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  1. Skeletal age and explosive strength in young volleyball players

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    Petrus Gantois

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Identifying diferent anthropometric, physiological and motor aspects is essential to obtain success in sports practice. However, these components may be developed in same age subjects diferently, in part due biological development. he aim of the study was compare and correlate the explosive strength to biological maturation by sex, obtained by estimation of skeletal age based on anthropometric variables. he sample consisted of 239 subjects of both sexes, aged 10 to 13 years. Maturation was assessed by skeletal age predictive equation and upper and lower limbs explosive strength using medicine ball throw test and vertical jump, respectively. Skeletal age was assessed by skeletal age using a predictive anthropometrical based equation. Upper and lower limbs explosive strength were evaluated by medicine ball throwing test and vertical jump test, respectively. Post hoc analysis showed delayed biological development subjects had worst medicine ball throwing test performance than accelerated boys (p=0.001; d=0.96 and girls (p< 0.01; d= 2.01; regarding to vertical jump test, worst performance was also detected to maturational delayed boys when compared to accelerated ones (p=0.24; d=1.1 and girls (p=0.007; d=0.75. Regression analysis showed skeletal age explained variance of 36% and 19.2% for boys and 45.2% and 16.1% for girls upper and lower limbs explosive strength. Skeletal age is positively related to upper and lower limbs explosive strength and show higher performance for accelerated biological development young players when compared to delayed ones, independently from sex.

  2. Arginylation of Myosin Heavy Chain Regulates Skeletal Muscle Strength

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    Anabelle S. Cornachione

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Protein arginylation is a posttranslational modification with an emerging global role in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton. To test the role of arginylation in the skeletal muscle, we generated a mouse model with Ate1 deletion driven by the skeletal muscle-specific creatine kinase (Ckmm promoter. Ckmm-Ate1 mice were viable and outwardly normal; however, their skeletal muscle strength was significantly reduced in comparison to controls. Mass spectrometry of isolated skeletal myofibrils showed a limited set of proteins, including myosin heavy chain, arginylated on specific sites. Atomic force microscopy measurements of contractile strength in individual myofibrils and isolated myosin filaments from these mice showed a significant reduction of contractile forces, which, in the case of myosin filaments, could be fully rescued by rearginylation with purified Ate1. Our results demonstrate that arginylation regulates force production in muscle and exerts a direct effect on muscle strength through arginylation of myosin.

  3. Strength Training for Skeletal Muscle Endurance after Stroke.

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    Ivey, Frederick M; Prior, Steven J; Hafer-Macko, Charlene E; Katzel, Leslie I; Macko, Richard F; Ryan, Alice S

    2017-04-01

    Initial studies support the use of strength training (ST) as a safe and effective intervention after stroke. Our previous work shows that relatively aggressive, higher intensity ST translates into large effect sizes for paretic and non-paretic leg muscle volume, myostatin expression, and maximum strength post-stroke. An unanswered question pertains to how our unique ST model for stroke impacts skeletal muscle endurance (SME). Thus, we now report on ST-induced adaptation in the ability to sustain isotonic muscle contraction. Following screening and baseline testing, hemiparetic stroke participants were randomized to either ST or an attention-matched stretch control group (SC). Those in the ST group trained each leg individually to muscle failure (20 repetition sets, 3× per week for 3 months) on each of three pneumatic resistance machines (leg press, leg extension, and leg curl). Our primary outcome measure was SME, quantified as the number of submaximal weight leg press repetitions possible at a specified cadence. The secondary measures included one-repetition maximum strength, 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), 10-meter walk speeds, and peak aerobic capacity (VO 2 peak). ST participants (N = 14) had significantly greater SME gains compared with SC participants (N = 16) in both the paretic (178% versus 12%, P muscle contraction, a metric that may carry more practical significance for stroke than the often reported measures of maximum strength. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Deer Antler Extract Improves Fatigue Effect through Altering the Expression of Genes Related to Muscle Strength in Skeletal Muscle of Mice

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    Jaw-Chyun Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Deer antler is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine used in Asian countries for the tonic and the improvement of aging symptoms. The present study was designed to investigate the antifatigue effect and mechanism of Formosan sambar deer tip antler extract (FSDTAE. The swimming times to exhaustion of mice administered FSDTAE (8.2 mg/day for 28 days were apparently longer than those of the vehicle-treated mice in forced swim test. However, the indicators of fatigue, such as the reduction in glucose level and the increases in blood urea nitrogen and lactic acid levels, were not significantly inhibited by FSDTAE. Therefore, microarray analysis was further used to examine the anti-fatigue mechanism of FSDTAE. We selected genes with fold changes >2 or <−2 in skeletal muscle for pathway analysis. FSDTAE-affected genes were involved in 9 different signaling pathways, such as GnRH signaling pathway and insulin signaling pathway. All of the significantly expressed genes were classified into 8 different categories by their functions. The most enriched category was muscular system, and 6 upregulated genes, such as troponin I, troponin T1, cysteine and glycine-rich protein 2, myosin heavy polypeptide 7, tropomyosin 2, and myomesin family member 3, were responsible for the development and contraction of muscle. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that FSDTAE increased troponins mRNA expression in skeletal muscle. In conclusion, our findings suggested that FSDTAE might increase the muscle strength through the upregulation of genes responsible for muscle contraction and consequently exhibited the anti-fatigue effect in mice.

  5. Skeletal geometry and indices of bone strength in artistic gymnasts.

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    Dowthwaite, J N; Scerpella, T A

    2009-01-01

    This review addresses bone geometry and indices of skeletal strength associated with exposure to gymnastic loading during growth. A brief background characterizes artistic gymnastics as a mechanical loading model and outlines densitometric techniques, skeletal outcomes and challenges in assessment of skeletal adaptation. The literature on bone geometric adaptation to gymnastic loading is sparse and consists of results for disparate skeletal sites, maturity phases, gender compositions and assessment methods, complicating synthesis of an overriding view. Furthermore, most studies assess only females, with little information on males and adults. Nonetheless, gymnastic loading during growth appears to yield significant enlargement of total and cortical bone geometry (+10 to 30%) and elevation of trabecular density (+20%) in the forearm, yielding elevated indices of skeletal strength (+20 to +50%). Other sites exhibit more moderate geometric and densitometric adaptations (5 to 15%). Mode of adaptation appears to be site-specific; some sites demonstrate marked periosteal and endosteal expansion, whereas other sites exhibit negligible or moderate periosteal expansion coupled with endocortical contraction. Further research is necessary to address sex-, maturity- and bone tissue-specific adaptation, as well as maintenance of benefits beyond loading cessation.

  6. Improved skeletal muscle mass and strength after heavy strength training in very old individuals.

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    Bechshøft, Rasmus Leidesdorff; Malmgaard-Clausen, Nikolaj Mølkjær; Gliese, Bjørn; Beyer, Nina; Mackey, Abigail L; Andersen, Jesper Løvind; Kjær, Michael; Holm, Lars

    2017-06-01

    Age-related loss of muscle mass and function represents personal and socioeconomic challenges. The purpose of this study was to determine the adaptation of skeletal musculature in very old individuals (83+ years) performing 12weeks of heavy resistance training (3×/week) (HRT) compared to a non-training control group (CON). Both groups received similar protein supplementations. We studied 26 participants (86.9±3.2 (SD) (83-94, range) years old) per-protocol. Quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) differed between groups at post-test (Pmuscle isometric strength, isokinetic peak torque and power increased significantly only in HRT by 10-15%, whereas knee extension one-repetition maximum (1 RM) improved by 91%. Physical functional tests, muscle fiber type distribution and size did not differ significantly between groups. We conclude that in protein supplemented very old individuals, heavy resistance training can increase muscle mass and strength, and that the relative improvement in mass is more pronounced when initial muscle mass is low. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. The impact of obesity on skeletal muscle strength and structure through adolescence to old age.

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    Tomlinson, D J; Erskine, R M; Morse, C I; Winwood, K; Onambélé-Pearson, Gladys

    2016-06-01

    Obesity is associated with functional limitations in muscle performance and increased likelihood of developing a functional disability such as mobility, strength, postural and dynamic balance limitations. The consensus is that obese individuals, regardless of age, have a greater absolute maximum muscle strength compared to non-obese persons, suggesting that increased adiposity acts as a chronic overload stimulus on the antigravity muscles (e.g., quadriceps and calf), thus increasing muscle size and strength. However, when maximum muscular strength is normalised to body mass, obese individuals appear weaker. This relative weakness may be caused by reduced mobility, neural adaptations and changes in muscle morphology. Discrepancies in the literature remain for maximal strength normalised to muscle mass (muscle quality) and can potentially be explained through accounting for the measurement protocol contributing to muscle strength capacity that need to be explored in more depth such as antagonist muscle co-activation, muscle architecture, a criterion valid measurement of muscle size and an accurate measurement of physical activity levels. Current evidence demonstrating the effect of obesity on muscle quality is limited. These factors not being recorded in some of the existing literature suggest a potential underestimation of muscle force either in terms of absolute force production or relative to muscle mass; thus the true effect of obesity upon skeletal muscle size, structure and function, including any interactions with ageing effects, remains to be elucidated.

  8. Factors related to skeletal muscle mass in the frail elderly.

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    Sagawa, Keiichiro; Kikutani, Takeshi; Tamura, Fumiyo; Yoshida, Mitsuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    It is important for the elderly to maintain their skeletal muscle mass, which in turn helps to maintain physical functions. This study aimed to clarify factors related to skeletal muscle mass maintenance. Home-bound elderly (94 men and 216 women), at least 75 years of age, attending a day-care center in Tokyo, were enrolled in this study. Dentists specializing in dysphagia rehabilitation evaluated skeletal muscle mass, occlusal status and swallowing function. Physical function, cognitive function and nutritional status were also evaluated by interviewing caregivers. Correlations of skeletal muscle mass with various factors were determined in each gender group. Multiple regression analysis revealed that skeletal muscle mass was significantly related to nutritional status in both men and women. In men, there was a significant difference in skeletal muscle mass between those with and without occlusion of the natural teeth. Our results suggest that dental treatments and dentures would be useful for maintaining skeletal muscle mass, especially in men.

  9. Strengths only or strengths and relative weaknesses? A preliminary study.

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    Rust, Teri; Diessner, Rhett; Reade, Lindsay

    2009-10-01

    Does working on developing character strengths and relative character weaknesses cause lower life satisfaction than working on developing character strengths only? The present study provides a preliminary answer. After 76 college students completed the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (C. Peterson & M. E. P. Seligman, 2004), the authors randomly assigned them to work on 2 character strengths or on 1 character strength and 1 relative weakness. Combined, these groups showed significant gains on the Satisfaction With Life Scale (E. Diener, R. A. Emmons, R. J. Larsen, & S. Griffin, 1985), compared with a 32-student no-treatment group. However, there was no significant difference in gain scores between the 2-strengths group and the 1-character-strength-and-1-relative-character-weakness group. The authors discuss how focusing on relative character weaknesses (along with strengths) does not diminish-and may assist in increasing-life satisfaction.

  10. Apple Pomace Extract Improves Endurance in Exercise Performance by Increasing Strength and Weight of Skeletal Muscle.

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    Jeong, Ji-Woong; Shim, Jae-Jung; Choi, Il-Dong; Kim, Sung-Hwan; Ra, Jehyeon; Ku, Hyung Keun; Lee, Dong Eun; Kim, Tae-Youl; Jeung, Woonhee; Lee, Jung-Hee; Lee, Ki Won; Huh, Chul-Sung; Sim, Jae-Hun; Ahn, Young-Tae

    2015-12-01

    Ursolic acid is a lipophilic pentacyclic triterpenoid found in many fruits and herbs and is used in several herbal folk medicines for diabetes. In this study, we evaluated the effects of apple pomace extract (APE; ursolic acid content, 183 mg/g) on skeletal muscle atrophy. To examine APE therapeutic potential in muscle atrophy, we investigated APE effects on the expression of biomarkers associated with muscle atrophy and hypertrophy. We found that APE inhibited atrophy, while inducing hypertrophy in C2C12 myotubes by decreasing the expression of atrophy-related genes and increasing the expression of hypertrophy-associated genes. The in vivo experiments using mice fed a diet with or without APE showed that APE intake increased skeletal muscle mass, as well as grip strength and exercise capacity. In addition, APE significantly improved endurance in the mice, as evidenced by increased exhaustive running time and muscle weight, and reduced the expression of the genes involved in the development of muscle atrophy. APE also decreased the concentration of serum lactate and lactate dehydrogenase, inorganic phosphate, and creatinine, the indicators of accumulated fatigue and exercise-induced stress. These results suggest that APE may be useful as an ergogenic functional food or dietary supplement.

  11.  Age-related changes of skeletal muscles: physiology, pathology and regeneration

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    Aleksandra Ławniczak

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available  This review provides a short presentation of the aging-related changes of human skeletal muscles. The aging process is associated with the loss of skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia and strength. This results from fibre atrophy and apoptosis, decreased regeneration capacity, mitochondrial dysfunction, gradual reduction of the number of spinal cord motor neurons, and local and systemic metabolic and hormonal alterations. The latter involve age-related decrease of the expression and activity of some mitochondrial and cytoplasmic enzymes, triacylglycerols and lipofuscin accumulation inside muscle fibres, increased proteolytic activity, insulin resistance and decreased serum growth hormone and IGF-1 concentrations. Aging of the skeletal muscles is also associated with a decreased number of satellite cells and their proliferative activity. The age-related reduction of skeletal muscle mass and function may be partially prevented by dietary restriction and systematic physical exercises.

  12. A study of the mechanical strength of miniscrews and miniplates for skeletal anchorage

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    Pei-Chen Lu

    2011-09-01

    Conclusions: Successful outcomes were confirmed for the skeletal anchorage concept for orthodontic treatment using miniscrews and miniplates. The mechanical strength of the miniscrews and miniplates was studied to prove the stability of fixation to resist orthodontic forces in the vertical and horizontal directions.

  13. Improved skeletal muscle mass and strength after heavy strength training in very old individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechshøft, Rasmus Leidesdorff; Malmgaard-Clausen, Nikolaj Mølkjær; Gliese, Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    . The increase in CSA is correlated inversely with the baseline level of CSA (R2 = 0.43, P strength, isokinetic peak torque and power increased significantly only in HRT by 10–15%, whereas knee extension one-repetition maximum (1 RM) improved by 91%. Physical functional tests......-training control group (CON). Both groups received similar protein supplementations. We studied 26 participants (86.9 ± 3.2 (SD) (83–94, range) years old) per-protocol. Quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) differed between groups at post-test (P ..., muscle fiber type distribution and size did not differ significantly between groups. We conclude that in protein supplemented very old individuals, heavy resistance training can increase muscle mass and strength, and that the relative improvement in mass is more pronounced when initial muscle mass is low....

  14. Loss of skeletal muscle strength by ablation of the sarcoplasmic reticulum protein JP45

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    Delbono, Osvaldo; Xia, Jinyu; Treves, Susan; Wang, Zhong-Min; Jimenez-Moreno, Ramon; Payne, Anthony M.; Messi, María Laura; Briguet, Alexandre; Schaerer, Florian; Nishi, Miyuki; Takeshima, Hiroshi; Zorzato, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    Skeletal muscle constitutes ≈40% of the human body mass, and alterations in muscle mass and strength may result in physical disability. Therefore, the elucidation of the factors responsible for muscle force development is of paramount importance. Excitation–contraction coupling (ECC) is a process during which the skeletal muscle surface membrane is depolarized, causing a transient release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum that activates the contractile proteins. The ECC machinery is complex, and the functional role of many of its protein components remains elusive. This study demonstrates that deletion of the gene encoding the sarcoplasmic reticulum protein JP45 results in decreased muscle strength in young mice. Specifically, this loss of muscle strength in JP45 knockout mice is caused by decreased functional expression of the voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel Cav1.1, which is the molecule that couples membrane depolarization and calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. These results point to JP45 as one of the molecules involved in the development or maintenance of skeletal muscle strength. PMID:18077436

  15. Blockade of Metallothioneins 1 and 2 Increases Skeletal Muscle Mass and Strength

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    Summermatter, Serge; Bouzan, Anais; Pierrel, Eliane; Melly, Stefan; Stauffer, Daniela; Gutzwiller, Sabine; Nolin, Erin; Dornelas, Christina; Fryer, Christy; Leighton-Davies, Juliet; Glass, David J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Metallothioneins are proteins that are involved in intracellular zinc storage and transport. Their expression levels have been reported to be elevated in several settings of skeletal muscle atrophy. We therefore investigated the effect of metallothionein blockade on skeletal muscle anabolism in vitro and in vivo. We found that concomitant abrogation of metallothioneins 1 and 2 results in activation of the Akt pathway and increases in myotube size, in type IIb fiber hypertrophy, and ultimately in muscle strength. Importantly, the beneficial effects of metallothionein blockade on muscle mass and function was also observed in the setting of glucocorticoid addition, which is a strong atrophy-inducing stimulus. Given the blockade of atrophy and the preservation of strength in atrophy-inducing settings, these results suggest that blockade of metallothioneins 1 and 2 constitutes a promising approach for the treatment of conditions which result in muscle atrophy. PMID:27956698

  16. ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME GENOTYPE AFFECTS SKELETAL MUSCLE STRENGTH IN ELITE ATHLETES

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    Aldo Matos Costa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have associated angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE D allele with variability in the skeletal muscle baseline strength, though conclusions have been inconsistent across investigations. The purpose of this study was to examine the possible association between ACE genotype and skeletal muscle baseline strength in elite male and female athletes involved in different event expertise. A group of 58 elite athletes, designated as Olympic candidates, were studied: 35 swimmers (19 males and 16 females, 18.8 ± 3.2 years and 23 triathletes (15 males and 8 females, 18.7 ± 3.0 years. The athletes were classified as: short (< 200m and middle (400m to 1500m distance athletes, respectively. For each subject the grip strength in both hands was measure using an adjustable mechanical hand dynamometer. The maximum height in both squat jump (SJ and counter movement jump (CMJ were also assessed, using a trigonometric carpet (Ergojump Digitime 1000; Digitest, Jyvaskyla, Finland. DNA extraction was obtained with Chelex 100® and genotype determination by PCR-RFLP methods. Both males and females showed significantly higher right grip strength in D allele carriers compared to II homozygote's. We found that allelic frequency differs significantly by event distance specialization in both genders (p < 0.05. In fact, sprinter D allele carriers showed the superior scores in nearly all strength measurements (p < 0.05, in both genders. Among endurance athletes, the results also demonstrated that female D allele carriers exhibited the higher performance right grip and CMJ scores (p < 0.05. In conclusion, the ACE D allele seems associated with skeletal muscle baseline strength in elite athletes, being easily identified in females

  17. High Salt Diets, Bone Strength and Mineral Content of Mature Femur After Skeletal Unloading

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    Liang, Michael T. C.

    1998-01-01

    It is known that high salt diets increase urinary calcium (Ca) loss, but it is not known whether this effect weakens bone during space flight. The Bone Hormone Lab has studied the effect of high salt diets on Ca balance and whole body Ca in a space flight model (2,8). Neither the strength nor mineral content of the femurs from these studies has been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of high salt diets (HiNa) and skeletal unloading on femoral bone strength and bone mineral content (BMC) in mature rats.

  18. Mechanical strength of sarcomere structures of skeletal myofibrils studied by submicromanipulation.

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    Kayamori, Taisuke; Miyake, Norihito; Akiyama, Nao; Aimi, Momoko; Wakayama, Jun'ichi; Kunioka, Yuki; Yamada, Takenori

    2006-01-01

    The mechanical strength of sarcomere structures of skeletal muscle was studied by rupturing single myofibrils of rabbit psoas muscle by submicromanipulation techniques. Microbeads coated with alpha-actinin were attached to the surface of myofibrils immobilized to coverslip. By use of either optical tweezers or atomic force microscope, the attached beads were captured and detached from the myofibrils. During the detachment of the beads, the actin filaments bound specifically to the beads were peeled off from the bulk structures of myofibrils, thus rupturing the peripheral components of the myofibrils bound to the actin filaments. By analyzing the ruptures thus produced in various myofibril preparations, it was found that the sarcomere structure of myofibrils is maintained by numerous molecular components having the mechanical strength sufficient to sustain the contractile force produced by the actomyosin system. The present techniques could be applied to study the mechanical strength of cellular organelles containing actin filaments as their component.

  19. Decreased Muscle Strength and Quality in Diabetes-Related Dementia

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    Akito Tsugawa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Diabetes-related dementia (DrD, a dementia subgroup associated with specific diabetes mellitus (DM-related metabolic abnormalities, is clinically and pathophysiologically different from Alzheimer disease (AD and vascular dementia. We determined whether skeletal muscle strength, quality, and mass decrease in individuals with DrD. Methods: We evaluated grip and knee extension strength, muscle mass, and gait speed in 106 patients with probable AD and without type 2 DM (AD[–DM] group, 74 patients with probable AD and with DM (AD[+DM] group, and 36 patients with DrD (DrD group. Muscle quality was defined as the ratio of muscle strength to muscle mass. Results: Both female and male subjects with DrD showed significantly decreased muscle strength and quality in the upper extremities compared with the subjects with AD[–DM] or AD[+DM]. Female subjects with DrD showed significantly decreased muscle quality in the lower extremities compared with the subjects with AD[–DM]. Both female and male subjects with DrD had a significantly lower gait speed compared with the subjects with AD[–DM]. However, there were no significant differences in muscle mass and the prevalence of sarcopenia between the groups. Conclusion: Subjects with DrD showed decreased muscle strength and quality, but not muscle mass, and had a low gait speed.

  20. Deletion of Pofut1 in Mouse Skeletal Myofibers Induces Muscle Aging-Related Phenotypes in cis and in trans

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    Zygmunt, Deborah A.; Singhal, Neha; Kim, Mi-Lyang; Cramer, Megan L.; Crowe, Kelly E.; Xu, Rui; Jia, Ying; Adair, Jessica; Martinez-Pena y Valenzuela, Isabel; Akaaboune, Mohammed; White, Peter; Janssen, Paulus M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sarcopenia, the loss of muscle mass and strength during normal aging, involves coordinate changes in skeletal myofibers and the cells that contact them, including satellite cells and motor neurons. Here we show that the protein O-fucosyltransferase 1 gene (Pofut1), which encodes a glycosyltransferase required for NotchR-mediated cell-cell signaling, has reduced expression in aging skeletal muscle. Moreover, premature postnatal deletion of Pofut1 in skeletal myofibers can induce aging-related phenotypes in cis within skeletal myofibers and in trans within satellite cells and within motor neurons via the neuromuscular junction. Changed phenotypes include reduced skeletal muscle size and strength, decreased myofiber size, increased slow fiber (type 1) density, increased muscle degeneration and regeneration in aged muscles, decreased satellite cell self-renewal and regenerative potential, and increased neuromuscular fragmentation and occasional denervation. Pofut1 deletion in skeletal myofibers reduced NotchR signaling in young adult muscles, but this effect was lost with age. Increasing muscle NotchR signaling also reduced muscle size. Gene expression studies point to regulation of cell cycle genes, muscle myosins, NotchR and Wnt pathway genes, and connective tissue growth factor by Pofut1 in skeletal muscle, with additional effects on α dystroglycan glycosylation. PMID:28265002

  1. Noninvasive Assessment of Skeletal Microstructure and Estimated Bone Strength in Hypoparathyroidism.

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    Cusano, Natalie E; Nishiyama, Kyle K; Zhang, Chengchen; Rubin, Mishaela R; Boutroy, Stephanie; McMahon, Donald J; Guo, X Edward; Bilezikian, John P

    2016-02-01

    In hypoparathyroidism, areal bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is above average, and skeletal indices by bone biopsy are abnormal. We used high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HRpQCT) and finite element analyses (FEA) to further investigate skeletal microstructure and estimated bone strength. We studied 60 hypoparathyroid subjects on conventional therapy using DXA, HRpQCT, and FEA of the distal radius and tibia compared with normative controls from the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study. In hypoparathyroid women and men, areal BMD was above average at the lumbar spine and hip sites by DXA; radial BMD was also above average in hypoparathyroid women. Using HRpQCT, cortical volumetric BMD was increased in the hypoparathyroid cohort compared with controls at both the radius and tibia. Cortical porosity was reduced at both sites in pre- and postmenopausal women and at the tibia in young men with a downward trend at the radius in men. At the tibia, trabecular number was increased in premenopausal women and men and trabecular thickness was lower in women. Ultimate stress and failure load at both sites for the hypoparathyroid subjects were similar to controls. Using a linear regression model, at both radius and tibia, each increment in age decreased ultimate stress and failure load, whereas each increment in duration of hypoparathyroidism increased these same indices. These results provide additional evidence for the critical role of parathyroid hormone in regulating skeletal microstructure. Longer disease duration may mitigate the adverse effects of age on estimated bone strength in hypoparathyroidism. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  2. Fatty acid binding protein 3 is associated with skeletal muscle strength in polymyositis and dermatomyositis.

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    Zhang, Lu; Zhou, Hang; Peng, Qinglin; Jiang, Wei; Qiao, Wei; Wang, Guochun

    2017-02-01

    To determine serum levels and histopathological characteristics of fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP3) in patients with polymyositis (PM) and dermatomyositis (DM), and to evaluate the correlation between the FABP3 and muscle strength. The study population included 24 subjects with PM/DM, 12 subjects with asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic hyper-creatine kinase-emia (AMSH), and 10 healthy control subjects. Muscle strength was measured by using the Manual Muscle Test (MMT8). Serum CK, myoglobin and FABP3 levels were tested. Correlations between variables were studied by using Spearman's rank and partial correlation analysis methods. Immunohistochemical and double immunofluorescent stainings of FABP3 were performed to investigate its distribution in skeletal muscle. PM/DM patients had significantly higher (P 0.05), -0.228 (P > 0.05) and -0.927 (P < 0.001), respectively. Immunohistochemical and double immunofluorescent staining showed that FABP3 expression increased in the skeletal muscle of PM/DM patients and was mainly distributed in slow twitch muscle fibers. Serum levels of FABP3 in PM/DM patients were significantly increased and were mainly distributed in slow twitch muscle fibers, displaying a closer association with muscle weakness than did serum levels of CK and myoglobin. FABP3 is likely to be a useful serum biomarker in PM/DM patients. © 2016 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Skeletal muscle fat content is inversely associated with bone strength in young girls.

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    Farr, Joshua N; Funk, Janet L; Chen, Zhao; Lisse, Jeffrey R; Blew, Robert M; Lee, Vinson R; Laudermilk, Monica; Lohman, Timothy G; Going, Scott B

    2011-09-01

    Childhood obesity is an established risk factor for metabolic disease. The influence of obesity on bone development, however, remains controversial and may depend on the pattern of regional fat deposition. Therefore, we examined the associations of regional fat compartments of the calf and thigh with weight-bearing bone parameters in girls. Data from 444 girls aged 9 to 12 years from the Jump-In: Building Better Bones study were analyzed. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was used to assess bone parameters at metaphyseal and diaphyseal sites of the femur and tibia along with subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT, mm(2) ) and muscle density (mg/cm(3) ), an index of skeletal muscle fat content. As expected, SAT was positively correlated with total-body fat mass (r = 0.87-0.89, p  .05), except the distal tibia (β = 0.09, p = .03). In conclusion, skeletal muscle fat content of the calf and thigh is inversely associated with weight-bearing bone strength in young girls. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  4. Effects of a 12-wk resistance exercise program on skeletal muscle strength in children with burn injuries.

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    Suman, O E; Spies, R J; Celis, M M; Mlcak, R P; Herndon, D N

    2001-09-01

    The posttraumatic response to burn injury leads to marked and prolonged skeletal muscle catabolism and weakness, which persist despite standard rehabilitation programs of occupational and physical therapy. We investigated whether a resistance exercise program would attenuate muscle loss and weakness that is typically found in children with thermal injury. We assessed the changes in leg muscle strength and lean body mass in severely burned children with >40% total body surface area burned. Patients were randomized to a 12-wk standard hospital rehabilitation program supplemented with an exercise training program (n = 19) or to a home-based rehabilitation program without exercise (n = 16). Leg muscle strength was assessed before and after the 12-wk rehabilitation or training program at an isokinetic speed of 150 degrees /s. Lean body mass was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. We found that the participation in a resistance exercise program results in a significant improvement in muscle strength, power, and lean body mass relative to a standard rehabilitation program without exercise.

  5. The effect of enterocystoplasty on bone strength assessed at four different skeletal sites in a rat model

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    Gerharz, E.W.; Mosekilde, Li.; Thomsen, J.S.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate bone strength at four different skeletal sites in a chronic animal model of urinary diversion. Young male Wistar rats (120) were allocated randomly to four groups undergoing ileocystoplasty; ileocystoplasty and resection of the ileocecal segment......; colocystoplasty; or sham operation (controls). After 8 months the lumbar vertebrae, femora, and tibiae were harvested at necropsy. Bone strength was assessed biomechanically at four different skeletal sites: vertebra L3, femoral middiaphysis, femoral neck, and distal femoral metaphysis. Bone mass and architecture...... were assessed using standard static histomorphometry of the proximal tibial metaphysis (trabecular bone volume [BV/TV]; trabecular number [Tb.N]) and ash weight. Statistically significant differences of biomechanical parameters between groups were observed at three skeletal sites with corresponding...

  6. Personality Typology in Relation to Muscle Strength

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    Terracciano, Antonio; Milaneschi, Yuri; Metter, E. Jeffrey; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity plays a central role in the age-related decline in muscle strength, an important component in the process leading to disability. Personality, a significant determinant of health behaviors including physical activity, could therefore impact muscle strength throughout adulthood and affect the rate of muscle strength decline with aging. Personality typologies combining “high neuroticism” (N≥55), “low extraversion” (Epersonality types. Facet analyses suggest an important role for the N components of depression and hostility. Physical activity level appears to partly explain some of these associations. Conclusion Findings provide support for the notion that the typological approach to personality may be useful in identifying specific personality types at risk of low muscle strength and offer the possibility for more targeted prevention and intervention programs. PMID:21614452

  7. Sarcopenia, dynapenia and the impact of advancing age on human skeletal muscle size and strength; a quantitative review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Kyle Mitchell

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Changing demographics make it ever more important to understand the modifiable risk factors for disability and loss of independence with advancing age. For more than two decades there has been increasing interest in the role of sarcopenia, the age related loss of muscle or lean mass, in curtailing active and healthy aging. There is now evidence to suggest that lack of strength, or dynapenia, is a more constant factor in compromised wellbeing in old age and it is apparent that the decline in muscle mass and the decline in strength can take quite different trajectories. This demands recognition of the concept of muscle quality; that is the force generating per capacity per unit cross-sectional area (CSA. An understanding of the impact of aging on skeletal muscle will require attention to both the changes in muscle size and the changes in muscle quality.The aim of this review is to present current knowledge of the decline in human muscle mass and strength with advancing age and the associated risk to health and survival and to review the underlying changes in muscle characteristics and the aetiology of sarcopenia. Cross-sectional studies comparing young (18-45yrs and old (>65yrs samples show dramatic variation based on the technique used and population studied. The median of values of rate of loss reported across studies is 0.47% per year in men and 0.37% per year in women. Longitudinal studies show that in people aged 75yrs, muscle mass is lost at a rate of 0.64-0.70% per year in women and 0.80-0.98% per year in men. Strength is lost more rapidly. Longitudinal studies show that at age 75yrs, strength is lost at a rate of 3-4% per year in men and 2.5-3% per year in women. Studies that assessed changes in mass and strength in the same sample report a loss of strength 2 – 5 times faster than loss of mass. Loss of strength is a more consistent risk for disability and death than is loss of muscle mass.

  8. 5'AMP activated protein kinase expression in human skeletal muscle: effects of strength training and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wojtaszewski, Jørgen; Birk, Jesper Bratz; Frøsig, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Strength training enhances insulin sensitivity and represents an alternative to endurance training for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) may mediate adaptations in skeletal muscle in response to exercise training; however, little is known about...... adaptations within the AMPK system itself. We investigated the effect of strength training and T2DM on the isoform expression and the heterotrimeric composition of the AMPK in human skeletal muscle. Ten patients with T2DM and seven healthy subjects strength trained (T) one leg for 6 weeks, while the other leg...... remained untrained (UT). Muscle biopsies were obtained before and after the training period. Basal AMPK activity and protein/mRNA expression of both catalytic (alpha1 and alpha2) and regulatory (beta1, beta2, gamma1, gamma2a, gamma2b and gamma3) AMPK isoforms were independent of T2DM, whereas the protein...

  9. Insulin signaling in skeletal muscle of HIV‐infected patients in response to endurance and strength training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, Christa; Mathur, Neha; Hvid, Thine

    2013-01-01

    to identify the molecular pathways involved in the beneficial effects of training on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle of HIV-infected patients. Eighteen sedentary male HIV-infected patients underwent a 16 week supervised training intervention, either resistance or strength training....... Despite improving insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, neither endurance nor strength training changed the phosphorylation status of insulin signaling proteins or affected GS activity. However; endurance training markedly increased the total Akt protein expression, and both training modalities increased...... hexokinase II (HKII) protein. HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy have decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and defects in insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt(thr308). Endurance and strength training increase insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in these patients...

  10. Modified forelimb grip strength test detects aging-associated physiological decline in skeletal muscle function in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Hikari; Yamamoto, Koichi; Nozato, Satoko; Inagaki, Tadakatsu; Tsuchimochi, Hirotsugu; Shirai, Mikiyasu; Yamamoto, Ryohei; Imaizumi, Yuki; Hongyo, Kazuhiro; Yokoyama, Serina; Takeda, Masao; Oguro, Ryosuke; Takami, Yoichi; Itoh, Norihisa; Takeya, Yasushi; Sugimoto, Ken; Fukada, So-Ichiro; Rakugi, Hiromi

    2017-02-08

    The conventional forelimb grip strength test is a widely used method to assess skeletal muscle function in rodents; in this study, we modified this method to improve its variability and consistency. The modified test had lower variability among trials and days than the conventional test in young C57BL6 mice, especially by improving the variabilities in male. The modified test was more sensitive than the conventional test to detect a difference in motor function between female and male mice, or between young and old male mice. When the modified test was performed on male mice during the aging process, reduction of grip strength manifested between 18 and 24 months of age at the group level and at the individual level. The modified test was similar to the conventional test in detecting skeletal muscle dysfunction in young male dystrophic mice. Thus, the modified forelimb grip strength test, with its improved validity and reliability may be an ideal substitute for the conventional method.

  11. Morphometric relations of fractal-skeletal based channel network model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Daya Sagar

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A fractal-skeletal based channel network (F-SCN model is proposed. Four regular sided initiator-basins are transformed as second order fractal basins by following a specific generating mechanism with non-random rule. The morphological skeletons, hereafter referred to as channel networks, are extracted from these fractal basins. The morphometric and fractal relationships of these F-SCNs are shown. The fractal dimensions of these fractal basins, channel networks, and main channel lengths (computed through box counting method are compared with those of estimated length–area measures. Certain morphometric order ratios to show fractal relations are also highlighted.

  12. Skeletal muscle abnormalities and genetic factors related to vertical talus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Laura J; Gurnett, Christina A; Connolly, Anne M; Pestronk, Alan; Dobbs, Matthew B

    2011-04-01

    Congenital vertical talus is a fixed dorsal dislocation of the talonavicular joint and fixed equinus contracture of the hindfoot, causing a rigid deformity recognizable at birth. The etiology and epidemiology of this condition are largely unknown, but some evidence suggests it relates to aberrations of skeletal muscle. Identifying the tissue abnormalities and genetic causes responsible for vertical talus has the potential to lead to improved treatment and preventive strategies. We therefore (1) determined whether skeletal muscle abnormalities are present in patients with vertical talus and (2) identified associated congenital anomalies and genetic abnormalities in these patients. We identified associated congenital anomalies and genetic abnormalities present in 61 patients affected with vertical talus. We obtained abductor hallucis muscle biopsy specimens from the affected limbs of 11 of the 61 patients and compared the histopathologic characteristics with those of age-matched control subjects. All muscle biopsy specimens (n = 11) had abnormalities compared with those from control subjects including combinations of abnormal variation in muscle fiber size (n = 7), type I muscle fiber smallness (n = 6), and abnormal fiber type predominance (n = 5). Isolated vertical talus occurred in 23 of the 61 patients (38%), whereas the remaining 38 patients had associated nervous system, musculoskeletal system, and/or genetic and genomic abnormalities. Ten of the 61 patients (16%) had vertical talus in one foot and clubfoot in the other. Chromosomal abnormalities, all complete or partial trisomies, were identified in three patients with vertical talus who had additional congenital abnormalities. Vertical talus is a heterogeneous birth defect resulting from many diverse etiologies. Abnormal skeletal muscle biopsies are common in patients with vertical talus although it is unclear whether this is primary or secondary to the joint deformity. Associated anomalies are present in 62

  13. Expression of perilipins in human skeletal muscle in vitro and in vivo in relation to diet, exercise and energy balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelstad, I M F; Haugen, F; Gulseth, H L

    2011-01-01

    The perilipin proteins enclose intracellular lipid droplets. We describe the mRNA expression of the five perilipins in human skeletal muscle in relation to fatty acid supply, exercise and energy balance. We observed that all perilipins were expressed in skeletal muscle biopsies with the highest m......RNA levels of perilipin 2, 4 and 5. Cultured myotubes predominantly expressed perilipin 2 and 3. In vitro, incubation of myotubes with fatty acids enhanced mRNA expression of perilipin 1, 2 and 4. In vivo, low fat diet increased mRNA levels of perilipin 3 and 4. Endurance training, but not strength training......, enhanced the expression of perilipin 2 and 3. Perilipin 1 mRNA correlated positively with body fat mass, whereas none of the perilipins were associated with insulin sensitivity. In conclusion, all perilipins mRNAs were expressed in human skeletal muscle. Diet as well as endurance exercise modulated...

  14. Syngeneic B16F10 Melanoma Causes Cachexia and Impaired Skeletal Muscle Strength and Locomotor Activity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício A. Voltarelli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Muscle wasting has been emerging as one of the principal components of cancer cachexia, leading to progressive impairment of work capacity. Despite early stages melanomas rarely promotes weight loss, the appearance of metastatic and/or solid tumor melanoma can leads to cachexia development. Here, we investigated the B16F10 tumor-induced cachexia and its contribution to muscle strength and locomotor-like activity impairment. C57BL/6 mice were subcutaneously injected with 5 × 104 B16F10 melanoma cells or PBS as a Sham negative control. Tumor growth was monitored during a period of 28 days. Compared to Sham mice, tumor group depicts a loss of skeletal muscle, as well as significantly reduced muscle grip strength and epididymal fat mass. This data are in agreement with mild to severe catabolic host response promoted by elevated serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity. Tumor implantation has also compromised general locomotor activity and decreased exploratory behavior. Likewise, muscle loss, and elevated inflammatory interleukin were associated to muscle strength loss and locomotor activity impairment. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that subcutaneous B16F10 melanoma tumor-driven catabolic state in response to a pro-inflammatory environment that is associated with impaired skeletal muscle strength and decreased locomotor activity in tumor-bearing mice.

  15. Skeletal Muscle Angiogenesis and Its Relation to Insulin Sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindqvist, Anna Maria Charlotte K

    with improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity however a direct causal relationship has not previously been established. The main hypothesis of this thesis was that skeletal muscle capillarization is important for skeletal muscle glucose uptake and thereby whole-body insulin sensitivity...

  16. Paleopathological Study of Dwarfism-Related Skeletal Dysplasia in a Late Joseon Dynasty (South Korean Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Jin Woo

    Full Text Available Skeletal dysplasias related to genetic etiologies have rarely been reported for past populations. This report presents the skeletal characteristics of an individual with dwarfism-related skeletal dysplasia from South Korea. To assess abnormal deformities, morphological features, metric data, and computed tomography scans are analyzed. Differential diagnoses include achondroplasia or hypochondroplasia, chondrodysplasia, multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, thalassemia-related hemolytic anemia, and lysosomal storage disease. The diffused deformities in the upper-limb bones and several coarsened features of the craniofacial bones indicate the most likely diagnosis to have been a certain type of lysosomal storage disease. The skeletal remains of EP-III-4-No.107 from the Eunpyeong site, although incomplete and fragmented, provide important clues to the paleopathological diagnosis of skeletal dysplasias.

  17. The effect of regular strength training on telomere length in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadi, F.; Ponsot, Elodie; Piehl-Aulin, Karin

    2008-01-01

    taken from the vastus lateralis, and the mean and minimum telomeric restriction fragments (TRF) (telomere length) were determined, using the Southern blot protocol previously used for the analysis of skeletal muscle. RESULTS: There was no abnormal shortening of telomeres in PL. On the contrary, the mean...

  18. Rapid-throughput skeletal phenotyping of 100 knockout mice identifies 9 new genes that determine bone strength.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J H Duncan Bassett

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a common polygenic disease and global healthcare priority but its genetic basis remains largely unknown. We report a high-throughput multi-parameter phenotype screen to identify functionally significant skeletal phenotypes in mice generated by the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute Mouse Genetics Project and discover novel genes that may be involved in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. The integrated use of primary phenotype data with quantitative x-ray microradiography, micro-computed tomography, statistical approaches and biomechanical testing in 100 unselected knockout mouse strains identified nine new genetic determinants of bone mass and strength. These nine new genes include five whose deletion results in low bone mass and four whose deletion results in high bone mass. None of the nine genes have been implicated previously in skeletal disorders and detailed analysis of the biomechanical consequences of their deletion revealed a novel functional classification of bone structure and strength. The organ-specific and disease-focused strategy described in this study can be applied to any biological system or tractable polygenic disease, thus providing a general basis to define gene function in a system-specific manner. Application of the approach to diseases affecting other physiological systems will help to realize the full potential of the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium.

  19. Skeletal Aging and Osteoporosis Biomechanics and Mechanobiology

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this book is on mechanical aspects of skeletal fragility related to aging and osteoporosis. Topics include: Age-related changes in trabecular structure and strength; age-related changes in cortical material properties; age-related changes in whole-bone structure; predicting bone strength and fracture risk using image-based methods and finite element analysis; animal models of osteoporosis and aging; age-related changes in skeletal mechano responsiveness; exercise and physical interventions for osteoporosis.

  20. Eruption of the maxillary canines in relation to skeletal maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Franchi, Lorenzo; De Lisa, Simona; Giuntini, Veronica

    2008-05-01

    Our aim in this study was to assess the relationship between the eruption of the permanent maxillary canines and skeletal maturity in subjects with different skeletal relationships in the sagittal and vertical planes. A sample of 152 subjects (63 boys, 89 girls) with erupting permanent maxillary canines was analyzed. On the lateral cephalograms, the stage of cervical vertebral maturation was assessed. Then the subjects were divided into prepeak (before the pubertal growth spurt, cervical stage [CS]1 and CS2), peak (during the pubertal growth spurt, CS3 and CS4), and postpeak (after the pubertal growth spurt, CS5 and CS6) groups. Skeletal relationships in the sagittal and vertical planes were evaluated, and relationships to timing of canine eruption were tested statistically. The prepeak group comprised 86 subjects, the peak group 66 subjects, and the postpeak group 0 subjects. The differences in prevalence rates between either the prepeak or peak groups and the postpeak group were statistically significant (P < 0.001). The prevalence rate for hyperdivergent subjects showing eruption of the permanent maxillary canine in the prepeak group (37.2%) was significantly higher than in the reference orthodontic population (21%). The eruption of the permanent maxillary canine can occur at any stage in skeletal maturation before the end the pubertal growth spurt (CS1-CS4), with hyperdivergent subjects more frequently having prepubertal canine eruption.

  1. , 1584), increase in lean body mass (ID 1579, 1582, 1583), increase in muscle strength (ID 1578, 1583, 1587), increase in endurance performance (ID 1580, 1581), skeletal muscle tissue repair (ID 1586) and faster recovery from muscle fatigue after exercise (ID 1576, 1585) pursuant to Article 13, EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate monohydrate (HMB) alone or in combination with α-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC) and reduction of muscle tissue damage during exercise (ID 1577

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate monohydrate (HMB) alone or in combination with α-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC) and reduction of muscle tissue damage during exercise, increase in lean body mass, increase in muscle strength, increase in endurance performance, skeletal muscle tissue repair...... and faster recovery from muscle fatigue after exercise. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituent...

  2. Age-related changes in motor cortical properties and voluntary activation of skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Brian C; Taylor, Janet L

    2011-12-01

    Aging is associated with dramatic reductions in muscle strength and motor control, and many of these agerelated changes in muscle function result from adaptations in the central nervous system. Aging is associated with widespread qualitative and quantitative changes of the motor cortex. For example, advancing age has been suggested to result in cortical atrophy, reduced cortical excitability, reduced cortical plasticity, as well as neurochemical abnormalities.The associated functional effects of these changes likely influence numerous aspects of muscle performance such as muscle strength and motor control. For example, there is evidence to suggest that the muscle weakness associated with aging is partially due to impairments in the nervous system's ability to fully activate motor neurons- particularly in the larger proximal muscle groups. In this review article we discuss age-related changes in the motor cortex, as well as the abilityor lack thereof- of older adults to voluntarily activate skeletal muscle. We also provide perspectives on scientific and clinical questions that need to be addressed in the near future.

  3. Relations between premise similarity and inductive strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heit, Evan; Feeney, Aidan

    2005-04-01

    According to the diversity principle, diverse evidence is strong evidence. There has been considerable evidence that people respect this principle in inductive reasoning. However, exceptions may be particularly informative. Medin, Coley, Storms, and Hayes (2003) introduced a relevance theory of inductive reasoning and used this theory to predict exceptions, including the nondiversity-by-property-reinforcement effect. A new experiment in which this phenomenon was investigated is reported here. Subjects made inductive strength judgments and similarity judgments for stimuli from Medin et al. (2003). The inductive strength judgments showed the same pattern as that in Medin et al. (2003); however, the similarity judgments suggested that the pattern should be interpreted as a diversity effect, rather than as a nondiversity effect. It is concluded that the evidence regarding the predicted nondiversity-by-property-reinforcement effect does not give distinctive support for relevance theory, although this theory does address other results.

  4. Role of AMPK in skeletal muscle metabolic regulation and adaptation in relation to exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sebastian Beck; Richter, Erik; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    The 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a potent regulator of skeletal muscle metabolism and gene expression. AMPK is activated both in response to in vivo exercise and ex vivo contraction. AMPK is therefore believed to be an important signalling molecule in regulating muscle metabolism...... during exercise as well as in adaptation of skeletal muscle to exercise training. The first part of this review is focused on different mechanisms regulating AMPK activity during muscle work such as alterations in nucleotide concentrations, availability of energy substrates and upstream AMPK kinases. We...... in relation to adaptation of skeletal muscle to exercise training....

  5. Single- and multiple-set resistance training improves skeletal and respiratory muscle strength in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahin, Odilon; Rodrigues, Rejane P; Nascimento, Vanderson C; Da Silva-Grigoletto, Marzo E; Sousa, Evitom C; Marçal, Anderson C

    2014-01-01

    Aging involves a progressive reduction of respiratory muscle strength as well as muscle strength. Compare the effects of resistance training volume on the maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP), maximum expiratory pressure (MEP), functional performance, and muscle strength in elderly women. Thirty elderly women were randomly assigned to a group performing either single sets (1-SET) or three sets (3-SET) of exercises. The sit-to-stand test, MIP, MEP, and muscle strength were assessed before and after 24 training sessions. Progressive resistance training was performed two times per week for a total of 8-12 repetitions, using the main muscle groups of the upper and lower limbs. The main results showed that the participants significantly increased their MEP (Ptraining sessions, muscle strength also significantly increased (Ptraining programs increased MIP, MEP, muscle strength, and sit-to-stand test performance in elderly women after 24 sessions of training. In conclusion, our results suggested that elderly women who are not in the habit of physical activity may start with single-set resistance training programs as a short-term strategy for the maintenance of health.

  6. Relative Skeletal Maturation and Population Ancestry in Nonobese Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Shana E; Chesi, Alessandra; Mitchell, Jonathan A; Roy, Sani M; Cousminer, Diana L; Kalkwarf, Heidi J; Lappe, Joan M; Gilsanz, Vicente; Oberfield, Sharon E; Shepherd, John A; Mahboubi, Soroosh; Winer, Karen K; Kelly, Andrea; Grant, Struan Fa; Zemel, Babette S

    2017-01-01

    More rapid skeletal maturation in African-American (AA) children is recognized and generally attributed to an increased prevalence of obesity. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of population ancestry on relative skeletal maturation in healthy, non-obese children and adolescents, accounting for body composition and sexual maturation. To do this, we leveraged a multiethnic, mixed-longitudinal study with annual assessments for up to 7 years (The Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study and its ancillary cohort) conducted at five US clinical centers. Participants included 1592 children, skeletally immature (45% females, 19% AA) who were aged 5 to 17 years at study entry. The primary outcome measure was relative skeletal maturation as assessed by hand-wrist radiograph. Additional covariates measured included anthropometrics, body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and Tanner stage of sexual maturation. Using mixed effects longitudinal models, without covariates, advancement in relative skeletal maturation was noted in self-reported AA girls (∼0.33 years, p ancestry groups showed independent positive associations of height, lean mass, fat mass, and puberty with relative skeletal maturation. The effect of ancestry was attenuated but persistent after accounting for covariates: for girls, 0.19 years (ancestry by self-report, p = 0.02) or 0.29 years (ancestry by admixture, p = 0.004); and for boys, 0.20 years (ancestry by self-report, p = 0.004), or 0.29 years (ancestry by admixture, p = 0.004). In summary, we conclude that advancement in relative skeletal maturation was associated with AA ancestry in healthy, non-obese children, independent of growth, body composition, and puberty. Further research into the mechanisms underlying this observation may provide insights into the regulation of skeletal maturation. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2016 American Society for Bone and

  7. Partial Restoration Of Skeletal Strength In Ovariectomized Rats By Treatment With Strontium Salts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Andersen, Pernille/Høegh; Christgau, Stephan

    AIM Ovariectomy of female rats induces significant bone-loss by depriving endogenous estrogen production. We assessed whether administration of strontium salts had a therapeutic benefit in this animal model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. INTRODUCTION In most women after menopause, the rate of bone...... loss exceeds the rate of bone formation, resulting in a net decrease in bone mass and ultimately in development of osteoporosis and elevated risk of sustaining fragility fracture. Most approved osteoporosis treatments work by decreasing the rate of bone resorption, however, these treatments also...... decrease new bone formation over time due to the coupling between these two processes. Elemental non-radioactive Strontium has been demonstrated to have both an anti resorptive as well as an anabolic effect on skeletal metabolism. This has been demonstrated in animal experiments after chromic...

  8. A relation between dynamic strength and manual materials-handling strategy affected by knowledge of strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Daniel; Li, Kang; Zhang, Xudong

    2007-06-01

    We studied the relation between dynamic (isokinetic) strength and the batch-assorting strategy to initiate a manual materials-handling task and the effect of knowledge of strength on that relation. The debated, complex relationship between muscular strength and the risk of injury can be better understood from a behavioral perspective by examining performance strategies in physical acts such as lifting. Thirty-two participants (16 men and 16 women) were first tested for their isokinetic strengths of trunk extension, knee extension, shoulder extension, and shoulder abduction. The participants were then divided into two groups, one provided with knowledge feedback of their strength testing results and the other not provided with such feedback. Participants subsequently performed the same load-handling task in which they carried batches of various weight plates while allowed to assort batches of more than one plate into any combination. Dynamic strength, as represented by a total isokinetic strength score, and knowledge feedback both had significant effects on measures quantifying the batch-assorting strategy. Individuals with greater strength tended to adopt a strategy corresponding to a heavier load per carry and fewer carries per batch. Receiving knowledge feedback evoked a tendency toward handling a heavier load, and this tendency was more salient in the weaker individuals. Potential applications include the use of strength testing in worker selection and training as well as in job design to promote better strategies of balancing productivity and injury prevention.

  9. Age-related changes in skeletal muscle mitochondria: the role of exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Yun Seo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, which leads to a decline in cellular function and the development of age-related diseases. Reduced skeletal muscle mass with aging appears to promote a decrease in mitochondrial quality and quantity. Moreover, mitochondrial dysfunction adversely affects the quality and quantity of skeletal muscle. During aging, physical exercise can cause beneficial adaptations to cellular energy metabolism in skeletal muscle, including alterations to mitochondrial content, protein, and biogenesis. Here, we briefly summarize current findings on the association between the aging process and impairment of mitochondrial function, including mitochondrial biogenesis and reactive oxygen species in skeletal muscle. We also discuss the potential role of exercise in the improvement of aging-driven mitochondrial dysfunctions.

  10. Partial Restoration Of Skeletal Strength In Ovariectomized Rats By Treatment With Strontium Salts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Andersen, Pernille/Høegh; Christgau, Stephan

    loss exceeds the rate of bone formation, resulting in a net decrease in bone mass and ultimately in development of osteoporosis and elevated risk of sustaining fragility fracture. Most approved osteoporosis treatments work by decreasing the rate of bone resorption, however, these treatments also...... administration of non-radioactive elemental strontium for up to two years. Our goal was to assess whether short term treatment with strontium in ovariectomized rats would affect biochemical markers of bone turnover as well as promote a bone strength. METHODS The study was performed in 48 female 5 months old......Laps ELISA) and the formation marker osteocalcin (RatMID ELISA). Samples from week 4 and week 9 was measured and the response calculated as the post treatment value in percent of the pretreatment value. Bone strength was analyzed by indentation testing and BMD measurement by pQCT of femurs from the rats...

  11. Relative Advantage: Strength for Favorable Conflict Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    289. 92A commonly used code- word for the foreign-built air defense network. It is simply Iraq spelled backwards. 93Richard Hallion, Storm Over...are interconnected. The implication is that the Department of Defense, writ large, must integrate the concept of relative advantage and its connection

  12. Site-specific advantages in skeletal geometry and strength at the proximal femur and forearm in young female gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowthwaite, Jodi N; Rosenbaum, Paula F; Scerpella, Tamara A

    2012-05-01

    We evaluated site-specific skeletal adaptation to loading during growth, comparing radius (RAD) and femoral neck (FN) DXA scans in young female gymnasts (GYM) and non-gymnasts (NON). Subjects from an ongoing longitudinal study (8-26yr old) underwent annual DXA scans (proximal femur, forearm, total body) and anthropometry, completing maturity and physical activity questionnaires. This cross-sectional analysis used the most recent data meeting the following criteria: gynecological age ≤2.5yr post-menarche; and GYM annual mean gymnastic exposure ≥5.0h/wk in the prior year. Bone geometric and strength indices were derived from scans for 173 subjects (8-17yr old) via hip structural analysis (femoral narrow neck, NN) and similar radius formulae (1/3 and Ultradistal (UD)). Maturity was coded as M1 (Tanner I breast), M2 (pre-menarche, ≥Tanner II breast) or M3 (post-menarche). ANOVA and chi square compared descriptive data. Two factor ANCOVA adjusted for age, height, total body non-bone lean mass and percent body fat; significance was tested for main effects and interactions between gymnastic exposure and maturity. At the distal radius, GYM means were significantly greater than NON means for all variables (pproximal femur, GYM exhibited narrower periosteal and endosteal dimensions, but greater indices of cortical thickness, BMC, aBMD and section modulus, with lower buckling ratio (pradius BMC, width, endosteal diameter, cortical cross-sectional area, and section modulus (GYM advantages primarily post-menarche); and 3) UD radius BMC and axial compressive strength (GYM advantages were larger with greater maturity, greatest post-menarche). Maturity-specific comparisons suggested site-specific skeletal adaptation to loading during growth, with greater advantages at the radius versus the proximal femur. At the radius, GYM advantages included greater bone width, cortical cross-sectional area and cortical thickness; in contrast, at the femoral neck, GYM bone tissue cross

  13. Factors Related with Handgrip Strength in Elderly Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Riviati

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: the aging process causes decreasing in the function of various organs. Skletal muscle is one of the organs affected by aging process. It is known as sarcopenia. Sarcopenia is defined as a syndrome characterized by progressive loss of muscle mass and strength. The handgrip strength examination is often applied as a sarcopenia filtering technique. This study aimed to determine the relationship between age, nutritional status, and chronic diseases such as stroke, hypertension (HT, diabetes mellitus (DM, coronary heart disease (CHD, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD with handgrip strength. Methods: a cross-sectional study to determine factors related to the handgrip strength in elderly patients was conducted in Geriatric outpatient clinic of Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital and Mohammad Hoesin Hospital from August to October 2015. There were 352 eligible subjects in this study recruited with consecutive sampling. The independent variables in the study consisted of age, sex, nutritional status, chronic disease (stroke, hypertension (HT, diabetes mellitus (DM, coronary heart disease (CHD and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, waist circumference while the dependent variable was handgrip strength. Results: age of more than 75 years old and malnutriton were risk factors that affected hangrip strength. Age of >75 years increase the risk for having low handgrip strength by 2,3-fold. Malnutrition increased risk for low handgrip strength for 1,9-fold. Conclusion: ages of >75 years old and malnutrition will increase the risk of low handgrip strength in elderly patients.

  14. Mitochondria, glycogen and lipid droplets in skeletal muscle during testosterone treatment and strength training. A randomized, double blinded, placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Richard Christian; Lehman Christensen, Louise; Nielsen, Joachim

    2018-01-01

    testosterone, LBM, and percent body fat were not followed by significant changes in fractions of mitochondria, glycogen, or lipid in skeletal muscle of aging men with lowered testosterone levels. Six‐month ST or combined three‐month ST+TRT did not change intramyocellular mitochondria, glycogen, and LD......Low testosterone levels in aging men are associated with insulin resistance. Mitochondrial dysfunction, changes in glycogen metabolism, and lipid accumulation are linked to insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. In this randomized, double‐blinded, placebo‐controlled study, we investigated...... the effects of six‐month testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) and strength training (ST) on mitochondrial, glycogen, and lipid droplet (LD) content in skeletal muscle of aging men with subnormal bioavailable testosterone (BioT) levels. Mitochondrial, glycogen, and LD volume fractions in muscle biopsies were...

  15. The effects of bolus supplementation of branched-chain amino acids on skeletal muscle mass, strength, and function in patients with rheumatic disorders during glucocorticoid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Noritada; Shimizu, Noriaki; Uehara, Masaaki; Oda, Aya; Matsumiya, Ryo; Matsubara, Erika; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Hosono, Osamu; Kuribara-Souta, Akiko; Baba, Hiroyuki; Nagamura, Fumitaka; Kiryu, Shigeru; Tanaka, Hirotoshi

    2017-05-01

    To test the effects of bolus supplementation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) on skeletal muscle mass, strength, and function in patients with rheumatic disorders taking glucocorticoid (GC). Patients with rheumatic disorders treated with prednisolone (≥10 mg/day) were randomized to ingest additional daily 12 g of BCAA (n = 9) or not (n = 9) for 12 weeks. At baseline, and 4, 8, and 12 weeks, they underwent bioelectrical impedance analysis, muscle strength and functional tests, and computed tomography analysis for cross-sectional area of mid-thigh muscle. Disease activities of the patients were well controlled and daily GC dose was similarly reduced in both groups. Limb muscle mass was recovered in both groups. Whole-body muscle mass and muscle strength and functional mobility were increased only in BCAA (+) group. The effects of BCAA supplementation on recovering skeletal muscle mass were prominent in particular muscles including biceps femoris muscle. This trial is the first-in-man clinical trial to demonstrate that BCAA supplementation might be safe and, at least in part, improve skeletal muscle mass, strength, and function in patients with rheumatic disorders treated with GC.

  16. Relative Skeletal Muscle Mass Is Associated with Development of Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Sam Park

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundVisceral adiposity is related to insulin resistance. Skeletal muscle plays a central role in insulin-mediated glucose disposal; however, little is known about the association between muscle mass and metabolic syndrome (MS. This study is to clarify the clinical role of skeletal muscle mass in development of MS.MethodsA total of 1,042 subjects were enrolled. Subjects with prior MS and chronic diseases were excluded. After 24 months, development of MS was assessed using NCEP-ATP III criteria. Skeletal muscle mass (SMM; kg, body fat mass (BFM; kg, and visceral fat area (VFA; cm2 were obtained from bioelectrical analysis. Then, the following values were calculated as follows: percent of SMM (SMM%; %: SMM (kg/weight (kg, skeletal muscle index (SMI; kg/m2: SMM (kg/height (m2, skeletal muscle to body fat ratio (MFR: SMM (kg/BFM (kg, and skeletal muscle to visceral fat ratio (SVR; kg/cm2: SMM (kg/VFA (cm2.ResultsAmong 838 subjects, 88 (10.5% were newly diagnosed with MS. Development of MS increased according to increasing quintiles of BMI, SMM, VFA, and SMI, but was negatively associated with SMM%, MFR, and SVR. VFA was positively associated with high waist circumference (WC, high blood pressure (BP, dysglycemia, and high triglyceride (TG. In contrast, MFR was negatively associated with high WC, high BP, dysglycemia, and high TG. SVR was negatively associated with all components of MS.ConclusionRelative SMM ratio to body composition, rather than absolute mass, may play a critical role in development of MS and could be used as a strong predictor.

  17. The Correlations between Extremity Circumferences with Total and Regional Amounts of Skeletal Muscle and Muscle Strength in Obese Women with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwi Ryun Kwon

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundInsulin resistance is related to central obesity and the amount of skeletal muscle. A simple and practical anthropometric marker for muscle mass is not known, although waist circumference (WC is used as an indicator of abdominal obesity. The aims of this study were to investigate whether arm (AC and thigh circumferences (TC can be used as an indicator of muscle mass and if they are related to muscle strength.MethodsA total of 110 obese (body mass index [BMI]≥25 kg/m2 women with type 2 diabetes were enrolled, and WC, AC, and TC were measured. Abdominal visceral fat (AVF, subcutaneous fat (ASF, and total fat (ATF were assessed by computed tomography, regional muscle (MM, and fat mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, muscle strength by one repetition maximum (1RM of both extremities (chest and leg press and insulin resistance by KITT.ResultsThe mean age was 56.2±7.3 years, duration of diabetes was 4.2±4.4 years, and BMI was 27.2±2.8 kg/m2. WC was correlated with ATF, AVF, and ASF (r=0.728, P<0.001; r=0.515, P<0.001; r=0.608, P<0.001, respectively. Arm MM was correlated with AC (r=0.500, P<0.001, and leg MM with TC (r=0.291, P=0.002. Upper 1RM was related to AC/WC ratio (r=0.359, P<0.001, and lower 1RM was to TC/WC ratio (r=0.286, P=0.003. Insulin resistance had significant relations with AVF, WC, and total MM (r=-0.262, P=0.008; r=-0.217, P=0.029; r=0.160, P=0.031, respectively.ConclusionThe muscle mass was related to extremity circumferences, and muscle strength was to extremity/waist circumference ratio in obese women with type 2 diabetes.

  18. Evaluation of ubiquinone concentration and mitochondrial function relative to cerivastatin-induced skeletal myopathy in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, William H.; Lawrence, Jeffery W.; Loughlin, Amy F.; Stoffregen, Dana A.; Mixson, Lori A.; Dean, Dennis C.; Raab, Conrad E.; Yu, Nathan X.; Lankas, George R.; Frederick, Clay B.

    2004-01-01

    As a class, hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors can potentially cause skeletal myopathy. One statin, cerivastatin, has recently been withdrawn from the market due to an unacceptably high incidence of rhabdomyolysis. The mechanism underlying statin-induced myopathy is unknown. This paper sought to investigate the relationship among statin-induced myopathy, mitochondrial function, and muscle ubiquinone levels. Rats were administered cerivastatin at 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 (mg/kg)/day or dose vehicle (controls) by oral gavage for 15 days. Samples of type I-predominant skeletal muscle (soleus) and type II-predominant skeletal muscle [quadriceps and extensor digitorum longus (EDL)], and blood were collected on study days 5, 10, and 15 for morphological evaluation, clinical chemistry, mitochondrial function tests, and analysis of ubiquinone levels. No histological changes were observed in any of the animals on study days 5 or 10, but on study day 15, mid- and high-dose animals had necrosis and inflammation in type II skeletal muscle. Elevated creatine kinase (CK) levels in blood (a clinical marker of myopathy) correlated with the histopathological diagnosis of myopathy. Ultrastructural characterization of skeletal muscle revealed disruption of the sarcomere and altered mitochondria only in myofibers with degeneration, while adjacent myofibers were unaffected and had normal mitochondria. Thus, mitochondrial effects appeared not to precede myofiber degeneration. Mean coenzyme Q9 (CoQ9) levels in all dose groups were slightly decreased relative to controls in type II skeletal muscle, although the difference was not significantly different in most cases. Mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle was not affected by the changes in ubiquinone levels. The ubiquinone levels in high-dose-treated animals exhibiting myopathy were not significantly different from low-dose animals with no observable toxic effects. Furthermore, ubiquinone levels did not correlate

  19. Insulin signal transduction in skeletal muscle from glucose-intolerant relatives of type 2 diabetic patients [corrected

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, H; Song, X M; Jensen, C B

    2001-01-01

    To determine whether defects in the insulin signal transduction cascade are present in skeletal muscle from prediabetic individuals, we excised biopsies from eight glucose-intolerant male first-degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes (IGT relatives) and nine matched control subjects...... phosphorylation in control subjects and IGT relatives, with a tendency for reduced phosphorylation in IGT relatives (P = 0.12). In conclusion, aberrant phosphorylation/activity of IRS-1, PI 3-kinase, and Akt is observed in skeletal muscle from relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes with IGT. However...... resistance in skeletal muscle from relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes....

  20. Indoor mobility-related fatigue and muscle strength in nonagenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mänty, Minna; Ekmann, Anette; Thinggaard, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Mobility-related fatigue is an important indicator of functional decline in old age, however, very little is known about fatigue in the oldest old population segment. The aim of this study was to examine the association between indoor mobility-related fatigue and muscle...... significantly (P muscle strength during the entire study period. Longitudinal analyses indicated slightly slower decline in muscle strength among participants with fatigue compared to those without; however, observed selective dropout of participants with fatigue and poor performance at baseline...... needs to be considered when interpreting the results. Accordingly, participants without fatigue had significantly higher chances of being alive and having muscle strength above gender-specific median at first (RR 1.32, 95 % CI 1.07-1.58), second (RR 1.51, 1.06-1.96) and third (RR 1.39, 1...

  1. HDAC4-Myogenin Axis As an Important Marker of HD-Related Skeletal Muscle Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Cleo J. L. M.; Franklin, Sophie A.; Bondulich, Marie K.; Jolinon, Nelly; Muller, Thomas; Ahmed, Mhoriam; Dick, James R. T.; Piotrowska, Izabela; Greensmith, Linda; Smolenski, Ryszard T.; Bates, Gillian P.

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle remodelling and contractile dysfunction occur through both acute and chronic disease processes. These include the accumulation of insoluble aggregates of misfolded amyloid proteins that is a pathological feature of Huntington’s disease (HD). While HD has been described primarily as a neurological disease, HD patients’ exhibit pronounced skeletal muscle atrophy. Given that huntingtin is a ubiquitously expressed protein, skeletal muscle fibres may be at risk of a cell autonomous HD-related dysfunction. However the mechanism leading to skeletal muscle abnormalities in the clinical and pre-clinical HD settings remains unknown. To unravel this mechanism, we employed the R6/2 transgenic and HdhQ150 knock-in mouse models of HD. We found that symptomatic animals developed a progressive impairment of the contractile characteristics of the hind limb muscles tibialis anterior (TA) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL), accompanied by a significant loss of motor units in the EDL. In symptomatic animals, these pronounced functional changes were accompanied by an aberrant deregulation of contractile protein transcripts and their up-stream transcriptional regulators. In addition, HD mouse models develop a significant reduction in muscle force, possibly as a result of a deterioration in energy metabolism and decreased oxidation that is accompanied by the re-expression of the HDAC4-DACH2-myogenin axis. These results show that muscle dysfunction is a key pathological feature of HD. PMID:25748626

  2. Understanding the Relative Strength of the Motives that Influence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Understanding the Relative Strength of the Motives that Influence Acquisition Strategy: Evidence from an Emerging Market. ... This paper argues that part of the reason why most Acquisitions fail is because the motives that drive the strategy are not critically examined. ... Keywords: Mergers, Acquisition, Ghana, Motives ...

  3. Relation between body mass index percentile and muscle strength ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relation between body mass index percentile and muscle strength and endurance. ... Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics ... They were divided into three groups according to their body mass index percentile where group (a) is equal to or more than 5% percentile yet less than 85% percentile, group (b) is equal to ...

  4. Relation and influences of sports climbers' specific strength on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this research was to determine relations to, and influences of the specific strength of sport climbers on success in sport climbing. Research was conducted on a sample of sport climbers (N=32), participants in the Balkan championships “Naissus Route Climbing Challenge 03”, competing on national and ...

