environmental Services, Coon Rapids, MN.

    This guide provides information in English, Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, and Nuer on family planning. Topics covered include a variety of birth control methods: abstinence, condoms, contraceptive foam, birth control pills, the Depo-Provera shot, the Norplant implant, diaphragms, intrauterine devices, natural family planning, sterilization, and the…

  3. Strengthening Low-Income Families: A Research Agenda for Parenting, Relationship, and Fatherhood Programs

    MDRC, 2013


    Policymakers need to decide how to invest in strengthening the most basic foundation for early childhood development: family relationships. The challenges: (1) help parents provide the responsive and stimulating environments that will prepare young children for school; and (2) support fathers' engagement with their children regardless of whether…

  4. Connecting Vulnerable Children and Families to Community-Based Programs Strengthens Parents' Perceptions of Protective Factors

    Hughes, Marcia; Joslyn, Allison; Wojton, Morella; O'Reilly, Mairead; Dworkin, Paul H.


    We employed principles from a nationally recognized prevention model on family support to investigate whether connecting vulnerable children to community-based programs and services through a statewide intervention system, the "Help Me Grow" program, strengthens parents' perceptions of protective factors. We used a parent survey modeled…

  5. Strengthening the European region of IUHPE -- Work Plan of IUHPE/EURO for 2008--10.

    Pyykkö, Mika; Koskenkorva, Satu


    The commentary presents the Work Plan of the IUHPE European Region for 2008-10. The plan has been put together after a comprehensive discussion and review of the results of a survey of IUPHE European Region members. The result is a plan that provides overarching and future-oriented support for the development of the activities in the region. The main strategies of the new IUHPE/EURO Work Plan include: 1. effective working of the Regional Committee; 2. supporting and engaging IUHPE members; 3. advocacy and partnership building; 4. strengthening communications; and 5. follow-up and evaluation.

  6. Population Control, Family Planning and Planned Parenthood.

    Hilmar, Norman A.

    Remarks in this article were made as part of a panel discussion presented at the Planned Parenthood-World Population combined Southeast Council and National Board Meeting, Savannah, Georgia, in May 1970. The problems and consequences of an increasing birth rate are indicated along with the need for reducing present rates of population growth and…

  7. Brainstorming: an application for programme planning in family welfare planning.

    Kumaran, T V


    There have been many participatory devices developed and applied for programme planning in a variety of fields by the social scientists in the recent past, of which brainstorming is one. This device has been widely used in interpretive structural modelling to higher education programme planning, programme planning for housing in urban development, etc. Following these studies, application of brainstorming to develop a preliminary operational value system as a structural model for programme planning in Family planning was attempted. The products of a sequence of three sessions of approximately 5 hours each generated 39 needs, 28 alterables, and 22 constraints, all of which were used to set Family Planning objectives /34/. The objectives thus derived were used in building an intent structure to understand their priorities in plan formulation and eventual implementation.

  8. Communication, knowledge, social network and family planning ...

    AJRH Managing Editor

    demographic variables, social networks, knowledge and communication among the ... Information, education and communication materials and to promote family planning in Tanzania should ..... Every day after field work the researcher and.

  9. Population policy and family planning.


    The secret of success of India's population policy is the multipronged approach. Conflicts between public beliefs, customs, and public interests in regard to family size must be resolved through effective educational measures. The state should avoid legal compulsion and rely on volumtary choice by married couples influenced by logical judgment, information, and persuasion. Instead of using coercion, research in specific regions, sub-regions, and local areas should assess feasibility in light of knowledge, attitude, and practice of birth control, and rational goals should be set. Health conditions, particularly of mother and child, are an important approach to fertility and family size. As long as the morbidity of infants is high, the motivation for small family size will be low. Women's education generally should be improved. Later age at marriage also contributed to small family size. Present population policy should be expanded to include a broad-based socioeconomic approach with a social security program. Development through improved agricultural and marketing conditions will distribute the economic benefits for and improve the welfare of the most backward people. Voluntary organizations must be involved in population programs because a wholly state-sponsored program will meet with apathy and disinterest.

  10. STD services in family planning programs.

    Cole, L; Finger, W R


    Few family planning programs provide sexually transmitted disease (STD) services. Yet, more and more policymakers and program managers are thinking of ways that family planning programs can address reproductive health needs, including STDs. Family planning programs that have already added STD services now operate in Botswana, Kenya, Malawi, India, Sri Lanka, Brazil, Colombia, El Salvador, and Jamaica. Most of them concentrate on STD/AIDS preventive services: providing information, counseling, and promoting condom use. Some programs also provide STD management services. A family planning clinic in Nairobi, Kenya, gradually integrated STD services into its program. It first provided clients with information about STDs, then nurses were trained to diagnose and treat STDs, and last the clinic began receiving STD drugs. This clinic targets low-income workers and groups at high risk for HIV infection. It has 60 outreach volunteers working in bars, brothels, and small shops. During September 1991-March 1994, 57% of clients used condoms. The nurses use a syndromic approach to decide on what treatment to use for STD patients. Since some women do not have obvious STD symptoms, laboratories and microscopes are used to make an accurate diagnosis. A considerable outlay of funds is needed for extensive training in STD diagnosis and treatment, but ending the cycle of infection saves money. Concerns about contraceptive effectiveness of barrier methods keep family planning programs from promoting condom use. Another obstacle to integrating STD services into family planning programs is that most programs focus on women. Clinics should encourage couples to be together for family planning and STD counseling. They can also direct educational materials to men. Other challenges include the difficulty of diagnosing STDs in women, expensive and often unavailable STD drugs, reinfection by partners who do not receive treatment, and lack of power to insist on condom use.

  11. Meeting the complex needs of urban youth and their families through the 4Rs 2Ss Family Strengthening Program: The "real world" meets evidence-informed care.

    Small, Latoya; Jackson, Jerrold; Gopalan, Geetha; McKay, Mary McKernan


    Youth living in poverty face compounding familial and environmental challenges in utilizing effective community mental health services. They have ongoing stressors that increase their dropout rate in mental health service use. Difficulties also exist in staying engaged in services when they are involved with the child welfare system. This study examines the 4Rs 2Ss Family Strengthening Program, developed across four broad conceptual categories related to parenting skills and family processes that form a multiple family group service delivery approach. A total of 321 families were enrolled in this randomized intervention study, assigned to either the 4Rs 2Ss Family Strengthening Program or standard care services. Caregivers and their children randomly assigned to the experimental condition received a 16 week multiple family group intervention through their respective outpatient community mental health clinic. Data was collected at baseline, midtest (8 weeks), posttest (16 weeks), and 6 month follow-up. Major findings include high engagement in the 4Rs 2Ss Family Strengthening Program, compared to standard services. Although child welfare status is not related to attendance, family stress and parental depression are also related to participant engagement in this multiple family group intervention. Involvement in the 4Rs 2Ss Family Strengthening Program resulted in improved effects for child behaviors. Lastly, no evidence of moderation effects on family stress, child welfare involvement, or parental needs were found. The 4Rs 2Ss Family Strengthening Program appeared able to engage families with more complex "real world" needs.

  12. Family planning programs and fertility decline.

    Cuca, R


    A recently completed World Bank statistical study of family planning in 63 developing countries indicated that countries which experienced a large decline in birth rates between 1960-1977 were more likely to have a family planning program, an official population policy aimed at decreasing the birth rate, and a relatively high level of development than countries which experienced smaller or no decline in birth rates. The 65 countries represented 95% of the population of the developing world. Birth rate declines of 10% or more between 1960-1977 were experienced by: 1) 10 of the 26 countries which had a family planning program and a policy aimed at reducing the birth rate; 2) 6 of the 19 countries which had a family planning program but lacked clearly defined population objectives; and 3) 2 of the 18 countries without any population policy or program. Furthermore, the implementation of a family planning program and the adoption of a population policy were directly related to the development level of the country. This finding suggested that countries need to reach a certain level of development before they have the capacity to develop population programs and policies. When a country is sufficiently advanced to collect population data, awareness of population problems increases and they are more likely to adopt a population policy. In addition, government efficiency increases as development proceeds and governments must have a certain level of efficiency before they can implement effective programs.

  13. Strong Military Families Program: A Multifamily Group Approach to Strengthening Family Resilience

    Rosenblum, Kate; Muzik, Maria; Waddell, Rachel; Thompson, Stephanie; Rosenberg, Lauren; Masini, Gabriella; Smith, Karen


    Military families frequently display remarkable resilience in the face of significant challenges, and yet deployment and parental separation are significant stressors for parents, particularly those with infants and young children. The Strong Military Families preventive intervention is a multifamily parenting and self-care skills group that aims…

  14. Strong Military Families Program: A Multifamily Group Approach to Strengthening Family Resilience

    Rosenblum, Kate; Muzik, Maria; Waddell, Rachel; Thompson, Stephanie; Rosenberg, Lauren; Masini, Gabriella; Smith, Karen


    Military families frequently display remarkable resilience in the face of significant challenges, and yet deployment and parental separation are significant stressors for parents, particularly those with infants and young children. The Strong Military Families preventive intervention is a multifamily parenting and self-care skills group that aims…

  15. Observations concerning family planning education in China.

    Hamburg, M V


    In China, raising the age at marriage is an integral part of the family planning program. The new marriage law sets the minimum age at 22 for men and 20 for women. Marriage is a universal practice, and an unmarried person over 28 is a rarity. For economic purposes, the Central Committee of the People's Republic adopted the 1-child family policy in 1980. Childlessness is not encouraged. An extensive organizational network at the national, provincial, and local governmental levels conducts the family planning program. The media is widely used to publicize the message. Billboards, posters, state-run television, and other media tools regularly promote the virtues of the 1-child family, regardless of the sex of the child. Premarital sex is rare, and sex education, if any, is limited to adults--those about to be married. In Shanghai, physiology education in the middle school does include sex education and reproduction. All hospitals have family planning offices, and services include excellent maternal/child health care and family planning counseling. Family planning services are also found in the workplace. Permission must be obtained from the Production Brigade to marry and to have a child. Inspite of this, the family planning program is not viewed as coercive. When certain segments of the working population want to have more children than have been allocated, adjustments (e.g., delays in marriage or in pregnancy) are made. A unique feature of the program is its use of reward and punishment which varies from province to province, and between rural and urban populations. Economic incentives (monetary subsidies, free education for the children, housing priorities, and pension benefits) are given to those who have 1 child and withheld from those who have 2 children. In some areas, additional economic penalties (payment to state) are required from families with 2 children. Another unique feature is the trend toward later marriage, with 25 or 26 becoming the norm. It appears

  16. Family planning for women with learning disabilities.

    Taylor, G; Pearson, J; Cook, H

    An outreach program developed in England by the Merton and Sutton Community and Family Planning Services is effectively addressing the unmet reproductive health needs of women with learning disabilities. A specially trained community health nurse visits prospective clients at their residence and, through use of teaching aids, demonstrates breast self-examination and condom use and explains what will take place at the upcoming clinic visit. Of the 125 learning disabled women who used this program during its first 18 months of operation, only three had previously accessed the community's family planning services. 50% of services provided to this population were annual well-woman checks, 20% related to contraception, and 30% were for counseling on concerns such as domestic violence. Most of these women required a specialized approach that would not have been forthcoming from a generic family planning service or a general practitioner.

  17. Social marketing: the family planning experience.

    El-ansary, A I; Kramer Oe, J


    The authors explore social marketing applications in the Louisiana model of statewide program for family planning. The marketing concept has 4 major elements: 1) consumer orientation; 2) social process; 3) integrated effort; 4) profitable operation. Success of program and continued growth are the results of defining services needed by consumer; determining market target; taking services to customer; and emphasizing concept of selling family planning rather than giving free birth control method. Another important facet is the recognition of many participants--community agencies, the church, the American Medical Association, funding sources, and hospitals. This project used anyaltical marketing tools and defined services as human services rather than the narrow family planning services. It also extended activities to multinational environment and adapted the product offering to meet these needs.

  18. Publicity and education are fundamental to China's family planning programme.

    Zou, P


    This article summarizes and discusses the documents concerning family planning promulgated by the Communist Party, National People's Congress and the Government of China since the start of China's family planning program. In 1955 a document was issued entitled the Directive Concerning Population Control pointing out that the public should be made aware of birth control. In 1965 the summary of the 2nd Conference on Urban Work discussed ways of explaining the significance of family planning, to make it a voluntary action of the people. In 1980 the necessity of 1 child per couple was pointed out and policies were formulated regarding ideological and political education. During the 80's several documents were issued which stressed the voluntariness and initiative of the people in practicing birth control, and that any type of coercion was prohibited. For 30 years the fundamental practice of strengthening publicity and education and opposing coercion has remained unchanged no matter how birth policies have been scored in population control since 1979.

  19. Family planning uses traditional theater in Mali.

    Schubert, J


    Mali's branch of the International Planned Parenthood Federation has found a vehicle that effectively conveys the idea of family planning through the use of contraception, a method that blends the country's cultural heritage and modern technology. Despite becoming the first sub-Saharan francophone country to promote family planning, Mali only counted 1% of its population using a modern method of contraception. So with the aid of The Johns Hopkins University/Population COmmunication Services (JHU/PCS), the Association Malienne pour la Protection et la Promotion de la Famille (AMPPF) developed several programs to promote contraception, but none were more successful than the Koteba Project, which used Mali's traditional theater form to communicate the message. While comical, the Koteba generally deals with social issues -- it informs and entertains. This particular Koteba told the story of two government employees, one with two wives and many children, the other with one wife and few children. The first one sees nothing but family problems: fighting wives and delinquent children. The second one, who had used family planning, enjoys a peaceful home. Upon hearing of his friend's successes with family planning, the tormented government employee becomes convinced of its needs, and persuades his wives to accompany him to a family planning clinic. Developed at a cost of approximately US $3000 and televised nationwide, the Koteba proved effective. A survey of 500 people attending an AMPPF clinic revealed that 1/4 of them remembered the program. With the success of the Koteba, JHU/PCS and AMPPF are now exploring other traditional channels of communication.

  20. Systems effects on family planning innovativeness.

    Lee, S B


    Data from Korea were used to explore the importance of community level variables in explaining family planning adoption at the individual level. An open system concept was applied, assuming that individual family planning behavior is influenced by both environmental and individual factors. The environmental factors were measured at the village level and designated as community characteristics. The dimension of communication network variables was introduced. Each individual was characterized in terms of the degree of her involvement in family planning communication with others in her village. It was assumed that the nature of the communication network linking individuals with each other effects family planning adoption at the individual level. Specific objectives were to determine 1) the relative importance of the specific independent variables in explaining family planning adoption and 2) the relative importance of the community level variables in comparison with the individual level variables in explaining family planning adoption at the individual level. The data were originally gathered in a 1973 research project on Korea's mothers' clubs. 1047 respondents were interviewed, comprising all married women in 25 sample villages having mothers' clubs. The dependent variable was family planning adoption behavior, defined as current use of any of the modern methods of family planning. The independent variables were defined at 3 levels: individual, community, and at a level intermediate between them involving communication links between individuals. More of the individual level independent variables were significantly correlated with the dependent variables than the community level variables. Among those variables with statistically significant correlations, the correlation coefficients were consistently higher for the individual level than for the community level variables. More of the variance in the dependent variable was explained by individual level than by

  1. Community Alternatives for Love and Limits (CALL: A community-based family strengthening multi-family intervention program to respond to adolescents at risk

    David Wilkerson


    Full Text Available Family strengthening has become a source of growing interest, research, and program design in the fields of prevention and treatment for problems of youth delinquency, school failure, alcohol, tobacco and other drug abuse (ATOD. Despite many studies that illustrate the positive outcomes of family strengthening programs and family-focused interventions, their use in communities has not advanced commensurate with their promise. This article offers a rationale for why programming efforts should continue to be directed towards family strengthening efforts as opposed to youth-focused only interventions. In addition, a community-based, family-strengthening alternative is described that addresses issues of youth delinquency while reducing barriers associated with availability, accessibility, and cost.

  2. [Is family planning beneficial for our society?].

    Noudjalbaye, K


    Family planning comprises a group of activities that permit couples to decide freely the spacing and number of their children. Its other goals are to identify high risk pregnancies and treat infertility. Family planning improves the health of mothers, children, and entire families. Women understanding the benefits of family planning can space pregnancies at least 2 years apart to allow time to care for the new baby and to recuperate after the birth. Women and children in Chad and throughout Africa are the most vulnerable population groups with the greatest need for high quality nutrition, but they usually are relegated the food left over after men and other family members have eaten. Too frequent and too numerous pregnancies are likely to lead to maternal death from hemorrhage, toxemia, or septicemia. Chronic malnutrition reduces the defenses of the woman's body. Couples who plan their births for the times when the mother is best prepared avoid high risk pregnancies. Young infants whose mothers become pregnant too soon are subjected to abrupt weaning and sometimes physically separated from their mothers. The baby is at risk of infection and malnutrition because of its lack of adjustment to its new diet, and high rates of mortality are 1 result. The 2nd baby often is low birth weight and receives less milk because his malnourished, anemic, and chronically fatigued mother is unable to produce more. The infant is prey to infections, which his undernourished body is less able to fight. Traditional African societies recognized the importance of spacing and achieved it by abstinence until the child would walk. Family planning programs provide contraception, treatment and advice on sexually transmitted diseases, and alternatives to illegal abortion. Adolescents in particular should be provided with information on the consequences of too early sexual activity.

  3. [What can be expected of family planning?].

    Tallon, F


    Growing concern over Rwanda's rapid demographic growth and the development of a family planning program beginning around 1981 have so far had little practical effect on the number of births. Significant mortality reductions resulting from vaccination programs and other development projects may mean that population growth has actually accelerated instead of slowing. Most Rwandans still have the strongly pronatalist attitudes appropriate to an environment with high infant and general mortality rates, small populations, abundant land resources, and a need for manpower and old age security. Lack of services, fear of side effects, and rumors have also hampered acceptance of family planning. Rwanda is 95% rural, but rapid population growth is outstripping agricultural resources. Already in 1984 the average family plot was only .88 hectare, and by the year 2000 it will be half that size. Young people denied employment in agriculture will seek jobs in industry and commerce, but there too the possibilities of absorption are limited. The best employment opportunities will probably be available to the best educated. Between 1962-85, the rate of school enrollment of children aged 7-14 increased from 55-60%, but the total enrollment increased by 150% because of the increased number of children. Acceptance of family planning by substantial numbers of couples will mean significant savings in education. The savings in primary education alone would significantly offset expenditures for family planning. A large part of the funding for family planning in Rwanda is contributed as foreign aid, which could not easily be converted to other development projects, as some critics demand. A more moderate rate of population growth would also mean less expenditure on imports of food and other goods, on health care, on housing, and in all areas where population size is a factor in determining needs. Less reliance on imported food will enable Rwanda to preserve its autonomy. The rising pregnancy

  4. [The challenges of the family planning program].

    Alarcon, F; Mojarro, O


    Mexican family planning officials used date from the 1990 population census to revise population growth estimates and determine program needs for different family planning institutions during 1990-94. Total fertility rates were used to estimate fertility, using information from sociodemographic surveys taken over the past 10 years. Total fertility rates were estimated at 3.29 in 1987, 2.8 in 1990, and projected at 2.5 in 1994. These rates correspond to a crude birth rate of 24-25/1000 in 1990 and 22-23 in 1994 and natural increase rates of 1.87% and 1.67%. In obtaining these estimates, the structure of fertility of the 1987 National Survey of Fertility and Health and the program projections of women by ages of the National Population Council and the National Institute of Statistics, Geography, and were considered. The TARGET model was used to estimate the numbers of women in union using different modern methods who would need to be served by family planning programs in order to meet the proposed total fertility rates. The prevalence of sterilization, IUDS, and oral contraceptives (OCs) in women in union would be 59% in 1990 and 62% in 1994, or in absolute terms 7.8 million women in 1990 and 9.3 million in 1994. The public sector has replaced the private as the major source of family planning services. The Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) share is expected to increase from 48.3% of users in 1990 to 56.5% in 1994. The other 3 public sector institutions will maintain their current level of coverage. The private sector has played a smaller role in family planning in Mexico than in many other countries, and the state will thus have the major responsibility for service provision, including family planning education, promotion, and counseling of prospective clients. Existing services should be made more accessible as far as physical access and hours of operation, and the methods available should be increased beyond OCs and condoms. Traditional midwives in rural

  5. Product Family Modelling for Manufacturing Planning

    Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn; Petersen, Thomas Ditlev; Nielsen, Kjeld


    of the product family model, however, the model should be enriched with data for planning and execution of the manufacturing processes. The idea is that, when any individual product is specified using the product configurator, a product model can be extracted with all data necessary for planning...... of the manufacturing processes. Obviously, data for identification of all used modules and components are included in the product model but also for instance data for processing and assembly operations must be available. These data are not always related entirely to the modules and components but are sometimes also...... dependent on the specific assembly structure of the configured product, i.e. the combination of modules. In this paper, issues of how to create manufacturing structures and related planning data in product family models are presented. Primarily, the more complicated multi-level manufacturing structures...

  6. Personal Development Planning as a means to strengthen supervisory relationships in doctoral education

    Kobayashi, Sofie; Grout, Brian William Wilson; Rump, Camilla Østerberg

    . In an introduction course for new PhD students at the University of Copenhagen participants are required to share their personal development plan with their supervisor, and our analysis of reflective notes reveal how this can contribute to a better working relationship....... of ‘closeness’ building a robust and trustful relationship has been the topic of research in only a few studies. While personal development planning is used extensively in higher education in the UK to strengthen the learning process of students, this study documents another potent use of the tool......Higher education literature describes the relationship between doctoral students and their supervisors from different perspectives, usually referring to the power relations between the two and advocating for the importance of clarifying expectations of the supervisory process. The dimension...

  7. China's first family planning publicity month.

    Shen, G


    China conducted its 1st nationwide Family Planning Publicity Month in 1983, from New Year's Day to Spring Festival (February 13). The campaign emphasized the rural areas and focused on explaining why family planning is a state policy. The most noticeable achievements of this campaign were that every household became familiar with the fact that family planning is a basic state policy. The majority of the population take this policy seriously, realizing that strict control of population growth is both a good and imperative policy. More than 1,830,000 propaganda columns and photo exhibitions were displayed, 5,900,000 radio and television programs broadcast, 2,010,000 theatrical performances, movie and slide showings presented, and 97,000,000 copies of materials published for public dissemination. The activities were varied and interesting, vivid and lively, and purposeful and persuasive. 1 of the most effective methods of publicizing population control has been the presentation of comparative statistics. This aspect of the campaign was a specific and lively form of education in population theory and practice. The presentation of statistics that show the relationship among population, land use, grain produce, and income enabled the population to reason out why population growth needs to match economic and social development. Another important accomplishment of the publicity month was that a large number of couples of reproductive age became convinced of the need to use contraception. According to the incomplete statistics, 8,860,000 people had surgical operations for birth control. The universal promotion of ligations by either partner of a reproductive couple who already had given birth to a 2nd child was an important development of family planning technique promoted simultaneously with the promotion of IUDs. The increase in the number of people doing family planning work was another achievement of the publicity month. More than 15,240,000 publicity personnel and 760

  8. Family planning and the Malawian male.

    Kishindo, P


    To curb the deleterious socioeconomic effects of rapid population growth, the Government of Malawi has adopted a National Child Spacing Program. Women who attend maternal health centers are counseled about the harmful effects of closely spaced childbearing, informed of contraceptive options, and urged to discuss family planning with their husband. This strategy fails to consider the control by Malawian men over women's reproductive capacities and family size decision making. If Malawi's child spacing program is to be successful in reducing fertility, the emphasis must be shifted to men. Needed is an educational campaign to convince men that large family size--currently considered a sign of virility--adversely affects the family's standard of living. Malawian men are more likely to be convinced by arguments based on economics than concerns about maternal-child health. For example, educational messages could focus on the inability of malnourished children to perform farm work, the higher incomes and ability to provide old age support of well-educated children, the high price of a large dwelling, and the debts incurred by providing food and clothing for many children. Specific target groups in need of such interventions include low-income skilled and semi-skilled urban workers, smallholder farmers, and small-scale businessmen. In rural areas, family planning messages can be incorporated into existing agricultural extension and functional literacy programs.

  9. [Thinking about several problems of the research of our family planning strategy].

    Shi, H


    On the basis of 1982 census data, it is estimated that from 1987-1997 13 million women will enter the age of marriage and child-bearing each year. The tasks of keeping the population size around 1.2 billion by the year 2000 is arduous. Great efforts have to be made to continue encouraging one child/couple, and to pursue the current plans and policies and maintain strict control over fertility. Keeping population growth in pace with economic growth, environment, ecological balance, availability of per capita resources, education programs, employment capability, health services, maternal and child care, social welfare and social security should be a component of the long term development strategy of the country. Family planning is a comprehensive program which involves long cycles and complicated factors, viewpoints of expediency in guiding policy and program formulation for short term benefits are inappropriate. The emphasis of family planning program strategy should be placed on the rural areas where the majority of population reside. Specifically, the major aspects of strategic thrusts should be the linkage between policy implementation and reception, between family planning publicity and changes of ideation on fertility; the integrated urban and rural program management relating to migration and differentiation of policy towards minority population and areas in different economic development stages. In order to achieve the above strategies, several measures are proposed. (1) strengthening family planning program and organization structure; (2) providing information on population and contraception; (3) establishing family planning program network for infiltration effects; (4) using government financing, taxation, loan, social welfare and penalty to regulate fertility motivations; (5) improving the system of target allocation and data reporting to facilitate program implementation; (6) strengthening population projection and policy research; (7) and strengthening

  10. Strategic Planning for Public and Nonprofit Organizations. A Guide to Strengthening and Sustaining Organizational Achievement. Revised Edition.

    Bryson, John M.

    This book shows how leaders and managers of public and nonprofit organizations can use strategic planning to strengthen their organizations. This expanded edition includes many new examples of successful and unsuccessful strategic planning practices, along with new chapters that address how to implement strategies, how to reassess strategies and…

  11. Cultural adaptation process for international dissemination of the strengthening families program.

    Kumpfer, Karol L; Pinyuchon, Methinin; Teixeira de Melo, Ana; Whiteside, Henry O


    The Strengthening Families Program (SFP) is an evidence-based family skills training intervention developed and found efficacious for substance abuse prevention by U.S researchers in the 1980s. In the 1990s, a cultural adaptation process was developed to transport SFP for effectiveness trials with diverse populations (African, Hispanic, Asian, Pacific Islander, and Native American). Since 2003, SFP has been culturally adapted for use in 17 countries. This article reviews the SFP theory and research and a recommended cultural adaptation process. Challenges in international dissemination of evidence-based programs (EBPs) are discussed based on the results of U.N. and U.S. governmental initiatives to transport EBP family interventions to developing countries. The technology transfer and quality assurance system are described, including the language translation and cultural adaptation process for materials development, staff training, and on-site and online Web-based supervision and technical assistance and evaluation services to assure quality implementation and process evaluation feedback for improvements.

  12. Between the processes of strengthening and weakening of the Family Health Strategy

    Regina Stella Spagnuolo


    Full Text Available This was a qualitative study with the purpose of designing a meta-model for the work process of the Family Health Strategy (FHS team. It was based on the experience of six sample groups, composed of their members (physicians, professional nurses, dentists, dental assistants, licensed technical nurses and community health agents in a city in São Paulo state, Brazil, totaling 54 subjects. Six theoretical models emerged from non-directive interviews. These were analyzed according to Grounded Theory and submitted to the meta-synthesis strategy, which produced the meta-model "between the processes of strengthening and weakening of the FHS model: professional-team-community reciprocity as an intervening component". When analyzed in light of the Theory of Complexity (TC, it showed to be a work with a vertical and authoritarian tendency, which is largely hegemonic in the tradition of public health care policies.

  13. Indonesia's family planning story: success and challenge.

    Hull, T H; Hull, V J; Singarimbun, M


    A historical overview and descriptions of family planning programs in Indonesia are presented. 85 million of the 135 million inhabitants of the Indonesian archipelago are concentrated on the island of Java, which comprises about 7% of the Indonesian land mass. The Dutch colonial government preferred a policy ("transmigration") which advocated the redistribution of population from Java to the other islands to relieve overpopulation. This policy was also advocated by President Sukarno after the Indonesian Revolution of 1940. The need for family planning was recognized by small groups, and official policy supported national family planning programs to replace transmigration programs only after Sukarno became president in 1966. The focus of the program was on Java and Bali, the 2 most populous islands. Local clinics became the locus for birth control efforts. Fieldworkers affiliated with the clinics were given the job of advocating birth control use door-to-door. Fieldworkers "incentive programs," area "target" (quota) programs, and "special drives" were organized to create new contraceptive "acceptors." A data reporting system and a research program increase the effectiveness of the family planning drive by ascertaining trends in contraceptive use which can determine where and how money and effort can best be applied. "Village Contraception Distribution Centers" bring the contraceptive means closer to the people than do the clinics. Figures from the years 1969-1977 show the great increase in acceptance of contraceptives by the inhabitants of the Java-Bali area. Steps are now being taken to alleviate the large monthly variations in the number of (often temporary) acceptors caused by the "target programs" and "special drives." The average acceptor is 27-years-old, has 2.6 children, has not finished primary school, and has a husband of low social status. Bali has shown the greatest success in family planning. It is a small island with a highly developed system of local

  14. Using a Systems Framework for Organizing Family Financial Planning.

    Edwards, Kay P.


    Systems concepts are applied to family financial planning using a functional interpretation of systems analyses. The framework can help professionals researching family financial behavior and its outcomes, planning programs, and offering financial services. It can also be used by families in their own financial planning. (Author/JOW)

  15. Tay Sachs and Related Storage Diseases: Family Planning

    Schneiderman, Gerald; And Others


    Based on interviews with 24 families, the article discusses family planning and the choices available to those families in which a child has previously died from Tay-Sachs or related lipid storage diseases. (IM)

  16. Tay Sachs and Related Storage Diseases: Family Planning

    Schneiderman, Gerald; And Others


    Based on interviews with 24 families, the article discusses family planning and the choices available to those families in which a child has previously died from Tay-Sachs or related lipid storage diseases. (IM)

  17. The Strengthening Families Program 10-14: influence on parent and youth problem-solving skill.

    Semeniuk, Y; Brown, R L; Riesch, S K; Zywicki, M; Hopper, J; Henriques, J B


    The aim of this paper is to report the results of a preliminary examination of the efficacy of the Strengthening Families Program (SFP) 10-14 in improving parent and youth problem-solving skill. The Hypotheses in this paper include: (1) youth and parents who participated in SFP would have lower mean scores immediately (T2) and 6 months (T3) post intervention on indicators of hostile and negative problem-solving strategies; (2) higher mean scores on positive problem-solving strategies; and (3) youth who participated in SFP would have higher mean scores at T2 and at T3 on indicators of individual problem solving and problem-solving efficacy than youth in the comparison group. The dyads were recruited from elementary schools that had been stratified for race and assigned randomly to intervention or comparison conditions. Mean age of youth was 11 years (SD = 1.04). Fifty-seven dyads (34-intervention&23-control) were videotaped discussing a frequently occurring problem. The videotapes were analysed using the Iowa Family Interaction Rating Scale (IFIRS) and data were analysed using Dyadic Assessment Intervention Model. Most mean scores on the IFIRS did not change. One score changed as predicted: youth hostility decreased at T3. Two scores changed contrary to prediction: parent hostility increased T3 and parent positive problem solving decreased at T2. SFP demonstrated questionable efficacy for problem-solving skill in this study.

  18. The Strengthening Families Program 10–14: influence on parent and youth problem-solving skill

    Semeniuk, Y.; Brown, R. L.; Riesch, S.K.; Zywicki, M.; Hopper, J.; Henriques, J.B.


    The aim of this paper is to report the results of a preliminary examination of the efficacy of the Strengthening Families Program (SFP) 10–14 in improving parent and youth problem-solving skill. The Hypotheses in this paper include: (1) youth and parents who participated in SFP would have lower mean scores immediately (T2) and 6 months (T3) post intervention on indicators of hostile and negative problem-solving strategies; (2) higher mean scores on positive problem-solving strategies; and (3) youth who participated in SFP would have higher mean scores at T2 and at T3 on indicators of individual problem solving and problem-solving efficacy than youth in the comparison group. The dyads were recruited from elementary schools that had been stratified for race and assigned randomly to intervention or comparison conditions. Mean age of youth was 11 years (SD = 1.04). Fifty-seven dyads (34-intervention & 23-control) were videotaped discussing a frequently occurring problem. The videotapes were analysed using the Iowa Family Interaction Rating Scale (IFIRS) and data were analysed using Dyadic Assessment Intervention Model. Most mean scores on the IFIRS did not change. One score changed as predicted: youth hostility decreased at T3. Two scores changed contrary to prediction: parent hostility increased T3 and parent positive problem solving decreased at T2. SFP demonstrated questionable efficacy for problem-solving skill in this study. PMID:20584236

  19. Why some family planning program fail.


    40 experts representing Nepal, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, Korea, and the Philippines participated in a 3-day workshop in Manila in March 1976 for the purpose of discussing and proposing ways of dealing with the financial problems confronting the population programs of the individual countries. The Inter-Governmental Coordinating Committee for Southeast Asia Family/Population Planning sponsored the workshop. The recommendations made at the meeting were: 1) standardization of financing reporting procedures by the region's country programs on family planning; 2) closer coordination between donor agencies and policy-making bodies of country programs in the disbursement of funds; 3) frequent exchanges of experiences, ideas, technicaL knowledge, and other matters pertaining to the financial management of such programs; and 4) inclusion of applicable financial management topics in the training of clinical staffs and those involved in follow-up operations. Additionally, a proposal was made that national population organizations or committees develop research and evaluation units. Workshop discussion sessions focused on financial planning and management, accounting and disbursement of funds, use and control of foreign aid, cost of effectiveness and benefit analysis, and financial reporting.

  20. Problem visits to a family planning clinic.

    Blumenthal, P D; Jacobson, J; Gaffikin, L


    In order to obtain information necessary for optimum delivery of services, data were collected on the nature of the services provided at a family planing clinic. Clinic visits were divided into initial, annual, routine, problem, supply, educational and unknown. An analysis of the "problem" visits was undertaken to assess various epidemiologic aspects of such visits and to identify areas of clinic efficiency that could be improved. Problem visits were defined as any visits for which the patient had a presenting complaint. Age, level of education, method of contraception and parity were statistically associated with problem visits. When compared to Pill users, diaphragm users, intrauterine device users and non-users had a higher-than-expected number of problem visits. Less educated women and teenagers had a lower-than-expected number of problem visits when compared to more educated and older women. Socioeconomic status and problem visits were not statistically associated. Problem visits required more time, utilized more medical services and resulted in more referrals to the gynecology clinic than did other visit types. As a result of this analysis, we have increased our educational efforts for patients at high risk of problem visits and have instituted a special problem-oriented family planning clinic in which a full complement of house staff and ancillary personnel are available. This arrangement makes the uncomplicated family planning clinic run more smoothly and efficiently and obviates the need for time-consuming and cost-ineffective referrals.

  1. A fresh look at family planning communication.

    Navarro, R C


    As a step toward development of a national information, education, and communication (IEC) plan, a reassessment of such efforts practiced by the agencies involved was undertaken. A paper published in 1978 by the Research Utilization Unit of the Population Information Division, Population Center Foundation, reviewed materials used and accounts of experience in conceptualizing and communicating family planning messages by 12 private and public sector agencies. The most common concepts employed by the agencies were small family size, responsible parenthood, family welfare, community and national development, birth spacing, delayed marriage, contraceptive use-effectiveness, "manliness," delayed 1st pregnancy, value and rights of children, human behavior and social environment, and population dynamics. Most of the messages were conceptualized and developed through formal and informal consultation with field staff. The need to consider the specific needs of target audiences was considered crucial, and thus decentralization of IEC production was recommended. Such decentralization has been a goal of the Philippine program since 1976, but the effort has been hampered by lack of local training and resources, and of studies to support successful implementation. Mass and mixed media approaches were found to be used by most of the agencies, although a reliance on interpersonal approaches was found to be most prevalent in rural areas. Among recommendations for policy makers were development of a systematized data base for IEC materials, regional capabilities in research and development, and studies of funding and existing resources.

  2. Li Xiuying’s Family Planning Center


    PEOPLE in Yinan County refer to Li Xiuying, a doctor highly respected for her gynecological and obstetrics surgical skills, as "Magic Scalpel Li." Li Xiuying assumed the post as vice director of the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in the People’s Hospital in Yinan County at the young age of 27. She held the post for 12 years until 1988 when she was became director of the county’s Family Planning Service Center. Li had never pursued the new position, and was unable to accept the unexpected transfer, preferring instead to continue working in the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics throughout her career.


    Surekha Kishore


    Full Text Available Objectives: 1. To evaluate the role of Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM as a spacing method. 2. To assess knowledge attitude and practices regarding breastfeeding. 3. To bring awareness regarding importance of breastfeeding on child health and as a method of family planning so that exclusive breast feeding is promoted. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: In rural village of district Wardha. Study Universe : All the lactating mothers who had2 children (one of which was less than 3 years. Study Variables: Duration of Breast Feeding, LAM, Importance of Breast Feeding. Knowledge of Colostrum, Awareness of Breast Feeding, etc. Statistical analysis used: Percentages and proportions. Result: A total 42 families were included in the survey of which 26 (61.9% belongs to nuclear families with majority of the women 19(45.2% in the age group of 20-25 yrs, 20 (47.6% were illiterate and 18(42.8% families were of lower Socio Economic Status. A directly proportional relationship was found between duration of Breastfeeding & LAM and period of LAM & age of youngest child when the mother delivered again. Only 31% knew about the importance of breastfeeding. 16.6% of woman initiated Breast Feeding within 1/2 hr.

  4. Introducing the World Health Organization Postpartum Family Planning Compendium.

    Sonalkar, Sarita; Gaffield, Mary E


    The postpartum period offers multiple opportunities for healthcare providers to assist with family planning decision making. However, there are also many changing factors during the first year after delivery that can affect family planning choices. Given that several different documents have addressed WHO guidance on postpartum family planning, the electronic WHO Postpartum Family Planning Compendium ( has been introduced. This resource integrates essential guidance on postpartum family planning for clinicians, program managers, and policy makers. The development of the Compendium included consultations with family planning experts, key international stakeholders, and web developers. Once the website had been created, user testing by family planning experts allowed for improvements to be made before the official launch. Future directions are adaptation of the website into a mobile application that can be more easily integrated to low-resource settings, and translation of the content into French and Spanish.

  5. Li Xiuzhen Recalls the History of Family Planning in China


    FAMILY planning and population control has been the basic State policy of China since 1972. The 25th Article of the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China promulgated in 1978 stipulates, "The state promotes family planning so that population growth may fit the plans for economic and social development." The 49th Article stipulates, "Both husband and wife have the duty to practice family planning."

  6. Improving the urban family planning programme.


    This report presents the directives on improving urban family planning (FP) programs issued by various Chinese departments in March 1997. The departments included the State Family Planning Commission, State Economic and Trade Commission, Ministry of Public Security, Ministry of Personnel, Ministry of Labor, Ministry of Public Health, and the National Industrial and Commercial Administration. The directives related to time frame, objectives, management, local level operations, IEC, the floating population's needs, the responsibility system, and a well-trained staff. It was stated that urban FP improvements will take some time, due to expansion of urban population, the increase in floating population, and the demand for quality services. The guiding principles support Deng Xiaoping's theory of building socialism with Chinese characteristics and balancing population with socioeconomic and sustainable development. The aim is to improve IEC and services and achieve low fertility as a way of creating favorable demographics for modernization. Leaders must be held responsible for the practice of FP in their unit. Subdistrict offices are a key link for managing FP in all units and neighborhood committees in their territory. Efforts need to be increased to spread IEC on population and FP and to reduce abortion. Every department registry should make an effort to provide comprehensive FP to floating populations. Urban centers should concentrate on improving the quality of FP services. Staff should be carefully chosen.

  7. Priority strategies for India's family planning programme.

    Pachauri, Saroj


    Strategies to accelerate progress of India's family planning programme are discussed and the importance of improving the quality and reach of services to address unmet contraceptive need by providing method choice is emphasized. Although there is a growing demand for both limiting and spacing births, female sterilisation, is the dominant method in the national programme and use of spacing methods remains very limited. Fertility decline has been slower in the empowered action group (EAG) states which contribute about 40 per cent of population growth to the country and also depict gloomy statistics for other socio-development indicators. It is, therefore, important to intensify efforts to reduce both fertility and mortality in these states. arationale has been provided for implementing integrated programmes using a gender lens because the lack of women's autonomy in reproductive decision-making, compounded by poor male involvement in sexual and reproductive health matters, is a fundamental issue yet to be addressed. The need for collaboration between scientists developing contraceptive technologies and those implementing family planning services is underscored. If contraceptive technologies are developed with an understanding of the contexts in which they will be delivered and an appreciation of end-users' needs and perspectives, they are more likely to be accepted by service providers and used by clients.

  8. Marketing family planning services in New Orleans.

    Bertrand, J T; Proffitt, B J; Bartlett, T L


    The health care profession is witnessing a shift in focus from the interests and needs of the service provider to those of the potential consumer in an effort to attract and maintain clients. This study illustrates the role that marketing research can play in the development of program strategies, even for relatively small organizations. The study was conducted for Planned Parenthood of Louisiana, a recently organized affiliate that began offering clinical services in May 1984, to provide information on the four Ps of marketing: product, price, place, and promotion. Data from telephone interviews among a random sample of 1,000 women 15-35 years old in New Orleans before the clinic opened confirmed that the need for family planning services was not entirely satisfied by existing service providers. Moreover, it indicated that clinic hours and the cost of services were in line with client interests. The most useful findings for developing the promotional strategy were the relatively low name recognition of Planned Parenthood and a higher-than-expected level of interest that young, low income blacks expressed in using the service. PMID:3112854

  9. Marketing family planning services in New Orleans.

    Bertrand, J T; Proffitt, B J; Bartlett, T L


    The health care profession is witnessing a shift in focus from the interests and needs of the service provider to those of the potential consumer in an effort to attract and maintain clients. This study illustrates the role that marketing research can play in the development of program strategies, even for relatively small organizations. The study was conducted for Planned Parenthood of Louisiana, a recently organized affiliate that began offering clinical services in May 1984, to provide information on the four Ps of marketing: product, price, place, and promotion. Data from telephone interviews among a random sample of 1,000 women 15-35 years old in New Orleans before the clinic opened confirmed that the need for family planning services was not entirely satisfied by existing service providers. Moreover, it indicated that clinic hours and the cost of services were in line with client interests. The most useful findings for developing the promotional strategy were the relatively low name recognition of Planned Parenthood and a higher-than-expected level of interest that young, low income blacks expressed in using the service.

  10. Quality of Care in Family Planning Program in China

    Zhen-ming XIE; Hong-yan LIU


    Objective To sum up the theory of quality care according to the experience of F.P. program in China.Methods The author summarized the QOC theory and draw on its experiences and strength in family planning program in China.Results The theory facilitated the earnest program of the population and family planning program during the tenth five-year plan period, benefited the realization of the innovation of system and mechanism in population and family planning work, and the creation of a nice population environment for the healthy social and economic development in China.Conclusion The development of QOC has displayed a conspicuous theory in China's family planning program.

  11. Action now in family planning: the role of nurse.

    Malhotra, A K; Kapur, S


    In India, nurses at all organizational levels can play a vital role in the national family planning program. Family planning is an integral component of family welfare, and the control of population growth is crucial for the economic and social development of the country. The goals of the family planning program are to promote the small family ideal, to disseminate family planning information, and to ensure that contraceptive supplies and services are available to all couples. Administrative nurses at the national level can further these goals by 1) advocating appropriate policies and influencing budget allocations, 2) preparing family planning guidelines for state directors of nursing, and 3) ensuring that all senior nurses are provided with in-service family planning education. Administrators in training facilities can ensure that an effective and up-to-date family planning component is a part of all nurses' training programs and that students receive clinical experience in family planning. In hospitals, nursing superintendents can develop family planning seminars and discussion sessions for the nursing staff and provide incentives for nurses to motivate couples toward family planning. Nurses working in pediatric and gynecology wards are in an ideal position to alert mothers to the health problems associated with repeated and closely spaced pregnancies. They can arrange to show family planning films to the mothers, display posters on the ward halls, and organize family planning discussion groups among the patients. Nurses working in prenatal and postpartum clinics can inform the mothers, as well as the factors who frequently accompany their wives to the clinics, about the advantages of family planning. School nurses can familiarize students with the advantages of small family size. Children can sometimes motivate their parents to limit family size. Community health nurses generally play a major role in disseminating contraceptive information and in providing

  12. Medicaid Family Planning Waivers in 3 States

    E. Kathleen Adams PhD


    Full Text Available Effects of Medicaid family planning waivers on unintended births and contraceptive use postpartum were examined in Illinois, New York, and Oregon using the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System. Estimates for women who would be Medicaid eligible “if” pregnant in the waiver states and states without expansions were derived using a difference-in-differences approach. Waivers in New York and Illinois were associated with almost a 5.0 percentage point reduction in unwanted births among adults and with a 7 to 8.0 percentage point reduction, among youth less than 21 years of age. Oregon’s waiver was associated with an almost 13 percentage point reduction in unintended, mostly mistimed, births. No statistically significant effects were found on contraceptive use.

  13. Expert Group Meeting on Family Planning, Health and Family Well-Being.


    should involve nongovernment groups in advocacy efforts. They should help individuals achieve their reproductive goals in a voluntary, informed manner. Governments should attempt to set up programs to meet unmet needs and programs should be evaluated periodically. FP programs should respond to community needs and incorporate the user's perspective in the broadest range of services possible. The special needs of adolescents should be served through special confidential programs. Social marketing of contraception should be encouraged to create demand. The involvement and responsibility of men should be encouraged. Information, education, and communication activities should be supported, and population and family life education should be extended and strengthened in formal settings. Nongovernmental organizations should receive support from governments and the international community and should coordinate activities at these levels. Barriers to private sector involvement in FP should be removed, and public/private partnerships should be encouraged. Forecasting of contraceptive requirements should be improved, and the role of the commercial sector in meeting needs should be strengthened. Funding for programs should be increased, and costs should be made as effective as possible. Technical and social service research should receive funding. Utilization of data for program planning should be given higher priority.

  14. Charging fees for family planning services.


    As the demand for family planning services expands, governments and international donor agencies are finding it increasingly difficult to subsidize the costs of these services and are examining the feasibility of client fees. This issue of "The Family Planning Manager" evaluates the pros and cons of charging for services and outlines steps for instituting such a program. This process should be preceded by an assessment of the objective in introducing user fees, the ability and willingness of clients to pay for services, client perceptions of the quality of services, possible regulatory and political restrictions to charging fees, and the actual cost of each service provided. Registration, membership, service, and contraception fees are among the approaches to revenue generation. Fee determination can be based on ability to pay, fees charged for comparable services at benchmark clinics, in relation to the price of common household commodities (e.g., annual membership equivalent to the cost of 12 soft drinks), or specific cost recovery objectives (e.g., 25% of operating costs). The introduction of client fees requires a system for collecting and checking fees at service sites, exemption policies or waivers for those not able to afford the cost of services, internal financial controls, and regular financial reporting procedures. The community has a right to be informed about the fees that will be charged for each service, how the fees are being used, and whether the organization is making a profit. It is important to emphasize that revenue from fees will be used to enhance the quality of clinic services.

  15. Theoretical Foundation of Family Health Promotion—the Orientation of Family Planning Development in Urban Area

    Er-sheng GAO; Jie YANG; Li-feng ZHOU; Mao-hua MIAO


    Objective To make a theoretical exploration of the function of family-based health promotion in family planning development.Methods Given the notion of reproductive health and the function of family in society,the author bring forward a new mode of family planning service, that was "healthy,happy household promotion" based on the principle of health education and health promotion.Results The mode of "healthy, happy household promotion" reflected the new F.P.service mode, and was the direction of family planning service. It might benefit both service provider and clients to make the family as the entrance point of quality care of reproductive health in communities, to develop health education and health promotion,and promote family health and family happiness.Conclusion Family health and family happiness should be the final goal of family planning.

  16. [The family planning program in Rwanda: assessment of ten years (1981-1991) and prospects].

    Munyakazi, A


    has included training of personnel, improvement of supervision, regular supply of contraceptive equipment and supplies to health supervision, regular supply of contraceptive equipment and supplies to health centers, diversification of available methods, and addition of secondary family planning posts to improve accessibility. Obstacles still affecting Rwanda's family planning program include the pronatalist cultural orientation, which is being confronted by a vigorous IEC program. The reluctance of Catholic-affiliated health services to offer modern family planning methods, the shortage of trained family planning workers, contraceptive supply problems, and geographic inaccessibility of family planning services are other serious problems. To confront these problems, ONAPO plans to begin social marketing program, create more secondary health planning posts, promote integration of family planning services into the vaccination program, strengthen efforts to motivate postpartum women, and undertake a community distribution program for condoms and spermicides.

  17. Using mass transit public service advertising to market family planning.

    Blonna, R; McNally, K; Grasso, C


    To increase public awareness of family planning services in New Jersey, the Family Planning Program of the State Department of Health conducted an intermediary marketing campaign using free public service advertising on mass transit. In 1986, the year of the campaign, 237 calls were made to the advertised hotline, resulting in a like number of referrals to family planning service providers. Also, 2664 new patients examined in the state's family planning agencies in 1986 cited exposure to the media campaign as the reason for their visits. The results of the campaign and their implications for other public service agencies are discussed.

  18. A family planning study in Kuala Pilah, Peninsular Malaysia.

    Vimala Thambypillai


    Realizing that family planning is not making a sufficient impact on the rural people as it is on the urban population, it was decided that the authors would study the attitude and knowledge of a rural community towards family planning. The study sample consisted of 200 Malay married women--100 acceptors and 100 nonacceptors from the Kuala Pilah District. The study went from December 4-22, 1978. A healthy climate of knowledge and attitude exist among rural Malay women. Only 2% of the nonacceptors had not heard of any family planning method; 99% of acceptors and 85% of nonacceptors had discussed family planning with their husbands. There was also evidence to show that the birthrate does decrease as literacy increases. On the other hand, however, only 19% of the respondents approved of family planning practices prior to the birth of the 1st child. Also, there is a dearth of information on family planning in the rural areas and not much has been done in utilizing the 2 popular forms of mass media--radio and television as a means of disseminating information on family planning. The study concludes with a recommendation that there is a need for a sustained effort at improving knowledge and disseminating information as well as for developing the proper attitude towards family planning. It is suggested that community leaders, women's clubs, and private organizations be mobilized to participate more fully in the promotion of family planning.

  19. Work-Family Planning Attitudes among Emerging Adults

    Basuil, Dynah A.; Casper, Wendy J.


    Using social learning theory as a framework, we explore two sets of antecedents to work and family role planning attitudes among emerging adults: their work-family balance self-efficacy and their perceptions of their parents' work-to-family conflict. A total of 187 college students completed a questionnaire concerning their work-family balance…

  20. Improving Demand-oriented Quality Care in Family Planning--A Review of Practice and Experience in Family Planning Programme of Qianjiang, Hubei

    Jia-yuan LIAO; Meng-ye PENG; Er-sheng GAO


    @@ With the mainstreaming being the demand from the people at reproductive age, we systematically analyzed the ideas and ways to implement quality care (QC) in family planning (FP) in Qianjiang, including advocating the conception of quality care, carrying out health education and counseling, strengthening capacity building of service system and reforming measurement of the evaluation and other aspects. The demand-oriented QC in FP has met personalized and verified demands from people of reproductive age satisfactorily, and kept the fertility rate at a lower level while uplifting satisfaction of the public. The demand-oriented QC in FP in Qianjiang county proved to be a successful and great worth practice.

  1. Family planning providers' perspectives on family planning service delivery in Ibadan and Kaduna, Nigeria: a qualitative study.

    Hebert, Luciana Estelle; Schwandt, Hilary Megan; Boulay, Marc; Skinner, Joanna


    In Nigeria, fertility continues to be high and contraceptive prevalence remains low. This study was conducted in order to understand the perceptions of, experiences with and challenges of delivering family planning services in two urban areas of Nigeria from the perspectives of family planning service providers. A qualitative study using 59 in-depth interviews was conducted among family planning providers working in hospitals, primary health centres, clinics, pharmacies and patent medicine vendors in Ibadan and Kaduna, Nigeria. Providers support a mix of individuals and organisations involved in family planning provision, including the government of Nigeria. The Nigerian government's role can take a variety of forms, including providing promotional materials for family planning facilities as well as facilitating training and educational opportunities for providers, since many providers lack basic training in family planning provision. Providers often describe their motivation to provide in terms of the health benefits offered by family planning methods. Few providers engage in any marketing of their services and many providers exclude youth and unmarried individuals from their services. The family planning provider community supports a diverse network of providers, but needs further training and support in order to improve the quality of care and market their services. Adolescents, unmarried individuals and women seeking post-abortion care are vulnerable populations that providers need to be better educated about and trained in how to serve. The perspectives of providers should be considered when designing family planning interventions in urban areas of Nigeria.

  2. Family Planning Providers' Experiences and Perceptions of Long ...

    AJRH Managing Editor

    sectional study with concurrent triangulation in which the ... support and validate the challenges and practices discussed in a ... specific family planning methods at the clinic, and for each ... We also assessed providers' family planning ... relationships among themes11. ..... the world where popular understanding of anatomy.

  3. Use of family planning methods in Kassala, Eastern Sudan

    Mamoun Mona


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigating use and determinants of family planning methods may be instructive in the design of interventions to improve reproductive health services. Findings Across sectional community-based study was conducted during the period February-April 2010 to investigate the use of family planning in Kassala, eastern Sudan. Structured questionnaires were used to gather socio-demographic data and use of family planning. The mean ± SD of the age and parity of 613 enrolled women was 31.1 ± 7 years and 3.4 ± 1.9, respectively. Only 44.0% of these women had previously or currently used one or more of the family planning methods. Combined pills (46.7% and progesterone injection (17.8% were the predominant method used by the investigated women. While age, residence were not associated with the use of family planning, parity (> five, couple education (≥ secondary level were significantly associated with the use of family planning. Husband objection and religious beliefs were the main reasons of non-use of family planning. Conclusion Education, encouragement of health education programs and involvement of the religious persons might promote family planning in eastern Sudan.

  4. Quality of family planning services in Northwest Ethiopia | Fantahun ...

    Ethiopian Journal of Health Development ... Background: The unmet need for family planning services in Ethiopia is believed to ... It is thus expected that an assessment and improvement of the quality of family planning services could enhance ... About 98.5% of the clients were not asked about STD risk and only 3.0% of the ...

  5. Achievements of the Iranian family planning programmes 1956-2006.

    Simbar, M


    Family planning programmes initiated in the Islamic Republic of Iran from 1966 met with limited success. Following the 1986 census family planning was considered a priority and was supported by the country's leaders. Appropriate strategies based on the principles of health promotion led to an increase in the contraceptive prevalence rate among married women from 49.0% in 1989 to 73.8% in 2006. This paper reviews the family planning programmes in the Islamic Republic of Iran and their achievements during the last 4 decades and discusses the principles of health promotion and theories of behaviour change which may explain these achievements. Successful strategies included: creation of a supportive environment, reorientation of family planning services, expanding of coverage of family planning services, training skilled personnel, providing free contraceptives as well as vasectomy and tubectomy services, involvement of volunteers and nongovernmental organizations and promotion of male participation.

