WorldWideScience

Sample records for strength related skeletal

  1. Improved skeletal muscle mass and strength after heavy strength training in very old individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechshøft, Rasmus Leidesdorff; Malmgaard-Clausen, Nikolaj Mølkjær; Gliese, Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    , muscle fiber type distribution and size did not differ significantly between groups. We conclude that in protein supplemented very old individuals, heavy resistance training can increase muscle mass and strength, and that the relative improvement in mass is more pronounced when initial muscle mass is low.......Age-related loss of muscle mass and function represents personal and socioeconomic challenges. The purpose of this study was to determine the adaptation of skeletal musculature in very old individuals (83 + years) performing 12 weeks of heavy resistance training (3 ×/week) (HRT) compared to a non....... The increase in CSA is correlated inversely with the baseline level of CSA (R2 = 0.43, P muscle isometric strength, isokinetic peak torque and power increased significantly only in HRT by 10–15%, whereas knee extension one-repetition maximum (1 RM) improved by 91%. Physical functional tests...

  2. Deer Antler Extract Improves Fatigue Effect through Altering the Expression of Genes Related to Muscle Strength in Skeletal Muscle of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaw-Chyun Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Deer antler is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine used in Asian countries for the tonic and the improvement of aging symptoms. The present study was designed to investigate the antifatigue effect and mechanism of Formosan sambar deer tip antler extract (FSDTAE. The swimming times to exhaustion of mice administered FSDTAE (8.2 mg/day for 28 days were apparently longer than those of the vehicle-treated mice in forced swim test. However, the indicators of fatigue, such as the reduction in glucose level and the increases in blood urea nitrogen and lactic acid levels, were not significantly inhibited by FSDTAE. Therefore, microarray analysis was further used to examine the anti-fatigue mechanism of FSDTAE. We selected genes with fold changes >2 or <−2 in skeletal muscle for pathway analysis. FSDTAE-affected genes were involved in 9 different signaling pathways, such as GnRH signaling pathway and insulin signaling pathway. All of the significantly expressed genes were classified into 8 different categories by their functions. The most enriched category was muscular system, and 6 upregulated genes, such as troponin I, troponin T1, cysteine and glycine-rich protein 2, myosin heavy polypeptide 7, tropomyosin 2, and myomesin family member 3, were responsible for the development and contraction of muscle. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that FSDTAE increased troponins mRNA expression in skeletal muscle. In conclusion, our findings suggested that FSDTAE might increase the muscle strength through the upregulation of genes responsible for muscle contraction and consequently exhibited the anti-fatigue effect in mice.

  3. Skeletal Geometry and Indices of Bone Strength in Artistic Gymnasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowthwaite, Jodi N.; Scerpella, Tamara A.

    2010-01-01

    This review addresses bone geometry and indices of skeletal strength associated with exposure to gymnastic loading during growth. A brief background characterizes artistic gymnastics as a mechanical loading model and outlines densitometric techniques, skeletal outcomes and challenges in assessment of skeletal adaptation. The literature on bone geometric adaptation to gymnastic loading is sparse and consists of results for disparate skeletal sites, maturity phases, gender compositions and assessment methods, complicating synthesis of an overriding view. Furthermore, most studies assess only females, with little information on males and adults. Nonetheless, gymnastic loading during growth appears to yield significant enlargement of total and cortical bone geometry (+10 to 30%) and elevation of trabecular density (+20%) in the forearm, yielding elevated indices of skeletal strength (+20 to +50%). Other sites exhibit more moderate geometric and densitometric adaptations (5 to 15%). Mode of adaptation appears to be site-specific; some sites demonstrate marked periosteal and endosteal expansion, whereas other sites exhibit negligible or moderate periosteal expansion coupled with endocortical contraction. Further research is necessary to address sex-, maturity- and bone tissue-specific adaptation, as well as maintenance of benefits beyond loading cessation. PMID:19949278

  4. The impact of obesity on skeletal muscle strength and structure through adolescence to old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, D J; Erskine, R M; Morse, C I; Winwood, K; Onambélé-Pearson, Gladys

    2016-06-01

    Obesity is associated with functional limitations in muscle performance and increased likelihood of developing a functional disability such as mobility, strength, postural and dynamic balance limitations. The consensus is that obese individuals, regardless of age, have a greater absolute maximum muscle strength compared to non-obese persons, suggesting that increased adiposity acts as a chronic overload stimulus on the antigravity muscles (e.g., quadriceps and calf), thus increasing muscle size and strength. However, when maximum muscular strength is normalised to body mass, obese individuals appear weaker. This relative weakness may be caused by reduced mobility, neural adaptations and changes in muscle morphology. Discrepancies in the literature remain for maximal strength normalised to muscle mass (muscle quality) and can potentially be explained through accounting for the measurement protocol contributing to muscle strength capacity that need to be explored in more depth such as antagonist muscle co-activation, muscle architecture, a criterion valid measurement of muscle size and an accurate measurement of physical activity levels. Current evidence demonstrating the effect of obesity on muscle quality is limited. These factors not being recorded in some of the existing literature suggest a potential underestimation of muscle force either in terms of absolute force production or relative to muscle mass; thus the true effect of obesity upon skeletal muscle size, structure and function, including any interactions with ageing effects, remains to be elucidated.

  5. Counteracting age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechshøft, Rasmus; Reitelseder, Søren; Højfeldt, Grith

    2016-01-01

    Background Aging is associated with decreased muscle mass and functional capacity, which in turn decrease quality of life. The number of citizens over the age of 65 years in the Western world will increase by 50 % over the next four decades, and this demographic shift brings forth new challenges...... at both societal and individual levels. Only a few longitudinal studies have been reported, but whey protein supplementation seems to improve muscle mass and function, and its combination with heavy strength training appears even more effective. However, heavy resistance training may reduce adherence...... Intervention Study will generate scientific evidence and recommendations to counteract age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass in elderly individuals....

  6. Strengths only or strengths and relative weaknesses? A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Teri; Diessner, Rhett; Reade, Lindsay

    2009-10-01

    Does working on developing character strengths and relative character weaknesses cause lower life satisfaction than working on developing character strengths only? The present study provides a preliminary answer. After 76 college students completed the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (C. Peterson & M. E. P. Seligman, 2004), the authors randomly assigned them to work on 2 character strengths or on 1 character strength and 1 relative weakness. Combined, these groups showed significant gains on the Satisfaction With Life Scale (E. Diener, R. A. Emmons, R. J. Larsen, & S. Griffin, 1985), compared with a 32-student no-treatment group. However, there was no significant difference in gain scores between the 2-strengths group and the 1-character-strength-and-1-relative-character-weakness group. The authors discuss how focusing on relative character weaknesses (along with strengths) does not diminish-and may assist in increasing-life satisfaction.

  7.  Age-related changes of skeletal muscles: physiology, pathology and regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Ławniczak

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available  This review provides a short presentation of the aging-related changes of human skeletal muscles. The aging process is associated with the loss of skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia and strength. This results from fibre atrophy and apoptosis, decreased regeneration capacity, mitochondrial dysfunction, gradual reduction of the number of spinal cord motor neurons, and local and systemic metabolic and hormonal alterations. The latter involve age-related decrease of the expression and activity of some mitochondrial and cytoplasmic enzymes, triacylglycerols and lipofuscin accumulation inside muscle fibres, increased proteolytic activity, insulin resistance and decreased serum growth hormone and IGF-1 concentrations. Aging of the skeletal muscles is also associated with a decreased number of satellite cells and their proliferative activity. The age-related reduction of skeletal muscle mass and function may be partially prevented by dietary restriction and systematic physical exercises.

  8. Determinants of relative skeletal maturity in South African children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Nicola L; Rousham, Emily K; Johnson, William; Norris, Shane A; Pettifor, John M; Cameron, Noël

    2012-01-01

    The variation of skeletal maturity about chronological age is a sensitive indicator of population health. Age appropriate or advanced skeletal maturity is a reflection of adequate environmental and social conditions, whereas delayed maturation suggests inadequate conditions for optimal development. There remains a paucity of data, however, to indicate which specific biological and environmental factors are associated with advancement or delay in skeletal maturity. The present study utilises longitudinal data from the South African Birth to Twenty (Bt20) study to indentify predictors of relative skeletal maturity (RSM) in early adolescence. A total of 244 black South African children (n=131 male) were included in this analysis. Skeletal maturity at age 9/10 years was assessed using the Tanner and Whitehouse III RUS technique. Longitudinal data on growth, socio-economic position and pubertal development were entered into sex-specific multivariable general linear regression models with relative skeletal maturity (skeletal age-chronological age) as the outcome. At 9/10 years of age males showed an average of 0.66 years delay in skeletal maturation relative to chronological age. Females showed an average of 1.00 year delay relative to chronological age. In males, being taller at 2 years (pdetermining the rate of skeletal maturation during childhood independently of current stature. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. "Nutraceuticals" in relation to human skeletal muscle and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Colleen S; Wilkinson, Daniel J; Phillips, Bethan E; Smith, Kenneth; Etheridge, Timothy; Atherton, Philip J

    2017-04-01

    Skeletal muscles have a fundamental role in locomotion and whole body metabolism, with muscle mass and quality being linked to improved health and even lifespan. Optimizing nutrition in combination with exercise is considered an established, effective ergogenic practice for athletic performance. Importantly, exercise and nutritional approaches also remain arguably the most effective countermeasure for muscle dysfunction associated with aging and numerous clinical conditions, e.g., cancer cachexia, COPD, and organ failure, via engendering favorable adaptations such as increased muscle mass and oxidative capacity. Therefore, it is important to consider the effects of established and novel effectors of muscle mass, function, and metabolism in relation to nutrition and exercise. To address this gap, in this review, we detail existing evidence surrounding the efficacy of a nonexhaustive list of macronutrient, micronutrient, and "nutraceutical" compounds alone and in combination with exercise in relation to skeletal muscle mass, metabolism (protein and fuel), and exercise performance (i.e., strength and endurance capacity). It has long been established that macronutrients have specific roles and impact upon protein metabolism and exercise performance, (i.e., protein positively influences muscle mass and protein metabolism), whereas carbohydrate and fat intakes can influence fuel metabolism and exercise performance. Regarding novel nutraceuticals, we show that the following ones in particular may have effects in relation to 1 ) muscle mass/protein metabolism: leucine, hydroxyl β-methylbutyrate, creatine, vitamin-D, ursolic acid, and phosphatidic acid; and 2 ) exercise performance: (i.e., strength or endurance capacity): hydroxyl β-methylbutyrate, carnitine, creatine, nitrates, and β-alanine. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  10. ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME GENOTYPE AFFECTS SKELETAL MUSCLE STRENGTH IN ELITE ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Matos Costa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have associated angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE D allele with variability in the skeletal muscle baseline strength, though conclusions have been inconsistent across investigations. The purpose of this study was to examine the possible association between ACE genotype and skeletal muscle baseline strength in elite male and female athletes involved in different event expertise. A group of 58 elite athletes, designated as Olympic candidates, were studied: 35 swimmers (19 males and 16 females, 18.8 ± 3.2 years and 23 triathletes (15 males and 8 females, 18.7 ± 3.0 years. The athletes were classified as: short (< 200m and middle (400m to 1500m distance athletes, respectively. For each subject the grip strength in both hands was measure using an adjustable mechanical hand dynamometer. The maximum height in both squat jump (SJ and counter movement jump (CMJ were also assessed, using a trigonometric carpet (Ergojump Digitime 1000; Digitest, Jyvaskyla, Finland. DNA extraction was obtained with Chelex 100® and genotype determination by PCR-RFLP methods. Both males and females showed significantly higher right grip strength in D allele carriers compared to II homozygote's. We found that allelic frequency differs significantly by event distance specialization in both genders (p < 0.05. In fact, sprinter D allele carriers showed the superior scores in nearly all strength measurements (p < 0.05, in both genders. Among endurance athletes, the results also demonstrated that female D allele carriers exhibited the higher performance right grip and CMJ scores (p < 0.05. In conclusion, the ACE D allele seems associated with skeletal muscle baseline strength in elite athletes, being easily identified in females

  11. Hindlimb Skeletal Muscle Function and Skeletal Quality and Strength in +/G610C Mice With and Without Weight-Bearing Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Youngjae; Carleton, Stephanie M; Gentry, Bettina A; Yao, Xiaomei; Ferreira, J Andries; Salamango, Daniel J; Weis, MaryAnn; Oestreich, Arin K; Williams, Ashlee M; McCray, Marcus G; Eyre, David R; Brown, Marybeth; Wang, Yong; Phillips, Charlotte L

    2015-10-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heterogeneous heritable connective tissue disorder associated with reduced bone mineral density and skeletal fragility. Bone is inherently mechanosensitive, with bone strength being proportional to muscle mass and strength. Physically active healthy children accrue more bone than inactive children. Children with type I OI exhibit decreased exercise capacity and muscle strength compared with healthy peers. It is unknown whether this muscle weakness reflects decreased physical activity or a muscle pathology. In this study, we used heterozygous G610C OI model mice (+/G610C), which model both the genotype and phenotype of a large Amish OI kindred, to evaluate hindlimb muscle function and physical activity levels before evaluating the ability of +/G610C mice to undergo a treadmill exercise regimen. We found +/G610C mice hindlimb muscles do not exhibit compromised muscle function, and their activity levels were not reduced relative to wild-type mice. The +/G610C mice were also able to complete an 8-week treadmill regimen. Biomechanical integrity of control and exercised wild-type and +/G610C femora were analyzed by torsional loading to failure. The greatest skeletal gains in response to exercise were observed in stiffness and the shear modulus of elasticity with alterations in collagen content. Analysis of tibial cortical bone by Raman spectroscopy demonstrated similar crystallinity and mineral/matrix ratios regardless of sex, exercise, and genotype. Together, these findings demonstrate +/G610C OI mice have equivalent muscle function, activity levels, and ability to complete a weight-bearing exercise regimen as wild-type mice. The +/G610C mice exhibited increased femoral stiffness and decreased hydroxyproline with exercise, whereas other biomechanical parameters remain unaffected, suggesting a more rigorous exercise regimen or another exercise modality may be required to improve bone quality of OI mice. © 2015 American Society for Bone

  12. The effect of regular strength training on telomere length in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadi, F.; Ponsot, Elodie; Piehl-Aulin, Karin

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: The length of DNA telomeres is an important parameter of the proliferative potential of tissues. A recent study has reported abnormally short telomeres in skeletal muscle of athletes with exercise-associated fatigue. This important report raises the question of whether long-term practice...... of sports might have deleterious effects on muscle telomeres. Therefore, we aimed to compare telomere length of a group of power lifters (PL; N = 7) who trained for 8 +/- 3 yr against that of a group of healthy, active subjects (C; N = 7) with no history of strength training. METHODS: Muscle biopsies were...

  13. Decreased Muscle Strength and Quality in Diabetes-Related Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akito Tsugawa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Diabetes-related dementia (DrD, a dementia subgroup associated with specific diabetes mellitus (DM-related metabolic abnormalities, is clinically and pathophysiologically different from Alzheimer disease (AD and vascular dementia. We determined whether skeletal muscle strength, quality, and mass decrease in individuals with DrD. Methods: We evaluated grip and knee extension strength, muscle mass, and gait speed in 106 patients with probable AD and without type 2 DM (AD[–DM] group, 74 patients with probable AD and with DM (AD[+DM] group, and 36 patients with DrD (DrD group. Muscle quality was defined as the ratio of muscle strength to muscle mass. Results: Both female and male subjects with DrD showed significantly decreased muscle strength and quality in the upper extremities compared with the subjects with AD[–DM] or AD[+DM]. Female subjects with DrD showed significantly decreased muscle quality in the lower extremities compared with the subjects with AD[–DM]. Both female and male subjects with DrD had a significantly lower gait speed compared with the subjects with AD[–DM]. However, there were no significant differences in muscle mass and the prevalence of sarcopenia between the groups. Conclusion: Subjects with DrD showed decreased muscle strength and quality, but not muscle mass, and had a low gait speed.

  14. Measuring Relative Coupling Strength in Circadian Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmal, Christoph; Herzog, Erik D; Herzel, Hanspeter

    2018-02-01

    Modern imaging techniques allow the monitoring of circadian rhythms of single cells. Coupling between these single cellular circadian oscillators can generate coherent periodic signals on the tissue level that subsequently orchestrate physiological outputs. The strength of coupling in such systems of oscillators is often unclear. In particular, effects on coupling strength by varying cell densities, by knockouts, and by inhibitor applications are debated. In this study, we suggest to quantify the relative coupling strength via analyzing period, phase, and amplitude distributions in ensembles of individual circadian oscillators. Simulations of different oscillator networks show that period and phase distributions become narrower with increasing coupling strength. Moreover, amplitudes can increase due to resonance effects. Variances of periods and phases decay monotonically with coupling strength, and can serve therefore as measures of relative coupling strength. Our theoretical predictions are confirmed by studying recently published experimental data from PERIOD2 expression in slices of the suprachiasmatic nucleus during and after the application of tetrodotoxin (TTX). On analyzing the corresponding period, phase, and amplitude distributions, we can show that treatment with TTX can be associated with a reduced coupling strength in the system of coupled oscillators. Analysis of an oscillator network derived directly from the data confirms our conclusions. We suggest that our approach is also applicable to quantify coupling in fibroblast cultures and hepatocyte networks, and for social synchronization of circadian rhythmicity in rodents, flies, and bees.

  15. Skeletal muscle fat content is inversely associated with bone strength in young girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Joshua N; Funk, Janet L; Chen, Zhao; Lisse, Jeffrey R; Blew, Robert M; Lee, Vinson R; Laudermilk, Monica; Lohman, Timothy G; Going, Scott B

    2011-09-01

    Childhood obesity is an established risk factor for metabolic disease. The influence of obesity on bone development, however, remains controversial and may depend on the pattern of regional fat deposition. Therefore, we examined the associations of regional fat compartments of the calf and thigh with weight-bearing bone parameters in girls. Data from 444 girls aged 9 to 12 years from the Jump-In: Building Better Bones study were analyzed. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was used to assess bone parameters at metaphyseal and diaphyseal sites of the femur and tibia along with subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT, mm(2) ) and muscle density (mg/cm(3) ), an index of skeletal muscle fat content. As expected, SAT was positively correlated with total-body fat mass (r = 0.87-0.89, p  .05), except the distal tibia (β = 0.09, p = .03). In conclusion, skeletal muscle fat content of the calf and thigh is inversely associated with weight-bearing bone strength in young girls. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  16. Methods for the determination of skeletal muscle blood flow: development, strengths and limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gliemann, Lasse; Mortensen, Stefan P.; Hellsten, Ylva

    2018-01-01

    Since the first measurements of limb blood flow at rest and during nerve stimulation were conducted in the late 1800s, a number of methods have been developed for the determination of limb and skeletal muscle blood flow in humans. The methods, which have been applied in the study of aspects...... such as blood flow regulation, oxygen uptake and metabolism, differ in terms of strengths and degree of limitations but most have advantages for specific settings. The purpose of this review is to describe the origin and the basic principles of the methods, important aspects and requirements of the procedures....... One of the earliest methods, venous occlusion plethysmography, is a noninvasive method which still is extensively used and which provides similar values as other more direct blood flow methods such as ultrasound Doppler. The constant infusion thermodilution method remains the most appropriate...

  17. Paleopathological Study of Dwarfism-Related Skeletal Dysplasia in a Late Joseon Dynasty (South Korean) Population

    OpenAIRE

    Woo, Eun Jin; Lee, Won-Joon; Hu, Kyung-Seok; Hwang, Jae Joon

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal dysplasias related to genetic etiologies have rarely been reported for past populations. This report presents the skeletal characteristics of an individual with dwarfism-related skeletal dysplasia from South Korea. To assess abnormal deformities, morphological features, metric data, and computed tomography scans are analyzed. Differential diagnoses include achondroplasia or hypochondroplasia, chondrodysplasia, multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, thalassemia-related hemolytic anemia, and l...

  18. Personality Typology in Relation to Muscle Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Antonio; Milaneschi, Yuri; Metter, E. Jeffrey; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity plays a central role in the age-related decline in muscle strength, an important component in the process leading to disability. Personality, a significant determinant of health behaviors including physical activity, could therefore impact muscle strength throughout adulthood and affect the rate of muscle strength decline with aging. Personality typologies combining “high neuroticism” (N≥55), “low extraversion” (Epersonality types. Facet analyses suggest an important role for the N components of depression and hostility. Physical activity level appears to partly explain some of these associations. Conclusion Findings provide support for the notion that the typological approach to personality may be useful in identifying specific personality types at risk of low muscle strength and offer the possibility for more targeted prevention and intervention programs. PMID:21614452

  19. Sarcopenia, dynapenia, and the impact of advancing age on human skeletal muscle size and strength; a quantitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, W Kyle; Williams, John; Atherton, Philip; Larvin, Mike; Lund, John; Narici, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Changing demographics make it ever more important to understand the modifiable risk factors for disability and loss of independence with advancing age. For more than two decades there has been increasing interest in the role of sarcopenia, the age-related loss of muscle or lean mass, in curtailing active and healthy aging. There is now evidence to suggest that lack of strength, or dynapenia, is a more constant factor in compromised wellbeing in old age and it is apparent that the decline in muscle mass and the decline in strength can take quite different trajectories. This demands recognition of the concept of muscle quality; that is the force generating per capacity per unit cross-sectional area (CSA). An understanding of the impact of aging on skeletal muscle will require attention to both the changes in muscle size and the changes in muscle quality. The aim of this review is to present current knowledge of the decline in human muscle mass and strength with advancing age and the associated risk to health and survival and to review the underlying changes in muscle characteristics and the etiology of sarcopenia. Cross-sectional studies comparing young (18-45 years) and old (>65 years) samples show dramatic variation based on the technique used and population studied. The median of values of rate of loss reported across studies is 0.47% per year in men and 0.37% per year in women. Longitudinal studies show that in people aged 75 years, muscle mass is lost at a rate of 0.64-0.70% per year in women and 0.80-00.98% per year in men. Strength is lost more rapidly. Longitudinal studies show that at age 75 years, strength is lost at a rate of 3-4% per year in men and 2.5-3% per year in women. Studies that assessed changes in mass and strength in the same sample report a loss of strength 2-5 times faster than loss of mass. Loss of strength is a more consistent risk for disability and death than is loss of muscle mass.

  20. Sarcopenia, dynapenia and the impact of advancing age on human skeletal muscle size and strength; a quantitative review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Kyle Mitchell

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Changing demographics make it ever more important to understand the modifiable risk factors for disability and loss of independence with advancing age. For more than two decades there has been increasing interest in the role of sarcopenia, the age related loss of muscle or lean mass, in curtailing active and healthy aging. There is now evidence to suggest that lack of strength, or dynapenia, is a more constant factor in compromised wellbeing in old age and it is apparent that the decline in muscle mass and the decline in strength can take quite different trajectories. This demands recognition of the concept of muscle quality; that is the force generating per capacity per unit cross-sectional area (CSA. An understanding of the impact of aging on skeletal muscle will require attention to both the changes in muscle size and the changes in muscle quality.The aim of this review is to present current knowledge of the decline in human muscle mass and strength with advancing age and the associated risk to health and survival and to review the underlying changes in muscle characteristics and the aetiology of sarcopenia. Cross-sectional studies comparing young (18-45yrs and old (>65yrs samples show dramatic variation based on the technique used and population studied. The median of values of rate of loss reported across studies is 0.47% per year in men and 0.37% per year in women. Longitudinal studies show that in people aged 75yrs, muscle mass is lost at a rate of 0.64-0.70% per year in women and 0.80-0.98% per year in men. Strength is lost more rapidly. Longitudinal studies show that at age 75yrs, strength is lost at a rate of 3-4% per year in men and 2.5-3% per year in women. Studies that assessed changes in mass and strength in the same sample report a loss of strength 2 – 5 times faster than loss of mass. Loss of strength is a more consistent risk for disability and death than is loss of muscle mass.

  1. Modified forelimb grip strength test detects aging-associated physiological decline in skeletal muscle function in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Hikari; Yamamoto, Koichi; Nozato, Satoko; Inagaki, Tadakatsu; Tsuchimochi, Hirotsugu; Shirai, Mikiyasu; Yamamoto, Ryohei; Imaizumi, Yuki; Hongyo, Kazuhiro; Yokoyama, Serina; Takeda, Masao; Oguro, Ryosuke; Takami, Yoichi; Itoh, Norihisa; Takeya, Yasushi; Sugimoto, Ken; Fukada, So-Ichiro; Rakugi, Hiromi

    2017-02-08

    The conventional forelimb grip strength test is a widely used method to assess skeletal muscle function in rodents; in this study, we modified this method to improve its variability and consistency. The modified test had lower variability among trials and days than the conventional test in young C57BL6 mice, especially by improving the variabilities in male. The modified test was more sensitive than the conventional test to detect a difference in motor function between female and male mice, or between young and old male mice. When the modified test was performed on male mice during the aging process, reduction of grip strength manifested between 18 and 24 months of age at the group level and at the individual level. The modified test was similar to the conventional test in detecting skeletal muscle dysfunction in young male dystrophic mice. Thus, the modified forelimb grip strength test, with its improved validity and reliability may be an ideal substitute for the conventional method.

  2. 5'AMP activated protein kinase expression in human skeletal muscle: effects of strength training and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wojtaszewski, Jørgen; Birk, Jesper Bratz; Frøsig, Christian

    2005-01-01

    adaptations within the AMPK system itself. We investigated the effect of strength training and T2DM on the isoform expression and the heterotrimeric composition of the AMPK in human skeletal muscle. Ten patients with T2DM and seven healthy subjects strength trained (T) one leg for 6 weeks, while the other leg......Strength training enhances insulin sensitivity and represents an alternative to endurance training for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) may mediate adaptations in skeletal muscle in response to exercise training; however, little is known about...... remained untrained (UT). Muscle biopsies were obtained before and after the training period. Basal AMPK activity and protein/mRNA expression of both catalytic (alpha1 and alpha2) and regulatory (beta1, beta2, gamma1, gamma2a, gamma2b and gamma3) AMPK isoforms were independent of T2DM, whereas the protein...

  3. Morphometric relations of fractal-skeletal based channel network model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Daya Sagar

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A fractal-skeletal based channel network (F-SCN model is proposed. Four regular sided initiator-basins are transformed as second order fractal basins by following a specific generating mechanism with non-random rule. The morphological skeletons, hereafter referred to as channel networks, are extracted from these fractal basins. The morphometric and fractal relationships of these F-SCNs are shown. The fractal dimensions of these fractal basins, channel networks, and main channel lengths (computed through box counting method are compared with those of estimated length–area measures. Certain morphometric order ratios to show fractal relations are also highlighted.

  4. LINK BETWEEN SKELETAL RELATIONS AND ROOT RESORPTION IN ORTHODONTIC PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Teodora Preoteasa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available External root resorption is one of the possible complications of the orthodontic treatment, severe cases presenting a higher frequency. The aim of the present study was to test the existence of a relation between the severity of root resorption and the sagittal or vertical skeletal relations. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a group of 55 patients with fixed orthodontic devices, applied bimaxillarily for at least 6 months. The sample presented mostly mild or moderate apical root resorption, with an average value of 1.31 mm (standard deviation 0.60. Patients with abnormal sagittal skeletal relations presented a more severe root resorption compared to those with a normal pattern. The tendency towards more severe external root resorption was also noticed in cases with mandibular clockwise rotation and hiperdivergent facial pattern. A good knowledge on the variables associated to severe root resorption is essential for the identification of the high risk patients, as well as for the selection of the best suited treatment alternative in terms of low probability of root resorption occurrence.

  5. Precision measurement of relative oscillator strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackwell, D.E.; Ibbetson, P.A.; Petford, A.D.; Shallis, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    The accuracy of the Oxford method of comparing oscillator strengths has been improved by a factor of 10 to 0.5 per cent (0.002 dex) for low excitation lines. The improvements made to the apparatus are briefly described and its new performance discussed. A test for LTE in the furnace is also described. Relative oscillator strengths for 60 lines of Fe I with excitation potentials between 0.00 and 0.12 eV are given. Those with lambda > 320 nm have an accuracy of 0.5 per cent, and those with lambda < 320 nm have an accuracy of 1.0 per cent. Absolute values with an accuracy of 2.5 per cent for all lines are given. (author)

  6. Expression of perilipins in human skeletal muscle in vitro and in vivo in relation to diet, exercise and energy balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelstad, I M F; Haugen, F; Gulseth, H L

    2011-01-01

    , enhanced the expression of perilipin 2 and 3. Perilipin 1 mRNA correlated positively with body fat mass, whereas none of the perilipins were associated with insulin sensitivity. In conclusion, all perilipins mRNAs were expressed in human skeletal muscle. Diet as well as endurance exercise modulated......The perilipin proteins enclose intracellular lipid droplets. We describe the mRNA expression of the five perilipins in human skeletal muscle in relation to fatty acid supply, exercise and energy balance. We observed that all perilipins were expressed in skeletal muscle biopsies with the highest m......RNA levels of perilipin 2, 4 and 5. Cultured myotubes predominantly expressed perilipin 2 and 3. In vitro, incubation of myotubes with fatty acids enhanced mRNA expression of perilipin 1, 2 and 4. In vivo, low fat diet increased mRNA levels of perilipin 3 and 4. Endurance training, but not strength training...

  7. Syngeneic B16F10 Melanoma Causes Cachexia and Impaired Skeletal Muscle Strength and Locomotor Activity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício A. Voltarelli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Muscle wasting has been emerging as one of the principal components of cancer cachexia, leading to progressive impairment of work capacity. Despite early stages melanomas rarely promotes weight loss, the appearance of metastatic and/or solid tumor melanoma can leads to cachexia development. Here, we investigated the B16F10 tumor-induced cachexia and its contribution to muscle strength and locomotor-like activity impairment. C57BL/6 mice were subcutaneously injected with 5 × 104 B16F10 melanoma cells or PBS as a Sham negative control. Tumor growth was monitored during a period of 28 days. Compared to Sham mice, tumor group depicts a loss of skeletal muscle, as well as significantly reduced muscle grip strength and epididymal fat mass. This data are in agreement with mild to severe catabolic host response promoted by elevated serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity. Tumor implantation has also compromised general locomotor activity and decreased exploratory behavior. Likewise, muscle loss, and elevated inflammatory interleukin were associated to muscle strength loss and locomotor activity impairment. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that subcutaneous B16F10 melanoma tumor-driven catabolic state in response to a pro-inflammatory environment that is associated with impaired skeletal muscle strength and decreased locomotor activity in tumor-bearing mice.

  8. Insulin signaling in skeletal muscle of HIV‐infected patients in response to endurance and strength training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, Christa; Mathur, Neha; Hvid, Thine

    2013-01-01

    . Euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps with muscle biopsies were performed before and after the training interventions. Fifteen age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched HIV-negative men served as a sedentary baseline group. Phosphorylation and total protein expression of insulin signaling molecules as well...... hexokinase II (HKII) protein. HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy have decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and defects in insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt(thr308). Endurance and strength training increase insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in these patients......Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with lipodystrophy have decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Both endurance and resistance training improve insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle of HIV-infected patients, but the mechanisms are unknown. This study aims...

  9. Skeletal Muscle Angiogenesis and Its Relation to Insulin Sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindqvist, Anna Maria Charlotte K

    mediator of angiogenesis) are reduced in insulin resistant individuals. Exercise training can improve skeletal muscle capillarization and the angiogenic potential and physical activity has also been proven to enhance muscle insulin sensitivity. Increased skeletal muscle capillarization is associated......) or by overexpression of VEGF-A in the tibialis anterior muscle (transfection; study II) and the effect of the increased muscle capillarization on muscle insulin sensitivity was examined. In study I skeletal muscle specific angiogenesis was induced by administering an α1-adrenergic antagonist (prazosin) to healthy...

  10. “Nutraceuticals” in relation to human skeletal muscle and exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Colleen S.; Wilkinson, Daniel J.; Phillips, Bethan E.; Smith, Kenneth; Etheridge, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    Skeletal muscles have a fundamental role in locomotion and whole body metabolism, with muscle mass and quality being linked to improved health and even lifespan. Optimizing nutrition in combination with exercise is considered an established, effective ergogenic practice for athletic performance. Importantly, exercise and nutritional approaches also remain arguably the most effective countermeasure for muscle dysfunction associated with aging and numerous clinical conditions, e.g., cancer cachexia, COPD, and organ failure, via engendering favorable adaptations such as increased muscle mass and oxidative capacity. Therefore, it is important to consider the effects of established and novel effectors of muscle mass, function, and metabolism in relation to nutrition and exercise. To address this gap, in this review, we detail existing evidence surrounding the efficacy of a nonexhaustive list of macronutrient, micronutrient, and “nutraceutical” compounds alone and in combination with exercise in relation to skeletal muscle mass, metabolism (protein and fuel), and exercise performance (i.e., strength and endurance capacity). It has long been established that macronutrients have specific roles and impact upon protein metabolism and exercise performance, (i.e., protein positively influences muscle mass and protein metabolism), whereas carbohydrate and fat intakes can influence fuel metabolism and exercise performance. Regarding novel nutraceuticals, we show that the following ones in particular may have effects in relation to 1) muscle mass/protein metabolism: leucine, hydroxyl β-methylbutyrate, creatine, vitamin-D, ursolic acid, and phosphatidic acid; and 2) exercise performance: (i.e., strength or endurance capacity): hydroxyl β-methylbutyrate, carnitine, creatine, nitrates, and β-alanine. PMID:28143855

  11. Paleopathological Study of Dwarfism-Related Skeletal Dysplasia in a Late Joseon Dynasty (South Korean Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Jin Woo

    Full Text Available Skeletal dysplasias related to genetic etiologies have rarely been reported for past populations. This report presents the skeletal characteristics of an individual with dwarfism-related skeletal dysplasia from South Korea. To assess abnormal deformities, morphological features, metric data, and computed tomography scans are analyzed. Differential diagnoses include achondroplasia or hypochondroplasia, chondrodysplasia, multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, thalassemia-related hemolytic anemia, and lysosomal storage disease. The diffused deformities in the upper-limb bones and several coarsened features of the craniofacial bones indicate the most likely diagnosis to have been a certain type of lysosomal storage disease. The skeletal remains of EP-III-4-No.107 from the Eunpyeong site, although incomplete and fragmented, provide important clues to the paleopathological diagnosis of skeletal dysplasias.

  12. Paleopathological Study of Dwarfism-Related Skeletal Dysplasia in a Late Joseon Dynasty (South Korean) Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Eun Jin; Lee, Won-Joon; Hu, Kyung-Seok; Hwang, Jae Joon

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal dysplasias related to genetic etiologies have rarely been reported for past populations. This report presents the skeletal characteristics of an individual with dwarfism-related skeletal dysplasia from South Korea. To assess abnormal deformities, morphological features, metric data, and computed tomography scans are analyzed. Differential diagnoses include achondroplasia or hypochondroplasia, chondrodysplasia, multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, thalassemia-related hemolytic anemia, and lysosomal storage disease. The diffused deformities in the upper-limb bones and several coarsened features of the craniofacial bones indicate the most likely diagnosis to have been a certain type of lysosomal storage disease. The skeletal remains of EP-III-4-No.107 from the Eunpyeong site, although incomplete and fragmented, provide important clues to the paleopathological diagnosis of skeletal dysplasias.

  13. Rapid-throughput skeletal phenotyping of 100 knockout mice identifies 9 new genes that determine bone strength.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J H Duncan Bassett

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a common polygenic disease and global healthcare priority but its genetic basis remains largely unknown. We report a high-throughput multi-parameter phenotype screen to identify functionally significant skeletal phenotypes in mice generated by the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute Mouse Genetics Project and discover novel genes that may be involved in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. The integrated use of primary phenotype data with quantitative x-ray microradiography, micro-computed tomography, statistical approaches and biomechanical testing in 100 unselected knockout mouse strains identified nine new genetic determinants of bone mass and strength. These nine new genes include five whose deletion results in low bone mass and four whose deletion results in high bone mass. None of the nine genes have been implicated previously in skeletal disorders and detailed analysis of the biomechanical consequences of their deletion revealed a novel functional classification of bone structure and strength. The organ-specific and disease-focused strategy described in this study can be applied to any biological system or tractable polygenic disease, thus providing a general basis to define gene function in a system-specific manner. Application of the approach to diseases affecting other physiological systems will help to realize the full potential of the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium.

  14. Skeletal Aging and Osteoporosis Biomechanics and Mechanobiology

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this book is on mechanical aspects of skeletal fragility related to aging and osteoporosis. Topics include: Age-related changes in trabecular structure and strength; age-related changes in cortical material properties; age-related changes in whole-bone structure; predicting bone strength and fracture risk using image-based methods and finite element analysis; animal models of osteoporosis and aging; age-related changes in skeletal mechano responsiveness; exercise and physical interventions for osteoporosis.

  15. Eruption of the maxillary canines in relation to skeletal maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Franchi, Lorenzo; De Lisa, Simona; Giuntini, Veronica

    2008-05-01

    Our aim in this study was to assess the relationship between the eruption of the permanent maxillary canines and skeletal maturity in subjects with different skeletal relationships in the sagittal and vertical planes. A sample of 152 subjects (63 boys, 89 girls) with erupting permanent maxillary canines was analyzed. On the lateral cephalograms, the stage of cervical vertebral maturation was assessed. Then the subjects were divided into prepeak (before the pubertal growth spurt, cervical stage [CS]1 and CS2), peak (during the pubertal growth spurt, CS3 and CS4), and postpeak (after the pubertal growth spurt, CS5 and CS6) groups. Skeletal relationships in the sagittal and vertical planes were evaluated, and relationships to timing of canine eruption were tested statistically. The prepeak group comprised 86 subjects, the peak group 66 subjects, and the postpeak group 0 subjects. The differences in prevalence rates between either the prepeak or peak groups and the postpeak group were statistically significant (P < 0.001). The prevalence rate for hyperdivergent subjects showing eruption of the permanent maxillary canine in the prepeak group (37.2%) was significantly higher than in the reference orthodontic population (21%). The eruption of the permanent maxillary canine can occur at any stage in skeletal maturation before the end the pubertal growth spurt (CS1-CS4), with hyperdivergent subjects more frequently having prepubertal canine eruption.

  16. "Nutraceuticals" in relation to human skeletal muscle and exercise.

    OpenAIRE

    Deane, Colleen Siobhan; Wilkinson, D.J.; Phillips, B.E.; Smith, K.; Etheridge, T.; Atherton, P.J.

    2017-01-01

    Skeletal muscles have a fundamental role in locomotion and whole body metabolism, with muscle mass and quality being linked to improved health and even lifespan. Optimizing nutrition in combination with exercise is considered an established, effective ergogenic practice for athletic performance. Importantly, exercise and nutritional approaches also remain arguably the most effective countermeasure for muscle dysfunction associated with aging and numerous clinical conditions, e.g., cancer cach...

  17. Role of AMPK in skeletal muscle metabolic regulation and adaptation in relation to exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sebastian Beck; Richter, Erik; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    The 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a potent regulator of skeletal muscle metabolism and gene expression. AMPK is activated both in response to in vivo exercise and ex vivo contraction. AMPK is therefore believed to be an important signalling molecule in regulating muscle metabolism...... during exercise as well as in adaptation of skeletal muscle to exercise training. The first part of this review is focused on different mechanisms regulating AMPK activity during muscle work such as alterations in nucleotide concentrations, availability of energy substrates and upstream AMPK kinases. We...... in relation to adaptation of skeletal muscle to exercise training....

  18. Relative Skeletal Maturation and Population Ancestry in Nonobese Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Shana E; Chesi, Alessandra; Mitchell, Jonathan A; Roy, Sani M; Cousminer, Diana L; Kalkwarf, Heidi J; Lappe, Joan M; Gilsanz, Vicente; Oberfield, Sharon E; Shepherd, John A; Mahboubi, Soroosh; Winer, Karen K; Kelly, Andrea; Grant, Struan Fa; Zemel, Babette S

    2017-01-01

    More rapid skeletal maturation in African-American (AA) children is recognized and generally attributed to an increased prevalence of obesity. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of population ancestry on relative skeletal maturation in healthy, non-obese children and adolescents, accounting for body composition and sexual maturation. To do this, we leveraged a multiethnic, mixed-longitudinal study with annual assessments for up to 7 years (The Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study and its ancillary cohort) conducted at five US clinical centers. Participants included 1592 children, skeletally immature (45% females, 19% AA) who were aged 5 to 17 years at study entry. The primary outcome measure was relative skeletal maturation as assessed by hand-wrist radiograph. Additional covariates measured included anthropometrics, body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and Tanner stage of sexual maturation. Using mixed effects longitudinal models, without covariates, advancement in relative skeletal maturation was noted in self-reported AA girls (∼0.33 years, p ancestry groups showed independent positive associations of height, lean mass, fat mass, and puberty with relative skeletal maturation. The effect of ancestry was attenuated but persistent after accounting for covariates: for girls, 0.19 years (ancestry by self-report, p = 0.02) or 0.29 years (ancestry by admixture, p = 0.004); and for boys, 0.20 years (ancestry by self-report, p = 0.004), or 0.29 years (ancestry by admixture, p = 0.004). In summary, we conclude that advancement in relative skeletal maturation was associated with AA ancestry in healthy, non-obese children, independent of growth, body composition, and puberty. Further research into the mechanisms underlying this observation may provide insights into the regulation of skeletal maturation. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2016 American Society for Bone and

  19. Effectiveness of water-based Liuzijue exercise on respiratory muscle strength and peripheral skeletal muscle function in patients with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu W

    2018-05-01

    beneficial effects on COPD patients’ respiratory muscle strength and peripheral skeletal muscle function, and additional benefits may exist in endurance of upper limbs and strength and endurance of lower limbs when compared with land-based Liuzijue exercise. Keywords: COPD, Liuzijue exercise, water-based exercise, respiratory muscle strength, isokinetic muscle strength, quantitative assessment

  20. Myostatin in relation to physical activity and dysglycaemia and its effect on energy metabolism in human skeletal muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, M; Pourteymour, S; Görgens, S W; Langleite, T M; Lee, S; Holen, T; Gulseth, H L; Birkeland, K I; Jensen, J; Drevon, C A; Norheim, F

    2016-05-01

    Some health benefits of exercise may be explained by an altered secretion of myokines. Because previous focus has been on upregulated myokines, we screened for downregulated myokines and identified myostatin. We studied the expression of myostatin in relation to exercise and dysglycaemia in skeletal muscle, adipose tissue and plasma. We further examined some effects of myostatin on energy metabolism in primary human muscle cells and Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) adipocytes. Sedentary men with or without dysglycaemia underwent a 45-min acute bicycle test before and after 12 weeks of combined endurance and strength training. Blood samples and biopsies from m. vastus lateralis and adipose tissue were collected. Myostatin mRNA expression was reduced in skeletal muscle after acute as well as long-term exercise and was even further downregulated by acute exercise on top of 12-week training. Furthermore, the expression of myostatin at baseline correlated negatively with insulin sensitivity. Myostatin expression in the adipose tissue increased after 12 weeks of training and correlated positively with insulin sensitivity markers. In cultured muscle cells but not in SGBS cells, myostatin promoted an insulin-independent increase in glucose uptake. Furthermore, muscle cells incubated with myostatin had an enhanced rate of glucose oxidation and lactate production. Myostatin was differentially expressed in the muscle and adipose tissue in relation to physical activity and dysglycaemia. Recombinant myostatin increased the consumption of glucose in human skeletal muscle cells, suggesting a complex regulatory role of myostatin in skeletal muscle homeostasis. © 2015 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Relative scale and the strength and deformability of rock masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Richard A.

    1996-09-01

    The strength and deformation of rocks depend strongly on the degree of fracturing, which can be assessed in the field and related systematically to these properties. Appropriate Mohr envelopes obtained from the Rock Mass Rating (RMR) classification system and the Hoek-Brown criterion for outcrops and other large-scale exposures of fractured rocks show that rock-mass cohesive strength, tensile strength, and unconfined compressive strength can be reduced by as much as a factor often relative to values for the unfractured material. The rock-mass deformation modulus is also reduced relative to Young's modulus. A "cook-book" example illustrates the use of RMR in field applications. The smaller values of rock-mass strength and deformability imply that there is a particular scale of observation whose identification is critical to applying laboratory measurements and associated failure criteria to geologic structures.

  2. Is increase in bone mineral content caused by increase in skeletal muscle mass/strength in adult patients with GH-treated GH deficiency? A systematic literature analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klefter, O.; Feldt-Rasmussen, U.

    2009-01-01

    to a muscle modulating effect, and if treatment with GH would primarily increase muscle mass and strength with a secondary increase in BMD/BMC, thus supporting the present physiological concept that mass and strength of bones are mainly determined by dynamic loads from the skeletal muscles. METHOD: We...... performed a systematic literature analysis, including 51 clinical trials published between 1996 and 2008, which had studied the development in muscle mass, muscle strength, BMD, and/or BMC in GH-treated adult GHD patients. RESULTS: GH therapy had an anabolic effect on skeletal muscle. The largest increase...... in muscle mass occurred during the first 12 months of therapy. Most trials measuring BMD/BMC reported significant increases from baseline values. The significant increases in BMD/BMC occurred after 12-18 months of treatment, i.e. usually later than the increases in muscle parameters. Only seven trials...

  3. Is increase in bone mineral content caused by increase in skeletal muscle mass/strength in adult patients with GH-treated GH deficiency?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klefter, Oliver; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2009-01-01

    to a muscle modulating effect, and if treatment with GH would primarily increase muscle mass and strength with a secondary increase in BMD/BMC, thus supporting the present physiological concept that mass and strength of bones are mainly determined by dynamic loads from the skeletal muscles. METHOD: We...... performed a systematic literature analysis, including 51 clinical trials published between 1996 and 2008, which had studied the development in muscle mass, muscle strength, BMD, and/or BMC in GH-treated adult GHD patients. RESULTS: GH therapy had an anabolic effect on skeletal muscle. The largest increase...... in muscle mass occurred during the first 12 months of therapy. Most trials measuring BMD/BMC reported significant increases from baseline values. The significant increases in BMD/BMC occurred after 12-18 months of treatment, i.e. usually later than the increases in muscle parameters. Only seven trials...

  4. Partial Restoration Of Skeletal Strength In Ovariectomized Rats By Treatment With Strontium Salts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Andersen, Pernille/Høegh; Christgau, Stephan

    AIM Ovariectomy of female rats induces significant bone-loss by depriving endogenous estrogen production. We assessed whether administration of strontium salts had a therapeutic benefit in this animal model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. INTRODUCTION In most women after menopause, the rate of bone...... loss exceeds the rate of bone formation, resulting in a net decrease in bone mass and ultimately in development of osteoporosis and elevated risk of sustaining fragility fracture. Most approved osteoporosis treatments work by decreasing the rate of bone resorption, however, these treatments also......-M and S-G respectively compared to 671 mg/cm3 in vehicle treated OVX and 750 mg/cm3 SHAM rats). Bone strength analysis revealed a significant increase (p...

  5. Striated muscle fiber size, composition and capillary density in diabetes in relation to neuropathy and muscle strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Christer Swan; Jensen, Jacob Malte; Jakobsen, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    study was to evaluate histologic properties and capillarization of diabetic skeletal muscle in relation to DPN and muscle strength. METHODS: Twenty type 1 and 20 type 2 diabetic (T1D and T2D, respectively) patients underwent biopsy of the gastrocnemic muscle, isokinetic dynamometry at the ankle...... between muscle fiber diameter, muscle fiber type distribution, or capillary density and degree of neuropathy or muscle strength for either patient group. Muscle fiber diameter and the proportion of Type II fibers were greater for T1D patients than both T2D patients and controls. The T2D patients had fewer...

  6. Prostaglandin E2 is essential for efficacious skeletal muscle stem-cell function, augmenting regeneration and strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Andrew T V; Palla, Adelaida R; Blake, Matthew R; Yucel, Nora D; Wang, Yu Xin; Magnusson, Klas E G; Holbrook, Colin A; Kraft, Peggy E; Delp, Scott L; Blau, Helen M

    2017-06-27

    Skeletal muscles harbor quiescent muscle-specific stem cells (MuSCs) capable of tissue regeneration throughout life. Muscle injury precipitates a complex inflammatory response in which a multiplicity of cell types, cytokines, and growth factors participate. Here we show that Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is an inflammatory cytokine that directly targets MuSCs via the EP4 receptor, leading to MuSC expansion. An acute treatment with PGE2 suffices to robustly augment muscle regeneration by either endogenous or transplanted MuSCs. Loss of PGE2 signaling by specific genetic ablation of the EP4 receptor in MuSCs impairs regeneration, leading to decreased muscle force. Inhibition of PGE2 production through nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) administration just after injury similarly hinders regeneration and compromises muscle strength. Mechanistically, the PGE2 EP4 interaction causes MuSC expansion by triggering a cAMP/phosphoCREB pathway that activates the proliferation-inducing transcription factor, Nurr1 Our findings reveal that loss of PGE2 signaling to MuSCs during recovery from injury impedes muscle repair and strength. Through such gain- or loss-of-function experiments, we found that PGE2 signaling acts as a rheostat for muscle stem-cell function. Decreased PGE2 signaling due to NSAIDs or increased PGE2 due to exogenous delivery dictates MuSC function, which determines the outcome of regeneration. The markedly enhanced and accelerated repair of damaged muscles following intramuscular delivery of PGE2 suggests a previously unrecognized indication for this therapeutic agent.

  7. Higher Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations Associate with a Faster Recovery of Skeletal Muscle Strength after Muscular Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindell K. Weaver

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this study was to identify if serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD concentrations predict muscular weakness after intense exercise. We hypothesized that pre-exercise serum 25(OHD concentrations inversely predict exercise-induced muscular weakness. Fourteen recreationally active adults participated in this study. Each subject had one leg randomly assigned as a control. The other leg performed an intense exercise protocol. Single-leg peak isometric force and blood 25(OHD, aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, albumin, interferon (IFN-γ, and interleukin-4 were measured prior to and following intense exercise. Following exercise, serum 25(OHD concentrations increased (p < 0.05 immediately, but within minutes, subsequently decreased (p < 0.05. Circulating albumin increases predicted (p < 0.005 serum 25(OHD increases, while IFN-γ increases predicted (p < 0.001 serum 25(OHD decreases. Muscular weakness persisted within the exercise leg (p < 0.05 and compared to the control leg (p < 0.05 after the exercise protocol. Serum 25(OHD concentrations inversely predicted (p < 0.05 muscular weakness (i.e., control leg vs. exercise leg peak isometric force immediately and days (i.e., 48-h and 72-h after exercise, suggesting the attenuation of exercise-induced muscular weakness with increasing serum 25(OHD prior to exercise. Based on these data, we conclude that pre-exercise serum 25(OHD concentrations could influence the recovery of skeletal muscle strength after an acute bout of intense exercise.

  8. Relative Skeletal Muscle Mass Is Associated with Development of Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Sam Park

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundVisceral adiposity is related to insulin resistance. Skeletal muscle plays a central role in insulin-mediated glucose disposal; however, little is known about the association between muscle mass and metabolic syndrome (MS. This study is to clarify the clinical role of skeletal muscle mass in development of MS.MethodsA total of 1,042 subjects were enrolled. Subjects with prior MS and chronic diseases were excluded. After 24 months, development of MS was assessed using NCEP-ATP III criteria. Skeletal muscle mass (SMM; kg, body fat mass (BFM; kg, and visceral fat area (VFA; cm2 were obtained from bioelectrical analysis. Then, the following values were calculated as follows: percent of SMM (SMM%; %: SMM (kg/weight (kg, skeletal muscle index (SMI; kg/m2: SMM (kg/height (m2, skeletal muscle to body fat ratio (MFR: SMM (kg/BFM (kg, and skeletal muscle to visceral fat ratio (SVR; kg/cm2: SMM (kg/VFA (cm2.ResultsAmong 838 subjects, 88 (10.5% were newly diagnosed with MS. Development of MS increased according to increasing quintiles of BMI, SMM, VFA, and SMI, but was negatively associated with SMM%, MFR, and SVR. VFA was positively associated with high waist circumference (WC, high blood pressure (BP, dysglycemia, and high triglyceride (TG. In contrast, MFR was negatively associated with high WC, high BP, dysglycemia, and high TG. SVR was negatively associated with all components of MS.ConclusionRelative SMM ratio to body composition, rather than absolute mass, may play a critical role in development of MS and could be used as a strong predictor.

  9. Evaluation of ubiquinone concentration and mitochondrial function relative to cerivastatin-induced skeletal myopathy in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, William H.; Lawrence, Jeffery W.; Loughlin, Amy F.; Stoffregen, Dana A.; Mixson, Lori A.; Dean, Dennis C.; Raab, Conrad E.; Yu, Nathan X.; Lankas, George R.; Frederick, Clay B.

    2004-01-01

    As a class, hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors can potentially cause skeletal myopathy. One statin, cerivastatin, has recently been withdrawn from the market due to an unacceptably high incidence of rhabdomyolysis. The mechanism underlying statin-induced myopathy is unknown. This paper sought to investigate the relationship among statin-induced myopathy, mitochondrial function, and muscle ubiquinone levels. Rats were administered cerivastatin at 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 (mg/kg)/day or dose vehicle (controls) by oral gavage for 15 days. Samples of type I-predominant skeletal muscle (soleus) and type II-predominant skeletal muscle [quadriceps and extensor digitorum longus (EDL)], and blood were collected on study days 5, 10, and 15 for morphological evaluation, clinical chemistry, mitochondrial function tests, and analysis of ubiquinone levels. No histological changes were observed in any of the animals on study days 5 or 10, but on study day 15, mid- and high-dose animals had necrosis and inflammation in type II skeletal muscle. Elevated creatine kinase (CK) levels in blood (a clinical marker of myopathy) correlated with the histopathological diagnosis of myopathy. Ultrastructural characterization of skeletal muscle revealed disruption of the sarcomere and altered mitochondria only in myofibers with degeneration, while adjacent myofibers were unaffected and had normal mitochondria. Thus, mitochondrial effects appeared not to precede myofiber degeneration. Mean coenzyme Q9 (CoQ9) levels in all dose groups were slightly decreased relative to controls in type II skeletal muscle, although the difference was not significantly different in most cases. Mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle was not affected by the changes in ubiquinone levels. The ubiquinone levels in high-dose-treated animals exhibiting myopathy were not significantly different from low-dose animals with no observable toxic effects. Furthermore, ubiquinone levels did not correlate

  10. Insulin signal transduction in skeletal muscle from glucose-intolerant relatives of type 2 diabetic patients [corrected

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, H; Song, X M; Jensen, C B

    2001-01-01

    To determine whether defects in the insulin signal transduction cascade are present in skeletal muscle from prediabetic individuals, we excised biopsies from eight glucose-intolerant male first-degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes (IGT relatives) and nine matched control subjects...... phosphorylation in control subjects and IGT relatives, with a tendency for reduced phosphorylation in IGT relatives (P = 0.12). In conclusion, aberrant phosphorylation/activity of IRS-1, PI 3-kinase, and Akt is observed in skeletal muscle from relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes with IGT. However...... resistance in skeletal muscle from relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes....

  11. Scaling relations between trabecular bone volume fraction and microstructure at different skeletal sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räth, Christoph; Baum, Thomas; Monetti, Roberto; Sidorenko, Irina; Wolf, Petra; Eckstein, Felix; Matsuura, Maiko; Lochmüller, Eva-Maria; Zysset, Philippe K; Rummeny, Ernst J; Link, Thomas M; Bauer, Jan S

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the scaling relations between trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and parameters of the trabecular microstructure at different skeletal sites. Cylindrical bone samples with a diameter of 8mm were harvested from different skeletal sites of 154 human donors in vitro: 87 from the distal radius, 59/69 from the thoracic/lumbar spine, 51 from the femoral neck, and 83 from the greater trochanter. μCT images were obtained with an isotropic spatial resolution of 26μm. BV/TV and trabecular microstructure parameters (TbN, TbTh, TbSp, scaling indices ( and σ of α and αz), and Minkowski Functionals (Surface, Curvature, Euler)) were computed for each sample. The regression coefficient β was determined for each skeletal site as the slope of a linear fit in the double-logarithmic representations of the correlations of BV/TV versus the respective microstructure parameter. Statistically significant correlation coefficients ranging from r=0.36 to r=0.97 were observed for BV/TV versus microstructure parameters, except for Curvature and Euler. The regression coefficients β were 0.19 to 0.23 (TbN), 0.21 to 0.30 (TbTh), -0.28 to -0.24 (TbSp), 0.58 to 0.71 (Surface) and 0.12 to 0.16 (), 0.07 to 0.11 (), -0.44 to -0.30 (σ(α)), and -0.39 to -0.14 (σ(αz)) at the different skeletal sites. The 95% confidence intervals of β overlapped for almost all microstructure parameters at the different skeletal sites. The scaling relations were independent of vertebral fracture status and similar for subjects aged 60-69, 70-79, and >79years. In conclusion, the bone volume fraction-microstructure scaling relations showed a rather universal character. © 2013.

  12. Relation between body mass index percentile and muscle strength ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relation between body mass index percentile and muscle strength and endurance. ... Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics ... They were divided into three groups according to their body mass index percentile where group (a) is equal to or more than 5% percentile yet less than 85% percentile, group (b) is equal to ...

  13. Relative Strengths of Predictors of Middle School Girls' Suspendable Offenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Barbara Harlow

    2009-01-01

    This study determines the relative strength of predictors of school violence among a sample of 229 girls enrolled in a single middle school. The four-part questionnaire, comprising sociodemographic items, a school violence inventory, a self-esteem scale, and an attitudes toward violence scale, measured school violence in terms of suspendable…

  14. HDAC4-Myogenin Axis As an Important Marker of HD-Related Skeletal Muscle Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Cleo J. L. M.; Franklin, Sophie A.; Bondulich, Marie K.; Jolinon, Nelly; Muller, Thomas; Ahmed, Mhoriam; Dick, James R. T.; Piotrowska, Izabela; Greensmith, Linda; Smolenski, Ryszard T.; Bates, Gillian P.

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle remodelling and contractile dysfunction occur through both acute and chronic disease processes. These include the accumulation of insoluble aggregates of misfolded amyloid proteins that is a pathological feature of Huntington’s disease (HD). While HD has been described primarily as a neurological disease, HD patients’ exhibit pronounced skeletal muscle atrophy. Given that huntingtin is a ubiquitously expressed protein, skeletal muscle fibres may be at risk of a cell autonomous HD-related dysfunction. However the mechanism leading to skeletal muscle abnormalities in the clinical and pre-clinical HD settings remains unknown. To unravel this mechanism, we employed the R6/2 transgenic and HdhQ150 knock-in mouse models of HD. We found that symptomatic animals developed a progressive impairment of the contractile characteristics of the hind limb muscles tibialis anterior (TA) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL), accompanied by a significant loss of motor units in the EDL. In symptomatic animals, these pronounced functional changes were accompanied by an aberrant deregulation of contractile protein transcripts and their up-stream transcriptional regulators. In addition, HD mouse models develop a significant reduction in muscle force, possibly as a result of a deterioration in energy metabolism and decreased oxidation that is accompanied by the re-expression of the HDAC4-DACH2-myogenin axis. These results show that muscle dysfunction is a key pathological feature of HD. PMID:25748626

  15. Liver kinase B1 inhibits the expression of inflammation-related genes postcontraction in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Moore, Timothy M; Ebbert, Mark T W; McVey, Natalie L; Madsen, Steven R; Hallowell, David M; Harris, Alexander M; Char, Robin E; Mackay, Ryan P; Hancock, Chad R; Hansen, Jason M; Kauwe, John S; Thomson, David M

    2016-04-15

    Skeletal muscle-specific liver kinase B1 (LKB1) knockout mice (skmLKB1-KO) exhibit elevated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling after treadmill running. MAPK activation is also associated with inflammation-related signaling in skeletal muscle. Since exercise can induce muscle damage, and inflammation is a response triggered by damaged tissue, we therefore hypothesized that LKB1 plays an important role in dampening the inflammatory response to muscle contraction, and that this may be due in part to increased susceptibility to muscle damage with contractions in LKB1-deficient muscle. Here we studied the inflammatory response and muscle damage with in situ muscle contraction or downhill running. After in situ muscle contractions, the phosphorylation of both NF-κB and STAT3 was increased more in skmLKB1-KO vs. wild-type (WT) muscles. Analysis of gene expression via microarray and RT-PCR shows that expression of many inflammation-related genes increased after contraction only in skmLKB1-KO muscles. This was associated with mild skeletal muscle fiber membrane damage in skmLKB1-KO muscles. Gene markers of oxidative stress were also elevated in skmLKB1-KO muscles after contraction. Using the downhill running model, we observed significantly more muscle damage after running in skmLKB1-KO mice, and this was associated with greater phosphorylation of both Jnk and STAT3 and increased expression of SOCS3 and Fos. In conclusion, we have shown that the lack of LKB1 in skeletal muscle leads to an increased inflammatory state in skeletal muscle that is exacerbated by muscle contraction. Increased susceptibility of the muscle to damage may underlie part of this response. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Epidemiology of golf related musculo-skeletal injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhillon Mandeep

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Golfing has become an increasingly popular sport enjoyed by both men and women. Although the game is not viewed as hazardous, golfers do sustain injuries connected with the game. However, golf injuries have received little attention in the literature and there is no study from Asia. Methods : A prospective study was undertaken to analyze the incidence, cause and type of injury among amateur golfers. Open ended questionnaires were sent to 1000 golfers; 240 responded (Av age 51 years, 200 males and 40 females. The respondents played an average of 2 rounds per week. Results : One hundered and ten (46% responders had sustained one or more orthopaedic injuries. Both among men and women, the lower back was the most common site of injury followed by shoulder and dorsal spine. There was a difference in the injury pattern in skilled and relatively unskilled players. Lack of warm up, excessive practice and improper swing mechanics were the most common causes. Conclusion : Golf injuries perhaps could be prevented or reduced by proper technique, controlled practice routines, physical conditioning and pre-play stretching exercises. The most important factor in this playing population seems to be prevention.

  17. Dispersion Relation for Skeletal Vibrations in Deuterated Polyethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldkamp, L. A.; Venkataraman, G.; King, J. S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1968-09-15

    The low frequency vibrations in polyethylene have been studied previously, utilizing the incoherent scattering technique which yields an amplitude-weighted density of states. In the present work the dispersion relations have been obtained directly by observing the coherent scattering from a deuterated sample. This represents the first such measurement on a crystalline polymer. A target in which the molecular chain axes were approximately parallel was prepared by stretching polycrystalline material. The FWHM of the rocking curve for the (002) reflection was measured to be 9 Degree-Sign . Constant-Q and constant-E scans were made on the University of Michigan triple-axis spectrometer at room temperature to observe phonons propagating along the chain direction. The resulting dispersion curve for the v{sub 5} mode follows generally the calculated curve of Tasumi and Krimm with systematically lower frequencies. The maximum frequency of 1.36 x 10{sup 13} Hz agrees with the cut-off frequency determined previously from the incoherent scattering spectrum. (author)

  18. Skeletal muscle properties and fatigue resistance in relation to smoking history

    OpenAIRE

    W?st, Rob C. I.; Morse, Christopher I.; de Haan, Arnold; Rittweger, J?rn; Jones, David A.; Degens, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Although smoking-related diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), are often accompanied by increased peripheral muscle fatigability, the extent to which this is a feature of the disease or a direct effect of smoking per se is not known. Skeletal muscle function was investigated in terms of maximal voluntary isometric torque, activation, contractile properties and fatigability, using electrically evoked contractions of the quadriceps muscle of 40 smokers [19 men and 21 w...

  19. Sarcopenia, Dynapenia, and the Impact of Advancing Age on Human Skeletal Muscle Size and Strength; a Quantitative Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, W. Kyle; Williams, John; Atherton, Philip; Larvin, Mike; Lund, John; Narici, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Changing demographics make it ever more important to understand the modifiable risk factors for disability and loss of independence with advancing age. For more than two decades there has been increasing interest in the role of sarcopenia, the age-related loss of muscle or lean mass, in curtailing active and healthy aging. There is now evidence to suggest that lack of strength, or dynapenia, is a more constant factor in compromised wellbeing in old age and it is apparent that the decline in m...

  20. Creatine supplementation augments the increase in satellite cell and myonuclei number in human skeletal muscle induced by strength training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Steen; Aagaard, Per; Kadi, Fawzi

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated the influence of creatine and protein supplementation on satellite cell frequency and number of myonuclei in human skeletal muscle during 16 weeks of heavy-resistance training. In a double-blinded design 32 healthy, male subjects (19-26 years) were assigned to stren......The present study investigated the influence of creatine and protein supplementation on satellite cell frequency and number of myonuclei in human skeletal muscle during 16 weeks of heavy-resistance training. In a double-blinded design 32 healthy, male subjects (19-26 years) were assigned...

  1. Activity of Ca(2+,Mg(2+-ATPase of sarcoplasmic reticulum and contraction strength of the frog skeletal muscles under the effect of organophosphorus insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Nozdrenko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The results of an experimental study of organo­phosphorus insecticides, including pirimiphosmethyl, diazinon and chlorpyrifos caused a decline of the contraction properties in m. tibialis anterior fiber bundles of Rana temporaria, as well as sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+,Mg2+-ATPase enzymatic activity reduction are outlined in this paper. Concentration-dependent strengths response diminishing in isolated skeletal muscle fiber bundles as a result of non-cholinergic influence of organophosphorus insecticides were found. A decrease of Ca2+,Mg2+-ATPase enzymatic activity in sarcoplasmic reticulum was observed after administration of each insecticide. The most significant inhibition of this enzyme was observed when using chlorpyrifos.

  2. [ACTIVITY OF Ca2+,Mg(2+)-ATPase OF SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM AND CONTRACTION STRENGTH OF THE FROG SKELETAL MUSCLES UNDER THE EFFECT OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS INSECTICIDES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozdrenko, D M; Korchinska, L V; Soroca, V M

    2015-01-01

    The results of an experimental study of organophosphorus insecticides, including pirimiphosmethyl, diazinon and chlorpyrifos caused a decline of the contraction properties in m. tibialis anterior fiber bundles of Rana temporaria, as well as sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+, Mg(2+)-ATPase enzymatic activity reduction are outlined in this paper. Concentration-dependent strengths response diminishing in isolated skeletal muscle fiber bundles as a result of non-cholinergic influence of organophosphorus insecticides were found. A decrease of Ca2+, Mg(2+)-ATPase enzymatic activity in sarcoplasmic reticulum was observed after administration of each insecticide. The most significant inhibition of this enzyme was observed when using chlorpyrifos.

  3. Plasticity and function of human skeletal muscle in relation to disuse and rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suetta, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    not be achieved with the use of neuromuscular electrical stimulation or conventional rehabilitation efforts alone. Collectively, these findings strongly underline the importance of implementing resistive exercises in future rehabilitation programs for elderly individuals. In addition, comparing young and old able...... gains in myofibre area, in parallel with smaller increases in satellite cell number despite no age-related differences were observed in factors known to promote skeletal muscle hypertrophy and myogenic stem cell proliferation (IGF-Ea, MGF, MyoD, myogenin, HGF). Moreover, an age-specific regulation...... and satellite cell proliferation in the acute phase of re-loading, these data indicates that myostatin play an important role in the impaired ability of aged human skeletal muscle....