  5. Loss of adult skeletal muscle stem cells drives age-related neuromuscular junction degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenxuan; Klose, Alanna; Forman, Sophie; Paris, Nicole D; Wei-LaPierre, Lan; Cortés-Lopéz, Mariela; Tan, Aidi; Flaherty, Morgan; Miura, Pedro; Dirksen, Robert T; Chakkalakal, Joe V

    2017-06-06

    Neuromuscular junction degeneration is a prominent aspect of sarcopenia, the age-associated loss of skeletal muscle integrity. Previously, we showed that muscle stem cells activate and contribute to mouse neuromuscular junction regeneration in response to denervation (Liu et al., 2015). Here, we examined gene expression profiles and neuromuscular junction integrity in aged mouse muscles, and unexpectedly found limited denervation despite a high level of degenerated neuromuscular junctions. Instead, degenerated neuromuscular junctions were associated with reduced contribution from muscle stem cells. Indeed, muscle stem cell depletion was sufficient to induce neuromuscular junction degeneration at a younger age. Conversely, prevention of muscle stem cell and derived myonuclei loss was associated with attenuation of age-related neuromuscular junction degeneration, muscle atrophy, and the promotion of aged muscle force generation. Our observations demonstrate that deficiencies in muscle stem cell fate and post-synaptic myogenesis provide a cellular basis for age-related neuromuscular junction degeneration and associated skeletal muscle decline.

  6. Is increase in bone mineral content caused by increase in skeletal muscle mass/strength in adult patients with GH-treated GH deficiency? A systematic literature analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klefter, O.; Feldt-Rasmussen, U.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Adult patients with GH deficiency (GHD) are characterized by a reduced muscle mass, but also reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC), which have been ascribed to GHD per se. The aim of this study was to investigate if changes in BMD/BMC in adult GHD patients could be due...... performed a systematic literature analysis, including 51 clinical trials published between 1996 and 2008, which had studied the development in muscle mass, muscle strength, BMD, and/or BMC in GH-treated adult GHD patients. RESULTS: GH therapy had an anabolic effect on skeletal muscle. The largest increase...

  7. Activity of Ca(2+,Mg(2+-ATPase of sarcoplasmic reticulum and contraction strength of the frog skeletal muscles under the effect of organophosphorus insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Nozdrenko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The results of an experimental study of organo­phosphorus insecticides, including pirimiphosmethyl, diazinon and chlorpyrifos caused a decline of the contraction properties in m. tibialis anterior fiber bundles of Rana temporaria, as well as sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+,Mg2+-ATPase enzymatic activity reduction are outlined in this paper. Concentration-dependent strengths response diminishing in isolated skeletal muscle fiber bundles as a result of non-cholinergic influence of organophosphorus insecticides were found. A decrease of Ca2+,Mg2+-ATPase enzymatic activity in sarcoplasmic reticulum was observed after administration of each insecticide. The most significant inhibition of this enzyme was observed when using chlorpyrifos.

  8. Effects of Whey, Soy or Leucine Supplementation with 12 Weeks of Resistance Training on Strength, Body Composition, and Skeletal Muscle and Adipose Tissue Histological Attributes in College-Aged Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Brooks Mobley

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We sought to determine the effects of L-leucine (LEU or different protein supplements standardized to LEU (~3.0 g/serving on changes in body composition, strength, and histological attributes in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Seventy-five untrained, college-aged males (mean ± standard error of the mean (SE; age = 21 ± 1 years, body mass = 79.2 ± 0.3 kg were randomly assigned to an isocaloric, lipid-, and organoleptically-matched maltodextrin placebo (PLA, n = 15, LEU (n = 14, whey protein concentrate (WPC, n = 17, whey protein hydrolysate (WPH, n = 14, or soy protein concentrate (SPC, n = 15 group. Participants performed whole-body resistance training three days per week for 12 weeks while consuming supplements twice daily. Skeletal muscle and subcutaneous (SQ fat biopsies were obtained at baseline (T1 and ~72 h following the last day of training (T39. Tissue samples were analyzed for changes in type I and II fiber cross sectional area (CSA, non-fiber specific satellite cell count, and SQ adipocyte CSA. On average, all supplement groups including PLA exhibited similar training volumes and experienced statistically similar increases in total body skeletal muscle mass determined by dual X-ray absorptiometry (+2.2 kg; time p = 0.024 and type I and II fiber CSA increases (+394 μm2 and +927 μm2; time p < 0.001 and 0.024, respectively. Notably, all groups reported increasing Calorie intakes ~600–800 kcal/day from T1 to T39 (time p < 0.001, and all groups consumed at least 1.1 g/kg/day of protein at T1 and 1.3 g/kg/day at T39. There was a training, but no supplementation, effect regarding the reduction in SQ adipocyte CSA (−210 μm2; time p = 0.001. Interestingly, satellite cell counts within the WPC (p < 0.05 and WPH (p < 0.05 groups were greater at T39 relative to T1. In summary, LEU or protein supplementation (standardized to LEU content does not provide added benefit in increasing whole-body skeletal muscle mass or strength above PLA

  9. Performance of repetitive tasks induces decreased grip strength and increased fibrogenic proteins in skeletal muscle: role of force and inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir M Abdelmagid

    Full Text Available This study elucidates exposure-response relationships between performance of repetitive tasks, grip strength declines, and fibrogenic-related protein changes in muscles, and their link to inflammation. Specifically, we examined forearm flexor digitorum muscles for changes in connective tissue growth factor (CTGF; a matrix protein associated with fibrosis, collagen type I (Col1; a matrix component, and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1; an upstream modulator of CTGF and collagen, in rats performing one of two repetitive tasks, with or without anti-inflammatory drugs.To examine the roles of force versus repetition, rats performed either a high repetition negligible force food retrieval task (HRNF, or a high repetition high force handle-pulling task (HRHF, for up to 9 weeks, with results compared to trained only (TR-NF or TR-HF and normal control rats. Grip strength declined with both tasks, with the greatest declines in 9-week HRHF rats. Quantitative PCR (qPCR analyses of HRNF muscles showed increased expression of Col1 in weeks 3-9, and CTGF in weeks 6 and 9. Immunohistochemistry confirmed PCR results, and also showed greater increases of CTGF and collagen matrix in 9-week HRHF rats than 9-week HRNF rats. ELISA, and immunohistochemistry revealed greater increases of TGFB1 in TR-HF and 6-week HRHF, compared to 6-week HRNF rats. To examine the role of inflammation, results from 6-week HRHF rats were compared to rats receiving ibuprofen or anti-TNF-α treatment in HRHF weeks 4-6. Both treatments attenuated HRHF-induced increases in CTGF and fibrosis by 6 weeks of task performance. Ibuprofen attenuated TGFB1 increases and grip strength declines, matching our prior results with anti-TNFα.Performance of highly repetitive tasks was associated with force-dependent declines in grip strength and increased fibrogenic-related proteins in flexor digitorum muscles. These changes were attenuated, at least short-term, by anti-inflammatory treatments.

  10. The relative contribution of strength and physique to running and jumping performance of boys 7-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, T E; Massey, B H; Misner, J E; McKeown, B C; Lohman, T G

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the association of static strength with motor performance of 7 through 11 year old boys (N = 60) after accounting for differences in physique, i.e., body size, shape, and composition. Static strength measures included thigh extension, leg extension and plantar flexion measured by electronic transducer and back lift, leg lift, and right and left grips measured by spring dynamometer. Measures of body composition consisted of fat estimated from triceps, subscapsular and calf skinfolds, and fat-free body weight estimated from potassium-40 measurements. Body structure consisted of skeletal widths, and segment girths, lengths and volumes. The dependent variables were vertical jump, standing broad jump, 50-yard dash, 600-yard run and mile run. The measures of strength increased the variance accounted for from 10 to 23% over that when body size, composition and structure were used without strength. An exception was vertical jump where no increase in the variance accounted for was found with the addition of strength variables. The regression equations determined for the sample of 60 boys rendered multiple R's ranging from 0.64 (mile run) to 0.75 (50-yard dash). It was concluded that strength has a significant relation to motor performance and that its contribution can be better assessed after accounting for differences in body size, shape, and composition.

  11. Substantiation of health related power lifting training methodic for univeristies students with muscular skeletal apparatuse affections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San. Zhen Qiang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: substantiation of health related power lifting training methodic for universities students, who have disorders of muscular skeletal apparatus. Material: in experimental researches 126 students of 18-24 years’ age, having disorders of muscular skeletal apparatus, participated. With the help of testing we registered changes of students’ functional, physical and psycho-physiological fitness indicators. Results: optimal correlation of specific and non specific loads was found: 60% of specific and 40% of non specific. It is recommended to follow certain correlation of exercises in easy and complicated conditions: for first year students - 3:2; for second year students - 3:2; for third year - 2:3; for forth year - 2:3; for fifth year students - 1:3. Specific only for power lifting conditions and temps of students’ (with muscular skeletal apparatus affections functional, physical and psycho-physiological fitness improvement were determined. Conclusions: The requirements of the training methodic envisage correction of loads for bringing every indicator on proper level.

  12. A pilot study examining the impact of exercise training on skeletal muscle genes related to the TLR signaling pathway in older adults following hip fracture recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Alec I; Briggs, Robert A; Barrows, Katherine M; Nelson, Daniel S; Kwon, Oh Sung; Hopkins, Paul N; Higgins, Thomas F; Marcus, Robin L; Drummond, Micah J

    2017-01-01

    Older adults after hip fracture surgery experience progressive muscle atrophy and weakness, limiting full recovery. Further understanding of the molecular mechanisms in muscle with adaptation to exercise training in this vulnerable population is necessary. Therefore, we conducted a pilot study to investigate the skeletal muscle inflammatory and ceramide biosynthesis gene expression levels associated with the toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway before (Pre) and following a 3-mo multicomponent exercise training program in older adults (3M, 4F; 78.4 ± 13.3 yr; 25.5 ± 2.3 kg/m 2 ) ~4 mo after repair from hip fracture (HipFx). Vastus lateralis biopsies from the surgical limb were obtained before (Pre) and after training. Molecular end points and muscle function data were also compared with matched nonexercise healthy controls (CON). As a follow-up analysis, we evaluated specific sphingolipid pools in HipFx and CON muscle. Following training, quadriceps cross-sectional area, strength, and 6-min walk (6MW) increased in the surgical limb (P training (P ≤ 0.05), but some remained elevated above CON levels. Interestingly, MYD88 mRNA was inversely correlated to quadriceps CSA, strength, and 6MW. Finally, muscle dihydroceramides and phosphoceramides in HipFx were lower than CON at Pre (P ≤ 0.05), but after training differences from CON were removed. Together, our pilot data support that exercise training alters skeletal muscle inflammation and ceramide metabolism associated with TLR signaling in older adults recovering from hip fracture surgery and may be related to improvements in muscle function recovery. These pilot data demonstrate that 3 mo of exercise training in older adults recovering from hip fracture surgery was able to mitigate skeletal muscle gene expression related to inflammation and ceramide metabolism while also improving surgical limb lean tissue, strength, and physical function. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Does vitamin-D intake during resistance training improve the skeletal muscle hypertrophic and strength response in young and elderly men? – a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Jakob; Trøstrup, Jeanette; Uth, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Recent studies have shown that vitamin-D intake can improve skeletal muscle function and strength in frail vitamin-D insufficient individuals. We investigated whether vitamin-D intake can improve the muscular response to resistance training in healthy young and elderly individuals.......0001) with no difference between vitamin-D and placebo groups. Vitamin-D intake and resistance training increased strength/CSA in elderly compared to young (p = 0.008). In the young vitamin-D group, the change in fiber type IIa percentage was greater after 12 weeks training (p = 0.030) and Myostatin mRNA expression lower....... 50.4 nmol/L, respectively) and elderly men (111.2 vs. 66.7 nmol/L, respectively). After 12 weeks of resistance training, quadriceps CSA and isometric strength increased compared to baseline in young (CSA p strength p = 0.005) and elderly (CSA p = 0.001, strength p 

  14. Effect of HIV-1-related protein expression on cardiac and skeletal muscles from transgenic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guidot David M

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection and the consequent acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS has protean manifestations, including muscle wasting and cardiomyopathy, which contribute to its high morbidity. The pathogenesis of these myopathies remains partially understood, and may include nutritional deficiencies, biochemical abnormalities, inflammation, and other mechanisms due to viral infection and replication. Growing evidence has suggested that HIV-1-related proteins expressed by the host in response to viral infection, including Tat and gp120, may also be involved in the pathophysiology of AIDS, particularly in cells or tissues that are not directly infected with HIV-1. To explore the potentially independent effects of HIV-1-related proteins on heart and skeletal muscles, we used a transgenic rat model that expresses several HIV-1-related proteins (e.g., Tat, gp120, and Nef. Outcome measures included basic heart and skeletal muscle morphology, glutathione metabolism and oxidative stress, and gene expressions of atrogin-1, muscle ring finger protein-1 (MuRF-1 and Transforming Growth Factor-β1 (TGFβ1, three factors associated with muscle catabolism. Results Consistent with HIV-1 associated myopathies in humans, HIV-1 transgenic rats had increased relative heart masses, decreased relative masses of soleus, plantaris and gastrocnemius muscles, and decreased total and myosin heavy chain type-specific plantaris muscle fiber areas. In both tissues, the levels of cystine (Cyss, the oxidized form of the anti-oxidant cysteine (Cys, and Cyss:Cys ratios were significantly elevated, and cardiac tissue from HIV-1 transgenic rats had altered glutathione metabolism, all reflective of significant oxidative stress. In HIV-1 transgenic rat hearts, MuRF-1 gene expression was increased. Further, HIV-1-related protein expression also increased atrogin-1 (~14- and ~3-fold and TGFβ1 (~5-fold and ~3-fold in heart and

  15. THE EFFECT OF THE STATIC RELATIVE STRENGTH ON THE MAXIMUM RELATIVE RECEIVING OF OXYGEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla Elezi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on research on the sample of 263 students of age- 18 years, and used batteries of 9 tests for evaluation of the static relative strength and the criterion variable- maximum relative receiving of oxygen (VO2 ml / kg / min based on the Astrand test ,and on regression analysis to determine the influence of the static relative strength on the criterion variable maximum relative oxygen receiving, can be generally concluded that from 9 predictor variables statistically significant partial effect have 2variables. In hierarchical order, they are: the variable of static relative leg strength - endurance of the fingers (the angle of the lower leg and thigh 900 (SRL2 which arithmetic mean is 25.04 seconds and variable ctatic relative strength of arms and shoulders – push-up endurance in the balance beam (angle of the forearm and upper arm 900 ( SRA2 with arithmetic mean of 17.75 seconds. From the statistically influential significant predictor variables on the criterion variable one is from the static relative leg strength (SRL2 and the other is from the static relative strength of arm and shoulder area (SRA2. With the analysis of these relations we can conclude that the isometric contractions of the four headed thigh muscle and the isometric contractions of the three headed upper arm muscle are predominantly responsible for the successful execution of doing actions on a bicycle ergometer and not on the maximum relative receiving of oxygen.

  16. The loss of skeletal muscle strength, mass, and quality in older adults : the health, aging and body composition study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goodpaster, Bret H; Park, Seok Won; Harris, Tamara B; Kritchevsky, Steven B; Nevitt, Michael; Schwartz, Ann V; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Tylavsky, Frances A; Visser, Marjolein; Newman, Anne B

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The loss of muscle mass is considered to be a major determinant of strength loss in aging. However, large-scale longitudinal studies examining the association between the loss of mass and strength in older adults are lacking. METHODS: Three-year changes in muscle mass and strength were

  17. Is increase in bone mineral content caused by increase in skeletal muscle mass/strength in adult patients with GH-treated GH deficiency?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klefter, Oliver; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Adult patients with GH deficiency (GHD) are characterized by a reduced muscle mass, but also reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC), which have been ascribed to GHD per se. The aim of this study was to investigate if changes in BMD/BMC in adult GHD patients could be due...... to a muscle modulating effect, and if treatment with GH would primarily increase muscle mass and strength with a secondary increase in BMD/BMC, thus supporting the present physiological concept that mass and strength of bones are mainly determined by dynamic loads from the skeletal muscles. METHOD: We...... studied both muscle and bone variables concomitantly. No trials studied the relationship between the changes in muscle and bone measurements. CONCLUSION: Although in vitro studies have shown that GH has a direct effect on bone remodeling, present physiological concepts and the results of clinical trials...

  18. Skeletal and dental variables related to the stability of orthognathic surgery in skeletal Class III malocclusion with a surgery-first approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ellen Wen-Ching; Lin, Shao Cheng; Chen, Yu Ray; Huang, Chiung Shing

    2013-05-01

    The objectives of the study were to identify the parameters related to skeletal stability after orthognathic surgery in skeletal Class III malocclusion using a surgery-first approach and to analyze the factors correlated with surgical relapse. Forty-five consecutive patients were included. Serial cephalometric radiographs were traced and superimposed to investigate surgical stability at the initial examination, 1 week postoperatively, and after orthodontic debonding (12.22 mo after surgery). Patient grouping was based on the amount of horizontal relapse at the innermost point of the contour of the mandible between the incisor tooth and the bony chin, the B point (less stable group, n = 15; highly stable group, n = 18). Parameters, such as presurgical skeletal and dental variables, the amount of surgical setback, and total treatment duration, were compared between groups and analyzed for correlations with surgical stability. The mean setback at the innermost point of the contour of the mandible between the incisor tooth and the bony chin was 11.19 mm, and the mean relapse rate was 12.46%. The amount of surgical setback, overbite (positive values), overjet, depth of the curve of Spee, and lower anterior facial height showed statistically significant differences between groups. The amount of surgical setback, overbite (positive values), overjet, and depth of the curve of Spee showed statistically significant correlations with the amount of relapse. Skeletal relapse of the mandible increased significantly as the overbite increased. The factors for instability in the surgery-first approach include a larger overbite, a deeper curve of Spee, a greater negative overjet, and a greater mandibular setback. The initial overbite may be an indicator to predict possible skeletal relapse of mandibular setback. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Does vitamin-D intake during resistance training improve the skeletal muscle hypertrophic and strength response in young and elderly men? - a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agergaard, Jakob; Trøstrup, Jeanette; Uth, Jacob; Iversen, Jonas Vestergard; Boesen, Anders; Andersen, Jesper L; Schjerling, Peter; Langberg, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that vitamin-D intake can improve skeletal muscle function and strength in frail vitamin-D insufficient individuals. We investigated whether vitamin-D intake can improve the muscular response to resistance training in healthy young and elderly individuals, respectively. Healthy untrained young (n = 20, age 20-30) and elderly (n = 20, age 60-75) men were randomized to 16 weeks of daily supplementary intake of either 48 μg of vitamin-D + 800 mg calcium (Vitamin-D-group) or 800 mg calcium (Placebo-group) during a period and at a latitude of low sunlight (December-April, 56°N). During the last 12 weeks of the supplementation the subjects underwent progressive resistance training of the quadriceps muscle. Muscle hypertrophy, measured as changes in cross sectional area (CSA), and isometric strength of the quadriceps were determined. Muscle biopsies were analyzed for fiber type morphology changes and mRNA expression of vitamin-D receptor (VDR), cytochrome p450 27B1 (CYP27B1) and Myostatin. In the vitamin-D groups, serum 25(OH)D concentration increased significantly and at week 12 was significantly different from placebo in both young men (71.6 vs. 50.4 nmol/L, respectively) and elderly men (111.2 vs. 66.7 nmol/L, respectively). After 12 weeks of resistance training, quadriceps CSA and isometric strength increased compared to baseline in young (CSA p strength p = 0.005) and elderly (CSA p = 0.001, strength p strength/CSA in elderly compared to young (p = 0.008). In the young vitamin-D group, the change in fiber type IIa percentage was greater after 12 weeks training (p = 0.030) and Myostatin mRNA expression lower compared to the placebo group (p = 0.006). Neither resistance training nor vitamin-D intake changed VDR mRNA expression. No additive effect of vitamin-D intake during 12 weeks of resistance training could be detected on either whole muscle hypertrophy or muscle strength, but improved muscle

  20. Striated muscle fiber size, composition and capillary density in diabetes in relation to neuropathy and muscle strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Christer Swan; Jensen, Jacob Malte; Jakobsen, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) leads to progressive loss of muscle strength in the lower extremities due to muscular atrophy. Changes in vascularization occur in diabetic striated muscle; however, the relationship between these changes and DPN is as yet unexplored. The aim of the present...... study was to evaluate histologic properties and capillarization of diabetic skeletal muscle in relation to DPN and muscle strength. METHODS: Twenty type 1 and 20 type 2 diabetic (T1D and T2D, respectively) patients underwent biopsy of the gastrocnemic muscle, isokinetic dynamometry at the ankle......, electrophysiological studies, clinical examination, and quantitative sensory examinations. Muscle biopsies were stained immunohistochemically and muscle fiber diameter, fiber type distribution, and capillary density determined. Twenty control subjects were also included in the study. RESULTS: No relationship was found...

  1. Dietary milk fat globule membrane supplementation combined with regular exercise improves skeletal muscle strength in healthy adults: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, Satoko; Ota, Noriyasu; Shimotoyodome, Akira

    2015-08-25

    Our previous studies demonstrated that dietary supplementation with milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) combined with habitual exercise improved muscle strength by stimulating neuromuscular development in mice. This study aimed to demonstrate the beneficial effects of dietary MFGM supplementation plus regular exercise on muscle strength and neuromuscular function in healthy humans. The study was designed as a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Fourteen Japanese adults aged 31-48 years took daily MFGM (1 g) or placebo tablets during the 4-week study period and attended a training program twice a week. Physical function tests and surface electromyography (EMG) were conducted at baseline and at the end of the study period. The MFGM group had significantly greater leg extension strength than the placebo group after the 4-week study period. Surface EMG showed that the MFGM group had a significantly higher root mean square amplitude than the placebo group, which indicated that the MFGM group had higher motor unit activity. Dietary MFGM supplementation combined with regular exercise improves skeletal muscle strength, which may be due to increased motor unit recruitment in healthy Japanese middle-aged adults.

  2. THE STUDY OF MONKEY, APE AND HUMAN MORPHOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY RELATING TO STRENGTH AND ENDUR ANCE; PHASE I: THE RELATIONSHIPS OF HUMAN SIZE TO STRENGTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    determination necessitates valid theoretical formulation and selection through three essential crite ria of a proper sample of subjects for empirical testing. The...formula is: strength k. Vol. (Wt.)/Ht. Champion weightlifters satisfy all criteria, and, by minor adjustments for sample size and skeletal proportion, specific lifts can be predicted within ounces.

  3. Skeletal muscle performance and ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieland, Michael; Trouwborst, Inez; Clark, Brian C

    2018-02-01

    The world population is ageing rapidly. As society ages, the incidence of physical limitations is dramatically increasing, which reduces the quality of life and increases healthcare expenditures. In western society, ~30% of the population over 55 years is confronted with moderate or severe physical limitations. These physical limitations increase the risk of falls, institutionalization, co-morbidity, and premature death. An important cause of physical limitations is the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass, also referred to as sarcopenia. Emerging evidence, however, clearly shows that the decline in skeletal muscle mass is not the sole contributor to the decline in physical performance. For instance, the loss of muscle strength is also a strong contributor to reduced physical performance in the elderly. In addition, there is ample data to suggest that motor coordination, excitation-contraction coupling, skeletal integrity, and other factors related to the nervous, muscular, and skeletal systems are critically important for physical performance in the elderly. To better understand the loss of skeletal muscle performance with ageing, we aim to provide a broad overview on the underlying mechanisms associated with elderly skeletal muscle performance. We start with a system level discussion and continue with a discussion on the influence of lifestyle, biological, and psychosocial factors on elderly skeletal muscle performance. Developing a broad understanding of the many factors affecting elderly skeletal muscle performance has major implications for scientists, clinicians, and health professionals who are developing therapeutic interventions aiming to enhance muscle function and/or prevent mobility and physical limitations and, as such, support healthy ageing. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Society on Sarcopenia, Cachexia and Wasting Disorders.

  4. Gene expression in skeletal muscle biopsies from people with type 2 diabetes and relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palsgaard, Jane; Brøns, Charlotte; Friedrichsen, Martin

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gene expression alterations have previously been associated with type 2 diabetes, however whether these changes are primary causes or secondary effects of type 2 diabetes is not known. As healthy first degree relatives of people with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of developing...... type 2 diabetes, they provide a good model in the search for primary causes of the disease. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We determined gene expression profiles in skeletal muscle biopsies from Caucasian males with type 2 diabetes, healthy first degree relatives, and healthy controls. Gene expression...... was measured using Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Arrays covering the entire human genome. These arrays have not previously been used for this type of study. We show for the first time that genes involved in insulin signaling are significantly upregulated in first degree relatives and significantly...

  5. Using relative handgrip strength to identify children at risk of sarcopenic obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Steffl

    Full Text Available Identifying children at risk of developing childhood sarcopenic obesity often requires specialized equipment and costly testing procedures, so cheaper and quicker methods would be advantageous, especially in field-based settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between the muscle-to-fat ratio (MFR and relative handgrip strength, and to determine the ability of handgrip strength relative to body mass index (grip-to-BMI to identify children who are at risk of developing sarcopenic obesity. Grip-to-BMI was measured in 730 Czech children (4 to 14 yrs. Bioelectrical impedance was used to estimate body fat mass and skeletal muscle mass, from which the MFR was calculated. The area under the curve (AUC was 0.791 (95% CI 0.692-0.890, p ˂ 0.001 in girls 4-9; 0.789 (95% CI 0.688-0.890, p ˂ 0.001 in girls 10-14 years old; 0.719 (95% CI 0.607-0.831, p = 0.001 in boys 4-9; and 0.896 (95% CI 0.823-0.969, p ˂ 0.001 in boys 10-14 years old. Calculated using the grip-to-BMI ratio, the OR (95% CI for girls to be at risk of sarcopenic obesity identified by MFR was 9.918 (4.243-23.186, p ˂ 0.001 and was 11.515 (4.280-30.982, p ˂ 0.001 for boys. The grip-to-BMI ratio can be used to predict the presence of sarcopenic obesity in children, which can play a role in pediatric health interventions.

  6. Degree of Contracture Related to Residual Muscle Shoulder Strength in Children with Obstetric Brachial Plexus Lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gelein Vitringa, V. M.; van Noort, A.; Ritt, M.J.P.F.; van Royen, B.J.; van der Sluijs, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Little is known about the relation between residual muscle strength and joint contracture formation in neuromuscular disorders. This study aimed to investigate the relation between residual muscle strength and shoulder joint contractures in children with sequelae of

  7. Sex-related differences in gene expression in human skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Welle

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There is sexual dimorphism of skeletal muscle, the most obvious feature being the larger muscle mass of men. The molecular basis for this difference has not been clearly defined. To identify genes that might contribute to the relatively greater muscularity of men, we compared skeletal muscle gene expression profiles of 15 normal men and 15 normal women by using comprehensive oligonucleotide microarrays. Although there were sex-related differences in expression of several hundred genes, very few of the differentially expressed genes have functions that are obvious candidates for explaining the larger muscle mass of men. The men tended to have higher expression of genes encoding mitochondrial proteins, ribosomal proteins, and a few translation initiation factors. The women had >2-fold greater expression than the men (P<0.0001 of two genes that encode proteins in growth factor pathways known to be important in regulating muscle mass: growth factor receptor-bound 10 (GRB10 and activin A receptor IIB (ACVR2B. GRB10 encodes a protein that inhibits insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 signaling. ACVR2B encodes a myostatin receptor. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed higher expression of GRB10 and ACVR2B genes in these women. In an independent microarray study of 10 men and 9 women with facioscapulohumeral dystrophy, women had higher expression of GRB10 (2.7-fold, P<0.001 and ACVR2B (1.7-fold, P<0.03. If these sex-related differences in mRNA expression lead to reduced IGF-1 activity and increased myostatin activity, they could contribute to the sex difference in muscle size.

  8. Increased skeletal muscle 11βHSD1 mRNA is associated with lower muscle strength in ageing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alixe H M Kilgour

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia, the loss of muscle mass and function with age, is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Current understanding of the underlying mechanisms is limited. Glucocorticoids (GC in excess cause muscle weakness and atrophy. We hypothesized that GC may contribute to sarcopenia through elevated circulating levels or increased glucocorticoid receptor (GR signaling by increased expression of either GR or the GC-amplifying enzyme 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11βHSD1 in muscle.There were 82 participants; group 1 comprised 33 older men (mean age 70.2 years, SD 4.4 and 19 younger men (22.2 years, 1.7 and group 2 comprised 16 older men (79.1 years, 3.4 and 14 older women (80.1 years, 3.7. We measured muscle strength, mid-thigh cross-sectional area, fasting morning plasma cortisol, quadriceps muscle GR and 11βHSD1 mRNA, and urinary glucocorticoid metabolites. Data were analysed using multiple linear regression adjusting for age, gender and body size.Muscle strength and size were not associated with plasma cortisol, total urinary glucocorticoids or the ratio of urinary 5β-tetrahydrocortisol +5α-tetrahydrocortisol to tetrahydrocortisone (an index of systemic 11βHSD activity. Muscle strength was associated with 11βHSD1 mRNA levels (β -0.35, p = 0.04, but GR mRNA levels were not significantly associated with muscle strength or size.Although circulating levels of GC are not associated with muscle strength or size in either gender, increased cortisol generation within muscle by 11βHSD1 may contribute to loss of muscle strength with age, a key component of sarcopenia. Inhibition of 11βHSD1 may have therapeutic potential in sarcopenia.

  9. Relating mobile sensor soil strength to penetrometer cone index

    Science.gov (United States)

    A horizontally operating on-the-go soil strength profile sensor (SSPS) was previously developed so that the within-field spatial variability in soil strength could be measured at five evenly spaced depths up to 50 cm. Force divided by the base area of the sensing tip of the SSPS was defined as a pri...

  10. RYR1-related rhabdomyolysis: A common but probably underdiagnosed manifestation of skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voermans, N C; Snoeck, M; Jungbluth, H

    2016-10-01

    Mutations in the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RYR1) gene are associated with a wide spectrum of inherited myopathies presenting throughout life. Malignant hyperthermia susceptibility (MHS)-related RYR1 mutations have emerged as a common cause of exertional rhabdomyolysis, accounting for up to 30% of rhabdomyolysis episodes in otherwise healthy individuals. Common triggers are exercise and heat and, less frequently, viral infections, alcohol and drugs. Most subjects are normally strong and have no personal or family history of malignant hyperthermia. Heat intolerance and cold-induced muscle stiffness may be a feature. Recognition of this (probably not uncommon) rhabdomyolysis cause is vital for effective counselling, to identify potentially malignant hyperthermia-susceptible individuals and to adapt training regimes. Studies in various animal models provide insights regarding possible pathophysiological mechanisms and offer therapeutic perspectives. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  11. Effects of Kinesio(®) taping on skeletal muscle strength-A meta-analysis of current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Robert; Alegre, Luis M

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether certain applications of Kinesio tapes might facilitate contraction and increase muscle strength in healthy adults. A meta-analysis of studies investigating the efficacy of Kinesio tapes application was performed. The scientific databases Pubmed and Google Scholar were systematically searched for appropriate articles. Descriptive statistics were extracted to calculate measures of effect size (Pearson's r) and estimate the overall population effect. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed using a specific quality appraisal tool. In addition, the included studies were grouped according to the muscle groups examined, to test whether Kinesio tapes effects were dependent on the area of application. A total of 19 studies, comprising data of 530 subjects and 48 pairwise comparisons of muscle strength were included. The methodological quality of these studies ranged from moderate to good. While substantial variability of individual effect sizes was observed, the overall population effect (r=0.05, CI: -0.23 to 0.34) suggests that, on average, the potential to increase strength by application of Kinesio tapes is negligible. Comparisons between studies grouped by the muscle groups examined showed that the effects of Kinesio tapes are not muscle-group dependent. While the application of Kinesio tapes may have some therapeutic benefits, the usage of these tapes does not promote strength gains in healthy adults. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Flexural strength of mini-implants developed for Herbst appliance skeletal anchorage: a study in Minipigs br1 cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Barretto Lopes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to verify if mini-implant prototypes (MIP developed for Herbst appliance anchorage are capable of withstanding orthopedic forces, and to determine whether the flexural strength of these MIP varies depending on the site of insertion (maxilla and mandible. METHODS: Thirteen MIP were inserted in three minipig cadavers (six in the maxilla and seven in the mandible. The specimens were prepared and submitted to mechanical testing. The mean and standard deviation were calculated for each region. A two-way Student's t test was used to compare the strength between the sites. A one-way Student's t test was performed to test the hypothesis. Orthopedic forces above 1.0 kgf were considered. RESULTS: The MIP supported flexural strength higher than 1.0 kgf (13.8 ± 2.3 Kg, in the posterior region of the maxilla and 20.5 ± 5.2 Kg in the anterior region of the mandible with a significantly lower flexural strength in the anterior region of the mandible (P < 0.05. CONCLUSION: The MIP are capable of withstanding orthopedic forces, and are more resistant in the anterior region of the mandible than in the posterior region of the maxilla in Minipigs br1 cadavers.

  13. Single- and multiple-set resistance training improves skeletal and respiratory muscle strength in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrahin O

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Odilon Abrahin,1–3 Rejane P Rodrigues,1–3 Vanderson C Nascimento,3 Marzo E Da Silva-Grigoletto,1,4 Evitom C Sousa,3 Anderson C Marçal1,2 1Department of Physical Education, Federal University of Sergipe, Sergipe, Brazil; 2Center of Research in Intracellular Signaling, Department of Morphology, Federal University of Sergipe, Sergipe, Brazil; 3Laboratory of Resistance Exercise and Health, Sports Department, University of Pará State, Belem, Brazil; 4Scientific Sport, Sergipe, Brazil Introduction: Aging involves a progressive reduction of respiratory muscle strength as well as muscle strength. Purpose: Compare the effects of resistance training volume on the maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP, maximum expiratory pressure (MEP, functional performance, and muscle strength in elderly women. Methods: Thirty elderly women were randomly assigned to a group performing either single sets (1-SET or three sets (3-SET of exercises. The sit-to-stand test, MIP, MEP, and muscle strength were assessed before and after 24 training sessions. Progressive resistance training was performed two times per week for a total of 8–12 repetitions, using the main muscle groups of the upper and lower limbs. Results: The main results showed that the participants significantly increased their MEP (P<0.05; 1-SET: 34.6%; 3-SET: 35.8% and MIP (P<0.05; 1-SET: 13.7%; 3-SET: 11.2%. Both groups also improved in the sit-to-stand test (P<0.05; 1-SET: 10.6%; 3-SET: 17.1%. After 24 training sessions, muscle strength also significantly increased (P<0.0001; 40%–80% in both groups. An intergroup comparison did not show any statistically significant differences between the groups in any of the parameters analyzed. Conclusion: Single- and multiple-set resistance training programs increased MIP, MEP, muscle strength, and sit-to-stand test performance in elderly women after 24 sessions of training. In conclusion, our results suggested that elderly women who are not in the habit of

  14. Anabolic Steroids and Strength and Power Related Athletic Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, David R.

    1980-01-01

    The efficacy of steroids in development of muscular strength in athletes is not proven. Their long-term use is increasingly being associated with liver disorders, including liver cancer, and other health problems. (JD)

  15. Relating wood properties to handsheet porosity and mechanical strength

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maharaj, S

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available During chemical pulping for papermaking, individual fibres in wood are separated by dissolving the lignin layer cementing these together. The mechanical strength of the paper produced is influenced by the extent to which fibres make physical contact...

  16. Assessment of the Relation between Clinical Phases of Dental Eruption and Skeletal Maturity Stages Using Cervical Vertebrae Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MohammadJavad KharraziFard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Timing is an important factor in orthodontic treatment planning. Skeletal age is a standard indicator for determining optimum time for treatment. On the other hand, in clinic the phases of the dentition (deciduous, early and late mixed, permanent have often been used for treatment timing, investigations of the different outcomes of treatment protocols at earlier vs later stages of development. Considering the importance of this issue and to evaluate it in the Iranian adolescents, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the relation between clinical phases of dental eruption and the skeletal maturity stages by cervical vertebrae method (CVM.Materials & Methods: Panoramic radiographs and lateral cephalograms of 100 boys and 100 girls were used. For determination of the Phases of dentition, Vander Linden method and for the skeletal maturity, CVM were used. The relationship between the skeletal maturity (stages in CVM and the phases of the dentition was evaluated statistically by means of indicators of diagnostic tests and spearman’s rho analysis.Results: Spearman’s rho analysis indicated a relatively strong correlation of 0.775 (P<0.001; The early mixed dentition phase was a valid indicator of prepubertal stage (CS1, but the late mixed and early permanent dentitions were not valid indicators for the diagnosis of the onset of the pubertal growth spurt (CS3.Conclusion: In comparison with a reliable indicator of skeletal maturity (CVM, the dentition phases perform poorly in the detection of the onset of the pubertal spurt in skeletal growth.

  17. Sucrose nonfermenting AMPK-related kinase (SNARK) mediates contraction-stimulated glucose transport in mouse skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koh, Ho-Jin; Toyoda, Taro; Fujii, Nobuharu

    2010-01-01

    The signaling mechanisms that mediate the important effects of contraction to increase glucose transport in skeletal muscle are not well understood, but are known to occur through an insulin-independent mechanism. Muscle-specific knockout of LKB1, an upstream kinase for AMPK and AMPK-related prot...

  18. Skeletal muscle transcriptome profiles related to different training intensities and detraining in Standardbred horses: a search for overtraining biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    te Pas, Marinus F W; Wijnberg, Inge D; Hoekman, Arend J W; de Graaf-Roelfsema, Ellen; Keizer, Hans A; van Breda, Eric; Ducro, Bart; van der Kolk, Johannes H

    2013-09-01

    Training horses improves athletic capabilities by inducing skeletal muscle-specific and systemic adaptations. However, rest is required to recover from exercise or else overtraining may occur and affect performance and welfare. Biomarkers would be useful to identify early chronic overtraining in animals. The objective of the current study was to investigate skeletal muscle gene expression patterns and underlying biological mechanisms related to training of different intensities and detraining. Untrained 20 month-old Standardbred geldings were exercised at varying intensities (endurance and sprint) followed by detraining (n=5 per phase). The results indicated that training mainly affected skeletal muscle-specific protein metabolism and increased CO2 export from the tissues. Intensive training increased energy metabolism and affected heart and adipose tissues, while having an adverse effect on stress, apoptosis and immune capacity. The intensity of the training could be related to decreased expression of extra cellular matrix proteins (ECM), cell-cell contacts and intracellular signalling pathways. During detraining, most mechanisms were reversed, but heart tissue-related changes and increased expression of skeletal muscle-specific proteins were still evident. The study suggested that changes to ECM expression and cell-cell contact mechanisms may be long-lasting and related to multifactorial aspects of training and detraining. These biomarkers may be useful to identify horses in the early stages of chronic overloading or early overtraining. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of 8 weeks of Xpand® 2X pre workout supplementation on skeletal muscle hypertrophy, lean body mass, and strength in resistance trained males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Ryan P; Joy, Jordan M; Dudeck, Joshua E; Oliveira de Souza, Eduardo; McCleary, Sean A; Wells, Shawn; Wildman, Robert; Wilson, Jacob M

    2013-10-09

    Xpand® 2X is a proprietary blend comprised of branched chain amino acids, creatine monohydrate, beta-alanine (CarnoSyn®), quercetin, coenzymated B-vitamins, alanyl-glutamine (Sustamine®), and natural nitrate sources from pomegranate and beet root extracts purported to enhance the neuromuscular adaptations of resistance training. However to date, no long-term studies have been conducted with this supplement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a multi-ingredient performance supplement (MIPS) on skeletal muscle hypertrophy, lean body mass and lower body strength in resistance-trained males. Twenty resistance-trained males (21.3 ± 1.9 years) were randomly assigned to consume a MIPS or a placebo of equal weight and volume (food-grade orange flavors and sweeteners) in a double-blind manner, 30 minutes prior to exercise. All subjects participated in an 8-week, 3-day per week, periodized, resistance-training program that was split-focused on multi-joint movements such as leg press, bench press, and bent-over rows. Ultrasonography measured muscle thickness of the quadriceps, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) determined lean body mass, and strength of the bench press and leg press were determined at weeks 0, 4, and 8 of the study. Data were analyzed with a 2 × 3 repeated measures ANOVA with LSD post hoc tests utilized to locate differences. There was a significant group-by-time interaction in which the MIPS supplementation resulted in a significant (p supplementation nor the placebo in leg press strength (p = .08). MIPS supplementation also resulted in a significant increase in lean body mass (7.8% vs. 3.6%) and quadriceps muscle thickness (11.8% vs. 4.5%) compared with placebo (group*time, p hypertrophy in resistance-trained men.

  20. Different doses of supplemental vitamin D maintain interleukin-5 without altering skeletal muscle strength: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in vitamin D sufficient adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barker Tyler

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Supplemental vitamin D modulates inflammatory cytokines and skeletal muscle function, but results are inconsistent. It is unknown if these inconsistencies are dependent on the supplemental dose of vitamin D. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify the influence of different doses of supplemental vitamin D on inflammatory cytokines and muscular strength in young adults. Methods Men (n = 15 and women (n = 15 received a daily placebo or vitamin D supplement (200 or 4000 IU for 28-d during the winter. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD, cytokine concentrations and muscular (leg strength measurements were performed prior to and during supplementation. Statistical significance of data were assessed with a two-way (time, treatment analysis of variance (ANOVA with repeated measures, followed by a Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference to test multiple pairwise comparisons. Results Upon enrollment, 63% of the subjects were vitamin D sufficient (serum 25(OHD ≥ 30 ng/ml. Serum 25(OHD and interleukin (IL-5 decreased (P P P P Conclusion In young adults who were vitamin D sufficient prior to supplementation, we conclude that a low-daily dose of supplemental vitamin D prevents serum 25(OHD and IL-5 concentration decreases, and that muscular strength does not parallel the 25(OHD increase induced by a high-daily dose of supplemental vitamin D. Considering that IL-5 protects against viruses and bacterial infections, these findings could have a broad physiological importance regarding the ability of vitamin D sufficiency to mediate the immune systems protection against infection.

  1. Poor physical function in elderly women in low-level aged care is related to muscle strength rather than to measures of sarcopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie L Woods

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Julie L Woods1, Sandra Iuliano-Burns2, Susannah J King1, Boyd J Strauss1, Karen Z Walker11Nutrition and Dietetics Department, Monash University, Victoria, Australia; 2Endocrine Centre of Excellence, Department of Medicine, Austin Health, University of Melbourne, West Heidelberg, AustraliaPurpose: To determine the prevalence of sarcopenia and investigate relationships among body composition, muscle strength, and physical function in elderly women in low-level aged care.Subjects and methods: Sixty-three ambulatory women (mean age 86 years participated in this cross-sectional study where body composition was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA; ankle, knee, and hip strength by the Nicholas Manual Muscle Tester; and physical function by ‘timed up and go’ (TUG and walking speed (WS over 6 meters. Body composition data from a female reference group (n = 62, mean age 29 years provided cut-off values for defining sarcopenia.Results: Elderly women had higher body mass index (P < 0.001, lower lean mass (P < 0.001, and higher fat mass (P < 0.01 than the young reference group. Only a small proportion (3.2% had absolute sarcopenia (defined by appendicular skeletal muscle mass/height squared whereas 37% had relative sarcopenia class II (defined by percentage skeletal muscle mass. Scores for TUG and WS indicated relatively poor physical function, yet these measures were not associated with muscle mass or indices of sarcopenia. In multivariate analysis, only hip abductor strength predicted both TUG and WS (both P = 0.01.Conclusion: Hip strength is a more important indicator of physical functioning than lean mass. Measurement of hip strength may therefore be a useful screening tool to detect those at risk of functional decline and requirement for additional care. Further longitudinal studies with a range of other strength measures are warranted.Keywords: aged care, body composition, muscle strength, sarcopenia 

  2. The German Version of the Strengths Use Scale: The Relation of Using Individual Strengths and Well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Huber

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical perspectives in positive psychology have considered the possession and use of strengths equally but in applied research more studies focused on having them, probably due to the absence of psychometrically adequate scales. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the psychometric characteristics of the German language version of the Strengths Use Scale (SUS and to explore relationships between strengths use and several indicator measures of well-being: the presence of positive and the absence of negative affect, self-esteem as identity aspect, vitality as self-regulatory resource, and stress for capturing the evaluation of difficulties and obstacles impinging on well-being. The original English version of the SUS was translated following recommended independent forward-backward translation techniques. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted, including a German-speaking convenience sample of university students (N = 374. Additionally, the relations of strengths use and well-being indicators were analyzed. Factorial validity revealed a single-factor structure of the German version of the SUS, explaining 58.4% variance (factor loadings: 0.58 to 0.86, approving the scale’s design and showing high internal consistency (Cronbach’s α 0.95. The hypothesized positive relationships of strengths use with positive affect, self-esteem, and vitality were confirmed as well as the negative relationships with negative affect and stress. The German version of the SUS is psychometrically sound and data indicate that individual strengths use and well-being related measures interact. The instrument can be recommended for future research questions such as if and how the promotion of applying individual strengths during education enhances levels of well-being, or how the implementation of strengths use in job-design guidelines or working conditions can result in higher levels of well-being or healthiness.

  3. Effects of Strength Training and Anabolic Steroid in the Peripheral Nerve and Skeletal Muscle Morphology of Aged Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Krause Neto

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Thirty male 20-month-old Wistar rats were divided into groups: IC—initial control (n = 6, FC—final control (n = 6, AC—anabolic hormone control (n = 6, ST—strength trained (n = 6 and STA—strength trained with anabolic hormone (n = 6. All groups were submitted to adaptation, familiarization and maximum load carrying test (MLCT. Strength training (6–8×/session with loads of 50%–100% MLCT, 3×/week and pause of 120 s was performed in ladder climbing (LC for 15 weeks. The administration of testosterone propionate (TP was performed 2×/week (10 mg/kg in animals in the AC and STA groups. After the experimental period, animals were euthanized and the tibial nerve and plantaris muscle removed and prepared for electron transmission and histochemistry. To compare the groups we used one-way ANOVA (post hoc Bonferroni, student’s t-tests for pre vs. post (dependent and independent variables comparisons and significance level set at p ≤ 0.05. The following significant results were found: (a aging decreased the number of myelinated axon fibers; (b use of isolated TP increased the diameter of myelinated fibers, along with increased thickness of myelin sheath; (c ST increased area of myelinated and unmyelinated fibers, together with the myelin sheath. These changes made it possible to increase the area occupied by myelinated fibers keeping their quantity and also reduce the interstitial space; and (d association of anabolic steroid and ST increased the area of unmyelinated axons and thickness of the myelin sheath. Compared to ST, both strategies have similar results. However, Schwann cells increased significantly only in this strategy.

  4. RELATION BETWEEN THE PHYSICAL WORKING CAPACITY (PWC170 AND STATIC RELATIVE STRENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla Elezi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Determining the relationship within the segments, and establish the correlation between the functional and motor areas may be important for programming load both in education and in sports and recreation. For this reason we set goals and work this year. The main objective of this research is to determine association and motor characteristics impact on functional ability (physical work capacity. The sample is defined as a sample of 263 respondents drawn from the population of secondary schools: Gymnasium Zenel Hajdini; Marin Barleti and Mehmet Isai in city of Gjilan. Nine tests were used to estimate motoric capabilities and a test of functional capacity of aerobic-type (physical work capacity. To determine the relation between the predictor (motor variables and criterion variables (physical working capacity - PWC170 it is prepared the regression analysis of the manifest space. Analyses were made to the program SPSS 12.0 for Windows. The connection of the entire system of variables static relative strength with a score of Physics working capacity (PWC170 on a bicycle ergo meter as aerobic type variable explains the coefficient of multiple correlations, which is RO 0.394. Regression analysis indicates that the better results on a bicycle ergo meter will have respondents who score better in tests of static relative strength of the leg (at the test isometric muscle contraction quadriceps thighs and static tests of the relative strength of arm and shoulder area (at the test of isometric contraction triceps muscle circumference.

  5. Flexural and tensile bond strength, related via a stochastic numerical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluijm, R. van der

    1998-01-01

    The flexural strength of masonry parallel to the bed joint depends on the geometry of the cross section, tensile bond strength, fracture energy, stiffness of units and of mortar joints. In experiments, tensile bond strength and fracture energy determined on relatively small specimens, show a large

  6. Creatine supplementation augments the increase in satellite cell and myonuclei number in human skeletal muscle induced by strength training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Steen Schytte

    2006-01-01

    to strength training (STR) while receiving a timed intake of creatine (STR-CRE) (n= 9), protein (STR-PRO) (n= 8) or placebo (STR-CON) (n= 8), or serving as a non-training control group (CON) (n= 7). Supplementation was given daily (STR-CRE: 6–24 g creatine monohydrate, STR-PRO: 20 g protein, STR-CON: placebo...... number was no longer elevated in STR-CRE, while it remained elevated in STR-PRO and STR-CON. Furthermore, creatine supplementation resulted in an increased number of myonuclei per fibre and increases of 14–17% in MFA at week 4, 8 and 16 (P ... in the later (16 week, +8%) and STR-CON only in the early (week 4, +14%) phases of training, respectively (P CRE a positive relationship was found between the percentage increases in MFA and myonuclei from baseline to week 16, respectively (r= 0.67, P

  7. The effect of unloading and reloading on the extracellular matrix in skeletal muscle: changes in muscle strength and motor activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TES Takala

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available During three weeks of hindlimb suspension muscle mass decreased 36%(p<0.05 in Soleus (Sol muscle, 17%(p<0.05 in Gastrocnemius (GM and had tendences to decrease in plantaris (Pla (15% and in extensor digitorum longus (EDL (8% muscles. Hindlimb grip strength decreased gradually during three weeks of unloading. Specific mRNA level for type I collagen decreased during three weeks of unloading in Sol muscle by 28%(p<0.05 and in GM muscle by 34%(p<0.05. mRNA level for type III collagen decreased in Sol by 22%(p<0.05 and in GM by 51%(p<0.001. Non-fibrillar type IV collagen mRNA level decreased in both above-described muscles about 25%(p<0.05. Lysyl oxidase (LO mRNA level decreased by 46%(p<0.05 during three weeks of unloading only in Sol muscle. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 mRNA level increased during reloading period in Sol and GM muscles subsequently 28%(p<0.05 and 49%(p<0.001. During unloading the activity of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 in slow-twitch (ST and fast-twitch (FT muscles changed in different directions: during first week of suspension, their expression decreased in Sol muscle by 31%(p<0.05 and increased in Pla and GM muscle subsequently by 24%(p<0.05 and 31%(p<0.001. The pretranslational level of changes in fibrillar and non-fibrillar collagen, MMP-2, LO, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 -are shown for first time together with changes in muscle strength and motor activity during unloading and reloading

  8. Relation between body mass index percentile and muscle strength ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Noha Abdel Kader Abdel Kader Hasan

    2016-02-01

    Feb 1, 2016 ... a positive correlation between muscle strength and body mass index percentile while muscle endur- ance time had a negative correlation with it. Conclusion: The study shows that the BMI of children had a positive correlation with the muscle ... lar force in a specific movement pattern at definite velocity.

  9. Strength and related properties of concrete: A quantitative approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovics, S. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1998-12-31

    The science and technology of concrete have been based almost exclusively on empirical knowledge. The description of concrete properties and behavior was therefore by necessity mostly of qualitative nature. The author, a recognized expert in the field, has attempted to present a very special state-of-the-art report in such a way that it can point in the direction of rationalizing the theory. The overall goal can be stated as follows: Given the properties of the various components of concrete, the mix proportions, etc., can one compute important properties, such as strength, of the end product? The quantitative approach mentioned in the subtitle is meant to assist in achieving this objective. It is so ambitious an undertaking that it could not succeed. In fact, judging from the preface, it can be assumed that the author himself did not expect to succeed, but rather be content with setting the stage for other researchers to take off from. The book fills an important void in the specialized concrete literature. The lack of rational relationships in this empirical science makes it very difficult to teach to students and to present it in an interesting manner. Yet, it is not written with the undergraduate student in mind. The enormous collection of data from the literature makes it a treasure trove for researchers and, to a lesser extent, for practicing engineers. For simple relationships such as those between cube strength and cylinder strength, this is the book to look for. The 75-page bibliography is impressive. The intentional limitation of the book`s scope to concrete limits its applicability, especially since it is now being recognized that properties of concrete other than strength may be equally if not more important than strength.

  10. Age-related changes in thoracic skeletal geometry of elderly females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, Sven A; Wang, Stewart C; Grotberg, James B

    2017-05-29

    Both females and the elderly have been identified as vulnerable populations with increased injury and mortality risk in multiple crash scenarios. Particularly in frontal impacts, older females show higher risk to the chest and thorax than their younger or male counterparts. Thoracic geometry plays a role in this increase, and this study aims to quantify key parts of that geometry in a way that can directly inform human body models that incorporate the concept of person age. Computed tomography scans from 2 female subject groups aged 20-35 and 65-99 were selected from the International Center for Automotive Medicine scan database representing young and old female populations. A model of thoracic skeletal anatomy was built for each subject from independent parametric models of the spine, ribs, and sternum, along with further parametric models of those components' spatial relationships. Parameter values between the 2 groups are directly compared, and average parameter values within each group are used to generate statistically average skeletal geometry for young and old females. In addition to the anatomic measures explicitly used in the parameterization scheme, key measures of rib cage depth and spine curvature are taken from both the underlying subject pool and from the resultant representative geometries. Statistically significant differences were seen between the young and old groups' spine and rib anatomic components, with no significant differences in local sternal geometry found. Vertebral segments in older females had higher angles relative to their inferior neighbors, providing a quantification of the kyphotic curvature known to be associated with age. Ribs in older females had greater end-to-end span, greater aspect ratio, and reduced out-of-plane deviation, producing an elongated and overall flatter curvature that leads to distal rib ends extending further anteriorly in older individuals. Combined differences in spine curvature and rib geometry led to an 18

  11. Influences of dietary vitamin D restriction on bone strength, body composition and muscle in rats fed a high-fat diet: involvement of mRNA expression of MyoD in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oku, Yuno; Tanabe, Rieko; Nakaoka, Kanae; Yamada, Asako; Noda, Seiko; Hoshino, Ayumi; Haraikawa, Mayu; Goseki-Sone, Masae

    2016-06-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with a greater risk of osteoporosis and also influences skeletal muscle functions, differentiation and development. The present study investigated the influences of vitamin D restriction on the body composition, bone and skeletal muscle in rats fed a high-fat diet. Sprague-Dawley strain male rats (11weeks old) were divided into four groups and fed experimental diets: a basic control diet (Cont.), a basic control diet with vitamin D restriction (DR), a high-fat diet (F) and a high-fat diet with vitamin D restriction (FDR). At 28days after starting the experimental diets, the visceral fat mass was significantly increased in the F group compared with Cont. group, and the muscle mass tended to decrease in the DR group compared with Cont. group. The total volume of the femur was significantly lower in the DR group compared with Cont. group, and the bone mineral density (BMD) of the femur was significantly lower in the FDR group compared with F group. MyoD is one of the muscle-specific transcription factors. The levels of mRNA expression of MyoD of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles from the DR group were reduced markedly compared with those from the Cont. group. In conclusion, our findings revealed the influences of a vitamin D-restricted high-fat diet on the bone strength, body composition and muscle. Further studies on vitamin D insufficiency in the regulation of muscle as well as fat and bone metabolism would provide valuable data for the prevention of lifestyle-related disorders, including osteoporosis and sarcopenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Diabetes-Related Ankyrin Repeat Protein (DARP/Ankrd23 Modifies Glucose Homeostasis by Modulating AMPK Activity in Skeletal Muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Shimoda

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle is the major site for glucose disposal, the impairment of which closely associates with the glucose intolerance in diabetic patients. Diabetes-related ankyrin repeat protein (DARP/Ankrd23 is a member of muscle ankyrin repeat proteins, whose expression is enhanced in the skeletal muscle under diabetic conditions; however, its role in energy metabolism remains poorly understood. Here we report a novel role of DARP in the regulation of glucose homeostasis through modulating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK activity. DARP is highly preferentially expressed in skeletal muscle, and its expression was substantially upregulated during myotube differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts. Interestingly, DARP-/- mice demonstrated better glucose tolerance despite similar body weight, while their insulin sensitivity did not differ from that in wildtype mice. We found that phosphorylation of AMPK, which mediates insulin-independent glucose uptake, in skeletal muscle was significantly enhanced in DARP-/- mice compared to that in wildtype mice. Gene silencing of DARP in C2C12 myotubes enhanced AMPK phosphorylation, whereas overexpression of DARP in C2C12 myoblasts reduced it. Moreover, DARP-silencing increased glucose uptake and oxidation in myotubes, which was abrogated by the treatment with AICAR, an AMPK activator. Of note, improved glucose tolerance in DARP-/- mice was abolished when mice were treated with AICAR. Mechanistically, gene silencing of DARP enhanced protein expression of LKB1 that is a major upstream kinase for AMPK in myotubes in vitro and the skeletal muscle in vivo. Together with the altered expression under diabetic conditions, our data strongly suggest that DARP plays an important role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis under physiological and pathological conditions, and thus DARP is a new therapeutic target for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  13. Effectiveness of an individualized program of muscular strength and endurance with aerobic training for improving germ cell cancer-related fatigue in men undergoing chemotherapy: EFICATEST study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio Ignacio; Carabantes, Francisco; Caracuel, Zaira; Conejo, Inmaculada; Alba, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with testicular germ cell cancer (GCC) have a high cure rate; however, cancer-related fatigue is the most common complication among patients with GCC undergoing treatment with chemotherapy. Although exercise is widely recommended, information about the physio-pathological effects of cancer therapy on skeletal muscle is very limited. Our aim is to evaluate the effects of an individualized program of muscular strength and endurance with aerobic training on cancer-related fat...

  14. Improving the normative documents, related to strength and service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evropin, S.V.

    2005-01-01

    Paper deals with perfecting and bringing up to date of the regulations ensuring operation safety of equipment, pipelines and structures of an NPP as to the criteria of strength and mechanical integrity. The KTL-40 water coolant reactor of a floating NPP serves as an example to ensure comprehensive consideration of the problem based on the leak-before-break method. One underlines the need for drafting of the regulations taking account of the exact type of a power facility in addition to the available federal regulations wording the nuclear and radiation safety general requirements for nuclear power installations [ru

  15. Age-related skeletal muscle decline is similar in HIV-infected and uninfected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarasheski, Kevin E; Scherzer, Rebecca; Kotler, Donald P; Dobs, Adrian S; Tien, Phyllis C; Lewis, Cora E; Kronmal, Richard A; Heymsfield, Steven B; Bacchetti, Peter; Grunfeld, Carl

    2011-03-01

    Skeletal muscle (SM) mass decreases with advanced age and with disease in HIV infection. It is unknown whether age-related muscle loss is accelerated in the current era of antiretroviral therapy and which factors might contribute to muscle loss among HIV-infected adults. We hypothesized that muscle mass would be lower and decline faster in HIV-infected adults than in similar-aged controls. Whole-body (1)H-magnetic resonance imaging was used to quantify regional and total SM in 399 HIV-infected and 204 control men and women at baseline and 5 years later. Multivariable regression identified associated factors. At baseline and Year 5, total SM was lower in HIV-infected than control men. HIV-infected women were similar to control women at both time points. After adjusting for demographics, lifestyle factors, and total adipose tissue, HIV infection was associated with lower Year 5 SM in men and higher SM in women compared with controls. Average overall 5-year change in total SM was small and age related, but rate of change was similar in HIV-infected and control men and women. CD4 count and efavirenz use in HIV-infected participants were associated with increasing SM, whereas age and stavudine use were associated with decreasing SM. Muscle mass was lower in HIV-infected men compared with controls, whereas HIV-infected women had slightly higher SM than control women after multivariable adjustment. We found evidence against substantially faster SM decline in HIV infected versus similar-aged controls. SM gain was associated with increasing CD4 count, whereas stavudine use may contribute to SM loss.

  16. Regulation of skeletal muscle insulin action in relation to dietary fatty acids and gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Louise Dalgas

    -body level compared with men. After consuming a hypercaloric fat-rich diet (80 E%) enriched in unsaturated fatty acids for three days, reduced insulin stimulated whole-body (20%) and skeletal muscle glucose uptake (28%) were observed in men compared with a isocaloric control diet. After consuming a fat......-rich diet enriched in long-chain saturated fatty acids, whole body insulin sensitivity (19%) and insulin stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle (24%) were also reduced, whereas no changes was observed after a diet enriched in medium-chain saturated fatty acids and carbohydrates. These findings show...... in skeletal muscle could rather be ascribed to attenuated GLUT4 translocation to the plasma surface membrane after the unsaturated (23%) and long-chain saturated fatty acid diet (26%) compared with the control diet (52%)(investigated in rats). Furthermore, the present data suggest that mechanisms regulating...

  17. Relationship between tongue strength, lip strength, and nutrition-related sarcopenia in older rehabilitation inpatients: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakai K

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Kotomi Sakai,1,2 Enri Nakayama,2 Haruka Tohara,3 Keiji Kodama,4 Takahiro Takehisa,5 Yozo Takehisa,6 Koichiro Ueda2 1Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Setagaya Memorial Hospital, 2Department of Dysphagia Rehabilitation, Nihon University School of Dentistry, 3Gerodontology and Oral Rehabilitation, Department of Gerontology and Gerodontology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 4Department of Internal Medicine, 5Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Setagaya Memorial Hospital, Tokyo, 6Department of Internal Medicine, Hakuai Memorial Hospital, Tokushima, Japan Objective: The objective of this study was to clarify the relationship between tongue strength, lip strength, and nutrition-related sarcopenia (NRS.Patients and methods: A total of 201 older inpatients aged ≥65 years (70 men, median age: 84 years, interquartile range: 79–89 years consecutively admitted for rehabilitation were included in this cross-sectional study. The main factors evaluated were the presence of NRS diagnosed by malnutrition using the Mini-Nutrition Assessment – Short Form, sarcopenia based on the criteria of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia, tongue strength, and lip strength. Other factors such as age, sex, comorbidity, physical function, cognitive function, and oral intake level were also assessed.Results: In all, 78 (38.8% patients were allocated to the NRS group, and 123 (61.2% patients were allocated to the non-NRS group. The median tongue strength and lip strength (interquartile range were significantly lower in the NRS group (tongue: 22.9 kPa [17.7–27.7 kPa] and lip: 7.2 N [5.6–9.8 N] compared with the non-NRS group (tongue: 29.7 kPa [24.8–35.1 kPa] and lip: 9.9 N [8.4–12.3 N], P<0.001 for both. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that NRS was independently associated with tongue strength (odds ratio [OR] =0.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.87–0.98, P=0.012 and lip

  18. Loss of knee-extension strength is related to knee swelling after total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kristensen, Morten T; Bencke, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    To examine whether changes in knee-extension strength and functional performance are related to knee swelling after total knee arthroplasty (TKA).......To examine whether changes in knee-extension strength and functional performance are related to knee swelling after total knee arthroplasty (TKA)....

  19. Inorganic Polymer Matrix Composite Strength Related to Interface Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bridge

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Resin transfer molding of an inorganic polymer binder was successfully demonstrated in the preparation of ceramic fiber reinforced engine exhaust valves. Unfortunately, in the preliminary processing trials, the resulting composite valves were too brittle for in-engine evaluation. To address this limited toughness, the effectiveness of a modified fiber-matrix interface is investigated through the use of carbon as a model material fiber coating. After sequential heat treatments composites molded from uncoated and carbon coated fibers are compared using room temperature 3-point bend testing. Carbon coated Nextel fiber reinforced geopolymer composites demonstrated a 50% improvement in strength, versus that of the uncoated fiber reinforced composites, after the 250 °C postcure.

  20. The p27 Pathway Modulates the Regulation of Skeletal Growth and Osteoblastic Bone Formation by Parathyroid Hormone-Related Peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Zhang, Jing; Dong, Zhan; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Rong; Karaplis, Andrew; Goltzman, David; Miao, Dengshun

    2015-11-01

    Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) 1-84 knock-in mice (Pthrp KI) develop skeletal growth retardation and defective osteoblastic bone formation. To further examine the mechanisms underlying this phenotype, microarray analyses of differential gene expression profiles were performed in long bone extracts from Pthrp KI mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates. We found that the expression levels of p27, p16, and p53 were significantly upregulated in Pthrp KI mice relative to WT littermates. To determine whether p27 was involved in the regulation by PTHrP of skeletal growth and development in vivo, we generated compound mutant mice, which were homozygous for both p27 deletion and the Pthrp KI mutation (p27(-/-) Pthrp KI). We then compared p27(-/-) Pthrp KI mice with p27(-/-), Pthrp KI, and WT littermates. Deletion of p27 in Pthrp KI mice resulted in a longer lifespan, increased body weight, and improvement in skeletal growth. At 2 weeks of age, skeletal parameters, including length of long bones, size of epiphyses, numbers of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive chondrocytes, bone mineral density, trabecular bone volume, osteoblast numbers, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-, type I collagen-, and osteocalcin-positive bone areas were increased in p27(-/-) mice and reduced in both Pthrp KI and p27(-/-) Pthrp KI mice compared with WT mice; however, these parameters were increased in p27(-/-) Pthrp KI mice compared with Pthrp KI mice. As well, protein expression levels of PTHR, IGF-1, and Bmi-1, and the numbers of total colony-forming unit fibroblastic (CFU-f) and ALP-positive CFU-f were similarly increased in p27(-/-) Pthrp KI mice compared with Pthrp KI mice. Our results demonstrate that deletion of p27 in Pthrp KI mice can partially rescue defects in skeletal growth and osteoblastic bone formation by enhancing endochondral bone formation and osteogenesis. These studies, therefore, indicate that the p27 pathway may function downstream in the action

  1. The relationships of character strengths with coping, work-related stress, and job satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eHarzer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Personality traits have often been highlighted to relate to how people cope with stressful events. The present paper focuses on character strengths as positive personality traits and examines two basic assumptions that were derived from a core characteristic of character strengths (i.e., to determine how individuals deal with adversities: (1 Character strengths correlate with coping and (2 buffer the effects of work-related stress on job satisfaction. Two different samples (i.e., a mixed sample representing various occupations [N = 214] and a nurses sample [N = 175] filled in measures for character strengths, coping, work-related stress, and job satisfaction. As expected, intellectual, emotional, and interpersonal strengths were related to coping. Interpersonal strengths played a greater role for coping among nurses, as interactions with others are an essential part of their workday. Furthermore, intellectual strengths partially mediated the negative effect of work-related stress on job satisfaction. These findings open a new field for research on the role of personality in coping with work-related stress. Character strengths are trainable personal characteristics, and therefore valuable resources to improve coping with work-related stress and to decrease the negative effects of stress. Further research is needed to investigate this assumed causality.

  2. Plasticity and function of human skeletal muscle in relation to disuse and rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suetta, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    In order to study the influence of disuse and aging on skeletal muscle homeostasis, different human models were employed. Effects of chronic disuse were investigated in elderly patients suffering from uni-lateral hip-osteoarthritis, whereas the effect of short-term disuse (4 and 14 days of unilat...

  3. Degree of Contracture Related to Residual Muscle Shoulder Strength in Children with Obstetric Brachial Plexus Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gelein Vitringa, Valerie M; van Noort, Arthur; Ritt, Marco J P F; van Royen, Barend J; van der Sluijs, Johannes A

    2015-12-01

     Little is known about the relation between residual muscle strength and joint contracture formation in neuromuscular disorders. This study aimed to investigate the relation between residual muscle strength and shoulder joint contractures in children with sequelae of obstetric brachial plexus lesion (OBPL). In OBPL a shoulder joint contracture is a frequent finding. We hypothesize that residual internal and external rotator strength and their balance are related to the extent of shoulder joint contracture.  Clinical assessment was performed in 34 children (mean 10.0 years) with unilateral OBPL and Narakas classes I-III. External and internal rotation strengths were measured with the shoulder in neutral position using a handheld dynamometer. Strength on the affected side was given as percentage of the normal side. Contracture was assessed by passive internal and external rotations in degrees (in 0° abduction). Mallet classification was used for active shoulder function.  External and internal rotation strengths on the affected side were approximately 50% of the normal side and on average both equally affected: 56% (SD 18%) respectively 51% (SD 27%); r  = 0.600, p  = 0.000. Residual strengths were not related to passive internal or external rotation ( p  > 0.200). Internal rotation strength ( r  =  - 0.425, p muscle strength influence contracture formation cannot be confirmed in this study. Our results are of interest for the understanding of contracture formation in OBPL.