  6. A family planning program that pays for itself.

    Kon, Y


    Most family planning programs are characterized by the objective of controlling population growth to enable people to have a fair share of the fruits of national development and they are usually partly or even entirely dependent on government or on international funding agencies. The program conducted by the Japan Family Planning Association (JFPA) has always paid for itself. Since its establishment in 1954, the JFPA has adopted a self-support policy. 94% of its income comes largely from its business activities, 89% from the distribution of information, education and communication (IEC) materials and contraceptives. Subsidies from the government and other sources make up the remaining 6% of the total income. At present, there are 4 private organizations that promote family planning in Japan. Of these, the major ones are the Family Planning Federation of Japan (FPFJ) and the Japan Family Planning Association. The JFPA's policy of self-reliance stems from the belief of its president that financial independence is indispensable in promoting the association's movement to promote family planning in the country. JFPA's 4 basic strategies are: the development and promotion of the concept of family planning; training and upgrading the quality of family planning workers; development and dissemination of effective IEC materials; and community-based distribution of contraceptives. These strategies are implemented by the following activities: generating support and cooperation for programs of family planning and maternal and child health at the grassroots; education and training of family planning workers; publication and distribution of a monthly health newsletter; development, production and distribution of educational materials; supplying contraceptives; promoting and supporting MCH centers; running a health consultation center and clinics for adolescents; and managing a genetic counseling service.

  7. [World population, family planning and development].

    Van Roosmalen, J


    The 1991 world population report of the UNFPA projects a world population of 8.504 billion by 2025. The prevalence of the use of modern contraceptives increased from 9% in previous years to an average of 51% at the present time: to 70% in East Asia, to 60% in Latin America, but only to 17% in Africa. 20% of pregnancies are unwanted, the prevention of which would reduce the expected population by 2.2 billion people in 2100. Without birth control programs today there would be 412 million more people in Asia, Latin America, and Africa; and in 2100 1.48 billion would live on Earth instead of 10 billion forecast by the World Bank. The aim of UNFPA is to increase contraceptive prevalence form 51% to 59% by 2000: from 381 million users in 1991 to 567 million acceptors. Only 15% of men use contraceptives, although the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases especially AIDS makes the use of condoms highly advisable. In the report scant mention is made of breast feeding as a family planning method, although the Bellagio Consensus of 1988 states that if a woman almost exclusively breast feeds during lactation amenorrhea a more than 98% protection against pregnancy is offered during the 1st 6 months postpartum. During this period no additional contraception is necessary until the 1st menstruation occurs. Women in Bangladesh taking an oral contraceptive after delivery had shorter birth intervals than women exclusively relying on breast feeding. The Working Group of Medical Development Association issued guidelines concerning contraceptive methods including subdermal implant of levonorgestrel, although excessively strict standards can foil the contraceptive needs of the Third World. Their reproductive mortality is mainly determined by an extremely high maternal mortality rather than by complications from contraceptive use.

  8. Understanding Personal and Family Financial Planning Education.

    American Council of Life Insurance, Washington, DC. Education and Community Services.

    This publication for teachers focuses on one specific content area of consumer education--financial planning. The first major section begins by identifying eight competencies in financial planning education. It describes the financial planning process used to anticipate changes in moving from one stage of life to another, choosing the options, and…

  9. Meeting the complex needs of urban youth and their families through the 4Rs 2Ss Family Strengthening Program: The “real world” meets evidence-informed care

    Small, Latoya; Jackson, Jerrold; Gopalan, Geetha; McKay, Mary McKernan


    Youth living in poverty face compounding familial and environmental challenges in utilizing effective community mental health services. They have ongoing stressors that increase their dropout rate in mental health service use. Difficulties also exist in staying engaged in services when they are involved with the child welfare system. This study examines the 4Rs 2Ss Family Strengthening Program, developed across four broad conceptual categories related to parenting skills and family processes that form a multiple family group service delivery approach. A total of 321 families were enrolled in this randomized intervention study, assigned to either the 4Rs 2Ss Family Strengthening Program or standard care services. Caregivers and their children randomly assigned to the experimental condition received a 16 week multiple family group intervention through their respective outpatient community mental health clinic. Data was collected at baseline, midtest (8 weeks), posttest (16 weeks), and 6 month follow-up. Major findings include high engagement in the 4Rs 2Ss Family Strengthening Program, compared to standard services. Although child welfare status is not related to attendance, family stress and parental depression are also related to participant engagement in this multiple family group intervention. Involvement in the 4Rs 2Ss Family Strengthening Program resulted in improved effects for child behaviors. Lastly, no evidence of moderation effects on family stress, child welfare involvement, or parental needs were found. The 4Rs 2Ss Family Strengthening Program appeared able to engage families with more complex “real world” needs. PMID:26523115

  10. Objective necessity of socialist family planning: a trial discussion.

    Li, R


    On the basis of Marx and Engels' prediction and thesis of scientific socialism, socialist China, the most populous nation in the world, is the 1st to have realized the planned management of population reproductive in the history of mankind, thus giving an answer to the problem in practice. This paper makes a tentative exploration of such a necessity in socialist family planning. Engels points out that 1) under private ownership, population reproduction takes class antagonism as the basis, while public ownership of the means of production eradicates it; 2) in capitalist society, the reproduction of the labor force is commodity reproduction--public ownership of the means of production can be divorced from the domain of commodity; and 3) under private ownership, population reproduction is purely the private business of an individual or a family whose economic benefit forms the motive force of population reproduction--public ownership liberates it from one's personal gains making it a public affair. The great significance of family planning to economic development can be recognized as production, consumption, and accumulation. Taking family planning as the basis for the reproduction plan of the labor force is the guarantee of realizing the material production plan. Family planning reflects the trend of the structure and change of consumer requirements and provides the direct and indirect objectives of various items of material production planning; it provides the objective basis for social accumulation and the arrangement of expanding reproduction. 3 conclusions are derived: 1) the building up of the public ownership of the means of production affords man the possibility to regulate the production of matter as well as man, 2) the characteristics of the planned development of a socialist national economy demands the planned production of man, and 3) family planning and the development of a socialist economy demand their mutual congruence.

  11. Planned gay father families in kinship arrangements

    Bos, H.H.M.W.


    The current study examined whether there are differences between gay father families (n = 36) and heterosexual families (n = 36) on father-child relationship, fathers' experiences of parental stress and children's wellbeing. The gay fathers in this study all became parents while in same-sex relation

  12. Pattern of Family Planning Methods used by Antenatal Patients in ...

    Pattern of Family Planning Methods used by Antenatal Patients in Owo,Nigeria. ... Information obtained from the respondents with the aid of the study instrument ... The reasons for getting pregnant were desire to have more children (79%), and ...

  13. Hospital Discharge Planning: A Guide for Families and Caregivers

    ... FCA - A A + A You are here Home Hospital Discharge Planning: A Guide for Families and Caregivers ... publication Printer-friendly version A trip to the hospital can be an intimidating event for patients and ...

  14. Core competency model for the family planning public health nurse.

    Hewitt, Caroline M; Roye, Carol; Gebbie, Kristine M


    A core competency model for family planning public health nurses has been developed, using a three stage Delphi Method with an expert panel of 40 family planning senior administrators, community/public health nursing faculty and seasoned family planning public health nurses. The initial survey was developed from the 2011 Title X Family Planning program priorities. The 32-item survey was distributed electronically via SurveyMonkey(®). Panelist attrition was low, and participation robust resulting in the final 28-item model, suggesting that the Delphi Method was a successful technique through which to achieve consensus. Competencies with at least 75% consensus were included in the model and those competencies were primarily related to education/counseling and administration of medications and contraceptives. The competencies identified have implications for education/training, certification and workplace performance. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Awareness, Practice, and Predictors of Family Planning by Pregnant ...

    KEY WORDS: Awareness, family planning, Nigeria, North-West, practice, predictor ... urban area and according to socioeconomic groups. ..... bibliographic elements should be 100% accurate, to help get the references verified from the system.

  16. Integrating Family Planning and HIV Services at the Community ...


    Level: Formative Assessment with Village Health Teams in Uganda. Aurélie Brunie. 1 ... Little is known on integrating HIV and family planning (FP) services in community settings. Using a cluster ..... the risk of unplanned pregnancy and HIV.

  17. Awareness, Practice, and Predictors of Family Planning by Pregnant ...

    Awareness, Practice, and Predictors of Family Planning by Pregnant Women Attending a Tertiary Hospital in a Semi-rural Community of North-West Nigeria. ... Background: Nigeria's maternal and perinatal health status is still among the ...

  18. Family planning methods among women in a vaginal microbicide ...


    use among married vs. engaged/unmarried women (aOR 1.64), multiparous vs. nulliparous (aOR 4.45) and women who ... KEY WORDS: Family planning, contraception, South Africa, microbicides ...... use: a systematic literature review.

  19. Awareness and use of and barriers to family planning services ...

    Africa.5,6 In Lesotho almost one-third of currently married ... Levels of awareness and utilisation of family planning services are high among female ..... use among young women in developing countries: a systematic review of qualitative.

  20. Factors influencing utilization of Natural Family Planning among ...

    Factors influencing utilization of Natural Family Planning among Child Bearing Women in Chilonga ... Medical Journal of Zambia ... The literature review was mainly obtained from studies conducted globally, regionally and Zambia inclusively.

  1. Attitude of Women towards Family Planning in Selected Rural ...

    Attitude of Women towards Family Planning in Selected Rural Communities of Ibadan. ... African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues ... what ever method will be used to space or limit the number of children they will have.

  2. Strengthening Grantee Effectiveness: The Hyde Family Foundations. Principles for Effective Education Grantmaking. Case Study Number 7

    Cheng, Tiffany K.


    Operated as a pair of philanthropic funds, the Hyde Family Foundations works to improve the quality of life in Memphis. In order to counteract persistent socioeconomic and racial barriers and improve opportunities for underserved families in Memphis, the foundations have made improving the city's education system a priority of its grantmaking.…

  3. Strengthening Relationships with Families in the School Community: Do School Leaders Make a Difference?

    Quezada, Maria S.


    Many family engagement programs logically focus on providing training and support for parent leaders, giving them the skills and knowledge necessary to effectively partner with schools. Even with comprehensive parent leadership training, sustainable family engagement initiatives cannot truly take hold without buy-in, shared understanding, and a…

  4. Integrating reproductive health services into family planning programs.


    A recent Population Council publication, Reproductive Health Approach to Family Planning, discusses integration of reproductive health into family planning programs in a series of edited presentations that Council staff and colleagues gave at a 1994 meeting of the US Agency for International Development (USAID) cooperating agencies. The presentations reflect the Council's view that family planning programs ought to help individuals achieve their own reproductive goals in a healthful manner. The report discusses four areas of reproductive health: reproductive tract infections (RTIs), including sexually transmitted diseases; prevention and treatment of unsafe abortion; pregnancy, labor, and delivery care; and postpartum care. Christopher Elias (Senior Associate, Programs Division) argued that family planning programs ought to provide services that target RTIs, given that these illnesses afflict a significant proportion of reproductive-age women. The family planning community has an ethical responsibility to provide services to women who experience an unwanted pregnancy. They must have access to high-quality postabortion care, including family planning services. Professional midwives are ideally suited to serve as integrated reproductive health workers trained to combat the five major maternal killers: hemorrhage, sepsis, pregnancy-induced hypertension, obstructed labor, and unsafe abortion. This was demonstrated in a highly successful Life-Saving Skills for Midwives program undertaken in Ghana, Nigeria, and Uganda, and soon to start in Vietnam in conjunction with the Council's Safe Motherhood research program. Family planning services should be viewed as part of a comprehensive set of health services needed by postpartum women, which include appropriate contraception, maternal health checks, well-baby care, and information about breastfeeding, infant care, and nutrition. Family planning programs should incorporate breastfeeding counseling into their services. When

  5. Contraception. Family planning: by whom and for whom?

    Stemerding, B


    Many people consider family planning to be the cure for population growth and its consequences (poverty, child mortality, morbidity, depletion of natural resources, and environmental degradation). International organizations support family planning programs and population-political strategies control their operations. Other key players in family planning are the pharmaceutical industry, the churches, and governments. Women tend not be involved in developing population and family planning policies, however, but instead implement the policies. Population planners are generally not interested in family planning methods which give women control over their own bodies, e.g., female-controlled barrier methods. In fact, they distrust them because the planners consider women to be unreliable. Besides, the low effectiveness of these methods means women need to rely on abortion, which is a problem in many developing countries, e.g., Latin America. Further, family planning programs must meet predetermined goals, so their service is lacking, e.g., limited supply of contraceptives and not enough time to provide information to clients. Family planning revolves around women. For example, they encourage them to talk their partners into approving the women's use of contraception, but this is almost always difficult for women in developing countries. Provision of family planning cannot be successful without society accepting and treating women as full citizens. In addition, society needs to realize that women have a sexuality separate from men. Political will is needed for these changes in attitude. The international women's movement does not agree on the degree which women can control contraceptives themselves. Women's groups are working to improve the position and independence of women and contraception is just 1 factor which can help them achieve this goal. The Women's Sexuality and Health Feminist Collective in Sao Paulo, Brazil, is an example of a coalition of women's health

  6. Theory of planned behaviour and the family business

    Kuiken, Andrea


    The theory of planned behaviour is a theory originating from psychology. Over time, the theory has been applied to a variety of research areas. In business administration, the theory is used to gain insight into the ethical behaviour of managers, the adoption of new products and entrepreneurship. The family business context is a specific context, in which the family has a strong influence on the strategic decisions of the business. Current application of the theory of planned behaviour in fam...

  7. Population and family planning in developing countries: the employer's role.

    Tata, N H


    The overall population problem of the world is discussed briefly. The author asserts that rapid population growth has serious social and political implications and imposes serious restraints on economic progress. It is also linked to problems of urbanization. Family planning is a way out. The state alone is not enough to make family planning successful, it must be supported by the different segments of society. Employers have a major social responsibility in this respect. After this general introduction, and the assertion of the basic role of the employer in family planning programs, the author deals with the specific situation in India in terms of 1) its population problem, 2) progress and impact of the Indian family planning program, and 3) the role of employers in the promotion of family planning in India; a detailed section is devoted to the family planning centers of the Tata group of companies (Tata textile units, chemicals, iron and steel, engineering and locomotive, etc.). The author enumerates the measures to promote effective participation by employers, which include 1) an organized framework, 2) assistance to employers, and 3) removal of disincentives. The author concludes by saying that the efforts of employers to limit population growth need to be supplemented by international cooperation and action.

  8. Confidentiality in Family Planning Services for Young People

    Brittain, Anna W.; Williams, Jessica R.; Zapata, Lauren B.; Moskosky, Susan B.; Weik, Tasmeen S.


    Context Family planning services are essential for reducing high rates of unintended pregnancies among young people, yet a perception that providers will not preserve confidentiality may deter youth from accessing these services. This systematic review, conducted in 2011, summarizes the evidence on the effect of assuring confidentiality in family planning services to young people on reproductive health outcomes. The review was used to inform national recommendations on providing quality family planning services. Evidence acquisition Multiple databases were searched to identify articles addressing confidentiality in family planning services to youth aged 10–24 years. Included studies were published from January 1985 through February 2011. Studies conducted outside the U.S., Canada, Europe, Australia, or New Zealand, and those that focused exclusively on HIV or sexually transmitted diseases, were excluded. Evidence synthesis The search strategy identified 19,332 articles, nine of which met the inclusion criteria. Four studies examined outcomes. Examined outcomes included use of clinical services and intention to use services. Of the four outcome studies, three found a positive association between assurance of confidentiality and at least one outcome of interest. Five studies provided information on youth perspectives and underscored the idea that young people greatly value confidentiality when receiving family planning services. Conclusions This review demonstrates that there is limited research examining whether confidentiality in family planning services to young people affects reproductive health outcomes. A robust research agenda is needed, given the importance young people place on confidentiality. PMID:26190851

  9. A second look at natural family planning.

    Lolarga, E


    There is renewed interest in natural family planning (NFP) as the Philippine Population Program enters the 1980s. Much of this interest is due to the realization that, properly practiced, NFP can be a highly effective means of birth spacing. In 1978 the Special Committee to Review the Philippine Population Program recommended that more efforts be made to promote NFP. The different methods of NFP are reviewed. Sex without intercourse, coitus interruptus, and prolonged nursing are not officially recognized as NFP methods by the Program. The rhythm method was first described independently by Drs. Hermann Knaus of Austria and Kyusaku Ogino of Japan in the 1930s. Ogino's method of calculating a woman's fertile period is based on the lengths of the last 12 menstrual cycles which she recorded on a calendar. The advantages of rhythm are that it is inexpensive, it requires only the cost of charts which may be homemade, there are no physical side effects, control is in the woman's hands, and it is acceptable to people who consider it their duty to follow religious teachings. Disadvantages include: keeping constant, accurate records of cycles for long periods of time; the need for perseverance and correct interpretation of the chart; the possible need for medical advice and help; and the fear that something might upset a woman's cycle and change the time of ovulation. The continuation rates of rhythm acceptors in the Philippines are unimpressive. A study of 142 women revealed a high pregnancy/failure rate--25% for a 12-month period compared to 0 with oral contraception (OC) and the IUD's 2%. The basal body temperature method helps determine the unsafe period with some accuracy. Its premise is that there are slight but detectable changes in a woman's body temperature during her cycle. These changes herald ovulation. A special thermometer must record temperature changes of 0.1 degree Farenheit. This instrument and the charts are the only expenses involved. The reviewers of the

  10. Financial Therapy and Planning for Families with Special Needs Children

    Mitzi Lauderdale


    Full Text Available This study examines factors associated with the likelihood of having a plan that includes a special needs trust among families that have disabled minor children. Descriptive analyses indicate that the top two reasons families provide for not having a plan are the inability to save and no perceived need. Among families that do indicate having a plan, most do not include a special needs trust. Multivariate analyses reveal that professional involvement (financial, legal, and mental health professionals is a key factor to increasing the likelihood of having a plan with a special needs trust. Families that have met with a financial advisor are 23 times more likely, and families who are encouraged to create a plan by a mental health professional are almost three times more likely, to have a plan that includes a special needs trust. Results from this study suggest that financial therapists are uniquely positioned to educate and ensure that appropriate plans are in place to provide for the future of children with special needs.

  11. Study of Families of Curves in the Euclidian Plan

    Belaib Lekhmissi


    Full Text Available Non-standard analysis techniques are more considered in approaching complex mathematical domains. By using some concepts of non-standard analysis methods such as regionalization method, we deal with a family of curves in an Euclidian plan. The solutions of the algebraic equations representing these curves in a plan have an hyperbolic forms.

  12. Postabortion Care: 20 Years of Strong Evidence on Emergency Treatment, Family Planning, and Other Programming Components

    Huber, Douglas; Curtis, Carolyn; Irani, Laili; Pappa, Sara; Arrington, Lauren


    ABSTRACT Worldwide 75 million women need postabortion care (PAC) services each year following safe or unsafe induced abortions and miscarriages. We reviewed more than 550 studies on PAC published between 1994 and 2013 in the peer-reviewed and gray literature, covering emergency treatment, postabortion family planning, organization of services, and related topics that impact practices and health outcomes, particularly in the Global South. In this article, we present findings from studies with strong evidence that have major implications for programs and practice. For example, vacuum aspiration reduced morbidity, costs, and time in comparison to sharp curettage. Misoprostol 400 mcg sublingually or 600 mcg orally achieved 89% to 99% complete evacuation rates within 2 weeks in multiple studies and was comparable in effectiveness, safety, and acceptability to manual vacuum aspiration. Misoprostol was safely introduced in several PAC programs through mid-level providers, extending services to secondary hospitals and primary health centers. In multiple studies, postabortion family planning uptake before discharge increased by 30–70 percentage points within 1–3 years of strengthening postabortion family planning services; in some cases, increases up to 60 percentage points in 4 months were achieved. Immediate postabortion contraceptive acceptance increased on average from 32% before the interventions to 69% post-intervention. Several studies found that women receiving immediate postabortion intrauterine devices and implants had fewer unintended pregnancies and repeat abortions than those who were offered delayed insertions. Postabortion family planning is endorsed by the professional organizations of obstetricians/gynecologists, midwives, and nurses as a standard of practice; major donors agree, and governments should be encouraged to provide universal access to postabortion family planning. Important program recommendations include offering all postabortion women

  13. Postabortion Care: 20 Years of Strong Evidence on Emergency Treatment, Family Planning, and Other Programming Components.

    Huber, Douglas; Curtis, Carolyn; Irani, Laili; Pappa, Sara; Arrington, Lauren


    Worldwide 75 million women need postabortion care (PAC) services each year following safe or unsafe induced abortions and miscarriages. We reviewed more than 550 studies on PAC published between 1994 and 2013 in the peer-reviewed and gray literature, covering emergency treatment, postabortion family planning, organization of services, and related topics that impact practices and health outcomes, particularly in the Global South. In this article, we present findings from studies with strong evidence that have major implications for programs and practice. For example, vacuum aspiration reduced morbidity, costs, and time in comparison to sharp curettage. Misoprostol 400 mcg sublingually or 600 mcg orally achieved 89% to 99% complete evacuation rates within 2 weeks in multiple studies and was comparable in effectiveness, safety, and acceptability to manual vacuum aspiration. Misoprostol was safely introduced in several PAC programs through mid-level providers, extending services to secondary hospitals and primary health centers. In multiple studies, postabortion family planning uptake before discharge increased by 30-70 percentage points within 1-3 years of strengthening postabortion family planning services; in some cases, increases up to 60 percentage points in 4 months were achieved. Immediate postabortion contraceptive acceptance increased on average from 32% before the interventions to 69% post-intervention. Several studies found that women receiving immediate postabortion intrauterine devices and implants had fewer unintended pregnancies and repeat abortions than those who were offered delayed insertions. Postabortion family planning is endorsed by the professional organizations of obstetricians/gynecologists, midwives, and nurses as a standard of practice; major donors agree, and governments should be encouraged to provide universal access to postabortion family planning. Important program recommendations include offering all postabortion women family planning

  14. Health Seeking Behavior and Family Planning Services Accessibility in Indonesia

    Niniek Lely Pratiwi


    Full Text Available Background: The MDG target to increase maternal health will be achieved when 50% of maternal deaths can be prevented through improvment the coverage of K1, K4, to make sure that midwife stay in the village improve the delivery by health workers in health facilities, increase coverage long-term contraceptive methods participant as well as family and community empowerment in health. Methods: This study is a further analysis of Riskesdas in 2010 to assess how big the accessibility of services in family planning in Indonesia. Results: Women of 3–4 children in rural greater and prevalence (27.1% compared to women who live in urban areas (25.0%. The main reason of not using contraception mostly because they want to have children 27.0% in urban, 28.2% rural whereas, the second reason is the fear of side effects 23.1% in urban, 16.5% rural. There is 10% of respondent did not use contraceptives, because they did not need it. Health seeking behavior of pregnant women with family planning work status has a significant relationship (prevalence ratio 1.073. The jobless mothers has better access to family planning services compared to working mother. Conclusions: Accessibility of family planning services is inadequate, because not all rural ‘Poskesdes’ equipped with infrastructure and family planning devices, a lack of knowledge of family planning in rural areas. Health seeking behavior of family planning services is mostly to the midwives, the scond is to community health centers and than polindes, ‘poskesdes’ as the ranks third.


    Nazish Rasheed


    Full Text Available Context: Inter-spouse communication majorly influences the decision making process of couples for adopting family planning measures. This factor is especially important in male dominated cultures, where, it is thought unnecessary for men to discuss family planning as child bearing and contraception are presumed to be female matters. Aims: The present study was conducted with the aim to know the extent of inter spouse communication among couples and its impact on use of family planning measures and family size. Settings and Design: The study was conducted among ever married women in the reproductive age group of 15-49 years (n=718 residing in Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India. The study was a community based cross-sectional study. Methods and Material: A community based household survey was conducted in the registered areas of urban and rural health training centres of Department of Community Medicine, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh,Uttar Pradesh. Participants were enquired on various parameters related to their conversations on family planning with their husband, ever use of contraception and their family size. Statistical analysis used: Chi square was applied to test the association. Results: A sizeable portion (18.1% of women had never conversed with their husbands on family planning matters. Communicators were observed to have lesser number of living children (p<0.001. Current use of contraceptives was significantly associated with inter spouse discussion (p<0.05. 43% women from the study sample had never discussed the choice of a contraceptive method with their husbands. Conclusions: Husband-wife communication plays an important role in family planning acceptance as well as in deciding the final family size.

  16. Phase Transitions in Planning Problems: Design and Analysis of Parameterized Families of Hard Planning Problems

    Hen, Itay; Rieffel, Eleanor G.; Do, Minh; Venturelli, Davide


    There are two common ways to evaluate algorithms: performance on benchmark problems derived from real applications and analysis of performance on parametrized families of problems. The two approaches complement each other, each having its advantages and disadvantages. The planning community has concentrated on the first approach, with few ways of generating parametrized families of hard problems known prior to this work. Our group's main interest is in comparing approaches to solving planning problems using a novel type of computational device - a quantum annealer - to existing state-of-the-art planning algorithms. Because only small-scale quantum annealers are available, we must compare on small problem sizes. Small problems are primarily useful for comparison only if they are instances of parametrized families of problems for which scaling analysis can be done. In this technical report, we discuss our approach to the generation of hard planning problems from classes of well-studied NP-complete problems that map naturally to planning problems or to aspects of planning problems that many practical planning problems share. These problem classes exhibit a phase transition between easy-to-solve and easy-to-show-unsolvable planning problems. The parametrized families of hard planning problems lie at the phase transition. The exponential scaling of hardness with problem size is apparent in these families even at very small problem sizes, thus enabling us to characterize even very small problems as hard. The families we developed will prove generally useful to the planning community in analyzing the performance of planning algorithms, providing a complementary approach to existing evaluation methods. We illustrate the hardness of these problems and their scaling with results on four state-of-the-art planners, observing significant differences between these planners on these problem families. Finally, we describe two general, and quite different, mappings of planning

  17. Family Planning: Implications for Marital Stability.

    Johnson, Frank C.; Johnson, May R.


    In the past two decades, several fertility variables have been shown to have an effect on marital stability: presence or absence of children, child spacing, birth timing, and total number of children. This paper studies the effect on marital stability of the planning of fertility. (Author)

  18. Status report, The Public Health and Planning 101 project: strengthening collaborations between the public health and planning professions.

    Mahendra, A; Vo, T; Einstoss, C; Weppler, J; Gillen, P; Ryan, L; Haley, K


    Land use planning is a complex field comprised of legislation, policies, processes and tools. A growing body of evidence supports the relationship between land use planning decisions, community design and health. The built environment has been shown to be associated with physical inactivity, obesity, cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease and mental illness. Consequently, there is a growing interest within public health to work with planners on land use planning initiatives such as official plans and transportation master plans. Two surveys were developed: one for public health professionals and the other for planning professionals (survey questions available upon request to the corresponding author). The surveys were pilot tested in two separate focus group sessions with public health and planning professionals. Focus group volunteers helped to validate the surveys by verifying survey questions, design and overall flow. In early 2012, 304 public health professionals and 301 planning professionals completed the two separate surveys, comprising the total survey respondents for each respective profession used to calculate proportions. The survey results represent a convenience sample and are not generalizable to the entire population of public health and planning professionals in Ontario. Results compare survey responses from both groups where appropriate. Most respondents worked either as public health staff (78%) or planners/senior planners (58%). A smaller percentage of public health and planning professionals worked either as managers (15% and 11%, respectively) or directors (5% and 9%, respectively). Health is associated with how communities are planned and built, and the services and resources provided within them. Inspired by the results of our survey and based on user feedback from the pilot tests, a free online training program entitled "Public Health and Planning 101: An Online Course for Public Health and Planning Professionals to Create Healthier

  19. Strengthening Hope and Purpose in Community College Futures through Strategic Marketing Planning.

    Scigliano, John A.


    After defining marketing, describes the application of strategic marketing planning to community college funding problems. Delineates alternative sources of funding and creative techniques for tapping them. A marketing index for higher education is appended. (AYC)

  20. The feminist position on family planning in Spain.

    Navarro, M V


    The Spanish feminist movement had its origins in the early 1970; in 1975 the first offical feminist conference made the following demands on the public authorities; 1) to abolish all sections of the Criminal Code which restrict women's freedom to control of their own bodies through making illegal information on and the purchase of contraceptives, 2) to decriminalize abortion, 3) to create family planning centers and to legalize contraceptives and provide them through the social security system, and 4) to include sex information in study courses. The distribution and sale of contraceptives was not legalized until 1978 and induced abortion is still a criminal offense. Nevertheless, after the 1975 meetins, a Coordinating Organization was established for the family planning committees that were functioning in the different feminist organizations. The problem of where to obtain contraceptives was solved by a group of feminist women which opened the 1st family planning center in Spain in 19779 This center was managed directly by members of the group. This and similar efforts culminated in the origin of the Movement for Movement for Family Planning that demanded in 1978; 1) the provision of sex information confronting the dominant sexual ideology and which is made a ccompulsory subject from school age, for both sexes; 2) free access to contraception for everyone; 3) the legalization of abortion, 4) the development of extensive information campaign on the problems of conception and contraception; and 5) the creation of independent, self-managed, family planning centers. There is now a Coordinating Organization of Family Planning Centers that was established in 1982. The socialist government is determined to create a public network of family planning centers.

  1. Policy recommendations for improvement and strengthening of future provincial environmental five years plans in China



    Since the Eleventh Five-Year Plan (2006-2010) started, the environmental protection plan has been playing a more and more important role in the implementation of Chinas national environmental protection strategy as well as promoting and carrying out the 'three historical transitions' in environmental protection, and enhancing the functions of environmental protection for macroscopic adjustment and control and optimizing economic growth.(auth)

  2. Family planning and family vision in mothers after diagnosis of a child with autism spectrum disorder.

    Navot, Noa; Jorgenson, Alicia Grattan; Vander Stoep, Ann; Toth, Karen; Webb, Sara Jane


    The diagnosis of a child with autism has short- and long-term impacts on family functioning. With early diagnosis, the diagnostic process is likely to co-occur with family planning decisions, yet little is known about how parents navigate this process. This study explores family planning decision making process among mothers of young children with autism spectrum disorder in the United States, by understanding the transformation in family vision before and after the diagnosis. A total of 22 mothers of first born children, diagnosed with autism between 2 and 4 years of age, were interviewed about family vision prior to and after their child's diagnosis. Grounded Theory method was used for data analysis. Findings indicated that coherence of early family vision, maternal cognitive flexibility, and maternal responses to diagnosis were highly influential in future family planning decisions. The decision to have additional children reflected a high level of adaptability built upon a solid internalized family model and a flexible approach to life. Decision to stop childrearing reflected a relatively less coherent family model and more rigid cognitive style followed by ongoing hardship managing life after the diagnosis. This report may be useful for health-care providers in enhancing therapeutic alliance and guiding family planning counseling.

  3. Using Internet Resources To Strengthen Community Programs and Collaborations for Children, Youth, and Families At Risk.

    Swanson, Josephine A.; Mead, June P.; Haugan, Heidi L.

    A New York State Cornell Cooperative Extension project for children, youth, and families is implementing electronic connectivity or Internet access to support the development of computer literacy among staff and program participants and to promote positive program outcomes in communities at risk. Reducing Risks and Increasing Capacity (RRIC) is a…

  4. Sharpening Our Focus on "Family Life Education": Evidence-Based Curricula for Strengthening Close Relationships

    Randall, G. Kevin


    In the past 40 years, individuals' close relationships, marriages, and families have undergone dramatic changes. The development and maintenance of strong interpersonal relationships, particularly close romantic relationships, are known to associate strongly and positively with physiological and psychological measures of well-being across the…

  5. Study on Strengthening Plan of Safety Network CCTV Monitoring by Steganography and User Authentication

    Jung-oh Park


    Full Text Available Recently, as the utilization of CCTV (closed circuit television is emerging as an issue, the studies on CCTV are receiving much attention. Accordingly, due to the development of CCTV, CCTV has IP addresses and is connected to network; it is exposed to many threats on the existing web environment. In this paper, steganography is utilized to confirm the Data Masquerading and Data Modification and, in addition, to strengthen the security; the user information is protected based on PKI (public key infrastructure, SN (serial number, and R value (random number attributed at the time of login and the user authentication protocol to block nonauthorized access of malicious user in network CCTV environment was proposed. This paper should be appropriate for utilization of user infringement-related CCTV where user information protection-related technology is not applied for CCTV in the future.

  6. Contraceptive security, information flow, and local adaptations: family planning Morocco.

    Chandani, Y; Breton, G


    Many developing countries increasingly recognize and acknowledge family planning as a critical part of socio-economic development. However, with few health dollars to go around, countries tend to provide essential drugs for curative care, rather than for family planning products. Donors have historically provided free contraceptives for family planning services. Whether products are donated or purchased by the country, a successful family planning program depends on an uninterrupted supply of products, beginning with the manufacturer and ending with the customer. Any break in the supply chain may cause a family planning program to fail. A well-functioning logistics system can manage the supply chain and ensure that the customers have the products they need, when they need them. Morocco was selected for the case study. The researchers had ready access to key informants and information about the Logistics Management Information System. Because the study had time and resource constraints, research included desktop reviews and interview, rather than data collection in the field. The case study showed that even in a challenging environment an LMIS can be successfully deployed and fully supported by the users. It is critical to customize the system to a country-specific situation to ensure buy-in for the implementation. Significant external support funding and technical expertise are critical components to ensure the initial success of the system. Nonetheless, evidence from the case study shows that, after a system has been implemented, the benefits may not ensure its institutionalization. Other support, including local funding and technical expertise, is required.

  7. [The pharmacist should play an active role in family planning].

    Portes, M


    Although pharmacies now dispense primarily modern products originating in large multinational corporations, the community pharmacist has not been replaced by any ultramodern technological advance. Many thousand persons acquire family planning products in pharmacies. The pharmacist works many hours a day, is always available, and provides free advice to his clients. Pharmacists are consulted daily on numerous topics, especially on family planning. Many prsons in rural areas are without the services of a physician and rely on pharmacists all the more. Pharmacists could orient the public on family planning in general, help in choosing the most appropriate of available methods, and refer patients to physicians in case of problems. Participants at the recent International Conference on the Role of Retail Pharmacists in Family Planning, held in Alexandria, Egypt, concluded that pharmacists should cooperate with physicians and other health professionals to provide family planning services and should participate in elaboration of laws regulating the manufacture, storage, prices, and distribution of contraceptives. The prices of contraceptive supplies to the consumer could be reduced if taxes and import duties were removed, if supplies were produced locally, or if supplies were subsidized by some donor organization.

  8. Is family planning an economic decision?

    Wunderink, S R


    This study examines economic models of household choice and the role of economic factors in determining the timing of births. A static economic model is presented and tested with data from the Netherlands. After the availability of contraceptives, the family size variable shifted from being an exogenous to an endogenous one, because births could be regulated. Costs of childbearing were construed to have maintenance costs for parents and society, attendance costs of care, and intangible costs such as anxiety or personal freedom. Benefits were intangible ones, such as joy and happiness; income; public benefits; and attendance benefits. Intangible benefits enlarged the utility of children, but maintenance costs diminished resources available for consumption. Child quality was a product of market goods purchased by parents and others and household labor. Household time allocation varied with child's age. Private responsibility for children varied by country. Quality of child care varied between countries and over time. Quality was dependent upon economies of scale, variable costs by the age of the child, variable time commitments by age of the child, and market substitutes for private child care. Higher income families spent more money but less time on children. It is pointed out that Becker's model explained number of children, but not timing of births. Postponement of birth was unlikely for those with a limited education, an unpleasant job, and low wages. When the advantages and disadvantages of having a baby were positive, spouses or single women with a high subjective preference were expected to bear a child as soon as possible. Government policy can affect the average family size by increasing or decreasing the financial and/or time burden of children. Postponement may be chosen based on long term analysis of a couple's future, the formation and use of capital, and/or high subjective time preference. Before and after first birth are different frames of reference

  9. Scaling up family planning in Sierra Leone: A prospective cost-benefit analysis.

    Keen, Sarah; Begum, Hashina; Friedman, Howard S; James, Chris D


    Family planning is commonly regarded as a highly cost-effective health intervention with wider social and economic benefits. Yet use of family planning services in Sierra Leone is currently low and 25.0% of married women have an unmet need for contraception. This study aims to estimate the costs and benefits of scaling up family planning in Sierra Leone. Using the OneHealth Tool, two scenarios of scaling up family planning coverage to currently married women in Sierra Leone over 2013-2035 were assessed and compared to a 'no-change' counterfactual. Our costing included direct costs of drugs, supplies and personnel time, programme costs and a share of health facility overhead costs. To monetise the benefits, we projected the cost savings of the government providing five essential social services - primary education, child immunisation, malaria prevention, maternal health services and improved drinking water - in the scale-up scenarios compared to the counterfactual. The total population, estimated at 6.1 million in 2013, is projected to reach 8.3 million by 2035 in the high scenario compared to a counterfactual of 9.6 million. We estimate that by 2035, there will be 1400 fewer maternal deaths and 700 fewer infant deaths in the high scenario compared to the counterfactual. Our modelling suggests that total costs of the family planning programme in Sierra Leone will increase from US$4.2 million in 2013 to US$10.6 million a year by 2035 in the high scenario. For every dollar spent on family planning, Sierra Leone is estimated to save US$2.10 in expenditure on the five selected social sector services over the period. There is a strong investment case for scaling up family planning services in Sierra Leone. The ambitious scale-up scenarios have historical precedent in other sub-Saharan African countries, but the extent to which they will be achieved depends on a commitment from both the government and donors to strengthening Sierra Leone's health system post-Ebola.

  10. Strengthening the Reading-Writing Connection: A Plan for Implementing Young Author's Conferences.

    Gorsuch, Sarah; Furnas, Judy


    Discusses how workshops for young authors help to cement the reading-writing connection for students and build their motivation and enthusiasm. Provides a step-by-step outline for educators who are interested in planning and implementing a young author's conference. (MG)

  11. Strategic Plan for Strengthening of Internal Audit in Government of Bihar


    The Government of Bihar (GOB) has adopted various reform measures to modernize fiscal and financial management such as passing of the Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act, adoption of Government of India's general financial rules and decentralization of financial powers to respective departments with a view to increasing the pace of expenditure and implementation of plan schemes...

  12. Empowerment and family planning in Bangladesh.

    Schuler, S R


    A 1992 survey of 1500 women (1300 married and under age 50 years) was conducted in Bangladesh. Women who participated in 1 of 2 nongovernmental programs which provide small business loans for women (the Grameen Bank and the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee) were compared with women who were not members but lived in villages served by the programs and with women who were eligible but lived in villages where the loans were not available. It was found that Grameen Bank membership had a significant positive effect on the use of contraceptives and on the rate in which the level of contraceptive use increased. The greater economic independence enjoyed by the Grameen Bank members is a factor in the increased contraceptive usage as is the promotion by the Bank of a small family norm. Empowerment indicators for women in Bangladesh include mobility, economic security, the ability to make purchases, freedom from domination and violence within the family, political and legal awareness, and participation in political activities. Women are able to achieve their fertility goals by participating in programs that decrease their social isolation and their economic dependence on men.

  13. Impact of an in-built monitoring system on family planning performance in rural Bangladesh

    Ashraf Ali


    Full Text Available Abstract Background During 1982–1992, the Maternal and Child Health Family Planning (MCH-FP Extension Project (Rural of International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B, in partnership with the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW of the Government of Bangladesh (GoB, implemented a series of interventions in Sirajganj Sadar sub-district of Sirajganj district. These interventions were aimed at improving the planning mechanisms and for reviewing the problem-solving processes to build an effective monitoring system of the interventions at the local level of the overall system of the MOHFW, GoB. Methods The interventions included development and testing of innovative solutions in service-delivery, provision of door-step injectables, and strengthening of the management information system (MIS. The impact of an in-built monitoring system on the overall performance was assessed during the period from June 1995 to December 1996, after the withdrawal of the interventions in 1992. Results The results of the assessment showed that Family Welfare Assistants (FWAs increased household-visits within the last two months, and there was a higher use of service-delivery points even after the withdrawal of the interventions. The results of the cluster surveys, conducted in 1996, showed that the selected indicators of health and family-planning services were higher than those reported by the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS 1996–1997. During June 1995-December, 1996, the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR increased by 13 percentage points (i.e. from 40% to 53%. Compared to the national CPR (49%, this increase was statistically significant (p Conclusion The in-built monitoring systems, including effective MIS, accompanied by rapid assessments and review of performance by the programme managers, have potentials to improve family planning performance in low-performing areas.

  14. Experimentation in family planning delivery systems: an overview.

    Cuca, R; Pierce, C S


    Experiments in the delivery of family planning services are an important means of testing new approaches on a relatively small scale. Over the past 20 years, extensive experimental efforts have explored such key aspects of service delivery as personnel, the use of mass media, integration of family planning with other services, intensive efforts and camps, incentive payments to acceptors, and inudation or community-based distribution. Approaches that proved successful have often been incorporated into regular programs. An examination of the methodology and findings of family planning experiments, based on a survey of 96 projects testing various approaches, highlights successes, failures, and continuing problems. The discussion of past experience halps point to criteria that might be followed in formulating future experimental projects.

  15. Comparison of family planning in Cuba and Ireland.

    Smyth, Suzie; Stronge, Shirley


    Family planning gives individuals and couples control and choice over the number of children they have and the timing of their births. Developments in reproductive health have resulted in major changes in the options for family planning, providing more choice and control over fertility. This article explores reproductive health in the Republic of Cuba and the Republic of Ireland, with a focus on contraceptive use and termination of pregnancy as methods of family planning. The predominant religion in both countries is Catholicism, which promotes the right to life of the unborn child. The two countries have adopted different approaches to the availability of both contraception and termination of pregnancy. Cuba has offered free access to contraception and termination of pregnancy since the 1960s to reduce maternal mortality. In Ireland, contraception was not widely available until 1995 and termination of pregnancy is available only in extremely limited circumstances.

  16. Cultivating men's interest in family planning in rural El Salvador.

    Lundgren, Rebecka I; Gribble, James N; Greene, Margaret E; Emrick, Gail E; de Monroy, Margarita


    A pilot project in rural El Salvador tested the integration of family planning into a water and sanitation program as a strategy for increasing male involvement in family planning decison making and use. The organizations involved posited that integrating family planning into a resource management and community development project would facilitate male involvement by diffusing information, by referring men and women to services, and by expanding method choice to include the new Standard Days Method through networks established around issues men cared about and were already involved in. This article examines data from a community-based household survey to assess the impact of the intervention and finds significant changes in contraceptive knowledge, attitudes, and behavior from baseline to endline. Because the differences between baseline and endline are greater than the differences between participants and nonparticipants at endline, the study demonstrates the power of informal networks for spreading information.

  17. Strengthening the systemic ties that bind: integrating common factors into marriage and family therapy curricula.

    Karam, Eli A; Blow, Adrian J; Sprenkle, Douglas H; Davis, Sean D


    Specific models guide the training of marriage and family therapists (MFTs) as they offer both structure and organization for both therapists and clients. Learning models may also benefit therapists-in-training by instilling confidence and preventing atheoretical eclecticism. The moderate common factors perspective argues that models are essential, but should not be taught as "the absolute truth," given there is no evidence for relative efficacy of one empirically validated model versus another, and no single model works in all instances. The following article provides a blueprint for infusing a common factors perspective into MFT programmes by reviewing innovations in course design, outlining specific teaching strategies, and highlighting potential implementation challenges.

  18. Improving the quality of care in Chinese family planning programme.

    Jiang, Y; Geng, Q; Haffey, J; Douglas, E


    The Chinese State Family Planning Commission (SFPC) is the government department responsible for coordinating and implementing the national population and family planning programs. The commission includes about 300,000 family planning workers and 50 million volunteers. Community workers provide IEC and technical services to couples of reproductive age. In July 1991, SFPC began a five year project to train rural family planning workers in contraceptive technology and interpersonal communication and counseling. These workers were important because of their service to a population of 800 million or 75% of total population. The training program was part of an effort to standardize training and institutionalize it throughout the country. The project involved 20 pilot training stations in 19 provinces. The primary task was to train family planning workers at the grassroots level. 80,000 persons were expected to be trained during the five years. Activities included a training needs assessment, development of training curricula and programs, training of workers, and monitoring and evaluation. Training techniques and topics will include participatory training methods, interpersonal communication and counseling, development of audience based training methods, issues of contraceptive choice and quality of care, and counseling issues such as sexually transmitted disease and HIV infection prevention. About 40,000 family planning workers and volunteers were trained by 1992 in counties, townships, and villages. Trainees learned about "informed choice" and the importance of counseling. Feedback from training activities focused on the appreciation for the participatory training methods such as brainstorming, case study, and role play. Workers appreciated the process involved in training as well as the information received. Evaluation showed that clients improved their knowledge and had positive interactions with workers.

  19. [Implementation and expansion of family planning services: questions and controversies].

    Canesqui, A M


    Even though the Brazilian government's position on birth control in the last few years has been ambiguous, it is moving away from the pro-life attitude that was prevalent in the 1960s and through the mid-1970s. The economic conditions during this period created a sense of urgency in establishing family planning programs to divert possible economic and social repercussions. The creation and expansion of family planning services in the last 2 decades have improved the distribution of contraceptives, related health care, and research. The problems of birth control and family planning are the same in Brazil as in the rest of the world. There is and always will be a moral, ethical, religious, or political question from the groups that traditionally oppose these concepts. The theme of responsible birth control is 1 of the tools used in the attempt to get the message across. Some results of irresponsible birth control are abortions, poverty, and misery. Proposals for integrating the various family planning services have not been implemented due to a lack of priorities in spending the available funds. Most of these health groups place responsibility for providing these methods of family planning upon the State. The groups say the State needs to consider women's freedom, sexuality and personal preferences in providing the family planning programs. A few groups prefer private sector sponsorship in order to preserve the woman's options concerning health care. The need for health care and the question of democracy both need to be taken into consideration when dealing with human reproduction. Attention should also be paid to the quality of health service, in order to guarantee less distortion of the issue and provide better medical care for all.

  20. [Family intervention according to Roy. Planning, execution and evaluation].

    de Montigny, F


    Last month, the author presented the first two steps necessary in the development of a nursing care plan. This care plan utilized Sister Callista Roy's conceptual model and was designed to evaluate the family system. The readers became familiar with the Joly family, whose family system was evaluated (this included Diane and Jessie). Analysis of the collected data identified two nursing diagnoses and the author explained the way that nursing diagnosis is derived. The first identified nursing diagnosis revealed a threat to the beneficiary, the second diagnosis revealed a threat to the family system. This second article is devoted to the three other steps involved in the development of a nursing care plan that will assist the nurse in developing a systematic strategy in caring for this type of family. The planning step consists of the identification of objectives for care. These objectives must be specific, measurable and realistic as well as able to answer the question: "What changes are intended for this family?" Suggestions are offered for objective development. Once the objectives are finalized, the nurse chooses pertinent and realistic interventions that permit her/him, as well as Diane, to attain the identified objectives. The nurse's interventions are centred around stimuli that are increased, decreased or maintained by the goal of modifying or reinforcing observed behaviors. In the care plan example developed for the Joly family, the identified interventions are not all inclusive and serve as suggestions. During the course of the interventions the nurse must constantly readjust and adapt the interventions to fit with changing needs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Factors determining family planning in Catalonia. Sources of inequity

    Saurina Carme


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In recent decades, the foreign population in Spain has increased significantly, particularly for Catalonia, an autonomous region of Spain (2.90% in 2000 and 15.95% in 2010 and in particular Girona province (6.18% in 2000 and 21.55% in 2010. Several studies have shown a lower use of family planning methods by immigrants. This same trend is observed in Spain. The objective of this paper is to determine the existence of differences and possible sources of inequity in the use of family planning methods among health service users in Catalonia (Spain by sex, health status, place of birth and socioeconomic conditions. Methods Data were taken from an ad-hoc questionnaire which was compiled following a qualitative stage of individual interviews. Said questionnaire was administered to 1094 Catalan public health service users during 2007. A complete descriptive analysis was carried out for variables related to public health service users’ sociodemographic characteristics and variables indicating knowledge and use of family planning methods, and bivariate relationships were analysed by means of chi-square contrasts. Considering the use (or non-use of family planning methods as a dependent variable and a set of demographic, socioeconomic and health status variables as explanatory factors, the relationship was modelled using mixed models. Results The analysed sample is comprised of 54.3% women and 45.7% men, with 74.3% natives (or from the EU and 25.7% economic immigrants. 54.8% use some method of family planning, the condom (46.7% and the pill (28.0% being the two most frequently used methods. Statistical modelling indicates that those factors which most influence the use of family planning methods are level of education (30.59% and 39.29% more likelihood and having children over 14 (35.35% more likelihood. With regard to the origin of the user, we observe that patients from North Africa,sub. Saharan Africa and Asia are less likely to

  2. Natural family planning works in a Bukidnon town.

    Toledo, R


    Natural family planning is being actively promoted in a pineapple plantation of the Philippine Packing Corporation (PPC) located in northern Bukidnon province. Prospective acceptors attend 4 seminars which cover sex education and instruction on natural family planning methods. The goal of the program is family life and marriage enrichment rather than family size limitation. Thus, there is no target number of acceptors. Early acceptors used the basal body temperature method, but this was subsequently replaced by the sympto-thermal method. Participants report that the close observation of physical changes required by the natural family planning method has enabled them to be more aware of their bodies and more appreciative of themselves. Laypersons work closely with acceptor couples. There are 6 fulltime grassroots motivators and 23 camp motivators. Affiliated with the Family Life Commission of the Catholic Bishops Conference of the Philippines, the program is also supported by the Phillips Memorial Hospital and is part of the PPC's barrio assistance program. The corporation actively supports self-help projects in the plantation areas.

  3. Family Planning Supply Environment in Kinshasa, DRC: Survey Findings and Their Value in Advancing Family Planning Programming

    Kayembe, Patrick; Babazadeh, Saleh; Dikamba, Nelly; Akilimali, Pierre; Hernandez, Julie; Binanga, Arsene; Bertrand, Jane T


    Background: Modern contraceptive prevalence was 14.1% in 2007 in Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Yet virtually nothing was known about the family planning supply environment. Methods: Three surveys of health facilities were conducted in 2012, 2013, and 2014 to determine the number, spatial distribution, and attributes of sites providing family planning services. The 2012 and 2013 surveys aimed to identify the universe of family planning facilities while obtaining a limited set of data on “readiness” to provide family planning services (defined as having at least 3 modern methods, at least 1 person training in family planning in the last 3 years, and an information system to track distribution of products to clients) and output (measured by couple-years of protection, or CYP). In contrast, the 2014 survey, conducted under the umbrella of the Performance Monitoring and Accountability 2020 (PMA2020) project, was based on 2-stage cluster sampling. This article provides detailed analysis of the 2012 and 2013 surveys, including bivariate and multivariate analysis of correlates of readiness to provide services and of output. Results: We identified 184 health facilities that reported providing at least 1 contraceptive method in 2012 and 395 facilities in 2013. The percentage of sites defined as “ready” to provide services increased from 44.1% in 2012 to 63.3% in 2013. For the 3-month period between January and March 2013, facilities distributed between 0 and 879.2 CYP (mean, 39.7). Nearly half (49%) of the CYP was attributable to implants, followed by IUDs (24%), CycleBeads (11%), and injectables (8%). In 2013, facilities supported by PEPFAR (n = 121) were more likely than other facilities to be rated as ready to provide services (Pplanning implementing agencies (Pplanning in the DRC in many ways, including mobilizing partners to increase contraceptive access and increasing donor investment in family planning in the DRC

  4. The National Family Planning Program: its impact on perinatal mortality.

    Arshat, H; Kader, H A; Ali, J; Noor Laily Abu Bakar


    The aim of this investigation is to study the effect of family planning on declining maternal and infant mortality rates in Malaysia since the National Family Planning Program began operation in May, 1967. Data were derived from the registration of vital events and reports from the Malaysian Family Life Survey conducted in 1978, and demonstrate declines in maternal and infant mortality rates. Although this is a result of a combination of factors (e.g., socioeconomic development, high quality health and medical services) the contribution of family planning is significant. Between 1957 and 1980 the maternal mortality rate declined by 80%. High risk births declined from 10.2% to 8.2% for mothers under age 20, and from 15% to 13.7% for mothers over age 35 during the 1967-1977 decade. From 1955 - 1980 the infant mortality rate declined by 68.2% to a level of 24.9/1000 live births; this may be partly due to the shift to lower order births (and therefore low risk) as a result of better family planning. Perinatal mortality declined 6.7% in the pre-implementation years (1957 - 1967) and 19.8% in the post-implementation years (1967 - 1977). Low birthweight is a significant correlate of infant survival, and data from this study indicate that birthweights increase with maternal age up to 30-34 years, then begin to decrease. Birthweights are also lower (and infant mortality higher) for babies born at birth intervals of less than 15 months. Therefore, concerted efforts in family planning education need to be directed to vulnerable groups such as young mothers (under 19) and older mothers (over 40).

  5. Dr. Haryono Suyono, National Family Planning Coordinating Board, Indonesia.


    The goal of the Indonesian family planning program has been to institutionalize both the concept and the norm of a small, happy and prosperous family in a manner that is acceptable to all. To this end, a larger role for the private sector in family planning (FP) has been promoted. While the government program has been very effective in the villages, it was not as effective in the urban areas where there are more diverse populations. Several meetings were held to develop a strategy for FP programs in the urban areas involving both the nongovernment organizations (NGOs) and commercial enterprises. It was agreed that several model programs would be developed through the NGOs with funds coming from both international health organizations and the National Family Planning Coordinating Board. It was hoped that the NGOs would develop into self-sufficient organizations. 1 urban activity that has just started is a specially designed social marketing project aimed at increasing the involvement and commitment of males through a condom distribution scheme. Another promising development is the shifting of the management and implementation of FP programs from the government to the community itself. A primary emphasis is to activate the private sector to expand its role in providing FP information and services. The overall strategy is to create a climate that will make it easier for people to increase their role in family planning service delivery and acceptance through mobilization of resources, funds, facilities and infrastructure so that acceptors will gradually pay for family planning services by themselves according to their needs.

  6. [Child survival, fertility, and family planning in Africa. Uncertain prospects].

    Mbacke, C


    This work summarizes a paper by Cynthia B. Lloyd and Serguey Ivanov entitled "The Effects of Improved Child Survival on Family Planning Practice and Fertility" that was presented at the October 1987 conference in Nairobi on the health benefits of family planning for women and children. The paper presented results of a systematic literature review that sought to answer 2 questions: 1) do improved prospects of child survival reduce fertility, and 2) if so, what role does family planning play in the process. The 4 parts of the study defined the theoretical framework of the analysis, examined socioeconomic factors that could influence family building strategies, reviewed empiric research on the subject, and discussed policy implications. Improved survival prospects for children have 4 different effects which promote fertility decline. The transition effect refers to the parents' growing awareness that they can influence future events. The physiologic effect results when lactation is uninterrupted by early death of the child. When fertility behavior becomes more calculated and less fatalistic, demand and supply effects enter into play. The relationship between fertility and mortality is 2-directional. Socioeconomic factors determine the number of surviving children desired by a couple. In the traditionally agricultural societies of sub-Saharan Africa, the economic value of children far exceeds their costs, which at any rate are shared by the extended family and the community at large. The age distribution of death largely determines the predictability of child survival. High mortality after the 1st year as in Sahel countries which have the highest child morality rates in the world is unfavorable to family planning. The distribution of causes of death is also important because parents are more likely to notice improved survival prospects and change their fertility expectations accordingly if they themselves helped improve conditions rather than merely benefitting from

  7. [Analysis of the demand for family planning].