  4. Effects of Whey, Soy or Leucine Supplementation with 12 Weeks of Resistance Training on Strength, Body Composition, and Skeletal Muscle and Adipose Tissue Histological Attributes in College-Aged Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Brooks Mobley

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We sought to determine the effects of L-leucine (LEU or different protein supplements standardized to LEU (~3.0 g/serving on changes in body composition, strength, and histological attributes in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Seventy-five untrained, college-aged males (mean ± standard error of the mean (SE; age = 21 ± 1 years, body mass = 79.2 ± 0.3 kg were randomly assigned to an isocaloric, lipid-, and organoleptically-matched maltodextrin placebo (PLA, n = 15, LEU (n = 14, whey protein concentrate (WPC, n = 17, whey protein hydrolysate (WPH, n = 14, or soy protein concentrate (SPC, n = 15 group. Participants performed whole-body resistance training three days per week for 12 weeks while consuming supplements twice daily. Skeletal muscle and subcutaneous (SQ fat biopsies were obtained at baseline (T1 and ~72 h following the last day of training (T39. Tissue samples were analyzed for changes in type I and II fiber cross sectional area (CSA, non-fiber specific satellite cell count, and SQ adipocyte CSA. On average, all supplement groups including PLA exhibited similar training volumes and experienced statistically similar increases in total body skeletal muscle mass determined by dual X-ray absorptiometry (+2.2 kg; time p = 0.024 and type I and II fiber CSA increases (+394 μm2 and +927 μm2; time p < 0.001 and 0.024, respectively. Notably, all groups reported increasing Calorie intakes ~600–800 kcal/day from T1 to T39 (time p < 0.001, and all groups consumed at least 1.1 g/kg/day of protein at T1 and 1.3 g/kg/day at T39. There was a training, but no supplementation, effect regarding the reduction in SQ adipocyte CSA (−210 μm2; time p = 0.001. Interestingly, satellite cell counts within the WPC (p < 0.05 and WPH (p < 0.05 groups were greater at T39 relative to T1. In summary, LEU or protein supplementation (standardized to LEU content does not provide added benefit in increasing whole-body skeletal muscle mass or strength above PLA

  5. Performance of repetitive tasks induces decreased grip strength and increased fibrogenic proteins in skeletal muscle: role of force and inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir M Abdelmagid

    Full Text Available This study elucidates exposure-response relationships between performance of repetitive tasks, grip strength declines, and fibrogenic-related protein changes in muscles, and their link to inflammation. Specifically, we examined forearm flexor digitorum muscles for changes in connective tissue growth factor (CTGF; a matrix protein associated with fibrosis, collagen type I (Col1; a matrix component, and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1; an upstream modulator of CTGF and collagen, in rats performing one of two repetitive tasks, with or without anti-inflammatory drugs.To examine the roles of force versus repetition, rats performed either a high repetition negligible force food retrieval task (HRNF, or a high repetition high force handle-pulling task (HRHF, for up to 9 weeks, with results compared to trained only (TR-NF or TR-HF and normal control rats. Grip strength declined with both tasks, with the greatest declines in 9-week HRHF rats. Quantitative PCR (qPCR analyses of HRNF muscles showed increased expression of Col1 in weeks 3-9, and CTGF in weeks 6 and 9. Immunohistochemistry confirmed PCR results, and also showed greater increases of CTGF and collagen matrix in 9-week HRHF rats than 9-week HRNF rats. ELISA, and immunohistochemistry revealed greater increases of TGFB1 in TR-HF and 6-week HRHF, compared to 6-week HRNF rats. To examine the role of inflammation, results from 6-week HRHF rats were compared to rats receiving ibuprofen or anti-TNF-α treatment in HRHF weeks 4-6. Both treatments attenuated HRHF-induced increases in CTGF and fibrosis by 6 weeks of task performance. Ibuprofen attenuated TGFB1 increases and grip strength declines, matching our prior results with anti-TNFα.Performance of highly repetitive tasks was associated with force-dependent declines in grip strength and increased fibrogenic-related proteins in flexor digitorum muscles. These changes were attenuated, at least short-term, by anti-inflammatory treatments.

  6. Substantiation of health related power lifting training methodic for univeristies students with muscular skeletal apparatuse affections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San. Zhen Qiang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: substantiation of health related power lifting training methodic for universities students, who have disorders of muscular skeletal apparatus. Material: in experimental researches 126 students of 18-24 years’ age, having disorders of muscular skeletal apparatus, participated. With the help of testing we registered changes of students’ functional, physical and psycho-physiological fitness indicators. Results: optimal correlation of specific and non specific loads was found: 60% of specific and 40% of non specific. It is recommended to follow certain correlation of exercises in easy and complicated conditions: for first year students - 3:2; for second year students - 3:2; for third year - 2:3; for forth year - 2:3; for fifth year students - 1:3. Specific only for power lifting conditions and temps of students’ (with muscular skeletal apparatus affections functional, physical and psycho-physiological fitness improvement were determined. Conclusions: The requirements of the training methodic envisage correction of loads for bringing every indicator on proper level.

  7. The loss of skeletal muscle strength, mass, and quality in older adults : the health, aging and body composition study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goodpaster, Bret H; Park, Seok Won; Harris, Tamara B; Kritchevsky, Steven B; Nevitt, Michael; Schwartz, Ann V; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Tylavsky, Frances A; Visser, Marjolein; Newman, Anne B

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The loss of muscle mass is considered to be a major determinant of strength loss in aging. However, large-scale longitudinal studies examining the association between the loss of mass and strength in older adults are lacking. METHODS: Three-year changes in muscle mass and strength were

  8. THE EFFECT OF THE STATIC RELATIVE STRENGTH ON THE MAXIMUM RELATIVE RECEIVING OF OXYGEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla Elezi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on research on the sample of 263 students of age- 18 years, and used batteries of 9 tests for evaluation of the static relative strength and the criterion variable- maximum relative receiving of oxygen (VO2 ml / kg / min based on the Astrand test ,and on regression analysis to determine the influence of the static relative strength on the criterion variable maximum relative oxygen receiving, can be generally concluded that from 9 predictor variables statistically significant partial effect have 2variables. In hierarchical order, they are: the variable of static relative leg strength - endurance of the fingers (the angle of the lower leg and thigh 900 (SRL2 which arithmetic mean is 25.04 seconds and variable ctatic relative strength of arms and shoulders – push-up endurance in the balance beam (angle of the forearm and upper arm 900 ( SRA2 with arithmetic mean of 17.75 seconds. From the statistically influential significant predictor variables on the criterion variable one is from the static relative leg strength (SRL2 and the other is from the static relative strength of arm and shoulder area (SRA2. With the analysis of these relations we can conclude that the isometric contractions of the four headed thigh muscle and the isometric contractions of the three headed upper arm muscle are predominantly responsible for the successful execution of doing actions on a bicycle ergometer and not on the maximum relative receiving of oxygen.

  9. Poor physical function in elderly women in low-level aged care is related to muscle strength rather than to measures of sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Julie L; Iuliano-Burns, Sandra; King, Susannah J; Strauss, Boyd J; Walker, Karen Z

    2011-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of sarcopenia and investigate relationships among body composition, muscle strength, and physical function in elderly women in low-level aged care. Sixty-three ambulatory women (mean age 86 years) participated in this cross-sectional study where body composition was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA); ankle, knee, and hip strength by the Nicholas Manual Muscle Tester; and physical function by 'timed up and go' (TUG) and walking speed (WS) over 6 meters. Body composition data from a female reference group (n = 62, mean age 29 years) provided cut-off values for defining sarcopenia. Elderly women had higher body mass index (P sarcopenia (defined by appendicular skeletal muscle mass/height squared) whereas 37% had relative sarcopenia class II (defined by percentage skeletal muscle mass). Scores for TUG and WS indicated relatively poor physical function, yet these measures were not associated with muscle mass or indices of sarcopenia. In multivariate analysis, only hip abductor strength predicted both TUG and WS (both P = 0.01). Hip strength is a more important indicator of physical functioning than lean mass. Measurement of hip strength may therefore be a useful screening tool to detect those at risk of functional decline and requirement for additional care. Further longitudinal studies with a range of other strength measures are warranted.

  10. Mapping strengths into virtues: The relation of the 24 VIA-strengths to six ubiquitous virtues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willibald eRuch

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Values-in-Action (VIA-classification distinguishes six core virtues and 24 strengths. As the assignment of the strengths to the virtues was done on theoretical grounds it still needs empirical verification. As an alternative to factor analytic investigations the present study utilizes expert judgments. In a pilot study the conceptual overlap among five sources of knowledge (strength’s name including synonyms, short definitions, brief descriptions, longer theoretical elaborations, and item content about a particular strength was examined. The results show that the five sources converged quite well, with the short definitions and the items being slightly different from the other. All strengths exceeded a cut-off value but the convergence was much better for some strengths (e.g., zest than for others (e.g., perspective. In the main study 70 experts (from psychology, philosophy, theology, etc. and 41 laypersons rated how prototypical the strengths are for each of the six virtues. The results showed that 10 were very good markers for their virtues, 9 were good markers, four were acceptable markers, and only one strength failed to reach the cut-off score for its assigned virtue. However, strengths were often markers for two or even three virtues, and occasionally they marked the other virtue more strongly than the one they were assigned to. The virtue prototypicality ratings were slightly positively correlated with higher coefficients being found for justice and humanity. A factor analysis of the 24 strengths across the ratings yielded the six factors with an only slightly different composition of strengths and double loadings. It is proposed to adjust either the classification (by reassigning strengths and by allowing strengths to be subsumed under more than one virtue or to change the definition of certain strengths so that they only exemplify one virtue. The results are discussed in the context of factor analytic attempts to verify the

  11. Evaluating two-dimensional skeletal structure parameters using radiological bone morphometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asa, Kensuke; Sakurai, Takashi; Kashima, Isamu; Kumasaka, Satsuki

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this study was to investigate the reliability of two-dimensional (2D) skeletal structure parameters obtained using radiological bone morphometric analysis. The 2D skeletal parameters in the regions of interest (ROIs) were measured on computed radiography (CR) images of first phalanges from racehorses, using radiological bone morphometric analysis. Cancellous bone blocks were made from the phalanges in the same position as the ROI determined on CR images. Three-dimensional (3D) trabecular parameters were measured using micro-computed tomography (μCT). The correlations between the 2D skeletal parameters and 3D trabecular parameters were evaluated in relation to the measured bone strength. The following 2D skeletal structure parameters were correlated with bone strength (r=0.61-0.69): skeletal perimeter (Sk.Pm), skeletal number (Sk.N), skeletal separation (Sk.Sp), skeletal spacing (Sk.Spac), fractal dimension (FD), and skeletal pattern factor (SkPf). The 3D trabecular structure parameters were closely correlated with bone strength (r=0.74-0.86). The 2D skeletal parameters Sk.N, Sk.Pm, FD, SkPf, and Sk.Spac were correlated with the 3D trabecular parameters (r=0.61-0.70). The 2D skeletal parameters obtained using radiological bone morphometric analysis may be useful indicators of trabecular strength. (author)

  12. The List-Strength Effect in Recall: Relative-Strength Competition and Retrieval Inhibition May both Contribute to Forgetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verde, Michael F.

    2009-01-01

    According to the principle of relative-strength competition, stronger items in memory block the retrieval of weaker items. This principle, integral to many theories of forgetting over the years, derives much of its support from the list-strength effect (LSE), in which strengthening some items in a study list makes it more difficult to recall other…

  13. Skeletal muscle performance and ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieland, Michael; Trouwborst, Inez; Clark, Brian C

    2018-02-01

    The world population is ageing rapidly. As society ages, the incidence of physical limitations is dramatically increasing, which reduces the quality of life and increases healthcare expenditures. In western society, ~30% of the population over 55 years is confronted with moderate or severe physical limitations. These physical limitations increase the risk of falls, institutionalization, co-morbidity, and premature death. An important cause of physical limitations is the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass, also referred to as sarcopenia. Emerging evidence, however, clearly shows that the decline in skeletal muscle mass is not the sole contributor to the decline in physical performance. For instance, the loss of muscle strength is also a strong contributor to reduced physical performance in the elderly. In addition, there is ample data to suggest that motor coordination, excitation-contraction coupling, skeletal integrity, and other factors related to the nervous, muscular, and skeletal systems are critically important for physical performance in the elderly. To better understand the loss of skeletal muscle performance with ageing, we aim to provide a broad overview on the underlying mechanisms associated with elderly skeletal muscle performance. We start with a system level discussion and continue with a discussion on the influence of lifestyle, biological, and psychosocial factors on elderly skeletal muscle performance. Developing a broad understanding of the many factors affecting elderly skeletal muscle performance has major implications for scientists, clinicians, and health professionals who are developing therapeutic interventions aiming to enhance muscle function and/or prevent mobility and physical limitations and, as such, support healthy ageing. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Society on Sarcopenia, Cachexia and Wasting Disorders.

  14. Using relative handgrip strength to identify children at risk of sarcopenic obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Steffl

    Full Text Available Identifying children at risk of developing childhood sarcopenic obesity often requires specialized equipment and costly testing procedures, so cheaper and quicker methods would be advantageous, especially in field-based settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between the muscle-to-fat ratio (MFR and relative handgrip strength, and to determine the ability of handgrip strength relative to body mass index (grip-to-BMI to identify children who are at risk of developing sarcopenic obesity. Grip-to-BMI was measured in 730 Czech children (4 to 14 yrs. Bioelectrical impedance was used to estimate body fat mass and skeletal muscle mass, from which the MFR was calculated. The area under the curve (AUC was 0.791 (95% CI 0.692-0.890, p ˂ 0.001 in girls 4-9; 0.789 (95% CI 0.688-0.890, p ˂ 0.001 in girls 10-14 years old; 0.719 (95% CI 0.607-0.831, p = 0.001 in boys 4-9; and 0.896 (95% CI 0.823-0.969, p ˂ 0.001 in boys 10-14 years old. Calculated using the grip-to-BMI ratio, the OR (95% CI for girls to be at risk of sarcopenic obesity identified by MFR was 9.918 (4.243-23.186, p ˂ 0.001 and was 11.515 (4.280-30.982, p ˂ 0.001 for boys. The grip-to-BMI ratio can be used to predict the presence of sarcopenic obesity in children, which can play a role in pediatric health interventions.

  15. Handgrip strength and its relation with anthropometric parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Luís Fischer Eichinger

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The handgrip strength (HS is related to ADL, when reduced can lead to significant functional limitations. Its measurement allows estimating the strength general state and is a health indicator. Objective: Analyze the correlation between HS and anthropometry in box genders. Methods: This is a descriptive correlational study with 100 healthy individuals, aged between 17 and 40 years, 50 men, mean age 28.0 years (± 7.0 and 50 women, mean age 23 years (± 4.2. We evaluated HS and forearm, wrist and hand perimeter. Statistical analyzes were obtained using means, standard deviations and Pearson Correlation Test. Results: Compared to women, men had higher HS mean values on both sides. Men showed 49.0 kgf (± 8.3 on the right and 46.0 kgf (± 8.5 on the left side; while women showed 26.0 kgf (± 5.4 on the right side and 24.0 kgf (± 5.3 on the left side. Discussion: The hand perimeter was the only anthropometric data that showed a significant correlation with the HS in both genders. The forearm and wrist perimeter was only significant in men, with a slight difference between the sides; the right side prevails over the left. Although women showed no significant correlations with the HS it was noted discrepancy of force in relation to laterality, with a predominance of HS on the right side. Conclusions: We conclude that there is a correlation between HS and anthropometry, and that laterality and gender are factors influencing HS.

  16. Role of histidine-related compounds to intracellular buffering in fish skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, H; Dobson, G P; Hoeger, U; Parkhouse, W S

    1985-10-01

    Histidine-related compounds (HRC) were analyzed in fish skeletal muscle as a means of identifying their precise role in intracellular buffering. Fish muscle was used because it contains two functionally and spatially distinct fiber types, red and white. Two fish species, rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) and the Pacific blue marlin (Makaira nigricans), were studied because these species demonstrate widely different activity patterns. Marlin red and white muscle buffer capacity was two times higher than trout with white muscle, buffering being two times greater than red in both species. Buffer capacity was highest in the 6.5-7.5 pH range for all tissues, which corresponded to their high anserine levels. The titrated HRC buffering was greater than the observed HRC buffering, which suggested that not all HRC were available to absorb protons. The HRC contribution to total cellular buffering varied from a high of 62% for marlin white to a low of 7% for trout red. The other principal buffers were found to be phosphate and protein with taurine contributing within red muscle in the 7.0-8.0 pH range. HRC were found to be dominant in skeletal muscle buffering by principally accounting for the buffering capacity differences found between the species and fiber types.

  17. Degree of Contracture Related to Residual Muscle Shoulder Strength in Children with Obstetric Brachial Plexus Lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gelein Vitringa, V. M.; van Noort, A.; Ritt, M.J.P.F.; van Royen, B.J.; van der Sluijs, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Little is known about the relation between residual muscle strength and joint contracture formation in neuromuscular disorders. This study aimed to investigate the relation between residual muscle strength and shoulder joint contractures in children with sequelae of

  18. Increased skeletal muscle 11βHSD1 mRNA is associated with lower muscle strength in ageing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alixe H M Kilgour

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia, the loss of muscle mass and function with age, is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Current understanding of the underlying mechanisms is limited. Glucocorticoids (GC in excess cause muscle weakness and atrophy. We hypothesized that GC may contribute to sarcopenia through elevated circulating levels or increased glucocorticoid receptor (GR signaling by increased expression of either GR or the GC-amplifying enzyme 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11βHSD1 in muscle.There were 82 participants; group 1 comprised 33 older men (mean age 70.2 years, SD 4.4 and 19 younger men (22.2 years, 1.7 and group 2 comprised 16 older men (79.1 years, 3.4 and 14 older women (80.1 years, 3.7. We measured muscle strength, mid-thigh cross-sectional area, fasting morning plasma cortisol, quadriceps muscle GR and 11βHSD1 mRNA, and urinary glucocorticoid metabolites. Data were analysed using multiple linear regression adjusting for age, gender and body size.Muscle strength and size were not associated with plasma cortisol, total urinary glucocorticoids or the ratio of urinary 5β-tetrahydrocortisol +5α-tetrahydrocortisol to tetrahydrocortisone (an index of systemic 11βHSD activity. Muscle strength was associated with 11βHSD1 mRNA levels (β -0.35, p = 0.04, but GR mRNA levels were not significantly associated with muscle strength or size.Although circulating levels of GC are not associated with muscle strength or size in either gender, increased cortisol generation within muscle by 11βHSD1 may contribute to loss of muscle strength with age, a key component of sarcopenia. Inhibition of 11βHSD1 may have therapeutic potential in sarcopenia.

  19. Sex-related differences in gene expression in human skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Welle

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There is sexual dimorphism of skeletal muscle, the most obvious feature being the larger muscle mass of men. The molecular basis for this difference has not been clearly defined. To identify genes that might contribute to the relatively greater muscularity of men, we compared skeletal muscle gene expression profiles of 15 normal men and 15 normal women by using comprehensive oligonucleotide microarrays. Although there were sex-related differences in expression of several hundred genes, very few of the differentially expressed genes have functions that are obvious candidates for explaining the larger muscle mass of men. The men tended to have higher expression of genes encoding mitochondrial proteins, ribosomal proteins, and a few translation initiation factors. The women had >2-fold greater expression than the men (P<0.0001 of two genes that encode proteins in growth factor pathways known to be important in regulating muscle mass: growth factor receptor-bound 10 (GRB10 and activin A receptor IIB (ACVR2B. GRB10 encodes a protein that inhibits insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 signaling. ACVR2B encodes a myostatin receptor. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed higher expression of GRB10 and ACVR2B genes in these women. In an independent microarray study of 10 men and 9 women with facioscapulohumeral dystrophy, women had higher expression of GRB10 (2.7-fold, P<0.001 and ACVR2B (1.7-fold, P<0.03. If these sex-related differences in mRNA expression lead to reduced IGF-1 activity and increased myostatin activity, they could contribute to the sex difference in muscle size.

  20. Age-related changes in expression of the neural cell adhesion molecule in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Olsen, M; Zhernosekov, D

    1993-01-01

    Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is expressed by muscle and involved in muscle-neuron and muscle-muscle cell interactions. The expression in muscle is regulated during myogenesis and by the state of innervation. In aged muscle, both neurogenic and myogenic degenerative processes occur. We here...... report quantitative and qualitative changes in NCAM protein and mRNA forms during aging in normal rat skeletal muscle. Determination of the amount of NCAM by e.l.i.s.a. showed that the level decreased from perinatal to adult age, followed by a considerable increase in 24-month-old rat muscle. Thus NCAM...... concentration in aged muscle was sixfold higher than in young adult muscle. In contrast with previous reports, NCAM polypeptides of 200, 145, 125 and 120 kDa were observed by immunoblotting throughout postnatal development and aging, the relative proportions of the individual NCAM polypeptides remaining...

  1. RYR1-related rhabdomyolysis: A common but probably underdiagnosed manifestation of skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voermans, N C; Snoeck, M; Jungbluth, H

    2016-10-01

    Mutations in the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RYR1) gene are associated with a wide spectrum of inherited myopathies presenting throughout life. Malignant hyperthermia susceptibility (MHS)-related RYR1 mutations have emerged as a common cause of exertional rhabdomyolysis, accounting for up to 30% of rhabdomyolysis episodes in otherwise healthy individuals. Common triggers are exercise and heat and, less frequently, viral infections, alcohol and drugs. Most subjects are normally strong and have no personal or family history of malignant hyperthermia. Heat intolerance and cold-induced muscle stiffness may be a feature. Recognition of this (probably not uncommon) rhabdomyolysis cause is vital for effective counselling, to identify potentially malignant hyperthermia-susceptible individuals and to adapt training regimes. Studies in various animal models provide insights regarding possible pathophysiological mechanisms and offer therapeutic perspectives. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  2. Anabolic Steroids and Strength and Power Related Athletic Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, David R.

    1980-01-01

    The efficacy of steroids in development of muscular strength in athletes is not proven. Their long-term use is increasingly being associated with liver disorders, including liver cancer, and other health problems. (JD)

  3. Different doses of supplemental vitamin D maintain interleukin-5 without altering skeletal muscle strength: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in vitamin D sufficient adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barker Tyler

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Supplemental vitamin D modulates inflammatory cytokines and skeletal muscle function, but results are inconsistent. It is unknown if these inconsistencies are dependent on the supplemental dose of vitamin D. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify the influence of different doses of supplemental vitamin D on inflammatory cytokines and muscular strength in young adults. Methods Men (n = 15 and women (n = 15 received a daily placebo or vitamin D supplement (200 or 4000 IU for 28-d during the winter. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD, cytokine concentrations and muscular (leg strength measurements were performed prior to and during supplementation. Statistical significance of data were assessed with a two-way (time, treatment analysis of variance (ANOVA with repeated measures, followed by a Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference to test multiple pairwise comparisons. Results Upon enrollment, 63% of the subjects were vitamin D sufficient (serum 25(OHD ≥ 30 ng/ml. Serum 25(OHD and interleukin (IL-5 decreased (P P P P Conclusion In young adults who were vitamin D sufficient prior to supplementation, we conclude that a low-daily dose of supplemental vitamin D prevents serum 25(OHD and IL-5 concentration decreases, and that muscular strength does not parallel the 25(OHD increase induced by a high-daily dose of supplemental vitamin D. Considering that IL-5 protects against viruses and bacterial infections, these findings could have a broad physiological importance regarding the ability of vitamin D sufficiency to mediate the immune systems protection against infection.

  4. The German Version of the Strengths Use Scale: The Relation of Using Individual Strengths and Well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Huber

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical perspectives in positive psychology have considered the possession and use of strengths equally but in applied research more studies focused on having them, probably due to the absence of psychometrically adequate scales. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the psychometric characteristics of the German language version of the Strengths Use Scale (SUS and to explore relationships between strengths use and several indicator measures of well-being: the presence of positive and the absence of negative affect, self-esteem as identity aspect, vitality as self-regulatory resource, and stress for capturing the evaluation of difficulties and obstacles impinging on well-being. The original English version of the SUS was translated following recommended independent forward-backward translation techniques. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted, including a German-speaking convenience sample of university students (N = 374. Additionally, the relations of strengths use and well-being indicators were analyzed. Factorial validity revealed a single-factor structure of the German version of the SUS, explaining 58.4% variance (factor loadings: 0.58 to 0.86, approving the scale’s design and showing high internal consistency (Cronbach’s α 0.95. The hypothesized positive relationships of strengths use with positive affect, self-esteem, and vitality were confirmed as well as the negative relationships with negative affect and stress. The German version of the SUS is psychometrically sound and data indicate that individual strengths use and well-being related measures interact. The instrument can be recommended for future research questions such as if and how the promotion of applying individual strengths during education enhances levels of well-being, or how the implementation of strengths use in job-design guidelines or working conditions can result in higher levels of well-being or healthiness.

  5. Nutrient-rich dairy proteins improve appendicular skeletal muscle mass and physical performance, and attenuate the loss of muscle strength in older men and women subjects: a single-blind randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alemán-Mateo H

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Heliodoro Alemán-Mateo,1 Virginia Ramírez Carreón,1 Liliana Macías,1 Humberto Astiazaran-García,1 Ana Cristina Gallegos-Aguilar,1 José Rogelio Ramos Enríquez2 1Coordinación de Nutrición, Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo, A.C., 2Laboratorio de Análisis Clínicos e Investigación, Departamento de Ciencias Químico Biológicas, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Mexico Background: At present, it is unknown whether the use of nutrient-rich dairy proteins improves the markers of sarcopenia syndrome. Therefore, our proposal was to investigate whether ­adding 210 g of ricotta cheese daily would improve skeletal muscle mass, handgrip strength, and ­physical performance in non-sarcopenic older subjects.Subjects and methods: This was a single-blind randomized clinical trial that included two homogeneous, randomized groups of men and women over 60 years of age. Participants in the intervention group were asked to consume their habitual diet but add 210 g of ricotta cheese (IG/HD + RCH, while the control group was instructed to consume only their habitual diet (CG/HD. Basal and 12-week follow-up measurements included appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASMM by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, handgrip strength by a handheld dynamometer, and physical performance using the short physical performance battery (SPPB and the stair-climb power test (SCPT. The main outcomes were relative changes in ASMM, strength, SPPB, and SCPT.Results: ASMM increased in the IG/HD + RCH (0.6±3.5 kg, but decreased in the CG/HD (–1.0±2.6. The relative change between groups was statistically significant (P=0.009. The relative change in strength in both groups was negative, but the loss of muscle strength was more pronounced in CG/HD, though in this regard statistical analysis found only a tendency (P=0.07. The relative change in the balance-test scores was positive for the IG/HD + RCH, while in the CG/HD it was negative, as those individuals had

  6. Glucose metabolism and metabolic flexibility in cultured skeletal muscle cells is related to exercise status in young male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Jenny; S Tangen, Daniel; Wiig, Håvard

    2018-01-01

    deoxyglucose accumulation and fractional glucose oxidation (glucose oxidation relative to glucose uptake), and were also more sensitive to the suppressive action of acutely added oleic acid to the cells. Despite lack of correlation of fibre types between skeletal muscle biopsies and cultured cells, myotubes...

  7. Sucrose nonfermenting AMPK-related kinase (SNARK) mediates contraction-stimulated glucose transport in mouse skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koh, Ho-Jin; Toyoda, Taro; Fujii, Nobuharu

    2010-01-01

    The signaling mechanisms that mediate the important effects of contraction to increase glucose transport in skeletal muscle are not well understood, but are known to occur through an insulin-independent mechanism. Muscle-specific knockout of LKB1, an upstream kinase for AMPK and AMPK-related prot...

  8. Poor physical function in elderly women in low-level aged care is related to muscle strength rather than to measures of sarcopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie L Woods

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Julie L Woods1, Sandra Iuliano-Burns2, Susannah J King1, Boyd J Strauss1, Karen Z Walker11Nutrition and Dietetics Department, Monash University, Victoria, Australia; 2Endocrine Centre of Excellence, Department of Medicine, Austin Health, University of Melbourne, West Heidelberg, AustraliaPurpose: To determine the prevalence of sarcopenia and investigate relationships among body composition, muscle strength, and physical function in elderly women in low-level aged care.Subjects and methods: Sixty-three ambulatory women (mean age 86 years participated in this cross-sectional study where body composition was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA; ankle, knee, and hip strength by the Nicholas Manual Muscle Tester; and physical function by ‘timed up and go’ (TUG and walking speed (WS over 6 meters. Body composition data from a female reference group (n = 62, mean age 29 years provided cut-off values for defining sarcopenia.Results: Elderly women had higher body mass index (P < 0.001, lower lean mass (P < 0.001, and higher fat mass (P < 0.01 than the young reference group. Only a small proportion (3.2% had absolute sarcopenia (defined by appendicular skeletal muscle mass/height squared whereas 37% had relative sarcopenia class II (defined by percentage skeletal muscle mass. Scores for TUG and WS indicated relatively poor physical function, yet these measures were not associated with muscle mass or indices of sarcopenia. In multivariate analysis, only hip abductor strength predicted both TUG and WS (both P = 0.01.Conclusion: Hip strength is a more important indicator of physical functioning than lean mass. Measurement of hip strength may therefore be a useful screening tool to detect those at risk of functional decline and requirement for additional care. Further longitudinal studies with a range of other strength measures are warranted.Keywords: aged care, body composition, muscle strength, sarcopenia 

  9. Relating wood properties to handsheet porosity and mechanical strength

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maharaj, S

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available , 4041 3CSIR, Forestry and Forest Products Research Centre, P.O. Box 17001, Congella, 4013 WOOD HAND-SHEET (STRENGTH) PROCESSING Anatomy Chemistry Density Tear Tensile Burst Background Variation in pulp mills •Need to predict quality of end... important concepts… Some important concepts… • Collapsibility and inter-fibre bonding Light Microscopy SEM • Tear – Fibre level: pull-out vs. breaking/rupture Some important concepts… •Fibre breakage / rupture: less energy = lower tear strength...

  10. RELATION BETWEEN THE PHYSICAL WORKING CAPACITY (PWC170 AND STATIC RELATIVE STRENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla Elezi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Determining the relationship within the segments, and establish the correlation between the functional and motor areas may be important for programming load both in education and in sports and recreation. For this reason we set goals and work this year. The main objective of this research is to determine association and motor characteristics impact on functional ability (physical work capacity. The sample is defined as a sample of 263 respondents drawn from the population of secondary schools: Gymnasium Zenel Hajdini; Marin Barleti and Mehmet Isai in city of Gjilan. Nine tests were used to estimate motoric capabilities and a test of functional capacity of aerobic-type (physical work capacity. To determine the relation between the predictor (motor variables and criterion variables (physical working capacity - PWC170 it is prepared the regression analysis of the manifest space. Analyses were made to the program SPSS 12.0 for Windows. The connection of the entire system of variables static relative strength with a score of Physics working capacity (PWC170 on a bicycle ergo meter as aerobic type variable explains the coefficient of multiple correlations, which is RO 0.394. Regression analysis indicates that the better results on a bicycle ergo meter will have respondents who score better in tests of static relative strength of the leg (at the test isometric muscle contraction quadriceps thighs and static tests of the relative strength of arm and shoulder area (at the test of isometric contraction triceps muscle circumference.

  11. Relation between body mass index percentile and muscle strength ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Noha Abdel Kader Abdel Kader Hasan

    2016-02-01

    Feb 1, 2016 ... Abstract Background: Muscle strength and endurance in children are very important to develop physical .... the Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo university, was used to ..... [9] Noelle G. Quantification of muscle fatigue in cerebral palsy and ... Bouckaert J. Physical fitness and physical activity in obese and.

  12. Indoor mobility-related fatigue and muscle strength in nonagenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mänty, Minna; Ekmann, Anette; Thinggaard, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    needs to be considered when interpreting the results. Accordingly, participants without fatigue had significantly higher chances of being alive and having muscle strength above gender-specific median at first (RR 1.32, 95 % CI 1.07-1.58), second (RR 1.51, 1.06-1.96) and third (RR 1.39, 1...

  13. Age related changes in erythrocyte A and B antigen strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, J W; Hamilton, H B; Ishii, Goro

    1961-11-01

    The strength of A and B antigens of the erythrocyte, as indicated by agglutinability with dilutions of specific antibody, has been investigated in a group of subjects in Hiroshima. Antigen strength was found to rise to maximal levels at age 25 to 29, and decline with advancing years. Degree of irradiation from the Hiroshima atomic bomb in 1945 did not appear in the limited sample to affect this age-dependent structural property of erythrocytes. Antigen strength of females was somewhat less than that of males for those individuals from 20 to 40 years of age. When compared with group A or B subjects, individuals of group AB demonstrated full strength of both A and B antigens. Since Rh antigenicity also has been reported to change with age, it seems probable that multiple changes in the erythrocyte membrane occur with age. Further investigation into the nature of these changes may be fruitful to an understanding of aging processes at the cellular level. 13 references, 1 figure, 6 tables.

  14. Strength and related properties of concrete: A quantitative approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovics, S. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1998-12-31

    The science and technology of concrete have been based almost exclusively on empirical knowledge. The description of concrete properties and behavior was therefore by necessity mostly of qualitative nature. The author, a recognized expert in the field, has attempted to present a very special state-of-the-art report in such a way that it can point in the direction of rationalizing the theory. The overall goal can be stated as follows: Given the properties of the various components of concrete, the mix proportions, etc., can one compute important properties, such as strength, of the end product? The quantitative approach mentioned in the subtitle is meant to assist in achieving this objective. It is so ambitious an undertaking that it could not succeed. In fact, judging from the preface, it can be assumed that the author himself did not expect to succeed, but rather be content with setting the stage for other researchers to take off from. The book fills an important void in the specialized concrete literature. The lack of rational relationships in this empirical science makes it very difficult to teach to students and to present it in an interesting manner. Yet, it is not written with the undergraduate student in mind. The enormous collection of data from the literature makes it a treasure trove for researchers and, to a lesser extent, for practicing engineers. For simple relationships such as those between cube strength and cylinder strength, this is the book to look for. The 75-page bibliography is impressive. The intentional limitation of the book`s scope to concrete limits its applicability, especially since it is now being recognized that properties of concrete other than strength may be equally if not more important than strength.

  15. Skeletal muscle phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine are related to insulin sensitivity and respond to acute exercise in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, Sean A; Brozinick, Joseph T; Kiseljak-Vassiliades, Katja; Strauss, Allison N; Bacon, Samantha D; Kerege, Anna A; Bui, Hai Hoang; Sanders, Phil; Siddall, Parker; Wei, Tao; Thomas, Melissa; Kuo, Ming Shang; Nemkov, Travis; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Hansen, Kirk C; Perreault, Leigh; Bergman, Bryan C

    2016-06-01

    Several recent reports indicate that the balance of skeletal muscle phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is a key determinant of muscle contractile function and metabolism. The purpose of this study was to determine relationships between skeletal muscle PC, PE and insulin sensitivity, and whether PC and PE are dynamically regulated in response to acute exercise in humans. Insulin sensitivity was measured via intravenous glucose tolerance in sedentary obese adults (OB; n = 14), individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D; n = 15), and endurance-trained athletes (ATH; n = 15). Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained at rest, immediately after 90 min of cycle ergometry at 50% maximal oxygen consumption (V̇o2 max), and 2-h postexercise (recovery). Skeletal muscle PC and PE were measured via infusion-based mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry analysis. ATH had greater levels of muscle PC and PE compared with OB and T2D (P insulin sensitivity (both P insulin sensitivity among the entire cohort (r = -0.43, P = 0.01). Muscle PC and PE were altered by exercise, particularly after 2 h of recovery, in a highly group-specific manner. However, muscle PC:PE ratio remained unchanged in all groups. In summary, total muscle PC and PE are positively related to insulin sensitivity while PC:PE ratio is inversely related to insulin sensitivity in humans. A single session of exercise significantly alters skeletal muscle PC and PE levels, but not PC:PE ratio. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Low-Dose, Ionizing Radiation and Age-Related Changes in Skeletal Microarchitecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua S. Alwood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis can profoundly affect the aged as a consequence of progressive bone loss; high-dose ionizing radiation can cause similar changes, although less is known about lower doses (≤100 cGy. We hypothesized that exposure to relatively low doses of gamma radiation accelerates structural changes characteristic of skeletal aging. Mice (C57BL/6J-10 wk old, male were irradiated (total body; 0-sham, 1, 10 or 100 cGy 137Cs and tissues harvested on the day of irradiation, 1 or 4 months later. Microcomputed tomography was used to quantify microarchitecture of high turnover, cancellous bone. Irradiation at 100 cGy caused transient microarchitectural changes over one month that were only evident at longer times in controls (4 months. Ex vivo bone cell differentiation from the marrow was unaffected by gamma radiation. In conclusion, acute ionizing gamma irradiation at 100 cGy (but not at 1 cGy or 10 cGy exacerbated microarchitectural changes normally found during progressive, postpubertal aging prior to the onset of age-related osteoporosis.

  17. Skeletal fluorosis in relation to drinking water in rural areas of West Azerbaijan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Ali Akbar; Yousefi, Mahmood; Yaseri, Mehdi; Jalilzadeh, Mohsen; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2017-12-11

    Skeletal fluorosis resulting from high fluoride level in drinking water is a major public health problem. The present study evaluated the association between exposures to drinking water fluoride and skeletal fluorosis in 5 villages of Poldasht County, Iran. All the data and information on the prevalence of bone diseases were obtained from the Health Record Department, Poldasht Health Centre. To obtain the odds ratio of bone disease problem in different risk factors, when considering the cluster effect of rural area, logistic regression in a multilevel model was used. Results showed that skeletal fluorosis of people who live in areas with high fluoride concentration is 18.1% higher than that of individuals who live in areas with low fluoride concentration. Skeletal fluorosis (54.5%) was observed in the age group of 71 years and above, and was more commonly found in females than males. According to Unadjusted, individuals who consume ≤3 unit milk and dairy products per week have almost the same level of bone diseases as compared to those that consume more than 3 units. This study indicated that, skeletal fluorosis is a general health problem in these rural areas because the results revealed that high percentage of the studied population had symptoms of skeletal fluorosis.

  18. Insulin signal transduction in skeletal muscle from glucose-intolerant relatives of type 2 diabetic patients [corrected

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, H; Song, X M; Jensen, C B

    2001-01-01

    before and during a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. IGT relatives were insulin-resistant in oxidative and nonoxidative pathways for glucose metabolism. In vivo insulin infusion increased skeletal muscle insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) tyrosine phosphorylation (P = 0.01) and phosphatidylinositide......To determine whether defects in the insulin signal transduction cascade are present in skeletal muscle from prediabetic individuals, we excised biopsies from eight glucose-intolerant male first-degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes (IGT relatives) and nine matched control subjects...... 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) activity (phosphotyrosine and IRS-1 associated) in control subjects (P increase in insulin action on IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation was lower in IGT relatives versus control subjects (P

  19. Relative strength of tailor's bunion osteotomies and fixation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddon, Todd B; LaPointe, Stephan J

    2013-01-01

    A paucity of data is available on the mechanical strength of fifth metatarsal osteotomies. The present study was designed to provide that information. Five osteotomies were mechanically tested to failure using a materials testing machine and compared with an intact fifth metatarsal using a hollow saw bone model with a sample size of 10 for each construct. The osteotomies tested were the distal reverse chevron fixated with a Kirschner wire, the long plantar reverse chevron osteotomy fixated with 2 screws, a mid-diaphyseal sagittal plane osteotomy fixated with 2 screws, the mid-diaphyseal sagittal plane osteotomy fixated with 2 screws, and an additional cerclage wire and a transverse closing wedge osteotomy fixated with a box wire technique. Analysis of variance was performed, resulting in a statistically significant difference among the data at p chevron was statistically the strongest construct at 130 N, followed by the long plantar osteotomy at 78 N. The chevron compared well with the control at 114 N, and they both fractured at the proximal model to fixture interface. The other osteotomies were statistically and significantly weaker than both the chevron and the long plantar constructs, with no statistically significant difference among them at 36, 39, and 48 N. In conclusion, the chevron osteotomy was superior in strength to the sagittal and transverse plane osteotomies and similar in strength and failure to the intact model. Copyright © 2013 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Age-related changes in thoracic skeletal geometry of elderly females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, Sven A; Wang, Stewart C; Grotberg, James B

    2017-05-29

    Both females and the elderly have been identified as vulnerable populations with increased injury and mortality risk in multiple crash scenarios. Particularly in frontal impacts, older females show higher risk to the chest and thorax than their younger or male counterparts. Thoracic geometry plays a role in this increase, and this study aims to quantify key parts of that geometry in a way that can directly inform human body models that incorporate the concept of person age. Computed tomography scans from 2 female subject groups aged 20-35 and 65-99 were selected from the International Center for Automotive Medicine scan database representing young and old female populations. A model of thoracic skeletal anatomy was built for each subject from independent parametric models of the spine, ribs, and sternum, along with further parametric models of those components' spatial relationships. Parameter values between the 2 groups are directly compared, and average parameter values within each group are used to generate statistically average skeletal geometry for young and old females. In addition to the anatomic measures explicitly used in the parameterization scheme, key measures of rib cage depth and spine curvature are taken from both the underlying subject pool and from the resultant representative geometries. Statistically significant differences were seen between the young and old groups' spine and rib anatomic components, with no significant differences in local sternal geometry found. Vertebral segments in older females had higher angles relative to their inferior neighbors, providing a quantification of the kyphotic curvature known to be associated with age. Ribs in older females had greater end-to-end span, greater aspect ratio, and reduced out-of-plane deviation, producing an elongated and overall flatter curvature that leads to distal rib ends extending further anteriorly in older individuals. Combined differences in spine curvature and rib geometry led to an 18

  1. Sex and Gender Related Health Status Differences in Ancient and Contemporary Skeletal Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velissaria Vanna

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Human skeletal and dental remains are an invaluable source of information for interpreting the way of life of past people and also provide the only direct evidence of non-living populations’ health status. This research paper discusses the sex-related health differences observed in two skeletal populations from Greece, an ancient and a modern, by employing multiple health indicators, and aims at determining the biological and possible social factors that contribute to this variation. Particular emphasis is given to the importance of hypotheses-driven, population-based studies of human remains as the most effective means of reconstructing life in the past. The results showed that fracture ('ancient': females 0.08%, males 0.12%; 'modern': females 0.38%, males 0.19% and osteoarthritis ('ancient': females 0.7%, males: 3.0%; 'modern': females 4.4%, males 3.2% frequencies were higher for male individuals than females in the ancient population, which can be explained by greater engagement in strenuous and risky activity. Dental caries ('ancient': females 1.2%, males 1.8%; 'modern': females 23.6%, males 17.4% and ante-mortem tooth loss ('ancient': females 12.3%, males 7.7%; 'modern': females 69.5%, males 49.5% rates were higher for females than males (with the exception of the almost equal caries rates for the ancient population, most likely due to hormonal fluctuations, saliva content and flow, because female teeth erupt earlier and also perhaps as a result of differences in dietary habits. Periodontitis levels were more elevated in males ('ancient': females 9.6%, males 30.1%; 'modern': females 29.1%, males 38.3%, possibly due to poor oral hygiene practices and excessive masticatory loading. Dental enamel defects rates showed that in the ancient population, males had more chances of surviving childhood stress than females (females 19.5%, males 20.0%, whereas, in the modern population, the exact opposite was the case (females 6.1%, males 22.7%.

  2. Skeletal-related events in urological cancer patients with bone metastasis. A multicenter study in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokomizo, Akira; Koga, Hirofumi; Shinohara, Nobuo

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the incidence of skeletal-related events (SRE) in urological cancer patients with bone metastases in Japan. Five hundred eleven patients with urological cancer and documented bone metastases treated from January 2003 to April 2008 in ten Japanese institutions were included in a retrospective analysis. Type and incidence of SRE (fracture, radiotherapy, spinal cord compression, surgery, hypercalcemia, and bone pain) were determined from patient medical records. The overall incidence of SRE, including 'pain', was 61%. The most common event was radiotherapy for bone metastases, with an incidence of 31%. The overall incidence of events seemed to be similar among Japanese and Western patients with prostate cancer and renal cell carcinoma when comparing data with previously published reports. Nevertheless, a much lower incidence of fracture (19.1%) was observed in Japanese renal cell carcinoma patients. The overall incidence of SRE in Japanese urological cancer patients with bone metastasis was similar to that in Western patients, but the incidence of fracture was lower in Japanese renal cancer patients. (author)

  3. Age-related skeletal muscle decline is similar in HIV-infected and uninfected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarasheski, Kevin E; Scherzer, Rebecca; Kotler, Donald P; Dobs, Adrian S; Tien, Phyllis C; Lewis, Cora E; Kronmal, Richard A; Heymsfield, Steven B; Bacchetti, Peter; Grunfeld, Carl

    2011-03-01

    Skeletal muscle (SM) mass decreases with advanced age and with disease in HIV infection. It is unknown whether age-related muscle loss is accelerated in the current era of antiretroviral therapy and which factors might contribute to muscle loss among HIV-infected adults. We hypothesized that muscle mass would be lower and decline faster in HIV-infected adults than in similar-aged controls. Whole-body (1)H-magnetic resonance imaging was used to quantify regional and total SM in 399 HIV-infected and 204 control men and women at baseline and 5 years later. Multivariable regression identified associated factors. At baseline and Year 5, total SM was lower in HIV-infected than control men. HIV-infected women were similar to control women at both time points. After adjusting for demographics, lifestyle factors, and total adipose tissue, HIV infection was associated with lower Year 5 SM in men and higher SM in women compared with controls. Average overall 5-year change in total SM was small and age related, but rate of change was similar in HIV-infected and control men and women. CD4 count and efavirenz use in HIV-infected participants were associated with increasing SM, whereas age and stavudine use were associated with decreasing SM. Muscle mass was lower in HIV-infected men compared with controls, whereas HIV-infected women had slightly higher SM than control women after multivariable adjustment. We found evidence against substantially faster SM decline in HIV infected versus similar-aged controls. SM gain was associated with increasing CD4 count, whereas stavudine use may contribute to SM loss.

  4. Relationship between tongue strength, lip strength, and nutrition-related sarcopenia in older rehabilitation inpatients: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakai K

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Kotomi Sakai,1,2 Enri Nakayama,2 Haruka Tohara,3 Keiji Kodama,4 Takahiro Takehisa,5 Yozo Takehisa,6 Koichiro Ueda2 1Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Setagaya Memorial Hospital, 2Department of Dysphagia Rehabilitation, Nihon University School of Dentistry, 3Gerodontology and Oral Rehabilitation, Department of Gerontology and Gerodontology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 4Department of Internal Medicine, 5Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Setagaya Memorial Hospital, Tokyo, 6Department of Internal Medicine, Hakuai Memorial Hospital, Tokushima, Japan Objective: The objective of this study was to clarify the relationship between tongue strength, lip strength, and nutrition-related sarcopenia (NRS.Patients and methods: A total of 201 older inpatients aged ≥65 years (70 men, median age: 84 years, interquartile range: 79–89 years consecutively admitted for rehabilitation were included in this cross-sectional study. The main factors evaluated were the presence of NRS diagnosed by malnutrition using the Mini-Nutrition Assessment – Short Form, sarcopenia based on the criteria of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia, tongue strength, and lip strength. Other factors such as age, sex, comorbidity, physical function, cognitive function, and oral intake level were also assessed.Results: In all, 78 (38.8% patients were allocated to the NRS group, and 123 (61.2% patients were allocated to the non-NRS group. The median tongue strength and lip strength (interquartile range were significantly lower in the NRS group (tongue: 22.9 kPa [17.7–27.7 kPa] and lip: 7.2 N [5.6–9.8 N] compared with the non-NRS group (tongue: 29.7 kPa [24.8–35.1 kPa] and lip: 9.9 N [8.4–12.3 N], P<0.001 for both. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that NRS was independently associated with tongue strength (odds ratio [OR] =0.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.87–0.98, P=0.012 and lip

  5. Inorganic Polymer Matrix Composite Strength Related to Interface Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bridge

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Resin transfer molding of an inorganic polymer binder was successfully demonstrated in the preparation of ceramic fiber reinforced engine exhaust valves. Unfortunately, in the preliminary processing trials, the resulting composite valves were too brittle for in-engine evaluation. To address this limited toughness, the effectiveness of a modified fiber-matrix interface is investigated through the use of carbon as a model material fiber coating. After sequential heat treatments composites molded from uncoated and carbon coated fibers are compared using room temperature 3-point bend testing. Carbon coated Nextel fiber reinforced geopolymer composites demonstrated a 50% improvement in strength, versus that of the uncoated fiber reinforced composites, after the 250 °C postcure.

  6. Sucrose nonfermenting AMPK-related kinase (SNARK) mediates contraction-stimulated glucose transport in mouse skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Koh, Ho-Jin; Toyoda, Taro; Fujii, Nobuharu; Jung, Michelle M.; Rathod, Amee; Middelbeek, R. Jan-Willem; Lessard, Sarah J.; Treebak, Jonas T.; Tsuchihara, Katsuya; Esumi, Hiroyasu; Richter, Erik A.; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F. P.; Hirshman, Michael F.; Goodyear, Laurie J.

    2010-01-01

    The signaling mechanisms that mediate the important effects of contraction to increase glucose transport in skeletal muscle are not well understood, but are known to occur through an insulin-independent mechanism. Muscle-specific knockout of LKB1, an upstream kinase for AMPK and AMPK-related protein kinases, significantly inhibited contraction-stimulated glucose transport. This finding, in conjunction with previous studies of ablated AMPKα2 activity showing no effect on contraction-stimulated...

  7. Loss of knee-extension strength is related to knee swelling after total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kristensen, Morten T; Bencke, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    To examine whether changes in knee-extension strength and functional performance are related to knee swelling after total knee arthroplasty (TKA).......To examine whether changes in knee-extension strength and functional performance are related to knee swelling after total knee arthroplasty (TKA)....

  8. The p27 Pathway Modulates the Regulation of Skeletal Growth and Osteoblastic Bone Formation by Parathyroid Hormone-Related Peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Zhang, Jing; Dong, Zhan; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Rong; Karaplis, Andrew; Goltzman, David; Miao, Dengshun

    2015-11-01

    Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) 1-84 knock-in mice (Pthrp KI) develop skeletal growth retardation and defective osteoblastic bone formation. To further examine the mechanisms underlying this phenotype, microarray analyses of differential gene expression profiles were performed in long bone extracts from Pthrp KI mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates. We found that the expression levels of p27, p16, and p53 were significantly upregulated in Pthrp KI mice relative to WT littermates. To determine whether p27 was involved in the regulation by PTHrP of skeletal growth and development in vivo, we generated compound mutant mice, which were homozygous for both p27 deletion and the Pthrp KI mutation (p27(-/-) Pthrp KI). We then compared p27(-/-) Pthrp KI mice with p27(-/-), Pthrp KI, and WT littermates. Deletion of p27 in Pthrp KI mice resulted in a longer lifespan, increased body weight, and improvement in skeletal growth. At 2 weeks of age, skeletal parameters, including length of long bones, size of epiphyses, numbers of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive chondrocytes, bone mineral density, trabecular bone volume, osteoblast numbers, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-, type I collagen-, and osteocalcin-positive bone areas were increased in p27(-/-) mice and reduced in both Pthrp KI and p27(-/-) Pthrp KI mice compared with WT mice; however, these parameters were increased in p27(-/-) Pthrp KI mice compared with Pthrp KI mice. As well, protein expression levels of PTHR, IGF-1, and Bmi-1, and the numbers of total colony-forming unit fibroblastic (CFU-f) and ALP-positive CFU-f were similarly increased in p27(-/-) Pthrp KI mice compared with Pthrp KI mice. Our results demonstrate that deletion of p27 in Pthrp KI mice can partially rescue defects in skeletal growth and osteoblastic bone formation by enhancing endochondral bone formation and osteogenesis. These studies, therefore, indicate that the p27 pathway may function downstream in the action

  9. The relationships of character strengths with coping, work-related stress, and job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harzer, Claudia; Ruch, Willibald

    2015-01-01

    Personality traits have often been highlighted to relate to how people cope with stressful events. The present paper focuses on character strengths as positive personality traits and examines two basic assumptions that were derived from a core characteristic of character strengths (i.e., to determine how individuals deal with adversities): (1) character strengths correlate with coping and (2) buffer the effects of work-related stress on job satisfaction. Two different samples (i.e., a mixed sample representing various occupations [N = 214] and a nurses sample [N = 175]) filled in measures for character strengths, coping, work-related stress, and job satisfaction. As expected, intellectual, emotional, and interpersonal strengths were related to coping. Interpersonal strengths played a greater role for coping among nurses, as interactions with others are an essential part of their workday. Furthermore, intellectual strengths partially mediated the negative effect of work-related stress on job satisfaction. These findings open a new field for research on the role of personality in coping with work-related stress. Character strengths are trainable personal characteristics, and therefore valuable resources to improve coping with work-related stress and to decrease the negative effects of stress. Further research is needed to investigate this assumed causality.

  10. The relationships of character strengths with coping, work-related stress, and job satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eHarzer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Personality traits have often been highlighted to relate to how people cope with stressful events. The present paper focuses on character strengths as positive personality traits and examines two basic assumptions that were derived from a core characteristic of character strengths (i.e., to determine how individuals deal with adversities: (1 Character strengths correlate with coping and (2 buffer the effects of work-related stress on job satisfaction. Two different samples (i.e., a mixed sample representing various occupations [N = 214] and a nurses sample [N = 175] filled in measures for character strengths, coping, work-related stress, and job satisfaction. As expected, intellectual, emotional, and interpersonal strengths were related to coping. Interpersonal strengths played a greater role for coping among nurses, as interactions with others are an essential part of their workday. Furthermore, intellectual strengths partially mediated the negative effect of work-related stress on job satisfaction. These findings open a new field for research on the role of personality in coping with work-related stress. Character strengths are trainable personal characteristics, and therefore valuable resources to improve coping with work-related stress and to decrease the negative effects of stress. Further research is needed to investigate this assumed causality.

  11. Low relative skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia) in older persons is associated with functional impairment and physical disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Ian; Heymsfield, Steven B; Ross, Robert

    2002-05-01

    To establish the prevalence of sarcopenia in older Americans and to test the hypothesis that sarcopenia is related to functional impairment and physical disability in older persons. Cross-sectional survey. Nationally representative cross-sectional survey using data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Fourteen thousand eight hundred eighteen adult NHANES III participants aged 18 and older. The presence of sarcopenia and the relationship between sarcopenia and functional impairment and disability were examined in 4,504 adults aged 60 and older. Skeletal muscle mass was estimated from bioimpedance analysis measurements and expressed as skeletal muscle mass index (SMI = skeletal muscle mass/body mass x 100). Subjects were considered to have a normal SMI if their SMI was greater than -one standard deviation above the sex-specific mean for young adults (aged 18-39). Class I sarcopenia was considered present in subjects whose SMI was within -one to -two standard deviations of young adult values, and class II sarcopenia was present in subjects whose SMI was below -two standard deviations of young adult values. The prevalence of class I and class II sarcopenia increased from the third to sixth decades but remained relatively constant thereafter. The prevalence of class I (59% vs 45%) and class II (10% vs 7%) sarcopenia was greater in the older (> or = 60 years) women than in the older men (P normal SMI, respectively. Some of the associations between class II sarcopenia and functional impairment remained significant after adjustment for age, race, body mass index, health behaviors, and comorbidity. Reduced relative skeletal muscle mass in older Americans is a common occurrence that is significantly and independently associated with functional impairment and disability, particularly in older women. These observations provide strong support for the prevailing view that sarcopenia may be an important and potentially reversible cause of

  12. Degree of Contracture Related to Residual Muscle Shoulder Strength in Children with Obstetric Brachial Plexus Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gelein Vitringa, Valerie M; van Noort, Arthur; Ritt, Marco J P F; van Royen, Barend J; van der Sluijs, Johannes A

    2015-12-01

     Little is known about the relation between residual muscle strength and joint contracture formation in neuromuscular disorders. This study aimed to investigate the relation between residual muscle strength and shoulder joint contractures in children with sequelae of obstetric brachial plexus lesion (OBPL). In OBPL a shoulder joint contracture is a frequent finding. We hypothesize that residual internal and external rotator strength and their balance are related to the extent of shoulder joint contracture.  Clinical assessment was performed in 34 children (mean 10.0 years) with unilateral OBPL and Narakas classes I-III. External and internal rotation strengths were measured with the shoulder in neutral position using a handheld dynamometer. Strength on the affected side was given as percentage of the normal side. Contracture was assessed by passive internal and external rotations in degrees (in 0° abduction). Mallet classification was used for active shoulder function.  External and internal rotation strengths on the affected side were approximately 50% of the normal side and on average both equally affected: 56% (SD 18%) respectively 51% (SD 27%); r  = 0.600, p  = 0.000. Residual strengths were not related to passive internal or external rotation ( p  > 0.200). Internal rotation strength ( r  =  - 0.425, p muscle strength influence contracture formation cannot be confirmed in this study. Our results are of interest for the understanding of contracture formation in OBPL.

  13. Age-related changes in the global skeletal uptake of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate in healthy women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnevale, V.; Frusciante, V.; Scillitani, A.; Modoni, S.; Pileri, M.; Chiodini, I.; Dicembrino, F.; Romagnoli, E.; Minisola, S.

    1996-01-01

    A short-term evaluation of global skeletal uptake (GSU) of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) was performed in 40 healthy female subjects with a wide age range in order to investigate the clinical performance of the technique and to detect the age-related changes in bone turnover. The results obtained were compared with measurements of the main biochemical markers of skeletal metabolism. We found that GSU increases progressively with age, independently of concomitant changes in renal function; significant correlations with biochemical markers of bone formation were also found. Therefore, the method appears to provide useful information concerning the bone turnover rate, and is also applicable to elderly people owing to its simplicity. (orig.). With 4 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Advanced age-related denervation and fiber-type grouping in skeletal muscle of SOD1 knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostrominova, Tatiana Y

    2010-11-30

    In this study skeletal muscles from 1.5- and 10-month-old Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) homozygous knockout (JLSod1(-/-)) mice obtained from The Jackson Laboratory (C57Bl6/129SvEv background) were compared with muscles from age- and sex-matched heterozygous (JLSod1(+/-)) littermates. The results of this study were compared with previously published data on two different strains of Sod1(-/-) mice: one from Dr. Epstein's laboratory (ELSod1(-/-); C57Bl6 background) and the other from Cephalon, Inc. (CSod1(-/-); 129/CD-1 background). Grouping of succinate dehydrogenase-positive fibers characterized muscles of Sod1(-/-) mice from all three strains. The 10-month-old Sod1(-/-)C and JL mice displayed pronounced denervation of the gastrocnemius muscle, whereas the ELSod1(-/-) mice displayed a small degree of denervation at this age, but developed accelerated age-related denervation later on. Denervation markers were up-regulated in skeletal muscle of 10-month-old JLSod1(-/-) mice. This study is the first to show that metallothionein mRNA and protein expression was up-regulated in the skeletal muscle of 10-month-old JLSod1(-/-) mice and was mostly localized to the small atrophic muscle fibers. In conclusion, all three strains of Sod1(-/-) mice develop accelerated age-related muscle denervation, but the genetic background has significant influence on the progress of denervation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Gender-related differences in the apparent timing of skeletal density bands in the reef-building coral Siderastrea siderea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carricart-Ganivet, J. P.; Vásquez-Bedoya, L. F.; Cabanillas-Terán, N.; Blanchon, P.

    2013-09-01

    Density banding in skeletons of reef-building corals is a valuable source of proxy environmental data. However, skeletal growth strategy has a significant impact on the apparent timing of density-band formation. Some corals employ a strategy where the tissue occupies previously formed skeleton during as the new band forms, which leads to differences between the actual and apparent band timing. To investigate this effect, we collected cores from female and male colonies of Siderastrea siderea and report tissue thicknesses and density-related growth parameters over a 17-yr interval. Correlating these results with monthly sea surface temperature (SST) shows that maximum skeletal density in the female coincides with low winter SSTs, whereas in the male, it coincides with high summer SSTs. Furthermore, maximum skeletal densities in the female coincide with peak Sr/Ca values, whereas in the male, they coincide with low Sr/Ca values. Both results indicate a 6-month difference in the apparent timing of density-band formation between genders. Examination of skeletal extension rates also show that the male has thicker tissue and extends faster, whereas the female has thinner tissue and a denser skeleton—but both calcify at the same rate. The correlation between extension and calcification, combined with the fact that density banding arises from thickening of the skeleton throughout the depth reached by the tissue layer, implies that S. siderea has the same growth strategy as massive Porites, investing its calcification resources into linear extension. In addition, differences in tissue thicknesses suggest that females offset the greater energy requirements of gamete production by generating less tissue, resulting in differences in the apparent timing of density-band formation. Such gender-related offsets may be common in other corals and require that environmental reconstructions be made from sexed colonies and that, in fossil corals where sex cannot be determined

  16. Pharmacoeconomics of bisphosphonates for skeletal-related event prevention in metastatic non-breast solid tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, John A; Joshi, Avani D; Kaura, Satyin; Botteman, Marc F

    2012-05-01

    Bisphosphonates reduce the risk of skeletal-related events (SREs; i.e. spinal cord compression, pathological fracture, radiation or surgery to the bone, and hypercalcaemia) in patients with metastatic cancer. A number of analyses have been conducted to assess the cost effectiveness of bisphosphonates in patients with bone metastases secondary to breast cancer, but few in other solid tumours. This is a review of cost-effectiveness analyses in patients with non-breast solid tumours and bone metastases. A literature search was conducted to identify cost-effectiveness analyses reporting the cost per QALY gained of bisphosphonates in patients with metastatic bone disease secondary to non-breast solid tumours. Four analyses met inclusion criteria. These included two in prostate cancer (one of which used a global perspective but expressed results in $US, and the other reported from a multiple country perspective: France, Germany, Portugal and the Netherlands). The remaining analyses were in lung cancer (in the UK, France, Germany, Portugal and the Netherlands), and renal cell carcinoma (in the UK, France and Germany). In each analysis, the cost effectiveness of zoledronic acid versus placebo was analysed. Zoledronic acid was found to be cost effective in all European countries across all three indications but not in the sole global prostate cancer analysis. Across countries and indications, assumptions regarding patient survival, drug cost and baseline utility (i.e. patient utility with metastatic disease but without an SRE) were the most robust drivers of modelled estimates. Assumptions of SRE-related costs were most often the second strongest cost driver. Further review indicated that particular attention should be paid to the inclusion or exclusion of nonsignificant survival benefits, whether health state utilities were elicited from community or patient samples or author assumptions, delineation between symptomatic and asymptomatic SREs, and the methods with which SRE

  17. Mouse models of telomere dysfunction phenocopy skeletal changes found in human age-related osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy A. Brennan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A major medical challenge in the elderly is osteoporosis and the high risk of fracture. Telomere dysfunction is a cause of cellular senescence and telomere shortening, which occurs with age in cells from most human tissues, including bone. Telomere defects contribute to the pathogenesis of two progeroid disorders characterized by premature osteoporosis, Werner syndrome and dyskeratosis congenital. It is hypothesized that telomere shortening contributes to bone aging. We evaluated the skeletal phenotypes of mice with disrupted telomere maintenance mechanisms as models for human bone aging, including mutants in Werner helicase (Wrn−/−, telomerase (Terc−/− and Wrn−/−Terc−/− double mutants. Compared with young wild-type (WT mice, micro-computerized tomography analysis revealed that young Terc−/− and Wrn−/−Terc−/− mice have decreased trabecular bone volume, trabecular number and trabecular thickness, as well as increased trabecular spacing. In cortical bone, young Terc−/− and Wrn−/−Terc−/− mice have increased cortical thinning, and increased porosity relative to age-matched WT mice. These trabecular and cortical changes were accelerated with age in Terc−/− and Wrn−/−Terc−/− mice compared with older WT mice. Histological quantification of osteoblasts in aged mice showed a similar number of osteoblasts in all genotypes; however, significant decreases in osteoid, mineralization surface, mineral apposition rate and bone formation rate in older Terc−/− and Wrn−/−Terc−/− bone suggest that osteoblast dysfunction is a prominent feature of precocious aging in these mice. Except in the Wrn−/− single mutant, osteoclast number did not increase in any genotype. Significant alterations in mechanical parameters (structure model index, degree of anistrophy and moment of inertia of the Terc−/− and Wrn−/−Terc−/− femurs compared with WT mice were also observed. Young Wrn

  18. Adiposity, muscle mass and muscle strength in relation to functional decline in older persons.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, L.A.; Koster, A.; Visser, M.

    2013-01-01

    Aging is associated with changes in body composition and muscle strength. This review aimed to determine the relation between different body composition measures and muscle strength measures and functional decline in older men and women. By use of relevant databases (PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL) and

  19. Distinguishing Relational Aspects of Character Strengths with Subjective and Psychological Well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Hausler

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that character strengths are positively linked with well-being in general. However, there has not been a fine-grained analysis up to date. This study examines the individual relational aspects between the 24 character strengths, subjective well-being (SWB, and different aspects of psychological well-being (PWB at two times of measurement (N = 117. Results showed that overall the “good character” was significantly stronger related with PWB than with SWB. The character strength “hope” was at least moderately correlated with the PWB aspects meaning, optimism and autonomy, and “zest” with the PWB aspects relationships and engagement. “Persistence” showed the highest correlation with the PWB aspect mastery. Out of the 24 character strengths, the happiness-related strengths (hope, zest, gratitude, curiosity, and love were more likely to correlate with PWB and SWB than any other character strength. This study offers a more fine-grained and thorough understanding of specific relational aspects between the 24 character strengths and a broad range of well-being aspects. Future studies should take up a detailed strategy when exploring relationships between character strengths and well-being.

  20. Lifelong endurance training attenuates age-related genotoxic stress in human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobley, James N; Sakellariou, George K; Murray, Scott; Waldron, Sarah; Gregson, Warren; Burniston, Jatin G; Morton, James P; Iwanejko, Lesley A; Close, Graeme L

    2013-07-12

    The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of age and habitual activity level, at rest and following a single bout of high-intensity exercise, on the levels of three proteins poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), cleaved-PARP-1 and poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG), involved in the DNA repair and cell death responses to stress and genotoxic insults. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis of young trained (22 ± 3 years, n = 6), young untrained (24 ± 4 years, n = 6), old trained (64 ± 3 years, n = 6) and old untrained (65 ± 6 years, n = 6) healthy males before, immediately after and three days following a high-intensity interval exercise bout. PARP-1, which catalyzes poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of proteins and DNA in response to a range of intrinsic and extrinsic stresses, was increased at baseline in old trained and old untrained compared with young trained and young untrained participants (P ≤ 0.05). Following exercise, PARP-1 levels remained unchanged in young trained participants, in contrast to old trained and old untrained where levels decreased and young untrained where levels increased (P ≤ 0.05). Interestingly, baseline levels of the cleaved PARP-1, a marker of apoptosis, and PARG, responsible for polymer degradation, were both significantly elevated in old untrained compared with old trained, young trained and young untrained (P ≤ 0.05). Despite this baseline difference in PARG, there was no change in any group following exercise. There was a non-significant statistical trend (P = 0.072) towards increased cleaved-PARP-1 expression post-exercise in younger but not old persons, regardless of training status. Collectively, these results show that exercise slows the progression towards a chronically stressed state but has no impact on the age-related attenuated response to acute exercise. Our findings provide valuable insight into how habitual exercise training could protect skeletal muscle from chronic damage to

  1. Ageing in relation to skeletal muscle dysfunction: redox homoeostasis to regulation of gene expression

    OpenAIRE

    Goljanek-Whysall, Katarzyna; Iwanejko, Lesley A.; Vasilaki, Aphrodite; Pekovic-Vaughan, Vanja; McDonagh, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Ageing is associated with a progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass, quality and function?sarcopenia, associated with reduced independence and quality of life in older generations. A better understanding of the mechanisms, both genetic and epigenetic, underlying this process would help develop therapeutic interventions to prevent, slow down or reverse muscle wasting associated with ageing. Currently, exercise is the only known effective intervention to delay the progression of sarcopenia. Th...

  2. Factors related to stability following the surgical correction of skeletal open bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Goshi; Koh, Myongsun; Fujita, Tadashi; Shirakura, Maya; Ueda, Hiroshi; Tanne, Kazuo

    2014-05-01

    If a skeletal anterior open bite malocclusion is treated by orthognathic surgery directed only at the mandible, the lower jaw is repositioned upward in a counter-clockwise rotation. However, this procedure has a high risk of relapse. In the present study, the key factors associated with post-surgical stability of corrected skeletal anterior open bite malocclusions were investigated. Eighteen orthognathic patients were subjected to cephalometric analysis to assess the dental and skeletal changes following mandibular surgery for the correction of an anterior open bite. The patients were divided into two groups, determined by an increase or decrease in nasion-menton (N-Me) distance as a consequence of surgery. Changes in overbite, the displacements of molars and positional changes in Menton were evaluated immediately before and after surgery and after a minimum of one year post-operatively. The group with a decreased N-Me distance exhibited a significantly greater backward positioning of the mandible. The group with an increased N-Me distance experienced significantly greater dentoalveolar extrusion of the lower molars. A sufficient mandibular backward repositioning is an effective technique in the prevention of open bite relapse. In addition, it is important not to induce molar extrusion during post-surgical orthodontic treatment to preserve stability of the surgical open bite correction.

  3. Criterion-Related Validity of a Simple Muscle Strength Test to Assess Whole Body Muscle Strength in Chinese Children Aged 10 to 12 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Liqin; Tang, Changfa; Tao, Xia

    2018-01-01

    To study the criterion-related validity of simple muscle strength test (SMST) indicators and assess whole body muscle strength in Chinese children aged 10 to 12 years old. Two hundred and forty children were equally divided into four groups in different genders and residences. The SMST indicators (hand-grip, knee bent push-up, back muscle strength, sit-up, leg muscle strength, and standing long jump) were tested. We set up the total level of the whole-body muscle strength ( F total ) through testing isokinetic muscle strength of the six joints' flexion and extension movements. Pearson correlation analyses were used to analyze the correlation between the SMST indicators and the F total . (1) Leg muscle strength and back muscle strength demonstrated the highest validity scores. Sit-ups, hand grip, and standing long jump demonstrated the lowest validity scores. (2) Leg muscle strength had the highest validity for males, but back muscle strength had the highest validity for females. Back muscle strength and leg muscle strength can give the highest validity of assessing whole body muscle strength, and also has higher validity in both the urban and rural children. For urban children, but not rural, the knee bent push-up also has a high validity indicator.