  4. Electrical Properties Assessed by Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy as Biomarkers of Age-related Loss of Skeletal Muscle Quantity and Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yosuke; Buehring, Bjoern; Krueger, Diane; Anderson, Rozalyn M; Schoeller, Dale A; Binkley, Neil

    2017-09-01

    Skeletal muscle, in addition to being comprised of a heterogeneous muscle fiber population, also includes extracellular components that do not contribute to positive tensional force production. Here we test segmental bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (S-BIS) to assess muscle intracellular mass and composition. S-BIS can evaluate electrical properties that may be related to muscle force production. Muscle fiber membranes separate the intracellular components from the extracellular environment and consist of lipid bilayers which act as an electrical capacitor. We found that S-BIS measures accounted for ~85% of the age-related decrease in appendicular muscle power compared with only ~49% for dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measures. Indices of extracellular (noncontractile) and cellular (contractile) compartments in skeletal muscle tissues were determined using the Cole-Cole plot from S-BIS measures. Characteristic frequency, membrane capacitance, and phase angle determined by Cole-Cole analysis together presented a S-BIS complex model that explained ~79% of interindividual variance of leg muscle power. This finding underscores the value of S-BIS to measure muscle composition rather than lean mass as measured by DXA and suggests that S-BIS should be highly informative in skeletal muscle physiology. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Mouse models of telomere dysfunction phenocopy skeletal changes found in human age-related osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy A. Brennan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A major medical challenge in the elderly is osteoporosis and the high risk of fracture. Telomere dysfunction is a cause of cellular senescence and telomere shortening, which occurs with age in cells from most human tissues, including bone. Telomere defects contribute to the pathogenesis of two progeroid disorders characterized by premature osteoporosis, Werner syndrome and dyskeratosis congenital. It is hypothesized that telomere shortening contributes to bone aging. We evaluated the skeletal phenotypes of mice with disrupted telomere maintenance mechanisms as models for human bone aging, including mutants in Werner helicase (Wrn−/−, telomerase (Terc−/− and Wrn−/−Terc−/− double mutants. Compared with young wild-type (WT mice, micro-computerized tomography analysis revealed that young Terc−/− and Wrn−/−Terc−/− mice have decreased trabecular bone volume, trabecular number and trabecular thickness, as well as increased trabecular spacing. In cortical bone, young Terc−/− and Wrn−/−Terc−/− mice have increased cortical thinning, and increased porosity relative to age-matched WT mice. These trabecular and cortical changes were accelerated with age in Terc−/− and Wrn−/−Terc−/− mice compared with older WT mice. Histological quantification of osteoblasts in aged mice showed a similar number of osteoblasts in all genotypes; however, significant decreases in osteoid, mineralization surface, mineral apposition rate and bone formation rate in older Terc−/− and Wrn−/−Terc−/− bone suggest that osteoblast dysfunction is a prominent feature of precocious aging in these mice. Except in the Wrn−/− single mutant, osteoclast number did not increase in any genotype. Significant alterations in mechanical parameters (structure model index, degree of anistrophy and moment of inertia of the Terc−/− and Wrn−/−Terc−/− femurs compared with WT mice were also observed. Young Wrn

  6. Cotton properties: relative humidity and its effect on flat bundle strength elongation and fracture morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of the relative humidity (RH) of testing conditions on stelometer cotton flat bundle strength and elongation measurements, and on the morphology of fiber fractures will be discussed in this talk. We observed a trend for stelometer strength and elongations measurements. Testing in conditi...

  7. Relation of Character Strengths to Personal Teaching Efficacy in Korean Special Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Young-Jin; Kim, Mi-Na

    2014-01-01

    Many factors that may affect personal teaching efficacy (PTE) of special education teachers have been discovered. However, little is known about the relationship between character strengths (CS) and PTE in them. This study aimed to investigate CS in relation to PTE in Korean special education teachers. Character Strengths Test-Short Form (CST-SF)…

  8. Adiposity, muscle mass and muscle strength in relation to functional decline in older persons.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, L.A.; Koster, A.; Visser, M.

    2013-01-01

    Aging is associated with changes in body composition and muscle strength. This review aimed to determine the relation between different body composition measures and muscle strength measures and functional decline in older men and women. By use of relevant databases (PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL) and

  9. Distinguishing Relational Aspects of Character Strengths with Subjective and Psychological Well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Hausler

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that character strengths are positively linked with well-being in general. However, there has not been a fine-grained analysis up to date. This study examines the individual relational aspects between the 24 character strengths, subjective well-being (SWB, and different aspects of psychological well-being (PWB at two times of measurement (N = 117. Results showed that overall the “good character” was significantly stronger related with PWB than with SWB. The character strength “hope” was at least moderately correlated with the PWB aspects meaning, optimism and autonomy, and “zest” with the PWB aspects relationships and engagement. “Persistence” showed the highest correlation with the PWB aspect mastery. Out of the 24 character strengths, the happiness-related strengths (hope, zest, gratitude, curiosity, and love were more likely to correlate with PWB and SWB than any other character strength. This study offers a more fine-grained and thorough understanding of specific relational aspects between the 24 character strengths and a broad range of well-being aspects. Future studies should take up a detailed strategy when exploring relationships between character strengths and well-being.

  10. Lifelong endurance training attenuates age-related genotoxic stress in human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobley, James N; Sakellariou, George K; Murray, Scott; Waldron, Sarah; Gregson, Warren; Burniston, Jatin G; Morton, James P; Iwanejko, Lesley A; Close, Graeme L

    2013-07-12

    The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of age and habitual activity level, at rest and following a single bout of high-intensity exercise, on the levels of three proteins poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), cleaved-PARP-1 and poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG), involved in the DNA repair and cell death responses to stress and genotoxic insults. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis of young trained (22 ± 3 years, n = 6), young untrained (24 ± 4 years, n = 6), old trained (64 ± 3 years, n = 6) and old untrained (65 ± 6 years, n = 6) healthy males before, immediately after and three days following a high-intensity interval exercise bout. PARP-1, which catalyzes poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of proteins and DNA in response to a range of intrinsic and extrinsic stresses, was increased at baseline in old trained and old untrained compared with young trained and young untrained participants (P ≤ 0.05). Following exercise, PARP-1 levels remained unchanged in young trained participants, in contrast to old trained and old untrained where levels decreased and young untrained where levels increased (P ≤ 0.05). Interestingly, baseline levels of the cleaved PARP-1, a marker of apoptosis, and PARG, responsible for polymer degradation, were both significantly elevated in old untrained compared with old trained, young trained and young untrained (P ≤ 0.05). Despite this baseline difference in PARG, there was no change in any group following exercise. There was a non-significant statistical trend (P = 0.072) towards increased cleaved-PARP-1 expression post-exercise in younger but not old persons, regardless of training status. Collectively, these results show that exercise slows the progression towards a chronically stressed state but has no impact on the age-related attenuated response to acute exercise. Our findings provide valuable insight into how habitual exercise training could protect skeletal muscle from chronic damage to

  11. Ageing in relation to skeletal muscle dysfunction: redox homoeostasis to regulation of gene expression

    OpenAIRE

    Goljanek-Whysall, Katarzyna; Iwanejko, Lesley A.; Vasilaki, Aphrodite; Pekovic-Vaughan, Vanja; McDonagh, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Ageing is associated with a progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass, quality and function?sarcopenia, associated with reduced independence and quality of life in older generations. A better understanding of the mechanisms, both genetic and epigenetic, underlying this process would help develop therapeutic interventions to prevent, slow down or reverse muscle wasting associated with ageing. Currently, exercise is the only known effective intervention to delay the progression of sarcopenia. Th...

  12. Factors related to stability following the surgical correction of skeletal open bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Goshi; Koh, Myongsun; Fujita, Tadashi; Shirakura, Maya; Ueda, Hiroshi; Tanne, Kazuo

    2014-05-01

    If a skeletal anterior open bite malocclusion is treated by orthognathic surgery directed only at the mandible, the lower jaw is repositioned upward in a counter-clockwise rotation. However, this procedure has a high risk of relapse. In the present study, the key factors associated with post-surgical stability of corrected skeletal anterior open bite malocclusions were investigated. Eighteen orthognathic patients were subjected to cephalometric analysis to assess the dental and skeletal changes following mandibular surgery for the correction of an anterior open bite. The patients were divided into two groups, determined by an increase or decrease in nasion-menton (N-Me) distance as a consequence of surgery. Changes in overbite, the displacements of molars and positional changes in Menton were evaluated immediately before and after surgery and after a minimum of one year post-operatively. The group with a decreased N-Me distance exhibited a significantly greater backward positioning of the mandible. The group with an increased N-Me distance experienced significantly greater dentoalveolar extrusion of the lower molars. A sufficient mandibular backward repositioning is an effective technique in the prevention of open bite relapse. In addition, it is important not to induce molar extrusion during post-surgical orthodontic treatment to preserve stability of the surgical open bite correction.

  13. Criterion-Related Validity of a Simple Muscle Strength Test to Assess Whole Body Muscle Strength in Chinese Children Aged 10 to 12 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Liqin; Tang, Changfa; Tao, Xia

    2018-01-01

    To study the criterion-related validity of simple muscle strength test (SMST) indicators and assess whole body muscle strength in Chinese children aged 10 to 12 years old. Two hundred and forty children were equally divided into four groups in different genders and residences. The SMST indicators (hand-grip, knee bent push-up, back muscle strength, sit-up, leg muscle strength, and standing long jump) were tested. We set up the total level of the whole-body muscle strength ( F total ) through testing isokinetic muscle strength of the six joints' flexion and extension movements. Pearson correlation analyses were used to analyze the correlation between the SMST indicators and the F total . (1) Leg muscle strength and back muscle strength demonstrated the highest validity scores. Sit-ups, hand grip, and standing long jump demonstrated the lowest validity scores. (2) Leg muscle strength had the highest validity for males, but back muscle strength had the highest validity for females. Back muscle strength and leg muscle strength can give the highest validity of assessing whole body muscle strength, and also has higher validity in both the urban and rural children. For urban children, but not rural, the knee bent push-up also has a high validity indicator.

  14. Criterion-Related Validity of a Simple Muscle Strength Test to Assess Whole Body Muscle Strength in Chinese Children Aged 10 to 12 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqin Yin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study the criterion-related validity of simple muscle strength test (SMST indicators and assess whole body muscle strength in Chinese children aged 10 to 12 years old. Methods. Two hundred and forty children were equally divided into four groups in different genders and residences. The SMST indicators (hand-grip, knee bent push-up, back muscle strength, sit-up, leg muscle strength, and standing long jump were tested. We set up the total level of the whole-body muscle strength (Ftotal through testing isokinetic muscle strength of the six joints’ flexion and extension movements. Pearson correlation analyses were used to analyze the correlation between the SMST indicators and the Ftotal. Results. (1 Leg muscle strength and back muscle strength demonstrated the highest validity scores. Sit-ups, hand grip, and standing long jump demonstrated the lowest validity scores. (2 Leg muscle strength had the highest validity for males, but back muscle strength had the highest validity for females. Conclusions. Back muscle strength and leg muscle strength can give the highest validity of assessing whole body muscle strength, and also has higher validity in both the urban and rural children. For urban children, but not rural, the knee bent push-up also has a high validity indicator.

  15. Bone strength estimates relative to vertical ground reaction force discriminates women runners with stress fracture history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Kristin L; McDermott, William; Hughes, Julie M; Baxter, Stephanie A; Stovitz, Steven D; Petit, Moira A

    2017-01-01

    To determine differences in bone geometry, estimates of bone strength, muscle size and bone strength relative to load, in women runners with and without a history of stress fracture. We recruited 32 competitive distance runners aged 18-35, with (SFX, n=16) or without (NSFX, n=16) a history of stress fracture for this case-control study. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was used to assess volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD, mg/mm 3 ), total (ToA) and cortical (CtA) bone areas (mm 2 ), and estimated compressive bone strength (bone strength index; BSI, mg/mm 4 ) at the distal tibia. ToA, CtA, cortical vBMD, and estimated strength (section modulus; Zp, mm 3 and strength strain index; SSIp, mm 3 ) were measured at six cortical sites along the tibia. Mean active peak vertical (pkZ) ground reaction forces (GRFs), assessed from a fatigue run on an instrumented treadmill, were used in conjunction with pQCT measurements to estimate bone strength relative to load (mm 2 /N∗kg -1 ) at all cortical sites. SSIp and Zp were 9-11% lower in the SFX group at mid-shaft of the tibia, while ToA and vBMD did not differ between groups at any measurement site. The SFX group had 11-17% lower bone strength relative to mean pkZ GRFs (phistory of stress fracture. Bone strength relative to load is also lower in this same region suggesting that strength deficits in the middle 1/3 of the tibia and altered gait biomechanics may predispose an individual to stress fracture. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Increase in relative skeletal muscle mass over time and its inverse association with metabolic syndrome development: a 7-year retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gyuri; Lee, Seung-Eun; Jun, Ji Eun; Lee, You-Bin; Ahn, Jiyeon; Bae, Ji Cheol; Jin, Sang-Man; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Jee, Jae Hwan; Lee, Moon-Kyu; Kim, Jae Hyeon

    2018-02-05

    Skeletal muscle mass was negatively associated with metabolic syndrome prevalence in previous cross-sectional studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of baseline skeletal muscle mass and changes in skeletal muscle mass over time on the development of metabolic syndrome in a large population-based 7-year cohort study. A total of 14,830 and 11,639 individuals who underwent health examinations at the Health Promotion Center at Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea were included in the analyses of baseline skeletal muscle mass and those changes from baseline over 1 year, respectively. Skeletal muscle mass was estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis and was presented as a skeletal muscle mass index (SMI), a body weight-adjusted appendicular skeletal muscle mass value. Using Cox regression models, hazard ratio for developing metabolic syndrome associated with SMI values at baseline or changes of SMI over a year was analyzed. During 7 years of follow-up, 20.1% of subjects developed metabolic syndrome. Compared to the lowest sex-specific SMI tertile at baseline, the highest sex-specific SMI tertile showed a significant inverse association with metabolic syndrome risk (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 0.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.54-0.68). Furthermore, compared with SMI changes  1% changes in SMI over 1 year after additionally adjusting for baseline SMI and glycometabolic parameters. An increase in relative skeletal muscle mass over time has a potential preventive effect on developing metabolic syndrome, independently of baseline skeletal muscle mass and glycometabolic parameters.

  17. Curved characteristics best suited for Growth rates, Relative strength and Performance Time of female Olympic weightlifters

    OpenAIRE

    EBADA, Khaled

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to identify Growth rates, Relative strength, and performance time for female lifters and defining Curved characteristics best suited for growth rates, relative strength, and performance Time of female Olympic weightlifters and evaluate the performance of snatch and Clean & Jerk for female lifters, coaches use the curved characteristics as standard guide them through planning and preparing training programs. The study Applied on a sample of 88 female lifter participants...

  18. Long term chemoradiotherapy-related dental and skeletal complications in a young female with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioulia Ioannidou-Marathiotou

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ioulia Ioannidou-Marathiotou1, Kyriaki Pistevou-Gompaki2, Nikolaos Eleftheriadis3, Christos Papaloukas41Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, AHEPA University Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 3Propaedeutic Department of Internal Medicine, AHEPA University Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 4Department of Radiation Oncology, AHEPA University Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, GreeceAbstract: We describe the long-term complications six years after chemoradiotherapy in a 20-year old woman with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. We wanted to know whether the radiation dose was constant throughout the oral cavity, and thus uniformly affecting the corresponding dental and skeletal structures. Clinical and radiologic findings are described six years after chemoradiotherapy based on a two-dimensional computerized treatment planning system. This revealed radiation caries limited only to posterior teeth, proximal caries in the anterior teeth, limited but continuous salivary flow, mild periodontal infection, mild xerostomia, and a regenerative capacity of bones and the developmental process. The quantitative assessment of radiation delivered to the mandible revealed a high radiation dose in the posterior area and a minimal dose in the anterior area. This explains the differences in caries manifestation between the anterior and posterior teeth. According to the present study, individualized radiation fields, using a two-dimensional treatment planning system, result in restriction of severe damage of the dental and skeletal structures, which usually follows chemoradiotherapy. Orthodontic treatment could be initiated according to individual patient needs.Keywords: nasopharyngeal carcinoma, adolescence, radiotherapy, dental and skeletal complications

  19. Age-related functional changes and susceptibility to eccentric contraction-induced damage in skeletal muscle cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Jun Choi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Depending upon external loading conditions, skeletal muscles can either shorten, lengthen, or remain at a fixed length as they produce force. Fixed-end or isometric contractions stabilize joints and allow muscles to act as active struts during locomotion. Active muscles dissipate energy when they are lengthened by an external force that exceeds their current force producing capacity. These unaccustomed eccentric activities often lead to muscle weakness, soreness, and inflammation. During aging, the ability to produce force under these conditions is reduced and appears to be due to not only reductions in muscle mass but also to alterations in the basic mechanisms of contraction. These alterations include impairments in the excitation–contraction process, and the action of the cross-bridges. Also, it is well known that age-related skeletal muscle atrophy is characterized by a preferential atrophy of fast fibers, and increased susceptibility to fast muscle fiber when aged muscles are exposed to eccentric contraction followed by the impaired recovery process has been reported. Taken together, the selective loss of fast muscle fiber in aged muscle could be affected by eccentric-induced muscle damage, which has significant implication to identify the etiology of the age-related functional changes. Therefore, in this review the alteration of age-related muscle function and its impact to/of eccentric induced muscle damage and recovery will be addressed in detail.

  20. Age-related functional changes and susceptibility to eccentric contraction-induced damage in skeletal muscle cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung-Jun

    2016-09-01

    Depending upon external loading conditions, skeletal muscles can either shorten, lengthen, or remain at a fixed length as they produce force. Fixed-end or isometric contractions stabilize joints and allow muscles to act as active struts during locomotion. Active muscles dissipate energy when they are lengthened by an external force that exceeds their current force producing capacity. These unaccustomed eccentric activities often lead to muscle weakness, soreness, and inflammation. During aging, the ability to produce force under these conditions is reduced and appears to be due to not only reductions in muscle mass but also to alterations in the basic mechanisms of contraction. These alterations include impairments in the excitation-contraction process, and the action of the cross-bridges. Also, it is well known that age-related skeletal muscle atrophy is characterized by a preferential atrophy of fast fibers, and increased susceptibility to fast muscle fiber when aged muscles are exposed to eccentric contraction followed by the impaired recovery process has been reported. Taken together, the selective loss of fast muscle fiber in aged muscle could be affected by eccentric-induced muscle damage, which has significant implication to identify the etiology of the age-related functional changes. Therefore, in this review the alteration of age-related muscle function and its impact to/of eccentric induced muscle damage and recovery will be addressed in detail.

  1. Strontium in coral aragonite: 3. Sr coordination and geochemistry in relation to skeletal architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Nicola; Finch, Adrian A.; Newville, Matthew; Sutton, Stephen R.

    2005-08-01

    Use of the coral Sr palaeothermometer assumes that the Sr in coral skeletons is substituted randomly for Ca in the aragonite structure. The presence of Sr in additional phases e.g., strontianite, or the non random distribution of Sr across metal sites in aragonite, would complicate the Sr/Ca-sea surface temperature relationship. We have used Sr K-edge microEXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure) to determine the structural state of Sr across selected microvolumes of four coral skeletons ( Porites lobata, Acropora palmata, Pavona clavus, and Montastrea annularis). We used a 5 × 3 μm beam to analyse specific areas of the coral skeletal architecture, i.e., centres of calcification, fasciculi, and dissepiments. All EXAFS analyses refine, within error, to an ideally substituted Sr in aragonite, and we found no evidence of strontianite or partly ordered structural states. Anisotropy in the first shell responses results from the fact that the analysed microvolumes are not necessarily averaged for the responses of all crystal orientations in the aragonite. Although secondary ion mass spectrometry confirmed that Sr/Ca composition can vary substantially between skeletal components, we find no evidence for any contrast in Sr structural state. Sr heterogeneity may result from kinetic effects, reflecting complex disequilibrium processes during crystal precipitation, or biological effects, resulting from variations in the composition of the calcifying fluid which are biologically mediated.

  2. IMAGE ANALYSIS OF BREAD CRUMB STRUCTURE IN RELATION TO GLUTEN STRENGTH OF WHEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Magdić

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine bread slice medium part properties in relation to quality parameters with a focus on gluten strength. Since sensory evaluation of bread is time consuming, expensive and subjective in nature, computerized image analysis was applied as objective method of bread crumb quality evaluation. Gluten Index method was applied as fast and reliable tool for defining gluten strength of wheat. Significant (P90 Ana, Demetra, Klara, Srpanjka and Divana have shown trend to give unequal and bigger crumb grains while cultivars Golubica, Barbara, Žitarka, Kata and Sana with optimal gluten strength (GI= 60-90 have shown finer and uniform crumb grain.

  3. Oral Supplementation of Melatonin Protects against Fibromyalgia-Related Skeletal Muscle Alterations in Reserpine-Induced Myalgia Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favero, Gaia; Trapletti, Valentina; Bonomini, Francesca; Stacchiotti, Alessandra; Lavazza, Antonio; Rodella, Luigi Fabrizio; Rezzani, Rita

    2017-06-29

    Fibromyalgia is a chronic syndrome characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain and an extensive array of other symptoms including disordered sleep, fatigue, depression and anxiety. Important factors involved in the pathogenic process of fibromyalgia are inflammation and oxidative stress, suggesting that ant-inflammatory and/or antioxidant supplementation might be effective in the management and modulation of this syndrome. Recent evidence suggests that melatonin may be suitable for this purpose due to its well known ant-inflammatory, antioxidant and analgesic effects. Thus, in the current study, the effects of the oral supplementation of melatonin against fibromyalgia-related skeletal muscle alterations were evaluated. In detail, 90 Sprague Dawley rats were randomly treated with reserpine, to reproduce the pathogenic process of fibromyalgia and thereafter they received melatonin. The animals treated with reserpine showed moderate alterations at hind limb skeletal muscles level and had difficulty in moving, together with significant morphological and ultrastructural alterations and expression of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in the gastrocnemius muscle. Interestingly, melatonin, dose and/or time dependently, reduced the difficulties in spontaneous motor activity and the musculoskeletal morphostructural, inflammatory, and oxidative stress alterations. This study suggests that melatonin in vivo may be an effective tool in the management of fibromyalgia-related musculoskeletal morphofunctional damage.

  4. Risk of vertebral insufficiency fractures in relation to compressive strength predicted by quantitative computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biggemann, M.; Hilweg, D.; Seidel, S. (Evangelisches Krankenhaus Bethesda Duisburg (Germany). Radiologische Klinik und Strahleninstitut); Horst, M. (Evangelisches Krankenhaus Bethesda Duisburg (Germany). Orthopaedische Klinik); Brinckmann, P. (Universitaet Muenster (Germany). Institut fuer Experimentelle Biomechanik)

    Vertebral insufficiency fractures may result from excessive loading of normal and routine loading of osteoporotic spines. Fractures occur when the mechanical load exceeds the vertebral compressive strength, i.e., the maximum load a vertebra can tolerate. Vertebral compressive strength is determined by trabecular bone density and the size of end-plate area. Both parameters can be measured non-invasively by quanti-tative computed tomography (QCT). In 75 patients compressive strength (i.e., trabecular bone density and endplate area) of the vertebra L3 was determined using QCT. In addition, conventional radiographs of the spines were analysed for the prevalence of insufficiency fractures in each case. By relating fracture prevalence to strength, 3 fracture risk groups were found: a high-risk group with strength values of L3<3 kN (kilo Newton) and a fracture risk of 100 percent, an intermediate group with strength values from 3 to 5 kN and a steeply increasing risk with decreasing strength, and a low-risk group with strength values >5 kN and a fracture risk near 0 percent. Biomechanical measurements and model calculations indicate that spinal loads of 3 to 4 kN at L3/4 will be common in everyday activities. These data and the results described above suggest that spines with strength values of L3<3 kN are at an extremely high risk of insufficiency fractures in daily life. Advantages of fracture risk assessment by strength determination over risk estimation based on clinically used trabecular bone density measurements are discussed. (author). 18 refs.; 4 figs.

  5. Body Satisfaction During Pregnancy: The Role of Health-Related Habit Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullmer, Rachelle; Zaitsoff, Shannon; Cobb, Rebecca

    2018-03-01

    Objectives Body satisfaction during pregnancy is an important determinant of maternal and fetal health outcomes. It is therefore critical to investigate factors related to changes in body satisfaction and to elucidate how body satisfaction changes over time in pregnant women. The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between two novel factors (i.e., healthy eating habit strength and physical activity habit strength) and body satisfaction during pregnancy. Methods Participants (n = 67 pregnant North American women) completed online questionnaires at the beginning of their second trimester (Time 1) and at the end of pregnancy. Maternal characteristics, relationship satisfaction, self-esteem, and psychological distress were assessed at Time 1 and habit strength, body satisfaction, and weight were assessed at both time points. Results Strength of healthy eating and physical activity habits remained stable over time and body satisfaction decreased over time. Healthy eating habit strength at Time 1 predicted increases in body satisfaction from the second trimester to the end of pregnancy, even when controlling for gestational weight gain. Conclusions This study suggests that health-related habit strength in women of reproductive age may offer protection against low levels of body satisfaction during pregnancy.

  6. Ageing in relation to skeletal muscle dysfunction: redox homoeostasis to regulation of gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goljanek-Whysall, Katarzyna; Iwanejko, Lesley A; Vasilaki, Aphrodite; Pekovic-Vaughan, Vanja; McDonagh, Brian

    2016-08-01

    Ageing is associated with a progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass, quality and function-sarcopenia, associated with reduced independence and quality of life in older generations. A better understanding of the mechanisms, both genetic and epigenetic, underlying this process would help develop therapeutic interventions to prevent, slow down or reverse muscle wasting associated with ageing. Currently, exercise is the only known effective intervention to delay the progression of sarcopenia. The cellular responses that occur in muscle fibres following exercise provide valuable clues to the molecular mechanisms regulating muscle homoeostasis and potentially the progression of sarcopenia. Redox signalling, as a result of endogenous generation of ROS/RNS in response to muscle contractions, has been identified as a crucial regulator for the adaptive responses to exercise, highlighting the redox environment as a potentially core therapeutic approach to maintain muscle homoeostasis during ageing. Further novel and attractive candidates include the manipulation of microRNA expression. MicroRNAs are potent gene regulators involved in the control of healthy and disease-associated biological processes and their therapeutic potential has been researched in the context of various disorders, including ageing-associated muscle wasting. Finally, we discuss the impact of the circadian clock on the regulation of gene expression in skeletal muscle and whether disruption of the peripheral muscle clock affects sarcopenia and altered responses to exercise. Interventions that include modifying altered redox signalling with age and incorporating genetic mechanisms such as circadian- and microRNA-based gene regulation, may offer potential effective treatments against age-associated sarcopenia.

  7. Plasticity and function of human skeletal muscle in relation to disuse and rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suetta, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    of unilateral lower limb immobilisation) was assessed in healthy young and old individuals. In summary, chronic muscle disuse in the elderly was associated with marked quantitative as well as qualitative neuromuscular impairments. More specifically, decreases were observed in muscle strength, quadriceps muscle...... and implementation of effective countermeasures against physical frailty in the increasing population of elderly. Importantly therefore, the present experiments demonstrate that resistance training is highly effective of increasing maximal muscle strength and neuromuscular function in elderly post-operative patients...... size and myofibre area, muscle architecture, contractile properties and neuromuscular activation. Furthermore, substantial side-to-side differences in specific strength (MVC/LCSA) and normalised rapid muscle force capacity (RFD/CSA) were observed, indicating that a significant part of the observed...

  8. GSNOR Deficiency Enhances In Situ Skeletal Muscle Strength, Fatigue Resistance, and RyR1 S-Nitrosylation Without Impacting Mitochondrial Content and Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Younghye; Cao, Yenong; Zhu, Jingjing; Xu, Yuanyuan; Balkan, Wayne; Buys, Emmanuel S.; Diaz, Francisca; Kerrick, W. Glenn; Hare, Joshua M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Aim: Nitric oxide (NO) plays important, but incompletely defined roles in skeletal muscle. NO exerts its regulatory effects partly though S-nitrosylation, which is balanced by denitrosylation by enzymes such as S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR), whose functions in skeletal muscle remain to be fully deciphered. Results: GSNOR null (GSNOR−/−) tibialis anterior (TA) muscles showed normal growth and were stronger and more fatigue resistant than controls in situ. However, GSNOR−/− lumbrical muscles showed normal contractility and Ca2+ handling in vitro, suggesting important differences in GSNOR function between muscles or between in vitro and in situ environments. GSNOR−/− TA muscles exhibited normal mitochondrial content, and capillary densities, but reduced type IIA fiber content. GSNOR inhibition did not impact mitochondrial respiratory complex I, III, or IV activities. These findings argue that enhanced GSNOR−/− TA contractility is not driven by changes in mitochondrial content or activity, fiber type, or blood vessel density. However, loss of GSNOR led to RyR1 hypernitrosylation, which is believed to increase muscle force output under physiological conditions. cGMP synthesis by soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) was decreased in resting GSNOR−/− muscle and was more responsive to agonist (DETANO, BAY 41, and BAY 58) stimulation, suggesting that GSNOR modulates cGMP production in skeletal muscle. Innovation: GSNOR may act as a “brake” on skeletal muscle contractile performance under physiological conditions by modulating nitrosylation/denitrosylation balance. Conclusions: GSNOR may play important roles in skeletal muscle contractility, RyR1 S-nitrosylation, fiber type specification, and sGC activity. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 26, 165–181. PMID:27412893

  9. Serum sex steroids and steroidogenesis-related enzyme expression in skeletal muscle during experimental weight gain in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, K; Samocha-Bonet, D; Handelsman, D J; Fujita, S; Wittert, G A; Heilbronn, L K

    2014-12-01

    Low-circulating testosterone is associated with development of type 2 diabetes in obese men. In this study, we examined the effects of experimental overfeeding and weight gain on serum levels of sex hormones and skeletal muscle expression of steroidogenic enzymes in healthy men with (FH+) and without (FH-) a family history of type 2 diabetes. Following a 3-day lead in energy balanced diet, FH+ (n = 9) and FH- men (n = 11) were overfed by 5200 kJ/day (45% fat) for 28 days. Body weight, fasting glucose, insulin, sex steroid, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels, insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp) and body fat (DXA) were assessed in all individuals at baseline and day 28, and sex steroidogenesis-related enzyme expression in vastus lateralis biopsies was examined in a subset (n = 11). Body weight, fat mass and fasting insulin levels were increased by overfeeding (P muscle expression of enzymes involved in the formation of testosterone in skeletal muscle. Men with a family history of T2DM were more susceptible to deleterious outcomes of overfeeding with greater reductions in serum testosterone and DHT and greater increases in markers of insulin resistance, which may contribute to increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. The longitudinal relation between smoking and muscle strength in healthy adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Maarten O; Hoekstra, T.; Twisk, Jos W R

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To assess longitudinally whether smoking tobacco is related to muscle strength in healthy adults and to assess the influence of lifestyle covariates on this relation. METHODS: Data were obtained from the observational Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study, with four repeated

  11. Tinetti mobility test is related to muscle mass and strength in non-institutionalized elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcio, Francesco; Basile, Claudia; Liguori, Ilaria; Della-Morte, David; Gargiulo, Gaetano; Galizia, Gianluigi; Testa, Gianluca; Langellotto, Assunta; Cacciatore, Francesco; Bonaduce, Domenico; Abete, Pasquale

    2016-12-01

    Elderly people are characterized by a high prevalence of falls and sarcopenia. However, the relationship among Tinetti mobility test (TMT) score, a powerful tool to detect elderly people at risk of falls, and sarcopenia is still not thoroughly investigated. Thus, to determine the relationship between TMT score and muscle mass and strength, 337 elderly participants (mean age 77.1 ± 6.9 years) admitted to comprehensive geriatric assessment were enrolled. TMT score, muscle mass by bioimpedentiometer, and muscle strength by grip strength were evaluated. Muscle mass progressively decreased as TMT score decreased (from 15.3 ± 3.7 to 8.8 ± 1.8 kg/m 2 ; p for trend strength decreased progressively as Tinetti score decreased (from 34.7 ± 8.0 to 23.7 ± 8.7 kg; p for trend 0.001). Linear regression analysis demonstrated that TMT score is linearly related with muscle mass (y = 4.5x + 0.4, r = 0.61; p strength (y = 14.0x + 0.8, r = 0.53; p strength (r = 0.39, p = 0.046). The present study indicates that TMT score is significantly related to muscle mass and strength in non-institutionalized elderly participants. This evidence suggests that TMT score, together with evaluation of muscle mass and strength, may identify sarcopenic elderly participants at high risk of falls.

  12. Constitutive relation for rheological processes with known loading history. Creep and long-term strength curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhlov, A. V.

    2008-04-01

    In the present paper, we propose and study a nonlinear constitutive relation for describing the one-dimensional isothermal rheological processes with monotone loading history in viscoelastoplastic materials. This relation presents the strain at any time moment in terms of the history of variations in the stress and its derivative by means of two integral operators and contains two material functions of the same real argument and ten material parameters determined by the results of tests on material creeping, long-term strength, and strain at a constant loading rate. Under minimal a priori restrictions on the material parameters of the model, we derive the equations of strain, creep, relaxation, and long-term strength curves, analytically study the dependencies of their properties on parameters, and find necessary restrictions on the material parameters and functions ensuring an adequate description of the mechanical behavior of materials (the typical qualitative properties of experimental strain, creep, relaxation, and long-term strength curves). To model the long-term strength in creeping, we propose two parametric families of fracture criteria under monotone uniaxial strain, which are related to the strain criterion but take into account the history of the strain increase by means of special integral operators relating this history to the damage measure. We prove that the constitutive relation thus constructed, along with the proposed fracture criteria, leads to theoretical long-term strength curves with the same qualitative properties as the experimental curves of a majority of metals. Thus, an analysis of the properties of the proposed constitutive relation shows that it allows one to perform an adequate simulation not only of several effects of rheological behavior of viscoelastoplastic materials but of the entire complex of effects such as the strain dependence on the stress and the stress rate, relaxation, creeping, the creep rate dependence on the stress

  13. Influence of intraoral temperature and relative humidity on the dentin bond strength: an in situ study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Letícia O; Aguiar, Thaiane R; Costa, Leonardo; Cavalcanti, Andrea N; Giannini, Marcelo; Mathias, Paula

    2015-01-01

    The effect of the intraoral environment during adhesive restorative procedures remains a concern, especially in the absence of rubber dam isolation. To evaluate the temperature and relative humidity (RH) at anterior and posterior intraoral sites and their effects on the dentin bond strength of two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive systems. Sixty human molars were assigned to six groups according to the adhesive systems (Adper Single Bond Plus and One Step Plus) and intraoral sites (incisor and molar sites). The room condition was used as a control group. Dentin fragments were individually placed in custom-made acetate trays and direct composite restorations were performed. The intraoral temperature and RH were recorded during adhesive procedures. Then, specimens were removed from the acetate trays and sectioned to obtain multiple beams for the microtensile bond strength test. In addition, the adhesive interface morphology was evaluated through scanning electron microscopy. Intraoral conditions were statistically analyzed by paired Students' t-tests and the bond strength data by two-way analysis of variance and Tukey test (α = 0.05). The posterior intraoral site showed a significant increase in the temperature and RH when compared with the anterior site. However, both intraoral sites revealed higher temperatures and RH than the room condition. In regards to the adhesive systems, the intraoral environment did not affect the bond strength, and the One Step Plus system showed the highest bond strength means. Despite the fact that remarkable changes in the intraoral conditions were observed for both anterior and posterior sites, the intraoral environment was not able to compromise the immediate dentin bond strength. Some conditions of intraoral temperature and relative humidity may not impair the dentin bond strength of two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive systems. Thus, an adequate relative isolation seems to be a good alternative under the specific clinical conditions in

  14. Foot and ankle strength assessment using hand-held dynamometry: reliability and age-related differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spink, Martin J; Fotoohabadi, Mohammad R; Menz, Hylton B

    2010-01-01

    Age-related reduction in lower limb muscle strength has been shown to be related to disability, falls and loss of independence. While there have been a number of studies on age-related changes in muscle strength, they have concentrated on more proximal muscle groups with little research into how ageing affects the muscles of the foot and ankle. To evaluate the intra- and interrater reliability of hand-held dynamometry for the assessment of foot and ankle strength, and to compare the values obtained between young and older people. The muscle groups which perform ankle dorsiflexion, plantar flexion, inversion, eversion and plantar flexion of the hallux and lesser digits were recorded for 36 young participants (17 males, 19 females, mean age 23.2 ± 4.3 years) and 36 older people (17 males, 19 females, mean age 77.1 ± 5.7 years) using a Citec hand-held dynamometer. Differences in muscle strength between the groups as well as intrarater and interrater reliability of two assessors were determined. The reliability of the hand-held dynamometry procedure was excellent for both intrarater (ICC(3,1) = 0.78-0.94) and interrater (ICC(3,1) = 0.77-0.88) comparisons. There were significant differences between the muscle strength of the young and older participants for all muscle groups tested (p dynamometry is a reliable instrument to measure the foot and ankle strength of young and older adults. Ageing is associated with a reduction in strength of between 24 and 37% for the muscles responsible for movement of the foot and ankle. Copyright © 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Craniofacial changes in Class III malocclusion as related to skeletal and dental maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Reyes, Brian C; McNamara, James A

    2007-08-01

    In this large cross-sectional study, we aimed to analyze growth trends in white subjects with Class III malocclusion using both skeletal and dental maturation staging. The sample consisted of 1091 pretreatment lateral cephalometric records of Class III patients (560 female, 531 male). Cephalometric dentoskeletal measurements were compared at subsequent stages in cervical vertebral maturation and Hellman's categorization of dental development by means of ANOVA with Bonferroni post-hoc tests in both sexes separately. The findings indicated that, in Class III malocclusion, the pubertal peak in mandibular growth occurs between stages 3 and 4 of cervical vertebral maturation, with average increases in total mandibular length of about 8 and 5.5 mm in Class III boys and girls, respectively. Significant changes in total mandibular length occur until young adulthood (18 years on average), with increases between late maturation stages (4 through 6) that were twice as large as in subjects with normal occlusion for the Class III females, and 3 times as large as in subjects with normal occlusion for the Class III males. Growth trends toward accentuated Class III profile and increased vertical dimension of the face also become apparent at late developmental stages (corresponding with complete eruption of the second and third molars).

  16. Internal Prosthetic Replacement of Skeletal Segments Lost in Combat Related Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    proceeds over a large strain range. There is no fracture but simply a progressive tearing as with a fabric. The tensile strength is very significantly...approach the problem of a cementless acetabulum as well and the site on a female baboon is too small. The femur component is monolithic incorporating...outer porosity available for bony ingrowth. This arrangement for a molded polyethylene acetabulum prosthesis is shown in Figure 16. In this case, the

  17. Lactate/H+ transport kinetics in rat skeletal muscle related to fibre type and changes in transport capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel; Pilegaard

    1998-01-01

    and hypothyroidism was due to a decrease in Vmax. The denervation-induced decline in lactate/H+ transport capacity resulted from both an increased Km and a reduced Vmax. The present data show that muscle type differences and most changes in the lactate/H+ transport capacity are mediated by modifications in Vmax......Lactate/H+ transport kinetics were determined by means of the pH-sensitive probe BCECF in sarcolemmal giant vesicles, obtained from rat skeletal muscle, and related to variations in lactate/H+ transport capacity. Vesicle preparations were made from red and white muscles, mixed muscles, denervated...... muscles, muscles of old rats and rats that had been subjected to high-intensity training, endurance training, repeated exposure to hypoxia, and hypothyroid or hyperthyroid treatments. The lactate/H+ transport capacity of red muscles was greater than that of white muscles, and this difference...

  18. Lactate/H+ transport kinetics in rat skeletal muscle related to fibre type and changes in transport capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel; Pilegaard

    1998-01-01

    muscles, muscles of old rats and rats that had been subjected to high-intensity training, endurance training, repeated exposure to hypoxia, and hypothyroid or hyperthyroid treatments. The lactate/H+ transport capacity of red muscles was greater than that of white muscles, and this difference......Lactate/H+ transport kinetics were determined by means of the pH-sensitive probe BCECF in sarcolemmal giant vesicles, obtained from rat skeletal muscle, and related to variations in lactate/H+ transport capacity. Vesicle preparations were made from red and white muscles, mixed muscles, denervated...... and hypothyroidism was due to a decrease in Vmax. The denervation-induced decline in lactate/H+ transport capacity resulted from both an increased Km and a reduced Vmax. The present data show that muscle type differences and most changes in the lactate/H+ transport capacity are mediated by modifications in Vmax...

  19. Strength training improves fall-related gait kinematics in the elderly: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persch, Leslie N; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Pereira, Gleber; Rodacki, André L F

    2009-12-01

    Falls are one of the greatest concerns among the elderly. Among a number of strategies proposed to reduce the risk of falls, improving muscle strength has been applied as a successful preventive strategy. Although it has been suggested as a relevant strategy, no studies have analyzed how muscle strength improvements affect the gait pattern. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a lower limb strength training program on gait kinematics parameters associated with the risk of falls in elderly women. Twenty seven elderly women were assigned in a balance and randomized order into an experimental (n=14; age=61.1 (4.3)years, BMI=26.4 (2.8)kgm(-2)) and a control (n=13; age=61.6 (6.6)years; BMI=25.9 (3.0)kgm(-2)) group. The EG performed lower limb strength training during 12 weeks (3 days per week), being training load increased weekly. Primary outcomes were gait kinematics parameters and maximum voluntary isometric contractions at pre- and post-training period. Secondary outcomes were training load improvement weekly and one repetition maximum every two weeks. The 1 maximal repetition increment ranged from 32% to 97% and was the best predictor of changes in gait parameters (spatial, temporal and angular variables) after training for the experimental group. Z-score analysis revealed that the strength training was effective in reversing age-related changes in gait speed, stride length, cadence and toe clearance, approaching the elderly to reference values for healthy young women. Lower limb strength training improves fall-related gait kinematic parameters. Thus, strength training programs should be recommended to the elderly women in order to change their gait pattern towards young adults.

  20. Obesity decreases both whole muscle and fascicle strength in young females but only exacerbates the aging-related whole muscle level asthenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, David J; Erskine, Robert M; Winwood, Keith; Morse, Christopher Ian; Onambélé, Gladys L

    2014-06-24

    Obesity has previously been associated with greater muscle strength. Aging, on the other hand, reduces muscle specific force (the force per unit physiological cross-sectional area [PCSA] of muscle). However, neither the effect of obesity on skeletal muscle specific force nor the combined effects of aging and obesity on this parameter are known. This study aimed to describe the interplay between body mass index (BMI)/adiposity, aging, and skeletal muscle specific force. Ninety-four untrained healthy women categorized by age into young (Y; mean ± SD: 25.5 ± 9.0 years) versus old (O; 64.8 ± 7.2 years) were assessed for body composition, gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscle volume (V), net maximum voluntary contraction (nMVC), and specific force (SF). The young obese, while demonstrating 71% and 29% (P V and nMVC compared to normal BMI individuals, were in fact 26% (P = 0.007) weaker than these, where V was used to scale nMVC (i.e., nMVC/V). The weakness associated with obesity was further exemplified in the 34% (P P V and nMVC, but 11% and 25% (P V and SF than V (-2 cm(3)/year P P 40% adiposity. Interestingly, however, obesity appeared advantageous to the aging-related changes in nMVC/V (P P young sedentary obese, are substantially weaker, where the volume of skeletal muscle is used to scale the maximal torque output, or forces are quantified at the fascicular level. The seemingly positive impact of obesity on rate of aging, however, is complex and warrants further investigations. © 2014 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  1. The SAURON project : XVIII. The integrated UV-line-strength relations of early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bureau, Martin; Jeong, Hyunjin; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Schawinski, Kevin; Houghton, Ryan C. W.; Davies, Roger L.; Bacon, Roland; Cappellari, Michele; de Zeeuw, P. Tim; Emsellem, Eric; Falcon-Barroso, Jesus; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Peletier, Reynier F.; Sarzi, Marc; Sohn, Young-Jong; Thomas, Daniel; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; van de Ven, Glenn

    Using far-ultraviolet (FUV) and near-ultraviolet (NUV) photometry from guest investigator programmes on the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) satellite, optical photometry from the MDM Observatory and optical integral-field spectroscopy from SAURON, we explore the UV-line-strength relations of the

  2. The SAURON project - XVIII. The integrated UV-line-strength relations of early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bureau, Martin; Jeong, Hyunjin; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Schawinski, Kevin; Houghton, Ryan C. W.; Davies, Roger L.; Bacon, Roland; Cappellari, Michele; de Zeeuw, P. Tim; Emsellem, Eric; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Peletier, Reynier F.; Sarzi, Marc; Sohn, Young-Jong; Thomas, Daniel; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; van de Ven, Glenn

    Using far-ultraviolet (FUV) and near-ultraviolet (NUV) photometry from guest investigator programmes on the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) satellite, optical photometry from the MDM Observatory and optical integral-field spectroscopy from SAURON, we explore the UV-line-strength relations of the

  3. Internationally Adopted Children in the Early School Years: Relative Strengths and Weaknesses in Language Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennen, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to determine the relative strengths and weaknesses in language and verbal short-term memory abilities of school-age children who were adopted from Eastern Europe. Method: Children adopted between 1;0 and 4;11 (years;months) of age were assessed with the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool, Second…

  4. Pore direction in relation to anisotropy of mechanical strength in a cubic starch compact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Yu San; van Vliet, Lucas J; Frijlink, Henderik W; Stokroos, Ietse; van der Voort Maarschalk, Kees

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the relation between preferential direction of pores and mechanical strength of cubic starch compacts. The preferential pore direction was quantified in SEM images of cross sections of starch compacts using a previously described algorithm for

  5. Dynamic changes in genes related to glucose uptake and utilization during pig skeletal and cardiac muscle development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanqin; Jin, Long; Wang, Fengjiao; He, Mengnan; Liu, Rui; Li, Mingzhou; Shuai, Surong

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal and cardiac muscle have important roles in glucose uptake and utilization. However, changes in expression of protein coding genes and miRNAs that participate in glucose metabolism during development are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the expression of genes related to glucose metabolism during muscle development. We found an age-dependent increase in gene expression in cardiac muscle, with enrichment in heart development- and energy-related metabolic processes. A subset of genes that were up-regulated until 30 or 180 days postnatally, and then down-regulated in psoas major muscle was significantly enriched in mitochondrial oxidative-related processes, while genes that up-regulated in longissimus doris muscle was significantly enriched in glycolysis-related processes. Meanwhile, expression of energy-related microRNAs decreased with increasing age. In addition, we investigated the correlation between microRNAs and mRNAs in three muscle types across different stages of development and found many potential microRNA-mRNA pairs involved in regulating glucose metabolism.

  6. Physical activity opposes the age-related increase in skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels and normalizes plasma endothelin-1 levels in individuals with essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Mortensen, Stefan Peter; Hellsten, Ylva

    2013-01-01

    performed lifelong physical activity had similar plasma and muscle endothelin-1 levels as the young controls and had higher ET(A) receptor levels. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that aerobic exercise training opposes the age-related increase in skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels and normalizes...... were higher in hypertensive than normotensive individuals. Eight weeks of exercise training normalized plasma endothelin-1 levels in the hypertensive subjects and increased the protein expression of the ET(A) receptor in skeletal muscle of normotensive subjects. Similarly, individuals that had...

  7. Age-related changes in expression of the neural cell adhesion molecule in skeletal muscle: a comparative study of newborn, adult and aged rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Olsen, M; Zhernosekov, D

    1993-01-01

    concentration in aged muscle was sixfold higher than in young adult muscle. In contrast with previous reports, NCAM polypeptides of 200, 145, 125 and 120 kDa were observed by immunoblotting throughout postnatal development and aging, the relative proportions of the individual NCAM polypeptides remaining...... report quantitative and qualitative changes in NCAM protein and mRNA forms during aging in normal rat skeletal muscle. Determination of the amount of NCAM by e.l.i.s.a. showed that the level decreased from perinatal to adult age, followed by a considerable increase in 24-month-old rat muscle. Thus NCAM.......9 kb were present in perinatal and young adult skeletal muscle, whereas only the 5.2 and 2.9 kb mRNA classes could be demonstrated in aged muscle. This indicates that metabolism of the various NCAM polypeptides is individually regulated during aging. Alternative splicing of NCAM mRNA in skeletal muscle...

  8. Estimates of the Absolute and Relative Strengths of Diverse Alcoholic Drinks by Young People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Stephanie; Higgs, Suzanne; Terry, Philip

    2016-11-09

    Evidence suggests that college students are often unclear about how much alcohol is present in different drinks. To evaluate the abilities of students to estimate the alcohol contents of drinks, both in relative and absolute terms, and to examine how alcohol strength informs behavior. For 10 popular drinks that varied by alcohol content, beverage and volume, 209 UK university students rank-ordered the drinks according to total alcohol content and then estimated, for each drink, the number of UK "units" of alcohol contained and its percentage alcohol-by-volume (% ABV). Participants also reported the importance of drink strength as a factor in drink choice, and its influence in different scenarios. There was low but significant concordance between participants' rank-orderings of drinks by strength, and the correlation of mean ranks with correct ranks was also significant. However, their explicit estimates of the numbers of "units" in the drinks, and their % ABV values, often diverged dramatically from actual values. Participants tended to overestimate the unit contents of spirit-based drinks but underestimated the unit contents of beers and wine; women were consistently less accurate than men, typically making greater underestimates for commonly-consumed drinks. Over one-third of the sample reported that strength influenced drink choice, but its importance ranked below flavor and cost; drink strength might contribute to drink choice depending on the drinking situation. Conclusion/Importance: Young drinkers (women especially) have a poor awareness of the alcohol contents of different drinks, particularly wines and beers, but they make better judgments of relative strength.

  9. Motor neuron targeting of IGF-1 attenuates age-related external Ca2+-dependent skeletal muscle contraction in senescent mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Anthony M.; Messi, María Laura; Zheng, Zhenlin; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2007-01-01

    A population of fast muscle fibers from aging mice is dependent on external Ca2+ to maintain tetanic force during repeated contractions. We hypothesized that age-related denervation in muscle fibers plays a role in initiating this contractile deficit, and that prevention of denervation by IGF-1 overexpression would prevent external Ca2+-dependent contraction in aging mice. IGF-1 overexpression in skeletal muscle prevents age-related denervation, and prevented external Ca2+-dependent contraction in this work. To determine if the effects of IGF-1 overexpression are on muscle or nerve, aging mice were injected with a tetanus toxin fragment-C (TTC) fusion protein that targets IGF-1 to spinal cord motor neurons. This treatment prevented external Ca2+-dependent contraction. We also show evidence that injections of the IGF-1-TTC fusion protein prevent age-related alterations to the nerve terminals at the neuromuscular junctions. We conclude that the slow age-related denervation of fast muscle fibers underlies dependence on external Ca2+ to maintain tetanic force in a population of muscle fibers from senescent mice. PMID:17174053

  10. Adipocyte Differentiation-Related Protein and OXPAT in Rat and Human Skeletal Muscle: Involvement in Lipid Accumulation and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnaard, R.; Schrauwen, P.; Schaart, G.; Jorgensen, J.A.; Lenaers, E.; Mensink, M.R.; Hesselink, M.K.C.

    2009-01-01

    Setting: A disordered lipid metabolism is implicated in the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Lipid droplet proteins of the PAT [perilipin, adipocyte differentiation-related protein (ADRP), and TIP47] family have been shown to regulate lipid accumulation and intracellular metabolism

  11. Age-related changes in the location of the mandibular and mental foramen in children with Mongoloid skeletal pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, M Y; Lim, W W; Rajan, S; Nambiar, P; Ngeow, W C

    2015-10-01

    To observe age-related changes in the locations of mandibular foramen (MF) and mental foramen (mf) using dental panoramic tomographs (DPTs). Ethical approval was obtained for this retrospective study. Location of MF was related to the ramus and occlusal plane, while mf to (i) erupted primary molars (ii) unerupted premolar tooth germs (iii) vertical height at the body of the mandible. One hundred and sixty-five DPTs were obtained from children with Mongoloid skeletal pattern. The ethnic composition was 112 Malays and 53 Chinese children (Willems dental age = 5.2-16.0 years). At the horizontal plane, MF remained constant at middle mid-quadrant of the ramus (88 %) and vertical plane; 68 % located below and 40 % above the occlusal plane. At age 9 years and above, there was a significant tendency for MF to be located at the level of occlusal plane. The most common location of mf was related to (i) erupted primary molars, mesial root of second primary molar (38 %); (ii) unerupted premolars tooth germs, between the apices of first and second premolar (44 %); and (iii) proportional vertical height to the mandible, middle third (52 %). At age 11 years and above, a significant tendency of mf to be located at the middle third of the body of mandible was observed. With advancing age and growth, the position of MF remained constant at the ramus with tendency to move from below to at the level of occlusal plane, while mf moved distally and inferiorly.

  12. Vocabulary abilities of children with Williams syndrome: strengths, weaknesses, and relation to visuospatial construction ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mervis, Carolyn B; John, Angela E

    2008-08-01

    This project was designed to identify relative strengths and weaknesses in vocabulary ability for children with Williams syndrome (WS) and to demonstrate the importance of stringent matching criteria for cross-group comparisons. Children with WS and typically developing (TD) children completed standardized assessments of intellectual and language ability. Children with WS also completed a visuospatial construction ability assessment. Study 1: Concrete and relational vocabulary standard scores were significantly lower for 5- to 7-year-olds with WS than for TD children. Children with WS earned significantly higher standard scores for concrete than for relational vocabulary. When groups were stringently matched for relational vocabulary size, children with WS did not evidence a specific weakness in spatial vocabulary. Study 2: Standard scores for relational vocabulary were similar to those for visuospatial construction ability for 5- to 7-year-olds with WS. Study 3: Nine- to 11-year-olds with WS demonstrated very limited relational vocabulary ability; relational vocabulary ability at 5-7 years was highly correlated with later relational language ability. Concrete vocabulary is a relative strength for children with WS; relational vocabulary ability is very limited and is at about the level of visuospatial construction ability. Accurate determination of group comparison results depends on stringent group matching.

  13. Physical disability and muscular strength in relation to obesity and different body composition indexes in a sample of healthy elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoico, E; Di Francesco, V; Guralnik, J M; Mazzali, G; Bortolani, A; Guariento, S; Sergi, G; Bosello, O; Zamboni, M

    2004-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the association between muscular strength, functional limitations, body composition measurements and indexes of sarcopenia in a sample of community-dwelling, elderly women at the high end of the functional spectrum. Cross-sectional. In all, 167 women aged 67-78 y were selected from the general population in central Verona. A group of 120 premenopausal healthy women aged 20-50 y represented the young reference group. Body weight, height, body mass index (BMI) and the presence of acute and chronic conditions were evaluated in each subject. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Physical functioning was assessed using a modified version of the Activities of Daily Living Scale. Dominant leg isometric strength was measured with a Spark Handheld Dynamometer. Elderly women with BMI higher than 30 kg/m(2) and in the highest quintile of body fat percent showed a significantly higher prevalence of functional limitation. In our population study, about 40% of sarcopenic elderly women and 50% of elderly women with high body fat and normal muscle mass were functionally limited. The prevalence of functional limitation significantly increased in subjects with class II sarcopenia, defined according to the skeletal muscle mass index (SMI=skeletal muscle mass/body mass x 100). In logistic regression models, after adjusting for age and different chronic health conditions, subjects with BMI higher than 30 kg/m(2), in the highest quintile of body fat, or with high body fat and normal muscle mass or class II sarcopenia according to SMI, had a 3-4 times increased risk of functional limitations. Finally, isometric leg strength was significantly lower in subjects in the lowest quintile of relative muscle mass and in sarcopenic and sarcopenic obese women. High body fat and high BMI values were associated with a greater probability of functional limitation in a population of elderly women at the high end of the

  14. Mobility-Related Fatigue, Walking Speed, and Muscle Strength in Older People

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mänty, Minna; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F.; Rantanen, Taina

    2012-01-01

    Background. Fatigue is an important early marker of functional decline among older people, but the mechanisms underlying this association are not fully understood. The purpose of the present study was to examine the association between mobility-related fatigue and walking speed and to test...... the degree to which muscle strength accounts for this association. Methods. The study is based on baseline (n = 523) and 5-year follow-up data (n = 292) from a cohort of 75-year-old persons. Standardized assessments include self-report measures of mobility-related fatigue (score range 0–6) and medical...... history, as well as performance-based assessment of walking speed and maximal isometric strength of knee extension, body extension, and handgrip. Results. In the cross-sectional baseline analysis, one unit increase in fatigue score was associated with 0.03 m/s (b = −.03, p

  15. Age-related differences in skeletal muscle microvascular response to exercise as detected by contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulf Hildebrandt

    Full Text Available Aging involves reductions in exercise total limb blood flow and exercise capacity. We hypothesized that this may involve early age-related impairments of skeletal muscle microvascular responsiveness as previously reported for insulin but not for exercise stimuli in humans.Using an isometric exercise model, we studied the effect of age on contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS parameters, i.e. microvascular blood volume (MBV, flow velocity (MFV and blood flow (MBF calculated from replenishment of Sonovue contrast-agent microbubbles after their destruction. CEUS was applied to the vastus lateralis (VLat and intermedius (VInt muscle in 15 middle-aged (MA, 43.6±1.5 years and 11 young (YG, 24.1±0.6 years healthy males before, during, and after 2 min of isometric knee extension at 15% of peak torque (PT. In addition, total leg blood flow as recorded by femoral artery Doppler-flow. Moreover, fiber-type-specific and overall capillarisation as well as fiber composition were additionally assessed in Vlat biopsies obtained from CEUS site. MA and YG had similar quadriceps muscle MRT-volume or PT and maximal oxygen uptake as well as a normal cardiovascular risk factors and intima-media-thickness.During isometric exercise MA compared to YG reached significantly lower levels in MFV (0.123±0.016 vs. 0.208±0.036 a.u. and MBF (0.007±0.001 vs. 0.012±0.002 a.u.. In the VInt the (post-occlusive hyperemia post-exercise peaks in MBV and MBF were significantly lower in MA vs. YG. Capillary density, capillary fiber contacts and femoral artery Doppler were similar between MA and YG.In the absence of significant age-related reductions in capillarisation, total leg blood flow or muscle mass, healthy middle-aged males reveal impaired skeletal muscle microcirculatory responses to isometric exercise. Whether this limits isometric muscle performance remains to be assessed.

  16. Relative strengths of the calf muscles based on MRI volume measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Clifford L; Thawait, Gaurav K; Kwon, John Y; Machado, Antonio; Boyle, James W; Campbell, John; Carrino, John A

    2012-05-01

    In 1985, Silver et al. published a cadaver study which determined the relative order of strength of the muscles in the calf. Muscle strength, which is proportional to volume, was obtained by dissecting out the individual muscles, weighing them, and then multiplying by the specific gravity. No similar studies have been performed using {\\it in vivo} measurements of muscle volume. Ten normal subjects underwent 3-Tesla MRI's of both lower extremities using non-fat-saturated T2 SPACE sequences. The volume for each muscle was determined by tracing the muscle contour on sequential axial images and then interpolating the volume using imaging software. The results from this study differ from Silver's original article. The lateral head of the gastrocnemius was found to be stronger than the tibialis anterior muscle. The FHL and EDL muscles were both stronger than the peroneus longus. There was no significant difference in strength between the peroneus longus and brevis muscles. This revised order of muscle strengths in the calf based on in vivo MRI findings may assist surgeons in determining the optimal tendons to transfer in order to address muscle weakness and deformity.

  17. Health-related quality of life, handgrip strength and falls during detraining in elderly habitual exercisers

    OpenAIRE

    Esain, Izaro; Rodriguez-Larrad, Ana; Bidaurrazaga-Letona, Iraia; Gil, Susana María

    2017-01-01

    Background The effects of regular exercise on physical functioning and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) have been thoroughly studied. In contrast, little is known about the changes which occur following cessation of activity (detraining). Here, we have investigated the effect of a 3 month detraining period on HRQOL and on handgrip strength in elderly people who had regularly exercised, and examined the association of these variables with falls. Methods Thirty-eight women and 11 men (mea...

  18. BAIAP2 is related to emotional modulation of human memory strength

    OpenAIRE

    Luksys, Gediminas; Ackermann, Sandra; Coynel, David; Fastenrath, Matthias; Gschwind, Leo; Heck, Angela; Rasch, Björn; Spalek, Klara; Vogler, Christian; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; de Quervain, Dominique J-F

    2014-01-01

    Memory performance is the result of many distinct mental processes, such as memory encoding, forgetting, and modulation of memory strength by emotional arousal. These processes, which are subserved by partly distinct molecular profiles, are not always amenable to direct observation. Therefore, computational models can be used to make inferences about specific mental processes and to study their genetic underpinnings. Here we combined a computational model-based analysis of memory-related proc...

  19. The Relative Reinforcing Strength of Methamphetamine and d-Amphetamine in Monkeys Self-Administering Cocaine

    OpenAIRE

    Lile, Joshua A.; Charnigo, Richard J.; Nader, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological data indicate that rates of methamphetamine misuse surpass those of d-amphetamine, but self-administration research in animals and humans has not typically demonstrated differences in their reinforcing effects. The present study used a within-session, exponentially-increasing progressive-ratio schedule and extended-access conditions to assess the relative reinforcing strength of d-amphetamine and methamphetamine in rhesus monkeys (n=5) trained to self-administer cocaine. A ran...

  20. [Body, strength, and labor: reflexions in the light of gender relations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, L H

    2000-01-01

    The present paper intends to contribute on a reflection and discussion of some issues related to female's body and the strength present in laborwork, understood as the moment in which through the support of another person, a woman "gives birth". It also discusses the perspective of male dominance having as reference the symbolic violence from Bordieu, proposing that the humanizing of labor demands a thorough discussion on gender dominance.

  1. Conscious Anxiety, Conscious Repression and Ego-strength as Related to Dream Recall, Content and Vividness

    OpenAIRE

    Newbold, David

    1980-01-01

    Subjects' reported dream recall frequency, dream content and vividness or recall were discussed and examined in relation to sex of the subject and MMPI Conscious Anxiety, Conscious Repression and Ego-strength scores. Fifty-three Utah State University students, who volunteered to participate in a study of dreaming behavior, were administered the MMPI and asked to complete a dream log diary. The dream log required a daily recording of total number of dreams recalled, the number of vividly an...

  2. Loss of ephrinB1 in osteogenic progenitor cells impedes endochondral ossification and compromises bone strength integrity during skeletal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thao M; Arthur, Agnieszka; Paton, Sharon; Hemming, Sarah; Panagopoulos, Romana; Codrington, John; Walkley, Carl R; Zannettino, Andrew C W; Gronthos, Stan

    2016-12-01

    The EphB receptor tyrosine kinase family and their ephrinB ligands have been implicated as mediators of skeletal development and bone homeostasis in humans, where mutations in ephrinB1 contribute to frontonasal dysplasia and coronal craniosynostosis. In mouse models, ephrinB1 has been shown to be a critical factor mediating osteoblast function. The present study examined the functional importance of ephrinB1 during endochondral ossification using the Cre recombination system with targeted deletion of ephrinB1 (EfnB1 fl/fl ) in osteogenic progenitor cells, under the control of the osterix (Osx:Cre) promoter. The Osx:EfnB1 -/- mice displayed aberrant bone growth during embryonic and postnatal skeletal development up to 4weeks of age, when compared to the Osx:Cre controls. Furthermore, compared to the Osx:Cre control mice, the Osx:EfnB1 -/- mice exhibited significantly weaker and less rigid bones, with a reduction in trabecular/ cortical bone formation, reduced trabecular architecture and a reduction in the size of the growth plates at the distal end of the femora from newborn through to 4weeks of age. The aberrant bone formation correlated with increased numbers of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase positive osteoclasts and decreased numbers of bone lining osteoblasts in 4week old Osx:EfnB1 -/- mice, compared to Osx:Cre control mice. Taken together, these observations demonstrate the importance of ephrinB1 signalling between cells of the skeleton required for endochondral ossification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of expiratory muscle strength training on swallowing-related muscle strength in community-dwelling elderly individuals: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Su; Oh, Dong-Hwan; Chang, Moon-Young

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of expiratory muscle strength training (EMST) on swallowing-related muscle strength in community-dwelling elderly individuals. Expiratory muscle strength training is an intervention for patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia. This training is associated with respiration, coughing, speech and swallowing, and its effectiveness has been proven in previous studies. However, the effects of EMST on elderly individuals and evidence are still lacking. This study included 24 community-dwelling senior citizens aged ≥65 years (12 men and 12 women). The experimental group trained at the 70% threshold value of the maximum expiratory pressure using an EMST device 5 days per week for 4 weeks and comprised five sets of five breaths through the device for 25 breaths per day. The placebo group trained with a resistance-free sham device. Post-intervention, muscle strength of the bilateral buccinator and the orbicularis oris muscles (OOM) was measured using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument. Surface electromyography was used to measure activation of the suprahyoid muscles (SM). After intervention, the strength of the buccinator and the OOM in the experimental group showed statistically significant improvement. There was also statistically significant activation of the SM. In the placebo group, the strength of the orbicularis oris muscle alone improved. No statistically significant differences between groups were found for the strength of the buccinator and the OOM and the activation of the SM. EMST had a positive effect on swallowing-related muscle strength in elderly participants. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Gene expression in skeletal muscle biopsies from people with type 2 diabetes and relatives: differential regulation of insulin signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Palsgaard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gene expression alterations have previously been associated with type 2 diabetes, however whether these changes are primary causes or secondary effects of type 2 diabetes is not known. As healthy first degree relatives of people with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes, they provide a good model in the search for primary causes of the disease. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We determined gene expression profiles in skeletal muscle biopsies from Caucasian males with type 2 diabetes, healthy first degree relatives, and healthy controls. Gene expression was measured using Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Arrays covering the entire human genome. These arrays have not previously been used for this type of study. We show for the first time that genes involved in insulin signaling are significantly upregulated in first degree relatives and significantly downregulated in people with type 2 diabetes. On the individual gene level, 11 genes showed altered expression levels in first degree relatives compared to controls, among others KIF1B and GDF8 (myostatin. LDHB was found to have a decreased expression in both groups compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We hypothesize that increased expression of insulin signaling molecules in first degree relatives of people with type 2 diabetes, work in concert with increased levels of insulin as a compensatory mechanism, counter-acting otherwise reduced insulin signaling activity, protecting these individuals from severe insulin resistance. This compensation is lost in people with type 2 diabetes where expression of insulin signaling molecules is reduced.

  5. Deterioration of bone quality in the tibia and fibula in growing mice during skeletal unloading: gender-related differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chang-Yong; Seo, Dong Hyun; Kim, Han Sung

    2011-11-01

    Skeletal unloading causes bone loss in both men and women; however, only a few studies have been performed on the effects of gender differences on bone quality during skeletal unloading. Moreover, although the fibula also plays an important role in load bearing and ankle stability, the effects of unloading on the fibula have been rarely investigated. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of skeletal unloading on bone quality of the tibia and fibula in growing animals and to determine whether differences existed between genders. Six-week-old female and male mice were randomly allocated into two groups. The right hindlimb of each mouse in the skeletal unloading group was subjected to sciatic neurectomy. After two weeks of skeletal unloading, the structural characteristics of the tibia and fibula in both genders were worsened. In addition, the bone mineralization density distribution (MDD) of the tibia and fibula in both genders were altered. However, the magnitude of deterioration and alteration of the MDD in the bones of females were larger than in those of males. These results demonstrate that skeletal unloading diminishes bone quality in the tibia and fibula, leading to an increase in bone fracture risks, particularly in females.

  6. Growth-related changes of skeletal and upper-airway features in bilateral cleft lip and palate patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akarsu-Guven, Bengisu; Karakaya, Jale; Ozgur, Figen; Aksu, Muge

    2015-10-01

    The craniofacial morphology of subjects with cleft lip and palate differs from that of subjects without clefts. Subjects with bilateral cleft lip and palate tend to have maxillary retrognathism, a smaller mandible with an obtuse gonial angle, greater anterior upper and lower facial heights, and retroclined maxillary incisors. The purposes of this research were to compare the skeletal and upper-airway features of subjects with bilateral cleft lip and palate with the same features in control subjects without clefts and to determine the growth-related changes at different growth stages. The sample comprised 212 subjects divided into 2 groups: 68 with bilateral cleft lip and palate, and 144 controls without clefts; each group was further divided into 4 subgroups according to growth stage using the cervical vertebral maturation stage method. The subgroups were defined as early childhood (stage 1), prepubertal (stage 2), pubertal (stage 3), and postpubertal (stage 4). The cephalometric variables were evaluated with 2-way analysis of variance and the Bonferroni test. Maxillary position showed no significant differences between the male groups. The maxilla was more prognathic at stage 2 and became more retrognathic at stages 3 and 4 in the females. The mandible was more retrusive in the bilateral cleft lip and palate subjects at stage 1 in males and at stages 3 and 4 in females. ANB was larger at stages 1 and 2, and it became similar to the controls at stages 3 and 4 in male and female bilateral cleft lip and palate subjects. Vertical growth was seen in the bilateral cleft lip and palate subjects regardless of sex, and no change was observed with age. Posterior airway space was narrower in all stages (except for stage 1 in females). Middle airway space was wider after stage 1 in the male and female bilateral cleft lip and palate subjects. Inferior airway space was narrower in the male bilateral cleft lip and palate patients at the early childhood and pubertal stages. Age

  7. Aging of marrow stromal (skeletal) stem cells and their contribution to age-related bone loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellantuono, Ilaria; Aldahmash, Abdullah; Kassem, Moustapha

    2009-01-01

    Marrow stromal cells (MSC) are thought to be stem cells with osteogenic potential and therefore responsible for the repair and maintenance of the skeleton. Age related bone loss is one of the most prevalent diseases in the elder population. It is controversial whether MSC undergo a process of aging...... in vivo, leading to decreased ability to form and maintain bone homeostasis with age. In this review we summarize evidence of MSC involvement in age related bone loss and suggest new emerging targets for intervention....

  8. Glycolysis in contracting rat skeletal muscle is controlled by factors related to energy state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørtenblad, Niels; Macdonald, Will A; Sahlin, Kent

    2009-01-01

    The control of glycolysis in contracting muscle is not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to examine whether activation of glycolysis is mediated by factors related to the energy state or by a direct effect of Ca2+ on the regulating enzymes. Extensor digitorum longus muscles from...