    Mostajo, P; Foreit, K


    Fertility intentions and reproductive risk were used to segment Peru's potential market for contraceptives using data from the 1991-92 Demographic and Health Survey. The four programmatic groups of fertile-aged women in union included 41.4% not wanting more children and at high risk, 30.5% not wanting more children and at moderate or low risk, 12.8% wanting to space, and 15.4% wanting a child in the near future. 84.6% of fertile-aged married women thus needed a contraceptive method to avoid unwanted pregnancy or high risk pregnancy. A range of appropriate methods was identified for each of the four programmatic groups based on method efficacy, clinical contraindications, and legal restrictions. Projections of the prevalence, method mix, and sources of service took into account the range of appropriate methods, local preferences for particular methods, local availability of health posts and infrastructure, and the rational use of limited resources. The four programmatic groups were disaggregated by age to take into account recommendations for use of oral contraceptives, surgical sterilization, and IUDs. The segmentation by source of supply was done separately for type of method and rural or urban residence. Marital status, proportion of fertile-aged women, socioeconomic status and other factors were heterogeneously distributed within and between the 13 planning regions. An estimated 7% of women were infertile, 23.9% were at low reproductive risk, 25.6% at medium risk, and 50.5% at high risk because of age, parity, or a history of abortion, neonatal death, prematurity, or cesarean delivery. Among women not wanting more children at high and medium or at low risk, respectively, 66.6% and 65.1% were using a method, but only 30.0% and 32.0% were using an appropriate method. The projected method mix and sources of supply are presented for Lima as an illustration of application of the methodology. The projected method mix for Lima eliminates use of natural methods

  8. Partner Support for Family Planning and Modern Contraceptive Use ...


    factors, couple communication about family planning, and fertility preferences are ... between the meaning of approval and encouragement should be explored. ... pour étudier la relation entre l'approbation perçue du mari /du partenaire et ...

  9. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Family Planning Services Offered by ...


    Keywords: Mobile clinics; Staic clinic; Family planning; Cost-effectiveness. Résumé ... revealed surprisingly low use of mobile clinic services ... provider point of view. Cost data ..... this is an even more attractive strategy than tying free IUDs to ...

  10. Knowledge, sources and use of family planning methods among ...

    -49 years in Uganda: a ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... of where to obtain correct family planning (FP) information and methods can be a ... methods is almost universal and that six in ten women use any FP method.

  11. Filling the Family Planning Gap. Worldwatch Paper 12.

    Stokes, Bruce

    The author provides a global review of family planning techniques and their impact on national birth rates. Sterilization, the pill, and intrauterine devices are the most popular methods of contraception worldwide. Abortion, where it is legal, is also extremely popular. In countries such as the United States where population control is not an…

  12. Awareness, Use, and Unmet Need for Family Planning in Rural ...

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Awareness, Use, and Unmet Need for Family Planning in Rural ... India in the number of maternal deaths1,2. In ... for International Development of the United .... households within each selected community were ..... preaching sessions, radio jingles, and television ... stakeholders on the challenges documented here.

  13. Motivations for Adolescents' First Visit to a Family Planning Clinic.

    Schwartz, Dana Belmonte; Darabi, Katherine F.


    New adolescent patients (N=150) at a large urban clinic were interviewed to determine what events or advice led to their decision to approach a family planning clinic for the first time. The roles of pregnancy scares, advice from significant others, and situational factors in motivating service use are presented. Program implications of these…

  14. Family Planning for Inner-City Adolescent Males: Pilot Study.

    Reis, Janet; And Others


    Describes a pilot family planning program in an inner-city pediatric practice. Male adolescents were more likely to accept contraceptives if the provider first raised the topic of birth control to them. Identified a desire for anonymity/confidentiality and embarrassment or discomfort as the key reasons for not seeking contraceptives. Emphasizes…

  15. Male attitudes to family planning education in Santiago, Chile.

    Hall, M F


    Male attitudes toward family planning education were assessed through a study of 720 men in Santiago and 240 men in a nearby rural area of Chile. Interviews were conducted by male students at the University of Chile School of Public Health. A large majority of the men were using or planned to use contraception in the future. There was a near consensus that adults should be informed regarding family planning. More than a majority of the respondents favored provision of contraceptive information for unmarried women, but most did not approve of premarital sexual activity for females. Most respondents favored the teaching of sex education in schools "according to the age of the children." Younger and higher class males tended to hold the most liberal attitudes.

  16. Federal Republic of Germany: family planning, family policy and demographic policy.

    Zuhlke, W


    Decades of social change in West Germany and the emergence of an ideology that stresses individualism have altered dramatically procreative behavioral patterns. At present, West Germany is characterized by a low marriage rate (6.1/1000 in 1986), declining fertility (10.3 birth/1000), rising divorce rates (20.1/1000), and increases in the proportion of single-person households (34%). The relationship between family planning, family policy, and demographic policy is unclear and changing. Family planning practice is viewed as a part of comprehensive life planning and is based on factors such as partnership or marital status, sex roles, the conflict between working in the home and having a career, consumer aspirations, and housing conditions. The Government's family policy includes the following components: child benefits, tax relief on children, tax splitting arrangements for married couples, childcare allowance, parental leave, student grants, tax deductions for domiciliary professional help and nursing assistance, and the provision of daycare. Thus, West Germany's family policy is directed more at encouraging and facilitating parenthood and family life than at a setting demographic goals. There is no evidence, however, that such measures will be successful and divergent influences of other policy areas are often more compelling. Nor is there any way to quantify the fertility-costing impact of individual family policy measures. The indistinct nature of family planning policy in West Germany mirrors political differences between the current coalition government, which maintains a traditional view of the family, and the opposition Social-Democratic and Green Parties, which question whether the equality of men and women can be achieved in the context of old family structures.

  17. Factors affecting unmet need for family planning in Eastern Sudan

    Ali Abdel Aziem A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the developing countries millions of women in the reproductive age who don’t use contraceptives prefer to postpone or limit their birth. This indicates their failure to take necessary decision to prevent and avoid unwanted pregnancy. Methods A community-based cross sectional household survey was conducted to investigate unmet need for family planning and associated factors and total demand for family planning in Kassala, Eastern Sudan between 1st May and 31st July 2012. Results A total of 812 married women were enrolled in this study. Their mean age and parity was 31.8 (7.3 and 3.4 (1.8 respectively. Ever use of contraception was 25.4% (206/812 and 26.2% (213/812 were currently using contraception. Unmet need for spacing was 15.1% while unmet need for limiting was 0.7%. The pregnant and amenorrheic women whose the pregnancy or birth was unwanted and mistimed were 105 (13% and 130 (16% respectively. Using Westoff model the total unmet need was estimated as 44.8%. The total demand for family planning was 71%. In logistic regression model, while age, age at marriage, parity, residence and experience of child death were not associated with total unmet need for family planning, women education P=0.00, husband education P = 0.00 and woman’s occupation; housewife (OR=4.3; CI=2.5-7.2; P=0.00 were associated with the total unmet need. Conclusions Unmet need for family planning in Eastern Sudan was significantly higher among women with less than secondary education. Also; it is influenced by couple’s educational status and woman’s occupation. The results of this study necessitate the need for the programme managers to take into account the concept of reproductive health education.

  18. Planning parenthood: Health care providers' perspectives on pregnancy intention, readiness, and family planning.

    Stevens, Lindsay M


    A major health care goal in the United States is increasing the proportion of pregnancies that are planned. While many studies examine family planning from the perspective of individual women or couples, few investigate the perceptions and practices of health care providers, who are gatekeepers to medicalized fertility control. In this paper, I draw on 24 in-depth interviews with providers to investigate how they interpret and enact the objective to "plan parenthood" and analyze their perspectives in the context of broader discourses about reproduction, family planning, and motherhood. Interviews reveal two central discourses: one defines pregnancy planning as an individual choice, that is as patients setting their own pregnancy intentions; the second incorporates normative expectations about what it means to be ready to have a baby that exclude poor, single, and young women. In the latter discourse, planning is a broader process of achieving middle-class life markers like a long-term relationship, a good job, and financial stability, before having children. Especially illuminating are cases where a patient's pregnancy intention and the normative expectations of "readiness" do not align. With these, I demonstrate that providers may prioritize normative notions of readiness over a patient's own intentions. I argue that these negotiations of intention and readiness reflect broader tensions in family planning and demonstrate that at times the seemingly neutral notion of "planned parenthood" can mask a source of stratification in reproductive health care.

  19. Comparison of Families with and without a Suicide Prevention Plan Following a Suicidal Attempt by a Family Member.

    Cho, Heung-Don; Kim, Nam-Young; Gil, Hyo-wook; Jeong, Du-shin; Hong, Sae-yong


    The frequency and extent of the existence of a familial suicide prevention plan may differ across cultures. The aim of this work was, therefore, to determine how common it was for families to develop a suicide prevention plan and to compare the main measures used by families with and without such a plan, after an attempt to commit suicide was made by a member of a family living in a rural area of Korea. On the basis of the presence or absence of a familial suicide prevention plan, we compared 50 recruited families that were divided into 2 groups, with Group A (31 families) employing a familial suicide prevention plan after a suicide attempt by a family member, and Group B (19 families) not doing so. The strategy that was employed most frequently to prevent a reoccurrence among both populations was promoting communication among family members, followed by seeking psychological counseling and/or psychiatric treatment. Contrary to our expectation, the economic burden from medical treatment after a suicide attempt did not influence the establishment of a familial suicide prevention plan. It is a pressing social issue that 38% (19 of 50) of families in this study did not employ a familial suicide prevention plan, even after a family member had attempted suicide. Regional suicide prevention centers and/or health authorities should pay particular attention to these patients and their families.

  20. [Encouragement of the national family planning program in Rwanda].

    Weis, P


    Pronatalist attitudes are traditional in Rwanda, a country in which more than 90% of the population lives by peasant agriculture and the Catholic church is strong. A rapid change in thinking will be inevitable if the country is to attain its goal of food self-sufficiency and to improve the health of its mothers and infants. Population densities were already high in Rwanda in the early 20th century, and they have become much higher. The total population increased from an estimated 2 million around 1940 to 4 million in 1970 and about 6 million in 1984. If the current rate of growth of 3.7% is maintained, the population will exceed 10 million before the year 2000. Already the size of the average farm is only .4 hectare. The health situation is equally alarming. Infant and child mortality rates are each about 125/1000 live births. The high death rate among mothers is partly due to too many births, too closely spaced. At age 49 a Rwandan woman will have given birth to an average of 8.5 children. Prematurity, malnutrition, and diarrhea and other diseases take their toll on the children of chronically exhausted mothers. Family planning alone will not solve the problems; better prenatal care, medical surveillance of infants and young children, improved obstetrical facilities, vaccination programs, oral rehydration programs and a range of other services are needed. The government of Rwanda created the Scientific Consultative Council for Sociodemographic Problems in 1974 and the National Office of Population (ONAPO) in 1981. ONAPO is responsible for promotion and provision of family planning services. A project to increase acceptance of family planning in the 2 prefectures of Butare and Gikongoro and to integrate family planning into maternal-child health services has received support from the German government since 1986. The 1st phase of the project, in 1986-87, involved informing the population and political-administrative authorities of Gikongoro of the benefits of

  1. The politics of Latin American family-planning policy.

    Weaver, J L


    In population planning in Latin America the programs are as successful as the government's support of family planning. Colombia is one of the few Latin American countries which has actively exhorted its populace to birth control. If the propensity for large families reflects a belief in the economic or social utility of children, instead of machismo, birthrates will fall with expanded social security and economic welfare programs. If birthrates are the result of machismo, new gender models stressing the positive rewards and social esteem to be gained through responsible parenthood would have to be taught to both adults and children. The position profamily planning in most Latin American countries is generally supported by the ministers, technocrats, corporations, businessmen, middle-class women, doctors, mass media, protestant congregations, and working-class women. Family planning is usually opposed by members of the armed forces, Catholic hierarchy, Catholic lay organizations, oligarchy, university students, leftist intellectuals, Marxist insurgents, Indian communities, and peasants. The portion of the total national populations encompassed by the groups composing the core combination, ideological bias, and stability group ranges from 50-60% in Argentina, Uruguay, and Venezuela to 10-20% in Central America, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Paraguay. Most groups are outside the policy-making process.

  2. Planning for the succession process among Galician family businesses. Brief comparison with Portuguese family businesses

    Susana Barbeito Roibal


    Full Text Available A research project on Galician family owned businesses, financed by the University of A Coruña from 2004 to 2005, analyzed results from 57 of these companies that earned a profit of more than 5 million euro in 2003. One of the aspects examined in this project, which is the aim of this article, shows the importance that Galician family business owners pay to the planning for the succession process. Literature on family owned businesses emphasizes the importance of planning in successful occurrences. The obtained results increasingly show changes in the significance that the Galician family business owners give to our focus of study, almost reaching the level of importance that literature has given to the succession process in the last decade.

  3. Career Planning in Harmony with Family Values and Needs

    Dubey, Archana


    Balancing career and family! Balancing what you love and who you love!! It is such an attention getting topic. And yet, if you really think about it, people have been doing it for ages. What makes it challenging in today's world is the dual income families that throw off-balance of traditional style of balancing family and profession. Balancing family and career is not as difficult. The question is more meaningful when you ask how do you find the right balance, and in fact, what is the right balance? How do you know you are there? Happiness at home and self esteem due to work is genderless issue however, it is essentially talked more in the context of women. Some of the things that could be helpful in achieving the right balance, are time management, proper prioritization, asking for help, a caring family, friends, and most importantly colleagues. In the portfolio of professional passions, it is important to identify the areas that are conducive to possibilities of changing family needs, international families, spouse's career and job relocation, etc. So, the bottom line question is whether it is possible to find a right balance between family and career? I would submit to you that with passion, courage, open- mindedness, and proper career planning, it is definitely possible. We just need to utilize the same techniques in choosing and sustaining the right balance that we use in identifying research topics and executing it. This discussion will look into further details of the challenges of balancing family and career from the perspective of also an immigrant, and possible ways of overcoming them.

  4. Family medicine residents' practice intentions: Theory of planned behaviour evaluation.

    Grierson, Lawrence E M; Fowler, Nancy; Kwan, Matthew Y W


    To assess residents' practice intentions since the introduction of the College of Family Physicians of Canada's Triple C curriculum, which focuses on graduating family physicians who will provide comprehensive care within traditional and newer models of family practice. A survey based on Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour was administered on 2 occasions. McMaster University in Hamilton, Ont. Residents (n = 135) who were enrolled in the Department of Family Medicine Postgraduate Residency Program at McMaster University in July 2012 and July 2013; 54 of the 60 first-year residents who completed the survey in 2012 completed it again in 2013. The survey was modeled so as to measure the respondents' intentions to practise with a comprehensive scope; determine the degree to which their attitudes, subjective norms, and perceptions of control about comprehensive practice influence those intentions; and investigate how these relationships change as residents progress through the curriculum. The survey also queried the respondents about their intentions with respect to particular medical services that underpin comprehensive practice. The responses indicate that the factors modeled by the theory of planned behaviour survey account for 60% of the variance in the residents' intentions to adopt a comprehensive scope of practice upon graduation, that there is room for curricular improvement with respect to encouraging residents to practise comprehensive care, and that targeting subjective norms about comprehensive practice might have the greatest influence on improving resident intentions. The theory of planned behaviour presents an effective approach to assessing curricular effects on resident practice intentions while also providing meaningful information for guiding further program evaluation efforts in the Department of Family Medicine at McMaster University.

  5. Participation by clients and nurse midwives in family planning decision making in Indonesia.

    Kim, Y.; Kols, A.; Putjuk, F.; Heerey, M.; Rinehart, W.; Elwyn, G.; Edwards, A.


    In order to enhance understanding of the quality of decision making during family planning consultations in developing countries, provider competencies and client behaviors during 179 randomly selected consultations in Indonesia were assessed. Results show that family planning clients make a

  6. Family planning in Guinea: a need for better public commitment.

    Delamou, Alexandre; Koivogui, Akoi; Dubourg, Dominique; Delvaux, Thérèse


    To describe the evolution of family planning (FP) in Guinea and to identify strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the current FP programme. Descriptive study of the evolution of FP in Guinea between 1992 and 2010. First, national laws as well as health policies and strategic plans related to reproductive health and family planning were reviewed. Second, FP indicators were extracted from the Guinean Demographic and Health Surveys (1992, 1999 and 2005). Third, FP services, sources of supply and data on FP funding were analysed. Laws, policies and strategic plans in Guinea are supportive of FP programme and services. Public and private actors are not sufficiently coordinated. The general government expenditure on health has remained stable at 6-7% between 2005 and 2011 despite a doubling of total expenditures on health, and contraceptives are supplied by foreign aid. Modern contraceptive prevalence slightly increased from 1.5% in 1992 to 6.8% in 2005 among women aged 15-49. A stronger national engagement in favour of repositioning FP should result in improved government funding of the FP programme and the promotion of long-acting and permanent methods. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Screening family planning needs: an operations research project in Guatemala

    Burkhart Marianne


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public sector health care providers in rural Guatemala have infrequently offered family planning information and services in routine visits. This operations research project tested a strategy to modify certain practices that prevent health workers from proactively screening clients' needs and meeting them. Methods The research design was quasi-experimental with a pretest-posttest-follow-up comparison group design. Health districts, which comprise health centers and posts, were purposively assigned to intervention or comparison groups to assure comparability of the two groups. The strategy was based on a job-aid designed to guide health workers in screening clients' reproductive intentions and family planning needs, help them to offer contraceptive methods if the woman expressed interest, and facilitate the provision of the method chosen at the time of the visit. The strategy was implemented at intervention sites during a period of six months. Upon completion of post-intervention measurements, the strategy was scaled up to the comparison sites, and a follow-up assessment was conducted nine months later. Results were evaluated by conducting three rounds of exit interviews with women exposed to the risk of unwanted pregnancy. Results Study results showed a two to five-fold increase in providers' screening of clients' reproductive intentions. The proportion of clients who received information about contraceptives increased from 8% at the baseline to 42% immediately post-intervention, and 36% at the follow-up survey. The intervention also proved successful in improving the role service providers play in offering women a chance to ask questions and assisting women in making a selection. The proportion of women who received a method, referral or appointment increased and remained high in the intervention group, although no change was seen in the comparison group after their participation in the strategy. Conclusion The easy

  8. Planning Development for a Family Planning Centre in Nursing Unit of the General Hospital of Argolida

    Koukoufilippou J


    Full Text Available Introduction: The family planning centres must be upgraded to a cornerstone of primary health care, and prevent, advise and protect the citizen's health while reducing hospitalization costs for hospitals. Aim: The purpose of this literature review is the family planning centre development in general hospital of Argolida that has a similar clinic. Material and Methods: Literature review was conducted of published English and Greek Articles from bibliographic databases Medline, Google Scholar and Scopus for the period 2001-2014, using keywords like: "Family Planning», «SWOT analysis", "functional design" "prevention", "health promotion", "economic cost". The option of creating inpatient center was made after analysis SWOT, by defining objectives, performance indicators and existing alternatives. Also the timing of implementation and functional design, provide the springboard effort for effective operation. Conclusions: The development of family planning centres in the country and abroad is designed to address very important problems in the bud, in order to improve the quality of citizens' health, then reduce the financial burden on the health system as a result of prevention, and contribute indirectly to the mental balance of citizens.

  9. World population growth, family planning, and American foreign policy.

    Sharpless, J


    The US decision since the 1960s to link foreign policy with family planning and population control is noteworthy for its intention to change the demographic structure of foreign countries and the magnitude of the initiative. The current population ideologies are part of the legacy of 19th century views on science, morality, and political economy. Strong constraints were placed on US foreign policy since World War II, particularly due to presumptions about the role of developing countries in Cold War ideology. Domestic debates revolved around issues of feminism, birth control, abortion, and family political issues. Since the 1960s, environmental degradation and resource depletion were an added global dimension of US population issues. Between 1935 and 1958 birth control movements evolved from the ideologies of utopian socialists, Malthusians, women's rights activists, civil libertarians, and advocates of sexual freedom. There was a shift from acceptance of birth control to questions about the role of national government in supporting distribution of birth control. Immediately postwar the debates over birth control were outside political circles. The concept of family planning as a middle class family issue shifted the focus from freeing women from the burdens of housework to making women more efficient housewives. Family planning could not be taken as a national policy concern without justification as a major issue, a link to national security, belief in the success of intervention, and a justifiable means of inclusion in public policy. US government involvement began with agricultural education, technological assistance, and economic development that would satisfy the world's growing population. Cold War politics forced population growth as an issue to be considered within the realm of foreign policy and diplomacy. US government sponsored family planning was enthusiastic during 1967-74 but restrained during the 1980s. The 1990s has been an era of redefinition of

  10. Discontinuity of Family Planning in Nigeria: A Geo-Additive Model ...


    West African Journal of Industrial & Academic Research Vol.14 No.1 June 2015. 61. Discontinuity of Family Planning in ... Keywords: Bayesian inference, family planning, Nigeria, spatial analysis .... newspaper/magazine), number of children, reasons for .... Studies in Family Planning 45(2): 247 - 262. 6. Ezegwui, H.U. ...

  11. Provider barriers to family planning access in urban Kenya.

    Tumlinson, Katherine; Okigbo, Chinelo C; Speizer, Ilene S


    A better understanding of the prevalence of service provider-imposed barriers to family planning can inform programs intended to increase contraceptive use. This study, based on data from urban Kenya, describes the frequency of provider self-reported restrictions related to clients' age, parity, marital status, and third-party consent, and considers the impact of facility type and training on restrictive practices. Trained data collectors interviewed 676 service providers at 273 health care facilities in five Kenyan cities. Service providers were asked questions about their background and training and were also asked about age, marital, parity, or consent requirements for providing family planning services. More than half of providers (58%) reported imposing minimum age restrictions on one or more methods. These restrictions were commonly imposed on clients seeking injectables, a popular method in urban Kenya, with large numbers refusing to offer injectables to women younger than 20 years. Forty-one percent of providers reported that they would not offer one or more methods to nulliparous women and more than one in four providers reported that they would not offer the injectable to women without at least one child. Providers at private facilities were significantly more likely to impose barriers, across all method types, and those without in-service training on family planning provision had a significantly higher prevalence of imposing parity, marital, and consent barriers across most methods. Programs need to address provider-imposed barriers that reduce access to contraceptive methods particularly among young, lower parity, and single women. Promising strategies include targeting private facility providers and increasing the prevalence of in-service training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Relationship between Social Media for Social Marketing in Family Planning



    Full Text Available This research aims to examine the influence of marketing mix carried out media performance social media portal on attitude towards a social marketing program,and its relationship with source credibility of the portal. This study was focused on "Generasi Berencana" Program (Generation with Plan Program, a program aimed at educating the youth on family planning The Research employed Structural Equations Modeling (SEM. Based on data from 150 respondents it can be concluded that in social marketing programs, source credibility, engagement, word of mouth have positive influence on the formation of behavior, but awareness of a program is not found to influence formation of behavior. This research also obtained findings that attitudes influence behavioral intention, but subjective norms is not positively influence the formation of behavioral intentions.

  13. A sensitive approach to family planning motivation in Malaysia.


    The goals of the Malaysian Family Planning Program are not only to reduce population growth from 3% to 2% by 1985 and to bring the crude birth rate to 28.2 from 30.3, but to generally improve the health of the family, and to enhance the government's efforts to raise the per capita income. The work program is divided into the Creative Unit, the Media Unit, the Production Unit, and the Field Diffusion Unit. The objectives are to build up strong support from political, community, and opinion leaders, and to run educational campaigns aimed at motivating potential acceptors. The program also runs centers training medical and paramedical personnel. The program is combined with development programs for women, especially useful among the rural population.

  14. Sewing machines and bank loans, farming and family planning.

    Sai, F A; Nsarkoh, J D


    Half of a $10,000 grant was given by the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) to finance the rural development project activities of Danfa, a village of about 835 people in Ghana. In this community the women are hard working but doubly disadvantaged. Along with a high illiteracy rate, the women are limited by inadequate income due to underemployment, under productivity, unfavorable farming conditions, and a lack of resources. Large families, frequent pregnancies, poor mother and child health, and high infant mortality all make matters worse for both the rural farm wife and her family. The project began with a nucleus of women that soon grew to between 24-30. Members soon formed small groups according to their occupational interests. The women grasped the self-help idea immediately. Once or twice a month there were demonstrations and the group worked together in such activities as making soap and pomade, preparing meals, and sewing. Meetings generally ended with a general group brainstorming and then members gathered in smaller groups to review their activities and plan for the future. During the 1st year of the project the men in the group rarely attended meetings. The group gave priority attention to their community's urgent need for working capital. 15 women farmers who met the criteria determined by the group received loans in the 1st round; only 8 satisfied the criteria in the 2nd round. At the beginning of the small loans scheme, the group decided to seek bigger loans from the bank if members proved credit worthy. This requirement was satisfied, and the group began negotiations for a loan with the Agricultural Development Bank. The group received the total group loan. The Ghana Home Science Association considers the project to be successful in several respects. Team spirit has developed the group, and the women play important and respected roles. Family planning problems are regularly presented for discussion, but it is difficult to correlate

  15. Keeping Kids Safe: Exploring Public/Private Partnerships To Prevent Abuse and Strengthen Families. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families, House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, Second Session.

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

    The text of a hearing on successful efforts to prevent child abuse and strengthen families is presented in this document. After an opening statement by chairwoman Representative Patricia Schroeder, statements are presented by Representatives Robert E. "Bud" Cramer, Jr., Neil Abercrombie, Blackwell, Gerry Sikorski, Matthew Martinez, Frank Wolf,…

  16. Not contradicting the religion. Islam has been putting on emphasis on family planning for 14 centuries.

    Berker, F


    Family planning did not historically and does not in modern times contradict the cultural and religious beliefs of Islamic nations. Family planning services should therefore be made available to people who need them. Family planning should not, however, be forced. It is imperative that couples' fundamental right to freely decide the number and spacing of their children is respected. Couples must be informed and educated to exercise that freedom consciously. The Turkish Family Health and Planning Foundation, a 10-year-old private social organization, actively promotes family planning projects with the goal of reducing the demand for abortion and the related maternal and child mortality. Family remains at the heart of both Turkey and Islam. The Turkish Family Health and Planning Foundation hopes that future generations of families will be happy in their work, well-fed, well-clothed, and well-sheltered, with high levels of educational achievement and ethical and moral values.

  17. The role of family planning in achieving safe pregnancy for serodiscordant couples: commentary from the United States government's interagency task force on family planning and HIV service integration.

    Mason, Jennifer; Medley, Amy; Yeiser, Sarah; Nightingale, Vienna R; Mani, Nithya; Sripipatana, Tabitha; Abutu, Andrew; Johnston, Beverly; Watts, D Heather


    People living with HIV (PLHIV) have the right to exercise voluntary choices about their health, including their reproductive health. This commentary discusses the integral role that family planning (FP) plays in helping PLHIV, including those in serodiscordant relationships, achieve conception safely. The United States (US) President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) is committed to meeting the reproductive health needs of PLHIV by improving their access to voluntary FP counselling and services, including prevention of unintended pregnancy and counselling for safer conception. Inclusion of preconception care and counselling (PCC) as part of routine HIV services is critical to preventing unintended pregnancies and perinatal infections among PLHIV. PLHIV not desiring a current pregnancy should be provided with information and counselling on all available FP methods and then either given the method onsite or through a facilitated referral process. PLHIV, who desire children should be offered risk reduction counselling, support for HIV status disclosure and partner testing, information on safer conception options to reduce the risk of HIV transmission to the partner and the importance of adhering to antiretroviral treatment during pregnancy and breastfeeding to reduce the risk of vertical transmission to the infant. Integration of PCC, HIV and FP services at the same location is recommended to improve access to these services for PLHIV. Other considerations to be addressed include the social and structural context, the health system capacity to offer these services, and stigma and discrimination of providers. Evaluation of innovative service delivery models for delivering PCC services is needed, including provision in community-based settings. The US Government will continue to partner with local organizations, Ministries of Health, the private sector, civil society, multilateral and bilateral donors, and other key stakeholders to strengthen both the policy and

  18. Social desirability bias in family planning studies: a neglected problem.

    Stuart, Gretchen S; Grimes, David A


    Studies on family planning methods traditionally have relied on self-reports of unknown validity and reproducibility. Social desirability bias, a type of information bias, occurs when study participants respond inaccurately - but in ways that will be viewed favorably by others. Several lines of evidence reveal that this bias can be powerful in sexual matters, including reports of coitus, use of contraceptives and induced abortion. For example, studies using vaginal prostate-specific antigen testing reveal underreporting of unprotected coitus and overreporting of barrier contraceptive use. Medication Event Monitoring System studies, which electronically record the time of pill dispensing from a bottle or pack, indicate widespread exaggeration of adherence to pill-taking regimens, including oral contraceptives. Comparisons of provider data and self-reports of induced abortions reveal extensive underreporting of induced abortion. Reliance on self-reported data underestimates contraceptive efficacy. Although techniques to minimize this bias exist, they are infrequently used in family planning studies. Greater skepticism about self-reports and more objective means of documenting coitus and contraceptive use are needed if contraceptive efficacy is to be accurately measured.

  19. "Family planning and population programs" a book review article.

    Hauser, P M


    RESUMEN: El volumen Planeamiento Familiar y Programas de Poblacion es un libro indispensable tanto para demógrafos como para otras personas interesadas en el control de población. Tiene sus limitaciones dodo su caracter heterogéneo, su falta de autocrítica, el no tratar sobre la validez y confiabilidad de las encuestas de conocimientos, attitudes y prácticas (KAP), su injustificado tono optimista, y su fracaso al no explorar y considerar alternativas para las presunciones y premisas sobre las cuales se basan los actuates programas de planeamiento familiar. Es sin embargo un importante hito que resume las contribuciones de las ciencias sociales y biomédicas al campo de la demografía.SummaryThe volume Family Planning and Population Programs is an indispensable book to demographers as well as to others concerned with population control. It is not without limitations because of its heterogeneous character, its lack of self-criticism, its failure to deal with the reliability and validity of KAP surveys, its unwarranted optimistic aura, and its failure to explore and consider alternatives to the basic assumptions and premises on which present family planning programs are based. It is, nevertheless, a landmark in its summarization of the contribution of the social and biomedical sciences to demographic engineering.

  20. Development of a Mobile App for Family Planning Providers.

    Halsall, Viannella; Rogers, Jennifer; Witt, Jacki; Song, Sejun; Nguyen, Hoang Duc Huy; Kelly, Patricia

    To provide an overview of lessons learned during the development process of an app for iOS and Android based on national recommendations for providing quality family planning services. After a review of existing apps was conducted to determine whether an app of clinical recommendations for family planning existed, a team of clinicians, training specialists, and app developers created a resource app by first drafting a comprehensive content map. A prototype of the app was then pilot tested using smart tablets by a volunteer convenience sample of women's healthcare professionals. Outcomes measured included usability, acceptability, download analytics, and satisfaction by clinicians as reported through an investigator-developed tool. Sixty-nine professionals tested a prototype of the app, and completed a user satisfaction tool. Overall, user feedback was positive, and a zoom function was added to the final version as a result of the pilot test. Within 3 months of being publicly available, the app was downloaded 677 times, with 97% of downloads occurring on smart phones, 76% downloads occurring on iOS devices, and 24% on Android devices. This trend persisted throughout the following 3 months. Clinicians with an interest in developing an app should consider a team approach to development, pilot test the app prior to wider distribution, and develop a web-based version of the app to be used by clinicians who are unable to access smart devices in their practice setting.

  1. Postpartum family planning: current evidence on successful interventions

    Blazer C


    Full Text Available Cassandra Blazer, Ndola Prata Bixby Center for Population, Health, and Sustainability, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA Abstract: We reviewed existing evidence of the efficacy of postpartum family planning interventions targeting women in the 12 months postpartum period in low- and middle-income countries. We searched for studies from January 1, 2004 to September 19, 2015, using the US Preventive Services Task Force recommendations to assess evidence quality. Our search resulted in 26 studies: 11 based in sub-Saharan Africa, six in the Middle East and North Africa, and nine in Asia. Twenty of the included studies assessed health facility-based interventions. Three were focused on community interventions, two had community and facility components, and one was a workplace program. Overall quality of the evidence was moderate, including evidence for counseling interventions. Male partner involvement, integration with other service delivery platforms, such as prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and immunization, and innovative product delivery programs may increase knowledge and use during the postpartum period. Community-based and workplace strategies need a much stronger base of evidence to prompt recommendations. Keywords: postpartum period, family planning, birth spacing, interventions, systematic review, contraception, less developed countries

  2. Male Involvement in Family Planning: Challenges and Way Forward

    Ademola Adelekan


    Full Text Available Public health officials have advocated the involvement of men as a strategy for addressing the dismal performance of family planning (FP programmes. This study was therefore designed to explore the challenges and determine way forward to male involvement in FP in Olorunda Local Government Area, Osogbo, Nigeria. This cross-sectional study involved the use of a four-stage sampling technique to select 500 married men and interviewed them using semistructured questionnaire. In addition, four focus group discussions (FGDs were also conducted. Mean age of respondents was 28.5 ± 10.3 years. Some (37.9% of the respondents’ spouse had ever used FP and out of which 19.0% were currently using FP. Only 4.8% of the respondents had ever been involved in FP. Identified barriers to male involvement included the perception that FP is woman’s activity and was not their custom to participate in FP programme. More than half of the FGD discussants were of the view that men should provide their wives with transport fare and other resources they may need for FP. The majority of the respondents had never been involved in family planning with their wives. Community sensitization programmes aimed at improving male involvement in FP should be provided by government and nongovernmental agencies.

  3. Priority strategies for India′s family planning programme

    Saroj Pachauri


    Full Text Available Strategies to accelerate progress of India′s family planning programme are discussed and the importance of improving the quality and reach of services to address unmet contraceptive need by providing method choice is emphasized. Although there is a growing demand for both limiting and spacing births, female sterilisation, is the dominant method in the national programme and use of spacing methods remains very limited. Fertility decline has been slower in the empowered action group (EAG s0 tates which contribute about 40 per cent of population growth to the country and also depict gloomy statistics for other socio-development indicators. It is, therefore, important to intensify efforts to reduce both fertility and mortality in these s0 tates. a0 rationale has been provided for implementing integrated programmes using a gender lens because the lack of women′s autonomy in reproductive decision-making, compounded by poor male involvement in sexual and reproductive health matters, is a fundamental issue yet to be addressed. The need for collaboration between scientists developing contraceptive technologies and those implementing family planning services is underscored. If contraceptive technologies are developed with an understanding of the contexts in which they will be delivered and an appreciation of end-users′ needs and perspectives, they are more likely to be accepted by service providers and used by clients.

  4. [To develop the family planning work deeply through following the working method of "taking three as the keys"].


    In recent years family planning work in China's Rongcheng County has been accomplished through "sudden attacks" on the problem, and although these concentrated work efforts have been successful, nevertheless there have been deleterious effects, e.g., a drain on the leadership such that work is affected, overburdened hospital workloads that lead to surgical mistakes, and pressure on the people's spirits. In order to ameliorate the situation, longterm planning was proposed in 1981 "to take three as the keys," i.e., to take propaganda education as the key in its relationship to economic measures, to take birth control as the key in its relationship to abortion, and to take longterm work as the key in its relationship to shortterm work. In 1981 Roncheng County increased its propaganda education efforts by making family planning the subject of numerous meetings, radio broadcasts, recordings, posters, and drama. It also emphasized positive education (i.e., teaching the good qualities of life conduct) and commended good people and good deeds. Family planning work also strengthened political education, making people aware of the policy of 1 child per family. Due to a sudden rise in unplanned 2nd pregnancies in Roncheng County, the number of abortions was high, so scientific knowledge of contraceptive use was widely disseminated to all fertile women. In order to make family planning function on a continous basis, one must grasp surely and carefully the primary work of organizations at all levels and be systematic in follow-ups. The results of "taking three as the keys" include: for the first 6 months of 1982 the single child rate was 95.63%; contraceptive use was more effective, causing the abortion rate to drop 10.3% from a comparable period in 1981; and 99.52% of 1-child-couples applied for Single Child Certificates.

  5. Experimental plan for the Single-Family Study

    Berry, L.G.; Brown, M.A.; Wright, T.; White, D.L.


    The national evaluation of the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) consists of five separate studies. The Single-Family Study is one of three studies that will estimate program energy savings and cost effectiveness in principal WAP submarkets. This report presents the experimental plan for the Single-Family Study, which will be implemented over the next three years (1991--1993). The Single-Family Study will directly estimate energy savings for a nationally representative sample of single-family and small multifamily homes weatherized in the 1989 program year. Savings will be estimated from gas and electric utility billing records using the Princeton Scorekeeping Method (PRISM). The study will also assess nonenergy impacts (e.g., health, comfort, safety, and housing affordability), estimate cost effectiveness, and analyze factors influencing these outcomes. For homes using fuels such as wood, coal, fuel oil, kerosene, and propane as the primary source of space conditioning, energy savings will be studied indirectly. The study will assemble a large nationally representative data base. A cluster sampling approach will be used, in which about 400 subgrantees are selected in a first stage and weatherized homes are selected in a second range. To ensure that the Single-Family Study is able to identify promising opportunities for future program development, two purposively selected groups of subgrantees will be included: (1) subgrantees that install cooling measures (such as more efficient air conditioning equipment or radiant barriers), and (2) exemplary subgrantees that use state-of-the-art technologies and service delivery procedures (such as advanced audit techniques, blower door tests, infrared scanners, extensive client education, etc.). These two groups of subgrantees will be analyzed to identify the most effective program elements in specific circumstances. 14 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Family Interaction Patterns, Career Planning Attitudes, and Vocational Identity of High School Adolescents

    Hargrove, Byron K.; Inman, Arpana G.; Crane, Randy L.


    The purpose of the current study was to examine how perceptions of family interaction patterns as defined along three dimensions of family environment (quality of family relationships, family goal-orientations, and degree of organization and control within the family system) predict vocational identity and career planning attitudes among male and…


    Anand Mohan Dixit


    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the knowledge of contraceptive methods and intended family size among the men of urban slum.Material and Method: Present study conducted in urban slum area of Jaipur. Information from 400 married men of age group 18-49 years collected on semi structured schedule during June to October 2012.House to house survey conducted to achieve defined sample size. Data were analyzed by using SPSS 12 soft ware. Chi square, t test and ANOVA were used for interpretation.Result and Conclusion: Most commonly known methods of family planning were female sterilization (95.2%, condom (94.7% and Male sterilization (93.5%.  IUCD (57% was still not popularly known method of contraception. Emergency contraceptive pills (12.2% and Injectables (25.7% were least known methods among men. Knowledge of different contraceptive differs according to educational status and caste of men.  TV and radio were main source of information. Only 16% men said that they got information from health personnel. On analysis present family size was 3.125 while desired family size was 2.63, it shows that two child norm is not ideal to all. Men who had already two children 53 % of them still want to expand their family. Approximately half of the men feel that they have larger family size and the main reasons were inappropriate knowledge (37% and ignorance (21%. Those men who want to expand their family size, son preference was the major reason. Only 3% men show the intention of one child as ideal in family, which indicate that one child norm is too far to reach.

  8. National program for family planning and primary health care Pakistan: a SWOT analysis.

    Wazir, Mohammad Salim; Shaikh, Babar Tasneem; Ahmed, Ashfaq


    The National Program for Family Planning and Primary Healthcare was launched in 1994. It is one of the largest community based programs in the world, providing primary healthcare services to about 80 million people, most of which is rural poor. The program has been instrumental in improving health related indicators of maternal and child health in the last two decades. SWOT analysis was used by making recourse to the structure and dynamics of the program as well as searching the literature. Strengths of the program include: comprehensive design of planning, implementation and supervision mechanisms aided by an MIS, selection and recruitments processes and evidence created through improving health impact indicators. Weaknesses identified are slow progress, poor integration of the program with health services at local levels including MIS, and de-motivational factors such as job insecurity and non-payment of salaries in time. Opportunities include further widening the coverage of services, its potential contribution to health system research, and its use in areas other than health like women empowerment and poverty alleviation. Threats the program may face are: political interference, lack of funds, social threats and implications for professional malpractices. Strengthening of the program will necessitate a strong political commitment, sustained funding and a just remuneration to this bare foot doctor of Pakistan, the Lady Health Worker.

  9. Partnerships for Policy Development: A Case Study From Uganda's Costed Implementation Plan for Family Planning.

    Lipsky, Alyson B; Gribble, James N; Cahaelen, Linda; Sharma, Suneeta


    In global health, partnerships between practitioners and policy makers facilitate stakeholders in jointly addressing those issues that require multiple perspectives for developing, implementing, and evaluating plans, strategies, and programs. For family planning, costed implementation plans (CIPs) are developed through a strategic government-led consultative process that results in a detailed plan for program activities and an estimate of the funding required to achieve an established set of goals. Since 2009, many countries have developed CIPs. Conventionally, the CIP approach has not been defined with partnerships as a focal point; nevertheless, cooperation between key stakeholders is vital to CIP development and execution. Uganda launched a CIP in November 2014, thus providing an opportunity to examine the process through a partnership lens. This article describes Uganda's CIP development process in detail, grounded in a framework for assessing partnerships, and provides the findings from 22 key informant interviews. Findings reveal strengths in Uganda's CIP development process, such as willingness to adapt and strong senior management support. However, the evaluation also highlighted challenges, including district health officers (DHOs), who are a key group of implementers, feeling excluded from the development process. There was also a lack of planning around long-term partnership practices that could help address anticipated execution challenges. The authors recommend that future CIP development efforts use a long-term partnership strategy that fosters accountability by encompassing both the short-term goal of developing the CIP and the longer-term goal of achieving the CIP objectives. Although this study focused on Uganda's CIP for family planning, its lessons have implications for any policy or strategy development efforts that require multiple stakeholders to ensure successful execution.

  10. Teaching Families To Collaborate: From a Mad Hatter's Tea Party to Effective Program Planning.

    Schnieders, Christine A.; Tafoya, Anne T.


    Examines the roles, perceptions, and expectations of parents, families, and professionals relating to program planning for persons with disabilities. Guidelines and checklists are provided for families and service providers to improve participation and collaboration in conferences and program-planning meetings. Engaging families in active…

  11. Family-Centered Early Intervention Visual Impairment Services through Matrix Session Planning

    Ely, Mindy S.; Gullifor, Kateri; Hollinshead, Tara


    Early intervention visual impairment services are built on a model that values family. Matrix session planning pulls together parent priorities, family routines, and identified strategies in a way that helps families and early intervention professionals outline a plan that can both highlight long-term goals and focus on what can be done today.…

  12. Advertising family planning in the press: direct response results from Bangladesh.

    Harvey, P D


    In 1977 and again in 1982, a series of couponed ads were run in three major Bangladeshi newspapers to test the relative effectiveness of different family planning themes. The ads offered a free booklet about methods of family planning (1977) or "detailed information on contraceptives" (1982) in the context of family health, the wife's happiness, the children's future, and family economics. The most effective ads, by a highly significant margin, were those stressing the importance of family economics (food and shelter) and the children's (sons') future. The least effective ads stressed the benefits of family planning for the wife.

  13. Strengthening Effective Parenting Practices over the Long Term: Effects of a Preventive Intervention for Parentally Bereaved Families

    Hagan, Melissa J.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Ayers, Tim S.; Luecken, Linda J.


    This study tested the effect of the Family Bereavement Program (FBP), a preventive intervention for bereaved families, on effective parenting (e.g., caregiver warmth, consistent discipline) 6 years after program completion. Families (n = 101; 69% female caregivers; 77% Caucasian, 11% Hispanic) with children between ages 8 and 16 who had…

  14. Institutional Formation of Family Planning in the District Sukabumi and the Bitung

    Moh. Ilham A. Hamudy


    Full Text Available This study is about the implementation of family planning (KB in regional affairs. Nevertheless, this study focuses on the establishment of institutional care and family planning in the area set up. The purpose of this study is to get a complete picture of the role of family planning agencies that had stood alone in implementing family planning matters that have been handed over to the local government. By using the methods of descriptive and qualitative approach, this study found several things. First, there is impression of conflicts of interest (sectoral ego between Ministry of Home Affairs (MoHA and National Population and Family Planning Board (BKKBN on forming a population and family planning (BKKBD institutions in province, county and city. Second, the two regions, Sukabumi County and Bitung City that have shaped BKKBD has focused attention in supporting the success of family planning programs. Third, the integration of family planning into the regional medium-term development plan, as did the City of Bitung and Sukabumi County, ensure the sustainability of the program and budgeted in the regional budget revenue and expenditure (APBD. Finally, this study concludes, coordination and synchronization policies on family planning should be done by the BKKBN and MoHA.

  15. The role of family planning communications--an agent of reinforcement or change.

    Chen, E C


    Results are presented of a multiple classification analysis of responses to a 1972 KAP survey in Taiwan of 2013 married women aged 18-34 designed to determine whether family planning communication is primarily a reinforcement agent or a change agent. 2 types of independent variables, social demographic variables including age, number of children, residence, education, employment status, and duration of marriage; and social climate variables including ever receiving family planning information from mass media and ever discussing family planning with others, were used. KAP levels, the dependent variables, were measured by 2 variables each: awareness of effective methods and awareness of government supply of contraceptives for knowledge, wish for additional children and approve of 2-child family for attitude, and never use contraception and neither want children nor use contraception for practice. Social demographic and attitudinal variables were found to be the critical ones, while social climate and knowledge variables had only negligible effects on various stages of family planning adoption, indicating that family planning communications functioned primarily as a reinforcement agent. The effects of social demographic variables were prominent in all stages of contraceptive adoption. Examination of effects of individual variables on various stages of family planning adoption still supported the argument that family planning communications played a reinforcement role. Family planning communications functioned well in diffusing family planning knowledge and accessibility, but social demographic variables and desire for additional children were the most decisive influences on use of contraception.

  16. China's Experience of Quality Care in Family Planning

    Er-sheng GAO; Wei YUAN; Ning LIU


    Objective To evaluate and overview the experience of quality care of family planning of China.Methods The framework of quality care of China was summarized and analyzed, that was clients, technology and management triangle program system.Results The 8 fundamental elements of quality care in China were presented:1) policy environment of QoC, 2) comprehensive services, 3) choice of method, 4) IEC to policy-makers and providers, 5) technical competence, 6) interpersonal communications, 7) institutional guideline and regulation, 8) appropriate constellation of service.Conclusion FP sectors should prepare different constellations of service to meet their individual reproductive health need for different clients and develop institutional guideline and regulation for FP service to follow up in practice. QoC should be a kind of standardized service process.

  17. Uptake of family planning methods and unplanned pregnancies among HIV-infected individuals: a cross-sectional survey among clients at HIV clinics in Uganda

    Wanyenze Rhoda K


    among HIV-infected individuals is fairly high. However, there are a large number of unplanned pregnancies. These findings highlight the need for strengthening of family planning services for HIV-infected people.

  18. New family planning center serves 60,000 Nicaraguans.


    In Nicaragua, the recently opened Regional Family Planning (FP) Center in the capital of Chontales Province provides a variety of FP services to the 60,000 citizens of Juigalpa. These services include counseling, laboratory exams, gynecologic exams, and voluntary sterilization. the Asociacion Pro Bienestar de la Familia Nicaraguense (PROFAMILIA) opened the center, since FP services have been neglected in this province as compared to access to these services in the large population centers of Managua and Leon. A recent contraceptive prevalence survey shows that contraceptive prevalence in urban areas of Nicaragua is 62%, while it is just between 13-15% in rural regions, like Chontales and Zelaya. The center will also run a community distribution program for Chontales. As of May 1993, it had 25 community distribution posts in the region, providing contraceptives and training volunteers. PROFAMILIA hopes to open another regional center in Chinandega in the western part of Nicaragua in 1993. It plans on opening a central clinic in Grenada, the third largest city, to serve 120,000 people from Grenada and the small communities surrounding Grenada.

  19. Misconceptions about family planning of women in Turkey

    Meltem Demirgöz Bal


    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study is to investigate the myths of women about contraceptive methods.Method: This study was planned as a cross-sectional research. The study population consisted of 1335 women aged between 16 and 56 years, who attended to a family planning clinic of a state hospital in Karaman City in the southwest part of Turkey.Findings: The mean age of women has been 32,79±8,8. While 6.2% (n=84 of the women used no contraceptive method, 70.4% (n=945 of them used an effective method and 23.4% (n=312 used a traditional method. The 40.2% of women have believed in that the oral contraceptive method caused weight gain, infertility, bleeding disorders, hirsutism, cancer, irritability, malformed baby and premature menopause.  The 24,2% of women have thought of that the intrauterine devices caused bleeding disorder, moving in the body, cancer, decreased sexual desire, genital infection and  infertility.Conclusions: There are many myths and misconceptions surrounding contraception, and they can sometimes prevent a woman from making an informed choice.

  20. Learning about population problem: children's attitudes toward family planning in India.

    Iyengar, S


    To determine the attitudes of Indian children and adolescents toward family planning, a sample of 863 high school students (aged 10-18 years) from the state of Andhra Pradesh was asked 2 operational questions ("have you heard about family planning" and "why does India need family planning?") to measure levels of family planning awareness, and 2 additional questions to measure approval of family planning ("do you think family planning is a good thing" and "which is better, a big family or a small family?"). Other variables considered were religion, socioeconomic status, education, political knowledge, and media exposure. 70% of the respondents had heard of family planning. 49% were able to state a reason for family planning (FP), while 32% were able to grasp the causal connection between population growth and economic development. Of the students who had heard of FP, 85% believed that FP was good, while 14% favored large families. The findings reflected the higher level of approval of the Andhra Pradesh youth towards FP compared with their adults; this was attributed to generational differences, and possibly to the lower level of education of Indian adults. Religion exhibited a strong effect on youth's attitudes toward FP, with Hindu children exhibiting a more favorable attitude compared with their Muslim counterparts who felt that family planning was bad and large families were good. Although education appears to be the critical determinant of family planning awareness, the results suggest that overall, the integral element of the socialization process is exposure to a modernizing environment. Nevertheless, reduction of population growth rate still largely depends on the Indian government's provision of educational opportunities to its youth.

  1. Specialized vs. combined clinics: patterns of delivery of family planning services.

    Weintraub, D R; Wald, S B


    Recently it has been asserted that family planning should be offered primarily through maternal and child health (MCH) programs. Others have argued that family planning should be provided only in a comprehensive medical services setting. A pilot study was made during 1968 and 1969 of 12 family planning clinics in New York City with the finding that clinics with a specialized family planning staff provided the same or better quality service and saw significantly more women. In 1971, the National Center for Family Planning Services sponsored a national county-by-county study to obtain information for assessing progress toward providing subsidized family planning services to all persons in need. Results showed that as of 1971, 60% of the 1.9 million patients who received family planning services received them in specialized clinics. Even in hospitals, more than 3 in 10 family planning patients received care in specialized clinics. The conclusion reached is that whatever the advantages of combined or specialized services, neither the MCH system nor general medical care facilities could integrate the current specialized family planning caseload without massive reorganization of the health delivery system and its financing.

  2. Is family planning already accepted by the present generation? Freshmen's view on family planning at University of North Sumatera, Medan. (Third report).

    Syarifuddin, A; Thahir, I; Hasibuan, B; Siregar, Z; Siregar, H


    A survey of 1997 freshmen entering the University of North Sumatera, Medan, on their attitude toward family planning was conducted in July 1985, and compared to results of 2 prior surveys taken in 1982 and 1977. The most common sources of knowledge about family planning were newspapers (14.5%), TV (11.5%) and health workers (4.1%). 41% of the students were 1st or 2nd born. Most expected to marry at 25-29 years of age, or after graduation, in line with the government family planning campaign. The average desired family size was 2.83 children, compared to 3.05 and 3.37 in prior surveys. 31.3% wanted 2 boys and 1 girl, 26.6% wanted 1 boy and 1 girl and 12.6% wanted 2 boys and 2 girls. The most popular single reason chosen for the expected family size was good family life, by 27.2%, according to the government slogan. Virtually no one chose future security or tradition as their primary reason. 97.8% expressed readiness to accept family planning, up from 72.7% in the 1st survey. Methods chosen were IUD by 35.0%, followed by pills and periodic abstinence. The survey demonstrates the effectiveness of government family planning education.

  3. Male involvement in family planning decision making in Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria.

    Ijadunola, Macellina Y; Abiona, Titilayo C; Ijadunola, Kayode T; Afolabi, Olusegun T; Esimai, Olapeju A; OlaOlorun, Funmilola M


    This study assessed men's awareness, attitude, and practice of modern contraceptive methods, determined the level of spousal communication, and investigated the correlates of men's opinion in family planning decision making in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Quantitative methodology was employed in this cross-sectional descriptive design using a structured household questionnaire to collect information from 402 male study participants. A multistage sampling procedure was employed. Eighty-nine percent of men approved of the use of family planning while only about 11 percent disapproved of it. Eighty percent of men had ever used contraception while 56 percent of them were current users. Spousal communication about family planning and other family reproductive goals was quite poor. The socio-demographic correlates of men's opinions included religion, marriage type, educational attainment, and occupation (p < 0.05). The study concluded that male involvement in family planning decision making was poor and their patronage of family planning services was low.

  4. Strengthen Thinking of Career Development Plan Education in Freshmen Entrance Education of Disabled College Students%加强对残疾大学生入学教育中职业生涯规划教育的思考

    韩旭; 宋立峰


    The employment rate and employment quality of disabled college students not only have a bearing on the vital interests of their family and themselves, but also have a direct influence on the normal development of higher education undertaking about disabled college students and the establishment of harmonious society. Colleges and universities should effectively strengthen careers guidance about disabled college students and make it thoroughly. Career development plan should be specifically carried out in freshmen entrance education, so that disabled college students can have a visible direction in their career development, scientifically map out their college life and strengthen their own employability.%残疾大学生就业率和就业质量的高低,不仅关乎残疾大学生个人和家庭的切身利益,而且直接影响着残疾人高等教育事业的正常发展与和谐社会的构建。高校应切实加强残疾大学生的就业指导,实施就业指导全程化,在新生入学教育阶段,就有针对性地开展职业生涯规划,尽力帮助残疾大学生确立职业发展方向,科学规划大学生活,增强就业能力。

  5. Family planning is the first and most important step for rural development.

    Mokarapong, T


    Mahasarakham province in Thailand has adopted family planning as its primary development policy. Although not a new issue, family planning until now has been largely ignored by most government sectors. Most consider family planning to be the sole responsibility of the Ministry of Public Ealth (MOPH), and this is why family planning has not been as successful as it should be. Discussion covers the general problem (rapid population increase, limited arable land, productivity, social and economic development, and deforestation), problems of family planning in the past (trained personnel and accessibility and government sectors ignoring or hindering family planning programs), integrated rural development (motivation, mobilizing teamwork, the integrated approach, mobile medical team, family planning for both the rich and the poor, and emphasis on vasectomy and IUD), objectives of the family planning program, and implementation. Mahasarakham uses an integrated rural development approach that emphasizes 9 development components: family planning, fisheries development, vegetable growing, water purification, rice banks, soy beans, using anchovies for natural fish sauce, insect extermination by electricity, and fuel from rice banks. All of these components contribute to the development of a better quality of rural life. The major problem is population growth, which at 1.8% remains high. Mahasarakham will promote the family planning program as the top priority, and this service will be brought to the people. The objectives of the family planning program are: to reduce the population growth rate Mahasarakham to zero growth within 2-3 years: to provide access to family planning services to all people in Mahasarakham; to educate people about family planning to increase its acceptance: to initiate a proper rural development program in Mahasarakham; and to promote intergovernmental cooperation by means of the integrated approach, which will have good results in later rural

  6. Effect of Family Wealth and Attitudes toward Unmet Need for Family Planning Among Fertile Couples in Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Rahmawati Azis


    Full Text Available One of the problems generated by unmet need for family planning is the occurrence of unwanted pregnancies, that could impact on abortion. Unmet need for family planning affected by various factors, both from within and from outside the woman. This study aimed to analyze the influence of socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge and attitudes towards family planning unmet need in women of childbearing age couple in Makassar, South Sulawesi. This study is analytic observational research. Cross-sectional design was applied to take sample from a total of 246 spouses of fertile age of respondents, with Systematic Random Sampling technique. For bivariate test, analysis chi-square was applied and logistic regression analysis for multivariate analysis. Studies show that there is no correlation characteristics of socio-demographic variables, only the level of wealthy significantly related to the unmet need for family planning. poorest respondents and poorer levels of prosperity, risk unmet need for family planning is almost 3 times more than respondents with wealthy ≥middle level (OR = 2.451; 95% CI 1.302, 4.615. The tendency of mothers who have a negative attitude, unmet need for family planning is almost 22 time than mothers who have a positive attitude (OR = 21.934; 95%CI = 8.812, 54.596. To increase the awareness and participation of all government institutions and community agencies, including the cooperation and support of religious leaders. In an effort to disseminate family planning information in the context of religion, so that misconceptions about contraceptive use can be improved. Service increase and competence of health workers planning to create awareness and empower women, especially mothers of poor families, to make choices appropriate contraception.