  4. Criterion-Related Validity of a Simple Muscle Strength Test to Assess Whole Body Muscle Strength in Chinese Children Aged 10 to 12 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqin Yin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study the criterion-related validity of simple muscle strength test (SMST indicators and assess whole body muscle strength in Chinese children aged 10 to 12 years old. Methods. Two hundred and forty children were equally divided into four groups in different genders and residences. The SMST indicators (hand-grip, knee bent push-up, back muscle strength, sit-up, leg muscle strength, and standing long jump were tested. We set up the total level of the whole-body muscle strength (Ftotal through testing isokinetic muscle strength of the six joints’ flexion and extension movements. Pearson correlation analyses were used to analyze the correlation between the SMST indicators and the Ftotal. Results. (1 Leg muscle strength and back muscle strength demonstrated the highest validity scores. Sit-ups, hand grip, and standing long jump demonstrated the lowest validity scores. (2 Leg muscle strength had the highest validity for males, but back muscle strength had the highest validity for females. Conclusions. Back muscle strength and leg muscle strength can give the highest validity of assessing whole body muscle strength, and also has higher validity in both the urban and rural children. For urban children, but not rural, the knee bent push-up also has a high validity indicator.

  5. Bone strength estimates relative to vertical ground reaction force discriminates women runners with stress fracture history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Kristin L; McDermott, William; Hughes, Julie M; Baxter, Stephanie A; Stovitz, Steven D; Petit, Moira A

    2017-01-01

    To determine differences in bone geometry, estimates of bone strength, muscle size and bone strength relative to load, in women runners with and without a history of stress fracture. We recruited 32 competitive distance runners aged 18-35, with (SFX, n=16) or without (NSFX, n=16) a history of stress fracture for this case-control study. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was used to assess volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD, mg/mm 3 ), total (ToA) and cortical (CtA) bone areas (mm 2 ), and estimated compressive bone strength (bone strength index; BSI, mg/mm 4 ) at the distal tibia. ToA, CtA, cortical vBMD, and estimated strength (section modulus; Zp, mm 3 and strength strain index; SSIp, mm 3 ) were measured at six cortical sites along the tibia. Mean active peak vertical (pkZ) ground reaction forces (GRFs), assessed from a fatigue run on an instrumented treadmill, were used in conjunction with pQCT measurements to estimate bone strength relative to load (mm 2 /N∗kg -1 ) at all cortical sites. SSIp and Zp were 9-11% lower in the SFX group at mid-shaft of the tibia, while ToA and vBMD did not differ between groups at any measurement site. The SFX group had 11-17% lower bone strength relative to mean pkZ GRFs (phistory of stress fracture. Bone strength relative to load is also lower in this same region suggesting that strength deficits in the middle 1/3 of the tibia and altered gait biomechanics may predispose an individual to stress fracture. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Occupational-Specific Strength Predicts Astronaut-Related Task Performance in a Weighted Suit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Andrew; Kotarsky, Christopher J; Bond, Colin W; Hackney, Kyle J

    2018-01-01

    Future space missions beyond low Earth orbit will require deconditioned astronauts to perform occupationally relevant tasks within a planetary spacesuit. The prediction of time-to-completion (TTC) of astronaut tasks will be critical for crew safety, autonomous operations, and mission success. This exploratory study determined if the addition of task-specific strength testing to current standard lower body testing would enhance the prediction of TTC in a 1-G test battery. Eight healthy participants completed NASA lower body strength tests, occupationally specific strength tests, and performed six task simulations (hand drilling, construction wrenching, incline walking, collecting weighted samples, and dragging an unresponsive crewmember to safety) in a 48-kg weighted suit. The TTC for each task was recorded and summed to obtain a total TTC for the test battery. Linear regression was used to predict total TTC with two models: 1) NASA lower body strength tests; and 2) NASA lower body strength tests + occupationally specific strength tests. Total TTC of the test battery ranged from 20.2-44.5 min. The lower body strength test alone accounted for 61% of the variability in total TTC. The addition of hand drilling and wrenching strength tests accounted for 99% of the variability in total TTC. Adding occupationally specific strength tests (hand drilling and wrenching) to standard lower body strength tests successfully predicted total TTC in a performance test battery within a weighted suit. Future research should couple these strength tests with higher fidelity task simulations to determine the utility and efficacy of task performance prediction.Taylor A, Kotarsky CJ, Bond CW, Hackney KJ. Occupational-specific strength predicts astronaut-related task performance in a weighted suit. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(1):58-62.

  7. Skeletal muscle myosin heavy chain isoform content in relation to gonadal hormones and anabolic-catabolic balance in trained and untrained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandys, Marcin; Majerczak, Joanna; Karasinski, Janusz; Kulpa, Jan; Zoladz, Jerzy A

    2012-12-01

    Gonadal hormones and anabolic-catabolic hormone balance have potent influence on skeletal muscle tissue, but little is known about their action with regard to myosin heavy chain (MHC) transformation in humans. We investigated the relationship between skeletal muscle MHC isoform content in the vastus lateralis muscle and basal testosterone (T) concentration in 3 groups of subjects: endurance trained (E), sprint/strength trained (S), and untrained (U) young men. We have also determined basal sex hormone-binding globulin and cortisol (C) concentrations in untrained subjects to examine the relationship between MHC composition and the anabolic-catabolic hormone balance. Moreover, basal free testosterone (fT) and bioavailable testosterone (bio-T) concentrations were calculated for this subgroup. Despite significant differences in MHC isoform content (69.4 ± 2.39%, 61.4 ± 8.04%, and 37.5 ± 13.80% of MHC-2 for groups S, U, and E, respectively, Kruskal-Wallis: H = 18.58, p 0.5). We have also found that in the U group, type 2 MHC in the vastus lateralis muscle is positively correlated with basal fT:C ratio (r = 0.63, p = 0.01). It is concluded that the differences in the training history and training specificity can be distinguished with regard to the MHC composition but not with regard to the basal T concentration. Simultaneously, it has been shown that MHC isoform content in human vastus lateralis muscle may be related to basal anabolic-catabolic hormone balance, and this hypothesis needs further investigation.

  8. Skeletal-related events among breast and prostate cancer patients: towards new treatment initiation in Malaysia's hospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezat, Sharifa Wan Puteh; Syed Junid, Syed Mohamed Aljunid; Noraziani, Khamis; Zafar, Ahmed; Saperi, Sulong; Nur, Amrizal Muhammad; Aizuddin, Azimatun Noor; Ismail, Fuad; Abdullah, Norlia; Zainuddin, Zulkifli Md; Mohd Kassim, Abdul Yazid; Haflah, Nor Hazla Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    The human skeleton is the most common organ to be affected by metastatic cancer and bone metastases are a major cause of cancer morbidity. The five most frequent cancers in Malaysia among males includes prostate whereas breast cancer is among those in females, both being associated with skeletal lesions. Bone metastases weaken bone structure, causing a range of symptoms and complications thus developing skeletal-related events (SRE). Patients with SRE may require palliative radiotherapy or surgery to bone for pain, having hypercalcaemia, pathologic fractures, and spinal cord compression. These complications contribute to a decline in patient health- related quality of life. The multidimensional assessment of health-related quality of life for those patients is important other than considering a beneficial treatment impact on patient survival, since the side effects of treatment and disease symptoms can significantly impact health-related quality of life. Cancer treatment could contribute to significant financial implications for the healthcare system. Therefore, it is essential to assess the health-related quality of life and treatment cost, among prostate and breast cancer patients in countries like Malaysia to rationalized cost-effective way for budget allocation or utilization of health care resources, hence helping in providing more personalized treatment for cancer patients.

  9. Incidence of hypocalcemia in patients receiving denosumab for prevention of skeletal-related events in bone metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerram, Prakirthi; Kansagra, Shraddha; Abdelghany, Osama

    2017-04-01

    Background Denosumab therapy is commonly used for the prevention of skeletal-related events in patients with bone metastasis. However, a common side effect of denosumab is hypocalcemia. Objective The aim of the study is to determine the incidence of hypocalcemia in patients receiving denosumab for prevention of skeletal-related events in bone metastasis and evaluate risk factors for developing hypocalcemia. Methods This was a retrospective medication use evaluation reviewing the incidence of hypocalcemia in patients receiving outpatient denosumab for prevention of skeletal-related events at Yale-New Haven Hospital. Additionally, various risk factors were reviewed to determine their risk of developing hypocalcemia. Results As per Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v4.03, of the 106 patients included in the study population, 37 (35%) patients had an incidence of hypocalcemia within 30 days of denosumab administration. Fourteen patients (13.2%) had an incidence of grade 1, 13 patients (12.3%) had an incidence of grade 2 hypocalcemia, and 7 patients (6.6%) had an incidence of grade 3 hypocalcemia. Grade 4 hypocalcemia occurred in three (2.8%) patients. Calcium supplementation did not decrease the risk of developing hypocalcemia. Patients who had one or more episodes of acute kidney insufficiency were at a higher risk of developing hypocalcemia (odds ratio = 7.5 (95% confidence interval = 1.8-36.3), p = 0.001). Conclusion This study found that the overall incidence of hypocalcemia and severe hypocalcemia was higher than reported in clinical trials. Additionally, calcium supplementation did not have an effect on incidence of hypocalcemia, while patients who experienced acute kidney insufficiency while on denosumab had a higher likelihood of developing hypocalcemia.

  10. Increase in relative skeletal muscle mass over time and its inverse association with metabolic syndrome development: a 7-year retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gyuri; Lee, Seung-Eun; Jun, Ji Eun; Lee, You-Bin; Ahn, Jiyeon; Bae, Ji Cheol; Jin, Sang-Man; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Jee, Jae Hwan; Lee, Moon-Kyu; Kim, Jae Hyeon

    2018-02-05

    Skeletal muscle mass was negatively associated with metabolic syndrome prevalence in previous cross-sectional studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of baseline skeletal muscle mass and changes in skeletal muscle mass over time on the development of metabolic syndrome in a large population-based 7-year cohort study. A total of 14,830 and 11,639 individuals who underwent health examinations at the Health Promotion Center at Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea were included in the analyses of baseline skeletal muscle mass and those changes from baseline over 1 year, respectively. Skeletal muscle mass was estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis and was presented as a skeletal muscle mass index (SMI), a body weight-adjusted appendicular skeletal muscle mass value. Using Cox regression models, hazard ratio for developing metabolic syndrome associated with SMI values at baseline or changes of SMI over a year was analyzed. During 7 years of follow-up, 20.1% of subjects developed metabolic syndrome. Compared to the lowest sex-specific SMI tertile at baseline, the highest sex-specific SMI tertile showed a significant inverse association with metabolic syndrome risk (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 0.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.54-0.68). Furthermore, compared with SMI changes metabolic syndrome development were 0.87 (95% CI 0.78-0.97) for 0-1% changes and 0.67 (0.56-0.79) for > 1% changes in SMI over 1 year after additionally adjusting for baseline SMI and glycometabolic parameters. An increase in relative skeletal muscle mass over time has a potential preventive effect on developing metabolic syndrome, independently of baseline skeletal muscle mass and glycometabolic parameters.

  11. Endogenous hormones, muscle strength, and risk of fall-related fractures in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipilä, Sarianna; Heikkinen, Eino; Cheng, Sulin; Suominen, Harri; Saari, Päivi; Kovanen, Vuokko; Alén, Markku; Rantanen, Taina

    2006-01-01

    Among older people, fracture-causing fall often leads to health deterioration. The role of endogenous hormone status and muscle strength on fall-related fracture risk is unclear. This study investigates if, after adjustment for bone density, endogenous hormones and muscle strength would predict fall-related limb fracture incidence in older community-dwelling women followed-up over 10 years. As a part of a prospective population-based study, 187 75-year-old women were investigated. Serum estradiol, testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate concentrations were analyzed, and isometric muscle strength and bone mineral density were assessed. Fall-related limb fractures were gathered from patient records. Serum estradiol concentration was a significant predictor of fall-related limb fractures. Women with serum estradiol concentrations less than 0.022 nmol/L had a 3-fold risk (relative risk 3.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-7.36), and women with estradiol concentrations between 0.022 and 0.066 nmol/L doubled the risk (relative risk 2.24; 95% confidence interval, 0.97-5.19) of fall-related limb fracture compared to the women with estradiol concentrations ()above 0.066 nmol/L. Adjustment for muscle strength and bone mineral density did not materially change the risk estimates. High muscle strength was associated with a low incidence of fall-related limb fractures. This study showed that in 75-year-old women higher serum estradiol concentration and greater muscle strength were independently associated with a low incidence of fall-related limb fractures even after adjustment for bone density. Our results suggest that hormonal status and muscle strength have their own separate mechanisms protecting from fall-related fractures. This finding is of importance in developing preventive strategies, but calls for further study.

  12. Personal Strengths and Health Related Quality of Life in Dementia Caregivers from Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen K. Trapp

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research literature has begun to demonstrate associations between personal strengths and enhanced psychosocial functioning of dementia caregivers, but these relationships have not been examined in the context of dementia caregivers in Latin America. The present study examined whether personal strengths, including resilience, optimism, and sense of coherence, were associated with mental and physical health related quality of life (HRQOL in 130 dementia caregivers in Mexico and Argentina. Structural equation modeling found that the personal strengths collectively accounted for 58.4% of the variance in caregiver mental HRQOL, and resilience, sense of coherence, and optimism each had unique effects. In comparison, the personal strengths together accounted for 8.9% of the variance in caregiver physical HRQOL, and only sense of coherence yielded a unique effect. These results underscore the need to construct and disseminate empirically supported interventions based in part on important personal strengths, particularly sense of coherence, for this underrepresented group.

  13. Personal Strengths and Health Related Quality of Life in Dementia Caregivers from Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapp, Stephen K.; Perrin, Paul B.; Aggarwal, Richa; Peralta, Silvina Victoria; Stolfi, Miriam E.; Morelli, Eliana; Peña Obeso, Leticia Aracely; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The research literature has begun to demonstrate associations between personal strengths and enhanced psychosocial functioning of dementia caregivers, but these relationships have not been examined in the context of dementia caregivers in Latin America. The present study examined whether personal strengths, including resilience, optimism, and sense of coherence, were associated with mental and physical health related quality of life (HRQOL) in 130 dementia caregivers in Mexico and Argentina. Structural equation modeling found that the personal strengths collectively accounted for 58.4% of the variance in caregiver mental HRQOL, and resilience, sense of coherence, and optimism each had unique effects. In comparison, the personal strengths together accounted for 8.9% of the variance in caregiver physical HRQOL, and only sense of coherence yielded a unique effect. These results underscore the need to construct and disseminate empirically supported interventions based in part on important personal strengths, particularly sense of coherence, for this underrepresented group. PMID:26160998

  14. Age-related functional changes and susceptibility to eccentric contraction-induced damage in skeletal muscle cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung-Jun

    2016-09-01

    Depending upon external loading conditions, skeletal muscles can either shorten, lengthen, or remain at a fixed length as they produce force. Fixed-end or isometric contractions stabilize joints and allow muscles to act as active struts during locomotion. Active muscles dissipate energy when they are lengthened by an external force that exceeds their current force producing capacity. These unaccustomed eccentric activities often lead to muscle weakness, soreness, and inflammation. During aging, the ability to produce force under these conditions is reduced and appears to be due to not only reductions in muscle mass but also to alterations in the basic mechanisms of contraction. These alterations include impairments in the excitation-contraction process, and the action of the cross-bridges. Also, it is well known that age-related skeletal muscle atrophy is characterized by a preferential atrophy of fast fibers, and increased susceptibility to fast muscle fiber when aged muscles are exposed to eccentric contraction followed by the impaired recovery process has been reported. Taken together, the selective loss of fast muscle fiber in aged muscle could be affected by eccentric-induced muscle damage, which has significant implication to identify the etiology of the age-related functional changes. Therefore, in this review the alteration of age-related muscle function and its impact to/of eccentric induced muscle damage and recovery will be addressed in detail.

  15. Age-related functional changes and susceptibility to eccentric contraction-induced damage in skeletal muscle cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Jun Choi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Depending upon external loading conditions, skeletal muscles can either shorten, lengthen, or remain at a fixed length as they produce force. Fixed-end or isometric contractions stabilize joints and allow muscles to act as active struts during locomotion. Active muscles dissipate energy when they are lengthened by an external force that exceeds their current force producing capacity. These unaccustomed eccentric activities often lead to muscle weakness, soreness, and inflammation. During aging, the ability to produce force under these conditions is reduced and appears to be due to not only reductions in muscle mass but also to alterations in the basic mechanisms of contraction. These alterations include impairments in the excitation–contraction process, and the action of the cross-bridges. Also, it is well known that age-related skeletal muscle atrophy is characterized by a preferential atrophy of fast fibers, and increased susceptibility to fast muscle fiber when aged muscles are exposed to eccentric contraction followed by the impaired recovery process has been reported. Taken together, the selective loss of fast muscle fiber in aged muscle could be affected by eccentric-induced muscle damage, which has significant implication to identify the etiology of the age-related functional changes. Therefore, in this review the alteration of age-related muscle function and its impact to/of eccentric induced muscle damage and recovery will be addressed in detail.

  16. The Relative Hydrogen Bonding Strength of Oxygen and Nitrogen Atoms as a Proton Acceptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun, Jong Cheol; Lee, Ho Jin; Kim, Nak Kyoon; Choi, Young Sang; Park, Jeung Hee; Yoon, Chang Ju

    1999-01-01

    The thermodynamic parameters for the formation of the hydrogen bonding were widely used to understand the protein- ligand interaction. We have been interested in the hydrogen bonding strength of various proton acceptors toward the amide in a nonpolar solvent, This work is in the line of our interest. In drug design, the functional group is often replaced in order to enhance or reduce the binding affinity, which is usually determined by hydrogen bonding strength. Therefore, to understand this biochemical process the knowledge of relative hydrogen bonding strength is of importance.

  17. IMAGE ANALYSIS OF BREAD CRUMB STRUCTURE IN RELATION TO GLUTEN STRENGTH OF WHEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Magdić

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine bread slice medium part properties in relation to quality parameters with a focus on gluten strength. Since sensory evaluation of bread is time consuming, expensive and subjective in nature, computerized image analysis was applied as objective method of bread crumb quality evaluation. Gluten Index method was applied as fast and reliable tool for defining gluten strength of wheat. Significant (P90 Ana, Demetra, Klara, Srpanjka and Divana have shown trend to give unequal and bigger crumb grains while cultivars Golubica, Barbara, Žitarka, Kata and Sana with optimal gluten strength (GI= 60-90 have shown finer and uniform crumb grain.

  18. Oral Supplementation of Melatonin Protects against Fibromyalgia-Related Skeletal Muscle Alterations in Reserpine-Induced Myalgia Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favero, Gaia; Trapletti, Valentina; Bonomini, Francesca; Stacchiotti, Alessandra; Lavazza, Antonio; Rodella, Luigi Fabrizio; Rezzani, Rita

    2017-06-29

    Fibromyalgia is a chronic syndrome characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain and an extensive array of other symptoms including disordered sleep, fatigue, depression and anxiety. Important factors involved in the pathogenic process of fibromyalgia are inflammation and oxidative stress, suggesting that ant-inflammatory and/or antioxidant supplementation might be effective in the management and modulation of this syndrome. Recent evidence suggests that melatonin may be suitable for this purpose due to its well known ant-inflammatory, antioxidant and analgesic effects. Thus, in the current study, the effects of the oral supplementation of melatonin against fibromyalgia-related skeletal muscle alterations were evaluated. In detail, 90 Sprague Dawley rats were randomly treated with reserpine, to reproduce the pathogenic process of fibromyalgia and thereafter they received melatonin. The animals treated with reserpine showed moderate alterations at hind limb skeletal muscles level and had difficulty in moving, together with significant morphological and ultrastructural alterations and expression of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in the gastrocnemius muscle. Interestingly, melatonin, dose and/or time dependently, reduced the difficulties in spontaneous motor activity and the musculoskeletal morphostructural, inflammatory, and oxidative stress alterations. This study suggests that melatonin in vivo may be an effective tool in the management of fibromyalgia-related musculoskeletal morphofunctional damage.

  19. GSNOR Deficiency Enhances In Situ Skeletal Muscle Strength, Fatigue Resistance, and RyR1 S-Nitrosylation Without Impacting Mitochondrial Content and Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Younghye; Cao, Yenong; Zhu, Jingjing; Xu, Yuanyuan; Balkan, Wayne; Buys, Emmanuel S.; Diaz, Francisca; Kerrick, W. Glenn; Hare, Joshua M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Aim: Nitric oxide (NO) plays important, but incompletely defined roles in skeletal muscle. NO exerts its regulatory effects partly though S-nitrosylation, which is balanced by denitrosylation by enzymes such as S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR), whose functions in skeletal muscle remain to be fully deciphered. Results: GSNOR null (GSNOR−/−) tibialis anterior (TA) muscles showed normal growth and were stronger and more fatigue resistant than controls in situ. However, GSNOR−/− lumbrical muscles showed normal contractility and Ca2+ handling in vitro, suggesting important differences in GSNOR function between muscles or between in vitro and in situ environments. GSNOR−/− TA muscles exhibited normal mitochondrial content, and capillary densities, but reduced type IIA fiber content. GSNOR inhibition did not impact mitochondrial respiratory complex I, III, or IV activities. These findings argue that enhanced GSNOR−/− TA contractility is not driven by changes in mitochondrial content or activity, fiber type, or blood vessel density. However, loss of GSNOR led to RyR1 hypernitrosylation, which is believed to increase muscle force output under physiological conditions. cGMP synthesis by soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) was decreased in resting GSNOR−/− muscle and was more responsive to agonist (DETANO, BAY 41, and BAY 58) stimulation, suggesting that GSNOR modulates cGMP production in skeletal muscle. Innovation: GSNOR may act as a “brake” on skeletal muscle contractile performance under physiological conditions by modulating nitrosylation/denitrosylation balance. Conclusions: GSNOR may play important roles in skeletal muscle contractility, RyR1 S-nitrosylation, fiber type specification, and sGC activity. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 26, 165–181. PMID:27412893

  20. Gene expression in skeletal muscle biopsies from people with type 2 diabetes and relatives: differential regulation of insulin signaling pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palsgaard, J.; Brøns, C.; Friedrichsen, M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gene expression alterations have previously been associated with type 2 diabetes, however whether these changes are primary causes or secondary effects of type 2 diabetes is not known. As healthy first degree relatives of people with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of developing...... type 2 diabetes, they provide a good model in the search for primary causes of the disease. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We determined gene expression profiles in skeletal muscle biopsies from Caucasian males with type 2 diabetes, healthy first degree relatives, and healthy controls. Gene expression...... downregulated in people with type 2 diabetes. On the individual gene level, 11 genes showed altered expression levels in first degree relatives compared to controls, among others KIF1B and GDF8 (myostatin). LDHB was found to have a decreased expression in both groups compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS...

  1. Risk of vertebral insufficiency fractures in relation to compressive strength predicted by quantitative computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggemann, M.; Hilweg, D.; Seidel, S.; Horst, M.; Brinckmann, P.

    1991-01-01

    Vertebral insufficiency fractures may result from excessive loading of normal and routine loading of osteoporotic spines. Fractures occur when the mechanical load exceeds the vertebral compressive strength, i.e., the maximum load a vertebra can tolerate. Vertebral compressive strength is determined by trabecular bone density and the size of end-plate area. Both parameters can be measured non-invasively by quanti-tative computed tomography (QCT). In 75 patients compressive strength (i.e., trabecular bone density and endplate area) of the vertebra L3 was determined using QCT. In addition, conventional radiographs of the spines were analysed for the prevalence of insufficiency fractures in each case. By relating fracture prevalence to strength, 3 fracture risk groups were found: a high-risk group with strength values of L3 5 kN and a fracture risk near 0 percent. Biomechanical measurements and model calculations indicate that spinal loads of 3 to 4 kN at L3/4 will be common in everyday activities. These data and the results described above suggest that spines with strength values of L3<3 kN are at an extremely high risk of insufficiency fractures in daily life. Advantages of fracture risk assessment by strength determination over risk estimation based on clinically used trabecular bone density measurements are discussed. (author). 18 refs.; 4 figs

  2. Ageing in relation to skeletal muscle dysfunction: redox homoeostasis to regulation of gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goljanek-Whysall, Katarzyna; Iwanejko, Lesley A; Vasilaki, Aphrodite; Pekovic-Vaughan, Vanja; McDonagh, Brian

    2016-08-01

    Ageing is associated with a progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass, quality and function-sarcopenia, associated with reduced independence and quality of life in older generations. A better understanding of the mechanisms, both genetic and epigenetic, underlying this process would help develop therapeutic interventions to prevent, slow down or reverse muscle wasting associated with ageing. Currently, exercise is the only known effective intervention to delay the progression of sarcopenia. The cellular responses that occur in muscle fibres following exercise provide valuable clues to the molecular mechanisms regulating muscle homoeostasis and potentially the progression of sarcopenia. Redox signalling, as a result of endogenous generation of ROS/RNS in response to muscle contractions, has been identified as a crucial regulator for the adaptive responses to exercise, highlighting the redox environment as a potentially core therapeutic approach to maintain muscle homoeostasis during ageing. Further novel and attractive candidates include the manipulation of microRNA expression. MicroRNAs are potent gene regulators involved in the control of healthy and disease-associated biological processes and their therapeutic potential has been researched in the context of various disorders, including ageing-associated muscle wasting. Finally, we discuss the impact of the circadian clock on the regulation of gene expression in skeletal muscle and whether disruption of the peripheral muscle clock affects sarcopenia and altered responses to exercise. Interventions that include modifying altered redox signalling with age and incorporating genetic mechanisms such as circadian- and microRNA-based gene regulation, may offer potential effective treatments against age-associated sarcopenia.

  3. The longitudinal relation between smoking and muscle strength in healthy adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Maarten O; Hoekstra, T.; Twisk, Jos W R

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To assess longitudinally whether smoking tobacco is related to muscle strength in healthy adults and to assess the influence of lifestyle covariates on this relation. METHODS: Data were obtained from the observational Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study, with four repeated

  4. Age and muscle strength mediate the age-related biomechanical plasticity of gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortobagyi, Tibor; Rider, Patrick; Gruber, Allison H.; DeVita, Paul

    Old compared with young adults walk with reduced ankle and increased hip mechanical output. We examined the idea that age, leg strength, or both are related to the age-related changes in mechanical output during gait. Healthy young (n = 32, age 21.5 years) and old adults (n = 32, age 76.8 years)

  5. Evaluating elastic modulus and strength of hard coatings by relative method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Y.W.; Zhou, Y.C.; Bu, X.X.; Qiu, Y.

    2007-01-01

    A simple approach named relative method is developed for determining the elastic modulus and strength of hard coatings. Analytical relationship among the moduli of the film, the substrate, and the film/substrate system was derived based on bending model, from which the elastic modulus of the coating can be determined uniquely via the measured moduli of the samples before and after coating. Furthermore, the relationship between the strength of the films and the bending strength of the coated sample is derived, thus both the modulus and the strength of coating can be evaluated via traditional tests on coated samples. Mathematic expressions of those calculations were derived, respectively for rectangular beam samples with three types of coating configurations: single face coating, sandwich coating and around coating. Experimental results using various brittle coatings demonstrated the validity and convenience of this method

  6. Evaluating elastic modulus and strength of hard coatings by relative method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Y.W. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); China Building Materials Academy, Beijing 100024 (China)], E-mail: ywbao@imr.ac.cn; Zhou, Y.C. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Bu, X.X. [China Building Materials Academy, Beijing 100024 (China); Qiu, Y. [China Building Materials Academy, Beijing 100024 (China)

    2007-06-15

    A simple approach named relative method is developed for determining the elastic modulus and strength of hard coatings. Analytical relationship among the moduli of the film, the substrate, and the film/substrate system was derived based on bending model, from which the elastic modulus of the coating can be determined uniquely via the measured moduli of the samples before and after coating. Furthermore, the relationship between the strength of the films and the bending strength of the coated sample is derived, thus both the modulus and the strength of coating can be evaluated via traditional tests on coated samples. Mathematic expressions of those calculations were derived, respectively for rectangular beam samples with three types of coating configurations: single face coating, sandwich coating and around coating. Experimental results using various brittle coatings demonstrated the validity and convenience of this method.

  7. Tinetti mobility test is related to muscle mass and strength in non-institutionalized elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcio, Francesco; Basile, Claudia; Liguori, Ilaria; Della-Morte, David; Gargiulo, Gaetano; Galizia, Gianluigi; Testa, Gianluca; Langellotto, Assunta; Cacciatore, Francesco; Bonaduce, Domenico; Abete, Pasquale

    2016-12-01

    Elderly people are characterized by a high prevalence of falls and sarcopenia. However, the relationship among Tinetti mobility test (TMT) score, a powerful tool to detect elderly people at risk of falls, and sarcopenia is still not thoroughly investigated. Thus, to determine the relationship between TMT score and muscle mass and strength, 337 elderly participants (mean age 77.1 ± 6.9 years) admitted to comprehensive geriatric assessment were enrolled. TMT score, muscle mass by bioimpedentiometer, and muscle strength by grip strength were evaluated. Muscle mass progressively decreased as TMT score decreased (from 15.3 ± 3.7 to 8.8 ± 1.8 kg/m 2 ; p for trend strength decreased progressively as Tinetti score decreased (from 34.7 ± 8.0 to 23.7 ± 8.7 kg; p for trend 0.001). Linear regression analysis demonstrated that TMT score is linearly related with muscle mass (y = 4.5x + 0.4, r = 0.61; p strength (y = 14.0x + 0.8, r = 0.53; p strength (r = 0.39, p = 0.046). The present study indicates that TMT score is significantly related to muscle mass and strength in non-institutionalized elderly participants. This evidence suggests that TMT score, together with evaluation of muscle mass and strength, may identify sarcopenic elderly participants at high risk of falls.

  8. Influence of fall related factors and bone strength on fracture risk in the frail elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambrook, P N; Cameron, I D; Chen, J S; Cumming, R G; Lord, S R; March, L M; Schwarz, J; Seibel, M J; Simpson, J M

    2007-05-01

    When subjects are selected on the basis of fall risk alone, therapies for osteoporosis have not been effective. In a prospective study of elderly subjects at high risk of falls, we investigated the influence of bone strength and fall risk on fracture. At baseline we assessed calcaneal bone ultrasound attenuation (BUA) as well as quantitative measures of fall risk in 2005 subjects in residential care. Incident falls and fractures were recorded (median follow-up 705 days). A total of 6646 fall events and 375 low trauma fracture events occurred. The fall rate was 214 per 100 person years and the fracture rate 12.1 per 100 person years. 82% of the fractures could be attributed to falls. Although fracture rates increased with decreasing BUA (incidence rate ratio 1.94 for lowest vs. highest BUA tertile, pfalls also affected fracture incidence. Subjects who fell frequently (>3.15 falls/per person year) were 3.35 times more likely to suffer a fracture than those who did not fall. Some fall risk factors such as balance were associated with the lowest fracture risk lowest in the worst performing group. Multivariate analysis revealed higher fall rate, history of previous fracture, lower BUA, lower body weight, cognitive impairment and better balance as significant independent risk factors for fracture. In the frail elderly, both skeletal fragility and fall risk including the frequency of exposure to falls are important determinants of fracture risk.

  9. Craniofacial changes in Class III malocclusion as related to skeletal and dental maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Reyes, Brian C; McNamara, James A

    2007-08-01

    In this large cross-sectional study, we aimed to analyze growth trends in white subjects with Class III malocclusion using both skeletal and dental maturation staging. The sample consisted of 1091 pretreatment lateral cephalometric records of Class III patients (560 female, 531 male). Cephalometric dentoskeletal measurements were compared at subsequent stages in cervical vertebral maturation and Hellman's categorization of dental development by means of ANOVA with Bonferroni post-hoc tests in both sexes separately. The findings indicated that, in Class III malocclusion, the pubertal peak in mandibular growth occurs between stages 3 and 4 of cervical vertebral maturation, with average increases in total mandibular length of about 8 and 5.5 mm in Class III boys and girls, respectively. Significant changes in total mandibular length occur until young adulthood (18 years on average), with increases between late maturation stages (4 through 6) that were twice as large as in subjects with normal occlusion for the Class III females, and 3 times as large as in subjects with normal occlusion for the Class III males. Growth trends toward accentuated Class III profile and increased vertical dimension of the face also become apparent at late developmental stages (corresponding with complete eruption of the second and third molars).

  10. Stuck in gear: age-related loss of variable gearing in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Natalie C; Danos, Nicole; Roberts, Thomas J; Azizi, Emanuel

    2016-04-01

    Skeletal muscles power a broad diversity of animal movements, despite only being able to produce high forces over a limited range of velocities. Pennate muscles use a range of gear ratios, the ratio of muscle shortening velocity to fiber shortening velocity, to partially circumvent these force-velocity constraints. Muscles operate with a high gear ratio at low forces; fibers rotate to greater angles of pennation, enhancing velocity but compromising force. At higher forces, muscles operate with a lower gear ratio; fibers rotate little so limiting muscle shortening velocity, but helping to preserve force. This ability to shift gears is thought to be due to the interplay of contractile force and connective tissue constraints. In order to test this hypothesis, gear ratios were determined in the medial gastrocnemius muscles of both healthy young rats, and old rats where the interaction between contractile and connective tissue properties was assumed to be disrupted. Muscle fiber and aponeurosis stiffness increased with age (PGear ratio decreased with increasing force in young (Pgearing is lost in old muscle. These findings support the hypothesis that variable gearing results from the interaction between contractile and connective tissues and suggest novel explanations for the decline in muscle performance with age. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Body composition of 80-years old men and women and its relation to muscle strength, physical activity and functional ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Agnes Nadelmann; Ovesen, L.; Schroll, M.

    2002-01-01

    , and physical activity and functional ability. BMI was related to body fat mass, and FFM was related to muscle strength. Muscle strength was related to mobility and PPT. Mobility and PPT were mutually related and were related to physical activity. CONCLUSION: Our cross sectional study did not support newly...

  12. Mitochondrial-related proteomic changes during obesity and fasting in mice are greater in the liver than skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesteruk, Monika; Hennig, Ewa E; Mikula, Michal; Karczmarski, Jakub; Dzwonek, Artur; Goryca, Krzysztof; Rubel, Tymon; Paziewska, Agnieszka; Woszczynski, Marek; Ledwon, Joanna; Dabrowska, Michalina; Dadlez, Michal; Ostrowski, Jerzy

    2014-03-01

    Although mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity, the molecular mechanisms underlying obesity-related metabolic abnormalities are not well established. We performed mitochondrial quantitative proteomic and whole transcriptome analysis followed by functional annotations within liver and skeletal muscles, using fasted and non-fasted 16- and 48-week-old high-fat diet (HFD)-fed and normal diet-fed (control group) wild-type C56BL/6J mice, and hyperphagic ob/ob and db/db obese mice. Our study identified 1,675 and 704 mitochondria-associated proteins with at least two peptides in liver and muscle, respectively. Of these, 221 liver and 44 muscle proteins were differentially expressed (adjusted p values ≤ 0.05) between control and all obese mice, while overnight fasting altered expression of 107 liver and 35 muscle proteins. In the liver, we distinguished a network of 27 proteins exhibiting opposite direction of expression changes in HFD-fed and hyperphagic mice when compared to control. The network centered on cytochromes P450 3a11 (Cyp3a11) and 4a14 (Cyp4a14), and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase B (Aldob) proteins which bridged proteins cluster involved in Metabolism of xenobiotics with proteins engaged in Fatty acid metabolism and PPAR signaling pathways. Functional annotations revealed that most of the hepatic molecular alterations, which characterized both obesity and fasting, related to different aspects of energy metabolism (such as Fatty acid metabolism, Peroxisome, and PPAR signaling); however, only a limited number of functional annotations could be selected from skeletal muscle data sets. Thus, our comprehensive molecular overview revealed that both obesity and fasting states induce more pronounced mitochondrial proteome changes in the liver than in the muscles.

  13. Internationally Adopted Children in the Early School Years: Relative Strengths and Weaknesses in Language Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennen, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to determine the relative strengths and weaknesses in language and verbal short-term memory abilities of school-age children who were adopted from Eastern Europe. Method: Children adopted between 1;0 and 4;11 (years;months) of age were assessed with the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool, Second…

  14. The SAURON project : XVIII. The integrated UV-line-strength relations of early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bureau, Martin; Jeong, Hyunjin; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Schawinski, Kevin; Houghton, Ryan C. W.; Davies, Roger L.; Bacon, Roland; Cappellari, Michele; de Zeeuw, P. Tim; Emsellem, Eric; Falcon-Barroso, Jesus; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Peletier, Reynier F.; Sarzi, Marc; Sohn, Young-Jong; Thomas, Daniel; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; van de Ven, Glenn

    Using far-ultraviolet (FUV) and near-ultraviolet (NUV) photometry from guest investigator programmes on the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) satellite, optical photometry from the MDM Observatory and optical integral-field spectroscopy from SAURON, we explore the UV-line-strength relations of the

  15. Pore direction in relation to anisotropy of mechanical strength in a cubic starch compact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Yu San; van Vliet, Lucas J; Frijlink, Henderik W; Stokroos, Ietse; van der Voort Maarschalk, Kees

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the relation between preferential direction of pores and mechanical strength of cubic starch compacts. The preferential pore direction was quantified in SEM images of cross sections of starch compacts using a previously described algorithm for

  16. Mobility-Related Fatigue, Walking Speed, and Muscle Strength in Older People

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mänty, Minna; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F.; Rantanen, Taina

    2012-01-01

    history, as well as performance-based assessment of walking speed and maximal isometric strength of knee extension, body extension, and handgrip. Results. In the cross-sectional baseline analysis, one unit increase in fatigue score was associated with 0.03 m/s (b = −.03, p ... the degree to which muscle strength accounts for this association. Methods. The study is based on baseline (n = 523) and 5-year follow-up data (n = 292) from a cohort of 75-year-old persons. Standardized assessments include self-report measures of mobility-related fatigue (score range 0–6) and medical......, p strength accounted up to 21% and among men up to 24% for the association. In the prospective analysis, fatigue at baseline was predictive of change in walking speed...

  17. Physical activity opposes the age-related increase in skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels and normalizes plasma endothelin-1 levels in individuals with essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Mortensen, Stefan Peter; Hellsten, Ylva

    2013-01-01

    performed lifelong physical activity had similar plasma and muscle endothelin-1 levels as the young controls and had higher ET(A) receptor levels. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that aerobic exercise training opposes the age-related increase in skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels and normalizes......AIMS: Endothelin-1 has potent constrictor and proliferative activity in vascular smooth muscle, and essential hypertension and aging are associated with increased endothelin-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of physical activity, hypertension...... and age on endothelin-1 levels in plasma and skeletal muscle and endothelin receptors in skeletal muscle in human subjects. METHODS: In study 1, normotensive (46 ± 1 years, n = 11) and hypertensive (47 ± 1 years, n = 10) subjects were studied before and after 8 weeks of aerobic exercise training. In study...

  18. Relationships between central arterial stiffness, lean body mass, and absolute and relative strength in young and older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahs, Christopher A; Thiebaud, Robert S; Rossow, Lindy M; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Bemben, Debra A; Bemben, Michael G

    2017-08-16

    Relationships between muscular strength and arterial stiffness as well as between muscle mass and arterial stiffness have been observed suggesting a link between the neuromuscular system and vascular health. However, the relationship between central arterial stiffness and absolute and relative strength along with muscle mass has not been investigated in both sexes across a broad age range. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between central arterial stiffness and absolute and relative strength as well as between central arterial stiffness and lean body mass (LBM) in men and women across a broad age range. LBM, central arterial stiffness and strength were measured on 36 men and 35 women between the ages of 18 and 75 years. Strength was measured on five machine resistance exercises and summed as one measure of overall strength (absolute strength). Relative strength was calculated as total strength divided by LBM (relative strength). Central arterial stiffness was inversely related to both absolute (r = -0·230; P = 0·029) and relative strength (r = -0·484; P LBM (r = 0·097; P = 0·213). The relationship between central arterial stiffness and relative strength was attenuated but still present when controlling for either age, per cent body fat, LBM or mean arterial pressure. These results suggest that, across a wide age range, the expression of relative muscular strength has a stronger relationship with central arterial stiffness compared to either LBM or absolute strength. This suggests that muscle function more than muscle mass may be coupled with vascular health. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. A PGC-1α- and muscle fibre type-related decrease in markers of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism in skeletal muscle of humans with inherited insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jonas Møller; Skov, Vibe; Petersson, Stine Juhl

    2014-01-01

    Insulin resistance in obesity and type 2 diabetes is related to abnormalities in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) in skeletal muscle. We tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial oxidative metabolism is impaired in muscle of patients with inherited insulin resistance and defective...

  20. Faster and stronger manifestation of mitochondrial diseases in skeletal muscle than in heart related to cytosolic inorganic phosphate (Pi) accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewski, Bernard

    2016-08-01

    A model of the cell bioenergetic system was used to compare the effect of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) deficiencies in a broad range of moderate ATP demand in skeletal muscle and heart. Computer simulations revealed that kinetic properties of the system are similar in both cases despite the much higher mitochondria content and "basic" OXPHOS activity in heart than in skeletal muscle, because of a much higher each-step activation (ESA) of OXPHOS in skeletal muscle than in heart. Large OXPHOS deficiencies lead in both tissues to a significant decrease in oxygen consumption (V̇o2) and phosphocreatine (PCr) and increase in cytosolic ADP, Pi, and H(+) The main difference between skeletal muscle and heart is a much higher cytosolic Pi concentration in healthy tissue and much higher cytosolic Pi accumulation (level) at low OXPHOS activities in the former, caused by a higher PCr level in healthy tissue (and higher total phosphate pool) and smaller Pi redistribution between cytosol and mitochondria at OXPHOS deficiency. This difference does not depend on ATP demand in a broad range. A much greater Pi increase and PCr decrease during rest-to-moderate work transition in skeletal muscle at OXPHOS deficiencies than at normal OXPHOS activity significantly slows down the V̇o2 on-kinetics. Because high cytosolic Pi concentrations cause fatigue in skeletal muscle and can compromise force generation in skeletal muscle and heart, this system property can contribute to the faster and stronger manifestation of mitochondrial diseases in skeletal muscle than in heart. Shortly, skeletal muscle with large OXPHOS deficiencies becomes fatigued already during low/moderate exercise. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Mitochondria, glycogen and lipid droplets in skeletal muscle during testosterone treatment and strength training. A randomized, double blinded, placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Richard Christian; Lehman Christensen, Louise; Nielsen, Joachim

    2018-01-01

    estimated by transmission electron microscopy. Insulin sensitivity (insulin‐stimulated Rd) and body composition were assessed by euglycemic‐hyperinsulinemic clamp and dual X‐ray absorptiometry, respectively. TRT significantly increased total testosterone levels, BioT, and lean body mass (LBM) (p ...‐glycogen fraction correlated inversely with Δ‐LBM (ρ = −0.83; p = 0.002) during six‐month TRT, but no significant changes were observed in mitochondrial, glycogen, and LD volume fractions during TRT and ST. In conclusion, in this exploratory small‐scale study, the beneficial effects of six‐month TRT on total...... testosterone, LBM, and percent body fat were not followed by significant changes in fractions of mitochondria, glycogen, or lipid in skeletal muscle of aging men with lowered testosterone levels. Six‐month ST or combined three‐month ST+TRT did not change intramyocellular mitochondria, glycogen, and LD...

  2. Relative contributions of lean and fat mass to bone strength in young Hispanic and non-Hispanic girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetherington-Rauth, Megan; Bea, Jennifer W; Blew, Robert M; Funk, Janet L; Hingle, Melanie D; Lee, Vinson R; Roe, Denise J; Wheeler, Mark D; Lohman, Timothy G; Going, Scott B

    2018-05-22

    With the high prevalence of childhood obesity, especially among Hispanic children, understanding how body weight and its components of lean and fat mass affect bone development is important, given that the amount of bone mineral accrued during childhood can determine osteoporosis risk later in life. The aim of this study was to assess the independent contributions of lean and fat mass on volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), geometry, and strength in both weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing bones of Hispanic and non-Hispanic girls. Bone vBMD, geometry, and strength were assessed at the 20% distal femur, the 4% and 66% distal tibia, and the 66% distal radius of the non-dominant limb of 326, 9- to 12-year-old girls using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Total body lean and fat mass were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Multiple linear regression was used to assess the independent relationships of fat and lean mass with pQCT bone measures while adjusting for relevant confounders. Potential interactions between ethnicity and both fat and lean mass were also tested. Lean mass was a significant positive contributor to all bone outcomes (p Lean mass is the main determinant of bone strength for appendicular skeletal sites. Fat mass contributes to bone strength in the weight-bearing skeleton but does not add to bone strength in non-weight-bearing locations and may potentially be detrimental. Bone vBMD, geometry, and strength did not differ between Hispanic and non-Hispanic girls; fat mass may be a stronger contributor to bone strength in weight-bearing bones of Hispanic girls compared to non-Hispanic. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Relative strengths of the calf muscles based on MRI volume measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Clifford L; Thawait, Gaurav K; Kwon, John Y; Machado, Antonio; Boyle, James W; Campbell, John; Carrino, John A

    2012-05-01

    In 1985, Silver et al. published a cadaver study which determined the relative order of strength of the muscles in the calf. Muscle strength, which is proportional to volume, was obtained by dissecting out the individual muscles, weighing them, and then multiplying by the specific gravity. No similar studies have been performed using {\\it in vivo} measurements of muscle volume. Ten normal subjects underwent 3-Tesla MRI's of both lower extremities using non-fat-saturated T2 SPACE sequences. The volume for each muscle was determined by tracing the muscle contour on sequential axial images and then interpolating the volume using imaging software. The results from this study differ from Silver's original article. The lateral head of the gastrocnemius was found to be stronger than the tibialis anterior muscle. The FHL and EDL muscles were both stronger than the peroneus longus. There was no significant difference in strength between the peroneus longus and brevis muscles. This revised order of muscle strengths in the calf based on in vivo MRI findings may assist surgeons in determining the optimal tendons to transfer in order to address muscle weakness and deformity.

  4. Role of microRNAs in the age-related changes in skeletal muscle and diet or exercise interventions to promote healthy aging in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Robin A; Poppitt, Sally D; Cameron-Smith, David

    2014-09-01

    Progressive age-related changes in skeletal muscle mass and composition, underpin decreases in muscle function, which can inturn lead to impaired mobility and quality of life in older adults. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression in skeletal muscle and are associated with aging. Accumulating evidence suggests that miRNAs play an important role in the age-related changes in skeletal muscle mass, composition and function. At the cellular level, miRNAs have been demonstrated to regulate muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. Furthermore, miRNAs are involved in the transitioning of muscle stem cells from a quiescent, to either an activated or senescence state. Evidence from animal and human studies has shown miRNAs are modulated in muscle atrophy and hypertrophy. In addition, miRNAs have been implicated in changes in muscle fiber composition, fat infiltration and insulin resistance. Both exercise and dietary interventions can combat age-related changes in muscle mass, composition and function, which may be mediated by miRNA modulation in skeletal muscle. Circulating miRNA species derived from myogenic cell populations represent potential biomarkers of aging muscle and the molecular responses to exercise or diet interventions, but larger validation studies are required. In future therapeutic approaches targeting miRNAs, either through exercise, diet or drugs may be able to slow down or prevent the age-related changes in skeletal muscle mass, composition, function, hence help maintain mobility and quality of life in old age. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Conscious Anxiety, Conscious Repression and Ego-strength as Related to Dream Recall, Content and Vividness

    OpenAIRE

    Newbold, David

    1980-01-01

    Subjects' reported dream recall frequency, dream content and vividness or recall were discussed and examined in relation to sex of the subject and MMPI Conscious Anxiety, Conscious Repression and Ego-strength scores. Fifty-three Utah State University students, who volunteered to participate in a study of dreaming behavior, were administered the MMPI and asked to complete a dream log diary. The dream log required a daily recording of total number of dreams recalled, the number of vividly an...

  6. [Body, strength, and labor: reflexions in the light of gender relations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, L H

    2000-01-01

    The present paper intends to contribute on a reflection and discussion of some issues related to female's body and the strength present in laborwork, understood as the moment in which through the support of another person, a woman "gives birth". It also discusses the perspective of male dominance having as reference the symbolic violence from Bordieu, proposing that the humanizing of labor demands a thorough discussion on gender dominance.

  7. Age-related differences in skeletal muscle microvascular response to exercise as detected by contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Wulf; Schwarzbach, Hans; Pardun, Anita; Hannemann, Lena; Bogs, Björn; König, Alexander M; Mahnken, Andreas H; Hildebrandt, Olaf; Koehler, Ulrich; Kinscherf, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    Aging involves reductions in exercise total limb blood flow and exercise capacity. We hypothesized that this may involve early age-related impairments of skeletal muscle microvascular responsiveness as previously reported for insulin but not for exercise stimuli in humans. Using an isometric exercise model, we studied the effect of age on contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) parameters, i.e. microvascular blood volume (MBV), flow velocity (MFV) and blood flow (MBF) calculated from replenishment of Sonovue contrast-agent microbubbles after their destruction. CEUS was applied to the vastus lateralis (VLat) and intermedius (VInt) muscle in 15 middle-aged (MA, 43.6±1.5 years) and 11 young (YG, 24.1±0.6 years) healthy males before, during, and after 2 min of isometric knee extension at 15% of peak torque (PT). In addition, total leg blood flow as recorded by femoral artery Doppler-flow. Moreover, fiber-type-specific and overall capillarisation as well as fiber composition were additionally assessed in Vlat biopsies obtained from CEUS site. MA and YG had similar quadriceps muscle MRT-volume or PT and maximal oxygen uptake as well as a normal cardiovascular risk factors and intima-media-thickness. During isometric exercise MA compared to YG reached significantly lower levels in MFV (0.123±0.016 vs. 0.208±0.036 a.u.) and MBF (0.007±0.001 vs. 0.012±0.002 a.u.). In the VInt the (post-occlusive hyperemia) post-exercise peaks in MBV and MBF were significantly lower in MA vs. YG. Capillary density, capillary fiber contacts and femoral artery Doppler were similar between MA and YG. In the absence of significant age-related reductions in capillarisation, total leg blood flow or muscle mass, healthy middle-aged males reveal impaired skeletal muscle microcirculatory responses to isometric exercise. Whether this limits isometric muscle performance remains to be assessed.

  8. Age-related differences in skeletal muscle microvascular response to exercise as detected by contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulf Hildebrandt

    Full Text Available Aging involves reductions in exercise total limb blood flow and exercise capacity. We hypothesized that this may involve early age-related impairments of skeletal muscle microvascular responsiveness as previously reported for insulin but not for exercise stimuli in humans.Using an isometric exercise model, we studied the effect of age on contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS parameters, i.e. microvascular blood volume (MBV, flow velocity (MFV and blood flow (MBF calculated from replenishment of Sonovue contrast-agent microbubbles after their destruction. CEUS was applied to the vastus lateralis (VLat and intermedius (VInt muscle in 15 middle-aged (MA, 43.6±1.5 years and 11 young (YG, 24.1±0.6 years healthy males before, during, and after 2 min of isometric knee extension at 15% of peak torque (PT. In addition, total leg blood flow as recorded by femoral artery Doppler-flow. Moreover, fiber-type-specific and overall capillarisation as well as fiber composition were additionally assessed in Vlat biopsies obtained from CEUS site. MA and YG had similar quadriceps muscle MRT-volume or PT and maximal oxygen uptake as well as a normal cardiovascular risk factors and intima-media-thickness.During isometric exercise MA compared to YG reached significantly lower levels in MFV (0.123±0.016 vs. 0.208±0.036 a.u. and MBF (0.007±0.001 vs. 0.012±0.002 a.u.. In the VInt the (post-occlusive hyperemia post-exercise peaks in MBV and MBF were significantly lower in MA vs. YG. Capillary density, capillary fiber contacts and femoral artery Doppler were similar between MA and YG.In the absence of significant age-related reductions in capillarisation, total leg blood flow or muscle mass, healthy middle-aged males reveal impaired skeletal muscle microcirculatory responses to isometric exercise. Whether this limits isometric muscle performance remains to be assessed.

  9. Gene expression in skeletal muscle biopsies from people with type 2 diabetes and relatives: differential regulation of insulin signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Palsgaard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gene expression alterations have previously been associated with type 2 diabetes, however whether these changes are primary causes or secondary effects of type 2 diabetes is not known. As healthy first degree relatives of people with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes, they provide a good model in the search for primary causes of the disease. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We determined gene expression profiles in skeletal muscle biopsies from Caucasian males with type 2 diabetes, healthy first degree relatives, and healthy controls. Gene expression was measured using Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Arrays covering the entire human genome. These arrays have not previously been used for this type of study. We show for the first time that genes involved in insulin signaling are significantly upregulated in first degree relatives and significantly downregulated in people with type 2 diabetes. On the individual gene level, 11 genes showed altered expression levels in first degree relatives compared to controls, among others KIF1B and GDF8 (myostatin. LDHB was found to have a decreased expression in both groups compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We hypothesize that increased expression of insulin signaling molecules in first degree relatives of people with type 2 diabetes, work in concert with increased levels of insulin as a compensatory mechanism, counter-acting otherwise reduced insulin signaling activity, protecting these individuals from severe insulin resistance. This compensation is lost in people with type 2 diabetes where expression of insulin signaling molecules is reduced.

  10. Glycolysis in contracting rat skeletal muscle is controlled by factors related to energy state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørtenblad, Niels; Macdonald, Will A; Sahlin, Kent

    2009-01-01

    The control of glycolysis in contracting muscle is not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to examine whether activation of glycolysis is mediated by factors related to the energy state or by a direct effect of Ca2+ on the regulating enzymes. Extensor digitorum longus muscles from...... and 58% of those in Con respectively. Glycolytic rate in BTS was only 51% of that in Con but the relative contribution of ATP derived from PCr (phosphocreatine) and glycolysis and the relation between muscle contents of PCr and Lac (lactate) were not different. Prolonged cyanide incubation of quiescent...... contribution of energy delivered from PCr and glycolysis during both conditions suggests that the glycolytic rate is controlled by factors related to energy state....

  11. Growth-related changes of skeletal and upper-airway features in bilateral cleft lip and palate patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akarsu-Guven, Bengisu; Karakaya, Jale; Ozgur, Figen; Aksu, Muge

    2015-10-01

    The craniofacial morphology of subjects with cleft lip and palate differs from that of subjects without clefts. Subjects with bilateral cleft lip and palate tend to have maxillary retrognathism, a smaller mandible with an obtuse gonial angle, greater anterior upper and lower facial heights, and retroclined maxillary incisors. The purposes of this research were to compare the skeletal and upper-airway features of subjects with bilateral cleft lip and palate with the same features in control subjects without clefts and to determine the growth-related changes at different growth stages. The sample comprised 212 subjects divided into 2 groups: 68 with bilateral cleft lip and palate, and 144 controls without clefts; each group was further divided into 4 subgroups according to growth stage using the cervical vertebral maturation stage method. The subgroups were defined as early childhood (stage 1), prepubertal (stage 2), pubertal (stage 3), and postpubertal (stage 4). The cephalometric variables were evaluated with 2-way analysis of variance and the Bonferroni test. Maxillary position showed no significant differences between the male groups. The maxilla was more prognathic at stage 2 and became more retrognathic at stages 3 and 4 in the females. The mandible was more retrusive in the bilateral cleft lip and palate subjects at stage 1 in males and at stages 3 and 4 in females. ANB was larger at stages 1 and 2, and it became similar to the controls at stages 3 and 4 in male and female bilateral cleft lip and palate subjects. Vertical growth was seen in the bilateral cleft lip and palate subjects regardless of sex, and no change was observed with age. Posterior airway space was narrower in all stages (except for stage 1 in females). Middle airway space was wider after stage 1 in the male and female bilateral cleft lip and palate subjects. Inferior airway space was narrower in the male bilateral cleft lip and palate patients at the early childhood and pubertal stages. Age

  12. AIRS Observations Based Evaluation of Relative Climate Feedback Strengths on a GCM Grid-Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, G. I.; Susskind, J.

    2012-12-01

    Climate feedback strengths, especially those associated with moist processes, still have a rather wide range in GCMs, the primary tools to predict future climate changes associated with man's ever increasing influences on our planet. Here, we make use of the first 10 years of AIRS observations to evaluate interrelationships/correlations of atmospheric moist parameter anomalies computed from AIRS Version 5 Level-3 products, and demonstrate their usefulness to assess relative feedback strengths. Although one may argue about the possible usability of shorter-term, observed climate parameter anomalies for estimating the strength of various (mostly moist processes related) feedbacks, recent works, in particular analyses by Dessler [2008, 2010], have demonstrated their usefulness in assessing global water vapor and cloud feedbacks. First, we create AIRS-observed monthly anomaly time-series (ATs) of outgoing longwave radiation, water vapor, clouds and temperature profile over a 10-year long (Sept. 2002 through Aug. 2012) period using 1x1 degree resolution (a common GCM grid-scale). Next, we evaluate the interrelationships of ATs of the above parameters with the corresponding 1x1 degree, as well as global surface temperature ATs. The latter provides insight comparable with more traditional climate feedback definitions (e. g., Zelinka and Hartmann, 2012) whilst the former is related to a new definition of "local (in surface temperature too) feedback strengths" on a GCM grid-scale. Comparing the correlation maps generated provides valuable new information on the spatial distribution of relative climate feedback strengths. We argue that for GCMs to be trusted for predicting longer-term climate variability, they should be able to reproduce these observed relationships/metrics as closely as possible. For this time period the main climate "forcing" was associated with the El Niño/La Niña variability (e. g., Dessler, 2010), so these assessments may not be descriptive of longer

  13. Radiographic assessment of lower third molar eruption in different anteroposterior skeletal patterns and age-related groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljevic, Aleksandar; Lazic, Emira; Soldatovic, Ivan; Nedeljkovic, Nenad; Andric, Miroslav

    2015-07-01

    To analyze radiographic predictors for lower third molar eruption among subjects with different anteroposterior skeletal relations and of different age groups. In total, 300 lower third molars were recorded on diagnostic digital orthopantomograms (DPTs) and lateral cephalograms (LCs). The radiographs were grouped according to sagittal intermaxillary angle (ANB), subject age, and level of lower third molar eruption. The DPT was used to analyze retromolar space, mesiodistal crown width, space/width ratio, third and second molar angulation (α, γ), third molar inclination (β), and gonion angle. The LC was used to determine ANB, angles of maxillar and mandibular prognathism (SNA, SNB), mandibular plane angle (SN/MP), and mandibular lengths. A logistic regression model was created using the statistically significant predictors. The logistic regression analysis revealed a statistically significant impact of β angle and distance between gonion and gnathion (Go-Gn) on the level of lower third molar eruption (P third molar impaction rate was significantly higher in the adult subgroup with the Class II (62.3%) compared with Class III subjects (31.7%; P third molar eruption were measured in Class III subjects. For valid estimation of mandibular third molar eruption, certain linear and angular measures (β angle, Go-Gn), as well as the size of the retromolar space, need to be considered.

  14. Aging of marrow stromal (skeletal) stem cells and their contribution to age-related bone loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellantuono, Ilaria; Aldahmash, Abdullah; Kassem, Moustapha

    2009-01-01

    Marrow stromal cells (MSC) are thought to be stem cells with osteogenic potential and therefore responsible for the repair and maintenance of the skeleton. Age related bone loss is one of the most prevalent diseases in the elder population. It is controversial whether MSC undergo a process of agi...

  15. Estimation of genetic parameters related to eggshell strength using random regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, J; Ma, M; Qu, L; Shen, M; Dou, T; Wang, K

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the changes in eggshell strength and the genetic parameters related to this trait throughout a hen's laying life using random regression. The data were collected from a crossbred population between 2011 and 2014, where the eggshell strength was determined repeatedly for 2260 hens. Using random regression models (RRMs), several Legendre polynomials were employed to estimate the fixed, direct genetic and permanent environment effects. The residual effects were treated as independently distributed with heterogeneous variance for each test week. The direct genetic variance was included with second-order Legendre polynomials and the permanent environment with third-order Legendre polynomials. The heritability of eggshell strength ranged from 0.26 to 0.43, the repeatability ranged between 0.47 and 0.69, and the estimated genetic correlations between test weeks was high at > 0.67. The first eigenvalue of the genetic covariance matrix accounted for about 97% of the sum of all the eigenvalues. The flexibility and statistical power of RRM suggest that this model could be an effective method to improve eggshell quality and to reduce losses due to cracked eggs in a breeding plan.

  16. Deletion of the transcriptional coactivator PGC1α in skeletal muscles is associated with reduced expression of genes related to oxidative muscle function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatazawa, Yukino; Minami, Kimiko; Yoshimura, Ryoji; Onishi, Takumi; Manio, Mark Christian; Inoue, Kazuo; Sawada, Naoki; Suzuki, Osamu; Miura, Shinji; Kamei, Yasutomi

    2016-01-01

    The expression of the transcriptional coactivator PGC1α is increased in skeletal muscles during exercise. Previously, we showed that increased PGC1α leads to prolonged exercise performance (the duration for which running can be continued) and, at the same time, increases the expression of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism-related enzymes and genes that are involved in supplying substrates for the TCA cycle. We recently created mice with PGC1α knockout specifically in the skeletal muscles (PGC1α KO mice), which show decreased mitochondrial content. In this study, global gene expression (microarray) analysis was performed in the skeletal muscles of PGC1α KO mice compared with that of wild-type control mice. As a result, decreased expression of genes involved in the TCA cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, and BCAA metabolism were observed. Compared with previously obtained microarray data on PGC1α-overexpressing transgenic mice, each gene showed the completely opposite direction of expression change. Bioinformatic analysis of the promoter region of genes with decreased expression in PGC1α KO mice predicted the involvement of several transcription factors, including a nuclear receptor, ERR, in their regulation. As PGC1α KO microarray data in this study show opposing findings to the PGC1α transgenic data, a loss-of-function experiment, as well as a gain-of-function experiment, revealed PGC1α’s function in the oxidative energy metabolism of skeletal muscles. - Highlights: • Microarray analysis was performed in the skeletal muscle of PGC1α KO mice. • Expression of genes in the oxidative energy metabolism was decreased. • Bioinformatic analysis of promoter region of the genes predicted involvement of ERR. • PGC1α KO microarray data in this study show the mirror image of transgenic data.

  17. Physical activity opposes the age-related increase in skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels and normalizes plasma endothelin-1 levels in individuals with essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, M; Mortensen, S P; Hellsten, Y

    2013-03-01

    Endothelin-1 has potent constrictor and proliferative activity in vascular smooth muscle, and essential hypertension and aging are associated with increased endothelin-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of physical activity, hypertension and age on endothelin-1 levels in plasma and skeletal muscle and endothelin receptors in skeletal muscle in human subjects. In study 1, normotensive (46 ± 1 years, n = 11) and hypertensive (47 ± 1 years, n = 10) subjects were studied before and after 8 weeks of aerobic exercise training. In study 2, young (23 ± 1 years, n = 8), older lifelong sedentary (66 ± 2 years, n = 8) and older lifelong endurance-trained (62 ± 2 years, n = 8) subjects were studied in a cross-sectional design. Skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels were increased with age and plasma endothelin-1 levels were higher in hypertensive than normotensive individuals. Eight weeks of exercise training normalized plasma endothelin-1 levels in the hypertensive subjects and increased the protein expression of the ET(A) receptor in skeletal muscle of normotensive subjects. Similarly, individuals that had performed lifelong physical activity had similar plasma and muscle endothelin-1 levels as the young controls and had higher ET(A) receptor levels. Our findings suggest that aerobic exercise training opposes the age-related increase in skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels and normalizes plasma endothelin-1 levels in individuals with essential hypertension. This effect may explain some of the beneficial effects of training on the cardiovascular system in older and hypertensive subjects. © 2012 The Authors Acta Physiologica © 2012 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  18. Looking at eye dominance from a different angle: is sighting strength related to hand preference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, David P; Hutchinson, Claire V

    2013-10-01

    Sighting dominance (the behavioural preference for one eye over the other under monocular viewing conditions) has traditionally been thought of as a robust individual trait. However, Khan and Crawford (2001) have shown that, under certain viewing conditions, eye preference reverses as a function of horizontal gaze angle. Remarkably, the reversal of sighting from one eye to the other depends on which hand is used to reach out and grasp the target. Their procedure provides an ideal way to measure the strength of monocular preference for sighting, which may be related to other indicators of hemispheric specialisation for speech, language and motor function. Therefore, we hypothesised that individuals with consistent side preferences (e.g., right hand, right eye) should have more robust sighting dominance than those with crossed lateral preferences. To test this idea, we compared strength of eye dominance in individuals who are consistently right or left sided for hand and foot preference with those who are not. We also modified their procedure in order to minimise a potential image size confound, suggested by Banks et al. (2004) as an explanation of Khan and Crawford's results. We found that the sighting dominance switch occurred at similar eccentricities when we controlled for effects of hand occlusion and target size differences. We also found that sighting dominance thresholds change predictably with the hand used. However, we found no evidence for relationships between strength of hand preference as assessed by questionnaire or by pegboard performance and strength of sighting dominance. Similarly, participants with consistent hand and foot preferences did not show stronger eye preference as assessed using the Khan and Crawford procedure. These data are discussed in terms of indirect relationships between sighting dominance, hand preference and cerebral specialisation for language and motor control. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The acute effects of strength, endurance and concurrent exercises on the Akt/mTOR/p70S6K1 and AMPK signaling pathway responses in rat skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O.de Souza

    Full Text Available The activation of competing intracellular pathways has been proposed to explain the reduced training adaptations after concurrent strength and endurance exercises (CE. The present study investigated the acute effects of CE, strength exercises (SE, and endurance exercises (EE on phosphorylated/total ratios of selected AMPK and Akt/mTOR/p70S6K1 pathway proteins in rats. Six animals per exercise group were killed immediately (0 h and 2 h after each exercise mode. In addition, 6 animals in a non-exercised condition (NE were killed on the same day and under the same conditions. The levels of AMPK, phospho-Thr172AMPK (p-AMPK, Akt, phospho-Ser473Akt (p-Akt, p70S6K1, phospho-Thr389-p70S6K1 (p-p70S6K1, mTOR, phospho-Ser2448mTOR (p-mTOR, and phospho-Thr1462-TSC2 (p-TSC2 expression were evaluated by immunoblotting in total plantaris muscle extracts. The only significant difference detected was an increase (i.e., 87% in Akt phosphorylated/total ratio in the CE group 2 h after exercise compared to the NE group (P = 0.002. There were no changes in AMPK, TSC2, mTOR, or p70S6K1 ratios when the exercise modes were compared to the NE condition (P ≥ 0.05. In conclusion, our data suggest that low-intensity and low-volume CE might not blunt the training-induced adaptations, since it did not activate competing intracellular pathways in an acute bout of strength and endurance exercises in rat skeletal muscle.

  20. Detection of satellite cells during skeletal muscle wound healing in rats: time-dependent expressions of Pax7 and MyoD in relation to wound age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhi-Ling; Jiang, Shu-Kun; Zhang, Miao; Wang, Meng; Li, Jiao-Yong; Zhao, Rui; Wang, Lin-Lin; Li, Shan-Shan; Liu, Min; Zhang, Meng-Zhou; Guan, Da-Wei

    2016-01-01

    The study was focused on time-dependent expressions of paired-box transcription factor 7 (Pax7) and myoblast determination protein (MyoD) during skeletal muscle wound healing. An animal model of skeletal muscle contusion was established in 40 Sprague-Dawley male rats. Samples were taken at 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 13, 17, and 21 days after injury, respectively (five rats in each posttraumatic interval). Five rats were employed as control. By morphometric analysis, the data based on the number of Pax7(+)/MyoD(-), Pax7(+)/MyoD(+), and Pax7(-)/MyoD(+) cells were highly correlated with the wound age. Pax7 and MyoD expressions were upregulated after injury by Western blot and quantitative real-time PCR assays. The relative quantity of Pax7 protein peaked at 5 days after injury, which was >1.13, and decreased thereafter. Similarly, the relative quantity of MyoD mRNA expression peaked at 3 days after injury, which was >2.59. The relative quantity of Pax7 protein >0.73 or mRNA expression >2.38 or the relative quantity of MyoD protein >1.33 suggested a wound age of 3 to 7 days. The relative quantity of MyoD mRNA expression >2.02 suggested a wound age of 1 to 7 days post-injury. In conclusion, the expressions of Pax7 and MyoD are upregulated in a time-dependent manner during skeletal muscle wound healing, suggesting that Pax7 and MyoD may be potential markers for wound age estimation in skeletal muscle.