  9. Radiographic assessment of lower third molar eruption in different anteroposterior skeletal patterns and age-related groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljevic, Aleksandar; Lazic, Emira; Soldatovic, Ivan; Nedeljkovic, Nenad; Andric, Miroslav

    2015-07-01

    To analyze radiographic predictors for lower third molar eruption among subjects with different anteroposterior skeletal relations and of different age groups. In total, 300 lower third molars were recorded on diagnostic digital orthopantomograms (DPTs) and lateral cephalograms (LCs). The radiographs were grouped according to sagittal intermaxillary angle (ANB), subject age, and level of lower third molar eruption. The DPT was used to analyze retromolar space, mesiodistal crown width, space/width ratio, third and second molar angulation (α, γ), third molar inclination (β), and gonion angle. The LC was used to determine ANB, angles of maxillar and mandibular prognathism (SNA, SNB), mandibular plane angle (SN/MP), and mandibular lengths. A logistic regression model was created using the statistically significant predictors. The logistic regression analysis revealed a statistically significant impact of β angle and distance between gonion and gnathion (Go-Gn) on the level of lower third molar eruption (P third molar impaction rate was significantly higher in the adult subgroup with the Class II (62.3%) compared with Class III subjects (31.7%; P third molar eruption were measured in Class III subjects. For valid estimation of mandibular third molar eruption, certain linear and angular measures (β angle, Go-Gn), as well as the size of the retromolar space, need to be considered.

  10. Fasting-related autophagic response in slow- and fast-twitch skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Tomonori; Oishi, Yasuharu; Higuchi, Mitsuru; Muraoka, Isao

    2010-03-26

    This study investigated regulation of autophagy in slow-twitch soleus and fast-twitch plantaris muscles in fasting-related atrophy. Male Fischer-344 rats were subjected to fasting for 1, 2, or 3 days. Greater weight loss was observed in plantaris muscle than in soleus muscle in response to fasting. Western blot analysis demonstrated that LC3-II, a marker protein for macroautophagy, was expressed at a notably higher level in plantaris than in soleus muscle, and that the expression level was fasting duration-dependent. To identify factors related to LC3-II enhancement, autophagy-related signals were examined in both types of muscle. Phosphorylated mTOR was reduced in plantaris but not in soleus muscle. FOXO3a and ER stress signals were unchanged in both muscle types during fasting. These findings suggest that preferential atrophy of fast-twitch muscle is associated with induction of autophagy during fasting and that differences in autophagy regulation are attributable to differential signal regulation in soleus and plantaris muscle. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of Relative Strength on Functional Independence of Patients With Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro Neto, Frederico; Guanais, Patrícia; Lopes, Guilherme H; Dornelas, Elisa; de Campos Barbetta, Daniela; Coutinho, Alessandra C; Gonçalves, Carlos Wellington; Gomes Costa, Rodrigo Rodrigues

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the influence of strength values and fat mass on functional independence of men with different spinal cord injury (SCI) levels. Cross-sectional study. Hospital network. Men with SCI (N=45). Subjects were assessed in functional independence scales, a 1 repetition maximum (1RM) test, and body composition to detect absolute and relative strength: 1RM divided by body mass (BM) and lean body mass (LBM), respectively. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to verify the influence of predictors on functional independence (FIM and Spinal Cord Independence Measure [SCIM] scale and subscales). Receiver operating characteristic curves were created to identify cutoff points of strength for functional independence. The best models for FIM total, FIM mobility, and SCIM total used 1RM as the best predictor (adjusted R 2 =.75, .67, and .65, respectively; PSCIM mobility (adjusted R 2 =.62, Pscore of 69 has a 1RM cutoff point of 50.1kg, and a FIM score of 76 has cutoff points of .73 for 1RM/BM and .91 for 1RM/LBM. A SCIM score of 68 has cutoff points for 1RM, 1RM/BM, and 1RM/LBM of 50.1kg, .77, and .92, respectively. Cutoff points of relative strength should be used as determinant variables for independence, health, or sports performance. This study may contribute to more adequate guidance of physical activity during a rehabilitation program and after discharge. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Energy metabolism in relation to oxygen partial pressure in human skeletal muscle during exercise.

    OpenAIRE

    Bylund-Fellenius, A C; Walker, P M; Elander, A; Holm, S; Holm, J; Scherstén, T

    1981-01-01

    1. The intramuscular oxygen partial pressure (pO2) in human gastrocnemius muscle was monitored during exercise and compared with metabolite concentrations reflecting the energy and the redox state in the tissue. Ten normal subjects and ten patients with peripheral vascular occlusive disease were investigated. 2. In normal subjects the pO2 at the end of exercise was related to the intensity of the exercise, expressed as effect (J/s) per contraction. 3. In both patients and normal subject the p...

  13. Expression of neurotrophic factors in diabetic muscle--relation to neuropathy and muscle strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, C S; Jakobsen, J; Flyvbjerg, A; Andersen, H

    2009-10-01

    Diabetic polyneuropathy can lead to atrophy and weakness of distally located striated muscles due to denervation. Lack of neurotrophic support is believed to contribute to the development of diabetic neuropathy. In this study, we measured the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin 3 (NT-3), neurotrophin 4 (NT-4) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) in muscle biopsies taken from the gastrocnemic and deltoid muscles in 42 diabetic patients and 20 healthy control subjects. To express the distal neuropathic gradient and to reduce interindividual variation, a distal/proximal ratio between expression levels in the gastrocnemic and deltoid muscles was calculated for all neurotrophic factors. Neuropathic status was determined by clinical examination, electrophysiological studies and quantitative sensory examination in diabetic patients, and muscle strength at both the shoulder and ankle was assessed by isokinetic dynamometry. Distal/proximal ratios for NT-3 were lower in diabetic patients [median (range) 110.7 (39.8-546.8)] than in controls [157.6 (63.3-385.4); (P < 0.05)], and in neuropathic diabetic patients [107.1 (39.8-326.0)] versus patients without neuropathy [134.5 (46.6-546.8); (P < 0.005)]. Further, ratios for NT-3 were related to muscle strength (r(s) = 0.41, P < 0.01) and showed a tendency towards a negative relationship to the combined score of all measures of neuropathy [Neuropathy rank-sum score (NRSS)] (r(s) = -0.27, P = 0.09). Similar trends were observed for ratios for NT-4. Ratios for NGF (r(s) = -0.32, P < 0.05) and BDNF (r(s) = -0.32, P < 0.05) were related to NRSS, but not to muscle strength. Ratios for CNTF were higher in diabetic patients [64.6 (23.7-258.7)] compared with controls [50.2 (27.2-186.4); (P < 0.05)], but showed no relationship to neither NRSS nor muscle strength. Our results show that the expression of NT-3 is reduced in striated muscles in diabetic patients and is related to

  14. The Effects of a Non-Traditional Strength Training Program on the Health-Related Fitness Outcomes of Youth Strength Training Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Wendy; Foster, Byron

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which a non-traditional strength training program will impact the health-related fitness of youth. Researchers hypothesized that the strengthening program would positively affect the fitness outcomes. Participant physical education classes incorporated strengthening exercises three days…

  15. Detection of satellite cells during skeletal muscle wound healing in rats: time-dependent expressions of Pax7 and MyoD in relation to wound age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhi-Ling; Jiang, Shu-Kun; Zhang, Miao; Wang, Meng; Li, Jiao-Yong; Zhao, Rui; Wang, Lin-Lin; Li, Shan-Shan; Liu, Min; Zhang, Meng-Zhou; Guan, Da-Wei

    2016-01-01

    The study was focused on time-dependent expressions of paired-box transcription factor 7 (Pax7) and myoblast determination protein (MyoD) during skeletal muscle wound healing. An animal model of skeletal muscle contusion was established in 40 Sprague-Dawley male rats. Samples were taken at 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 13, 17, and 21 days after injury, respectively (five rats in each posttraumatic interval). Five rats were employed as control. By morphometric analysis, the data based on the number of Pax7(+)/MyoD(-), Pax7(+)/MyoD(+), and Pax7(-)/MyoD(+) cells were highly correlated with the wound age. Pax7 and MyoD expressions were upregulated after injury by Western blot and quantitative real-time PCR assays. The relative quantity of Pax7 protein peaked at 5 days after injury, which was >1.13, and decreased thereafter. Similarly, the relative quantity of MyoD mRNA expression peaked at 3 days after injury, which was >2.59. The relative quantity of Pax7 protein >0.73 or mRNA expression >2.38 or the relative quantity of MyoD protein >1.33 suggested a wound age of 3 to 7 days. The relative quantity of MyoD mRNA expression >2.02 suggested a wound age of 1 to 7 days post-injury. In conclusion, the expressions of Pax7 and MyoD are upregulated in a time-dependent manner during skeletal muscle wound healing, suggesting that Pax7 and MyoD may be potential markers for wound age estimation in skeletal muscle.

  16. Estimation of genetic parameters related to eggshell strength using random regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, J; Ma, M; Qu, L; Shen, M; Dou, T; Wang, K

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the changes in eggshell strength and the genetic parameters related to this trait throughout a hen's laying life using random regression. The data were collected from a crossbred population between 2011 and 2014, where the eggshell strength was determined repeatedly for 2260 hens. Using random regression models (RRMs), several Legendre polynomials were employed to estimate the fixed, direct genetic and permanent environment effects. The residual effects were treated as independently distributed with heterogeneous variance for each test week. The direct genetic variance was included with second-order Legendre polynomials and the permanent environment with third-order Legendre polynomials. The heritability of eggshell strength ranged from 0.26 to 0.43, the repeatability ranged between 0.47 and 0.69, and the estimated genetic correlations between test weeks was high at > 0.67. The first eigenvalue of the genetic covariance matrix accounted for about 97% of the sum of all the eigenvalues. The flexibility and statistical power of RRM suggest that this model could be an effective method to improve eggshell quality and to reduce losses due to cracked eggs in a breeding plan.

  17. Equations to predict female manual arm strength based on hand location relative to the shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Delfa, Nicholas J; Freeman, Christopher C; Petruzzi, Cassandra; Potvin, Jim R

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop regression equations to predict manual arm strength for a wide variety of hand locations within the reach envelope. Maximum voluntary manual arm strength was determined from 71 female participants in six exertion directions (superior, inferior, anterior, posterior, medial and lateral), in a total of 28 hand locations. Forces ranged from 51.3 to 164.4 N, and had a pooled coefficient of variation of 29.9%. Across all 168 combinations of hand locations and exertion directions, the multivariate regression equations explained 92.5% of the variance and had a root mean square error (RMSE) of only 6.4 N, using only the anterior, lateral and vertical location of the hand relative to the active shoulder joint as inputs. These equations provide a proof-of-principle for our novel regression approach, and represent a first step towards a more comprehensive equation to estimate maximum acceptable forces for occupational tasks. The equations presented here demonstrate a first step towards a novel and improved method to predict manual arm strength. Although a more comprehensive equation is still needed, these equations can be confidently used in the field by ergonomists to estimate the maximum acceptable forces in the six primary force directions.

  18. Study on the relation between structural parameters and fracture strength of WC-Co cemented carbides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, B. [East China Univ. of Sci. and Technol., Shanghai (China). Inst. of Tech. Chem. and Phys.; Zhang, Y. [Materials Physics Department of Beijing University of Science and Technology, Beijing (China); Ouyang, S. [State Key Laboratory For Synthesis and Processing of Advanced Materials of China, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2000-01-14

    In this article, a directly proportional relation between average free path (M) and ductile deformation energy ({gamma}) was proposed, and on the basis of it, a quantitative analysis was conducted for studying the effects of the structural parameters on fracture strength of WC-Co cemented carbides. The results show that, for different WC-Co cemented carbides with different cobalt contents, there exist different critical WC grain size R{sub c} and critical free path of binder M{sub c}. R{sub c} and M{sub c} act as the criteria that determine the growth behavior of crackles. When average free path of cobalt binder M < M{sub c}, or WC grain size R < R{sub c}, crackles will expand mainly across cobalt binder, which will result in intergranular fracture; when M M{sub c} or R R{sub c}, transgranular fracture will happen; when M = M{sub c} or R = R{sub c}, concurrence of intergranular fracture and transgranular fracture will take place. R{sub c} and M{sub c} will decrease with increasing of cobalt content, followed by increasing of fracture strength. The dimension of crackles in the circular fissure-breeding district is also a determinative factor to affect fracture strength of cemented carbides. (orig.)

  19. Relating appendicular skeletal variation of sigmodontine rodents to locomotion modes in a phylogenetic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho Coutinho, Ludmilla; Alves de Oliveira, João

    2017-10-01

    Sigmodontinae rodents constitute the second-largest subfamily among mammals. Alongside the taxonomic diversity, they are also ecologically diverse, exhibiting a wide array of locomotion modes, with semifossorial, terrestrial, semiaquatic, scansorial, arboreal, and saltatorial forms. To understand the ecomorphologic aspects that allow these rodents to display such locomotion diversity, we analyzed 35 qualitative characters of the appendicular skeleton (humerus, ulna, radius, scapula, femur, tibia, ilium, ischium and pubis) in 795 specimens belonging to 64 species, 34 genera and 10 tribes, representing all locomotion modes assigned to this subfamily. We performed a statistical analysis based upon the coefficient of trait differentiation to test the congruence of character states and the different locomotion modes. We also mapped characters states in a molecular phylogeny in order to reconstruct ancestral states and to evaluate how appendicular characters evolved within main lineages of Sigmodontinae radiation under a phylogenetic framework. The statistical analyses revealed six characters related to specific locomotion modes, except terrestrial. The mapping and parsimony ancestral states reconstruction identified two characters with phylogenetical signal and eight characters that are exclusively or more frequently recorded in certain modes of locomotion, four of them also detected by the statistical analysis. Notwithstanding the documented morphological variation, few changes characterize the transition to each of the locomotion modes, at least regarding the appendicular skeleton. This finding corroborates previous results that showed that sigmodontines exhibit an all-purpose appendicular morphology that allows them to use and explore a great variety of habitats. © 2017 Anatomical Society.

  20. The acute effects of strength, endurance and concurrent exercises on the Akt/mTOR/p70S6K1 and AMPK signaling pathway responses in rat skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O.de Souza

    Full Text Available The activation of competing intracellular pathways has been proposed to explain the reduced training adaptations after concurrent strength and endurance exercises (CE. The present study investigated the acute effects of CE, strength exercises (SE, and endurance exercises (EE on phosphorylated/total ratios of selected AMPK and Akt/mTOR/p70S6K1 pathway proteins in rats. Six animals per exercise group were killed immediately (0 h and 2 h after each exercise mode. In addition, 6 animals in a non-exercised condition (NE were killed on the same day and under the same conditions. The levels of AMPK, phospho-Thr172AMPK (p-AMPK, Akt, phospho-Ser473Akt (p-Akt, p70S6K1, phospho-Thr389-p70S6K1 (p-p70S6K1, mTOR, phospho-Ser2448mTOR (p-mTOR, and phospho-Thr1462-TSC2 (p-TSC2 expression were evaluated by immunoblotting in total plantaris muscle extracts. The only significant difference detected was an increase (i.e., 87% in Akt phosphorylated/total ratio in the CE group 2 h after exercise compared to the NE group (P = 0.002. There were no changes in AMPK, TSC2, mTOR, or p70S6K1 ratios when the exercise modes were compared to the NE condition (P ≥ 0.05. In conclusion, our data suggest that low-intensity and low-volume CE might not blunt the training-induced adaptations, since it did not activate competing intracellular pathways in an acute bout of strength and endurance exercises in rat skeletal muscle.

  1. BAIAP2 is related to emotional modulation of human memory strength.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gediminas Luksys

    Full Text Available Memory performance is the result of many distinct mental processes, such as memory encoding, forgetting, and modulation of memory strength by emotional arousal. These processes, which are subserved by partly distinct molecular profiles, are not always amenable to direct observation. Therefore, computational models can be used to make inferences about specific mental processes and to study their genetic underpinnings. Here we combined a computational model-based analysis of memory-related processes with high density genetic information derived from a genome-wide study in healthy young adults. After identifying the best-fitting model for a verbal memory task and estimating the best-fitting individual cognitive parameters, we found a common variant in the gene encoding the brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1-associated protein 2 (BAIAP2 that was related to the model parameter reflecting modulation of verbal memory strength by negative valence. We also observed an association between the same genetic variant and a similar emotional modulation phenotype in a different population performing a picture memory task. Furthermore, using functional neuroimaging we found robust genotype-dependent differences in activity of the parahippocampal cortex that were specifically related to successful memory encoding of negative versus neutral information. Finally, we analyzed cortical gene expression data of 193 deceased subjects and detected significant BAIAP2 genotype-dependent differences in BAIAP2 mRNA levels. Our findings suggest that model-based dissociation of specific cognitive parameters can improve the understanding of genetic underpinnings of human learning and memory.

  2. BAIAP2 is related to emotional modulation of human memory strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luksys, Gediminas; Ackermann, Sandra; Coynel, David; Fastenrath, Matthias; Gschwind, Leo; Heck, Angela; Rasch, Bjoern; Spalek, Klara; Vogler, Christian; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; de Quervain, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Memory performance is the result of many distinct mental processes, such as memory encoding, forgetting, and modulation of memory strength by emotional arousal. These processes, which are subserved by partly distinct molecular profiles, are not always amenable to direct observation. Therefore, computational models can be used to make inferences about specific mental processes and to study their genetic underpinnings. Here we combined a computational model-based analysis of memory-related processes with high density genetic information derived from a genome-wide study in healthy young adults. After identifying the best-fitting model for a verbal memory task and estimating the best-fitting individual cognitive parameters, we found a common variant in the gene encoding the brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1-associated protein 2 (BAIAP2) that was related to the model parameter reflecting modulation of verbal memory strength by negative valence. We also observed an association between the same genetic variant and a similar emotional modulation phenotype in a different population performing a picture memory task. Furthermore, using functional neuroimaging we found robust genotype-dependent differences in activity of the parahippocampal cortex that were specifically related to successful memory encoding of negative versus neutral information. Finally, we analyzed cortical gene expression data of 193 deceased subjects and detected significant BAIAP2 genotype-dependent differences in BAIAP2 mRNA levels. Our findings suggest that model-based dissociation of specific cognitive parameters can improve the understanding of genetic underpinnings of human learning and memory.

  3. Do skeletal-related events predict overall survival in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, L E; De Hoedt, A M; Aronson, W J; Kane, C J; Amling, C L; Cooperberg, M R; Terris, M K; Divers, C H; Valderrama, A; Freedland, S J

    2016-12-01

    Skeletal-related events (SREs) including pathologic fracture, spinal cord compression, radiation to bone and surgery to bone, are common in men with bone metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Men with mCRPC are at high risk of death. Whether SREs predict mortality is unclear. We tested the association between SREs and overall survival (OS) in a multiethnic cohort with bone mCRPC, controlling for key covariates unavailable in claims data such as bone pain, number of bone metastases and PSA doubling time (PSADT). We collected data on 233 men diagnosed with nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) in 2000-2013 at two Veterans Affairs hospitals who later progressed to bone metastases. First occurrence of SRE and OS were collected from the medical records. Cox models were used to test the association between SRE and OS, treating SRE as a time-dependent variable. We adjusted for age, year, race, treatment center, biopsy Gleason, primary treatment to the prostate, PSA, PSADT, months from androgen deprivation therapy to CRPC, months from CRPC to metastasis and number of bone metastases at initial bone metastasis diagnosis. In a secondary analysis, we also adjusted for bone pain. During follow-up, 88 (38%) patients had an SRE and 198 (85%) died. After adjusting for risk factors, SRE was associated with increased mortality (hazard ratio (HR)=1.67; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.22-2.30; P=0.001). When bone pain was added to the model, the association of SREs and OS was attenuated, but remained significant (HR=1.42; 95% CI 1.01-1.99; P=0.042). SREs are associated with increased mortality in men with bone mCRPC. Further studies on the impact of preventing SREs to increase survival are warranted.

  4. Betulinic acid, a bioactive pentacyclic triterpenoid, inhibits skeletal-related events induced by breast cancer bone metastases and treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Se Young; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Ki Rim; Lee, Sun Kyoung; Lee, Chang Ki; Park, Kwang-Kyun, E-mail: biochelab@yuhs.ac; Chung, Won-Yoon, E-mail: wychung@yuhs.ac

    2014-03-01

    Many breast cancer patients experience bone metastases and suffer skeletal complications. The present study provides evidence on the protective and therapeutic potential of betulinic acid on cancer-associated bone diseases. Betulinic acid is a naturally occurring triterpenoid with the beneficial activity to limit the progression and severity of cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis, and obesity. We first investigated its effect on breast cancer cells, osteoblastic cells, and osteoclasts in the vicious cycle of osteolytic bone metastasis. Betulinic acid reduced cell viability and the production of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), a major osteolytic factor, in MDA-MB-231 human metastatic breast cancer cells stimulated with or without tumor growth factor-β. Betulinic acid blocked an increase in the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin ratio by downregulating RANKL protein expression in PTHrP-treated human osteoblastic cells. In addition, betulinic acid inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in murine bone marrow macrophages and decreased the production of resorbed area in plates with a bone biomimetic synthetic surface by suppressing the secretion of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, and cathepsin K in RANKL-induced osteoclasts. Furthermore, oral administration of betulinic acid inhibited bone loss in mice intra-tibially inoculated with breast cancer cells and in ovariectomized mice causing estrogen deprivation, as supported by the restored bone morphometric parameters and serum bone turnover markers. Taken together, these findings suggest that betulinic acid may have the potential to prevent bone loss in patients with bone metastases and cancer treatment-induced estrogen deficiency. - Highlights: • Betulinic acid reduced PTHrP production in human metastatic breast cancer cells. • Betulinic acid blocked RANKL/OPG ratio in PTHrP-stimulated human osteoblastic cells. • Betulinic

  5. Betulinic acid, a bioactive pentacyclic triterpenoid, inhibits skeletal-related events induced by breast cancer bone metastases and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Se Young; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Ki Rim; Lee, Sun Kyoung; Lee, Chang Ki; Park, Kwang-Kyun; Chung, Won-Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Many breast cancer patients experience bone metastases and suffer skeletal complications. The present study provides evidence on the protective and therapeutic potential of betulinic acid on cancer-associated bone diseases. Betulinic acid is a naturally occurring triterpenoid with the beneficial activity to limit the progression and severity of cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis, and obesity. We first investigated its effect on breast cancer cells, osteoblastic cells, and osteoclasts in the vicious cycle of osteolytic bone metastasis. Betulinic acid reduced cell viability and the production of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), a major osteolytic factor, in MDA-MB-231 human metastatic breast cancer cells stimulated with or without tumor growth factor-β. Betulinic acid blocked an increase in the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin ratio by downregulating RANKL protein expression in PTHrP-treated human osteoblastic cells. In addition, betulinic acid inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in murine bone marrow macrophages and decreased the production of resorbed area in plates with a bone biomimetic synthetic surface by suppressing the secretion of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, and cathepsin K in RANKL-induced osteoclasts. Furthermore, oral administration of betulinic acid inhibited bone loss in mice intra-tibially inoculated with breast cancer cells and in ovariectomized mice causing estrogen deprivation, as supported by the restored bone morphometric parameters and serum bone turnover markers. Taken together, these findings suggest that betulinic acid may have the potential to prevent bone loss in patients with bone metastases and cancer treatment-induced estrogen deficiency. - Highlights: • Betulinic acid reduced PTHrP production in human metastatic breast cancer cells. • Betulinic acid blocked RANKL/OPG ratio in PTHrP-stimulated human osteoblastic cells. • Betulinic

  6. Behaviour of reinforced concrete beams with confined concrete related to ultimate bending and shear strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Horng Hean; Al-Sanjery, Kousay; Chiang, Jeffrey Choong Luin

    2017-03-01

    This research is to investigate the behaviour of over-balanced High Strength Reinforced Concrete Beams with the compression zone confined with spiral / helical steel reinforcements. The study covered beam behaviour with respect to flexural strength, shear strength, deflection and cracking related to confined concrete. Six 200mm (width) X 300mm (depth) X 3000mm (length) Reinforced Concrete (RC) Beams, the first three beams incorporating steel ratio of 1.42ρb and the remaining 1.64ρb were tested under a four point static load test. The confinement of the concrete was carried out using spiral reinforcements of diameter 6mm and yield stress of 406N/mm2 with pitches of 50mm and 100mm. Measurements of deflection, cracking, and strains on both main reinforcements and concrete of the beams were taken. At the same level of stress, beams with confined concrete strained less than control beams without confinement for both tensile strain at the main steel reinforcement and compressive strain across the compression zone of concrete. Deflections of beams with helical confinement were less than the control beams. All beams failed in shear / flexural mode and gave fair warning against failure, more specifically beams with 1.42ρb, which is not normally associated with shear-type failure of beams which are over reinforced. The early shear failure prevented the beams from achieving its full utilisation of the ultimate strength. It is recommended that for over-reinforced confined concrete beams, the shear strength of beams should be based on using the diagonal compressive strut angle (θ) of more than 22 degrees recommended in Eurocode 2 (EC2), hence giving the beam higher safety factor against shear failure. All samples exhibited flexure and shear cracks in a manner which gave a good warning against failure. The ratio of the failure load to the theoretical ultimate load for shear ranged between 0.98 and 1.25 while the ratio of the failure load to the ultimate flexural load ranged

  7. Skeletal muscle transcriptome profiles related to different training intensities and detraining in Standardbred horses: A search for overtraining biomarkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, te M.F.W.; Wijnberg, I.D.; Hoekman, A.J.W.; Graaf-Roelfsema, de E.; Keizer, H.; Breda, van E.; Ducro, B.J.; Kolk, van der J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Training horses improves athletic capabilities by inducing skeletal muscle-specific and systemic adaptations. However, rest is required to recover from exercise or else overtraining may occur and affect performance and welfare. Biomarkers would be useful to identify early chronic overtraining in

  8. The Statistical Analysis of Relation between Compressive and Tensile/Flexural Strength of High Performance Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kępniak M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the tensile and flexural strength of HPC (high performance concrete. The aim of the paper is to analyse the efficiency of models proposed in different codes. In particular, three design procedures from: the ACI 318 [1], Eurocode 2 [2] and the Model Code 2010 [3] are considered. The associations between design tensile strength of concrete obtained from these three codes and compressive strength are compared with experimental results of tensile strength and flexural strength by statistical tools. Experimental results of tensile strength were obtained in the splitting test. Based on this comparison, conclusions are drawn according to the fit between the design methods and the test data. The comparison shows that tensile strength and flexural strength of HPC depend on more influential factors and not only compressive strength.

  9. The Relative Reinforcing Strength of Methamphetamine and d-Amphetamine in Monkeys Self-Administering Cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lile, Joshua A.; Charnigo, Richard J.; Nader, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological data indicate that rates of methamphetamine misuse surpass those of d-amphetamine, but self-administration research in animals and humans has not typically demonstrated differences in their reinforcing effects. The present study used a within-session, exponentially-increasing progressive-ratio schedule and extended-access conditions to assess the relative reinforcing strength of d-amphetamine and methamphetamine in rhesus monkeys (n=5) trained to self-administer cocaine. A range of doses of methamphetamine (0.003–0.1 mg/kg/injection), d-amphetamine (0.003–0.1 mg/kg/injection) and cocaine (0.003–0.3 mg/kg/injection) was tested to capture the ascending and descending limbs of the dose-effect functions. Each drug functioned as a reinforcer, but the peak number of self-administered d-amphetamine injections was significantly lower compared to methamphetamine and cocaine; the peak number of self-administered injections of cocaine and methamphetamine did not differ. Although differences in availability and other social factors likely impact relative rates of abuse, the present data suggest that the greater reinforcing strength of methamphetamine contributes to its increased use compared to d-amphetamine. PMID:23907377

  10. Effect of physical training on insulin secretion and action in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue of first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela, Flemming; Stallknecht, Bente Merete

    2010-01-01

    in CON but not in FDR, whereas glucose-mediated GU increased (P groups. Adipose tissue GU was not affected by training, but it was higher (abdominal, P Training increased skeletal muscle lipolysis (P ...- to sevenfold. We conclude that insulin-secretory capacity is lower in FDR than in CON and that there is dissociation between training-induced changes in insulin secretion and insulin-mediated GU. Maximal GU rates are similar between groups and increases with physical training.......Physical training affects insulin secretion and action, but there is a paucity of data on the direct effects in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue and on the effect of training in first-degree relatives (FDR) of patients with type 2 diabetes. We studied insulin action at the whole body level...

  11. Fructose overfeeding in first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients impacts energy metabolism and mitochondrial functions in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyssel, Kevin; Meugnier, Emmanuelle; Lê, Kim-Anne; Durand, Christine; Disse, Emmanuel; Blond, Emilie; Pays, Laurent; Nataf, Serge; Brozek, John; Vidal, Hubert; Tappy, Luc; Laville, Martine

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effects of a high-fructose diet (HFrD) on skeletal muscle transcriptomic response in healthy offspring of patients with type 2 diabetes, a subgroup of individuals prone to metabolic disorders. Ten healthy normal weight first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients were submitted to a HFrD (+3.5 g fructose/kg fat-free mass per day) during 7 days. A global transcriptomic analysis was performed on skeletal muscle biopsies combined with in vitro experiments using primary myotubes. Transcriptomic analysis highlighted profound effects on fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial pathways supporting the whole-body metabolic shift with the preferential use of carbohydrates instead of lipids. Bioinformatics tools pointed out possible transcription factors orchestrating this genomic regulation, such as PPARα and NR4A2. In vitro experiments in human myotubes suggested an indirect action of fructose in skeletal muscle, which seemed to be independent from lactate, uric acid, or nitric oxide. This study shows therefore that a large cluster of genes related to energy metabolism, mitochondrial function, and lipid oxidation was downregulated after 7 days of HFrD, thus supporting the concept that overconsumption of fructose-containing foods could contribute to metabolic deterioration in humans. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Characterization of the liver kinase B1-mouse protein-25 -Ste-20-related adaptor protein complex in adult mouse skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cody D; Compton, Richard A; Bowler, Joshua S; Kemp, Jonathan T; Sudweeks, Sterling N; Thomson, David M; Winder, William W

    2011-12-01

    In liver, the AMP-activated protein kinase kinase (AMPKK) complex was identified as the association of liver kinase B1 (LKB1), mouse protein 25 (MO25α/β), and Ste-20-related adaptor protein (STRADα/β); however, this complex has yet to be characterized in skeletal muscle. We demonstrate the expression of the LKB1-MO25-STRAD complex in skeletal muscle, confirm the absence of mRNA splice variants, and report the relative mRNA expression levels of these proteins in control and muscle-specific LKB1 knockout (LKB1(-/-)) mouse muscle. LKB1 detection in untreated control and LKB1(-/-) muscle lysates revealed two protein bands (50 and 60 kDa), although only the heavier band was diminished in LKB1(-/-) samples [55 ± 2.5 and 13 ± 1.5 arbitrary units (AU) in control and LKB1(-/-), respectively, P protein liquid chromatography. Mass spectrometry confirmed LKB1 protein detection in the 60-kDa protein band, while none was detected in the 50-kDa band. Coimmunoprecipitation assays demonstrated LKB1-MO25-STRAD complex formation. Quantitative PCR revealed significantly reduced LKB1, MO25α, and STRADβ mRNA in LKB1(-/-) muscle. These findings demonstrate that the LKB1-MO25-STRAD complex is the principal AMPKK in skeletal muscle.

  13. Situational Strength Cues from Social Sources at Work: Relative Importance and Mediated Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaybek, Balca; Dalal, Reeshad S; Sheng, Zitong; Morris, Alexander G; Tomassetti, Alan J; Holland, Samantha J

    2017-01-01

    Situational strength is considered one of the most important situational forces at work because it can attenuate the personality-performance relationship. Although organizational scholars have studied the consequences of situational strength, they have paid little attention to its antecedents. To address this gap, the current study focused on situational strength cues from different social sources as antecedents of overall situational strength at work. Specifically, we examined how employees combine situational strength cues emanating from three social sources (i.e., coworkers, the immediate supervisor, and top management). Based on field theory, we hypothesized that the effect of situational strength from coworkers and immediate supervisors (i.e., proximal sources of situational strength) on employees' perceptions of overall situational strength on the job would be greater than the effect of situational strength from the top management (i.e., the distal source of situational strength). We also hypothesized that the effect of situational strength from the distal source would be mediated by the effects of situational strength from the proximal sources. Data from 363 full-time employees were collected at two time points with a cross-lagged panel design. The former hypothesis was supported for one of the two situational strength facets studied. The latter hypothesis was fully supported.

  14. Situational Strength Cues from Social Sources at Work: Relative Importance and Mediated Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balca Alaybek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Situational strength is considered one of the most important situational forces at work because it can attenuate the personality–performance relationship. Although organizational scholars have studied the consequences of situational strength, they have paid little attention to its antecedents. To address this gap, the current study focused on situational strength cues from different social sources as antecedents of overall situational strength at work. Specifically, we examined how employees combine situational strength cues emanating from three social sources (i.e., coworkers, the immediate supervisor, and top management. Based on field theory, we hypothesized that the effect of situational strength from coworkers and immediate supervisors (i.e., proximal sources of situational strength on employees' perceptions of overall situational strength on the job would be greater than the effect of situational strength from the top management (i.e., the distal source of situational strength. We also hypothesized that the effect of situational strength from the distal source would be mediated by the effects of situational strength from the proximal sources. Data from 363 full-time employees were collected at two time points with a cross-lagged panel design. The former hypothesis was supported for one of the two situational strength facets studied. The latter hypothesis was fully supported.

  15. Elderly women with metabolic syndrome present higher cardiovascular risk and lower relative muscle strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Darlan Lopes; Tibana, Ramires Alsamir; Teixeira, Tatiane Gomes; Vieira, Denis César Leite; Tarja, Vitor; Nascimento, Dahan da Cunha; Silva, Alessandro de Oliveira [Universidade Católica de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Funghetto, Silvana Schwerz [Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Coura, Maritza Alves de Sousa; Valduga, Renato [Universidade Católica de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Karnikowski, Margô Gomes de Oliveira [Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Prestes, Jonato [Universidade Católica de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    To compare the metabolic, anthropometric, arterial blood pressure, and muscle strength parameters of elderly women with and without metabolic syndrome. A case-control study with 27 (67.3±4.8 years of age, 31.0±5.0kg/m{sup 2}) elderly women with metabolic syndrome and 33 (68.8±5.6 years of age, 27.2±5.3kg/m{sup 2}) sedentary control elderly women. They were submitted to an evaluation of body composition by means of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and muscle strength testing with 10 maximal repetitions of knee extension. When compared to the elderly women without metabolic syndrome, those with the metabolic syndrome had higher levels for body mass (72.2±13.5 versus 63.4±14.6kg, p=0.03), body mass index (31.0±5.0 versus 27.2±5.3kg/m{sup 2,} p=0.007), fat mass (30.9±9.9 versus 24.4±8.5kg, p=0.01), systolic arterial pressure (125.1±8.2 versus 119.3±8.7mmHg, p=0.01), diastolic arterial pressure (75.5±6.9 versus 71.4±6.7mmHg, p=0.03), mean arterial pressure (92.5±6.2 versus 87.1±6.7mmHg, p=0.004), blood glucose (103.8±19.1 versus 91.1±5.9mg/dL, p=0.001), triglycerides (187.1±70.2 versus 116.3±36.7mg/dL, p=0.001), and creatine kinase (122.6±58.6 versus 89.8±32.5U/L, p=0.01); lower levels were found for fat-free mass (55.9±5.8 versus 59.3±6.7%; p=0.05), HDL-C (40.7±5.0 versus 50.5±10.1mg/dL, p=0.001), and relative muscle strength (0.53±0.14 versus 0.62±0.12, p=0.01). Elderly women with metabolic syndrome have a higher cardiovascular risk and less relative muscle strength when compared to those without metabolic syndrome. Relative muscle strength may be related to the cardiovascularr risk factors of the metabolic syndrome.

  16. Elderly women with metabolic syndrome present higher cardiovascular risk and lower relative muscle strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, Darlan Lopes; Tibana, Ramires Alsamir; Teixeira, Tatiane Gomes; Vieira, Denis César Leite; Tarja, Vitor; Nascimento, Dahan da Cunha; Silva, Alessandro de Oliveira; Funghetto, Silvana Schwerz; Coura, Maritza Alves de Sousa; Valduga, Renato; Karnikowski, Margô Gomes de Oliveira; Prestes, Jonato

    2013-01-01

    To compare the metabolic, anthropometric, arterial blood pressure, and muscle strength parameters of elderly women with and without metabolic syndrome. A case-control study with 27 (67.3±4.8 years of age, 31.0±5.0kg/m 2 ) elderly women with metabolic syndrome and 33 (68.8±5.6 years of age, 27.2±5.3kg/m 2 ) sedentary control elderly women. They were submitted to an evaluation of body composition by means of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and muscle strength testing with 10 maximal repetitions of knee extension. When compared to the elderly women without metabolic syndrome, those with the metabolic syndrome had higher levels for body mass (72.2±13.5 versus 63.4±14.6kg, p=0.03), body mass index (31.0±5.0 versus 27.2±5.3kg/m 2, p=0.007), fat mass (30.9±9.9 versus 24.4±8.5kg, p=0.01), systolic arterial pressure (125.1±8.2 versus 119.3±8.7mmHg, p=0.01), diastolic arterial pressure (75.5±6.9 versus 71.4±6.7mmHg, p=0.03), mean arterial pressure (92.5±6.2 versus 87.1±6.7mmHg, p=0.004), blood glucose (103.8±19.1 versus 91.1±5.9mg/dL, p=0.001), triglycerides (187.1±70.2 versus 116.3±36.7mg/dL, p=0.001), and creatine kinase (122.6±58.6 versus 89.8±32.5U/L, p=0.01); lower levels were found for fat-free mass (55.9±5.8 versus 59.3±6.7%; p=0.05), HDL-C (40.7±5.0 versus 50.5±10.1mg/dL, p=0.001), and relative muscle strength (0.53±0.14 versus 0.62±0.12, p=0.01). Elderly women with metabolic syndrome have a higher cardiovascular risk and less relative muscle strength when compared to those without metabolic syndrome. Relative muscle strength may be related to the cardiovascularr risk factors of the metabolic syndrome

  17. Health-related quality of life, handgrip strength and falls during detraining in elderly habitual exercisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esain, Izaro; Rodriguez-Larrad, Ana; Bidaurrazaga-Letona, Iraia; Gil, Susana María

    2017-11-21

    The effects of regular exercise on physical functioning and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) have been thoroughly studied. In contrast, little is known about the changes which occur following cessation of activity (detraining). Here, we have investigated the effect of a 3 month detraining period on HRQOL and on handgrip strength in elderly people who had regularly exercised, and examined the association of these variables with falls. Thirty-eight women and 11 men (mean age, 75.5±5.7 years) took part in a supervised physical exercise program for 9 months, followed by a 3 month detraining period. Participants completed the SF-36 HRQOL questionnaire at the beginning of detraining (baseline) and 3 months later. Handgrip strength and number of falls were also recorded. Participants had been exercising for 12.1±8.7 years. After the detraining period, we found a significant (p detraining period, 18.4% participants had a fall incident. HRQOL declined in both fallers and non-fallers during detraining. Interestingly, fallers already had at baseline significantly lower values in physical functioning (p detraining period, particularly in women. In contrast, strength of the upper limb was not affected by the detraining. The prior lower HRQOL values of those who will subsequently fall suggest that this criterion should be studied as a candidate risk factor for falls. Efforts should be made to encourage the elderly to continue with exercise activities and/or to shorten holiday break periods, in order to maintain their quality of life. The protocol was registered as a clinical trial in the ANZCTR (trial ID: ACTRN12617000716369 ).

  18. Age related differences of selected Hatha yoga practices on anthropometric characteristics, muscular strength and flexibility of healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Halder

    2015-01-01

    Summary and Conclusion: Hatha yoga can improve anthropometric characteristics, muscular strength and flexibility among volunteers of different age group and can also be helpful in preventing and attenuating age related deterioration of these parameters.

  19. Measuring the relative hydrogen-bonding strengths of alcohols in aprotic organic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessensohn, Malcolm E; Lee, Melvyn; Hirao, Hajime; Webster, Richard D

    2015-01-12

    Voltammetric experiments with 9,10-anthraquinone and 1,4-benzoquinone performed under controlled moisture conditions indicate that the hydrogen-bond strengths of alcohols in aprotic organic solvents can be differentiated by the electrochemical parameter ΔEp (red) =|Ep (red(1)) -Ep (red(2)) |, which is the potential separation between the two one-electron reduction processes. This electrochemical parameter is inversely related to the strength of the interactions and can be used to differentiate between primary, secondary, tertiary alcohols, and even diols, as it is sensitive to both their steric and electronic properties. The results are highly reproducible across two solvents with substantially different hydrogen-bonding properties (CH3 CN and CH2 Cl2 ) and are supported by density functional theory calculations. This indicates that the numerous solvent-alcohol interactions are less significant than the quinone-alcohol hydrogen-bonding interactions. The utility of ΔEp (red) was illustrated by comparisons between 1) 3,3,3-trifluoro-n-propanol and 1,3-difluoroisopropanol and 2) ethylene glycol and 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Ciliary neurotrophic factor upregulates follistatin and Pak1, causes overexpression of muscle differentiation related genes and downregulation of established atrophy mediators in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsompanidis, Alexandros; Vafiadaki, Elizabeth; Blüher, Susann; Kalozoumi, Georgia; Sanoudou, Despina; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2016-06-01

    The Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor (CNTF) is a pluripotent cytokine with anorexigenic actions in the hypothalamus that improves insulin sensitivity, increases energy expenditure and induces weight loss. Since CNTF also has an established myotrophic role, we sought to examine whether skeletal muscle contributes to the CNTF-induced metabolic improvement and identify the molecular mechanisms mediating these effects. We used a mouse model of diet-induced obesity, to which high or low CNTF doses were administered for 7days. Whole transcriptome expression levels were analyzed in dissected soleus muscles using microarrays and data were then confirmed using qRT-PCR. We demonstrate that CNTF administration significantly downregulates leptin, while it upregulates follistatin and Pak1; a molecule associated with insulin sensitization in skeletal muscle. A significant overexpression of muscle differentiation related genes and downregulation of established atrophy mediators was observed. The overall gene expression changes suggest an indirect, beneficial effect of CNTF on metabolism, energy expenditure and insulin sensitivity, exerted by the pronounced stimulation of muscle growth, with similarities to the described effect of follistatin and the activation of the Akt pathway in skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Working out of health related power lifting training program for first year students with muscular skeletal apparatus affections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang San Zhen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: substantiation and working out of program for health improvement of first year students with muscular skeletal apparatus affections by power lifting means. Material: in experiment, which lasted one year, 24 first year students with muscular skeletal apparatus affections participated (two groups, 12 persons in each. The students’ age was 18-20 years old. Results: optimal correlation of specific and non-specific loads - 60%:40% was found. The worked out complex of exercises for training of bench press barbell technique includes the following: special warming up exercises, exercises on special simulators and exercises with weights. As general physical training it is recommended to use complex of commonly accepted exercises. Conclusions: application of the worked out program ensures formation of steady interest to physical exercises’ practicing, strengthening of health, replenishment of motor skills’ base, training of motor qualities and functional fitness. Besides, it facilitates more effective students’ social adaptation in collective.

  2. Defective collagen VI ?6 chain expression in the skeletal muscle of patients with collagen VI-related myopathies

    OpenAIRE

    Tagliavini, F.; Pellegrini, C.; Sardone, F.; Squarzoni, S.; Paulsson, M.; Wagener, R.; Gualandi, F.; Trabanelli, C.; Ferlini, A.; Merlini, L.; Santi, S.; Maraldi, N.M.; Faldini, C.; Sabatelli, P.

    2014-01-01

    Collagen VI is a non-fibrillar collagen present in the extracellular matrix (ECM) as a complex polymer; the mainly expressed form is composed of ?1, ?2 and ?3 chains; mutations in genes encoding these chains cause myopathies known as Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD), Bethlem myopathy (BM) and myosclerosis myopathy (MM). The collagen VI ?6 chain is a recently identified component of the ECM of the human skeletal muscle. Here we report that the ?6 chain was dramatically reduced in s...

  3. TRPV4 related skeletal dysplasias: a phenotypic spectrum highlighted byclinical, radiographic, and molecular studies in 21 new families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sillence David

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The TRPV4 gene encodes a calcium-permeable ion-channel that is widely expressed, responds to many different stimuli and participates in an extraordinarily wide range of physiologic processes. Autosomal dominant brachyolmia, spondylometaphyseal dysplasia Kozlowski type (SMDK and metatropic dysplasia (MD are currently considered three distinct skeletal dysplasias with some shared clinical features, including short stature, platyspondyly, and progressive scoliosis. Recently, TRPV4 mutations have been found in patients diagnosed with these skeletal phenotypes. Methods and Results We critically analysed the clinical and radiographic data on 26 subjects from 21 families, all of whom had a clinical diagnosis of one of the conditions described above: 15 with MD; 9 with SMDK; and 2 with brachyolmia. We sequenced TRPV4 and identified 9 different mutations in 22 patients, 4 previously described, and 5 novel. There were 4 mutation-negative cases: one with MD and one with SMDK, both displaying atypical clinical and radiographic features for these diagnoses; and two with brachyolmia, who had isolated spine changes and no metaphyseal involvement. Conclusions Our data suggest the TRPV4 skeletal dysplasias represent a continuum of severity with areas of phenotypic overlap, even within the same family. We propose that AD brachyolmia lies at the mildest end of this spectrum and, since all cases described with this diagnosis and TRPV4 mutations display metaphyseal changes, we suggest that it is not a distinct entity but represents the mildest phenotypic expression of SMDK.

  4. Age-related changes in skeletal muscle composition: A pilot nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy study in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, Anatoly P; Mannina, Luisa; Costanzo, Manuela; Cisterna, Barbara; Malatesta, Manuela; Zancanaro, Carlo

    2017-06-01

    The composition of skeletal muscle was investigated in the quadriceps and gastrocnemius muscle of 13-month-old (n=15) and 23-month-old (n=19) mice by means of high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Muscle specimens were dissected out, frozen in liquid nitrogen and extracted in chloroform/methanol, and proton NMR spectra of the resulting aqueous and organic fractions were obtained at 600MHz. Several metabolites were unambiguously identified and quantified. Multivariate ANOVA (factor: age, muscle, age×muscle) showed a significant main effect of age (P=0.031) on the amount of muscle metabolites, suggesting that the aging process affects the composition of skeletal muscle. Univariate tests showed significant differences for lactate, acetate, taurine, and uridine in 13- and 23-month-old mice. A trend for the effect of muscle (quadriceps vs. gastrocnemius; P=0.128) was also found. No significant muscle x age interaction was present. When the same data were used in principal component analysis, the first two principal components separated muscles (quadriceps and gastrocnemius) and ages (13- and 23-month-old), explaining 66.7% of total variance. The results of this pilot study show that high-resolution NMR spectroscopy is able to detect age-associated changes in skeletal muscle metabolites, thereby paving the way to future detailed metabolomics investigation in sarcopenia of aging. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Targeting relational aggression in veterans: the Strength at Home Friends and Family intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Maureen A; Gallagher, Matthew W; Gilbert, Karina Stavitsky; Creech, Suzannah K; DeCandia, Carmela J; Beach, Corey A; Taft, Casey T

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of Strength at Home Friends and Families (SAH-F), a dyadic group intervention to prevent relational aggression and its negative consequences, in a community-based sample of service members/veterans and significant others who reported relational difficulties. Participants included 70 veterans and their loved ones. Recruitment was conducted from October 2010 through March 2012. Participants completed an initial assessment that included measures of relational aggression and functioning, depressive symptoms, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants were enrolled in the 10-week SAH-F targeting social information-processing mechanisms hypothesized to underlie the relationship between trauma and aggression and were reassessed at program completion and 3 months after intervention. Significant reductions in psychological aggression were seen both at program completion and at 3-month follow-up for both veterans (standardized mean gain effect size [ESsg] = -0.45, P aggression remained low after pretreatment and did not increase. Relationship adjustment reported by significant others, but not veterans, indicated a significant improvement from pretreatment to program completion (ESsg = 0.33, P relational aggression in military member/significant other dyads and enhancing relationship quality and mental health. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  6. Cortical and trabecular morphology is altered in the limb bones of mice artificially selected for faster skeletal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Saira; Leussink, Shannon; Sparrow, Leah M; Marchini, Marta; Britz, Hayley M; Manske, Sarah L; Rolian, Campbell

    2017-09-05

    Bone strength is influenced by mineral density and macro- and microstructure. Research into factors that contribute to bone morphology and strength has focused on genetic, environmental and morphological factors (e.g., body mass index), but little is known regarding the impact of rates of skeletal elongation on adult skeletal morphology and strength. Using micro-CT, we examined the impact of rates of skeletal elongation on bone cortical and trabecular morphology, and on rates of estrogen-dependent bone loss in the tibia in CD-1 mice, and in mice with accelerated skeletal growth (Longshanks). Groups of adult mice (n = 7/group) were subjected to ovariectomy or sham surgeries, scanned for 6 weeks, and indices of bone morphology were collected. Results show that Longshanks mice had significantly less trabecular bone at skeletal maturity, characterized by fewer, thinner trabeculae, and furthermore lost trabecular bone more slowly in response to ovariectomy. Artificial selection for rapid skeletal growth relative to somatic growth thus had a significant impact on trabecular bone morphology in Longshanks. Our data do not unequivocally demonstrate a causal relationship between rapid bone growth and reduced trabecular bone quality, but suggest that rapid linear bone growth may influence the risk of cancellous bone fragility.

  7. Ursolic acid increases skeletal muscle and brown fat and decreases diet-induced obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven D Kunkel

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle Akt activity stimulates muscle growth and imparts resistance to obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease. We recently found that ursolic acid increases skeletal muscle Akt activity and stimulates muscle growth in non-obese mice. Here, we tested the hypothesis that ursolic acid might increase skeletal muscle Akt activity in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. We studied mice that consumed a high fat diet lacking or containing ursolic acid. In skeletal muscle, ursolic acid increased Akt activity, as well as downstream mRNAs that promote glucose utilization (hexokinase-II, blood vessel recruitment (Vegfa and autocrine/paracrine IGF-I signaling (Igf1. As a result, ursolic acid increased skeletal muscle mass, fast and slow muscle fiber size, grip strength and exercise capacity. Interestingly, ursolic acid also increased brown fat, a tissue that shares developmental origins with skeletal muscle. Consistent with increased skeletal muscle and brown fat, ursolic acid increased energy expenditure, leading to reduced obesity, improved glucose tolerance and decreased hepatic steatosis. These data support a model in which ursolic acid reduces obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease by increasing skeletal muscle and brown fat, and suggest ursolic acid as a potential therapeutic approach for obesity and obesity-related illness.

  8. Relation between systemic inflammatory markers, peripheral muscle mass, and strength in limb muscles in stable COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrari R

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Renata Ferrari,1 Laura MO Caram,1 Marcia M Faganello,2 Fernanda F Sanchez,3 Suzana E Tanni,1 Irma Godoy1 1Botucatu Medical School, Department of Internal Medicine, Pneumology Area, Botucatu, São Paulo, 2Paulista State University, Department of Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy, Marilia, São Paulo, 3Federal University of Amazonas, Department of Physiotherapy, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between systemic inflammatory mediators and peripheral muscle mass and strength in COPD patients. Fifty-five patients (69% male; age: 64±9 years with mild/very severe COPD (defined as forced expiratory volume in the first second [FEV1] =54%±23% were evaluated. We evaluated serum concentrations of IL-8, CRP, and TNF-α. Peripheral muscle mass was evaluated by computerized tomography (CT; midthigh cross-sectional muscle area (MTCSA and midarm cross-sectional muscle area (MACSA were obtained. Quadriceps, triceps, and biceps strength were assessed through the determination of the one-repetition maximum. The multiple regression results, adjusted for age, sex, and FEV1%, showed positive significant association between MTCSA and leg extension (0.35 [0.16, 0.55]; P=0.001, between MACSA and triceps pulley (0.45 [0.31, 0.58]; P=0.001, and between MACSA and biceps curl (0.34 [0.22, 0.47]; P=0.001. Plasma TNF-α was negatively associated with leg extension (-3.09 [-5.99, -0.18]; P=0.04 and triceps pulley (-1.31 [-2.35, -0.28]; P=0.01, while plasma CRP presented negative association with biceps curl (-0.06 [-0.11, -0.01]; P=0.02. Our results showed negative association between peripheral muscle mass (evaluated by CT and muscle strength and that systemic inflammation has a negative influence in the strength of specific groups of muscles in individuals with stable COPD. This is the first study showing association between systemic inflammatory markers and strength in upper limb muscles. Keywords

  9. Age-related changes in the features of porcine adult stem cells isolated from adipose tissue and skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perruchot, Marie-Hélène; Lefaucheur, Louis; Barreau, Corinne; Casteilla, Louis; Louveau, Isabelle

    2013-10-01

    A better understanding of the control of body fat distribution and muscle development is of the upmost importance for both human and animal physiology. This requires a better knowledge of the features and physiology of adult stem cells in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Thus the objective of the current study was to determine the type and proportion of these cells in growing and adult pigs. The different cell subsets of stromal vascular cells isolated from these tissues were characterized by flow cytometry using cell surface markers (CD11b, CD14, CD31, CD34, CD45, CD56, and CD90). Adipose and muscle cells were predominantly positive for the CD34, CD56, and CD90 markers. The proportion of positive cells changed with age especially in intermuscular adipose tissue and skeletal muscle where the percentage of CD90(+) cells markedly increased in adult animals. Further analysis using coimmunostaining indicates that eight populations with proportions ranging from 12 to 30% were identified in at least one tissue at 7 days of age, i.e., CD90(+)/CD34(+), CD90(+)/CD34(-), CD90(+)/CD56(+), CD90(+)/CD56(-), CD90(-)/CD56(+), CD56(+)/CD34(+), CD56(+)/CD34(-), and CD56(-)/CD34(+). Adipose tissues appeared to be a less heterogeneous tissue than skeletal muscle with two main populations (CD90(+)/CD34(-) and CD90(+)/CD56(-)) compared with five or more in muscle during the studied period. In culture, cells from adipose tissue and muscle differentiated into mature adipocytes in adipogenic medium. In myogenic conditions, only cells from muscle could form mature myofibers. Further studies are now needed to better understand the plasticity of those cell populations throughout life.

  10. Virtues and Character Strengths Related to Approach Coping Strategies of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustems-Carnicer, Josep; Calderón, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study are: (1) to describe virtues, character strengths and coping strategies of college students; (2) to analyze the relationship between virtues, character strengths and coping strategies; and (3) to evaluate the predictive relationship between virtues and coping strategies. Ninety-one college students (98% females), aged…

  11. Enhanced skeletal muscle ribosome biogenesis, yet attenuated mTORC1 and ribosome biogenesis-related signalling, following short-term concurrent versus single-mode resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Jackson J; Bishop, David J; Bartlett, Jonathan D; Hanson, Erik D; Anderson, Mitchell J; Garnham, Andrew P; Stepto, Nigel K

    2018-01-12

    Combining endurance training with resistance training (RT) may attenuate skeletal muscle hypertrophic adaptation versus RT alone; however, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We investigated changes in markers of ribosome biogenesis, a process linked with skeletal muscle hypertrophy, following concurrent training versus RT alone. Twenty-three males underwent eight weeks of RT, either performed alone (RT group, n = 8), or combined with either high-intensity interval training (HIT+RT group, n = 8), or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT+RT group, n = 7). Muscle samples (vastus lateralis) were obtained before training, and immediately before, 1 h and 3 h after the final training session. Training-induced changes in basal expression of the 45S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) precursor (45S pre-rRNA), and 5.8S and 28S mature rRNAs, were greater with concurrent training versus RT. However, during the final training session, RT further increased both mTORC1 (p70S6K1 and rps6 phosphorylation) and 45S pre-rRNA transcription-related signalling (TIF-1A and UBF phosphorylation) versus concurrent training. These data suggest that when performed in a training-accustomed state, RT induces further increases mTORC1 and ribosome biogenesis-related signalling in human skeletal muscle versus concurrent training; however, changes in ribosome biogenesis markers were more favourable following a period of short-term concurrent training versus RT performed alone.

  12. 10 weeks of heavy strength training improves performance-related measurements in elite cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønnestad, Bent R; Hansen, Joar; Nygaard, Håvard

    2017-07-01

    Elite cyclists have often a limited period of time available during their short preparation phase to focus on development of maximal strength; therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of 10-week heavy strength training on lean lower-body mass, leg strength, determinants of cycling performance and cycling performance in elite cyclists. Twelve cyclists performed heavy strength training and normal endurance training (E&S) while 8 other cyclists performed normal endurance training only (E). Following the intervention period E&S had a larger increase in maximal isometric half squat, mean power output during a 30-s Wingate sprint (P strength training and the short period of only 10 weeks should make it executable even in the compressed training and competition schedule of elite cyclists.

  13. Inner strength in relation to perceived physical and mental health among the oldest old people with chronic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Aud; Hellzen, Ove; Ekker, Knut; Enmarker, Ingela

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine inner strength, defined as connectedness, firmness, flexibility, and creativity, and its relation to mental and physical health in a sample of the oldest old chronically ill women and men living at home. A sample of 79 older women and 41 men in the age range of 80-101 years old (mean = 87.5) participated in this study. Inner strength measured by Resilience Scale, Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC), Purpose in Life Test (PIL), and Self-Transcendence Test (STS) was viewed in relation to mental and physical health (SF-36 Health Survey). Experiencing connectedness, firmness, flexibility, and creativity were equal for women and men. SOC, PIL, and STS showed moderate inner strength. Medium and low resilience made the participants feel vulnerable. A significant correlation was observed between the variables for inner strength and mental health for women, men, and the total sample. STS was associated with mental and physical health for the total sample and for women. Although the oldest old women and men were vulnerable, they had inner strength. Encouraging participation using the inner strength of the oldest old can contribute to strengthen their experiences of independence, integrity, and enjoying life.

  14. The relative line strength and intensity of the N II 2143 doublet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucsela, Eric J.; Sharp, William E.

    1989-01-01

    The doublet emission from N II at 2139.7 A and 2143.6 A was observed by a 1.4-m scanning spectrometer with 3.1 A resolution in the daytime, high-altitude thermosphere during moderate levels of solar activity. The spectrometer viewed the earth's limb 5 deg below the local horizontal to give a nominal tangent height of 152 km. Both sub band heads of the nitric oxide gamma band system were resolved in the data at the resolution used. The emission features from N II are clearly evident on the short wavelength shoulder of the (1, 0) band. Synthetic profiles of the (1, 0) gamma band and the (0, 3) delta band of nitric oxide were fitted to the data using a chi-square analysis. These contributions were removed from the data leaving a residual emission, considered to be the N II doublet. A chi-square minimization of the data relative to a synthetic intensity profile was done. The minimum was for a line strength ratio between the 2139 A and 2143 A lines of 0.58 + or - 0.08. The mean solar EUV flux deduced from the intensity of the N II emission in this experiment is lower than other reported observations, consistent with a lower solar activity level.

  15. Criterion-related validity of the foot health status questionnaire regarding strength and plantar pressure measurements in elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I; Galan-Mercant, Alejandro; Martín-Borras, Maria Carmen; González-Sánchez, Manuel

    2012-12-01

    Criterion-related validity of a self-administered questionnaire listed as gold standard requires objective testing. The aim of this study was to analyze the Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ) using functional variable measures (dynamic plantar pressure and foot strength). A total of 22 elderly healthy participants (13 women and 9 men) were screened by interview and physical examination for foot or gait abnormalities. Foot strength, footprint pressure, and foot health status were measured. All the items of the FHSQ show significant correlation with functional variables, but general foot health shows the highest correlation with the 4 physical variables related to plantar pressure (R2 = 0.741), followed by foot pain (R2 = 0.652). A set of different, directly measured physical variables related to foot strength and plantar pressure significantly correlate with the FHSQ dimensions. Cross-sectional trial.

  16. Body composition of 80-years old men and women and its relation to muscle strength, physical activity and functional ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Agnes Nadelmann; Ovesen, L.; Schroll, M.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure body composition and analyse the relation to muscle strength, physical activity and functional ability in healthy, old subjects, and to relate the results to an optimal BMI level for the elderly. SETTING: Subjects aged 80 years living at home from the 1914-population...... proposed guidelines for the elderly of an optimal BMI interval of 24-29 kg/m2. We found relations between body composition, muscle strength, physical activity and functional ability....... in Glostrup, Denmark. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: 121 men and 113 women had their height and weight measured. Body fat mass and fat-free mass were assessed by bioelectrical impedance. Muscle strength was measured as handgrip, elbow flexion, knee extension, body flexion and body extension. Physical activity was self...

  17. The Relation between Degree and Strength in the Complex Network Derived from an Individual Stock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelin Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A method based on coarse-graining to construct a directed weighted complex network which models the transformation of the trading data of an individual stock is introduced. The degree (strength distribution of derived network follows a power-law. A moderated regression equation with interaction effects of average return and out-degree (in-degree on out-strength (in-strength is established. Moreover, we found that the differences of nodes affect the network’s structure and average return level impacts nodes’ eigenvector centrality and pagerank, significantly.

  18. Essentials of skeletal radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yochum, T.R.; Rowe, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    This book discusses the following topics of skeletal radiology: Positioning of patients for diagnostic radiology and normal anatomy; congenital malformations of skeleton; measurements in radiology; spondylolisthesis; metabolic and endocrine diseases of bone and their diagnostic aspects; image processing of vertebrae, skeleton, bone fractures evaluations and epidemiological and social aspects of some bone diseases. Various modalities as CT scanning, NMR imaging, ultrasonography and biomedical radiography are briefly discussed in relation to bone pathology.

  19. Early energy metabolism-related molecular events in skeletal muscle of diabetic rats: The effects of l-arginine and SOD mimic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancic, Ana; Filipovic, Milos; Ivanovic-Burmazovic, Ivana; Masovic, Sava; Jankovic, Aleksandra; Otasevic, Vesna; Korac, Aleksandra; Buzadzic, Biljana; Korac, Bato

    2017-06-25

    Considering the vital role of skeletal muscle in control of whole-body metabolism and the severity of long-term diabetic complications, we aimed to reveal the molecular pattern of early diabetes-related skeletal muscle phenotype in terms of energy metabolism, focusing on regulatory mechanisms, and the possibility to improve it using two redox modulators, l-arginine and superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimic. Alloxan-induced diabetic rats (120 mg/kg) were treated with l-arginine or the highly specific SOD mimic, M40403, for 7 days. As appropriate controls, non-diabetic rats received the same treatments. We found that l-arginine and M40403 restored diabetes-induced impairment of phospho-5'-AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) signaling by upregulating AMPKα protein itself and its downstream effectors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α and nuclear respiratory factor 1. Also, there was a restitution of the protein levels of oxidative phosphorylation components (complex I, complex II and complex IV) and mitofusin 2. Furthermore, l-arginine and M40403 induced translocation of glucose transporter 4 to the membrane and upregulation of protein of phosphofructokinase and acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase, diminishing negative diabetic effects on limiting factors of glucose and lipid metabolism. Both treatments abolished diabetes-induced downregulation of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase proteins (SERCA 1 and 2). Similar effects of l-arginine and SOD mimic treatments suggest that disturbances in the superoxide/nitric oxide ratio may be responsible for skeletal muscle mitochondrial and metabolic impairment in early diabetes. Our results provide evidence that l-arginine and SOD mimics have potential in preventing and treating metabolic disturbances accompanying this widespread metabolic disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. In healthy elderly postmenopausal women variations in BMD and BMC at various skeletal sites are associated with differences in weight and lean body mass rather than by variations in habitual physical activity, strength or VO2max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöffl, I; Kemmler, W; Kladny, B; Vonstengel, S; Kalender, W A; Engelke, K

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was an integrated cross-sectional investigation for answering the question whether differences in bone mineral density in elderly postmenopausal women are associated with differences in habitual physical activity and unspecific exercise levels. Two hundred and ninety nine elderly women (69-/+3 years), without diseases or medication affecting bone metabolism were investigated. The influence of weight, body composition and physical activity on BMD was measured at multiple sites using different techniques (DXA, QCT, and QUS). Physical activity and exercise level were assessed by questionnaire, maximum strength of the legs and aerobic capacity. Variations in physical activity or habitual exercise had no effect on bone. The only significant univariate relation between strength/VO(2)max and BMD/BMC that remained after adjusting for confounding variables was between arm BMD (DXA) and hand-grip strength. The most important variable for explaining BMD was weight and for cortical BMC of the femur (QCT) lean body mass. Weight and lean body mass emerge as predominant predictors of BMD in normal elderly women, whereas the isolated effect of habitual physical activity, unspecific exercise participation, and muscle strength on bone parameters is negligible. Thus, an increase in the amount of habitual physical activity will probably have no beneficial impact on bone.

  1. Strength measures are better than muscle mass measures in predicting health-related outcomes in older people: time to abandon the term sarcopenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menant, J C; Weber, F; Lo, J; Sturnieks, D L; Close, J C; Sachdev, P S; Brodaty, H; Lord, S R

    2017-01-01

    There is no clear consensus on definition, cut-points or standardised assessments of sarcopenia. We found a lower limb strength assessment was at least as effective in predicting balance, mobility and falls in 419 older people as muscle mass-based measures of sarcopenia. There is currently no consensus on the definition, cut-points or standardised assessments of sarcopenia. This study aimed to investigate whether several published definitions of sarcopenia differentiate between older people with respect to important functional and health outcomes. Four hundred nineteen community-living older adults (mean age 81.2 ± 4.5, 49 % female) completed assessments of body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), strength, balance, mobility and disability. Falls were recorded prospectively for a year using monthly calendars. Sarcopenia was defined according to four skeletal mass-based definitions, two strength-based definitions (handgrip or knee extensor force) and a consensus algorithm (low mass and low strength or slow gait speed). Obesity was defined according to percentage fat mass or waist circumference. The four skeletal mass-based definitions varied considerably with respect to the percentage of participants classified as sarcopenic and their predictive accuracy for functional and health outcomes. The knee extension strength-based definition was equivalent to or better than the mass-based and consensus algorithm definitions; i.e. weaker participants performed poorly in tests of leaning balance, stepping reaction time, gait speed and mobility. They also had higher physiological fall risk scores and were 43 % more likely to fall at home than their stronger counterparts. Adding obesity to sarcopenia definitions identified participants with greater self-reported disability. A simple lower limb strength assessment was at least as effective in predicting balance, functional mobility and falls in older people as more expensive and time-consuming muscle mass

  2. Occupational Strength Testing Related to Gender-Neutral Issues in Naval Aviation: A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    implications are discussed. 21 80 Miller, A. E.; MacDougall, J. D.; Tarnopolsky , M. A.; Sale, D. G. "Gender differences in strength and muscle fiber...were not stable enough to be practical. Endurance results were somewhat variable (r = 0.73), which implied in the main variable motivation. Only marked ... Tarnopolsky , M. A.; Sale, D. G. Gender differences in strength and muscle fiber characteristics. 91. Petrofsky, J. S.; LeDonne, D. M.; Rinehart, J. S

  3. Strength testing of the relation between plate dentures and materials for making soft liners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petković Dušan Lj.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In clinical practice, the loss of adhesion between the denture base resin and reliner might cause the loss of material softness, water sorption, bacterial colonization and functional failure of the prosthesis. Aim. This study evaluated the effect of immersion on tensile bond strengths of four soft relining materials to a denture base acrylic resin. Material and methods. Four soft lining materials were bonded to heatpolymerized acrylic resin according to the manufacturers' directions. Forty specimens for bond strength test (10 for each liner type were fabricated. Half of them (control group; n=5 were tested immediately after the fabrication. The other twenty specimens were stored in water at 37°C (test groups; n=5 for one week and then tested. Results. Bond strength of samples right after the fabrication is significantly higher in cases of the samples with silicone elastomer base reliner compared to the samples with soft acrylic base. Bond strength of soft reliners to a denture base resin increases after storing the samples in a water bath for one week at 37°C. Conslusion. Higher increment of tensile bond strength appeared for silicone elastomers in comparison with soft acrylic resins. There were no changes of failure mode except for GC Reline Soft application with the lowest tensile bond strength increment.

  4. The mRNA expression profile of metabolic genes relative to MHC isoform pattern in human skeletal muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plomgaard, Peter; Penkowa, Milena; Leick, Lotte

    2006-01-01

    The metabolic profile of rodent muscle is generally reflected in the myosin heavy chain (MHC) fiber-type composition. The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that metabolic gene expression is not tightly coupled with MHC fiber-type composition for all genes in human skeletal muscle...... was more than twofold higher in soleus and vastus than in triceps. Contrary, phosphofructokinase and total lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was approximately three- and twofold higher in triceps than in both soleus and vastus. Expression of metabolic genes was assessed by determining the mRNA content...... of a broad range of metabolic genes. The triceps muscle had two- to fivefold higher MHC IIa, phosphofructokinase, and LDH A mRNA content and two- to fourfold lower MHC I, lipoprotein lipase, CD36, hormone-sensitive lipase, and LDH B and hexokinase II mRNA than vastus lateralis or soleus. Interestingly...