  7. Challenges Addressing Unmet Need for Contraception: Voices of Family Planning Service Providers in Rural Tanzania.

    Baraka, Jitihada; Rusibamayila, Asinath; Kalolella, Admirabilis; Baynes, Colin


    Provider perspectives have been overlooked in efforts to address the challenges of unmet need for family planning (FP). This qualitative study was undertaken in Tanzania, using 22 key informant interviews and 4 focus group discussions. The research documents perceptions of healthcare managers and providers in a rural district on the barriers to meeting latent demand for contraception. Social-ecological theory is used to interpret the findings, illustrating how service capability is determined by the social, structural and organizational environment. Providers' efforts to address unmet need for FP services are constrained by unstable reproductive preferences, low educational attainment, and misconceptions about contraceptive side effects. Societal and organizational factors--such as gender dynamics, economic conditions, religious and cultural norms, and supply chain bottlenecks, respectively--also contribute to an adverse environment for meeting needs for care. Challenges that healthcare providers face interact and produce an effect which hinders efforts to address unmet need. Interventions to address this are not sufficient unless the supply of services is combined with systems strengthening and social engagement strategies in a way that reflects the multi-layered, social institutional problems.

  8. Family planning impact evaluation: the evolution of techniques

    Hermalin, Albert I.


    Full Text Available This paper is a slightly revised version of a paper prepared for the seminar on methods for inpact evaluation of family planning programs held in Jaco, Costa Rica, May 14-16, 1997. The seminar was sponsored by the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID, the Carolina Population Center of the University of North Carolina, and the Central American Population Program of the University of Costa Rica. The goal of the seminar was to look at current methodological problems facing careful evaluation of the impact of programs, to examine some of the new methods that have been developed to address persistent issues, and to assess the methodological challenges posed by the expanded goals of many programs following the 1994 Cairo International Conference on Population and Development. This paper was designed to serve as the background to discussions of current methodologies and issues by tracing the development and nature of methods for assessing impact that started soon after the first programs were initiated in the 1950s. The techniques discussed include standardization and trend analysis, the analyses of acceptor data, experimental designs, multivariate areal analysis, population-based surveys, and multilevel strategies. The intent of the program sponsors and coordinators was to publish the collected papers but various contingencies intervened to make this infeasible. A description of the seminar and many of the papers are maintained on the University of Costa Rica website: As a background chapter, the original version contained references to many of the other chapters planned for the volume. As many of these papers appear on the website, relevant references are given to the authors and this website throughout the paper.


    Vivin Vincent


    Full Text Available The family planning programme in the world was first launched by India in 1952 in order to reduce the population growth in the country. India currently faces a vicious cycle of population explosion and poverty. In the above context, this study was conducted so as to learn about the different family planning methods practicing in a rural area of Chidambaram and also to find out any unmet need of family planning which is one of the most important factor that causes hindrance in the success of national family planning programme. OBJECTIVES To find out the proportion of eligible couples practicing any of the family planning methods, both temporary and permanent, the different types and the unmet needs of family planning practices along with the factors associated with unwillingness of acceptance of family planning methods among these eligible couples. MATERIAL AND METHODS It is a cross-sectional study done in 125 eligible couples of 700 families of Omakkulam and Sengattan areas of Chidambaram. Data collected were coded and entered in Microsoft Excel sheet and was analysed using Epi info statistical software. RESULTS The proportion of eligible couples in this study population of 700 families was 18% (125. The proportion of eligible couples practicing family planning methods were 42% and 58% had not adopted any methods. Different types of family planning methods adopted by the eligible couples in this study were Vasectomy (1.89%, PPS (15.09%, CuT (18.87%, OCP (20.76% and Condoms (43.39%. Reasons for non-acceptance of family planning methods among the eligible couples were Hysterectomy (2.78%, Infertility (6.95%, Infection and bleeding (11.11%, Recently married (13.89%, No specific reason (29.16% and Family not complete (36.11%. In this study, 20% of eligible couples had unmet needs of family planning methods. CONCLUSION This study shows there is still a gap in the acceptance of family planning methods by the eligible couples of this study population

  10. Punching strengthen

    Hazem M.F. Elbakry


    Full Text Available An experimental and analytical study on the punching strengthening of reinforced concrete two-way slabs using external steel plates is presented. Five reinforced concrete square slabs of 100 mm thickness were tested over simply supported four sides of 1000 mm span under central square patch load of 100 mm size up to failure. One control slab was tested without strengthening; however, four tested slabs were strengthened using four configurations of square steel plates provided with steel anchor shear studs. Such configurations considered two different plate thickness, two plate side dimensions and different arrangement and diameter of shear studs. The strengthened four slabs showed improved stiffness and punching shear capacity. The magnitude of improvement depended on the plate dimensions and the studs diameter and arrangement. An analytical approach was proposed for predicting the punching shear strength increase due to using the strengthening steel plate. The proposed approach was applied to the tested specimens with the use of the punching shear strength equations adopted by several codes of practice and proved to be in good agreement with the test results. Generally, this research presented a practical strengthening concept that can be used to increase the punching shear capacity of two-way slabs.

  11. Invisible and Visible Language Planning: Ideological Factors in the Family Language Policy of Chinese Immigrant Families in Quebec

    Curdt-Christiansen, Xiao Lan


    This ethnographic inquiry examines how family languages policies are planned and developed in ten Chinese immigrant families in Quebec, Canada, with regard to their children's language and literacy education in three languages, Chinese, English, and French. The focus is on how multilingualism is perceived and valued, and how these three languages…

  12. It's about time: WHO and partners release programming strategies for postpartum family planning.

    Gaffield, Mary Eluned; Egan, Shannon; Temmerman, Marleen


    The postpartum period is a critical time to address high unmet family planning need and to reduce the risks of closely spaced pregnancies. Practical tools are included in the new resource for integrating postpartum family planning at points when women have frequent health system contact, including during antenatal care, labor and delivery, postnatal care, immunization, and child health care.

  13. A methodology integrating Petri nets and knowledge-based systems to support process family planning

    Zhang, Linda L.; Xu, Qianli; Helo, Petri


    Planning production processes for product families have been well recognised as an effective means of achieving successful product family development. However, most existing approaches do not lend themselves to planning production processes with focus on the optimality of the cohort of a product fam

  14. Perceived Benefits and Barriers to Family Planning Education among Third Year Medical Students

    Kimberly G. Smith, MD, MS


    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the current study is to explore third- year medical students’ interest in learning about family planning, exposure to family planning (contraception and abortion and perceived barriers and benefits to family planning education in their obstetrics and gynecology rotation.Method: We conducted four focus groups with 27 third-year medical students near the end of their rotation in obstetrics and gynecology.Results: Students desired education in family planning but perceived limited exposure during their rotation. Most students were aware of abortion but lacked factual information and abortion procedural skills. They felt systemic and faculty-related barriers contributed to limited exposure. Students discussed issues such as lack of time for coverage of contraception and abortion in the curricula and rotation itself. Perceived benefits of clinical instruction in family planning included increased knowledge of contraceptive management and abortion the ability to care for and relate to patients, opportunity for values clarification, and positive changes in attitudes towards family planning.Conclusions: Medical students who desire full education in family planning during their obstetrics and gynecology rotation may face barriers to obtaining that education. Given that many medical students will eventually care for reproductive-age women, greater promotion of opportunities for exposure to family planning within obstetrics and gynecology rotations is warranted.

  15. A methodology integrating Petri nets and knowledge-based systems to support process family planning

    Zhang, Linda L.; Xu, Qianli; Helo, Petri


    Planning production processes for product families have been well recognised as an effective means of achieving successful product family development. However, most existing approaches do not lend themselves to planning production processes with focus on the optimality of the cohort of a product

  16. A methodology integrating Petri nets and knowledge-based systems to support process family planning

    Zhang, Linda L.; Xu, Qianli; Helo, Petri


    Planning production processes for product families have been well recognised as an effective means of achieving successful product family development. However, most existing approaches do not lend themselves to planning production processes with focus on the optimality of the cohort of a product fam

  17. Population and Family Planning Education, Report of a Seminar (Holte, Denmark, July 3-28, 1972).


    In July 1972, DANIDA and the Danish Family Planning Association provided delegations from selected countries the opportunity to devise teaching programs on population and family planning topics for 9-to 11-year-olds. Participants from the Arab Republic of Egypt, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, and the Philippines attended the meeting with Danish…

  18. Does Family Planning Reduce Infant Mortality? Evidence from Surveillance Data in Matlab, Bangladesh

    van Soest, A.H.O.; Saha, U.R.


    Abstract: Analyzing the effect of family planning on child survival remains an important issue but is not straightforward because of several mechanisms linking family planning, birth intervals, total fertility, and child survival. This study uses a dynamic model jointly explaining infant mortality,

  19. Economic evaluation of family planning interventions in low and middle income countries; A systematic review

    Zakiyah, Neily; Van Asselt, Antoinette D. I.; Roijmans, Frank; Postma, Maarten J.


    Background: A significant number of women in low and middle income countries (L-MICs) who need any family planning, experience a lack in access to modern effective methods. This study was conducted to review potential cost effectiveness of scaling up family planning interventions in these regions fr

  20. Economic Evaluation of Family Planning Interventions in Low and Middle Income Countries : A Systematic Review

    Zakiyah, Neily; van Asselt, Antoinette D. I.; Roijmans, Frank; Postma, Maarten J.


    Background A significant number of women in low and middle income countries (L-MICs) who need any family planning, experience a lack in access to modern effective methods. This study was conducted to review potential cost effectiveness of scaling up family planning interventions in these regions fro

  1. Economic Evaluation of Family Planning Interventions in Low and Middle Income Countries : A Systematic Review

    Zakiyah, Neily; van Asselt, Antoinette D. I.; Roijmans, Frank; Postma, Maarten J.


    Background A significant number of women in low and middle income countries (L-MICs) who need any family planning, experience a lack in access to modern effective methods. This study was conducted to review potential cost effectiveness of scaling up family planning interventions in these regions fro

  2. Family and Consumer Sciences: A Facility Planning and Design Guide for School Systems.

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

    This document presents design concepts and considerations for planning and developing middle and high school family and consumer sciences education facilities. It includes discussions on family and consumer sciences education trends and the facility planning process. Design concepts explore multipurpose laboratories and spaces for food/nutrition…

  3. Satisfaction with family planning services - interpersonal and organisational dimensions

    M.S. Westaway


    Full Text Available In South Africa, client satisfaction with the quality of health care has received minimal attention; probably due to the lack of locally developed and tested measures. Therefore, we developed and tested a 20-item attitude scale to determine satisfaction with Family Planning (FP services. The objectives of this study were to: ascertain reliability of the scale and confirm, through factor analysis, that satisfaction with the FP service was based on interpersonal and organisational dimensions. The sample comprised 199 black adult interviewees (158 women and 41 men, who had previously used or were currently using contraception, from an informal settlement in Gauteng, South Africa. Three items were removed from the scale due to unacceptable communality estimates. The reliability coefficient of 0.76 for the 17-item scale was satisfactory. The principal components analysis, with orthogonal and oblique rotations, extracted two factors; accounting for 51.8% of the variance. The highest loadings on Factor I involved an interpersonal dimension (friendly, encouraging, competent, informative and communicative. Factor II tended to focus on the organisational elements of the system, such as different methods, choice of methods, service availability and length of waiting time. It was concluded that this scale was a reliable, easily administered and scored measure of satisfaction, with underlying interpersonal and organisational dimensions.

  4. Cycle Monitors and Devices in Natural Family Planning

    Freundl G


    Full Text Available For fertility awareness based methods- (FAB- users charting and checking of menstrual cycle symptoms may be supported by different instruments and devices. These cycle monitors promise to detect the fertile and infertile days by using direct and indirect markers of fertility in a woman´s menstrual cycle. In this article we use data of our own studies, data out of the literature research in Medline and PubMed and from our own German NFP (natural family planning database. We tried to rate the efficacy of the tested monitors. We figured out that only for one hormone- and for one temperature-computer reasonable prospective studies exist. To get more comparable results we have performed in 2000 a small pilot study on 6 devices and the symptothermal method of NFP (NFP-DAG together with “Stiftung Warentest”. The efficacy of the various devices differed significantly. We therefore urgently need more clinical studies on menstrual cycle monitors for reliable information of users.

  5. The Timmons Savings Plan: A Working Document on a Plan to Encourage Families to Save for College.

    Tierney, Michael L.

    The Timmons Savings Plan, which encourages families to save toward college costs, is analyzed. This plan allows for periodic (non-tax deductible) contributions to an account administered by the U.S. Department of the Treasury. The amount deposited would be matched by the federal government in exchange for the government's earning the interest on…

  6. Family planning practices of rural community dwellers in cross River State, Nigeria.

    Etokidem, A J; Ndifon, W; Etowa, J; Asuquo, E F


    Nigeria is the most populous nation in Africa and the seventh most populous in the world. Despite a high fertility rate of 5.5 per woman and a high population growth rate of 3.2%, Nigeria's contraceptive prevalence is 15%, which is one of the lowest in the world. The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge of family planning and family planning preferences and practices of rural community women in Cross River State of Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study involving 291 rural women. Convenience sampling method was used. The women were assembled in a hall and a semi-structured questionnaire was administered to every consenting woman until the sample size was attained. Data obtained from the study were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20 and presented in tables as frequencies and percentages as well as figures. Association between categorical variables was explored using chi-square test. Binary logistic regression was also performed to determine predictors of use of at least one family planning method at some point in time. Fifty (17.2%) respondents were using at least one family planning method. One hundred and ninety-eight (68.3%) respondents had used at least one family planning method at some point in time. Reasons given for not using any family planning method included "Family planning is against my religious beliefs" (56%); "it is against our culture" (43.8%); "I need more children" (64.9%); "my partner would not agree" (35.3%); "family planning does not work" (42.9%); "it reduces sexual enjoyment" (76%); and "it promotes unfaithfulness/infidelity" (59%). Binary logistic regression conducted to predict the use of at least one family planning method at some point in time using some independent variables showed that who makes the decision regarding family planning use was the strongest predictor of family planning use (OR = 0.567; 95% CI = 0.391-0.821). This suggests that family planning uptake is more

  7. Strengthening plan management to improve management efifciency%加强计划管理提高管理效能



    当今大多管理学权威都将管理工作归纳计划、组织、领导、控制四项最重要的基本职能,而计划在这四项基本职能中居首位,计划管理对一个组织的内部管理极其重要。该文从兖矿集团计划管理的实践出发,阐述计划管理在企业中的重要性,结合企业计划管理的主要做法,提出新时期企业计划管理重点工作。%Nowadays most management authority will be management plan, organization, leadership, summed up the four basic functions to control the most important, and plan the ifrst place in the four basic functions of internal management, plan management in an organization is very important. this paper, from the practice of Yanzhou Mining Group of plan management, expounded the importance of program management in the enterprise, combined with the main practice enterprise plan management, and put forward the plan management focus of the work of enterprises in the new period.

  8. Personal and Family Financial Planning. A Staff Development Workshop for Secondary School Trainers and Teachers.

    Bannister, Rosella; And Others

    This manual for teacher trainers and staff development specialists contains information and materials for an 18-hour personal and financial planning workshop for secondary teachers. Part A is a guide for workshop directors. It defines personal and family financial planning, provides background information on financial planning education, and…

  9. Family Perceptions of Participation in Educational Planning for Children Receiving Mental Health Services

    Jivanjee, Pauline; Kruzich, Jean M.; Friesen, Barbara J.; Robinson, Adjoa


    Family participation in educational planning for children with disabilities is believed to result in plans that are more responsive to the child's needs and that lead to better social, emotional, and educational outcomes. Participation in educational planning is also a fundamental right of parents and a cornerstone of special education…

  10. On the socioeconomic benefits of family planning work.

    Yang, D


    The focus of this article is on 1) the intended socioeconomic benefit of Chinese family planning (FP) versus the benefit of the maternal production sector, 2) the estimated costs of FP work, 3) and the principal ways to lower FP costs. Marxian population theory, which is ascribed to in socialist China, states that population and socioeconomic development are interconnected and must adapt to each other and that an excessively large or small population will upset the balance and retard development. Malthusians believe that large populations reduce income, and Adam Smith believed that more people meant a larger market and more income. It is believed that FP will bring socioeconomic benefits to China. The socioeconomic benefit of material production is the linkage between labor consumption and the amount of labor usage with the fruits and benefits of labor. FP invests in human, material, and financial resources to reduce the birth rate and the absolute number of births. The investment is recouped in population. The increased national income generated from a small outlay to produce an ideal population would be used to improve material and cultural lives. FP brings economic benefits and accelerates social development (ecological balances women's emancipation and improvement in the physical and mental health of women and children, improvement in cultural learning and employment, cultivation of socialist morality and new practices, and stability). In computing FP cost, consideration is given to total cost and unit cost. Cost is dependent on the state budget allocation, which was 445.76 million yuan in 1982 and was doubled by 1989. World Bank figures for 1984 affixed the FP budget in China at 979.6 million US dollars, of which 80% was provided by China. Per person, this means 21 cents for central, provincial, prefecture, and country spending, 34 cents for rural collective set-ups, 25 cents for child awards, and various subsidies, 15 cents for sterilization, and 5 cents for

  11. [Family planning programs and birth control in the third world].

    Wohlschlagl, H


    The population explosion has been abating since the 2nd half of the 1960s. The birth rate of the 3rd World dropped from 45/1000 during 1950-55 to 31/1000 during 1985-90. From the 1st half of the 1960s to the 1st half of the 1980s the total fertility of such countries dropped from 6.1 to 4.2 children/woman. In Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, and Malaysia living standards improved as a result of industrialization, and fertility decreased significantly. In Sri Lanka, China, North Vietnam, and Thailand the drop of fertility is explained by cultural and religious factors. In 1982 about 78% of the population of developing countries lived in 39 states that followed an official policy aimed at reducing the population. Another 16% lived in countries supporting the concept of a desired family size. However, World Bank data showed that in the mid-1980s in 27 developing countries no state family planning (FP) programs existed. India adopted an official FP program in 1952, Pakistan followed suit in 1960, South Korea in 1961, and China in 1962. In Latin America a split policy manifested itself: in Brazil birth control was rejected, only Colombia had a FP policy. In 1986 the governments of 68 of 131 developing countries representing 3.1 billion people considered the number of children per woman too high. 31 of these countries followed concrete population control policies. On the other hand, in 1986 24 countries of Africa with 40% of the continent's population took no measures to influence population growth. In Latin America and the Caribbean 18 of 33 countries were idle, except for Mexico that had a massive state FP program. These programs also improve maternal and child health with birth spacing of at least 2 years, and the prevention of pregnancies of too young women or those over 40. The evaluation of rapidly spreading FP programs in the 1970s was carried out by the World Fertility Survey in 41 countries. The impact of FP programs was more substantial than

  12. Evaluating the impact of implementation factors on family-based prevention programming: methods for strengthening causal inference.

    Crowley, D Max; Coffman, Donna L; Feinberg, Mark E; Greenberg, Mark T; Spoth, Richard L


    Despite growing recognition of the important role implementation plays in successful prevention efforts, relatively little work has sought to demonstrate a causal relationship between implementation factors and participant outcomes. In turn, failure to explore the implementation-to-outcome link limits our understanding of the mechanisms essential to successful programming. This gap is partially due to the inability of current methodological procedures within prevention science to account for the multitude of confounders responsible for variation in implementation factors (i.e., selection bias). The current paper illustrates how propensity and marginal structural models can be used to improve causal inferences involving implementation factors not easily randomized (e.g., participant attendance). We first present analytic steps for simultaneously evaluating the impact of multiple implementation factors on prevention program outcome. Then, we demonstrate this approach for evaluating the impact of enrollment and attendance in a family program, over and above the impact of a school-based program, within PROSPER, a large-scale real-world prevention trial. Findings illustrate the capacity of this approach to successfully account for confounders that influence enrollment and attendance, thereby more accurately representing true causal relations. For instance, after accounting for selection bias, we observed a 5% reduction in the prevalence of 11th grade underage drinking for those who chose to receive a family program and school program compared to those who received only the school program. Further, we detected a 7% reduction in underage drinking for those with high attendance in the family program.

  13. Linking population, fertility, and family planning with adaptation to climate change: perspectives from Ethiopia.

    Rovin, Kimberly; Hardee, Karen; Kidanu, Aklilu


    Global climate change is felt disproportionately in the world's most economically disadvantaged countries. As adaption to an evolving climate becomes increasingly salient on national and global scales, it is important to assess how people at the local-level are already coping with changes. Understanding local responses to climate change is essential for helping countries to construct strategies to bolster resilience to current and future effects. This qualitative research investigated responses to climate change in Ethiopia; specifically, how communities react to and cope with climate variation, which groups are most vulnerable, and the role of family planning in increasing resilience. Participants were highly aware of changing climate effects, impacts of rapid population growth, and the need for increased access to voluntary family planning. Identification of family planning as an important adaptation strategy supports the inclusion of rights-based voluntary family planning and reproductive health into local and national climate change adaptation plans.

  14. Knowledge and Attitude about Reproductive Health and Family Planning among Young Adults in Yemen

    Muhammed S. A. Masood


    Full Text Available Background. The Yemeni government is focusing more attention on the needs of youth to ensure a healthy transition to adulthood. This is critical because adolescent population (ages 15–24 of 3.35 million will double in just 20 years. Young adults often lack basic knowledge about reproductive health and family planning. Objectives. To determine reproductive health and family planning knowledge and attitude among young adults aged 15 to 25+ years. Method. Sample study was taken from Marie Stopes International in Yemen which was conducted from March to July 2013 on the reproductive health age 15–49 years. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were employed. Results. Majority had heard about reproductive health and family planning and encouraged its methods. Television, relatives, and radio were major sources of information. Adults with higher education tend to have more awareness about health services. Knowledge about health services and family planning methods among older adults was significant, and adults in Belqees Club were more likely to have high empowerment scores for family planning methods. Conclusion. The level of knowledge about health services for reproductive health and family planning and its methods was low to moderate. The introduction of contraceptives remains a challenge in Yemen because the educational reproductive health is weak in Yemeni schools or health institutes or universities. Information about reproductive health and family planning should be provided to adolescents through medical schools curricula.

  15. Family planning use among urban poor women from six cities of Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Speizer, Ilene S; Nanda, Priya; Achyut, Pranita; Pillai, Gita; Guilkey, David K


    Family planning has widespread positive impacts for population health and well-being; contraceptive use not only decreases unintended pregnancies and reduces infant and maternal mortality and morbidity, but it is critical to the achievement of Millennium Development Goals. This study uses baseline, representative data from six cities in Uttar Pradesh, India to examine family planning use among the urban poor. Data were collected from about 3,000 currently married women in each city (Allahabad, Agra, Varanasi, Aligarh, Gorakhpur, and Moradabad) for a total sample size of 17,643 women. Participating women were asked about their fertility desires, family planning use, and reproductive health. The survey over-sampled slum residents; this permits in-depth analyses of the urban poor and their family planning use behaviors. Bivariate and multivariate analyses are used to examine the role of wealth and education on family planning use and unmet need for family planning. Across all of the cities, about 50% of women report modern method use. Women in slum areas generally report less family planning use and among those women who use, slum women are more likely to be sterilized than to use other methods, including condoms and hormonal methods. Across all cities, there is a higher unmet need for family planning to limit childbearing than for spacing births. Poorer women are more likely to have an unmet need than richer women in both the slum and non-slum samples; this effect is attenuated when education is included in the analysis. Programs seeking to target the urban poor in Uttar Pradesh and elsewhere in India may be better served to identify the less educated women and target these women with appropriate family planning messages and methods that meet their current and future fertility desire needs.

  16. Geographic access to family planning facilities and the risk of unintended and teenage pregnancy.

    Goodman, David C; Klerman, Lorraine V; Johnson, Kay A; Chang, Chiang-Hua; Marth, Nancy


    This study tested the hypotheses that greater geographic access to family planning facilities is associated with lower rates of unintended and teenage pregnancies. State Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) and natality files in four states were used to locate unintended and teenage births, respectively. Geographic availability was measured by cohort travel time to the nearest family planning facility, the presence of a family planning facility in a ZIP area, and the supply of primary care physicians and obstetric-gynecologists. 83% of the PRAMS cohort and 80% of teenagers lived within 15 min or less of a facility and virtually none lived more than 30 min. Adjusted odds ratios did not demonstrate a statistically significant trend to a higher risk of unintended pregnancies with longer travel time. Similarly there was no association with unintended pregnancy and the presence of a family planning facility within the ZIP area of maternal residence, or with the supply of physicians capable of providing family planning services. Both crude and adjusted relative rates of teenage pregnancies were significantly lower with further distance from family planning sites and with the absence of a facility in the ZIP area of residence. In adjusted models, the supply of obstetricians-gynecologists and primary care physicians was not significantly associated with decreased teen pregnancies. This study found no relationship between greater geographic availability of family planning facilities and a risk of unintended pregnancies. Greater geographic availability of family planning services was associated with a higher risk of teenage pregnancy, although these results may be confounded by facilities locating in areas with greater family planning needs.

  17. Discussion on Strengthening University Student' Career Planning%加强大学生职业生涯规划刍议



    Whether the occupation choice is appropriate will af-fect whether one's future career is successful and whether his or her life is happy. At present, many problems exist in university students' career planning, therefore, colleges and universities should strengthen the organization and leadership, establish and improve a long-term mechanism for university students' career planning education, help university students well conduct their career planning and strive to achieve their own occupation ideal and life value.%职业选择是否适当,将影响一个人将来事业的成败以及一生的幸福。当前,高校大学生职业生涯规划存在诸多问题,因此,高校应加强组织领导,建立健全大学生职业生涯规划的教育引导长效机制,帮助大学生做好职业生涯规划,努力实现自己的职业理想和人生价值。


    Bailey, Martha J.; Malkova, Olga; Norling, Johannes


    This paper provides new evidence that family planning programs are associated with a decrease in the share of children and adults living in poverty. Our research design exploits the county roll-out of U.S. family planning programs in the late 1960s and early 1970s and examines their relationship with poverty rates in the short and longer-term in public census data. We find that cohorts born after federal family planning programs began were less likely to live in poverty in childhood and that these same cohorts were less likely to live in poverty as adults. PMID:25346655

  19. Meeting the family planning needs of women living with HIV in US government global health programs.

    Johnston, Beverly; Ligiero, Daniela; DeSilva, Shyami; Medley, Amy; Nightingale, Vienna; Sripipatana, Tabitha; Bachanas, Pamela; Abutu, Andrew; Brewinski-Isaacs, Margaret; Bathily, Fatoumata; Grillo, Michael; Bertz, Lilly; Mani, Nithya


    The integration of health programs, including HIV and voluntary family planning, is a priority for US government foreign assistance. One critical component of family planning and HIV integration that has significant positive health outcomes is ensuring that all women living with HIV have access to both a full range of contraceptives and safe pregnancy counseling. This article outlines the US government global health strategy to meet the family planning needs of women living with HIV based on three key principles: a focus on reproductive rights through voluntarism and informed choice, quality service provision through evidence-based programming, and development of partnerships.

  20. Induced abortion in China and the advances of post abortion family planning service

    Li Ying; Cheng Yi-ming; Huang Na; Guo Xin; Wang Xian-mi


    This is a review of current situation of induced abortion and post abortion family planning service in China. Induced abortion is an important issue in reproductive health. This article reviewed the distribution of induced abortion in various time, areas, and population in China, and explored the character, reason, and harm to reproductive health of induced abortion.Furthermore, this article introduces the concept of Quality of Care Program in Family Planning,and discusses how important and necessary it is to introduce Quality of Care Program in Family Planning to China.

  1. An analysis of pre-service family planning teaching in clinical and nursing education in Tanzania.

    Muganyizi, Projestine S; Ishengoma, Joyce; Kanama, Joseph; Kikumbih, Nassoro; Mwanga, Feddy; Killian, Richard; McGinn, Erin


    Promoting family planning (FP) is a key strategy for health, economic and population growth. Sub-Saharan Africa, with one of the lowest contraceptive prevalence and highest fertility rates globally, contributes half of the global maternal deaths. Improving the quality of FP services, including enhancing pre-service FP teaching, has the potential to improve contraceptive prevalence. In efforts to improve the quality of FP services in Tanzania, including provider skills, this study sought to identify gaps in pre-service FP teaching and suggest opportunities for strengthening the training. Data were collected from all medical schools and a representative sample of pre-service nursing, Assistant Medical Officer (AMO), Clinical Officer (CO) and assistant CO schools in mainland Tanzania. Teachers responsible for FP teaching at the schools were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Observations on availability of teaching resources and other evidence of FP teaching and evaluation were documented. Relevant approved teaching documents were assessed for their suitability as competency-based FP teaching tools against predefined criteria. Quantitative data were analyzed using EPI Info 6 and qualitative data were manually analyzed using content analysis. A total of 35 pre-service schools were evaluated for FP teaching including 30 technical education and five degree offering schools. Of the assessed 11 pre-service curricula, only one met the criteria for suitability of FP teaching. FP teaching was typically theoretical with only 22.9% of all the schools having systems in place to produce graduates who could skillfully provide FP methods. Across schools, the target skills were the same level of competence and skewed toward short acting methods of contraception. Only 23.3% (n = 7) of schools had skills laboratories, 76% (n = 22) were either physically connected or linked to FP clinics. None of the degree providing schools practiced FP at its own teaching hospital

  2. Family planning in conflict: results of cross-sectional baseline surveys in three African countries

    Lee-Jones Louise


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the serious consequences of conflict for reproductive health, populations affected by conflict and its aftermath face tremendous barriers to accessing reproductive health services, due to insecurity, inadequate numbers of trained personnel and lack of supplies. Family planning is often particularly neglected. Methods In six conflict-affected areas in Sudan, northern Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo, household surveys of married or in-union women of reproductive age were conducted to determine baseline measures of family planning knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding contraception. Health facility assessments were carried out to assess baseline measures of family planning services availability. Data were double-entered into CSPro 3.2 and exported to SAS 9.2, which was used to calculate descriptive statistics. The studies' purposes were to guide program activities and to serve as a baseline against which program accomplishments could be measured. Results Knowledge of modern contraceptive methods was low relative to other sub-Saharan African countries, and use of modern methods was under 4% in four sites; in two sites with prior family planning services it was 12% and 16.2%. From 30% to 40% of women reported they did not want a child within two years, however, and an additional 12% to 35% wanted no additional children, suggesting a clear need for family planning services. The health facilities assessment showed that at most only one-third of the facilities mandated to provide family planning had the necessary staff, equipment and supplies to do so adequately; in some areas, none of the facilities were prepared to offer such services. Conclusions Family planning services are desired by women living in crisis situations when offered in a manner appropriate to their needs, yet services are rarely adequate to meet these needs. Refugee and internally displaced women must be included in national and donors

  3. Predicting College Women's Career Plans: Instrumentality, Work, and Family

    Savela, Alexandra E.; O'Brien, Karen M.


    This study examined how college women's instrumentality and expectations about combining work and family predicted early career development variables. Specifically, 177 undergraduate women completed measures of instrumentality (i.e., traits such as ambition, assertiveness, and risk taking), willingness to compromise career for family, anticipated…

  4. Meeting the Complex Needs of Urban Youth and Their Families through the 4Rs 2Ss Family Strengthening Program: The "Real World" Meets Evidence-Informed Care

    Small, Latoya A.; Jackson, Jerrold; Gopalan, Geetha; McKay, Mary McKernan


    Background: Youth living in poverty face compounding familial and environmental was challenges in utilizing effective community mental health services. Ongoing stressors increase their drop-out rate in mental health service use. Difficulties also exist in staying engaged in services when involved with the child welfare system. This study examines…

  5. Strengthening Families in Head Start: The Impact of a Parent Education Programme on the Emotional Well-Being of Latino Families

    Duch, Helena; Rodriguez, Carmen


    This study explores the impact of a Head Start add-on programme, a matrix of services for parents which provides educational and vocational supports, on maternal depression and children's behaviour in Latino families. We hypothesise that after having completed training, parents who participated in the add-on programme would have lower levels of…

  6. Population goal set for China's new five-year plan.


    China's 7th Five-Year Plan recommends that China's total mainland population be held within the limit of 1.113 billion, with an annual average natural growth rate of about 12.4/1000. As a large number of youths will reach marriage and childbearing age during the course of the 7th Five-Year Plan, the Plan affords a high priority to the family planning program and to the control of population growth. The plan proposes 5 policies and measures to realize its goal: continuous efforts need to be made to give family planning a high priority; late marriage, late childbearing, and the 1-child family should be advocated; ideological and political education should be strengthened; scientific and technological research devoted to family planning should be intensified; and family planning communication and service centers at the county level should be consolidated and strengthened, and the family planning program should be conducted systematically and be ongoing.

  7. Strengthening the Engagement of Provinces in Health Workforce Planning and Management: A Case Study From Lao PDR.

    Theppanya, Khampasong; Phathammavong, Outavong; Rotem, Arie


    The purpose of this health workforce plan is to provide guidance for the staffing of the Bolikhamxay. Province health services and the training of health service personnel to the year 2020. It must be stressed, however, that this plan is in its first iteration and does not provide all the solutions. Rather, it identifies issues that need to be further investigated and resolved at the local level. For example, the provincial health department (PHD) will need to further investigate the reasons for the significant variability in the utilization of services in different facilities and in the different ratios of staff in relation to the activities performed. The accuracy of the data must be validated and specific interventions must be determined. For Bolikhamxay, particular attention by PHD and district health authorities should be given to the following issues identified in the analysis:• Shortage of clinical staff, particularly in the age group 30 to 40 years old, to provide supervision, guidance, and support for junior staff in coming years;• The existence of health centers with less than minimum staffing level (engagement of local health authorities, as well as strong collaboration with the national authorities and development partners, to ensure adequate support and resourcing.

  8. Family Planning in a Sub-district near Kumasi, Ghana: Side Effect ...


    women recognized at least one family planning method, half of all recent or current pregnancies were unintended and 20 percent .... through the use of community-based participatory ... Three communities (small peri-urban community,.

  9. Effects of an entertainment-education radio soap opera on family planning behavior in Tanzania.

    Rogers, E M; Vaughan, P W; Swalehe, R M; Rao, N; Svenkerud, P; Sood, S


    An entertainment-education radio soap opera introduced in Tanzania in 1993 was evaluated by means of a field experimental design in which the radio program was broadcast by seven mainland stations of Radio Tanzania. An eighth station broadcast alternative programming from 1993 to 1995, its listenership serving as a comparison area in which contemporaneous changes in family planning adoption were measured. The soap opera was subsequently broadcast nationwide from 1995 to 1997. Data about the effects of the radio soap opera were gathered in five annual surveys of about 2,750 households in the comparison and the treatment areas and from a sample of new family planning adopters in 79 health clinics. The soap opera had strong behavioral effects on family planning adoption; it increased listeners' self-efficacy regarding family planning adoption and influenced listeners to talk with their spouses and peers about contraception.

  10. Integration of poverty alleviation with family planning: an interview with SFPC Vice Minister Yang Kuifu.

    Zhu, H Z


    The Chinese Government, through its 1994-2000 National Program for Poverty Alleviation, plans to eradicate poverty for its 65 million impoverished citizens by 2000. Program strategies include providing tangible financial incentives to couples who accept the use of family planning. For example, family planning acceptors with per capita annual incomes of less than 530 yuan are given priority to obtain low-interest loans from local banks or credit cooperatives to launch and manage income-generating schemes. They also have priority over nonacceptors in being recruited to work in township and village enterprises, in purchasing farm supplies, and in obtaining land from village and township authorities upon which to build housing. Farm families need to be made to understand that family planning is in their own best interest. Providing children and adolescents in impoverished areas with more education is also important. The author notes how leaders in some impoverished areas do not understand the difference between poverty alleviation and poverty relief.

  11. Women, microcredit and family planning practices: a case study from rural Ghana.

    Norwood, Carolette


    This paper examines the influence of informal banking club participation on family planning practices in rural Ghana. Research from Asia suggests that family planning practices are improved by club participation. This study examines this thesis in an African context, using rural Ghana as a case study. A sample of 204 women (19 years and older) was drawn from Abokobi village, Ghana. Multivariate analyses of direct, mediating and moderating effects of women’s demographic background characteristics, membership status and length, and women’s empowerment status as predictors of family planning practices are assessed. Findings suggest that club membership and membership length is not associated with family planning practices; however, age, education level, number of children and empowerment status are.

  12. Family Planning in a Sub-district near Kumasi, Ghana: Side Effect ...

    Family Planning in a Sub-district near Kumasi, Ghana: Side Effect Fears, Unintended Pregnancies and Misuse of a Medication as Emergency Contraception. ... having a fear of side effects for hormonal methods (particularly heart palpitations), ...

  13. Determinants of Quality of Family Planning Counseling among Private Health Facilities in Lagos.

    Johnson, Doug; Ugaz, Jorge


    We use a unique dataset that includes an objective measure of the quality of family planning counseling from 927 private health facilities in Lagos State, Nigeria, to determine which variables at the facility and provider levels are most closely correlated with the quality of family planning counseling. Our data on quality come from mystery client surveys in which the clients posed as women seeking family planning counseling. We find that quality is strongly associated with the cadre of provider, with doctors delivering substantially higher-quality counselling than nurses. Doctors not only outperform nurses overall, but also perform better on each category of quality and spend nearly three minutes longer on average counseling the mystery client. Location, fees charged for the service, and facility type are also strongly correlated with quality. The degree to which a facility specializes in family planning and facility size are only weakly predictive of quality.

  14. Knowledge and attitude towards family planning practices among non-acceptors in a rural area in Bangalore, India

    Hemavarneshwari S.


    Conclusions: Most common reason for non-acceptance of family planning was male child preference (26.8%. There is a need for behaviour change communication for eligible couples regarding family planning adoption among the non-acceptors highlighting the importance of small family, happy family. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(12.000: 3611-3613

  15. Search is on for most outstanding family planning workers and clinics.


    The JSI Research and Training Institute, Inc, sponsored a national wide search in the Philippines commencing March 15, 1994, and ending July 7, 1994, for commendable family planning workers. The winners of the competition were selected from five categories: the best family planning volunteer worker, government family planning service worker, nongovernment family planning service worker, a government family planning clinic or center, and a nongovernment family planning clinic or center. Winners in each category were selected at the provincial or chartered city level, regional level, and national level. Nomination forms were made available in Provincial Health Offices or City Health Offices. Nomination criteria involved a worker who must have worked for at least 18 months for a family planning service agency and a volunteer who must have worked at least a year a family planning service agency in referring cases. Clinics or centers must have been in operation for at least 18 months and preferably accredited by the government. Winner selection criteria was based on the number of clients served, the commitment to family planning, and the quality of their work. Nominations were disqualified if workers were involved with performing abortions, coercing clients to practice family planning, or discriminating against any legally acceptable methods of contraception. Provincial selection of the winner occurred on July 15, 1994, and these winners were entered in the regional competition, which was set for August 1 and September 15, 1994. Regional winners competed in the national competition in November 1994. The award for each provincial winner will be a certificate, an aneroid sphygmomanometer, and a stethoscope. Provincial clinics will receive a certificate and a wall clock. Regional winners will receive a certificate and wrist watches. Regional clinics will receive a certificate and an examining table or karaoke sound system. The five national winners will receive a plaque of

  16. Family Planning in the Context of Latin America's Universal Health Coverage Agenda.

    Fagan, Thomas; Dutta, Arin; Rosen, James; Olivetti, Agathe; Klein, Kate


    Countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) have substantially improved access to family planning over the past 50 years. Many have also recently adopted explicit declarations of universal rights to health and universal health coverage (UHC) and have begun implementing UHC-oriented health financing schemes. These schemes will have important implications for the sustainability and further growth of family planning programs throughout the region. We examined the status of contraceptive methods in major health delivery and financing schemes in 9 LAC countries. Using a set of 37 indicators on family planning coverage, family planning financing, health financing, and family planning inclusion in UHC-oriented schemes, we conducted a desk review of secondary sources, including population surveys, health financing assessments, insurance enrollment reports, and unit cost estimates, and interviewed in-country experts.Findings: Although the modern contraceptive prevalence rate (mCPR) has continued to increase in the majority of LAC countries, substantial disparities in access for marginalized groups remain. On average, mCPR is 20% lower among indigenous women than the general population, 5% lower among uninsured women than insured, and 7% lower among the poorest women than the wealthiest. Among the poorest quintile of women, insured women had an mCPR 16.5 percentage points higher than that of uninsured women, suggesting that expansion of insurance coverage is associated with increased family planning access and use. In the high- and upper-middle-income countries we reviewed, all modern contraceptive methods are typically available through the social health insurance schemes that cover a majority of the population. However, in low- and lower-middle-income countries, despite free provision of most family planning services in public health facilities, stock-outs and implicit rationing present substantial barriers that prevent clients from accessing their preferred method

  17. Strengthening the Engagement of Provinces in Health Workforce Planning and Management: A Case Study From Lao PDR

    Khampasong Theppanya


    Full Text Available The purpose of this health workforce plan is to provide guidance for the staffing of the Bolikhamxay. Province health services and the training of health service personnel to the year 2020. It must be stressed, however, that this plan is in its first iteration and does not provide all the solutions. Rather, it identifies issues that need to be further investigated and resolved at the local level. For example, the provincial health department (PHD will need to further investigate the reasons for the significant variability in the utilization of services in different facilities and in the different ratios of staff in relation to the activities performed. The accuracy of the data must be validated and specific interventions must be determined. For Bolikhamxay, particular attention by PHD and district health authorities should be given to the following issues identified in the analysis: • Shortage of clinical staff, particularly in the age group 30 to 40 years old, to provide supervision, guidance, and support for junior staff in coming years; • The existence of health centers with less than minimum staffing level (<3, including a midwife and/or staff capable of properly addressing emergencies with particular reference to maternal and child health. • The median number of activities per staff per year is around 470 (Nakoun/Bolikhan, which means that, on average, a health worker will participate in fewer than two activities per day. The situation in some district hospitals and most health centers is even worse, with an annual average number of activities per staff of only 163, which means that, on average, one staff participates in one activity every 3 days, hardly enough to maintain skills and justify deployment. • This low level of staff activity raises questions about the need for further increase of staff supply to health centers and districts unless effective interventions are implemented to increase the demand and utilization of services

  18. Providing quality family planning and MCH services in the urban areas: the YKB experience.


    In Indonesia, the provision of family planning services to the community for a fee through a privately operated clinic is a relatively new concept. The idea to charge patients for family planning services came up during several meetings sponsored by the National Family Planning Coordinating Board (NFPCB) in its effort to increase family planning acceptance in urban areas. NFPCB realized that while the village family planning program was very effective, the urban family planning program was lagging behind for several reasons: while its services were free, most government-run clinics were open only in the morning, making it inconvenient for working mothers to avail themselves of the services; government operated clinics were crowded; since the services were free, they were perceived to be not of good quality; and there was a limited range of contraceptives and drugs available in the government operated clinics. In 1980, the Yayasan Kusuma Buana (YKB), a private nonprofit health and family planning organization in Jakarta, was asked by the Badan Koordenasi Keluarga Berencana Nasional (BKKBN) to set up a semi-commercial, urban family planning clinic as a pilot project. The clinic was established in an area where most of the residents belonged to the lower middle income group. After almost 3 years, the clinic became self-reliant and was used by the YKB as a basis for expanding the project. Currently, there are 9 such clinics in Jakarta and YKB is helping 10 other Indonesian cities to set up their own clinics. This paper considers the main components of YKB's strategy for planning and managing the clinic and and provides an analysis of the YKB experience in operating a successful family planning and maternal and child health program in the urban areas. To become self-reliant and at the same time have a successful family planning and health program, clinics should have the following characteristics: integrated services; competent and attractive clinic personnel; a

  19. Family Planning Behavior and Small Family Concept Acceptance in Two Different Geographical Characteristics Municipality of South Klaten, Klaten, Central Java

    P Priyono


    Full Text Available The research aim to know the family planning behaviour, the acceptance small family norm and the influential factors in two villages that have different geographical aspect. The behaviour involve the knowledge, the attitude and the practice where as the influential factors involve education, accupation, values of children, income, children still born and family size desired. The research areas are chosen purposive in two villages that have different geographical aspect, social aspect and cultural aspect. The aspect are: 1 location and topography, 2 socialy  structure, and 3 the achievement of effective acceptor. Based on the three aspects, Ngalas village (developing and Sumberejo (developed are chosen as research areas. The recorded as ative acceptor (recordedin RI/PUS/1991 form. The respondents are chosen by cencus at two neighborhoord association at every village. There are six variables in this research are assumed influence the periode of the contraceptives use, such as education, occupation status, values of children, family income, children still born, and family size desired. There are three variables are assumed influence the small family norm, such as education, occupation status, and values of children. The data was analyzed by frequency table, crosee table, and statistical analysis (Q square and Regresion. The data was always compared between the two villages. The analysis use computer by Microsoft Program.  The research result showed that Sumberejo was better than Ngalas in the knowledge, the attitude, and the practice of family planning. Most of the people who live in Sumberejo understood the contraception device well (52,4%, where as in Ngalas (26,8%. Both of them agreed on using contraception device (more than 70%. The respondent who live in Sumberejo used IUD (40% and MOW/MOP (23,23%. They had used of the contraception device for 4.8 years on an average. Mean  while the respondents in Ngalas use IUD (23,68% and MOW/MOP (2

  20. [Socio-demographic impact of 15 years of family planning].

    Rosales Aujang, Enrique; Felguérez Flores, Jesús Alberto


    Familiar planning is an important branch of the preventive medicine that can have a great impact on the health of the humanity. The present study is an evaluation by a cross section of the effects obtained by the program of familiar planning during a period of 15 years in the Aguascalientes Delegation of the Mexican Institute of the Social Security, establishing therefore a diagnosis and identifying elements that can contribute in the suitable planning of strategies to improve the quality of the attention and to respond to social and health necessities of the population.

  1. Family planning services quality as a determinant of use of IUD in Egypt

    Montana Livia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both availability and quality of family planning services are believed to have contributed to increasing contraceptive use and declining fertility rates in developing countries. Yet, there is limited empirical evidence to show the relationship between the quality of family planning services and the population based prevalence of contraceptive methods. This study examined the relationship between quality of family planning services and use of intrauterine devices (IUD in Egypt. Methods The analysis used data from the 2003 Egypt Interim Demographic and Health Survey (EIDHS that included 8,445 married women aged 15–49, and the 2002 Egypt Service Provision Assessment (ESPA survey that included 602 facilities offering family planning services. The EIDHS collected latitude and longitude coordinates of all sampled clusters, and the ESPA collected these coordinates for all sampled facilities. Using Geographic Information System (GIS methods, individual women were linked to a facility located within 10 km of their community. A facility-level index was constructed to reflect the quality of family planning services. Four dimensions of quality of care were examined: counseling, examination room, supply of contraceptive methods, and management. Effects of quality of family planning services on the use of IUD and other contraceptive methods were estimated using multinomial logistic regression. Results are presented as relative risk ratios (RRR with significance levels (p-values. Results IUD use among women who obtained their method from public sources was significantly positively associated with quality of family planning services (RRR = 1.36, p Conclusion This study is one among the few that used geographic information to link data from a population-based survey with an independently sampled health facility survey. The findings demonstrate that service quality is an important determinant of use of clinical contraceptive methods in Egypt

  2. Family planning saves lives and P303 billion for the Philippine government.


    This pamphlet gives a description of how family planning benefits the population in the Philippines. Benefits are identified as lower child and maternal mortality, avoidance of unwanted pregnancies and illegal abortions, and savings in a variety of government sectors. The following predictions are based on the estimated population size if government expenditures for the Philippine family planning program continue to expand as projected, rather than remain at 1970 levels. In the education sector during 1970-2000, the total cumulative savings would amount to 229 billion pesos in 1991 prices. If family planning use continues in the expected direction, the savings would be greatest during 1990-2000. Total health expenditures rose from 3 billion pesos in 1970 to about 8 billion pesos in 1990. Expenditures are expected to rise to 12 billion pesos by 2000. The savings accrued through family planning would amount to about 31 billion pesos during 1970-2000. Social services expenditures are expected to increase to almost 15 billion pesos by the year 2000. The savings in social services expenditures would amount to about 43 billion pesos during 1970-2000. For each pesos spent on family planning there has been a savings of 9.6 pesos in education, health, and social services. Expected family planning costs to the year 2000 are about 16 billion pesos, which is handily covered by savings in the health sector of 31 billion. Total savings from all three sectors after deducting family planning expenditures would amount to 287 billion pesos. The investment in family planning is an excellent financial investment. A Social Weather Stations Survey of public opinion indicates that 76% desire a slowing of population growth (79% in urban and 73% in rural areas). 15% support an increase in growth, and 9% would do nothing about it. The lowest support for slowing population growth was recorded in the Visayas, particularly in rural areas (66%).

  3. The role of traditional birth attendants in family planning programs in Southeast Asia.

    Peng, J Y


    The training and utilization of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in maternal and child health and family planning programs in Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand and Malaysia are discussed. Special efforts to organize and train TBAs for family planning in Malaysia are examined in detail. Import factors for successful utilization of TBAs include: (a) definite assignment of functions and tasks, (b) organization of good operational steps and (c) implementation of good supervisory activities.

  4. Contraceptive Method Choice Among Women Attending at Amtullabhai Family Planning Clinic in Dar es salaam

    Mbando, Apaisaria Humphrey


    Contraceptive prevalence in Tanzania is low despite high knowledge of contraception. In order to understand the existing barriers, it is important to find out reasons affecting contraceptive method choices. The objective of this study was to assess contraceptive method choice among women attending at Amtullabhai family planning clinic in Dar es Salaam. A cross- sectional study was conducted between October and November, 2010 at Amtullabhai family planning clinic, Ilala District in Dar es Sala...

  5. HIV and family planning service integration and voluntary HIV counselling and testing client composition in Ethiopia.

    Bradley, H; Bedada, A; Tsui, A; Brahmbhatt, H; Gillespie, D; Kidanu, A


    Integrating voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT) with family planning and other reproductive health services may be one effective strategy for expanding VCT service delivery in resource poor settings. Using 30,257 VCT client records with linked facility characteristics from Ethiopian non-governmental, non-profit, reproductive health clinics, we constructed multi-level logistic regression models to examine associations between HIV and family planning service integration modality and three outcomes: VCT client composition, client-initiated HIV testing and client HIV status. Associations between facility HIV and family planning integration level and the likelihood of VCT clients being atypical family planning client-types, versus older (at least 25 years old), ever-married women were assessed. Relative to facilities co-locating services in the same compound, those offering family planning and HIV services in the same rooms were 2-13 times more likely to serve atypical family planning client-types than older, ever-married women. Facilities where counsellors jointly offered HIV and family planning services and served many repeat family planning clients were significantly less likely to serve single clients relative to older, married women. Younger, single men and older, married women were most likely to self-initiate HIV testing (78.2 and 80.6% respectively), while the highest HIV prevalence was seen among older, married men and women (20.5 and 34.2% respectively). Compared with facilities offering co-located services, those integrating services at room- and counsellor-levels were 1.9-7.2 times more likely to serve clients initiating HIV testing. These health facilities attract both standard material and child health (MCH) clients, who are at high risk for HIV in these data, and young, single people to VCT. This analysis suggests that client types may be differentially attracted to these facilities depending on service integration modality and other facility

  6. Family planning and reproductive health supply stockouts: problems and remedies for faith-based health facilities in Africa

    Amy M. Metzger


    distances to depots, and problems maintaining the cold chain. Conclusions: By studying the supply chains of faith-based health facilities, Christian Connections for International Health (CCIH and its members have created new awareness among FBOs and international agencies of the importance and challenges of these systems and have suggested actions toward improvement. The Alliance of Christian Faith-Based Organizations for Family Planning (ACFBOFP formed in Cameroon to strengthen commodity security may be a good model for other FBOs to consider. Cost recovery models with stronger quantification and forecasting systems, including trained staff, can help meet the FP and RH needs of families and can help assure the long-term sustainability of FBO health systems. This study can serve as a frame of reference as we move forward, anticipating an acceleration in interest to strengthen FBO supply chains to reach as many communities as possible with available, quality supplies and services.

  7. Counseling a Client Whose Family Member Is Planning a Suicide.

    Crawford, Robert


    Discusses planned suicide as a topic that receives much attention both in the popular press and the scholarly literature. Provides a case scenario followed with a discussion of pertinent legal and ethical issues for counselors. (Author/GCP)

  8. Confidentiality in Family Planning Services for Young People: A Systematic Review.

    Brittain, Anna W; Williams, Jessica R; Zapata, Lauren B; Moskosky, Susan B; Weik, Tasmeen S


    Family planning services are essential for reducing high rates of unintended pregnancies among young people, yet a perception that providers will not preserve confidentiality may deter youth from accessing these services. This systematic review, conducted in 2011, summarizes the evidence on the effect of assuring confidentiality in family planning services to young people on reproductive health outcomes. The review was used to inform national recommendations on providing quality family planning services. Multiple databases were searched to identify articles addressing confidentiality in family planning services to youth aged 10-24 years. Included studies were published from January 1985 through February 2011. Studies conducted outside the U.S., Canada, Europe, Australia, or New Zealand, and those that focused exclusively on HIV or sexually transmitted diseases, were excluded. The search strategy identified 19,332 articles, nine of which met the inclusion criteria. Four studies examined outcomes. Examined outcomes included use of clinical services and intention to use services. Of the four outcome studies, three found a positive association between assurance of confidentiality and at least one outcome of interest. Five studies provided information on youth perspectives and underscored the idea that young people greatly value confidentiality when receiving family planning services. This review demonstrates that there is limited research examining whether confidentiality in family planning services to young people affects reproductive health outcomes. A robust research agenda is needed, given the importance young people place on confidentiality. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Improving Access to Quality Care in Family Planning: WHO's Four Cornerstones of Evidence-based Guidance

    Shang-chun WU; Yan ZOU; K Church; O Meirik


    The four cornerstones of guidance in technique service of family planning are established by WHO based on high quality evidences. They have been updated according to the appearing new evidences, and the consensuses were reached by the international experts in this field. The four documents include Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use, Decision-making Tool for Family Planning Clients and Providers and The Global Handbook for Family Planning Providers. The first two documents mainlyface to the policy-makers and programme managers and were treated as the important references for creating the local guideline. The other two documents were developed for the front-line health-care and family planning providers at different levels, which include plenty of essential technical information to help providers improve their ability in service delivery and counselling. China paid great attention to the introduction and application of WHO guidelines. As soon as the newer editions of these documents were available, the Chinese version would be followed. WHO guidelines have been primarily adapted with the newly issued national guideline, The Clinical Practical Skill Guidelines- Family Planning Part, which was established by China Medical Association. At the same time, the WHO guidelines have been introduced to some of the linicians and family planning providers at different levels. In the future, more special training courses will be introduced to the township level based on the needs of grassroot providers.