  1. Internationally adopted children in the early school years: relative strengths and weaknesses in language abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennen, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the relative strengths and weaknesses in language and verbal short-term memory abilities of school-age children who were adopted from Eastern Europe. Children adopted between 1;0 and 4;11 (years;months) of age were assessed with the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool, Second Edition (CELF-P2) and the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals, Fourth Edition (CELF-4) at age 5 and ages 6-7. Language composites and subtests were compared across time. All CELF-P2 and CELF-4 mean scores fell in the average range. Receptive composites were 102.74 and 103.86, and expressive composites were 100.58 and 98.42, at age 5 and ages 6-7, respectively. Age of adoption did not correlate to test scores. At ages 6-7, receptive language, sentence formulation, and vocabulary were areas of strength, with subtest scores significantly better than test norms. Verbal short-term memory and expressive grammar subtest scores were within the average range but significantly worse than test norms. A high percentage of children scored 1 standard deviation below the mean on these 2 subtests (27.3%-34.1%). Eastern European adoptees had average scores on a variety of language tests. Vocabulary was a relative strength; enriching the environment substantially improved this language area. Verbal short-term memory and expressive grammar were relative weaknesses. Children learning a language later in life may have difficulty with verbal short-term memory, which leads to weaknesses in expressive syntax and grammar.

  2. Relating appendicular skeletal variation of sigmodontine rodents to locomotion modes in a phylogenetic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho Coutinho, Ludmilla; Alves de Oliveira, João

    2017-10-01

    Sigmodontinae rodents constitute the second-largest subfamily among mammals. Alongside the taxonomic diversity, they are also ecologically diverse, exhibiting a wide array of locomotion modes, with semifossorial, terrestrial, semiaquatic, scansorial, arboreal, and saltatorial forms. To understand the ecomorphologic aspects that allow these rodents to display such locomotion diversity, we analyzed 35 qualitative characters of the appendicular skeleton (humerus, ulna, radius, scapula, femur, tibia, ilium, ischium and pubis) in 795 specimens belonging to 64 species, 34 genera and 10 tribes, representing all locomotion modes assigned to this subfamily. We performed a statistical analysis based upon the coefficient of trait differentiation to test the congruence of character states and the different locomotion modes. We also mapped characters states in a molecular phylogeny in order to reconstruct ancestral states and to evaluate how appendicular characters evolved within main lineages of Sigmodontinae radiation under a phylogenetic framework. The statistical analyses revealed six characters related to specific locomotion modes, except terrestrial. The mapping and parsimony ancestral states reconstruction identified two characters with phylogenetical signal and eight characters that are exclusively or more frequently recorded in certain modes of locomotion, four of them also detected by the statistical analysis. Notwithstanding the documented morphological variation, few changes characterize the transition to each of the locomotion modes, at least regarding the appendicular skeleton. This finding corroborates previous results that showed that sigmodontines exhibit an all-purpose appendicular morphology that allows them to use and explore a great variety of habitats. © 2017 Anatomical Society.

  3. Betulinic acid, a bioactive pentacyclic triterpenoid, inhibits skeletal-related events induced by breast cancer bone metastases and treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Se Young; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Ki Rim; Lee, Sun Kyoung; Lee, Chang Ki; Park, Kwang-Kyun, E-mail: biochelab@yuhs.ac; Chung, Won-Yoon, E-mail: wychung@yuhs.ac

    2014-03-01

    Many breast cancer patients experience bone metastases and suffer skeletal complications. The present study provides evidence on the protective and therapeutic potential of betulinic acid on cancer-associated bone diseases. Betulinic acid is a naturally occurring triterpenoid with the beneficial activity to limit the progression and severity of cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis, and obesity. We first investigated its effect on breast cancer cells, osteoblastic cells, and osteoclasts in the vicious cycle of osteolytic bone metastasis. Betulinic acid reduced cell viability and the production of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), a major osteolytic factor, in MDA-MB-231 human metastatic breast cancer cells stimulated with or without tumor growth factor-β. Betulinic acid blocked an increase in the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin ratio by downregulating RANKL protein expression in PTHrP-treated human osteoblastic cells. In addition, betulinic acid inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in murine bone marrow macrophages and decreased the production of resorbed area in plates with a bone biomimetic synthetic surface by suppressing the secretion of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, and cathepsin K in RANKL-induced osteoclasts. Furthermore, oral administration of betulinic acid inhibited bone loss in mice intra-tibially inoculated with breast cancer cells and in ovariectomized mice causing estrogen deprivation, as supported by the restored bone morphometric parameters and serum bone turnover markers. Taken together, these findings suggest that betulinic acid may have the potential to prevent bone loss in patients with bone metastases and cancer treatment-induced estrogen deficiency. - Highlights: • Betulinic acid reduced PTHrP production in human metastatic breast cancer cells. • Betulinic acid blocked RANKL/OPG ratio in PTHrP-stimulated human osteoblastic cells. • Betulinic

  4. Betulinic acid, a bioactive pentacyclic triterpenoid, inhibits skeletal-related events induced by breast cancer bone metastases and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Se Young; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Ki Rim; Lee, Sun Kyoung; Lee, Chang Ki; Park, Kwang-Kyun; Chung, Won-Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Many breast cancer patients experience bone metastases and suffer skeletal complications. The present study provides evidence on the protective and therapeutic potential of betulinic acid on cancer-associated bone diseases. Betulinic acid is a naturally occurring triterpenoid with the beneficial activity to limit the progression and severity of cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis, and obesity. We first investigated its effect on breast cancer cells, osteoblastic cells, and osteoclasts in the vicious cycle of osteolytic bone metastasis. Betulinic acid reduced cell viability and the production of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), a major osteolytic factor, in MDA-MB-231 human metastatic breast cancer cells stimulated with or without tumor growth factor-β. Betulinic acid blocked an increase in the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin ratio by downregulating RANKL protein expression in PTHrP-treated human osteoblastic cells. In addition, betulinic acid inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in murine bone marrow macrophages and decreased the production of resorbed area in plates with a bone biomimetic synthetic surface by suppressing the secretion of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, and cathepsin K in RANKL-induced osteoclasts. Furthermore, oral administration of betulinic acid inhibited bone loss in mice intra-tibially inoculated with breast cancer cells and in ovariectomized mice causing estrogen deprivation, as supported by the restored bone morphometric parameters and serum bone turnover markers. Taken together, these findings suggest that betulinic acid may have the potential to prevent bone loss in patients with bone metastases and cancer treatment-induced estrogen deficiency. - Highlights: • Betulinic acid reduced PTHrP production in human metastatic breast cancer cells. • Betulinic acid blocked RANKL/OPG ratio in PTHrP-stimulated human osteoblastic cells. • Betulinic

  5. Expression of collagen and related growth factors in rat tendon and skeletal muscle in response to specific contraction types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemeier, K M; Olesen, J L; Haddad, F; Langberg, H; Kjaer, M; Baldwin, K M; Schjerling, P

    2007-08-01

    Acute exercise induces collagen synthesis in both tendon and muscle, indicating an adaptive response in the connective tissue of the muscle-tendon unit. However, the mechanisms of this adaptation, potentially involving collagen-inducing growth factors (such as transforming growth factor-beta-1 (TGF-beta-1)), as well as enzymes related to collagen processing, are not clear. Furthermore, possible differential effects of specific contraction types on collagen regulation have not been investigated. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 4 days of concentric, eccentric or isometric training (n = 7-9 per group) of the medial gastrocnemius, by stimulation of the sciatic nerve. RNA was extracted from medial gastrocnemius and Achilles tendon tissue 24 h after the last training bout, and mRNA levels for collagens I and III, TGF-beta-1, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), lysyl oxidase (LOX), metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and -9) and their inhibitors (TIMP-1 and 2) were measured by Northern blotting and/or real-time PCR. In tendon, expression of TGF-beta-1 and collagens I and III (but not CTGF) increased in response to all types of training. Similarly, enzymes/factors involved in collagen processing were induced in tendon, especially LOX (up to 37-fold), which could indicate a loading-induced increase in cross-linking of tendon collagen. In skeletal muscle, a similar regulation of gene expression was observed, but in contrast to the tendon response, the effect of eccentric training was significantly greater than the effect of concentric training on the expression of several transcripts. In conclusion, the study supports an involvement of TGF-beta-1 in loading-induced collagen synthesis in the muscle-tendon unit and importantly, it indicates that muscle tissue is more sensitive than tendon to the specific mechanical stimulus.

  6. Cost-effectiveness of denosumab versus zoledronic acid for preventing skeletal-related events in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristino, Joaquim; Finek, Jíndřich; Jandova, Petra; Kolek, Martin; Pásztor, Bálint; Giannopoulou, Christina; Qian, Yi; Brezina, Tomas; Lothgren, Mickael

    2017-08-01

    This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of the subcutaneous RANKL inhibitor, denosumab, vs the intravenous bisphosphonate, zoledronic acid, for the prevention of skeletal-related events (SREs) in patients with prostate cancer, breast cancer, and other solid tumors (OST) in the Czech Republic. A lifetime Markov model was developed to compare the effects of denosumab and zoledronic acid on costs (including drug costs and administration, patient management, SREs, and adverse events), quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios from a national payer perspective. Different discount rates, time horizons, SRE rates, distributions, and nature (asymptomatic vs all SREs), and the inclusion of treatment discontinuation were considered in scenario analyses. The robustness of the model was tested using deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Across tumor types, denosumab was associated with fewer SREs, improved QALYs, and higher total costs over a lifetime. The incremental cost per QALY gained for denosumab vs zoledronic acid was 382,673 CZK for prostate cancer, 408,450 CZK for breast cancer, and 608,133 CZK for OST. Incremental costs per SRE avoided for the same tumor type were 54,007 CZK, 51,765 CZK, and 94,426 CZK, respectively. In scenario analyses, the results remained similar to baseline, when different discount rates and time horizons were considered. At a non-official willingness-to-pay threshold of 1.2 million CZK, the probabilities of denosumab being cost-effective vs zoledronic acid were 0.64, 0.67, and 0.49 for prostate cancer, breast cancer, and OST, respectively. The SRE rates used were obtained from clinical trials; studies suggest rates may be higher in clinical practice. Additional evidence on real-world SRE rates could further improve the accuracy of the modeling. Compared with zoledronic acid, denosumab provides a cost-effective treatment option for the prevention of SREs in patients with prostate cancer

  7. The Statistical Analysis of Relation between Compressive and Tensile/Flexural Strength of High Performance Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kępniak M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the tensile and flexural strength of HPC (high performance concrete. The aim of the paper is to analyse the efficiency of models proposed in different codes. In particular, three design procedures from: the ACI 318 [1], Eurocode 2 [2] and the Model Code 2010 [3] are considered. The associations between design tensile strength of concrete obtained from these three codes and compressive strength are compared with experimental results of tensile strength and flexural strength by statistical tools. Experimental results of tensile strength were obtained in the splitting test. Based on this comparison, conclusions are drawn according to the fit between the design methods and the test data. The comparison shows that tensile strength and flexural strength of HPC depend on more influential factors and not only compressive strength.

  8. Does vitamin-D intake during resistance training improve the skeletal muscle hypertrophic and strength response in young and elderly men? – a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Jakob; Trøstrup, Jeanette; Uth, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    analyzed for fiber type morphology changes and mRNA expression of vitamin-D receptor (VDR), cytochrome p450 27B1 (CYP27B1) and Myostatin. RESULTS: In the vitamin-D groups, serum 25(OH)D concentration increased significantly and at week 12 was significantly different from placebo in both young men (71.6 vs.......0001) with no difference between vitamin-D and placebo groups. Vitamin-D intake and resistance training increased strength/CSA in elderly compared to young (p = 0.008). In the young vitamin-D group, the change in fiber type IIa percentage was greater after 12 weeks training (p = 0.030) and Myostatin mRNA expression lower...

  9. Lifelong physical activity prevents an age-related reduction in arterial and skeletal muscle nitric oxide bioavailability in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Blackwell, James R; Damsgaard, Ramsus

    2012-01-01

    studied the effect of ROS on systemic and skeletal muscle NO bioavailability and leg blood flow by infusion of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Infusion of NAC increased the bioavailability of NO in OS, as evidenced by an increased concentration of stable metabolites of NO (NOx) in the arterial...

  10. Grip Strength as an Indicator of Health-Related Quality of Life in Old Age-A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musalek, Christina; Kirchengast, Sylvia

    2017-11-24

    Over the last century life expectancy has increased dramatically nearly all over the world. This dramatic absolute and relative increase of the old aged people component of the population has influenced not only population structure but also has dramatic implications for the individuals and public health services. The aim of the present pilot study was to examine the impact of physical well-being assessed by hand grip strength and social factors estimated by social contact frequency on health-related quality of life among 22 men and 41 women ranging in age between 60 and 94 years. Physical well-being was estimated by hand grip strength, data concerning subjective wellbeing and health related quality of life were collected by personal interviews based on the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaires. Number of offspring and intergenerational contacts were not related significantly to health-related quality of life, while social contacts with non-relatives and hand grip strength in contrast had a significant positive impact on health related quality of life among old aged men and women. Physical well-being and in particular muscle strength-estimated by grip strength-may increase health-related quality of life and is therefore an important source for well-being during old age. Grip strength may be used as an indicator of health-related quality of life.

  11. Skeletal-related events significantly impact health-related quality of life in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: data from PREVAIL and AFFIRM trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, F; Ivanescu, C; Phung, D; Loriot, Y; Abhyankar, S; Beer, T M; Tombal, B; Holmstrom, S

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the impact of skeletal-related events (SREs) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) in phase III trials of enzalutamide versus placebo. Patients with mCRPC experiencing at least one SRE during AFFIRM and PREVAIL were assessed for trajectory-adjusted mean change in HRQoL by first SRE using Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate (FACT-P; AFFIRM, three domains, and PREVAIL, nine domains) and EQ-5D (PREVAIL) instruments. First SREs caused HRQoL deterioration in both trials. Spinal cord compression had the largest impact, with clinically meaningful reductions in seven of nine FACT-P domains in PREVAIL and all three in AFFIRM (mean (95% confidence interval (CI)) change in FACT-P total score -16.95 (-26.47, -7.44) and -9.69 (-16.10, -3.27), respectively). In PREVAIL, first SREs caused clinically meaningful declines in EQ-5D utility index, irrespective of category; spinal cord compression had the largest impact (mean (95% CI) change -0.24 (-0.39, -0.08)). In AFFIRM, FACT-P and FACT-General total scores showed clinically meaningful declines after radiation/surgery to bone. SREs were associated with clinically meaningful functional declines in the daily lives of patients with mCRPC. Spinal cord compression had the largest impact on HRQoL.

  12. Effect of physical training on insulin secretion and action in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue of first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela, Flemming; Stallknecht, Bente Merete

    2010-01-01

    in CON but not in FDR, whereas glucose-mediated GU increased (P groups. Adipose tissue GU was not affected by training, but it was higher (abdominal, P Training increased skeletal muscle lipolysis (P ...- to sevenfold. We conclude that insulin-secretory capacity is lower in FDR than in CON and that there is dissociation between training-induced changes in insulin secretion and insulin-mediated GU. Maximal GU rates are similar between groups and increases with physical training.......Physical training affects insulin secretion and action, but there is a paucity of data on the direct effects in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue and on the effect of training in first-degree relatives (FDR) of patients with type 2 diabetes. We studied insulin action at the whole body level...

  13. Fructose overfeeding in first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients impacts energy metabolism and mitochondrial functions in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyssel, Kevin; Meugnier, Emmanuelle; Lê, Kim-Anne; Durand, Christine; Disse, Emmanuel; Blond, Emilie; Pays, Laurent; Nataf, Serge; Brozek, John; Vidal, Hubert; Tappy, Luc; Laville, Martine

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effects of a high-fructose diet (HFrD) on skeletal muscle transcriptomic response in healthy offspring of patients with type 2 diabetes, a subgroup of individuals prone to metabolic disorders. Ten healthy normal weight first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients were submitted to a HFrD (+3.5 g fructose/kg fat-free mass per day) during 7 days. A global transcriptomic analysis was performed on skeletal muscle biopsies combined with in vitro experiments using primary myotubes. Transcriptomic analysis highlighted profound effects on fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial pathways supporting the whole-body metabolic shift with the preferential use of carbohydrates instead of lipids. Bioinformatics tools pointed out possible transcription factors orchestrating this genomic regulation, such as PPARα and NR4A2. In vitro experiments in human myotubes suggested an indirect action of fructose in skeletal muscle, which seemed to be independent from lactate, uric acid, or nitric oxide. This study shows therefore that a large cluster of genes related to energy metabolism, mitochondrial function, and lipid oxidation was downregulated after 7 days of HFrD, thus supporting the concept that overconsumption of fructose-containing foods could contribute to metabolic deterioration in humans. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Situational Strength Cues from Social Sources at Work: Relative Importance and Mediated Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaybek, Balca; Dalal, Reeshad S; Sheng, Zitong; Morris, Alexander G; Tomassetti, Alan J; Holland, Samantha J

    2017-01-01

    Situational strength is considered one of the most important situational forces at work because it can attenuate the personality-performance relationship. Although organizational scholars have studied the consequences of situational strength, they have paid little attention to its antecedents. To address this gap, the current study focused on situational strength cues from different social sources as antecedents of overall situational strength at work. Specifically, we examined how employees combine situational strength cues emanating from three social sources (i.e., coworkers, the immediate supervisor, and top management). Based on field theory, we hypothesized that the effect of situational strength from coworkers and immediate supervisors (i.e., proximal sources of situational strength) on employees' perceptions of overall situational strength on the job would be greater than the effect of situational strength from the top management (i.e., the distal source of situational strength). We also hypothesized that the effect of situational strength from the distal source would be mediated by the effects of situational strength from the proximal sources. Data from 363 full-time employees were collected at two time points with a cross-lagged panel design. The former hypothesis was supported for one of the two situational strength facets studied. The latter hypothesis was fully supported.

  15. Situational Strength Cues from Social Sources at Work: Relative Importance and Mediated Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balca Alaybek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Situational strength is considered one of the most important situational forces at work because it can attenuate the personality–performance relationship. Although organizational scholars have studied the consequences of situational strength, they have paid little attention to its antecedents. To address this gap, the current study focused on situational strength cues from different social sources as antecedents of overall situational strength at work. Specifically, we examined how employees combine situational strength cues emanating from three social sources (i.e., coworkers, the immediate supervisor, and top management. Based on field theory, we hypothesized that the effect of situational strength from coworkers and immediate supervisors (i.e., proximal sources of situational strength on employees' perceptions of overall situational strength on the job would be greater than the effect of situational strength from the top management (i.e., the distal source of situational strength. We also hypothesized that the effect of situational strength from the distal source would be mediated by the effects of situational strength from the proximal sources. Data from 363 full-time employees were collected at two time points with a cross-lagged panel design. The former hypothesis was supported for one of the two situational strength facets studied. The latter hypothesis was fully supported.

  16. Elderly women with metabolic syndrome present higher cardiovascular risk and lower relative muscle strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Darlan Lopes; Tibana, Ramires Alsamir; Teixeira, Tatiane Gomes; Vieira, Denis César Leite; Tarja, Vitor; Nascimento, Dahan da Cunha; Silva, Alessandro de Oliveira [Universidade Católica de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Funghetto, Silvana Schwerz [Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Coura, Maritza Alves de Sousa; Valduga, Renato [Universidade Católica de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Karnikowski, Margô Gomes de Oliveira [Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Prestes, Jonato [Universidade Católica de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    To compare the metabolic, anthropometric, arterial blood pressure, and muscle strength parameters of elderly women with and without metabolic syndrome. A case-control study with 27 (67.3±4.8 years of age, 31.0±5.0kg/m{sup 2}) elderly women with metabolic syndrome and 33 (68.8±5.6 years of age, 27.2±5.3kg/m{sup 2}) sedentary control elderly women. They were submitted to an evaluation of body composition by means of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and muscle strength testing with 10 maximal repetitions of knee extension. When compared to the elderly women without metabolic syndrome, those with the metabolic syndrome had higher levels for body mass (72.2±13.5 versus 63.4±14.6kg, p=0.03), body mass index (31.0±5.0 versus 27.2±5.3kg/m{sup 2,} p=0.007), fat mass (30.9±9.9 versus 24.4±8.5kg, p=0.01), systolic arterial pressure (125.1±8.2 versus 119.3±8.7mmHg, p=0.01), diastolic arterial pressure (75.5±6.9 versus 71.4±6.7mmHg, p=0.03), mean arterial pressure (92.5±6.2 versus 87.1±6.7mmHg, p=0.004), blood glucose (103.8±19.1 versus 91.1±5.9mg/dL, p=0.001), triglycerides (187.1±70.2 versus 116.3±36.7mg/dL, p=0.001), and creatine kinase (122.6±58.6 versus 89.8±32.5U/L, p=0.01); lower levels were found for fat-free mass (55.9±5.8 versus 59.3±6.7%; p=0.05), HDL-C (40.7±5.0 versus 50.5±10.1mg/dL, p=0.001), and relative muscle strength (0.53±0.14 versus 0.62±0.12, p=0.01). Elderly women with metabolic syndrome have a higher cardiovascular risk and less relative muscle strength when compared to those without metabolic syndrome. Relative muscle strength may be related to the cardiovascularr risk factors of the metabolic syndrome.

  17. Elderly women with metabolic syndrome present higher cardiovascular risk and lower relative muscle strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, Darlan Lopes; Tibana, Ramires Alsamir; Teixeira, Tatiane Gomes; Vieira, Denis César Leite; Tarja, Vitor; Nascimento, Dahan da Cunha; Silva, Alessandro de Oliveira; Funghetto, Silvana Schwerz; Coura, Maritza Alves de Sousa; Valduga, Renato; Karnikowski, Margô Gomes de Oliveira; Prestes, Jonato

    2013-01-01

    To compare the metabolic, anthropometric, arterial blood pressure, and muscle strength parameters of elderly women with and without metabolic syndrome. A case-control study with 27 (67.3±4.8 years of age, 31.0±5.0kg/m"2) elderly women with metabolic syndrome and 33 (68.8±5.6 years of age, 27.2±5.3kg/m"2) sedentary control elderly women. They were submitted to an evaluation of body composition by means of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and muscle strength testing with 10 maximal repetitions of knee extension. When compared to the elderly women without metabolic syndrome, those with the metabolic syndrome had higher levels for body mass (72.2±13.5 versus 63.4±14.6kg, p=0.03), body mass index (31.0±5.0 versus 27.2±5.3kg/m"2", p=0.007), fat mass (30.9±9.9 versus 24.4±8.5kg, p=0.01), systolic arterial pressure (125.1±8.2 versus 119.3±8.7mmHg, p=0.01), diastolic arterial pressure (75.5±6.9 versus 71.4±6.7mmHg, p=0.03), mean arterial pressure (92.5±6.2 versus 87.1±6.7mmHg, p=0.004), blood glucose (103.8±19.1 versus 91.1±5.9mg/dL, p=0.001), triglycerides (187.1±70.2 versus 116.3±36.7mg/dL, p=0.001), and creatine kinase (122.6±58.6 versus 89.8±32.5U/L, p=0.01); lower levels were found for fat-free mass (55.9±5.8 versus 59.3±6.7%; p=0.05), HDL-C (40.7±5.0 versus 50.5±10.1mg/dL, p=0.001), and relative muscle strength (0.53±0.14 versus 0.62±0.12, p=0.01). Elderly women with metabolic syndrome have a higher cardiovascular risk and less relative muscle strength when compared to those without metabolic syndrome. Relative muscle strength may be related to the cardiovascularr risk factors of the metabolic syndrome

  18. Measuring the relative hydrogen-bonding strengths of alcohols in aprotic organic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessensohn, Malcolm E; Lee, Melvyn; Hirao, Hajime; Webster, Richard D

    2015-01-12

    Voltammetric experiments with 9,10-anthraquinone and 1,4-benzoquinone performed under controlled moisture conditions indicate that the hydrogen-bond strengths of alcohols in aprotic organic solvents can be differentiated by the electrochemical parameter ΔEp (red) =|Ep (red(1)) -Ep (red(2)) |, which is the potential separation between the two one-electron reduction processes. This electrochemical parameter is inversely related to the strength of the interactions and can be used to differentiate between primary, secondary, tertiary alcohols, and even diols, as it is sensitive to both their steric and electronic properties. The results are highly reproducible across two solvents with substantially different hydrogen-bonding properties (CH3 CN and CH2 Cl2 ) and are supported by density functional theory calculations. This indicates that the numerous solvent-alcohol interactions are less significant than the quinone-alcohol hydrogen-bonding interactions. The utility of ΔEp (red) was illustrated by comparisons between 1) 3,3,3-trifluoro-n-propanol and 1,3-difluoroisopropanol and 2) ethylene glycol and 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Age related differences of selected Hatha yoga practices on anthropometric characteristics, muscular strength and flexibility of healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Halder

    2015-01-01

    Summary and Conclusion: Hatha yoga can improve anthropometric characteristics, muscular strength and flexibility among volunteers of different age group and can also be helpful in preventing and attenuating age related deterioration of these parameters.

  20. Targeting relational aggression in veterans: the Strength at Home Friends and Family intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Maureen A; Gallagher, Matthew W; Gilbert, Karina Stavitsky; Creech, Suzannah K; DeCandia, Carmela J; Beach, Corey A; Taft, Casey T

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of Strength at Home Friends and Families (SAH-F), a dyadic group intervention to prevent relational aggression and its negative consequences, in a community-based sample of service members/veterans and significant others who reported relational difficulties. Participants included 70 veterans and their loved ones. Recruitment was conducted from October 2010 through March 2012. Participants completed an initial assessment that included measures of relational aggression and functioning, depressive symptoms, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants were enrolled in the 10-week SAH-F targeting social information-processing mechanisms hypothesized to underlie the relationship between trauma and aggression and were reassessed at program completion and 3 months after intervention. Significant reductions in psychological aggression were seen both at program completion and at 3-month follow-up for both veterans (standardized mean gain effect size [ESsg] = -0.45, P aggression remained low after pretreatment and did not increase. Relationship adjustment reported by significant others, but not veterans, indicated a significant improvement from pretreatment to program completion (ESsg = 0.33, P relational aggression in military member/significant other dyads and enhancing relationship quality and mental health. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  1. TRPV4 related skeletal dysplasias: a phenotypic spectrum highlighted byclinical, radiographic, and molecular studies in 21 new families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sillence David

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The TRPV4 gene encodes a calcium-permeable ion-channel that is widely expressed, responds to many different stimuli and participates in an extraordinarily wide range of physiologic processes. Autosomal dominant brachyolmia, spondylometaphyseal dysplasia Kozlowski type (SMDK and metatropic dysplasia (MD are currently considered three distinct skeletal dysplasias with some shared clinical features, including short stature, platyspondyly, and progressive scoliosis. Recently, TRPV4 mutations have been found in patients diagnosed with these skeletal phenotypes. Methods and Results We critically analysed the clinical and radiographic data on 26 subjects from 21 families, all of whom had a clinical diagnosis of one of the conditions described above: 15 with MD; 9 with SMDK; and 2 with brachyolmia. We sequenced TRPV4 and identified 9 different mutations in 22 patients, 4 previously described, and 5 novel. There were 4 mutation-negative cases: one with MD and one with SMDK, both displaying atypical clinical and radiographic features for these diagnoses; and two with brachyolmia, who had isolated spine changes and no metaphyseal involvement. Conclusions Our data suggest the TRPV4 skeletal dysplasias represent a continuum of severity with areas of phenotypic overlap, even within the same family. We propose that AD brachyolmia lies at the mildest end of this spectrum and, since all cases described with this diagnosis and TRPV4 mutations display metaphyseal changes, we suggest that it is not a distinct entity but represents the mildest phenotypic expression of SMDK.

  2. Skeletal muscle mass and body fat in relation to successful ageing of older adults: The multi-national MEDIS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Haro, Josep-Maria; Mariolis, Anargiros; Piscopo, Suzanne; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Anastasiou, Foteini; Zeimbekis, Akis; Tyrovola, Dimitra; Foscolou, Alexandra; Gotsis, Efthimios; Metallinos, George; Tur, Josep-Antoni; Matalas, Antonia; Lionis, Christos; Polychronopoulos, Evangelos; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes

    2016-01-01

    The determinants that promote successful ageing still remain unknown. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the role of skeletal muscle mass and body fat percentage (BF%), in the level of successful ageing. during 2005-2011, 2663 older (aged 65-100 years) from 21 Mediterranean islands and the rural Mani region (Peloponnesus) of Greece were voluntarily enrolled in the study. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM), skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) and BF% were calculated using population formulas. Dietary habits, energy intake, expenditure and energy balance were derived throughout standard procedures. A successful ageing index ranging from 0 to 10 was used. The mean ASM mass was 24±6.0kg, the SMI was 0.84±0.21 and the BF% was 44%. Females had lower SMI and higher BF% in comparison with males, respectively [(SMI: 0.66±0.09 vs. 1.03±0.11; BF%: 51% vs. 34%, (pageing, while changes in BF% [b-coefficient (95% CI): -0.04 (-0.05 to -0.03)] were inversely associated with successful ageing. Results from sensitivity analysis showed that the effects of variations on body composition were consistent, less pronounced in the positive energy balance group and more pronounced among the oldest old. Body composition changes seem to be associated with lower quality of life in the older adults, as measured through successful ageing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pro-inflammatory capacity of classically activated monocytes relates positively to muscle mass and strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beenakker, Karel G M; Westendorp, Rudi G J; de Craen, Anton J M; Slagboom, Pieternella E; van Heemst, Diana; Maier, Andrea B

    2013-08-01

    In mice, monocytes that exhibit a pro-inflammatory profile enter muscle tissue after muscle injury and are crucial for clearance of necrotic tissue and stimulation of muscle progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation. The aim of this study was to test if pro-inflammatory capacity of classically activated (M1) monocytes relates to muscle mass and strength in humans. This study included 191 male and 195 female subjects (mean age 64.2 years (SD 6.4) and 61.9 ± 6.4, respectively) of the Leiden Longevity Study. Pro-inflammatory capacity of M1 monocytes was assessed by ex vivo stimulation of whole blood with Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and TLR-2/1 agonist tripalmitoyl-S-glycerylcysteine (Pam₃Cys-SK₄), both M1 phenotype activators. Cytokines that stimulate M1 monocyte response (IFN-γ and GM-CSF) as well as cytokines that are secreted by M1 monocytes (IL-6, TNF-α, IL-12, and IL-1β) were measured. Analyses were adjusted for age, height, and body fat mass. Upon stimulation with LPS, the cytokine production capacity of INF-γ, GM-CSF, and TNF-α was significantly positively associated with lean body mass, appendicular lean mass and handgrip strength in men, but not in women. Upon stimulation with Pam₃Cys-SK₄, IL-6; TNF-α; and Il-1β were significantly positively associated with lean body mass and appendicular lean in women, but not in men. Taken together, this study shows that higher pro-inflammatory capacity of M1 monocytes upon stimulation is associated with muscle characteristics and sex dependent. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and the Anatomical Society.

  4. Ursolic acid increases skeletal muscle and brown fat and decreases diet-induced obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven D Kunkel

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle Akt activity stimulates muscle growth and imparts resistance to obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease. We recently found that ursolic acid increases skeletal muscle Akt activity and stimulates muscle growth in non-obese mice. Here, we tested the hypothesis that ursolic acid might increase skeletal muscle Akt activity in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. We studied mice that consumed a high fat diet lacking or containing ursolic acid. In skeletal muscle, ursolic acid increased Akt activity, as well as downstream mRNAs that promote glucose utilization (hexokinase-II, blood vessel recruitment (Vegfa and autocrine/paracrine IGF-I signaling (Igf1. As a result, ursolic acid increased skeletal muscle mass, fast and slow muscle fiber size, grip strength and exercise capacity. Interestingly, ursolic acid also increased brown fat, a tissue that shares developmental origins with skeletal muscle. Consistent with increased skeletal muscle and brown fat, ursolic acid increased energy expenditure, leading to reduced obesity, improved glucose tolerance and decreased hepatic steatosis. These data support a model in which ursolic acid reduces obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease by increasing skeletal muscle and brown fat, and suggest ursolic acid as a potential therapeutic approach for obesity and obesity-related illness.

  5. Fluid flow in gas condensate reservoirs. The interplay of forces and their relative strengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ursin, Jann-Rune [Stavanger University College, Department of Petroleum Engineering, PO Box 8002, Stavanger, 4068 (Norway)

    2004-02-01

    Natural production from gas condensate reservoirs is characterized by gas condensation and liquid dropout in the reservoir, first in the near wellbore volume, then as a cylindrical shaped region, dynamically developing into the reservoir volume. The effects of liquid condensation are reduced productivity and loss of production. Successful forecast of well productivity and reservoir production depends on detailed understanding of the effect of various forces acting on fluid flow in time and space. The production form gas condensate reservoirs is thus indirectly related to the interplay of fundamental forces, such as the viscosity, the capillary, the gravitational and the inertial force and their relative strengths, demonstrated by various dimensionless numbers. Dimensionless numbers are defined and calculated for all pressure and space coordinates in a test reservoir. Various regions are identified where certain forces are more important than others. Based on reservoir pressure development, liquid condensation and the numerical representation of dimensionless numbers, a conceptual understanding of a varying reservoir permeability has been reached.The material balance, the reservoir fluid flow and the wellbore flow calculations are performed on a cylindrical reservoir model. The ratios between fundamental forces are calculated and dimensionless numbers defined. The interplay of forces, demonstrated by these numbers, are calculated as function of radial dimension and reservoir pressure.

  6. Relative differences in strength and power from slow to fast isokinetic velocities may reflect dynapenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Nathaniel D M; Housh, Terry J; Palmer, Ty B; Cochrane, Kristen C; Bergstrom, Haley C; Johnson, Glen O; Schmidt, Richard J; Cramer, Joel T

    2015-07-01

    We compared absolute and normalized values for peak torque (PT), mean power (MP), rate of velocity development, and electromyography (EMG) amplitude during maximal isometric and concentric isokinetic leg extension muscle actions, as well as the %decrease in PT and %increase in MP from 1.05 to 3.14 rad·s(-1) in younger versus older men. Measurements were performed twice for reliability. Isokinetic measurements were normalized to the isometric muscle actions. Absolute isometric PT, isokinetic PT and MP, and EMG amplitudes at 1.05 and 3.14 rad·s(-1) were greater in the younger men, although normalizing to isometric PT eliminated the age differences. The older men exhibited greater %decrease in PT (37.2% vs. 31.3%) and lower %increase in MP (87.6% vs. 126.4%) regardless of normalization. Normalization eliminated absolute differences in isokinetic strength and power, but the relative differences from slow to fast velocities may reflect dynapenia characterized by age-related decreases in fast-twitch fiber function. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Influence of grain structure on quench sensitivity relative to localized corrosion of high strength aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, ShengDan, E-mail: csuliusd@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Materials Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410083 (China); Li, ChengBo [Light Alloy Research Institute, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Deng, YunLai; Zhang, XinMing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Materials Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2015-11-01

    The influence of grain structure on quench sensitivity relative to localized corrosion of high strength aluminum alloy 7055 was investigated by electrochemical test, accelerated exfoliation corrosion test, optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). The decrease of quench rate led to lower corrosion resistance of both the homogenized and solution heat treated (HS) alloy with equiaxed grains and the hot-rolled and solution heat treated (HRS) alloy with elongated grains, but there was a higher increment in corrosion depth and corrosion current density and a higher decrement in corrosion potential for the latter alloy, which therefore exhibited higher quench sensitivity. It is because in this alloy the larger amount of (sub) grain boundaries led to a higher increment in the amount of quench-induced η phase and precipitates free zone at (sub) grain boundaries with the decrease of quench rate, and there was a larger increment in the content of Zn, Mg and Cu in the η phase at grain boundaries due to slow quenching. The presence of subgrain boundaries in the HRS alloy tended to increase corrosion resistance at high quench rates higher than about 630 °C/min but decrease it at lower quench rates. - Highlights: • (Sub)Grain boundaries increase quench sensitivity relative to localized corrosion. • Subgrain boundaries decrease corrosion resistance below quench rate of 630 °C/min. • More (sub) grain boundaries leads to more GBPs and PFZ with decreasing quench rate.

  8. Virtues and Character Strengths Related to Approach Coping Strategies of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustems-Carnicer, Josep; Calderón, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study are: (1) to describe virtues, character strengths and coping strategies of college students; (2) to analyze the relationship between virtues, character strengths and coping strategies; and (3) to evaluate the predictive relationship between virtues and coping strategies. Ninety-one college students (98% females), aged…

  9. The potential of induced pluripotent stem cells as a tool to study skeletal dysplasias and cartilage-related pathologic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H; Yang, L; Yu, F F; Wang, S; Wu, C; Qu, C; Lammi, M J; Guo, X

    2017-05-01

    The development of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) technology has opened up new horizons for development of new research tools especially for skeletal dysplasias, which often lack human disease models. Regenerative medicine and tissue engineering could be the next areas to benefit from refinement of iPSC methods to repair focal cartilage defects, while applications for osteoarthritis (OA) and drug screening have evolved rather slowly. Although the advances in iPSC research of skeletal dysplasias and repair of focal cartilage lesions are not directly relevant to OA, they can be considered to pave the way to future prospects and solutions to OA research, too. The same problems which face the present cell-based treatments of cartilage injuries concern also the iPSC-based ones. However, established iPSC lines, which have no genomic aberrations and which efficiently differentiate into extracellular matrix secreting chondrocytes, could be an invaluable cell source for cell transplantations in the future. The safety issues concerning the recipient risks of teratoma formation and immune response still have to be solved before the potential use of iPSCs in cartilage repair of focal cartilage defects and OA. Copyright © 2016 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Relation between Degree and Strength in the Complex Network Derived from an Individual Stock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelin Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A method based on coarse-graining to construct a directed weighted complex network which models the transformation of the trading data of an individual stock is introduced. The degree (strength distribution of derived network follows a power-law. A moderated regression equation with interaction effects of average return and out-degree (in-degree on out-strength (in-strength is established. Moreover, we found that the differences of nodes affect the network’s structure and average return level impacts nodes’ eigenvector centrality and pagerank, significantly.

  11. Criterion-related validity of the foot health status questionnaire regarding strength and plantar pressure measurements in elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I; Galan-Mercant, Alejandro; Martín-Borras, Maria Carmen; González-Sánchez, Manuel

    2012-12-01

    Criterion-related validity of a self-administered questionnaire listed as gold standard requires objective testing. The aim of this study was to analyze the Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ) using functional variable measures (dynamic plantar pressure and foot strength). A total of 22 elderly healthy participants (13 women and 9 men) were screened by interview and physical examination for foot or gait abnormalities. Foot strength, footprint pressure, and foot health status were measured. All the items of the FHSQ show significant correlation with functional variables, but general foot health shows the highest correlation with the 4 physical variables related to plantar pressure (R2 = 0.741), followed by foot pain (R2 = 0.652). A set of different, directly measured physical variables related to foot strength and plantar pressure significantly correlate with the FHSQ dimensions. Cross-sectional trial.

  12. Eccentric and Isometric Hip Adduction Strength in Male Soccer Players With and Without Adductor-Related Groin Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorborg, Kristian; Branci, Sonia; Nielsen, Martin Peter; Tang, Lars; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Hölmich, Per

    2014-01-01

    Background: Adductor-related pain is the most common clinical finding in soccer players with groin pain and can be a long-standing problem affecting physical function and performance. Hip adductor weakness has been suggested to be associated with this clinical entity, although it has never been investigated. Purpose: To investigate whether isometric and eccentric hip strength are decreased in soccer players with adductor-related groin pain compared with asymptomatic soccer controls. The hypothesis was that players with adductor-related groin pain would have lower isometric and eccentric hip adduction strength than players without adductor-related groin pain. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Male elite and subelite players from 40 teams were contacted. In total, 28 soccer players with adductor-related groin pain and 16 soccer players without adductor-related groin pain (asymptomatic controls) were included in the study. In primary analysis, the dominant legs of 21 soccer players with adductor-related groin pain (≥4 weeks duration) were compared with the dominant legs of 16 asymptomatic controls using a cross-sectional design. The mean age of the symptomatic players was 24.5 ± 2.5 years, and the mean age of the asymptomatic controls was 22.9 ± 2.4 years. Isometric hip strength (adduction, abduction, and flexion) and eccentric hip strength (adduction) were assessed with a handheld dynamometer using reliable test procedures and a blinded assessor. Results: Eccentric hip adduction strength was lower in soccer players with adductor-related groin pain in the dominant leg (n = 21) compared with asymptomatic controls (n = 16), namely 2.47 ± 0.49 versus 3.12 ± 0.43 N·m/kg, respectively (P strength differences were observed between symptomatic players and asymptomatic controls for the dominant leg (P = .35-.84). Conclusion: Large eccentric hip adduction strength deficits were found in soccer players with adductor-related groin pain

  13. Relating shear strength of unsaturated soils with capillary water retention curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Annan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new water retention model for unsaturated soils, which takes into account capillary condensation of adsorbed water. In the proposed water retention model, the degree of saturation of a soil is separated into that based on capillary water and that based on adsorbed water. Through the analysis of a partially saturated two-cylinder system, a new shear strength criterion for unsaturated soils is proposed, in which only the degree of saturation based on capillary water contributes to the variation of shear strength with suction. The proposed shear strength criterion is justified against thermodynamic principles. The proposed strength criterion is compared against existing criteria in the literature, which shows that it provides a much improved prediction of the experimental data, for a wide range of suction values.

  14. Relation between body mass index percentile and muscle strength and endurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha Abdel Kader Abdel Kader Hasan

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: The study shows that the BMI of children had a positive correlation with the muscle strength of quadriceps, triceps, and abdominal muscles while a negative correlation with the endurance time of these muscles.

  15. Early energy metabolism-related molecular events in skeletal muscle of diabetic rats: The effects of l-arginine and SOD mimic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancic, Ana; Filipovic, Milos; Ivanovic-Burmazovic, Ivana; Masovic, Sava; Jankovic, Aleksandra; Otasevic, Vesna; Korac, Aleksandra; Buzadzic, Biljana; Korac, Bato

    2017-06-25

    Considering the vital role of skeletal muscle in control of whole-body metabolism and the severity of long-term diabetic complications, we aimed to reveal the molecular pattern of early diabetes-related skeletal muscle phenotype in terms of energy metabolism, focusing on regulatory mechanisms, and the possibility to improve it using two redox modulators, l-arginine and superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimic. Alloxan-induced diabetic rats (120 mg/kg) were treated with l-arginine or the highly specific SOD mimic, M40403, for 7 days. As appropriate controls, non-diabetic rats received the same treatments. We found that l-arginine and M40403 restored diabetes-induced impairment of phospho-5'-AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) signaling by upregulating AMPKα protein itself and its downstream effectors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α and nuclear respiratory factor 1. Also, there was a restitution of the protein levels of oxidative phosphorylation components (complex I, complex II and complex IV) and mitofusin 2. Furthermore, l-arginine and M40403 induced translocation of glucose transporter 4 to the membrane and upregulation of protein of phosphofructokinase and acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase, diminishing negative diabetic effects on limiting factors of glucose and lipid metabolism. Both treatments abolished diabetes-induced downregulation of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase proteins (SERCA 1 and 2). Similar effects of l-arginine and SOD mimic treatments suggest that disturbances in the superoxide/nitric oxide ratio may be responsible for skeletal muscle mitochondrial and metabolic impairment in early diabetes. Our results provide evidence that l-arginine and SOD mimics have potential in preventing and treating metabolic disturbances accompanying this widespread metabolic disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. In healthy elderly postmenopausal women variations in BMD and BMC at various skeletal sites are associated with differences in weight and lean body mass rather than by variations in habitual physical activity, strength or VO2max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöffl, I; Kemmler, W; Kladny, B; Vonstengel, S; Kalender, W A; Engelke, K

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was an integrated cross-sectional investigation for answering the question whether differences in bone mineral density in elderly postmenopausal women are associated with differences in habitual physical activity and unspecific exercise levels. Two hundred and ninety nine elderly women (69-/+3 years), without diseases or medication affecting bone metabolism were investigated. The influence of weight, body composition and physical activity on BMD was measured at multiple sites using different techniques (DXA, QCT, and QUS). Physical activity and exercise level were assessed by questionnaire, maximum strength of the legs and aerobic capacity. Variations in physical activity or habitual exercise had no effect on bone. The only significant univariate relation between strength/VO(2)max and BMD/BMC that remained after adjusting for confounding variables was between arm BMD (DXA) and hand-grip strength. The most important variable for explaining BMD was weight and for cortical BMC of the femur (QCT) lean body mass. Weight and lean body mass emerge as predominant predictors of BMD in normal elderly women, whereas the isolated effect of habitual physical activity, unspecific exercise participation, and muscle strength on bone parameters is negligible. Thus, an increase in the amount of habitual physical activity will probably have no beneficial impact on bone.

  17. The mRNA expression profile of metabolic genes relative to MHC isoform pattern in human skeletal muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plomgaard, Peter; Penkowa, Milena; Leick, Lotte

    2006-01-01

    The metabolic profile of rodent muscle is generally reflected in the myosin heavy chain (MHC) fiber-type composition. The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that metabolic gene expression is not tightly coupled with MHC fiber-type composition for all genes in human skeletal muscle....... Triceps brachii, vastus lateralis quadriceps, and soleus muscle biopsies were obtained from normally physically active, healthy, young male volunteers, because these muscles are characterized by different fiber-type compositions. As expected, citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl dehydrogenase activity...... of a broad range of metabolic genes. The triceps muscle had two- to fivefold higher MHC IIa, phosphofructokinase, and LDH A mRNA content and two- to fourfold lower MHC I, lipoprotein lipase, CD36, hormone-sensitive lipase, and LDH B and hexokinase II mRNA than vastus lateralis or soleus. Interestingly...

  18. Respiratory muscle strength in relation to sarcopenia in elderly cardiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Kazuhiro P; Watanabe, Satoshi; Oka, Koichiro; Kasahara, Yusuke; Morio, Yuji; Hiraki, Koji; Hirano, Yasuyuki; Omori, Yutaka; Suzuki, Norio; Kida, Keisuke; Suzuki, Kengo; Akashi, Yoshihiro J

    2016-12-01

    Little information exists on the relation between respiratory muscle strength such as maximum inspiratory muscle pressure (MIP) and sarcopenia in elderly cardiac patients. The present study aimed to determine the differences in MIP, and cutoff values for MIP according to sarcopenia in elderly cardiac patients. We enrolled 63 consecutive elderly male patients aged ≥65 years with cardiac disease in this cross-sectional study. Sarcopenia was defined based on the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People algorithm, and, accordingly, the patients were divided into two groups: the sarcopenia group (n = 24) and non-sarcopenia group (n = 39). The prevalence of sarcopenia in cardiac patients and MIP in the patients with and without sarcopenia were assessed to determine cutoff values of MIP. After adjustment for body mass index, the MIP in the sarcopenia group was significantly lower than that in the non-sarcopenia group (54.7 ± 36.8 cmH 2 O; 95 % CI 42.5-72.6 vs. 80.7 ± 34.7 cmH 2 O; 95 % CI 69.5-92.0; F = 4.89, p = 0.029). A receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis of patients with and without sarcopenia identified a cutoff value for MIP of 55.6 cmH 2 O, with a sensitivity of 0.76, 1-specificity of 0.37, and AUC of 0.70 (95 % CI 0.56-0.83; p = 0.01) in the study patients. Compared with elderly cardiac patients without sarcopenia, MIP in those with sarcopenia may be negatively affected. The MIP cutoff value reported here may be a useful minimum target value for identifying elderly male cardiac patients with sarcopenia.

  19. Social class-related gradient in the association of skeletal growth with blood pressure among adolescent boys in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shobha; Apte, Priti

    2009-12-01

    In view of the fact that height differences between socio-economic groups are apparent early in childhood, it is of interest to examine whether skeletal growth is reflective of the social class gradient in CVD risk. The present study examined blood pressure levels, adiposity and growth of adolescent boys from high and low social classes. In a cross-sectional study, skeletal growth (height and sitting height), adiposity (weight, BMI and body fat) and blood pressure levels of the adolescents were measured. Pune, India. Adolescent schoolboys (9-16 years) from high socio-economic (HSE; n 1146) and low socio-economic (LSE; n 932) class. LSE boys were thin, short and undernourished (mean BMI: 15.5 kg/m2 v. 19.3 kg/m2 in HSE boys, P = 0.00). Social gradient was revealed in differing health risks. The prevalence of high systolic blood pressure (HSBP) was high in HSE class (10.5 % v. 2.7 % in LSE class, P = 0.00) and was associated with adiposity, while the prevalence of high diastolic blood pressure (HDBP) was high in LSE class (9.8 % v. 7.0 % in HSE class, P = 0.00) and had only a weak association with adiposity. Despite this, lower ratio of leg length to height was associated with significantly higher respective health risks, i.e. for HDBP in LSE class (OR = 1.99, 95 % CI 1.14, 3.47) and for HSBP in HSE class (OR = 1.69, 95 % CI 1.02, 2.77). As stunting in childhood is a major problem in India and Asia, the leg length to height indicator needs to be validated in different populations to understand CVD risks.

  20. Relative Handgrip Strength Is Inversely Associated with Metabolic Profile and Metabolic Disease in the General Population in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongxue; Guo, Guanghong; Xia, Lili; Yang, Xinghua; Zhang, Biao; Liu, Feng; Ma, Jingang; Hu, Zhiping; Li, Yajun; Li, Wei; Jiang, Jiajia; Gaisano, Herbert; Shan, Guangliang; He, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Background: Absolute handgrip strength has been correlated with metabolic profile and metabolic disease. Whether relative handgrip strength is also associated with metabolic disease has not been assessed. This study aimed at assessing the association of relative handgrip strength with metabolic profile and metabolic disease in the general population in China. Methods: Data were derived from an ongoing cross-sectional survey of the 2013 National Physical and Health in Shanxi Province, which involved 5520 participants. Multiple linear regression or multiple logistic regression analysis were used to assess the association of absolute/relative handgrip strength with the metabolic profile, preclinical, and established stages of metabolic diseases. Results: This study revealed that relative handgrip strength, that is when normalized to BMI, was associated with: (1) in both genders for more favorable blood lipid levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [males: b = 0.19 (0.15, 0.23); females: b = 0.22 (0.17, 0.28)], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [males: b = -0.14 (-0.23, -0.05); females: b = -0.19 (-0.31, -0.18)], triglycerides [males: b = -0.58 (-0.74, -0.43); females: b = -0.55 (-0.74, -0.36)] and total cholesterol [males: b = -0.20 (-0.31, -0.10); females: b = -0.19 (-0.32, -0.06)]; and better serum glucose levels in males [ b = -0.30 (-0.46, -0.15)]. (2) lower risk of impaired fasting glucose in males {third quartile [OR = 0.66 (0.45-0.95)] and fourth quartile [OR = 0.46 (0.30-0.71)] vs. first quartile} and dyslipidemia in both genders {third quartile [males: OR = 0.65 (0.48-0.87); females: OR = 0.68 (0.53-0.86)] and fourth quartile [males: OR = 0.47 (0.35-0.64); females: OR = 0.47(0.36-0.61)] vs. first quartile}. (3) lower risk of hyperlipidemia in both genders third quartile [males: OR = 0.66 (0.50-0.87); females: OR = 0.57 (0.43-0.75)] and fourth quartile [males: OR = 0.35 (0.26-0.47); females: OR = 0.51 (0.38-0.70)] vs. first quartile. However, contrary

  1. Low calcium-phosphate intakes modulate the low-protein diet-related effect on peak bone mass acquisition: a hormonal and bone strength determinants study in female growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, C; Rizzoli, R; Ammann, P

    2014-11-01

    Peak bone mass acquisition is influenced by environmental factors including dietary intake. A low-protein diet delays body and skeletal growth in association with a reduction in serum IGF-1 whereas serum FGF21 is increased by selective amino acid deprivation. Calcium (Ca) and phosphorous (P) are also key nutrients for skeletal health, and inadequate intakes reduce bone mass accrual in association with calciotropic hormone modulation. Besides, the effect of calcium supplementation on bone mass in prepubertal children appears to be influenced by protein intake. To further explore the interaction of dietary protein and Ca-P intake on bone growth, 1-month-old female rats were fed with an isocaloric 10%, 7.5%, or 5% casein diet containing normal or low Ca-P for an 8-week period (6 groups). Changes in tibia geometry, mineral content, microarchitecture, strength, and intrinsic bone quality were analyzed. At the hormonal level, serum IGF-1, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), PTH, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol), and FGF23 were investigated as well as the Ghr hepatic gene expression. In normal dietary Ca-P conditions, bone mineral content, trabecular and cortical bone volume, and bone strength were lower in the 5% casein group in association with a decrease in serum IGF-1 and an increase in FGF21 levels. Unexpectedly, the low-Ca-P diet attenuated the 5% casein diet-related reduction of serum IGF-1 and Ghr hepatic gene expression, as well as the low-protein diet-induced decrease in bone mass and strength. However, this was associated with lower cortical bone material level properties. The low-Ca-P diet increased serum calcitriol but decreased FGF23 levels. Calcitriol levels positively correlated with Ghr hepatic mRNA levels. These results suggest that hormonal modulation in response to a low-Ca-P diet may modify the low-protein diet-induced effect on Ghr hepatic mRNA levels and consequently the impact of low protein intakes on IGF-1 circulating levels and skeletal

  2. The Complex Role of Store Operated Calcium Entry Pathways and Related Proteins in the Function of Cardiac, Skeletal and Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Avila-Medina

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscle cells shared the common feature of contraction in response to different stimuli. Agonist-induced muscle's contraction is triggered by a cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration increase due to a rapid Ca2+ release from intracellular stores and a transmembrane Ca2+ influx, mainly through L-type Ca2+ channels. Compelling evidences have demonstrated that Ca2+ might also enter through other cationic channels such as Store-Operated Ca2+ Channels (SOCCs, involved in several physiological functions and pathological conditions. The opening of SOCCs is regulated by the filling state of the intracellular Ca2+ store, the sarcoplasmic reticulum, which communicates to the plasma membrane channels through the Stromal Interaction Molecule 1/2 (STIM1/2 protein. In muscle cells, SOCCs can be mainly non-selective cation channels formed by Orai1 and other members of the Transient Receptor Potential-Canonical (TRPC channels family, as well as highly selective Ca2+ Release-Activated Ca2+ (CRAC channels, formed exclusively by subunits of Orai proteins likely organized in macromolecular complexes. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the complex role of Store Operated Calcium Entry (SOCE pathways and related proteins in the function of cardiac, skeletal, and vascular smooth muscle cells.

  3. Effect of Temperature and Age of Concrete on Strength – Porosity Relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Zadražil

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The compressive strengths of unsealed samples of concrete at the age of 180 days and have been measured at temperatures 20 °C, 300 °C, 600 °C and 900 °C. All of tests were performed for cold material. We compared our results with those obtained in [10] for the same type of concrete (age 28, resp. 90 days and measured at temperature ranging from 20 °C to 280 °C. Dependencies of compressive strength and porosity were correlated together and compared for the samples of age 28, 90 and 180 days. Behaviour of concrete of the age 90, resp. 180 days confirms generally accepted hypothesis that with increasing porosity strength of the concrete decreases. It has to be stressed out, howerer, that concrete samples of the age 28 days exhibit totally opposite dependency. 

  4. Aerobic fitness, muscular strength and obesity in relation to risk of heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Casey; Sundquist, Jan; Winkleby, Marilyn A; Sundquist, Kristina

    2017-11-01

    Low physical fitness and obesity have been associated with higher risk of developing heart failure (HF), but their interactive effects are unknown. Elucidation of interactions among these common modifiable factors may help facilitate more effective primary prevention. We conducted a national cohort study to examine the interactive effects of aerobic fitness, muscular strength and body mass index (BMI) among 1 330 610 military conscripts in Sweden during 1969-1997 (97%-98% of all 18-year-old men) on risk of HF identified from inpatient and outpatient diagnoses through 2012 (maximum age 62 years). There were 11 711 men diagnosed with HF in 37.8 million person-years of follow-up. Low aerobic fitness, low muscular strength and obesity were independently associated with higher risk of HF, after adjusting for each other, socioeconomic factors, other chronic diseases and family history of HF. The combination of low aerobic fitness and low muscular strength (lowest vs highest tertiles) was associated with a 1.7-fold risk of HF (95% CI 1.6 to 1.9; pfitness, low muscular strength and obesity at the age of 18 years were independently associated with higher risk of HF in adulthood, with interactive effects between aerobic fitness and muscular strength. These findings suggest that early-life interventions may help reduce the long-term risk of HF and should include both aerobic fitness and muscular strength, even among persons with normal BMI. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Development and Assessment of a Diagnostic Tool to Identify Organic Chemistry Students' Alternative Conceptions Related to Acid Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClary, LaKeisha M.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2012-01-01

    The central goal of this study was to create a new diagnostic tool to identify organic chemistry students' alternative conceptions related to acid strength. Twenty years of research on secondary and college students' conceptions about acids and bases has shown that these important concepts are difficult for students to apply to qualitative problem…

  6. Pressure pain and isometric strength of neck flexors are related in chronic tension-type headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castien, Rene; Blankenstein, Annette; De Hertogh, Willem

    2015-01-01

    In patients with chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) changes in pressure pain in the cervical region are associated with peripheral or central sensitization. It is hypothesized that an increase of isometric strength of neck flexors would lead to a decrease of pressure pain in CTTH, as an expression of reduced peripheral or central sensitization In this study we aimed to analyze the correlation between change in isometric strength of the neck flexors and change in pressure pain scores (PPS) in patients with CTTH. Comparative analysis of data from previous study. Primary healthcare center. Data from 145 patients with CTTH who underwent a manual therapy program including isometric strength training of the neck flexors were analyzed at 8 and 26 weeks post-treatment. PPS were measured as a total of pain scores on a numeric rating scale (score 0 to 10) on application of a pressure stimulus of 3kg/cm at 8 cervical- and suboccipital muscles. Isometric strength of the neck flexors was measured in seconds. Correlations were computed between changes in PPS and isometric neck flexor strength. Isometric strength of neck flexors scored significantly different compared to baseline measurement (mean 30.0 seconds, sd:25.2), and increased with a mean difference of 17.33 seconds (95%CI: 20.61 to 14.05) at 8 weeks and 19.18 seconds (95%CI: 23.48 to 14.87) at 26 weeks. Similarly, compared to PPS baseline measurement (31.6 points, sd:18.6), mean difference in PPS was significantly decreased at 8 and 26 weeks: -11.3 points (95%CI: -8.77 to -13.83) and -11.15 points (95%CI: -8.31 to -13.99). There is a negative correlation between changes in PPS and changes in isometric strength of neck flexors which is weak at 8 weeks (r = -0.243, P = 0.004) and moderate at 26 weeks (r = -0.318, P isometric strength of neck flexors in patients with CTTH in short- and long-term.

  7. Postmenopausal HRT and tibolone in relation to muscle strength and body composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobsen, D. E.; Samson, M. M.; Kezic, S.; Verhaar, H. J. J.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: Sarcopenia, the loss of muscle mass with age, has a great impact on physical function, and especially in postmenopausal women, who experience a greater decline in muscle strength than do men of similar age. Conventional hormone replacement therapy (HRT) may diminish this loss of muscle

  8. 25(OHD3 Levels Relative to Muscle Strength and Maximum Oxygen Uptake in Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Książek Anna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is mainly known for its effects on the bone and calcium metabolism. The discovery of Vitamin D receptors in many extraskeletal cells suggests that it may also play a significant role in other organs and systems. The aim of our study was to assess the relationship between 25(OHD3 levels, lower limb isokinetic strength and maximum oxygen uptake in well-trained professional football players. We enrolled 43 Polish premier league soccer players. The mean age was 22.7±5.3 years. Our study showed decreased serum 25(OHD3 levels in 74.4% of the professional players. The results also demonstrated a lack of statistically significant correlation between 25(OHD3 levels and lower limb muscle strength with the exception of peak torque of the left knee extensors at an angular velocity of 150°/s (r=0.41. No significant correlations were found between hand grip strength and maximum oxygen uptake. Based on our study we concluded that in well-trained professional soccer players, there was no correlation between serum levels of 25(OHD3 and muscle strength or maximum oxygen uptake.

  9. Cross-Cultural Investigation of Male Gait Perception in Relation to Physical Strength and Speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Fink

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous research documents that men and women can accurately judge male physical strength from gait, but also that the sexes differ in attractiveness judgments of strong and weak male walkers. Women’s (but not men’s attractiveness assessments of strong male walkers are higher than for weak male walkers. Here, we extend this research to assessments of strong and weak male walkers in Chile, Germany, and Russia. Men and women judged videos of virtual characters, animated with the walk movements of motion-captured men, on strength and attractiveness. In two countries (Germany and Russia, these videos were additionally presented at 70% (slower and 130% (faster of their original speed. Stronger walkers were judged to be stronger and more attractive than weak walkers, and this effect was independent of country (but not sex. Women tended to provide higher attractiveness judgments to strong walkers, and men tended to provide higher attractiveness judgments to weak walkers. In addition, German and Russian participants rated strong walkers most attractive at slow and fast speed. Thus, across countries men and women can assess male strength from gait, although they tended to differ in attractiveness assessments of strong and weak male walkers. Attractiveness assessments of male gait may be influenced by society-specific emphasis on male physical strength.

  10. Strength and voluntary activation in relation to functioning in patients with osteoarthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. D.M. van Leeuwen

    2013-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by pain, and problems with activities of daily life, especially if the hip or knee joint is affected. The aim of this project was to study associations between strength, voluntary activation and physical functioning in elderly patients with OA. People with OA of

  11. Adsorbed polymers in aqueous media. The relation between zeta-potential, layer thickness and ionic strength

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Mulder, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    Streaming potentials for glass capillaries with and without adsorbed poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) were used to determine the thickness of the adsorbed polymer layer. It was found that the thickness determined in this way is a strong function of the ionic strength of the solution. The results are compared

  12. Geometric morphometrics of male facial shape in relation to physical strength and perceived attractiveness, dominance, and masculinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windhager, Sonja; Schaefer, Katrin; Fink, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary psychologists claim that women have adaptive preferences for specific male physical traits. Physical strength may be one of those traits, because recent research suggests that women rate faces of physically strong men as more masculine, dominant, and attractive. Yet, previous research has been limited in its ability to statistically map specific male facial shapes and features to corresponding physical measures (e.g., strength) and ratings (e.g., attractiveness). The association of handgrip strength (together with measures of shoulder width, body height, and body fat) and women's ratings of male faces (concerning dominance, masculinity, and attractiveness) were studied in a sample of 26 Caucasian men (aged 18-32 years). Geometric morphometrics was used to statistically assess the covariation of male facial shape with these measures. Statistical results were visualized with thin-plate spline deformation grids along with image unwarping and image averaging. Handgrip strength together with shoulder width, body fat, dominance, and masculinity loaded positively on the first dimension of covariation with facial shape (explaining 72.6%, P attractive and taller men had longer, narrower jaws and wider/fuller lips. Male physical strength was more strongly associated with changes in face shape that relate to perceived masculinity and dominance than to attractiveness. Our study adds to the growing evidence that attractiveness and dominance/masculinity may reflect different aspects of male mate quality. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Strength-toughness relations in sintered and isostatically hot-pressed ZrO2-toughened Al2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, S.; Yoshimura, M.; Somiya, S.

    1986-01-01

    The fracture toughness of fine-grained undoped ZrO 2 -toughened Al 2 O 3 (ZTA) was essentially unchanged by post-sintering hot isostatic pressing and increased monotonically with ZrO 2 additions up to 25 wt%. The strength of ZTA with 5 to 15 wt% tetragonal ZrO 2 , which depended monotonically on the amount of ZrO 2 present before hot isostatic pressing, was increased by pressing but became almost constant between 5 and 15 wt% ZrO 2 addition. The strength appeared to be controlled by pores before pressing and by surface flaws after pressing; the size of flaws after pressing increased with ZrO 2 content. The strength of ZTA containing mostly monoclinic ZrO 2 (20 to 25 wt%) remained almost constant despite the noticeable density increase upon hot isostatic pressing because the strength was controlled by preexisting microcracks whose extent did not change on postsintering pressing. These strength-toughness relations in sintered and isostatically hot-pressed ZTA are explained on the basis of R-curve behavior. The importance of the contribution of microcracks to the toughness of ZTA is emphasized

  14. An acoustic method for predicting relative strengths of cohesive sediment deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, A. H.; Sanders, W. M.

    2017-12-01

    Cohesive sediment dynamics are fundamentally determined by sediment mineralogy, organic matter composition, ionic strength of water, and currents. These factors work to bind the cohesive sediments and to determine depositional rates. Once deposited the sediments exhibit a nonlinear response to stress and they develop increases in shear strength. Shear strength is critically important in resuspension, transport, creep, and failure predictions. Typically, shear strength is determined by point measurements, both indirectly from free-fall penetrometers or directly on cores with a shear vane. These values are then used to interpolate over larger areas. However, the remote determination of these properties would provide continuos coverage, yet it has proven difficult with sonar systems. Recently, findings from an acoustic study on cohesive sediments in a laboratory setting suggests that cohesive sediments may be differentiated using parametric acoustics; this method pulses two primary frequencies into the sediment and the resultant difference frequency is used to determine the degree of acoustic nonlinearity within the sediment. In this study, two marine clay species, kaolinite and montmorillonite, and two biopolymers, guar gum and xanthan gum were mixed to make nine different samples. The samples were evaluated in a parametric acoustic measurement tank. From the parametric acoustic measurements, the quadratic nonlinearity coefficient (beta) was determined. beta was correlated with the cation exchange capacity (CEC), an indicator of shear strength. The results indicate that increased acoustic nonlinearity correlates with increased CEC. From this work, laboratory measurements indicate that this correlation may be used evaluate geotechnical properties of cohesive sediments and may provide a means to predict sediment weakness in subaqueous environments.

  15. Disease-Induced Skeletal Muscle Atrophy and Fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Powers, Scott K.; Lynch, Gordon S.; Murphy, Kate T.; Reid, Michael B.; Zijdewind, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Numerous health problems including acute critical illness, cancer, diseases associated with chronic inflammation, and neurological disorders often result in skeletal muscle weakness and fatigue. Disease-related muscle atrophy and fatigue is an important clinical problem because acquired skeletal

  16. Association between insulin resistance and low relative appendicular skeletal muscle mass: evidence from a cohort study in community-dwelling older men and women participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemán-Mateo, Heliodoro; López Teros, Miriam T; Ramírez, Fátima A; Astiazarán-García, Humberto

    2014-07-01

    It has been hypothesized that insulin resistance plays a role in the development of the loss of skeletal muscle; however, no cohort studies on insulin resistance and low relative appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) have been published to date. Thus, we examined whether insulin resistance is associated with low relative ASM after a 4.6-year follow-up period among apparently healthy older men and women participants. This is a combined retrospective-prospective cohort study, which includes 147 community-dwelling older men and women participants. ASM was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry at baseline and follow-up. Participants with a relative change in ASM below the sex-specific 15th value were classified as the low relative ASM group. Homeostatic model assessment was used to quantify insulin resistance. Logistic regression calculated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for development of low relative ASM, adjusted for covariates. The loss of ASM in the low relative ASM and normal groups was -1.8kg and -0.35kg, respectively (p ≤ .05). The low relative ASM group was older and had higher insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance values at baseline. The risk of developing low relative ASM at 4.6-year follow-up was 2.9 times higher (95% CI, 1.00-7.8; p = .04) among the participants with homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance levels more than 2.3. After adjusting for age, the risk increased to 3.9 times higher (95% CI, 1.3-11.5; p = .03). Insulin resistance was associated with low relative ASM at 4.6-year follow-up after accounting for several covariates in a cohort of apparently healthy, well-functioning young older men and women. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Seasonal changes in the expression of energy metabolism-related genes in white adipose tissue and skeletal muscle in female Japanese black bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimozuru, Michito; Nagashima, Akiko; Tanaka, Jun; Tsubota, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Bears undergo annual cycles in body mass: rapid fattening in autumn (i.e., hyperphagia), and mass loss in winter (i.e., hibernation). To investigate how Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) adapt to such extreme physiological conditions, we analyzed changes in the mRNA expression of energy metabolism-related genes in white adipose tissues and skeletal muscle throughout three physiological stages: normal activity (June), hyperphagia (November), and hibernation (March). During hyperphagia, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed the upregulation of de novo lipogenesis-related genes (e.g., fatty acid synthase and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2) in white adipose tissue, although the bears had been maintained with a constant amount of food. In contrast, during the hibernation period, we observed a downregulation of genes involved in glycolysis (e.g., glucose transporter 4) and lipogenesis (e.g., acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1) and an upregulation of genes in fatty acid catabolism (e.g., carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A) in both tissue types. In white adipose tissues, we observed upregulation of genes involved in glyceroneogenesis, including pyruvate carboxylase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1, suggesting that white adipose tissue plays a role in the recycling of circulating free fatty acids via re-esterification. In addition, the downregulation of genes involved in amino acid catabolism (e.g., alanine aminotransferase) and the TCA cycle (e.g., pyruvate carboxylase) indicated a role of skeletal muscle in muscle protein sparing and pyruvate recycling via the Cori cycle. These examples of coordinated transcriptional regulation would contribute to rapid mass gain during the pre-hibernation period and to energy preservation and efficient energy production during the hibernation period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Age-Related Changes in the Prevalence of Osteoporosis according to Gender and Skeletal Site: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongseok Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe incidence of osteoporosis and its related fractures are expected to increase significantly in the rapidly aging Korean population. Reliable data on the prevalence of this disease is essential for treatment planning. However, sparse data on Korean patients is available.MethodsWe analyzed data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES 2008 to 2010. Bone mineral density (BMD was measured at the femoral neck and lumbar spine using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Osteopenia and osteoporosis were diagnosed according to the World Health Organization T-score criteria. We analyzed the BMD data of 17,208 people (men, 7,837; women, 9,368.ResultsThe adjusted prevalence of osteoporosis was 7.8% in men versus 37.0% in women. No significant difference was observed in the prevalence of osteopenia between genders (men, 47.0%; women, 48.7%. The prevalence of osteoporosis in men in their 50s was 4.0%, in their 60s was 7.2%, in their 70s was 15.1%, and in their 80s was 26.7%. The figures in women were 15.2%, 36.5%, 62.7%, and 85.8%, respectively. The age group with the maximal BMD differed between genders. In the men, 20s had the highest value in all the skeletal sites. However, in the women, the maximal BMD in the femoral neck, lumbar spine, and the total hip was observed in their 20s, 30s, and 40s, respectively. The onset age of osteoporosis differed between genders. Osteoporosis in the femoral neck began at 55 years in the women and at 60 years in the men.ConclusionThe prevalence of osteoporosis in Korea was significantly high. In addition, the age-related changes in the prevalence of osteoporosis differed according to gender and skeletal site.