  5. Lifelong physical activity prevents an age-related reduction in arterial and skeletal muscle nitric oxide bioavailability in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Blackwell, James R; Damsgaard, Ramsus

    2012-01-01

    circulation and in the musculature of sedentary ageing humans due to increased oxidative stress. Lifelong physical activity opposes this effect within the trained musculature and in the arterial circulation. The lower blood flow response to leg exercise in ageing humans is not associated with a reduced...... studied the effect of ROS on systemic and skeletal muscle NO bioavailability and leg blood flow by infusion of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Infusion of NAC increased the bioavailability of NO in OS, as evidenced by an increased concentration of stable metabolites of NO (NOx) in the arterial...... than in OS. Exercise at 12 W elicited a lower leg blood flow response that was associated with a lower leg oxygen uptake in OS than in Y. The improved bioavailability of NO in OS did not increase blood flow during exercise. These data demonstrate that NO bioavailability is compromised in the systemic...

  6. Identification and characterization of genes related to the development of skeletal muscle in the Hainan black goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tie Shan; Zhang, Xiao Hui; Gu, Li Hong; Zhou, Han Lin; Rong, Guang; Sun, Wei Ping

    2012-01-01

    In total, 185 unigenes were identified from 380 clones of postnatal skeletal muscle of Hainan Black goats by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) technology. Most of the differentially expressed genes involved energy metabolism and muscle contraction. The expression of 19 genes was analyzed in the longissimus dorsi muscles of 2-, 6-, 12-, 24-month olds, and four gene expression patterns were found by hierarchical cluster analysis. Most genes in first expression pattern belonged to myofibrillar proteins and had higher expression levels at 2 months old; genes of the secondary expression pattern had higher expression levels at 12 months old; tropomyoain 1 (alpha) (TPM1) was classified into the third expression pattern, and its expression level showed decreases tendency as age increased. Tropomyoain 2 (beta) (TPM2) was classified into the third expression pattern, which had the opposite expression pattern against TPM1.

  7. Social class-related gradient in the association of skeletal growth with blood pressure among adolescent boys in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shobha; Apte, Priti

    2009-12-01

    In view of the fact that height differences between socio-economic groups are apparent early in childhood, it is of interest to examine whether skeletal growth is reflective of the social class gradient in CVD risk. The present study examined blood pressure levels, adiposity and growth of adolescent boys from high and low social classes. In a cross-sectional study, skeletal growth (height and sitting height), adiposity (weight, BMI and body fat) and blood pressure levels of the adolescents were measured. Pune, India. Adolescent schoolboys (9-16 years) from high socio-economic (HSE; n 1146) and low socio-economic (LSE; n 932) class. LSE boys were thin, short and undernourished (mean BMI: 15.5 kg/m2 v. 19.3 kg/m2 in HSE boys, P = 0.00). Social gradient was revealed in differing health risks. The prevalence of high systolic blood pressure (HSBP) was high in HSE class (10.5 % v. 2.7 % in LSE class, P = 0.00) and was associated with adiposity, while the prevalence of high diastolic blood pressure (HDBP) was high in LSE class (9.8 % v. 7.0 % in HSE class, P = 0.00) and had only a weak association with adiposity. Despite this, lower ratio of leg length to height was associated with significantly higher respective health risks, i.e. for HDBP in LSE class (OR = 1.99, 95 % CI 1.14, 3.47) and for HSBP in HSE class (OR = 1.69, 95 % CI 1.02, 2.77). As stunting in childhood is a major problem in India and Asia, the leg length to height indicator needs to be validated in different populations to understand CVD risks.

  8. Relative Handgrip Strength Is Inversely Associated with Metabolic Profile and Metabolic Disease in the General Population in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongxue; Guo, Guanghong; Xia, Lili; Yang, Xinghua; Zhang, Biao; Liu, Feng; Ma, Jingang; Hu, Zhiping; Li, Yajun; Li, Wei; Jiang, Jiajia; Gaisano, Herbert; Shan, Guangliang; He, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Background: Absolute handgrip strength has been correlated with metabolic profile and metabolic disease. Whether relative handgrip strength is also associated with metabolic disease has not been assessed. This study aimed at assessing the association of relative handgrip strength with metabolic profile and metabolic disease in the general population in China. Methods: Data were derived from an ongoing cross-sectional survey of the 2013 National Physical and Health in Shanxi Province, which involved 5520 participants. Multiple linear regression or multiple logistic regression analysis were used to assess the association of absolute/relative handgrip strength with the metabolic profile, preclinical, and established stages of metabolic diseases. Results: This study revealed that relative handgrip strength, that is when normalized to BMI, was associated with: (1) in both genders for more favorable blood lipid levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [males: b = 0.19 (0.15, 0.23); females: b = 0.22 (0.17, 0.28)], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [males: b = -0.14 (-0.23, -0.05); females: b = -0.19 (-0.31, -0.18)], triglycerides [males: b = -0.58 (-0.74, -0.43); females: b = -0.55 (-0.74, -0.36)] and total cholesterol [males: b = -0.20 (-0.31, -0.10); females: b = -0.19 (-0.32, -0.06)]; and better serum glucose levels in males [ b = -0.30 (-0.46, -0.15)]. (2) lower risk of impaired fasting glucose in males {third quartile [OR = 0.66 (0.45-0.95)] and fourth quartile [OR = 0.46 (0.30-0.71)] vs. first quartile} and dyslipidemia in both genders {third quartile [males: OR = 0.65 (0.48-0.87); females: OR = 0.68 (0.53-0.86)] and fourth quartile [males: OR = 0.47 (0.35-0.64); females: OR = 0.47(0.36-0.61)] vs. first quartile}. (3) lower risk of hyperlipidemia in both genders third quartile [males: OR = 0.66 (0.50-0.87); females: OR = 0.57 (0.43-0.75)] and fourth quartile [males: OR = 0.35 (0.26-0.47); females: OR = 0.51 (0.38-0.70)] vs. first quartile. However, contrary

  9. Sex-related differences in joint-angle-specific functional hamstring-to-quadriceps strength ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ashker, Said; Carson, Brian P; Ayala, Francisco; De Ste Croix, Mark

    2017-03-01

    To examine and compare sex-related differences in the functioning of the hamstrings and quadriceps muscles and the isokinetic hamstrings eccentric-to-quadriceps concentric functional ratio (H/Q FUNC ). Fifty male and 46 female young adults completed this study. Each participant carried out an isokinetic assessment to determine isokinetic concentric and eccentric torques during knee extension and flexion actions at 3 different angular velocities (60, 180 and 300°/s) adopting a lying position. The H/Q FUNC was calculated using peak torque (PT) values and 3 different joint-angle-specific torque values (15°, 30° and 45° of knee extension). A repeated measures analysis of variance was used to compare the results, and post hoc analyses using Friedman correction were employed. There were statistically significant effects of angular velocity, joint angle and sex on the H/Q FUNC (p ratio in both males and females decreases closer to full knee extension and with increasing movement velocity. The H/Q FUNC was also significantly lower in females compared to males, irrespective of moment velocity and joint angle. The findings of the current study reinforce the need to examine the H/Q FUNC ratio closer to full knee extension (where knee injury is most likely to occur) rather than using PT values which may not be as informative, as well as to focus preventive and rehabilitation training programmes on reducing quadriceps dominance by enhancing eccentric hamstring strength (especially in females who are at higher risk of injury). III.

  10. Low calcium-phosphate intakes modulate the low-protein diet-related effect on peak bone mass acquisition: a hormonal and bone strength determinants study in female growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, C; Rizzoli, R; Ammann, P

    2014-11-01

    Peak bone mass acquisition is influenced by environmental factors including dietary intake. A low-protein diet delays body and skeletal growth in association with a reduction in serum IGF-1 whereas serum FGF21 is increased by selective amino acid deprivation. Calcium (Ca) and phosphorous (P) are also key nutrients for skeletal health, and inadequate intakes reduce bone mass accrual in association with calciotropic hormone modulation. Besides, the effect of calcium supplementation on bone mass in prepubertal children appears to be influenced by protein intake. To further explore the interaction of dietary protein and Ca-P intake on bone growth, 1-month-old female rats were fed with an isocaloric 10%, 7.5%, or 5% casein diet containing normal or low Ca-P for an 8-week period (6 groups). Changes in tibia geometry, mineral content, microarchitecture, strength, and intrinsic bone quality were analyzed. At the hormonal level, serum IGF-1, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), PTH, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol), and FGF23 were investigated as well as the Ghr hepatic gene expression. In normal dietary Ca-P conditions, bone mineral content, trabecular and cortical bone volume, and bone strength were lower in the 5% casein group in association with a decrease in serum IGF-1 and an increase in FGF21 levels. Unexpectedly, the low-Ca-P diet attenuated the 5% casein diet-related reduction of serum IGF-1 and Ghr hepatic gene expression, as well as the low-protein diet-induced decrease in bone mass and strength. However, this was associated with lower cortical bone material level properties. The low-Ca-P diet increased serum calcitriol but decreased FGF23 levels. Calcitriol levels positively correlated with Ghr hepatic mRNA levels. These results suggest that hormonal modulation in response to a low-Ca-P diet may modify the low-protein diet-induced effect on Ghr hepatic mRNA levels and consequently the impact of low protein intakes on IGF-1 circulating levels and skeletal

  11. Lower Extremity Strength and the Range of Motion in Relation to Squat Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Si-Hyun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine which variables of the range of motion (ROM and strength of the hip, and ankle are associated with squat depth. In total, 101 healthy subjects (64 males, 37 females participated in the study. Outcome measures consisted of the ROM of hip flexion, hip internal rotation, external rotation, ankle dorsiflexion with an extended and flexed knee joint, and strength of the hip flexor and ankle dorsiflexor. Squat depth was measured using SIMI motion analysis software. Pearson correlation was used to determine the relationship between variables and squat depth. Multiple stepwise regression analysis was performed to determine variables associated with squat depth. The multiple regression model indicated that ankle dorsiflexion with a flexed knee and the hip flexion ROM were significantly associated with squat depth in male subjects (R2 = 0.435 and ankle dorsiflexion with an extended knee and dorsiflexor strength were significantly associated with squat depth in female subjects (R2 = 0.324. Thus, exercises to increase the ROM of the ankle dorsiflexion, hip flexion, and dorsiflexor strength can be recommended to improve squat performance. Future studies should assess an increased ROM of the ankle dorsiflexion, hip flexion, or dorsiflexor strength effect on deep squat performance.

  12. GH administration changes myosin heavy chain isoforms in skeletal muscle but does not augment muscle strength or hypertrophy, either alone or combined with resistance exercise training in healthy elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Kai Henrik Wiborg; Andersen, Jesper Løvind; Beyer, Nina

    2002-01-01

    GH administration, either alone or combined with resistance exercise training (RT), has attracted interest as a means of increasing muscle mass and strength in the elderly. In the present study, 31 healthy, elderly men [age, 74 +/- 1 yr (mean +/- SEM)] were assigned to either RT [3 sessions/wk, 3......-5 sets of 8-12 repetition maximum (RM)/session] + placebo (n = 8), RT + GH (n = 8), GH (n = 8), or placebo (n = 7) in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded (RT + placebo and RT + GH) or single-blinded (GH or placebo) design. Measurements of: 1) isokinetic quadriceps muscle strength; 2......) quadriceps muscle power; 3) quadriceps muscle fiber type, size, and myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition; 4) quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) [nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI)]; 5) body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scanning); and 6) GH-related serum markers were performed...

  13. Effectiveness of an individualized program of muscular strength and endurance with aerobic training for improving germ cell cancer-related fatigue in men undergoing chemotherapy: EFICATEST study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio Ignacio; Carabantes, Francisco; Caracuel, Zaira; Conejo, Inmaculada; Alba, Emilio

    2016-01-05

    Patients with testicular germ cell cancer (GCC) have a high cure rate; however, cancer-related fatigue is the most common complication among patients with GCC undergoing treatment with chemotherapy. Although exercise is widely recommended, information about the physio-pathological effects of cancer therapy on skeletal muscle is very limited. Our aim is to evaluate the effects of an individualized program of muscular strength and endurance with aerobic training on cancer-related fatigue. The present study is a randomized controlled trial comparing an individualized program of muscular strength and endurance with aerobic training compared to a control group. We will conduct this trial in patients undergoing chemotherapy, recruited by the Department of Oncology of Virgen de la Victoria Hospital (Málaga). Patients will be included and evaluated before the first cycle of chemotherapy and assigned randomly to the experimental or control group. Cancer-related fatigue, physical condition and biological samples will be measured at the beginning and at the end of an 8-week intervention by the same evaluator, who will be unaware of the allocation of participants to each group. Furthermore, there will be monitoring for 6 months (24 weeks) after training for all outcome variables. This study hopes to offer patients with GCC an individualized exercise program with aerobic training for cancer-related fatigue. Such a scheme, if beneficial, could be implemented successfully within public health. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02433197 . Date of registration: 13 April 2015.

  14. A PGC-1α- and muscle fibre type-related decrease in markers of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism in skeletal muscle of humans with inherited insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jonas M; Skov, Vibe; Petersson, Stine J

    2014-01-01

    with biological pathway analysis. Findings were validated by quantitative real-time PCR, immunoblotting and activity assays. RESULTS: In INSR mutation carriers, insulin resistance was associated with a coordinated downregulation of OxPhos genes in skeletal muscle. This was related to a 46% decrease in mRNA levels...... synthase activity (p = 0.025). Moreover, mutation carriers showed a marked reduction in type 1 muscle fibres (35% vs 62%, p = 0.0005) and increased type 2a fibres (53% vs 32%; p = 0.002) compared with controls. There were no differences in protein content and phosphorylation of 5' AMP-activated protein...... kinase, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, Erk1 and Erk2. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: These data indicate that inherited insulin resistance coincides with reduced mitochondrial oxidative capacity in a PGC-1α- and muscle fibre type-related manner. Whether this co-existence is directly or indirectly...

  15. Development and Assessment of a Diagnostic Tool to Identify Organic Chemistry Students' Alternative Conceptions Related to Acid Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClary, LaKeisha M.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2012-01-01

    The central goal of this study was to create a new diagnostic tool to identify organic chemistry students' alternative conceptions related to acid strength. Twenty years of research on secondary and college students' conceptions about acids and bases has shown that these important concepts are difficult for students to apply to qualitative problem…

  16. Studying the Relative Strengths of Environmental Factors that Influence Echinoderm Body Size Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, A.; Randhawa, S.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2013-12-01

    Body size is often a useful metric in observing how a clade responds to environmental changes. Previous research has uncovered how environmental factors such as carbon dioxide and oxygen levels influence body size evolution. However, we wanted to look into how these natural factors interact and which factors seem to have a stronger relative influence on echinoderm body size. We analyzed carbon dioxide levels, a proxy for paleotemperature, oxygen levels, and sea level. Our research process involved measuring and calculating the volume of Phanerozoic echinoderm fossils recorded in the Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, plotting their mean volumes over various natural factors, and using statistical tools such as correlation tests and the PaleoTS statistical analysis software to compare the relative strengths of these factors. Furthermore, we divided our data into the following three subsets to uncover more specific relationships: 1) A set that included all data of the phylum Echinodermata 2) A set that focused on the two classes with the most recorded data, Echinoidea and Crinoidea 3) A set that focused on the crinoid specimens that originated in the Paleozoic and in the post-Paleozoic. In the first subset, echinoderms had the strongest correlation with carbon dioxide, a proxy for temperature, and possessed a weaker correlation with oxygen. In the second subset, we discovered that the echinoid data also possessed a strong correlation with carbon dioxide and a weaker correlation with oxygen. For crinoids, we found that the class as a whole showed no strong correlation with any measured environmental factors. However, when we divided the crinoids based on age, we found that both Paleozoic and post-Paleozoic crinoids individually correlated strongly with sea level. However, some uncertainty with this correlation arose as the comparison of the environmental correlate models suggested that an unbiased random walk was the best fit for the data. This stands as a sharp

  17. An investigation of maximal hand grip strength related to body mass index in healthy Czech children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Šteffl

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hand grip strength is one of the most important markers in muscle strength assessment for many reasons. However, its maximal value in kilograms is highly dependent on body size, which may misrepresent results, especially among children. Therefore, correction by body mass index (BMI can be used as a suitable approach for its objectification. The aims of this study were to create reference values for the grip to BMI ratio and for hand grip strength for children in the Czech Republic. 554 children of both genders, aged from 4 to 14 years, were included in the current study. Reference values were approximated by Tukey’s Hinges percentiles calculation method. The percentile charts were created using the Lambda-Mu-Sigma (LMS method.

  18. Effect of Temperature and Age of Concrete on Strength – Porosity Relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Zadražil

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The compressive strengths of unsealed samples of concrete at the age of 180 days and have been measured at temperatures 20 °C, 300 °C, 600 °C and 900 °C. All of tests were performed for cold material. We compared our results with those obtained in [10] for the same type of concrete (age 28, resp. 90 days and measured at temperature ranging from 20 °C to 280 °C. Dependencies of compressive strength and porosity were correlated together and compared for the samples of age 28, 90 and 180 days. Behaviour of concrete of the age 90, resp. 180 days confirms generally accepted hypothesis that with increasing porosity strength of the concrete decreases. It has to be stressed out, howerer, that concrete samples of the age 28 days exhibit totally opposite dependency. 

  19. Aerobic fitness, muscular strength and obesity in relation to risk of heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Casey; Sundquist, Jan; Winkleby, Marilyn A; Sundquist, Kristina

    2017-11-01

    Low physical fitness and obesity have been associated with higher risk of developing heart failure (HF), but their interactive effects are unknown. Elucidation of interactions among these common modifiable factors may help facilitate more effective primary prevention. We conducted a national cohort study to examine the interactive effects of aerobic fitness, muscular strength and body mass index (BMI) among 1 330 610 military conscripts in Sweden during 1969-1997 (97%-98% of all 18-year-old men) on risk of HF identified from inpatient and outpatient diagnoses through 2012 (maximum age 62 years). There were 11 711 men diagnosed with HF in 37.8 million person-years of follow-up. Low aerobic fitness, low muscular strength and obesity were independently associated with higher risk of HF, after adjusting for each other, socioeconomic factors, other chronic diseases and family history of HF. The combination of low aerobic fitness and low muscular strength (lowest vs highest tertiles) was associated with a 1.7-fold risk of HF (95% CI 1.6 to 1.9; pfitness, low muscular strength and obesity at the age of 18 years were independently associated with higher risk of HF in adulthood, with interactive effects between aerobic fitness and muscular strength. These findings suggest that early-life interventions may help reduce the long-term risk of HF and should include both aerobic fitness and muscular strength, even among persons with normal BMI. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. On the relation between strength properties of carbon materials and total porosity following neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virgil'ev, Yu.S.; Makarchenko, V.G.

    1981-01-01

    Correlation of compression strength and flexural strength and dynamic elastic modulus with the general porosity of carbon materials irradiated with neutrons is considered. The syntactic foam and fine-grain graphite on the base of non-calcinated oil coke with pitch binding have been used as samples for investigations. The irradiation is carried out by neutron fluence of 1.3x10 21 neutr/cm 2 . It is shown that the above correlation as well as in non-irradiated materials is approximated satisfactorily by the exponential equation. Besides the character of the interaction of filler grains between themselves and with the binding, has not changed [ru

  1. Development and Assessment of A Diagnostic Tool to Identify Organic Chemistry Students' Alternative Conceptions Related to Acid Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClary, LaKeisha M.; Lowery Bretz, Stacey

    2012-10-01

    The central goal of this study was to create a new diagnostic tool to identify organic chemistry students' alternative conceptions related to acid strength. Twenty years of research on secondary and college students' conceptions about acids and bases has shown that these important concepts are difficult for students to apply to qualitative problem solving. Yet, few published studies document how students' prior knowledge of acids influences their understanding of acid strength in organic chemistry contexts. We developed a nine-item multiple-tier, multiple-choice concept inventory to identify alternative conceptions that organic chemistry students hold about acid strength, to determine the prevalence of these conceptions, and to determine how strongly these conceptions bias student reasoning. We identified two significant alternative conceptions that organic chemistry students hold about acid strength. Students who answered items incorrectly were more confident about their answers than peers who answered items correctly, suggesting that after one semester of organic chemistry, students do not know what they do not know. Implications for the teaching of acid strength are discussed.

  2. Counteracting Age-related Loss of Skeletal Muscle Mass: a clinical and ethnological trial on the role of protein supplementation and training load (CALM Intervention Study): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechshøft, Rasmus Leidesdorff; Reitelseder, Søren; Højfeldt, Grith; Castro-Mejía, Josué Leonardo; Khakimov, Bekzod; Ahmad, Hajar Fauzan Bin; Kjær, Michael; Engelsen, Søren Balling; Johansen, Susanne Margrete Bølling; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Lassen, Aske Juul; Jensen, Tenna; Beyer, Nina; Serena, Anja; Perez-Cueto, Frederico Jose Armando; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Jespersen, Astrid Pernille; Holm, Lars

    2016-08-09

    Aging is associated with decreased muscle mass and functional capacity, which in turn decrease quality of life. The number of citizens over the age of 65 years in the Western world will increase by 50 % over the next four decades, and this demographic shift brings forth new challenges at both societal and individual levels. Only a few longitudinal studies have been reported, but whey protein supplementation seems to improve muscle mass and function, and its combination with heavy strength training appears even more effective. However, heavy resistance training may reduce adherence to training, thereby attenuating the overall benefits of training. We hypothesize that light load resistance training is more efficient when both adherence and physical improvement are considered longitudinally. We launched the interdisciplinary project on Counteracting Age-related Loss of Skeletal Muscle Mass (CALM) to investigate the impact of lifestyle changes on physical and functional outcomes as well as everyday practices and habits in a qualitative context. We will randomize 205 participants older than 65 years to be given 1 year of two daily nutrient supplements with 10 g of sucrose and 20 g of either collagen protein, carbohydrates, or whey. Further, two groups will perform either heavy progressive resistance training or light load training on top of the whey supplement. The primary outcome of the CALM Intervention Study is the change in thigh cross-sectional area. Moreover, we will evaluate changes in physical performance, muscle fiber type and acute anabolic response to whey protein ingestion, sensory adaptation, gut microbiome, and a range of other measures, combined with questionnaires on life quality and qualitative interviews with selected subjects. The CALM Intervention Study will generate scientific evidence and recommendations to counteract age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass in elderly individuals. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02034760 . Registered on 10 January 2014

  3. Treatment of knee osteoarthritis in relation to hamstring and quadriceps strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, Ashraf Ramadan; Al-Johani, Ahmed H; Zakaria, Abdul Rahim; Al-Ahaideb, Abdulaziz; Buragadda, Syamala; Melam, Ganeswara Rao; Kachanathu, Shaji J

    2013-11-01

    [Purpose] To assess the effect of hamstring and quadriceps strengthening exercises on pain intensity, gait velocity, maximum isometric strength, and activities of daily living of patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). [Subjects and Methods] A total of 20 patients with knee OA, 50 to 65 years of age (57.65 ± 4.78 years), received hot packs, strengthening exercises for the quadriceps and the hamstring muscles and stretching exercises for hamstring muscles. Outcome measures included: the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities OA index questionnaire (WOMAC) scores for assessing health status and health outcomes of knee OA; self-reported pain intensity scores, measured using a visual analogue scale; the 50 ft walk test (a measure of gait velocity and function); and handheld dynamometry (a tool used to measure maximum isometric strength of knee extension and flexion). [Results] There was a significant difference between pre- and post-intervention measures of pain intensity, 50 ft walk times, hamstring strength, and quadriceps strength. Significant differences in WOMAC measures were also observed in the subscales of pain, stiffness and physical function, as well as WOMAC total scores. [Conclusion] Strengthening the hamstring muscles in addition to strengthening the quadriceps muscles proved to be beneficial for perceived knee pain, range of motion, and decreasing the limitation of functional performance of patients with knee OA.

  4. 25(OHD3 Levels Relative to Muscle Strength and Maximum Oxygen Uptake in Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Książek Anna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is mainly known for its effects on the bone and calcium metabolism. The discovery of Vitamin D receptors in many extraskeletal cells suggests that it may also play a significant role in other organs and systems. The aim of our study was to assess the relationship between 25(OHD3 levels, lower limb isokinetic strength and maximum oxygen uptake in well-trained professional football players. We enrolled 43 Polish premier league soccer players. The mean age was 22.7±5.3 years. Our study showed decreased serum 25(OHD3 levels in 74.4% of the professional players. The results also demonstrated a lack of statistically significant correlation between 25(OHD3 levels and lower limb muscle strength with the exception of peak torque of the left knee extensors at an angular velocity of 150°/s (r=0.41. No significant correlations were found between hand grip strength and maximum oxygen uptake. Based on our study we concluded that in well-trained professional soccer players, there was no correlation between serum levels of 25(OHD3 and muscle strength or maximum oxygen uptake.

  5. Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis in Relation to Hamstring and Quadriceps Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, Ashraf Ramadan; Al-Johani, Ahmed H.; Zakaria, Abdul Rahim; Al-Ahaideb, Abdulaziz; Buragadda, Syamala; Melam, Ganeswara Rao; Kachanathu, Shaji J.

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] To assess the effect of hamstring and quadriceps strengthening exercises on pain intensity, gait velocity, maximum isometric strength, and activities of daily living of patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). [Subjects and Methods] A total of 20 patients with knee OA, 50 to 65 years of age (57.65 ± 4.78 years), received hot packs, strengthening exercises for the quadriceps and the hamstring muscles and stretching exercises for hamstring muscles. Outcome measures included: the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities OA index questionnaire (WOMAC) scores for assessing health status and health outcomes of knee OA; self-reported pain intensity scores, measured using a visual analogue scale; the 50 ft walk test (a measure of gait velocity and function); and handheld dynamometry (a tool used to measure maximum isometric strength of knee extension and flexion). [Results] There was a significant difference between pre- and post-intervention measures of pain intensity, 50 ft walk times, hamstring strength, and quadriceps strength. Significant differences in WOMAC measures were also observed in the subscales of pain, stiffness and physical function, as well as WOMAC total scores. [Conclusion] Strengthening the hamstring muscles in addition to strengthening the quadriceps muscles proved to be beneficial for perceived knee pain, range of motion, and decreasing the limitation of functional performance of patients with knee OA. PMID:24396198

  6. Postmenopausal HRT and tibolone in relation to muscle strength and body composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobsen, D. E.; Samson, M. M.; Kezic, S.; Verhaar, H. J. J.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: Sarcopenia, the loss of muscle mass with age, has a great impact on physical function, and especially in postmenopausal women, who experience a greater decline in muscle strength than do men of similar age. Conventional hormone replacement therapy (HRT) may diminish this loss of muscle

  7. Strength and voluntary activation in relation to functioning in patients with osteoarthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. D.M. van Leeuwen

    2013-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by pain, and problems with activities of daily life, especially if the hip or knee joint is affected. The aim of this project was to study associations between strength, voluntary activation and physical functioning in elderly patients with OA. People with OA of

  8. An acoustic method for predicting relative strengths of cohesive sediment deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, A. H.; Sanders, W. M.

    2017-12-01

    Cohesive sediment dynamics are fundamentally determined by sediment mineralogy, organic matter composition, ionic strength of water, and currents. These factors work to bind the cohesive sediments and to determine depositional rates. Once deposited the sediments exhibit a nonlinear response to stress and they develop increases in shear strength. Shear strength is critically important in resuspension, transport, creep, and failure predictions. Typically, shear strength is determined by point measurements, both indirectly from free-fall penetrometers or directly on cores with a shear vane. These values are then used to interpolate over larger areas. However, the remote determination of these properties would provide continuos coverage, yet it has proven difficult with sonar systems. Recently, findings from an acoustic study on cohesive sediments in a laboratory setting suggests that cohesive sediments may be differentiated using parametric acoustics; this method pulses two primary frequencies into the sediment and the resultant difference frequency is used to determine the degree of acoustic nonlinearity within the sediment. In this study, two marine clay species, kaolinite and montmorillonite, and two biopolymers, guar gum and xanthan gum were mixed to make nine different samples. The samples were evaluated in a parametric acoustic measurement tank. From the parametric acoustic measurements, the quadratic nonlinearity coefficient (beta) was determined. beta was correlated with the cation exchange capacity (CEC), an indicator of shear strength. The results indicate that increased acoustic nonlinearity correlates with increased CEC. From this work, laboratory measurements indicate that this correlation may be used evaluate geotechnical properties of cohesive sediments and may provide a means to predict sediment weakness in subaqueous environments.

  9. Shoulder muscle atrophy and its relation to strength loss in obstetrical brachial plexus palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Christelle; Sheehan, Frances T; Im, Hyun Soo; Brochard, Sylvain; Alter, Katharine E

    2017-10-01

    Treatment/prevention of shoulder muscle strength imbalances are major therapeutic goals for children with obstetrical brachial plexus palsy. The study aims were to characterize muscle atrophy in children/adolescents with unilateral obstetrical brachial plexus palsy, to quantify the agonist-antagonist muscle volume balance and the association between muscle volume and strength. Eight boys and four girls (age=12.1, standard deviation=3.3) participated in this case-control study. Three-dimensional magnetic resonance images of both shoulders were acquired. The unimpaired shoulder served as a reference. Volumes of deltoid, pectoralis major, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres major, subscapularis were calculated based on 3D models, derived through image segmentation. Maximal isometric torques were collected in six directions. All the major muscles studied were significantly atrophied. The teres major demonstrated the biggest difference in atrophy between groups (51 percentage points), the pectoralis major was the least atrophied (23 percentage points). The muscle volume distribution was significantly different between shoulders. Muscle volume could predict maximal voluntary isometric torques, but the regression coefficients were weaker on the impaired side (72% to 91% of the strength could be predicted in the uninvolved side and 24% to 90% in the involved side and external rotation strength could not be predicted). This study demonstrates muscle atrophy varied across all the main shoulder muscles of the glenohumeral joint, leading to significant muscle volume imbalances. The weaker coefficients of determination on the impaired side suggest that other variables may contribute to the loss of strength in addition to atrophy. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Disease-Induced Skeletal Muscle Atrophy and Fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Powers, Scott K.; Lynch, Gordon S.; Murphy, Kate T.; Reid, Michael B.; Zijdewind, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Numerous health problems including acute critical illness, cancer, diseases associated with chronic inflammation, and neurological disorders often result in skeletal muscle weakness and fatigue. Disease-related muscle atrophy and fatigue is an important clinical problem because acquired skeletal

  11. Association between insulin resistance and low relative appendicular skeletal muscle mass: evidence from a cohort study in community-dwelling older men and women participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemán-Mateo, Heliodoro; López Teros, Miriam T; Ramírez, Fátima A; Astiazarán-García, Humberto

    2014-07-01

    It has been hypothesized that insulin resistance plays a role in the development of the loss of skeletal muscle; however, no cohort studies on insulin resistance and low relative appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) have been published to date. Thus, we examined whether insulin resistance is associated with low relative ASM after a 4.6-year follow-up period among apparently healthy older men and women participants. This is a combined retrospective-prospective cohort study, which includes 147 community-dwelling older men and women participants. ASM was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry at baseline and follow-up. Participants with a relative change in ASM below the sex-specific 15th value were classified as the low relative ASM group. Homeostatic model assessment was used to quantify insulin resistance. Logistic regression calculated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for development of low relative ASM, adjusted for covariates. The loss of ASM in the low relative ASM and normal groups was -1.8kg and -0.35kg, respectively (p ≤ .05). The low relative ASM group was older and had higher insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance values at baseline. The risk of developing low relative ASM at 4.6-year follow-up was 2.9 times higher (95% CI, 1.00-7.8; p = .04) among the participants with homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance levels more than 2.3. After adjusting for age, the risk increased to 3.9 times higher (95% CI, 1.3-11.5; p = .03). Insulin resistance was associated with low relative ASM at 4.6-year follow-up after accounting for several covariates in a cohort of apparently healthy, well-functioning young older men and women. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Seasonal changes in the expression of energy metabolism-related genes in white adipose tissue and skeletal muscle in female Japanese black bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimozuru, Michito; Nagashima, Akiko; Tanaka, Jun; Tsubota, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Bears undergo annual cycles in body mass: rapid fattening in autumn (i.e., hyperphagia), and mass loss in winter (i.e., hibernation). To investigate how Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) adapt to such extreme physiological conditions, we analyzed changes in the mRNA expression of energy metabolism-related genes in white adipose tissues and skeletal muscle throughout three physiological stages: normal activity (June), hyperphagia (November), and hibernation (March). During hyperphagia, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed the upregulation of de novo lipogenesis-related genes (e.g., fatty acid synthase and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2) in white adipose tissue, although the bears had been maintained with a constant amount of food. In contrast, during the hibernation period, we observed a downregulation of genes involved in glycolysis (e.g., glucose transporter 4) and lipogenesis (e.g., acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1) and an upregulation of genes in fatty acid catabolism (e.g., carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A) in both tissue types. In white adipose tissues, we observed upregulation of genes involved in glyceroneogenesis, including pyruvate carboxylase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1, suggesting that white adipose tissue plays a role in the recycling of circulating free fatty acids via re-esterification. In addition, the downregulation of genes involved in amino acid catabolism (e.g., alanine aminotransferase) and the TCA cycle (e.g., pyruvate carboxylase) indicated a role of skeletal muscle in muscle protein sparing and pyruvate recycling via the Cori cycle. These examples of coordinated transcriptional regulation would contribute to rapid mass gain during the pre-hibernation period and to energy preservation and efficient energy production during the hibernation period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mechanisms regulating skeletal muscle growth and atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiaffino, Stefano; Dyar, Kenneth A; Ciciliot, Stefano; Blaauw, Bert; Sandri, Marco

    2013-09-01

    Skeletal muscle mass increases during postnatal development through a process of hypertrophy, i.e. enlargement of individual muscle fibers, and a similar process may be induced in adult skeletal muscle in response to contractile activity, such as strength exercise, and specific hormones, such as androgens and β-adrenergic agonists. Muscle hypertrophy occurs when the overall rates of protein synthesis exceed the rates of protein degradation. Two major signaling pathways control protein synthesis, the IGF1-Akt-mTOR pathway, acting as a positive regulator, and the myostatin-Smad2/3 pathway, acting as a negative regulator, and additional pathways have recently been identified. Proliferation and fusion of satellite cells, leading to an increase in the number of myonuclei, may also contribute to muscle growth during early but not late stages of postnatal development and in some forms of muscle hypertrophy in the adult. Muscle atrophy occurs when protein degradation rates exceed protein synthesis, and may be induced in adult skeletal muscle in a variety of conditions, including starvation, denervation, cancer cachexia, heart failure and aging. Two major protein degradation pathways, the proteasomal and the autophagic-lysosomal pathways, are activated during muscle atrophy and variably contribute to the loss of muscle mass. These pathways involve a variety of atrophy-related genes or atrogenes, which are controlled by specific transcription factors, such as FoxO3, which is negatively regulated by Akt, and NF-κB, which is activated by inflammatory cytokines. © 2013 The Authors Journal compilation © 2013 FEBS.

  14. Skeletal Muscle Mitochondria and Aging: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney M. Peterson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is characterized by a progressive loss of muscle mass and muscle strength. Declines in skeletal muscle mitochondria are thought to play a primary role in this process. Mitochondria are the major producers of reactive oxygen species, which damage DNA, proteins, and lipids if not rapidly quenched. Animal and human studies typically show that skeletal muscle mitochondria are altered with aging, including increased mutations in mitochondrial DNA, decreased activity of some mitochondrial enzymes, altered respiration with reduced maximal capacity at least in sedentary individuals, and reduced total mitochondrial content with increased morphological changes. However, there has been much controversy over measurements of mitochondrial energy production, which may largely be explained by differences in approach and by whether physical activity is controlled for. These changes may in turn alter mitochondrial dynamics, such as fusion and fission rates, and mitochondrially induced apoptosis, which may also lead to net muscle fiber loss and age-related sarcopenia. Fortunately, strategies such as exercise and caloric restriction that reduce oxidative damage also improve mitochondrial function. While these strategies may not completely prevent the primary effects of aging, they may help to attenuate the rate of decline.

  15. Smoking cessation-related weight gain--beneficial effects on muscle mass, strength and bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rom, Oren; Reznick, Abraham Z; Keidar, Zohar; Karkabi, Khaled; Aizenbud, Dror

    2015-02-01

    To examine the effects of smoking cessation on body composition and muscle strength in comparison with continued smoking. Twelve-month longitudinal study of adult smokers conducted in Haifa, Israel. Eighty-one smokers recruited from a smoking cessation programme combining group counselling and varenicline treatment. Measurements were taken at the beginning of the programme and after 12 months. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Muscle strength was measured by handgrip dynamometry and predicted one-repetition maximum tests. Dietary intake and physical activity levels were estimated using questionnaires. Smoking status was determined by urine cotinine. The effect of smoking cessation was assessed using univariate and multivariable linear regression analyses. Forty-one participants (age 44 ± 12 years) completed all baseline and follow-up measurements (76% continued smokers; 24% quitters). All measures of body composition and muscle strength were increased among quitters when compared with continued smokers. Adjusted differences [95% confidence interval (CI)] between quitters and smokers were: body weight 4.43 kg (1.56-7.31 kg); lean mass 1.26 kg (0.24-2.28 kg); fat mass 3.15 kg (0.91-5.39 kg); bone mineral content 48.76 g (12.06-85.54 g); bone mineral density 0.024 g/cm(2) (0.004-0.043 g/cm(2) ); handgrip strength 3.6 kg (1.12-6.08 kg); predicted one-repetition maximum of chest press 7.85 kg (1.93-13.76 kg); and predicted one-repetition maximum of leg press 17.02 kg (7.29-26.75 kg). Smoking cessation is associated with weight gain mainly through accumulating extra fat, but is also associated with increased muscle mass, muscle strength and bone density. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. The effects of altitude training on the AMPK-related glucose transport pathway in the red skeletal muscle of both lean and obese Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Ching; Lee, Shin-Da; Kuo, Cha-Hua; Ho, Low-Tone

    2011-01-01

    The skeletal muscle AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-related glucose transport pathway is involved in glucose homeostasis. In this study, we examined whether obese control Zucker rats had abnormal expression of proteins in the LKB1-AMPK-AS160-GLUT4 pathway in red gastrocnemius muscle compared to that in lean (normal) control Zucker rats. We also compared the chronic training effects of exercise, hypoxia, and altitude training on this pathway in lean and obese rats. At sea level, lean and obese rats were divided into 4 groups for 6 weeks training as follows: 1) control; 2) exercise (progressive daily swimming-exercise training with comparable exercise signals between the two groups); 3) hypoxia (8 hours of daily 14% O2 exposure); and 4) exercise plus hypoxia (also called altitude training). Seven animals were used for each group. The obese rats in the control group had higher body weights, elevated fasting insulin and glucose levels, and higher baseline levels of muscle AMPK and AS160 phosphorylation compared with those of lean control rats. For obese Zucker rats in the exercise or hypoxia groups, the muscle AMPK phosphorylation level was significantly decreased compared with that of the control group. For obese Zucker rats in the altitude training group, the levels of AMPK, AS160 phosphorylation, fasting insulin, and fasting glucose were decreased concomitant with an approximate 50% increase in the muscle GLUT4 protein level compared with those of the control group. In lean rats, the altitude training efficiently lowered fasting glucose and insulin levels and increased muscle AMPK and AS160 phosphorylation as well as GLUT4 protein levels. Our results provide evidence that long-term altitude training may be a potentially effective nonpharmacological strategy for treating and preventing insulin resistance based on its effects on the skeletal muscle AMPK-AS160-GLUT4 pathway.

  17. Mechanical modeling of skeletal muscle functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, B.J.J.J.

    1998-01-01

    For movement of body or body segments is combined effort needed of the central nervous system and the muscular-skeletal system. This thesis deals with the mechanical functioning of skeletal muscle. That muscles come in a large variety of geometries, suggest the existence of a relation between muscle

  18. Crowding and perceptual organization: Target's objecthood influences the relative strength of part-level and configural-level crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirkner, Yossef; Kimchi, Ruth

    2017-09-01

    In visual crowding, identification of a peripheral object is impaired by nearby objects. Recent studies have demonstrated that crowding is not limited only to interaction between low-level features or parts, as presumed by most models of crowding, but can also occur between high-level, configural representations of objects. In this study we show that the relative strength of crowding at the part level versus the configural level is dependent on the strength of the target's perceptual organization. The target's strength of organization was manipulated by presence or absence of closure and good continuation or by proximity between the target's parts. The flankers were similar either to the target parts or to the target configuration. The stronger the target's organization was, the weaker the crowding was by part flankers (Experiments 1 and 2). Most importantly, the target's strength of organization interacted with target-flanker similarity, such that crowding by target-flanker similarity in configuration was greater than that by target-flanker similarity in parts for strongly organized targets, but lesser for weakly organized targets (Experiments 3 and 4). These results provide strong evidence that perceptual-organization processes play an important role in crowding.

  19. Harmonic strengths of PEP dipoles and some related effects and lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, J.E.

    1981-09-01

    The harmonic content of magnets such as the standard PEP bend is (among other things) a function of excitation current, the way the current is set and even the magnetization history. For instance, harmonic strengths generally vary not only with the magnitude of the current but the direction and rate at which the current is approached and set. The field distribution resulting from different procedures can vary markedly depending on both the mechanical and magnetic design and the degree to which eddy current effects are emphasized. Variations among magnets of the same design result from variations in the iron as well as overall magnet fabrication procedures. Because the field distribution may also depend in the previous history of a magnet, all PEP dipoles were subjected to what are called ''magnetization'' and ''standardization'' cycles before measurement---the latter depending on the former and intended to set the initial conditions of the magnet to a reproducible standard. The primary goal of the magnetic measurements was then to determine the dipole strength as a function of current for each magnet based on a practical setting algorithm. The main constraints on the algorithm were reproducibility of the integrated field, speed, power and reduction of higher harmonics. Quadrupole and sextupole strengths were also measured on about one-half of the magnets at one current. This note presents the data and discusses it from the the viewpoint of subsequent measurements with stored beams. The most important conclusion is that inability to fully distribute laminations according to heat number and/or strike number results in ''magnetic personalities'' among the magnets which are quite difficult to deal with afterwards although one can distribute ''non-standard'' magnets to minimize orbit distributions. 26 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  20. The TWEAK–Fn14 dyad is involved in age-associated pathological changes in skeletal muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajrishi, Marjan M.; Sato, Shuichi; Shin, Jonghyun [Department of Anatomical Sciences and Neurobiology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Zheng, Timothy S.; Burkly, Linda C. [Department of Immunology, Biogen Idec, 14 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142 (United States); Kumar, Ashok, E-mail: ashok.kumar@louisville.edu [Department of Anatomical Sciences and Neurobiology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States)

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • The levels of TWEAK receptor Fn14 are increased in skeletal muscle during aging. • Deletion of Fn14 attenuates age-associated skeletal muscle fiber atrophy. • Deletion of Fn14 inhibits proteolysis in skeletal muscle during aging. • TWEAK–Fn14 signaling activates transcription factor NF-κB in aging skeletal muscle. • TWEAK–Fn14 dyad is involved in age-associated fibrosis in skeletal muscle. - Abstract: Progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength (sarcopenia) is a major clinical problem in the elderly. Recently, proinflammatory cytokine TWEAK and its receptor Fn14 were identified as key mediators of muscle wasting in various catabolic states. However, the role of the TWEAK–Fn14 pathway in pathological changes in skeletal muscle during aging remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that the levels of Fn14 are increased in skeletal muscle of 18-month old (aged) mice compared with adult mice. Genetic ablation of Fn14 significantly increased the levels of specific muscle proteins and blunted the age-associated fiber atrophy in mice. While gene expression of two prominent muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases MAFBx and MuRF1 remained comparable, levels of ubiquitinated proteins and the expression of autophagy-related molecule Atg12 were significantly reduced in Fn14-knockout (KO) mice compared with wild-type mice during aging. Ablation of Fn14 significantly diminished the DNA-binding activity of transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), gene expression of various inflammatory molecules, and interstitial fibrosis in skeletal muscle of aged mice. Collectively, our study suggests that the TWEAK–Fn14 signaling axis contributes to age-associated muscle atrophy and fibrosis potentially through its local activation of proteolytic systems and inflammatory pathways.

  1. The TWEAK–Fn14 dyad is involved in age-associated pathological changes in skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajrishi, Marjan M.; Sato, Shuichi; Shin, Jonghyun; Zheng, Timothy S.; Burkly, Linda C.; Kumar, Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The levels of TWEAK receptor Fn14 are increased in skeletal muscle during aging. • Deletion of Fn14 attenuates age-associated skeletal muscle fiber atrophy. • Deletion of Fn14 inhibits proteolysis in skeletal muscle during aging. • TWEAK–Fn14 signaling activates transcription factor NF-κB in aging skeletal muscle. • TWEAK–Fn14 dyad is involved in age-associated fibrosis in skeletal muscle. - Abstract: Progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength (sarcopenia) is a major clinical problem in the elderly. Recently, proinflammatory cytokine TWEAK and its receptor Fn14 were identified as key mediators of muscle wasting in various catabolic states. However, the role of the TWEAK–Fn14 pathway in pathological changes in skeletal muscle during aging remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that the levels of Fn14 are increased in skeletal muscle of 18-month old (aged) mice compared with adult mice. Genetic ablation of Fn14 significantly increased the levels of specific muscle proteins and blunted the age-associated fiber atrophy in mice. While gene expression of two prominent muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases MAFBx and MuRF1 remained comparable, levels of ubiquitinated proteins and the expression of autophagy-related molecule Atg12 were significantly reduced in Fn14-knockout (KO) mice compared with wild-type mice during aging. Ablation of Fn14 significantly diminished the DNA-binding activity of transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), gene expression of various inflammatory molecules, and interstitial fibrosis in skeletal muscle of aged mice. Collectively, our study suggests that the TWEAK–Fn14 signaling axis contributes to age-associated muscle atrophy and fibrosis potentially through its local activation of proteolytic systems and inflammatory pathways

  2. Relative Handgrip Strength Is Inversely Associated with Metabolic Profile and Metabolic Disease in the General Population in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxue Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Absolute handgrip strength has been correlated with metabolic profile and metabolic disease. Whether relative handgrip strength is also associated with metabolic disease has not been assessed. This study aimed at assessing the association of relative handgrip strength with metabolic profile and metabolic disease in the general population in China.Methods: Data were derived from an ongoing cross-sectional survey of the 2013 National Physical and Health in Shanxi Province, which involved 5520 participants. Multiple linear regression or multiple logistic regression analysis were used to assess the association of absolute/relative handgrip strength with the metabolic profile, preclinical, and established stages of metabolic diseases.Results: This study revealed that relative handgrip strength, that is when normalized to BMI, was associated with: (1 in both genders for more favorable blood lipid levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [males: b = 0.19 (0.15, 0.23; females: b = 0.22 (0.17, 0.28], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [males: b = −0.14 (−0.23, −0.05; females: b = −0.19 (−0.31, −0.18], triglycerides [males: b = −0.58 (−0.74, −0.43; females: b = −0.55 (−0.74, −0.36] and total cholesterol [males: b = −0.20 (−0.31, −0.10; females: b = −0.19 (−0.32, −0.06]; and better serum glucose levels in males [b = −0.30 (−0.46, −0.15]. (2 lower risk of impaired fasting glucose in males {third quartile [OR = 0.66 (0.45–0.95] and fourth quartile [OR = 0.46 (0.30–0.71] vs. first quartile} and dyslipidemia in both genders {third quartile [males: OR = 0.65 (0.48–0.87; females: OR = 0.68 (0.53–0.86] and fourth quartile [males: OR = 0.47 (0.35–0.64; females: OR = 0.47(0.36–0.61] vs. first quartile}. (3 lower risk of hyperlipidemia in both genders third quartile [males: OR = 0.66 (0.50–0.87; females: OR = 0.57 (0.43–0.75] and fourth quartile [males: OR = 0.35 (0.26–0.47; females: OR

  3. Gender- and height-related limits of muscle strength in world weightlifting champions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, L E; Detterline, A J; Ho, K K; Cao, W

    2000-09-01

    To assess factors that limit human muscle strength and growth, we examined the relationship between performance and body dimensions in the world weightlifting champions of 1993-1997. Weight lifted varied almost exactly with height squared (Ht(2.16)), suggesting that muscle mass scaled almost exactly with height cubed (Ht(3.16)) and that muscle cross-sectional area was closely correlated with body height, possibly because height and the numbers of muscle fibers in cross section are determined by a common factor during maturation. Further height limitations of muscle strength were shown by only one male champion >/=183 cm and no female champions >/=175 cm. The ratio of weight lifted to mean body cross-sectional area was approximately constant for body-weight classes

  4. Acoustic velocity in rift basin mudstones: effects of in situ stress and sample lithology, and its relation to formation strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, N. V.; Goldberg, D.

    2017-12-01

    Acoustic/sonic velocity (Vp) provides one of the best proxies for formation strength, which is essential for geomechanical modeling and formation evaluation. Vp-strength relations need to be built empirically for specific basins and/or rock types. Since velocity is stress- and frequency-dependent, such relations can be very sensitive to experimental conditions; therefore, it is important to quantify their effect on velocity values. In this study, we present confined velocity and strength measurements for over 70 samples from the Newark Rift basin, a candidate site for carbon sequestration, and one of the largest in a series of the Mesozoic rift basins on the eastern North-American coast. Acoustic velocity measurements were obtained for a range of confining pressures from 0 to 6,000 psi, roughly corresponding to in situ confining pressure range. Although, overall, Vp values tend to increase with increasing pressure, the degree of Vp response to stress varies dramatically from sample to sample, and does not appear to correlate directly to lithology or porosity. Select samples exhibit near-zero change in Vp with increasing confining pressure, while others are characterized by up to 15% Vp change with 3,000 psi increase in confining pressure. Compared to sonic logs, the low-stress Vp values usually underestimate sonic velocities, while high-stress values tend to overestimate them. Therefore, a systematic frequency-dependent core-log difference is not observed in these rift basin formations, but accounting for Vp dependence on confining pressure is important. We quantify the Vp-pressure dependence using laboratory acoustic measurements, and develop depth-dependent Vp-strength relation, which could be used with sonic logs for geomechanical analysis in similar Mesozoic rift basin formations.

  5. Neural adaptations to electrical stimulation strength training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortobagyi, Tibor; Maffiuletti, Nicola A.

    2011-01-01

    This review provides evidence for the hypothesis that electrostimulation strength training (EST) increases the force of a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) through neural adaptations in healthy skeletal muscle. Although electrical stimulation and voluntary effort activate muscle differently, there

  6. Age-related deficits in skeletal muscle recovery following disuse are associated with neuromuscular junction instability and ER stress, not impaired protein synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baehr, Leslie M.; West, Daniel W.D.; Marcotte, George; Marshall, Andrea G.; De Sousa, Luis Gustavo; Baar, Keith; Bodine, Sue C.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related loss of muscle mass and strength can be accelerated by impaired recovery of muscle mass following a transient atrophic stimulus. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanisms underlying the attenuated recovery of muscle mass and strength in old rats following disuse-induced atrophy. Adult (9 month) and old (29 month) male F344BN rats underwent hindlimb unloading (HU) followed by reloading. HU induced significant atrophy of the hindlimb muscles in both adult (17-38%) and old (8-29%) rats, but only the adult rats exhibited full recovery of muscle mass and strength upon reloading. Upon reloading, total RNA and protein synthesis increased to a similar extent in adult and old muscles. At baseline and upon reloading, however, proteasome-mediated degradation was suppressed leading to an accumulation of ubiquitin-tagged proteins and p62. Further, ER stress, as measured by CHOP expression, was elevated at baseline and upon reloading in old rats. Analysis of mRNA expression revealed increases in HDAC4, Runx1, myogenin, Gadd45a, and the AChRs in old rats, suggesting neuromuscular junction instability/denervation. Collectively, our data suggests that with aging, impaired neuromuscular transmission and deficits in the proteostasis network contribute to defects in muscle fiber remodeling and functional recovery of muscle mass and strength. PMID:26826670

  7. Can chronic multimorbidity explain the age-related differences in strength, speed and balance in older adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welmer, Anna-Karin; Kåreholt, Ingemar; Angleman, Sara; Rydwik, Elisabeth; Fratiglioni, Laura

    2012-10-01

    It is known that physical performance declines with age in general, however there remains much to be understood in terms of age-related differences amongst older adults across a variety of physical components (such as speed, strength and balance), and particularly in terms of the role played by multimorbidity of chronic diseases. We aimed to detect the age-related differences across four components of physical performance and to explore to what extent chronic diseases and multimorbidity may explain such differences. We analyzed cross-sectional data from a population-based sample of 3323 people, aged 60 years and older from the SNAC-K study, Stockholm, Sweden. Physical performance was assessed by trained nurses using several tests (grip strength, walking speed, balance and chair stands). Clinical diagnoses were made by the examining physician based on clinical history and examination. Censored normal regression analyses showed that the 72-90+ year-old persons had 17-40% worse grip strength, 44-86% worse balance, 30-86% worse chair stand score, and 21-59% worse walking speed, compared with the 60-66 year-old persons. Chronic diseases were strongly associated with physical impairment, and this association was particularly strong among the younger men. However, chronic diseases explained only some of the age-related differences in physical performance. When controlling for chronic diseases in the analyses, the age-related differences in physical performance changed 1-11%. In spite of the strong association between multimorbidity and physical impairment, chronic morbidities explained only a small part of the age-related differences in physical performance.

  8. Hospital visits among women with skeletal-related events secondary to breast cancer and bone metastases: a nationwide population-based cohort study in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svendsen ML

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Marie Louise Svendsen,1 Henrik Gammelager,1 Claus Sværke,1 Mellissa Yong,2 Victoria M Chia,2 Christian F Christiansen,1 Jon P Fryzek1 1Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 2Center for Observational Research, Amgen, Thousand Oaks, CA, USA Objective: Skeletal-related events (SREs among women with breast cancer may be associated with considerable use of health-care resources. We characterized inpatient and outpatient hospital visits in a national population-based cohort of Danish women with SREs secondary to breast cancer and bone metastases. Methods: We identified first-time breast cancer patients with bone metastases from 2003 through 2009 who had a subsequent SRE (defined as pathologic fracture, spinal cord compression, radiation therapy, or surgery to bone. Hospital visits included the number of inpatient hospitalizations, length of stay, number of hospital outpatient clinic visits, and emergency room visits. The number of hospital visits was assessed for a pre-SRE period (90 days prior to the diagnostic period, a diagnostic period (14 days prior to the SRE, and a post-SRE period (90 days after the SRE. Patients who experienced more than one SRE during the 90-day post-SRE period were defined as having multiple SREs and were followed until 90 days after the last SRE. Results: We identified 569 women with SREs secondary to breast cancer with bone metastases. The majority of women had multiple SREs (73.1%. A total of 20.9% and 33.4% of women with single and multiple SREs died in the post-SRE period, respectively. SREs were associated with a large number of hospital visits in the diagnostic period, irrespective of the number and type of SREs. Women with multiple SREs generally had a higher number of visits compared to those with a single SRE in the post-SRE period, eg, median length of hospitalization was 5 days (interquartile range 0–15 for women with a single SRE and 13 days (interquartile range 4

  9. Bond Strength of Resin Composite to Dentin with Different Adhesive Systems: Influence of Relative Humidity and Application Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsler, Fabienne; Peutzfeldt, Anne; Lussi, Adrian; Flury, Simon

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the influence of relative humidity and application time on bond strength to dentin of different classes of adhesive systems. A total of 360 extracted human molars were ground to mid-coronal dentin. The dentin specimens were treated with one of six adhesive systems (Syntac Classic, OptiBond FL, Clearfil SE Bond, AdheSE, Xeno Select, or Scotchbond Universal), and resin composite (Filtek Z250) was applied to the treated dentin surface under four experimental conditions (45% relative humidity/application time according to manufacturers' instructions; 45% relative humidity/reduced application time; 85% relative humidity/application time according to manufacturers' instructions; 85% relative humidity/reduced application time). After storage (37°C, 100% humidity, 24 h), shear bond strength (SBS) was measured and data analyzed with nonparametric ANOVA followed by Kruskal-Wallis tests and Mann-Whitney U-tests with Bonferroni-Holm correction for multiple testing (level of significance: α = 0.05). Increased relative humidity and reduced application time had no effect on SBS for Clearfil SE Bond and Scotchbond Universal (p = 1.00). For Syntac Classic, OptiBond FL, AdheSE, and Xeno Select there was no effect on SBS of reduced application time of the adhesive system (p ≥ 0.403). However, increased relative humidity significantly reduced SBS for Syntac Classic, OptiBond FL, and Xeno Select irrespective of application time (p ≤ 0.003), whereas for AdheSE, increased relative humidity significantly reduced SBS at recommended application time only (p = 0.002). Generally, increased relative humidity had a detrimental effect on SBS to dentin, but reduced application time had no effect.

  10. Moderate volume of high relative training intensity produces greater strength gains compared with low and high volumes in competitive weightlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Badillo, Juan José; Izquierdo, Mikel; Gorostiaga, Esteban M

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 3 volumes of heavy resistance, average relative training intensity (expressed as a percentage of 1 repetition maximum that represented the absolute kilograms lifted divided by the number of repetitions performed) programs on maximal strength (1RM) in Snatch (Sn), Clean & Jerk (C&J), and Squat (Sq). Twenty-nine experienced (>3 years), trained junior weightlifters were randomly assigned into 1 of 3 groups: low-intensity group (LIG; n = 12), moderate-intensity group (MIG; n = 9), and high-intensity group (HIG; n = 8). All subjects trained for 10 weeks, 4-5 days a week, in a periodized routine using the same exercises and training volume (expressed as total number of repetitions performed at intensities equal to or greater than 60% of 1RM), but different programmed total repetitions at intensities of >90-100% of 1RM for the entire 10-week period: LIG (46 repetitions), MIG (93 repetitions), and HIG (184 repetitions). During the training period, MIG and LIG showed a significant increase (p strength gains in the MIG than in HIG or LIG. There were no significant differences between LIG and HIG training volume-induced strength gains. All the subjects in HIG were unable to fully accomplish the repetitions programmed at relative intensities greater than 90% of 1RM. The present results indicate that short-term resistance training using moderate volumes of high relative intensity tended to produce higher enhancements in weightlifting performance compared with low and high volumes of high relative training intensities of equal total volume in experienced, trained young weightlifters. Therefore, for the present population of weightlifters, it may be beneficial to use the MIG training protocol to improve the weightlifting program at least in a short-term (10 weeks) cycle of training.

  11. IGF-1 induces skeletal myocyte hypertrophy through calcineurin in association with GATA-2 and NF-ATc1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaro, A.; McCullagh, K. J.; Naya, F. J.; Olson, E. N.; Rosenthal, N.

    1999-01-01

    Localized synthesis of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) has been broadly implicated in skeletal muscle growth, hypertrophy and regeneration. Virally delivered IGF-1 genes induce local skeletal muscle hypertrophy and attenuate age-related skeletal muscle atrophy, restoring and improving muscle mass and strength in mice. Here we show that the molecular pathways underlying the hypertrophic action of IGF-1 in skeletal muscle are similar to those responsible for cardiac hypertrophy. Transfected IGF-1 gene expression in postmitotic skeletal myocytes activates calcineurin-mediated calcium signalling by inducing calcineurin transcripts and nuclear localization of calcineurin protein. Expression of activated calcineurin mimics the effects of IGF-1, whereas expression of a dominant-negative calcineurin mutant or addition of cyclosporin, a calcineurin inhibitor, represses myocyte differentiation and hypertrophy. Either IGF-1 or activated calcineurin induces expression of the transcription factor GATA-2, which accumulates in a subset of myocyte nuclei, where it associates with calcineurin and a specific dephosphorylated isoform of the transcription factor NF-ATc1. Thus, IGF-1 induces calcineurin-mediated signalling and activation of GATA-2, a marker of skeletal muscle hypertrophy, which cooperates with selected NF-ATc isoforms to activate gene expression programs.

  12. Enhanced skeletal muscle ribosome biogenesis, yet attenuated mTORC1 and ribosome biogenesis-related signalling, following short-term concurrent versus single-mode resistance training

    OpenAIRE

    Fyfe, Jackson J.; Bishop, David J.; Bartlett, Jonathan D.; Hanson, Erik D.; Anderson, Mitchell J.; Garnham, Andrew P.; Stepto, Nigel K.

    2018-01-01

    Combining endurance training with resistance training (RT) may attenuate skeletal muscle hypertrophic adaptation versus RT alone; however, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We investigated changes in markers of ribosome biogenesis, a process linked with skeletal muscle hypertrophy, following concurrent training versus RT alone. Twenty-three males underwent eight weeks of RT, either performed alone (RT group, n = 8), or combined with either high-intensity interval training (HIT+RT group, ...

  13. Constitutive Relations Analyses of Plastic Flow in Dual-Phase Steels to Elucidate Structure-Strength-Ductility Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saimoto, S.; Timokhina, I. B.; Pereloma, E. V.

    2017-07-01

    The structure-strength characterization is typically performed by correlating the structure with x-ray, electron, or atomic imaging devices to the bulk mechanical tensile parameters of yield stress and the plastic yielding response. The problem is that structure parameters embedded in the stress-strain data cannot be revealed without an analyzable constitutive relation. New functional slip-based constitutive formulation with precise digital fitting parameters can replicate the measured data with at least two loci. Thus, this study examines the possibility of identifying the mechanical response as a result of the various microstructure components. The key parameter, the mean slip distance, can be calibrated from the initial work-hardening slope at 0.2% strain from which all the fit parameters can be determined. In this process, a newly derived friction stress is defined to separate the yield phenomenon from the plastic strains beyond yield-point elongation. This methodology has been applied to dual-phase steel specimens that resulted in excellent predictive correlations with prior structure-strength characterization. Hence, the structure-strength-ductility changes resulting from processing conditions can be more precisely surmised from mechanical testing. Thus, a method to delineate the nanostructure evolution with deformation using mesoscopic mechanical parameters has been introduced.

  14. Overweight in elderly people induces impaired autophagy in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potes, Yaiza; de Luxán-Delgado, Beatriz; Rodriguez-González, Susana; Guimarães, Marcela Rodrigues Moreira; Solano, Juan J; Fernández-Fernández, María; Bermúdez, Manuel; Boga, Jose A; Vega-Naredo, Ignacio; Coto-Montes, Ana

    2017-09-01

    Sarcopenia is the gradual loss of skeletal muscle mass, strength and quality associated with aging. Changes in body composition, especially in skeletal muscle and fat mass are crucial steps in the development of chronic diseases. We studied the effect of overweight on skeletal muscle tissue in elderly people without reaching obesity to prevent this extreme situation. Overweight induces a progressive protein breakdown reflected as a progressive withdrawal of anabolism against the promoted catabolic state leading to muscle wasting. Protein turnover is regulated by a network of signaling pathways. Muscle damage derived from overweight displayed by oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induces inflammation and insulin resistance and forces the muscle to increase requirements from autophagy mechanisms. Our findings showed that failure of autophagy in the elderly deprives it to deal with the cell damage caused by overweight. This insufficiently efficient autophagy leads to an accumulation of p62 and NBR1, which are robust markers of protein aggregations. This impaired autophagy affects myogenesis activity. Depletion of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) without links to variations in myostatin levels in overweight patients suggest a possible reduction of satellite cells in muscle tissue, which contributes to declined muscle quality. This discovery has important implications that improve the understanding of aged-related atrophy caused by overweight and demonstrates how impaired autophagy is one of the main responsible mechanisms that aggravate muscle wasting. Therefore, autophagy could be an interesting target for therapeutic interventions in humans against muscle impairment diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Multi-factor analysis on events related to hematological toxicity in 153Sm-EDTMP palliative therapy for skeletal metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan Hongwei; Yu Xiaoling; Ye Xiaojuan; Bao Chengkan; Sun Da; He Gangqiang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical factors related to hematological toxicity induced by intravenous samarium-153 ethylenediaminetetramethylene phosphonic acid ( 153 Sm-EDTMP) treatment. Methods A total of 206 patients with bony metastases treated with 153 Sm-EDTMP were retrospectively analyzed. Logistic regression (SPSS 10.0 for Windows) and correlation analysis were used to evaluate the factors concerned. Results: Age of the patient, number of bone metastatic lesion, chemotherapy before 153 Sm-EDTMP therapy, concurrent radiotherapy and repeat-times of 153 Sm-EDTMP treatments were found the individual factors related to hematological toxicity. Chemotherapy before 153 Sm-EDTMP, concurrent radiotherapy, medication for normal blood counting and repeat-times of 153 Sm-EDTMP treatments were the hematological toxicity factors in multi-factor analysis. Conclusion: In 153 Sm-EDTMP therapy, several factors were found related to hematological toxicity suggesting more attention be paid to the change of blood cell counting after the palliative therapy. (authors)

  16. Somatotype variables related to strength and power output in male basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buśko, Krzysztof; Pastuszak, Anna; Lipińska, Monika; Lipińska, Marta; Gryko, Karol

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between somatotype, muscular strength, power output measured in maximal cycle ergometer exercise bouts, and maximal power output and height of rise of the body mass centre (jump height) measured in akimbo counter movement jump (ACMJ), counter movement jump (CMJ) and spike jump (SPJ), in male basketball players. Thirteen male basketball players (second division, age 19.4 ± 0.8 years, body height 192.9 ± 5.6 cm, body mass 88.8 ± 8.6 kg, training experience 9.3 ± 0.8 years) participated in the study. Somatotype was determined using the Heath-Carter method. Maximal joint torques were measured under static conditions. Power output was measured in 2 maximal cycle ergometer exercise bouts, 10 seconds each, with increasing external loads equal to 7.5 and 10.0% of the body weight (BW). All jump trials (ACMJ, CMJ and SPJ) were performed on a force plate. The mean somatotype of basketball players amounted to: 2.8-4.2-3.2. The sum of the joint torques for left and right lower extremities (0.613), trunk (0.631) and all six measured muscle groups (0.647) were significantly correlated (p jump during ACMJ, CMJ and SPJ trials. The power output measured in maximal cycle ergometer exercise bouts with increasing external loads was significantly correlated (p basketball players' anthropometric characteristics can influence their level of performance but it is not a decisive factor.

  17. Type 1 AGN at low z - II. The relative strength of narrow lines and the nature of intermediate type AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Jonathan; Laor, Ari

    2012-11-01

    We explore the relative strength of the narrow emission lines in a Sloan Digital Sky Survey based sample of broad Hα selected active galactic nuclei (AGN), defined in Paper I. We find a decrease in the narrow to broad Hα luminosity (LbHα) ratio with increasing LbHα, such that both L([O iii ] λ5007) and L( narrow Hα) scale as ∝L bH α0.7 for 1040 108.5 M⊙, probably due to the dominance of radio-loud AGN, and associated enhanced [O III] emission.

  18. Self-directed Strength Training with Primary School Children and its Effect on Functional Body-related Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Nitzsche

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Strength training intervention is primarily controlled by training parameters. A scientific desideratum exists concerning the question to what extent a self-controlled load perception might have an effect on motor performance and functional body-related knowledge. Method: A total of 81 primary school students were assigned to an intervention group (N=34, 9.7±2 years and control group (N=47, 7.3±0.4 years. The intervention group performed strength training twice a week (circuit training, scope of load: 45-60 minutes, duration 20-30 seconds, 7 stations, rest between sets 20-30 seconds, self-regulated intensity. After 9 weeks, both groups were tested for motor performance and functional body-related knowledge. Results: For push-ups (PRETEST: Z=103.2±7 vs. POSTTEST: Z=114.7±9; d=1.4; P<0.01 and sit-ups (PRETEST: Z=90.9±8 vs. POSTTEST: Z=98.6±9; d=0.89; P<0.01, a significant improvement was established in the intervention group. The control group showed substantial improvement for push-ups (PRETEST: Z=101.8±10 vs. POSTTEST: Z=107.5±9; d=0.58; P<0.01 and significant decline for sit-ups (PRETEST: Z=99.1±7 vs. POSTTEST: Z=96.6±6; d=-0.36; P<0.05. As to the knowledge test, the intervention group increased their performance considerably (PRETEST: 35±2 points vs. POSTTEST: 40±4 points; d=0.9; P<0.01 when compared to the control group (PRETEST: 34.2±4.6 points vs. POSTTEST: 31.2±4.5 points; d=-0.69; P<0.01. Discussion: A nine-week, self-regulated strength training for children has positive effects on sport motor performance (push-ups and sit-ups and functional body-related knowledge. Keywords: Strength training, children, motor performance, functional body-related knowledge, self-controlled load perception

  19. Exercise Promotes Healthy Aging of Skeletal Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartee, Gregory D.; Hepple, Russell T.; Bamman, Marcas M.; Zierath, Juleen R.

    2016-01-01

    Primary aging is the progressive and inevitable process of bodily deterioration during adulthood. In skeletal muscle, primary aging causes defective mitochondrial energetics, and reduced muscle mass. Secondary aging refers to additional deleterious structural and functional age-related changes caused by diseases and lifestyle factors. Secondary aging can exacerbate deficits in mitochondrial function and muscle mass, concomitant with the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Exercise opposes deleterious effects of secondary aging by preventing the decline in mitochondrial respiration, mitigating aging-related loss of muscle mass and enhancing insulin sensitivity. This review focuses on mechanisms by which exercise promotes “healthy aging” by inducing modifications in skeletal muscle. PMID:27304505

  20. The relationship between skeletal-related events and bone scan index for the treatment of bone metastasis with breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwase, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Naohito; Ichihara, Hironori; Togawa, Takashi; Nagashima, Takeshi; Miyazaki, Masaru

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between the automated bone scan index (aBSI) and skeletal-related events (SRE) in breast cancer patients with bone metastasis. A computer-aided software (BONENAVI™) that was developed using an Artificial Neural Network (Artificial Neural Network) was used for the present analysis. Forty-five patients diagnosed with bone metastasis due to breast cancer from April 2005 through March 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Before and after the time of initial treatment, aBSI, Artificial Neural Network score, and hotspot number were calculated, and the relationships between these scores and SRE were analyzed. Twenty cases showed decreased (improved) aBSI values after initial treatment (Group A), and 25 cases showed unchanged/increased (worsened) aBSI values (Group B). Chi-square analysis revealed a significant difference in incident numbers of SRE between the two groups--one case in Group A and 12 in Group B (Pscan interpretations, and no significant differences were shown in the number of SRE (P=0.82, P=0.10). When correlation analyses were performed between aBSI and bone metabolic or tumor markers, alkaline phosphatase was significantly correlated with aBSI at the time of initial treatment (R=0.69, P<0.05). In conclusion, aBSI is proposed as a useful and objective imaging biomarker in the detection of breast-cancer patients with bone metastasis at high risk of SRE.