  10. Changes in couples' communication as a result of a male-involvement family planning intervention.

    Hartmann, Miriam; Gilles, Kate; Shattuck, Dominick; Kerner, Brad; Guest, Greg


    Research suggests that spousal communication and male involvement in decision making can positively influence family-planning use and continuation. However, few existing studies explore the dynamics of this communication and how they factor into family-planning decision making. Building upon a recent evaluation of a theory-based male-involvement intervention in Malawi, this study aimed to fill this gap by examining the role of communication in the intervention's success, through semi-structured in-depth interviews with male participants and female partners of study participants. Results support the idea that communication is an integral component of successful interventions to increase male involvement in family planning. Participants reported improvements in spousal communication, increased frequency of communication, and an increase in shared decision making as a result of the study, which directly contributed to their family-planning use. This effect was often mediated through increased knowledge or reduced male opposition to family planning. Further analysis of communication and decision-making dynamics revealed shifts in gendered communication norms, leading to improvements in spousal relationships in addition to contraceptive uptake. This study shows that interventions can and should encourage spousal communication and shared decision making, and it provides an effective model for involving men in family-planning use.

  11. Pets: Your Plan Should Include All Family Members

    ... Cross Month Latest News Health and Safety Training & Education Mission & Values History National Celebrity Cabinet National Celebrity Cabinet Red Cross Stories Governance Career Opportunities Military Families Disaster Relief ... Training & Education Lifesaving Blood Get Assistance Types of Emergencies Be ...

  12. "Leaving before she leaves": considering future family when making career plans.

    Ganginis Del Pino, Heather V; O'Brien, Karen M; Mereish, Ethan; Miller, Matthew J


    An instrument was developed to measure the extent to which people consider future children and romantic partners when planning for a career (i.e., the PLAN scale). Two independent factor-analytic studies of a total of 726 college women were conducted to assess the factor structure and psychometric properties of this measure. Results suggested that the PLAN represents a general Considering Future Family When Making Career Plans factor and 2 domain-specific factors: Considering Children and Prioritizing and Compromising for Partner. Suggestions for future research and practice using the PLAN scale are provided.

  13. Parental influence on work and family plans of adolescents of different ethnic backgrounds in the Netherlands

    de Valk, H.A.G.


    This paper examined the work and family plans of adolescents from five different ethnic origins. The way in which parents influence these plans was studied by using a representative sample of secondary school pupils (N = 52,000) in The Netherlands. Results showed that substantial proportions of adol

  14. Family Planning Evaluation. Abortion Surveillance Report--Legal Abortions, United States, Annual Summary, 1970.

    Center for Disease Control (DHEW/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    This report summarizes abortion information received by the Center for Disease Control from collaborators in state health departments, hospitals, and other pertinent sources. While it is intended primarily for use by the above sources, it may also interest those responsible for family planning evaluation and hospital abortion planning. Information…

  15. Variables of the Theory of Planned Behavior Are Associated with Family Meal Frequency among Adolescents

    Eto, Kumi; Koch, Pamela; Contento, Isobel R.; Adachi, Miyuki


    Objective: To examine associations between Theory of Planned Behavior variables and the family meal frequency. Methods: Fifth-through seventh-grade students (n = 236) completed a self-administered questionnaire in their classrooms. The relationships between Theory of Planned Behavior variables (intention, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived…

  16. Variables of the Theory of Planned Behavior Are Associated with Family Meal Frequency among Adolescents

    Eto, Kumi; Koch, Pamela; Contento, Isobel R.; Adachi, Miyuki


    Objective: To examine associations between Theory of Planned Behavior variables and the family meal frequency. Methods: Fifth-through seventh-grade students (n = 236) completed a self-administered questionnaire in their classrooms. The relationships between Theory of Planned Behavior variables (intention, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived…

  17. Parental influence on work and family plans of adolescents of different ethnic backgrounds in the Netherlands

    de Valk, H.A.G.


    This paper examined the work and family plans of adolescents from five different ethnic origins. The way in which parents influence these plans was studied by using a representative sample of secondary school pupils (N = 52,000) in The Netherlands. Results showed that substantial proportions of

  18. Using Radio To Promote Family Planning in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Henry, Kathleen

    Family planning programs in sub-Saharan Africa (42 countries and 450 million population), the fastest growing and poorest region in the world, need effective communications campaigns to educate people about the benefits of contraception, help change attitudes about fertility control and family size, and provide information about available…

  19. Family participation in care plan meetings : Promoting a collaborative organizational culture in nursing homes

    Dijkstra, Ate

    In this study, the author evaluated a project in The Netherlands that aimed to promote family members' participation in care plan meetings at a psychogeriatric nursing home. The small-scale pilot project, which was conducted in four wards of the nursing home, was designed to involve families in

  20. Toward an Integrative Approach to Assessment and Treatment Planning in Family Therapy.

    Olsen, David C.

    The rapid increase in literature and modalities of family therapy has made it difficult for counselors working with families to find an integrative approach to assessment and treatment planning. As a result, many counselors move from one paradigm to another without attempting to integrate approaches. This paper attempts to integrate five paradigms…

  1. Children in planned lesbian families: Stigmatisation, psychological adjustment and protective factors

    Bos, H.M.W.; van Balen, F.


    The study assessed the extent to which children between eight and 12 years old in planned lesbian families in the Netherlands experience stigmatization, as well as the influence of protective factors (relationship with parents, social acceptance by peers, contact with children from other families

  2. Physician extender services in family planning agencies: issues in Medicaid reimbursement.

    Mondy, L W; Lutz, D B; Heartwell, S F; Zetzman, M R


    The US Social Security Amendments of 1972 mandated the inclusion of family planning services in state Medicaid plans, authorized 90% of reimbursements for family planning care, and imposed financial penalties for failure to provide these services to Medicaid-eligible clients. On the other hand, many states have retrictive policies regarding Medicaid reimbursements to family planning agencies for services provided by physician extenders (e.g.s nurse practitioners and physician assistants). There is concern that such restrictions greatly reduce accessibility to family planning services. Reasons that hae been suggested as causes of such restrictive policies include physician concern over loss of income, the uncertain status of physician extenders in some states, a fear that this step will lead to a demand for reiimbursement for the services of other allied health care providers such as social workers, and concern that care for the indigent will lead to an expensive increase in state reimbursement for family planning services. However, a review of relevant federal law and regulations indicates that Medicaid reimbursement for services provided to eligible patients by physician extenders has never been prohibited or discouraged. Physician supervision is required in reimbursement cases, but this does not mean that a physician must be on the premises while services are delivered. The Medicaid program actually allows significant latitude in establishing administrative policies and procedures. Rather, problems faced by family planning agencies in receiving Medicaid reimbursements for physician extenders' services are due to restrictions in state laws and staff misinterpretations of policy. Research has demonstrated that physcian extenders can contribute significantly to cost effectiveness, while providing types of care in localities such as rural areas that physicians tend to avoid. Given the importance of family planning services to Medicaid-eligible clients, unwarranted

  3. Key Role of Drug Shops and Pharmacies for Family Planning in Urban Nigeria and Kenya

    Corroon, Meghan; Kebede, Essete; Spektor, Gean; Speizer, Ilene


    ABSTRACT Background: The Family Planning 2020 initiative aims to reach 120 million new family planning users by 2020. Drug shops and pharmacies are important private-sector sources of contraception in many contexts but are less well understood than public-sector sources, especially in urban environments. This article explores the role that drug shops and pharmacies play in the provision of contraceptive methods in selected urban areas of Nigeria and Kenya as well as factors associated with women's choice of where to obtain these methods. Methods: Using data collected in 2010/2011 from representative samples of women in selected urban areas of Nigeria and Kenya as well as a census of pharmacies and drug shops audited in 2011, we examine the role of drug shops and pharmacies in the provision of short-acting contraceptive methods and factors associated with a women's choice of family planning source. Results: In urban Nigeria and Kenya, drug shops and pharmacies were the major source for the family planning methods of oral contraceptive pills, emergency contraceptives, and condoms. The majority of injectable users obtained their method from public facilities in both countries, but 14% of women in Nigeria and 6% in Kenya obtained injectables from drug shops or pharmacies. Harder-to-reach populations were the most likely to choose these outlets to obtain their short-acting methods. For example, among users of these methods in Nigeria, younger women (<25 years old) were significantly more likely to obtain their method from a drug shop or pharmacy than another type of facility. In both countries, family planning users who had never been married were significantly more likely than married users to obtain these methods from a drug shop or a pharmacy than from a public-sector health facility. Low levels of family planning-related training (57% of providers in Kenya and 41% in Nigeria had received training) and lack of family planning promotional activities in pharmacies and

  4. Men and family planning in Africa. Les hommes et la planification familiale en Afrique.

    Diallo, A


    Male responsibility with regard to family planning and its practice is a major action focus of the International Planned Parenthood Federation. The campaign has been aimed at developing programs to educate men about family planning, encouraging men to practice contraception, and changing the attitudes of male opinion leaders. Since the African male's opinion is paramount within the family unit, the village, and the broader society, this approach is considered essential to the success of family planning efforts in Africa. Although a wide range of programs in Anglophone Africa are now oriented toward men, little progress has been made in the Francophone countries. Obstacles include traditionalism, pro-natalism, illiteracy, religion, and a hostility to Western concepts. Efforts have further been hindered by the way that family planning has been promoted in the region in the past: as a birth spacing method to improve maternal and child health. Medical and paramedical personnel in the region have been trained to treat only mothers and children, not couples or families. However, women's changing status and increased awareness of the connection between demography and development have created an atmosphere more favorable to well designed family welfare programs that are integrated with other development activities. If family planning is to become entrenched in the African region, attention must be given to 3 areas: information and education, integrated development, and research and training. Within the framework of educational activities, men can be made aware that they may practice contraception without any threat to their virility. Given the complexity of the task of introducing family planning on a broad scale in Africa, an integrated appraoch (social, cultural, health, economic, political, and legislative), involving both governments and voluntary organizations as well as the population, is required. Decision makers must be convinced to give family planning a central

  5. Thoughts on Strengthening Guidance to College Students’ Career Planning%关于加强大学生职业生涯规划指导的思考



      对大学毕业生进行良好的职业生涯规划指导,是推动大学毕业生就业的重要环节,也是对大学毕业生就业具有前瞻性的工作。从适应社会发展和学校就业工作的角度出发,要加强对大学毕业生职业生涯规划指导工作的领导,将其纳入高校就业总体布局规划,全面构建大学毕业生就业工作体系;要提高对大学毕业生就业指导服务水平,加强就业指导课程建设;要提高大学毕业生的职业素质和就业竞争力,引导他们结合自己的实际,正确规划和确定自己的职业生涯发展目标,提高他们的就业能力。%The well‐organized professional education career planning guidance for college‐leaving students is an important part to promote the employment of college‐leaving students ,and is also forward‐looking work for the employment of college‐leaving students .From the aspect of adaptation to social development and colleges’ employment work ,we should strengthen the control of career planning guidance for college‐leav‐ing students by incorporating it into the colleges’ overall employment layout and planning to build a com‐prehensive employment and working system for college‐leaving students so that we can improve the career guidance services for college‐leaving students .We should arrange some career guidance courses to improve their professional quality and employability competitiveness .We shall put the emphasis on the practice of career planning ,and guide them to combine their own situations with the job seeking to properly plan and determine their own career development goals and improve their employability .

  6. Cost Efficiency of the Family Physician Plan in Fars Province, Southern Iran

    Nahid Hatam


    Full Text Available Background: In recent years use of family physicians has been determined as a start point of health system reform to achieve more productive health services. In this study we aimed to assess the cost-efficiency of the implementation of this plan in Fars province, southern Iran.Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was done in 2007 in 18 provincial health centers as well as 224 rural health centers in Fars province. Data were collected using forms, statistics, and available evidence and analyzed by expert opinion and ratio techniques, control of process statistics, and multi indicator decision model.Results: Although in the family physician plan more attention is paid to patients and the level of health training, availability, and equity has improved and the best services are presented, it has not only decreased the costs, but also increased the referrals to pharmacies, laboratories, and radiology clinics and the costs of healthcare.Conclusion: Although the family physician plan has led to more regular service delivery, it has increased the patients’ referral to pharmacies, laboratories, and radiology centers and more referrals to family physicians. It seems that the possibility of setting regularity in health system can be gained in the following years of the family physician program mainly via planning, appropriate management and organizing correct health plans according to need assessments, and continual supervision on activities, which would happen according to current experiences in this plan.

  7. Empowering Families during the Early Intervention Planning Process

    Byington, Teresa A.; Whitby, Peggy J. S.


    Parents play important roles as advocates for their child with a disability. Advocacy is the process of striving to improve the quality of life for someone else. The Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) requires parents and professionals to work together to design a service delivery plan for children with disabilities. An…

  8. Empowering Families during the Early Intervention Planning Process

    Byington, Teresa A.; Whitby, Peggy J. S.


    Parents play important roles as advocates for their child with a disability. Advocacy is the process of striving to improve the quality of life for someone else. The Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) requires parents and professionals to work together to design a service delivery plan for children with disabilities. An…

  9. Measuring client satisfaction and the quality of family planning services: A comparative analysis of public and private health facilities in Tanzania, Kenya and Ghana

    Agha Sohail


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public and private family planning providers face different incentive structures, which may affect overall quality and ultimately the acceptability of family planning for their intended clients. This analysis seeks to quantify differences in the quality of family planning (FP services at public and private providers in three representative sub-Saharan African countries (Tanzania, Kenya and Ghana, to assess how these quality differentials impact upon FP clients' satisfaction, and to suggest how quality improvements can improve contraceptive continuation rates. Methods Indices of technical, structural and process measures of quality are constructed from Service Provision Assessments (SPAs conducted in Tanzania (2006, Kenya (2004 and Ghana (2002 using direct observation of facility attributes and client-provider interactions. Marginal effects from multivariate regressions controlling for client characteristics and the multi-stage cluster sample design assess the relative importance of different measures of structural and process quality at public and private facilities on client satisfaction. Results Private health facilities appear to be of higher (interpersonal process quality than public facilities but not necessarily higher technical quality in the three countries, though these differentials are considerably larger at lower level facilities (clinics, health centers, dispensaries than at hospitals. Family planning client satisfaction, however, appears considerably higher at private facilities - both hospitals and clinics - most likely attributable to both process and structural factors such as shorter waiting times and fewer stockouts of methods and supplies. Conclusions Because the public sector represents the major source of family planning services in developing countries, governments and Ministries of Health should continue to implement and to encourage incentives, perhaps performance-based, to improve quality at public

  10. Impact of family planning programs in reducing high-risk births due to younger and older maternal age, short birth intervals, and high parity.

    Brown, Win; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Roche, Neil; Sonneveldt, Emily; Darmstadt, Gary L


    Several studies show that maternal and neonatal/infant mortality risks increase with younger and older maternal age (34 years), high parity (birth order >3), and short birth intervals (Oaxaca decomposition technique, we then examine the contributions of family planning program, economic development (GDP per capita), and educational improvement (secondary school completion rate) on the progress of MCPR in order to link the net contribution of family planning program to the reduction of high-risk births mediated through contraceptive use. Countries that had the fastest progress in improving MCPR experienced the greatest declines in high-risk births due to short birth intervals (3), and older maternal age (>35 years). Births among younger women <18 years, however, did not decline significantly during this period. The decomposition analysis suggests that 63% of the increase in MCPR was due to family planning program efforts, 21% due to economic development, and 17% due to social advancement through women's education. Improvement in MCPR, predominately due to family planning programs, is a major driver of the decline in the burden of high-risk births due to high parity, shorter birth intervals, and older maternal age in developing countries. The lack of progress in the decline of births in younger women <18 years of age underscores the need for more attention to ensure that quality contraceptive methods are available to adolescent women in order to delay first births. This study substantiates the significance of family planning programming as a major health intervention for preventing high-risk births and associated maternal and child mortality, but it highlights the need for concerted efforts to strengthen service provision for adolescents.

  11. Impact of partial participation in integrated family planning training on medical knowledge, patient communication and professionalism.

    Steinauer, Jody E; Turk, Jema K; Preskill, Felisa; Devaskar, Sangita; Freedman, Lori; Landy, Uta


    Obstetrics and gynecology residency programs are required to provide access to abortion training, but residents can opt out of participating for religious or moral reasons. Quantitative data suggest that most residents who opt out of doing abortions participate and gain skills in other aspects of the family planning training. However, little is known about their experience and perspective. Between June 2010 and June 2011, we conducted semistructured interviews with current and former residents who opted out of some or all of the family planning training at ob-gyn residency programs affiliated with the Kenneth J. Ryan Residency Training Program in Abortion and Family Planning. Residents were either self-identified or were identified by their Ryan Program directors as having opted out of some training. The interviews were transcribed and coded using modified grounded theory. Twenty-six physicians were interviewed by telephone. Interviewees were from geographically diverse programs (35% Midwest, 31% West, 19% South/Southeast and 15% North/Northeast). We identified four dominant themes about their experience: (a) skills valued in the family planning training, (b) improved patient-centered care, (c) changes in attitudes about abortion and (d) miscommunication as a source of negative feelings. Respondents valued the ability to partially participate in the family planning training and identified specific aspects of their training which will impact future patient care. Many of the effects described in the interviews address core competencies in medical knowledge, patient care, communication and professionalism. We recommend that programs offer a spectrum of partial participation in family planning training to all residents, including residents who choose to opt out of doing some or all abortions. Learners who morally object to abortion but participate in training in family planning and abortion, up to their level of comfort, gain clinical and professional skills. We




    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Understanding of family planning scenario among different societies and communities, which by and large reside in urban slum areas, might prove useful in increasing family planning acceptance by them and decreasing population growth. Unmet need is a valuable indicator for assessing the achievements of national family planning programs. OBJECTIVES: The present study was undertaken with the objectives to estimate unmet need for family planning among the married women of reproductive age group (15 - 49 years in urban slums of Lucknow and to determine the various factors that influence the unmet need. METHODS: A community based cross - sectional study was conducted in slums of Lucknow City from February 2014 to September 2014. A total 452 married women in reproductive age group were interviewed through house to house survey with the help of a pre - designed, pre - tested and semi - structured questionnaire. RESULTS: The total unmet need for family planning was 69.0%. Multivariate logistic regression revealed socioeconomic status upper lower and below (OR 2.7; 95% CI 1.5 - 5.1; p = 0.00; duration of marriage less than 1 year (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.1 - 2.9; p = 0.01; less number of live issues (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.1 - 2.5; p = 0.00; working status of women (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.1 - 2.9; p = 0.03; social class i.e. OBC and SC/ST (OR 2.3; 95% CI 1.1 - 4.6; p = 0.02 were found to be independent predictors of unmet need of family planning. CONCLUSION: The present study revealed that unmet need for family planning was quite high among women belonging to social class i.e. OBC and SC/ST, with low socioeconomic status, duration of marriage less than one year less number of live issues and working status of the women.

  13. Family planning education: working with target groups in the South Pacific.

    Winn, M


    Family planning education programs are commonly designed by expert educators who are far removed, in location and experience, from their target audiences. Educators operate on the premise that their job is simply to develop strategies to successfully transfer their knowledge to the target audience. Judgements are often colored by a determination not to offend local sensibilities, which can lead educators to uncritically adopt the local wisdom about what is and is not culturally acceptable. A proper exploration of sexuality is absent from most family planning programs. Usual features of expert-designed family planning programs are an admonishment about people having too many children (the stick), a clear rationale for having fewer children (the carrot), the provision of detailed contraceptive information (the means), and the encouragement of individuals to exercise some personal control over their fertility (the ends). This standard model, although widely used throughout the Pacific, was not adopted by the Family Planning Federation of Australia in its regional family planning education work. The Federation, in conjunction with the independent Family Planning Association in the South Pacific, has taken a more participatory, learner-focused approach that values the contribution of the audience in all phases of the program. There is a huge need to target men, particularly young, unmarried men. The Federation found that not only did Pacific men want to view and discuss the women's documentary video Taboo Talk about family planning issues, they wanted their own men's version. The Federation soon discovered that attempts to meet the requests can easily flounder on the issue of language. The Federation has worked with the target audience to develop a lexicon of acceptable words for reproductive health education.


    Ouma, S; Turyasima, M; Acca, H; Nabbale, F; Obita, K O; Rama, M; Adong, C C; Openy, A; Beatrice, M O; Odongo-Aginya, E I; Awor, S

    Uganda's rapid population growth (3.2%) since 1948 has placed more demands on health sector and lowered living standard of Ugandans resulting into 49% of people living in acute poverty especially in post conflict Northern Uganda. The population rise was due to low use of contraceptive methods (21% in rural areas and 43% in urban areas) and coupled with high unmet need for family planning (41%). This indicated poor access to reproductive health services. Effective use of family planning could reduce the rapid population growth. To determine obstacles to family planning use among rural women in Northern Uganda. A descriptive cross-sectional analytical study. Atiak Health Centre IV, Amuru District, rural Northern Uganda. Four hundred and twenty four females of reproductive ages were selected from both Inpatient and Outpatient Departments of Atiak Health Centre IV. There was high level of awareness 418 (98.6%), positive attitude 333 (78.6%) and fair level of utilisation 230 (54.2%) of family planning. However, significant obstacles to family planning usage included; long distance to Health facility, unavailability of preferred contraceptive methods, absenteeism of family planning providers, high cost of managing side effects, desire for big family size, children dying less than five years old, husbands forbidding women from using family planning and lack of community leaders' involvement in family planning programme. In spites of the high level of awareness, positive attitude, and free family planning services, there were obstacles that hindered family planning usage among these rural women. However, taking services close to people, reducing number of children dying before their fifth birthday, educating men about family planning, making sure family planning providers and methods are available, reducing cost of managing side effects and involving community leaders will improve utilisation of family planning and thus reduce the rapid population growth and poverty.

  15. Polycrystalline strengthening

    Hansen, Niels


    . The strength-grain size relationships can be described in a number of empirical equations relating the yield stress and the flow stress in tension to various structural parameters. A number of such equations are reviewed and their predictive capability is discussed. Structural information of importance...... found, and this structural information is correlated with a number of strength structural equations. Finally, the flow stress of fcc and bcc polycrystalline specimens is related to the occurrence of microstructures formed by macroscopic and microscopic strain accommodation processes during plastic...... for the understanding of polycrystalline strengthening is obtained mainly from surface relief patterns and from bulk structures observed by transmission electron microscopy of thin foils. The results obtained by these methods are discussed and correlations are proposed. A number of features characterizing the deformed...

  16. Fresh impetus to family planning programmes planned in India. APPN interviews Mr. B. Shankaranand Union Minister for Health and Family Welfare, India.


    Mr. B. Shankaranand, Union Minister for Health and Family Welfare in India, speaking on new policy measures planned to give family planning a major boost, stated that programs related to population and family welfare should be interwoven with the minimum needs program so that the message of the small family norm becomes attractive to acceptors. The new incentive measures, outlined by Shankaranand, are based on the understanding that the existing infrastructure for service delivery must be fully utilized. The new package of incentives places equal emphasis on state level campaigns which will be suitably dovetailed with services and supplies. Monetary rewards in the form of community assets will be given to organized and identifiable groups actively engaged in the implementation of the Family Welfare Program. Cash awards will be given to the best performing states. A new incentive scheme will be introduced for industrial labor groups in the organized sector. Innovative publicity campaigns in selected areas will be conducted. Reorganization of the service delivery outreach system will include establishing health posts staffed by nurse midwives and health workers in urban slums and congested areas. A scheme is in preparation to issue green cards to acceptors of terminal methods after 2 children. The card holders will be entitled to priority attention and preferential treatment in schemes where such practices are feasible. Currently, there are 5000 Primary Health Centers and 50,000 subcenters offering integrated health services. Family planning statistics provide supportive evidence of programmatic response to the achievement of longterm goals of population stabilization. During the 1st 10 months of the current financial year 2,800,000 sterilizations were performed, a 43% higher achievement rate than the corresponding period last year. The number is likely to rise to 4,000,000 by the end of this financial year. Similarly, the number of IUD acceptors is 760,000, 35

  17. On Strengthening Party Member Leading Cadres’Family Rules in the New Period%新时期加强党员领导干部家风建设的思考

    黄德锋; 潘洋


    The family rules of party member leading cadres relate to the party conduct,the government conduct and the social atmosphere.To strengthen party member leading cadres’family rules in the new period is not only an important content of carrying through the clean government campaign,but also a requisite measure for carrying out the requirement of comprehensively strengthening the party disci-pline.The emerging of problems regarding party member leading cadres’family rules has its social cau-ses in depth.Therefore,to strengthen the family rules of party member cadres,we must enhance the ac-complishment in party spirit,firm the ideal and faith,improve the moral level,manage our families strictly,and normalize family members’behavior and meanwhile,strengthen the supervision and con-striction on leading cadres,strengthen the evaluation system and the education for leading cadres,pass on the excellent family tradition and the red gene,build up modern family rules,actively form the politi-cal ecology of cleanness and integrity,and concretely perform the work of comprehensively strengthe-ning party discipline.%党员领导干部的家风关系到党风、政风和社会风气。新时期加强党员领导干部家风建设既是当前开展党风廉政建设的重要内容,也是落实全面从严治党要求的必要举措。党员领导干部家风问题的出现有其深刻的社会原因,因此,加强党员领导干部家风建设,必须加强党性修养,坚定理想信念和提升道德境界,从严治家,规范家属的行为,同时强化对领导干部的监督和约束,严格考评机制,加大教育力度,传承传统优秀家风和红色基因,努力构建现代家风,从而积极营造风清气正的政治生态,切实推进全面从严治党。

  18. Key Role of Drug Shops and Pharmacies for Family Planning in Urban Nigeria and Kenya.

    Corroon, Meghan; Kebede, Essete; Spektor, Gean; Speizer, Ilene


    The Family Planning 2020 initiative aims to reach 120 million new family planning users by 2020. Drug shops and pharmacies are important private-sector sources of contraception in many contexts but are less well understood than public-sector sources, especially in urban environments. This article explores the role that drug shops and pharmacies play in the provision of contraceptive methods in selected urban areas of Nigeria and Kenya as well as factors associated with women's choice of where to obtain these methods. Using data collected in 2010/2011 from representative samples of women in selected urban areas of Nigeria and Kenya as well as a census of pharmacies and drug shops audited in 2011, we examine the role of drug shops and pharmacies in the provision of short-acting contraceptive methods and factors associated with a women's choice of family planning source. In urban Nigeria and Kenya, drug shops and pharmacies were the major source for the family planning methods of oral contraceptive pills, emergency contraceptives, and condoms. The majority of injectable users obtained their method from public facilities in both countries, but 14% of women in Nigeria and 6% in Kenya obtained injectables from drug shops or pharmacies. Harder-to-reach populations were the most likely to choose these outlets to obtain their short-acting methods. For example, among users of these methods in Nigeria, younger women (public-sector health facility. Low levels of family planning-related training (57% of providers in Kenya and 41% in Nigeria had received training) and lack of family planning promotional activities in pharmacies and drug shops in both countries indicate the need for additional support from family planning programs to leverage this important access point. Drug shops and pharmacies offer an important and under-leveraged mechanism for expanding family planning access to women in urban Nigeria and Kenya, and potentially elsewhere. Vulnerable and harder

  19. The roles of men in family planning - a study of married men at the UKM primary care clinic.

    Ling, Jes; Tong, S F


    Traditionally, family planning initiatives were concentrated on women despite it being a family matter. As family dynamics evolved over the years, fathers' involvement in family planning has become crucial in enhancing the family well-being. This study aimed to identify the role played by men in family planning activities and the association of socio-economic characteristics with these roles. This was a cross-sectional study carried out in a university primary care clinic. All married male attendees to the clinic, aged 50 years and below, were approached to answer a set of self-administered questionnaires, asking for their involvement in family planning practices. The data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. There were 167 participants in the study. A high proportion of men participated in the discussions regarding previous pregnancies (60.42%), future child planning (89.76%) and desired family size (89.76%). However, the discussions on the usage of family planning methods (FPMs; 39.16%) were significantly low. Socio-economic factors associated with higher likelihood of men discussing family planning activities were older age (p planning activities. The roles taken by men in family planning were associated with older age and higher socio-economic class. The majority of men needs to be encouraged to play a more active role in the discussion of FPMs.

  20. Unmet need of contraception: a critical juncture toward family planning goals.

    Haldar, Dibakar; Saha, Indranil; Paul, Bobby; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Ray, Tapobrata Guha


    India is the first country in the world to implement a family planning program, and this program has succeeded in generating universal knowledge about family planning methods. In spite of this, there exists a wide gap between knowledge and acceptance of family planning methods reflecting an unmet need for contraception. Different communication channels used to disseminate knowledge like television, radio, and newspapers aim to change the family planning methods. Being a didactic method, these have the least potential to change the attitudes of the people. This article represents the tip of the iceberg of the fate arising out of incomplete information provided through mass media not supported by a formal family planning program. One primipara woman after getting pregnant took an emergency contraceptive pill and attended a clinic with vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain, and pallor. Ultimately she underwent suction evacuation and survived. This indicates that mass media should not be a substitute, but rather a supplement to the routine program of the health worker to promote contraception.

  1. The San Pablo experiment: educational strategies in family planning for rural workers.

    Gatchalian, J; Aganon, M


    16 couples from each of 3 barrios in the Philippines - Barrio Santiago 1, Barrio Santiago 2, and Barrio Dolores - were randomly selected to make up homogeneous groups of young potential family planning acceptors. The objectives were 3-fold: 1) to increase the rural workers' knowledge and awareness of population issues and family planning in order to motivate them to adopt practices; 2) to assist a trade union in integrating population education into its workers' educational program; and 3) to test the effectiveness of 2 different population education strategies. Couples from Barrio Santiago 1 underwent the integrated approach, those from Barrio Dolores the conventional approach, and those from Barrio Santiago 2 served as the control group. Both strategies made use of the same teaching methods. The relative effectiveness of the 2 strategies was gauged through an evaluation of the respondents' knowledge, attitude and practice of family planning 3 months after the training course. The following were among the results: 1) both the conventional and integrated educational strategies worked toward a higher level of knowledge and a more favorable attitude toward family planning; 2) there was no statistical significant difference between the 2 educational strategies in terms of attitude change and increase in knowledge; and 3) the study demonstrates the benefits of integrating family planning into the overall effort of trade unions to educate and inform their members.

  2. The experiences and perceptions of family planning of female Chinese asylum seekers living in the UK.

    Verran, Alice; Evans, Sarah; Lin, Daniel J; Griffiths, Frances


    Chinese family planning policy is unique. There is limited sex education and the state is highly influential. This has resulted in extremely wide coverage of contraception with long-acting methods being favoured. The Chinese constitute a large proportion of asylum applicants to the UK. This study examines how their experiences and decisions about family planning in the UK are shaped by their cultural background. Data were drawn from 10 semi-structured qualitative interviews with female Chinese asylum seekers recruited through a family planning clinic in the UK. The increased autonomy provided by the UK system was appreciated by the participants. Choice of contraceptive method was influenced by traditional cultural beliefs and values, and the effect of hormonal contraception on menstruation was particularly concerning. Women arrived from China with little knowledge of contraception. Friends from a similar background were the most trusted source of advice. When transitioning from China to the UK unwanted pregnancies had occurred amongst unmarried women who had missed out on sex education while living in China. Chinese societal and cultural practices continue to influence family planning decisions made within the UK. Culturally competent health strategies are needed to ensure Chinese immigrant women fully benefit from family planning within the UK. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  3. Capacity Development and Strengthening for Energy Policy formulation and implementation of Sustainable Energy Projects in Indonesia CASINDO. Deliverable No. 27. Biogas Construction Plan in Segoroyoso Village Yogyakarta Region

    Lesmana, Surya Budi; Putra, Sri Atmaja [Muhammadiyah University of Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta (Indonesia)


    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara (WNT) and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. To achieve the CASINDO objective seven Technical Working Groups have been established with the aim to conduct the technical activities under the various work packages and to produce the agreed deliverables. This report presents results from Technical Working Group IV on Renewable Energy project development. Its main aims were: To identify suitable non-hydro RE projects that can be developed in the province; To conduct an energy needs assessment in a selected location; To develop a business plan for a proposed solution to the identified main energy problem of the target community; To identify potential investors; To construct the project.

  4. Children in planned lesbian families: a cross-cultural comparison between the United States and the Netherlands

    Bos, H.M.W.; Gartrell, N.K.; van Balen, F.; Peyser, H.; Sandfort, T.G.M.


    A total of 78 planned lesbian families in the United States were compared with 74 planned lesbian families in the Netherlands. Children were interviewed about disclosure to peers about living in a lesbian family and about their experiences of homophobia; mothers filled out the Child Behavior

  5. The impact of Centering Pregnancy Group Prenatal Care on postpartum family planning.

    Hale, Nathan; Picklesimer, Amy H; Billings, Deborah L; Covington-Kolb, Sarah


    The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of group prenatal care (GPNC) on postpartum family-planning utilization. A retrospective cohort of women continuously enrolled in Medicaid for 12 months (n = 3637) was used to examine differences in postpartum family-planning service utilization among women participating in GPNC (n = 570) and those receiving individual prenatal care (IPNC; n = 3067). Propensity scoring methods were used to derive a matched cohort for additional analysis of selected outcomes. Utilization of postpartum family-planning services was higher among women participating in GPNC than among women receiving IPNC at 4 points in time: 3 (7.72% vs 5.15%, P planning visits were highest among non-Hispanic black women at each interval, peaking with 31.84% by 12 months postpartum. After propensity score matching, positive associations between GPNC and postpartum family-planning service utilization remained consistent by 6 (odds ratio [OR], 1.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.92), 9 (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.08-1.90), and 12 (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.10-1.90) months postpartum. These findings demonstrate the potential that GPNC has to positively influence women's health outcomes after pregnancy and to improve the utilization rate of preventive health services. Utilization of postpartum family-planning services was highest among non-Hispanic black women, further supporting evidence of the impact of GPNC in reducing health disparities. However, despite continuous Medicaid enrollment, postpartum utilization of family-planning services remained low among all women, regardless of the type of prenatal care they received. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. An integration programme of poverty alleviation and development with family planning.


    The State Council (the central government) recently issued a Circular for Speeding Up the Integration of Poverty Alleviation and Development with the Family Planning Programme during the Ninth Five-year Plan (1996-2000). The Circular was jointly submitted by the State Family Planning Commission and the Leading Group for Poverty Alleviation and Development. The document sets the two major tasks as solving the basic needs for food and clothing of the rural destitute and the control of over-rapid growth of China's population. Practice indicates that a close Integration Programme is the best way for impoverished farmers to alleviate poverty and become better-off. Overpopulation and low educational attainments and poor health quality of population in backward areas are the major factors retarding socioeconomic development. Therefore, it is inevitable to integrate poverty alleviation with family planning. It is a path with Chinese characteristics for a balanced population and sustainable socioeconomic development. The targets of the Integration Programme are as follows: The first is that preferential policies should be worked out to guarantee family planning acceptors, especially households with an only daughter or two daughters, are the first to be helped to eradicate poverty and become well-off. They should become good examples for other rural poor in practicing fewer but healthier births, and generating family income. The second target is that the population plans for the poor counties identified by the central government and provincial governments must be fulfilled. This should contribute to breaking the vicious circle of poverty leading to more children, in turn generating more poverty. The circular demands that more efforts should focus on the training of cadres for the Integrated Programme and on services for poor family planning acceptors.

  7. Obesity and Family Systems: A Family FIRO Approach to Assessment and Treatment Planning.

    Doherty, William J.; Harkaway, Jill Elka


    Presents model for conceptualizing interactional patterns in families presenting for treatment of obesity and method for organizing assessment and for prioritizing treatment strategies. Uses the Family FIRO Model as a framework to organize complex assessment issues, to assign priorities for treatment of issues, and to select appropriate treatment…

  8. Watch out for the blue circle: a breakthrough in family planning promotional strategy.



    Realizing the potential of commercial marketing in changing the attitude and behavior of the target audience in the early years of the 4th 5-year development plan, the National Family Planning Program tried to develop new ventures in communicating the concept of the small family norm to the people. The condom was chosen as the 1st product to be sold through the social marketing project because male awareness about family planning was still low. Based on audience research, the pricing, packaging, and branding of the product was developed. The most accepted brand name was Dua Lima because it has a neutral meaning, is easily remembered, and can be described in sign language. The last reason is very important because most consumers have difficulty communicating about condoms in the sales outlet. Social marketing has proved effective because of strong public relations activities and the involvement of formal and informal leaders. This experiment has convinced family planning management that social marketing is workable for promoting the small family norm. In 1987, under the new program of self-sufficiency in family planning, the private sector is invited to participate by providing family planning services for target audiences, using the principles of self-sufficiency and self-support. There are 2 principal activities; 1) the IEC campaign, and 2) product (contraceptive) selling. IEC activities include a media campaign public relations work. Product selling is done through commercial channels such as pharmaceutical firms, drug stores, private doctors, and midwives. It was decided that the campaign would be aided by a name and logo. The blue circle was chosen because it is unique, communicative, and simple. The social marketing of contraceptives in Indonesia can be considered a breakthrough in communication strategy for a national development program.

  9. The role of law in public health: the case of family planning in the Philippines.

    Mello, Michelle Marie; Powlowski, Marcus; Nañagas, Juan M P; Bossert, Thomas


    Compared to neighboring countries, the Philippines has high fertility rates and a low prevalence of modern-method contraception use. The Philippine government faces political and cultural barriers to addressing family planning needs, but also legal barriers erected by its own policies. We conducted a review of laws and policies relating to family planning in the Philippines in order to examine how the law may facilitate or constrain service provision. The methodology consisted of three phases. First, we collected and analyzed laws and regulations relating to the delivery of family planning services. Second, we conducted a qualitative interview study. Third, we synthesized findings to formulate policy recommendations. We present a conceptual model for understanding the impact of law on public health and discuss findings in relation to the roles of health care provider regulation, drug regulation, tax law, trade policies, insurance law, and other laws on access to modern-method contraceptives.

  10. Counseling Women and Couples on Family Planning: A Randomized Study in Jordan.

    El-Khoury, Marianne; Thornton, Rebecca; Chatterji, Minki; Kamhawi, Sarah; Sloane, Phoebe; Halassa, Mays


    This article evaluates the effects of involving men in family planning counseling in Jordan using a randomized experiment. We randomly assigned a sample of 1,247 married women to receive women-only counseling, couples counseling, or no counseling. We measured the effects of each type of counseling on family planning use, knowledge, attitudes, and spousal communication about family planning. Compared to no counseling, couples counseling led to a 54 percent increase in uptake of modern methods. This effect is not significantly different from the 46 percent increase in modern method uptake as a result of women-only counseling. This outcome may be due, in part, to lower rates of compliance with the intervention among those assigned to couples counseling compared to women-only counseling. To realize the possible added benefits of involving men, more tailored approaches may be needed to increase men's participation.

  11. Family planning among women in urban and rural areas in Serbia.

    Antić, Ljiljana; Djikanović, Bosiljka; Vuković, Dejana


    Family planning is an important aspect of population policy at the state level, because the demographic trends in Serbia are very unfavorable. The objective of this study was to examine the differences in family planning between the women in rural and urban areas of Serbia. This study represents the secondary analysis of the National Health Survey of the population in Serbia from 2006, which was conducted as a cross sectional study, on a representative sample of the population. The respondents who used condoms as a method of contraception, were often younger, better educated, had better financial status, lived in Vojvodina, and had no children. Our study showed that there were differences in terms of family planning between the women of urban and rural areas, however, these differences could be explained by differences in age and education.

  12. The psychological well-being of women of Menoufiya, Egypt. Relationships with family planning.

    Severy, Lawrence J; Waszak, Cynthia; Badawi, Isis; Kafafi, Laila


    Researchers surveyed the psychological well-being of 795 women of reproductive age from Menoufiya, Egypt. Five years earlier, these women had provided data relevant to their family planning behavior. This analysis links these data sets to investigate the impact of family planning on women's sense of well-being, within the context of beliefs about appropriate gender-related behaviors. Well-being measures are derived for trait and state dimensions. Use of family planning and number of children born within the preceding 5 years predicted state ratings of happiness, and number of children predicted anxious pride. Neither are related to any of the trait ratings. Further, 3 different gender-role attitudes are vital to the explanation of how women define and feel good about themselves.

  13. Family planning among women in urban and rural areas in Serbia

    Antić Ljiljana


    Full Text Available Introduction. Family planning is an important aspect of population policy at the state level, because the demographic trends in Serbia are very unfavorable. Objective. The objective of this study was to examine the differences in family planning between the women in rural and urban areas of Serbia. Methods. This study represents the secondary analysis of the National Health Survey of the population in Serbia from 2006, which was conducted as a cross sectional study, on a representative sample of the population. Results. The respondents who used condoms as a method of contraception, were often younger, better educated, had better financial status, lived in Vojvodina, and had no children. Conclusion. Our study showed that there were differences in terms of family planning between the women of urban and rural areas, however, these differences could be explained by differences in age and education. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175025: National Health Survey of the Population of Serbia

  14. Impediments to media communication of social change in family planning and reproductive health: experiences from East Africa.

    Kagurusi, Patrick T


    The media has been employed to increase uptake of Family Planning through behaviour change communication (BCC). Understanding the barriers encountered in effectively undertaking this function would increase the strategy's effectiveness. Sixty journalists from East Africa participated in trainings to enhance their BCC skills for Family Planning in which a qualitative study was nested to identify barriers to effective Family Planning BCC in the region's media. The barriers were observed to be insufficient BCC skills, journalists' conflict of interest, interests of media houses, inaccessible sources of family planning information, editorial ideologies and absence of commercially beneficial demand. Coupled with the historical ideologies of the media in the region, the observed barriers have precipitated ineffective family planning BCC in the regions media. Effective BCC for family planning in the regions media requires capacity building among practitioners and alignment of the concept to the media's and consumers' aspirations.

  15. Communication, knowledge, social network and family planning utilization among couples in Mwanza, Tanzania.

    Mosha, Idda H; Ruben, Ruerd


    Family planning utilization in Tanzania is low. This study was cross sectional. It examined family planning use and socio demographic variables, social networks, knowledge and communication among the couples, whereby a stratified sample of 440 women of reproductive age (18-49), married or cohabiting was studied in Mwanza, Tanzania. A structured questionnaire with questions on knowledge, communication among the couples and practice of family planning was used. Descriptive statistics and Logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with family planning (FP) use at four levels. The findings showed that majority (73.2%) of respondents have not used family planning. Wealth was positive related to FP use (p=.000, OR = 3.696, and 95% C.I = 1.936 lower and upper 7.055). Religion was associated with FP use (p=.002, OR =2.802, 95% C.I = 1.476 lower and 5.321 upper), communication and FP use were significantly associated, (p=.000, OR = 0.323 and 95% C.I = 0.215) lower and upper = 0.483), social network and FP use (p=.000, OR = 2.162 and 95% C.I = 1.495 lower and upper =3.125) and knowledge and FP use(p=.000, OR = 2.224 and 95% C.I = 1.509 lower and upper =3.278). Wealth showed a significant association with FP use (p=.001, OR = 1.897, 95% C.I = 0.817 lower and 4.404).Urban area was positively associated with FP use (p= .000, OR = 0.008 and 95% C.I = 0.001 lower and upper =0.09), semi urban was significant at (p= .004, OR = 3.733 and C.I = 1.513 lower and upper =9.211). Information, education and communication materials and to promote family planning in Tanzania should designed and promoted.

  16. Family planning knowledge, attitude and practice among married couples in Jimma Zone, Ethiopia.

    Tizta Tilahun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding why people do not use family planning is critical to address unmet needs and to increase contraceptive use. According to the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey 2011, most women and men had knowledge on some family planning methods but only about 29% of married women were using contraceptives. 20% women had an unmet need for family planning. We examined knowledge, attitudes and contraceptive practice as well as factors related to contraceptive use in Jimma zone, Ethiopia. METHODS: Data were collected from March to May 2010 among 854 married couples using a multi-stage sampling design. Quantitative data based on semi-structured questionnaires was triangulated with qualitative data collected during focus group discussions. We compared proportions and performed logistic regression analysis. RESULT: The concept of family planning was well known in the studied population. Sex-stratified analysis showed pills and injectables were commonly known by both sexes, while long-term contraceptive methods were better known by women, and traditional methods as well as emergency contraception by men. Formal education was the most important factor associated with better knowledge about contraceptive methods (aOR = 2.07, p<0.001, in particular among women (aOR(women = 2.77 vs. aOR(men = 1.49; p<0.001. In general only 4 out of 811 men ever used contraception, while 64% and 43% females ever used and were currently using contraception respectively. CONCLUSION: The high knowledge on contraceptives did not match with the high contraceptive practice in the study area. The study demonstrates that mere physical access (proximity to clinics for family planning and awareness of contraceptives are not sufficient to ensure that contraceptive needs are met. Thus, projects aiming at increasing contraceptive use should contemplate and establish better counseling about contraceptive side effects and method switch. Furthermore in all family planning

  17. Family planning in Tunisia and Morocco: a summary and evaluation of the recent record.

    Lapham, R


    Family planning activity during 1969-1970 in Morocco and Tunisia is discussed in terms of 12 criteria (such as leadership, educational services, availability) used to evaluate the programs in the 2 countries. Significant differences between family planning activity in the 2 countries can be seen in the nature of involvement of their governments through the open and public endorsement of family planning by Tunisia's president compared to the reserve of Morocco's king. Although family planning programs in both countries are organized within the Ministries of Health, the Tunisian program is conducted by a separate division, the Department of Family Planning and Maternal and Child Health, while Morocco's program is completely integrated within existing health services, a fusion which seems to create financial problems for the Moroccan family planning efforts. The Tunisian program, when compared to that of Morocco, is also characterized by a greater availability of contraceptives, more postpartum education and information activity, available induced-abortion and sterilization services, more widespread use of mass media and communication techniques and greater success in program evaluation. On a population basis, Tunisia (population of 5.2 million in 1970) has about 3 times the number of acceptors as Morocco (population of 15.4 million). Both programs have record-keeping systems which improved considerably during 1969 and 1970, but neither program has an effective field worker network. While Tunisia's program has demonstrated more success in meeting the criteria than Morocco's program and a slight decline has occurred in the crude birth rate in Tunisia in recent years, much of this decline can be attributed to a rising age at marriage resulting from the government's policies of social development. Evaluation indicated that both countries will have to increase availability of contraceptives and encourage effective use if substantial decreases in the crude birth rate are

  18. Ethnic Disparities in Contraceptive Use and Its Impact on Family Planning Program in Nepal

    Mukesh Mishra


    Full Text Available Objective: Regardless of three decades of implementation of family planning program in Nepal, need offamily planning services is largely unmet. Systematic studies, evaluating the impact of family program onseveral ethnic groups of Nepal has not been carried out in large scale. This study sheds light on theinvestigation of, whether the use of contraceptives varies among different ethnic groups in Nepal andwhat are the predictors of contraceptive variance in ethnic groups in Nepal.Materials and methods: The study is based on data collected from Nepal Demographic Health Survey(NDHS 2006. Multilevel logistic regression analyses of 10793 married women of reproductive agenested within 264 clusters from the surveys were considered as the sample size. Individual, household,and program variables were set and a multilevel logistic regression model was fitted to analyze thevariables, using GLLAMM command in STATA-9.Results: Multilevel logistic regression analysis indicated that Muslims, Dalits and Terai madheshi womenwere significantly less likely to use modern contraceptives compared to the Brahmins and Chhetries(Higher Castes. Women who were exposed to family planning information in radio were more likely touse modern contraceptives than women not exposed to radio information (OR=1.22, P> 0.01. An odd ofusing contraceptives by Newar was (OR 1.09, P>0.05, the highest among all ethnic groups. Exposure ofwomen to family planning messages through health facilities, family planning workers, and means ofcommunication, increased the odds of using modern contraceptives. However, impact of the familyplanning information on contraceptive use varied among ethnicity.Conclusion: Special attention need to be paid, in particular to the ethnicity, while formulating familyplanning policies in Nepal, for better success rate of family planning intervention programs.

  19. Family planning services for incarcerated women: models for filling an unmet need.

    Sufrin, Carolyn; Baird, Sara; Clarke, Jennifer; Feldman, Elizabeth


    Purpose Incarcerated women around the globe are predominantly of reproductive age. Most of these women have been pregnant before, and many want to be sexually active and avoid pregnancy upon release. Yet few of these women are on a regular method of contraception. Providing contraceptive services for women in custody benefits individual and public health goals of reducing unintended pregnancy. This policy briefing reviews evidence for an unmet need for family planning in the correctional setting, and policy implications for expanding services. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach The authors describe four model programs in the USA with established contraceptive services on site, highlighting practical steps other facilities can implement. Findings Correctional facilities health administrators, providers, advocates, and legislators should advance policies which should counsel women on family planning and should make a range of contraceptive methods available before release, while remaining sensitive to the potential pressure these women may feel to use birth control in this unique environment. Practical implications Family planning services for incarcerated women benefits individuals, facilities, and the community. Social implications Policies which enable correctional facilities to provide comprehensive family planning to incarcerated women - including reproductive life goals counseling and contraceptive method provision - promote equity in access to critical reproductive health services and also provide broad scale population level benefits in preventing unintended pregnancy or enabling counseling for healthy pregnancies for a group of women who often have limited access to such services. Originality/value This policy briefing highlights an area of health care in prisons and jails which gets little attention in research and in policy circles: family planning services for incarcerated women. In addition to reviewing the importance of

  20. [Some elements of evaluating the problem of family planning and the fight against abortions (author's transl)].

    Beric, B M


    The author presents some elements indispensable for the comparative evaluation of the problem of abortions and family planning in both small and large territories. The past development of statutory and legal comprehensions of the interruption of pregnancy in our country, as well as the retrospective and prospective dynamic aspect of the development of this important socioeconomic and biological problem is pointed out. A special significance is attributed to the influence of socioeconomic, psychological, and statutory-legal comprehensions in the successful fight against abortions, in which family planning, based on the principles of contemporary medical science (particularly the application of methods and means of contraception) should play a decisive role. (author's)

  1. Motivations and Constraints to Family Planning: A Qualitative Study in Rwanda's Southern Kayonza District.

    Farmer, Didi Bertrand; Berman, Leslie; Ryan, Grace; Habumugisha, Lameck; Basinga, Paulin; Nutt, Cameron; Kamali, Francois; Ngizwenayo, Elias; St Fleur, Jacklin; Niyigena, Peter; Ngabo, Fidele; Farmer, Paul E; Rich, Michael L


    While Rwanda has achieved impressive gains in contraceptive coverage, unmet need for family planning is high, and barriers to accessing quality reproductive health services remain. Few studies in Rwanda have qualitatively investigated factors that contribute to family planning use, barriers to care, and quality of services from the community perspective. We undertook a qualitative study of community perceptions of reproductive health and family planning in Rwanda's southern Kayonza district, which has the country's highest total fertility rate. From October 2011 to December 2012, we conducted interviews with randomly selected male and female community members (n = 96), community health workers (n = 48), and health facility nurses (n = 15), representing all 8 health centers' catchment areas in the overall catchment area of the district's Rwinkwavu Hospital. We then carried out a directed content analysis to identify key themes and triangulate findings across methods and informant groups. Key themes emerged across interviews surrounding: (1) fertility beliefs: participants recognized the benefits of family planning but often desired larger families for cultural and historical reasons; (2) social pressures and gender roles: young and unmarried women faced significant stigma and husbands exerted decision-making power, but many husbands did not have a good understanding of family planning because they perceived it as a woman's matter; (3) barriers to accessing high-quality services: out-of-pocket costs, stock-outs, limited method choice, and long waiting times but short consultations at facilities were common complaints; (4) side effects: poor management and rumors and fears of side effects affected contraceptive use. These themes recurred throughout many participant narratives and influenced reproductive health decision making, including enrollment and retention in family planning programs. As Rwanda continues to refine its family planning policies and

  2. Does human resource management improve family planning service quality? Analysis from the Kenya Service Provision Assessment 2010.

    Thatte, Nandita; Choi, Yoonjoung


    Human resource (HR) management is a priority for health systems strengthening in developing countries, yet few studies have empirically examined associations with service quality. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between HR management and family planning (FP) service quality. Data came from the 2010 Kenya Service Provision Assessment, a nationally representative health facility assessment. In total, 912 FP consultations from 301 facilities were analysed. Four indices were created to measure quality on reproductive history taking, physical examination, sexually transmitted infections prevention and pill/injectable specific counselling. HR management variables included training in the past year, any and supportive (i.e. with feedback, technical updates and discussion) in-person supervision in the past 6 months and having a written job description. Multivariate linear regression analyses were conducted to estimate coefficients of HR management variables on each of the four quality indices, adjusting for background characteristics of clients, provider and facilities. The level of service quality ranged from 16 to 53 out of a maximum score of 100 across the indices. Fifty-two per cent of consultations were done by providers who received supportive in-person supervision in the previous 6 months. In 23% and 38% of consultations, the provider was trained in the past year and had a written job description, respectively. Multivariate analyses indicated that having a written job description was associated with higher service quality in history taking, physical examination and the pill/injectable specific counselling. Other HR management variables were not significantly associated with service quality. Having a written job description was significantly associated with higher service quality and may be a useful tool for strengthening management practices. The details of such job descriptions and the quality of other management indicators should be

  3. An Assessment of Family Planning Decision Makers' and Advocates' Needs and Strategies in Three East African Countries.

    Smith, Ellen; Musila, Ruth; Murunga, Violet; Godbole, Ramona


    Despite decades of evidence-based advocacy for family planning in developing countries, research on how decision makers perceive and respond to such efforts is lacking. A literature review yielded 10 peer-reviewed journal articles published between 1999 and 2012 on decision makers' needs for and experiences with health advocacy and evidence. Two sets of questions about family planning research and advocacy-one for decision makers and another for advocates-were developed from emerging themes and used in structured interviews with 68 key informants in Ethiopia, Kenya and Malawi. Decision makers reported understanding family planning's value and confirmed that advocacy had helped to spur recent favorable shifts in government support of family planning. Key informants stressed that advocacy messages and formats must be tailored to the needs and interests of particular audiences to be effective. Messages must also consider barriers to decision makers' support for family planning: constituents' negative attitudes; fear that increased adherence to family planning will shrink the size and influence of specific voting blocs and ethnic groups; and competing economic, social, cultural, religious and political priorities. Decision makers reported valuing the contributions of international family planning organizations and donors, but were more comfortable receiving advocacy messages from local sources. According to decision makers, sustained and strategic family planning advocacy developed and delivered by culturally attuned national actors, with support from international actors, can diminish barriers to government support for family planning.