  19. Mathematical model to compare the relative tensile strength of the cornea after PRK, LASIK, and small incision lenticule extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinstein, Dan Z; Archer, Timothy J; Randleman, J Bradley

    2013-07-01

    To develop a mathematical model to estimate the relative differences in postoperative stromal tensile strength following photorefractive keratectomy (PRK), LASIK, and small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE). Using previously published data where in vitro corneal stromal tensile strength was determined as a function of depth, a mathematical model was built to calculate the relative remaining tensile strength by fitting the data with a fourth order polynomial function yielding a high correlation coefficient (R(2) = 0.930). Calculating the area under this function provided a measure of total stromal tensile strength (TTS), based only on the residual stromal layer for PRK or LASIK and the residual stromal layers above and below the lenticule interface for SMILE. Postoperative TTS was greatest after SMILE, followed by PRK, then LASIK; for example, in a 550-μm cornea after 100-μm tissue removal, postoperative TTS was 75% for SMILE (130-μm cap), 68% for PRK, and 54% for LASIK (110-μm flap). The postoperative TTS decreased for thinner corneal pachymetry for all treatment types. In LASIK, the postoperative TTS decreased with increasing flap thickness by 0.22%/μm, but increased by 0.08%/μm for greater cap thickness in SMILE. The model predicted that SMILE lenticule thickness could be approximately 100 μm greater than the LASIK ablation depth and still have equivalent corneal strength (equivalent to approximately 7.75 diopters). This mathematical model predicts that the postoperative TTS is considerably higher after SMILE than both PRK and LASIK, as expected given that the strongest anterior lamellae remain intact. Consequently, SMILE should be able to correct higher levels of myopia. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Harmonic strengths of PEP dipoles and some related effects and lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, J.E.

    1981-09-01

    The harmonic content of magnets such as the standard PEP bend is (among other things) a function of excitation current, the way the current is set and even the magnetization history. For instance, harmonic strengths generally vary not only with the magnitude of the current but the direction and rate at which the current is approached and set. The field distribution resulting from different procedures can vary markedly depending on both the mechanical and magnetic design and the degree to which eddy current effects are emphasized. Variations among magnets of the same design result from variations in the iron as well as overall magnet fabrication procedures. Because the field distribution may also depend in the previous history of a magnet, all PEP dipoles were subjected to what are called ''magnetization'' and ''standardization'' cycles before measurement---the latter depending on the former and intended to set the initial conditions of the magnet to a reproducible standard. The primary goal of the magnetic measurements was then to determine the dipole strength as a function of current for each magnet based on a practical setting algorithm. The main constraints on the algorithm were reproducibility of the integrated field, speed, power and reduction of higher harmonics. Quadrupole and sextupole strengths were also measured on about one-half of the magnets at one current. This note presents the data and discusses it from the the viewpoint of subsequent measurements with stored beams. The most important conclusion is that inability to fully distribute laminations according to heat number and/or strike number results in ''magnetic personalities'' among the magnets which are quite difficult to deal with afterwards although one can distribute ''non-standard'' magnets to minimize orbit distributions. 26 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  1. The relation between knee muscle strength and performance tests in orienteering athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çinar-Medeni, Özge; Colakoglu, Fatma F; Yüce, Koray; Ipekoğlu, Gökhan; Baltaci, Gul

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of knee muscle strength on performance tests in orienteers. Thirty-seven orienteers were voluntarily included in this study. Isokinetic knee flexor and extensor muscles' strength was assessed at 120°/s velocity for both "dominant leg" (DL) and "non-dominant leg" (NDL). "Single-legged hop test" (SLHT), "flamingo balance test" (FBT), "star excursion balance test" (SEBT), vertical jump-and-reach test (for anaerobic power), T-drill test and 20-meter shuttle run test (for aerobic power) were carried out. Correlation and regression analyses were performed on the data. VO2max levels showed moderate correlations with DL's "flexor peak torque" (FPT) and NDL's "extensor peak torque" (EPT) and FPT values respectively (r=0.49, r=0.38, r=0.58). FPT of NDL was a predictor of VO2max level (R2=0.33). Anaerobic power has a relationship with EPT of NDL (r=0.43) and T-drill test with EPT and FPT values of both DL and NDL respectively (r=-0.35, r=-0.63, r=-0.53, r=-0.58). EPT of NDL was a predictor for anaerobic power (R2=0.19) and FPT of DL for agility (R2=0.40). Nonparametric linear regression results showed that EPT is a predictor in DL (median slope=-0.71, P=0.01), and FPT in NDL (median slope=-0.90, P=0.006) for FBT. FPT was a predictor of SEBT scores for both legs (0.13strength are of importance to improve orienteering performance.

  2. Mechanical modeling of skeletal muscle functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, B.J.J.J.

    1998-01-01

    For movement of body or body segments is combined effort needed of the central nervous system and the muscular-skeletal system. This thesis deals with the mechanical functioning of skeletal muscle. That muscles come in a large variety of geometries, suggest the existence of a relation between muscle

  3. Skeletal muscle and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrie, Semone B; Pinder, Mark A

    2018-04-01

    Skeletal muscle is critical for mobility and many metabolic functions integral to survival and long-term health. Alcohol can affect skeletal muscle physiology and metabolism, which will have immediate and long-term consequences on health. While skeletal muscle abnormalities, including morphological, biochemical, and functional impairments, are well-documented in adults that excessively consume alcohol, there is a scarcity of information about the skeletal muscle in the offspring prenatally exposed to alcohol ("prenatal alcohol exposure"; PAE). This minireview examines the available studies addressing skeletal muscle abnormalities due to PAE. Growth restriction, fetal alcohol myopathy, and abnormalities in the neuromuscular system, which contribute to deficits in locomotion, are some direct, immediate consequences of PAE on skeletal muscle morphology and function. Long-term health consequences of PAE-related skeletal abnormalities include impaired glucose metabolism in the skeletal muscle, resulting in glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, leading to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. In general, there is limited information on the morphological, biochemical, and functional features of skeletal abnormalities in PAE offspring. There is a need to understand how PAE affects muscle growth and function at the cellular level during early development to improve the immediate and long-term health of offspring suffering from PAE.

  4. Oxidative and proteolysis-related parameters of skeletal muscle from hamsters with experimental pulmonary emphysema: a comparison between papain and elastase induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunnquell, Cláudia R; Vieira, Nichelle A; Sábio, Laís R; Sczepanski, Felipe; Cecchini, Alessandra L; Cecchini, Rubens; Guarnier, Flávia A

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether emphysema induced by elastase or papain triggers the same effects on skeletal muscle, related to oxidative stress and proteolysis, in hamsters. For this purpose, we evaluated pulmonary lesions, body weight, muscle loss, oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, total and oxidized glutathiones, chemiluminescence stimulated by tert-butyl hydroperoxide and carbonyl proteins), chymotrypsin-like and calpain-like proteolytic activities and muscle fibre cross-sectional area in the gastrocnemius muscles of emphysemic hamsters. Two groups of animals received different intratracheal inductions of experimental emphysema: by 40 mg/ml papain (EP) or 5.2 IU/100 g animal (EE) elastase (n = 10 animals/group). The control group received intratracheal instillation of 300 μl sterile NaCl 0.9%. Compared with the control group, the EP group had reduced muscle weight (18.34%) and the EE group had increased muscle weight (8.37%). Additionally, tert-butyl hydroperoxide-initiated chemiluminescence, carbonylated proteins and chymotrypsin-like proteolytic activity were all elevated in the EP group compared to the CS group, while total glutathione was decreased compared to the EE group. The EE group showed more fibres with increased cross-sectional areas and increased calpain-like activity. Together, these data show that elastase and papain, when used to induce experimental models of emphysema, lead to different speeds and types of adaptation. These findings provide more information on choosing a suitable experimental model for studying skeletal muscle adaptations in emphysema. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2015 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  5. The effects of altitude training on the AMPK-related glucose transport pathway in the red skeletal muscle of both lean and obese Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Ching; Lee, Shin-Da; Kuo, Cha-Hua; Ho, Low-Tone

    2011-01-01

    The skeletal muscle AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-related glucose transport pathway is involved in glucose homeostasis. In this study, we examined whether obese control Zucker rats had abnormal expression of proteins in the LKB1-AMPK-AS160-GLUT4 pathway in red gastrocnemius muscle compared to that in lean (normal) control Zucker rats. We also compared the chronic training effects of exercise, hypoxia, and altitude training on this pathway in lean and obese rats. At sea level, lean and obese rats were divided into 4 groups for 6 weeks training as follows: 1) control; 2) exercise (progressive daily swimming-exercise training with comparable exercise signals between the two groups); 3) hypoxia (8 hours of daily 14% O2 exposure); and 4) exercise plus hypoxia (also called altitude training). Seven animals were used for each group. The obese rats in the control group had higher body weights, elevated fasting insulin and glucose levels, and higher baseline levels of muscle AMPK and AS160 phosphorylation compared with those of lean control rats. For obese Zucker rats in the exercise or hypoxia groups, the muscle AMPK phosphorylation level was significantly decreased compared with that of the control group. For obese Zucker rats in the altitude training group, the levels of AMPK, AS160 phosphorylation, fasting insulin, and fasting glucose were decreased concomitant with an approximate 50% increase in the muscle GLUT4 protein level compared with those of the control group. In lean rats, the altitude training efficiently lowered fasting glucose and insulin levels and increased muscle AMPK and AS160 phosphorylation as well as GLUT4 protein levels. Our results provide evidence that long-term altitude training may be a potentially effective nonpharmacological strategy for treating and preventing insulin resistance based on its effects on the skeletal muscle AMPK-AS160-GLUT4 pathway.

  6. Relation between knee extensors' strength, postural stability and variability of centre of pressure displacement during gait in adult women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza C. de Souza

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been shown that variability of walking is related to fall risk similarly as postural control and muscle strength. Joint potential of this group of variables for fall risk assessment is promising, however research interested in relations between them is lacking. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between knee extensors' strength, centre of pressure (COP velocity during one-leg stance and variability of COP displacement during various phases of gait cycle in middle-age women. Methods: A single group of 40 healthy women (age 56 ± 4.2 years took part in the study. For assessment of knee extensors' strength (peak torque and average work during concentric and eccentric contractions an isokinetic dynamometer was used. Mean velocity of COP during one-leg stance in anterior-posterior (AP and medial-lateral (ML directions was assessed on a force plate on a rigid surface with eyes open (two 30 s trials. Variability of COP displacement was assessed for loading response, midstance, terminal stance and preswing gait cycle phases (determined by vertical ground reaction force in AP and ML directions. It was measured by two force plates positioned in the middle of an 8 m walkway (5 trials at a self-selected speed. For statistical analysis of relationships between variables Pearson correlation was applied. Results: Our results showed significant correlations between eccentric peak torque and COP velocity in AP direction during one-leg stance, eccentric and concentric peak torque and COP variability during loading response in both ML and AP directions and during terminal stance in AP direction. Conclusion: Loading response and terminal stance seems to be more related to knee extensors' strength. Variables derived from postural stability assessment during one-leg stance are independent from variables derived from assessment of COP displacement variability during walking.

  7. The skeletal consequences of thyrotoxicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Jonathan J; Brassill, Mary Jane; Williams, Graham R; Bassett, J H Duncan

    2012-06-01

    Euthyroid status is essential for normal skeletal development and the maintenance of adult bone structure and strength. Established thyrotoxicosis has long been recognised as a cause of high bone turnover osteoporosis and fracture but more recent studies have suggested that subclinical hyperthyroidism and long-term suppressive doses of thyroxine (T4) may also result in decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and an increased risk of fragility fracture, particularly in postmenopausal women. Furthermore, large population studies of euthyroid individuals have demonstrated that a hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis set point at the upper end of the normal reference range is associated with reduced BMD and increased fracture susceptibility. Despite these findings, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of thyroid hormone action in bone remain controversial and incompletely understood. In this review, we discuss the role of thyroid hormones in bone and the skeletal consequences of hyperthyroidism.

  8. The TWEAK–Fn14 dyad is involved in age-associated pathological changes in skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajrishi, Marjan M.; Sato, Shuichi; Shin, Jonghyun; Zheng, Timothy S.; Burkly, Linda C.; Kumar, Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The levels of TWEAK receptor Fn14 are increased in skeletal muscle during aging. • Deletion of Fn14 attenuates age-associated skeletal muscle fiber atrophy. • Deletion of Fn14 inhibits proteolysis in skeletal muscle during aging. • TWEAK–Fn14 signaling activates transcription factor NF-κB in aging skeletal muscle. • TWEAK–Fn14 dyad is involved in age-associated fibrosis in skeletal muscle. - Abstract: Progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength (sarcopenia) is a major clinical problem in the elderly. Recently, proinflammatory cytokine TWEAK and its receptor Fn14 were identified as key mediators of muscle wasting in various catabolic states. However, the role of the TWEAK–Fn14 pathway in pathological changes in skeletal muscle during aging remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that the levels of Fn14 are increased in skeletal muscle of 18-month old (aged) mice compared with adult mice. Genetic ablation of Fn14 significantly increased the levels of specific muscle proteins and blunted the age-associated fiber atrophy in mice. While gene expression of two prominent muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases MAFBx and MuRF1 remained comparable, levels of ubiquitinated proteins and the expression of autophagy-related molecule Atg12 were significantly reduced in Fn14-knockout (KO) mice compared with wild-type mice during aging. Ablation of Fn14 significantly diminished the DNA-binding activity of transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), gene expression of various inflammatory molecules, and interstitial fibrosis in skeletal muscle of aged mice. Collectively, our study suggests that the TWEAK–Fn14 signaling axis contributes to age-associated muscle atrophy and fibrosis potentially through its local activation of proteolytic systems and inflammatory pathways

  9. The TWEAK–Fn14 dyad is involved in age-associated pathological changes in skeletal muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajrishi, Marjan M.; Sato, Shuichi; Shin, Jonghyun [Department of Anatomical Sciences and Neurobiology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Zheng, Timothy S.; Burkly, Linda C. [Department of Immunology, Biogen Idec, 14 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142 (United States); Kumar, Ashok [Department of Anatomical Sciences and Neurobiology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States)

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • The levels of TWEAK receptor Fn14 are increased in skeletal muscle during aging. • Deletion of Fn14 attenuates age-associated skeletal muscle fiber atrophy. • Deletion of Fn14 inhibits proteolysis in skeletal muscle during aging. • TWEAK–Fn14 signaling activates transcription factor NF-κB in aging skeletal muscle. • TWEAK–Fn14 dyad is involved in age-associated fibrosis in skeletal muscle. - Abstract: Progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength (sarcopenia) is a major clinical problem in the elderly. Recently, proinflammatory cytokine TWEAK and its receptor Fn14 were identified as key mediators of muscle wasting in various catabolic states. However, the role of the TWEAK–Fn14 pathway in pathological changes in skeletal muscle during aging remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that the levels of Fn14 are increased in skeletal muscle of 18-month old (aged) mice compared with adult mice. Genetic ablation of Fn14 significantly increased the levels of specific muscle proteins and blunted the age-associated fiber atrophy in mice. While gene expression of two prominent muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases MAFBx and MuRF1 remained comparable, levels of ubiquitinated proteins and the expression of autophagy-related molecule Atg12 were significantly reduced in Fn14-knockout (KO) mice compared with wild-type mice during aging. Ablation of Fn14 significantly diminished the DNA-binding activity of transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), gene expression of various inflammatory molecules, and interstitial fibrosis in skeletal muscle of aged mice. Collectively, our study suggests that the TWEAK–Fn14 signaling axis contributes to age-associated muscle atrophy and fibrosis potentially through its local activation of proteolytic systems and inflammatory pathways.

  10. Relative Handgrip Strength Is Inversely Associated with Metabolic Profile and Metabolic Disease in the General Population in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxue Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Absolute handgrip strength has been correlated with metabolic profile and metabolic disease. Whether relative handgrip strength is also associated with metabolic disease has not been assessed. This study aimed at assessing the association of relative handgrip strength with metabolic profile and metabolic disease in the general population in China.Methods: Data were derived from an ongoing cross-sectional survey of the 2013 National Physical and Health in Shanxi Province, which involved 5520 participants. Multiple linear regression or multiple logistic regression analysis were used to assess the association of absolute/relative handgrip strength with the metabolic profile, preclinical, and established stages of metabolic diseases.Results: This study revealed that relative handgrip strength, that is when normalized to BMI, was associated with: (1 in both genders for more favorable blood lipid levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [males: b = 0.19 (0.15, 0.23; females: b = 0.22 (0.17, 0.28], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [males: b = −0.14 (−0.23, −0.05; females: b = −0.19 (−0.31, −0.18], triglycerides [males: b = −0.58 (−0.74, −0.43; females: b = −0.55 (−0.74, −0.36] and total cholesterol [males: b = −0.20 (−0.31, −0.10; females: b = −0.19 (−0.32, −0.06]; and better serum glucose levels in males [b = −0.30 (−0.46, −0.15]. (2 lower risk of impaired fasting glucose in males {third quartile [OR = 0.66 (0.45–0.95] and fourth quartile [OR = 0.46 (0.30–0.71] vs. first quartile} and dyslipidemia in both genders {third quartile [males: OR = 0.65 (0.48–0.87; females: OR = 0.68 (0.53–0.86] and fourth quartile [males: OR = 0.47 (0.35–0.64; females: OR = 0.47(0.36–0.61] vs. first quartile}. (3 lower risk of hyperlipidemia in both genders third quartile [males: OR = 0.66 (0.50–0.87; females: OR = 0.57 (0.43–0.75] and fourth quartile [males: OR = 0.35 (0.26–0.47; females: OR

  11. The role of skeletal muscle in the pathophysiology and management of knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnasamy, Priathashini; Hall, Michelle; Robbins, Sarah R

    2018-05-01

    The role of skeletal muscle in the pathophysiology of knee OA is poorly understood. To date, the majority of literature has focused on the association of muscle strength with OA symptoms, disease onset and progression. However, deficits or improvements in skeletal muscle strength do not fully explain the mechanisms behind outcome measures in knee OA, such as pain, function and structural disease. This review aims to summarize components of skeletal muscle, providing a holistic view of skeletal muscle mechanisms that includes muscle function, quality and composition and their interactions. Similarly, the role of skeletal muscle in the management of knee OA will be discussed.

  12. Neural adaptations to electrical stimulation strength training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortobagyi, Tibor; Maffiuletti, Nicola A.

    2011-01-01

    This review provides evidence for the hypothesis that electrostimulation strength training (EST) increases the force of a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) through neural adaptations in healthy skeletal muscle. Although electrical stimulation and voluntary effort activate muscle differently, there

  13. The Human Skeletal Muscle Proteome Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Freire, Marta; Semba, Richard D.; Ubaida-Mohien, Ceereena

    2017-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a large organ that accounts for up to half the total mass of the human body. A progressive decline in muscle mass and strength occurs with ageing and in some individuals configures the syndrome of ‘sarcopenia’, a condition that impairs mobility, challenges autonomy, and is a ri...

  14. Induced skeletal mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, P.B.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes a large-scale experiment that, by means of breeding tests, confirmed that many dominant skeletal mutations are induced by large-dose radiation exposure. The author also discusses: (1) the major advantages and disadvantages of the skeletal method in improving estimates of genetic hazard to man; (2) future uses of the skeletal method; (3) direct estimation of risk beyond the first generation using the skeletal method; and (4) the possibility of using the skeletal method as a quick and easy screen for chemical mutagens

  15. Quantitative skeletal scintiscanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haushofer, R.

    1982-01-01

    330 patients were examined by skeletal scintiscanning with sup(99m)Tc pyrophosphate and sup(99m)methylene diphosphonate in the years between 1977 and 1979. Course control examinations were carried out in 12 patients. The collective of patients presented with primary skeletal tumours, metastases, inflammatory and degenerative skeletal diseases. Bone scintiscanning combined with the ''region of interest'' technique was found to be an objective and reproducible technique for quantitative measurement of skeletal radioactivity concentrations. The validity of nuclear skeletal examinations can thus be enhanced as far as diagnosis, course control, and differential diagnosis are concerned. Quantitative skeletal scintiscanning by means of the ''region of interest'' technique has opened up a new era in skeletal diagnosis by nuclear methods. (orig./MG) [de

  16. Age-related differences in lean mass, protein synthesis and skeletal muscle markers of proteolysis after bed rest and exercise rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Ruth E; Brunker, Lucille B; Agergaard, Jakob; Barrows, Katherine M; Briggs, Robert A; Kwon, Oh Sung; Young, Laura M; Hopkins, Paul N; Volpi, Elena; Marcus, Robin L; LaStayo, Paul C; Drummond, Micah J

    2015-09-15

    Bed rest-induced muscle loss and impaired muscle recovery may contribute to age-related sarcopenia. It is unknown if there are age-related differences in muscle mass and muscle anabolic and catabolic responses to bed rest. A secondary objective was to determine if rehabilitation could reverse bed rest responses. Nine older and fourteen young adults participated in a 5-day bed rest challenge (BED REST). This was followed by 8 weeks of high intensity resistance exercise (REHAB). Leg lean mass (via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; DXA) and strength were determined. Muscle biopsies were collected during a constant stable isotope infusion in the postabsorptive state and after essential amino acid (EAA) ingestion on three occasions: before (PRE), after bed rest and after rehabilitation. Samples were assessed for protein synthesis, mTORC1 signalling, REDD1/2 expression and molecular markers related to muscle proteolysis (MURF1, MAFBX, AMPKα, LC3II/I, Beclin1). We found that leg lean mass and strength decreased in older but not younger adults after bedrest (P protein synthesis increased before bed rest in both age groups (P protein synthesis rates and increased MAFBX mRNA, p-AMPKα and the LC3II/I ratio (P protein synthesis and a marginal increase in proteolytic markers. Finally, rehabilitation restored bed rest-induced deficits in lean mass and strength in older adults. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  17. Bond Strength of Resin Composite to Dentin with Different Adhesive Systems: Influence of Relative Humidity and Application Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsler, Fabienne; Peutzfeldt, Anne; Lussi, Adrian; Flury, Simon

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the influence of relative humidity and application time on bond strength to dentin of different classes of adhesive systems. A total of 360 extracted human molars were ground to mid-coronal dentin. The dentin specimens were treated with one of six adhesive systems (Syntac Classic, OptiBond FL, Clearfil SE Bond, AdheSE, Xeno Select, or Scotchbond Universal), and resin composite (Filtek Z250) was applied to the treated dentin surface under four experimental conditions (45% relative humidity/application time according to manufacturers' instructions; 45% relative humidity/reduced application time; 85% relative humidity/application time according to manufacturers' instructions; 85% relative humidity/reduced application time). After storage (37°C, 100% humidity, 24 h), shear bond strength (SBS) was measured and data analyzed with nonparametric ANOVA followed by Kruskal-Wallis tests and Mann-Whitney U-tests with Bonferroni-Holm correction for multiple testing (level of significance: α = 0.05). Increased relative humidity and reduced application time had no effect on SBS for Clearfil SE Bond and Scotchbond Universal (p = 1.00). For Syntac Classic, OptiBond FL, AdheSE, and Xeno Select there was no effect on SBS of reduced application time of the adhesive system (p ≥ 0.403). However, increased relative humidity significantly reduced SBS for Syntac Classic, OptiBond FL, and Xeno Select irrespective of application time (p ≤ 0.003), whereas for AdheSE, increased relative humidity significantly reduced SBS at recommended application time only (p = 0.002). Generally, increased relative humidity had a detrimental effect on SBS to dentin, but reduced application time had no effect.

  18. Relation between isokinetic muscle strength and functional capacity in recreational athletes with chondromalacia patellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Y; Aydin, T; Sekir, U; Cetin, C; Ors, F; Alp Kalyon, T

    2003-12-01

    To investigate the effects of isokinetic exercise on pain and functional test scores of recreational athletes with chondromalacia patellae (CMP) and to examine the correlation between isokinetic parameters and functional tests or pain score. The functional ability of 30 recreational athletes with unilateral CMP was evaluated using six different tests. Pain scores were assessed during daily activities before and after the treatment protocol. Isokinetic exercise sessions were carried out at angular velocities of 60 degrees /s (25-90 degrees range of flexion) and 180 degrees /s (full range). These sessions were repeated three times a week for six weeks. Quadriceps and hamstring peak torque, total work, and endurance ratios had improved significantly after the treatment, as did the functional parameters and pain scores. There was a poor correlation between the extensor endurance ratio and one leg standing test. A moderate correlation between the visual analogue scale and the extensor endurance ratio or flexion endurance ratio was also found. The isokinetic exercise programme used in this study had a positive effect on muscle strength, pain score, and functional ability of knees with CMP. The improvement in the functional capacity did not correlate with the isokinetic parameters.

  19. Hospital visits among women with skeletal-related events secondary to breast cancer and bone metastases: a nationwide population-based cohort study in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svendsen ML

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Marie Louise Svendsen,1 Henrik Gammelager,1 Claus Sværke,1 Mellissa Yong,2 Victoria M Chia,2 Christian F Christiansen,1 Jon P Fryzek1 1Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 2Center for Observational Research, Amgen, Thousand Oaks, CA, USA Objective: Skeletal-related events (SREs among women with breast cancer may be associated with considerable use of health-care resources. We characterized inpatient and outpatient hospital visits in a national population-based cohort of Danish women with SREs secondary to breast cancer and bone metastases. Methods: We identified first-time breast cancer patients with bone metastases from 2003 through 2009 who had a subsequent SRE (defined as pathologic fracture, spinal cord compression, radiation therapy, or surgery to bone. Hospital visits included the number of inpatient hospitalizations, length of stay, number of hospital outpatient clinic visits, and emergency room visits. The number of hospital visits was assessed for a pre-SRE period (90 days prior to the diagnostic period, a diagnostic period (14 days prior to the SRE, and a post-SRE period (90 days after the SRE. Patients who experienced more than one SRE during the 90-day post-SRE period were defined as having multiple SREs and were followed until 90 days after the last SRE. Results: We identified 569 women with SREs secondary to breast cancer with bone metastases. The majority of women had multiple SREs (73.1%. A total of 20.9% and 33.4% of women with single and multiple SREs died in the post-SRE period, respectively. SREs were associated with a large number of hospital visits in the diagnostic period, irrespective of the number and type of SREs. Women with multiple SREs generally had a higher number of visits compared to those with a single SRE in the post-SRE period, eg, median length of hospitalization was 5 days (interquartile range 0–15 for women with a single SRE and 13 days (interquartile range 4

  20. Treatment with N- and C-Terminal Peptides of Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein Partly Compensate the Skeletal Abnormalities in IGF-I Deficient Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portal-Núñez, Sergio; Murillo-Cuesta, Silvia; Lozano, Daniel; Cediel, Rafael; Esbrit, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) deficiency causes growth delay, and IGF-I has been shown to partially mediate bone anabolism by parathyroid hormone (PTH). PTH-related protein (PTHrP) is abundant in bone, and has osteogenic features by poorly defined mechanisms. We here examined the capacity of PTHrP (1–36) and PTHrP (107–111) (osteostatin) to reverse the skeletal alterations associated with IGF-I deficiency. Igf1-null mice and their wild type littermates were treated with each PTHrP peptide (80 µg/Kg/every other day/2 weeks; 2 males and 4 females for each genotype) or saline vehicle (3 males and 3 females for each genotype). We found that treatment with either PTHrP peptide ameliorated trabecular structure in the femur in both genotypes. However, these peptides were ineffective in normalizing the altered cortical structure at this bone site in Igf1-null mice. An aberrant gene expression of factors associated with osteoblast differentiation and function, namely runx2, osteoprotegerin/receptor activator of NF-κB ligand ratio, Wnt3a , cyclin D1, connexin 43, catalase and Gadd45, as well as in osteocyte sclerostin, was found in the long bones of Igf1-null mice. These mice also displayed a lower amount of trabecular osteoblasts and osteoclasts in the tibial metaphysis than those in wild type mice. These alterations in Igf1-null mice were only partially corrected by each PTHrP peptide treatment. The skeletal expression of Igf2, Igf1 receptor and Irs2 was increased in Igf1-null mice, and this compensatory profile was further improved by treatment with each PTHrP peptide related to ERK1/2 and FoxM1 activation. In vitro, PTHrP (1–36) and osteostatin were effective in promoting bone marrow stromal cell mineralization in normal mice but not in IGF-I-deficient mice. Collectively, these findings indicate that PTHrP (1–36) and osteostatin can exert several osteogenic actions even in the absence of IGF-I in the mouse bone. PMID:24503961

  1. Skeletal Muscle Regeneration, Repair and Remodelling in Aging: The Importance of Muscle Stem Cells and Vascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanisse, Sophie; Nederveen, Joshua P; Snijders, Tim; McKay, Bryon R; Parise, Gianni

    2017-01-01

    Sarcopenia is the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength. Ultimately, sarcopenia results in the loss of independence, which imposes a large financial burden on healthcare systems worldwide. A critical facet of sarcopenia is the diminished ability for aged muscle to regenerate, repair and remodel. Over the years, research has focused on elucidating underlying mechanisms of sarcopenia and the impaired ability of muscle to respond to stimuli with aging. Muscle-specific stem cells, termed satellite cells (SC), play an important role in maintaining muscle health throughout the lifespan. It is well established that SC are essential in skeletal muscle regeneration, and it has been hypothesized that a reduction and/or dysregulation of the SC pool, may contribute to accelerated loss of skeletal muscle mass that is observed with advancing age. The preservation of skeletal muscle tissue and its ability to respond to stimuli may be impacted by reduced SC content and impaired function observed with aging. Aging is also associated with a reduction in capillarization of skeletal muscle. We have recently demonstrated that the distance between type II fibre-associated SC and capillaries is greater in older compared to younger adults. The greater distance between SC and capillaries in older adults may contribute to the dysregulation in SC activation ultimately impairing muscle's ability to remodel and, in extreme circumstances, regenerate. This viewpoint will highlight the importance of optimal SC activation in addition to skeletal muscle capillarization to maximize the regenerative potential of skeletal muscle in older adults. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. A comparison of research into cachexia, wasting and related skeletal muscle syndromes in three chronic disease areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart Coats, Andrew J; Shewan, Louise G

    2017-05-15

    We compared the frequency of cancer, heart and lung related cachexia and cachexia-related research articles in the specialist journal, Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle (JCSM) to those seen in a leading European journal in each specialist area during 2015 and 2016 to assess whether work on cachexia and related fields is relatively over or under represented in each specialist area. In the dedicated journal, Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle, there were 44 references related to cancer, 5 related to respiratory disease, 5 related to heart failure, and 21 related to more than one of these chronic diseases. Despite this cancer preponderance, in the European Journal of Cancer in the two publication years, there were only 5 relevant publications (0.67% of the journal output), compared to 16 (1.41%) in the European Respiratory Journal and 10 (2.19%) in the European Journal of Heart Failure. There is considerable under-representation of cancer cachexia-related papers in the major European Cancer journal despite a high proportion in the dedicated cachexia journal. The under-representation is even more marked when expressed as a percentage, 0.67%, compared to 1.41% and 2.19% of the lung and heart journals respectively. These results are consistent with a worrying lack of interest in, or publication of, cachexia and related syndromes research in the cancer literature in Europe compared to its importance as a clinical syndrome. Greater interest is shown in lung and cardiology journals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Increased Muscular 5α-Dihydrotestosterone in Response to Resistance Training Relates to Skeletal Muscle Mass and Glucose Metabolism in Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Horii, Naoki; Sato, Koji; Mesaki, Noboru; Iemitsu, Motoyuki

    2016-01-01

    Regular resistance exercise induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy and improvement of glycemic control in type 2 diabetes patients. Administration of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a sex steroid hormone precursor, increases 5?-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) synthesis and is associated with improvements in fasting blood glucose level and skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether increase in muscle DHT levels, induced by chronic resistance exercise, can co...

  4. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation for preventing skeletal-muscle weakness and wasting in critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maffiuletti, Nicola A.; Roig, Marc; Karatzanos, Eleftherios

    2013-01-01

    ill patients, in comparison with usual care. Methods: We searched PubMed, CENTRAL, CINAHL, Web of Science, and PEDro to identify randomized controlled trials exploring the effect of NMES in critically ill patients, which had a well-defined NMES protocol, provided outcomes related to skeletal......-muscle strength and/or mass, and for which full text was available. Two independent reviewers extracted data on muscle-related outcomes (strength and mass), and participant and intervention characteristics, and assessed the methodological quality of the studies. Owing to the lack of means and standard deviations...... yielded 8 eligible studies involving 172 patients. The methodological quality of the studies was moderate to high. Five studies reported an increase in strength or better preservation of strength with NMES, with one study having a large effect size. Two studies found better preservation of muscle mass...

  5. Local relative density modulates failure and strength in vertically aligned carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Siddhartha; Mohan, Nisha; Decolvenaere, Elizabeth; Needleman, Alan; Bedewy, Mostafa; Hart, A John; Greer, Julia R

    2013-10-22

    Micromechanical experiments, image analysis, and theoretical modeling revealed that local failure events and compressive stresses of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) were uniquely linked to relative density gradients. Edge detection analysis of systematically obtained scanning electron micrographs was used to quantify a microstructural figure-of-merit related to relative local density along VACNT heights. Sequential bottom-to-top buckling and hardening in stress-strain response were observed in samples with smaller relative density at the bottom. When density gradient was insubstantial or reversed, bottom regions always buckled last, and a flat stress plateau was obtained. These findings were consistent with predictions of a 2D material model based on a viscoplastic solid with plastic non-normality and a hardening-softening-hardening plastic flow relation. The hardening slope in compression generated by the model was directly related to the stiffness gradient along the sample height, and hence to the local relative density. These results demonstrate that a microstructural figure-of-merit, the effective relative density, can be used to quantify and predict the mechanical response.

  6. Somatotype variables related to strength and power output in male basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buśko, Krzysztof; Pastuszak, Anna; Lipińska, Monika; Lipińska, Marta; Gryko, Karol

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between somatotype, muscular strength, power output measured in maximal cycle ergometer exercise bouts, and maximal power output and height of rise of the body mass centre (jump height) measured in akimbo counter movement jump (ACMJ), counter movement jump (CMJ) and spike jump (SPJ), in male basketball players. Thirteen male basketball players (second division, age 19.4 ± 0.8 years, body height 192.9 ± 5.6 cm, body mass 88.8 ± 8.6 kg, training experience 9.3 ± 0.8 years) participated in the study. Somatotype was determined using the Heath-Carter method. Maximal joint torques were measured under static conditions. Power output was measured in 2 maximal cycle ergometer exercise bouts, 10 seconds each, with increasing external loads equal to 7.5 and 10.0% of the body weight (BW). All jump trials (ACMJ, CMJ and SPJ) were performed on a force plate. The mean somatotype of basketball players amounted to: 2.8-4.2-3.2. The sum of the joint torques for left and right lower extremities (0.613), trunk (0.631) and all six measured muscle groups (0.647) were significantly correlated (p jump during ACMJ, CMJ and SPJ trials. The power output measured in maximal cycle ergometer exercise bouts with increasing external loads was significantly correlated (p basketball players' anthropometric characteristics can influence their level of performance but it is not a decisive factor.

  7. Overweight in elderly people induces impaired autophagy in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potes, Yaiza; de Luxán-Delgado, Beatriz; Rodriguez-González, Susana; Guimarães, Marcela Rodrigues Moreira; Solano, Juan J; Fernández-Fernández, María; Bermúdez, Manuel; Boga, Jose A; Vega-Naredo, Ignacio; Coto-Montes, Ana

    2017-09-01

    Sarcopenia is the gradual loss of skeletal muscle mass, strength and quality associated with aging. Changes in body composition, especially in skeletal muscle and fat mass are crucial steps in the development of chronic diseases. We studied the effect of overweight on skeletal muscle tissue in elderly people without reaching obesity to prevent this extreme situation. Overweight induces a progressive protein breakdown reflected as a progressive withdrawal of anabolism against the promoted catabolic state leading to muscle wasting. Protein turnover is regulated by a network of signaling pathways. Muscle damage derived from overweight displayed by oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induces inflammation and insulin resistance and forces the muscle to increase requirements from autophagy mechanisms. Our findings showed that failure of autophagy in the elderly deprives it to deal with the cell damage caused by overweight. This insufficiently efficient autophagy leads to an accumulation of p62 and NBR1, which are robust markers of protein aggregations. This impaired autophagy affects myogenesis activity. Depletion of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) without links to variations in myostatin levels in overweight patients suggest a possible reduction of satellite cells in muscle tissue, which contributes to declined muscle quality. This discovery has important implications that improve the understanding of aged-related atrophy caused by overweight and demonstrates how impaired autophagy is one of the main responsible mechanisms that aggravate muscle wasting. Therefore, autophagy could be an interesting target for therapeutic interventions in humans against muscle impairment diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of skeletal and cardiac muscle function after chronic administration of thymosin beta-4 in the dystrophin deficient mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher F Spurney

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thymosin beta-4 (Tbeta4 is a ubiquitous protein with many properties relating to cell proliferation and differentiation that promotes wound healing and modulates inflammatory mediators. We studied the effects of chronic administration of Tbeta4 on the skeletal and cardiac muscle of dystrophin deficient mdx mice, the mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Female wild type (C57BL10/ScSnJ and mdx mice, 8-10 weeks old, were treated with 150 microg of Tbeta4 twice a week for 6 months. To promote muscle pathology, mice were exercised for 30 minutes twice a week. Skeletal and cardiac muscle function were assessed via grip strength and high frequency echocardiography. Localization of Tbeta4 and amount of fibrosis were quantified using immunohistochemistry and Gomori's tri-chrome staining, respectively. Mdx mice treated with Tbeta4 showed a significant increase in skeletal muscle regenerating fibers compared to untreated mdx mice. Tbeta4 stained exclusively in the regenerating fibers of mdx mice. Although untreated mdx mice had significantly decreased skeletal muscle strength compared to untreated wild type, there were no significant improvements in mdx mice after treatment. Systolic cardiac function, measured as percent shortening fraction, was decreased in untreated mdx mice compared to untreated wild type and there was no significant difference after treatment in mdx mice. Skeletal and cardiac muscle fibrosis were also significantly increased in untreated mdx mice compared to wild type, but there was no significant improvement in treated mdx mice. In exercised dystrophin deficient mice, chronic administration of Tbeta4 increased the number of regenerating fibers in skeletal muscle and could have a potential role in treatment of skeletal muscle disease in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

  9. Multi-factor analysis on events related to hematological toxicity in 153Sm-EDTMP palliative therapy for skeletal metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan Hongwei; Yu Xiaoling; Ye Xiaojuan; Bao Chengkan; Sun Da; He Gangqiang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical factors related to hematological toxicity induced by intravenous samarium-153 ethylenediaminetetramethylene phosphonic acid ( 153 Sm-EDTMP) treatment. Methods A total of 206 patients with bony metastases treated with 153 Sm-EDTMP were retrospectively analyzed. Logistic regression (SPSS 10.0 for Windows) and correlation analysis were used to evaluate the factors concerned. Results: Age of the patient, number of bone metastatic lesion, chemotherapy before 153 Sm-EDTMP therapy, concurrent radiotherapy and repeat-times of 153 Sm-EDTMP treatments were found the individual factors related to hematological toxicity. Chemotherapy before 153 Sm-EDTMP, concurrent radiotherapy, medication for normal blood counting and repeat-times of 153 Sm-EDTMP treatments were the hematological toxicity factors in multi-factor analysis. Conclusion: In 153 Sm-EDTMP therapy, several factors were found related to hematological toxicity suggesting more attention be paid to the change of blood cell counting after the palliative therapy. (authors)

  10. Influence of relative density on the cyclic shear strength of sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arab A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a laboratory study of the influence of relative density on the liquefaction potential of a soil. The study is based on undrained triaxial tests that were performed on samples with relative density Id = 0.15, 0.5 and 0.65. The article is composed of three parts. First, we present the materials and characteristics of the studied sands. the second part deals with the procedure and the device used. The third part studies the influence of the relative density on the liquefaction potential of the three sands (Hostun Rf, Chlef and Rass. This study also makes it possible to explore the influence of granulometry on the liquefaction potential. The results of the tests show that concordant results have been obtained which clearly show that the increase of the relative density leads to a significant improvement in the resistance to liquefaction of the sands. This effect is very significant when the initial relative density Id = 0.50 to Id = 0.65.

  11. Health Resource Utilization Associated with Skeletal-Related Events in Patients with Advanced Prostate Cancer: A European Subgroup Analysis from an Observational, Multinational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Bahl

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to increase the understanding of health resource utilization (HRU associated with skeletal-related events (SREs occurring in patients with bone metastases secondary to advanced prostate cancer. A total of 120 patients from Germany, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom were enrolled in this observational study. They had bone metastases secondary to prostate cancer and had experienced at least one SRE in the 97 days before giving informed consent. HRU data were collected retrospectively for 97 days before enrolment and prospectively for up to 18–21 months. HRU, including the number and duration of inpatient hospitalizations, number of outpatient and emergency department visits and procedures, was independently attributed by investigators to an SRE. Of the 222 SREs included in this analysis, 26% were associated with inpatient stays and the mean duration per SRE was 21.4 days (standard deviation (SD 17.8 days. Overall, 174 SREs (78% required an outpatient visit and the mean number of visits per SRE was 4.6 (SD 4.6. All SREs are associated with substantial HRU. Preventing SREs in patients with advanced prostate cancer and bone metastases may help to reduce the burden to both patients and European healthcare systems.

  12. Blast injury prevalence in skeletal remains: Are there differences between Bosnian war samples and documented combat-related deaths?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussault, Marie Christine; Hanson, Ian; Smith, Martin J

    2017-11-01

    Court cases at the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) have seen questions raised about the recognition and causes of blast-related trauma and the relationship to human rights abuses or combat. During trials, defence teams argued that trauma was combat related and prosecutors argued that trauma was related to executions. We compared a sample of 81 cases (males between 18 and 75) from a Bosnian mass grave investigation linked to the Kravica warehouse killings to published combat-related blast injury data from World War One, Vietnam, Northern Ireland, the first Gulf War, Operation Iraqi Freedom and Afghanistan. We also compared blast fracture injuries from Bosnia to blast fracture injuries sustained in bombings of buildings in two non-combat 'civilian' examples; the Oklahoma City and Birmingham pub bombings. A Chi-squared statistic with a Holm-Bonferroni correction assessed differences between prevalence of blast-related fractures in various body regions, where data were comparable. We found statistically significant differences between the Bosnian and combat contexts. We noted differences in the prevalence of head, torso, vertebral area, and limbs trauma, with a general trend for higher levels of more widespread trauma in the Bosnian sample. We noted that the pattern of trauma in the Bosnian cases resembled the pattern from the bombing in buildings civilian contexts. Variation in trauma patterns can be attributed to the influence of protective armour; the context of the environment; and the type of munition and its injuring mechanism. Blast fracture injuries sustained in the Bosnian sample showed patterns consistent with a lack of body armour, blast effects on people standing in enclosed buildings and the use of explosive munitions. Copyright © 2017 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Increased Muscular 5α-Dihydrotestosterone in Response to Resistance Training Relates to Skeletal Muscle Mass and Glucose Metabolism in Type 2 Diabetic Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Horii

    Full Text Available Regular resistance exercise induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy and improvement of glycemic control in type 2 diabetes patients. Administration of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, a sex steroid hormone precursor, increases 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT synthesis and is associated with improvements in fasting blood glucose level and skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether increase in muscle DHT levels, induced by chronic resistance exercise, can contribute to skeletal muscle hypertrophy and concomitant improvement of muscular glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats. Male 20-week-old type 2 diabetic rats (OLETF were randomly divided into 3 groups: sedentary control, resistance training (3 times a week on alternate days for 8 weeks, or resistance training with continuous infusion of a 5α-reductase inhibitor (n = 8 each group. Age-matched, healthy nondiabetic Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO rats (n = 8 were used as controls. The results indicated that OLETF rats showed significant decrease in muscular DHEA, free testosterone, DHT levels, and protein expression of steroidogenic enzymes, with loss of skeletal muscle mass and hyperglycemia, compared to that of LETO rats. However, 8-week resistance training in OLETF rats significantly increased the levels of muscle sex steroid hormones and protein expression of steroidogenic enzymes with a concomitant increase in skeletal muscle mass, improved fasting glucose level, and insulin sensitivity index. Moreover, resistance training accelerated glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4 translocation and protein kinase B and C-ζ/λ phosphorylation. Administering the 5α-reductase inhibitor in resistance-trained OLETF rats resulted in suppression of the exercise-induced effects on skeletal muscle mass, fasting glucose level, insulin sensitivity index, and GLUT-4 signaling, with a decline in muscular DHT levels. These findings suggest that resistance training

  14. A Review of Existing Relational Aggression Programs: Strengths, Limitations, and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leff, Stephen S.; Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Crick, Nicki R.

    2010-01-01

    Research suggests that involvement in relational aggression is associated with serious adjustment problems, including concurrent and future social maladjustment (e.g., problematic friendships; rejection), internalizing problems (e.g., depressive symptoms), and school avoidance. Despite the burgeoning literature focusing on the harmful and damaging…

  15. Lyophilized skeletal imaging composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanduzee, B.F.

    1983-01-01

    This invention encompasses a process for producing a dry-powder skeletal imaging kit. An aqueous solution of a diphosphonate, a stannous reductant, and, optionally, a stabilizer is prepared. The solution is adjusted to a pH within the range 4.2 to 4.8 and the pH-adjusted solution is then lyophilized. The adjustment of pH, within a particular range, during the process of manufacturing lyophilized diphosphonate containing skeletal imaging kits yields a kit which produces a technetium skeletal imaging agent with superior imaging properties. This improved performance is manifested through faster blood clearance and higher skeletal uptake of the technetium imaging agent

  16. Expression of collagen and related growth factors in rat tendon and skeletal muscle in response to specific contraction types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemeier, K M; Olesen, J L; Haddad, F

    2007-01-01

    greater than the effect of concentric training on the expression of several transcripts. In conclusion, the study supports an involvement of TGF-beta-1 in loading-induced collagen synthesis in the muscle-tendon unit and importantly, it indicates that muscle tissue is more sensitive than tendon......Acute exercise induces collagen synthesis in both tendon and muscle, indicating an adaptive response in the connective tissue of the muscle-tendon unit. However, the mechanisms of this adaptation, potentially involving collagen-inducing growth factors (such as transforming growth factor-beta-1 (TGF......-beta-1)), as well as enzymes related to collagen processing, are not clear. Furthermore, possible differential effects of specific contraction types on collagen regulation have not been investigated. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 4 days of concentric, eccentric or isometric training (n = 7...

  17. Effect of enzalutamide on health-related quality of life, pain, and skeletal-related events in asymptomatic and minimally symptomatic, chemotherapy-naive patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (PREVAIL): results from a randomised, phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loriot, Yohann; Miller, Kurt; Sternberg, Cora N; Fizazi, Karim; De Bono, Johann S; Chowdhury, Simon; Higano, Celestia S; Noonberg, Sarah; Holmstrom, Stefan; Mansbach, Harry; Perabo, Frank G; Phung, De; Ivanescu, Cristina; Skaltsa, Konstantina; Beer, Tomasz M; Tombal, Bertrand

    2015-05-01

    Enzalutamide significantly increased overall survival and radiographic progression-free survival compared with placebo in the PREVAIL trial of asymptomatic and minimally symptomatic, chemotherapy-naive patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. We report the effect of enzalutamide on health-related quality of life (HRQoL), pain, and skeletal-related events observed during this trial. In this phase 3, double-blind trial, patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive enzalutamide 160 mg/day (n=872) or placebo (n=845) orally. HRQoL was assessed at baseline and during treatment using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate (FACT-P) and EQ-5D questionnaires. Pain status was assessed at screening, baseline, week 13, and week 25 with the Brief Pain Inventory Short Form (BPI-SF). The primary analysis of HRQoL data used a mixed-effects model to test the difference between least square means change from baseline at week 61. We assessed change from baseline, percentage improvement, and time to deterioration in HRQoL and pain, the proportion of patients with a skeletal-related event, and time to first skeletal-related event. Analysis was done on the intention-to-treat population. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01212991. Median treatment duration was 16·6 months (IQR 10·1-21·1) in the enzalutamide group and 4·6 months (2·8-9·7) in the placebo group. The mixed-effects model analyses showed significant treatment differences in change from baseline to week 61 with enzalutamide compared with placebo for most FACT-P endpoints and EQ-5D visual analogue scale. Median time to deterioration in FACT-P total score was 11·3 months (95% CI 11·1-13·9) in the enzalutamide group and 5·6 months (5·5-5·6) in the placebo groups (hazard ratio [HR] 0·62 [95% CI 0·54-0·72]; p<0·0001). A significantly greater proportion of patients in the enzalutamide group than in the placebo group reported clinically meaningful

  18. Age-related differences in lean mass, protein synthesis and skeletal muscle markers of proteolysis after bed rest and exercise rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanner, Ruth E; Brunker, Lucille B; Agergaard, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    during a constant stable isotope infusion in the postabsorptive state and after essential amino acid (EAA) ingestion on three occasions: before (PRE), after bed rest and after rehabilitation. Samples were assessed for protein synthesis, mTORC1 signalling, REDD1/2 expression and molecular markers related...... to muscle proteolysis (MURF1, MAFBX, AMPKα, LC3II/I, Beclin1). We found that leg lean mass and strength decreased in older but not younger adults after bedrest (P protein synthesis increased before bed rest in both age groups...... (P protein synthesis rates and increased MAFBX mRNA, p-AMPKα and the LC3II/I ratio (P

  19. Absolute and relative reliability of isokinetic and isometric trunk strength testing using the IsoMed-2000 dynamometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Ralf; Donath, Lars; Kurz, Eduard; Zahner, Lukas; Faude, Oliver

    2017-03-01

    The present study aimed to assess the between day reliability of isokinetic and isometric peak torque (PT) during trunk measurement on an isokinetic device (IsoMed 2000). Test-retest-protocol on five separate days. Fifteen healthy sport students (8 female and 7 male) aged 21 to 26. PT was assessed in isometric back extension and flexion as well as right and left rotation. Isokinetic strength was captured at a speed of 60°/s and 150°/s for all tasks. For none of the assessed parameters a meaningful variation in PT during test days was observed. Relative reliability (ICC = 0.85-0.96) was excellent for all tasks. Estimates of absolute reliability as Coefficient of Variation (CoV) and Standard Error of Measurement (SEM in Nm/kg lean body mass) remained stable for isometric (6.9% strength measurement in flexion and extension or trunk rotation in either isometric or isokinetic condition is highly reliable. Therefore, it seems possible to elucidate changes which are smaller than 10% due to intervention programs when a preceding familiarization condition was applied. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of a strengths intervention on general and work-related well-being : The mediating role of positive affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyers, M.C.; van Woerkom, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we explore the use of strengths interventions, defined as activities and processes that target the identification, development, and use of individual strengths, as an organizational tool to increase employee well-being. Engaging with one’s strengths is assumed to be a pleasant

  1. Reaching back: the relative strength of the retroactive emotional attentional blink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ní Choisdealbha, Áine; Piech, Richard M.; Fuller, John K.; Zald, David H.

    2017-01-01

    Visual stimuli with emotional content appearing in close temporal proximity either before or after a target stimulus can hinder conscious perceptual processing of the target via an emotional attentional blink (EAB). This occurs for targets that appear after the emotional stimulus (forward EAB) and for those appearing before the emotional stimulus (retroactive EAB). Additionally, the traditional attentional blink (AB) occurs because detection of any target hinders detection of a subsequent target. The present study investigated the relations between these different attentional processes. Rapid sequences of landscape images were presented to thirty-one male participants with occasional landscape targets (rotated images). For the forward EAB, emotional or neutral distractor images of people were presented before the target; for the retroactive EAB, such images were also targets and presented after the landscape target. In the latter case, this design allowed investigation of the AB as well. Erotic and gory images caused more EABs than neutral images, but there were no differential effects on the AB. This pattern is striking because while using different target categories (rotated landscapes, people) appears to have eliminated the AB, the retroactive EAB still occurred, offering additional evidence for the power of emotional stimuli over conscious attention. PMID:28255172

  2. The "Arnold Schwarzenegger Effect": is strength of the "victim" related to misinterpretations of harm intrusions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Noah C; Wheaton, Michael G; Abramowitz, Jonathan S

    2012-12-01

    The present study used an in vivo paradigm to examine whether the victim's vulnerability in a harm-related intrusion affects beliefs about the importance of thoughts (i.e., Thought Action Fusion; TAF). Sixty-six undergraduate students at a large university were randomly assigned to imagine either a vulnerable (e.g., elderly man) or able-bodied individual (e.g., strong youthful male) they know getting into a car accident and provided in vivo ratings of anxiety, guilt, likelihood, moral wrongness, and urges to neutralize. Results indicated that thinking of car accident involving a vulnerable, compared to an able-bodied person, provoked more distress (anxiety and guilt), stronger feelings of moral wrongness, greater urges to cancel the effects of thinking such thoughts, and higher estimates of the likelihood that the collision would occur. The findings of our study broadly support Rachman's (1998) assertion that more significance and importance is attached to negative thoughts about vulnerable or helpless people. Current findings are discussed in terms of the cognitive-behavioral model of obsessions and clinical implications are addressed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Localized brain activation related to the strength of auditory learning in a parrot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Eda-Fujiwara

    Full Text Available Parrots and songbirds learn their vocalizations from a conspecific tutor, much like human infants acquire spoken language. Parrots can learn human words and it has been suggested that they can use them to communicate with humans. The caudomedial pallium in the parrot brain is homologous with that of songbirds, and analogous to the human auditory association cortex, involved in speech processing. Here we investigated neuronal activation, measured as expression of the protein product of the immediate early gene ZENK, in relation to auditory learning in the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus, a parrot. Budgerigar males successfully learned to discriminate two Japanese words spoken by another male conspecific. Re-exposure to the two discriminanda led to increased neuronal activation in the caudomedial pallium, but not in the hippocampus, compared to untrained birds that were exposed to the same words, or were not exposed to words. Neuronal activation in the caudomedial pallium of the experimental birds was correlated significantly and positively with the percentage of correct responses in the discrimination task. These results suggest that in a parrot, the caudomedial pallium is involved in auditory learning. Thus, in parrots, songbirds and humans, analogous brain regions may contain the neural substrate for auditory learning and memory.

  4. Adaptation of the Skeletal System during Long-duration Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, Jean D.; Cavanagh, Peter R.; Lang, Thomas F.; LeBlanc, Adrian D.; Schneider, Victor S.; Shackelford, Linda C.; Smith, Scott M.; Vico, Laurence

    2008-01-01

    exceeds spaceflight exposure but for which the restoration of whole bone strength remains an open issue and may involve structural alteration; and 4. Display risk factors for bone loss -- such as the negative calcium balance and down-regulated calcium-regulating hormones in response to bone atrophy -- that can be compounded by the constraints of conducting mission operations (inability to provide essential nutrients and vitamins). The full characterization of the skeletal response to mechanical unloading in space is not complete. In particular, countermeasures used to date have been inadequate and it is not yet known whether more appropriate countermeasures can prevent the changes in bone that have been found in previous flights, knowledge gaps related to the effects of prolonged (greater than or equal to 6 months) space exposure and to partial gravity environments are substantial, and longitudinal measurements on crew members after spaceflight are required to assess the full impact on skeletal recovery.

  5. Inner strength in relation to age, gender and culture among old people--a cross-sectional population study in two Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viglund, Kerstin; Jonsén, Elisabeth; Lundman, Berit; Strandberg, Gunilla; Nygren, Björn

    2013-01-01

    The theoretical framework for the study was the Model of Inner Strength, and the Inner Strength Scale (ISS)developed based on the Model was used. The aim was to examine inner strength in relation to age, gender and culture among old people in Sweden and Finland. This study forms part of the GErontological Regional DAtabase (GERDA)-Botnia project that investigates healthy ageing with focus on the dignity, social participation and health of old people. The participants (N = 6119) were 65-, 70-, 75- and 80-year old and living in two counties in Sweden or Finland. The ISS consists of 20 items relating to four interrelated dimensions of inner strength, according to the Model of Inner Strength. The range of possible ISS scores is 20-120, a higher score denoting higher inner strength. The result showed that the 65-year-old participants had the highest mean ISS score, with a decrease in score for every subsequent age. The lowest score was achieved by the 80-year-old participants. Women had slightly but significantly higher mean ISS scores than men. Only small differences were found between the counties. The study population came from Sweden and Finland; still, despite the different backgrounds, patterns in the distribution of inner strength were largely similar. The present study provides basic and essential information about inner strength in a population of old people.

  6. The role of hyperplasia on the increase of skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Hugo Maciel Meloni

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle hypertrophy is resulted from the individual increase of the fiber cross-sectional area. This adaptative phenomenon is normally observed in the muscle tissue submitted to a regimen of physical exercises, like strength training. The degree of muscular hypertrophy is directly related to the type of exercise and its intensity. Strength training normally produces a hypertrophy of greater magnitude when compared to other types of physical exercise. However, it is possible that there is another adaptive mechanism contributing for increasing skeletal muscle size. This mechanism is called hyperplasia, and can be defined as an increase in the cells, or fibers, number in the muscle. This brief review aims to verify the role of hyperplasia in the increase of skeletal muscle size. RESUMO A hipertrofia do músculo esquelético é resultado do aumento individual da área transversal da fibra. Este fenômeno adaptativo é comumente observado no tecido muscular submetido à um regime de exercícios físicos, como o treinamento de força. O grau de hipertrofia muscular está diretamente relacionado ao tipo de exercício e sua intensidade. O treinamento de força normalmente produz uma hipertrofia de maior magnitude, quando comparada aos outros tipos de exercício físico. Todavia, é provável que haja outro mecanismo adaptativo contribuindo para a hipertrofia do músculo esquelético. Este mecanismo chama-se hiperplasia, e pode ser traduzida por um aumento no número de células, ou fibras musculares em relação ao número original. Este breve resumo tem por objetivo verificar qual é o papel da hiperplasia na hipertrofia do músculo esquelético.

  7. Assessing the fracture strength of geological and related materials via an atomistically based J-integral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. E.; Criscenti, L. J.; Rimsza, J.

    2016-12-01

    Predicting fracture initiation and propagation in low-permeability geomaterials is a critical yet un- solved problem crucial to assessing shale caprocks at carbon dioxide sequestration sites, and controlling fracturing for gas and oil extraction. Experiments indicate that chemical reactions at fluid-geomaterial interfaces play a major role in subcritical crack growth by weakening the material and altering crack nu- cleation and growth rates. Engineering the subsurface fracture environment, however, has been hindered by a lack of understanding of the mechanisms relating chemical environment to mechanical outcome, and a lack of capability directly linking atomistic insight to macroscale observables. We have developed a fundamental atomic-level understanding of the chemical-mechanical mecha- nisms that control subcritical cracks through coarse-graining data from reactive molecular simulations. Previous studies of fracture at the atomic level have typically been limited to producing stress-strain curves, quantifying either the system-level stress or energy at which fracture propagation occurs. As such, these curves are neither characteristic of nor insightful regarding fracture features local to the crack tip. In contrast, configurational forces, such as the J-integral, are specific to the crack in that they measure the energy available to move the crack and truly quantify fracture resistance. By development and use of field estimators consistent with the continuum conservation properties we are able to connect the data produced by atomistic simulation to the continuum-level theory of fracture mechanics and thus inform engineering decisions. In order to trust this connection we have performed theoretical consistency tests and validation with experimental data. Although we have targeted geomaterials, this capability can have direct impact on other unsolved technological problems such as predicting the corrosion and embrittlement of metals and ceramics. Sandia National

  8. Muscle free amino acid profiles are related to differences in skeletal muscle growth between single and twin ovine fetuses near term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Francisco; Pacheco, David; Blair, Hugh; Kenyon, Paul; McCoard, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Twin sheep fetuses have reduced skeletal muscle weight near birth relative to singles as a result of restricted muscle hypertrophy. Intracellular free amino acids (FAA) are reported to regulate metabolic pathways which control muscle protein accretion, whereby reduced intracellular content of specific FAA may reduce their activation and therefore, muscle hypertrophy. The aim of this study was to determine whether differences in muscle weight between singleton and twin fetuses, under different maternal conditions is associated with reduced concentration of specific FAA. The FAA content in the semitendinosus muscle (ST) in singleton and twin fetuses (rank) at 140 days of gestation from heavy (H) or light (L) ewes fed ad libitum (A) or maintenance (M) level of nutrition was measured. Muscle weight was reduced in twin fetuses compared to singletons in all groups. Reduced concentrations of leucine, threonine and valine, but higher concentrations of methionine, ornithine, lysine and serine were found in twin fetuses compared to singletons. Maternal size and nutrition interaction with rank resulted in reduced glutamine in twins from HM-ewes (H-ewes under M nutrition) compared to their singleton counterparts. Maternal weight interaction with pregnancy rank reduced the concentration of arginine in twins, with a larger effect on H-ewes compared with L-ewes. Maternal size interaction with pregnancy rank resulted in twins from M-ewes to have lower alanine, while twins from A-ewes had lower aspartic acid concentration compared to singletons. The ST muscle weight was positively correlated only with arginine concentration after taking into account rank, size and nutrition. The present results indicate that reduced concentrations of specific intracellular FAA, such as arginine, leucine, valine, glutamine, which are known to play a role in muscle growth, could be acting as limiting factors for muscle hypertrophy in twin fetuses during late gestation. Ewe size and nutrition can

  9. Differences among skeletal muscle mass indices derived from height-, weight-, and body mass index-adjusted models in assessing sarcopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Min; Jang, Hak Chul; Lim, Soo

    2016-01-01

    Aging processes are inevitably accompanied by structural and functional changes in vital organs. Skeletal muscle, which accounts for 40% of total body weight, deteriorates quantitatively and qualitatively with aging. Skeletal muscle is known to play diverse crucial physical and metabolic roles in humans. Sarcopenia is a condition characterized by significant loss of muscle mass and strength. It is related to subsequent frailty and instability in the elderly population. Because muscle tissue is involved in multiple functions, sarcopenia is closely related to various adverse health outcomes. Along with increasing recognition of the clinical importance of sarcopenia, several international study groups have recently released their consensus on the definition and diagnosis of sarcopenia. In practical terms, various skeletal muscle mass indices have been suggested for assessing sarcopenia: appendicular skeletal muscle mass adjusted for height squared, weight, or body mass index. A different prevalence and different clinical implications of sarcopenia are highlighted by each definition. The discordances among these indices have emerged as an issue in defining sarcopenia, and a unifying definition for sarcopenia has not yet been attained. This review aims to compare these three operational definitions and to introduce an optimal skeletal muscle mass index that reflects the clinical implications of sarcopenia from a metabolic perspective. PMID:27334763

  10. Relative strength of second harmonic and 3/2 omega emissions from long-scale-length laser produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, B.K.; Kumbhare, S.R.

    1988-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on the planar slab targets of carbon, aluminum, and copper, using a 1.0641 μm laser, at laser intensities varying from 2 x 10/sup 12/ to 1 x 10/sup 14/ W/cm/sup 2/. The laser had a fluorescent linewidth of 4.5 A. Spectral profiles of parametrically modulated second harmonic as well as 3/2/ω/sub 0/ emissions have been measured for the long-scale-length plasmas so generated. Relative strengths of three emissions with respect to peak signal intensity and spectral energy content as a function of laser intensity are graphically reported. Results are discussed on the basis of two plasmon and parametric decay instabilities

  11. Core subjects at the end of primary school: identifying and explaining relative strengths of children with specific language impairment (SLI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Kevin; Mok, Pearl L H; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Background In general, children with specific language impairment (SLI) tend to fall behind their typically developing (TD) peers in educational attainment. Less is known about how children with SLI fare in particular areas of the curriculum and what predicts their levels of performance. Aims To compare the distributions of performance of children with SLI in three core school subjects (English, Mathematics and Science); to test the possibility that performance would vary across the core subjects; and to examine the extent to which language impairment predicts performance. Methods & Procedures This study was conducted in England and reports historical data on educational attainments. Teacher assessment and test scores of 176 eleven-year-old children with SLI were examined in the three core subjects and compared with known national norms. Possible predictors of performance were measured, including language ability at ages 7 and 11, educational placement type, and performance IQ. Outcomes & Results Children with SLI, compared with national norms, were found to be at a disadvantage in core school subjects. Nevertheless, some children attained the levels expected of TD peers. Performance was poorest in English; relative strengths were indicated in Science and, to a lesser extent, in Mathematics. Language skills were significant predictors of performance in all three core subjects. PIQ was the strongest predictor for Mathematics. For Science, both early language skills at 7 years and PIQ made significant contributions. Conclusions & Implications Language impacts on the school performance of children with SLI, but differentially across subjects. English for these children is the most challenging of the core subjects, reflecting the high levels of language demand it incurs. Science is an area of relative strength and mathematics appears to be intermediate, arguably because some tasks in these subjects can be performed with less reliance on verbal processing. Many children

  12. Proteomics of Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, Atul

    2016-01-01

    , of altered protein expressions profiles and/or their posttranslational modifications (PTMs). Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics offer enormous promise for investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle insulin resistance and exercise-induced adaptation; however, skeletal muscle......Skeletal muscle is the largest tissue in the human body and plays an important role in locomotion and whole body metabolism. It accounts for ~80% of insulin stimulated glucose disposal. Skeletal muscle insulin resistance, a primary feature of Type 2 diabetes, is caused by a decreased ability...... of muscle to respond to circulating insulin. Physical exercise improves insulin sensitivity and whole body metabolism and remains one of the most promising interventions for the prevention of Type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance and exercise adaptations in skeletal muscle might be a cause, or consequence...

  13. The ability of familiarity, disruption, and the relative strength of nonenvironmental context cues to explain unreliable environmental-context-dependent memory effects in free recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, A

    2000-12-01

    The ability of environmental-context (EC) familiarity, movement disruption, and the relative strength of memory cues to explain unreliable EC-dependent free-recall memory effects was examined in two experiments. Experiment 1 replicated Smith's (1979, Experiment 1) results confirming that familiarity and disruption cannot account for free-recall EC-reinstatement effects. In Experiment 2, a level of processing manipulation varied stimulus item memory cue strengths, and memory was again assessed by free recall. Contrary to Murnane and Phelps's (1995) and Dougal and Rotello's (1999) recognition findings, an EC-reinstatement effect was observed with low, but not high, levels of processing. However, comparisons across the two experiments revealed inconsistencies with the relative cue strength hypothesis. Consequently, a variant of the relative cue strength hypothesis that highlights the role of retrieval processes was proposed to explain the interaction between the levels of processing and the EC-reinstatement effect.