  1. Skeletal muscle connective tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline

    that collagen plays a significant role in determining the tenderness of meat. What are we missing? Therefore, fundamental aspects of connective tissue research have been the centre of attention throughout this thesis. A holistic view has been applied, glancing at this complex tissue which has many facets......  The connective tissue content of skeletal muscle is believed to be the major factor responsible for defining the eating quality of different meat cuts, although attempts to correlate quantifications based on traditional histological methods have not as yet been able to prove this relation....... Collagen, being the major protein in connective tissue, has been extensively investigated with regard to its relation to meat tenderness, but the results have been rather conflicting. Meat from older animals is tougher than that from younger animals, and changes in the properties of the collagen due...

  2. Blast injury prevalence in skeletal remains: Are there differences between Bosnian war samples and documented combat-related deaths?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussault, Marie Christine; Hanson, Ian; Smith, Martin J

    2017-11-01

    Court cases at the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) have seen questions raised about the recognition and causes of blast-related trauma and the relationship to human rights abuses or combat. During trials, defence teams argued that trauma was combat related and prosecutors argued that trauma was related to executions. We compared a sample of 81 cases (males between 18 and 75) from a Bosnian mass grave investigation linked to the Kravica warehouse killings to published combat-related blast injury data from World War One, Vietnam, Northern Ireland, the first Gulf War, Operation Iraqi Freedom and Afghanistan. We also compared blast fracture injuries from Bosnia to blast fracture injuries sustained in bombings of buildings in two non-combat 'civilian' examples; the Oklahoma City and Birmingham pub bombings. A Chi-squared statistic with a Holm-Bonferroni correction assessed differences between prevalence of blast-related fractures in various body regions, where data were comparable. We found statistically significant differences between the Bosnian and combat contexts. We noted differences in the prevalence of head, torso, vertebral area, and limbs trauma, with a general trend for higher levels of more widespread trauma in the Bosnian sample. We noted that the pattern of trauma in the Bosnian cases resembled the pattern from the bombing in buildings civilian contexts. Variation in trauma patterns can be attributed to the influence of protective armour; the context of the environment; and the type of munition and its injuring mechanism. Blast fracture injuries sustained in the Bosnian sample showed patterns consistent with a lack of body armour, blast effects on people standing in enclosed buildings and the use of explosive munitions. Copyright © 2017 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Fast skeletal muscle troponin activation increases force of mouse fast skeletal muscle and ameliorates weakness due to nebulin-deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Jeong Lee

    Full Text Available The effect of the fast skeletal muscle troponin activator, CK-2066260, on calcium-induced force development was studied in skinned fast skeletal muscle fibers from wildtype (WT and nebulin deficient (NEB KO mice. Nebulin is a sarcomeric protein that when absent (NEB KO mouse or present at low levels (nemaline myopathy (NM patients with NEB mutations causes muscle weakness. We studied the effect of fast skeletal troponin activation on WT muscle and tested whether it might be a therapeutic mechanism to increase muscle strength in nebulin deficient muscle. We measured tension-pCa relations with and without added CK-2066260. Maximal active tension in NEB KO tibialis cranialis fibers in the absence of CK-2066260 was ∼60% less than in WT fibers, consistent with earlier work. CK-2066260 shifted the tension-calcium relationship leftwards, with the largest relative increase (up to 8-fold at low to intermediate calcium levels. This was a general effect that was present in both WT and NEB KO fiber bundles. At pCa levels above ∼6.0 (i.e., calcium concentrations <1 µM, CK-2066260 increased tension of NEB KO fibers to beyond that of WT fibers. Crossbridge cycling kinetics were studied by measuring k(tr (rate constant of force redevelopment following a rapid shortening/restretch. CK-2066260 greatly increased k(tr at submaximal activation levels in both WT and NEB KO fiber bundles. We also studied the sarcomere length (SL dependence of the CK-2066260 effect (SL 2.1 µm and 2.6 µm and found that in the NEB KO fibers, CK-2066260 had a larger effect on calcium sensitivity at the long SL. We conclude that fast skeletal muscle troponin activation increases force at submaximal activation in both wildtype and NEB KO fiber bundles and, importantly, that this troponin activation is a potential therapeutic mechanism for increasing force in NM and other skeletal muscle diseases with loss of muscle strength.

  4. Increased Muscular 5α-Dihydrotestosterone in Response to Resistance Training Relates to Skeletal Muscle Mass and Glucose Metabolism in Type 2 Diabetic Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Horii

    Full Text Available Regular resistance exercise induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy and improvement of glycemic control in type 2 diabetes patients. Administration of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, a sex steroid hormone precursor, increases 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT synthesis and is associated with improvements in fasting blood glucose level and skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether increase in muscle DHT levels, induced by chronic resistance exercise, can contribute to skeletal muscle hypertrophy and concomitant improvement of muscular glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats. Male 20-week-old type 2 diabetic rats (OLETF were randomly divided into 3 groups: sedentary control, resistance training (3 times a week on alternate days for 8 weeks, or resistance training with continuous infusion of a 5α-reductase inhibitor (n = 8 each group. Age-matched, healthy nondiabetic Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO rats (n = 8 were used as controls. The results indicated that OLETF rats showed significant decrease in muscular DHEA, free testosterone, DHT levels, and protein expression of steroidogenic enzymes, with loss of skeletal muscle mass and hyperglycemia, compared to that of LETO rats. However, 8-week resistance training in OLETF rats significantly increased the levels of muscle sex steroid hormones and protein expression of steroidogenic enzymes with a concomitant increase in skeletal muscle mass, improved fasting glucose level, and insulin sensitivity index. Moreover, resistance training accelerated glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4 translocation and protein kinase B and C-ζ/λ phosphorylation. Administering the 5α-reductase inhibitor in resistance-trained OLETF rats resulted in suppression of the exercise-induced effects on skeletal muscle mass, fasting glucose level, insulin sensitivity index, and GLUT-4 signaling, with a decline in muscular DHT levels. These findings suggest that resistance training

  5. Scaling relations between bone volume and bone structure as found using 3D µCT images of the trabecular bone taken from different skeletal sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeth, Christoph; Müller, Dirk; Sidorenko, Irina; Monetti, Roberto; Eckstein, Felix; Matsuura, Maiko; Lochmüller, Eva-Maria; Zysset, Philippe K.; Bauer, Jan

    2010-03-01

    According to Wolff's law bone remodels in response to the mechanical stresses it experiences so as to produce a minimal-weight structure that is adapted to its applied stresses. Here, we investigate the relations between bone volume and structure for the trabecular bone using 3D μCT images taken from different skeletal sites in vitro, namely from the distal radii (96 specimens), thoracic (73 specimens) and lumbar vertebrae (78 specimens). We determine the local structure of the trabecular network by calculating isotropic and anisotropic scaling indices (α, αz). These measures have been proven to be able to discriminate rod- from sheet-like structures and to quantify the alignment of structures with respect to a preferential direction as given by the direction of the external force. Comparing global structure measures derived from the scaling indices (mean, standard deviation) with the bone mass (BV/TV) we find that all correlations obey very accurately power laws with scaling exponents of 0.14, 0.12, 0.15 (~), -0.2, -017, -0.17 (σ(αz)), 0.09, 0.05, 0.07 (~) and -0.20, -0.11 ,-0.13 (σ(αz)) distal radius, thoracic vertebra and lumbar vertebra respectively. Thus, these relations turn out to be site-independent, albeit the mechanical stresses to which the bones of the forearm and the spine are exposed, are quite different. The similar alignment might not be in agreement with a universal validity of Wolff's law. On the other hand, such universal power law relations may allow to develop additional diagnostic means to better assess healthy and osteoporotic bone.

  6. Determination of the relative parallelism of occlusal plane to three ala-tragal lines in various skeletal malocclusions: a cephalometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopalan, Shashinandan K; SatishBabu, C L; Rani, M S

    2012-01-01

    Establishment of a proper occlusal plane is needed for developing an occlusion that is compatible with the biomechanics of a stomatognathic system. There has been a great deal of controversy regarding the anatomic reference point/s taken for identifying the Camper's plane (Ala-Tragus) to which the occlusal plane is oriented parallel in regular complete denture Prosthodontic practice. There has been no study in literature to correlate the occlusal plane to the Camper's plane in various skeletal malocclusions using landmarks on a lateral Cephalogram. The aim of the study is to determine the relative parallelism of the occlusal plane to ala-tragal lines in various malocclusions. A total of sixty subjects belonging to Class I, Class II and class III malocclusions were selected for the study. Markings with radiopaque marker of 1 mm diameter were adhered against the superior, middle and inferior border of the tragus and against the lower borer of ala of the nose. Lateral cephalograms were obtained for all of the patients. Tracing was performed for all of these radiographs. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test and Post-Hoc test of Bonferroni were used to compare the angles formed at the superior, middle and inferior borders with the occlusal plane. The result from the present study showed that in Class I and Class III malocclusion, the line drawn from the lower border of ala of the nose to the inferior position of the tragus (Camper' plane C) was relatively parallel to occlusal plane; and, in Class II malocclusion, the line drawn from the lower border of ala of nose to middle border of tragus (Camper's plane B) was relatively parallel to occlusal plane.

  7. Influence of relative density on the cyclic shear strength of sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arab A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a laboratory study of the influence of relative density on the liquefaction potential of a soil. The study is based on undrained triaxial tests that were performed on samples with relative density Id = 0.15, 0.5 and 0.65. The article is composed of three parts. First, we present the materials and characteristics of the studied sands. the second part deals with the procedure and the device used. The third part studies the influence of the relative density on the liquefaction potential of the three sands (Hostun Rf, Chlef and Rass. This study also makes it possible to explore the influence of granulometry on the liquefaction potential. The results of the tests show that concordant results have been obtained which clearly show that the increase of the relative density leads to a significant improvement in the resistance to liquefaction of the sands. This effect is very significant when the initial relative density Id = 0.50 to Id = 0.65.

  8. Age-related differences in lean mass, protein synthesis and skeletal muscle markers of proteolysis after bed rest and exercise rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Ruth E; Brunker, Lucille B; Agergaard, Jakob; Barrows, Katherine M; Briggs, Robert A; Kwon, Oh Sung; Young, Laura M; Hopkins, Paul N; Volpi, Elena; Marcus, Robin L; LaStayo, Paul C; Drummond, Micah J

    2015-09-15

    Bed rest-induced muscle loss and impaired muscle recovery may contribute to age-related sarcopenia. It is unknown if there are age-related differences in muscle mass and muscle anabolic and catabolic responses to bed rest. A secondary objective was to determine if rehabilitation could reverse bed rest responses. Nine older and fourteen young adults participated in a 5-day bed rest challenge (BED REST). This was followed by 8 weeks of high intensity resistance exercise (REHAB). Leg lean mass (via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; DXA) and strength were determined. Muscle biopsies were collected during a constant stable isotope infusion in the postabsorptive state and after essential amino acid (EAA) ingestion on three occasions: before (PRE), after bed rest and after rehabilitation. Samples were assessed for protein synthesis, mTORC1 signalling, REDD1/2 expression and molecular markers related to muscle proteolysis (MURF1, MAFBX, AMPKα, LC3II/I, Beclin1). We found that leg lean mass and strength decreased in older but not younger adults after bedrest (P protein synthesis increased before bed rest in both age groups (P protein synthesis rates and increased MAFBX mRNA, p-AMPKα and the LC3II/I ratio (P muscle loss after short-term bed rest. This may be partially explained by a combined suppression of protein synthesis and a marginal increase in proteolytic markers. Finally, rehabilitation restored bed rest-induced deficits in lean mass and strength in older adults. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  9. Cotton fiber properties: relative humidity and its effect on flat bundle strength, elongation, and fracture morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is well known that cotton fibers readily exchange moisture content with their surrounding atmosphere. As moisture exchange progresses, several physical properties of the fiber are significantly affected. In this study, the effects of relative humidity (RH), a factor that affects the atmospheric m...

  10. A Review of Existing Relational Aggression Programs: Strengths, Limitations, and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leff, Stephen S.; Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Crick, Nicki R.

    2010-01-01

    Research suggests that involvement in relational aggression is associated with serious adjustment problems, including concurrent and future social maladjustment (e.g., problematic friendships; rejection), internalizing problems (e.g., depressive symptoms), and school avoidance. Despite the burgeoning literature focusing on the harmful and damaging…

  11. Expression of collagen and related growth factors in rat tendon and skeletal muscle in response to specific contraction types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemeier, K M; Olesen, J L; Haddad, F

    2007-01-01

    Acute exercise induces collagen synthesis in both tendon and muscle, indicating an adaptive response in the connective tissue of the muscle-tendon unit. However, the mechanisms of this adaptation, potentially involving collagen-inducing growth factors (such as transforming growth factor-beta-1 (TGF......-beta-1)), as well as enzymes related to collagen processing, are not clear. Furthermore, possible differential effects of specific contraction types on collagen regulation have not been investigated. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 4 days of concentric, eccentric or isometric training (n = 7......), metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and -9) and their inhibitors (TIMP-1 and 2) were measured by Northern blotting and/or real-time PCR. In tendon, expression of TGF-beta-1 and collagens I and III (but not CTGF) increased in response to all types of training. Similarly, enzymes/factors involved in collagen processing were...

  12. Lyophilized skeletal imaging composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanduzee, B.F.

    1983-01-01

    This invention encompasses a process for producing a dry-powder skeletal imaging kit. An aqueous solution of a diphosphonate, a stannous reductant, and, optionally, a stabilizer is prepared. The solution is adjusted to a pH within the range 4.2 to 4.8 and the pH-adjusted solution is then lyophilized. The adjustment of pH, within a particular range, during the process of manufacturing lyophilized diphosphonate containing skeletal imaging kits yields a kit which produces a technetium skeletal imaging agent with superior imaging properties. This improved performance is manifested through faster blood clearance and higher skeletal uptake of the technetium imaging agent

  13. Sex-related differences in joint-angle-specific functional hamstring-to-quadriceps strength ratios

    OpenAIRE

    El-Ashker, Said; Carson, Brian P.; Ayala, Francisco; De Ste Croix, Mark B

    2017-01-01

    Purpose\\ud To examine and compare sex-related differences in the functioning of the hamstrings and quadriceps muscles and the isokinetic hamstrings eccentric-to-quadriceps concentric functional ratio (H/Q FUNC).\\ud Methods\\ud Fifty male and 46 female young adults completed this study. Each participant carried out an isokinetic assessment to determine isokinetic concentric and eccentric torques during knee extension and flexion actions at 3 different angular velocities (60, 180 and 300°/s) ado...

  14. The effect of relative humidity on tensile strength and water vapor permeability in chitosan, fish gelatin and transglutaminase edible films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia ALVARADO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractComposite films of chitosan, fish gelatin and microbial transglutaminase (MTgase were developed. Films were produced by the casting method and dried at room temperature for 30 h, conditioned for 7 days at 30 °C at a relative humidity (RH from 11 to 90%, and characterized. Chitosan:fish gelatin films in different proportions (100:0, 75:25, 50:50 with MTgase, were subjected to tensile properties and water vapor transmission (WVT testing. The results showed that tensile strength decreased with an increase in RH and with an increase in gelatin content. Percent of elongation also increased with increasing RH and gelatin concentration. Water vapor transmission showed an increase proportional to an increase in RH with the presence of gelatin being unfavorable for reducing WVT. Results in this work allowed studying the effect of relative humidity on tensile and water vapor properties of chitosan and fish gelatin films.

  15. Causal relation between spasticity, strength, gross motor function, and functional outcome in children with cerebral palsy: a path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won Ho; Park, Eun Young

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the causal relation between spasticity, weakness, gross motor function, and functional outcome (expressed as activity limitation) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and tested models of functional outcome mediated by gross motor function. Eighty-one children (50 males, 31 females) with CP were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Their mean age was 10 years 4 months (SD 1y 9mo). Strength was assessed using the Manual Muscle Test. Spasticity was assessed by the Modified Ashworth Scale. The Gross Motor Function Measure assessed gross motor function. The Functional Skills domain of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory assessed functional outcome. Twenty-eight children (34.6%) had quadriplegia, 44 children (54.3%) had diplegia, and nine children (11.1%) had hemiplegia. Children were classified using the Gross Motor Function Classification System with 14 (17.3%) in level I, 9 (11.1%) in level II, 13 (16.0%) in level III, 5 (6.2%) in level IV, and 40 (49.4%) in level V. The proposed path model showed good fit indices. The direct effects were significant between spasticity and gross motor function (β=-0.339), between strength and gross motor function (β=0.447), and between gross motor function and functional outcome (β=0.708). Spasticity had a significant negative indirect effect (β=-0.240) and strength had a significant positive indirect effect (β=0.317) on functional outcome through effects on gross motor function. Activity-based rather than impairment-based intervention is more important for reducing activity limitation in children with CP. The study established a base from which researchers can further develop a causal model between motor impairments and functional outcome. © The Authors. Journal compilation © Mac Keith Press 2010.

  16. Skeletal muscle connective tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline

      The connective tissue content of skeletal muscle is believed to be the major factor responsible for defining the eating quality of different meat cuts, although attempts to correlate quantifications based on traditional histological methods have not as yet been able to prove this relation...... that collagen plays a significant role in determining the tenderness of meat. What are we missing? Therefore, fundamental aspects of connective tissue research have been the centre of attention throughout this thesis. A holistic view has been applied, glancing at this complex tissue which has many facets...... in this thesis that alpha-ketoglutarate, a tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolite, has the potential to control the metabolism of this particular tissue. Finally, a new microscopic method is introduced which allows the study of thermal denaturation of fibrillar collagen and myofibers in real time without any label...

  17. Age-related alterations in skeletal metabolism--24-hr whole-body retention of diphosphonate in 250 normal subjects: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogelman, I.; Bessent, R.

    1982-01-01

    Twenty-four-hour measurements of whole-body retention (WBR) of 99 mTc diphosphonate (a sensitive measure of skeletal metabolism) have been obtained in 250 healthy volunteer subjects. WBR values were found to fall from the age of 20 yr until 35 yr and then in men to rise linearly thereafter. Women showed a similar pattern initially but there was a marked rise in WBR corresponding to the menopausal years. Our results lend support to the belief that skeletal metabolism increases with age. It is suggested that some imbalance must always exist between resorption and formation in bone, with net loss of bone mineral, and increasing levels of skeletal metabolism will exaggerate this imbalance and accelerate the rate of bone loss

  18. Adaptation of the Skeletal System during Long-duration Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, Jean D.; Cavanagh, Peter R.; Lang, Thomas F.; LeBlanc, Adrian D.; Schneider, Victor S.; Shackelford, Linda C.; Smith, Scott M.; Vico, Laurence

    2008-01-01

    exceeds spaceflight exposure but for which the restoration of whole bone strength remains an open issue and may involve structural alteration; and 4. Display risk factors for bone loss -- such as the negative calcium balance and down-regulated calcium-regulating hormones in response to bone atrophy -- that can be compounded by the constraints of conducting mission operations (inability to provide essential nutrients and vitamins). The full characterization of the skeletal response to mechanical unloading in space is not complete. In particular, countermeasures used to date have been inadequate and it is not yet known whether more appropriate countermeasures can prevent the changes in bone that have been found in previous flights, knowledge gaps related to the effects of prolonged (greater than or equal to 6 months) space exposure and to partial gravity environments are substantial, and longitudinal measurements on crew members after spaceflight are required to assess the full impact on skeletal recovery.

  19. The role of hyperplasia on the increase of skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Hugo Maciel Meloni

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle hypertrophy is resulted from the individual increase of the fiber cross-sectional area. This adaptative phenomenon is normally observed in the muscle tissue submitted to a regimen of physical exercises, like strength training. The degree of muscular hypertrophy is directly related to the type of exercise and its intensity. Strength training normally produces a hypertrophy of greater magnitude when compared to other types of physical exercise. However, it is possible that there is another adaptive mechanism contributing for increasing skeletal muscle size. This mechanism is called hyperplasia, and can be defined as an increase in the cells, or fibers, number in the muscle. This brief review aims to verify the role of hyperplasia in the increase of skeletal muscle size. RESUMO A hipertrofia do músculo esquelético é resultado do aumento individual da área transversal da fibra. Este fenômeno adaptativo é comumente observado no tecido muscular submetido à um regime de exercícios físicos, como o treinamento de força. O grau de hipertrofia muscular está diretamente relacionado ao tipo de exercício e sua intensidade. O treinamento de força normalmente produz uma hipertrofia de maior magnitude, quando comparada aos outros tipos de exercício físico. Todavia, é provável que haja outro mecanismo adaptativo contribuindo para a hipertrofia do músculo esquelético. Este mecanismo chama-se hiperplasia, e pode ser traduzida por um aumento no número de células, ou fibras musculares em relação ao número original. Este breve resumo tem por objetivo verificar qual é o papel da hiperplasia na hipertrofia do músculo esquelético.

  20. Urinary incontinence related to perineal muscle strength in the first trimester of pregnancy: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Gonzalez Riesco

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To analyze pelvic floor muscle strength (PFMS, urinary continence and quality of life related to urinary incontinence (UI of women in the first trimester of pregnancy. Method Cross-sectional study with a sample of 500 women who started prenatal care in a complementary healthcare facility in Guarulhos, state of São Paulo, from 2012 and 2013. Pelvic floor muscle strength was evaluated through perineometry. The pregnant women who presented UI answered the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-SF. Results It was found that maternal age (OR=1.06; CI95% 1.02-1.11 and prior UI (OR=15.12; 95%CI 8.19-27.92 are the variables that, in tandem, best explain the occurrence of UI at the beginning of pregnancy. The mean score on the ICIQ-SF was 8.2 (SD=3.9, considered a moderate impact on quality of life. Conclusion Older pregnant women with prior UI are more likely to have UI in the first trimester of pregnancy.

  1. Polar mesosphere summer echo strength in relation to solar variability and geomagnetic activity during 1997–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Smirnova

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on measurements of Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes (PMSE with the 52 MHz radar ESRAD, located near Kiruna, in Northern Sweden, during the summers of 1997–2009. Here, a new independent calibration method allowing estimation of possible changes in antenna feed losses and transmitter output is described and implemented for accurate calculation of year-to-year variations of PMSE strength (expressed in absolute units – radar volume reflectivity η. The method is based on radar-radiosonde comparisons in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere region simultaneously with PMSE observations. Inter-annual variations of PMSE volume reflectivity are found to be strongly positively correlated with the local geomagnetic K-index, both when averaged over all times of the day, and when considering 3-h UT intervals separately. Increased electron density due to energetic particle precipitation from the magnetosphere is suggested as one of the possible reasons for such a correlation. Enhanced ionospheric electric field may be another reason but this requires further study. Multi-regression analysis of inter-annual variations of PMSE η shows also an anti-correlation with solar 10.7 cm flux and the absence of any statistically significant trend in PMSE strength over the interval considered (13-years. Variations related to solar flux and K-index account for 86% of the year-to-year variations in radar volume reflectivity.

  2. Systems-based Discovery of Tomatidine as a Natural Small Molecule Inhibitor of Skeletal Muscle Atrophy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyle, Michael C.; Ebert, Scott M.; Cook, Daniel P.; Kunkel, Steven D.; Fox, Daniel K.; Bongers, Kale S.; Bullard, Steven A.; Dierdorff, Jason M.; Adams, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy is a common and debilitating condition that lacks an effective therapy. To address this problem, we used a systems-based discovery strategy to search for a small molecule whose mRNA expression signature negatively correlates to mRNA expression signatures of human skeletal muscle atrophy. This strategy identified a natural small molecule from tomato plants, tomatidine. Using cultured skeletal myotubes from both humans and mice, we found that tomatidine stimulated mTORC1 signaling and anabolism, leading to accumulation of protein and mitochondria, and ultimately, cell growth. Furthermore, in mice, tomatidine increased skeletal muscle mTORC1 signaling, reduced skeletal muscle atrophy, enhanced recovery from skeletal muscle atrophy, stimulated skeletal muscle hypertrophy, and increased strength and exercise capacity. Collectively, these results identify tomatidine as a novel small molecule inhibitor of muscle atrophy. Tomatidine may have utility as a therapeutic agent or lead compound for skeletal muscle atrophy. PMID:24719321

  3. Incidence, risk factors and prognostic characteristics of bone metastases and skeletal-related events (SREs) in breast cancer patients: A systematic review of the real world data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongwei; Zhu, Wei; Biskup, Ewelina; Yang, Weige; Yang, Ziang; Wang, Hong; Qiu, Xiaochun; Zhang, Chengjiao; Hu, Guangxia; Hu, Guangfu

    2018-06-01

    The aim was to systematically extrapolate the occurrence, risk factors, prognostic characteristics, management and outcome of bone metastases (BM) and skeletal related events (SREs) of breast cancer survivors in the real world clinical setting. A systematic literature search of PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE OvidSP and EBSCO Academic Search Complete was conducted. Published prospective and retrospective papers investigating BM and SREs in breast cancer patients in non-trial settings were identified and systematically reviewed. Twenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. Incidences of BM based on new diagnosis, length of BM-free interval (BMFI) and number and sites of BM were detected by 17 of 24 studies. Seven studies included in the review were subjected to analyses of risk factors for BM. Developments of SREs regarding the occurrence ratio of total and specific SREs, SERs-free interval (SREFI) and the first-line therapy for SREs were observed in 16 of 24 studies. Out of 5 studies, we extracted uni- and multivariate analysis of risk factor for SREs and out of 16 studies - predictors for survival in breast cancer patients with BM. BM and SREs are common problems in non-trial breast cancer populations. Patient demographics, clinical stage, tumor pathological type, molecular receptors status are significantly risk factors for incidence of BM, SREs and the survival. The unique characteristics of BM and SREs in breast cancer patients should be taken into account in future randomized controlled trials, as to optimize individual treatment options and assure a maximally long good quality of life.

  4. Decreased levels of irisin, a skeletal muscle cell-derived myokine, are related to emphysema associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiyama Y

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Yukari Sugiyama, Kazuhisa Asai, Kazuhiro Yamada, Yuko Kureya, Naoki Ijiri, Tetsuya Watanabe, Hiroshi Kanazawa, Kazuto Hirata Department of Respiratory Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City University, Osaka, Japan Background: Cigarette smoking-induced oxidant–antioxidant imbalance is a factor that contributes to the pathogenesis of COPD through epithelial cell apoptosis. Irisin is a skeletal muscle cell-derived myokine associated with physical activity. Irisin is also known to decrease oxidant-induced apoptosis in patients with diabetes mellitus. However, the correlation between irisin and emphysema in COPD and its role in epithelial cell apoptosis remains unknown. Subjects and methods: Forty patients with COPD were enrolled in this study. Pulmonary function tests and measurements of the percentage of low-attenuation area on high-resolution computed tomography images were performed, and the results were evaluated for correlation with serum irisin levels. The effect of irisin on cigarette-smoke extract-induced A549 cell apoptosis and the expression of Nrf2, a transcription factor for antioxidants, was also examined in vitro. Results: Serum irisin levels were significantly correlated with lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide divided by alveolar volume (r=0.56, P<0.01 and percentage of low-attenuation area (r=–0.79, P<0.01. Moreover, irisin significantly enhanced Nrf2 expression (P<0.05 and reduced cigarette-smoke extract-induced A549 cell apoptosis (P<0.05. Conclusion: Decreased serum irisin levels are related to emphysema in patients with COPD and involved in epithelial apoptosis, resulting in emphysema. Irisin could be a novel treatment for emphysema in patients with COPD. Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, COPD, emphysema, irisin, Nrf2, cigarette-smoke extract, CSE, apoptosis

  5. Muscle free amino acid profiles are related to differences in skeletal muscle growth between single and twin ovine fetuses near term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Francisco; Pacheco, David; Blair, Hugh; Kenyon, Paul; McCoard, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Twin sheep fetuses have reduced skeletal muscle weight near birth relative to singles as a result of restricted muscle hypertrophy. Intracellular free amino acids (FAA) are reported to regulate metabolic pathways which control muscle protein accretion, whereby reduced intracellular content of specific FAA may reduce their activation and therefore, muscle hypertrophy. The aim of this study was to determine whether differences in muscle weight between singleton and twin fetuses, under different maternal conditions is associated with reduced concentration of specific FAA. The FAA content in the semitendinosus muscle (ST) in singleton and twin fetuses (rank) at 140 days of gestation from heavy (H) or light (L) ewes fed ad libitum (A) or maintenance (M) level of nutrition was measured. Muscle weight was reduced in twin fetuses compared to singletons in all groups. Reduced concentrations of leucine, threonine and valine, but higher concentrations of methionine, ornithine, lysine and serine were found in twin fetuses compared to singletons. Maternal size and nutrition interaction with rank resulted in reduced glutamine in twins from HM-ewes (H-ewes under M nutrition) compared to their singleton counterparts. Maternal weight interaction with pregnancy rank reduced the concentration of arginine in twins, with a larger effect on H-ewes compared with L-ewes. Maternal size interaction with pregnancy rank resulted in twins from M-ewes to have lower alanine, while twins from A-ewes had lower aspartic acid concentration compared to singletons. The ST muscle weight was positively correlated only with arginine concentration after taking into account rank, size and nutrition. The present results indicate that reduced concentrations of specific intracellular FAA, such as arginine, leucine, valine, glutamine, which are known to play a role in muscle growth, could be acting as limiting factors for muscle hypertrophy in twin fetuses during late gestation. Ewe size and nutrition can

  6. Proteomics of Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is the largest tissue in the human body and plays an important role in locomotion and whole body metabolism. It accounts for ~80% of insulin stimulated glucose disposal. Skeletal muscle insulin resistance, a primary feature of Type 2 diabetes, is caused by a decreased ability of m...

  7. Assessing the fracture strength of geological and related materials via an atomistically based J-integral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. E.; Criscenti, L. J.; Rimsza, J.

    2016-12-01

    Predicting fracture initiation and propagation in low-permeability geomaterials is a critical yet un- solved problem crucial to assessing shale caprocks at carbon dioxide sequestration sites, and controlling fracturing for gas and oil extraction. Experiments indicate that chemical reactions at fluid-geomaterial interfaces play a major role in subcritical crack growth by weakening the material and altering crack nu- cleation and growth rates. Engineering the subsurface fracture environment, however, has been hindered by a lack of understanding of the mechanisms relating chemical environment to mechanical outcome, and a lack of capability directly linking atomistic insight to macroscale observables. We have developed a fundamental atomic-level understanding of the chemical-mechanical mecha- nisms that control subcritical cracks through coarse-graining data from reactive molecular simulations. Previous studies of fracture at the atomic level have typically been limited to producing stress-strain curves, quantifying either the system-level stress or energy at which fracture propagation occurs. As such, these curves are neither characteristic of nor insightful regarding fracture features local to the crack tip. In contrast, configurational forces, such as the J-integral, are specific to the crack in that they measure the energy available to move the crack and truly quantify fracture resistance. By development and use of field estimators consistent with the continuum conservation properties we are able to connect the data produced by atomistic simulation to the continuum-level theory of fracture mechanics and thus inform engineering decisions. In order to trust this connection we have performed theoretical consistency tests and validation with experimental data. Although we have targeted geomaterials, this capability can have direct impact on other unsolved technological problems such as predicting the corrosion and embrittlement of metals and ceramics. Sandia National

  8. Small teleost fish provide new insights into human skeletal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witten, P E; Harris, M P; Huysseune, A; Winkler, C

    2017-01-01

    Small teleost fish such as zebrafish and medaka are increasingly studied as models for human skeletal diseases. Efficient new genome editing tools combined with advances in the analysis of skeletal phenotypes provide new insights into fundamental processes of skeletal development. The skeleton among vertebrates is a highly conserved organ system, but teleost fish and mammals have evolved unique traits or have lost particular skeletal elements in each lineage. Several unique features of the skeleton relate to the extremely small size of early fish embryos and the small size of adult fish used as models. A detailed analysis of the plethora of interesting skeletal phenotypes in zebrafish and medaka pushes available skeletal imaging techniques to their respective limits and promotes the development of new imaging techniques. Impressive numbers of zebrafish and medaka mutants with interesting skeletal phenotypes have been characterized, complemented by transgenic zebrafish and medaka lines. The advent of efficient genome editing tools, such as TALEN and CRISPR/Cas9, allows to introduce targeted deficiencies in genes of model teleosts to generate skeletal phenotypes that resemble human skeletal diseases. This review will also discuss other attractive aspects of the teleost skeleton. This includes the capacity for lifelong tooth replacement and for the regeneration of dermal skeletal elements, such as scales and fin rays, which further increases the value of zebrafish and medaka models for skeletal research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Application of segmental bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy to the assessment of skeletal muscle cell mass in elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yosuke; Matsuda, Kaori; Björkman, Mikko P; Kimura, Misaka

    2014-02-01

    It is important to assess not only the total skeletal muscle mass, but also the intracellular and extracellular compartments of skeletal muscle to examine the actual relationship between skeletal muscle mass and physical functions. Segmental bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy is a unique tool with which to assess intracellular and extracellular water in the limbs. The aim of the present study was to examine the application of segmental bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy to the assessment of skeletal muscle mass in the elderly. A total of 73 healthy elderly men and 20 elderly men requiring care and using an ambulatory day-care service of the public long-term care insurance system participated in the present study. The intracellular and extracellular water in the upper and lower legs were assessed by segmental bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy. The gait speed, grip strength and maximal isometric knee extension strength were measured. The elderly requiring care had significantly lower intracellular water than did healthy elderly in the upper and lower legs. A significant relative expansion of extracellular water against total water was observed in the elderly requiring care. Receiver operating characteristic curves showed that the area under the curve for the intracellular water index was similar to that for muscle strength in the discrimination of elderly requiring care. The elderly requiring care had a relative expansion of extracellular water in the legs, which could have masked actual muscle atrophy. Segmental bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy would be useful for the assessment of skeletal muscle cell mass and sarcopenia in the elderly. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  10. Skeletal isomerisation of oleic acid over ferrierite in the presence and absence of triphenylphosphine : Pore mouth catalysis and related deactivation mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiedemann, Sophie C C; Stewart, Joseph A.; Soulimani, Fouad; Van Bergen-Brenkman, Tanja; Langelaar, Stephan; Wels, Bas; De Peinder, Peter; Bruijnincx, Pieter C A; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2014-01-01

    The formation and nature of coke (precursor) species has been studied during the skeletal isomerisation of oleic acid catalysed by protonated ferrierite, in the presence and absence of a triphenylphosphine promoter. UV-Vis and FT-IR spectroscopic analyses of the spent catalyst materials,

  11. No effect of short-term amino acid supplementation on variables related to skeletal muscle damage in 100 km ultra-runners - a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemann Thomas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of short-term supplementation of amino acids before and during a 100 km ultra-marathon on variables of skeletal muscle damage and muscle soreness. We hypothesized that the supplementation of amino acids before and during an ultra-marathon would lead to a reduction in the variables of skeletal muscle damage, a decrease in muscle soreness and an improved performance. Methods Twenty-eight experienced male ultra-runners were divided into two groups, one with amino acid supplementation and the other as a control group. The amino acid group was supplemented a total of 52.5 g of an amino acid concentrate before and during the 100 km ultra-marathon. Pre- and post-race, creatine kinase, urea and myoglobin were determined. At the same time, the athletes were asked for subjective feelings of muscle soreness. Results Race time was not different between the groups when controlled for personal best time in a 100 km ultra-marathon. The increases in creatine kinase, urea and myoglobin were not different in both groups. Subjective feelings of skeletal muscle soreness were not different between the groups. Conclusions We concluded that short-term supplementation of amino acids before and during a 100 km ultra-marathon had no effect on variables of skeletal muscle damage and muscle soreness.

  12. Exercise Promotes Healthy Aging of Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cartee, Gregory D; Hepple, Russell T; Bamman, Marcas M

    2016-01-01

    caused by diseases and lifestyle factors. Secondary aging can exacerbate deficits in mitochondrial function and muscle mass, concomitant with the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Exercise opposes deleterious effects of secondary aging by preventing the decline in mitochondrial...... respiration, mitigating aging-related loss of muscle mass and enhancing insulin sensitivity. This review focuses on mechanisms by which exercise promotes "healthy aging" by inducing modifications in skeletal muscle....

  13. Influence of irrelevant information on human performance: effects of S-R association strength and relative timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, C H; Proctor, R W

    2001-02-01

    Six experiments examined effects of stimulus-response (S-R) association strength and relative timing on the magnitude of consistency effects for irrelevant information in Stroop-like tasks. Keypresses were made to two-dimensional stimuli (a colour or location word surrounded by a coloured rectangle or arrow), with the irrelevant information presented simultaneously with or prior to the relevant information. With simultaneous presentation, irrelevant information affected performance regardless of whether its S-R association was weak or strong, if the relevant S-R association was weak (e.g., colour word to keypress). However, a weak irrelevant S-R association (location word to keypress) had little effect when paired with a strong relevant S-R association (arrow direction to keypress), except when the stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between the irrelevant and relevant information was 300 ms. When the relevant information was colour, the effect of an irrelevant colour word persisted at a 500-ms SOA but that of an irrelevant physical colour did not, reflecting different decay functions for irrelevant verbal and non-verbal information. The persisting effect of an irrelevant colour word was reduced by articulatory suppression and eliminated at extended SOAs of 3 s. The results indicate that whether the consistency effect patterns are symmetric or asymmetric is determined by the relative strengths of the relevant and irrelevant S-R associations, as specified by the criteria of conceptual and mode similarity. The magnitude of the consistency effect is also a function of the temporal overlap of the resulting response activation, which is determined primarily by mode similarity.

  14. Changes in lower extremity strength may be related to the walking speed improvements in children with cerebral palsy after gait training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Rashelle M; Corr, Bradley B; Stuberg, Wayne A; Arpin, David J; Kurz, Max J

    2018-02-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) has a high probability of resulting in lower extremity strength and walking deficits. Numerous studies have shown that gait training has the potential to improve the walking abilities of these children; however, the factors governing these improvements are unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between change in lower extremity strength, walking speed and endurance of children with CP following gait training. Eleven children with CP (GMFCS levels=II-III) completed a gait training protocol three days a week for six weeks. Outcome measures included a 10m fast-as-possible walk test, 6min walking endurance test and lower extremity strength. The group results indicated there were improvements in walking speed, walking endurance and lower extremity strength. In addition, there was a positive correlation between percent change in lower extremity strength and walking speed and a negative correlation between the percent change in lower extremity strength and the child's age. Our results imply that changes in lower extremity strength might be related to the degree of the walking speed changes seen after gait training. Younger children may be more likely to show improvements in lower extremity strength after gait training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative fiber property and transcriptome analyses reveal key genes potentially related to high fiber strength in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) line MD52ne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md S; Fang, David D; Thyssen, Gregory N; Delhom, Chris D; Liu, Yongliang; Kim, Hee Jin

    2016-02-01

    Individual fiber strength is an important quality attribute that greatly influences the strength of the yarn spun from cotton fibers. Fiber strength is usually measured from bundles of fibers due to the difficulty of reliably measuring strength from individual cotton fibers. However, bundle fiber strength (BFS) is not always correlated with yarn strength since it is affected by multiple fiber properties involved in fiber-to-fiber interactions within a bundle in addition to the individual fiber strength. Molecular mechanisms responsible for regulating individual fiber strength remain unknown. Gossypium hirsutum near isogenic lines (NILs), MD52ne and MD90ne showing variations in BFS provide an opportunity for dissecting the regulatory mechanisms involved in individual fiber strength. Comprehensive fiber property analyses of the NILs revealed that the superior bundle strength of MD52ne fibers resulted from high individual fiber strength with minor contributions from greater fiber length. Comparative transcriptome analyses of the NILs showed that the superior bundle strength of MD52ne fibers was potentially related to two signaling pathways: one is ethylene and the interconnected phytohormonal pathways that are involved in cotton fiber elongation, and the other is receptor-like kinases (RLKs) signaling pathways that are involved in maintaining cell wall integrity. Multiple RLKs were differentially expressed in MD52ne fibers and localized in genomic regions encompassing the strength quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Several candidate genes involved in crystalline cellulose assembly were also up-regulated in MD52ne fibers while the secondary cell wall was produced. Comparative phenotypic and transcriptomic analyses revealed differential expressions of the genes involved in crystalline cellulose assembly, ethylene and RLK signaling pathways between the MD52ne and MD90ne developing fibers. Ethylene and its phytohormonal network might promote the elongation of MD52ne fibers

  16. Immunology Guides Skeletal Muscle Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    F. Andrea Sass; Michael Fuchs; Matthias Pumberger; Sven Geissler; Georg N. Duda; Carsten Perka; Katharina Schmidt-Bleek

    2018-01-01

    Soft tissue trauma of skeletal muscle is one of the most common side effects in surgery. Muscle injuries are not only caused by accident-related injuries but can also be of an iatrogenic nature as they occur during surgical interventions when the anatomical region of interest is exposed. If the extent of trauma surpasses the intrinsic regenerative capacities, signs of fatty degeneration and formation of fibrotic scar tissue can occur, and, consequentially, muscle function deteriorates or is d...

  17. Signaling Pathways Related to Protein Synthesis and Amino Acid Concentration in Pig Skeletal Muscles Depend on the Dietary Protein Level, Genotype and Developmental Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingying; Li, Fengna; Kong, Xiangfeng; Tan, Bie; Li, Yinghui; Duan, Yehui; Blachier, François; Hu, Chien-An A; Yin, Yulong

    2015-01-01

    Muscle growth is regulated by the homeostatic balance of the biosynthesis and degradation of muscle proteins. To elucidate the molecular interactions among diet, pig genotype, and physiological stage, we examined the effect of dietary protein concentration, pig genotype, and physiological stages on amino acid (AA) pools, protein deposition, and related signaling pathways in different types of skeletal muscles. The study used 48 Landrace pigs and 48 pure-bred Bama mini-pigs assigned to each of 2 dietary treatments: lower/GB (Chinese conventional diet)- or higher/NRC (National Research Council)-protein diet. Diets were fed from 5 weeks of age to respective market weights of each genotype. Samples of biceps femoris muscle (BFM, type I) and longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM, type II) were collected at nursery, growing, and finishing phases according to the physiological stage of each genotype, to determine the AA concentrations, mRNA levels for growth-related genes in muscles, and protein abundances of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. Our data showed that the concentrations of most AAs in LDM and BFM of pigs increased (Prelated AA, including Met, Phe, Tyr, Pro, and Ser, compared with Landrace pigs. The mRNA levels for myogenic determining factor, myogenin, myocyte-specific enhancer binding factor 2 A, and myostatin of Bama mini-pigs were higher (P<0.05) than those of Landrace pigs, while total and phosphorylated protein levels for protein kinase B, mTOR, and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinases (p70S6K), and ratios of p-mTOR/mTOR, p-AKT/AKT, and p-p70S6K/p70S6K were lower (P<0.05). There was a significant pig genotype-dependent effect of dietary protein on the levels for mTOR and p70S6K. When compared with the higher protein-NRC diet, the lower protein-GB diet increased (P<0.05) the levels for mTOR and p70S6K in Bama mini-pigs, but repressed (P<0.05) the level for p70S6K in Landrace pigs. The higher protein-NRC diet increased ratio of p-mTOR/mTOR in

  18. The Relation Between the Position of Center of Gravity on Postural Stability and the Muscular Strength of the Lower Limbs in the Human

    OpenAIRE

    山内, 賢

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the relation between the position of center of gravity on postural stability and the muscular strength of the lower limbs. The indexes of the strength were Leg extension and Leg curl. One Repetition Maximum of muscular strength was calculated using by repetition maximum method. The center of gravity on postural stability was measured using FPS(Foot Pressure System). The result were as follows, To train both of the extension and the curl, it was a primary factor t...

  19. Muscle-tendon-related pain in 100 patients with hip dysplasia: prevalence and associations with self-reported hip disability and muscle strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Julie Sandell; Hölmich, Per; Thorborg, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    ) with a mean age of 29 years (SD 9) were included. Clinical entity approach was carried out to identify muscle-tendon-related pain. Associations between muscle-tendon-related pain and self-reported hip disability and muscle strength were tested with multiple regression analysis, including adjustments for age......The primary aim was to identify muscle-tendon-related pain in 100 patients with hip dysplasia. The secondary aim was to test whether muscle-tendon-related pain is associated with self-reported hip disability and muscle strength in patient with hip dysplasia. One hundred patients (17 men...... and gender. Self-reported hip disability was recorded with the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score (HAGOS), and muscle strength was assessed with a handheld dynamometer. Iliopsoas- and abductor-related pain were most prevalent with prevalences of 56% (CI 46; 66) and 42% (CI 32; 52), respectively. Adductor...

  20. Muscle-tendon-related pain in 100 patients with hip dysplasia: prevalence and associations with self-reported hip disability and muscle strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Julie Sandell; Hølmich, Per; Thorborg, Kristian

    2018-01-01

    ) with a mean age of 29 years (SD 9) were included. Clinical entity approach was carried out to identify muscle-tendon-related pain. Associations between muscle-tendon-related pain and self-reported hip disability and muscle strength were tested with multiple regression analysis, including adjustments for age......The primary aim was to identify muscle-tendon-related pain in 100 patients with hip dysplasia. The secondary aim was to test whether muscle-tendon-related pain is associated with self-reported hip disability and muscle strength in patient with hip dysplasia. One hundred patients (17 men...... and gender. Self-reported hip disability was recorded with the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score (HAGOS), and muscle strength was assessed with a handheld dynamometer. Iliopsoas- and abductor-related pain were most prevalent with prevalences of 56% (CI 46; 66) and 42% (CI 32; 52), respectively. Adductor...

  1. Skeletal stem cells and their contribution to skeletal fragility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldahmash, A.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related osteoporotic fractures are major health care problem worldwide and are the result of impaired bone formation, decreased bone mass and bone fragility. Bone formation is accomplished by skeletal stem cells (SSC) that are recruited to bone surfaces from bone marrow microenvironment....... This review discusses targeting SSC to enhance bone formation and to abolish age-related bone fragility in the context of using stem cells for treatment of age-related disorders. Recent studies are presented that have demonstrated that SSC exhibit impaired functions during aging due to intrinsic senescence...

  2. Evidence for a weakening strength of temperature-corn yield relation in the United States during 1980-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Guoyong

    2017-12-15

    Temperature is known to be correlated with crop yields, causing reduction of crop yield with climate warming without adaptations or CO 2 fertilization effects. The historical temperature-crop yield relation has often been used for informing future changes. This relationship, however, may change over time following alternations in other environmental factors. Results show that the strength of the relationship between the interannual variability of growing season temperature and corn yield (R GST_CY ) has declined in the United States between 1980 and 2010 with a loss in the statistical significance. The regression slope which represents the anomalies in corn yield that occur in association with 1 degree temperature anomaly has decreased significantly from -6.9%/K of the first half period to -2.4%/K--3.5%/K of the second half period. This implies that projected corn yield reduction will be overestimated by a fact of 2 in a given warming scenario, if the corn-temperature relation is derived from the earlier historical period. Changes in R GST_CY are mainly observed in Midwest Corn Belt and central High Plains, but are partly reproduced by 11 process-based crop models. In Midwest rain-fed systems, the decrease of negative temperature effects coincides with an increase in water availability by precipitation. In irrigated areas where water stress is minimized, the decline of beneficial temperature effects is significantly related to the increase in extreme hot days. The results indicate that an extrapolation of historical yield response to temperature may bias the assessment of agriculture vulnerability to climate change. Efforts to reduce climate impacts on agriculture should pay attention not only to climate change, but also to changes in climate-crop yield relations. There are some caveats that should be acknowledged as the analysis is restricted to the changes in the linear relation between growing season mean temperature and corn yield for the specific study period

  3. Evidence for a weakening strength of temperature-corn yield relation in the United States during 1980–2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leng, Guoyong

    2017-12-01

    Temperature is known to be correlated with crop yields, causing reduction of crop yield with climate warming without adaptations or CO2 fertilization effects. The historical temperature-crop yield relation has often been used for informing future changes. This relationship, however, may change over time following alternations in other environmental factors. Results show that the strength of the relationship between the interannual variability of growing season temperature and corn yield (RGST_CY) has declined in the United States between 1980 and 2010 with a loss in the statistical significance. The regression slope which represents the anomalies in corn yield that occur in association with 1 degree temperature anomaly has decreased significantly from -6.9%/K of the first half period to -2.4%/K~-3.5%/K of the second half period. This implies that projected corn yield reduction will be overestimated by a fact of 2 in a given warming scenario, if the corn-temperature relation is derived from the earlier historical period. Changes in RGST_CY are mainly observed in Midwest Corn Belt and central High Plains, and are well reproduced by 11 process-based crop models. In Midwest rain-fed systems, the decrease of negative temperature effects coincides with an increase in water availability by precipitation. In irrigated areas where water stress is minimized, the decline of beneficial temperature effects is significantly related to the increase in extreme hot days. The results indicate that an extrapolation of historical yield response to temperature may bias the assessment of agriculture vulnerability to climate change. Efforts to reduce climate impacts on agriculture should pay attention not only to climate change, but also to changes in climate-crop yield relations. There are some caveats that should be acknowledged as the analysis is restricted to the changes in the linear relation between growing season mean temperature and corn yield for the specific study period.

  4. Skeletal imaging composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanduzee, B.F.; Degenhardt, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    This invention is based on the discovery that the adjustment of pH, within a particular range, during the process of manufacturing lyophilized diphosphonate-containing skeletal imaging kits yields a kit which produces a technetium skeletal imaging agent with superior imaging properties. This increased performance is manifested through faster blood clearance and higher skeletal uptake of the technetium imaging agent. The process for producing a dry-powder imaging kit comprises the steps of: preparing a solution of a diphosphonate carrier, stannous reductant, and a stabilizer in water; adjusting the pH to between 5.5 and 6.5; and lyophilizing the solution

  5. Incidence of bone metastases and skeletal-related events in breast cancer patients: A population-based cohort study in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fryzek Jon P

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer (BrCa is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women in the industrialized world. More than half of women presenting with metastatic BrCa develop bone metastases. Bone metastases increase the risk of skeletal-related events (SREs, defined as pathological fractures, spinal cord compression, bone pain requiring palliative radiotherapy, and orthopaedic surgery. Both bone metastases and SREs are associated with unfavorable prognosis and greatly affect quality of life. Few epidemiological data exist on SREs after primary diagnosis of BrCa and subsequent bone metastasis. We therefore estimated the incidence of bone metastases and SREs in newly-diagnosed BrCa patients in Denmark from 1999 through 2007. Methods We estimated the overall and annual incidence of bone metastases and SREs in newly-diagnosed breast cancer patients in Denmark from January 1, 1999 to December 31, 2007 using the Danish National Patient Registry (DNPR, which covers all Danish hospitals. We estimated the cumulative incidence of bone metastases and SREs and associated 95% confidence intervals (CI using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results Of the 35,912 BrCa patients, 178 (0.5% presented with bone metastases at the time of primary breast cancer diagnosis, and of these, 77 (43.2% developed an SRE during follow up. A total of 1,272 of 35,690 (3.6% BrCa patients without bone metastases at diagnosis developed bone metastases during a median follow-up time of 3.4 years. Among these patients, 590 (46.4% subsequently developed an SRE during a median follow-up time of 0.7 years. Incidence rates of bone metastases were highest the first year after the primary BrCa diagnosis, particularly among patients with advanced BrCa at diagnosis. Similarly, incidence rates of a first SRE was highest the first year after first diagnosis of a bone metastasis. Conclusions The high incidence of SREs following the first year after first diagnosis of a bone metastasis

  6. State of Skeletal Muscle Tissue in Women in the Ukrainian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Povoroznyuk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Today among geriatric syndromes, world scientists pay much attention to the study of sarcopenia. It was found that the evaluation of skeletal muscle strength has a significant correlation with the risk of falls, disability, deterioration in the quality of life, duration of hospitalization. It is proved that measurements of skeletal muscle strength, but not the determination of skeletal muscles mass, are strong and independent predictors of mortality in the elderly. Further researches are needed to study the characteristics of weight loss, strength and function of skeletal muscle with age in individuals of different sex and age. The objective of this study was to explore the features of strength and functionality of skeletal muscle tissue in women of all ages. The study involved 248 women, who were divided into groups by decades depending on age: 20–29, 30–39, 40–49, 50–59, 60–69, 70–79, 80–89 years. Skeletal muscle strength was evaluated using spring carpal dynamometer. Functions of skeletal muscles and the risk of falls were assessed using special tests. Fat-free mass of the whole body, upper and lower extremities was evaluated by means of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Prodigy, GEHC Lunar, Madison, WI, USA. The study found that maximal values of strength and functional capacity of skeletal muscles were observed in women in the age group of 20–29 years. The significant loss of skeletal muscle strength is being detected in individuals from the age group of 60–69 years and older. When determining the functional capacity of skeletal muscles and risk of falls, significantly worse performance was established in women older than 50 years compared to those in women in the age group of 20–29 years.

  7. Sarcopenia Impairs Prognosis of Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma: The Role of Liver Functional Reserve and Tumor-Related Factors in Loss of Skeletal Muscle Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Imai

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia impairs survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. This study aimed to clarify the factors that contribute to decreased skeletal muscle volume in patients with HCC. The third lumbar vertebra skeletal muscle index (L3 SMI in 351 consecutive patients with HCC was calculated to identify sarcopenia. Sarcopenia was defined as an L3 SMI value ≤ 29.0 cm2/m2 for women and ≤ 36.0 cm2/m2 for men. The factors affecting L3 SMI were analyzed by multiple linear regression analysis and tree-based models. Of the 351 HCC patients, 33 were diagnosed as having sarcopenia and showed poor prognosis compared with non-sarcopenia patients (p = 0.007. However, this significant difference disappeared after the adjustments for age, sex, Child–Pugh score, maximum tumor size, tumor number, and the degree of portal vein invasion by propensity score matching analysis. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that age (p = 0.015 and sex (p < 0.0001 were significantly correlated with a decrease in L3 SMI. Tree-based models revealed that sex (female is the most significant factor that affects L3 SMI. In male patients, L3 SMI was decreased by aging, increased Child–Pugh score (≥56 years, and enlarged tumor size (<56 years. Maintaining liver functional reserve and early diagnosis and therapy for HCC are vital to prevent skeletal muscle depletion and improve the prognosis of patients with HCC.

  8. Core subjects at the end of primary school: identifying and explaining relative strengths of children with specific language impairment (SLI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Kevin; Mok, Pearl L H; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2015-01-01

    In general, children with specific language impairment (SLI) tend to fall behind their typically developing (TD) peers in educational attainment. Less is known about how children with SLI fare in particular areas of the curriculum and what predicts their levels of performance. To compare the distributions of performance of children with SLI in three core school subjects (English, Mathematics and Science); to test the possibility that performance would vary across the core subjects; and to examine the extent to which language impairment predicts performance. This study was conducted in England and reports historical data on educational attainments. Teacher assessment and test scores of 176 eleven-year-old children with SLI were examined in the three core subjects and compared with known national norms. Possible predictors of performance were measured, including language ability at ages 7 and 11, educational placement type, and performance IQ. Children with SLI, compared with national norms, were found to be at a disadvantage in core school subjects. Nevertheless, some children attained the levels expected of TD peers. Performance was poorest in English; relative strengths were indicated in Science and, to a lesser extent, in Mathematics. Language skills were significant predictors of performance in all three core subjects. PIQ was the strongest predictor for Mathematics. For Science, both early language skills at 7 years and PIQ made significant contributions. Language impacts on the school performance of children with SLI, but differentially across subjects. English for these children is the most challenging of the core subjects, reflecting the high levels of language demand it incurs. Science is an area of relative strength and mathematics appears to be intermediate, arguably because some tasks in these subjects can be performed with less reliance on verbal processing. Many children with SLI do have the potential to reach or exceed educational targets that are set

  9. GH administration changes myosin heavy chain isoforms in skeletal muscle but does not augment muscle strength or hypertrophy, either alone or combined with resistance exercise training in healthy elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Kai Henrik Wiborg; Andersen, Jesper Løvind; Beyer, Nina

    2002-01-01

    alone, and this may be regarded as a change into a more youthful MHC composition, possibly induced by the rejuvenating of systemic IGF-I levels. RT + placebo caused substantial increases in quadriceps isokinetic strength, power, and CSA; but these RT induced improvements were not further augmented......GH administration, either alone or combined with resistance exercise training (RT), has attracted interest as a means of increasing muscle mass and strength in the elderly. In the present study, 31 healthy, elderly men [age, 74 +/- 1 yr (mean +/- SEM)] were assigned to either RT [3 sessions/wk, 3...... by additional GH administration. In the RT + GH group, there was a significant decrease in MHC 1 and 2X isoforms, whereas MHC 2A increased. RT, therefore, seems to overrule the changes in MHC composition induced by GH administration alone. Changes in body composition confirmed previous reports of decreased fat...

  10. GH administration changes myosin heavy chain isoforms in skeletal muscle but does not augment muscle strength or hypertrophy, either alone or combined with resistance exercise training in healthy elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Kai Henrik Wiborg; Andersen, Jesper Løvind; Beyer, Nina

    2002-01-01

    GH administration, either alone or combined with resistance exercise training (RT), has attracted interest as a means of increasing muscle mass and strength in the elderly. In the present study, 31 healthy, elderly men [age, 74 +/- 1 yr (mean +/- SEM)] were assigned to either RT [3 sessions/wk, 3......-5 sets of 8-12 repetition maximum (RM)/session] + placebo (n = 8), RT + GH (n = 8), GH (n = 8), or placebo (n = 7) in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded (RT + placebo and RT + GH) or single-blinded (GH or placebo) design. Measurements of: 1) isokinetic quadriceps muscle strength; 2...... at baseline and after 12 wk. The final GH dose was 1.77 +/- 0.18 IU x d(-1) (approximately 7.2 +/- 0.8 microg x kg(-1) x d(-1)). GH alone had no effect on isokinetic quadriceps muscle strength, power, CSA, or fiber size. However, a substantial increase in MHC 2X isoform was observed with GH administration...

  11. An investigation into normative values for fine hand dexterity and its relation with pinch and grip strength among healthy young Indian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Anila

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation into normative values for fine hand dexterity and its relation with pinch and grip strength among healthy young Indian adults. Evaluation of hand function is a crucial component to assess prognosis in hand pathologies. Examinations of dexterity provide unique way of evaluating neuro-motor function of entire hand. There is scarcity of literature on reference values for fine hand dexterity among healthy young adults. To explore normative values for fine hand dexterity and its relation with pinch and grip strength. The 9-Hole Pegboard Test was administered for evaluation of fine hand dexterity among healthy young adults (n= 256 of age group 18 to 35 with the mean age of 20.53 (±2.02. The task was demonstrated and both hands were assessed. Grip and pinch strengths were measured in both hands in a consistent manner. A dynamometer was used for grip strength and a pinch meter was used to measure key (lateral and tripod pinch and tip to tip pinch strengths. Normative value for fine hand dexterity of dominant hand among males (n= 125 is 19 (± 2.18 and among females (n= 126 is 19.5 (± 2.59 and there was no significant correlation between fine hand dexterity with grip and pinch strength. Normative values generated in this study can be used for clinical reference in the evaluation of hand function to that of normal subjects of the same age and gender.

  12. Development of the excitation-contraction coupling machinery and its relation to myofibrillogenesis in human iPSC-derived skeletal myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lainé, Jeanne; Skoglund, Gunnar; Fournier, Emmanuel; Tabti, Nacira

    2018-01-05

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells-derived myogenic progenitors develop functional and ultrastructural features typical of skeletal muscle when differentiated in culture. Besides disease-modeling, such a system can be used to clarify basic aspects of human skeletal muscle development. In the present study, we focus on the development of the excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling, a process that is essential both in muscle physiology and as a tool to differentiate between the skeletal and cardiac muscle. The occurrence and maturation of E-C coupling structures (Sarcoplasmic Reticulum-Transverse Tubule (SR-TT) junctions), key molecular components, and Ca 2+ signaling were examined, along with myofibrillogenesis. Pax7 + -myogenic progenitors were differentiated in culture, and developmental changes were examined from a few days up to several weeks. Ion channels directly involved in the skeletal muscle E-C coupling (RyR1 and Cav1.1 voltage-gated Ca 2+ channels) were labeled using indirect immunofluorescence. Ultrastructural changes of differentiating cells were visualized by transmission electron microscopy. On the functional side, depolarization-induced intracellular Ca 2+ transients mediating E-C coupling were recorded using Fura-2 ratiometric Ca 2+ imaging, and myocyte contraction was captured by digital photomicrography. We show that the E-C coupling machinery occurs and operates within a few days post-differentiation, as soon as the myofilaments align. However, Ca 2+ transients become effective in triggering myocyte contraction after 1 week of differentiation, when nascent myofibrils show alternate A-I bands. At later stages, myofibrils become fully organized into adult-like sarcomeres but SR-TT junctions do not reach their triadic structure and typical A-I location. This is mirrored by the absence of cross-striated distribution pattern of both RyR1 and Cav1.1 channels. The E-C coupling machinery occurs and operates within the first week of muscle cells

  13. Signaling Pathways Related to Protein Synthesis and Amino Acid Concentration in Pig Skeletal Muscles Depend on the Dietary Protein Level, Genotype and Developmental Stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Liu

    Full Text Available Muscle growth is regulated by the homeostatic balance of the biosynthesis and degradation of muscle proteins. To elucidate the molecular interactions among diet, pig genotype, and physiological stage, we examined the effect of dietary protein concentration, pig genotype, and physiological stages on amino acid (AA pools, protein deposition, and related signaling pathways in different types of skeletal muscles. The study used 48 Landrace pigs and 48 pure-bred Bama mini-pigs assigned to each of 2 dietary treatments: lower/GB (Chinese conventional diet- or higher/NRC (National Research Council-protein diet. Diets were fed from 5 weeks of age to respective market weights of each genotype. Samples of biceps femoris muscle (BFM, type I and longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM, type II were collected at nursery, growing, and finishing phases according to the physiological stage of each genotype, to determine the AA concentrations, mRNA levels for growth-related genes in muscles, and protein abundances of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling pathway. Our data showed that the concentrations of most AAs in LDM and BFM of pigs increased (P<0.05 gradually with increasing age. Bama mini-pigs had generally higher (P<0.05 muscle concentrations of flavor-related AA, including Met, Phe, Tyr, Pro, and Ser, compared with Landrace pigs. The mRNA levels for myogenic determining factor, myogenin, myocyte-specific enhancer binding factor 2 A, and myostatin of Bama mini-pigs were higher (P<0.05 than those of Landrace pigs, while total and phosphorylated protein levels for protein kinase B, mTOR, and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinases (p70S6K, and ratios of p-mTOR/mTOR, p-AKT/AKT, and p-p70S6K/p70S6K were lower (P<0.05. There was a significant pig genotype-dependent effect of dietary protein on the levels for mTOR and p70S6K. When compared with the higher protein-NRC diet, the lower protein-GB diet increased (P<0.05 the levels for mTOR and p70S6K in Bama mini-pigs, but

  14. Degree, but not direction of grip strength asymmetries, is related to depression and anxiety in an elderly population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junhong; Rawtaer, Iris; Mahendran, Rathi; Kua, Ee-Heok; Feng, Lei

    2017-05-01

    Despite the abundance of studies on asymmetries in manual laterality, a marker for atypical brain lateralization in depression and anxiety, findings in this area are mixed. Traditionally, research have looked at individual differences in depression and anxiety as a function of the direction of asymmetry. However, recent research has emphasized on studying the degree of asymmetry in addition to its direction. To these ends, the present study aims to unravel the associations between the degree and direction of manual lateralization, and depression/anxiety. Cognitively healthy elderlies (N = 326, 91 males, M age  = 68) were administered grip strength assessments on both hands and self-report measures of depression and anxiety. Partial correlation analyses controlling for age, education and sex revealed significant positive associations between degree of lateralization and anxiety in the overall sample and among right-dominant participants, as well as a significant positive relationship between degree of lateralization and depression among right-dominant participants. None of the correlations involving the direction of lateralization yielded significance, neither was there significant differences between left- and right-dominant participants on depression and anxiety scores. These findings suggest that the degree of manual lateralization, but not direction, is related to depression and anxiety at least among right-dominant individuals.

  15. Disease-Induced Skeletal Muscle Atrophy and Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Scott K.; Lynch, Gordon S.; Murphy, Kate T.; Reid, Michael B.; Zijdewind, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Numerous health problems including acute critical illness, cancer, diseases associated with chronic inflammation, and neurological disorders often result in skeletal muscle weakness and fatigue. Disease-related muscle atrophy and fatigue is an important clinical problem because acquired skeletal muscle weakness can increase the duration of hospitalization, result in exercise limitation, and contribute to a poor quality of life. Importantly, skeletal muscle atrophy is also associated with increased morbidity and mortality of patients. Therefore, improving our understanding of the mechanism(s) responsible for skeletal muscle weakness and fatigue in patients is a required first step to develop clinical protocols to prevent these skeletal muscle problems. This review will highlight the consequences and potential mechanisms responsible for skeletal muscle atrophy and fatigue in patients suffering from acute critical illness, cancer, chronic inflammatory diseases, and neurological disorders. PMID:27128663

  16. The study of the character strengths in children: Relations with the psychological well-being, social desirability and personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldana Sol Grinhauz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to verify the existence of associations between character strengths, psychological welfare, social desirability and personality in children of 10 to12 years old. 518 children (254 boys and 263 girls between 10 and 12 years old and attending public and private schools in the City of Buenos Aires (Argentina participated on this study. The following were administered: a socio–demographic survey; a survey to assess the PERMA ́s access to welfare theory five elements, the Virtues and Strengths Inventory for Children; Children’s Personality Questionnaire and Children’s Social Desirability Scale. The results showed that, as in previous studies, vitality, hope and curiosity were the strengths most associated with life satisfaction. At the same time, statistically significant correlations between the PERMA ́s access to welfare theory five elements (Seligman, 2011 and most of the character ́s strengths were found. Meanwhile, the strengths were also found associated with the Five Great Personality Factors model and social desirability. Finally, differences in the presence of the character strengths according to sex and age were found. 

  17. On the Behaviour of Porcine Adipose and Skeletal Muscle Tissues under Shock Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    regarding the dynamic tensile behaviour of skeletal muscle, Morrow et al. [6] per- formed low-rate (0.05 % s−1) tensile tests upon extensor digitorum ... longus muscles from New Zealand White rabbits. This study into the ‘passive’ properties of skeletal muscle provided data for the ultimate tensile strength

  18. Differential effects of docoosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid on fatty acid composition and myosin heavy chain-related genes of slow- and fast-twitch skeletal muscle tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Michio; Inoue, Takayuki; Katakura, Masanori; Hossain, Shahdat; Mamun, Abdullah Al; Matsuzaki, Kentaro; Arai, Hiroyuki; Shido, Osamu

    2016-04-01

    Myosin heavy chain (MHC) mediates the metabolic and contractile responses of skeletal muscles. MHC displays different isoforms, each of which has different characteristics. To better understand the effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids in skeletal muscles, rats were fed with control-, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-, and arachidonic acid (ARA)-oil, and the effects on plasma and muscular fatty acid profile, oxidative stress, mRNA levels of myosin heavy chain isoforms MHC1 of slow-twitch muscle (SO) and MHC2A, MHC2X, and MHCB isoforms of extensor digitorum longus (EDL) of fast-twitch muscle were evaluated. Concomitantly, mRNA levels of anti-oxidative enzymes, such as, catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD were determined. The expressions of MHC1, MHC2A, MHC2X, and MHC2B were lower in the SO of the DHA-fed rats. In the EDL muscles of DHA-fed rats, the expressions of MHC1 and MHC2A increased; however, the expressions of MHC2X increased and that of the MHC2 were not altered. Oxidative stress, as indicated by the levels of LPO, was significantly higher in the plasma of the ARA-fed rats, when compared with that of the DHA-fed rats. The LPO levels were higher both in the SO and EDL muscles of ARA-fed rats. Compared with ARA oil intake, DHA oil showed higher mRNA levels of GPx and SOD. Catalase expression was higher only in the EDL but not in the SO-type muscles. Our studies finally indicate that DHA and ARA differentially affect the regulation of contractile and metabolic properties of slow- and fast-twitch skeletal muscles.