  4. Rural-Urban Differences in Awareness and Use of Family Planning Services Among Adolescent Women in California.

    Yarger, Jennifer; Decker, Martha J; Campa, Mary I; Brindis, Claire D


    The purpose of this study was to compare awareness and use of family planning services by rural and urban program site among a sample of adolescent women before participation in the federal Personal Responsibility Education Program in California. We conducted a secondary analysis of survey data collected from youth before participation in California's Personal Responsibility Education Program. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted for a sample of 4,614 females ages 14-18 years to compare awareness and use of family planning services between participants at rural and urban program sites, controlling for the program setting and participant demographic, sexual, and reproductive characteristics. Overall, 61% of participants had heard of a family planning provider in their community, and 24% had visited a family planning provider. Awareness and use of family planning services were lower among rural participants than urban participants. After adjusting for the program setting and participant characteristics, rural participants were less likely to know about a family planning provider in their community (odds ratio, .64; 95% confidence interval, .50-.81) or receive family planning services (odds ratio, .76; 95% confidence interval, .58-.99) than urban participants. Findings suggest that adolescents in rural areas face greater barriers to accessing family planning services than adolescents in urban areas. Targeted efforts to increase awareness and use of family planning services among adolescents in rural areas and among other underserved populations are needed. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Disparities in receipt of family planning services by disability status: New estimates from the National Survey of Family Growth.

    Mosher, William; Bloom, Tina; Hughes, Rosemary; Horton, Leah; Mojtabai, Ramin; Alhusen, Jeanne L


    A substantial and increasing population of US women of childbearing age live with disability. Disability-based disparities in access to family planning services have been previously documented, but few studies have used population-based data sources or evidence-based measures of disability. To determine population-based estimates of use of family planning services among women 15-44 years of age in the United States, and to examine differences by disability status. This is a secondary analysis of a cross-sectional survey, the 2011-2015 National Survey of Family Growth. These analyses include 11,300 female respondents between the ages of 15 and 44 who completed in-person interviews in respondents' homes. Approximately 17.8% of respondents reported at least one disability in at least one domain. Women with disabilities were less likely than those without disabilities to receive services; the largest differences by disability status were seen among women with low education, low income, and those who were not working. Logistic regression analysis suggests that women with physical disabilities and those with poorer general health are less likely to receive services. Women living with disabilities reported lower receipt of family planning services compared to women without disabilities, but the differences were small in some subgroups and larger among disadvantaged women. Physical disabilities and poor health may be among the factors underlying these patterns. Further research is needed on other factors that affect the ability of women with disabilities to obtain the services they need to prevent unintended pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Male involvement in family planning decision making in sub-Saharan Africa- what the evidence suggests.

    Vouking, Marius Zambou; Evina, Christine Danielle; Tadenfok, Carine Nouboudem


    The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated in 2012 that 287,000 maternal deaths occurred in 2010; sub-Saharan Africa (56%) and Southern Asia (29%) accounted for the global burden of maternal deaths. Men are also recognized to be responsible for the large proportion of ill reproductive health suffered by their female partners. Male involvement helps not only in accepting a contraceptive but also in its effective use and continuation. The objectives were to assess men's knowledge, attitude, and practice of modern contraceptive methods; determine the level of spousal communication about family planning decision making; and investigate the correlates of men's opinion about their roles in family planning decision making. We searched the following electronic databases from January 1995 to December 2013: Medline, Embase, CINAHL, LILAS, International Bibliography of Social Sciences, Social Services Abstracts, and Sociological Abstracts. Along with MeSH terms and relevant keywords, we used the Cochrane Highly Sensitive Search Strategy for identifying reports of articles in PubMed. There were no restrictions to language or publication status. Of 137 hits, 7 papers met the inclusion criteria. The concept of family planning was well known to men. In the Nigerian study, almost (99%) men were aware of the existence of modern contraceptives, and most of them were aware of at least two modern methods. Awareness of the condom was highest (98%). In the Malawi study, all of the participants reported that they were not using contraception before the intervention. In Ethiopia, above 90% of male respondents have supported and approved using and choosing family planning methods, but none of them practiced terminal methods. Generally, more male respondents disagreed than agreed that men should make decisions about selected family planning issues in the family. Decision-making dynamics around method choice followed a slightly different pattern. According to female participants

  7. A qualitative study protocol of ageing carers' caregiving experiences and their planning for continuation of care for their immediate family members with intellectual disability.

    Low, Lisa Pau Le; Chien, Wai Tong; Lam, Lai Wah; Wong, Kayla Ka Yin


    Understanding the difficulties and needs of the family carers in taking care of a person with ID can facilitate the development of appropriate intervention programmes and services to strengthen their caring capacity and empower them to continue with their caring roles. This study aims to explore ageing family carers' caregiving experiences and the plans they have to provide care for themselves and their ageing children with mild or moderate intellectual disability (ID). A constructivist grounded theory will be used to interview around 60 carers who have a family member with mild or moderate ID and attending sheltered workshops in Hong Kong. Constant comparative analysis methods will be used for data analysis. The theory will capture family caregiving experiences and the processes of carers in addressing caregiving needs, support received and plans to continue to provide care for themselves and their relatives with ID in their later life. New insights into the emerging issues, needs and plights of family caregivers will be provided to inform the policies and practices of improving the preparation for the ageing process of the persons with ID, and to better support the ageing carers. The theoretical framework that will be generated will be highly practical and useful in generating knowledge about factors that influence the caregiving processes; and, tracking the caregiving journey at different time-points to clearly delineate areas to implement practice changes. In this way, the theoretical framework will be highly useful in guiding timely and appropriate interventions to target at the actual needs of family carers as they themselves are ageing and will need to continue to take care of their family members with ID in the community.

  8. Philippines. Church vs. state: Fidel Ramos and family planning face "Catholic Power".


    Catholic groups and individuals united in a public rally in Manila's Rizal Park to decry a "cultural dictatorship," which promotes abortion, homosexuality, lesbianism, sexual perversion, condoms, and artificial contraception. Government spokesmen responded that condoms and contraception were part of government policy to spread family planning knowledge and informed choices among the population. Cardinal Jaime Sin and former president Corazon Aquino joined forces to lead the movement against the national family planning program in the largest demonstration since the ouster of Ferdinand Marcos in 1986. Also criticized was the 85-page draft action plan for the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) scheduled for September 1994. Cardinal Sin accused President Clinton of using the action plan to promote worldwide abortion. Under the administration of President Fidel Ramos, family planning funding has quintupled and the number of family planning workers has increased from 200 to 8000. President Ramos has gone the farthest of any administration in opposing the Church's positions on contraception and abortion, although years ago Fidel Ramos and Cardinal Sin were allies in the effort to push out Ferdinand Marcos. The population of the Philippines is 85% Catholic, and laws reflect the Church's doctrine against divorce and abortion. The current growth rate is 2.3%, and the goal is to reduce growth to 2.0% by 1998, the end of Ramos's term in office. The population target is in accord with demographic goals proposed in the UN draft action plan. The Vatican has opposed the language in the plan and may have encouraged other religious leaders to join those opposed to the "war against our babies and children." Sin said that contraceptive distribution was "intrinsically evil" and should be stopped now. Ramos's administration stated that their policies and programs are not "in the hands of the devil" and there is support for the Church on family values and




    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Both spacing and permanent birth control methods are the need of the hour. The popularity of male sterilization i.e. vasectomy is low compared to female sterilization ( T ubectomy. However, being safe, effective, cheap, and having less surgical complicatio ns no scalpel vasectomy (NSV is emerging as good option. AIMS: To study the various demographic and behavioural factors of NSV acceptors. SETTING & DESIGN: This is institution based retrospective study conducted in Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Medical College, Kolkata during the time period of 1 st April ‘ 2009 to 31 st March’ 2015. METHODS AND MATERIAL: The patients who accepted NSV for family pla nning were analysed with respect to their age, residence, occupation, literacy, number of issues and complications. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Data were represented as simple proportions or percentages and graphs by using micro soft excel . RESULTS: Out of 13, 0 48 sterilization operations, there were 3737(28.64% vasectomies and 9311(71.36% tubectomies. 67.08% of the couples selected sterilization for contraception. Tubectomies accounted for 2.5 times the vasectomies. The number of NSVs as a percentage of total sterilizations were 28.78% in 2009, rising to 36.96% in 2011 and gradually falling to 21.36% in 2015. Most of the clients (84% were ≥30 years of age. In 2009 - 10, only educated (71%, primary education accepted NSV. However, 74% were illiterate acceptors i n 2014 - 15 and 83% were labourers. In last 2 years the trend is NSV after the 3 rd child. CONCLUSION: NSV is emerging as a socially and culturally acceptable method of contraception in our society.

  10. The effect of family sex composition on fertility desires and family planning behaviors in urban Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Calhoun, Lisa M; Nanda, Priya; Speizer, Ilene S; Jain, Meenakshi


    A cultural preference for sons has been well documented in India, resulting in skewed sex ratios, especially exhibited in northwest India. Previous research has shown that family sex composition is associated with family planning (FP) use and couples' desire for more children. This study examines family sex composition and fertility and FP behaviors in urban Uttar Pradesh, India; little work has examined these issues in urban settings where family sizes are smaller and FP use is common. Data for this analysis comes from a 2010 representative survey of married, non-pregnant fecund women aged 15-49 from six cities in Uttar Pradesh, India. Multivariate analyses are used to examine the association between family sex composition and fertility desires and FP use. The multivariate results indicate that family sex composition is associated with fertility desires and FP use. Women without living children and without at least one child of each sex are significantly less likely to want no more children and women with both sons and daughters but more sons are significantly more likely to want no more children as compared to women that have both sons and daughters but more daughters. Women with no living children and women with daughters but no sons are less likely to be modern FP users than nonusers whereas women with both sons and daughters but more sons are more likely to be modern FP users than nonusers as compared to women with both sons and daughters but more daughters. These findings confirm that family sex composition affects fertility behavior and also reveals that preference for sons persists in urban Uttar Pradesh. These results underscore the importance of programs and policies that work to enhance the value of girl children.

  11. [Role of men in family planning decisions in Mali].

    Maiga, O S; Poudiougou, B; Kéita, T F D; Ronse, I; Boundy, F; Bagayoko, D; Diallo, D


    The birth control program was in place and functional since 1970, and it was integrated with maternal and infant health activities in 1978: knowledge about contraception is increasing among women and men respectively 75.6% and 87.6% according to EDSM II, 2001. Nevertheless, only 5.7% of women and 10% of men reported the use of one of the modern contraceptive methods. This is a transversal descriptive and analytic study which included men of 14 years old and above residing in Kayes, Koulikoro, Mopti, Sikasso and Bamako. We used a random choice of 6 out of the 9 regions in Mali (Bamako and the 5 regions supported by partners funding the present study) followed by a non-random choice at different degrees. Data were uniformly collected from One thousand and four men. The mean age was 37.6 +/- 15.6 years, 44.7% of the men were monogamous whereas 23.1% were polygamous and 30.6% were either single or had a fiancé. Most of the men in the study group had more than 2 children compared to 34.2% without children and 19.9% with either one or two children. Among them, 89.1% reported to have heard about birth control program and 70.3% had listed Planned Parenthood as an objective of birth control. The most used methods of birth control the most used are contraceptives (66.7%), condoms (60.5%) and injections (30.8%). However, only 30.6% of men used one birth control method with their partners; among those studied in the cohort, 40.8% used birth control method with their wives. Condom was the main method used by 86% of the men compared to utilization of contraceptive pills and injections respectively 66.7% and 25.6%. Birth control methods were used mainly to protect against sexually transmitted diseases (20.7%), then maternal and infant health respectively 6.0% and 5.8%. 60.7% of men think that the decision to use birth control method should be made by them whereas 25.7% think that the decision should be made by the couples. Many strategies are being proposed to involve men in the

  12. Exploring Type and Amount of Parent Talk during Individualized Family Service Plan Meetings

    Ridgley, Robyn; Snyder, Patricia; McWilliam, R. A.


    We discuss the utility of a coding system designed to evaluate the amount and type of parent talk during individualized family service plan (IFSP) meetings. The iterative processes used to develop the "Parent Communication Coding System" (PCCS) and its associated codes are described. In addition, we explored whether PCCS codes could be…

  13. Family Planning Services Available to Migratory Farm Workers in the United States.

    Planned Parenthood--World Population, Austin, TX. Southwest Region.

    The directory is intended to serve those working at providing migrant workers with family planning services. Covering 46 states, it lists agencies and their addresses, schedules, appropriate contacts, and birth control methods available and fees charged (if any). The directory should be of particular help in providing a continuity of service to…

  14. Mothers- and Fathers-to-Be: The Next Generation of Planning and Career-Family Conflict

    Bush, Ruth; Mentzer, Danielle R.; Grisaffi, Danielle; Richter, Julie


    Newspaper reports of female college seniors modifying their career plans to opt out of work before they enter the workforce challenge the assumption that because many recent college graduates were raised in dual-income families, they would expect to have a substantial workforce role. Using a questionnaire format, this study examines postgraduation…

  15. Using COPE To Improve Quality of Care: The Experience of the Family Planning Association of Kenya.

    Bradley, Janet


    COPE (Client-Oriented, Provider-Efficient) methodology, a self-assessment tool that has been used in 35 countries around the world, was used to improve the quality of care in family planning clinics in Kenya. COPE involves a process that legitimately invests power with providers and clinic-level staff. It gives providers more control over their…

  16. 42 CFR 59.5 - What requirements must be met by a family planning project?


    ... assistance, compensation for services, who coerces or endeavors to coerce any person to undergo an abortion... status. (5) Not provide abortion as a method of family planning. A project must: (i) Offer pregnant women...) which is authorized to or is under legal obligation to pay this charge. (8) Provide that charges will be...

  17. Family planning decisions, perceptions and gender dynamics among couples in Mwanza, Tanzania: A qualitative study

    Mosha, I.H.; Ruben, R.; Kakoko, D.


    Background: Contraceptive use is low in developing countries which are still largely driven by male dominated culture and patriarchal values. This study explored family planning (FP) decisions, perceptions and gender dynamics among couples in Mwanza region of Tanzania. Methods: Twelve focus group di

  18. The Use of Safety Plans with Children and Adolescents Living in Violent Families

    Kress, Victoria E.; Adamson, Nicole A.; Paylo, Matthew J.; DeMarco, Carrie; Bradley, Nicole


    Counselors are regularly confronted with children and adolescents who reside in violent or potentially violent living environments. In this article, safety plans are presented as a tool that counselors can use to promote the safety of children living in unsafe family situations. Ethics-related counseling issues that should be considered when…

  19. The impact of franchised family planning clinics in poor urban areas of Pakistan.

    Hennink, Monique; Clements, Steve


    This study uses a quasi-experimental design to determine the impact of new family planning clinics on knowledge, contraceptive use, and unmet need for family planning among married women in poor urban areas of six secondary cities of Pakistan. Baseline (n = 5,338) and endline (n = 5,502) population surveys were conducted during 1999-2000 and 2001-02 in four study sites and two control sites. Exit interviews with clients identified the sociodemographic and geographic characteristics of clinic users. The results show that the clinics contributed to a 5 percent increase in overall knowledge of family planning methods and an increase in knowledge of female sterilization and the IUD of 15 percent and 7 percent, respectively. Distinct effects were found on contraceptive uptake, including an 8 percent increase in female sterilization and a 7 percent decline in condom use. Unmet need for family planning declined in two sites, whereas impacts on the other sites were variable. Although the new clinics are located within poor urban communities, users of the services were not the urban poor, but rather were select subgroups of the local population.

  20. System Thinking Scales and Learning Environment of Family Planning Field Workers in East Java, Indonesia

    Listyawardani, Dwi; Hariastuti, Iswari


    Systems thinking is needed due to the growing complexity of the problems faced family planning field workers in the external environment that is constantly changing. System thinking ability could not be separated from efforts to develop learning for the workers, both learning at the individual, group, or organization level. The design of the study…

  1. Male Involvement in Family Planning Decision Making in Ile-Ife ...


    Quantitative methodology was employed in this cross-sectional descriptive design using a structured household questionnaire to ... included religion, marriage type, educational attainment, and occupation (p<0.05). ... However, fertility and family planning research and .... design, employing both quantitative and qualitative.

  2. 45 CFR 286.75 - What must be included in the Tribal Family Assistance Plan?


    ... ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... to specific populations, including teen parents and individuals who are transitioning off TANF... towards those goals; (6) Assurance that a 45-day public comment period on the Tribal TANF plan...

  3. Basic Reference Sources in Population/Family Planning: An Annotated Bibliography, Number 2.

    Walker, Richard L.

    This "Bibliography Series" is a project of the Carolina Population Center Library/Technical Information Service, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. It is intended as a vehicle for the dissemination of quality bibliographies on topics of current interest to librarians, researchers and students in the population/family planning field.…

  4. Individual and Familial Factors Influencing the Educational and Career Plans of Chinese Immigrant Youths

    Ma, Pei-Wen Winnie; Yeh, Christine J.


    The authors explore how individual and familial factors predict educational and career aspirations, plans, and vocational outcome expectations of urban, Chinese immigrant youths. Participants were 265 Chinese immigrant high school students in New York City. The results indicated that higher self-reported English language fluency and career-related…

  5. Does early childbearing and a sterilization-focused family planning programme in India fuel population growth?

    Matthews, Zoe; Padmadas, Sabu S.; Hutter, Inge; McEachran, Juliet; Brown, James J.


    Recent stagnation in the reduction of infant mortality in India can arguably be attributed to early child bearing practices and the lack of progress in lengthening birth intervals. Meanwhile, family planning efforts have been particularly successful in the southern states such as Andhra Pradesh, alt

  6. Improving Family Planning Services for Teenagers. Final Report and Executive Summary.

    Urban and Rural Systems Associates, San Francisco, CA.

    Although family planning clinics receiving some form of federal support constitute the major source of birth control for teenagers, they are not reaching large numbers of sexually active teens nor are they reaching them soon enough--especially those who are 14 and younger. In many cases they also fail to promote effective contraceptive use among…

  7. Individual and Familial Factors Influencing the Educational and Career Plans of Chinese Immigrant Youths

    Ma, Pei-Wen Winnie; Yeh, Christine J.


    The authors explore how individual and familial factors predict educational and career aspirations, plans, and vocational outcome expectations of urban, Chinese immigrant youths. Participants were 265 Chinese immigrant high school students in New York City. The results indicated that higher self-reported English language fluency and career-related…

  8. Contraceptive discontinuation and switching among couples receiving integrated HIV and family planning services in Lusaka, Zambia

    Haddad, Lisa; Wall, Kristin M; Vwalika, Bellington; Htee Khu, Naw; Brill, Ilene; Kilembe, William; Stephenson, Rob; Chomba, Elwyn; Vwalika, Cheswa; Tichacek, Amanda; Allen, Susan


    Objective To describe predictors of contraceptive method discontinuation and switching behaviors among HIV positive couples receiving couples' voluntary HIV counseling and testing services in Lusaka, Zambia. Design Couples were randomized in a factorial design to two family planning educational intervention videos, received comprehensive family planning services, and were assessed every 3-months for contraceptive initiation, discontinuation and switching. Methods We modeled factors associated with contraceptive method upgrading and downgrading via multivariate Andersen-Gill models. Results Most women continued the initial method selected after randomization. The highest rates of discontinuation/switching were observed for injectable contraceptive and intrauterine device users. Time to discontinuing the more effective contraceptive methods or downgrading to oral contraceptives or condoms was associated with the women's younger age, desire for more children within the next year, heavy menstrual bleeding, bleeding between periods, and cystitis/dysuria. Health concerns among women about contraceptive implants and male partners not wanting more children were associated with upgrading from oral contraceptives or condoms. HIV status of the woman or the couple was not predictive of switching or stopping. Conclusions We found complicated patterns of contraceptive use. The predictors of contraception switching indicate that interventions targeted to younger couples that address common contraception-related misconceptions could improve effective family planning utilization. We recommend these findings be used to increase the uptake and continuation of contraception, especially long acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods, and that fertility-goal based, LARC-focused family planning be offered as an integral part of HIV prevention services. PMID:24088689

  9. Translating the Social-Ecological Perspective into Multilevel Interventions for Family Planning: How Far Are We?

    Schölmerich, Vera L. N.; Kawachi, Ichiro


    Scholars and practitioners frequently make recommendations to develop family planning interventions that are "multilevel." Such interventions take explicit account of the role of environments by incorporating multilevel or social-ecological frameworks into their design and implementation. However, research on how interventions have…

  10. Family Information Guide to Assistive Technology and Transition Planning: Planned Transitions Are Smooth Transitions!

    Hess, Jacqueline; Gutierrez, Ana Maria


    The purpose of this guide is to help families prepare for those times during which their child moves from one environment to another and from one developmental stage to another. The focus of the guide is on the role of assistive technology (AT) during those times--how to consider a child's evolving AT needs, how to identify and address the AT…

  11. Getting closer to people: family planning provision by drug shops in Uganda.

    Akol, Angela; Chin-Quee, Dawn; Wamala-Mucheri, Patricia; Namwebya, Jane Harriet; Mercer, Sarah Jilani; Stanback, John


    Private-sector drug shops are often the first point of health care in sub-Saharan Africa. Training and supporting drug shop and pharmacy staff to provide a wide range of contraceptive methods and information is a promising high-impact practice for which more information is needed to fully document implementation experience and impact. Between September 2010 and March 2011, we trained 139 drug shop operators (DSOs) in 4 districts of Uganda to safely administer intramuscular DMPA (depot medroxyprogesterone acetate) contraceptive injections. In 2012, we approached 54 of these DSOs and interviewed a convenience sample of 585 of their family planning clients to assess clients' contraceptive use and perspectives on the quality of care and satisfaction with services. Finally, we compared service statistics from April to June 2011 from drug shops, community health workers (CHWs), and government clinics in 3 districts to determine the drug shop market share of family planning services. Most drug shop family planning clients interviewed were women with low socioeconomic status. The large majority (89%) were continuing family planning users. DMPA was the preferred contraceptive. Almost half of the drug shop clients had switched from other providers, primarily from government health clinics, mostly as a result of more convenient locations, shorter waiting times, and fewer stock-outs in drug shops. All clients reported that the DSOs treated them respectfully, and 93% trusted the drug shop operator to maintain privacy. Three-quarters felt that drug shops offered affordable family planning services. Most of the DMPA clients (74%) were very satisfied with receiving their method from the drug shop and 98% intended to get the next injection from the drug shop. Between April and June 2011, clinics, CHWs, and drug shops in 3 districts delivered equivalent proportions of couple-years of protection, with drug shops leading marginally at 36%, followed by clinics (33%) and CHWs (31

  12. Family welfare planning programmes in Tamil Nadu: an appraisal of fertility trends.

    Kumaran, T V; Norbert, S A


    Over the past few years advancements in family welfare programs have occurred in India. One state in the Indian Union, Tamil Nadu, has had significant success in its family planning strategies. Examined is the fertility trends over a period of years within this area. Focus is on fertility decline, calculated from changing birthrates. Decline was differentiated in terms of crude birth rates. Chosen were standardized birth rates adjusted for age (females 15-49 years old), and standardized birth rates adjusted for both age structure and marital status. Family planning programs in Tamil Nadu were classified according to periods of years - 1956-1971 as the pre-intensive program period, and 1971-1986 as the intensive program period. Methodology included simple correlation and regression with additional computations, and multilinear regression measuring impacts on fertility decline of a small number of various factors. Conclusions drawn showed a swift decline in fertility in Tamil Nadu from 1971-1988, more so than during the period of 1956-1971. Family welfare programs were examined as well as through 4 key variables: infant mortality rates, female employment, female educational attainment, and family planning utilization. All 4 variables have shown a positive influence on fertility decline in Tamil Nadu. Both crude and standardized birth rates, as shown by measuring births averted during 1986, can be effectively used in producing births averted in any particular future time period.

  13. Women Knowledge, Attitude, Approval of Family Planning and Contraceptive Use in Bangladesh.

    Shahidul Islam


    Full Text Available This paper attempted to examine the effects of women knowledge on attitude and family planning approval on contraceptive use of married women. The primary data was collected from Narsingdi municipality and the cluster sampling techniques had been adopted for collecting the data. Path analysis was used to determine the effects of factors that haveinfluence on contraceptive use. The result showed that the attitude and knowledge on contraception, and family planningapproval has significant effects on the use of contraceptive. The study also revealed that media exposure significantly effects on family planning approval, increase the positive attitude on contraceptive, and significantly increase the knowledge on contraception and STDs diseases. Women education and mass media can also be considered as potential factors to influence the contraceptive use.

  14. Responsibility of the Government:Estabilishing Rural Social Endowment Insurance System in Family Planning Families%政府职责:建立农村计划生育家庭社会养老保险制度



    Estabilishing rural social endowment insurance system in family planning families is the responsibility of the government. In the process of implementation on family planning rewards policy, the government has made great innovation both in systematic supply and financal supply. The incorporation of rewards into the new rural agricultural insurance in one of innovations, which strengthens the effect of compentation, excition and security%建立农村计划生育家庭社会养老保险制度,政府责无旁贷。在奖扶制度的实施中,政府在制度供给和财政供给方面进行了积极的探索和创新。奖扶制度并入新农保,是制度的又一创新。由于明确和强化了政府的代偿职责,制度补偿、保障和激励的功效会更好。

  15. Meeting health and family planning needs in Latin America and the Caribbean.


    The operations research and technical assistance (OR/TA) project in The Population Council has concentrated on fertility and infant mortality issues in Latin American and the Caribbean for more than a decade through INOPAL. INOPAL is an acronym for Investigacion Operacional en Planificacion Familiar y Atencion Materno-Infantil para America Latina y el Caribe (Operations Research in Family Planning and Maternal-Child Health in Latin America and the Caribbean). In March 1995, the project entered its third phase, INOPAL III, with the renewal of its contract from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). To facilitate communication between INOPAL, collaborating agencies, and USAID, INOPAL Director James Foreit moved from Peru to a Council office in Washington, D.C. INOPAL has six objectives: 1) to test the integration of family planning and reproductive health services; 2) to increase access to family planning; 3) to develop strategies to reach special populations; 4) to improve the sustainability of family planning programs; 5) to improve service quality; and 6) to institutionalize operations research capability in the region. INOPAL II conducted 61 subprojects in 12 countries in collaboration with 24 USAID cooperating agencies and other international organizations. The project established new services for postpartum women, adolescents, and rural women; improved program quality and financial sustainability; increased vasectomy promotion and the range of available contraceptives; and developed new modes of service delivery. A key finding of INOPAL II operations research was the importance of increasing cost-effectiveness to ensure program sustainability. INOPAL III will work toward all six objectives, with an emphasis on integrating reproductive health and family planning services. Operations research and technical assistance (OR/TA) subprojects will focus on the prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases, perinatal and postpartum

  16. Knowledge attitude and practices of family planning methods among postnatal mothers-A hospital based study

    Rekha Udgiri


    Full Text Available Background: All the couple have the basic rights to decide freely and responsibly on the number and spacing of their children and to have the information, education and means to do so. In developing countries, especially in India where deep rooted belief, customs and superstition regarding pregnancy, child birth, are still widely prevalent and women with poor socioeconomic background are more vulnerable to the health risks associated with child bearing in quick succession. Hence the present study provides excellent opportunities to educate the mother in postnatal ward regarding family planning method and help them to adopt birth spacing in the face of changing circumstances. Objectives: a To assess the knowledge, attitude & practices regarding family planning methods among postnatal mothers. b To educate them to use one of the family planning method. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study was carried out for a period of one month. A total of 162 postnatal mother who were admitted in postnatal general ward of OBG Dept., Shri.BM.Patil medical college constitutes the sample size. After obtaining ethical clearance from the institute, the mothers were interviewed after taking verbal consent. The data was collected using semi-structured questionnaires. Statistical test like percentage, chi-square test was applied to know the association. Result: In the present study 65.4% of mothers knew about family planning methods. Significant association was found in relation to education (p= 0.000, religion (p= 0.055 and parity (p= 0.01. Conclusion: The literacy level will definitely help to gain the information regarding family planning.

  17. Overcoming Barriers to Family Planning through Integration: Perspectives of HIV-Positive Men in Nyanza Province, Kenya

    Rachel L. Steinfeld


    Full Text Available This study explored barriers to and facilitators of using family planning services among HIV-positive men in Nyanza Province, Kenya. From May to June 2010, in-depth interviews were conducted with 30 men receiving care at 15 HIV clinics. The key barriers to the use of family planning included concerns about side effects of contraceptives, lack of knowledge about contraceptive methods, myths and misconceptions including fear of infertility, structural barriers such as staffing shortages at HIV clinics, and a lack of male focus in family planning methods and service delivery. The integration of family planning into HIV clinics including family planning counseling and education was cited as an important strategy to improve family planning receptivity among men. Integrating family planning into HIV services is a promising strategy to facilitate male involvement in family planning. Integration needs to be rigorously evaluated in order to measure its impact on unmet need for contraception among HIV-positive women and their partners and assure that it is implemented in a manner that engages both men and women.

  18. A Comparison of School-Based and Community-Based Adherence to Wraparound during Family Planning Meetings

    Nordness, Philip D.


    A number of recent studies have begun to examine how the wraparound approach is adhered to during family planning meetings in community-based settings. However, no studies have compared wraparound family planning meetings across community-based and school-based settings. The purpose of this study was to examine adherence to the wrap-around process…

  19. [Quality planning of Family Health Units using Quality Function Deployment (QFD)].

    Volpato, Luciana Fernandes; Meneghim, Marcelo de Castro; Pereira, Antonio Carlos; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi


    Quality is an indispensible requirement in the health field, and its pursuit is necessary in order to meet demands by a population that is aware of its rights, as part of the essence of good work relations, and to decrease technological costs. Quality thus involves all parties to the process (users and professionals), and is no longer merely an attribute of the health service. This study aimed to verify the possibility of quality planning in the Family Health Units, using Quality Function Deployment (QFD). QFD plans quality according to user satisfaction, involving staff professionals and identifying new approaches to improve work processes. Development of the array, called the House of Quality, is this method's most important characteristics. The results show a similarity between the quality demanded by users and the quality planned by professionals. The current study showed that QFD is an efficient tool for quality planning in public health services.

  20. Impact of the World Health Organization's Decision-Making Tool for Family Planning Clients and Providers on the quality of family planning services in Iran.

    Farrokh-Eslamlou, Hamidreza; Aghlmand, Siamak; Eslami, Mohammad; Homer, Caroline S E


    We investigated whether use of the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Decision-Making Tool (DMT) for Family Planning Clients and Providers would improve the process and outcome quality indicators of family planning (FP) services in Iran. The DMT was adapted for the Iranian setting. The study evaluated 24 FP quality key indicators grouped into two main areas, namely process and outcome. The tool was implemented in 52 urban and rural public health facilities in four selected and representative provinces of Iran. A pre-post methodology was undertaken to examine whether use of the tool improved the quality of FP services and client satisfaction with the services. Quantitative data were collected through observations of counselling and exit interviews with clients using structured questionnaires. Different numbers of FP clients were recruited during the baseline and the post-intervention rounds (n=448 vs 547, respectively). The DMT improved many client-provider interaction indicators, including verbal and non-verbal communication (p<0.05). The tool also impacted positively on the client's choice of contraceptive method, providers' technical competence, and quality of information provided to clients (p<0.05). Use of the tool improved the clients' satisfaction with FP services (from 72% to 99%; p<0.05). The adapted WHO's DMT has the potential to improve the quality of FP services.

  1. Review of quality assessment tools for family planning programmes in low- and middle-income countries.

    Sprockett, Andrea


    Measuring and tracking the quality of healthcare is a critical part of improving service delivery, clinic efficiency and health outcomes. However, no standardized or widely accepted tool exists to assess the quality of clinic-based family planning services in low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this literature review was to identify widely used public domain quality assessment tools with existing or potential application in clinic-based family planning programmes. Using PubMed, PopLine, Google Scholar and Google, key terms such as ‘quality assessment tool’, ‘quality assessment method’, ‘quality measurement’, ‘LMIC’, ‘developing country’, ‘family planning’ and ‘reproductive health’ were searched for articles, identifying 20 relevant tools. Tools were assessed to determine the type of quality components assessed, divided into structure and process components, level of application (national or facility), health service domain that can be assessed by the tool, cost and current use of the tool. Tools were also assessed for shortcomings based on application in a low- and middle-income clinic-based family planning programme, including personnel required, re-assessment frequency, assessment of structure, process and outcome quality, comparability of data over time and across facilities and ability to benchmark clinic results to a national benchmark. No tools met all criteria, indicating a critical gap in quality assessment for low- and middle-income family planning programmes. To achieve Universal Health Coverage, agreed on in the Sustainable Development Goals and to improve system-wide healthcare quality, we must develop and widely adopt a standardized quality assessment tool.




    Full Text Available : Lower level of community perceptions on family planning still exist in many parts of India. Further there is dearth of state level information for the same. Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of family planning among eligible couples. Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: Hatta, Imphal east, Manipur. Duration: Sept.2007 to August 2008. Participants: Eligible couples. Results: 825 eligible couples participated in the study with a response rate of 99.28%. Mean age at marriage of wives and husbands were 19.12 and 24.14 years (SD±7.179 and 8.491 respectively. Majority of husbands (85.8% and wives (84.6% knew of family planning and media was the main source of information. 54.42% of husbands disapproved family planning (p=0.000 and only 16.73% of the couples were using family planning methods. Main reasons for not adopting family planning methods were family disharmony (19.5%, religious prohibition (17.8% and adverse effects (8.0%. Logistic regression analysis revealed that one year increase in age of wives there was likelihood of having 4% increases in adopting family planning methods. Similarly, occupations of wives other than housewife had 27% and from illiterate to literate 3% more chance of adopting family planning methods. CONCLUSION: Adopting low family planning methods among the eligible couples was mainly due to husband’s disapproval thinking that it may cause family disharmony, religion prohibition and fear of adverse effects. And also other important associated factors were their attitude, education and occupation

  3. Implementation and acceptability of strategies instituted for engaging men in family planning services in Kibaha district, Tanzania.

    Msovela, Judith; Tengia-Kessy, Anna


    Men as the main decision makers in most of African families have an important role to play towards acceptance of family planning methods. This study sought to identify strategies used to engage men in family planning services and determine the extent to which men in Kibaha district in Tanzania accept these interventions. We conducted a cross sectional study using both quantitative and qualitative techniques. We used a questionnaire to interview a random sample of 365 of currently married or cohabiting men who had at least one child under the age of five years. We further conducted in-depth interviews with health workers involved in delivering reproductive health services as well as community dispensers of family planning commodities. Descriptive analysis was used to determine the extent to which men were engaged in family planning services. The data from the indepth interviews were analysed manually according to the predetermined themes, guided by the grounded theory to identify the existing strategies used to encourage male involvement in family planning services. According to the key informants, strategies that are used to encourage men to engage in family planning services include invitations through their spouses, either verbally or by using partner notification cards, incorporating family planning messages during monthly meetings and community outreach reproductive health programs. Of 365 men responding to the questionnaire, only 31 (8.4%) said they were invited to accompany their spouses to family planning clinics. Among them, 71% (22/31) visited family planning clinics. A third (32%) of the respondents had heard of community health meetings and only 20.7% of them attended these meetings. More than a third (12/34) of men who attended these meeting asserted that family planning messages targeting men featured in the agenda and subsequently half of them visited health facilities for family planning services. Existing strategies such as invitations to clinics

  4. Multivariate areal analysis of the impact and efficiency of the family planning programme in peninsular Malaysia.

    Tan Boon Ann


    The findings of the final phase of a 3-phase multivariate areal analysis study undertaken by the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) in 5 countries of the Asian and Pacific Region, including Malaysia, to examine the impact of family planning programs on fertility and reproduction are reported. The study used Malaysia's administrative district as the unit of analysis because the administration and implementation of socioeconomic development activities, as well as the family planning program, depend to a large extent on the decisions of local organizations at the district or state level. In phase 1, existing program and nonprogram data were analyzed using the multivariate technique to separate the impact of the family planning program net of other developmental efforts. The methodology in the 2nd phase consisted of in-depth investigation of selected areas in order to discern the dynamics and determinants of efficiency. The insights gained in phase 2 regarding dynamics of performance were used in phase 3 to refine the input variables of the phase 1 model. Thereafter, the phase 1 analysis was repeated. Insignificant variables and factors were trimmed in order to present a simplified model for studying the impact of environmental, socioeconomic development, family planning programs, and related factors on fertility. The inclusion of a set of family planning program and development variables in phase 3 increased the predictive power of the impact model. THe explained variance for total fertility rate (TFR) of women under 30 years increased from 71% in phase 1 to 79%. It also raised the explained variance of the efficiency model from 34% to 70%. For women age 30 years and older, their TFR was affected directly by the ethnic composition variable (.76), secondary educational status (-.45), and modern nonagricultural occupation (.42), among others. When controlled for other socioeconomic development and environmental indicators, the

  5. Delivering high-quality family planning services in crisis-affected settings I: program implementation.

    Curry, Dora Ward; Rattan, Jesse; Nzau, Jean Jose; Giri, Kamlesh


    In 2012, about 43 million women of reproductive age experienced the effects of conflict. Provision of basic sexual and reproductive health services, including family planning, is a recognized right and need of refugees and internally displaced people, but funding and services for family planning have been inadequate. This article describes lessons learned during the first 2.5 years of implementing the ongoing Supporting Access to Family Planning and Post-Abortion Care in Emergencies (SAFPAC) initiative, led by CARE, which supports government health systems to deliver family planning services in 5 crisis-affected settings (Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Mali, and Pakistan). SAFPAC's strategy focuses on 4 broad interventions drawn from public health best practices in more stable settings: competency-based training for providers, improved supply chain management, regular supervision, and community mobilization to influence attitudes and norms related to family planning. Between July 2011 and December 2013, the initiative reached 52,616 new users of modern contraceptive methods across the 5 countries (catchment population of 698,053 women of reproductive age), 61% of whom chose long-acting methods of implants or intrauterine devices. Prudent use of data to inform decision making has been an underpinning to the project's approach. A key approach to ensuring sustained ability to train and supervise new providers has been to build capacity in clinical skills training and supervision by establishing in-country training centers. In addition, monthly supervision using simple checklists has improved program and service quality, particularly with infection prevention procedures and stock management. We have generally instituted a "pull" system to manage commodities and other supplies, whereby health facilities place resupply orders as needed based on actual consumption patterns and stock-alert thresholds. Finally, reaching the community with mobilization

  6. Factors affecting unmet need for family planning in married women of reproductive age group in urban slums of Lucknow

    Anjali Pal


    Full Text Available Background: Unmet need for family planning signifies the gap between the reproductive intentions of couples and their actual contraceptive behaviour. The National Family Health Surveys carried out in India in 1992-93, 1998-99 and 2004-2005 have revealed that for a sizable proportion of the population in the reproductive age group, the need for contraceptive services are not met with despite the existence of a National Policy on family planning since 1983. This study was carried out to assess the extent of unmet need for family planning among married women of reproductive age group in urban slums of Lucknow and identify the various factors affecting it. Study design: Cross sectional Setting: four urban slums of Lucknow Participants: 414 married women in the age group of 15- 44 years Study variables: age, education, occupation, religion, parity Statistical analysis: chi- square test, logistic regression analysis, fisher’s exact test Results: the extent of unmet need among married women of reproductive age group was 53.1%. The unmet need was found to be significantly associated with age, number of living sons, discussion of family planning with husband, perception of husband’s view on family planning and husbands’ behaviour towards use of family planning method. Logistic regression analysis of unmet need showed that the lower age of the woman, lesser number of living sons and husband’s discouragement towards the use of FP method were correlated with the unmet need for Family Planning.

  7. Advice about Life Plans from Mothers, Fathers, and Siblings in Always-Married and Divorced Families during Late Adolescence.

    Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Barber, Bonnie L.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.


    Investigated the frequency of advice about life plans that older adolescents in always-married (n=544) and divorced (n=95) families received from mothers, fathers, and siblings. Findings suggest that adolescents from both types of families rely on mothers for advice, but adolescents from divorced families depended less often on fathers and…

  8. A Model-Based Approach for Planning and Developing a Family of Technology-Based Products

    V. Krishnan; Rahul Singh; Devanath Tirupati


    In this paper, we address the product-family design problem of a firm in a market in which customers choose products based on some measure of product performance. By developing products as a family, the firm can reduce the cost of developing individual product variants due to the reuse of a common product platform. Such a platform, designed in an aggregate-planning phase that precedes the development of individual product variants, is itself expensive to develop. Hence, its costs must be weig...

  9. Development and Validation of a Gender Ideology Scale for Family Planning Services in Rural China

    Yang, Xueyan; Li, Shuzhuo; Feldman, Marcus W.


    The objectives of this study are to develop a scale of gender role ideology appropriate for assessing Quality of Care in family planning services for rural China. Literature review, focus-group discussions and in-depth interviews with service providers and clients from two counties in eastern and western China, as well as experts’ assessments, were used to develop a scale for family planning services. Psychometric methodologies were applied to samples of 601 service clients and 541 service providers from a survey in a district in central China to validate its internal consistency, reliability, and construct validity with realistic and strategic dimensions. This scale is found to be reliable and valid, and has prospects for application both academically and practically in the field. PMID:23573222

  10. Training of opinion leaders in family planning in India: does it serve any purpose?

    Sharma, V; Sharma, A


    Community leaders are known to play a crucial role in the diffusion of innovations. The government of India started an ambitious programme for the training of opinion leaders in family planning, so as to provide a boost to its National Family Planning (Welfare) Programme. The present study attempts to analyse the knowledge, attitudes and practices of opinion leaders who had been trained in such Orientation Training Camps, vis a vis their untrained counterparts from the same geopolitical region. There was a highly significant difference between the knowledge of the two groups (p opinion leaders from both the groups were identical, thus pointing to a significant KAP-gap in the trained group. Opinion leaders from both the groups were engaged in minimal or negligible motivational work among their followers for acceptance of contraception, and only a very limited few from both the groups had themselves adopted any method of modern contraception.

  11. Do different funding mechanisms produce different results? The implications of family planning for fiscal federalism.

    McFarlane, D R; Meier, K J


    The 104th Congress considered massive structural changes in federal aid to the states. Not only would federal categorical grants be consolidated into block grants, but entitlement programs would be converted to block grants too. Using family planning as a case study, this article examines whether program impacts change if different grant mechanisms are employed. Findings from a pooled time series analysis of state family planning expenditures show that categorical funding (here, title X of the Public Health Service Act) is the most cost effective in producing desired outcomes, such as lowering infant mortality. Policies using entitlement grants are generally more cost effective than those that rely upon block grants. We discuss the implications of these findings for health policy more broadly and for fiscal federalism in general.

  12. From Project to Program: Tupange's Experience with Scaling Up Family Planning Interventions in Urban Kenya.

    Keyonzo, Nelson; Nyachae, Paul; Kagwe, Peter; Kilonzo, Margaret; Mumba, Feddis; Owino, Kenneth; Kichamu, George; Kigen, Bartilol; Fajans, Peter; Ghiron, Laura; Simmons, Ruth


    This paper describes how the Urban Reproductive Health Initiative in Kenya, the Tupange Project (2010-2015), successfully applied the ExpandNet approach to sustainably scale up family planning interventions, first in Machakos and Kakamega, and subsequently also in its three core cities, Nairobi, Kisumu and Mombasa. This new focus meant shifting from a "project" to a "program" approach, which required paying attention to government leadership and ownership, limiting external inputs, institutionalizing interventions in existing structures and emphasizing sustainability. The paper also highlights the project's efforts to prepare for the future scale up of Tupange's interventions in other counties to support continuing and improved access to family planning services in the new context of devolution (decentralization) in Kenya.

  13. Validity of Standard Measures of Family Planning Service Quality: Findings from the Simulated Client Method

    Tumlinson, Katherine; Speizer, Ilene S.; Curtis, Sian L.; Pence, Brian W.


    Despite widespread endorsement within the field of international family planning regarding the importance of quality of care as a reproductive right, the field has yet to develop validated data collection instruments to accurately assess quality in terms of its public health importance. This study, conducted among 19 higher volume public and private facilities in Kisumu, Kenya, used the simulated client method to test the validity of three standard data collection instruments included in large-scale facility surveys: provider interviews, client interviews, and observation of client-provider interactions. Results found low specificity and positive predictive values in each of the three instruments for a number of quality indicators, suggesting that quality of care may be overestimated by traditional methods. Revised approaches to measuring family planning service quality may be needed to ensure accurate assessment of programs and to better inform quality improvement interventions. PMID:25469929

  14. Family Planning Counseling in Your Pocket: A Mobile Job Aid for Community Health Workers in Tanzania.

    Agarwal, Smisha; Lasway, Christine; L'Engle, Kelly; Homan, Rick; Layer, Erica; Ollis, Steve; Braun, Rebecca; Silas, Lucy; Mwakibete, Anna; Kudrati, Mustafa


    To address low contraceptive use in Tanzania, a pilot intervention using a mobile job aid was developed to guide community health workers (CHWs) to deliver integrated counseling on family planning, HIV, and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In this article, we describe the process of developing the family planning algorithms and implementation of the mobile job aid, discuss how the job aid supported collection of real-time data for decision making, and present the cost of the overall system based on an evaluation of the pilot. The family planning algorithm was developed, beginning in June 2011, in partnership with the Tanzania Ministry of Health and Social Welfare based on a combination of evidence-based tools such as the Balanced Counseling Strategy Plus Toolkit. The pilot intervention and study was implemented with 25 CHWs in 3 wards in Ilala district in Dar es Salaam between January 2013 and July 2013. A total of 710 family planning users (455 continuing users and 255 new users) were registered and counseled using the mobile job aid over the 6-month intervention period. All users were screened for current pregnancy, questioned on partner support for contraceptive use, counseled on a range of contraceptives, and screened for HIV/STI risk. Most new and continuing family planning users chose pills and male condoms (59% and 73%, respectively). Pills and condoms were provided by the CHW at the community level. Referrals were made to the health facility for pregnancy confirmation, injectable contraceptives, long-acting reversible contraceptives and HIV/STI testing. Follow-up visits with clients were planned to confirm completion of the health facility referral. The financial cost of implementing this intervention with 25 CHWs and 3 supervisors are estimated to be US$26,000 for the first year. For subsequent years, the financial costs are estimated to be 73% lower at $7,100. Challenges such as limited client follow-up by CHWs and use of data by supervisors

  15. Family planning through child health: a case study of El Kef project in Tunisia.

    Bouzidi, M; Jones, M


    In 1970, a Dutch medical team began work in the city of El Kef in Tunisia on a project designed to bring family planning into rural areas. The project aimed to persuade the rural people to use urban health centers, but this approach failed partly because of the remoteness of the communities and their reluctance to discuss personal matters with strangers. Funded by UNFPA, a new project began to recruit and train local girls as home health visitors or aides-familiales, an approach which became the central focus of the El Kef project. The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) took over the project and expanded it to include nutrition, health care, health education, family planning, disease prevention and domestic crafts. 4 goals were fixed for the project: total vaccination coverage for children; elimination of severe malnutrition; reduction of infant mortality; and use of family planning practice by at least 1/2 the women of childbearing age. An efficient recordkeeping system enabled the project to be carefully evaluated and provides much-needed data, showing where it has achieved its aims and where new efforts should be directed. The project resulted in large numbers of women receiving ante-natal advice, child care and family planning from their local health centers. 860 pregnant women were followed up during the 3-year study period. Some 57% of pregnant women went for advice; only 15% went for postnatal care, but 50% of the women under 50 attended child welfare sessions during the study period for weight checks, nutrition advice, vaccination and treatment for minor ailments. Over the 3 years, the number of contraceptive users more than trebled, from 14% to 54%. The IUD was the most popular method. The most successful aspect of the project was the emphasis on maternal and child health, and the home visits were the most motivating feature. Vaccination became more popular. A further aspect of the project was the training in home improvement skills, like

  16. The use of family planning methods in an administrative district of Istanbul.

    Ince, N; Ayhan Ozyildirim, B; Irmak Ozden, Y


    In Turkey, the first population and family planning law was accepted by the government in 1965, and this law was revised in 1982. This study was carried out to evaluate the family planning methods of women who applied to rural health centers of Küçükçekmece and were willing to use the health-care service and consultancy about birth control methods. The data of the study were gathered by means of an appropriate inquiry form and face-to-face interview with the women willing to use the family planning service between September 1998 and June 1999 at the health-care centers of Küçükçekmece of Istanbul. There were 699 women participants in the study. The last pregnancy of 27.2% (n = 175) of the women had been undesired; 86.8% of all the women who participated in the study declared that they did not desire any more children, but only 81.3% (n = 568) out of these were using a method to protect from pregnancy. The most frequently known (84.8%) and used (45.9%) method of the participants was an intrauterine device (IUD), and 80.8% of the women using an IUD wanted to continue using that method. A total of 223 women (39.3%) using any method protecting from pregnancy became pregnant. Approximately half (57.8%) of those occurred during the use of withdrawal. According to the findings of this study, the level of knowledge about family planning and the consequent behavior of the women within the fertile age group are better than the average of Turkey, but still not satisfactory.

  17. Using Behavioral Science to Design a Peer Comparison Intervention for Postabortion Family Planning in Nepal.

    Spring, Hannah; Datta, Saugato; Sapkota, Sabitri


    Despite the provision of free and subsidized family planning services and clients' demonstrated intentions to delay pregnancies, family planning uptake among women who receive abortion and postabortion services at Sunaulo Parivar Nepal (SPN), one of Nepal's largest non-governmental sexual and reproductive health (SRH) providers, remains low. Through meetings, interviews, and observations with SPN's stakeholders, service providers, and clients at its 36 SRH centers, we developed hypotheses about client- and provider-side barriers that may inhibit postabortion family planning (PAFP) uptake. On the provider side, we found that the lack of benchmarks (such as the performance of other facilities) against which providers could compare their own performance and the lack of feedback on the performance were important barriers to PAFP uptake. We designed several variants of three interventions to address these barriers. Through conversations with team members at SPN's centralized support office and service providers at SPN centers, we prioritized a peer-comparison tool that allows providers at one center to compare their performance with that of other similar centers. We used feedback from the community of providers on the tools' usability and features to select a variant of the tool that also leverages and reinforces providers' strong intrinsic motivation to provide quality PAFP services. In this paper, we detail the process of identifying barriers and creating an intervention to overcome those barriers. The intervention's effectiveness will be tested with a center-level, stepped-wedge randomized control trial in which SPN's 36 centers will be randomly assigned to receive the intervention at 1-month intervals over a 6-month period. Existing medical record data will be used to monitor family planning uptake.

  18. A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial of the MyFamilyPlan Online Preconception Health Education Tool.

    Batra, Priya; Mangione, Carol M; Cheng, Eric; Steers, W Neil; Nguyen, Tina A; Bell, Douglas; Kuo, Alice A; Gregory, Kimberly D


    To evaluate whether exposure to MyFamilyPlan-a web-based preconception health education module-changes the proportion of women discussing reproductive health with providers at well-woman visits. Cluster randomized controlled trial. One hundred thirty participants per arm distributed among 34 clusters (physicians) required to detect a 20% change in the primary outcome. Urban academic medical center (California). Eligible women were 18 to 45 years old, were English speaking, were nonpregnant, were able to access the Internet, and had an upcoming well-woman visit. E-mail and phone recruitment between September 2015 and May 2016; 292 enrollees randomized. Intervention participants completed the MyFamilyPlan module online 7 to 10 days before a scheduled well-woman visit; control participants reviewed standard online preconception health education materials. The primary outcome was self-reported discussion of reproductive health with the physician at the well-woman visit. Self-reported secondary outcomes were folic acid use, contraceptive method initiation/change, and self-efficacy score. Multilevel multivariate logistic regression. After adjusting for covariates and cluster, exposure to MyFamilyPlan was the only variable significantly associated with an increase in the proportion of women discussing reproductive health with providers (odds ratio: 1.97, 95% confidence interval: 1.22-3.19). Prespecified secondary outcomes were unaffected. MyFamilyPlan exposure was associated with a significant increase in the proportion of women who reported discussing reproductive health with providers and may promote preconception health awareness; more work is needed to affect associated behaviors.

  19. Perceptions of and preferences for federally-funded family planning clinics

    Oglesby, Willie H.


    Background The Title X family planning program provides affordable access to a range of sexual and reproductive health services, with a priority for low-income people. The disproportionate burden of unintended pregnancy, breast and cervical cancer, and sexually transmitted diseases among minority groups, teens, and young adults in the US underscore the need for affordable access to such services. However, increased access to sexual and reproductive health services, resulting from the Affordab...

  20. University of Venda’s male students’ attitudes towards contraception and family planning

    Nanga R. Raselekoane


    Full Text Available Background: Many young men continue to disregard the importance of contraception and family planning in South Africa. The fact that even university students also do not take contraception and family planning seriously poses a serious threat to their own health and well-being.Aim: This paper aims at investigating the attitudes of male students towards contraception and the promotion of female students’ sexual health rights and well-being at the University of Venda.Methods: Quantitative research method is used to determine how attitudes of 60 male students towards contraception can jeopardise the health and well-being of both male and female students.Results: This study reveals that the majority of 60 male students at the University of Venda have a negative attitude towards contraceptives. As a result, male students at the University of Venda are not keen on using contraceptives. Male students’ negative attitude and lack of interest in contraceptives and family planning also limit progress in achieving the Millennium Development Goals on primary health care, especially with regard to sexual and reproductive health and well-being of female students at the University of Venda.Conclusion: The fact that more than half of the male students interviewed did not take contraception and family planning seriously poses a serious threat to health and well-being of students, including violation of female students’ sexual and reproductive health rights in South Africa. This calls for radical health promotion and sexual and reproductive rights programmes which should specifically target male students at the University of Venda.

  1. Application of social science theories to family planning health education in the People's Republic of China.

    Wang, V L


    The transformation of the Chinese society was political and economic by revolution; it was also social and cultural through mass education. Group decisions have been used to induce social change in the Chinese society and applied extensively to the family planning program. The methods which Kurt Lewin developed to change food habits, have been perfected on a grand scale of myriad ways by the Chinese.