  14. No effect of short-term amino acid supplementation on variables related to skeletal muscle damage in 100 km ultra-runners - a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemann Thomas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of short-term supplementation of amino acids before and during a 100 km ultra-marathon on variables of skeletal muscle damage and muscle soreness. We hypothesized that the supplementation of amino acids before and during an ultra-marathon would lead to a reduction in the variables of skeletal muscle damage, a decrease in muscle soreness and an improved performance. Methods Twenty-eight experienced male ultra-runners were divided into two groups, one with amino acid supplementation and the other as a control group. The amino acid group was supplemented a total of 52.5 g of an amino acid concentrate before and during the 100 km ultra-marathon. Pre- and post-race, creatine kinase, urea and myoglobin were determined. At the same time, the athletes were asked for subjective feelings of muscle soreness. Results Race time was not different between the groups when controlled for personal best time in a 100 km ultra-marathon. The increases in creatine kinase, urea and myoglobin were not different in both groups. Subjective feelings of skeletal muscle soreness were not different between the groups. Conclusions We concluded that short-term supplementation of amino acids before and during a 100 km ultra-marathon had no effect on variables of skeletal muscle damage and muscle soreness.

  15. Exercise Promotes Healthy Aging of Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cartee, Gregory D; Hepple, Russell T; Bamman, Marcas M

    2016-01-01

    caused by diseases and lifestyle factors. Secondary aging can exacerbate deficits in mitochondrial function and muscle mass, concomitant with the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Exercise opposes deleterious effects of secondary aging by preventing the decline in mitochondrial...... respiration, mitigating aging-related loss of muscle mass and enhancing insulin sensitivity. This review focuses on mechanisms by which exercise promotes "healthy aging" by inducing modifications in skeletal muscle....

  16. Muscle-tendon-related pain in 100 patients with hip dysplasia: prevalence and associations with self-reported hip disability and muscle strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Julie Sandell; Hølmich, Per; Thorborg, Kristian

    2018-01-01

    The primary aim was to identify muscle-tendon-related pain in 100 patients with hip dysplasia. The secondary aim was to test whether muscle-tendon-related pain is associated with self-reported hip disability and muscle strength in patient with hip dysplasia. One hundred patients (17 men......-tendon-related pain and hip extension a significant inverse linear association between muscle-tendon-related pain and muscle strength was found ranging from -0.11 to - 0.12 Nm/kg in the adjusted analysis (P hip dysplasia with a high prevalence......) with a mean age of 29 years (SD 9) were included. Clinical entity approach was carried out to identify muscle-tendon-related pain. Associations between muscle-tendon-related pain and self-reported hip disability and muscle strength were tested with multiple regression analysis, including adjustments for age...

  17. Muscle-tendon-related pain in 100 patients with hip dysplasia: prevalence and associations with self-reported hip disability and muscle strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Julie Sandell; Hölmich, Per; Thorborg, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    The primary aim was to identify muscle-tendon-related pain in 100 patients with hip dysplasia. The secondary aim was to test whether muscle-tendon-related pain is associated with self-reported hip disability and muscle strength in patient with hip dysplasia. One hundred patients (17 men......-tendon-related pain and hip extension a significant inverse linear association between muscletendon- related pain and muscle strength was found ranging from 0.11 to0.12 Nm/kg in the adjusted analysis (Phip dysplasia with a high prevalence......) with a mean age of 29 years (SD 9) were included. Clinical entity approach was carried out to identify muscle-tendon-related pain. Associations between muscle-tendon-related pain and self-reported hip disability and muscle strength were tested with multiple regression analysis, including adjustments for age...

  18. Função muscular esquelética e composição corporal de pacientes com hipertireoidismo submetidos ao treinamento contra resistência Skeletal muscle performance and body composition of patients with hyperthyroidism submitted to strength training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelb Bousquet Santos

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O hipertireoidismo está associado a uma fraqueza muscular generalizada que é parte da manifestação clínica inicial de cerca de 80% dos pacientes. A recuperação da performance muscular esquelética durante o tratamento do hipertireoidismo depende tanto do aumento da massa muscular quanto da melhoria da função intrínseca da musculatura esquelética. Por outro lado, o treinamento contra resistência aumenta a força e a endurance muscular em diferentes grupos de indivíduos. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito deste tipo de treinamento sobre a recuperação da função muscular esquelética de pacientes portadores de hipertireoidismo. Os pacientes, atendidos no ambulatório de endocrinologia, diagnosticados clínica e laboratorialmente com doença de Graves, foram submetidos, antes do tratamento e quatro meses após, a medidas antropométricas e testes de força máxima e endurance musculares (sustentando 30% da carga máxima de quatro movimentos [handgrip esquerdo (HE e direito (HD, legpress (LEG, flexão plantar de tornozelo (FPT e supino reto (SR]. Após a avaliação inicial, os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos: 1 controle (GC - tratamento medicamentoso e 2 treinamento (GT - acrescentado treinamento contra resistência individualizado 2X/semana. Os resultados (GC, n = 3; GT, n = 4; todas do sexo feminino mostram: Os autores concluem que o treinamento contra resistência parece favorecer aumento da massa e da performance muscular esquelética em pacientes com hipertireoidismo.Hyperthyroidism is associated with a general muscle weakness, which is part of the initial clinical manifestation of about 80% of patients. The recovery of skeletal muscle performance during hyperthyroidism treatment depends on both greater muscle mass and improved muscle function. Strength training is an effective method to improve muscle strength and endurance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of this type of training

  19. Evidence for a weakening strength of temperature-corn yield relation in the United States during 1980–2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leng, Guoyong

    2017-12-01

    Temperature is known to be correlated with crop yields, causing reduction of crop yield with climate warming without adaptations or CO2 fertilization effects. The historical temperature-crop yield relation has often been used for informing future changes. This relationship, however, may change over time following alternations in other environmental factors. Results show that the strength of the relationship between the interannual variability of growing season temperature and corn yield (RGST_CY) has declined in the United States between 1980 and 2010 with a loss in the statistical significance. The regression slope which represents the anomalies in corn yield that occur in association with 1 degree temperature anomaly has decreased significantly from -6.9%/K of the first half period to -2.4%/K~-3.5%/K of the second half period. This implies that projected corn yield reduction will be overestimated by a fact of 2 in a given warming scenario, if the corn-temperature relation is derived from the earlier historical period. Changes in RGST_CY are mainly observed in Midwest Corn Belt and central High Plains, and are well reproduced by 11 process-based crop models. In Midwest rain-fed systems, the decrease of negative temperature effects coincides with an increase in water availability by precipitation. In irrigated areas where water stress is minimized, the decline of beneficial temperature effects is significantly related to the increase in extreme hot days. The results indicate that an extrapolation of historical yield response to temperature may bias the assessment of agriculture vulnerability to climate change. Efforts to reduce climate impacts on agriculture should pay attention not only to climate change, but also to changes in climate-crop yield relations. There are some caveats that should be acknowledged as the analysis is restricted to the changes in the linear relation between growing season mean temperature and corn yield for the specific study period.

  20. GH administration changes myosin heavy chain isoforms in skeletal muscle but does not augment muscle strength or hypertrophy, either alone or combined with resistance exercise training in healthy elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Kai Henrik Wiborg; Andersen, Jesper Løvind; Beyer, Nina

    2002-01-01

    GH administration, either alone or combined with resistance exercise training (RT), has attracted interest as a means of increasing muscle mass and strength in the elderly. In the present study, 31 healthy, elderly men [age, 74 +/- 1 yr (mean +/- SEM)] were assigned to either RT [3 sessions/wk, 3...

  1. Signaling Pathways Related to Protein Synthesis and Amino Acid Concentration in Pig Skeletal Muscles Depend on the Dietary Protein Level, Genotype and Developmental Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingying; Li, Fengna; Kong, Xiangfeng; Tan, Bie; Li, Yinghui; Duan, Yehui; Blachier, François; Hu, Chien-An A; Yin, Yulong

    2015-01-01

    Muscle growth is regulated by the homeostatic balance of the biosynthesis and degradation of muscle proteins. To elucidate the molecular interactions among diet, pig genotype, and physiological stage, we examined the effect of dietary protein concentration, pig genotype, and physiological stages on amino acid (AA) pools, protein deposition, and related signaling pathways in different types of skeletal muscles. The study used 48 Landrace pigs and 48 pure-bred Bama mini-pigs assigned to each of 2 dietary treatments: lower/GB (Chinese conventional diet)- or higher/NRC (National Research Council)-protein diet. Diets were fed from 5 weeks of age to respective market weights of each genotype. Samples of biceps femoris muscle (BFM, type I) and longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM, type II) were collected at nursery, growing, and finishing phases according to the physiological stage of each genotype, to determine the AA concentrations, mRNA levels for growth-related genes in muscles, and protein abundances of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. Our data showed that the concentrations of most AAs in LDM and BFM of pigs increased (Prelated AA, including Met, Phe, Tyr, Pro, and Ser, compared with Landrace pigs. The mRNA levels for myogenic determining factor, myogenin, myocyte-specific enhancer binding factor 2 A, and myostatin of Bama mini-pigs were higher (P<0.05) than those of Landrace pigs, while total and phosphorylated protein levels for protein kinase B, mTOR, and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinases (p70S6K), and ratios of p-mTOR/mTOR, p-AKT/AKT, and p-p70S6K/p70S6K were lower (P<0.05). There was a significant pig genotype-dependent effect of dietary protein on the levels for mTOR and p70S6K. When compared with the higher protein-NRC diet, the lower protein-GB diet increased (P<0.05) the levels for mTOR and p70S6K in Bama mini-pigs, but repressed (P<0.05) the level for p70S6K in Landrace pigs. The higher protein-NRC diet increased ratio of p-mTOR/mTOR in

  2. Skeletal stem cells and their contribution to skeletal fragility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldahmash, A.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related osteoporotic fractures are major health care problem worldwide and are the result of impaired bone formation, decreased bone mass and bone fragility. Bone formation is accomplished by skeletal stem cells (SSC) that are recruited to bone surfaces from bone marrow microenvironment....... This review discusses targeting SSC to enhance bone formation and to abolish age-related bone fragility in the context of using stem cells for treatment of age-related disorders. Recent studies are presented that have demonstrated that SSC exhibit impaired functions during aging due to intrinsic senescence...

  3. Skeletal imaging composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanduzee, B.F.; Degenhardt, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    This invention is based on the discovery that the adjustment of pH, within a particular range, during the process of manufacturing lyophilized diphosphonate-containing skeletal imaging kits yields a kit which produces a technetium skeletal imaging agent with superior imaging properties. This increased performance is manifested through faster blood clearance and higher skeletal uptake of the technetium imaging agent. The process for producing a dry-powder imaging kit comprises the steps of: preparing a solution of a diphosphonate carrier, stannous reductant, and a stabilizer in water; adjusting the pH to between 5.5 and 6.5; and lyophilizing the solution

  4. Interannual Variability in the Position and Strength of the East Asian Jet Stream and Its Relation to Large - scale Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Duo; Zhang, Yang; Wu, Qigang

    2013-04-01

    East Asian Jet Stream (EASJ) is charactered by obvious interannual variability in strength and position (latitude), with wide impacts on East Asian climate in all seasons. In this study, two indices are established to measure the interannual variability in intensity and position of EAJS. Possible causing factors, including both local signals and non-local large-scale circulation, are examined using NCAP-NCAR reanalysis data to investigate their relations with jet variation. Our analysis shows that the relationship between the interannual variations of EASJ and these factors depends on seasons. In the summer, both the intensity and position of EASJ are closely related to the meridional gradient of local surface temperature, but display no apparent relationship with the larg-scale circulation. In cold seasons (autumn, winter and spring), both the local factor and the large-scale circulation, i.e. the Pacific/North American teleconnection pattern (PNA), play important roles in the interannual variability of the jet intensity. The variability in the jet position, however, is more correlated to the Arctic Oscillation (AO), especially in winter. Diagnostic analysis indicates that transient eddy activity plays an important role in connecting the interannual variability of EASJ position with AO.

  5. Core subjects at the end of primary school: identifying and explaining relative strengths of children with specific language impairment (SLI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Kevin; Mok, Pearl L H; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2015-01-01

    In general, children with specific language impairment (SLI) tend to fall behind their typically developing (TD) peers in educational attainment. Less is known about how children with SLI fare in particular areas of the curriculum and what predicts their levels of performance. To compare the distributions of performance of children with SLI in three core school subjects (English, Mathematics and Science); to test the possibility that performance would vary across the core subjects; and to examine the extent to which language impairment predicts performance. This study was conducted in England and reports historical data on educational attainments. Teacher assessment and test scores of 176 eleven-year-old children with SLI were examined in the three core subjects and compared with known national norms. Possible predictors of performance were measured, including language ability at ages 7 and 11, educational placement type, and performance IQ. Children with SLI, compared with national norms, were found to be at a disadvantage in core school subjects. Nevertheless, some children attained the levels expected of TD peers. Performance was poorest in English; relative strengths were indicated in Science and, to a lesser extent, in Mathematics. Language skills were significant predictors of performance in all three core subjects. PIQ was the strongest predictor for Mathematics. For Science, both early language skills at 7 years and PIQ made significant contributions. Language impacts on the school performance of children with SLI, but differentially across subjects. English for these children is the most challenging of the core subjects, reflecting the high levels of language demand it incurs. Science is an area of relative strength and mathematics appears to be intermediate, arguably because some tasks in these subjects can be performed with less reliance on verbal processing. Many children with SLI do have the potential to reach or exceed educational targets that are set

  6. Cost-effectiveness Analysis of Denosumab in the Prevention of Skeletal-related Events in Patients with Prostate Cancer in Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Bektur

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Bone mass loss (BML is one of the adverse effects of oncological chemotherapy, especially in cases of hormonal types of cancer, such as a prostate cancer (PC. BML is strongly associated with skeletal-related events (SREs, therefore decreasing the quality of patient’s life. Denosumab shows an advantage over zoledronic acid (ZA in delaying the first onset of SREs and subsequent SREs in adults with PC in several phase III clinical trials. Since generic ZA recently became available, the purpose of the present study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of denosumab vs. brand or generic ZA in the prevention of SREs in Kazakhstani patients with PC.Methods. A Markov model was constructed in Tree-Age Pro 2013 software program with 4-week model cycles to analyze the cost-effectiveness of the treatments from the perspective of Ministry of Health (MoH over a 10-year PC cohort. Direct costs (in Kazakhstani monetary units “tenge” in 2014 included costs of drug, SRE (pathologic fracture, surgery to bone, radiation to bone, spinal cord compression, and adverse events treatment. All costs were discounted for 3% per year. Effectiveness was appraised based on the number of SREs. Health states were defined according to SRE occurrence, SRE history, and death. The model assumed that a maximum of 1 SRE could occur in each cycle. Transition probabilities were derived from the relevant phase III trials. Results were present in the incremental total cost per SRE avoided. One-way sensitivity analyses were performed to examine the robustness of the model.Results. Over the 10-year period, denosumab incurred 103,091 tenge higher costs than brand ZA, 677,133 tenge higher costs than generic ZA, and 0.58 fewer SREs per patient with PC. The estimated incremental total direct costs per SRE avoided with the use of denosumab were 177,743 tenge (instead of brand ZA and 1,167,470 tenge (instead of generic ZA. Results were robust to one-way sensitivity analyses

  7. Incidence of bone metastases and skeletal-related events in breast cancer patients: A population-based cohort study in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fryzek Jon P

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer (BrCa is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women in the industrialized world. More than half of women presenting with metastatic BrCa develop bone metastases. Bone metastases increase the risk of skeletal-related events (SREs, defined as pathological fractures, spinal cord compression, bone pain requiring palliative radiotherapy, and orthopaedic surgery. Both bone metastases and SREs are associated with unfavorable prognosis and greatly affect quality of life. Few epidemiological data exist on SREs after primary diagnosis of BrCa and subsequent bone metastasis. We therefore estimated the incidence of bone metastases and SREs in newly-diagnosed BrCa patients in Denmark from 1999 through 2007. Methods We estimated the overall and annual incidence of bone metastases and SREs in newly-diagnosed breast cancer patients in Denmark from January 1, 1999 to December 31, 2007 using the Danish National Patient Registry (DNPR, which covers all Danish hospitals. We estimated the cumulative incidence of bone metastases and SREs and associated 95% confidence intervals (CI using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results Of the 35,912 BrCa patients, 178 (0.5% presented with bone metastases at the time of primary breast cancer diagnosis, and of these, 77 (43.2% developed an SRE during follow up. A total of 1,272 of 35,690 (3.6% BrCa patients without bone metastases at diagnosis developed bone metastases during a median follow-up time of 3.4 years. Among these patients, 590 (46.4% subsequently developed an SRE during a median follow-up time of 0.7 years. Incidence rates of bone metastases were highest the first year after the primary BrCa diagnosis, particularly among patients with advanced BrCa at diagnosis. Similarly, incidence rates of a first SRE was highest the first year after first diagnosis of a bone metastasis. Conclusions The high incidence of SREs following the first year after first diagnosis of a bone metastasis

  8. Relation between the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Score and Muscle Strength in Post-Cardiac Surgery Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Kazuhiro P; Kasahara, Yusuke; Hiraki, Koji; Hirano, Yasuyuki; Watanabe, Satoshi

    2017-11-27

    Background: The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire is a valid and reliable patient-reported outcome measure. DASH can be assessed by self-reported upper extremity disability and symptoms. We aimed to examine the relationship between the physiological outcome of muscle strength and the DASH score after cardiac surgery. Methods: This cross-sectional study assessed 50 consecutive cardiac patients that were undergoing cardiac surgery. Physiological outcomes of handgrip strength and knee extensor muscle strength and the DASH score were measured at one month after cardiac surgery and were assessed. Results were analyzed using Spearman correlation coefficients. Results: The final analysis comprised 43 patients (men: 32, women: 11; age: 62.1 ± 9.1 years; body mass index: 22.1 ± 4.7 kg/m²; left ventricular ejection fraction: 53.5 ± 13.7%). Respective handgrip strength, knee extensor muscle strength, and DASH score were 27.4 ± 8.3 kgf, 1.6 ± 0.4 Nm/kg, and 13.3 ± 12.3, respectively. The DASH score correlated negatively with handgrip strength ( r = -0.38, p = 0.01) and with knee extensor muscle strength ( r = -0.32, p = 0.04). Conclusion: Physiological outcomes of both handgrip strength and knee extensor muscle strength correlated negatively with the DASH score. The DASH score appears to be a valuable tool with which to assess cardiac patients with poor physiological outcomes, particularly handgrip strength as a measure of upper extremity function, which is probably easier to follow over time than lower extremity function after patients complete cardiac rehabilitation.

  9. Relation between the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Score and Muscle Strength in Post-Cardiac Surgery Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro P. Izawa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH questionnaire is a valid and reliable patient-reported outcome measure. DASH can be assessed by self-reported upper extremity disability and symptoms. We aimed to examine the relationship between the physiological outcome of muscle strength and the DASH score after cardiac surgery. Methods: This cross-sectional study assessed 50 consecutive cardiac patients that were undergoing cardiac surgery. Physiological outcomes of handgrip strength and knee extensor muscle strength and the DASH score were measured at one month after cardiac surgery and were assessed. Results were analyzed using Spearman correlation coefficients. Results: The final analysis comprised 43 patients (men: 32, women: 11; age: 62.1 ± 9.1 years; body mass index: 22.1 ± 4.7 kg/m2; left ventricular ejection fraction: 53.5 ± 13.7%. Respective handgrip strength, knee extensor muscle strength, and DASH score were 27.4 ± 8.3 kgf, 1.6 ± 0.4 Nm/kg, and 13.3 ± 12.3, respectively. The DASH score correlated negatively with handgrip strength (r = −0.38, p = 0.01 and with knee extensor muscle strength (r = −0.32, p = 0.04. Conclusion: Physiological outcomes of both handgrip strength and knee extensor muscle strength correlated negatively with the DASH score. The DASH score appears to be a valuable tool with which to assess cardiac patients with poor physiological outcomes, particularly handgrip strength as a measure of upper extremity function, which is probably easier to follow over time than lower extremity function after patients complete cardiac rehabilitation.

  10. State of Skeletal Muscle Tissue in Women in the Ukrainian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Povoroznyuk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Today among geriatric syndromes, world scientists pay much attention to the study of sarcopenia. It was found that the evaluation of skeletal muscle strength has a significant correlation with the risk of falls, disability, deterioration in the quality of life, duration of hospitalization. It is proved that measurements of skeletal muscle strength, but not the determination of skeletal muscles mass, are strong and independent predictors of mortality in the elderly. Further researches are needed to study the characteristics of weight loss, strength and function of skeletal muscle with age in individuals of different sex and age. The objective of this study was to explore the features of strength and functionality of skeletal muscle tissue in women of all ages. The study involved 248 women, who were divided into groups by decades depending on age: 20–29, 30–39, 40–49, 50–59, 60–69, 70–79, 80–89 years. Skeletal muscle strength was evaluated using spring carpal dynamometer. Functions of skeletal muscles and the risk of falls were assessed using special tests. Fat-free mass of the whole body, upper and lower extremities was evaluated by means of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Prodigy, GEHC Lunar, Madison, WI, USA. The study found that maximal values of strength and functional capacity of skeletal muscles were observed in women in the age group of 20–29 years. The significant loss of skeletal muscle strength is being detected in individuals from the age group of 60–69 years and older. When determining the functional capacity of skeletal muscles and risk of falls, significantly worse performance was established in women older than 50 years compared to those in women in the age group of 20–29 years.

  11. Sarcopenia Impairs Prognosis of Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma: The Role of Liver Functional Reserve and Tumor-Related Factors in Loss of Skeletal Muscle Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Kenji; Takai, Koji; Watanabe, Satoshi; Hanai, Tatsunori; Suetsugu, Atsushi; Shiraki, Makoto; Shimizu, Masahito

    2017-09-22

    Sarcopenia impairs survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study aimed to clarify the factors that contribute to decreased skeletal muscle volume in patients with HCC. The third lumbar vertebra skeletal muscle index (L3 SMI) in 351 consecutive patients with HCC was calculated to identify sarcopenia. Sarcopenia was defined as an L3 SMI value ≤ 29.0 cm²/m² for women and ≤ 36.0 cm²/m² for men. The factors affecting L3 SMI were analyzed by multiple linear regression analysis and tree-based models. Of the 351 HCC patients, 33 were diagnosed as having sarcopenia and showed poor prognosis compared with non-sarcopenia patients ( p = 0.007). However, this significant difference disappeared after the adjustments for age, sex, Child-Pugh score, maximum tumor size, tumor number, and the degree of portal vein invasion by propensity score matching analysis. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that age ( p = 0.015) and sex ( p < 0.0001) were significantly correlated with a decrease in L3 SMI. Tree-based models revealed that sex (female) is the most significant factor that affects L3 SMI. In male patients, L3 SMI was decreased by aging, increased Child-Pugh score (≥56 years), and enlarged tumor size (<56 years). Maintaining liver functional reserve and early diagnosis and therapy for HCC are vital to prevent skeletal muscle depletion and improve the prognosis of patients with HCC.

  12. Signaling Pathways Related to Protein Synthesis and Amino Acid Concentration in Pig Skeletal Muscles Depend on the Dietary Protein Level, Genotype and Developmental Stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Liu

    Full Text Available Muscle growth is regulated by the homeostatic balance of the biosynthesis and degradation of muscle proteins. To elucidate the molecular interactions among diet, pig genotype, and physiological stage, we examined the effect of dietary protein concentration, pig genotype, and physiological stages on amino acid (AA pools, protein deposition, and related signaling pathways in different types of skeletal muscles. The study used 48 Landrace pigs and 48 pure-bred Bama mini-pigs assigned to each of 2 dietary treatments: lower/GB (Chinese conventional diet- or higher/NRC (National Research Council-protein diet. Diets were fed from 5 weeks of age to respective market weights of each genotype. Samples of biceps femoris muscle (BFM, type I and longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM, type II were collected at nursery, growing, and finishing phases according to the physiological stage of each genotype, to determine the AA concentrations, mRNA levels for growth-related genes in muscles, and protein abundances of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling pathway. Our data showed that the concentrations of most AAs in LDM and BFM of pigs increased (P<0.05 gradually with increasing age. Bama mini-pigs had generally higher (P<0.05 muscle concentrations of flavor-related AA, including Met, Phe, Tyr, Pro, and Ser, compared with Landrace pigs. The mRNA levels for myogenic determining factor, myogenin, myocyte-specific enhancer binding factor 2 A, and myostatin of Bama mini-pigs were higher (P<0.05 than those of Landrace pigs, while total and phosphorylated protein levels for protein kinase B, mTOR, and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinases (p70S6K, and ratios of p-mTOR/mTOR, p-AKT/AKT, and p-p70S6K/p70S6K were lower (P<0.05. There was a significant pig genotype-dependent effect of dietary protein on the levels for mTOR and p70S6K. When compared with the higher protein-NRC diet, the lower protein-GB diet increased (P<0.05 the levels for mTOR and p70S6K in Bama mini-pigs, but

  13. Eccentric and Isometric Hip Adduction Strength in Male Soccer Players With and Without Adductor-Related Groin Pain: An Assessor-Blinded Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorborg, Kristian; Branci, Sonia; Nielsen, Martin Peter; Tang, Lars; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Hölmich, Per

    2014-02-01

    Adductor-related pain is the most common clinical finding in soccer players with groin pain and can be a long-standing problem affecting physical function and performance. Hip adductor weakness has been suggested to be associated with this clinical entity, although it has never been investigated. To investigate whether isometric and eccentric hip strength are decreased in soccer players with adductor-related groin pain compared with asymptomatic soccer controls. The hypothesis was that players with adductor-related groin pain would have lower isometric and eccentric hip adduction strength than players without adductor-related groin pain. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Male elite and subelite players from 40 teams were contacted. In total, 28 soccer players with adductor-related groin pain and 16 soccer players without adductor-related groin pain (asymptomatic controls) were included in the study. In primary analysis, the dominant legs of 21 soccer players with adductor-related groin pain (≥4 weeks duration) were compared with the dominant legs of 16 asymptomatic controls using a cross-sectional design. The mean age of the symptomatic players was 24.5 ± 2.5 years, and the mean age of the asymptomatic controls was 22.9 ± 2.4 years. Isometric hip strength (adduction, abduction, and flexion) and eccentric hip strength (adduction) were assessed with a handheld dynamometer using reliable test procedures and a blinded assessor. Eccentric hip adduction strength was lower in soccer players with adductor-related groin pain in the dominant leg (n = 21) compared with asymptomatic controls (n = 16), namely 2.47 ± 0.49 versus 3.12 ± 0.43 N·m/kg, respectively (P strength differences were observed between symptomatic players and asymptomatic controls for the dominant leg (P = .35-.84). Large eccentric hip adduction strength deficits were found in soccer players with adductor-related groin pain compared with asymptomatic soccer players, while no isometric

  14. Fnip1 regulates skeletal muscle fiber type specification, fatigue resistance, and susceptibility to muscular dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Nicholas L.; Banks, Glen B.; Tsang, Mark; Margineantu, Daciana; Gu, Haiwei; Djukovic, Danijel; Chan, Jacky; Torres, Michelle; Liggitt, H. Denny; Hirenallur-S, Dinesh K.; Hockenbery, David M.; Raftery, Daniel; Iritani, Brian M.

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian skeletal muscle is broadly characterized by the presence of two distinct categories of muscle fibers called type I “red” slow twitch and type II “white” fast twitch, which display marked differences in contraction strength, metabolic strategies, and susceptibility to fatigue. The relative representation of each fiber type can have major influences on susceptibility to obesity, diabetes, and muscular dystrophies. However, the molecular factors controlling fiber type specification remain incompletely defined. In this study, we describe the control of fiber type specification and susceptibility to metabolic disease by folliculin interacting protein-1 (Fnip1). Using Fnip1 null mice, we found that loss of Fnip1 increased the representation of type I fibers characterized by increased myoglobin, slow twitch markers [myosin heavy chain 7 (MyH7), succinate dehydrogenase, troponin I 1, troponin C1, troponin T1], capillary density, and mitochondria number. Cultured Fnip1-null muscle fibers had higher oxidative capacity, and isolated Fnip1-null skeletal muscles were more resistant to postcontraction fatigue relative to WT skeletal muscles. Biochemical analyses revealed increased activation of the metabolic sensor AMP kinase (AMPK), and increased expression of the AMPK-target and transcriptional coactivator PGC1α in Fnip1 null skeletal muscle. Genetic disruption of PGC1α rescued normal levels of type I fiber markers MyH7 and myoglobin in Fnip1-null mice. Remarkably, loss of Fnip1 profoundly mitigated muscle damage in a murine model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. These results indicate that Fnip1 controls skeletal muscle fiber type specification and warrant further study to determine whether inhibition of Fnip1 has therapeutic potential in muscular dystrophy diseases. PMID:25548157

  15. Development and validation of an n-dodecane skeletal mechanism for spray combustion applications

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Zhaoyu; Som, Sibendu K.; Sarathy, Mani; Plomer, Max; Pitz, William J.; Longman, Douglas E.; Lu, Tianfeng

    2014-01-01

    relation graph with expert knowledge (DRGX) and sensitivity analysis was employed for the present skeletal reduction. The skeletal mechanism was first extensively validated in 0-D and 1-D combustion systems, including auto-ignition, jet stirred reactor (JSR

  16. Associations between aging-related changes in grip strength and cognitive function in older adults: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zammit, Andrea R; Robitaille, Annie; Piccinin, Andrea; Muniz-Terrera, Graciela; Hofer, Scott M

    2018-03-08

    Grip strength and cognitive function reflect upper body muscle strength and mental capacities. Cross-sectional research has suggested that in old age these two processes are moderately to highly associated, and that an underlying common cause drives this association. Our aim was to synthesize and evaluate longitudinal research addressing whether changes in grip strength are associated with changes in cognitive function in healthy older adults. We systematically reviewed English-language research investigating the longitudinal association between repeated measures of grip strength and of cognitive function in community-dwelling older adults to evaluate the extent to which the two indices decline concurrently. We used four search engines: Embase, PsychINFO, PubMed, and Web of Science. Of 459 unique citations, 6 met our full criteria: 4 studies reported a longitudinal association between rates of change in grip strength and cognitive function in older adults, 2 of which reported the magnitudes of these associations as ranging from low to moderate; 2 studies reported significant cross-sectional but not longitudinal associations among rates of change. All studies concluded that cognitive function and grip strength declined, on average, with increasing age, although with little to no evidence for longitudinal associations among rates of change. Future research is urged to expand the study of physical and cognitive associations in old age using a within-person and multi-study integrative approach to evaluate the reliability of longitudinal results with greater emphasis on the magnitude of this association.

  17. Attitude Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Lauren C; Krosnick, Jon A

    2017-01-03

    Attitude strength has been the focus of a huge volume of research in psychology and related sciences for decades. The insights offered by this literature have tremendous value for understanding attitude functioning and structure and for the effective application of the attitude concept in applied settings. This is the first Annual Review of Psychology article on the topic, and it offers a review of theory and evidence regarding one of the most researched strength-related attitude features: attitude importance. Personal importance is attached to an attitude when the attitude is perceived to be relevant to self-interest, social identification with reference groups or reference individuals, and values. Attaching personal importance to an attitude causes crystallizing of attitudes (via enhanced resistance to change), effortful gathering and processing of relevant information, accumulation of a large store of well-organized relevant information in long-term memory, enhanced attitude extremity and accessibility, enhanced attitude impact on the regulation of interpersonal attraction, energizing of emotional reactions, and enhanced impact of attitudes on behavioral intentions and action. Thus, important attitudes are real and consequential psychological forces, and their study offers opportunities for addressing behavioral change.

  18. Cancer survivors exhibit a different relationship between muscle strength and health-related quality of life/fatigue compared to healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, S; Tsubaki, A; Fu, J B; Mitobe, Y; Onishi, H; Tsuji, T

    2018-05-16

    We investigated the difference in relationship between muscle strength and quality of life (QOL)/fatigue in long-term cancer survivors and healthy subjects. Thirty-six cancer survivors and 29 healthy subjects were assessed for body composition and bone status at the calcaneus using the Osteo Sono Assessment Index. Muscle strength was evaluated via handgrip and knee extensor strength. Health-related QOL was assessed using the Medical Outcome Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey. Fatigue was measured using the brief fatigue inventory. Cancer survivors exhibited lower QOL scores in the physical functioning, physical role function, bodily pain and general health domains (p < .05). Grip and knee extension muscle strength in cancer survivors was positively correlated with the physical function and bodily pain of QOL (p < .05). The usual fatigue subscale score was only significantly higher in cancer survivors than in healthy subjects (p < .05). However, there were no correlations between muscle strength and fatigue in cancer survivors. Our results showed that muscle strength was an important factor for improving QOL in cancer survivors. We believe that the findings of this study will be relevant in the context of planning rehabilitation for cancer survivors. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Eccentric and Isometric Hip Adduction Strength in Male Soccer Players With and Without Adductor-Related Groin Pain An Assessor-Blinded Comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorborg, Kristian; Branci, Sonia; Nielsen, Peter Martin

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adductor-related pain is the most common clinical finding in soccer players with groin pain and can be a long-standing problem affecting physical function and performance. Hip adductor weakness has been suggested to be associated with this clinical entity, although it has never been...... investigated. PURPOSE: To investigate whether isometric and eccentric hip strength are decreased in soccer players with adductor-related groin pain compared with asymptomatic soccer controls. The hypothesis was that players with adductor-related groin pain would have lower isometric and eccentric hip adduction...... strength than players without adductor-related groin pain. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS: Male elite and subelite players from 40 teams were contacted. In total, 28 soccer players with adductor-related groin pain and 16 soccer players without adductor-related groin pain...

  20. A fast and simple method to estimate relative, hyphal tensile-strength of filamentous fungi used to assess the effect of autophagy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintanilla, Daniela; Chelius, Cynthia; Iambamrung, Sirasa

    2018-01-01

    Fungal hyphal strength is an important phenotype which can have a profound impact on bioprocess behavior. Until now, there is not an efficient method which allows its characterization. Currently available methods are very time consuming; thus, compromising their applicability in strain selection...... and process development. To overcome this issue, a method for fast and easy, statistically-verified quantification of relative hyphal tensile strength was developed. It involves off-line fragmentation in a high shear mixer followed by quantification of fragment size using laser diffraction. Particle size...... distribution (PSD) is determined, with analysis time on the order of minutes. Plots of PSD 90th percentile versus time allow estimation of the specific fragmentation rate. This novel method is demonstrated by estimating relative hyphal strength during growth in control conditions and rapamycin...

  1. The effect of endurance training on muscle strength in young, healthy men in relation to hormonal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandys, M; Majerczak, J; Duda, K; Zapart-Bukowska, J; Sztefko, K; Zoladz, J A

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the effect of moderate intensity endurance training on muscle strength in relation to hormonal changes in the body. Fifteen young, healthy men took part in 5 week endurance training performed on a cycloergometer. Before and after training program, exercise testing sessions were performed involving all participants. Training program significantly increased V(O2 max) (P<0.05) and time to fatigue at 50% of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (TTF 50% MVC), P<0.03, but it did not affect maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC). This was accompanied by an increase (P<0.001) in total plasma testosterone (T) and free testosterone (fT) concentrations, whereas a decrease in sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) (P<0.02), growth hormone (P<0.05), free triiodothyronine (P<0.001) and free thyroxine (P<0.02) concentrations was observed. No changes were found in plasma cortisol (C) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations. Additionally, MVC was positively correlated to T/C, fT/C and IGF-I/C ratios after the training, whereas time to fatigue at 50% of MVC was closely positively correlated to the SHBG concentration, both before and after endurance training. We have concluded that moderate intensity endurance training resulting in a significant increase in V(O2 max), did not affect the MVC, but it significantly increased time to fatigue at 50% of MVC. This index of local muscular endurance was greater in subjects with higher concentration of SHBG, both before and after the training.

  2. Skeletal Muscle Estrogen Receptor Activation in Response to Eccentric Exercise Up-Regulates Myogenic-Related Gene Expression Independent of Differing Serum Estradiol Levels Occurring during the Human Menstrual Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Mackenzie; McKinley-Barnard, Sarah K; Andre, Thomas L; Gann, Josh J; Hwang, Paul S; Willoughby, Darryn S

    2018-03-01

    This study sought to determine if the differences in serum estradiol we have previously observed to occur during the mid-follicular (MF) and mid-luteal (ML) phases of the female menstrual cycle could be attributed to estrogen-induced receptor activation and subsequent effects on myogenic-related genes which may otherwise impact muscle regeneration in response to eccentric exercise. Twenty-two physically-active females (20.9 ± 1.4 years, 63.5 ± 9.0 kg, 1.65 ± 0.08 m) underwent an eccentric exercise bout of the knee extensors during the MF and ML phases of their 28-day menstrual cycle. Prior to (PRE), at 6 (6HRPOST), and 24 (24HRPOST) hours post-exercise for each session, participants had muscle biopsies obtained. Skeletal muscle estradiol and estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) content and ER-DNA binding were determined with ELISA. Real-time PCR was used to assess ER-α, Myo-D, and cyclin D1 mRNA expression. Data were analyzed utilizing a 2 x 3 repeated measures univariate analyses of variance (ANOVA) for each criterion variable (p ≤ .05). Skeletal muscle estradiol levels were not significantly impacted by either menstrual phase (p > 0.05); however, both ER-α mRNA and protein were significantly increased during MF (p < 0.05). ER-DNA binding and Myo-D mRNA expression increased significantly in both menstrual phases in response to exercise but were not different from one another; however, cyclin D1 mRNA expression was significantly greater during MF. This study demonstrates that skeletal muscle ER-α activation in response to eccentric exercise up-regulates myogenic-related gene expression independent of serum estradiol levels occurring during the human menstrual cycle.

  3. Is Walking Capacity in Subjects with Multiple Sclerosis Primarily Related to Muscle Oxidative Capacity or Maximal Muscle Strength? A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Hansen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. Walking capacity is reduced in subjects with multiple sclerosis (MS. To develop effective exercise interventions to enhance walking capacity, it is important to determine the impact of factors, modifiable by exercise intervention (maximal muscle strength versus muscle oxidative capacity, on walking capacity. The purpose of this pilot study is to discriminate between the impact of maximal muscle strength versus muscle oxidative capacity on walking capacity in subjects with MS. Methods. From 24 patients with MS, muscle oxidative capacity was determined by calculation of exercise-onset oxygen uptake kinetics (mean response time during submaximal exercise bouts. Maximal muscle strength (isometric knee extension and flexion peak torque was assessed on dynamometer. All subjects completed a 6-minute walking test. Relationships between walking capacity (as a percentage of normal value and muscle strength (of knee flexors and extensors versus muscle oxidative capacity were assessed in multivariate regression analyses. Results. The expanded disability status score (EDSS showed a significant univariate correlation (r=-0.70, P<0.004 with walking capacity. In multivariate regression analyses, EDSS and mean response time, but not muscle strength, were independently related to walking capacity (P<0.05. Conclusions. Walking distance is, next to disability level and not taking neurologic symptoms/deficits into account, primarily related to muscle oxidative capacity in subjects with MS. Additional study is needed to further examine/verify these findings.

  4. Muscle-tendon related pain in 100 patients with hip dysplasia: prevalence and associations with self-reported hip disability and muscle strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Julie Sandell

    2017-01-01

    dysplasia. The secondary aim was to test if muscle-tendon related pain is linearly associated to self-reported hip disability and muscle strength in patients with hip dysplasia. Materials and methods One hundred patients (17 men) with a mean age of 29+9 years were included. Clinical entity approach...

  5. Evaluating the Relation between Dominant and Non-Dominant Hand Perimeters and Handgrip Strength of Basketball, Volleyball, Badminton and Handball Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Defne Öcal

    2016-01-01

    In this study, it's aimed to evaluate the relation between dominant and non-dominant hand perimeters and handgrip strength of basketball, volleyball, badminton and handball athletes. Totally 101 active athletes (49 females, 52 male), of the average age in female 20±1.42 years, in male 21±1.99 years, joined to this study. Height, body weight, BMI…

  6. in Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espen E. Spangenburg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Triglyceride storage is altered across various chronic health conditions necessitating various techniques to visualize and quantify lipid droplets (LDs. Here, we describe the utilization of the BODIPY (493/503 dye in skeletal muscle as a means to analyze LDs. We found that the dye was a convenient and simple approach to visualize LDs in both sectioned skeletal muscle and cultured adult single fibers. Furthermore, the dye was effective in both fixed and nonfixed cells, and the staining seemed unaffected by permeabilization. We believe that the use of the BODIPY (493/503 dye is an acceptable alternative and, under certain conditions, a simpler method for visualizing LDs stored within skeletal muscle.

  7. Exercise Promotes Healthy Aging of Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartee, Gregory D; Hepple, Russell T; Bamman, Marcas M; Zierath, Juleen R

    2016-06-14

    Primary aging is the progressive and inevitable process of bodily deterioration during adulthood. In skeletal muscle, primary aging causes defective mitochondrial energetics and reduced muscle mass. Secondary aging refers to additional deleterious structural and functional age-related changes caused by diseases and lifestyle factors. Secondary aging can exacerbate deficits in mitochondrial function and muscle mass, concomitant with the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Exercise opposes deleterious effects of secondary aging by preventing the decline in mitochondrial respiration, mitigating aging-related loss of muscle mass and enhancing insulin sensitivity. This review focuses on mechanisms by which exercise promotes "healthy aging" by inducing modifications in skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Skeletal muscle proteomic signature and metabolic impairment in pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malenfant, Simon; Potus, François; Fournier, Frédéric; Breuils-Bonnet, Sandra; Pflieger, Aude; Bourassa, Sylvie; Tremblay, Ève; Nehmé, Benjamin; Droit, Arnaud; Bonnet, Sébastien; Provencher, Steeve

    2015-05-01

    Exercise limitation comes from a close interaction between cardiovascular and skeletal muscle impairments. To better understand the implication of possible peripheral oxidative metabolism dysfunction, we studied the proteomic signature of skeletal muscle in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Eight idiopathic PAH patients and eight matched healthy sedentary subjects were evaluated for exercise capacity, skeletal muscle proteomic profile, metabolism, and mitochondrial function. Skeletal muscle proteins were extracted, and fractioned peptides were tagged using an iTRAQ protocol. Proteomic analyses have documented a total of 9 downregulated proteins in PAH skeletal muscles and 10 upregulated proteins compared to healthy subjects. Most of the downregulated proteins were related to mitochondrial structure and function. Focusing on skeletal muscle metabolism and mitochondrial health, PAH patients presented a decreased expression of oxidative enzymes (pyruvate dehydrogenase, p metabolism in PAH skeletal muscles. We provide evidences that impaired mitochondrial and metabolic functions found in the lungs and the right ventricle are also present in skeletal muscles of patients. • Proteomic and metabolic analysis show abnormal oxidative metabolism in PAH skeletal muscle. • EM of PAH patients reveals abnormal mitochondrial structure and distribution. • Abnormal mitochondrial health and function contribute to exercise impairments of PAH. • PAH may be considered a vascular affliction of heart and lungs with major impact on peripheral muscles.

  9. Voltage-stabilised elastomers with increased relative permittivity and high electrical breakdown strength by means of phase separating binary copolymer blends of silicone elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A Razak, Aliff Hisyam; Yu, Liyun; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2017-01-01

    Increased electrical breakdown strength and increased dielectric permittivity of silicone-based dielectric elastomers are achieved by means of the addition of so-called voltage-stabilisers prepared from PDMS–PPMS copolymers as well as PDMS–PEG copolymers in order to compensate for the negative...... effect of softness on electrical stability of silicone elastomers. The voltage-stabilised elastomer, incorporating a high-permittivity PDMS–PEG copolymer, possesses increased relative permittivity, high electrical breakdown strength, excellent network integrity and low dielectric loss and paves the way...

  10. Traumatic skeletal changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troeger, J.; Schofer, O.

    1985-01-01

    Skeleton scintiscanning is indicated in the following cases: (1) Suspected bone injury after clinical examination, the radiograph of the skeletal region in question contributing findings that either do not confirm suspision, or make not clear whether the changes observed are traumatic. (2) Polytrauma. (3) When the accident scenario reported by the persons taking care of the child does not sufficiently explain the skeletal changes observed, or when these persons expressly deny the possibility of a trauma being the cause of findings observed. (4) Suspected or proven battered-child syndrome. (orig./MG) [de

  11. The Influence of Age-related Changes in Tactile Sensibility and Muscular Strength on Hand Function in Older Adult Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Murata

    2010-12-01

    Conclusion: These results suggested that the manual dexterity in the hand function was attenuated with increasing age. We considered that this attenuating effect was associated with a decline in tactile sensibility rather than a change in the muscular strength of the hand.

  12. The application of strength and power related field tests in older adults : criteria, current status and a future perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regterschot, G. Ruben H.; Morat, Tobias; Folkersma, Marjanne; Zijlstra, Wiebren

    2015-01-01

    Leg muscle strength (LMS) and leg muscle power (LMP) are determinants of aspects of functional status and important parameters for measuring intervention effects in older adults. Field tests are often used for the evaluation of LMS and LMP in older persons. However, criteria important for the

  13. Skeletal MR imaging: Correlation with skeletal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colletti, P.M.; Raval, J.K.; Ford, P.V.; Benson, R.C.; Kerr, R.M.; Boswell, W.D.; Siegel, M.E.; Ralls, P.W.

    1987-01-01

    Skeletal MR images bone marrow while skeletal scintigraphy uses bone metabolism to demonstrate abnormalities. The purpose of this paper is to correlate these MR and scintigraphic findings. T1 and T2 MR images at 0.5 T were correlated with planar bone scintigraphy (RN) using Tc-99m MDP in 56 patients. Of 23 cases with suspected spinal metastases, 19 were positive by MR imaging, 16 by RN. Individual lesions were shown better by MR imaging in five and by RN in two. These two cases had scoliosis, a potential difficulty with MR imaging. In 14 cases of suspected avascular necrosis (AVN), MR imaging was positive in 13 while RN was positive in ten. One negative case by RN had bilateral AVN by MR imaging. Four skull lesions shown easily by RN were seen only in retrospect on MR images. MR imaging is advantageous in evaluating bones with predominant marrow such as vertebrae or the femoral head, while RN is superior in areas primarily composed of cortical bone such as the skull

  14. Knee-extension strength, postural control and function are related to fracture type and thigh edema in patients with hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten T; Bandholm, Thomas; Bencke, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Post-surgery thigh edema, loss of knee-extension strength, and reduced physical performance are common following a hip fracture. It is not known if knee-extension strength and physical performance are related to the edema and fracture type. The aim of this study was to examine...... the influence of fracture type and post-surgery edema on physical performances in patients with hip fracture. METHODS: Fifteen women and five men admitted from their own home to an acute orthopedic hip fracture unit were examined. Ten had cervical and ten had intertrochanteric fractures. Correlations between...... fracture type and thigh edema in the fractured limb (% non-fractured) to physical performances of basic mobility, postural control (sway), and isometric knee-extension strength were examined. All measures, except those of basic mobility, were conducted at the time of discharge, 8.5 days post...

  15. Skeletal Muscle Metastasis from a Cecal Mucinous Adenocarcinoma: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Hyun; Lee, Young Hwan; Jung, Kyung Jae; Park, Young Chan; Kim, Ho Kyun; Cho, Seung Hyun

    2008-01-01

    Skeletal muscle metastasis is a relatively rare finding in the setting of mucinous adenocarcinoma of the colon, and it typically exhibits nonspecific imaging findings. We report a case of a skeletal muscle metastasis originating from mucinous adenocarcinoma of the cecum. The skeletal lesion closely resembled intramuscular myxoma with regard to imaging findings, due to abundant mucin and internal calcification

  16. A primary reduced TCA flux governs substrate oxidation in T2D skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Our current knowledge on substrate oxidation in skeletal muscle in relation to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D) originate mainly from in vivo studies. The oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle is highly influenced by physical activity, ageing, hormonal status, and fiber type composition...... further regulatory mechanism to our understanding of substrate oxidation in human skeletal muscle during normo- an pathophysiological conditions, focusing especially on the governing influence of a primary reduced TCA flux for the diabetic phenotype in skeletal muscle....

  17. Advances in research on the prenatal development of skeletal muscle in animals in relation to the quality of muscle-based food. II -Genetic factors related to animal performance and advances in methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rehfeldt, C.; Pas, te M.F.W.; Wimmers, K.; Brameld, J.M.; Nissen, P.M.; Berri, C.; Valente, L.M.P.; Power, D.M.; Picard, B.; Stickland, N.C.; Oksbjerg, N.

    2011-01-01

    Selective breeding is an effective tool to improve livestock. Several selection experiments have been conducted to study direct selection responses as well as correlated responses in traits of skeletal muscle growth and function. Moreover, comparisons of domestic with wild-type species and of

  18. The skeletal system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikkels, PGJ

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal dysplasias are a group of disorders with a disturbance in development and/or growth of cartilage and/or bone. Epiphysis, metaphysis, and diaphysis of long bones are affected in a generalized manner with or without involvement of membranous bone of the skull. A dysostosis affects one or some

  19. Lipolysis in Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serup, Annette Karen Lundbeck

    chemical structure of DAG. We took advantage of the fact that insulin sensitivity is increased after exercise, and that mice knocked out (KO) of HSL accumulate DAG after exercise, and measured insulin stimulated glucose uptake after treadmill running in skeletal muscle from HSL KO mice and wildtype control...

  20. Quantification of pelvic floor muscle strength in female urinary incontinence: A systematic review and comparison of contemporary methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Emily G; Stothers, Lynn; Kavanagh, Alex; Macnab, Andrew J

    2018-01-01

    There remains no gold standard for quantification of voluntary pelvic floor muscle (PFM) strength, despite international guidelines that recommend PFM assessment in females with urinary incontinence (UI). Methods currently reported for quantification of skeletal muscle strength across disciplines are systematically reviewed and their relevance for clinical and academic use related to the pelvic floor are described. A systematic review via Medline, PubMed, CINHAL, and the Cochrane database using key terms for pelvic floor anatomy and function were cross referenced with skeletal muscle strength quantification from 1946 to 2016. Full text peer-reviewed articles in English having female subjects with incontinence were identified. Each study was analyzed for use of controls, type of methodology as direct or indirect measures, benefits, and limitations of the technique. A total of 1586 articles were identified of which 50 met the inclusion criteria. Nine methodologies of determining PFM strength were described including: digital palpation, perineometer, dynamometry, EMG, vaginal cones, ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, urine stream interruption test, and the Colpexin pull test. Thirty-two percent lacked a control group. Technical refinements in both direct and indirect instrumentation for PFM strength measurement are allowing for sensitivity. However, the most common methods of quantification remain digital palpation and perineometry; techniques that pose limitations and yield subjective or indirect measures of muscular strength. Dynamometry has potential as an accurate and sensitive tool, but is limited by inability to assess PFM strength during dynamic movements. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Predictors of Strength of In-Group Identity in Northern Ireland: Impact of Past Sectarian Conflict, Relative Deprivation, and Church Attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Taylor, Laura K; Merrilees, Christine E; Cummings, E Mark

    2015-07-01

    Social identity in Northern Ireland is multifaceted, with historical, religious, political, social, economic, and psychological underpinnings. Understanding the factors that influence the strength of identity with the Protestant or Catholic community, the two predominate social groups in Northern Ireland, has implications for individual well-being as well as for the continuation of tension and violence in this setting of protracted intergroup conflict. This study examined predictors of the strength of in-group identity in 692 women (mean age 37 years) in post-accord Northern Ireland. For Catholics, strength of in-group identity was positively linked to past negative impact of sectarian conflict and more frequent current church attendance, whereas for Protestants, strength of in-group identity was related to greater status satisfaction regarding access to jobs, standard of living, and political power compared to Catholics; that is, those who felt less relative deprivation. The discussion considers the differences in the factors underlying stronger identity for Protestants and Catholics in this context.

  2. Are anthropometric, flexibility, muscular strength, and endurance variables related to clubhead velocity in low- and high-handicap golfers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Justin W L; Marnewick, Michel C; Maulder, Peter S; Nortje, Jacques P; Hume, Patria A; Bradshaw, Elizabeth J

    2009-09-01

    The present study assessed the anthropometric profile (International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry protocol), flexibility, muscular strength, and endurance of 20 male golfers. These data were collected in order to determine: a) the relationship between these kinanthropometric measures and clubhead velocity; and b) if these measures could distinguish low-handicap (LHG) and high-handicap (HHG) golfers. Ten LHG (handicap of 0.3 +/- 0.5) and 10 HHG (handicap of 20.3 +/- 2.4) performed 10 swings for maximum velocity and accuracy with their own 5-iron golf club at a wall-mounted target. LHG hit the target significantly more (115%) and had a 12% faster clubhead velocity than HHG (p bench press strength and longer (5%) upper am and total arm (4%) length and less (24%) right hip internal rotation than HHG (0.01 velocity (p bench press and hack squat strength as well as upper arm and total arm length also approaching significance (0.01 bench press strength and longer arms may therefore be at a competitive advantage, as these characteristics allow the production of greater clubhead velocity and resulting ball displacement. Such results have implications for golf talent identification programs and for the prescription and monitoring of golf conditioning programs. While golf conditioning programs may have many aims, specific trunk rotation exercises need to be included if increased clubhead velocity is the goal. Muscular hypertrophy development may not need to be emphasized as it could reduce golf performance by limiting range of motion and/or increasing moment of inertia.

  3. On the Relation of Setting and Early-Age Strength Development to Porosity and Hydration in Cement-Based Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Lootens, Didier; Bentz, Dale P.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated a linear relationship between compressive strength (mortar cubes and concrete cylinders) and cumulative heat release normalized per unit volume of (mixing) water for a wide variety of cement-based mixtures at ages of 1 d and beyond. This paper utilizes concurrent ultrasonic reflection and calorimetry measurements to further explore this relationship from the time of specimen casting to 3 d. The ultrasonic measurements permit a continuous evaluation of thicke...

  4. Morphology and expression of genes related to skeletal muscle growth in juveniles of pirarucu (Arapaima gigas, Arapaimatidae, Teleostei - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i3.18219

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warlen Pereira Piedade

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle growth in the pirarucu (Arapaima gigas is highly interesting to fish farmers because it provides information about how the mechanism in muscle mass increase, characteristic of the species, is regulated. Pirarucu has specific muscle growth that highlights the species’s significance and commercial value. Current research evaluates the morphology and the growth-related gene expression in the red and white skeletal muscles of the pirarucu. Muscle samples were collected from the lateral anterior region and frozen in liquid nitrogen. Histological sections were performed and stained by HE for morphological analysis. Red and white muscle samples were used to determine MyoD, myogenin, and myostatin genes expression by Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction. Although MyoD and myogenin were not statistically different in the two types of muscles, myostatin was significantly higher in the white rather than in the red muscle. Results show the muscle growth characteristics of the species and may be helpful for improving aquaculture management programs.  

  5. Radiological diagnosis of skeletal metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederlund, V.

    1996-01-01

    The clinical management of patients with skeletal metastases puts new demands on imaging. The radiological imaging in screening for skeletal metastases entails detection, metastatic site description and radiologically guided biopsy for morphological typing and diagnosis. Regarding sensitivity and the ease in performing surveys of the whole skeleton, radionuclide bone scintigraphy still is the first choice in routine follow-up of asymptomatic patients with metastatic disease of the skeleton. A negative scan has to be re-evaluated with other findings, with emphasis on the possibility of a false-negative result. Screening for metastases in patients with local symptoms or pain is best accomplished by a combination of radiography and MRI. Water-weighted sequences are superior in sensitivity and in detection of metastases. Standard spin-echo sequences on the other hand are superior in metastatic site description and in detection of intraspinal metastases. MRI is helpful in differentiating between malignant disease, infection, benign vertebral collapse, insufficiency fracture after radiation therapy, degenerative vertebral disease and benign skeletal lesions. About 30% of patients with known cancer have benign causes of radiographic abnormalities. Most of these are related to degenerative diseases and are often easily diagnosed. However, due to overlap in MRI characteristics, bone biopsy sometimes is essential for differentiating between malignant and nonmalignant lesions. Performing bone biopsy and aspiration cytology by radiologist and cytologist in co-operation has proven highly accurate in diagnosing bone lesions. The procedure involves low risk to the patient and provides a morphological diagnosis. Once a suspected metastatic lesion is detected, irrespective of modality, the morphological diagnosis determines the appropriate work-up imaging with respect to the therapy alternatives. (orig./VHE)

  6. Histological characteristics of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuperus, JS; Westerveld, L Anneloes; Rutges, Joost A; Alblas, Jacqueline; van Rijen, Mattie H; Bleys, Ronald L A W; Oner, F Cumhur; Verlaan, JJ

    Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is a predominantly radiographic diagnosis and histological knowledge of DISH is limited. The aim of this study was to describe the histological characteristics of DISH in the spinal column and to study the relation between DISH and intervertebral disc

  7. Muscle-tendon related pain in 100 patients with hip dysplasia: prevalence and associations with self-reported hip disability and muscle strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Julie Sandell

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Intra-articular injury has been described as primary cause of pain in hip dysplasia. At this point, it is unknown whether external muscle-tendon related pain coexists with intra-articular pathology. The primary aim was to identify muscle-tendon related pain in 100 patients with hip...... dysplasia. The secondary aim was to test if muscle-tendon related pain is linearly associated to self-reported hip disability and muscle strength in patients with hip dysplasia. Materials and methods One hundred patients (17 men) with a mean age of 29+9 years were included. Clinical entity approach...... (phip dysplasia with a high...

  8. Relation of 25-meter Swimming Performance with Physical Properties and Isokinetic Knee Strength in Amateur Young Swimmers

    OpenAIRE

    DOKUMACI, Bircan; AYGÜN, Cihan; ÇAKIR ATABEK, Hayriye

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between physical properties,isokinetic knee strength and swimming performance in young amateur athletes. Seventeen 18-24 year old amateur swimmers (n=13 males, mean age=20.0 ± 2.1 years; n=4 females, meanage=21.5 ± 1.7 years) volunteered to participate in this study. All athletes were member of thesame team who were engaged to the swim training at least for 4 years. Following the 5-minwarm up session, each participant performed thr...

  9. Quantitative diffusion tensor MR imaging of the brain: field strength related variance of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) scalars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huisman, Thierry A.G.M.; Loenneker, Thomas; Barta, Gerd; Bellemann, Matthias E.; Hennig, Juergen; Fischer, Joachim E.; Il'yasov, Kamil A.

    2006-01-01

    The objectives were to study the ''impact'' of the magnetic field strength on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics and also to determine whether magnetic-field-related differences in T2-relaxation times of brain tissue influence DTI measurements. DTI was performed on 12 healthy volunteers at 1.5 and 3.0 Tesla (within 2 h) using identical DTI scan parameters. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) values were measured at multiple gray and white matter locations. ADC and FA values were compared and analyzed for statistically significant differences. In addition, DTI measurements were performed at different echo times (TE) for both field strengths. ADC values for gray and white matter were statistically significantly lower at 3.0 Tesla compared with 1.5 Tesla (% change between -1.94% and -9.79%). FA values were statistically significantly higher at 3.0 Tesla compared with 1.5 Tesla (% change between +4.04 and 11.15%). ADC and FA values are not significantly different for TE=91 ms and TE=125 ms. Thus, ADC and FA values vary with the used field strength. Comparative clinical studies using ADC or FA values should consequently compare ADC or FA results with normative ADC or FA values that have been determined for the field strength used. (orig.)

  10. Relations of meeting national public health recommendations for muscular strengthening activities with strength, body composition, and obesity: the Women's Injury Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudelle-Jackson, Elaine; Jackson, Allen W; Morrow, James R

    2011-10-01

    We examined the relations of meeting or not meeting the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans recommendations for muscular strengthening activities with percentage of body fat, body mass index (BMI; defined as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters, squared), muscular strength, and obesity classification in women. We analyzed data on 918 women aged 20 to 83 years in the Women's Injury Study from 2007 to 2009. A baseline orthopedic examination included measurement of height, body weight, skinfolds, and muscle strength. Women who met muscle strengthening activity recommendations had significantly lower BMI and percentage of body fat and higher muscle strength. Women not meeting those recommendations were more likely to be obese (BMI ≥ 30) compared with women who met the recommendations after we adjusted for age, race, and aerobic physical activity (odds ratio = 2.28; 95% confidence interval = 1.61, 3.23). There was a small but significant positive association between meeting muscle strengthening activity recommendations and muscular strength, a moderate inverse association with body fat percentage, and a strong inverse association with obesity classification, providing preliminary support for the muscle strengthening activity recommendation for women.

  11. Effects of soil strength on the relation of water-use efficiency and growth to carbon isotope discrimination in wheat seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masle, J.; Farquhar, G.D.

    1988-01-01

    The ratio of carbon accumulation to transpiration, W, of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings increased with increasing soil strength, measured as soil penetrometer resistance, and this was already apparent at the two leaf stage. The ratio was negatively correlated with carbon isotope discrimination, in accord with theory. This means that decrease in intercellular partial pressure of CO 2 accounted for an important part of the increase in W with increasing soil strength. Despite a lower CO 2 concentration in the leaves at high soil strength, assimilation rate per unit leaf area was enhanced. Greater ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity confirmed that photosynthetic capacity was actually increased. This pattern of opposite variation of assimilation rate and of stomatal conductance is unusual. The ratio of plant carbon mass to leaf area increased markedly with increasing soil strength, mainly because of a greater investment of carbon into roots than into shoots. A strong negative correlation was found between this ratio and carbon isotope discrimination. For a given increase in discrimination, decrease in carbon mass per leaf area was proportionally larger than decrease in assimilation rate, so that relative growth rate was positively correlated to carbon isotope discrimination

  12. Photon strength functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergqvist, I.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for extracting photon strength functions are briefly discussed. We follow the Brink-Axel approach to relate the strength functions to the giant resonances observed in photonuclear work and summarize the available data on the E1, E2 and M1 resonances. Some experimental and theoretical problems are outlined. (author)

  13. Resistance training for activity limitations in older adults with skeletal muscle function deficits: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papa EV

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Evan V Papa,1 Xiaoyang Dong,2 Mahdi Hassan1 1Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Physical Therapy, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX, USA Abstract: Human aging results in a variety of changes to skeletal muscle. Sarcopenia is the age-associated loss of muscle mass and is one of the main contributors to musculoskeletal impairments in the elderly. Previous research has demonstrated that resistance training can attenuate skeletal muscle function deficits in older adults, however few articles have focused on the effects of resistance training on functional mobility. The purpose of this systematic review was to 1 present the current state of literature regarding the effects of resistance training on functional mobility outcomes for older adults with skeletal muscle function deficits and 2 provide clinicians with practical guidelines that can be used with seniors during resistance training, or to encourage exercise. We set forth evidence that resistance training can attenuate age-related changes in functional mobility, including improvements in gait speed, static and dynamic balance, and fall risk reduction. Older adults should be encouraged to participate in progressive resistance training activities, and should be admonished to move along a continuum of exercise from immobility, toward the recommended daily amounts of activity. Keywords: aging, strength training, sarcopenia, mobility, balance

  14. Immunology Guides Skeletal Muscle Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Andrea Sass

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue trauma of skeletal muscle is one of the most common side effects in surgery. Muscle injuries are not only caused by accident-related injuries but can also be of an iatrogenic nature as they occur during surgical interventions when the anatomical region of interest is exposed. If the extent of trauma surpasses the intrinsic regenerative capacities, signs of fatty degeneration and formation of fibrotic scar tissue can occur, and, consequentially, muscle function deteriorates or is diminished. Despite research efforts to investigate the physiological healing cascade following trauma, our understanding of the early onset of healing and how it potentially determines success or failure is still only fragmentary. This review focuses on the initial physiological pathways following skeletal muscle trauma in comparison to bone and tendon trauma and what conclusions can be drawn from new scientific insights for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Strategies to support regeneration of muscle tissue after injury are scarce, even though muscle trauma has a high incidence. Based on tissue specific differences, possible clinical treatment options such as local immune-modulatory and cell therapeutic approaches are suggested that aim to support the endogenous regenerative potential of injured muscle tissues.

  15. Oxidative proteome alterations during skeletal muscle ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Lourenço dos Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia corresponds to the degenerative loss of skeletal muscle mass, quality, and strength associated with ageing and leads to a progressive impairment of mobility and quality of life. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in this process are not completely understood. A hallmark of cellular and tissular ageing is the accumulation of oxidatively modified (carbonylated proteins, leading to a decreased quality of the cellular proteome that could directly impact on normal cellular functions. Although increased oxidative stress has been reported during skeletal muscle ageing, the oxidized protein targets, also referred as to the ‘oxi-proteome’ or ‘carbonylome’, have not been characterized yet. To better understand the mechanisms by which these damaged proteins build up and potentially affect muscle function, proteins targeted by these modifications have been identified in human rectus abdominis muscle obtained from young and old healthy donors using a bi-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based proteomic approach coupled with immunodetection of carbonylated proteins. Among evidenced protein spots, 17 were found as increased carbonylated in biopsies from old donors comparing to young counterparts. These proteins are involved in key cellular functions such as cellular morphology and transport, muscle contraction and energy metabolism. Importantly, impairment of these pathways has been described in skeletal muscle during ageing. Functional decline of these proteins due to irreversible oxidation may therefore impact directly on the above-mentioned pathways, hence contributing to the generation of the sarcopenic phenotype.

  16. Decreased levels of irisin, a skeletal muscle cell-derived myokine, are related to emphysema associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Yukari; Asai, Kazuhisa; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Kureya, Yuko; Ijiri, Naoki; Watanabe, Tetsuya; Kanazawa, Hiroshi; Hirata, Kazuto

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette smoking-induced oxidant-antioxidant imbalance is a factor that contributes to the pathogenesis of COPD through epithelial cell apoptosis. Irisin is a skeletal muscle cell-derived myokine associated with physical activity. Irisin is also known to decrease oxidant-induced apoptosis in patients with diabetes mellitus. However, the correlation between irisin and emphysema in COPD and its role in epithelial cell apoptosis remains unknown. Forty patients with COPD were enrolled in this study. Pulmonary function tests and measurements of the percentage of low-attenuation area on high-resolution computed tomography images were performed, and the results were evaluated for correlation with serum irisin levels. The effect of irisin on cigarette-smoke extract-induced A549 cell apoptosis and the expression of Nrf2, a transcription factor for antioxidants, was also examined in vitro. Serum irisin levels were significantly correlated with lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide divided by alveolar volume ( r =0.56, P emphysema in patients with COPD and involved in epithelial apoptosis, resulting in emphysema. Irisin could be a novel treatment for emphysema in patients with COPD.

  17. Evaluating the evidence for macrophage presence in skeletal muscle and its relation to insulin resistance in obese mice and humans: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Meha; Rudrapatna, Srikesh; Banfield, Laura; Bierbrier, Rachel; Wang, Pei-Wen; Wang, Kuan-Wen; Thabane, Lehana; Samaan, M Constantine

    2017-08-08

    The current global rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes are staggering. In order to implement effective management strategies, it is imperative to understand the mechanisms of obesity-induced insulin resistance and diabetes. Macrophage infiltration and inflammation of the adipose tissue in obesity is a well-established paradigm, yet the role of macrophages in muscle inflammation, insulin resistance and diabetes is not adequately studied. In this systematic review, we will examine the evidence for the presence of macrophages in skeletal muscle of obese humans and mice, and will assess the association between muscle macrophages and insulin resistance. We will identify published studies that address muscle macrophage content and phenotype, and its association with insulin resistance. We will search MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science for eligible studies. Grey literature will be searched in ProQuest. Quality assessment will be conducted using the Systematic Review Centre for Laboratory Animal Experimentation risk of bias Tool for animal studies. The findings of this systematic review will shed light on immune-metabolic crosstalk in obesity, and allow the consideration of targeted therapies to modulate muscle macrophages in the treatment and prevention of diabetes. The review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at conferences.

  18. Muscle plasticity related to changes in tubulin and αB-crystallin levels induced by eccentric contraction in rat skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, H; Ochi, E; Sakurai, T; Lim, J-Y; Nakazato, K; Hatta, H

    2016-09-01

    We used the model of eccentric contraction of the hindlimb muscle by Ochi et al. to examine the role of eccentric contraction in muscle plasticity. This model aims to focus on stimulated skeletal muscle responses by measuring tissue weights and tracing the quantities of αB-crystallin and tubulin. The medial gastrocnemius muscle (GCM) responded to electrically induced eccentric contraction (EIEC) with significant increases in tissue weight (p muscle weight after EIEC. EIEC in the GCM caused contractile-induced sustenance of the traced proteins, but the soleus muscle exhibited a remarkable decrease in α-tubulin and a 19% decrease in αB-crystallin. EIEC caused fast-to-slow myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform type-oriented shift within both the GCM and soleus muscle. These results have shown that different MHC isoform type-expressing slow and fast muscles commonly undergo fast-to-slow type MHC isoform transformation. This suggests that different levels of EIEC affected each of the slow and fast muscles to induce different quantitative changes in the expression of αB-crystallin and α-tubulin.