  19. Sumoylated α-skeletal muscle actin in the skeletal muscle of adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uda, Munehiro; Kawasaki, Hiroaki; Iizumi, Kyoichi; Shigenaga, Ayako; Baba, Takeshi; Naito, Hisashi; Yoshioka, Toshitada; Yamakura, Fumiyuki

    2015-11-01

    Skeletal muscles are composed of two major muscle fiber types: slow-twitch oxidative fibers and fast-twitch glycolytic fibers. The proteins in these muscle fibers are known to differ in their expression, relative abundance, and post-translational modifications. In this study, we report a previously unreported post-translational modification of α-skeletal muscle actin in the skeletal muscles of adult male F344 rats in vivo. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2D-PAGE), we first examined the differences in the protein expression profiles between the soleus and plantaris muscles. We found higher intensity protein spots at approximately 60 kDa and pH 9 on 2D-PAGE for the soleus muscle compared with the plantaris muscle. These spots were identified as α-skeletal muscle actin by liquid chromatography-nanoelectrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry and western blot analyses. In addition, we found that the 60 kDa α-skeletal muscle actin is modified by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) 1, using 2D-PAGE and western blot analyses. Furthermore, we found that α-skeletal muscle actin with larger molecular weight was localized in the nuclear and cytosol of the skeletal muscle, but not in the myofibrillar fraction by the combination of subcellular fractionation and western blot analyses. These results suggest that α-skeletal muscle actin is modified by SUMO-1 in the skeletal muscles, localized in nuclear and cytosolic fractions, and the extent of this modification is much higher in the slow muscles than in the fast muscles. This is the first study to show the presence of SUMOylated actin in animal tissues.

  20. Skeletal Muscle Estrogen Receptor Activation in Response to Eccentric Exercise Up-Regulates Myogenic-Related Gene Expression Independent of Differing Serum Estradiol Levels Occurring during the Human Menstrual Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackenzie Haines, Sarah K. McKinley-Barnard, Thomas L. Andre, Josh J. Gann, Paul S. Hwang, Darryn S. Willoughby

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to determine if the differences in serum estradiol we have previously observed to occur during the mid-follicular (MF and mid-luteal (ML phases of the female menstrual cycle could be attributed to estrogen-induced receptor activation and subsequent effects on myogenic-related genes which may otherwise impact muscle regeneration in response to eccentric exercise. Twenty-two physically-active females (20.9 ± 1.4 years, 63.5 ± 9.0 kg, 1.65 ± 0.08 m underwent an eccentric exercise bout of the knee extensors during the MF and ML phases of their 28-day menstrual cycle. Prior to (PRE, at 6 (6HRPOST, and 24 (24HRPOST hours post-exercise for each session, participants had muscle biopsies obtained. Skeletal muscle estradiol and estrogen receptor-α (ER-α content and ER-DNA binding were determined with ELISA. Real-time PCR was used to assess ER-α, Myo-D, and cyclin D1 mRNA expression. Data were analyzed utilizing a 2 x 3 repeated measures univariate analyses of variance (ANOVA for each criterion variable (p ≤ .05. Skeletal muscle estradiol levels were not significantly impacted by either menstrual phase (p > 0.05; however, both ER-α mRNA and protein were significantly increased during MF (p < 0.05. ER-DNA binding and Myo-D mRNA expression increased significantly in both menstrual phases in response to exercise but were not different from one another; however, cyclin D1 mRNA expression was significantly greater during MF. This study demonstrates that skeletal muscle ER-α activation in response to eccentric exercise up-regulates myogenic-related gene expression independent of serum estradiol levels occurring during the human menstrual cycle.

  1. Skeletal Muscle Estrogen Receptor Activation in Response to Eccentric Exercise Up-Regulates Myogenic-Related Gene Expression Independent of Differing Serum Estradiol Levels Occurring during the Human Menstrual Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Mackenzie; McKinley-Barnard, Sarah K; Andre, Thomas L; Gann, Josh J; Hwang, Paul S; Willoughby, Darryn S

    2018-03-01

    This study sought to determine if the differences in serum estradiol we have previously observed to occur during the mid-follicular (MF) and mid-luteal (ML) phases of the female menstrual cycle could be attributed to estrogen-induced receptor activation and subsequent effects on myogenic-related genes which may otherwise impact muscle regeneration in response to eccentric exercise. Twenty-two physically-active females (20.9 ± 1.4 years, 63.5 ± 9.0 kg, 1.65 ± 0.08 m) underwent an eccentric exercise bout of the knee extensors during the MF and ML phases of their 28-day menstrual cycle. Prior to (PRE), at 6 (6HRPOST), and 24 (24HRPOST) hours post-exercise for each session, participants had muscle biopsies obtained. Skeletal muscle estradiol and estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) content and ER-DNA binding were determined with ELISA. Real-time PCR was used to assess ER-α, Myo-D, and cyclin D1 mRNA expression. Data were analyzed utilizing a 2 x 3 repeated measures univariate analyses of variance (ANOVA) for each criterion variable (p ≤ .05). Skeletal muscle estradiol levels were not significantly impacted by either menstrual phase (p > 0.05); however, both ER-α mRNA and protein were significantly increased during MF (p < 0.05). ER-DNA binding and Myo-D mRNA expression increased significantly in both menstrual phases in response to exercise but were not different from one another; however, cyclin D1 mRNA expression was significantly greater during MF. This study demonstrates that skeletal muscle ER-α activation in response to eccentric exercise up-regulates myogenic-related gene expression independent of serum estradiol levels occurring during the human menstrual cycle.

  2. Is Walking Capacity in Subjects with Multiple Sclerosis Primarily Related to Muscle Oxidative Capacity or Maximal Muscle Strength? A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Hansen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. Walking capacity is reduced in subjects with multiple sclerosis (MS. To develop effective exercise interventions to enhance walking capacity, it is important to determine the impact of factors, modifiable by exercise intervention (maximal muscle strength versus muscle oxidative capacity, on walking capacity. The purpose of this pilot study is to discriminate between the impact of maximal muscle strength versus muscle oxidative capacity on walking capacity in subjects with MS. Methods. From 24 patients with MS, muscle oxidative capacity was determined by calculation of exercise-onset oxygen uptake kinetics (mean response time during submaximal exercise bouts. Maximal muscle strength (isometric knee extension and flexion peak torque was assessed on dynamometer. All subjects completed a 6-minute walking test. Relationships between walking capacity (as a percentage of normal value and muscle strength (of knee flexors and extensors versus muscle oxidative capacity were assessed in multivariate regression analyses. Results. The expanded disability status score (EDSS showed a significant univariate correlation (r=-0.70, P<0.004 with walking capacity. In multivariate regression analyses, EDSS and mean response time, but not muscle strength, were independently related to walking capacity (P<0.05. Conclusions. Walking distance is, next to disability level and not taking neurologic symptoms/deficits into account, primarily related to muscle oxidative capacity in subjects with MS. Additional study is needed to further examine/verify these findings.

  3. Reduced Lower-Limb Muscle Strength and Volume in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes in Relation to Neuropathy, Intramuscular Fat, and Vitamin D Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almurdhi, Monirah M; Reeves, Neil D; Bowling, Frank L; Boulton, Andrew J M; Jeziorska, Maria; Malik, Rayaz A

    2016-03-01

    Muscle weakness and atrophy of the lower limbs may develop in patients with diabetes, increasing their risk of falls. The underlying basis of these abnormalities has not been fully explained. The aim of this study was to objectively quantify muscle strength and size in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in relation to the severity of neuropathy, intramuscular noncontractile tissue (IMNCT), and vitamin D deficiency. Twenty patients with T2DM and 20 healthy control subjects were matched by age, sex, and BMI. Strength and size of knee extensor, flexor, and ankle plantar and dorsiflexor muscles were assessed in relation to the severity of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN), amount of IMNCT, and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels. Compared with control subjects, patients with T2DM had significantly reduced knee extensor strength (P = 0.003) and reduced muscle volume of both knee extensors (P = 0.045) and flexors (P = 0.019). Ankle plantar flexor strength was also significantly reduced (P = 0.001) but without a reduction in ankle plantar flexor (P = 0.23) and dorsiflexor (P = 0.45) muscle volumes. IMNCT was significantly increased in the ankle plantar (P = 0.006) and dorsiflexors (P = 0.005). Patients with DSPN had significantly less knee extensor strength than those without (P = 0.02) but showed no difference in knee extensor volume (P = 0.38) and ankle plantar flexor strength (P = 0.21) or volume (P = 0.96). In patients with 25 nmol/L 25OHD, no significant differences were found for knee extensor strength and volume (P = 0.32 vs. 0.18) and ankle plantar flexors (P = 0.58 vs. 0.12). Patients with T2DM have a significant reduction in proximal and distal leg muscle strength and a proximal but not distal reduction in muscle volume possibly due to greater intramuscular fat accumulation in distal muscles. Proximal but not distal muscle strength is related to the severity of peripheral neuropathy but not IMNCT or 25OHD level. © 2016 by the American

  4. Muscle-tendon-related pain in 100 patients with hip dysplasia: prevalence and associations with self-reported hip disability and muscle strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Julie Sandell

    dysplasia. The secondary aim was to test if muscle-tendon related pain is linearly associated to self-reported hip disability and muscle strength in patients with hip dysplasia. Materials and methods One hundred patients (17 men) with a mean age of 29+9 years were included. Clinical entity approach...... was carried out to identify muscle-tendon related pain. Muscle strength was assessed with a handheld dynamometer and self-reported hip disability was recorded with the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score (HAGOS). Results Iliopsoas- and abductor-related pain were frequently identified with prevalences of 56......% (CI 46; 66) and 42% (CI 32; 52), respectively. Adductor-, hamstrings- and rectus abdominis-related pain were less common. There was a significant inverse linear association between muscle-tendon related pain and self-reported hip disability ranging from -3.35 to -7.51 points in the adjusted analysis...

  5. Muscle-tendon related pain in 100 patients with hip dysplasia: prevalence and associations with self-reported hip disability and muscle strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Julie Sandell

    2017-01-01

    dysplasia. The secondary aim was to test if muscle-tendon related pain is linearly associated to self-reported hip disability and muscle strength in patients with hip dysplasia. Materials and methods One hundred patients (17 men) with a mean age of 29+9 years were included. Clinical entity approach...... was carried out to identify muscle-tendon related pain. Muscle strength was assessed with a handheld dynamometer and self-reported hip disability was recorded with the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score (HAGOS). Results Iliopsoas- and abductor-related pain were frequently identified with prevalences of 56......% (CI 46; 66) and 42% (CI 32; 52), respectively. Adductor-, hamstrings- and rectus abdominis-related pain were less common. There was a significant inverse linear association between muscle-tendon related pain and self-reported hip disability ranging from -3.35 to -7.51 points in the adjusted analysis...

  6. Evaluating the Relation between Dominant and Non-Dominant Hand Perimeters and Handgrip Strength of Basketball, Volleyball, Badminton and Handball Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Defne Öcal

    2016-01-01

    In this study, it's aimed to evaluate the relation between dominant and non-dominant hand perimeters and handgrip strength of basketball, volleyball, badminton and handball athletes. Totally 101 active athletes (49 females, 52 male), of the average age in female 20±1.42 years, in male 21±1.99 years, joined to this study. Height, body weight, BMI…

  7. Cultural Strengths as Moderators of the Relationship between Acculturation to the Mainstream U.S. Society and Eating- and Body-Related Concerns among Mexican American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettendorf, Sonya K.; Fischer, Ann R.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored whether 3 culturally relevant variables (i.e., ethnic identity, familism, and enculturation) operated as sources of strength for 209 Mexican American women by buffering the relationship between their acculturation to the mainstream U.S. society and eating- and body-related concerns. In an effort to capture the underlying…

  8. An analysis of human skeletal remains with cerebral palsy: associated skeletal age delay and dental pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megyesi, Mary S; Tubbs, Ryan M; Sauer, Norman J

    2009-03-01

    In 2002 the authors were asked to examine the skeletal remains of an individual with a known history of severe cerebral palsy (CP) who was 21-23 years old at death. Skeletal age estimates of 11-15 years and dental age estimates of c. 16 years are younger than the known age of the decedent. Skeletal analysis also identified dental pathologies such as chronic tooth grinding and substantial calculus deposits. Scarce literature exists on forensic human remains cases with CP, and this study contrasts the age discrepancy and other features of this case with typical clinical characteristics of CP. A review of the CP literature suggests that delayed skeletal maturation and dental pathologies such as those observed in this case are indicative of complications related to CP. This article may alert future investigators to some of the osteological signs of CP and the probability that age indicators may be misleading.

  9. Age-related changes in the effects of strength training on lower leg muscles in healthy individuals measured using MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Psatha, Maria; Wu, Zhiqing; Gammie, Fiona; Ratkevicius, Aivaras; Wackerhage, Henning; Redpath, Thomas W; Gilbert, Fiona J; Meakin, Judith R; Aspden, Richard M

    2017-01-01

    Background We previously measured the rate of regaining muscle strength during rehabilitation of lower leg muscles in patients following lower leg casting. Our primary aim in this study was to measure the rate of gain of strength in healthy individuals undergoing a similar training regime. Our secondary aim was to test the ability of MRI to provide a biomarker for muscle function. Methods Men and women were recruited in three age groups: 20?30, 50?65 and over 70 years. Their response to resis...

  10. A fast and simple method to estimate relative, hyphal tensile-strength of filamentous fungi used to assess the effect of autophagy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintanilla, Daniela; Chelius, Cynthia; Iambamrung, Sirasa

    2018-01-01

    Fungal hyphal strength is an important phenotype which can have a profound impact on bioprocess behavior. Until now, there is not an efficient method which allows its characterization. Currently available methods are very time consuming; thus, compromising their applicability in strain selection...... distribution (PSD) is determined, with analysis time on the order of minutes. Plots of PSD 90th percentile versus time allow estimation of the specific fragmentation rate. This novel method is demonstrated by estimating relative hyphal strength during growth in control conditions and rapamycin...

  11. Cardiorespiratory fitness in males, and upper limbs muscular strength in females, are positively related with 25-hydroxyvitamin D plasma concentrations in European adolescents: the HELENA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtueña, J; Gracia-Marco, L; Huybrechts, I; Breidenassel, C; Ferrari, M; Gottrand, F; Dallongeville, J; Sioen, I; Gutierrez, A; Kersting, M; Kafatos, A; Manios, Y; Widhalm, K; Moreno, L A; González-Gross, M

    2013-09-01

    High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (strength (B = 0.168; P lower BMI and high fitness score presented significant higher 25(OH)D concentrations than those at lower fitness score in the other BMI groups (P limbs muscular strength are positively associated with 25(OH)D concentrations in male and female adolescents, respectively. Adiposity in males and low fat free mass in females are related to hypovitaminosis D. The interaction between fitness and BMI has a positive effect on 25(OH)D concentrations. Therapeutic interventions to correct the high rates of vitamin D deficiency in adolescents should consider physical fitness.

  12. Voltage-stabilised elastomers with increased relative permittivity and high electrical breakdown strength by means of phase separating binary copolymer blends of silicone elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A Razak, Aliff Hisyam; Yu, Liyun; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2017-01-01

    Increased electrical breakdown strength and increased dielectric permittivity of silicone-based dielectric elastomers are achieved by means of the addition of so-called voltage-stabilisers prepared from PDMS–PPMS copolymers as well as PDMS–PEG copolymers in order to compensate for the negative...... effect of softness on electrical stability of silicone elastomers. The voltage-stabilised elastomer, incorporating a high-permittivity PDMS–PEG copolymer, possesses increased relative permittivity, high electrical breakdown strength, excellent network integrity and low dielectric loss and paves the way...

  13. Long-Term Bond Strength of Self-Etch Adhesives to Normal and Artificially Eroded Dentin: Effect of Relative Humidity and Saliva Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsler, Fabienne; Peutzfeldt, Anne; Lussi, Adrian; Flury, Simon

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effect of relative humidity and saliva contamination on short- and long-term bond strength of two self-etch adhesives to normal and artificially eroded dentin. A total of 480 dentin specimens were produced from extracted human molars. Half of the specimens (n = 240) were left untreated (normal dentin) whereas the other half (n = 240) were artificially eroded. The specimens were treated with Clearfil SE Bond (CSE) or Scotchbond Universal (SBU), and composite (Filtek Z250) was applied to the treated dentin surface under four experimental conditions: at a relative humidity of 45% or 85% without/with human saliva contamination. Shear bond strength (SBS) was measured after storage for 24 h (100% humidity; 37°C) or 1 year (tap water; 37°C). SBS results were statistically analyzed with a nonparametric ANOVA followed by Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests (significance level: α = 0.05). SBS was significantly influenced by the dentin substrate (normal or artificially eroded dentin) and adhesive (p  CSE on normal dentin (19.2) > SBU on artificially eroded dentin (17.1) > CSE on artificially eroded dentin (10.9). On normal dentin, the two self-etch adhesives showed stable bond strength over time even under adverse conditions such as high relative humidity and saliva contamination. However, erosively altered dentin had a detrimental effect on the bond strength of both the adhesives investigated.

  14. Resistance exercise reverses aging in human skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Melov

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Human aging is associated with skeletal muscle atrophy and functional impairment (sarcopenia. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction is a major contributor to sarcopenia. We evaluated whether healthy aging was associated with a transcriptional profile reflecting mitochondrial impairment and whether resistance exercise could reverse this signature to that approximating a younger physiological age. Skeletal muscle biopsies from healthy older (N = 25 and younger (N = 26 adult men and women were compared using gene expression profiling, and a subset of these were related to measurements of muscle strength. 14 of the older adults had muscle samples taken before and after a six-month resistance exercise-training program. Before exercise training, older adults were 59% weaker than younger, but after six months of training in older adults, strength improved significantly (P<0.001 such that they were only 38% lower than young adults. As a consequence of age, we found 596 genes differentially expressed using a false discovery rate cut-off of 5%. Prior to the exercise training, the transcriptome profile showed a dramatic enrichment of genes associated with mitochondrial function with age. However, following exercise training the transcriptional signature of aging was markedly reversed back to that of younger levels for most genes that were affected by both age and exercise. We conclude that healthy older adults show evidence of mitochondrial impairment and muscle weakness, but that this can be partially reversed at the phenotypic level, and substantially reversed at the transcriptome level, following six months of resistance exercise training.

  15. The SAURON project : XXI. The spatially resolved UV-line strength relations of early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeong, Hyunjin; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Bureau, Martin; Davies, Roger L.; Bacon, Roland; Cappellari, Michele; de Zeeuw, P. Tim; Emsellem, Eric; Falcon-Barroso, Jesus; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Peletier, Reynier F.; Sarzi, Marc; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; van de Ven, Glenn

    The unexpected rising flux of early-type galaxies at decreasing ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths is a long-standing mystery. One important observational constraint is the correlation between UVoptical colours and Mg2 line strengths found by Burstein et al. The simplest interpretation of this phenomenon

  16. The Influence of Age-related Changes in Tactile Sensibility and Muscular Strength on Hand Function in Older Adult Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Murata

    2010-12-01

    Conclusion: These results suggested that the manual dexterity in the hand function was attenuated with increasing age. We considered that this attenuating effect was associated with a decline in tactile sensibility rather than a change in the muscular strength of the hand.

  17. Body composition of 80-years old men and women and its relation to muscle strength, physical activity and functional ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pederse, agnes N; Ovesen, Lars; Schroll, M

    2002-01-01

    in Glostrup, Denmark. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: 121 men and 113 women had their height and weight measured. Body fat mass and fat-free mass were assessed by bioelectrical impedance. Muscle strength was measured as handgrip, elbow flexion, knee extension, body flexion and body extension. Physical activity was self...

  18. The application of strength and power related field tests in older adults : criteria, current status and a future perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regterschot, G. Ruben H.; Morat, Tobias; Folkersma, Marjanne; Zijlstra, Wiebren

    2015-01-01

    Leg muscle strength (LMS) and leg muscle power (LMP) are determinants of aspects of functional status and important parameters for measuring intervention effects in older adults. Field tests are often used for the evaluation of LMS and LMP in older persons. However, criteria important for the

  19. Age-related changes in the effects of strength training on lower leg muscles in healthy individuals measured using MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psatha, Maria; Wu, Zhiqing; Gammie, Fiona; Ratkevicius, Aivaras; Wackerhage, Henning; Redpath, Thomas W; Gilbert, Fiona J; Meakin, Judith R; Aspden, Richard M

    2017-01-01

    We previously measured the rate of regaining muscle strength during rehabilitation of lower leg muscles in patients following lower leg casting. Our primary aim in this study was to measure the rate of gain of strength in healthy individuals undergoing a similar training regime. Our secondary aim was to test the ability of MRI to provide a biomarker for muscle function. Men and women were recruited in three age groups: 20-30, 50-65 and over 70 years. Their response to resistance training of the right lower leg twice a week for 8 weeks was monitored using a dynamometer and MRI of tibialis anterior, soleus and gastrocnemius muscles at 2 weekly intervals to measure muscle size (anatomical cross-sectional area ( ACSA )) and quality ( T 2 relaxation). Forty-four volunteers completed the study. Baseline strength declined with age. Training had no effect in middle-aged females or in elderly men in dorsiflexion. Other groups significantly increased both plantarflexion and dorsiflexion strength at rates up to 5.5 N m week -1 in young females in plantarflexion and 1.25 N m week -1 in young males in dorsiflexion. No changes were observed in ACSA or T 2 in any age group in any muscle. Exercise training improves muscle strength in males at all ages except the elderly in dorsiflexion. Responses in females were less clear with variation across age and muscle groups. These results were not reflected in simple MRI measures that do not, therefore, provide a good biomarker for muscle atrophy or the efficacy of rehabilitation.

  20. Advances in research on the prenatal development of skeletal muscle in animals in relation to the quality of muscle-based food. II -Genetic factors related to animal performance and advances in methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rehfeldt, C.; Pas, te M.F.W.; Wimmers, K.; Brameld, J.M.; Nissen, P.M.; Berri, C.; Valente, L.M.P.; Power, D.M.; Picard, B.; Stickland, N.C.; Oksbjerg, N.

    2011-01-01

    Selective breeding is an effective tool to improve livestock. Several selection experiments have been conducted to study direct selection responses as well as correlated responses in traits of skeletal muscle growth and function. Moreover, comparisons of domestic with wild-type species and of

  1. A primary reduced TCA flux governs substrate oxidation in T2D skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Our current knowledge on substrate oxidation in skeletal muscle in relation to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D) originate mainly from in vivo studies. The oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle is highly influenced by physical activity, ageing, hormonal status, and fiber type composition...... further regulatory mechanism to our understanding of substrate oxidation in human skeletal muscle during normo- an pathophysiological conditions, focusing especially on the governing influence of a primary reduced TCA flux for the diabetic phenotype in skeletal muscle....

  2. The skeletal system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikkels, PGJ

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal dysplasias are a group of disorders with a disturbance in development and/or growth of cartilage and/or bone. Epiphysis, metaphysis, and diaphysis of long bones are affected in a generalized manner with or without involvement of membranous bone of the skull. A dysostosis affects one or some

  3. [Evidence of work-related musculo-skeletal disorders of the upper extremities and current methods of risk assessment: can Charlie Chaplin give us any suggestions in "modern times"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostoli, P; Sala, Emma

    2009-01-01

    in some sequences of the film "Modern Times" Chaplin is clearly involved in activities at high risk for work-related musculo-skeletal disorders of the upper extremities (UEWMSDs), but evidence and perception of any complaint are not evident. To evaluate the extent of the biomechanical risk using current risk assessment methods and discuss the possible reasons for lack of complaints. we made an analysis using six of the current methods for ergonomic risk assessment (State of Washington, check list OCRA, HAL by ACGIH, RULA Strain Index, OREGE). All the methods applied demonstrated high-to-very high levels of biomechanical risk for the upper extremities, with evident psychic effects but without apparent musculo-skeletal disorders. The discrepancy between evident psychological disorders ad apparent absence of UEWMSDs are discussed as being due to either: an artistic choice by Charlie Chaplin who focused on the aspects thought to be more immediately and easily comic; the short duration of the physical load exertion; or because of a different perception of muscular work and fatigue that was also typical until the 1970's and 1980's, which also confirmed the principles and practices of our preventive and medical disciplines at that time.

  4. Predictors of Strength of In-Group Identity in Northern Ireland: Impact of Past Sectarian Conflict, Relative Deprivation, and Church Attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Taylor, Laura K; Merrilees, Christine E; Cummings, E Mark

    2015-07-01

    Social identity in Northern Ireland is multifaceted, with historical, religious, political, social, economic, and psychological underpinnings. Understanding the factors that influence the strength of identity with the Protestant or Catholic community, the two predominate social groups in Northern Ireland, has implications for individual well-being as well as for the continuation of tension and violence in this setting of protracted intergroup conflict. This study examined predictors of the strength of in-group identity in 692 women (mean age 37 years) in post-accord Northern Ireland. For Catholics, strength of in-group identity was positively linked to past negative impact of sectarian conflict and more frequent current church attendance, whereas for Protestants, strength of in-group identity was related to greater status satisfaction regarding access to jobs, standard of living, and political power compared to Catholics; that is, those who felt less relative deprivation. The discussion considers the differences in the factors underlying stronger identity for Protestants and Catholics in this context.

  5. Radiological diagnosis of skeletal metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederlund, V.

    1996-01-01

    The clinical management of patients with skeletal metastases puts new demands on imaging. The radiological imaging in screening for skeletal metastases entails detection, metastatic site description and radiologically guided biopsy for morphological typing and diagnosis. Regarding sensitivity and the ease in performing surveys of the whole skeleton, radionuclide bone scintigraphy still is the first choice in routine follow-up of asymptomatic patients with metastatic disease of the skeleton. A negative scan has to be re-evaluated with other findings, with emphasis on the possibility of a false-negative result. Screening for metastases in patients with local symptoms or pain is best accomplished by a combination of radiography and MRI. Water-weighted sequences are superior in sensitivity and in detection of metastases. Standard spin-echo sequences on the other hand are superior in metastatic site description and in detection of intraspinal metastases. MRI is helpful in differentiating between malignant disease, infection, benign vertebral collapse, insufficiency fracture after radiation therapy, degenerative vertebral disease and benign skeletal lesions. About 30% of patients with known cancer have benign causes of radiographic abnormalities. Most of these are related to degenerative diseases and are often easily diagnosed. However, due to overlap in MRI characteristics, bone biopsy sometimes is essential for differentiating between malignant and nonmalignant lesions. Performing bone biopsy and aspiration cytology by radiologist and cytologist in co-operation has proven highly accurate in diagnosing bone lesions. The procedure involves low risk to the patient and provides a morphological diagnosis. Once a suspected metastatic lesion is detected, irrespective of modality, the morphological diagnosis determines the appropriate work-up imaging with respect to the therapy alternatives. (orig./VHE)

  6. The relationship between lower-limb strength and match-related muscle damage in elite level professional European soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Adam; Dunlop, Gordon; Rouissi, Mehdi; Chtara, Moktar; Paul, Darren; Zouhal, Hassane; Wong, Del P

    2015-01-01

    In professional soccer, the benefits of lower limb strength training have been advocated. However, from an aspect of performance development, specifically with respect to expression of fatigue and injury prevention, the advantages of increased lower body strength have received limited attention at the elite level of the game. The primary aim of this cross-sectional investigation was to examine the association between lower body strength and the expression of markers of fatigue as evaluated through muscle damage assessment following match play in professional soccer players. Ten male professional soccer players participated in this investigation (mean ± SD age 26.2 ± 4.3 years, height 181.6 ± 4.8 cm and body mass 78.7 ± 6.1 kg); creatine kinase (CK) was collected 2-days post-match for a 5-month period and at three different time points (Phase 1, Phase 2 and Phase 3); muscular strength (e.g. 4 repetition half-squat) was measured 3-day post-match. No significant change in CK and muscular force across three time points was found (F = 0.60, P = 0.56, η(2) = 0.06 and F = 2.65, P = 0.10, η(2) = 0.23, respectively). Muscular force was negatively correlated (moderate to very large) with CK. It can be concluded that players who produce greater lower body force as a result of being stronger in the lower limbs show reduced levels of CK 48 h post-match.

  7. Resistance Training Enhances Skeletal Muscle Innervation Without Modifying the Number of Satellite Cells or their Myofiber Association in Obese Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messi, María Laura; Li, Tao; Wang, Zhong-Min; Marsh, Anthony P; Nicklas, Barbara; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2016-10-01

    Studies in humans and animal models provide compelling evidence for age-related skeletal muscle denervation, which may contribute to muscle fiber atrophy and loss. Skeletal muscle denervation seems relentless; however, long-term, high-intensity physical activity appears to promote muscle reinnervation. Whether 5-month resistance training (RT) enhances skeletal muscle innervation in obese older adults is unknown. This study found that neural cell-adhesion molecule, NCAM+ muscle area decreased with RT and was inversely correlated with muscle strength. NCAM1 and RUNX1 gene transcripts significantly decreased with the intervention. Type I and type II fiber grouping in the vastus lateralis did not change significantly but increases in leg press and knee extensor strength inversely correlated with type I, but not with type II, fiber grouping. RT did not modify the total number of satellite cells, their number per area, or the number associated with specific fiber subtypes or innervated/denervated fibers. Our results suggest that RT has a beneficial impact on skeletal innervation, even when started late in life by sedentary obese older adults. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Variations of the lithospheric strength across the edges of the North American craton and their relation to intraplate earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesauro, Magdala; Kaban, Mikhail; Mooney, Walter; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2016-04-01

    Seismic tomography models revealed a pronounced velocity contrast between the cratonic and off-cratonic regions of North America. However, the location of the transition between the fast/slow velocities characterizing the Archean-Proterozoic and Phanerozoic regions, respectively, is still under debate. In order to understand the structure of the edges of North American (NA) cratons, we analyze the results of two recent thermal and strength models of the NA continent, obtained using seismic and gravity data (Kaban et al., 2014; Tesauro et al., 2014; 2015). We could observe that in the peripheral parts of the cratons, as the Proterozoic Canadian Platform, the Grenville, and the western part of the Yavapai-Mazatzal province, the integrated strength for one model is 10 times larger than the other one, due to a temperature difference of >200°C in the uppermost mantle. The differences in the effective elastic thickness (Te) between the two models are less pronounced. In both models, Proterozoic regions reactivated by Meso-Cenozoic tectonics (e.g., Rocky Mountains and the Mississippi Embayment), are characterized by a weak lithosphere due to the absence of the mechanically strong part of the mantle lithospheric layer. Furthermore, intraplate earthquakes are distributed along the edges of the cratons, demonstrating that tectonic stress accumulates there, while the cores of the cratons remain undeformed. In both models, intraplate seismicity occurs in weak lithosphere or in the regions characterized by pronounced contrasts of strength and Te.

  9. GH administration changes myosin heavy chain isoforms in skeletal muscle but does not augment muscle strength or hypertrophy, either alone or combined with resistance exercise training in healthy elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Kai Henrik Wiborg; Andersen, Jesper Løvind; Beyer, Nina

    2002-01-01

    ) quadriceps muscle power; 3) quadriceps muscle fiber type, size, and myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition; 4) quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) [nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI)]; 5) body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scanning); and 6) GH-related serum markers were performed...

  10. DMP-1-mediated Ghr gene recombination compromises skeletal development and impairs skeletal response to intermittent PTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongbo; Kennedy, Oran D.; Cardoso, Luis; Basta-Pljakic, Jelena; Partridge, Nicola C.; Schaffler, Mitchell B.; Rosen, Clifford J.; Yakar, Shoshana

    2016-01-01

    Bone minerals are acquired during growth and are key determinants of adult skeletal health. During puberty, the serum levels of growth hormone (GH) and its downstream effector IGF-1 increase and play critical roles in bone acquisition. The goal of the current study was to determine how bone cells integrate signals from the GH/IGF-1 to enhance skeletal mineralization and strength during pubertal growth. Osteocytes, the most abundant bone cells, were shown to orchestrate bone modeling during growth. We used dentin matrix protein (Dmp)-1-mediated Ghr knockout (DMP-GHRKO) mice to address the role of the GH/IGF axis in osteocytes. We found that DMP-GHRKO did not affect linear growth but compromised overall bone accrual. DMP-GHRKO mice exhibited reduced serum inorganic phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and decreased bone formation indices and were associated with an impaired response to intermittent PTH treatment. Using an osteocyte-like cell line along with in vivo studies, we found that PTH sensitized the response of bone to GH by increasing Janus kinase-2 and IGF-1R protein levels. We concluded that endogenously secreted PTH and GHR signaling in bone are necessary to establish radial bone growth and optimize mineral acquisition during growth.—Liu, Z., Kennedy, O. D., Cardoso, L., Basta-Pljakic, J., Partridge, N. C., Schaffler, M. B., Rosen, C. J., Yakar, S. DMP-1-mediated Ghr gene recombination compromises skeletal development and impairs skeletal response to intermittent PTH. PMID:26481310

  11. Resistance training for activity limitations in older adults with skeletal muscle function deficits: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papa EV

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Evan V Papa,1 Xiaoyang Dong,2 Mahdi Hassan1 1Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Physical Therapy, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX, USA Abstract: Human aging results in a variety of changes to skeletal muscle. Sarcopenia is the age-associated loss of muscle mass and is one of the main contributors to musculoskeletal impairments in the elderly. Previous research has demonstrated that resistance training can attenuate skeletal muscle function deficits in older adults, however few articles have focused on the effects of resistance training on functional mobility. The purpose of this systematic review was to 1 present the current state of literature regarding the effects of resistance training on functional mobility outcomes for older adults with skeletal muscle function deficits and 2 provide clinicians with practical guidelines that can be used with seniors during resistance training, or to encourage exercise. We set forth evidence that resistance training can attenuate age-related changes in functional mobility, including improvements in gait speed, static and dynamic balance, and fall risk reduction. Older adults should be encouraged to participate in progressive resistance training activities, and should be admonished to move along a continuum of exercise from immobility, toward the recommended daily amounts of activity. Keywords: aging, strength training, sarcopenia, mobility, balance

  12. Wing bone stresses in free flying bats and the evolution of skeletal design for flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, S M; Bennett, M B; Carrier, D R

    1992-10-22

    The primary mechanical functions of limb bones are to resist deformation, and hence provide stiff levers against which muscles can act, and to be sufficiently strong to prevent breaking under static or dynamic loads which arise from normal and accidental activities. If bones perform these functions with a minimum amount of material, the energetic costs associated with building, maintaining and transporting the skeleton will be minimized. Appropriate skeletal architecture for minimizing mass while maximizing strength depends on forces imposed on structural elements. In the evolutionary acquisition of flight in the bat lineage, the forelimb skeleton must have come to experience locomotor-forces that differed from those engendered by the terrestrial locomotion of non-flying bat relatives. Here we successfully measure in vivo strain on the wing bones of flying mammals. Our data demonstrate that torsion and shear are unique and crucial features of skeletal biomechanics during flight, and suggest that the evolution of skeletal design in bats and other flying vertebrates may be driven by the need to resist these loads.

  13. Relations of meeting national public health recommendations for muscular strengthening activities with strength, body composition, and obesity: the Women's Injury Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudelle-Jackson, Elaine; Jackson, Allen W; Morrow, James R

    2011-10-01

    We examined the relations of meeting or not meeting the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans recommendations for muscular strengthening activities with percentage of body fat, body mass index (BMI; defined as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters, squared), muscular strength, and obesity classification in women. We analyzed data on 918 women aged 20 to 83 years in the Women's Injury Study from 2007 to 2009. A baseline orthopedic examination included measurement of height, body weight, skinfolds, and muscle strength. Women who met muscle strengthening activity recommendations had significantly lower BMI and percentage of body fat and higher muscle strength. Women not meeting those recommendations were more likely to be obese (BMI ≥ 30) compared with women who met the recommendations after we adjusted for age, race, and aerobic physical activity (odds ratio = 2.28; 95% confidence interval = 1.61, 3.23). There was a small but significant positive association between meeting muscle strengthening activity recommendations and muscular strength, a moderate inverse association with body fat percentage, and a strong inverse association with obesity classification, providing preliminary support for the muscle strengthening activity recommendation for women.

  14. Relation of selective voluntary motor control of the lower extremity and extensor strength of the knee joint in children with spastic diplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumoto, Yasuaki; Takaki, Kenji; Matsuda, Tadamitsu; Nitta, Osamu

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate differences in selective voluntary motor control of the lower extremities by objective assessment and determine the relationship between selective voluntary motor control and knee extensor strength in children with spastic diplegia. [Subjects and Methods] Forty individuals who had spastic cerebral palsy, with Gross Motor Function Classification System levels ranging from I to III, were assessed using the Selective Control Assessment of the Lower Extremity and by testing the maximum knee extensor strength. The unaffected side was defined as the lower limb with the higher score, and the affected side was defined as the lower limb with the lower score. [Results] The Selective Control Assessment of the Lower Extremity score on the affected side had a lower average than that on the unaffected side. The scores showed a significant inverse correlation with the maximum knee extensor strength. [Conclusion] There was bilateral difference in the selective voluntary motor control of the lower extremities in children with spastic diplegia, and the selective voluntary motor control of the lower extremity was related to maximum knee extensor strength.

  15. Photon strength functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergqvist, I.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for extracting photon strength functions are briefly discussed. We follow the Brink-Axel approach to relate the strength functions to the giant resonances observed in photonuclear work and summarize the available data on the E1, E2 and M1 resonances. Some experimental and theoretical problems are outlined. (author)

  16. Oxidative proteome alterations during skeletal muscle ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Lourenço dos Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia corresponds to the degenerative loss of skeletal muscle mass, quality, and strength associated with ageing and leads to a progressive impairment of mobility and quality of life. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in this process are not completely understood. A hallmark of cellular and tissular ageing is the accumulation of oxidatively modified (carbonylated proteins, leading to a decreased quality of the cellular proteome that could directly impact on normal cellular functions. Although increased oxidative stress has been reported during skeletal muscle ageing, the oxidized protein targets, also referred as to the ‘oxi-proteome’ or ‘carbonylome’, have not been characterized yet. To better understand the mechanisms by which these damaged proteins build up and potentially affect muscle function, proteins targeted by these modifications have been identified in human rectus abdominis muscle obtained from young and old healthy donors using a bi-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based proteomic approach coupled with immunodetection of carbonylated proteins. Among evidenced protein spots, 17 were found as increased carbonylated in biopsies from old donors comparing to young counterparts. These proteins are involved in key cellular functions such as cellular morphology and transport, muscle contraction and energy metabolism. Importantly, impairment of these pathways has been described in skeletal muscle during ageing. Functional decline of these proteins due to irreversible oxidation may therefore impact directly on the above-mentioned pathways, hence contributing to the generation of the sarcopenic phenotype.

  17. Immunology Guides Skeletal Muscle Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Andrea Sass

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue trauma of skeletal muscle is one of the most common side effects in surgery. Muscle injuries are not only caused by accident-related injuries but can also be of an iatrogenic nature as they occur during surgical interventions when the anatomical region of interest is exposed. If the extent of trauma surpasses the intrinsic regenerative capacities, signs of fatty degeneration and formation of fibrotic scar tissue can occur, and, consequentially, muscle function deteriorates or is diminished. Despite research efforts to investigate the physiological healing cascade following trauma, our understanding of the early onset of healing and how it potentially determines success or failure is still only fragmentary. This review focuses on the initial physiological pathways following skeletal muscle trauma in comparison to bone and tendon trauma and what conclusions can be drawn from new scientific insights for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Strategies to support regeneration of muscle tissue after injury are scarce, even though muscle trauma has a high incidence. Based on tissue specific differences, possible clinical treatment options such as local immune-modulatory and cell therapeutic approaches are suggested that aim to support the endogenous regenerative potential of injured muscle tissues.

  18. Immunology Guides Skeletal Muscle Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, F Andrea; Fuchs, Michael; Pumberger, Matthias; Geissler, Sven; Duda, Georg N; Perka, Carsten; Schmidt-Bleek, Katharina

    2018-03-13

    Soft tissue trauma of skeletal muscle is one of the most common side effects in surgery. Muscle injuries are not only caused by accident-related injuries but can also be of an iatrogenic nature as they occur during surgical interventions when the anatomical region of interest is exposed. If the extent of trauma surpasses the intrinsic regenerative capacities, signs of fatty degeneration and formation of fibrotic scar tissue can occur, and, consequentially, muscle function deteriorates or is diminished. Despite research efforts to investigate the physiological healing cascade following trauma, our understanding of the early onset of healing and how it potentially determines success or failure is still only fragmentary. This review focuses on the initial physiological pathways following skeletal muscle trauma in comparison to bone and tendon trauma and what conclusions can be drawn from new scientific insights for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Strategies to support regeneration of muscle tissue after injury are scarce, even though muscle trauma has a high incidence. Based on tissue specific differences, possible clinical treatment options such as local immune-modulatory and cell therapeutic approaches are suggested that aim to support the endogenous regenerative potential of injured muscle tissues.

  19. Muscle plasticity related to changes in tubulin and αB-crystallin levels induced by eccentric contraction in rat skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, H; Ochi, E; Sakurai, T; Lim, J-Y; Nakazato, K; Hatta, H

    2016-09-01

    We used the model of eccentric contraction of the hindlimb muscle by Ochi et al. to examine the role of eccentric contraction in muscle plasticity. This model aims to focus on stimulated skeletal muscle responses by measuring tissue weights and tracing the quantities of αB-crystallin and tubulin. The medial gastrocnemius muscle (GCM) responded to electrically induced eccentric contraction (EIEC) with significant increases in tissue weight (p < 0.01) and the ratio of tissue weight to body weight (p < 0.05); however, there was a decrease in soleus muscle weight after EIEC. EIEC in the GCM caused contractile-induced sustenance of the traced proteins, but the soleus muscle exhibited a remarkable decrease in α-tubulin and a 19% decrease in αB-crystallin. EIEC caused fast-to-slow myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform type-oriented shift within both the GCM and soleus muscle. These results have shown that different MHC isoform type-expressing slow and fast muscles commonly undergo fast-to-slow type MHC isoform transformation. This suggests that different levels of EIEC affected each of the slow and fast muscles to induce different quantitative changes in the expression of αB-crystallin and α-tubulin.

  20. Evaluating the evidence for macrophage presence in skeletal muscle and its relation to insulin resistance in obese mice and humans: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Meha; Rudrapatna, Srikesh; Banfield, Laura; Bierbrier, Rachel; Wang, Pei-Wen; Wang, Kuan-Wen; Thabane, Lehana; Samaan, M Constantine

    2017-08-08

    The current global rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes are staggering. In order to implement effective management strategies, it is imperative to understand the mechanisms of obesity-induced insulin resistance and diabetes. Macrophage infiltration and inflammation of the adipose tissue in obesity is a well-established paradigm, yet the role of macrophages in muscle inflammation, insulin resistance and diabetes is not adequately studied. In this systematic review, we will examine the evidence for the presence of macrophages in skeletal muscle of obese humans and mice, and will assess the association between muscle macrophages and insulin resistance. We will identify published studies that address muscle macrophage content and phenotype, and its association with insulin resistance. We will search MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science for eligible studies. Grey literature will be searched in ProQuest. Quality assessment will be conducted using the Systematic Review Centre for Laboratory Animal Experimentation risk of bias Tool for animal studies. The findings of this systematic review will shed light on immune-metabolic crosstalk in obesity, and allow the consideration of targeted therapies to modulate muscle macrophages in the treatment and prevention of diabetes. The review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at conferences.

  1. Lipolysis in Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serup, Annette Karen Lundbeck

    of AMPK in regulation of lipid handling and lipolysis in the basal non-contracting state and during muscle contractions in skeletal muscle. To evaluate the role of AMPK, we measured protein expression and phosphorylation as well as gene expression of proteins important for regulation of lipid handling...... and lipolysis in skeletal muscle from wildtype mice and mice overexpressing a kinase dead AMPKα2 construct (AMPKα2 KD) in the basal non-contracting state and during in situ stimulated muscle contractions. We found, that IMTG levels were ~50% lower in AMPKα2 KD in the basal resting state, explained by a lower....... IMTG was in wildtype mice reduced with ~50% after muscle contractions with no effect of contractions in AMPKα2 KD mice. Concomitantly, ATGL was phosphorylated at ser406 and HSL on ser565 with muscle contractions in an AMPK dependent manner, suggesting that these sites actives lipolysis during muscle...

  2. Engineering Skeletal Muscle Repair

    OpenAIRE

    Juhas, Mark; Bursac, Nenad

    2013-01-01

    Healthy skeletal muscle has a remarkable capacity for regeneration. Even at a mature age, muscle tissue can undergo a robust rebuilding process that involves the formation of new muscle cells and extracellular matrix and the re-establishment of vascular and neural networks. Understanding and reverse-engineering components of this process is essential for our ability to restore loss of muscle mass and function in cases where the natural ability of muscle for self-repair is exhausted or impaire...

  3. Skeletal (stromal) stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem M; Kermani, Abbas Jafari; Zaher, Walid

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal (marrow stromal) stem cells (BMSCs) are a group of multipotent cells that reside in the bone marrow stroma and can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes. Studying signaling pathways that regulate BMSC differentiation into osteoblastic cells is a strategy....../preadipocyte factor 1 (Dlk1/Pref-1), the Wnt co-receptor Lrp5 and intracellular kinases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Stem Cells and Bone....

  4. The Gluteus Medius Vs. Thigh Muscles Strength Ratio and Their Relation to Electromyography Amplitude During a Farmer's Walk Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stastny, Petr; Lehnert, Michal; Zaatar, Amr; Svoboda, Zdenek; Xaverova, Zuzana; Pietraszewski, Przemysław

    2015-03-29

    The strength ratio between hamstrings and quadriceps (H/Q) is associated with knee injuries as well as hip abductor muscle (HAB) weakness. Sixteen resistance trained men (age, 32.5 ± 4.2 years) performed 5 s maximal isometric contractions at 75° of knee flexion/extension and 15° of hip abduction on a dynamometer. After this isometric test they performed a Farmer's walk exercise to find out if the muscle strength ratio predicted the electromyography amplitude expressed as a percentage of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC). The carried load represented a moderate intensity of 75% of the exercise six repetitions maximum (6RM). Electromyography data from the vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris (BF) and gluteus medius (Gmed) on each leg were collected during the procedure. The groups selected were participants with H/Q ≥ 0.5, HQ gluteus medius, especially for individuals with a HAB/H ratio < 1 and HAB/Q < 0.5.

  5. Hip abductors and thigh muscles strength ratios and their relation to electromyography amplitude during split squat and walking lunge exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Stastny

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The hip abductors (HAB, quadriceps (Q and hamstrings (H reciprocal strength ratios are predictors of electromyography (EMG amplitude during load carrying walking at moderate intensity. Therefore, these strength ratios might predict also the EMG during the exercises as walking lunge (WL or split squat (SSq at submaximal intensity. Objective: To determine whether the EMG amplitude of vastus mediali (VM, vastus laterali (VL, biceps femoris (BF and gluteus medius (Gmed is associated with muscle strength ratio during SSqs and WLs. To determine whether the EMG amplitude differs between individuals with HAB/H ratio above and below one and between individuals with H/Q or HAB/Q ratio above and below 0.5 during SSqs and WLs. Methods: 17 resistance-trained men (age 29.6 ± 4.6 years with at least 3 years of strength training performed in cross-sectional design 5 s maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC on an isokinetic dynamometer for knee extension, knee flexion, and hip abduction. The MVIC was used to normalize the EMG signal and estimate the individual strength ratios. Than participants performed WL and SSq for a 5 repetition maximum, to find out muscle activity at submaximal intensity of exercise. Results: The H/Q ratio was associated by Kendall's tau (τ with VM (τ = .33 and BF (τ = -.71 amplitude, HAB/Q ratio was associated with BF (τ = -.43 and Gmed (τ = .38 amplitude, as well as HAB/H was associated with VM (τ = -.41 and Gmed (τ = .74 amplitude. ANOVA results showed significant differences between SSq and WL (F(4, 79 = 10, p < .001, ηp2 = .34 in Gmed amplitude, where WL resulted in higher Gmed amplitude compared to SSq. Other significant differences were found between H/Q groups (F(4, 29 = 3, p = .04, ηp2 = .28 in VM and Gmed amplitude, where group with H/Q > 0.5 showed higher VMO amplitude and lower Gmed amplitude. Furthermore, significant difference was found

  6. Exercise in waist-high warm water decreases pain and improves health-related quality of life and strength in the lower extremities in women with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusi, N; Tomas-Carus, P; Häkkinen, A; Häkkinen, K; Ortega-Alonso, A

    2006-02-15

    To evaluate the short- and long-term efficacy of exercise therapy in a warm, waist-high pool in women with fibromyalgia. Thirty-four women (mean +/- SD tender points 17 +/- 1) were randomly assigned to either an exercise group (n = 17) to perform 3 weekly sessions of training including aerobic, proprioceptive, and strengthening exercises during 12 weeks, or to a control group (n = 17). Maximal unilateral isokinetic strength was measured in the knee extensors and flexors in concentric and eccentric actions at 60 degrees /second and 210 degrees /second, and in the shoulder abductors and adductors in concentric contractions. Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) was assessed using the EQ-5D questionnaire; pain was assessed on a visual analog scale. All were measured at baseline, posttreatment, and after 6 months. The strength of the knee extensors in concentric actions increased by 20% in both limbs after the training period, and these improvements were maintained after the de-training period in the exercise group. The strength of other muscle actions measured did not change. HRQOL improved by 93% (P = 0.007) and pain was reduced by 29% (P = 0.012) in the exercise group during the training, but pain returned close to the pretraining level during the subsequent de-training. However, there were no changes in the control group during the entire period. The therapy relieved pain and improved HRQOL and muscle strength in the lower limbs at low velocity in patients with initial low muscle strength and high number of tender points. Most of these improvements were maintained long term.

  7. Skeletal sarcoidosis; Skelettsarkoidose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freyschmidt, J. [Klinikum Bremen-Mitte, Beratungsstelle und Referenzzentrum fuer Osteoradiologie, Bremen (Germany); Freyschmidt, P. [Dermatologische Gemeinschaftspraxis, Schwalmstadt (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    Presentation of the etiology, pathology, clinical course, radiology and differential diagnostics of skeletal sarcoidosis. Noncaseating epithelioid cell granulomas can trigger solitary, multiple or disseminated osteolysis, reactive osteosclerosis and/or granulomatous synovitis. The incidence of sarcoidosis is 10-12 per 100,000 inhabitants per year. Skeletal involvement is approximately 14 %. Skeletal involvement occurs almost exclusively in the stage of lymph node and pulmonary manifestation. Most cases of skeletal involvement are clinically asymptomatic. In the case of synovial involvement, unspecific joint complaints (arthralgia) or less commonly arthritis can occur. Typical skin alterations can be diagnostically significant. Punch out lesions osteolysis, coarse destruction and osteosclerosis can occur, which are best visualized with projection radiography and/or computed tomography. Pure bone marrow foci without interaction with the bone can only be detected with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and more recently with positron emission tomography (PET), mostly as incidental findings. There is a predeliction for the hand and trunk skeleton. Skeletal tuberculosis, metastases, multiple myeloma, Langerhans cell histiocytosis and sarcoid-like reactions in solid tumors must be differentiated. The key factors for correct diagnosis are thorax radiography, thorax CT and dermatological manifestations. (orig.) [German] Darstellung von Aetiologie, Pathologie, Klinik, Radiologie und Differenzialdiagnose der Skelettsarkoidose. Nichtverkaesende Epitheloidzellgranulome koennen solitaere, multiple oder disseminierte Osteolysen, reaktive Osteosklerosen und/oder eine granulomatoese Synovialitis ausloesen. Inzidenz der Sarkoidose: 10-12/100.000 Einwohner/Jahr. Skelettbeteiligung ca. 14 %. Skelettbeteiligungen kommen fast ausschliesslich im Stadium einer Lymphknoten- und pulmonalen Manifestation vor. Die meisten Skelettbeteiligungen verlaufen klinisch stumm. Bei synovialer

  8. POSTOPERATIVE EFFECT OF PHYSICAL THERAPY RELATED TO FUNCTIONAL CAPACITY AND RESPIRATORY MUSCLE STRENGTH IN PATIENTS SUBMITTED TO BARIATRIC SURGERY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Josélia Jucirema Jarschel de; Freitas, Alexandre Coutinho Teixeira de; Almeida, Andréa Adriana de

    Respiratory physiotherapy plays an important role preventing complications in bariatric surgery. To assess the effects of out-patient physiotherapy during post-operative period through respiratory pressures and functional capacity in individuals submitted to bariatric surgery. A prospective longitudinal and controlled study was done in adults with body mass index (BMI) equal or greater than 40 kg/m², who have been submitted to bariatric surgery. They were divided into two groups: intervention-group, who performed out-patient physiotherapy twice a week, from thirty to sixty days after surgery; and the control-group, who only followed home instructions. Both groups were evaluated before surgery and sixty days after surgery through manovacuometry, six-minute walk test and the Borg Scale of perceived exertion. Twenty participants were included the intervention-group and twenty-three in the control-group. Both groups had significant and similar weight loss after surgery. The manovacuometry presented no differences comparing pre- and post-surgery and in the comparison between the groups. The result of the six-minute walk test for the intervention-group increased by 10.1% in the post-operative period in relation to pre-. The Borg scale of perceived exertion in the intervention-group in pre-surgery decreased by 13.5% in the post-surgery compared to pre-surgery. In the control-group there was no difference comparing pre- and post-operative values, as in the comparison with the intervention-group. The low-intensity exercise program, carried out between the 30th and the 60th day after bariatric surgery provided better functional capacity; did not change respiratory muscle strength; and improved the perceived exertion rate. A fisioterapia respiratória tem papel importante na prevenção das complicações da cirurgia bariátrica. Avaliar os efeitos da fisioterapia ambulatorial no pós-operatório através das pressões respiratórias e da capacidade funcional dos indiv

  9. Childhood obesity and skeletal-dental maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costacurta, M; Sicuro, L; Di Renzo, L; Condò, R; De Lorenzo, A; Docimo, R

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the skeletal maturation assessed through cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) and dental age, in normal weight, pre-obese and obese patients, using the Body Mass Index (BMI) and the Dual energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). A group of 107 healthy patients, aged between 6 and 12 years (mean age 8.77∓1.79), underwent anthropometric measurements, BMI calculation, and DXA exam at the Department of Neuroscience, Human Nutrition Unit, University of Rome "Tor Vergata" and the assessment of skeletal and dental age at the Paediatric Dentistry Unit of PTV Hospital, University of Rome "Tor Vergata". The subjects were classified as underweight, normal weight, pre-obese and obese according to FM% McCarthy cut-offs classification and BMI classification. The analyses were performed using the SPSS software (version 16; SPSS Inc., Chicago IL, USA). The assessment of differences through the means of continuous variables among the different groups were analysed using the One-Way-Anova test. The Student's t test was also applied for each group of children (using McCarthy and BMI classifications) between chronological and skeletal-dental age; the Fisher's exact test was performed between the gender categorical variable and McCarthy cut-offs classification, and between McCarthy and BMI classifications. Besides, to evaluate the association between skeletal and dental age, a Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated. In all the assessments a significant level of alpha = 0.05 was considered. The comparison between BMI and DXA data shows statistically significant differences between BMI- FM% (McCarthy cut-offs) classifications (p≤0.001). According to FM% (McCarthy cut-offs) classification, from the Anova analysis among the groups a statistically significant difference between skeletal age (p=0.03) and dental age (p=0.02) was observed, while the difference related to the chronological age (p=0.22) among the groups, was not

  10. Evaluating condylar head morphology as it relates to the skeletal vertical facial dimension: A three-dimensional semi-automated landmark study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis Contro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Condylar growth direction and rotation affect the occlusion, especially in the vertical dimension. The first objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability of a novel three-dimensional semi-automated landmark computer software on mapping the head of the mandibular condyle using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT. The second objective was to evaluate qualitatively how condylar morphology differs three-dimensionally according to skeletal vertical pattern and mandibular morphology in healthy adults using CBCT. Materials and Methods: A total of 242 (169 females and 73 males participants were eligible for the study. Participants were selected at random from the 242 to create three groups of 10 participants based on their MP-SN° and assigned to a brachyfacial group, dolichofacial group, and mesofacial group. The thirty participants were also divided by mandibular symphyseal morphology according to the chin angle (Id-Pg-MP°. Each subject′s condyles were landmarked using Stratovan′s Checkpoint software. A Procrustes analysis was then used to generate an average condylar shape for each of the six groups from which to evaluate shape differences. Results: Checkpoint proved to be a reliable method of placing landmarks on the condyle with a low coefficient of variation of 1.81% (standard deviation/mean. Qualitative analysis of the Procrustes averages revealed brachyfacial average showed a moderate anterior lean from the sagittal, anterior convexity from the axial, and medial lean from the coronal views. The dolichofacial average showed a mild anterior lean from the sagittal, anterior concavity from the axial, and a symmetrical half-dome shape from the coronal. The obtuse chin angle group average displayed morphology similar to the brachyfacial average, whereas the acute chin angle group average displayed morphology similar to the dolichofacial average. Conclusions: Checkpoint is reliable software to landmark the

  11. Lycopene treatment against loss of bone mass, microarchitecture and strength in relation to regulatory mechanisms in a postmenopausal osteoporosis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardawi, Mohammed-Salleh M; Badawoud, Mohammed H; Hassan, Sherif M; Rouzi, Abdulrahim A; Ardawi, Jumanah M S; AlNosani, Nouf M; Qari, Mohammed H; Mousa, Shaker A

    2016-02-01

    Lycopene supplementation decreases oxidative stress and exhibits beneficial effects on bone health, but the mechanisms through which it alters bone metabolism in vivo remain unclear. The present study aims to evaluate the effects of lycopene treatment on postmenopausal osteoporosis. Six-month-old female Wistar rats (n=264) were sham-operated (SHAM) or ovariectomized (OVX). The SHAM group received oral vehicle only and the OVX rats were randomized into five groups receiving oral daily lycopene treatment (mg/kg body weight per day): 0 OVX (control), 15 OVX, 30 OVX, and 45 OVX, and one group receiving alendronate (ALN) (2μg/kg body weight per day), for 12weeks. Bone densitometry measurements, bone turnover markers, biomechanical testing, and histomorphometric analysis were conducted. Micro computed tomography was also used to evaluate changes in microarchitecture. Lycopene treatment suppressed the OVX-induced increase in bone turnover, as indicated by changes in biomarkers of bone metabolism: serum osteocalcin (s-OC), serum N-terminal propeptide of type 1 collagen (s-PINP), serum crosslinked carboxyterminal telopeptides (s-CTX-1), and urinary deoxypyridinoline (u-DPD). Significant improvement in OVX-induced loss of bone mass, bone strength, and microarchitectural deterioration was observed in lycopene-treated OVX animals. These effects were observed mainly at sites rich in trabecular bone, with less effect in cortical bone. Lycopene treatment down-regulated osteoclast differentiation concurrent with up-regulating osteoblast together with glutathione peroxidase (GPx) catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. These findings demonstrate that lycopene treatment in OVX rats primarily suppressed bone turnover to restore bone strength and microarchitecture. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Skeletal muscle abnormalities in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Breda

    Full Text Available Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a progressive disease that is characterized by dyspnea and exercise intolerance. Impairment in skeletal muscle has recently been described in PAH, although the degree to which this impairment is solely determined by the hemodynamic profile remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to verify the association of structural and functional skeletal muscle characteristics with maximum exercise in PAH.The exercise capacity, body composition, CT area of limb muscle, quality of life, quadriceps biopsy and hemodynamics of 16 PAH patients were compared with those of 10 controls.PAH patients had a significantly poorer quality of life, reduced percentage of lean body mass, reduced respiratory muscle strength, reduced resistance and strength of quadriceps and increased functional limitation at 6MWT and CPET. VO2 max was correlated with muscular variables and cardiac output. Bivariate linear regression models showed that the association between muscular structural and functional variables remained significant even after correcting for cardiac output.Our study showed the coexistence of ventilatory and quadriceps weakness in face of exercise intolerance in the same group of PAH patients. More interestingly, it is the first time that the independent association between muscular pattern and maximum exercise capacity is evidenced in PAH, independently of cardiac index highlighting the importance of considering rehabilitation in the treatment strategy for PAH.

  13. Effects of Long Term Supplementation of Anabolic Androgen Steroids on Human Skeletal Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ji-Guo; Bonnerud, Patrik; Eriksson, Anders; Stål, Per S.; Tegner, Yelverton; Malm, Christer

    2014-01-01

    The effects of long-term (over several years) anabolic androgen steroids (AAS) administration on human skeletal muscle are still unclear. In this study, seventeen strength training athletes were recruited and individually interviewed regarding self-administration of banned substances. Ten subjects admitted having taken AAS or AAS derivatives for the past 5 to 15 years (Doped) and the dosage and type of banned substances were recorded. The remaining seven subjects testified to having never used any banned substances (Clean). For all subjects, maximal muscle strength and body composition were tested, and biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle were obtained. Using histochemistry and immunohistochemistry (IHC), muscle biopsies were evaluated for morphology including fiber type composition, fiber size, capillary variables and myonuclei. Compared with the Clean athletes, the Doped athletes had significantly higher lean leg mass, capillary per fibre and myonuclei per fiber. In contrast, the Doped athletes had significantly lower absolute value in maximal squat force and relative values in maximal squat force (relative to lean body mass, to lean leg mass and to muscle fiber area). Using multivariate statistics, an orthogonal projection of latent structure discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) model was established, in which the maximal squat force relative to muscle mass and the maximal squat force relative to fiber area, together with capillary density and nuclei density were the most important variables for separating Doped from the Clean athletes (regression  =  0.93 and prediction  =  0.92, p<0.0001). In Doped athletes, AAS dose-dependent increases were observed in lean body mass, muscle fiber area, capillary density and myonuclei density. In conclusion, long term AAS supplementation led to increases in lean leg mass, muscle fiber size and a parallel improvement in muscle strength, and all were dose-dependent. Administration of AAS may induce sustained

  14. Space travel directly induces skeletal muscle atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenburgh, H.; Chromiak, J.; Shansky, J.; Del Tatto, M.; Lemaire, J.

    1999-01-01

    Space travel causes rapid and pronounced skeletal muscle wasting in humans that reduces their long-term flight capabilities. To develop effective countermeasures, the basis of this atrophy needs to be better understood. Space travel may cause muscle atrophy indirectly by altering circulating levels of factors such as growth hormone, glucocorticoids, and anabolic steroids and/or by a direct effect on the muscle fibers themselves. To determine whether skeletal muscle cells are directly affected by space travel, tissue-cultured avian skeletal muscle cells were tissue engineered into bioartificial muscles and flown in perfusion bioreactors for 9 to 10 days aboard the Space Transportation System (STS, i.e., Space Shuttle). Significant muscle fiber atrophy occurred due to a decrease in protein synthesis rates without alterations in protein degradation. Return of the muscle cells to Earth stimulated protein synthesis rates of both muscle-specific and extracellular matrix proteins relative to ground controls. These results show for the first time that skeletal muscle fibers are directly responsive to space travel and should be a target for countermeasure development.

  15. When and Where Learning is Taking Place: Multisynaptic Changes in Strength During Different Behaviors Related to the Acquisition of an Operant Conditioning Task by Behaving Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Lamo, Iván; Delgado-García, José M; Gruart, Agnès

    2018-03-01

    Although it is generally assumed that brain circuits are modified by new experiences, the question of which changes in synaptic efficacy take place in cortical and subcortical circuits across the learning process remains unanswered. Rats were trained in the acquisition of an operant conditioning in a Skinner box provided with light beams to detect animals' approaches to lever and feeder. Behaviors such as pressing the lever, eating, exploring, and grooming were also recorded. Animals were chronically implanted with stimulating and recording electrodes in hippocampal, prefrontal, and subcortical sites relevant to the task. Field synaptic potentials were evoked during the performance of the above-mentioned behaviors and before, during, and after the acquisition process. Afferent pathways to the hippocampus and the intrinsic hippocampal circuit were slightly modified in synaptic strength during the performance of those behaviors. In contrast, afferent and efferent circuits of the medial prefrontal cortex were significantly modified in synaptic strength across training sessions, mostly at the moment of the largest change in the learning curve. Performance of behaviors nondirectly related to the acquisition process (exploring, grooming) also evoked changes in synaptic strength across training. This study helps to understand when and where learning is being engraved in the brain. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Associations between health-related quality of life, cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength, physical activity and waist circumference in 10-year-old children: the ASK study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, John Roger; Natvig, Gerd Karin; Aadland, Eivind; Moe, Vegard Fusche; Kolotkin, Ronette L; Anderssen, Sigmund A; Resaland, Geir Kåre

    2017-12-01

    To examine the associations between cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength, physical activity and waist circumference with self-reported health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis that included 1129 school children aged 10 years from 57 schools in Sogn and Fjordane County, Norway. The HRQoL outcome was assessed by the self-reported KIDSCREEN-27 questionnaire, which covers five life domains. Independent variables were cardiorespiratory fitness assessed by the Andersen intermittent field running test, handgrip strength measured by a hand dynamometer, explosive strength in the lower body using a standing broad jump test, physical activity (counts per minute) using an accelerometer and abdominal adiposity measured by waist circumference. Statistical analyses were performed using linear mixed-effect models including school site as a random effect. Age and sex were entered as covariates. Only cardiorespiratory fitness was positively associated with higher scores on all five KIDSCREEN-27 domains (P fitness might be especially useful for improving HRQoL in children.

  17. Ulk1-mediated autophagy plays an essential role in mitochondrial remodeling and functional regeneration of skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Call, Jarrod A; Wilson, Rebecca J; Laker, Rhianna C; Zhang, Mei; Kundu, Mondira; Yan, Zhen

    2017-06-01

    Autophagy is a conserved cellular process for degrading aggregate proteins and dysfunctional organelle. It is still debatable if autophagy and mitophagy (a specific process of autophagy of mitochondria) play important roles in myogenic differentiation and functional regeneration of skeletal muscle. We tested the hypothesis that autophagy is critical for functional regeneration of skeletal muscle. We first observed time-dependent increases (3- to 6-fold) of autophagy-related proteins (Atgs), including Ulk1, Beclin1, and LC3, along with reduced p62 expression during C2C12 differentiation, suggesting increased autophagy capacity and flux during myogenic differentiation. We then used cardiotoxin (Ctx) or ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) to induce muscle injury and regeneration and observed increases in Atgs between days 2 and 7 in adult skeletal muscle followed by increased autophagy flux after day 7 Since Ulk1 has been shown to be essential for mitophagy, we asked if Ulk1 is critical for functional regeneration in skeletal muscle. We subjected skeletal muscle-specific Ulk1 knockout mice (MKO) to Ctx or I/R. MKO mice had significantly impaired recovery of muscle strength and mitochondrial protein content post-Ctx or I/R. Imaging analysis showed that MKO mice have significantly attenuated recovery of mitochondrial network at 7 and 14 days post-Ctx. These findings suggest that increased autophagy protein and flux occur during muscle regeneration and Ulk1-mediated mitophagy is critical for recovery for the mitochondrial network and hence functional regeneration. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Skeletal adaptations to bipedalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljević Perica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bipedalism is the main characteristic of humans. During evolutin bipedalism emerged probably as an adaptation to a changing environment. Major changes in skeletal system included femur, pelvis, skull and spine. The significance of bipedal locomotion: Bipedalism freed the forelimbs for carrying objects, creation and usage of tools. In the upright position animals have a broader view of the environment and the early detection of predators is crucial for survival. Bipedal locomotion makes larger distances easier to pass, which is very important in the migration of hominids.

  19. Skeletal muscle relaxant effect of a standardized extract of Valeriana officinalis L. after acute administration in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Caudal

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Valeriana officinalis L. root extracts are traditionally taken for their sedative and anxiolytic properties and are also used for muscle relaxation. Relaxant effects were clearly observed on smooth muscle whereas data on effects on skeletal muscle are scarce and inconsistent. The aim of this study was to assess whether a standardized extract (SE of V. officinalis had myorelaxant effects by decreasing skeletal muscle strength and/or neuromuscular tone in mice. Mice received an acute dose of V. officinalis SE (2 or 5 g/kg per os or tetrazepam (10 mg/kg ip, a standard myorelaxant drug. Thirty minutes later, the maximal muscle strength was measured using a grip test, while global skeletal muscle function (endurance and neuromuscular tone was assessed in a wire hanging test. Compared to tetrazepam, both doses of V. officinalis SE induced a pronounced decrease in skeletal muscle strength without any significant effects on endurance and neuromuscular tone. This study provides clear evidence that the extract of V. officinalis tested has a relaxant effect on skeletal muscle. By decreasing skeletal muscle strength without impacting endurance and neuromuscular tone, V. officinalis SE could induce less undesirable side effects than standard myorelaxant agents, and be particularly useful for avoiding falls in the elderly. Keywords: Valeriana officinalis, Skeletal muscle relaxant, Strength, Hydroethanolic root extract, Acute treatment, Mouse

  20. Effects of concurrent strength and endurance training on genes related to myostatin signaling pathway and muscle fiber responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Eduardo O; Tricoli, Valmor; Aoki, Marcelo S; Roschel, Hamilton; Brum, Patrícia C; Bacurau, Aline V N; Silva-Batista, Carla; Wilson, Jacob M; Neves, Manoel; Soares, Antonio G; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos

    2014-11-01

    Concurrent training (CT) seems to impair training-induced muscle hypertrophy. This study compared the effects of CT, strength training (ST) and interval training (IT) on the muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) response, and on the expression of selected genes involved in the myostatin (MSTN) signaling mRNA levels. Thirty-seven physically active men were randomly divided into 4 groups: CT (n = 11), ST (n = 11), IT (n = 8), and control group (C) (n = 7) and underwent an 8-week training period. Vastus lateralis biopsy muscle samples were obtained at baseline and 48 hours after the last training session. Muscle fiber CSA, selected genes expression, and maximum dynamic ST (1 repetition maximum) were evaluated before and after training. Type IIa and type I muscle fiber CSA increased from pre- to posttest only in the ST group (17.08 and 17.9%, respectively). The SMAD-7 gene expression significantly increased at the posttest in the ST (53.9%) and CT groups (39.3%). The MSTN and its regulatory genes ActIIb, FLST-3, FOXO-3a, and GASP-1 mRNA levels remained unchanged across time and groups. One repetition maximum increased from pre- to posttest in both the ST and CT groups (ST = 18.5%; CT = 17.6%). Our findings are suggestive that MSTN and their regulatory genes at transcript level cannot differentiate muscle fiber CSA responses between CT and ST regimens in humans.