  2. Illinois State Plan: Adult Education and Family Literacy. Under Title II of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998, Adult Education and Family Literacy Act

    Illinois Community College Board, 2014


    This document contains Illinois' State Plan for Adult Education and Family Literacy under Title II of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 for July 1, 1999, through June 30, 2015. The plan is comprised of the following sections: (1) Eligible agency certifications and assurances; (2) Description of the steps to ensure direct and equitable access;…

  3. Cancer caregivers advocate a patient- and family-centered approach to advance care planning.

    Michael, Natasha; O'Callaghan, Clare; Baird, Angela; Hiscock, Nathaniel; Clayton, Josephine


    Cancer caregivers have important roles in delivering practical, emotional, and end-of-life support to patients; however, they express multiple unmet needs, particularly information on future care planning. Early regular communication and decision making may improve access to timely information, alleviate anxiety, reduce uncertainty, and improve coping strategies. This study examines how cancer caregivers view advance care planning (ACP) to inform an ACP program in an Australian cancer center. This study used a qualitative descriptive design with grounded theory overtones. Eighteen caregivers of patients from lung and gastrointestinal tumor streams participated in focus groups or semistructured interviews, which incorporated the vignette technique. Caregivers believe that, although confronting, ACP discussions can be helpful. Conversations are sometimes patient initiated, although caregivers may intend to sensitively broach conversations over time. Findings highlight the impact of caregiver hierarchies, adaptive family decision-making styles, and complex cultural influences on decision making. Some caregivers may develop subsidiary care intentions, based on "knowing" or overriding patients' desires. Hindrances on caregivers supporting patients' ACPs include limited information access, patient or caregiver resistance to engage in conversations, and ACPs association in oncology with losing hope. Many caregivers wanted professional support and further opportunities to obtain information, develop subsidiary plans, and help patients engage in ACP discussions. Findings highlight the influence of cancer caregivers and family dynamics over ACP decisions and actualization of future care plans. A patient- and family-centered care approach to ACP, promoting shared decision making and caregiver support, is recommended. Given that caregivers may override and, plausibly, misinterpret patients' desires, caregivers' subsidiary planning warrants further investigation. Copyright

  4. Restructuring family planning in the health service: the case of young people's clinics.

    West, J


    A review of the experience of adolescent reproductive health clinics in Liverpool and Bristol highlights the potentially disruptive impact of new National Health Service (NHS) policies and competing professional interests on the attempt to provide integrated, high-quality services. In particular, responsiveness to client needs often collides with NHS demands for efficiency. UK health authorities accept, in principle, the need for separate, informal family planning centers for young people. The 34 Brook Advisory Centers, which deliver confidential contraceptive and counseling services to adolescents, face pressure to become population rather than client-based and to reduce time spent on individual sessions. Moreover, new NHS contracting arrangements have greatly increased the role of general practitioners (GPs) in contraceptive provision, with serious implications for family planning clinics. At present, about 70% of UK women obtain contraceptive and sexual health services from a GP. This encroachment has further increased the marginalization of family planning practitioners, the majority of whom are female, within the medical profession. Concerns have been expressed, however, that GPs are not able to offer the comprehensive services available in clinics and lack sufficient female staff.

  5. Aligning goals, intents, and performance indicators in family planning service delivery.

    RamaRao, Saumya; Jain, Anrudh K


    A flurry of policy initiatives in the fields of both population and development and reproductive health, many addressing the provision of family planning services, are currently underway: FP2020, the ICPD Beyond 2014, and the post-2015 development agenda, among others. This is an opportune time, therefore, to reflect upon and take into consideration what five decades of family planning programs can teach us about ensuring that policies and programs integrate their underlying intents, concrete goals, and performance indicators. The family planning field has encountered instances in its history when inconsistencies between goals, intents, and indicators arose and adversely affected the delivery of services. This commentary presents our observations concerning potential misalignments that may arise within the many promising initiatives underway. We examine the relationship between the intent, goal, and indicators of FP2020 as a case study highlighting the need for ensuring a tight alignment. We offer suggestions for ensuring that this and other initiatives use carefully calibrated indicators to guide the achievement of explicit program goals without undermining their underlying intent--namely, promoting well-being and reproductive rights.

  6. Impact of family planning health education on the knowledge and attitude among Yasoujian women.

    Mahamed, Fariba; Parhizkar, Saadat; Raygan Shirazi, Alireza


    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of health education on the knowledge and attitude regarding family planning and contraception's method among the women who obligatory attended the Premarital Counseling Center in Yasouj city, Iran. An experimental study was carried out and a total of 200 women were selected for the study using convenience sampling method among women who attended in the health centre in order to utilize the necessary premarital actions. Respondents were divided by two experimental and control groups randomly. A pre-evaluation was done on the knowledge and attitude on family planning using a structured questionnaire. After which, the health education for experimental group was done within four educational sessions during 4 consecutive weeks and control group underwent traditional education method. Post evaluation was utilized for any changes regarding their knowledge and attitude among the respondents immediately after the intervention. Independent and paired t-test was used to evaluate the mean knowledge and attitude scores differences among both groups. RESULTS showed that there was a significant improvement in respondents' knowledge and attitude after educational program in experimental group (peducational method. In conclusion, the educational method is effective in increasing the knowledge and improving the attitude of women regarding family planning in Yasouj compared to current used educational method. Future educational programs need to incorporate the features that have been associated with successful interventions in the past, as well as including their own evaluation procedures.

  7. [Results of a representative survey of family planning behavior in West Germany 1985].

    Döring, G; Baur, S; Frank, P; Freundl, G; Sottong, U


    A report on the result of a representative survey of family planning behavior in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1985. Interviewers from the EMNID Institute questioned 1267 German women aged between 15 and 45. Of the women interviewed, 6.1% had been sterilized, while in 1.3% of cases, their partner had been sterilized. Regarding the use of reversible methods of contraception, the following figures were established: pill, 37.1%; IUD, 10.3%; condom, 5.9%; rhythm method, 3.9%; withdrawal 3.4%; vaginal diaphragm, 2.1%; mini-pill, 1.3%; locally effective chemical substances, 0.8%. A few women (1.9%) stated that they used a mixture of methods. No information about family planning methods was offered by 13.4% of the women interviewed. The figures obtained were further differentiated according to age, marital status, school education, religion, number of children, desire for more children, profession, and net income. The authors' own questions concerned the early use of contraceptives, the reasons for abandoning a particular method, the reasons for choosing a certain type of contraceptive, sources of information about family planning, the frequency of changes from one type of contraceptive to another, and opinions about the rhythm method. Finally, the result of the EMNID survey is compared with that of known studies both at home and abroad.

  8. The minorities of Bukidnon. Roots and leaves remain the acceptable family planning device.

    Consignado, L S


    When the villagers of Kalasugay in Bukidnon (Philippines), who still subsist on planting small plots with rice and root crops and hunting and foraging for food, talk about family planning, they talk about the use of the "kilala" or the "salumaya"--2 of the many leaves and roots they use for fertility, child spacing, or contraception. The use of roots and leaves to this day remains the acceptable family planning device among the minorities of Bukidnon. The "kilala" and the "huwag"--a variety of the "rattan" tree--are the most popular plants used by the minorities. The experiences of villagers with these traditional methods are recounted. Folk methods of family planning are not limited to roots and leaves only. Another method used by minorities is incantation. The traditional methods continue to rate high due in part to the fact that sex continues to be a taboo conversation topic. The users of modern contraceptive methods are mostly those couples who live along the highways, for they are more exposed to innovations such as birth control devices. To the minorities in the hinterlands, modern contraceptive methods continue to be foreign objects.

  9. Nationalism, race, and gender: the politics of family planning in Zimbabwe, 1957-1990.

    West, M O


    In line with a general tendency of nationalists to hold pro-natalist views, African nationalists in Zimbabwe took a hostile position to family planning upon its introduction in 1957, arguing that it was part of a conspiracy to control the black population. However, it was only after the unilateral declaration of independence in 1965 by the white settlers under Ian Smith that an official policy aimed at reducing African fertility emerged. The African nationalists waged a consistent propaganda campaign against this policy, and the facilities that were established under it, as well as their personnel, became military targets during the guerrilla war in the late 1970s. After independence in 1980, the triumphant nationalists tried to maintain their pro-natalist position. But, with a postwar 'baby boom' pushing the birth rate close to four per cent by the mid-1980s, the officials in charge of economic and social development concluded that society could not sustain such a high fertility rate. Consequently, there was a reversal of policy, and by 1990 Zimbabwe had become an internationally recognized leader of family planning among developing countries. For the most part, however, these changes have taken place without any real input by African women, who remained largely excluded from the male-dominated circles in which decisions about family planning were made.

  10. Situation analysis: assessing family planning and reproductive health services. Quality of care.


    This issue of Population Briefs contains articles on researches conducted by the Population Council concerning the delivery of quality of care, contraceptive development, safe abortion, family planning, demography, and medical anthropology. The cover story focuses on a systematic data collection tool called Situation Analysis that helps managers in program evaluation. This tool has a handbook entitled "The Situation Analysis Approach to Assessing Family Planning and Reproductive Health Services" that contains all the information needed to conduct a Situation Analysis study. The second article reports about a new contraceptive method, the two-rod levonorgestrel, which was developed at the Population Council and was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. The third article reports on a medical abortion procedure that was proven to be safe, effective, and acceptable to women in developing countries. Moreover, the fourth article presents initial findings of the Community Health and Family Planning Project conducted in Northern Ghana. The fifth article discusses the paper written by the Population Council demographer, Mark Montgomery entitled "Learning and lags in mortality perceptions". Finally, the sixth article deals with another paper that reports on women's health perceptions and reproductive health in the Middle East.

  11. Perceived probability of success and motivational basis for family planning programme. Part I.

    Kar, S B


    The role of family planning programs in the context of total national developmental efforts is reviewed. It is suggested that the effective implementation of family planning programs should be supplemented by maintaining the progress made in other developmental areas. Depth studies will constitute effective incentives (other than monetary) for the adoption of family planning by the masses where no tangible improvement in the standard of living is immediately possible. The perceived probability of success of program goals can significantly influence the workers' dedication to the work and their actual performances. The present empirical pilot study indicates that the majority of the respondents to the questionnaire felt that the reduction in the birthrate from 41 to 25/1000 is not likely to be achieved in 10 years, but that one may expect a significant decline in the birthrate in the next 20 years. It should be determined whether it is desirable to relax the program goals or orientate the workers to develop in them the conviction that the attainability of the present program goals is feasible.

  12. A study of socioeconomic determinants of family planning practice based on cross cultural regressions.

    Rao, V V; Yuan, T


    It has been traditional in demographic research to undertake studies based on cross country regression analyses of crude birth rate (CBR), its correlates, or even marital fertility rates (MFR), on various socioeconomic indicators. The general conclusion to emerge from these studies has been that there exists a relationship between fertility and certain significant socioeconomic correlates. This conclusion does not go much beyond observations based on demographic transition theory or differential fertility studies. These multiple regression studies do not come close to the dynamics and underlying processes that generate the actual observations. It seems that cross country regression analyses of the prevalence of family planning may be more useful for policy purposes. Certain correlates of the level of family planning practice have been identified: foremost among these are per capita income, adult literacy, and the period of family planning advocacy. From a policy standpoint, the literacy of the population seems to be the most amenable to intervention by policy making bodies interested in achieving optimal demographic and socioeconomic conditions within a society.

  13. Changing fortunes: analysis of fluctuating policy space for family planning in Kenya.

    Crichton, Joanna


    Policies relating to contraceptive services (population, family planning and reproductive health policies) often receive weak or fluctuating levels of commitment from national policy elites in Southern countries, leading to slow policy evolution and undermining implementation. This is true of Kenya, despite the government's early progress in committing to population and reproductive health policies, and its success in implementing them during the 1980s. This key informant study on family planning policy in Kenya found that policy space contracted, and then began to expand, because of shifts in contextual factors, and because of the actions of different actors. Policy space contracted during the mid-1990s in the context of weakening prioritization of reproductive health in national and international policy agendas, undermining access to contraceptive services and contributing to the stalling of the country's fertility rates. However, during the mid-2000s, champions of family planning within the Kenyan Government bureaucracy played an important role in expanding the policy space through both public and hidden advocacy activities. The case study demonstrates that policy space analysis can provide useful insights into the dynamics of routine policy and programme evolution and the challenge of sustaining support for issues even after they have reached the policy agenda.

  14. Fear, opposition, ambivalence, and omission: Results from a follow-up study on unmet need for family planning in Ghana.

    Staveteig, Sarah


    Despite a relatively strong family planning program and regionally modest levels of fertility, Ghana recorded one of the highest levels of unmet need for family planning on the African continent in 2008. Unmet need for family planning is a composite measure based on apparent contradictions between women's reproductive preferences and practices. Women who want to space or limit births but are not using contraception are considered to have an unmet need for family planning. The study sought to understand the reasons behind high levels of unmet need for family planning in Ghana. A mixed methods follow-up study was embedded within the stratified, two-stage cluster sample of the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS). Women in 13 survey clusters who were identified as having unmet need, along with a reference group of current family planning users, were approached to be reinterviewed within an average of three weeks from their GDHS interview. Follow-up respondents were asked a combination of closed- and open-ended questions about fertility preferences and contraceptive use. Closed-ended responses were compared against the original survey; transcripts were thematically coded and analyzed using qualitative analysis software. Among fecund women identified by the 2014 GDHS as having unmet need, follow-up interviews revealed substantial underreporting of method use, particularly traditional methods. Complete postpartum abstinence was sometimes the intended method of family planning but was overlooked during questions about method use. Other respondents classified as having unmet need had ambivalent fertility preferences. In several cases, respondents expressed revised fertility preferences upon follow-up that would have made them ineligible for inclusion in the unmet need category. The reference group of family planning users also expressed unstable fertility preferences. Aversion to modern method use was generally more substantial than reported in the GDHS


    Muhammad Ismail


    Full Text Available The present research article deals with an economic reliability efficient group acceptance sampling plan for time truncated tests which are based on the total number of failures assuming that the life time of a product follows the family for Pareto distribution. This research is proposed when a multiple number of products as a group can be observed simultaneously in a tester. The minimum termination time required for a given group size and acceptance number is determined such that the producer and consumer risks are satisfied for specific standard of quality level, while the number of groups and the number of testers are pre-assumed. Comparison studies are made between the proposed plan and the existing plan on the basis of minimum termination time. Two real examples are also discussed.

  16. Women's status and family planning: results from a focus group survey.

    Gu, B; Xie, Z


    Focus group discussions were conducted in China's Pingluo County, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, and Sihui County, Guangdong Province among reproductive age women with only daughters, mothers-in-law, unmarried women aged 23 years and older, and women business persons and cadres. The topic of discussion was the status of women, gender differences in employment, education, marriage, family life, childbearing, and elderly care in counties that have above average fertility rates. There were also several groups of men, mixed gender groups with husbands working away from home, local family planning workers, and rural intellectuals. The findings showed that there is more access to education for girls and a higher employment rate for young women. Daughters receive education to the highest level affordable. Enrollments are equal for boys and girls. Women's employment is not challenged by husbands, and work is available in a variety of locations. Business ownership and operation is encouraged. By middle age, women generally do not work in enterprises, but at home or on contracted farmland. Equal rights within the family are generally accepted. Husbands turn over their salary to wives for family expenses. Girls receive the same care after birth as boys. Women's status is improving. Improvements in social status have also involved sacrifices. Women complained that the workload on the farm has increased with adult males away working in cities. Women bear the burden of family planning, including in some cases side effects from oral pills and recovery from sterilizations. One women remarked that there were burdens in bearing children, taking oral pills, having IUD insertions, and having induced abortions; men should bear 50% of the responsibility. The burden of women without sons is harder, and women may also feel inferior as the last in their family line. One family with 6 daughters accepted the fine of RMB 7000 yuan for having another child, which turned out to be a son. One

  17. Critical care nurses' perceptions of their roles in family-team conflicts related to treatment plans.

    Edwards, Marie Patricia; Throndson, Karen; Dyck, Felicia


    Conflict over treatment plans is a cause of concern for those working in critical care environments. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe critical care nurses' perceptions of their roles in situations of conflict between family members and health-care providers in intensive care units. Using a qualitative descriptive design, 12 critical care nurses were interviewed individually and 4 experienced critical care nurses participated in focus group interviews. The roles described by the nurses were as follows: providing safe, competent, quality care to patients; building or restoring relationships of trust with families; and supporting other nurses. The nurses highlighted the level of stress when conflict arises, the need to be cautious in providing care and communicating with family members, and the need for support for nurses. More research related to working in situations of conflict is required, as is enhanced education for critical care nurses.

  18. Effectiveness of advance care planning with family carers in dementia nursing homes: A paired cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Brazil, Kevin; Carter, Gillian; Cardwell, Chris; Clarke, Mike; Hudson, Peter; Froggatt, Katherine; McLaughlin, Dorry; Passmore, Peter; Kernohan, W George


    In dementia care, a large number of treatment decisions are made by family carers on behalf of their family member who lacks decisional capacity; advance care planning can support such carers in the decision-making of care goals. However, given the relative importance of advance care planning in dementia care, the prevalence of advance care planning in dementia care is poor. To evaluate the effectiveness of advance care planning with family carers in dementia care homes. Paired cluster randomized controlled trial. The intervention comprised a trained facilitator, family education, family meetings, documentation of advance care planning decisions and intervention orientation for general practitioners and nursing home staff. A total of 24 nursing homes with a dementia nursing category located in Northern Ireland, United Kingdom. Family carers of nursing home residents classified as having dementia and judged as not having decisional capacity to participate in advance care planning discussions. The primary outcome was family carer uncertainty in decision-making about the care of the resident (Decisional Conflict Scale). There was evidence of a reduction in total Decisional Conflict Scale score in the intervention group compared with the usual care group (-10.5, 95% confidence interval: -16.4 to -4.7; p planning was effective in reducing family carer uncertainty in decision-making concerning the care of their family member and improving perceptions of quality of care in nursing homes. Given the global significance of dementia, the implications for clinicians and policy makers include them recognizing the importance of family carer education and improving communication between family carers and formal care providers.

  19. Programming the body, planning reproduction, governing life: the '(ir-) rationality' of family planning and the embodiment of social inequalities in Salvador da Bahia (Brazil).

    De Zordo, Silvia


    This paper examines family planning in Brazil as biopolitics and explores how the democratization of the State and of reproductive health services after two decades of military dictatorship (1964-1984) has influenced health professionals' and family planning users' discourses and practices. Do health professionals envisage family planning as a 'right' or do they conceive it, following the old neo-Malthusian rationale, as a 'moral duty' of poor people, whose 'irrational' reproduction jeopardizes the family's and the nation's well being? And how do their patients conceptualize and embody family planning? To answer these questions, this paper draws on 13 months of multi-sited ethnographic research undertaken between 2003 and 2005 in two public family planning services in Salvador da Bahia, where participant observation was undertaken and unstructured interviews were conducted with 11 health professionals and 70 family planning users, mostly low income black women. The paper examines how different bio-political rationalities operate in these services and argues that the old neo-Malthusian rationale and the current, dominant discourse on reproductive rights, gender equality and citizenship coexist. The coalescence of different biopolitical rationalities leads to the double stigmatization of family planning users as 'victims' of social and gender inequalities and as 'irrational' patients, 'irresponsible' mothers and 'bad' citizens if they do not embody the neo-Malthusian and biomedical rationales shaping medical practice. However, these women do not behave as 'docile bodies': they tactically use medical and non-medical contraceptives not only to be good mothers and citizens, but also to enhance themselves and to attain their own goals.

  20. The contextual effects of gender norms, communication, and social capital on family planning behaviors in Uganda: a multilevel approach.

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Lee, Byoungkwan; Salmon, Charles T; Witte, Kim


    This study hypothesized a multilevel model to examine the contextual effects of gender norms, exposure to health-related radio programs, interpersonal communication, and social capital on family planning behavior in Uganda. The results of hierarchical linear modeling showed that all of the four variables were significant predictors of family planning behavior. The authors found that gender norms as a contextual factor significantly interacted with the individual-level perceived benefit. The significant cross-level interaction effect was also observed between individuals' interpersonal communication and contextual variation in listening to a health-related radio program. Practical implications for family planning communication campaigns are discussed.

  1. Choices on contraceptive methods in post-abortion family planning clinic in the northeast Brazil

    Braga Cynthia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Brazil, a Ministry of Health report revealed women who underwent an abortion were predominantly in the use of contraceptive methods, but mentioned inconsistent or erroneously contraceptive use. Promoting the use of contraceptive methods to prevent unwanted pregnancies is one of the most effective strategies to reduce abortion rates and maternal morbidity and mortality. Therefore, providing post-abortion family planning services that include structured contraceptive counseling with free and easy access to contraceptive methods can be suitable. So the objective of this study is to determine the acceptance and selection of contraceptive methods followed by a post-abortion family planning counseling. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out from July to October 2008, enrolling 150 low income women to receive post-abortion care at a family planning clinic in a public hospital located in Recife, Brazil. The subjects were invited to take part of the study before receiving hospital leave from five different public maternities. An appointment was made for them at a family planning clinic at IMIP from the 8th to the 15th day after they had undergone an abortion. Every woman received information on contraceptive methods, side effects and fertility. Counseling was individualized and addressed them about feelings, expectations and motivations regarding contraception as well as pregnancy intention. Results Of all women enrolled in this study, 97.4% accepted at least one contraceptive method. Most of them (73.4% had no previous abortion history. Forty of the women who had undergone a previous abortion, 47.5% reported undergoing unsafe abortion. Slightly more than half of the pregnancies (52% were unwanted. All women had knowledge of the use of condoms, oral contraceptives and injectables. The most chosen method was injectables, followed by oral contraceptives and condoms. Only one woman chose an intrauterine device. Conclusion The

  2. MObile Technology for Improved Family Planning Services (MOTIF): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial


    Background Providing women with contraceptive methods following abortion is important to reduce repeat abortion rates, yet evidence for effective post-abortion family planning interventions are limited. This protocol outlines the evaluation of a mobile phone-based intervention using voice messages to support post-abortion family planning in Cambodia. Methods/Design A single blind randomised controlled trial of 500 participants. Clients aged 18 or over, attending for abortion at four Marie Stopes International clinics in Cambodia, owning a mobile phone and not wishing to have a child at the current time are randomised to the mobile phone-based intervention or control (standard care) with a 1:1 allocation ratio. The intervention comprises a series of six automated voice messages to remind clients about available family planning methods and provide a conduit for additional support. Clients can respond to message prompts to request a phone call from a counsellor, or alternatively to state they have no problems. Clients requesting to talk to a counsellor, or who do not respond to the message prompts, receive a call from a Marie Stopes International Cambodia counsellor who provides individualised advice and support regarding family planning. The duration of the intervention is 3 months. The control group receive existing standard of care without the additional mobile phone-based support. We hypothesise that the intervention will remind clients about contraceptive methods available, identify problems with side effects early and provide support, and therefore increase use of post-abortion family planning, while reducing discontinuation and unsafe method switching. Participants are assessed at baseline and at 4 months. The primary outcome measure is use of an effective modern contraceptive method at 4 months post abortion. Secondary outcome measures include contraception use, pregnancy and repeat abortion over the 4-month post-abortion period. Risk ratios will be used as

  3. Applying a Family-Level Economic Strengthening Intervention to Improve Education and Health-Related Outcomes of School-Going AIDS-Orphaned Children: Lessons from a Randomized Experiment in Southern Uganda.

    Ssewamala, Fred M; Karimli, Leyla; Torsten, Neilands; Wang, Julia Shu-Huah; Han, Chang-Keun; Ilic, Vilma; Nabunya, Proscovia


    Children comprise the largest proportion of the population in sub-Saharan Africa. Of these, millions are orphaned. Orphanhood increases the likelihood of growing up in poverty, dropping out of school, and becoming infected with HIV. Therefore, programs aimed at securing a healthy developmental trajectory for these orphaned children are desperately needed. We conducted a two-arm cluster-randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a family-level economic strengthening intervention with regard to school attendance, school grades, and self-esteem in AIDS-orphaned adolescents aged 12-16 years from 10 public rural primary schools in southern Uganda. Children were randomly assigned to receive usual care (counseling, school uniforms, school lunch, notebooks, and textbooks), "bolstered" with mentorship from a near-peer (control condition, n = 167), or to receive bolstered usual care plus a family-level economic strengthening intervention in the form of a matched Child Savings Account (Suubi-Maka treatment arm, n = 179). The two groups did not differ at baseline, but 24 months later, children in the Suubi-Maka treatment arm reported significantly better educational outcomes, lower levels of hopelessness, and higher levels of self-concept compared to participants in the control condition. Our study contributes to the ongoing debate on how to address the developmental impacts of the increasing numbers of orphaned and vulnerable children and adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa, especially those affected by HIV/AIDS. Our findings indicate that innovative family-level economic strengthening programs, over and above bolstered usual care that includes psychosocial interventions for young people, may have positive developmental impacts related to education, health, and psychosocial functioning.

  4. Mothers and meals. The effects of mothers' meal planning and shopping motivations on children's participation in family meals.

    McIntosh, William Alex; Kubena, Karen S; Tolle, Glen; Dean, Wesley R; Jan, Jie-sheng; Anding, Jenna


    Participation in family meals has been associated with benefits for health and social development of children. The objective of the study was to identify the impact of mothers' work of caring through planning regularly scheduled meals, shopping and cooking, on children's participation in family meals. Parents of children aged 9-11 or 13-15 years from 300 Houston families were surveyed about parents' work, meal planning for and scheduling of meals, motivations for food purchases, importance of family meals, and children's frequency of eating dinner with their families. The children were interviewed about the importance of eating family meals. Hypotheses were tested using path analysis to calculate indirect and total effects of variables on the outcome variable of frequency of children eating dinner with their family. Mothers' belief in the importance of family meals increased likelihood of children eating dinner with families by increasing likelihood that mothers planned dinner and that dinners were regularly scheduled. Mothers' perception of time pressures on meal preparation had a negative, indirect effect on the frequency of children's participation in family dinners by reducing mothers' meal planning. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Yielding impressive results. The Egyptian experience in family planning communication campaign has been an exemplary model for many developing countries.

    Wafai, M


    In Egypt the current use of family planning methods nearly doubled from 1980 to 1992. The toughest obstacles to the promotion of family planning are the deeply rooted pronatalism, the high rate of illiteracy, and low use of print media. The early efforts of the 1960s through the 1970s helped raise people's awareness of the problem, but traditional attitudes to family planning persisted. The Information, Education and Communication (IEC) Center established in 1979 in the State Information Service (SIS) of the Ministry of Information spearheaded the IEC efforts for family planning throughout the country. The Egyptian Contraceptives Prevalence Survey conducted in 1984 showed that the current use of family planning methods had increased 6.1% from the 1980 level, and that 56% of married women wished to stop having children, but were afraid of side effects of contraceptive use. The SIS/IEC Center launched a creative mass media campaign using TV spots and dramas. It also pioneered community-based public communication activities on population and family planning by organizing population communication forums. The local communication work is implemented by each of the 60 regional offices of SIS. Other government agencies, such as Health Insurance Organization, also launched IEC campaigns promoting their own services. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) such as the Family of the Future and the Clinical Service Improvement Project also engaged in social marketing of contraceptives. The use of family planning methods mounted between 1980 and 1992 from 24% to nearly 48%, and the method of choice shifted from the pill to the IUD. The country's crude birth rate declined steadily from 40 per 1000 population in 1985 down to 29/1000 in 1992. The six major factors for success included an innovative communication program, religious support, political commitment, an improved service delivery system, involvement of NGOs, and the economic influence. The Egyptian experience in family

  6. Family Planning and Preconception Health Among Men in Their Mid-30s: Developing Indicators and Describing Need.

    Casey, Frances E; Sonenstein, Freya L; Astone, Nan M; Pleck, Joseph H; Dariotis, Jacinda K; Marcell, Arik V


    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Healthy People 2020 call for improvements in meeting men's reproductive health needs but little is known about the proportion of men in need. This study describes men aged 35 to 39 in need of family planning and preconception care, demographic correlates of these needs, and contraception use among men in need of family planning. Using data from Wave 4 (2008-2010) of the National Survey of Adolescent Males, men were classified in need of family planning and preconception care if they reported sex with a female in the last year and believed that they and their partner were fecund; the former included men who were neither intentionally pregnant nor intending future children and the latter included men intending future children. Men were classified as being in need of both if they reported multiple sex partners in the past year. About 40% of men aged 35 to 39 were in need of family planning and about 33% in need of preconception care with 12% in need of both. Current partner's age, current union type, and sexually transmitted infection health risk differentiated men in need of family planning and preconception care (all ps planning reported none of the time current partner hormonal use (55%) or condom use (52%) during the past year. This study identified that many men in their mid-30s are in need of family planning or preconception care.

  7. Changes in contraceptive use following integration of family planning into ART Services in Cross River State, Nigeria.

    McCarraher, Donna R; Vance, Gwyneth; Gwarzo, Usman; Taylor, Douglas; Chabikuli, Otto Nzapfurundi


    One strategy for meeting the contraceptive needs of HIV-positive women is to integrate family planning into HIV services. In 2008 in Cross River State, Nigeria,family planning was integrated into antiretroviral (ART) services in five local government areas. A basic family planning/HIV integration model was implemented in three of these areas, and an enhanced model in the other two. We conducted baseline interviews in 2008 and follow-up interviews 12-14 months later with 274 female ART clients aged 18-45 in 2009 across the five areas. Unmet need for contraception was high at baseline (28-35 percent). We found that modern contraceptive use rose in the enhanced and basic groups; most of the increase was in consistent condom use. Despite an increase in family planning counseling by ART providers, referrals to family planning services for noncondom methods were low. We conclude by presenting alternative strategies for family planning/HIV integration in settings where large families and low contraceptive use are normative.

  8. Contraception and family planning among HIV-seroconcordant and -serodiscordant couples in the US and Zambia

    Deborah L Jones


    Full Text Available Deborah L Jones1, Olga Villar-Loubet1, Chipepo Kankasa2, Ndashi Chitalu2, Miriam Mumbi2, Stephen M Weiss11Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA; 2Department of Paediatrics, University of Zambia School of Medicine, Lusaka, ZambiaAbstract: With the advent of antiretroviral therapy, remarkable progress has been made in the reduction of morbidity and mortality associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. As a result, in both the developed and developing world, reproductive decision-making and family planning has re-emerged as an important health issue among HIV-seroconcordant and -serodiscordant couples. This study sought to explore contraceptive attitudes and practices among HIV-seropositive and -serodiscordant couples in the US and Zambia and to compare contraceptive decision-making between seroconcordant and discordant couples. Study results suggest that while most participants expressed a willingness to use protection to prevent pregnancy, the majority were not using protection consistently. Similarly, among seropositive younger men in both the US and Zambia, more men expressed a desire to have children than women of either serostatus group. Study outcomes also suggest that male and female condom use to reduce HIV transmission within couples is limited. Thus, as males are largely the sexual decision makers regarding condom use, women’s attitudes or plans regarding child bearing may be eclipsed by those of their male partners, and recent reductions in provision of female condoms in the developing world may further reduce women’s options to protect themselves and prevent pregnancy. Education and counseling on vertical and horizontal transmission of HIV among both seropositive and serodiscordant couples should be an element of family planning efforts. Conversely, family planning should be a critical element of HIV counseling and testing strategies to

  9. Influence of mothers-in-law on young couples' family planning decisions in rural India.

    Char, Arundhati; Saavala, Minna; Kulmala, Teija


    It has been widely documented in patrilocal and strongly patrilineal settings in India that the presence and influence of mothers-in-law in the household may affect fertility decisions made by young couples. However, not much is known about how intra-family relationships per se influence choice of contraceptive method and timing of use. To understand patterns of family planning decision-making, we carried out short, open-ended interviews in rural Madhya Pradesh in 2005 with 60 mothers-in-law, 60 sons and 60 daughters-in-law from the same families. Mothers-in-law were found to have an important influence on family decisions pertaining to activities within the household. They were also likely to influence the number of sons their daughters-in-law had and the timing of their daughters-in-law being sterilised, but they did not seem to have the same authority or influence with regard to decisions on the use of reversible contraceptive methods, which were mainly being made by young couples themselves. The findings show the flexibility and transformability of intra-family interactions, even within a hierarchically-ordered kinship system that is often considered an obstacle to improving reproductive health and gender equity. Given the right information, and availability of and access to reversible methods, young couples in rural Madhya Pradesh are increasingly making contraceptive choices for themselves. Copyright 2010 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cultural influences upon advance care planning in a family-centric society.

    Tay, Keson; Yu Lee, Rachel Jia; Sim, Shin Wei; Menon, Sumytra; Kanesvaran, Ravindran; Radha Krishna, Lalit Kumar


    Advanced care plans (ACPs) are designed to convey the wishes of patients with regards to their care in the event of incapacity. There are a number of prerequisites for creation of an effective ACP. First, the patient must be aware of their condition, their prognosis, the likely trajectory of the illness, and the potential treatment options available to them. Second, patient input into ACP must be free of any coercive factors. Third, the patient must be able to remain involved in adapting their ACP as their condition evolves. Continued use of familial determination and collusion within the local healthcare system, however, has raised concerns that the basic requirements for effective ACP cannot be met. To assess the credibility of these concerns, we employed a video vignette approach depicting a family of three adult children discussing whether or not to reveal a cancer diagnosis to their mother. Semistructured interviews with 72 oncology patients and 60 of their caregivers were conducted afterwards to explore the views of the participants on the different positions taken by the children. Collusion, family-centric decision making, adulteration of information provided to patients, and circumnavigation of patient involvement appear to be context-dependent. Patients and families alike believe that patients should be told of their conditions. However, the incidence of collusion and familial determination increases with determinations of a poor prognosis, a poor anticipated response to chemotherapy, and a poor premorbid health status. Financial considerations with respect to care determinations remain secondary considerations. Our data suggest that ACPs can be effectively constructed in family-centric societies so long as healthcare professionals continue to update and educate families on the patient's situation. Collusion and familial intervention in the decision-making process are part of efforts to protect the patient from distress and are neither solely dependent on

  11. Social class and family size as determinants of attributed machismo, femininity, and family planning: a field study in two South American communities.

    Nicassio, P M


    A study was conducted to determine the way in which stereotypes of machismo and femininity are associated with family size and perceptions of family planning. A total of 144 adults, male and female, from a lower class and an upper middle class urban area in Colombia were asked to respond to photographs of Colombian families varying in size and state of completeness. The study illustrated the critical role of sex-role identity and sex-role organization as variables having an effect on fertility. The lower-class respondents described parents in the photographs as significantly more macho or feminine because of their children than the upper-middle-class subjects did. Future research should attempt to measure when this drive to sex-role identity is strongest, i.e., when men and women are most driven to reproduce in order to "prove" themselves. Both lower- and upper-middle-class male groups considered male dominance in marriage to be directly linked with family size. Perceptions of the use of family planning decreased linearly with family size for both social groups, although the lower-class females attributed more family planning to spouses of large families than upper-middle-class females. It is suggested that further research deal with the ways in which constructs of machismo and male dominance vary between the sexes and among socioeconomic groups and the ways in which they impact on fertility.

  12. End-of-life planning in a family context: does relationship quality affect whether (and with whom) older adults plan?

    Carr, Deborah; Moorman, Sara M; Boerner, Kathrin


    Medical professionals typically approach advance care planning (ACP) as an individual-level activity, yet family members also may play an integral role in making decisions about older adults' end-of-life care. We evaluate the effects of marital satisfaction and parent-child relationship quality on older adults' use of advance directives (i.e., living will and durable power of attorney for health care [DPAHC] appointments) and end-of-life discussions. Using multinomial logistic regression models and data from a sample of 1,883 older adults in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we estimated the effects of marital satisfaction, emotional support and criticism from children, other social support, demographic characteristics, and health on general ACP (i.e., advance directive only, discussions only, both, or neither) and specific DPAHC appointments. Parents with problematic parent-child relationships were less likely to complete ACP, and marital satisfaction was positively associated with completion of both advance directives and discussions. Happily married persons were more likely to appoint their spouse as DPAHC, whereas persons who received ample emotional support from children were mostly likely to appoint an adult child. Family dynamics affect ACP in complex ways and should be considered in patient-provider discussions of end-of-life care.

  13. Readiness to participate in advance care planning: A qualitative study of renal failure patients, families and healthcare providers.

    Hutchison, Lauren A; Raffin-Bouchal, Donna S; Syme, Charlotte A; Biondo, Patricia D; Simon, Jessica E


    Objectives Advance care planning is the process by which people reflect upon their wishes and values for healthcare, discuss their choices with family and friends and document their wishes. Readiness represents a key predictor of advance care planning participation; however, the evidence for addressing readiness is scarce within the renal failure context. Our objectives were to assess readiness for advance care planning and barriers and facilitators to advance care planning uptake in a renal context. Methods Twenty-five participants (nine patients, nine clinicians and seven family members) were recruited from the Southern Alberta Renal Program. Semi-structured interviews were recorded, transcribed and then analyzed using interpretive description. Results Readiness for advance care planning was driven by individual values perceived by a collaborative encounter between clinicians and patients/families. If advance care planning is not valued, then patients/families and clinicians are not ready to initiate the process. Patients and clinicians are delaying conversations until "illness burden necessitates," so there is little "advance" care planning, only care planning in-the-moment closer to the end of life. Discussion The value of advance care planning in collaboration with clinicians, patients and their surrogates needs reframing as an ongoing process early in the patient's illness trajectory, distinguished from end-of-life decision making.

  14. Family-planning services in a low-performing rural area of Bangladesh: insights from field observations.

    Hanifi, S M; Bhuiya, A


    This paper mainly reports the results of an observational study carried out during 1994-1995 in five rural unions of Bangladesh to identify the barriers to adoption of family-planning methods. At the time of the survey, one-fifth of 1,889 mothers with a living child, aged less than five years, were practising modern family-planning methods. Of the methods used, oral pill was the most common (50%), followed by injectables (20%), female sterilization (13%), IUD (11%), and condom (4%). Various factors that were responsible for the low performance of the family-planning programme included: inadequacy of motivational work by the field workers, poor counselling on the management of contraceptive-related side-effects, inadequate response to the needs of clients, irregular field visits, and poor supervision and monitoring. The efficiency of the programme needs to be improved to meet the demand for family-planning methods in Chakaria, Bangladesh.

  15. Student perceptions of reproductive health education in US medical schools: a qualitative analysis of students taking family planning electives

    Veazey, Kathryn; Nieuwoudt, Claudia; Gavito, Christina; Tocce, Kristina


    .... Despite the importance of family planning (FP) care, many medical schools do not currently offer formal education in this area, and students are unable to meet associated competency standards prior to graduation...

  16. Meeting demand for family planning within a generation: prospects and implications at country level

    Yoonjoung Choi


    Full Text Available Background: In order to track progress towards the target of universal access to sexual and reproductive health care services of the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs, a measure (demand for family planning satisfied with modern contraceptive methods and a benchmark (at least 75% by 2030 in all countries have been recommended. Objectives: The goal of this study was to assess the prospects of reaching the benchmark at the country level. Such information can facilitate strategic planning, including resource allocation at global and country levels. Design: We selected 63 countries based on their status as least developed according to the United Nations or as a priority country in global family planning initiatives. Using United Nations estimates and projections of family planning indicators between 1970 and 2030, we calculated percent demand for family planning satisfied with modern contraceptive methods for each year and country. We then calculated the annual percentage point changes between 2014 and 2030 required to meet the benchmark. The required rates of change were compared to current projections as well as estimates between 1970 and 2010. Results: To reach the benchmark on average across the 63 countries, demand satisfied with modern methods must increase by 2.2 percentage points per year between 2014 and 2030 – more than double current projections. Between 1970 and 2010, such rapid progress was observed in 24 study countries but typically spanning 5–10 years. At currently projected rates, only 9 of the 63 study countries will reach the benchmark. Meanwhile, the gap between projected and required changes is largest in the Central and West African regions, 0.9 and 3.0 percentage points per year, respectively. If the benchmark is achieved, 334 million women across the study countries will use a modern contraceptive method in 2030, compared to 226 million women in 2014. Conclusions: In order to achieve the component of the SDGs

  17. Reproductive health/family planning and the health of infants, girls and women.

    Sadik, N


    The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development developed international consensus amongst health providers, policy makers, and group representing the whole of civil society regarding the concept of reproductive health and its definition. In line with this definition, reproductive health care is defined as the constellation of methods, techniques and services that contribute to reproductive health and well-being by preventing and solving reproductive health problems. Reproductive health care saves lives and prevents significant levels of morbidity through family planning programmes, antenatal, delivery and post-natal services, prevention and management programmes for reproductive tract infections (including sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS), prevention of abortion and management of its complications, cancers of the reproductive system, and harmful practices that impact on reproductive function. Reproductive health care needs are evident at all stages of the life cycle and account for a greater proportion of disability adjusted life years (DALYS) in girls and women than in boys and men. Reproductive health protects infant health by enabling birth spacing and birth limitation to be practiced through family planning. The prevention and early detection of reproductive tract infections, including sexually transmitted diseases and HIV, through the integration of preventive measures in family planning service delivery not only improves the quality of care provided but is also directly responsible for improvement in survival and health of infants. Addressing harmful practices such as son preference, sex selection, sexual violence and female genital mutilation complements the positive impact of planned and spaced children through family planning services on infant mortality and the reproductive health of young girls and women. They are also in addition to prenatal, delivery and postnatal services, positive determinants of low maternal mortality and

  18. Adolescent fertility and family planning in East Asia and the Pacific: a review of DHS reports

    Gray Natalie


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent pregnancy has significant health and socio-economic consequences for women, their families and communities. Efforts to prevent too-early pregnancy rely on accurate information about adolescents' knowledge, behaviours and access to family planning, however available data are limited in some settings. Demographic and Health Survey (DHS reports are recognised as providing nationally representative data that are accessible to policymakers and programmers. This paper reviews DHS reports for low and lower middle income countries in East Asia and the Pacific to determine what information regarding adolescent fertility and family planning is available, and summarises key findings. Methods The most recent DHS reports were sought for the 33 low and lower middle income countries in the East Asia and Pacific region as defined by UNICEF and World Bank. Age-disaggregated data for all indicators relevant to fertility and current use, knowledge and access to family planning information and services were sought to identify accessible information. Reported data were analysed using an Excel database to determine outcomes for adolescents and compare with adult women. Results DHS reports were available for eleven countries: Cambodia, Indonesia, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Timor-Leste, Tuvalu and Vietnam. Twenty seven of 40 relevant DHS indicators reported outcomes for adolescent women aged 15-19 years. There were limited data for unmarried adolescents. A significant proportion of women commence sexual activity and childbearing during adolescence in the context of low contraceptive prevalence and high unmet need for contraception. Adolescent women have lower use of contraception, poorer knowledge of family planning and less access to information and services than adult women. Conclusion DHS reports provide useful and accessible data, however, they are limited by the failure to report

  19. Innovations from the Integrated Family Planning and Parasite Control Project: PDA experience.

    Phawaphutanond, P


    Since 1976, the Integrated Family Planning and Parasite Control (IP) has been conducted by the Population and Community Development Association (PDA) through the financial support of the Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning (JOICFP). Family planning was integrated with other activities starting with parasite control and then environmental sanitation. In 1976, PDAs activities were focused on a community-based delivery (CBD) system for contraception in rural Thailand. In the IPs first years, the PDA conducted mass treatment campaigns using both the local plant "maklua" and modern medicines. Various motivational activities were included, such as letting children see the parasites under a microscope. Many villagers showed up for treatment. Later, however, they were reinfected and failed to get further treatment. Since 1981, the major emphasis of the IP rural program has been to push building of latrines and improved water resources. PDA has started a major project for safe storage of rainwater. Some 11,300 liter bamboo-reinforced concrete rainwater storage tanks are being built in northeast Thailand. Giant water jars for rainwater catchment with a 2000-liter capacity are produced. The financing of PDAs environmental sanitation construction activities is unique. Villagers pay back the cost of the raw materials of the tank, latrine, or jar they received. Repayments go into a revolving fund which can be lent to other families. Peer pressure has made repayment levels approach or exceed 100% in target districts. Villagers are trained to produce the casings, bricks, and other things needed for building. Individuals from building crews are selected and given special training in construction techniques and are taught the potential health benefits of each activity. These people become village sanitation engineers. Villagers can engage in income-generating activities and receive technical assistance from the PDA. The IP has taken on a community

  20. Psychosocial correlates of patient–provider family planning discussions among HIV-infected pregnant women in South Africa

    Rodriguez VJ


    Full Text Available Violeta J Rodriguez,1 Ryan R Cook,1 Stephen M Weiss,1 Karl Peltzer,2–4 Deborah L Jones1 1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA; 2HIV/AIDS/STIs and TB (HAST Research Programme, Human Sciences Research Council, Pretoria, South Africa; 3ASEAN Institute for Health Development, Mahidol University, Salaya, Thailand; 4Department of Psychology, University of Limpopo, Turfloop, South Africa Abstract: Patient–provider family planning discussions and preconception counseling can reduce maternal and neonatal risks by increasing adherence to provider recommendations and antiretroviral medication. However, HIV-infected women may not discuss reproductive intentions with providers due to anticipation of negative reactions and stigma. This study aimed to identify correlates of patient–provider family planning discussions among HIV-infected women in rural South Africa, an area with high rates of antenatal HIV and suboptimal rates of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT of HIV. Participants were N=673 pregnant HIV-infected women who completed measures of family planning discussions and knowledge, depression, stigma, intimate partner violence, and male involvement. Participants were, on average, 28 ± 6 years old, and half of them had completed at least 10–11 years of education. Most women were unemployed and had a monthly income of less than ~US$76. Fewer than half of the women reported having family planning discussions with providers. Correlates of patient–provider family planning discussions included younger age, discussions about PMTCT of HIV, male involvement, and decreased stigma (p < 0.05. Depression was indirectly associated with patient–provider family planning discussions through male involvement (b = −0.010, bias-corrected 95% confidence interval [bCI] [−0.019, −0.005]. That is, depression decreased male involvement, and in turn, male involvement

  1. Family planning and contraceptive decision-making by economically disadvantaged, African-American women.

    Hodgson, Eric J; Collier, Charlene; Hayes, Laura; Curry, Leslie A; Fraenkel, Liana


    Significant racial disparities exist in the US unplanned pregnancy rate. We conducted a qualitative study using the theory of planned behavior as a framework to describe how low-income, African-American women approach family planning. Structured focus groups were held with adult, low-income, nonpregnant, African-American women in Connecticut. Data were collected using a standardized discussion guide, audio-taped and transcribed. Four independent researchers coded the transcripts using the constant comparative method. Codes were organized into overarching themes. Contraceptive knowledge was limited, with formal contraceptive education often occurring after sexual debut. Attitudes about contraception were overtly negative, with method effectiveness being judged by the presence of side effects. Family and friends strongly influence contraceptive decisions, while male partners are primarily seen as a barrier. Contraceptive pills are perceived as readily accessible, although compliance is considered a barrier. Contraception education should occur before sexual debut, should involve trusted family and community members and should positively frame issues in terms of achieving life goals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.




    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the knowledge and attitude regarding family planning and the practice of contraceptives among Antenatal women attending OPD and to determine the prevalence of unintended pregnancy among them. METHOD: A cross sectional descriptive study was done in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Andhra Medical College Visakhapatnam which is a tertiary center for three districts Visakhapatnam , Vijayanagaram , and Srika kulam. 499 antenatal women attending the OPD were included in the study. Their knowledge , attitude and practice on contraceptives were evaluated with the help of a predesigned questionnaire. RESULTS: Overall awareness of permanent methods of family plannin g 96.3% and that of temporary methods is only 62.9% (314. 69.9% of women became aware of contraceptive method , by obtaining information from relatives and friends and 23.2% from media (television. 42.1% are of the opinion that these contraceptive methods are available in the medical shops and only 13% know that they are available in the government hospitals. 99.8% are aware of female sterilization , and 92.8% are aware of vasectomy. But awareness of temporary methods is very poor. CONCLUSION: The study hig hlights that knowledge and awareness doesn’t always lead to the use of contraceptives. There is still a need to educate and motivate the couples and improve family planning services to achieve more effective and appropriate use of contraceptives and to arr est the trend towards increase in population

  3. Does early childbearing and a sterilization-focused family planning programme in India fuel population growth?

    Zoë Matthews


    Full Text Available Recent stagnation in the reduction of infant mortality in India can arguably be attributed to early child bearing practices and the lack of progress in lengthening birth intervals. Meanwhile, family planning efforts have been particularly successful in the southern states such as Andhra Pradesh, although family limitation is almost exclusively by means of sterilisation at increasingly younger ages. This paper examines the population impact of the unprecedented convergence of early childbearing trajectories in India and quantifies the potential implications stemming from the neglect of strategies that encourage delaying and spacing of births. The effects of adopting a 'later, longer and fewer' family planning strategy are compared with the continuation of fertility concentrated in the younger age groups. Results from the cohort component population projections suggest that a policy encouraging later marriage and birth spacing would achieve a future total population which is about 52 million less in 2050 than if the current early fertility trajectory is continued.

  4. Increasing the uptake of long-acting and permanent methods of family planning: A qualitative study with village midwives in East Java and Nusa Tenggara Barat Provinces, Indonesia.

    Titaley, Christiana R; Wijayanti, Ratna U; Damayanti, Rita; Setiawan, Agus Dwi; Dadun; Dachlia, Dini; Siagian, Ferdinand; Suparno, Heru; Saputri, Dwi Astuti Yunita; Harlan, Sarah; Wahyuningrum, Yunita; Storey, Douglas


    midwives to improve LAPM use, including strengthening the counseling services, accompanying clients to higher health facilities to obtain LAPM services, and providing services for groups of clients. All village midwives emphasized the importance of strengthening collaboration among stakeholders to increase the uptake of LAPM services. as midwives are the main family planning providers in Indonesia, efforts to address their challenges is essential. Enabling a supportive policy environment, strengthening promotional activities, increasing the number of training programs designed for village midwives-in addition to enhancing inter-sectoral collaboration-are some recommendations to improve LAPM uptake in study areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Accepted Manuscript] Building the nation's body: The contested role of abortion and family planning in post-war South Sudan.

    Palmer, J.J.; Storeng, K.T.


    This paper offers an ethnographic analysis of public health policies and interventions targeting unwanted pregnancy (family planning and abortion) in contemporary South Sudan as part of wider 'nation-building' after war, understood as a process of collective identity formation which projects a meaningful future by redefining existing institutions and customs as national characteristics. The paper shows how the expansion of post-conflict family planning and abortion policy and services are par...

  6. Availability and Quality of Family Planning Services in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: High Potential for Improvement.

    Mpunga, Dieudonné; Lumbayi, J P; Dikamba, Nelly; Mwembo, Albert; Ali Mapatano, Mala; Wembodinga, Gilbert


    To determine the availability and quality of family planning services within health facilities throughout the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Data were collected for the cross-sectional study from April 2014 to June 2014 by the Ministry of Public Health. A total of 1,568 health facilities that reported data to the National Health Information System were selected by multistage random sampling in the 11 provinces of the DRC existing at that time. Data were collected through interviews, document review, and direct observation. Two dependent variables were measured: availability of family planning services (consisting of a room for services, staff assigned to family planning, and evidence of client use of family planning) and quality of family planning services (assessed as "high" if the facility had at least 1 trained staff member, family planning service delivery guidelines, at least 3 types of methods, and a sphygmomanometer, or "low" if the facility did not meet any of these 4 criteria). Pearson's chi-square test and odds ratios (ORs) were used to test for significant associations, using the alpha significance level of .05. We successfully surveyed 1,555 facilities (99.2%) of those included in the sample. One in every 3 facilities (33%) offered family planning services as assessed by the index of availability, of which 20% met all 4 criteria for providing high-quality services. Availability was greatest at the highest level of the health system (hospitals) and decreased incrementally with each health system level, with disparities between provinces and urban and rural areas. Facilities in urban areas were more likely than in rural areas to meet the standard for high-quality services (Pplanning services in health facilities in the DRC remain low, with inequitable distribution of services throughout the country. To improve access to and use of family planning, efforts should focus on improving availability and quality at lower health system levels and in

  7. "Fewer children, better life" or "as many as God wants"? Family planning among low-income Iranian and Afghan refugee families in Isfahan, Iran.

    Tober, Diane M; Taghdisi, Mohammad-Hossein; Jalali, Mohammad


    In the West it is often assumed that religion (esp. Islam) and contraception are mutually exclusive. Yet, the Islamic Republic of Iran has one of the most successful family-planning programs in the developing world, and is often looked to as a potential model for other Muslim countries. Although Iran's family-planning program has been extremely successful among Iranians, it has been far less successful among Afghan refugees and other ethnic groups. Afghans and Iranians both seek services in Iran's public health sector for family health care, treatment of infectious disease, and childhood vaccinations. On these occasions, all adult married patients are strongly encouraged to use family planning to reduce the number of offspring. In this article, we explore how Iran's family-planning program is differentially perceived and utilized among low-income Iranian and Afghan refugee families in rural and urban locations. Particular attention is given to how different interpretations of Islam may or may not influence reproductive health-related behaviors and how cultural factors influence reproductive strategies.

  8. Reproductive health services for refugees by refugees in Guinea I: family planning

    Newey Claire


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comprehensive studies of family planning (FP in refugee camps are relatively uncommon. This paper examines gender and age differences in family planning knowledge, attitudes, and practices among Sierra Leonean and Liberian refugees living in Guinea. Methods In 1999, a cross-sectional survey was conducted of 889 reproductive-age men and women refugees from 48 camps served by the refugee-organised Reproductive Health Group (RHG. Sampling was multi-stage with data collected for socio-demographics, family planning, sexual health, and antenatal care. Statistics were calculated for selected indicators. Results Women knew more about FP, although men's education reduced this difference. RHG facilitators were the primary source of reproductive health information for all respondents. However, more men then women obtained information from non-health sources, such as friends and media. Approval of FP was high, significantly higher in women than in men (90% vs. 70%. However, more than 40% reported not having discussed FP with their partner. Perceived service quality was an important determinant in choosing where to get contraceptives. Contraceptive use in the camps served by RHG was much higher than typical for either refugees' country of origin or the host country (17% vs. 3.9 and 4.1% respectively, but the risk of unwanted pregnancy remained considerable (69%. Conclusion This refugee self-help model appeared largely effective and could be considered for reproductive health needs in similar settings. Having any formal education appeared a major determinant of FP knowledge for men, while this was less noticeable for women. Thus, FP communication strategies for refugees should consider gender-specific messages and channels.

  9. Family planning knowledge and practice among people living with HIV in Nepal.

    Shiva Raj Mishra

    Full Text Available Unsafe sexual behavior is common among the HIV infected. This exposes them to the risks of unintended pregnancy, HIV transmission to uninfected partners and super-infection. Studies on the use of family planning measures among People Living with HIV (PLHIV are scarce in Nepal. The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge and practice of family planning (FP in PLHIV. A cross sectional survey was conducted during July-December 2012 in Kaski district of Nepal. A total of 120 PLHIVs were recruited using snowball sampling from three HIV clinics within the Pokhara sub-metropolitan city area. This study found that nine in ten PLHIV had heard about family planning. Two thirds of respondents were using at least one FP method. The majority (65.8% used condoms and had received FP counseling (67.5%. Less than one percent used condoms in addition to another contraceptive. Being single, being female and having received the counselling sessions were associated with the use of FP. The individuals who received FP counseling were more likely [OR 4.522; 95% CI (1.410-14.504] to use FP. Females were more likely [OR 4.808; 95% CI (1.396-16.556] to use FP than males. The individuals who were single/de-facto widowed were more likely [OR 7.330; 95% CI (2.064-26.028] to use FP than the married individuals. Our findings suggest that there is a need to focus on FP counseling if the HIV prevention program is to increase FP use among the PLHIV population. Use of dual contraceptives need to be promoted through counseling sessions and other health promotion programs focusing in HIV prevention.