  19. Hip abductors and thigh muscles strength ratios and their relation to electromyography amplitude during split squat and walking lunge exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Stastny

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The hip abductors (HAB, quadriceps (Q and hamstrings (H reciprocal strength ratios are predictors of electromyography (EMG amplitude during load carrying walking at moderate intensity. Therefore, these strength ratios might predict also the EMG during the exercises as walking lunge (WL or split squat (SSq at submaximal intensity. Objective: To determine whether the EMG amplitude of vastus mediali (VM, vastus laterali (VL, biceps femoris (BF and gluteus medius (Gmed is associated with muscle strength ratio during SSqs and WLs. To determine whether the EMG amplitude differs between individuals with HAB/H ratio above and below one and between individuals with H/Q or HAB/Q ratio above and below 0.5 during SSqs and WLs. Methods: 17 resistance-trained men (age 29.6 ± 4.6 years with at least 3 years of strength training performed in cross-sectional design 5 s maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC on an isokinetic dynamometer for knee extension, knee flexion, and hip abduction. The MVIC was used to normalize the EMG signal and estimate the individual strength ratios. Than participants performed WL and SSq for a 5 repetition maximum, to find out muscle activity at submaximal intensity of exercise. Results: The H/Q ratio was associated by Kendall's tau (τ with VM (τ = .33 and BF (τ = -.71 amplitude, HAB/Q ratio was associated with BF (τ = -.43 and Gmed (τ = .38 amplitude, as well as HAB/H was associated with VM (τ = -.41 and Gmed (τ = .74 amplitude. ANOVA results showed significant differences between SSq and WL (F(4, 79 = 10, p < .001, ηp2 = .34 in Gmed amplitude, where WL resulted in higher Gmed amplitude compared to SSq. Other significant differences were found between H/Q groups (F(4, 29 = 3, p = .04, ηp2 = .28 in VM and Gmed amplitude, where group with H/Q > 0.5 showed higher VMO amplitude and lower Gmed amplitude. Furthermore, significant difference was found

  20. Skeletal (stromal) stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem M; Kermani, Abbas Jafari; Zaher, Walid

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal (marrow stromal) stem cells (BMSCs) are a group of multipotent cells that reside in the bone marrow stroma and can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes. Studying signaling pathways that regulate BMSC differentiation into osteoblastic cells is a strategy....../preadipocyte factor 1 (Dlk1/Pref-1), the Wnt co-receptor Lrp5 and intracellular kinases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Stem Cells and Bone....

  1. Oncological outcomes of patients with Ewing's sarcoma: is there a difference between skeletal and extra-skeletal Ewing's sarcoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, A; Grimer, R J; Spooner, D; Peake, D; Carter, S R; Tillman, R M; Abudu, A; Jeys, L

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify whether there was any difference in patient, tumour, treatment or outcome characteristics between patients with skeletal or extra-skeletal Ewing's sarcoma. We identified 300 patients with new primary Ewing's sarcoma diagnosed between 1980 and 2005 from the centres' local database. There were 253 (84%) with skeletal and 47 (16%) with extra-skeletal Ewing's sarcomas. Although patients with skeletal Ewing's were younger (mean age 16.8 years) than those with extra-skeletal Ewing's sarcoma (mean age 27.5 years), there was little difference between the groups in terms of tumour stage or treatment. Nearly all the patients were treated with chemotherapy and most had surgery. There was no difference in the overall survival of patients with skeletal (64%) and extra-skeletal Ewing's sarcoma (61%) (p = 0.85), and this was also the case when both groups were split by whether they had metastases or not. This large series has shown that the oncological outcomes of Ewing's sarcoma are related to tumour characteristics and patient age, and not determined by whether they arise in bone or soft tissue.

  2. POSTOPERATIVE EFFECT OF PHYSICAL THERAPY RELATED TO FUNCTIONAL CAPACITY AND RESPIRATORY MUSCLE STRENGTH IN PATIENTS SUBMITTED TO BARIATRIC SURGERY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Josélia Jucirema Jarschel de; Freitas, Alexandre Coutinho Teixeira de; Almeida, Andréa Adriana de

    Respiratory physiotherapy plays an important role preventing complications in bariatric surgery. To assess the effects of out-patient physiotherapy during post-operative period through respiratory pressures and functional capacity in individuals submitted to bariatric surgery. A prospective longitudinal and controlled study was done in adults with body mass index (BMI) equal or greater than 40 kg/m², who have been submitted to bariatric surgery. They were divided into two groups: intervention-group, who performed out-patient physiotherapy twice a week, from thirty to sixty days after surgery; and the control-group, who only followed home instructions. Both groups were evaluated before surgery and sixty days after surgery through manovacuometry, six-minute walk test and the Borg Scale of perceived exertion. Twenty participants were included the intervention-group and twenty-three in the control-group. Both groups had significant and similar weight loss after surgery. The manovacuometry presented no differences comparing pre- and post-surgery and in the comparison between the groups. The result of the six-minute walk test for the intervention-group increased by 10.1% in the post-operative period in relation to pre-. The Borg scale of perceived exertion in the intervention-group in pre-surgery decreased by 13.5% in the post-surgery compared to pre-surgery. In the control-group there was no difference comparing pre- and post-operative values, as in the comparison with the intervention-group. The low-intensity exercise program, carried out between the 30th and the 60th day after bariatric surgery provided better functional capacity; did not change respiratory muscle strength; and improved the perceived exertion rate. A fisioterapia respiratória tem papel importante na prevenção das complicações da cirurgia bariátrica. Avaliar os efeitos da fisioterapia ambulatorial no pós-operatório através das pressões respiratórias e da capacidade funcional dos indiv

  3. Skeletal sarcoidosis; Skelettsarkoidose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freyschmidt, J. [Klinikum Bremen-Mitte, Beratungsstelle und Referenzzentrum fuer Osteoradiologie, Bremen (Germany); Freyschmidt, P. [Dermatologische Gemeinschaftspraxis, Schwalmstadt (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    Presentation of the etiology, pathology, clinical course, radiology and differential diagnostics of skeletal sarcoidosis. Noncaseating epithelioid cell granulomas can trigger solitary, multiple or disseminated osteolysis, reactive osteosclerosis and/or granulomatous synovitis. The incidence of sarcoidosis is 10-12 per 100,000 inhabitants per year. Skeletal involvement is approximately 14 %. Skeletal involvement occurs almost exclusively in the stage of lymph node and pulmonary manifestation. Most cases of skeletal involvement are clinically asymptomatic. In the case of synovial involvement, unspecific joint complaints (arthralgia) or less commonly arthritis can occur. Typical skin alterations can be diagnostically significant. Punch out lesions osteolysis, coarse destruction and osteosclerosis can occur, which are best visualized with projection radiography and/or computed tomography. Pure bone marrow foci without interaction with the bone can only be detected with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and more recently with positron emission tomography (PET), mostly as incidental findings. There is a predeliction for the hand and trunk skeleton. Skeletal tuberculosis, metastases, multiple myeloma, Langerhans cell histiocytosis and sarcoid-like reactions in solid tumors must be differentiated. The key factors for correct diagnosis are thorax radiography, thorax CT and dermatological manifestations. (orig.) [German] Darstellung von Aetiologie, Pathologie, Klinik, Radiologie und Differenzialdiagnose der Skelettsarkoidose. Nichtverkaesende Epitheloidzellgranulome koennen solitaere, multiple oder disseminierte Osteolysen, reaktive Osteosklerosen und/oder eine granulomatoese Synovialitis ausloesen. Inzidenz der Sarkoidose: 10-12/100.000 Einwohner/Jahr. Skelettbeteiligung ca. 14 %. Skelettbeteiligungen kommen fast ausschliesslich im Stadium einer Lymphknoten- und pulmonalen Manifestation vor. Die meisten Skelettbeteiligungen verlaufen klinisch stumm. Bei synovialer

  4. Lycopene treatment against loss of bone mass, microarchitecture and strength in relation to regulatory mechanisms in a postmenopausal osteoporosis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardawi, Mohammed-Salleh M; Badawoud, Mohammed H; Hassan, Sherif M; Rouzi, Abdulrahim A; Ardawi, Jumanah M S; AlNosani, Nouf M; Qari, Mohammed H; Mousa, Shaker A

    2016-02-01

    Lycopene supplementation decreases oxidative stress and exhibits beneficial effects on bone health, but the mechanisms through which it alters bone metabolism in vivo remain unclear. The present study aims to evaluate the effects of lycopene treatment on postmenopausal osteoporosis. Six-month-old female Wistar rats (n=264) were sham-operated (SHAM) or ovariectomized (OVX). The SHAM group received oral vehicle only and the OVX rats were randomized into five groups receiving oral daily lycopene treatment (mg/kg body weight per day): 0 OVX (control), 15 OVX, 30 OVX, and 45 OVX, and one group receiving alendronate (ALN) (2μg/kg body weight per day), for 12weeks. Bone densitometry measurements, bone turnover markers, biomechanical testing, and histomorphometric analysis were conducted. Micro computed tomography was also used to evaluate changes in microarchitecture. Lycopene treatment suppressed the OVX-induced increase in bone turnover, as indicated by changes in biomarkers of bone metabolism: serum osteocalcin (s-OC), serum N-terminal propeptide of type 1 collagen (s-PINP), serum crosslinked carboxyterminal telopeptides (s-CTX-1), and urinary deoxypyridinoline (u-DPD). Significant improvement in OVX-induced loss of bone mass, bone strength, and microarchitectural deterioration was observed in lycopene-treated OVX animals. These effects were observed mainly at sites rich in trabecular bone, with less effect in cortical bone. Lycopene treatment down-regulated osteoclast differentiation concurrent with up-regulating osteoblast together with glutathione peroxidase (GPx) catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. These findings demonstrate that lycopene treatment in OVX rats primarily suppressed bone turnover to restore bone strength and microarchitecture. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Skeletal surveys in multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebes, J.I.; Niell, H.B.; Palmieri, G.M.A.; Reidy, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-three patients with multiple myeloma were studied with serial skeletal surveys, serum immunoglobulin levels, and postabsorptive urinary hydroxyproline (Spot-HYPRO) determinations. Twenty receiving chemotherapy were also followed with skeletal surveys in order to evaluate bone response to treatment. A close association was found between skeletal findings and changes in immunoglubulin levels with positive correlation in 71% of the patients. A similar association was found between skeletal disease and Spot-HYPRO level changes in 65%. Five of 12 patients (42%) with partial or complete clinical response to chemotherapy, demonstrated improvement in the appearance of skeletal lesions. Positive correlation between the roentgenographic changes and clinical markers of myeloma as well as therapeutic response, indicates that skeletal surveys are useful and effective in monitoring patients with multiple myeloma. (orig.)

  6. The effect of irradiance on long-term skeletal growth and net photosynthesis in Galaxea fascicularis under four light conditions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutter, M.; Velthoven, van B.; Janse, M.; Osinga, R.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Wijffels, R.H.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The relation between irradiance, skeletal growth and net photosynthesis was studied for the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis to provide experimental evidence for mediation of light-enhanced calcification through photosynthesis. The hypothesis was tested that skeletal growth and

  7. Histone Deacetylases in Bone Development and Skeletal Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Elizabeth W.; Carpio, Lomeli R.; van Wijnen, Andre J.; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E.; Westendorf, Jennifer J.

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (Hdacs) are conserved enzymes that remove acetyl groups from lysine side chains in histones and other proteins. Eleven of the 18 Hdacs encoded by the human and mouse genomes depend on Zn2+ for enzymatic activity, while the other 7, the sirtuins (Sirts), require NAD2+. Collectively, Hdacs and Sirts regulate numerous cellular and mitochondrial processes including gene transcription, DNA repair, protein stability, cytoskeletal dynamics, and signaling pathways to affect both development and aging. Of clinical relevance, Hdacs inhibitors are United States Food and Drug Administration-approved cancer therapeutics and are candidate therapies for other common diseases including arthritis, diabetes, epilepsy, heart disease, HIV infection, neurodegeneration, and numerous aging-related disorders. Hdacs and Sirts influence skeletal development, maintenance of mineral density and bone strength by affecting intramembranous and endochondral ossification, as well as bone resorption. With few exceptions, inhibition of Hdac or Sirt activity though either loss-of-function mutations or prolonged chemical inhibition has negative and/or toxic effects on skeletal development and bone mineral density. Specifically, Hdac/Sirt suppression causes abnormalities in physiological development such as craniofacial dimorphisms, short stature, and bone fragility that are associated with several human syndromes or diseases. In contrast, activation of Sirts may protect the skeleton from aging and immobilization-related bone loss. This knowledge may prolong healthspan and prevent adverse events caused by epigenetic therapies that are entering the clinical realm at an unprecedented rate. In this review, we summarize the general properties of Hdacs/Sirts and the research that has revealed their essential functions in bone forming cells (e.g., osteoblasts and chondrocytes) and bone resorbing osteoclasts. Finally, we offer predictions on future research in this area and the utility of

  8. Expanding the phenome and variome of skeletal dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddirevula, Sateesh; Alsahli, Saud; Alhabeeb, Lamees; Patel, Nisha; Alzahrani, Fatema; Shamseldin, Hanan E; Anazi, Shams; Ewida, Nour; Alsaif, Hessa S; Mohamed, Jawahir Y; Alazami, Anas M; Ibrahim, Niema; Abdulwahab, Firdous; Hashem, Mais; Abouelhoda, Mohamed; Monies, Dorota; Al Tassan, Nada; Alshammari, Muneera; Alsagheir, Afaf; Seidahmed, Mohammed Zain; Sogati, Samira; Aglan, Mona S; Hamad, Muddathir H; Salih, Mustafa A; Hamed, Ahlam A; Alhashmi, Nadia; Nabil, Amira; Alfadli, Fatima; Abdel-Salam, Ghada M H; Alkuraya, Hisham; Peitee, Winnie Ong; Keng, W T; Qasem, Abdullah; Mushiba, Aziza M; Zaki, Maha S; Fassad, Mahmoud R; Alfadhel, Majid; Alexander, Saji; Sabr, Yasser; Temtamy, Samia; Ekbote, Alka V; Ismail, Samira; Hosny, Gamal Ahmed; Otaify, Ghada A; Amr, Khalda; Al Tala, Saeed; Khan, Arif O; Rizk, Tamer; Alaqeel, Aida; Alsiddiky, Abdulmonem; Singh, Ankur; Kapoor, Seema; Alhashem, Amal; Faqeih, Eissa; Shaheen, Ranad; Alkuraya, Fowzan S

    2018-04-05

    PurposeTo describe our experience with a large cohort (411 patients from 288 families) of various forms of skeletal dysplasia who were molecularly characterized.MethodsDetailed phenotyping and next-generation sequencing (panel and exome).ResultsOur analysis revealed 224 pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants (54 (24%) of which are novel) in 123 genes with established or tentative links to skeletal dysplasia. In addition, we propose 5 genes as candidate disease genes with suggestive biological links (WNT3A, SUCO, RIN1, DIP2C, and PAN2). Phenotypically, we note that our cohort spans 36 established phenotypic categories by the International Skeletal Dysplasia Nosology, as well as 18 novel skeletal dysplasia phenotypes that could not be classified under these categories, e.g., the novel C3orf17-related skeletal dysplasia. We also describe novel phenotypic aspects of well-known disease genes, e.g., PGAP3-related Toriello-Carey syndrome-like phenotype. We note a strong founder effect for many genes in our cohort, which allowed us to calculate a minimum disease burden for the autosomal recessive forms of skeletal dysplasia in our population (7.16E-04), which is much higher than the global average.ConclusionBy expanding the phenotypic, allelic, and locus heterogeneity of skeletal dysplasia in humans, we hope our study will improve the diagnostic rate of patients with these conditions.GENETICS in MEDICINE advance online publication, 5 April 2018; doi:10.1038/gim.2018.50.

  9. [Absolute and relative strength-endurance of the knee flexor and extensor muscles: a reliability study using the IsoMed 2000-dynamometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirnberger, J; Wiesinger, H P; Stöggl, T; Kösters, A; Müller, E

    2012-09-01

    Isokinetic devices are highly rated in strength-related performance diagnosis. A few years ago, the broad variety of existing products was extended by the IsoMed 2000-dynamometer. In order for an isokinetic device to be clinically useful, the reliability of specific applications must be established. Although there have already been single studies on this topic for the IsoMed 2000 concerning maximum strength measurements, there has been no study regarding the assessment of strength-endurance so far. The aim of the present study was to establish the reliability for various methods of quantification of strength-endurance using the IsoMed 2000. A sample of 33 healthy young subjects (age: 23.8 ± 2.6 years) participated in one familiarisation and two testing sessions, 3-4 days apart. Testing consisted of a series 30 full effort concentric extension-flexion cycles of the right knee muscles at an angular velocity of 180 °/s. Based on the parameters Peak, Torque and Work for each repetition, indices of absolute (KADabs) and relative (KADrel) strength-endurance were derived. KADabs was calculated as the mean value of all testing repetitions, KADrel was determined in two ways: on the one hand, as the percentage decrease between the first and the last 5 repetitions (KADrelA) and on the other, as the negative slope derived from the linear regression equitation of all repetitions (KADrelB). Detection of systematic errors was performed using paired sample t-tests, relative and absolute reliability were examined using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC 2.1) and standard error of measurement (SEM%), respectively. In general, for extension measurements concerning KADabs and - in an weakened form - KADrel high ICC -values of 0.76-0.89 combined with clinically acceptable values of SEM% of 1.2-5.9 % could be found. For flexion measurements this only applies to KADabs, whereas results for KADrel turned out to be clearly weaker with ICC- and SEM% values of 0.42-0.62 and 9

  10. Effects of Long Term Supplementation of Anabolic Androgen Steroids on Human Skeletal Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ji-Guo; Bonnerud, Patrik; Eriksson, Anders; Stål, Per S.; Tegner, Yelverton; Malm, Christer

    2014-01-01

    The effects of long-term (over several years) anabolic androgen steroids (AAS) administration on human skeletal muscle are still unclear. In this study, seventeen strength training athletes were recruited and individually interviewed regarding self-administration of banned substances. Ten subjects admitted having taken AAS or AAS derivatives for the past 5 to 15 years (Doped) and the dosage and type of banned substances were recorded. The remaining seven subjects testified to having never used any banned substances (Clean). For all subjects, maximal muscle strength and body composition were tested, and biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle were obtained. Using histochemistry and immunohistochemistry (IHC), muscle biopsies were evaluated for morphology including fiber type composition, fiber size, capillary variables and myonuclei. Compared with the Clean athletes, the Doped athletes had significantly higher lean leg mass, capillary per fibre and myonuclei per fiber. In contrast, the Doped athletes had significantly lower absolute value in maximal squat force and relative values in maximal squat force (relative to lean body mass, to lean leg mass and to muscle fiber area). Using multivariate statistics, an orthogonal projection of latent structure discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) model was established, in which the maximal squat force relative to muscle mass and the maximal squat force relative to fiber area, together with capillary density and nuclei density were the most important variables for separating Doped from the Clean athletes (regression  =  0.93 and prediction  =  0.92, p<0.0001). In Doped athletes, AAS dose-dependent increases were observed in lean body mass, muscle fiber area, capillary density and myonuclei density. In conclusion, long term AAS supplementation led to increases in lean leg mass, muscle fiber size and a parallel improvement in muscle strength, and all were dose-dependent. Administration of AAS may induce sustained

  11. Generalization of the existing relations between microstructure and yield stress from ferrite-pearlite to high strength steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iza-Mendia, A., E-mail: aiza@ceit.es [CEIT and Tecnun (University of Navarra), Manuel de Lardizabal 15, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastian, Basque Country (Spain); Gutierrez, I. [CEIT and Tecnun (University of Navarra), Manuel de Lardizabal 15, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastian, Basque Country (Spain)

    2013-01-20

    A series of available equations allows the yield and the tensile strength of low carbon ferrite-pearlite microstructures to be expressed as a function of the optical grain size, steel composition and interstitials in solution. Over the years, as the complexity of steel microstructures has increased, some additional terms have been added to account for precipitation and forest dislocation contributions. In theory, this opens the door for an extension of these equations to bainitic microstructures. Nevertheless, there is a series of difficulties that needs to be overcome in order to improve prediction accuracy. In the present work, different microstructures (ferrite-pearlite, bainite, quenched, and quenched and tempered) were produced and tension tested in a C-Mn-Nb steel. Optical microscopy and EBSD (Electron Back Scattered Diffraction) were applied and the results were compared as a function of the tolerance angle. Based on this work, an adaptation to Pickering's equation is proposed, including its extension to other microstructures rather than ferrite-pearlite.

  12. Age-related mechanical strength evolution of trabecular bone under fatigue damage for both genders: Fracture risk evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Kahla, Rabeb; Barkaoui, Abdelwahed; Merzouki, Tarek

    2018-05-04

    Bone tissue is a living composite material, providing mechanical and homeostatic functions, and able to constantly adapt its microstructure to changes in long term loading. This adaptation is conducted by a physiological process, known as "bone remodeling". This latter is manifested by interactions between osteoclasts and osteoblasts, and can be influenced by many local factors, via effects on bone cell differentiation and proliferation. In the current work, age and gender effects on damage rate evolution, throughout life, have been investigated using a mechanobiological finite element modeling. To achieve the aim, a mathematical model has been developed, coupling both cell activities and mechanical behavior of trabecular bone, under cyclic loadings. A series of computational simulations (ABAQUS/UMAT) has been performed on a 3D human proximal femur, allowing to investigate the effects of mechanical and biological parameters on mechanical strength of trabecular bone, in order to evaluate the fracture risk resulting from fatigue damage. The obtained results revealed that mechanical stimulus amplitude affects bone resorption and formation rates, and indicated that age and gender are major factors in bone response to the applied loadings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of cobalt-60 gamma radiation on the strength-related internal structure of the borosilicate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cafe, Arven I.; Liamzon, Angelie J.

    2011-03-01

    Borosilicate glass in the form of glass slides (1.Omm in thickness and cut into 12.5mm x 55.Omm surface area) was examined to determine the reusability or recyclability and strength of glass apparatuses or compartments after exposing to gamma irradiation from Co-60 source. After knowing the initial parameters using EDXRF under six secondary targets, glass specimens prepared was subjected to gamma radiation for doses 3kGy, 6kGy, 15kGy, 25kGy, and 100kGy. Results of characterization under FTIR provides information about the occurred extension of B-O-Si and B-O-B linkages for lower doses (3-25kGy), while destruction of Si-O bonds for higher dose (100kGy). It shows direct relationship on the observed color change from clear ransparent to deep brown corresponding to the change in optical densities as irradiation dose increases. Ability to fade the induced deep brown color was also observed for a certain time interval which satisfies that this type of glass exhibits self healing property. Although, average energy of about 1.25MeV causes rearrangement of atoms within the glass, according to the XRD result, it remained to be an amorphous solid even in higher dose applied which satisfies that remanufacturing and recycling is possible. (author)

  14. When and Where Learning is Taking Place: Multisynaptic Changes in Strength During Different Behaviors Related to the Acquisition of an Operant Conditioning Task by Behaving Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Lamo, Iván; Delgado-García, José M; Gruart, Agnès

    2018-03-01

    Although it is generally assumed that brain circuits are modified by new experiences, the question of which changes in synaptic efficacy take place in cortical and subcortical circuits across the learning process remains unanswered. Rats were trained in the acquisition of an operant conditioning in a Skinner box provided with light beams to detect animals' approaches to lever and feeder. Behaviors such as pressing the lever, eating, exploring, and grooming were also recorded. Animals were chronically implanted with stimulating and recording electrodes in hippocampal, prefrontal, and subcortical sites relevant to the task. Field synaptic potentials were evoked during the performance of the above-mentioned behaviors and before, during, and after the acquisition process. Afferent pathways to the hippocampus and the intrinsic hippocampal circuit were slightly modified in synaptic strength during the performance of those behaviors. In contrast, afferent and efferent circuits of the medial prefrontal cortex were significantly modified in synaptic strength across training sessions, mostly at the moment of the largest change in the learning curve. Performance of behaviors nondirectly related to the acquisition process (exploring, grooming) also evoked changes in synaptic strength across training. This study helps to understand when and where learning is being engraved in the brain. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Skeletal adaptations to bipedalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljević Perica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bipedalism is the main characteristic of humans. During evolutin bipedalism emerged probably as an adaptation to a changing environment. Major changes in skeletal system included femur, pelvis, skull and spine. The significance of bipedal locomotion: Bipedalism freed the forelimbs for carrying objects, creation and usage of tools. In the upright position animals have a broader view of the environment and the early detection of predators is crucial for survival. Bipedal locomotion makes larger distances easier to pass, which is very important in the migration of hominids.

  16. Ulk1-mediated autophagy plays an essential role in mitochondrial remodeling and functional regeneration of skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Call, Jarrod A; Wilson, Rebecca J; Laker, Rhianna C; Zhang, Mei; Kundu, Mondira; Yan, Zhen

    2017-06-01

    Autophagy is a conserved cellular process for degrading aggregate proteins and dysfunctional organelle. It is still debatable if autophagy and mitophagy (a specific process of autophagy of mitochondria) play important roles in myogenic differentiation and functional regeneration of skeletal muscle. We tested the hypothesis that autophagy is critical for functional regeneration of skeletal muscle. We first observed time-dependent increases (3- to 6-fold) of autophagy-related proteins (Atgs), including Ulk1, Beclin1, and LC3, along with reduced p62 expression during C2C12 differentiation, suggesting increased autophagy capacity and flux during myogenic differentiation. We then used cardiotoxin (Ctx) or ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) to induce muscle injury and regeneration and observed increases in Atgs between days 2 and 7 in adult skeletal muscle followed by increased autophagy flux after day 7 Since Ulk1 has been shown to be essential for mitophagy, we asked if Ulk1 is critical for functional regeneration in skeletal muscle. We subjected skeletal muscle-specific Ulk1 knockout mice (MKO) to Ctx or I/R. MKO mice had significantly impaired recovery of muscle strength and mitochondrial protein content post-Ctx or I/R. Imaging analysis showed that MKO mice have significantly attenuated recovery of mitochondrial network at 7 and 14 days post-Ctx. These findings suggest that increased autophagy protein and flux occur during muscle regeneration and Ulk1-mediated mitophagy is critical for recovery for the mitochondrial network and hence functional regeneration. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  17. [Different strength intermittent treadmill training of growth period rats and related bone metabolism of the hormone influence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shun-cheng; Ma, Xue-jun; Guo, Cheng-ji; Liu, Hong-zhen

    2012-05-01

    To explore the influence of different strength intermittent treadmill training of growth period rats on the bone metabolism, so as to provide the training intensity of teenagers to set theory support. Select 70 male four weeks Wistar rats according to body weight randomly divided into seven groups (n = 10): the control group and the exercise group. According to the VO2max the exercise group was divided into 6 groups: 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85% and 90% group. Nine weeks treadmill training, training six days a week, each group of training three times, each time not less than 10min, the interval was 30 min. The last movement after 24 h, took the femur and blood to measured the bone mineral density (BMD), bone mass (BMC) and alkaline phosphatase (AKP), resist tartaric acid acidic phosphatase (Str-ACP). 1. The femoral BMD (0.1393 +/- 0.0031), BMC (0.4525 +/- 0.0335) of 70% group were significantly higher than those in the control group (BMD: 0.1200 +/- 0.0095, BMC: 0.3238 +/- 0.0485) and the other sports group (65% BMD:0.1339 +/- 0.0062, BMC: 0.4058 +/- 0.0492, 75% BMD: 0.1296 +/- 0.0015, BMC: 0.3869 +/- 0.0254, 80% BMD: 0.1223 +/- 0.0082, BMC: 0.3454 +/- 0.0483, 85% BMD: 0.1250 +/- 0.0044, BMC: 0.3731 +/- 0.0381, 90% BMD: 0.1171 +/- 0.0047, BMC: 0.3051 +/- 0.0286) (P growth period rat bone mass and bone mineral density to increase obviously.

  18. Skeletal muscle relaxant effect of a standardized extract of Valeriana officinalis L. after acute administration in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Caudal

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Valeriana officinalis L. root extracts are traditionally taken for their sedative and anxiolytic properties and are also used for muscle relaxation. Relaxant effects were clearly observed on smooth muscle whereas data on effects on skeletal muscle are scarce and inconsistent. The aim of this study was to assess whether a standardized extract (SE of V. officinalis had myorelaxant effects by decreasing skeletal muscle strength and/or neuromuscular tone in mice. Mice received an acute dose of V. officinalis SE (2 or 5 g/kg per os or tetrazepam (10 mg/kg ip, a standard myorelaxant drug. Thirty minutes later, the maximal muscle strength was measured using a grip test, while global skeletal muscle function (endurance and neuromuscular tone was assessed in a wire hanging test. Compared to tetrazepam, both doses of V. officinalis SE induced a pronounced decrease in skeletal muscle strength without any significant effects on endurance and neuromuscular tone. This study provides clear evidence that the extract of V. officinalis tested has a relaxant effect on skeletal muscle. By decreasing skeletal muscle strength without impacting endurance and neuromuscular tone, V. officinalis SE could induce less undesirable side effects than standard myorelaxant agents, and be particularly useful for avoiding falls in the elderly. Keywords: Valeriana officinalis, Skeletal muscle relaxant, Strength, Hydroethanolic root extract, Acute treatment, Mouse

  19. Anti-myostatin antibody increases muscle mass and strength and improves insulin sensitivity in old mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporez, João-Paulo G; Petersen, Max C; Abudukadier, Abulizi; Moreira, Gabriela V; Jurczak, Michael J; Friedman, Glenn; Haqq, Christopher M; Petersen, Kitt Falk; Shulman, Gerald I

    2016-02-23

    Sarcopenia, or skeletal muscle atrophy, is a debilitating comorbidity of many physiological and pathophysiological processes, including normal aging. There are no approved therapies for sarcopenia, but the antihypertrophic myokine myostatin is a potential therapeutic target. Here, we show that treatment of young and old mice with an anti-myostatin antibody (ATA 842) for 4 wk increased muscle mass and muscle strength in both groups. Furthermore, ATA 842 treatment also increased insulin-stimulated whole body glucose metabolism in old mice, which could be attributed to increased insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle glucose uptake as measured by a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Taken together, these studies provide support for pharmacological inhibition of myostatin as a potential therapeutic approach for age-related sarcopenia and metabolic disease.

  20. Effect of statins on skeletal muscle function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Beth A; Capizzi, Jeffrey A; Grimaldi, Adam S; Clarkson, Priscilla M; Cole, Stephanie M; Keadle, Justin; Chipkin, Stuart; Pescatello, Linda S; Simpson, Kathleen; White, C Michael; Thompson, Paul D

    2013-01-01

    Many clinicians believe that statins cause muscle pain, but this has not been observed in clinical trials, and the effect of statins on muscle performance has not been carefully studied. The Effect of Statins on Skeletal Muscle Function and Performance (STOMP) study assessed symptoms and measured creatine kinase, exercise capacity, and muscle strength before and after atorvastatin 80 mg or placebo was administered for 6 months to 420 healthy, statin-naive subjects. No individual creatine kinase value exceeded 10 times normal, but average creatine kinase increased 20.8±141.1 U/L (Pmuscle strength or exercise capacity with atorvastatin, but more atorvastatin than placebo subjects developed myalgia (19 versus 10; P=0.05). Myalgic subjects on atorvastatin or placebo had decreased muscle strength in 5 of 14 and 4 of 14 variables, respectively (P=0.69). These results indicate that high-dose atorvastatin for 6 months does not decrease average muscle strength or exercise performance in healthy, previously untreated subjects. Nevertheless, this blinded, controlled trial confirms the undocumented impression that statins increase muscle complaints. Atorvastatin also increased average creatine kinase, suggesting that statins produce mild muscle injury even among asymptomatic subjects. This increase in creatine kinase should prompt studies examining the effects of more prolonged, high-dose statin treatment on muscular performance. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00609063.

  1. Inner power, physical strength and existential well-being in daily life: relatives' experiences of receiving soft tissue massage in palliative home care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronfalk, Berit Seiger; Strang, Peter; Ternestedt, Britt-Marie

    2009-08-01

    This article explores relatives' experiences of receiving soft tissue massage as a support supplement while caring for a dying family member at home. In palliative home care, relatives play an important role as carers to seriously ill and dying family members. To improve their quality of life, different support strategies are of importance. Complementary methods, such as soft tissue massage have become an appreciated supplement for these patients. However, only few studies focus on relatives experiences of receiving soft tissue massage as a supplemental support. Qualitative design Nineteen relatives received soft tissue massage (hand or foot) nine times (25 minutes) in their homes. Open-ended semi-structured tape-recorded interviews were conducted once per relative after the nine times of massage, using qualitative content analysis. Soft tissue massage gave the relatives' feelings of 'being cared for', 'body vitality' and 'peace of mind'. For a while, they put worries of daily life aside as they just experienced 'being'. During massage, it became apparent that body and mind is constituted of an indestructible completeness. The overarching theme was 'inner power, physical strength and existential well-being in their daily lives'. All relatives experienced soft tissue massage positively, although they were under considerable stress. Soft tissue massage could be an option to comfort and support relatives in palliative home care. In palliative nursing care, soft tissue massage could present a worthy supplement in supporting caring relatives.

  2. Effects of Aerobic, Strength or Combined Exercise on Perceived Appetite and Appetite-Related Hormones in Inactive Middle-Aged Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Penelope S; Donges, Cheyne E; Guelfi, Kym J; Smith, Greg C; Adams, David R; Duffield, Rob

    2017-10-01

    Aerobic exercise (AE) and strength exercise (SE) are reported to induce discrete and specific appetite-related responses; however, the effect of combining AE and SE (i.e., combined exercise; CE) remains relatively unknown. Twelve inactive overweight men (age: 48 ± 5 y; BMI: 29.9 ± 1.9 kg∙m 2 ) completed four conditions in a random order: 1) nonexercise control (CON) (50 min seated rest); 2) AE (50 min cycling; 75% VO 2peak ); 3) SE (10 × 8 leg extensions; 75% 1RM); and 4) CE (50% SE + 50% AE). Perceived appetite, and appetiterelated peptides and metabolites were assessed before and up to 2 h postcondition (0P, 30P, 60P, 90P, 120P). Perceived appetite did not differ between trials (p appetite-related peptides and metabolites. Despite these differential exercise-induced hormone responses, exercise mode appears to have little effect on perceived appetite compared with a resting control in this population.

  3. Ossified skeletal muscle hemangioma: Radiologic and pathologic features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelstad, B L; Gilula, L A [Mallinckrodt Inst. of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (USA); Kynakos, M [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (USA). Dept. of Surgical Pathology

    1980-01-01

    Skeletal muscle hemangiomas are relatively uncommon tumors in children and young adults. Although the operative management of these lesions may be affected by their vascularity, the correct preoperative diagnosis is often not made. Ossification of these lesions is rare. Two patients are described whose skeletal muscle hemangiomas contained abundant osseous tissue. This was radiologically reflected by the 'swiss cheese' appearance of the tumors. Such an appearance in an ossified soft tissue mass may allow the correct preoperative diagnosis of this condition.

  4. Phosphorylation and function of DGAT1 in skeletal muscle cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Jinhai; Li, Yiran; Zou, Fei; Xu, Shimeng; Liu, Pingsheng

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant intramuscular triacylglycerol (TAG) storage in human skeletal muscle is closely related to insulin insensitivity. Excessive lipid storage can induce insulin resistance of skeletal muscle, and under severe conditions, lead to type 2 diabetes. The balance of interconversion between diacylglycerol and TAG greatly influences lipid storage and utilization. Diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) plays a key role in this process, but its activation and phosphorylation requires further d...

  5. Natural composites: Strength, packing ability and moisture sorption of cellulose fibres, and the related performance of composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lilholt, Hans; Madsen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Biobased materials are becoming of increasing interest as potential structural materials for the future. A useful concept in this context is the fibre reinforcement of materials by stiff and strong fibres. The bio-resources can contribute with cellulose fibres and (bio) polymers from hemicelluloses...... in stiffness, on the packing ability of cellulose fibres and the related maximum fibre volume fraction in composites, on the moisture sorption of cellulose fibres and the related mass increase and (large) hygral strains induced, and on the mechanical performance of composites....

  6. Branched-chain amino acid-rich diet improves skeletal muscle wasting caused by cigarette smoke in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomoda, Koichi; Kubo, Kaoru; Hino, Kazuo; Kondoh, Yasunori; Nishii, Yasue; Koyama, Noriko; Yamamoto, Yoshifumi; Yoshikawa, Masanori; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    Cigarette smoke induces skeletal muscle wasting by a mechanism not yet fully elucidated. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in the skeletal muscles are useful energy sources during exercise or systemic stresses. We investigated the relationship between skeletal muscle wasting caused by cigarette smoke and changes in BCAA levels in the plasma and skeletal muscles of rats. Furthermore, the effects of BCAA-rich diet on muscle wasting caused by cigarette smoke were also investigated. Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats that were fed with a control or a BCAA-rich diet were exposed to cigarette smoke for four weeks. After the exposure, the skeletal muscle weight and BCAA levels in plasma and the skeletal muscles were measured. Cigarette smoke significantly decreased the skeletal muscle weight and BCAA levels in both plasma and skeletal muscles, while a BCAA-rich diet increased the skeletal muscle weight and BCAA levels in both plasma and skeletal muscles that had decreased by cigarette smoke exposure. In conclusion, skeletal muscle wasting caused by cigarette smoke was related to the decrease of BCAA levels in the skeletal muscles, while a BCAA-rich diet may improve cases of cigarette smoke-induced skeletal muscle wasting.

  7. Axial skeletal CT densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampmann, L.E.H.

    1982-01-01

    Since the discovery of the Roentgen ray a precise and accurate assessment of bone mineral content has been a challenge to many investigators. A number of methods have been developed but no one satisfied. Considering its technical possibilities computed tomography is very promising in determination of bone mineral content (BMC). The new modality enables BMC estimations in the axial skeletal trabecular bone. CT densitometry can be performed on a normal commercially available third generation whole body CT scanner. No dedicated device in a special clinical set-up is necessary. In this study 106 patients, most of them clinically suspected of osteoporosis, were examined. The new method CT densitometry has been evaluated. The results have been correlated to alternative BMC determination methods. (Auth.)

  8. Regulatory mechanisms of skeletal muscle protein turnover during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Adam John; Richter, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Skeletal muscle protein turnover is a relatively slow metabolic process that is altered by various physiological stimuli such as feeding/fasting and exercise. During exercise, catabolism of amino acids contributes very little to ATP turnover in working muscle. With regards to protein turnover......, there is now consistent data from tracer studies in rodents and humans showing that global protein synthesis is blunted in working skeletal muscle. Whether there is altered skeletal muscle protein breakdown during exercise remains unclear. The blunting of protein synthesis is believed to be mediated...... downstream of changes in intracellular Ca(2+) and energy turnover. In particular, a signaling cascade involving Ca(2+)-calmodulin-eEF2 kinase-eEF2 is implicated. The possible functional significance of altered protein turnover in working skeletal muscle during exercise is discussed. Further work...

  9. PGC-1α-mediated adaptations in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jesper; Kiilerich, Kristian; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2010-01-01

    multiple pathways and functions underline the potential importance of PGC-1alpha in skeletal muscle adaptations in humans. The absence of exercise-induced PGC-1alpha-mediated gene regulation during a physical inactive lifestyle is suggested to lead to reduced oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle...... involved in angiogenesis and the anti-oxidant defence as well as to affect expression of inflammatory markers. Exercise increases PGC-1alpha transcription and potentially PGC-1alpha activity through post-translational modifications, and concomitant PGC-1alpha-mediated gene regulation is suggested...... to be an underlying mechanism for adaptations in skeletal muscle, when exercise is repeated. The current review presents some of the key findings in PGC-1alpha-mediated regulation of metabolically related, anti-oxidant and inflammatory proteins in skeletal muscle in the basal state and in response to exercise...

  10. Is skeletal anchorage changing the limit of orthodontics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melsen, Birte

    2007-01-01

    The limits for orthodontic treatment are often set by the lack of suitable anchorage. The mini-implant is used where conventional anchorage cannot be applied; not as a replacement for conventional anchorage. In patients with lack of teeth and reduced periodontium, skeletal anchorage allows...... and can be loaded immediately. The course will be addressed the following topics: Are the mini-implants replacing conventional anchorage? Why are orthodontic mini-implants necessary? The development of the skeletal anchorage systems The biological basis for the skeletal anchorage systems...... The characteristics of the different skeletal anchorage systems The insertion procedure The indications for the use of orthodontic mini-implants Treatment planning in relation to the use of mini-implants Case presentations...

  11. The Effect of Yoga on Arm Volume, Strength, and Range of Motion in Women at Risk for Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazor, Melissa; Lee, Jeannette Q; Peled, Anne; Zerzan, Sarah; Irwin, Chetan; Chesney, Margaret A; Serrurier, Katherine; Sbitany, Hani; Dhruva, Anand; Sacks, Devorah; Smoot, Betty

    2018-02-01

    To assess the feasibility, safety, and initial estimates of efficacy of a yoga program in postoperative care for women at high risk for breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL). Single-group pretest-post-test design. Patients were recruited from the University of California, San Francisco Carol Franc Buck Breast Care Center. Twenty-one women were enrolled in the study. Women were >18 years of age, had undergone surgical treatment for breast cancer, and were at high risk for BCRL. The women participated in an Ashtanga yoga intervention for 8 weeks. Sessions consisted of once/week instructor-led practice and once/week home practice. Particular attention was given to poses that emphasized upper body strength and flexibility, while avoiding significant time with the upper extremity (UE) in a dependent position. UE volume was assessed through circumferential forearm measurement, which was converted to volume using the formula for a truncated cone. Range of motion (ROM) was assessed for the shoulders, elbows, and wrists, using a standard goniometer. UE strength was assessed for shoulder abduction, elbow flexion, wrist flexion, and grip using a dynamometer. Twenty women completed the yoga intervention, with 17 returning for final assessment. Mean age was 52 (±9.1) years and body mass index was 24.8 (±5.1) kg/m 2 . Postintervention, mean volume in the at-risk UE was slightly reduced (p = 0.397). ROM for shoulder flexion (p yoga is feasible and safe for women who are at risk for BCRL and may result in small improvements in shoulder ROM and UE strength.

  12. The Effects of Elaboration on the Strength of Doping-Related Attitudes: Resistance to Change and Behavioral Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horcajo, Javier; Luttrell, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    This experiment analyzed whether attitudes toward the legalization of several doping behaviors would resist change and predict behavioral intentions when they were initially formed through thoughtful (i.e., high elaboration) versus nonthoughtful (i.e., low elaboration) processes. Participants were randomly assigned first to a persuasive message either against or in favor of the legalization, which they read with relatively high or low degrees of deliberative thinking. Attitudes and intentions regarding legalization were assessed following that message. Next, each participant received a second message that was opposed to the first one, serving as an attack against the attitude that participants had just formed. Finally, attitudes were again assessed. As hypothesized, participants showed greater attitude-consistent intentions when they formed their initial attitudes through thoughtful (vs. nonthoughtful) consideration of the first message. Moreover, the second message resulted in greater resistance to attitude change when participants formed their initial attitudes through thoughtful (vs. nonthoughtful) processes.

  13. An atlas of normal skeletal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, J.J.; Maisey, M.N.

    1985-01-01

    This atlas was compiled to provide the neophyte as well as the experienced radiologist and the nuclear medicine physician with a reference on normal skeletal scintigraphy as an aid in distinguishing normal variations in skeletal uptake from abnormal findings. Each skeletal scintigraph is labeled, and utilizing an identical scale, a relevant skeletal photograph and radiograph are placed adjacent to the scintigraph

  14. Skeletal Muscle Na+ Channel Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina eSimkin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Five inherited human disorders affecting skeletal muscle contraction have been traced to mutations in the gene encoding the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.4. The main symptoms of these disorders are myotonia or periodic paralysis caused by changes in skeletal muscle fiber excitability. Symptoms of these disorders vary from mild or latent disease to incapacitating or even death in severe cases. As new human sodium channel mutations corresponding to disease states become discovered, the importance of understanding the role of the sodium channel in skeletal muscle function and disease state grows.

  15. Computed tomography guidance for skeletal biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frager, D.H.; Goldman, M.J.; Elkin, C.M.; Cynamon, J.; Leeds, N.E.; Seimon, L.P.; Habermann, E.T.; Schreiber, K.; Freeman, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) guided biopsy and abscess drainage of multiple organ systems have been well described. Reports of spinal and skeletal applications have been less common. This study describes the use of CT guidance in the biopsy of various skeletal lesions in 46 patients. Forty-one patients had skinny needle aspirations (18 or 22 gauge) and 23 patients had trephine core biopsies. Sites of the lesions included: thoracic spine - 15 patients, lumbosacral spine - 17 patients, bony pelvis - 6 patients, rib - 2 patients, and long bones - 6 patients. Fast scanners capable of rapid image reconstruction have overcome many constraints. With CT guidance, the physician who performs the procedure receives virtually no ionizing radiation. The exact location of the needle tip is accurately visualized in relation to the lesion being biopsied and to the vital organs. (orig.)

  16. Who Chooses STEM Careers? Using A Relative Cognitive Strength and Interest Model to Predict Careers in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Te; Ye, Feifei; Degol, Jessica Lauren

    2017-08-01

    Career aspirations in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) are formulated in adolescence, making the high school years a critical time period for identifying the cognitive and motivational factors that increase the likelihood of future STEM employment. While past research has mainly focused on absolute cognitive ability levels in math and verbal domains, the current study tested whether relative cognitive strengths and interests in math, science, and verbal domains in high school were more accurate predictors of STEM career decisions. Data were drawn from a national longitudinal study in the United States (N = 1762; 48 % female; the first wave during ninth grade and the last wave at age 33). Results revealed that in the high-verbal/high-math/high-science ability group, individuals with higher science task values and lower orientation toward altruism were more likely to select STEM occupations. In the low-verbal/moderate-math/moderate-science ability group, individuals with higher math ability and higher math task values were more likely to select STEM occupations. The findings suggest that youth with asymmetrical cognitive ability profiles are more likely to select careers that utilize their cognitive strengths rather than their weaknesses, while symmetrical cognitive ability profiles may grant youth more flexibility in their options, allowing their interests and values to guide their career decisions.

  17. Reading About the Flu Online: How Health-Protective Behavioral Intentions Are Influenced by Media Multitasking, Polychronicity, and Strength of Health-Related Arguments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononova, Anastasia; Yuan, Shupei; Joo, Eunsin

    2017-06-01

    As health organizations increasingly use the Internet to communicate medical information and advice (Shortliffe et al., 2000; World Health Organization, 2013), studying factors that affect health information processing and health-protective behaviors becomes extremely important. The present research applied the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion to explore the effects of media multitasking, polychronicity (preference for multitasking), and strength of health-related arguments on health-protective behavioral intentions. Participants read an online article about influenza that included strong and weak suggestions to engage in flu-preventive behaviors. In one condition, participants read the article and checked Facebook; in another condition, they were exposed only to the article. Participants expressed greater health-protective behavioral intentions in the media multitasking condition than in the control condition. Strong arguments were found to elicit more positive behavioral intentions than weak arguments. Moderate and high polychronics showed greater behavioral intentions than low polychronics when they read the article in the multitasking condition. The difference in intentions to follow strong and weak arguments decreased for moderate and high polychronics. The results of the present study suggest that health communication practitioners should account for not only media use situations in which individuals typically read about health online but also individual differences in information processing, which puts more emphasis on the strength of health-protective suggestions when targeting light multitaskers.

  18. High-fat diet decreases energy expenditure and expression of genes controlling lipid metabolism, mitochondrial function and skeletal system development in the adipose tissue, along with increased expression of extracellular matrix remodelling- and inflammation-related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Myung-Sook; Kim, Young-Je; Kwon, Eun-Young; Ryoo, Jae Young; Kim, Sang Ryong; Jung, Un Ju

    2015-03-28

    The aim of the present study was to identify the genes differentially expressed in the visceral adipose tissue in a well-characterised mouse model of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Male C57BL/6J mice (n 20) were fed either HFD (189 % of energy from fat) or low-fat diet (LFD, 42 % of energy from fat) for 16 weeks. HFD-fed mice exhibited obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and adipose collagen accumulation, along with higher levels of plasma leptin, resistin and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1, although there were no significant differences in plasma cytokine levels. Energy intake was similar in the two diet groups owing to lower food intake in the HFD group; however, energy expenditure was also lower in the HFD group than in the LFD group. Microarray analysis revealed that genes related to lipolysis, fatty acid metabolism, mitochondrial energy transduction, oxidation-reduction, insulin sensitivity and skeletal system development were down-regulated in HFD-fed mice, and genes associated with extracellular matrix (ECM) components, ECM remodelling and inflammation were up-regulated. The top ten up- or down-regulated genes include Acsm3, mt-Nd6, Fam13a, Cyp2e1, Rgs1 and Gpnmb, whose roles in the deterioration of obesity-associated adipose tissue are poorly understood. In conclusion, the genes identified here provide new therapeutic opportunities for prevention and treatment of diet-induced obesity.

  19. Relation of estrogen receptor-alpha gene polymorphism and hormone replacement therapy to fall risk and muscle strength in early postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmén, Timo; Heikkinen, Anna-Mari; Mahonen, Anitta; Kröger, Heikki; Komulainen, Marja; Saarikoski, Seppo; Honkanen, Risto; Partanen, Juhani; Mäenpää, Pekka H

    2002-01-01

    Several factors may increase fracture risk, among them reduced bone mineral density (BMD), increased bone resorption, microarchitectural deterioration of bone, increased fall risk, and decreased muscle strength. We have previously reported that PvuII polymorphism of the estrogen receptor-alpha (ER alpha) gene is associated with bone loss rate, fracture risk, and response to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in early postmenopausal Finnish women. We studied the influence of the ER alpha genotype on fall risk and muscle strength in a 5-year randomized HRT trial of 331 early postmenopausal women (subgroup of the population-based OSTPRE study, Kuopio, Finland). A 5-year postal inquiry in May 1994 included questions on falls during the previous 12 months. Grip strength was measured with dynamometer. The ER alpha gene polymorphism was analysed using PCR and PvuII restriction enzyme digestion. RESULTS. In all, 97 out of the 331 women reported falls. Half of those (56%) were slip falls, mostly during the winter season. In the HRT group, the ER alpha genotype was associated with fall risk (P = 0.002, logistic regression). The risk of falls (RR) was higher in women with the PP genotype than in those with the Pp (RR = 5.26, 95% CI 1.98-13.94, P = 0.001) or the pp (RR = 3.84, 95% CI 1.46-10.12, P = 0.007) genotype. When the falls were divided into slip (environment-related) and non-slip (endogenous) falls, the non-slip falls were associated with the genotype (P = 0.004), but the slip falls were not so clearly (P = 0.061). When all falls and non-slip falls were adjusted to the number of chronic health disorders and the variable time-since-menopause, the difference between the genotypes persisted (P = 0.003 and P = 0.010, respectively). In the non-HRT group, the ER alpha genotype was not associated with fall risk. The baseline or the 5-year grip strength values were not influenced by the ER alpha genotype. In conclusion, ER alpha polymorphism is associated with fall risk

  20. Simvastatin effects on skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Stride, Nis; Hey-Mogensen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Glucose tolerance and skeletal muscle coenzyme Q(10) (Q(10)) content, mitochondrial density, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity were measured in simvastatin-treated patients (n = 10) and in well-matched control subjects (n = 9)....

  1. Sex-Specific Skeletal Muscle Fatigability and Decreased Mitochondrial Oxidative Capacity in Adult Rats Exposed to Postnatal Hyperoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura H. Tetri

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Premature birth affects more than 10% of live births, and is characterized by relative hyperoxia exposure in an immature host. Long-term consequences of preterm birth include decreased aerobic capacity, decreased muscular strength and endurance, and increased prevalence of metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. Postnatal hyperoxia exposure in rodents is a well-established model of chronic lung disease of prematurity, and also recapitulates the pulmonary vascular, cardiovascular, and renal phenotype of premature birth. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether postnatal hyperoxia exposure in rats could recapitulate the skeletal and metabolic phenotype of premature birth, and to characterize the subcellular metabolic changes associated with postnatal hyperoxia exposure, with a secondary aim to evaluate sex differences in this model. Compared to control rats, male rats exposed to 14 days of postnatal hyperoxia then aged to 1 year demonstrated higher skeletal muscle fatigability, lower muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity, more mitochondrial damage, and higher glycolytic enzyme expression. These differences were not present in female rats with the same postnatal hyperoxia exposure. This study demonstrates detrimental mitochondrial and muscular outcomes in the adult male rat exposed to postnatal hyperoxia. Given that young adults born premature also demonstrate skeletal muscle dysfunction, future studies are merited to determine whether this dysfunction as well as reduced aerobic capacity is due to reduced mitochondrial oxidative capacity and metabolic dysfunction.

  2. Skeletal, cardiac, and respiratory muscle function and histopathology in the P448Lneo- mouse model of FKRP-deficient muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qing; Morales, Melissa; Li, Ning; Fritz, Alexander G; Ruobing, Ren; Blaeser, Anthony; Francois, Ershia; Lu, Qi-Long; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina; Spurney, Christopher F

    2018-04-06

    Fukutin-related protein (FKRP) mutations are the most common cause of dystroglycanopathies known to cause both limb girdle and congenital muscular dystrophy. The P448Lneo- mouse model has a knock-in mutation in the FKRP gene and develops skeletal, respiratory, and cardiac muscle disease. We studied the natural history of the P448Lneo- mouse model over 9 months and the effects of twice weekly treadmill running. Forelimb and hindlimb grip strength (Columbus Instruments) and overall activity (Omnitech Electronics) assessed skeletal muscle function. Echocardiography was performed using VisualSonics Vevo 770 (FujiFilm VisualSonics). Plethysmography was performed using whole body system (ADInstruments). Histological evaluations included quantification of inflammation, fibrosis, central nucleation, and fiber size variation. P448Lneo- mice had significantly increased normalized tissue weights compared to controls at 9 months of age for the heart, gastrocnemius, soleus, tibialis anterior, quadriceps, and triceps. There were no significant differences seen in forelimb or hindlimb grip strength or activity monitoring in P448Lneo- mice with or without exercise compared to controls. Skeletal muscles demonstrated increased inflammation, fibrosis, central nucleation, and variation in fiber size compared to controls (p muscular dystrophies.

  3. Potential Roles of n-3 PUFAs during Skeletal Muscle Growth and Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Tachtsis

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs, which are commonly found in fish oil supplements, are known to possess anti-inflammatory properties and more recently alter skeletal muscle function. In this review, we discuss novel findings related to how n-3 PUFAs modulate molecular signaling responsible for growth and hypertrophy as well as the activity of muscle stem cells. Muscle stem cells commonly known as satellite cells, are primarily responsible for driving the skeletal muscle repair process to potentially damaging stimuli, such as mechanical stress elicited by exercise contraction. To date, there is a paucity of human investigations related to the effects of n-3 PUFAs on satellite cell content and activity. Based on current in vitro investigations, this review focuses on novel mechanisms linking n-3 PUFA’s to satellite cell activity and how they may improve muscle repair. Understanding the role of n-3 PUFAs during muscle growth and regeneration in association with exercise could lead to the development of novel supplementation strategies that increase muscle mass and strength, therefore possibly reducing the burden of muscle wasting with age.

  4. Hormonal and lifestyle determinants of appendicular skeletal muscle mass in men: the MINOS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulc, Pawel; Duboeuf, François; Marchand, François; Delmas, Pierre D

    2004-08-01

    Aging-related sarcopenia is characterized by a loss of muscle mass and strength and increased fatigability. However, studies of its determinants in elderly men are scarce. We investigated risk factors for sarcopenia in a large cohort of men. We analyzed 845 men aged 45-85 y who belonged to the MINOS cohort. Lifestyle factors (physical activity, tobacco smoking, alcohol intake, caffeine intake) were evaluated by using a standardized questionnaire. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) was estimated by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The relative appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (RASM) was calculated as ASM/body height(2.3). Apparent free testosterone concentration (AFTC) and free testosterone index (FTI) were calculated on the basis of concentrations of total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin. RASM decreased with age (r = -0.29, P values for AFTC, FTI, or 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH)D] were >2 SDs below the mean for young men had significantly lower RASM than did men with higher values. Men with sarcopenia, defined as the lowest quartile of RASM in the studied cohort (normal RASM, weighed significantly less, smoked more, and spent significantly less time on leisure-time activities. Sarcopenic men also had lower values for testosterone, AFTC, FTI, and 25(OH)D. In elderly men, low physical activity, tobacco smoking, thinness, low testosterone (AFTC and FTI), and decreased 25(OH)D concentrations are risk factors for sarcopenia.

  5. Upon the triple phase skeletal scintigraphy in traumatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitz, W.

    1988-01-01

    A broadly established indication catalogue for skeletal scintigraphy in traumatology is resulting from about 1500 skeletal scans. Aside from the exclusion of any osseous lesion, from the differentiation of uncertain X-ray findings, from the determination of the extent of osseous lesions in polytraumatic conditions and from the assessment of the relative fracture age, the follow-up after trauma and therapeutical intervention, the demonstration of battered child syndromes and of soft tissue lesions are of special importance with regard to these topics. For all that, the high sensitivity of the 3-phase skeletal scintigraphy for every enhancement of osseous turnover represents the elementary prerequisite for the employment of this non-invasive technique as an ideal screening method in traumatological diagnostics. The experiences from the past years have resulted in an increased frequency of skeletal scintigraphic studies to a similarly high level, as it is already established in the majority of institutions with respect to oncological problems, In the development of efficient and cost favourable diagnostic strategies with only little burden to the patient, skeletal scintigraphy will in future play an important role within the palette of modern skeletal diagnostics in traumatology. (orig.) [de

  6. Aberrant and alternative splicing in skeletal system disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xin; Tang, Liling

    2013-10-01

    The main function of skeletal system is to support the body and help movement. A variety of factors can lead to skeletal system disease, including age, exercise, and of course genetic makeup and expression. Pre-mRNA splicing plays a crucial role in gene expression, by creating multiple protein variants with different biological functions. The recent studies show that several skeletal system diseases are related to pre-mRNA splicing. This review focuses on the relationship between pre-mRNA splicing and skeletal system disease. On the one hand, splice site mutation that leads to aberrant splicing often causes genetic skeletal system disease, like COL1A1, SEDL and LRP5. On the other hand, alternative splicing without genomic mutation may generate some marker protein isoforms, for example, FN, VEGF and CD44. Therefore, understanding the relationship between pre-mRNA splicing and skeletal system disease will aid in uncovering the mechanism of disease and contribute to the future development of gene therapy. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Skeletal muscle weakness in osteogenesis imperfecta mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Bettina A; Ferreira, J Andries; McCambridge, Amanda J; Brown, Marybeth; Phillips, Charlotte L

    2010-09-01

    Exercise intolerance, muscle fatigue and weakness are often-reported, little-investigated concerns of patients with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). OI is a heritable connective tissue disorder hallmarked by bone fragility resulting primarily from dominant mutations in the proα1(I) or proα2(I) collagen genes and the recently discovered recessive mutations in post-translational modifying proteins of type I collagen. In this study we examined the soleus (S), plantaris (P), gastrocnemius (G), tibialis anterior (TA) and quadriceps (Q) muscles of mice expressing mild (+/oim) and moderately severe (oim/oim) OI for evidence of inherent muscle pathology. In particular, muscle weight, fiber cross-sectional area (CSA), fiber type, fiber histomorphology, fibrillar collagen content, absolute, relative and specific peak tetanic force (P(o), P(o)/mg and P(o)/CSA respectively) of individual muscles were evaluated. Oim/oim mouse muscles were generally smaller, contained less fibrillar collagen, had decreased P(o) and an inability to sustain P(o) for the 300-ms testing duration for specific muscles; +/oim mice had a similar but milder skeletal muscle phenotype. +/oim mice had mild weakness of specific muscles but were less affected than their oim/oim counterparts which demonstrated readily apparent skeletal muscle pathology. Therefore muscle weakness in oim mice reflects inherent skeletal muscle pathology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Gamma dosimetric parameters in some skeletal muscle relaxants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, H. C.

    2017-09-01

    We have studied the attenuation of gamma radiation of energy ranging from 84 keV to 1330 keV (^{170}Tm, ^{22}Na,^{137}Cs, and ^{60}Co) in some commonly used skeletal muscle relaxants such as tubocurarine chloride, gallamine triethiodide, pancuronium bromide, suxamethonium bromide and mephenesin. The mass attenuation coefficient is measured from the attenuation experiment. In the present work, we have also proposed the direct relation between mass attenuation coefficient (μ /ρ ) and mass energy absorption coefficient (μ _{en}/ρ ) based on the nonlinear fitting procedure. The gamma dosimetric parameters such as mass energy absorption coefficient (μ _{en}/ρ ), effective atomic number (Z_{eff}), effective electron density (N_{el}), specific γ-ray constant, air kerma strength and dose rate are evaluated from the measured mass attentuation coefficient. These measured gamma dosimetric parameters are compared with the theoretical values. The measured values agree with the theoretical values. The studied gamma dosimetric values for the relaxants are useful in medical physics and radiation medicine.

  9. The effects of progressive-resisted exercises on muscle strength and health-related quality of life in persons with HIV-related poly-neuropathy in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkandla, Khumbula; Myezwa, Hellen; Musenge, Eustasius

    2016-01-01

    Distal symmetrical poly-neuropathy (DSP) is a neurological complication associated with HIV/AIDS and stavudine (d4T) containing antiretroviral therapy. People with DSP experience pain, numbness and muscle weakness, which affect their quality of life (QOL). The purpose of this study was to establish the effect of a progressive-resisted exercise (PRE) intervention on health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) in people living with HIV/AIDS-related DSP. An assessor-blinded randomised controlled trial was conducted, with participants sourced from 10 clinics with HIV services, the family care clinic at Wilkins Hospital and 2 large hospitals in Harare, Zimbabwe. A 12-week PRE intervention was conducted twice weekly for 80 participants, while the control group with 80 participants continued with usual daily activities. The main outcome variable was HR-QOL for which we controlled for demographic and clinical measures in generalised estimating equation population-averaged models. Data were summarised and analysed using an intention to treat analysis approach using the Stata v10 program. Mean age of participants was 42.2 years (SD = 8.5). While d4T was used by 59% (n = 94), an equal proportion of the participants also had moderate to severe neuropathy. PRE was found to significantly improve HR-QOL in the intervention group based on the mean difference between the intervention group mean change and the mean change in the control group (F ratio 4.24; p = .04). This study established that PREs have positive effects on HR-QOL for people living with HIV/AIDS-related DSP.

  10. Comparison of treatments with the Forsus fatigue resistant device in relation to skeletal maturity: a cephalometric and magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aras, Aynur; Ada, Emel; Saracoğlu, Hatice; Gezer, Naciye S; Aras, Isil

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the dentoskeletal changes and alterations of mandibular condyle-disc-fossa relationships in subjects at the peak and the end of the pubertal growth period treated with the Forsus fatigue resistant device (3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif). The sample consisted of 29 subjects with Class II Division 1 malocclusions who were classified according to their hand-wrist radiographs. Fifteen patients were at or just before the peak phase of pubertal growth (peak pubertal group). Fourteen patients were near the end of the pubertal growth period (late pubertal group). The study was conducted by using lateral cephalometric radiographs and magnetic resonance images obtained at the beginning and at the end of the application of the Forsus fatigue resistant device. The treatment period was 9 months. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to evaluate differences within groups. The changes observed in both groups were compared by using the Mann-Whitney U test. There were statistically significant group differences in mandibular length and ramus length, with significant increases of these parameters in the peak pubertal group (P 0.05), with the exception of mandibular molar vertical movements, which were significantly greater in the peak pubertal group (P positional changes of the mandibular condyle in relation to the glenoid fossa in either group (P >0.05). Although the articular disc was positioned more anteriorly in the peak pubertal group compared with its pretreatment position (P position of the disc was still within the physiologic range. No significant intergroup difference was observed for disc-condyle relationship (P >0.05). The Forsus fatigue resistant device did not appear to cause significant increases in mandibular dimensions in subjects in late puberty. According to the magnetic resonance image findings, Forsus treatment is not a risk factor for the development of temporomandibular dysfunction in subjects with no signs and clinical

  11. Nutrition guidelines for strength sports: sprinting, weightlifting, throwing events, and bodybuilding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Gary; Phillips, Stuart M

    2011-01-01

    Strength and power athletes are primarily interested in enhancing power relative to body weight and thus almost all undertake some form of resistance training. While athletes may periodically attempt to promote skeletal muscle hypertrophy, key nutritional issues are broader than those pertinent to hypertrophy and include an appreciation of the sports supplement industry, the strategic timing of nutrient intake to maximize fuelling and recovery objectives, plus achievement of pre-competition body mass requirements. Total energy and macronutrient intakes of strength-power athletes are generally high but intakes tend to be unremarkable when expressed relative to body mass. Greater insight into optimization of dietary intake to achieve nutrition-related goals would be achieved from assessment of nutrient distribution over the day, especially intake before, during, and after exercise. This information is not readily available on strength-power athletes and research is warranted. There is a general void of scientific investigation relating specifically to this unique group of athletes. Until this is resolved, sports nutrition recommendations for strength-power athletes should be directed at the individual athlete, focusing on their specific nutrition-related goals, with an emphasis on the nutritional support of training.

  12. Loss of mass and performance in skeletal muscle tissue: a continuum model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giantesio Giulia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a continuum hyperelastic model which describes the mechanical response of a skeletal muscle tissue when its strength and mass are reduced by aging. Such a reduction is typical of a geriatric syndrome called sarcopenia. The passive behavior of the material is described by a hyperelastic, polyconvex, transversely isotropic strain energy function, and the activation of the muscle is modeled by the so called active strain approach. The loss of ability of activating of an elder muscle is then obtained by lowering of some percentage the active part of the stress, while the loss of mass is modeled through a multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient. The obtained stress-strain relations are graphically represented and discussed in order to study some of the effects of sarcopenia.

  13. Aberrant mitochondrial homeostasis in the skeletal muscle of sedentary older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeel Safdar

    Full Text Available The role of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress has been extensively characterized in the aetiology of sarcopenia (aging-associated loss of muscle mass and muscle wasting as a result of muscle disuse. What remains less clear is whether the decline in skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity is purely a function of the aging process or if the sedentary lifestyle of older adult subjects has confounded previous reports. The objective of the present study was to investigate if a recreationally active lifestyle in older adults can conserve skeletal muscle strength and functionality, chronic systemic inflammation, mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative capacity, and cellular antioxidant capacity. To that end, muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis of young and age-matched recreationally active older and sedentary older men and women (N = 10/group; female symbol = male symbol. We show that a physically active lifestyle is associated with the partial compensatory preservation of mitochondrial biogenesis, and cellular oxidative and antioxidant capacity in skeletal muscle of older adults. Conversely a sedentary lifestyle, associated with osteoarthritis-mediated physical inactivity, is associated with reduced mitochondrial function, dysregulation of cellular redox status and chronic systemic inflammation that renders the skeletal muscle intracellular environment prone to reactive oxygen species-mediated toxicity. We propose that an active lifestyle is an important determinant of quality of life and molecular progression of aging in skeletal muscle of the elderly, and is a viable therapy for attenuating and/or reversing skeletal muscle strength declines and mitochondrial abnormalities associated with aging.

  14. Hand grip strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Henrik; Gaist, David; Petersen, Hans Christian

    2002-01-01

    in life is a major problem in terms of prevalence, morbidity, functional limitations, and quality of life. It is therefore of interest to find a phenotype reflecting physical functioning which has a relatively high heritability and which can be measured in large samples. Hand grip strength is known......-55%). A powerful design to detect genes associated with a phenotype is obtained using the extreme discordant and concordant sib pairs, of whom 28 and 77 dizygotic twin pairs, respectively, were found in this study. Hence grip strength is a suitable phenotype for identifying genetic variants of importance to mid...