  1. Effects of cobalt-60 gamma radiation on the strength-related internal structure of the borosilicate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cafe, Arven I.; Liamzon, Angelie J.

    2011-03-01

    Borosilicate glass in the form of glass slides (1.Omm in thickness and cut into 12.5mm x 55.Omm surface area) was examined to determine the reusability or recyclability and strength of glass apparatuses or compartments after exposing to gamma irradiation from Co-60 source. After knowing the initial parameters using EDXRF under six secondary targets, glass specimens prepared was subjected to gamma radiation for doses 3kGy, 6kGy, 15kGy, 25kGy, and 100kGy. Results of characterization under FTIR provides information about the occurred extension of B-O-Si and B-O-B linkages for lower doses (3-25kGy), while destruction of Si-O bonds for higher dose (100kGy). It shows direct relationship on the observed color change from clear ransparent to deep brown corresponding to the change in optical densities as irradiation dose increases. Ability to fade the induced deep brown color was also observed for a certain time interval which satisfies that this type of glass exhibits self healing property. Although, average energy of about 1.25MeV causes rearrangement of atoms within the glass, according to the XRD result, it remained to be an amorphous solid even in higher dose applied which satisfies that remanufacturing and recycling is possible. (author)

  2. Age-related hormonal adaptations, muscle circumference and strength development with 8 weeks moderate intensity resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arazi, Hamid; Damirchi, Arsalan; Asadi, Abbas

    2013-02-01

    To examine the response of the endocrine system, strength development and muscle circumference to moderate-resistance training in younger and middle-aged men. Two groups of men of similar activity background, but differing in age (Y: 21.2±2.2years and M: 49.7±2.1years) participated in an 8-week moderate-resistance training program. Blood sampling was obtained at rest before and after training for analysis of serum testosterone, growth hormone, cortisol and ACTH concentrations. One repetition maximum for the bench press (1RM(BP)) and squat (1RM(S)); thigh (TC) and arm circumference (AC) were also measured. Both groups underwent a 1-h standardized moderate-resistance training session (three series of 8 to 15RM; nine exercises with 1-3min rest between sets) three times a week for 8weeks. Both the Y and M groups gained significant improvements in 1RM(BP), 1RM(S), TC and AC (Pstrength, muscle circumference and increases anabolic hormone secretion for M men and consequently promoting of health, improve daily life and delay negative effects with aging. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Skeletal muscle regeneration and impact of aging and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues-Faria, Carla; Vasson, Marie-Paule; Goncalves-Mendes, Nicolas; Boirie, Yves; Walrand, Stephane

    2016-03-01

    After skeletal muscle injury a regeneration process takes place to repair muscle. Skeletal muscle recovery is a highly coordinated process involving cross-talk between immune and muscle cells. It is well known that the physiological activities of both immune cells and muscle stem cells decline with advancing age, thereby blunting the capacity of skeletal muscle to regenerate. The age-related reduction in muscle repair efficiency contributes to the development of sarcopenia, one of the most important factors of disability in elderly people. Preserving muscle regeneration capacity may slow the development of this syndrome. In this context, nutrition has drawn much attention: studies have demonstrated that nutrients such as amino acids, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, polyphenols and vitamin D can improve skeletal muscle regeneration by targeting key functions of immune cells, muscle cells or both. Here we review the process of skeletal muscle regeneration with a special focus on the cross-talk between immune and muscle cells. We address the effect of aging on immune and skeletal muscle cells involved in muscle regeneration. Finally, the mechanisms of nutrient action on muscle regeneration are described, showing that quality of nutrition may help to preserve the capacity for skeletal muscle regeneration with age. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [Different strength intermittent treadmill training of growth period rats and related bone metabolism of the hormone influence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shun-cheng; Ma, Xue-jun; Guo, Cheng-ji; Liu, Hong-zhen

    2012-05-01

    To explore the influence of different strength intermittent treadmill training of growth period rats on the bone metabolism, so as to provide the training intensity of teenagers to set theory support. Select 70 male four weeks Wistar rats according to body weight randomly divided into seven groups (n = 10): the control group and the exercise group. According to the VO2max the exercise group was divided into 6 groups: 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85% and 90% group. Nine weeks treadmill training, training six days a week, each group of training three times, each time not less than 10min, the interval was 30 min. The last movement after 24 h, took the femur and blood to measured the bone mineral density (BMD), bone mass (BMC) and alkaline phosphatase (AKP), resist tartaric acid acidic phosphatase (Str-ACP). 1. The femoral BMD (0.1393 +/- 0.0031), BMC (0.4525 +/- 0.0335) of 70% group were significantly higher than those in the control group (BMD: 0.1200 +/- 0.0095, BMC: 0.3238 +/- 0.0485) and the other sports group (65% BMD:0.1339 +/- 0.0062, BMC: 0.4058 +/- 0.0492, 75% BMD: 0.1296 +/- 0.0015, BMC: 0.3869 +/- 0.0254, 80% BMD: 0.1223 +/- 0.0082, BMC: 0.3454 +/- 0.0483, 85% BMD: 0.1250 +/- 0.0044, BMC: 0.3731 +/- 0.0381, 90% BMD: 0.1171 +/- 0.0047, BMC: 0.3051 +/- 0.0286) (P growth period rat bone mass and bone mineral density to increase obviously.

  5. Increased external hip-rotation strength relates to reduced frontal-plane knee control during drop jumping in recreational female athletes: paradox or adaptation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandholm, Thomas; Thorborg, Kristian; Andersson, Elin

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between hip muscle strength (abduction and external rotation) and frontal-plane knee control during drop jumping in recreational female athletes. Thirty-three healthy young recreational female athletes were included. Maximal isometric...... hip abduction and external rotation torque were measured using hand-held dynamometry, and frontal-plane knee control during drop jumping was assessed using three-dimensional motion analysis. Frontal-plane knee control during drop jumping was expressed as the absolute (cm) and relative (cm/cm body...... change in knee marker distance during drop jumping (reduced frontal-plane knee control) in recreational female athletes....

  6. Skeletal muscle sodium channelopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole, Sophie; Fontaine, Bertrand

    2015-10-01

    This is an update on skeletal muscle sodium channelopathies since knowledge in the field have dramatically increased in the past years. The relationship between two phenotypes and SCN4A has been confirmed with additional cases that remain extremely rare: severe neonatal episodic laryngospasm mimicking encephalopathy, which should be actively searched for since patients respond well to sodium channel blockers; congenital myasthenic syndromes, which have the particularity to be the first recessive Nav1.4 channelopathy. Deep DNA sequencing suggests the contribution of other ion channels in the clinical expressivity of sodium channelopathies, which may be one of the factors modulating the latter. The increased knowledge of channel molecular structure, the quantity of sodium channel blockers, and the availability of preclinical models would permit a most personalized choice of medication for patients suffering from these debilitating neuromuscular diseases. Advances in the understanding of the molecular structure of voltage-gated sodium channels, as well as availability of preclinical models, would lead to improved medical care of patients suffering from skeletal muscle, as well as other sodium channelopathies.

  7. A correlative study of dental age and skeletal maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Kiran Sachan; Vijay Prakash Sharma; Pradeep Tandon

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Skeletal age had been assessed by comparison between maturation of hand-wrist with stages of cervical vertebrae or canine calcification stages in past and this had been closely related to craniofacial growth. The importance of pubertal growth spurt in various types of orthodontic therapies is already established. Aims and Objectives: Hence, this study was aimed to evaluate the relationship of skeletal maturity by hand-wrist with cervical vertebral maturation indicators and c...

  8. Strength Training and Children's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigenbaum, Avery D.

    2001-01-01

    Provides an overview of the potential health benefits of strength training for children, discussing the role of strength training in preventing sports-related injuries and highlighting design considerations for such programs. The focus is on musculoskeletal adaptations to strength training that are observable in healthy children. Guidelines for…

  9. Mapping by sequencing in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) line MD52ne identified candidate genes for fiber strength and its related quality attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md S; Zeng, Linghe; Thyssen, Gregory N; Delhom, Christopher D; Kim, Hee Jin; Li, Ping; Fang, David D

    2016-06-01

    Three QTL regions controlling three fiber quality traits were validated and further fine-mapped with 27 new single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. Transcriptome analysis suggests that receptor-like kinases found within the validated QTLs are potential candidate genes responsible for superior fiber strength in cotton line MD52ne. Fiber strength, length, maturity and fineness determine the market value of cotton fibers and the quality of spun yarn. Cotton fiber strength has been recognized as a critical quality attribute in the modern textile industry. Fine mapping along with quantitative trait loci (QTL) validation and candidate gene prediction can uncover the genetic and molecular basis of fiber quality traits. Four previously-identified QTLs (qFBS-c3, qSFI-c14, qUHML-c14 and qUHML-c24) related to fiber bundle strength, short fiber index and fiber length, respectively, were validated using an F3 population that originated from a cross of MD90ne × MD52ne. A group of 27 new SNP markers generated from mapping-by-sequencing (MBS) were placed in QTL regions to improve and validate earlier maps. Our refined QTL regions spanned 4.4, 1.8 and 3.7 Mb of physical distance in the Gossypium raimondii reference genome. We performed RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of 15 and 20 days post-anthesis fiber cells from MD52ne and MD90ne and aligned reads to the G. raimondii genome. The QTL regions contained 21 significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the two near-isogenic parental lines. SNPs that result in non-synonymous substitutions to amino acid sequences of annotated genes were identified within these DEGs, and mapped. Taken together, transcriptome and amino acid mutation analysis indicate that receptor-like kinase pathway genes are likely candidates for superior fiber strength and length in MD52ne. MBS along with RNA-seq demonstrated a powerful strategy to elucidate candidate genes for the QTLs that control complex traits in a complex genome like tetraploid

  10. Age-related differences in lean mass, protein synthesis and skeletal muscle markers of proteolysis after bed rest and exercise rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanner, Ruth E; Brunker, Lucille B; Agergaard, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Bed rest-induced muscle loss and impaired muscle recovery may contribute to age-related sarcopenia. It is unknown if there are age-related differences in muscle mass and muscle anabolic and catabolic responses to bed rest. A secondary objective was to determine if rehabilitation could reverse bed...

  11. Branched-chain amino acid-rich diet improves skeletal muscle wasting caused by cigarette smoke in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomoda, Koichi; Kubo, Kaoru; Hino, Kazuo; Kondoh, Yasunori; Nishii, Yasue; Koyama, Noriko; Yamamoto, Yoshifumi; Yoshikawa, Masanori; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    Cigarette smoke induces skeletal muscle wasting by a mechanism not yet fully elucidated. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in the skeletal muscles are useful energy sources during exercise or systemic stresses. We investigated the relationship between skeletal muscle wasting caused by cigarette smoke and changes in BCAA levels in the plasma and skeletal muscles of rats. Furthermore, the effects of BCAA-rich diet on muscle wasting caused by cigarette smoke were also investigated. Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats that were fed with a control or a BCAA-rich diet were exposed to cigarette smoke for four weeks. After the exposure, the skeletal muscle weight and BCAA levels in plasma and the skeletal muscles were measured. Cigarette smoke significantly decreased the skeletal muscle weight and BCAA levels in both plasma and skeletal muscles, while a BCAA-rich diet increased the skeletal muscle weight and BCAA levels in both plasma and skeletal muscles that had decreased by cigarette smoke exposure. In conclusion, skeletal muscle wasting caused by cigarette smoke was related to the decrease of BCAA levels in the skeletal muscles, while a BCAA-rich diet may improve cases of cigarette smoke-induced skeletal muscle wasting.

  12. Axial skeletal CT densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampmann, L.E.H.

    1982-01-01

    Since the discovery of the Roentgen ray a precise and accurate assessment of bone mineral content has been a challenge to many investigators. A number of methods have been developed but no one satisfied. Considering its technical possibilities computed tomography is very promising in determination of bone mineral content (BMC). The new modality enables BMC estimations in the axial skeletal trabecular bone. CT densitometry can be performed on a normal commercially available third generation whole body CT scanner. No dedicated device in a special clinical set-up is necessary. In this study 106 patients, most of them clinically suspected of osteoporosis, were examined. The new method CT densitometry has been evaluated. The results have been correlated to alternative BMC determination methods. (Auth.)

  13. Associated Changes in Hormonal Status and Skeletal Muscular Tissue in Elderly Female Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Povorozniuk

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the reasons of sarcopenia development in elderly patients — a syndrome with typical progressive and generalized decrease of skeletl muscular mass, strength, and functioning. There is a literature review about growth hormone impact on skeletal muscular tissue as well as the results of the study conducted on the base of the SI «Institute of Gerontology named after D.I. Chebotariov of NAMS of Ukraine». The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between the parameters of skeletal muscles and growth hormone level, general and free testosterone. The state of fat-free mass of the body, lower and upper extremities was estimated by the means of two-photon absorptiometry (Prodigy, GEHC Lunar, Madison, WI, USA. The strength of skeletal muscles was assessed by hand-grip springy myodynometer the patient compresses with the grip of outstretched arm. Walking space was estimeated by the 4-meter test in the purpose to determine functional capacity of skeletal muscles. Blood serum levels of generalized and free testosterone and growth hormone were determined by the immunochemiluminometric assay using Immulite 2000 of Siemens DPC (USA. The study results demonstrated the correlation between the growth hormone and appendicular fat-free mass; levels of generalized and free testosterone and growth hormone with skeletal muscles strength; levels of generalized and free testosterone and functional capacity of skeletal muscular tissue.

  14. Determination of the relative parallelism of occlusal plane to three ala-tragal lines in various skeletal malocclusions: A cephalometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashinandan K Venugopalan

    2012-01-01

    Results: The result from the present study showed that in Class I and Class III malocclusion, the line drawn from the lower border of ala of the nose to the inferior position of the tragus (Camper′ plane C was relatively parallel to occlusal plane; and, in Class II malocclusion, the line drawn from the lower border of ala of nose to middle border of tragus (Camper′s plane B was relatively parallel to occlusal plane.

  15. Electrical characteristics of rat skeletal muscle in immaturity, adulthood and after sciatic nerve injury, and their relation to muscle fiber size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Ahad, Mohammad; Fogerson, P Michelle; D Rosen, Glenn; Narayanaswami, Pushpa; Rutkove, Seward B

    2009-01-01

    Localized impedance methods can provide useful approaches for assessing neuromuscular disease. The mechanism of these impedance changes remains, however, uncertain. In order to begin to understand the relation of muscle pathology to surface impedance values, 8 immature rats, 12 mature rats and 8 mature rats that had undergone sciatic crush were killed. Measurement was made on tissue from the gastrocnemius muscle from each animal in an impedance cell, and the conductivity and relative permittivity of the tissue were calculated in both the longitudinal and transverse directions for frequencies of 2 kHz to 1 MHz. In addition, quantitative histological analysis was performed on the tissue. Significant elevations in transverse conductivity and transverse relative permittivity were found with animal growth, but longitudinal values showed no difference. After sciatic crush, both transverse and longitudinal conductivity increased significantly, with no change in the relative permittivity in either direction. The frequency dependence of the values also changed after nerve injury. In the healthy animals, there was a strong linear relation between measured conductivity and relative permittivity with cell area, but not for the sciatic crush animals. These results provide a first step toward developing a comprehensive understanding of how the electrical properties of muscle alter in neuromuscular disease states

  16. Systems-based discovery of tomatidine as a natural small molecule inhibitor of skeletal muscle atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyle, Michael C; Ebert, Scott M; Cook, Daniel P; Kunkel, Steven D; Fox, Daniel K; Bongers, Kale S; Bullard, Steven A; Dierdorff, Jason M; Adams, Christopher M

    2014-05-23

    Skeletal muscle atrophy is a common and debilitating condition that lacks an effective therapy. To address this problem, we used a systems-based discovery strategy to search for a small molecule whose mRNA expression signature negatively correlates to mRNA expression signatures of human skeletal muscle atrophy. This strategy identified a natural small molecule from tomato plants, tomatidine. Using cultured skeletal myotubes from both humans and mice, we found that tomatidine stimulated mTORC1 signaling and anabolism, leading to accumulation of protein and mitochondria, and ultimately, cell growth. Furthermore, in mice, tomatidine increased skeletal muscle mTORC1 signaling, reduced skeletal muscle atrophy, enhanced recovery from skeletal muscle atrophy, stimulated skeletal muscle hypertrophy, and increased strength and exercise capacity. Collectively, these results identify tomatidine as a novel small molecule inhibitor of muscle atrophy. Tomatidine may have utility as a therapeutic agent or lead compound for skeletal muscle atrophy. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. The Effects of Elaboration on the Strength of Doping-Related Attitudes: Resistance to Change and Behavioral Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horcajo, Javier; Luttrell, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    This experiment analyzed whether attitudes toward the legalization of several doping behaviors would resist change and predict behavioral intentions when they were initially formed through thoughtful (i.e., high elaboration) versus nonthoughtful (i.e., low elaboration) processes. Participants were randomly assigned first to a persuasive message either against or in favor of the legalization, which they read with relatively high or low degrees of deliberative thinking. Attitudes and intentions regarding legalization were assessed following that message. Next, each participant received a second message that was opposed to the first one, serving as an attack against the attitude that participants had just formed. Finally, attitudes were again assessed. As hypothesized, participants showed greater attitude-consistent intentions when they formed their initial attitudes through thoughtful (vs. nonthoughtful) consideration of the first message. Moreover, the second message resulted in greater resistance to attitude change when participants formed their initial attitudes through thoughtful (vs. nonthoughtful) processes.

  18. Who Chooses STEM Careers? Using A Relative Cognitive Strength and Interest Model to Predict Careers in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Te; Ye, Feifei; Degol, Jessica Lauren

    2017-08-01

    Career aspirations in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) are formulated in adolescence, making the high school years a critical time period for identifying the cognitive and motivational factors that increase the likelihood of future STEM employment. While past research has mainly focused on absolute cognitive ability levels in math and verbal domains, the current study tested whether relative cognitive strengths and interests in math, science, and verbal domains in high school were more accurate predictors of STEM career decisions. Data were drawn from a national longitudinal study in the United States (N = 1762; 48 % female; the first wave during ninth grade and the last wave at age 33). Results revealed that in the high-verbal/high-math/high-science ability group, individuals with higher science task values and lower orientation toward altruism were more likely to select STEM occupations. In the low-verbal/moderate-math/moderate-science ability group, individuals with higher math ability and higher math task values were more likely to select STEM occupations. The findings suggest that youth with asymmetrical cognitive ability profiles are more likely to select careers that utilize their cognitive strengths rather than their weaknesses, while symmetrical cognitive ability profiles may grant youth more flexibility in their options, allowing their interests and values to guide their career decisions.

  19. Reading About the Flu Online: How Health-Protective Behavioral Intentions Are Influenced by Media Multitasking, Polychronicity, and Strength of Health-Related Arguments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononova, Anastasia; Yuan, Shupei; Joo, Eunsin

    2017-06-01

    As health organizations increasingly use the Internet to communicate medical information and advice (Shortliffe et al., 2000; World Health Organization, 2013), studying factors that affect health information processing and health-protective behaviors becomes extremely important. The present research applied the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion to explore the effects of media multitasking, polychronicity (preference for multitasking), and strength of health-related arguments on health-protective behavioral intentions. Participants read an online article about influenza that included strong and weak suggestions to engage in flu-preventive behaviors. In one condition, participants read the article and checked Facebook; in another condition, they were exposed only to the article. Participants expressed greater health-protective behavioral intentions in the media multitasking condition than in the control condition. Strong arguments were found to elicit more positive behavioral intentions than weak arguments. Moderate and high polychronics showed greater behavioral intentions than low polychronics when they read the article in the multitasking condition. The difference in intentions to follow strong and weak arguments decreased for moderate and high polychronics. The results of the present study suggest that health communication practitioners should account for not only media use situations in which individuals typically read about health online but also individual differences in information processing, which puts more emphasis on the strength of health-protective suggestions when targeting light multitaskers.

  20. Myofibre damage in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crameri, R M; Aagaard, P; Qvortrup, K

    2007-01-01

    to exercise and at 5, 24, 96 and 192 h postexercise. Muscle tenderness rose in VOL and ES after 24 h, and did not differ between groups. Maximal isometric contraction strength, rate of force development and impulse declined in the VOL leg from 4 h after exercise, but not in ES (except at 24 h). In contrast...... but not in humans using voluntary exercise. Untrained males (n=8, range 22-27 years) performed 210 maximal eccentric contractions with each leg on an isokinetic dynamometer, voluntarily (VOL) with one leg and electrically induced (ES) with the other leg. Assessments from the skeletal muscle were obtained prior......Disruption to proteins within the myofibre after a single bout of unaccustomed eccentric exercise is hypothesized to induce delayed onset of muscle soreness and to be associated with an activation of satellite cells. This has been shown in animal models using electrical stimulation...

  1. Simvastatin effects on skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Stride, Nis; Hey-Mogensen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Glucose tolerance and skeletal muscle coenzyme Q(10) (Q(10)) content, mitochondrial density, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity were measured in simvastatin-treated patients (n = 10) and in well-matched control subjects (n = 9)....

  2. Relation of estrogen receptor-alpha gene polymorphism and hormone replacement therapy to fall risk and muscle strength in early postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmén, Timo; Heikkinen, Anna-Mari; Mahonen, Anitta; Kröger, Heikki; Komulainen, Marja; Saarikoski, Seppo; Honkanen, Risto; Partanen, Juhani; Mäenpää, Pekka H

    2002-01-01

    Several factors may increase fracture risk, among them reduced bone mineral density (BMD), increased bone resorption, microarchitectural deterioration of bone, increased fall risk, and decreased muscle strength. We have previously reported that PvuII polymorphism of the estrogen receptor-alpha (ER alpha) gene is associated with bone loss rate, fracture risk, and response to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in early postmenopausal Finnish women. We studied the influence of the ER alpha genotype on fall risk and muscle strength in a 5-year randomized HRT trial of 331 early postmenopausal women (subgroup of the population-based OSTPRE study, Kuopio, Finland). A 5-year postal inquiry in May 1994 included questions on falls during the previous 12 months. Grip strength was measured with dynamometer. The ER alpha gene polymorphism was analysed using PCR and PvuII restriction enzyme digestion. RESULTS. In all, 97 out of the 331 women reported falls. Half of those (56%) were slip falls, mostly during the winter season. In the HRT group, the ER alpha genotype was associated with fall risk (P = 0.002, logistic regression). The risk of falls (RR) was higher in women with the PP genotype than in those with the Pp (RR = 5.26, 95% CI 1.98-13.94, P = 0.001) or the pp (RR = 3.84, 95% CI 1.46-10.12, P = 0.007) genotype. When the falls were divided into slip (environment-related) and non-slip (endogenous) falls, the non-slip falls were associated with the genotype (P = 0.004), but the slip falls were not so clearly (P = 0.061). When all falls and non-slip falls were adjusted to the number of chronic health disorders and the variable time-since-menopause, the difference between the genotypes persisted (P = 0.003 and P = 0.010, respectively). In the non-HRT group, the ER alpha genotype was not associated with fall risk. The baseline or the 5-year grip strength values were not influenced by the ER alpha genotype. In conclusion, ER alpha polymorphism is associated with fall risk

  3. Butyryl-cholinesterase is related to muscle mass and strength. A new biomarker to identify elderly subjects at risk of sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Francesco; Della-Morte, David; Basile, Claudia; Curcio, Francesco; Liguori, Ilaria; Roselli, Mario; Gargiulo, Gaetano; Galizia, Gianluigi; Bonaduce, Domenico; Abete, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    To determine the relationship between Butyryl-cholinesterase (α-glycoprotein synthesized in the liver, b-CHE) and muscle mass and strength. Muscle mass by bioimpedentiometer and muscle strength by grip strength were evaluated in 337 elderly subjects (mean age: 76.2 ± 6.7 years) admitted to comprehensive geriatric assessment. b-CHE levels were lower in sarcopenic than in nonsarcopenic elderly subjects (p strength and muscular mass both in men and women (r = 0.45 and r = 0.33, p strength in elderly subjects. Thus, b-CHE may be considered to be a fair biomarker for identifying elderly subjects at risk of sarcopenia.

  4. Potential Roles of n-3 PUFAs during Skeletal Muscle Growth and Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Tachtsis

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs, which are commonly found in fish oil supplements, are known to possess anti-inflammatory properties and more recently alter skeletal muscle function. In this review, we discuss novel findings related to how n-3 PUFAs modulate molecular signaling responsible for growth and hypertrophy as well as the activity of muscle stem cells. Muscle stem cells commonly known as satellite cells, are primarily responsible for driving the skeletal muscle repair process to potentially damaging stimuli, such as mechanical stress elicited by exercise contraction. To date, there is a paucity of human investigations related to the effects of n-3 PUFAs on satellite cell content and activity. Based on current in vitro investigations, this review focuses on novel mechanisms linking n-3 PUFA’s to satellite cell activity and how they may improve muscle repair. Understanding the role of n-3 PUFAs during muscle growth and regeneration in association with exercise could lead to the development of novel supplementation strategies that increase muscle mass and strength, therefore possibly reducing the burden of muscle wasting with age.

  5. Skeletal anatomy of the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchal-Kildare, Surbhi; Malone, Kevin

    2013-11-01

    The skeletal anatomy of the hand is composed of phalanges, metacarpal bones, and carpal bones. Its function is a product of the complex interactions between the power provided by the intrinsic and extrinsic musculature, the stability provided by the ligaments, and the structure provided by the bones, which serve as insertion and attachment sites for the muscles and ligaments. This article provides a detailed description of the skeletal anatomy of the human hand. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Aberrant and alternative splicing in skeletal system disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xin; Tang, Liling

    2013-10-01

    The main function of skeletal system is to support the body and help movement. A variety of factors can lead to skeletal system disease, including age, exercise, and of course genetic makeup and expression. Pre-mRNA splicing plays a crucial role in gene expression, by creating multiple protein variants with different biological functions. The recent studies show that several skeletal system diseases are related to pre-mRNA splicing. This review focuses on the relationship between pre-mRNA splicing and skeletal system disease. On the one hand, splice site mutation that leads to aberrant splicing often causes genetic skeletal system disease, like COL1A1, SEDL and LRP5. On the other hand, alternative splicing without genomic mutation may generate some marker protein isoforms, for example, FN, VEGF and CD44. Therefore, understanding the relationship between pre-mRNA splicing and skeletal system disease will aid in uncovering the mechanism of disease and contribute to the future development of gene therapy. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of regular exercise and nutritional guidance on body composition, blood pressure, muscle strength and health-related quality of life in community-dwelling Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uritani, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Daisuke; Asano, Yasuyo; Yoshizaki, Kyoko; Nishida, Yukiko; Shima, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of 6-month regular exercise and nutritional guidance for body composition, blood pressure, muscle strength and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in community-dwelling Japanese women aged 40-74 years. Participants were divided into an intervention group (n = 48) comprising women registered for health guidance and a control group without intervention (n = 66). The intervention group received 6-month exercise and nutritional guidance to modify lifestyle. Before and after the intervention period, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, body fat percentage, blood pressure, muscle strength and HRQOL using the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey version 2 (SF-36) questionnaire were measured. At baseline, no significant differences were found between intervention and control groups. Waist circumference decreased significantly in the intervention group (from 82.4 to 79.9 cm) compared to the control group (from 80.5 to 79.7 cm). BMI and body fat percentage also decreased significantly more in the intervention group than in the control group. General health perception, vitality and social functioning in the SF-36 showed significantly greater improvements in the intervention group than in the control group. Six-month regular exercise and nutritional guidance had beneficial effects on body composition and health-related quality of life especially for mental components of SF-36. Based on these findings, our intervention was expected to provide benefits to mental components of HRQOL and facilitate sustained participation and motivation in modify lifestyles. As a result, beneficial effects on body composition might also be sustained. © 2013 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity . Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Physiological Effects of Strength Training and Various Strength Training Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmore, Jack H.

    Current knowledge in the area of muscle physiology is a basis for a discussion on strength training programs. It is now recognized that the expression of strength is related to, but not dependent upon, the size of the muscle and is probably more related to the ability to recruit more muscle fibers in the contraction, or to better synchronize their…

  9. Gamma dosimetric parameters in some skeletal muscle relaxants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, H. C.

    2017-09-01

    We have studied the attenuation of gamma radiation of energy ranging from 84 keV to 1330 keV (^{170}Tm, ^{22}Na,^{137}Cs, and ^{60}Co) in some commonly used skeletal muscle relaxants such as tubocurarine chloride, gallamine triethiodide, pancuronium bromide, suxamethonium bromide and mephenesin. The mass attenuation coefficient is measured from the attenuation experiment. In the present work, we have also proposed the direct relation between mass attenuation coefficient (μ /ρ ) and mass energy absorption coefficient (μ _{en}/ρ ) based on the nonlinear fitting procedure. The gamma dosimetric parameters such as mass energy absorption coefficient (μ _{en}/ρ ), effective atomic number (Z_{eff}), effective electron density (N_{el}), specific γ-ray constant, air kerma strength and dose rate are evaluated from the measured mass attentuation coefficient. These measured gamma dosimetric parameters are compared with the theoretical values. The measured values agree with the theoretical values. The studied gamma dosimetric values for the relaxants are useful in medical physics and radiation medicine.

  10. Alterations of the In Vivo Torque-Velocity Relationship of Human Skeletal Muscle Following 30 Days Exposure to Simulated Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Gary A.; Duvoisin, Marc R.; Convertino, Victor A.; Buchanan, Paul

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 30 d of 6 deg headdown bedrest (BR) on the in vivo strength of skeletal muscle. Peak angle specific (0.78 rad below horizontal) torque of the knee extensor (KE) and flexor (KF) muscle groups of both limbs was assessed during unilateral efforts at four speeds (0.52, 1.74, 2.97 and 4.19 rad/s) during concentric and at three speeds (0.52, 1.74 and 2.97 rad/s) during eccentric actions. The average decrease (P less than 0.05) of peak angle specific torque directly post-BR for the KE across speeds of concentric and eccentric actions was about 19% (n = 7). Recovery for 30 d following BR markedly improved strength to about 92% (P greater than 0.05) of 'normal'. Strength of the KF was not altered (P greater than 0.05) by BR (about a 6% decrease independent of speed and type of muscle action). Changes of strength were not affected by the type or speed of muscle action. The results indicate that strength of ex-tensor more than of flexor muscle groups of the lower limb is decreased by 30 d of bedrest and that this response does not alter the nature of the in vivo torque-velocity relation.

  11. Adaptations of mouse skeletal muscle to low intensity vibration training

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeehen, James N.; Novotny, Susan A.; Baltgalvis, Kristen A.; Call, Jarrod A.; Nuckley, David J.; Lowe, Dawn A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We tested the hypothesis that low intensity vibration training in mice improves contractile function of hindlimb skeletal muscles and promotes exercise-related cellular adaptations. Methods We subjected C57BL/6J mice to 6 wk, 5 d·wk−1, 15 min·d−1 of sham or low intensity vibration (45 Hz, 1.0 g) while housed in traditional cages (Sham-Active, n=8; Vibrated-Active, n=10) or in small cages to restrict physical activity (Sham-Restricted, n=8; Vibrated-Restricted, n=8). Contractile function and resistance to fatigue were tested in vivo (anterior and posterior crural muscles) and ex vivo on the soleus muscle. Tibialis anterior and soleus muscles were evaluated histologically for alterations in oxidative metabolism, capillarity, and fiber types. Epididymal fat pad and hindlimb muscle masses were measured. Two-way ANOVAs were used to determine effects of vibration and physical inactivity. Results Vibration training resulted in a 10% increase in maximal isometric torque (P=0.038) and 16% faster maximal rate of relaxation (P=0.030) of the anterior crural muscles. Posterior crural muscles were unaffected by vibration, with the exception of greater rates of contraction in Vibrated-Restricted mice compared to Vibrated-Active and Sham-Restricted mice (P=0.022). Soleus muscle maximal isometric tetanic force tended to be greater (P=0.057) and maximal relaxation was 20% faster (P=0.005) in Vibrated compared to Sham mice. Restriction of physical activity induced muscle weakness but was not required for vibration to be effective in improving strength or relaxation. Vibration training did not impact muscle fatigability or any indicator of cellular adaptation investigated (P≥0.431). Fat pad but not hindlimb muscle masses were affected by vibration training. Conclusion Vibration training in mice improved muscle contractility, specifically strength and relaxation rates, with no indication of adverse effects to muscle function or cellular adaptations. PMID:23274599

  12. Skeletal dysplasias: 38 prenatal cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witters, I; Moerman, Ph; Fryns, J P

    2008-01-01

    To assess the prenatal diagnosis of skeletal dysplasias in a single center over a ten-years period. All antenatal detected skeletal dysplasias during the period January 1st 1996 until December 31 2005 (10 years) were retrieved from the genetic database. This database includes all skeletal dysplasias where invasive prenatal diagnosis (chorionic villus sampling/amniocentesis) was performed. The final diagnosis was sought on the basis of fetopathological examination, radiographic studies and if possible molecular testing. A total of 46 antenatal skeletal dysplasias were diagnosed during this period. Follow-up was only available in 38 cases. The other 8 cases involved prenatally presumed lethal skeletal dysplasias that were interrupted in the referral hospital with no further information sent to us. The mean gestational age at diagnosis was 23 weeks (range 12-33 weeks). A diagnosis 30 weeks (29%) and these included all achondroplasias (n = 6), hypophosphatasia (n = 1), Jeune syndrome (n = 1), osteogenesis imperfecta type II (n = l), type I (n = 1) and type III (n = 1). In 27 cases a lethal skeletal dysplasia was present (71%) and these were all correctly predicted. Of the lethal skeletal dysplasias 5 cases were diagnosed only after 24 weeks of pregnancy (19%) and 3 were only referred after 30 weeks (11.5%). A final diagnosis was obtained in 36 cases by fetopathological examination and radiographic studies and molecular testing as deemed necessary. Specific diagnoses included: achondroplasia (n = 6), achondrogenesis (n = 2), osteogenesis imperfecta type II (n = 9), osteogenesis imperfecta type I (n = 1), osteogenesis imperfecta type III (n = 1), thanatophoric dysplasia (n = 7), hypophosphatasia (n = 1), Majewski syndrome (n = 11), Mohr-Majewski syndrome (n = 11), Jeune syndrome (n = 2), Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (n = 2), Roberts syndrome (n = 1), campomelic dysplasia (n = 2). In two cases postnatal investigation revealed no certain diagnosis and these included one

  13. [The experience of the EPM (Ergonomics of Posture and Movement) Research Unit in risk analysis and the prevention of work-related musculo-skeletal diseases (WMSDs)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occhipinti, E; Colombini, Daniela; Molteni, G

    2003-01-01

    The twenty-year experience of the "Ergonomics of Posture and Movement (epm)" Research Unit for prevention of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) is briefly summarized. The epm research unit is the outcome of an agreement between Milan University (Clinica del Lavoro Luigi Devoto), Milan Polytechnic, Don Gnocchi Foundation IRCCS (Bioengineering Centre) and the Regional Health Service (CEMOC of ICP Hospital). Early activities of epm (1985-1993) are first outlined: they are characterized by a wide range of laboratory studies allowing the development of original methods and criteria for on-site analysis of fixed postures and awkward movements and for ad hoc clinical examination of the musculoskeletal apparatus in working populations. Epm contributions are reviewed for the analysis of working activity involving manual load handling (adapted NIOSH method) and hospital patients (MAPO method) as well as for standardization of health surveillance protocols of spinal diseases. Updated contributions are reported on analysis and prevention of upper limb MSDs connected with upper limb repetitive movements (OCRA method). Finally epm's main collaborations with national and international Authorities are summarized as well as the major technical (health promotion) publications addressed to operators and workers, in different working situations, for prevention of musculoskeletal disorders due to biomechanical overload.

  14. Coffee consumption promotes skeletal muscle hypertrophy and myoblast differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Young Jin; Son, Hyo Jeong; Kim, Ji-Sun; Jung, Chang Hwa; Ahn, Jiyun; Hur, Jinyoung; Ha, Tae Youl

    2018-02-21

    Coffee is a widely consumed beverage worldwide and is believed to help prevent the occurrence of various chronic diseases. However, the effect of coffee on skeletal muscle hypertrophy, differentiation and the mechanisms of action responsible have remained unclear. To investigate the effect of coffee on skeletal muscle hypertrophy, mice were fed a normal diet or a normal diet supplemented with 0.3% coffee or 1% coffee. Coffee supplementation was observed to increase skeletal muscle hypertrophy, while simultaneously upregulating protein expression of total MHC, MHC2A, and MHC2B in quadricep muscle. Myostatin expression was also attenuated, and IGF1 was upregulated with subsequent phosphorylation of Akt and mTOR, while AMPK phosphorylation was attenuated. Coffee also increased the grip strength and PGC-1α protein expression, and decreased the expressions of TGF-β and myostatin in tricep muscle. Coffee activated the MKK3/6-p38 pathway and upregulated PGC-1α, which may play a role in promoting myogenic differentiation and myogenin expression in C2C12 cells. These results suggest that coffee increases skeletal muscle function and hypertrophy by regulating the TGF-β/myostatin - Akt - mTORC1.

  15. Nutrition guidelines for strength sports: sprinting, weightlifting, throwing events, and bodybuilding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Gary; Phillips, Stuart M

    2011-01-01

    Strength and power athletes are primarily interested in enhancing power relative to body weight and thus almost all undertake some form of resistance training. While athletes may periodically attempt to promote skeletal muscle hypertrophy, key nutritional issues are broader than those pertinent to hypertrophy and include an appreciation of the sports supplement industry, the strategic timing of nutrient intake to maximize fuelling and recovery objectives, plus achievement of pre-competition body mass requirements. Total energy and macronutrient intakes of strength-power athletes are generally high but intakes tend to be unremarkable when expressed relative to body mass. Greater insight into optimization of dietary intake to achieve nutrition-related goals would be achieved from assessment of nutrient distribution over the day, especially intake before, during, and after exercise. This information is not readily available on strength-power athletes and research is warranted. There is a general void of scientific investigation relating specifically to this unique group of athletes. Until this is resolved, sports nutrition recommendations for strength-power athletes should be directed at the individual athlete, focusing on their specific nutrition-related goals, with an emphasis on the nutritional support of training.

  16. Aberrant mitochondrial homeostasis in the skeletal muscle of sedentary older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeel Safdar

    Full Text Available The role of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress has been extensively characterized in the aetiology of sarcopenia (aging-associated loss of muscle mass and muscle wasting as a result of muscle disuse. What remains less clear is whether the decline in skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity is purely a function of the aging process or if the sedentary lifestyle of older adult subjects has confounded previous reports. The objective of the present study was to investigate if a recreationally active lifestyle in older adults can conserve skeletal muscle strength and functionality, chronic systemic inflammation, mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative capacity, and cellular antioxidant capacity. To that end, muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis of young and age-matched recreationally active older and sedentary older men and women (N = 10/group; female symbol = male symbol. We show that a physically active lifestyle is associated with the partial compensatory preservation of mitochondrial biogenesis, and cellular oxidative and antioxidant capacity in skeletal muscle of older adults. Conversely a sedentary lifestyle, associated with osteoarthritis-mediated physical inactivity, is associated with reduced mitochondrial function, dysregulation of cellular redox status and chronic systemic inflammation that renders the skeletal muscle intracellular environment prone to reactive oxygen species-mediated toxicity. We propose that an active lifestyle is an important determinant of quality of life and molecular progression of aging in skeletal muscle of the elderly, and is a viable therapy for attenuating and/or reversing skeletal muscle strength declines and mitochondrial abnormalities associated with aging.

  17. Analysis of Skeletal Muscle Torque Capacity and Circulating Ceramides in Patients with Advanced Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunjes, Danielle L; Dunlop, Mark; Wu, Christina; Jones, Meaghan; Kato, Tomoko S; Kennel, Peter J; Armstrong, Hilary F; Choo, Tse-Hwei; Bartels, Matthew N; Forman, Daniel E; Mancini, Donna M; Schulze, P Christian

    2016-05-01

    Heart failure (HF)-related exercise intolerance is thought to be perpetuated by peripheral skeletal muscle functional, structural, and metabolic abnormalities. We analyzed specific dynamics of muscle contraction in patients with HF compared with healthy, sedentary controls. Isometric and isokinetic muscle parameters were measured in the dominant upper and lower limbs of 45 HF patients and 15 healthy age-matched controls. Measurements included peak torque normalized to body weight, work normalized to body weight, power, time to peak torque, and acceleration and deceleration to maximum strength times. Body morphometry (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan) and circulating fatty acids and ceramides (lipodomics) were analyzed in a subset of subjects (18 HF and 9 controls). Extension and flexion time-to-peak torque was longer in the lower limbs of HF patients. Furthermore, acceleration and deceleration times in the lower limbs were also prolonged in HF subjects. HF subjects had increased adiposity and decreased lean muscle mass compared with controls. Decreased circulating unsaturated fatty acids and increased ceramides were found in subjects with HF. Delayed torque development suggests skeletal muscle impairments that may reflect abnormal neuromuscular functional coupling. These impairments may be further compounded by increased adiposity and inflammation associated with increased ceramides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Habitual levels of higher, but not medium or low, impact physical activity are positively related to lower limb bone strength in older women: findings from a population-based study using accelerometers to classify impact magnitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannam, K; Deere, K C; Hartley, A; Al-Sari, U A; Clark, E M; Fraser, W D; Tobias, J H

    2017-10-01

    This study assessed the effect of accelerometry-measured higher impacts resulting from habitual weight-bearing activity on lower limb bone strength in older women. Despite higher impacts being experienced rarely in this population-based cohort, positive associations were observed between higher vertical impacts and lower limb bone size and strength. We investigated whether the benefit of habitual weight-bearing physical activity (PA) for lower limb bone strength in older women is explained by exposure to higher impacts, as previously suggested by observations in younger individuals. Four hundred and eight women from the Cohort for Skeletal Health in Bristol and Avon (COSHIBA), mean 76.8 years, wore tri-axial accelerometers at the waist for a mean of 5.4 days. Y-axis peaks were categorised, using previously identified cutoffs, as low (0.5-1.0 g), medium (1.0-1.5 g), and higher (≥1.5 g) impacts. Mid and distal peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans of the tibia and radius were performed, as were hip and lumbar spine Dual X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) scans. Regressions between (log transformed) number of low, medium and high impacts, and bone outcomes were adjusted for artefact error grade, age, height, fat and lean mass and impacts in other bands. Eight thousand eight hundred and nine (4047, 16,882) low impacts were observed during the measurement week, 345 (99, 764) medium impacts and 42 (17, 106) higher impacts (median with 25th and 75th quartiles). Higher vertical impacts were positively associated with lower limb bone strength as reflected by cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI) of the tibia [0.042 (0.012, 0.072) p = 0.01] and hip [0.067 (0.001, 0.133) p = 0.045] (beta coefficients show standard deviations change per doubling in impacts, with 95 % confidence interval). Higher impacts were positively associated with tibial periosteal circumference (PC) [0.015 (0.003, 0.027) p = 0.02], but unrelated to hip BMD. Equivalent positive

  19. Effects of Aerobic, Strength or Combined Exercise on Perceived Appetite and Appetite-Related Hormones in Inactive Middle-Aged Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Penelope S; Donges, Cheyne E; Guelfi, Kym J; Smith, Greg C; Adams, David R; Duffield, Rob

    2017-10-01

    Aerobic exercise (AE) and strength exercise (SE) are reported to induce discrete and specific appetite-related responses; however, the effect of combining AE and SE (i.e., combined exercise; CE) remains relatively unknown. Twelve inactive overweight men (age: 48 ± 5 y; BMI: 29.9 ± 1.9 kg∙m 2 ) completed four conditions in a random order: 1) nonexercise control (CON) (50 min seated rest); 2) AE (50 min cycling; 75% VO 2peak ); 3) SE (10 × 8 leg extensions; 75% 1RM); and 4) CE (50% SE + 50% AE). Perceived appetite, and appetiterelated peptides and metabolites were assessed before and up to 2 h postcondition (0P, 30P, 60P, 90P, 120P). Perceived appetite did not differ between trials (p exercise conditions compared with CON, as was glucagon, although concentrations were generally highest in AE (p exercise-induced hormone responses, exercise mode appears to have little effect on perceived appetite compared with a resting control in this population.

  20. Sex difference in age-related changes in knee extensor strength and power production during a 10-times-repeated sit-to-stand task in Japanese elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagawa, Naoko; Shimomitsu, Teruichi; Kawanishi, Masashi; Fukunaga, Tetsuo; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

    2015-11-14

    For middle-aged and elderly women, age-related decline in an index representing power production during STS task (STS-PI), calculated by using an equation reported previously, has been shown to be greater than that in the force generation capability of lower extremity. Whether this is specific to women remains unclear. This study examined how the age-related changes in knee extensor strength and power production during STS differ between Japanese men and women aged 65 years or older. The time taken for a 10-times-repeated STS test (STS time) and force developed during maximal voluntary isometric knee extension (KE-F) were determined in Japanese younger-old (262 men and 285 women) aged 65-74 years and older-old (96 men and 89 women) aged 75-90 years. STS-PI was calculated using the following equation: STS-PI = (body height - 0.4) × body mass × 10/STS time. KE-F and STS-PI were significantly greater in the younger-old than in the older-old group (p movement such as STS in older women than in older men.

  1. FKBP12 deficiency reduces strength deficits after eccentric contraction-induced muscle injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, Benjamin T; Rouviere, Clement; Hamilton, Susan L; Ingalls, Christopher P

    2008-08-01

    Strength deficits associated with eccentric contraction-induced muscle injury stem, in part, from excitation-contraction uncoupling. FKBP12 is a 12-kDa binding protein known to bind to the skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release channel [ryanodine receptor (RyR1)] and plays an important role in excitation-contraction coupling. To assess the effects of FKBP12 deficiency on muscle injury and recovery, we measured anterior crural muscle (tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus muscles) strength in skeletal muscle-specific FKBP12-deficient and wild-type (WT) mice before and after a single bout of 150 eccentric contractions, as well as before and after the performance of six injury bouts. Histological damage of the tibialis anterior muscle was assessed after injury. Body weight and peak isometric and eccentric torques were lower in FKBP12-deficient mice compared with WT mice. There were no differences between FKBP12-deficient and WT mice in preinjury peak isometric and eccentric torques when normalized to body weight, and no differences in the relative decreases in eccentric torque with a single or multiple injury bouts. After a single injury bout, FKBP12-deficient mice had less initial strength deficits and recovered faster (especially females) than WT mice, despite no differences in the degree of histological damage. After multiple injury bouts, FKBP12-deficient mice recovered muscle strength faster than WT mice and exhibited significantly less histological muscle damage than WT mice. In summary, FKBP12 deficiency results in less initial strength deficits and enhanced recovery from single (especially females) and repeated bouts of injury than WT mice.

  2. Skeletal complications of eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Abigail A; Gordon, Catherine M

    2015-09-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric illness with profound medical consequences. Among the many adverse physical sequelae of AN, bone health is impacted by starvation and can be permanently impaired over the course of the illness. In this review of skeletal complications associated with eating disorders, we discuss the epidemiology, neuroendocrine changes, adolescent vs. adult skeletal considerations, orthopedic concerns, assessment of bone health, and treatment options for individuals with AN. The focus of the review is the skeletal sequelae associated with anorexia nervosa, but we also briefly consider other eating disorders that may afflict adolescents and young adults. The review presents updates to the field of bone health in AN, and also suggests knowledge gaps and areas for future investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Role of glycogen availability in sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ kinetics in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørtenblad, Niels; Nielsen, Joachim; Saltin, Bengt

    2011-01-01

    Glucose is stored as glycogen in skeletal muscle. The importance of glycogen as a fuel during exercise has been recognized since the 1960s; however, little is known about the precise mechanism that relates skeletal muscle glycogen to muscle fatigue. We show that low muscle glycogen is associated ...

  4. Regulation of Blood Flow in Contracting Skeletal Muscle in Aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piil, Peter Bergmann

    Oxygen delivery to skeletal muscle is regulated precisely to match the oxygen demand; however, with aging the regulation of oxygen delivery during exercise is impaired. The present thesis investigated mechanisms underlying the age-related impairment in regulation of blood flow and oxygen delivery...... to contracting skeletal muscle. Two studies, one acute exercise study and one large 8-week training intervention study, were conducted in young (18-28 years) and older (65-80 years) healthy, male subjects. In both studies, pharmacologic potentiation of the formation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (c...... that improving sympatholytic capacity by training may be a slower process in older than in young men. In conclusion, this thesis provides new important knowledge related to the regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow in aging. Specifically, it demonstrates that changes in cGMP signaling is an underlying cause...

  5. Sex-Differences in Skeletal Growth and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves, Jeri W

    2017-04-01

    There have been numerous published reports describing skeletal differences between males and females. The goal of this report is to describe recent findings to help elucidate remaining questions. It is known that even in youth, there are sex differences in skeletal health. One recent report suggests these differences are evident at 6 years of age. With the availability of newer imaging techniques, specifically HRpQCT and microCT-3D, micro-architectural differences related to sex-differences have been studied. This has highlighted the importance of cortical porosity in describing possible sex differences in fracture risk. We have a better understanding of skeletal microarchitecture that highlights sex differences in both growth and aging that may relate to fracture risk, although more longitudinal studies are needed. Sex differences in microarchitecture, particularly cortical porosity may also be important in understanding any, as of yet unknown, sex differences in fracture reduction with treatment.

  6. Performance on the Functional Movement Screen Is Related to Hop Performance But Not to Hip and Knee Strength in Collegiate Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willigenburg, Nienke; Hewett, Timothy E

    2017-03-01

    To define the relationship between Functional Movement Screen (FMS) scores and hop performance, hip strength, and knee strength in collegiate football players. Cross-sectional cohort. Freshmen of a Division I collegiate American football team (n = 59). The athletes performed the FMS, and also a variety of hop tests, isokinetic knee strength, and isometric hip strength tasks. We recorded total FMS score, peak strength, and hop performance, and we calculated asymmetries between legs on the different tasks. Spearman correlation coefficients quantified the relationships between these measures, and χ analyses compared the number of athletes with asymmetries on the different tasks. We observed significant correlations (r = 0.38-0.56, P ≤ 0.02) between FMS scores and hop distance but not between FMS scores and hip or knee strength (all P ≥ 0.21). The amount of asymmetry on the FMS test was significantly correlated to the amount of asymmetry on the timed 6-m hop (r = 0.44, P hip or knee strength asymmetries between limbs (all P ≥ 0.34). Functional Movement Screen score was positively correlated to hop distance, and limb asymmetry in FMS tasks was correlated to limb asymmetry in 6-m hop time in football players. No significant correlations were observed between FMS score and hip and knee strength or between FMS asymmetry and asymmetries in hip and knee strength between limbs. These results indicate that a simple hop for distance test may be a time-efficient and cost-efficient alternative to FMS testing in athletes and that functional asymmetries between limbs do not coincide with strength asymmetries.

  7. Performance on the Functional Movement Screen™ is related to hop performance, but not to hip and knee strength in collegiate football players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willigenburg, Nienke; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To define the relationship between FMS™ scores and hop performance, hip strength, and knee strength in collegiate football players. Design Cross-sectional cohort. Participants Freshmen of a division I collegiate American football team (n=59). Main Outcome Measures The athletes performed the FMS™, as well as a variety of hop tests, isokinetic knee strength and isometric hip strength tasks. We recorded total FMS™ score, peak strength and hop performance, and we calculated asymmetries between legs on the different tasks. Spearman’s correlation coefficients quantified the relationships these measures, and chi-square analyses compared the number of athletes with asymmetries on the different tasks. Results We observed significant correlations (r=0.38–0.56, p≤0.02) between FMS™ scores and hop distance, but not between FMS™ scores and hip or knee strength (all p≥0.21). The amount of asymmetry on the FMS™ test was significantly correlated to the amount of asymmetry on the timed 6m hop (r=0.44, phip or knee strength asymmetries between limbs (all p≥0.34). Conclusions FMS™ score was positively correlated to hop distance, and limb asymmetry in FMS™ tasks was correlated to limb asymmetry in 6m hop time in football players. No significant correlations were observed between FMS™ score and hip and knee strength, or between FMS™ asymmetry and asymmetries in hip and knee strength between limbs. These results indicate that a simple hop for distance test may be a time and cost efficient alternative to FMS™ testing in athletes and that functional asymmetries between limbs do not coincide with strength asymmetries. PMID:26886801

  8. Application of skeletal age based on x-ray in selecting sports talents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Zongzhen; Xu, Guodong; Song, Tao

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal age has been studied and proved that for most elite athletes, it was coincident with the chronological ages when they were young. In order to explore the application of skeletal age in selecting sports talent, 32 athletes (female, chronological age 5-12 y) were chosen from the Gymnastics Training Base in this study. Their left hand-wrists were photographed with X-rays, and then the skeletal ages were estimated by Chinese version of the Tanner-Whitehouse Skeletal Maturity Assessment System. At the same time, their body shapes, functions, and sports ability were also measured. Results showed that 71.88% of the skeletal age was proportional to their chronological age (+/- 1 y); while 18.75% of the skeletal maturity was retarded by 1- 2 year, 9.37% of those was advanced more than 1 year. On the other hand, the body shape, functions and sports ability of the athletes were positively related with their skeletal maturity. This study proved that the determination of skeletal maturity is a reliable evaluation for selecting sports talent. A further study on the influence of gymnastics on the skeletal age is of great significance.

  9. Echo intensity obtained from ultrasonography images reflecting muscle strength in elderly men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe Y

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Yuya Watanabe,1 Yosuke Yamada,1,2 Yoshihiro Fukumoto,3 Tatsuro Ishihara,4 Keiichi Yokoyama,1 Tsukasa Yoshida,1 Motoko Miyake,1 Emi Yamagata,5 Misaka Kimura1 1Laboratory of Sports and Health Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; 2Research Fellow, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, Japan; 3Faculty of Rehabilitation, Kobe Gakuin University, Kobe, Japan; 4Faculty of Health and Sports Science, Doshisha University, Kyoto, Japan; 5Laboratory of Gerontological Nursing, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan Background: It is well known that loss of muscle mass (quantitative change is a major change that occurs with aging. Qualitative changes in skeletal muscle, such as increased intramuscular fat, also occur as one ages. Enhanced echo intensity (EI on ultrasonography images of skeletal muscle is believed to reflect muscle quality. Recent studies evaluating the quality of skeletal muscle using computer-aided gray scale analysis showed that EI is associated with muscle strength independently of age or muscle size in middle-aged and elderly women. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether muscle quality based on EI is associated with muscle strength independently of muscle size for elderly men. Methods: A total of 184 elderly men (65–91 years living independently in Kyoto, Japan, participated in this study. The EI, muscle thickness (MT, and subcutaneous fat thickness (FT of the anterior compartment of the right thigh were determined by assessing ultrasonography images. The maximum isometric torque of knee extension at a knee angle of 90° was measured. Results: The EI showed a significant negative correlation with muscle strength (r = -0.333, P < 0.001. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that the MT and EI of the knee extensor muscle were independently associated with maximum isometric knee extension strength. Even when partial correlation analysis was performed with age

  10. A systematic review of effects of concurrent strength and endurance training on the health-related quality of life and cardiopulmonary status in patients with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes Neto, Mansueto; Ogalha, Cecília; Andrade, Antônio Marcos; Brites, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    To determine the effects of concurrent strength and endurance training (concurrent training) on the Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) and cardiopulmonary status among HIV-infected patients, using a systematic search strategy of randomized, controlled trials (RCTs). A systematic review was performed by two independent reviewers using Cochrane Collaboration protocol. The sources used in this review were Cochrane Library, EMBASE, LILACS, MEDLINE, PEDro and Web of Science from 1950 to August 2012. The PEDro score was used to evaluate methodological quality. Individual studies suggested that concurrent training contributed to improved HRQOL and cardiovascular status. Concurrent training appears to be safe and may be beneficial for medically stable adults living with HIV. The rates of nonadherence were of 16%. Concurrent training improves the HRQOL and cardiopulmonary status. It may be an important intervention in the care and treatment of adults living with HIV. Further research is needed to determine the minimal and optimal duration, frequency, and intensity of exercise needed to produce beneficial changes in the HIV-infected population subgroups.

  11. The Strength of Ethical Matrixes as a Tool for Normative Analysis Related to Technological Choices: The Case of Geological Disposal for Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermisch, Céline; Depaus, Christophe

    2018-02-01

    The ethical matrix is a participatory tool designed to structure ethical reflection about the design, the introduction, the development or the use of technologies. Its collective implementation, in the context of participatory decision-making, has shown its potential usefulness. On the contrary, its implementation by a single researcher has not been thoroughly analyzed. The aim of this paper is precisely to assess the strength of ethical matrixes implemented by a single researcher as a tool for conceptual normative analysis related to technological choices. Therefore, the ethical matrix framework is applied to the management of high-level radioactive waste, more specifically to retrievable and non-retrievable geological disposal. The results of this analysis show that the usefulness of ethical matrixes is twofold and that they provide a valuable input for further decision-making. Indeed, by using ethical matrixes, implicit ethically relevant issues were revealed-namely issues of equity associated with health impacts and differences between close and remote future generations regarding ethical impacts. Moreover, the ethical matrix framework was helpful in synthesizing and comparing systematically the ethical impacts of the technologies under scrutiny, and hence in highlighting the potential ethical conflicts.

  12. Skeletal muscles of hibernating brown bears are unusually resistant to effects of denervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, David C; Hershey, John D; Mattoon, John S; Robbins, Charles T

    2012-06-15

    Hibernating bears retain most of their skeletal muscle strength despite drastically reduced weight-bearing activity. Regular neural activation of muscles is a potential mechanism by which muscle atrophy could be limited. However, both mechanical loading and neural activity are usually necessary to maintain muscle size. An alternative mechanism is that the signaling pathways related to the regulation of muscle size could be altered so that neither mechanical nor neural inputs are needed for retaining strength. More specifically, we hypothesized that muscles in hibernating bears are resistant to a severe reduction in neural activation. To test this hypothesis, we unilaterally transected the common peroneal nerve, which innervates ankle flexor muscles, in hibernating and summer-active brown bears (Ursus arctos). In hibernating bears, the long digital extensor (LDE) and cranial tibial (CT) musculotendon masses on the denervated side decreased after 11 weeks post-surgery by 18 ± 11 and 25 ± 10%, respectively, compared with those in the intact side. In contrast, decreases in musculotendon masses of summer-active bears after denervation were 61 ± 4 and 58 ± 5% in the LDE and CT, respectively, and significantly different from those of hibernating bears. The decrease due to denervation in summer-active bears was comparable to that occurring in other mammals. Whole-muscle cross-sectional areas (CSAs) measured from ultrasound images and myofiber CSAs measured from biopsies decreased similarly to musculotendon mass. Thus, hibernating bears alter skeletal muscle catabolic pathways regulated by neural activity, and exploration of these pathways may offer potential solutions for disuse atrophy of muscles.

  13. Extraction of DNA from Skeletal Remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edson, Suni M; McMahon, Timothy P

    2016-01-01

    Acquisition of DNA from skeletal remains can be a delicate process. With the advent of improved extraction buffers that provide complete demineralization of the osseous materials, extraction of total genomic DNA from nearly any skeletal element is possible. This chapter describes both traditional organic and more newly developed inorganic extraction methods for fresh and dried skeletal remains.

  14. Increased Plin2 Expression in Human Skeletal Muscle Is Associated with Sarcopenia and Muscle Weakness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conte, Maria; Vasuri, Francesco; Trisolino, Giovanni; Bellavista, Elena; Santoro, Aurelia; Degiovanni, Alessio; Martucci, Ermanno; D'Errico-Grigioni, Antonia; Caporossi, Daniela; Capri, Miriam; Maier, Andrea B.; Seynnes, Olivier; Barberi, Laura; Musarò, Antonio; Narici, Marco V.; Franceschi, Claudio; Salvioli, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Human aging is associated with a progressive loss of muscle mass and strength and a concomitant fat accumulation in form of inter-muscular adipose tissue, causing skeletal muscle function decline and immobilization. Fat accumulation can also occur as intra-muscular triglycerides (IMTG) deposition in

  15. Tissue Triage and Freezing for Models of Skeletal Muscle Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Hui; Janssen, Paul M.L.; Grange, Robert W.; Yang, Lin; Beggs, Alan H.; Swanson, Lindsay C.; Cossette, Stacy A.; Frase, Alison; Childers, Martin K.; Granzier, Henk; Gussoni, Emanuela; Lawlor, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a unique tissue because of its structure and function, which requires specific protocols for tissue collection to obtain optimal results from functional, cellular, molecular, and pathological evaluations. Due to the subtlety of some pathological abnormalities seen in congenital muscle disorders and the potential for fixation to interfere with the recognition of these features, pathological evaluation of frozen muscle is preferable to fixed muscle when evaluating skeletal muscle for congenital muscle disease. Additionally, the potential to produce severe freezing artifacts in muscle requires specific precautions when freezing skeletal muscle for histological examination that are not commonly used when freezing other tissues. This manuscript describes a protocol for rapid freezing of skeletal muscle using isopentane (2-methylbutane) cooled with liquid nitrogen to preserve optimal skeletal muscle morphology. This procedure is also effective for freezing tissue intended for genetic or protein expression studies. Furthermore, we have integrated our freezing protocol into a broader procedure that also describes preferred methods for the short term triage of tissue for (1) single fiber functional studies and (2) myoblast cell culture, with a focus on the minimum effort necessary to collect tissue and transport it to specialized research or reference labs to complete these studies. Overall, this manuscript provides an outline of how fresh tissue can be effectively distributed for a variety of phenotypic studies and thereby provides standard operating procedures (SOPs) for pathological studies related to congenital muscle disease. PMID:25078247

  16. A correlative study of dental age and skeletal maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachan, Kiran; Sharma, Vijay Prakash; Tandon, Pradeep

    2011-01-01

    Skeletal age had been assessed by comparison between maturation of hand-wrist with stages of cervical vertebrae or canine calcification stages in past and this had been closely related to craniofacial growth. The importance of pubertal growth spurt in various types of orthodontic therapies is already established. Hence, this study was aimed to evaluate the relationship of skeletal maturity by hand-wrist with cervical vertebral maturation indicators and canine calcification stages. The study consisted of randomly selected 90 children from Lucknow population with 45 males (age range 10-13 years) and 45 females (age range 9-12 years). Lateral Cephalogram, hand-wrist x-ray, and periapical x-rays of maxillary and mandibular right canines were taken. Mean, standard deviation was calculated of different groups. Correlation was made among cervical vertebral maturation, hand wrist maturation, and canine calcification stages at various age groups. There was strong correlation between skeletal maturation indicator and cervical vertebral maturation indicator for both male (0.849) and female (0.932), whereas correlation between skeletal maturation indicator and canine calcification was good for both male and female (0.635, 0.891). It was concluded that cervical vertebral maturation indicator and canine calcification stages can also be used for assessing skeletal maturity.

  17. Story of skeletally substituted benzenes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    corresponds to the out-of-plane distortion of the hydrogen atom connected to the heteroatoms, which is then ..... etc. exhibits significant localization.24 The skeletally substituted benzenes considered in the study with a wide ... involving cationic and anionic systems are expected to show considerable localization. In. Table 3.

  18. Birth weight, intrauterine growth restriction and nutritional status in childhood in relation to grip strength in adults: from the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielemann, Renata Moraes; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association among birth weight, intrauterine growth, and nutritional status in childhood with grip strength in young adults from the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort. In 1982, the hospital live births of Pelotas were followed. In 2012, grip strength was evaluated using a hand dynamometer and the best of the six measurements was used. Birth weight was analyzed as z-score for gestational age according to Williams (1982) curve. Weight-for-age, weight-for-length/height, and length/height-for-age at 2 and 4 y were analyzed in z-scores according to 2006 World Health Organization Child Growth Standards. Lean mass at 30 y was included as possible mediator using the g-computation formula. In 2012, 3701 (68.1%) individuals were interviewed and 3470 were included in the present analyses. An increase of 1 z-score in birth weight was associated with an increase of 1.5 kg in grip strength in males (95% confidence interval, 1.1-1.9). Positive effect of birth weight on grip strength was found in females. Grip strength was greater in individuals who were born with appropriate size for gestational age and positively associated with weight- and length/height-for-age z-score at 2 and 4 y of age. A positive association between birth weight and grip strength was only partially mediated by adult lean mass (50% and 33% of total effect in males and females), whereas direct effect of weight at 2 y was found only in males. It is suggested that good nutrition in prenatal and early postnatal life has a positive influence on adult muscle strength. The results from birth weight were suggestive of fetal programming on grip strength measurement. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of chunk strength on the performance of children with developmental dyslexia on artificial grammar learning task may be related to complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, Rachel; Katan, Pesia; Sasson, Ayelet; Kahta, Shani

    2017-07-01

    There's a long held view that chunks play a crucial role in artificial grammar learning performance. We compared chunk strength influences on performance, in high and low topological entropy (a measure of complexity) grammar systems, with dyslexic children, age-matched and reading-level-matched control participants. Findings show that age-matched control participants' performance reflected equivalent influence of chunk strength in the two topological entropy conditions, as typically found in artificial grammar learning experiments. By contrast, dyslexic children and reading-level-matched controls' performance reflected knowledge of chunk strength only under the low topological entropy condition. In the low topological entropy grammar system, they appeared completely unable to utilize chunk strength to make appropriate test item selections. In line with previous research, this study suggests that for typically developing children, it is the chunks that are attended during artificial grammar learning and create a foundation on which implicit associative learning mechanisms operate, and these chunks are unitized to different strengths. However, for children with dyslexia, it is complexity that may influence the subsequent memorability of chunks, independently of their strength.

  20. A partial skeletal proteome of the brittle star Ophiocoma wendtii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaver, Ryan W.

    The formation of mineralized tissue was critical to the evolution and diversification of metazoans and remains functionally significant in most animal lineages. Of special importance is the protein found occluded within the mineral matrix, which facilitates the process of biomineralization and modulates the final mineral structure. These skeletal matrix proteins have well been described in several species, including the sea urchin Stronglyocentrotus purpuratus, an important model organism. Biomineralization research is limited in other echinoderm classes. This research encompasses the first description of mineral matrix proteins in a member of the echinoderm class Ophiuroidea. This work describes the skeletal matrix proteins of the brittle star Ophiocoma wendtii using bioinformatic and proteomic techniques. General characteristics of matrix protein are described and a number of candidate biomineralization related genes have been identified, cloned, and sequenced. The unique evolutionary and biochemical properties of brittle star skeletal matrix proteins are also described.

  1. Abnormal skeletal phenotypes. From simple signs to complex diagnoses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castriota-Scanderbeg, A. [Foundation Hospital ' Cardinale G. Panico' , Tricase, Lecce (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Dallapiccola, B. [Rome Univ. ' La Sapienza' (Italy). Dept. of Experimental Medicine and Pathology; Hospital IRCCS ' Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza' , San Giovanni Rotondo, Foggia (Italy); Inst. ' CSS-Mendel' , Rome (Italy)

    2005-07-01

    This book focuses on the radiographic changes of malformation syndromes and skeletal dysplasias. It is structured such that the reader can identify the radiographic changes and relate them to specific disease entities. The aim is to provide an essential, practical guideline to the recognition of the key radiographic signs for diagnosing malformation syndromes and skeletal dysplasias. The book is intended for radiologists, clinical and medical geneticists, and pediatricians. The material is divided into two parts. The first part is structured in a symptom-oriented form and describes approximately 200 radiographic signs, providing information about their incidence, anatomic location, diagnostic relevance, pathogenesis, and pattern of inheritance, if applicable. The second part presents about 100 syndromes and skeletal dysplasias and provides analytical information concerning symptoms, genetics, causes, radiographic appearance, and major differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  2. Exercise and the Regulation of Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlory, Chris; Phillips, Stuart M

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a critical organ serving as the primary site for postprandial glucose disposal and the generation of contractile force. The size of human skeletal muscle mass is dependent upon the temporal relationship between changes in muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle protein breakdown. The aim of this chapter is to review our current understanding of how resistance exercise influences protein turnover with a specific emphasis on the molecular factors regulating MPS. We also will discuss recent data relating to the prescription of resistance exercise to maximize skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Finally, we evaluate the impact of age and periods of disuse on the loss of muscle mass and the controversy surround the etiology of muscle disuse atrophy. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. PGC-1α-mediated adaptations in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jesper; Kiilerich, Kristian; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2010-01-01

    multiple pathways and functions underline the potential importance of PGC-1alpha in skeletal muscle adaptations in humans. The absence of exercise-induced PGC-1alpha-mediated gene regulation during a physical inactive lifestyle is suggested to lead to reduced oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle......Lifestyle-related diseases are rapidly increasing at least