  10. Reproductive health and family planning needs among HIV-infected women in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Sarnquist, Clea C; Rahangdale, Lisa; Maldonado, Yvonne


    Review key topics and recent literature regarding reproductive health and family planning needs for HIV-infected women in Sub-Saharan Africa. Electronic searches performed in PubMed, JSTOR, and Web of Science; identified articles reviewed for inclusion. Most HIV-infected women in Sub-Saharan Africa bear children, and access to antiretroviral therapy may increase childbearing desires and/or fertility, resulting in greater need for contraception. Most contraceptive options can be safely and effectively used by HIV-infected women. Unmet need for contraception is high in this population, with 66- 92% of women reporting not wanting another child (now or ever), but only 20-43% using contraception. During pregnancy and delivery, HIV-infected women need access to prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services, a skilled birth attendant, and quality post-partum care to prevent HIV infection in the infant and maximize maternal health. Providers may lack resources as well as appropriate training and support to provide such services to women with HIV. Innovations in biomedical and behavioral interventions may improve reproductive healthcare for HIV-infected women, but in Sub-Saharan Africa, models of integrating HIV and PMTCT services with family planning and reproductive health services will be important to improve reproductive outcomes. HIV-infected women in Sub-Saharan Africa have myriad needs related to reproductive health, including access to high-quality family planning information and options, high-quality pregnancy care, and trained providers. Integrated services that help prevent unintended pregnancy and optimize maternal and infant health before, during and after pregnancy will both maximize limited resources as well as provide improved reproductive outcomes.

  11. Integration of routine rapid HIV screening in an urban family planning clinic.

    Criniti, Shannon M; Aaron, Erika; Hilley, Amy; Wolf, Sandra


    Family planning centers can play an important role in HIV screening, education, and risk-reduction counseling for women who are sexually active. This article describes how 1 urban Title X-funded family planning clinic transitioned from using a designated HIV counselor for targeted testing to a model that uses clinic staff to provide integrated, routine, nontargeted, rapid HIV testing as standard of care. Representative clinic staff members developed an integrated testing model that would work within the existing clinic flow. Education sessions were provided to all staff, signs promoting routine HIV testing were posted, and patient and clinician information materials were developed. A review of HIV testing documentation in medical charts was performed after the new model of routine, nontargeted, rapid HIV testing was integrated, to determine any changes in patient testing rates. A survey was given to all staff members 6 months after the transition to full integration of HIV testing to evaluate the systems change process. Two years after the transition, the rate of patients with an HIV test in the medical chart within the last 12 months increased 25.5%. The testing acceptance rate increased 17%. Sixteen HIV seropositive individuals were identified and linked into medical care. All surveyed clinic staff agreed that offering routine HIV screening to all patients is very important, and 78% rated the integration efforts as successful. Integrating routine HIV screening into a family planning clinic can be critical to identifying new HIV infections in women. This initiative demonstrated that routine, nontargeted, rapid HIV screening can be offered successfully as a standard of care in a high-volume, urban, reproductive health care setting. This description and evaluation of the process of changing the model of HIV testing in a clinic setting is useful for clinicians who are interested in expanding routine HIV testing in their clinics. © 2011 by the American College of

  12. Attitudes of Family Planning Workers toward Setting Up Special Counseling Stations for Unmarried Young Adults

    涂晓雯; 刘英惠; 楼超华; 高尔生


    Objective To understand attitudes of family planning workers to setting up special counseling stations for unmarried young adults and to identify the acceptable and feasible ways to provide the services for unmarried young adults in eight provinces/cities in ChinaMethods From May 1998to December 1998, 1 927family planning workers including 965 contraceptive providers and 962 contraceptive distributors were recruited for questionnaire survey in eight provinces/cities in China.Results Except the subjects from Hebei Province, over 70% of all the subjects from other provinces/cities thought it was necessary to have a special counseling station set up for unmarried young adults, while 10~ 20% of them opposed to it. Result of Multivariable Logistic regression analysis showed that where the subjects came from, were contraceptive distributors, have higher education level, younger than 50, expressed tolerance for premarital sex, perceived that unmarried young adults had no or inadequate knowledge about sexuality and considered it was difficult for unmarried young adults to obtain contraceptive methods, were more likely to support the establishment of special counseling stations for unmarried youth. The acceptable and feasible ways to provide contraceptive services varied from one province/city to another. Generally,family planning counseling stations and hospital were the most acceptable place to provide counseling services for unmarried young adults in eight provinces/cities. Specially trained persons were recommended as the suitable persons for providing the services for unmarried young adults. Conclusion It is acceptable and feasible to set up special counseling stations for unmarried young adults.

  13. Factors Affecting Utilization of Family Planning Services in a Post-Conflict Setting, South Sudan: A Qualitative Study

    Waled Amen Mohammed Ahmed


    Full Text Available This study aims to explore and examine the conjectures surrounding the utilization of family planning services among currently married couples of childbearing age in Renk County.This study has adopted a qualitative method to collect data on factors affecting the utilization of family planning services through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews, in rural and urban areas of Renk County. It targeted married women, men as well as unmarried men and women. The researchers conducted nine focus group discussions and nine interviews at both Jelhak (rural setting and Renk (urban setting. The results suggested that the people of Renk County prefer to have large families and therefore choose not to use family planning methods. The data collected was analyzed by means of thematic analysis. This included the construction of a thematic framework, coding, editing and categorization of available data as well as the creation of sub-themes.The result also suggested that perception is a main factor that affects utilization of family planning services with a majority of the people in Renk and Jelhak preferring to have many children in order to increase the family size for some reasons. These are linked to religion, social stigma and taboo that are attached to childless people or users of family planning methods for birth control purposes.The responses revealed some variation in perception between rural (Jelhak and urban (Renk areas. Respondents from Renk area reported that some people use family planning services for economic reasons that involve alleviation of financial difficulties and provision of better education when the family size is small. On the other hand, rural people from Jelhak perceive family planning to be socially un-acceptable. Furthermore, men and women of Jelhak reported that after each birth of a child, married couples avoid sexual relationship for a period of two years as means of family planning. Women of both Urban and Rural

  14. Adolescents in planned lesbian families in the U.S. and the Netherlands: Stigmatization, psychological adjustment, and resilience

    van Gelderen, L.


    From the studies in this dissertation, it can be concluded that adolescents in planned lesbian families do not differ in terms of their perceived quality of life and exhibit less problem behavior than adolescents in matched heterosexual families. Some adolescents experienced negative reactions from

  15. Beyond denomination: The relationship between religion and family planning in rural Malawi

    Jenny Trinitapoli


    Full Text Available Despite the centrality of religion and fertility to life in rural Africa, the relationship between the two remains poorly understood. The study presented here uses unique integrated individual- and congregational-level data from rural Malawi to examine religious influences on contraceptive use. In this religiously diverse population, we find evidence that the particular characteristics of a congregation-leader's positive attitudes toward family planning and discussion of sexual morality, which do not fall along broad denominational lines-are more relevant than denominational categories for predicting women's contraceptive use. We further find evidence for a relationship between religious socialization and contraceptive behavior.

  16. Beyond Denomination: The Relationship between Religion and Family Planning in Rural Malawi.

    Yeatman, Sara E; Trinitapoli, Jenny


    Despite the centrality of religion and fertility to life in rural Africa, the relationship between the two remains poorly understood. The study presented here uses unique integrated individual and congregational level data from rural Malawi to examine religious influences on contraceptive use. In this religiously diverse population, we find evidence that the particular characteristics of a congregation-leader's positive attitudes toward family planning and discussion of sexual morality, which do not fall along broad denominational lines-are more relevant than denominational categories for predicting women's contraceptive use. We further find evidence for a relationship between religious socialization and contraceptive behavior.

  17. Delivering high-quality family planning services in crisis-affected settings II: results.

    Curry, Dora Ward; Rattan, Jesse; Huang, Shuyuan; Noznesky, Elizabeth


    An estimated 43 million women of reproductive age experienced the effects of conflict in 2012. Already vulnerable from the insecurity of the emergency, women must also face the continuing risk of unwanted pregnancy but often are unable to obtain family planning services. The ongoing Supporting Access to Family Planning and Post-Abortion Care (SAFPAC) initiative, led by CARE, has provided contraceptives, including long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs), to refugees, internally displaced persons, and conflict-affected resident populations in Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Djibouti, Mali, and Pakistan. The project works through the Ministry of Health in 4 key areas: (1) competency-based training, (2) supply chain management, (3) systematic supervision, and (4) community mobilization to raise awareness and shift norms related to family planning. This article presents data on program results from July 2011 to December 2013 from the 5 countries. Project staff summarized monthly data from client registers using hard-copy forms and recorded the data electronically in Microsoft Excel for compilation and analysis. The initiative reached 52,616 new users of modern contraceptive methods across the 5 countries, ranging from 575 in Djibouti to 21,191 in Chad. LARCs have predominated overall, representing 61% of new modern method users. The percentage of new users choosing LARCs varied by country: 78% in the DRC, 72% in Chad, and 51% in Mali, but only 29% in Pakistan. In Djibouti, those methods were not offered in the country through SAFPAC during the period discussed here. In Chad, the DRC, and Mali, implants have been the most popular LARC method, while in Pakistan the IUD has been more popular. Use of IUDs, however, has comprised a larger share of the method mix over time in all 4 of these countries. These results to date suggest that it is feasible to work with the public sector in fragile, crisis-affected states to deliver a wide range of quality

  18. 阿热勒托别镇计生办2015年人口和计划生育工作总结%Aretuobie town family planning 2015 population and family planning work summary



    family planning is one of the basic national policy of China. China has played a positive role in population control and economic development since the birth of family planning. The implementation of family planning can achieve the coordinated development of population and economy, society, resources and environment, and promote family happiness, national prosperity and social progress. We will family planning family planning policy to actively implement, and constantly improve the management system in practice.%计划生育是我国的基本国策之一。我国在开展计划生育以来,对人口控制和经济发展方面起到了积极的作用。推行计划生育可以实现人口与经济、社会、资源、环境的协调发展,促进家庭幸福、民族繁荣与社会进步。我们计生办要将计划生育政策积极落实,加大宣传,增强意识,并在实践中不断完善管理制度。

  19. Systems Change Enhances Access to Family Planning Training and Care Delivery.

    Carvajal, Diana N; Khanna, Niharika; Williams, Mozella; Gold, Marji


    Long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) are very effective methods of pregnancy prevention. To ensure autonomy over childbearing, women need access to contraception and abortion services. Family physicians can improve access by increasing numbers and locations of trained providers. In 2014, the University of Maryland (UMD) Reproductive Health EDucation In family medicine (RHEDI) program sought to enhance LARC and abortion training by increasing: (1) resident participation in LARC services, (2) resident participation/interest in abortion care, (3) patient access to LARCs and medication abortions (MABs). We used a pre-post framework comparing years 2013 and 2014 with respect to number of resident-provided LARC services, number of residents participating in abortion, and total number of LARCs and MABs provided practice-wide. The setting is an urban residency practice. (1) increased dedicated appointments for LARC and MABs, (2) dedicated appointment scheduler, (3) comprehensive family planning didactics and clinical workshops, (4) faculty-supported Residents for Choice group. 2014: Residents provided substantially more LARC services compared to 2013. Placement increased from 50 to 90, and removals tripled (25 to 73). 2014 site-wide LARC placement also increased (160 versus 98), removals increased (44 in 2013, 106 in 2014). Twelve residents per year are eligible to participate in abortion care. In 2013, two participated: in 2014, 10 participated. MABs provided in 2014 (18) did not change from 2013 (17). The UMD RHEDI program demonstrated that attention to care-provision systems and education enhances resident training and increases patient access to family planning services. Programs with similar goals may find our methods helpful.

  20. Promoting family planning use after childbirth and desire to limit childbearing in Ethiopia.

    Sathiya Susuman, A; Bado, Aristide; Lailulo, Yishak Abraham


    In Ethiopia the average fertility rate in rural areas is about 6 children per woman, while it is 2.4 children per woman in urban areas. It is with this concept in mind that the investigators of this study wanted to correlate the promotion of after-child-birth-use of family planning and desire to limit childbearing in Ethiopia. Postpartum amenorrhea signifies the interval between childbirth and the return of menstruation. The specific objective is to examine the desire to limit family size, along with cases of sterilized, fecund, postpartum amenorrhoea, declared in-fecund and menopausal women within the study area. The study is based on the analysis of secondary data obtained from the 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS). This study is concentrated on couples because we need to know more about married people's desire to limit their family size. The bivariate, ANOVA, and multivariate analyses were used to analyse the association. The total number of respondents was 6,745 (78.3% rural and 21.7% urban), with 93.6% of them being currently married and 6.4% of them living with a partner. The mean duration of amenorrhea among women who gave birth in the five years preceding the survey is 16 months. Women with equal numbers of sons and daughters were found to be 75.4% (OR=0.25) less likely to desire more children, compared to women with more sons than daughters. Achievable resolutions include increasing females' ages at marriage, avoiding unwanted teenage pregnancies, completely eradicating home delivery, and inspiring young people to use modern methods of family planning to achieve Millennium Development Goals 4 & 5.

  1. Strengthening the knowledge-policy interface through co-production of a climate adaptation plan: leveraging opportunities in Bergriver Municipality, South Africa

    Ziervogel, G


    Full Text Available Despite the growth of adaptation plans and action by municipalities, there are limited examples of opportunities for effectively mainstreaming climate adaptation into policy and practice in local government. This paper uses the experiment of co...

  2. The knowledge, attitudes and practices of soldiers in a gendarmerie command headquarters about family planning and venereal diseases.

    Oguzoncul, A Ferdane; Deveci, S Erhan; Acik, Yasemin


    The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices of young male soldiers about family planning. This was a cross-sectional study conducted at the Gendarmerie Command Headquarters, Elazig City, eastern Turkey, carried out on 14 April 2004. One hundred ninety-one of 209 soldiers who were present at the Gendarmerie Command Headquarters were included in the study. A questionnaire, developed by the researchers evaluating the goals of the study, was filled out by the subjects prior to the Family Planning Seminar given to the soldiers. Data were assessed using SPSS and the chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Defining family planning correctly, being familiar with planning methods and a knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and their prevention was found to be at low levels among soldiers. A knowledge of family planning, birth control methods, identification and prevention of STD was higher with higher levels of education. The most familiar family planning methods were condom and oral contraceptive use. Soldiers constitute one of the most significant target groups for education programs.

  3. Self-esteem, stress and self-rated health in family planning clinic patients

    Young Rodney


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The independent effects of stress on the health of primary care patients might be different for different types of clinic populations. This study examines these relationships in a low-income female population of patients attending a family planning clinic. Methods This study investigated the relevance of different sources of personal stress and social support to self-rated health, adjusting for mental health, health behavior and demographic characteristics of subjects. Five hundred women who attended family planning clinics were surveyed and 345 completed the form for a response rate of 72 percent. Results Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that liking oneself was related to good self-rated health (Odds ratio = 7.11, but stress or support from children, parents, friends, churches or spouses were not significant. White non-Hispanic and non-white non-Hispanic respondents had lower odds of reporting good self-rated health than Hispanic respondents (odds ratios were 2.87 and 2.81, respectively. Exercising five or more days per week also was related to good self-rated health. Smoking 20 or more cigarettes per day, and obese III were negatively related to good self-rated health (odds ratios were .19 and .22, respectively with corresponding p-values equal to .0043 and .0332. Conclusions Among younger low-income women, addressing low self-esteem might improve health status.

  4. Motivating the masses for family planning in the People's Republic of China.

    Wang, V L


    China's family planning efforts give the appearance of being substantial and effective, though in terms of hard data the precise degree of success achieved is hard to gauge. The author's five-week tour of China, upon which this article is based, showed a country that seemed capable of controlling its rate of population growth, but it was unclear whether the desired level of growth had in fact been attained. What was clear is that several unusual ingredients are primarily responsible for the marked progress made to date. Foremost among them is a public attitude of strict adherence to a moral code which effectively limits sexual relations to married couples and which encourages delay of marriage well beyond the teenage years. Enhancing this, a wide-ranging State publicity campaign promotes birth control through public address systems, brochures given newlyweds, classes and information provided to expectant parents, discussion groups designed to elicit "voluntary" adoption of birth control methods, and other means. To complement this, the Government provides a nationwide network of free or nearly free family planning services organized down to the local level and fully equipped to assist with contraception, sterilization, or termination of pregnancy upon request. Although general statistics have not been made available, it seems obvious that a substantial reduction in China's potential rate of population growth has been achieved.

  5. Assessment of Family Planning Services at Community Pharmacies in San Diego, California

    Sally Rafie


    Full Text Available Levonorgestrel emergency contraception and other contraceptive methods are available over-the-counter (OTC; however youth continue to face a number of barriers in accessing healthcare services, including lack of knowledge of the method, fear of loss of privacy, difficulties in finding a provider, and cost. A descriptive, nonexperimental, cross-sectional study of a sample of 112 community pharmacies in San Diego, California was conducted between December 2009 and January 2010 to assess community pharmacy practices related to the availability and accessibility of family planning health pharmacy services and products, particularly to youth. A majority (n = 79/112, 70.5% of the pharmacies carried a wide selection of male condoms; however, the other OTC nonhormonal contraceptive products were either not available or available with limited selection. A majority of the pharmacies sold emergency contraception (n = 88/111, 78.6%. Most patient counseling areas consisted of either a public or a semi-private area. A majority of the pharmacy sites did not provide materials or services targeting youth. Significant gaps exist in providing family planning products and services in the majority of community pharmacies in San Diego, California. Education and outreach efforts are needed to promote provision of products and services, particularly to the adolescent population.

  6. Self-esteem, stress and self-rated health in family planning clinic patients.

    Rohrer, James E; Young, Rodney


    The independent effects of stress on the health of primary care patients might be different for different types of clinic populations. This study examines these relationships in a low-income female population of patients attending a family planning clinic. This study investigated the relevance of different sources of personal stress and social support to self-rated health, adjusting for mental health, health behavior and demographic characteristics of subjects. Five hundred women who attended family planning clinics were surveyed and 345 completed the form for a response rate of 72 percent. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that liking oneself was related to good self-rated health (Odds ratio = 7.11), but stress or support from children, parents, friends, churches or spouses were not significant. White non-Hispanic and non-white non-Hispanic respondents had lower odds of reporting good self-rated health than Hispanic respondents (odds ratios were 2.87 and 2.81, respectively). Exercising five or more days per week also was related to good self-rated health. Smoking 20 or more cigarettes per day, and obese III were negatively related to good self-rated health (odds ratios were.19 and.22, respectively with corresponding p-values equal to.0043 and.0332). Among younger low-income women, addressing low self-esteem might improve health status.

  7. Predictors of Contraceptive Adherence among Women Seeking Family Planning Services at Reproductive Health Uganda, Mityana Branch

    Richard Muhindo


    Full Text Available Poor adherence is one of the main causes of unintended pregnancies among women of reproductive age. The purpose of this study was to establish the predictors of contraceptive adherence. A total of 211 women were enrolled and interviewed while seeking family planning services at reproductive health Uganda facility. Binary logistic regression was used to analyze the association between adherence and the independent variables. Most of the respondents (83.4% were currently using a hormonal contraceptive. Of the participants who were using contraceptives, 43% had discontinued use at some time for reasons other than pregnancy, 53.1% reported having short birth interval less than 2 years, and 7% reported having more children than desired. The predictors of poor contraceptive adherence included lower education level (OR 2.484, 95% CI 1.403–4.397 and lower self-efficacy (OR 1.698, 95% CI 1.959–3.004. Lack of male partner support (OR 2.014, 95% CI 1.140–3.557 and low education level (OR 2.103, 95% CI 1.196–3.699 were predictive of reporting short birth interval less than 2 years. The findings point to a number of predictors of contraceptive adherence that may have implications for designing and evaluating family planning programs. In the Ugandan context, studies to evaluate effective adherence improvement strategies are needed.

  8. Financial effect of instituting Deficit Reduction Act documentation requirements in family planning clinics in Oregon.

    Rodriguez, Maria Isabel; Angus, Lisa; Elman, Emily; Darney, Philip D; Caughey, Aaron B


    The study was conducted to estimate the long-term costs for implementing citizenship documentation requirements in a Medicaid expansion program for family planning services in Oregon. A decision-analytic model was developed using two perspectives: the state and society. Our primary outcome was future reproductive health care costs due to pregnancy in the next 5 years. A Markov structure was utilized to capture multiple future pregnancies. Model inputs were retrieved from the existing literature and local hospital and Medicaid data related to reimbursements. One-way and multi-way sensitivity analyses were conducted. A Monte Carlo simulation was performed to simultaneously incorporate uncertainty from all of the model inputs. Screening for citizenship results in a loss of $3119 over 5 years ($39,382 vs. $42,501) for the state and $4209 for society ($63,391 compared to $59,182) for adult women. Among adolescents, requiring proof of identity and citizenship results in a loss of $3123 for the state ($39,378 versus $42,501) and $4214 for society ($63,391 instead of $59,177). Screening for citizenship status in publicly funded family planning clinics leads to financial losses for the state and society. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Gender norms and family planning decision-making in Tanzania: a qualitative study

    Sidney R. Schuler


    Full Text Available Experience suggests that the incorporation of gender approaches into family planning (FP and reproductive health (RH programs may increase their impact and sustainability, but further work is needed to examine the interactions between gender norms and family planning and to incorporate this understanding into behavior change communication (BCC in specific social contexts. We conducted open-ended, in-depth interviews with 30 young currently married men, 30 young married women and 12 older people who influenced FP decisions. Six focus group interviews were also conducted. The interviews focused on the role of gender norms in reproductive decision-making and contraceptive use among young married men and women in Tanzania. The findings suggest that gender factors, such as men’s dominance in decision-making do function as barriers to the use of modern contraceptives, but that fear of side effects, by both men and women, may be even more important deterrents. Results from this research will inform the development of BCC interventions to be tested in a subsequent intervention study in which gender factors and poor information about contraceptive methods will be addressed.

  10. Treatment planning for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: treatment utilization and family preferences

    William B Brinkman


    Full Text Available William B Brinkman, Jeffery N EpsteinDepartment of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USABackground: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a common condition that often results in child and family functional impairments. Although there are evidence-based treatment modalities available, implementation of and persistence with treatment plans vary with patients. Family preferences also vary and may contribute to variability in treatment utilization.Objective: The objective of this study is to describe the evidence-based treatments available for ADHD, identify patterns of use for each modality, and examine patient and parent treatment preferences.Method: Literature review.Results: Treatment options differ on benefits and risks/costs. Therefore, treatment decisions are preference sensitive and depend on how an informed patient/parent values the tradeoffs between options. Literature on patient and parent ADHD treatment preferences is based on quantitative research assessing the construct of treatment acceptability and qualitative and quantitative research that assesses preferences from a broader perspective. After a child is diagnosed with ADHD, a variety of factors influence the initial selection of treatment modalities that are utilized. Initial parent and child preferences are shaped by their beliefs about the nature of the child's problems and by information (and misinformation received from a variety of sources, including social networks, the media, and health care providers. Subsequently, preferences become further informed by personal experience with various treatment modalities. Over time, treatment plans are revisited and revised as families work with their health care team to establish a treatment plan that helps their child achieve goals while minimizing harms and costs.Conclusions: Studies have not been able to determine the extent to which

  11. The Mindfulness-Enhanced Strengthening Families Program: Integrating Brief Mindfulness Activities and Parent Training within an Evidence-Based Prevention Program

    Coatsworth, J. Douglas; Duncan, Larissa G.; Berrena, Elaine; Bamberger, Katharine T.; Loeschinger, Daniel; Greenberg, Mark T.; Nix, Robert L.


    Teaching mindfulness to parents as well as adolescents through a family-centered intervention approach can have a positive impact on the parent-youth relationship. In mindful parenting, caretakers are aware of their own feelings and emotions, and interact with their adolescents in a mindful way by demonstrating emotional awareness, attentive…

  12. The Mindfulness-Enhanced Strengthening Families Program: Integrating Brief Mindfulness Activities and Parent Training within an Evidence-Based Prevention Program

    Coatsworth, J. Douglas; Duncan, Larissa G.; Berrena, Elaine; Bamberger, Katharine T.; Loeschinger, Daniel; Greenberg, Mark T.; Nix, Robert L.


    Teaching mindfulness to parents as well as adolescents through a family-centered intervention approach can have a positive impact on the parent-youth relationship. In mindful parenting, caretakers are aware of their own feelings and emotions, and interact with their adolescents in a mindful way by demonstrating emotional awareness, attentive…

  13. An examination of the problem of unwanted population growth in Africa and the existing facilities for training family planning personnel.

    Kumekpor, M L; Kumekpor, T


    Population planning is as important as economic planning and should be applied both at the national and personal levels. Population control and socioeconomic development are intrinsic to each other. Proverty, illiteracy, political instability, and social retardation are found in the countries with high birth rates. Most African nations tend to think of the population in terms of density rather than growth potential. Family planning programs should be accorded the same priority as maternal-child health, but African countries are often not equipped financially or professionally to support family planning workers under the same conditions as other medical personnel could be accomplished locally rather than overseas, thus saving about $204,000 in the East African Region and $213,000 in the West African Region. The success of the trainees' program will depend on the degree to whichf amily planning programs are integrated with other medical services; insight into traditiona l sexual patterns, and tact and skill of personnel.

  14. HIV is always with me: men living with perinatally acquired HIV and planning their families

    Echenique MI


    Full Text Available Marisa I Echenique,1 Rachel S Bookman,1 Violeta J Rodriguez,1 Richard P LaCabe,1 JoNell Efantis Potter,2 Deborah L Jones1 1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA Abstract: Once expected to not survive childhood, youth with perinatally acquired HIV (YPHIV have now reached young adulthood and are of reproductive age and sexually active. Given the health impact of pregnancy among YPHIV, understanding reproductive decision making may inform preconception counseling strategies. Most literature regarding reproductive health among YPHIV focuses on women, overlooking one of the most important factors influencing the reproductive decision-making process, male sexual partners. This study examined attitudes, perceptions, and experiences of young men with perinatally acquired HIV (YMPHIV regarding family planning and relationships, safer sex, disclosure, stigma, and psychological health. Participants (n=21 were YMPHIV aged 18–24 years recruited in Miami, Florida. Focus groups (n=4 were conducted; qualitative data were analyzed using grounded theory. HIV disclosure, stigma, fertility intentions, safer preconception knowledge, attitudes and practices, family planning communication with medical providers and family, and mental health emerged as themes. Results suggest that despite accurate knowledge regarding healthy preconception practices, psychopathology, substance use, and stigma impact the uptake of HIV health care interventions. Effective interventions on preconception counseling may require more tailored approaches than knowledge-based psychoeducation alone, such as inclusion of psychological treatment, which could be offered in HIV health care settings to optimize health outcomes. Keywords: preconception counseling, fertility decision making, young adults, HIV risk reduction, HIV knowledge

  15. Psychosocial risk factors for obesity among women in a family planning clinic

    Rohland Barbara M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidemiology of obesity in primary care populations has not been thoroughly explored. This study contributes to filling this gap by investigating the relationship between obesity and different sources of personal stress, mental health, exercise, and demographic characteristics. Methods A cross-sectional survey using a convenience sample. Five hundred women who attended family planning clinics were surveyed and 274 provided completed answers to all of the questions analyzed in this study. Exercise, self-rated mental health, stress, social support, and demographic variables were included in the survey. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed. Results After adjusting for mental health, exercise, and demographic characteristics of subjects, analysis of the data indicated that that being having a large family and receiving no support from parents were related to obesity in this relatively young low-income primary care sample, but self-reported stress and most types of social support were not significant. Conclusion Obesity control programs in primary care centers directed at low-income women should target women who have large families and who are not receiving support from their parents.

  16. Family Planning Practice Among Rural Reproductive-Age Married Women in Myanmar.

    Jirapongsuwan, Ann; Latt, Kyaw Thu; Siri, Sukhontha; Munsawaengsub, Chokchai


    A cross-sectional study was undertaken to investigate family planning (FP) practices and associated factors among reproductive-age married women. Data were collected by interviewing the 300 married women living in a rural area of Myanmar. The questionnaire had reliability coefficients ranging from .8 to .9. Results indicated that 73.3% of women performed FP, and contraceptive injection was the most common method. Significant associations were found with age 21 to 35 years (adjusted odds ratio [adj OR] = 3.748, 95% CI = 2.179-6.445), adequacy of income (adj OR = 2.520, 95% CI = 1.477-4.290), good attitude toward FP (adj OR = 0.386, 95% CI = 0.228-0.656), good support from health care providers (adj OR = 0.129, 95% CI = 0.054-0.313), good support from family (adj OR = 0.304, 95% CI = 0.163-0.565), good support from friends (adj OR = 0.344, 95% CI = 0.193-0.613), and FP practice. It is recommended that designing FP programs with peers and family involvement could increase the practice of FP among rural Myanmar women. © 2016 APJPH.

  17. Family planning among people living with HIV in post-conflict Northern Uganda: A mixed methods study


    Background Northern Uganda experienced severe civil conflict for over 20 years and is also a region of high HIV prevalence. This study examined knowledge of, access to, and factors associated with use of family planning services among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in this region. Methods Between February and May 2009, a total of 476 HIV clinic attendees from three health facilities in Gulu, Northern Uganda, were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with another 26 participants. Factors associated with use of family planning methods were examined using logistic regression methods, while qualitative data was analyzed within a social-ecological framework using thematic analysis. Results There was a high level of knowledge about family planning methods among the PLHIV surveyed (96%). However, there were a significantly higher proportion of males (52%) than females (25%) who reported using contraception. Factors significantly associated with the use of contraception were having ever gone to school [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 4.32, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.33-14.07; p = .015], discussion of family planning with a health worker (AOR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.01-4.27; p = .046), or with one's spouse (AOR = 5.13, 95% CI: 2.35-11.16; p = .000), not attending the Catholic-run clinic (AOR = 3.67, 95% CI: 1.79-7.54; p = .000), and spouses' non-desire for children (AOR = 2.19, 95% CI: 1.10-4.36; p = .025). Qualitative data revealed six major factors influencing contraception use among PLHIV in Gulu including personal and structural barriers to contraceptive use, perceptions of family planning, decision making, covert use of family planning methods and targeting of women for family planning services. Conclusions Multilevel, context-specific health interventions including an integration of family planning services into HIV clinics could help overcome some of the individual and structural barriers to accessing family planning

  18. Family planning among people living with HIV in post-conflict Northern Uganda: A mixed methods study

    Thompson Sandra C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Northern Uganda experienced severe civil conflict for over 20 years and is also a region of high HIV prevalence. This study examined knowledge of, access to, and factors associated with use of family planning services among people living with HIV (PLHIV in this region. Methods Between February and May 2009, a total of 476 HIV clinic attendees from three health facilities in Gulu, Northern Uganda, were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with another 26 participants. Factors associated with use of family planning methods were examined using logistic regression methods, while qualitative data was analyzed within a social-ecological framework using thematic analysis. Results There was a high level of knowledge about family planning methods among the PLHIV surveyed (96%. However, there were a significantly higher proportion of males (52% than females (25% who reported using contraception. Factors significantly associated with the use of contraception were having ever gone to school [adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 4.32, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.33-14.07; p = .015], discussion of family planning with a health worker (AOR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.01-4.27; p = .046, or with one's spouse (AOR = 5.13, 95% CI: 2.35-11.16; p = .000, not attending the Catholic-run clinic (AOR = 3.67, 95% CI: 1.79-7.54; p = .000, and spouses' non-desire for children (AOR = 2.19, 95% CI: 1.10-4.36; p = .025. Qualitative data revealed six major factors influencing contraception use among PLHIV in Gulu including personal and structural barriers to contraceptive use, perceptions of family planning, decision making, covert use of family planning methods and targeting of women for family planning services. Conclusions Multilevel, context-specific health interventions including an integration of family planning services into HIV clinics could help overcome some of the individual and structural barriers to accessing

  19. Women’s Opinion about Women’s Rights regarding Family Planning in Hegarmanah Village, Jatinangor Subdistrict, West Java in 2013

    Suzanne Saw


    Full Text Available Background: Universal Declaration of Human Rights stated that all mankind have equal right and dignity. Both woman and man have rights regarding family planning. It is often assumed that in developing country, women do not consider their rights in family planning decision making process. This study was carried out to determine the opinion of women regarding women’s rights in family planning. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out to 99 respondents during the period of August to October 2013, in Hegarmanah village, Jatinangor subdistrict. The inclusion criteria were women aged 15–49 years old, able to speak Bahasa Indonesia, and agreed to participate. Variables for this study were the opinions of the respondents regarding woman’s rights in family planning which were represented in 12 questions. Collected data were presented as percentages shown in tables. Results: Most of the respondents stated that they had the rights in family planning decision making, including choosing contraceptive methods, number of children, and spacing of each child. However, all of the respondents agreed that men should be involved in it. More than half of the respondents stated that they asked opinion from family member regarding family planning especially their mothers. Cultural norms did not influence the family planning decision making. However, religion influenced the family planning decision making. Conclusions: Majority of the women in Hegarmanah village have the role to make decision on family planning by considering the opinions of their spouses, other family members, friends and their religions.

  20. Challenges for the implementation of the Family Planning Program in a low-income community in aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil

    Bárbara de Alcântara Brito Maia


    Full Text Available A study on the reproductive characteristics and the meaning of family planning for childbearing age women and for the health team providing care to them was conducted in a low-income community in Aracaju - SE. In the descriptive stage of the study structured questionnaires were applied to 90 users of a Primary Care Unit random-selected from the family files containing personal data and information about the reproductive life of the women. This stage was followed by a qualitative approach in focal groups with six users and the health team applying semi-structured questionnaires for assessing the practice of family planning. The study showed that knowledge and offer of contraceptive methods are no guarantee of proper family planning. More than 97% of the participants related knowing about the condom, the pill and the contraceptive injection. 73,6% of the sexually active women practiced contraception but 76% of those who already had had a pregnancy referred to one or more unintended gestations. The focal groups revealed the need for other approaches to family planning such as preconception care, access to the partners and education in health to be developed by the team in order to help the users to better plan their offspring.




    Full Text Available Introduction: Population growth and its difficulties is one of the most important health problems in the world especially in developing countries. so the studies in this field are necessary and useful in IRAN. This study was done to find out the workers population specificities and their opinion about family planning programs. Methods: This descriptive study was held in the factories with more than 1000 workers in 1375. nearly 10 percent of the workers were chosen from 7 factories through the systematic random sampling The sample was about 1096 workers. They answered to multiple choise questionnaire during 3 months and the data were analysed by the descriptive statistical methods and also x2 and pierson correlation tests. Results: Most of workers (80 percent were under 40 years old and 0.5 percent were single and others were married. The illiterates were 6 percent and about 82 percent were studied 8 grades and less. The mean of the number of their children was 3.7 and 33 percent had 5 children or more. The family planning methods were used by them as follows: Tubal ligation and Vasectomy 32 percent, Natural methods 22.3 percent, OCP 19.8 percent, Candom 11.1 percent, IUD 10 percent and Lactation as a method 0.53 percent. About 4.2 percent had used more than one birth control method. Disussion: Result showed that there was a reverse correlation between the age of marriage and number of existing children (P < 0.001 and also between the literacy status and the opinion about the number of children (P < 0.001 there was relation between the age of the workers and the opinion about the number of children (P < 0.01. the reverse correlation between the literacy status and the number of existing children was stables even after the control of the age rariable as a confonder. Study of birth control methods shows that the use of family planning method is different between the groups with different literacy levels.

  2. Demand for modern family planning among married women living with HIV in western Ethiopia.

    Tesfaye Regassa Feyissa

    Full Text Available People living with HIV (PLHIV have diverse family planning (FP needs. Little is reported on FP needs among women living with HIV in Ethiopia. Thus, the objective of the study was to assess the demand for modern FP among married women living with HIV in western Ethiopia.A facility-based cross-sectional survey was conducted on 401 married women living with HIV selected from Nekemte Referral Hospital and Health Center, Nekemte, Oromia, Ethiopia. Convenience sampling of every other eligible patient was used to recruit respondents. Data were collected using a pretested, structured questionnaire. We first calculated frequency and percentage of unmet need, met need and total demand by each explanatory variable, and performed chi-squared testing to assess for differences in groups. We then fitted logistic regression models to identify correlates of unmet need for modern FP at 95% CL.The proportion of respondents with met need for modern FP among married women living with HIV was 61.6% (30.7% for spacing and 30.9% for limiting. Demand for family planning was reported in 77.0% (38.2% for spacing and 38.8% for limiting, making unmet need for modern FP prevalent in 15.4% (7.5% for spacing and 7.9% for limiting. Whereas age 25-34 years [adjusted odds ratio (AOR (95% confidence interval (CI = .397 (.204-.771] was protective against unmet need for modern FP, not having knowledge of MTCT [AOR (95% CI = 2.531 (1.689-9.290] and not discussing FP with a partner [AOR (95% CI = 3.616(1.869-6.996] were associated with increased odds of unmet need for modern FP.There is high unmet need for modern FP in HIV-positive married women in western Ethiopia. Health care providers and program managers at a local and international level should work to satisfy the unmet need for modern family planning.

  3. Quality-of-life assessment of family planning adopters through user perspectives in the district of Karimnagar

    Kameswararao Avasarala


    Full Text Available Background: Small families adopting family planning are usually considered happy families. They are expected to lead a better qualitative life. Quality-of-life (QOL is routinely assessed for knowing patients′ health status. Recently, the QOL concept has become increasingly popular for evaluating the impact of public health interventions. Hitherto, QOL is usually assessed by means of program achievements or indicators, which may sometimes be misleading. Hence, the new culture of QOL assessment by means of user perspectives is now becoming popular. Research Questions: 1 Is the quality-of-life of family planning (FP adopters better than that of non-FP adopters? 2 Are the user perspectives helpful in QOL assessment? Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out among 50 FP adopting families and 50 non-FP adopting families from the village of Vutoor and the city of Karimnagar in Andhra Pradesh. Sampling Methods: Random sampling, Proportions and Chi square test. Results: Program perspectives revealed a better standard of living for FP adopters because they have amenities like housing, television, and vehicles and less mortality and morbidity ( P < 0.001. However, they lack positive feelings towards life, general adaptation, personal relationships, and leisure opportunities. Finally, self-assessment by FP adopters themselves revealed no significant increase in their qualitative life after family planning ( P = 0.05. Conclusions: While assessing the impact of a health program on quality-of-life, multiple methods of assessments including user perspectives are better than program indicators alone.

  4. Stakeholder relationships in the festival and event planning process

    Michelsen la Cour, Annette


    in their strategic use of the planning process were able to strengthen their specific interests in order to create a positive social impact. Whereas the DGI redesigned their festival call in order to rebrand the festival as a young festival, the city of Esbjerg used the festival to rebrand the city as a family......, they came out of the festival with strengthened networks, while others saw the festival as an opportunity to train their collaborative skills of managing an event. The outcome of the collaboration during the planning process was a successful rebranding of the festival and the city strengthening both...

  5. Effects of rural-urban return migration on women's family planning and reproductive health attitudes and behavior in rural China.

    Chen, Jiajian; Liu, Hongyan; Xie, Zhenming


    This study examines the effects of rural-urban return migration on women's family planning and reproductive health attitudes and behavior in the sending areas of rural China. Based on data from a survey of rural women aged 16-40 in Sichuan and Anhui Provinces in 2000, our study finds that migrant women returning from cities to the countryside, especially those who have been living in a large city, are more likely than nonmigrant women to adopt positive family planning and reproductive health attitudes and behavior in their rural communities of origin. We find, moreover, that living in a rural community where the prevalence of such return migrant women is higher is positively associated with new fertility and gender attitudes and with knowledge of self-controllable contraceptives. The findings of significant rural-urban return-migration effects have important policy implications for shaping family planning and reproductive health attitudes and behaviors in rural China.

  6. China Population and Development——National Population and Family Planning Commission of China September 2004


    An International Forum on Population and Development was held during, September 7-9 in Wuhan, capital city of central China's Hubei Province, to mark the lOth anniversary of both the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) and the Partners in Population and Development (PPD). Jointly organized by PPD, the National Population and Family Planning, Commission of China and the Population, Resources and Environment Committee and Foreign Affairs Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, the forum was attended by about 400 participants front member countries of the Partners, international organizations, NGOs and donor institutions. Following is a full text of the cottntry report submitted by China to the conference.

  7. Effects of state welfare, abortion and family planning policies on premarital childbearing among white adolescents.

    Lundberg, S; Plotnick, R D


    This study develops an empirical model that measures the influence of state welfare, abortion and family planning policies on decisions concerning premarital pregnancy, abortion and single parenthood. Data are based on the fertility and marital experiences of white females from the three youngest cohorts of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, for 1979-1986. The results show that laws restricting contraceptive availability are associated with a higher risk of pregnancy. Restrictive policies on public funding of abortions reduce the likelihood of abortion, while greater availability of abortion services is associated with a higher likelihood that adolescents will obtain abortions. Finally, the estimates indicate that higher welfare benefits reduce the probability that pregnant adolescents will marry before bearing their children.

  8. Family Planning for Strangers: An Experiment on the Validity of Reported Contraceptive Use.

    Guy Stecklov

    Full Text Available Sterilization levels reported in the Dominican Republic appear well above what we would normally expect given prevailing patterns in the region. We suspect that the use of strangers as interviewers--the normative approach in data collection in both developed and developing country settings--may be partly responsible for this result, and may underlie a long history of bias in family planning data. We present findings from a field experiment conducted in a Dominican town in 2010, where interviewer assignment was randomized by level of preexisting level of familiarity between interviewer and respondent. In our data, sterilization use is higher when the interviewer is an outsider, as opposed to someone known to the respondent or from the same community. In addition, high sterilization use is correlated with a propensity of respondents to present themselves in a positive light to interviewers. These results call into question the routine use of strangers and outsiders as interviewers in demographic and health surveys.

  9. Family planning and women’s educational advancement in Tehran, Iran

    Amir Erfani


    Full Text Available This study examines the impact of contraceptive use on women’s educational advancement as an indicator of female empowerment, using retrospective data from the 2009 Tehran Fertility Survey. The results show that 15 per cent of married women continued their education after marriage. Also, women using modern contraceptives before a first birth were more likely to experience a 1–2-year increase in education level after marriage, controlling for other factors. Recent cohorts were more likely to continue their education after marriage, especially those who used modern vs. traditional contraceptives. The findings clearly indicate that family planning use after marriage enables women to advance their education by freeing them from reproductive activities.

  10. Africa takes a more male-friendly approach to family planning.

    Omuodo, D O


    It has been demonstrated that men are more likely to support family planning (FP) and to use a method themselves if services and educational programs are targeted to them. Because men fear that contraception reduces their control over their wives' sexuality, male-friendly approaches can enhance gender equality in reproductive health decisions. In Togo, the media is being used to encourage positive attitudes towards FP in specific male groups. In Ghana, FP services targeted to men have resulted in increased male involvement. In Swaziland, male audiences are targeted with FP education. In Sierra Leone, men have met in groups to learn about how to prevent sexually transmitted diseases and about the benefits of FP, and in Kenya, three male-only clinics exist to provide FP services to men.

  11. Measuring the usefulness of family planning job aids following distribution at training workshops.

    Tumlinson, Katherine; Hubacher, David; Wesson, Jennifer; Lasway, Christine


    A job aid is a tool, such as a flowchart or checklist, that makes it easier for staff to carry out tasks by providing quick access to needed information. Many public health organizations are engaged in the production of job aids intended to improve adherence to important medical guidelines and protocols, particularly in resource-constrained countries. However, some evidence suggests that actual use of job aids remains low. One strategy for improving utilization is the introduction of job aids in training workshops. This paper summarizes the results of two separate evaluations conducted in Uganda and the Dominican Republic (DR) which measured the usefulness of a series of four family planning checklists 7-24 months after distribution in training workshops. While more than half of the health care providers used the checklists at least once, utilization rates were sub-optimal. However, the vast majority of those providers who utilized the checklists found them to be very useful in their work.

  12. Retesting for repeat chlamydial infection: family planning provider knowledge, attitudes, and practices.

    Park, Ina U; Amey, Annette; Creegan, Linda; Barandas, Aileen; Bauer, Heidi M


    Repeated genital infections with Chlamydia trachomatis are common and associated with serious adverse reproductive sequelae in women such as infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain. Retesting for repeat chlamydial infection is recommended 3 months after treatment for an initial infection; however, retesting rates in various settings are low. In order to design interventions to increase retesting rates, understanding provider barriers and practices around retesting is crucial. Therefore, in this survey of family planning providers we sought to describe: (1) knowledge about retesting for chlamydia; (2) attitudes and barriers toward retesting; (3) practices currently utilized to ensure retesting, and predictors associated with their use. We conducted a cross-sectional, self-administered, Internet-based survey of a convenience sample of family planning providers in California inquiring about strategies utilized to ensure retesting in their practice setting. High-intensity strategies included chart flagging, tickler (reminder) systems, follow-up appointments, and phone/mail reminders. Of 268 respondents, 82% of providers reported at least 1 barrier to retesting, and only 44% utilized high-intensity interventions to ensure that patients returned. Predictors associated with use of high-intensity interventions included existence of clinic-level retesting policies (OR 3.95, 95% CI 1.98-7.88), and perception of a high/moderate level of clinic priority toward retesting (OR 3.75, 95% CI 2.12-.6.63). Emphasizing the importance of retesting to providers through adoption of clinic policies will likely be an important component of a multimodal strategy to ensure that patients are retested and that provider/clinic staff take advantage of opportunities to retest patients. Innovative approaches such as home-based retesting with self-collected vaginal swabs and use of cost-effective technologies to generate patient reminders should also be considered.

  13. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in women attending a family planning clinic in Papua New Guinea.

    Theunissen, J J; Kariwiga, G; Ossewaarde, J M; van Rijsoort-Vos, J H; Stolz, E; van der Meijden, W I


    To determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women attending a family planning clinic in Papua New Guinea, in the period between April and June 1991. The outpatient department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Port Moresby General Hospital, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea, the departments of Dermato-Venereology and Clinical Microbiology of the Erasmus University, Rotterdam, The Netherlands and the National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven, The Netherlands. A total of 254 consecutive women who attended the family planning clinic at Port Moresby General Hospital, Papua New Guinea were enrolled into this study. Cervical infections with C trachomatis were diagnosed using the direct immunofluorescent assay (DFA) and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Serum IgM and IgG antibodies directed against C trachomatis were detected using the enzyme-linked fluorescent assay (ELFA). The prevalence of C trachomatis was 14.6% using the PCR, 9.1% using the DFA and 17.3% when the results of the PCR and the DFA were combined. An elevated IgM titre was observed in 14.2% of the women, whereas 44.1% had an elevated IgG titre. The titres of IgM or IgG were significantly higher in women who were positive using the PCR or the DFA than in those who were negative in both the PCR and the DFA (p = 0.032 and p = 0.0046, respectively). Cervical infection by C trachomatis can be considered a major health problem in at least the studied population in Papua New Guinea. The prevalence of C trachomatis infection is at least comparable with that in groups with a high prevalence in industrialized countries. Effective screening and treatment programmes are imperative to combat this problem.

  14. Urban-rural differences in attitudes and practices toward long-acting reversible contraceptives among family planning providers in Texas.

    Vaaler, Margaret L; Kalanges, Lauri K; Fonseca, Vincent P; Castrucci, Brian C


    Despite the elevated rates of teen and unplanned pregnancies across the United States, long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) remain a less utilized birth control method. The present study investigated family planning providers' attitudes and considerations when recommending family planning methods and LARCs to clients. Additionally, this study explored whether urban-rural differences exist in providers' attitudes toward LARCs and in clients' use of LARCs. Data were collected using an online survey of family planning providers at Title X clinics in Texas. Survey data was linked to family planning client data from the Family Planning Annual Report (2008). Findings indicated that, although providers were aware of the advantages of LARCs, clients' LARC use remains infrequent. Providers reported that the benefits of hormone implants include their effectiveness for 3 years and that they are an option for women who cannot take estrogen-based birth control. Providers acknowledged the benefits of several types of LARCs; however, urban providers were more likely to acknowledge the benefits of hormone implants compared with their rural counterparts. Results also indicated barriers to recommending LARCs, such as providers' misinformation about LARCs and their caution in recommending LARCs to adolescents. However, findings also indicated providers lack training in LARC insertion, specifically among those practicing in rural areas. In light of the effectiveness and longevity of LARCs, teenagers and clients living in rural areas are ideal LARC candidates. Increased training among family planning providers, especially for those practicing in rural areas, may increase their recommendations of LARCs to clients. Copyright © 2012 Jacobs Institute of Women

  15. Effectiveness of the Strengthening Families Programme 10–14 in Poland for the prevention of alcohol and drug misuse: protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Okulicz-Kozaryn Katarzyna


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol and other drug use and misuse is a significant problem amongst Polish youth. The SFP10-14 is a family-based prevention intervention that has positive results in US trials, but questions remain about the generalizability of these results to other countries and settings. Methods/Design A cluster randomized controlled trial in community settings across Poland. Communities will be randomized to a SFP10-14 trial arm or to a control arm. Recruitment and consent of families, and delivery of the SFP10-14, will be undertaken by community workers. The primary outcomes are alcohol and other drug use and misuse. Secondary (or intermediate outcomes include parenting practices, parent–child relations, and child problem behaviour. Interview-based questionnaires will be administered at baseline, 12 and 24 months. Discussion The trial will provide information about the effectiveness of the SFP10-14 in Poland. Trial registration International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number: ISRCTN89673828

  16. Contribution of Global Polio Eradication Initiative-Funded Personnel to the Strengthening of Routine Immunization Programs in the 10 Focus Countries of the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan.

    van den Ent, Maya M V X; Swift, Rachel D; Anaokar, Sameer; Hegg, Lea Anne; Eggers, Rudolf; Cochi, Stephen L


    The Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan (PEESP) established a target that at least 50% of the time of personnel receiving funding from the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) for polio eradication activities (hereafter, "GPEI-funded personnel") should be dedicated to the strengthening of immunization systems. This article describes the self-reported profile of how GPEI-funded personnel allocate their time toward immunization goals and activities beyond those associated with polio, the training they have received to conduct tasks to strengthen routine immunization systems, and the type of tasks they have conducted. A survey of approximately 1000 field managers of frontline GPEI-funded personnel was conducted by Boston Consulting Group in the 10 focus countries of the PEESP during 2 phases, in 2013 and 2014, to determine time allocation among frontline staff. Country-specific reports on the training of GPEI-funded personnel were reviewed, and an analysis of the types of tasks that were reported was conducted. A total of 467 managers responded to the survey. Forty-seven percent of the time (range, 23%-61%) of GPEI-funded personnel was dedicated to tasks related to strengthening immunization programs, other than polio eradication. Less time was spent on polio-associated activities in countries that had already interrupted wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission, compared with findings for WPV-endemic countries. All countries conducted periodic trainings of the GPEI-funded personnel. The types of non-polio-related tasks performed by GPEI-funded personnel varied among countries and included surveillance, microplanning, newborn registration and defaulter tracing, monitoring of routine immunization activities, and support of district immunization task teams, as well as promotion of health behaviors, such as clean-water use and good hygiene and sanitation practices. In all countries, GPEI-funded personnel perform critical tasks in the strengthening of routine

  17. Capacity Development and Strengthening for Energy Policy formulation and implementation of Sustainable Energy Projects in Indonesia CASINDO. Deliverable No. 24. Regional Energy Efficiency Planning 2011 [for Yogyakarta

    Prahara, Pamungkas Jutta; Hariadi, T.K. [Universitas Muhammadiyah PUSPER-UMY, Yogyakarta (Indonesia)


    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. Increasing energy demand and decreasing energy supply has to be faced by strategic measures. Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta (DIY) faces the same problem with more burdens since DIY depends on energy supply from other region. One strategic measure is to reduce energy consumption across sectors. There are, in total, 805.468 electricity consumers in Yogyakarta in the household, social and industrial sector. Through direct measures electricity consumption can be reduced and financial resources can be saved. One of the measures is energy conservation campaign to all sectors in the region which expected to reduce the energy spent, for example to switch off electronic devices totally instead of to put them in standby mode. Survey in the region indicated there are various use of electronic devices in household dominated by refrigeration, television, and AC's. In industries and social, AC and motors are dominating the sector. By applying inverter technology and refrigerant retrofitting to air conditioner can reduce significantly the energy consumption. Changing from old refrigerator with new energy saver refrigerator would also reduce energy consumption. Strategic energy policy and tools has to be identified to push the community to apply the recommended measure. Energy labeling, tax reduction program and energy price increase would make the energy conservation program more feasible and create an environment where inventing in energy efficiency is more attractive. Furthermore a financial resource policy has to be prepared for community education through promotion

  18. Case Study: Does training of private networks of Family Planning clinicians in urban Pakistan affect service utilization?

    Qureshi Asma M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine whether training of providers participating in franchise clinic networks is associated with increased Family Planning service use among low-income urban families in Pakistan. Methods The study uses 2001 survey data consisting of interviews with 1113 clinical and non-clinical providers working in public and private hospitals/clinics. Data analysis excludes non-clinical providers reducing sample size to 822. Variables for the analysis are divided into client volume, and training in family planning. Regression models are used to compute the association between training and service use in franchise versus private non-franchise clinics. Results In franchise clinic networks, staff are 6.5 times more likely to receive family planning training (P = 0.00 relative to private non-franchises. Service use was significantly associated with training (P = 0.00, franchise affiliation (P = 0.01, providers' years of family planning experience (P = 0.02 and the number of trained staff working at government owned clinics (P = 0.00. In this setting, nurses are significantly less likely to receive training compared to doctors (P = 0.00. Conclusions These findings suggest that franchises recruit and train various cadres of health workers and training maybe associated with increased service use through improvement in quality of services.

  19. Case Study: Does training of private networks of Family Planning clinicians in urban Pakistan affect service utilization?

    Qureshi, Asma M


    To determine whether training of providers participating in franchise clinic networks is associated with increased Family Planning service use among low-income urban families in Pakistan. The study uses 2001 survey data consisting of interviews with 1113 clinical and non-clinical providers working in public and private hospitals/clinics. Data analysis excludes non-clinical providers reducing sample size to 822. Variables for the analysis are divided into client volume, and training in family planning. Regression models are used to compute the association between training and service use in franchise versus private non-franchise clinics. In franchise clinic networks, staff are 6.5 times more likely to receive family planning training (P = 0.00) relative to private non-franchises. Service use was significantly associated with training (P = 0.00), franchise affiliation (P = 0.01), providers' years of family planning experience (P = 0.02) and the number of trained staff working at government owned clinics (P = 0.00). In this setting, nurses are significantly less likely to receive training compared to doctors (P = 0.00). These findings suggest that franchises recruit and train various cadres of health workers and training maybe associated with increased service use through improvement in quality of services.

  20. Reproductive desires of men and women living with HIV: implications for family planning counselling.

    van Zyl, Cornelia; Visser, Maretha J


    The reproductive desires of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) of low socioeconomic standing attending public health facilities in South Africa were studied. HIV-positive men, pregnant and non-pregnant women were recruited from two clinics at a large public hospital in Tshwane, South Africa. Individual interviews were used to explore the reproductive desires of HIV-positive participants. HIV counsellors' perceptions of their clients' reproductive desires were explored during focus group discussions. Parenthood proved to be an important factor to all participants in continuation of the family and establishing their gender identities, despite the possible risk of HIV transmission and community stigmatization. Different cultural procreation rules for men and women and stigmatizing attitudes towards PLHIV affected their reproductive decision making. Women had the dilemma of choosing which community expectations they wanted to fulfil. Community stigmatization towards PLHIV was visible in the negative attitudes of some HIV counsellors regarding HIV and procreation. Because the reproductive desires of PLHIV are currently not given high priority in HIV prevention and family planning in the public health sector in South Africa, the prevention of HIV transmission may be jeopardized. These results necessitate the integration of HIV and sexual and reproductive health counselling on a primary health care level.