  15. Subclinical hypothyroidism has little influences on muscle mass or strength in elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Min Kyong; Lee, You Jin; Choi, Sung Hee; Lim, Soo; Yang, Eun Joo; Lim, Jae-Young; Paik, Nam-Jong; Kim, Ki Woong; Park, Kyong Soo; Jang, Hak C; Cho, Bo Youn; Park, Young Joo

    2010-08-01

    Sarcopenia, the age-related decline in muscle mass, affects the muscle strength and muscle quality, and these changes decrease functional capacity. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction increases with age, and changes in thyroid hormone level lead to neuromuscular deficits. We investigated the effects of subclinical hypothyroidism on the muscle mass, strength or quality in elderly people. One thousand one hundred eighteen subjects aged > or = 65 yr were randomly selected from a local population and classified into a euthyroid (280 men and 358 women), subclinically hypothyroid (61 men and 75 women), or overtly hypothyroid (7 men and 16 women) group. Although women with subclinical hypothyroidism had a higher prevalence of sarcopenia, defined according to the ratio of appendicular skeletal muscle mass to the square of height, muscle mass, strength or quality did not differ in relation to thyroid status in men or in women. Multivariate analysis including age, diabetes, hypertension, acute coronary event, alcohol, smoking, presence of pain, physical activity score, and lipid profile, showed that thyroid-stimulating hormone level was not associated with muscle mass, strength or quality. In conclusion, subclinical hypothyroidism has little influences on muscle mass, strength or quality, and may not be associated with sarcopenia.

  16. Proteome-wide Adaptations of Mouse Skeletal Muscles during a Full Month in Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tascher, Georg; Brioche, Thomas; Maes, Pauline; Chopard, Angèle; O'Gorman, Donal; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Blanc, Stéphane; Bertile, Fabrice

    2017-07-07

    The safety of space flight is challenged by a severe loss of skeletal muscle mass, strength, and endurance that may compromise the health and performance of astronauts. The molecular mechanisms underpinning muscle atrophy and decreased performance have been studied mostly after short duration flights and are still not fully elucidated. By deciphering the muscle proteome changes elicited in mice after a full month aboard the BION-M1 biosatellite, we observed that the antigravity soleus incurred the greatest changes compared with locomotor muscles. Proteomics data notably suggested mitochondrial dysfunction, metabolic and fiber type switching toward glycolytic type II fibers, structural alterations, and calcium signaling-related defects to be the main causes for decreased muscle performance in flown mice. Alterations of the protein balance, mTOR pathway, myogenesis, and apoptosis were expected to contribute to muscle atrophy. Moreover, several signs reflecting alteration of telomere maintenance, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance were found as possible additional deleterious effects. Finally, 8 days of recovery post flight were not sufficient to restore completely flight-induced changes. Thus in-depth proteomics analysis unraveled the complex and multifactorial remodeling of skeletal muscle structure and function during long-term space flight, which should help define combined sets of countermeasures before, during, and after the flight.

  17. Gender differences in rotation of the shank during single-legged drop landing and its relation to rotational muscle strength of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiriyama, Shinya; Sato, Haruhiko; Takahira, Naonobu

    2009-01-01

    Increased shank rotation during landing has been considered to be one of the factors for noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries in female athletes. There have been no known gender differences in rotational knee muscle strength, which is expected to inhibit exaggerated shank rotation. Women have less knee external rotator strength than do men. Lower external rotator strength is associated with increased internal shank rotation at the time of landing. Controlled laboratory study. One hundred sixty-nine healthy young subjects (81 female and 88 male; age, 17.0 +/- 1.0 years) volunteered to participate in this study. The subjects performed single-legged drop landings from a 20-cm height. Femoral and shank kinematics were measured using a 3D optoelectronic tracking system during the drop landings, and then the joint angles around the knee (flexion/extension, valgus/varus, and internal/external rotation) were calculated. The maximal isometric rotational muscle strength of the knee was measured at 30 degrees of knee flexion in a supine position using a dynamometer. The female subjects had significantly less external shank rotation strength than did the male subjects (P external rotation strength and the peak shank internal rotation angle during landing (r = -0.322, P external rotator strength. This may lead to large shank internal rotation movement during the single-legged drop landing. Improving strength training of the external rotator muscle may help decrease the rates of anterior cruciate ligament injury in female athletes.

  18. Intramuscular degeneration process in Duchenne muscular dystrophy; Investigation by longitudinal MR imaging of the skeletal muscles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Takeshi; Matsumra, Kiichiro (Shimoshizu National Hospital, Yotsukaido, Chiba (Japan)); Hashimoto, Takahiro; Ikehira, Hiroo; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Tateno, Yukio

    1992-03-01

    Intramuscular degeneration process of Duchenne dystrophy skeletal muscles was investigated by longitudinal skeletal muscle imaging with high-field-strength NMR-CT of 1.5 Tesla. Thigh muscles in 10 cases ranging in age from 4 to 19 years were examined by T{sub 1}-weighted longitudinal images (TR=215{approx}505 ms, TE=19{approx}20 ms). The following results were obtained. Skeletal muscle degeneration was depicted as high signal intensity area reflecting its high fat contents. These high signal intensity areas had a longitudinally streaky appearance in parallel direction with myofibers. These findings were more prominent toward myotendon junction than muscle bellies. Skeletal muscle degeneration progressed rapidly between 7 to 10 years of age, and reached a plateau after that. (author).

  19. Performance on the Functional Movement Screen™ is related to hop performance, but not to hip and knee strength in collegiate football players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willigenburg, Nienke; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To define the relationship between FMS™ scores and hop performance, hip strength, and knee strength in collegiate football players. Design Cross-sectional cohort. Participants Freshmen of a division I collegiate American football team (n=59). Main Outcome Measures The athletes performed the FMS™, as well as a variety of hop tests, isokinetic knee strength and isometric hip strength tasks. We recorded total FMS™ score, peak strength and hop performance, and we calculated asymmetries between legs on the different tasks. Spearman’s correlation coefficients quantified the relationships these measures, and chi-square analyses compared the number of athletes with asymmetries on the different tasks. Results We observed significant correlations (r=0.38–0.56, p≤0.02) between FMS™ scores and hop distance, but not between FMS™ scores and hip or knee strength (all p≥0.21). The amount of asymmetry on the FMS™ test was significantly correlated to the amount of asymmetry on the timed 6m hop (r=0.44, phip or knee strength asymmetries between limbs (all p≥0.34). Conclusions FMS™ score was positively correlated to hop distance, and limb asymmetry in FMS™ tasks was correlated to limb asymmetry in 6m hop time in football players. No significant correlations were observed between FMS™ score and hip and knee strength, or between FMS™ asymmetry and asymmetries in hip and knee strength between limbs. These results indicate that a simple hop for distance test may be a time and cost efficient alternative to FMS™ testing in athletes and that functional asymmetries between limbs do not coincide with strength asymmetries. PMID:26886801

  20. Performance on the Functional Movement Screen Is Related to Hop Performance But Not to Hip and Knee Strength in Collegiate Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willigenburg, Nienke; Hewett, Timothy E

    2017-03-01

    To define the relationship between Functional Movement Screen (FMS) scores and hop performance, hip strength, and knee strength in collegiate football players. Cross-sectional cohort. Freshmen of a Division I collegiate American football team (n = 59). The athletes performed the FMS, and also a variety of hop tests, isokinetic knee strength, and isometric hip strength tasks. We recorded total FMS score, peak strength, and hop performance, and we calculated asymmetries between legs on the different tasks. Spearman correlation coefficients quantified the relationships between these measures, and χ analyses compared the number of athletes with asymmetries on the different tasks. We observed significant correlations (r = 0.38-0.56, P ≤ 0.02) between FMS scores and hop distance but not between FMS scores and hip or knee strength (all P ≥ 0.21). The amount of asymmetry on the FMS test was significantly correlated to the amount of asymmetry on the timed 6-m hop (r = 0.44, P hip or knee strength asymmetries between limbs (all P ≥ 0.34). Functional Movement Screen score was positively correlated to hop distance, and limb asymmetry in FMS tasks was correlated to limb asymmetry in 6-m hop time in football players. No significant correlations were observed between FMS score and hip and knee strength or between FMS asymmetry and asymmetries in hip and knee strength between limbs. These results indicate that a simple hop for distance test may be a time-efficient and cost-efficient alternative to FMS testing in athletes and that functional asymmetries between limbs do not coincide with strength asymmetries.

  1. Systematic evaluation of skeletal mechanical function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lauren; Bigelow, Erin M R; Jepsen, Karl J

    2013-06-01

    Many genetic and environmental perturbations lead to measurable changes in bone morphology, matrix composition, and matrix organization. The skeletal system is highly adaptive, such that genetic and environmental perturbations affecting one trait are often accompanied by compensatory changes in other traits. This adaptation should be considered when attempting to draw meaningful conclusions about the role of a gene, for example. The challenge is to figure out which alterations can be attributed to the perturbation and which result from adaptive changes associated with establishing mechanical function. The goal of this chapter is to describe straight-forward biomechanical methods that can be used to determine whether a genetic or environmental perturbation affected bone strength. We introduce a systematic method for evaluating how bone strength was altered in the context of morphology and tissue-level mechanical properties, which are determined in large part from matrix composition, matrix organization, and porosity. We present this work as a first step toward screening mice for a phenotypic effect and for establishing the associated biomechanical mechanism by which function was altered. The outcome of these analyses generally provides insight into the next set of experiments required to further connect the cellular perturbation with the functional changes. The protocols were written to enable researchers without a background in engineering to conduct the assays or to enable researchers to better understand the outcomes of similar assays conducted by colleagues knowledgeable in engineering.

  2. Gender differences in skeletal muscle substrate metabolism - molecular mechanisms and insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundsgaard, Annemarie; Kiens, Bente

    2014-01-01

    higher insulin sensitivity of female skeletal muscle can be related to gender-specific regulation of molecular metabolism will be topic for discussion. Gender differences in muscle fiber type distribution and substrate availability to and in skeletal muscle are highly relevant for substrate metabolism...

  3. What's So Special about FGF19-Unique Effects Reported on Skeletal Muscle Mass and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, David J

    2017-08-01

    In a recent study published in Nature Medicine, Benoit et al. (2017) reported unique effects of FGF19 on mouse skeletal muscle: FGF19 induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy and blocked muscle atrophy, acting via FGF receptors and ßKlotho, while a related FGF21 hormone was ineffective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Regulation of Blood Flow in Contracting Skeletal Muscle in Aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piil, Peter Bergmann

    Oxygen delivery to skeletal muscle is regulated precisely to match the oxygen demand; however, with aging the regulation of oxygen delivery during exercise is impaired. The present thesis investigated mechanisms underlying the age-related impairment in regulation of blood flow and oxygen delivery......GMP) was used as intervention, and skeletal muscle blood flow, oxygen delivery, and functional sympatholysis was examined. The two studies included 53 healthy, habitually active, male subjects. All subjects participated in an experimental day in which femoral arterial blood flow and blood pressure were assessed...... that improving sympatholytic capacity by training may be a slower process in older than in young men. In conclusion, this thesis provides new important knowledge related to the regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow in aging. Specifically, it demonstrates that changes in cGMP signaling is an underlying cause...

  5. Comprehensive analysis of tropomyosin isoforms in skeletal muscles by top-down proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yutong; Peng, Ying; Lin, Ziqing; Chen, Yi-Chen; Wei, Liming; Hacker, Timothy A; Larsson, Lars; Ge, Ying

    2016-04-01

    Mammalian skeletal muscles are heterogeneous in nature and are capable of performing various functions. Tropomyosin (Tpm) is a major component of the thin filament in skeletal muscles and plays an important role in controlling muscle contraction and relaxation. Tpm is known to consist of multiple isoforms resulting from different encoding genes and alternative splicing, along with post-translational modifications. However, a systematic characterization of Tpm isoforms in skeletal muscles is still lacking. Therefore, we employed top-down mass spectrometry (MS) to identify and characterize Tpm isoforms present in different skeletal muscles from multiple species, including swine, rat, and human. Our study revealed that Tpm1.1 and Tpm2.2 are the two major Tpm isoforms in swine and rat skeletal muscles, whereas Tpm1.1, Tpm2.2, and Tpm3.12 are present in human skeletal muscles. Tandem MS was utilized to identify the sequences of the major Tpm isoforms. Furthermore, quantitative analysis revealed muscle-type specific differences in the abundance of un-modified and modified Tpm isoforms in rat and human skeletal muscles. This study represents the first systematic investigation of Tpm isoforms in skeletal muscles, which not only demonstrates the capabilities of top-down MS for the comprehensive characterization of skeletal myofilament proteins but also provides the basis for further studies on these Tpm isoforms in muscle-related diseases.

  6. Application of skeletal age based on x-ray in selecting sports talents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Zongzhen; Xu, Guodong; Song, Tao

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal age has been studied and proved that for most elite athletes, it was coincident with the chronological ages when they were young. In order to explore the application of skeletal age in selecting sports talent, 32 athletes (female, chronological age 5-12 y) were chosen from the Gymnastics Training Base in this study. Their left hand-wrists were photographed with X-rays, and then the skeletal ages were estimated by Chinese version of the Tanner-Whitehouse Skeletal Maturity Assessment System. At the same time, their body shapes, functions, and sports ability were also measured. Results showed that 71.88% of the skeletal age was proportional to their chronological age (+/- 1 y); while 18.75% of the skeletal maturity was retarded by 1- 2 year, 9.37% of those was advanced more than 1 year. On the other hand, the body shape, functions and sports ability of the athletes were positively related with their skeletal maturity. This study proved that the determination of skeletal maturity is a reliable evaluation for selecting sports talent. A further study on the influence of gymnastics on the skeletal age is of great significance.

  7. Echo intensity obtained from ultrasonography images reflecting muscle strength in elderly men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe Y

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Yuya Watanabe,1 Yosuke Yamada,1,2 Yoshihiro Fukumoto,3 Tatsuro Ishihara,4 Keiichi Yokoyama,1 Tsukasa Yoshida,1 Motoko Miyake,1 Emi Yamagata,5 Misaka Kimura1 1Laboratory of Sports and Health Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; 2Research Fellow, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, Japan; 3Faculty of Rehabilitation, Kobe Gakuin University, Kobe, Japan; 4Faculty of Health and Sports Science, Doshisha University, Kyoto, Japan; 5Laboratory of Gerontological Nursing, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan Background: It is well known that loss of muscle mass (quantitative change is a major change that occurs with aging. Qualitative changes in skeletal muscle, such as increased intramuscular fat, also occur as one ages. Enhanced echo intensity (EI on ultrasonography images of skeletal muscle is believed to reflect muscle quality. Recent studies evaluating the quality of skeletal muscle using computer-aided gray scale analysis showed that EI is associated with muscle strength independently of age or muscle size in middle-aged and elderly women. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether muscle quality based on EI is associated with muscle strength independently of muscle size for elderly men. Methods: A total of 184 elderly men (65–91 years living independently in Kyoto, Japan, participated in this study. The EI, muscle thickness (MT, and subcutaneous fat thickness (FT of the anterior compartment of the right thigh were determined by assessing ultrasonography images. The maximum isometric torque of knee extension at a knee angle of 90° was measured. Results: The EI showed a significant negative correlation with muscle strength (r = -0.333, P < 0.001. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that the MT and EI of the knee extensor muscle were independently associated with maximum isometric knee extension strength. Even when partial correlation analysis was performed with age

  8. Skeletal lesions from inhaled plutonium in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Park, J.F.; Weller, R.E.; Ragan, H.A.; McClanahan, B.J.; Fisher, D.R.

    1984-10-01

    The report briefly reviews the skeletal effects observed in ongoing lifespan studies in beagle dogs at 13, 10, and 7 years, respectively, after inhalation exposure to 239 Pu oxide and nitrate or 238 Pu oxide. Plutonium nitrate was chosen to represent soluble material more readily translocated to bone and other tissues than the oxide. Bone lesions related to plutonium exposure were observed only in dogs exposed to 238 Pu oxide and 239 Pu nitrate. The skeleton accumulated approximately 2% ( 239 Pu oxide), 45% ( 238 Pu oxide) or 50% ( 239 Pu nitrate) of the final body burdens at 13, 10, and 7 years, respectively, after exposure. 11 references, 2 figures

  9. Skeletal muscle plasticity with marathon training in novice runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luden, N; Hayes, E; Minchev, K; Louis, E; Raue, U; Conley, T; Trappe, S

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate leg muscle adaptation in runners preparing for their first marathon. Soleus and vastus lateralis (VL) biopsies were obtained from six recreational runners (23 ± 1 years, 61 ± 3 kg) before (T1), after 13 weeks of run training (T2), and after 3 weeks of taper and marathon (T3). Single muscle fiber size, contractile function (strength, speed, and power) and oxidative enzyme activity [citrate synthase (CS)] were measured at all three time points, and fiber type distribution was determined before and after the 16-week intervention. Training increased VO(2max) ∼9% (Pmarathon training elicits very specific skeletal muscle adaptations that likely support the ability to perform 42.2 km of continuous running - further strengthening the existing body of evidence for skeletal muscle specificity. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. The Correlation of Skeletal and Cardiac Muscle Dysfunction in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Andrew D; Soslow, Jonathan H; Burnette, W Bryan; Bian, Aihua; Shintani, Ayumi; Sawyer, Douglas B; Markham, Larry W

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is characterized by progressive skeletal muscle and cardiac dysfunction. While skeletal muscle dysfunction precedes cardiomyopathy, the relationship between the progressive decline in skeletal and cardiac muscle function is unclear. This relationship is especially important given that the myocardial effects of many developing DMD therapies are largely unknown. Our objective was to assess the relationship between progression of skeletal muscle weakness and onset of cardiac dysfunction in DMD. A total of 77 DMD subjects treated at a single referral center were included. Demographic information, quantitative muscle testing (QMT), subjective muscle strength, cardiac function, and current and retrospective medications were collected. A Spearman rank correlation was used to evaluate for an association between subjective strength and fractional shortening. The effects of total QMT and arm QMT on fractional shortening were examined in generalized least square with and without adjustments for age, ambulatory status, and duration of corticosteroids and cardiac specific medications. We found a significant correlation between maintained subjective skeletal muscle arm and leg strength and maintained cardiac function as defined by fractional shortening (rho=0.47, p=0.004 and rho=0.48, p=0.003, respectively). We also found a significant association between QMT and fractional shortening among non-ambulatory DMD subjects (p=0.03), while this association was not significant in ambulatory subjects. Our findings allow us to conclude that in this population, there exists a significant relationship between skeletal muscle and cardiac function in non-ambulatory DMD patients. While this does not imply a causal relationship, a possible association between skeletal and cardiac muscle function suggests that researchers should carefully monitor cardiac function, even when the primary outcome measures are not cardiac in nature.

  11. The Strength of Ethical Matrixes as a Tool for Normative Analysis Related to Technological Choices: The Case of Geological Disposal for Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermisch, Céline; Depaus, Christophe

    2018-02-01

    The ethical matrix is a participatory tool designed to structure ethical reflection about the design, the introduction, the development or the use of technologies. Its collective implementation, in the context of participatory decision-making, has shown its potential usefulness. On the contrary, its implementation by a single researcher has not been thoroughly analyzed. The aim of this paper is precisely to assess the strength of ethical matrixes implemented by a single researcher as a tool for conceptual normative analysis related to technological choices. Therefore, the ethical matrix framework is applied to the management of high-level radioactive waste, more specifically to retrievable and non-retrievable geological disposal. The results of this analysis show that the usefulness of ethical matrixes is twofold and that they provide a valuable input for further decision-making. Indeed, by using ethical matrixes, implicit ethically relevant issues were revealed-namely issues of equity associated with health impacts and differences between close and remote future generations regarding ethical impacts. Moreover, the ethical matrix framework was helpful in synthesizing and comparing systematically the ethical impacts of the technologies under scrutiny, and hence in highlighting the potential ethical conflicts.

  12. Short-Term Effects of Whole-Body Vibration Combined with Task-Related Training on Upper Extremity Function, Spasticity, and Grip Strength in Subjects with Poststroke Hemiplegia: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Sun; Kim, Chang-Yong; Kim, Hyeong-Dong

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of whole-body vibration training combined with task-related training on arm function, spasticity, and grip strength in subjects with poststroke hemiplegia. Forty-five subjects with poststroke were randomly allocated to 3 groups, each with 15 subjects as follows: control group, whole-body vibration group, and whole-body vibration plus task-related training group. Outcome was evaluated by clinical evaluation and measurements of the grip strength before and 4 weeks after intervention. Our results show that there was a significantly greater increase in the Fugl-Meyer scale, maximal grip strength of the affected hand, and grip strength normalized to the less affected hand in subjects undergoing the whole-body vibration training compared with the control group after the test. Furthermore, there was a significantly greater increase in the Wolf motor function test and a decrease in the modified Ashworth spasticity total scores in subjects who underwent whole-body vibration plus task-related training compared with those in the other 2 groups after the test. The findings indicate that the use of whole-body vibration training combined with task-related training has more benefits on the improvement of arm function, spasticity, and maximal grip strength than conventional upper limb training alone or with whole-body vibration in people with poststroke hemiplegia.

  13. Bond strength of masonry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluijm, van der R.; Vermeltfoort, A.Th.

    1992-01-01

    Bond strength is not a well defined property of masonry. Normally three types of bond strength can be distinguished: - tensile bond strength, - shear (and torsional) bond strength, - flexural bond strength. In this contribution the behaviour and strength of masonry in deformation controlled uniaxial

  14. Butyryl-cholinesterase is related to muscle mass and strength. A new biomarker to identify elderly subjects at risk of sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Francesco; Della-Morte, David; Basile, Claudia; Curcio, Francesco; Liguori, Ilaria; Roselli, Mario; Gargiulo, Gaetano; Galizia, Gianluigi; Bonaduce, Domenico; Abete, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    To determine the relationship between Butyryl-cholinesterase (α-glycoprotein synthesized in the liver, b-CHE) and muscle mass and strength. Muscle mass by bioimpedentiometer and muscle strength by grip strength were evaluated in 337 elderly subjects (mean age: 76.2 ± 6.7 years) admitted to comprehensive geriatric assessment. b-CHE levels were lower in sarcopenic than in nonsarcopenic elderly subjects (p elderly subjects. Thus, b-CHE may be considered to be a fair biomarker for identifying elderly subjects at risk of sarcopenia.

  15. Skeletal muscle lymphoma: observations at MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eustace, S.; Winalski, C.S.; McGowen, A.; Lan, H.; Dorfman, D.

    1996-01-01

    We present the MR appearances of three patients with biopsy-proven primary lymphoma of skeletal muscle. In each case lymphoma resulted in bulky expansion of the involved muscle, homogeneously isointense to skeletal muscle on T1-weighted images, homogeneously hyperintense to skeletal muscle on T2-weighted images and diffusely enhancing following intravenous administration of gadopentate dimeglumine. (orig.)

  16. Cost-effectiveness of zoledronic acid in the prevention of skeletal-related events in patients with bone metastases secondary to advanced renal cell carcinoma: application to France, Germany, and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botteman, M F; Meijboom, M; Foley, I; Stephens, J M; Chen, Y M; Kaura, S

    2011-12-01

    The use of zoledronic acid (ZOL) has recently been shown to significantly reduce the risk of new skeletal-related events (SREs) in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients with bone metastases. The present exploratory study assessed the cost-effectiveness of ZOL in this population, adopting a French, German, and United Kingdom (UK) government payer perspective. This cost-effectiveness model was based on a post hoc retrospective analysis of a subset of patients with RCC who were included in a larger randomized clinical trial of patients with bone metastases secondary to a variety of cancers. In the trial, patients were randomized to receive ZOL (n = 27) or placebo (n = 19) with concomitant antineoplastic therapy every 3 weeks for 9 months (core study) plus 12 months during a study extension. Since the trial did not collect costs or data on the quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) of the patients, these outcomes had to be assumed via modeling exercises. The costs of SREs were estimated using hospital DRG tariffs. These estimates were supplemented with literature-based costs where possible. Drug, administration, and supply costs were obtained from published and internet sources. Consistent with similar economic analyses, patients were assumed to experience quality of life decrements lasting 1 month for each SRE. Uncertainty surrounding outcomes was addressed via multivariate sensitivity analyses. Patients receiving ZOL experienced 1.07 fewer SREs than patients on placebo. Patients on ZOL experienced a gain in discounted QALYs of approximately 0.1563 in France and Germany and 0.1575 in the UK. Discounted SRE-related costs were substantially lower among ZOL than placebo patients (-€ 4,196 in France, - € 3,880 in Germany, and -€ 3,355 in the UK). After taking into consideration the drug therapy costs, ZOL saved € 1,358, € 1,223, and € 719 in France, Germany, and the UK, respectively. In the multivariate sensitivity analyses, therapy with ZOL saved costs in 67

  17. Skeletal muscles of hibernating brown bears are unusually resistant to effects of denervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, David C; Hershey, John D; Mattoon, John S; Robbins, Charles T

    2012-06-15

    Hibernating bears retain most of their skeletal muscle strength despite drastically reduced weight-bearing activity. Regular neural activation of muscles is a potential mechanism by which muscle atrophy could be limited. However, both mechanical loading and neural activity are usually necessary to maintain muscle size. An alternative mechanism is that the signaling pathways related to the regulation of muscle size could be altered so that neither mechanical nor neural inputs are needed for retaining strength. More specifically, we hypothesized that muscles in hibernating bears are resistant to a severe reduction in neural activation. To test this hypothesis, we unilaterally transected the common peroneal nerve, which innervates ankle flexor muscles, in hibernating and summer-active brown bears (Ursus arctos). In hibernating bears, the long digital extensor (LDE) and cranial tibial (CT) musculotendon masses on the denervated side decreased after 11 weeks post-surgery by 18 ± 11 and 25 ± 10%, respectively, compared with those in the intact side. In contrast, decreases in musculotendon masses of summer-active bears after denervation were 61 ± 4 and 58 ± 5% in the LDE and CT, respectively, and significantly different from those of hibernating bears. The decrease due to denervation in summer-active bears was comparable to that occurring in other mammals. Whole-muscle cross-sectional areas (CSAs) measured from ultrasound images and myofiber CSAs measured from biopsies decreased similarly to musculotendon mass. Thus, hibernating bears alter skeletal muscle catabolic pathways regulated by neural activity, and exploration of these pathways may offer potential solutions for disuse atrophy of muscles.

  18. Osmoregulatory processes and skeletal muscle metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschmann, Michael; Gottschalk, Simone; Adams, Frauke; Luft, Friedrich C.; Jordan, Jens

    Prolonged microgravity during space flight is associated with a decrease in blood and extracellular volume. These changes in water and electrolyte balance might activate catabolic processes which contribute finally to the loss of muscle and bone mass and strength. Recently, we found a prompt increase that energy expenditure by about 30% in both normal and overweight men and women after drinking 500 ml water. This effect is mediated by an increased sympathetic nervous system activity, obviously secondary to stimulation of osmosensitive afferent neurons in the liver, and skeletal muscle is possibly one effector organ. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that this thermogenic response to water is accompanied by a stimulation of aerobic glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle. To this end, 16 young healthy volunteers (8 men) were studied. After an overnight fast (12h), a microdialysis probe was implanted into the right M. quadriceps femoris vastus lateralis and subsequently perfused with Ringer's solution (+50 mM ethanol). After 1h, volunteers were asked to drink 500 ml water (22° C) followed by continuing microdialysis for another 90 min. Dialysates (15 min fractions) were analyzed for [ethanol], [glucose], [lactate], [pyruvate], and [glycerol] in order to assess changes in muscle tissue perfusion (ethanol dilution technique), glycolysis and lipolysis. Blood samples were taken and heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were monitored. Neither HR and systolic and diastolic BP, nor plasma [glucose], [lactate], [insulin], and [C peptide] changed significantly after water drinking. Also, tissue perfusion and dialysate [glucose] did not change significantly. However, dialysate [lactate] increased by about 10 and 20% and dialysate [pyruvate] by about 100 and 200% in men and women, respectively. In contrast, dialysate [glycerol] decreased by about 30 and 20% in men and women, respectively. Therefore, drinking of 500 ml water stimulates aerobic glucose metabolism and inhibits

  19. A correlative study of dental age and skeletal maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachan, Kiran; Sharma, Vijay Prakash; Tandon, Pradeep

    2011-01-01

    Skeletal age had been assessed by comparison between maturation of hand-wrist with stages of cervical vertebrae or canine calcification stages in past and this had been closely related to craniofacial growth. The importance of pubertal growth spurt in various types of orthodontic therapies is already established. Hence, this study was aimed to evaluate the relationship of skeletal maturity by hand-wrist with cervical vertebral maturation indicators and canine calcification stages. The study consisted of randomly selected 90 children from Lucknow population with 45 males (age range 10-13 years) and 45 females (age range 9-12 years). Lateral Cephalogram, hand-wrist x-ray, and periapical x-rays of maxillary and mandibular right canines were taken. Mean, standard deviation was calculated of different groups. Correlation was made among cervical vertebral maturation, hand wrist maturation, and canine calcification stages at various age groups. There was strong correlation between skeletal maturation indicator and cervical vertebral maturation indicator for both male (0.849) and female (0.932), whereas correlation between skeletal maturation indicator and canine calcification was good for both male and female (0.635, 0.891). It was concluded that cervical vertebral maturation indicator and canine calcification stages can also be used for assessing skeletal maturity.

  20. Story of skeletally substituted benzenes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    values are extensively used to define aromaticity quantitatively.3 In a recent study on ... studies were directed to unravel the subtle ways in which the stability, reactivity, and ..... The singlet–triplet gaps of all the skeletally substituted benzenes ...

  1. Skeletal Muscle Laminopathies: A Review of Clinical and Molecular Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Maggi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available LMNA-related disorders are caused by mutations in the LMNA gene, which encodes for the nuclear envelope proteins, lamin A and C, via alternative splicing. Laminopathies are associated with a wide range of disease phenotypes, including neuromuscular, cardiac, metabolic disorders and premature aging syndromes. The most frequent diseases associated with mutations in the LMNA gene are characterized by skeletal and cardiac muscle involvement. This review will focus on genetics and clinical features of laminopathies affecting primarily skeletal muscle. Although only symptomatic treatment is available for these patients, many achievements have been made in clarifying the pathogenesis and improving the management of these diseases.

  2. Cardiac troponin T and fast skeletal muscle denervation in ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zherong; Feng, Xin; Dong, Juan; Wang, Zhong-Min; Lee, Jingyun; Furdui, Cristina; Files, Daniel Clark; Beavers, Kristen M; Kritchevsky, Stephen; Milligan, Carolanne; Jin, Jian-Ping; Delbono, Osvaldo; Zhang, Tan

    2017-10-01

    ) decreased the levels of gene expression of muscle denervation markers; and (iii) enhanced neurotransmission efficiency at NMJ. Cardiac troponin T at the NMJ region contributes to NMJ functional decline with ageing mainly in the fast-twitch skeletal muscle through interfering with PKA signalling. This knowledge could inform useful targets for prevention and therapy of age-related decline in muscle function. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Society on Sarcopenia, Cachexia and Wasting Disorders.

  3. Comparison of second molar eruption patterns in patients with skeletal Class II and skeletal Class I malocclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brin, Ilana; Camasuvi, Semin; Dali, Nasser; Aizenbud, Dror

    2006-12-01

    The eruptive positions of the second molars in Class I and Class II malocclusions were studied. Pretreatment records of 221 patients with a mean age of 11.3 years were evaluated. About 19% of them had skeletal Class I, 31% had skeletal maxillary Class II, and 50% had skeletal mandibular Class II malocclusions. The mean values of the dental and chronologic ages of the subjects were similar. The eruptive positions in relation to a reference line, the developmental stages of the patients' second molars and dental ages were recorded from the panoramic roentgenograms. The distribution of the various developmental stages in each malocclusion group was similar, and no association between skeletal malocclusion and dental developmental stage of the second molars was encountered. The eruptive position of the maxillary second molars was more occlusal only in the oldest maxillary Class II group, above 12 years of age (P = .02). These results support, in part, previous reports suggesting that the maxillary second molars may erupt earlier in patients with skeletal maxillary Class II malocclusions.

  4. Human skeletal muscle releases leptin in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolsk, Emil; Grøndahl, Thomas Sahl; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2012-01-01

    Leptin is considered an adipokine, however, cultured myocytes have also been found to release leptin. Therefore, as proof-of-concept we investigated if human skeletal muscle synthesized leptin by measuring leptin in skeletal muscle biopsies. Following this, we quantified human skeletal muscle...... was unaltered. During saline infusion the adipose tissue release averaged 0.8 ± 0.3 ng min(-1) 100g tissue(-1) whereas skeletal muscle release was 0.5 ± 0.1 ng min(-1) 100g tissue(-1). In young healthy humans, skeletal muscle contribution to whole body leptin production could be substantial given the greater...

  5. A modern documented Italian identified skeletal collection of 2127 skeletons: the CAL Milano Cemetery Skeletal Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Cristina; Mazzarelli, Debora; Cappella, Annalisa; Castoldi, Elisa; Mattia, Mirko; Poppa, Pasquale; De Angelis, Danilo; Vitello, Antonio; Biehler-Gomez, Lucie

    2018-06-01

    The CAL Milano Cemetery Skeletal Collection is a modern and continuously growing identified osteological collection of 2127 skeletons under study in the Laboratorio di Antropologia e Odontologia Forense (LABANOF) in the Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health of the University of Milan (Italy), and part of the Collezione Antropologica LABANOF (CAL). The collection presents individuals of both sexes and of all age groups with a high representation of the elderly and an interesting sample of infants. Each individual is associated with a documentation that includes sex, age-at-death, dates of birth and death, and a death certificate that specifies the exact cause of death and the chain of events that led to it (related pathological conditions or traumatic events). It was also possible to recover for several individuals the autopsy reports and antemortem photographs. This documented osteological collection is of crucial interest in physical and forensic anthropology: it provides unique teaching opportunities and more importantly considerable research possibilities to test and develop sex and age estimation methods, investigate key subjects of forensic relevance and discuss pathological markers, among others. The aim of this paper is to introduce the CAL Milano Cemetery Skeletal Collection as a new identified skeletal collection and present its research and teaching potential. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Molecular responses to moderate endurance exercise in skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined alterations in skeletal-muscle growth and atrophy-related molecular events after a single bout of moderate-intensity endurance exercise. Muscle biopsies were obtained from 10 men (23 +/- 1 yr, body mass 80 +/- 2 kg, and VO(2peak) 45 +/- 1 ml x kg'¹ x min'¹) immediately (0 hr) and...

  7. Dynamic imaging of skeletal muscle contraction in three orthogonal directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopata, R.G.; van Dijk, J.P; Pillen, S.; Nillisen, M.M.; Maas, H.; Thijssen, J.M.; Stegeman, D.F.; Korte, C.L.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a multidimensional strain estimation method using biplane ultrasound is presented to assess local relative deformation (i.e., local strain) in three orthogonal directions in skeletal muscles during induced and voluntary contractions. The method was tested in the musculus biceps

  8. Dynamic imaging of skeletal muscle contraction in three orthogonal directions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopata, R.G.P.; Dijk, J.P. van; Pillen, S.; Nillesen, M.M.; Maas, H.; Thijssen, J.M.; Stegeman, D.F.; Korte, C.L. de

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a multidimensional strain estimation method using biplane ultrasound is presented to assess local relative deformation (i.e., local strain) in three orthogonal directions in skeletal muscles during induced and voluntary contractions. The method was tested in the musculus biceps

  9. Three-dimensional ultrasound strain imaging of skeletal muscles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbertse, K.; Sprengers, A. M. J.; Nillesen, M. M.; Hansen, Hendrik H.G.; Lopata, R.G.P.; Verdonschot, N.; de Korte, C. L.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a multi-dimensional strain estimation method is presented to assess local relative deformation in three orthogonal directions in 3D space of skeletal muscles during voluntary contractions. A rigid translation and compressive deformation of a block phantom, that mimics muscle

  10. The Evolution of Trans-Skeletal Method Osteosynthesis | Omeonu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to give a brief overview of the history of trans-skeletal method ostheosynthesis as it relates to the evolution of the Ilizarov external fixation device. BODY: The pin frame external fixators originated from the idea of bone reduction with pins fixed to fragments before applying the plaster ...

  11. Climatically related millennial-scale fluctuations in strength of California margin oxygen-minimum zone during the past 60 k.y.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannariato, K.G.; Kennett, J.P.

    1999-11-01

    A strong oxygen-minimum zone (OMZ) currently exists along the California margin because of a combination of high surface-water productivity and poor intermediate-water ventilation. However, the strength of this OMZ may have been sensitive to late Quaternary ocean-circulation and productivity changes along the margin. Although sediment-lamination strength has been used to trace ocean-oxygenation changes in the past, oxygen levels on the open margin are not sufficiently low for laminations to form. In these regions, benthic foraminifera are highly sensitive monitors of OMZ strength, and their fossil assemblages can be used to reconstruct past fluctuations. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages from Ocean Drilling Program Site 1017, off Point Conception, exhibit major and rapid faunal oscillations in response to late Quaternary millennial-scale climate change (Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles) on the open central California margin. These faunal oscillations can be correlated to and are apparently synchronous with those reported from Santa Barbara Basin. Together they represent major fluctuations in the strength of the OMZ which were intimately associated with global climate change--weakening, perhaps disappearing, during cool periods and strengthening during warm periods. These rapid, major OMZ strength fluctuations were apparently widespread on the Northeast Pacific margin and must have influenced the evolution of margin biota and altered biogeochemical cycles with potential feedbacks to global climate change.

  12. Impact of fat mass distribution body shapes on muscles strength and the joints pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerf Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our study focuses on fat mass distribution body shapes type as measured to determine their effect on skeletal muscle strengthening lumbar extensors (upper and lower limbs where our background confirms that every girl has a natural body type of rectangle, apple, pear, or hourglass. It is good for her to know which type of body shape she is, so she can learn what exercises to do, whereas similar studies suggest that it is much better to challenge weight problems with exercise and dietary measures before resorting to figure shaping. For this purpose, our study was carried out with a total of thirty students, females listed in the Institute of Physical Education and Sport, University of Mostaganem, aged between 20 and 23 years; their homogeneity was based on age, sex, and academic specialty, classified based on the body mass index (BMI into two groups (normal and overweight and based on their body shape′s type into three groups (9 pear shape, 10 rectangle shape, and 11 hourglass shape as a protocol experimental to examine the impact of fat mass distribution body shapes type on lumbar extensor strength. Based on our data analysis, we confirm that the pear and the rectangle shape affect the strength lumbar extensors due to body weight distribution which increases the risks relating to the skeletal muscles. Weight gain is a factor contributing to the weakness of skeletal muscles. However, the body shape explains the anomalies of the distribution of fat mass and BMI risk observed in our sample in the lower and upper part of the body recorded by the values of Killy test and endurance of trunk, the case of the pear and the rectangle shape back pain, which are consisting in excess of the body fat distributed in comparison with less percentage of muscle mass. Whereas this difference can affect the pelvic position.

  13. A comparison of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal students on the inter-related dimensions of self-concept, strengths and achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Whitley

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Self-concept has been found to play a key role in academic and psychosocial outcomes for students. Appreciating the factors that have a bearing upon self-concept may be of particular importance for Aboriginal students, many of whom experience poorer outcomes than non-Aboriginal Canadians. The current study explored the relationships between multidimensional self-concept, perceived strengths and academic achievement among a sample Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal students. Results indicated that perceived self-concept and strengths were largely similar across groups. However, students in the two groups drew on different strengths to comprise their general self-concept. Findings are explored within the context of existing research and theory.

  14. Deletion of skeletal muscle SOCS3 prevents insulin resistance in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Sebastian; O'Neill, Hayley M; Sylow, Lykke

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation that contributes to defects in energy metabolism and insulin resistance. Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-3 expression is increased in skeletal muscle of obese humans. SOCS3 inhibits leptin signaling in the hypothalamus and insulin...... of hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance because of enhanced skeletal muscle insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and Akt phosphorylation that resulted in increased skeletal muscle glucose uptake. These data indicate that skeletal muscle SOCS3 does not play a critical role in regulating muscle development or energy...... expenditure, but it is an important contributing factor for inhibiting insulin sensitivity in obesity. Therapies aimed at inhibiting SOCS3 in skeletal muscle may be effective in reversing obesity-related glucose intolerance and insulin resistance....

  15. Light intensity physical activity and sedentary behavior in relation to body mass index and grip strength in older adults: cross-sectional findings from the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Identifying modifiable determinants of fat mass and muscle strength in older adults is important given their impact on physical functioning and health. Light intensity physical activity and sedentary behavior are potential determinants, but their relations to these outcomes are poorly un...

  16. Correlation of chronological, skeletal, and dental age in North Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhurima Nanda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Objectives: The aim of the study was to find out the correlation between chronological, dental, and skeletal age. Materials and Methods: Lateral cephalograms and orthopantomograms of 100 subjects of age ranging 9–14 years were obtained for the estimation of skeletal and dental age. Dental age was assessed using Demirjian's method; skeletal age was assessed using the new improved version of the cervical vertebral maturation method given by Baccetti, Franchi, and McNamara. Statistical analysis was carried out. Student's t-test and Spearman's coefficient correlation were used to assess the relation between chronological, skeletal, and dental age. Results: The Spearman's correlation coefficient was 0.777 (P < 0.001 between chronological and dental age, 0.516 (P < 0.001 between chronological and skeletal age, and 0.563 (P < 0.001 between dental and skeletal age. Conclusion: There is a good correlation between chronological and dental age in North Indian population which was higher for males as compared to females. A moderate correlation was found between chronological and skeletal age as well as between dental and skeletal age.

  17. Increased residual force enhancement in older adults is associated with a maintenance of eccentric strength.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey A Power

    Full Text Available Despite an age-related loss of voluntary isometric and concentric strength, muscle strength is well maintained during lengthening muscle actions (i.e., eccentric strength in old age. Additionally, in younger adults during lengthening of an activated skeletal muscle, the force level observed following the stretch is greater than the isometric force at the same muscle length. This feature is termed residual force enhancement (RFE and is believed to be a combination of active and passive components of the contractile apparatus. The purpose of this study was to provide an initial assessment of RFE in older adults and utilize aging as a muscle model to explore RFE in a system in which isometric force production is compromised, but structural mechanisms of eccentric strength are well-maintained. Therefore, we hypothesised that older adults will experience greater RFE compared with young adults. Following a reference maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC of the dorsiflexors in 10 young (26.1 ± 2.7 y and 10 old (76.0 ± 6.5 y men, an active stretch was performed at 15°/s over a 30° ankle joint excursion ending at the same muscle length as the reference MVCs (40° of plantar flexion. Any additional torque compared with the reference MVC therefore represented RFE. In older men RFE was ~2.5 times greater compared to young. The passive component of force enhancement contributed ~37% and ~20% to total force enhancement, in old and young respectively. The positive association (R(2 = 0.57 between maintained eccentric strength in old age and RFE indicates age-related mechanisms responsible for the maintenance of eccentric strength likely contributed to the observed elevated RFE. Additionally, as indicated by the greater passive force enhancement, these mechanisms may be related to increased muscle series elastic stiffness in old age.

  18. Impact of placental insufficiency on fetal skeletal muscle growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, William W.

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) caused by placental insufficiency is one of the most common and complex problems in perinatology, with no known cure. In pregnancies affected by placental insufficiency, a poorly functioning placenta restricts nutrient supply to the fetus and prevents normal fetal growth. Among other significant deficits in organ development, the IUGR fetus characteristically has less lean body and skeletal muscle mass than their appropriately-grown counterparts. Reduced skeletal muscle growth is not fully compensated after birth, as individuals who were born small for gestational age (SGA) from IUGR have persistent reductions in muscle mass and strength into adulthood. The consequences of restricted muscle growth and accelerated postnatal “catch-up” growth in the form of adiposity may contribute to the increased later life risk for visceral adiposity, peripheral insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in individuals who were formerly IUGR. This review will discuss how an insufficient placenta results in impaired fetal skeletal muscle growth and how lifelong reductions in muscle mass might contribute to increased metabolic disease risk in this vulnerable population. PMID:26994511

  19. Mind-Body Interventions to Reduce Risk for Health Disparities Related to Stress and Strength Among African American Women: The Potential of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, Loving-Kindness, and the NTU Therapeutic Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods-Giscombé, Cheryl L; Black, Angela R

    2010-12-14

    In the current article, the authors examine the potential role of mind-body interventions for preventing or reducing health disparities in a specific group-African American women. The authors first discuss how health disparities affect this group, including empirical evidence regarding the influence of biopsychosocial processes (e.g., psychological stress and social context) on disparate health outcomes. They also detail how African American women's unique stress experiences as a result of distinct sociohistorical and cultural experiences related to race and gender potentially widen exposure to stressors and influence stress responses and coping behaviors. Using two independent, but related, frameworks (Superwoman Schema [SWS] and the Strong Black Woman Script [SBW-S]), they discuss how, for African American women, stress is affected by "strength" (vis-à-vis resilience, fortitude, and self-sufficiency) and the emergent health-compromising behaviors related to strength (e.g., emotional suppression, extraordinary caregiving, and self-care postponement). The authors then describe the potential utility of three mind-body interventions-mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), loving-kindness meditation (LKM), and NTU psychotherapy-for specifically targeting the stress-, strength-, and contextually related factors that are thought to influence disparate outcomes for African American women. Self-awareness, self-care, inter- and intrapersonal restorative healing and a redefinition of inner strength may manifest through developing a mindfulness practice to decrease stress-related responses; using LKM to cultivate compassion and forgiveness for self and others; and the balance of independence and interdependence as a grounding NTU principle for redefining strength. The authors conclude with a discussion of potential benefits for integrating key aspects of the interventions with recommendations for future research.

  20. Ego depletion and attention regulation under pressure: Is a temporary loss of self-control strength indeed related to impaired attention regulation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Englert, C.; Zwemmer, K.; Bertrams, A.; Oudejans, R.R.D.

    2015-01-01

    In the current study we investigated whether ego depletion negatively affects attention regulation under pressure in sports by assessing participants' dart throwing performance and accompanying gaze behavior. According to the strength model of self-control, the most important aspect of self-control

  1. Increased external hip-rotation strength relates to reduced frontal-plane knee control during drop jumping in recreational female athletes: paradox or adaptation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandholm, Thomas; Thorborg, Kristian; Andersson, Elin

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between hip muscle strength (abduction and external rotation) and frontal-plane knee control during drop jumping in recreational female athletes. Thirty-three healthy young recreational female athletes were included. Maximal isometric...

  2. The Pleiotropic Effect of Physical Exercise on Mitochondrial Dynamics in Aging Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Barbieri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Decline in human muscle mass and strength (sarcopenia is one of the principal hallmarks of the aging process. Regular physical exercise and training programs are certain powerful stimuli to attenuate the physiological skeletal muscle alterations occurring during aging and contribute to promote health and well-being. Although the series of events that led to these muscle adaptations are poorly understood, the mechanisms that regulate these processes involve the “quality” of skeletal muscle mitochondria. Aerobic/endurance exercise helps to maintain and improve cardiovascular fitness and respiratory function, whereas strength/resistance-exercise programs increase muscle strength, power development, and function. Due to the different effect of both exercises in improving mitochondrial content and quality, in terms of biogenesis, dynamics, turnover, and genotype, combined physical activity programs should be individually prescribed to maximize the antiaging effects of exercise.

  3. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to L-carnitine and faster recovery from muscle fatigue after exercise (ID 738, 1492, 1493), skeletal muscle tissue repair (ID 738, 1492, 1493), increase in endurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... claims in relation to L-carnitine and faster recovery from muscle fatigue after exercise, skeletal muscle tissue repair, increase in endurance capacity, maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations, contribution to normal spermatogenesis, “energy metabolism”, and increasing L...

  4. Comparative analysis of the skeletal changes in tetrapods after brief influence of microgravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, V B; Gulimova, V I; Ilyin, E A; Asadchikov, V E; Buzmakov, A V; Okshtein, I L; Saveliev, S V

    2007-07-01

    Experiments involving lower tetrapods demonstrate that the degree of skeletal demineralization in spaceflights is related to the type of environmental behaviour of the animal. Probably the sensing of support reaction decreases the negative effect of spaceflight upon the bone tissue.

  5. The Strength Compass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledertoug, Mette Marie

    In the Ph.D-project ͚Strengths-based Learning - Children͛s character strengths as a means to their learning potential͛ 750 Danish children have assessed ͚The Strength Compass͛ in order to identify their strengths and to create awareness of strengths. This was followed by a strengths......-based intervention program in order to explore the strengths. Finally different methods to apply the strength in everyday life at school were applied. The paper presentation will show the results for strengths display for children aged 6-16 in different categories: Different age groups: Are the same strengths...... present in both small children and youths? Gender: Do the results show differences between the two genders? Danish as a mother- tongue language: Do the results show any differences in the strengths display when considering different language and cultural backgrounds? Children with Special Needs: Do...

  6. Congenital anomalies and normal skeletal variants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guebert, G.M.; Yochum, T.R.; Rowe, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    Congenital anomalies and normal skeletal variants are a common occurrence in clinical practice. In this chapter a large number of skeletal anomalies of the spine and pelvis are reviewed. Some of the more common skeletal anomalies of the extremities are also presented. The second section of this chapter deals with normal skeletal variants. Some of these variants may simulate certain disease processes. In some instances there are no clear-cut distinctions between skeletal variants and anomalies; therefore, there may be some overlap of material. The congenital anomalies are presented initially with accompanying text, photos, and references, beginning with the skull and proceeding caudally through the spine to then include the pelvis and extremities. The normal skeletal variants section is presented in an anatomical atlas format without text or references

  7. AMPK in skeletal muscle function and metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøbsted, Rasmus; Hingst, Janne Rasmuss; Fentz, Joachim

    2018-01-01

    Skeletal muscle possesses a remarkable ability to adapt to various physiologic conditions. AMPK is a sensor of intracellular energy status that maintains energy stores by fine-tuning anabolic and catabolic pathways. AMPK's role as an energy sensor is particularly critical in tissues displaying...... highly changeable energy turnover. Due to the drastic changes in energy demand that occur between the resting and exercising state, skeletal muscle is one such tissue. Here, we review the complex regulation of AMPK in skeletal muscle and its consequences on metabolism (e.g., substrate uptake, oxidation......, and storage as well as mitochondrial function of skeletal muscle fibers). We focus on the role of AMPK in skeletal muscle during exercise and in exercise recovery. We also address adaptations to exercise training, including skeletal muscle plasticity, highlighting novel concepts and future perspectives...

  8. The exercised skeletal muscle: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Marini

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The skeletal muscle is the second more plastic tissue of the body - second to the nervous tissue only. In fact, both physical activity and inactivity contribute to modify the skeletal muscle, by continuous signaling through nerve impulses, mechanical stimuli and humoral clues. In turn, the skeletal muscle sends signals to the body, thus contributing to its homeostasis. We'll review here the contribute of physical exercise to the shaping of skeletal muscle, to the adaptation of its mass and function to the different needs imposed by different physical activities and to the attainment of the health benefits associated with active skeletal muscles. Focus will primarily be on the molecular pathways and on gene regulation that result in skeletal muscle adaptation to exercise.

  9. Strength capability while kneeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslegrave, C M; Tracy, M F; Corlett, E N

    1997-12-01

    Work sometimes has to be carried out kneeling, particularly where jobs are performed in confined spaces as is common for miners, aircraft baggage handlers and maintenance workers. In order to assess the risks in performing forceful tasks under such conditions, data is needed on strength capabilities of kneeling subjects. A study was undertaken to measure isometric strength in single-handed exertions for male subjects and to investigate the effects on this of task layout factors (direction of force exertion, reach distance, height of the workpiece and orientation relative to the subject's sagittal plane). The data has been tabulated to show the degree to which strength may be reduced in different situations and analysis of the task factors showed their influence to be complex with direction of exertion and reach distance having the greatest effect. The results also suggest that exertions are weaker when subjects are kneeling on two knees than when kneeling on one knee, although this needs to be confirmed by direct experimental comparison.

  10. Ego depletion and attention regulation under pressure: is a temporary loss of self-control strength indeed related to impaired attention regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Chris; Zwemmer, Kris; Bertrams, Alex; Oudejans, Raôul R

    2015-04-01

    In the current study we investigated whether ego depletion negatively affects attention regulation under pressure in sports by assessing participants' dart throwing performance and accompanying gaze behavior. According to the strength model of self-control, the most important aspect of self-control is attention regulation. Because higher levels of state anxiety are associated with impaired attention regulation, we chose a mixed design with ego depletion (yes vs. no) as between-subjects and anxiety level (high vs. low) as within-subjects factor. Participants performed a perceptual-motor task requiring selective attention, namely, dart throwing. In line with our expectations, depleted participants in the high-anxiety condition performed worse and displayed a shorter final fixation on bull's eye, demonstrating that when one's self-control strength is depleted, attention regulation under pressure cannot be maintained. This is the first study that directly supports the general assumption that ego depletion is a major factor in influencing attention regulation under pressure.

  11. Poor physical function in elderly women in low-level aged care is related to muscle strength rather than to measures of sarcopenia

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Karen; Woods,; Iuliano-Burns,Sandra; King,Susannah; Strauss,Boyd

    2011-01-01

    Julie L Woods1, Sandra Iuliano-Burns2, Susannah J King1, Boyd J Strauss1, Karen Z Walker11Nutrition and Dietetics Department, Monash University, Victoria, Australia; 2Endocrine Centre of Excellence, Department of Medicine, Austin Health, University of Melbourne, West Heidelberg, AustraliaPurpose: To determine the prevalence of sarcopenia and investigate relationships among body composition, muscle strength, and physical function in elderly women in low-level aged care.Subjects and methods: Si...

  12. Pelvic radiograph in skeletal dysplasias: An approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Jana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The bony pelvis is constituted by the ilium, ischium, pubis, and sacrum. The pelvic radiograph is an important component of the skeletal survey performed in suspected skeletal dysplasia. Most of the common skeletal dysplasias have either minor or major radiological abnormalities; hence, knowledge of the normal radiological appearance of bony pelvis is vital for recognizing the early signs of various skeletal dysplasias. This article discusses many common and some uncommon radiological findings on pelvic radiographs along with the specific dysplasia in which they are seen; common differential diagnostic considerations are also discussed.

  13. Design and methods for a Scandinavian pharmacovigilance study of osteonecrosis of the jaw and serious infections among cancer patients treated with antiresorptive agents for the prevention of skeletal-related events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acquavella, John; Ehrenstein, Vera; Schiødt, Morten

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is a recognized complication of potent antiresorptive therapies, especially at the doses indicated to prevent skeletal complications for cancer patients with bone metastases. This paper describes the rationale and methods for a prospective, post-authoriza......OBJECTIVE: Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is a recognized complication of potent antiresorptive therapies, especially at the doses indicated to prevent skeletal complications for cancer patients with bone metastases. This paper describes the rationale and methods for a prospective, post...... (120 mg subcutaneously) or zoledronic acid (4 mg intravenously, adjusted for renal function). Patients will be identified using routinely collected data combined with medical chart review in Denmark, Sweden, and Norway. Followup will extend from the first administration of antiresorptive treatment...... to the earliest of death, loss-to-follow-up, or 5 years after therapy initiation. Results will be reported for three treatment cohorts: denosumab-naïve patients, zoledronic acid-naïve patients, and patients who switch from bisphosphonate treatment to denosumab. ONJ cases will be identified in three newly...

  14. Altered cross-bridge properties in skeletal muscle dystrophies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz eGuellich

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Force and motion generated by skeletal muscle ultimately depends on the cyclical interaction of actin with myosin. This mechanical process is regulated by intracellular Ca2+ through the thin filament-associated regulatory proteins i.e.; troponins and tropomyosin. Muscular dystrophies are a group of heterogeneous genetic affections characterized by progressive degeneration and weakness of the skeletal muscle as a consequence of loss of muscle tissue which directly reduces the number of potential myosin cross-bridges involved in force production. Mutations in genes responsible for skeletal muscle dystrophies have been shown to modify the function of contractile proteins and cross-bridge interactions. Altered gene expression or RNA splicing or post-translational modifications of contractile proteins such as those related to oxidative stress, may affect cross-bridge function by modifying key proteins of the excitation-contraction coupling. Micro-architectural change in myofilament is another mechanism of altered cross-bridge performance. In this review, we provide an overview about changes in cross-bridge performance in skeletal muscle dystrophies and discuss their ultimate impacts on striated muscle function.

  15. Radiographic manifestations of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Minoru; Kudo, Sho; Russell, W.J.

    1984-09-01

    A relatively high frequency of hyperostosis in various body sites was found in 240 subjects with ''diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis'' (DISH) in the thoracic spine over an average observation period of 11 years. The onset and initial appearance of DISH in the thoracic spine were identified in 69 cases. The age at onset ranged from 40 to 65 years, and the initial sites involved were usually T9-10 and T10-11. As criteria in differentiating DISH from spondylosis deformans the hyperostoses anterior to the vertebral body itself appeared to be more important than the ''bridges'' anterior to the intervertebral spaces. Although it was difficult to differentiate the early appearance of DISH from spondylosis deformans in some cases, these long-term observations suggest that they are different entities. (author)

  16. Sex hormones and skeletal muscle weakness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sipilä, Sarianna; Narici, Marco; Kjaer, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Human ageing is accompanied with deterioration in endocrine functions the most notable and well characterized of which being the decrease in the production of sex hormones. Current research literature suggests that low sex hormone concentration may be among the key mechanism for sarcopenia...... and muscle weakness. Within the European large scale MYOAGE project, the role of sex hormones, estrogens and testosterone, in causing the aging-related loss of muscle mass and function was further investigated. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in women is shown to diminish age-associated muscle loss, loss...... properties. HRT influences gene expression in e.g. cytoskeletal and cell-matrix proteins, has a stimulating effect upon IGF-I, and a role in IL-6 and adipokine regulation. Despite low circulating steroid-hormone level, postmenopausal women have a high local concentration of steroidogenic enzymes in skeletal...

  17. Mining skeletal phenotype descriptions from scientific literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor Groza

    Full Text Available Phenotype descriptions are important for our understanding of genetics, as they enable the computation and analysis of a varied range of issues related to the genetic and developmental bases of correlated characters. The literature contains a wealth of such phenotype descriptions, usually reported as free-text entries, similar to typical clinical summaries. In this paper, we focus on creating and making available an annotated corpus of skeletal phenotype descriptions. In addition, we present and evaluate a hybrid Machine Learning approach for mining phenotype descriptions from free text. Our hybrid approach uses an ensemble of four classifiers and experiments with several aggregation techniques. The best scoring technique achieves an F-1 score of 71.52%, which is close to the state-of-the-art in other domains, where training data exists in abundance. Finally, we discuss the influence of the features chosen for the model on the overall performance of the method.

  18. High Fat Diet-Induced Skeletal Muscle Wasting Is Decreased by Mesenchymal Stem Cells Administration: Implications on Oxidative Stress, Ubiquitin Proteasome Pathway Activation, and Myonuclear Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Abrigo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity can lead to skeletal muscle atrophy, a pathological condition characterized by the loss of strength and muscle mass. A feature of muscle atrophy is a decrease of myofibrillar proteins as a result of ubiquitin proteasome pathway overactivation, as evidenced by increased expression of the muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases atrogin-1 and MuRF-1. Additionally, other mechanisms are related to muscle wasting, including oxidative stress, myonuclear apoptosis, and autophagy. Stem cells are an emerging therapy in the treatment of chronic diseases such as high fat diet-induced obesity. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are a population of self-renewable and undifferentiated cells present in the bone marrow and other mesenchymal tissues of adult individuals. The present study is the first to analyze the effects of systemic MSC administration on high fat diet-induced skeletal muscle atrophy in the tibialis anterior of mice. Treatment with MSCs reduced losses of muscle strength and mass, decreases of fiber diameter and myosin heavy chain protein levels, and fiber type transitions. Underlying these antiatrophic effects, MSC administration also decreased ubiquitin proteasome pathway activation, oxidative stress, and myonuclear apoptosis. These results are the first to indicate that systemically administered MSCs could prevent muscle wasting associated with high fat diet-induced obesity and diabetes.

  19. Radiation injury to skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persons, C.C.M.; Wondergem, J.; Leer, J.W.H.

    1997-01-01

    Radiotherapy of neoplasia has increased the mean life expectancy of cancer patients. On the other hand, more reports are published on morbidity of the treatment with regard to normal tissue. Studies on skeletal muscle injury specifically are scarce, but many clinical long term follow-up studies make note of side effects as muscle atrophy, fibrosis and limited function. Furthermore it is suggested that skeletal muscles of children are more prone to radiation injury than those of adult subjects. Effects of radiation on skeletal muscle were studied in rats. On hind limb of young (100 g) and adult (350 g) rats was irradiated with single doses (15-30 Gy), while the other served as control. Follow-up was up to 12 months post treatment. Muscular function in young rats was decreased significantly at 6 months post irradiation, but did not further decrease in the following 6 months. The amount of collagen, on the other hand, was not increased at 6 months, but became highly elevated at 12 months past treatment. This suggests that at 6 months, impaired muscular function may not be explained by increased fibrotic tissues. This is an agreement with results obtained in adult rats, where function was also impaired, without concomitant increase in collagen. In an earlier study, mitochondrial oxygen consumption was dose dependently decreased after irradiation, at 12 months, but not at 6 months post treatment. Furthermore, myosin-actin interaction was measured in skinned fibers. The first results of this study indicate changes in the interaction of contraction proteins, as early as 6 months post treatment. (authors)

  20. Comparative Study of Skeletal Stability between Postoperative Skeletal Intermaxillary Fixation and No Skeletal Fixation after Bilateral Sagittal Split Ramus Osteotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartlev, Jens; Godtfredsen, Erik; Andersen, Niels Trolle

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate skeletal stability after mandibular advancement with bilateral sagittal split osteotomy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-six patients underwent single-jaw bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) to correct skeletal Class II malocclusion....

  1. Diagnostic imaging of skeletal metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scutellari, P. N.; Addonisio, G.; Righi, R.; Giganti, M.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose of this article is to present an algorithm for detection and diagnosis of skeletal metastases, which may be applied differently in symptomatic and asymptomatic cancer patients. February to March 1999 it was randomly selected and retrospectively reviewed the clinical charts of 100 cancer patients (70 women and 30 men; mean age: 63 years, range: 55-87). All the patients had been staged according to TNM criteria and had undergone conventional radiography and bone scan; when findings were equivocal, CT and MRI had been performed too. The primary lesions responsible for bone metastases were sited in the: breast (51 cases), colon (30 cases: 17 men and 13 women), lung (7 cases: 6 men and 1 woman), stomach (4 cases: 2 men and 2 women), skin (4 cases: 3 men and 1 woman), kidney (2 men), pleura (1 woman), and finally liver (1 man). The most frequent radiographic pattern was the lytic type (52%), followed by osteosclerotic, mixed, lytic vs mixed and osteosclerotic vs lytic patterns. The patients were divided into two groups: group A patients were asymptomatic and group B patients had local symptoms and/or pain. Skeletal metastases are the most common malignant bone tumors: the spine and the pelvis are the most frequent sites of metastasis, because of the presence of high amounts of red (hematopoietic active) bone marrow. Pain is the main symptom, even though many bone metastases are asymptomatic. Pathological fractures are the most severe consequences. With the algorithm for detection and diagnosis of skeletal metastases two different diagnostic courses are available for asymptomatic and symptomatic patients. Bone scintigraphy remains the technique of choice in asymptomatic patients in whom skeletal metastases are suspected. However this technique, though very sensitive, is poorly specific, and thus a negative bone scan finding is double-checked with another physical examination: if the findings remain negative, the diagnostic workup is over. On the contrary, in

  2. Computational radiology in skeletal radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peloschek, Ph.; Nemec, S.; Widhalm, P.; Donner, R.; Birngruber, E.; Thodberg, H.H.; Kainberger, F.; Langs, G.

    2009-01-01

    Recent years have brought rapid developments in computational image analysis in musculo-skeletal radiology. Meanwhile the algorithms have reached a maturity that makes initial clinical use feasible. Applications range from joint space measurement to erosion quantification, and from fracture detection to the assessment of alignment angles. Current results of computational image analysis in radiography are very promising, but some fundamental issues remain to be clarified, among which the definition of the optimal trade off between automatization and operator-dependency, the integration of these tools into clinical work flow and last not least the proof of incremental clinical benefit of these methods.

  3. The Gluteus Medius Vs. Thigh Muscles Strength Ratio and Their Relation to Electromyography Amplitude During a Farmer’s Walk Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stastny Petr

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The strength ratio between hamstrings and quadriceps (H/Q is associated with knee injuries as well as hip abductor muscle (HAB weakness. Sixteen resistance trained men (age, 32.5 ± 4.2 years performed 5 s maximal isometric contractions at 75° of knee flexion/extension and 15° of hip abduction on a dynamometer. After this isometric test they performed a Farmer´s walk exercise to find out if the muscle strength ratio predicted the electromyography amplitude expressed as a percentage of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC. The carried load represented a moderate intensity of 75% of the exercise six repetitions maximum (6RM. Electromyography data from the vastus medialis (VM, vastus lateralis (VL, biceps femoris (BF and gluteus medius (Gmed on each leg were collected during the procedure. The groups selected were participants with H/Q ≥ 0.5, HQ < 0.5, HAB/H ≥ 1, HAB/H < 1, HAB/Q ≥ 0.5 and HAB/Q < 0.5. One way ANOVA showed that Gmed activity was significantly greater in the group with HAB/H < 1 (42 ± 14 %MVIC as compared to HAB/H ≥ 1 (26 ± 10 %MVIC and HAB/Q < 0.5 (47 ± 19 %MVIC compared to HAB/Q ≥ 0.5 (26 ± 12 %MVIC. The individuals with HAB/H < 1 were found to have greater activation of their Gmed during the Farmer’s walk exercise. Individuals with HAB/Q < 0.5 had greater activation of the Gmed. Gmed strength ratios predict the muscle involvement when a moderate amount of the external load is used. The Farmer’s walk is recommended as an exercise which can strengthen the gluteus medius, especially for individuals with a HAB/H ratio < 1 and HAB/Q < 0.5.

  4. Expression of Gla proteins during fish skeletal development

    OpenAIRE

    Gavaia, Paulo J.

    2006-01-01

    Senegal sole skeletal development; Skeletal malformations; Skeletal malformation in mediterranean species; Senegal sole skeletal deformities; Zebra fish as model system: skeletal development; Identification of bone cells / skeletal development; Spatial - temporal pattern of bgp expression; Single cell resolution: localization of bgp mRNA; Single cell resolution: Immunolocalization of Bgp; Single cell resolution: localization of mgp mRNA; Single cell resolution: Immunolocalization of Mgp; An i...

  5. Stability of skeletal changes induced by growth modulation procedures in the treatment of skeletal Class II malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashantha Govinakovi Shivamurthy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Objective of this study, based on an evaluation of lateral cephalograms, was to evaluate the degree of skeletal changes produced by the various growth modulative procedures in the treatment of skeletal Class II malocclusion and to characterize the stability of these changes in the years after treatment. Materials and Methods: Total of 40 patients with Class II malocclusion was divided into three groups according to appliance used, i.e. removable or fixed functional appliances (n = 10, combination of functional appliance with headgear (n = 10, and only headgear (n = 10. In addition, almost a matched control group (n = 10 also characterized by skeletal Class II pattern and were under observation, for more than 2 years was also selected. Lateral cephalograms of each patient were taken at the start of treatment (T1, at its completion (T2, and long-term posttreatment (T3. Results: This study showed significant improvement in maxillomandibular relationship in treated group compared to control group, and the changes remained stable in posttreatment phase. Restriction of maxillary growth was evident in headgear and combination groups whereas significant forward movement of the mandible was seen in functional group. Conclusion: Analysis of lateral cephalograms indicates that growth modulation therapy in angle Class II malocclusion brings about desired skeletal changes which remain relatively stable over a long-term period.

  6. The combination of structural parameters and areal bone mineral density improves relation to proximal femur strength. An in vitro study with high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stinus; Beck Nielsen, Jens-Erik; Ahrberg, Fabian

    2011-01-01

    , volumetric BMD (vBMD), and microarchitectural parameters were obtained. In addition, aBMD by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was performed at conventional hip regions and maximal compressive strength (MCS) was determined in a side-impact biomechanical test. Twelve cervical and 19 trochanteric...... fractures were confirmed. Geometry, vBMD, microarchitecture, and aBMD correlated significantly with MCS, with Spearman's correlation coefficients up to 0.77, 0.89, 0.90, and 0.85 (P ...

  7. A randomized controlled trial on the effects of combined aerobic-resistance exercise on muscle strength and fatigue, glycemic control and health-related quality of life of type 2 diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas-Carus, Pablo; Ortega-Alonso, Alfredo; Pietilainen, Kirsi H; Santos, Vitoria; Goncalves, Helena; Ramos, Jorge; Raimundo, Armando

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effects of a 12-weeks combined aerobic-resistance exercise therapy on fatigue and isokinetic muscle strength, glycemic control and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in moderately affected type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients. A randomized controlled trial design was employed. Forty-three T2DM patients were assigned to an exercise group (N.=22), performing 3 weekly sessions of 60 minutes of combined aerobic-resistance exercise for 12-weeks; or a no exercise control group (N.=21). Both groups were evaluated at a baseline and after 12-weeks of exercise therapy for: