WorldWideScience

Sample records for strength operator components

  1. Growing Effective Strength without Growing End Strength: Operational Utilization of the Reserve Component during Training Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-13

    Assistant Secretary for Legislative Affairs ( ASD (LA)) to identify legislation that impedes the use of RMI to meet operational requirements during active...Its Major Components. Washington DC: Department of Defense, December 21, 2010. ———. DoD Instruction 5100.20: National Security Agency/ Central ...course and speed; communicate that information coherently to the platform launching the weapon; and, launch the attack using anything from a kinetic

  2. Towards Rocket Engine Components with Increased Strength and Robust Operating Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, Bogdan; Hadid, Ali; Lin, Pei; Balcazar, Daniel; Rai, Man Mohan; Dorney, Daniel J.

    2005-01-01

    High-energy rotating machines, powering liquid propellant rocket engines, are subject to various sources of high and low cycle fatigue generated by unsteady flow phenomena. Given the tremendous need for reliability in a sustainable space exploration program, a fundamental change in the design methodology for engine components is required for both launch and space based systems. A design optimization system based on neural-networks has been applied and demonstrated in the redesign of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Low Pressure Oxidizer Turbo Pump (LPOTP) turbine nozzle. One objective of the redesign effort was to increase airfoil thickness and thus increase its strength while at the same time detuning the vane natural frequency modes from the vortex shedding frequency. The second objective was to reduce the vortex shedding amplitude. The third objective was to maintain this low shedding amplitude even in the presence of large manufacturing tolerances. All of these objectives were achieved without generating any detrimental effects on the downstream flow through the turbine, and without introducing any penalty in performance. The airfoil redesign and preliminary assessment was performed in the Exploration Technology Directorate at NASA ARC. Boeing/Rocketdyne and NASA MSFC independently performed final CFD assessments of the design. Four different CFD codes were used in this process. They include WIL DCA T/CORSAIR (NASA), FLUENT (commercial), TIDAL (Boeing Rocketdyne) and, a new family (AardvarWPhantom) of CFD analysis codes developed at NASA MSFC employing LOX fluid properties and a Generalized Equation Set formulation. Extensive aerodynamic performance analysis and stress analysis carried out at Boeing Rocketdyne and NASA MSFC indicate that the redesign objectives have been fully met. The paper presents the results of the assessment analysis and discusses the future potential of robust optimal design for rocket engine components.

  3. The problem of maintenance of strength, lifetime and safety of the structural components operational NPP from items of a system approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Getman, A.F.

    2005-01-01

    The strength of the structural components and pipelines NPP determines largely their lifetime, radiation and nuclear safety. As shows world experience of operation NPP, in a series of cases during operation the local damages, breaks and destructions of elements of the equipment and pipelines emerge. These cases force maintaining organizations to execute on NPP large volumes of the control, repair and modernizing of the equipment and pipelines. These activities require large material inputs (net less than 50% of the cost of operation NPP), however not always are effective and in a series of cases do not allow to reach required of level reliability and safety. The reason of such condition of a problem is that the measures executed on NPP, developed on stretch of long time and under influence of the diverse factors. Besides until now there is no unified scientific methodology of a case study of maintenance of strength, lifetime and safety of the operational equipment and pipelines NPP. The application of a system approach to a problem of maintenance of strength, lifetime and safety of the equipment and pipelines operational NPP allows to consider a problem as a whole, from unified items, to define the most fast and effective paths it of the solution and to decide problems in as much as possible short times at minimum material inputs. The experience of practical application of a system approach at the solution of separate problems of operation NPP has allowed to develop a lot of effective new techniques, technologies and means, which application allows essentially to increase reliability and gamma percentage lifetime of elements NPP, to which they were applied. As an example in the report the outcomes of application of a system approach for maintenance of SG tubes integrity of reactors of a type WWER are adduced. The application of a system approach for all elements of the equipment and pipelines NPP will allow to increase it reliability and safety not less, than on 10

  4. Soil strength and forest operations

    OpenAIRE

    Beekman, F.

    1987-01-01

    The use of heavy machinery and transport vehicles is an integral part of modern forest operations. This use often causes damage to the standing trees and to the soil. In this study the effects of vehicle traffic on the soil are analysed and the possible consequences for forest management discussed. The study is largely restricted to sandy and loamy soils because of their importance for Dutch forestry.

    Soil strength, defined as the resistance of soil structure against the impa...

  5. Residual strength evaluation of concrete structural components ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents methodologies for residual strength evaluation of concrete structural components using linear elastic and nonlinear fracture mechanics principles. The effect of cohesive forces due to aggregate bridging has been represented mathematically by employing tension softening models. Various tension ...

  6. Making High-Tensile-Strength Amalgam Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Structural components made of amalgams can be made to have tensile strengths much greater than previously known to be possible. Amalgams, perhaps best known for their use in dental fillings, have several useful attributes, including room-temperature fabrication, corrosion resistance, dimensional stability, and high compressive strength. However, the range of applications of amalgams has been limited by their very small tensile strengths. Now, it has been discovered that the tensile strength of an amalgam depends critically on the sizes and shapes of the particles from which it is made and, consequently, the tensile strength can be greatly increased through suitable choice of the particles. Heretofore, the powder particles used to make amalgams have been, variously, in the form of micron-sized spheroids or flakes. The tensile reinforcement contributed by the spheroids and flakes is minimal because fracture paths simply go around these particles. However, if spheroids or flakes are replaced by strands having greater lengths, then tensile reinforcement can be increased significantly. The feasibility of this concept was shown in an experiment in which electrical copper wires, serving as demonstration substitutes for copper powder particles, were triturated with gallium by use of a mortar and pestle and the resulting amalgam was compressed into a mold. The tensile strength of the amalgam specimen was then measured and found to be greater than 10(exp 4) psi (greater than about 69 MPa). Much remains to be done to optimize the properties of amalgams for various applications through suitable choice of starting constituents and modification of the trituration and molding processes. The choice of wire size and composition are expected to be especially important. Perusal of phase diagrams of metal mixtures could give insight that would enable choices of solid and liquid metal constituents. Finally, whereas heretofore, only binary alloys have been considered for amalgams

  7. Soil strength and forest operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, F.

    1987-01-01

    The use of heavy machinery and transport vehicles is an integral part of modern forest operations. This use often causes damage to the standing trees and to the soil. In this study the effects of vehicle traffic on the soil are analysed and the possible consequences for forest management

  8. Residual strength evaluation of concrete structural components ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    fundamental material parameters that can be determined for use in design or evaluation. ... of plain and reinforced concrete beams using fracture mechanics principles. Design equations ... components accounting for tension softening effect.

  9. Effect of plastic strain on fracture strength of cracked components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaya, Masayuki

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear power plant components are occasionally subjected to large load by earthquake and may suffer plastic strain. Although the plastic strain induced in materials increases the strength, it may reduce the fracture toughness due to a crack in the components. In this study, the effect of the plastic strain on strength of cracked components was investigated. Firstly, the change in the tensile properties and fracture toughness due to plastic strain were examined for Type 316 stainless steel and carbon steel (SM490). The degree of nominal plastic strain was 5%, 10%, 20% and 40% (only for stainless steel). Secondly, the J-integral values of surface crack on a pipe were evaluated by finite element analyses. Finally, the critical load for fracture of the cracked pipe was evaluated for various pipe and crack geometries using the J-integral values and the fracture toughness obtained. It was concluded that the plastic strain enhances the fracture strength of the cracked components when the induced plastic strain is less than 10%, although the extremely large plastic strain could reduce the strength. (author)

  10. Effect of plastic strain on fracture strength of cracked components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaya, Masayuki

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear power plant components are occasionally subjected to excessive load by earthquake and may suffer plastic strain. Although the plastic strain introduced in materials increases the strength, it may reduce the fracture toughness. In this study, the effect of the plastic strain on strength of cracked components was investigated. Firstly, the change in the tensile properties and fracture toughness due to plastic strain were examined for Type 316 stainless steel and carbon steel (SM 490). The degree of nominal plastic strain was 5%, 10%, 20% and 40% (only for stainless steel). Secondly, the J-integral values of surface crack on a pipe were evaluated by finite element analyses. Finally, the critical load for fracture of the cracked pipe was evaluated for various pipe and crack geometries using the J-integral values and the fracture toughness obtained. It was concluded that the plastic strain enhances the fracture strength of the cracked components when the induced plastic strain is less than 10%, although the extremely large plastic strain could reduce the strength. (author)

  11. Grip strength as a frailty diagnostic component in geriatric inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudzińska-Griszek J

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Joanna Dudzińska-Griszek, Karolina Szuster, Jan Szewieczek Department of Geriatrics, School of Health Sciences in Katowice, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland Background: Frailty has emerged as a key medical syndrome predictive of comorbidity, disability, institutionalization and death. As a component of the five frailty phenotype diagnostic criteria, patient grip strength deserves attention as a simple and objective measure of the frailty syndrome. The aim of this study was to assess conditions that influence grip strength in geriatric inpatients.Patients and methods: The study group consisted of 80 patients aged 78.6±7.0 years ( X ± SD, with 68.8% women, admitted to the Department of Geriatrics. A comprehensive geriatric assessment was complemented with assessment for the frailty phenotype as described by Fried et al for all patients in the study group. Functional assessment included Barthel Index of Activities of Daily Living (Barthel Index, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale and Mini-Mental State Examination.Results: Three or more frailty criteria were positive in 32 patients (40%, while 56 subjects (70% fulfilled the frailty criterion of weakness (grip strength test. Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that two independent measures showed positive association with grip strength – Mini-Mental State Examination score (β=0.239; P=0.001 and statin use (β=0.213; P=0.002 – and four independent measures were negatively associated with grip strength – female sex (β=–0.671; P<0.001, C-reactive protein (β=–0.253; P<0.001, prior myocardial infarction (β=–0.190; P=0.006 and use of an antidepressant (β=–0.163; P=0.018. Low physical activity was identified as the only independent qualitative frailty component associated with 2-year mortality in multivariate logistic regression analysis after adjustment for age and sex (odds ratio =6.000; 95% CI =1.357–26.536; P=0.018.Conclusion: Cognitive

  12. Bond strength of two component injection moulded MID

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Mohammad Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tang, Peter Torben

    2006-01-01

    Most products of the future will require industrially adapted, cost effective production processes and on this issue two-component (2K) injection moulding is a potential candidate for MID manufacturing. MID based on 2k injection moulded plastic part with selectively metallised circuit tracks allows...... the two different plastic materials in the MID structure require good bonding between them. This paper finds suitable combinations of materials for MIDs from both bond strength and metallisation view-point. Plastic parts were made by two-shot injection moulding and the effects of some important process...... the integration of electrical and mechanical functionalities in a real 3D structure. If 2k injection moulding is applied with two polymers, of which one is plateable and the other is not, it will be possible to make 3D electrical structures directly on the component. To be applicable in the real engineering field...

  13. Development of strength evaluation method for high-pressure ceramic components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takegami, Hiroaki, E-mail: takegami.hiroaki@jaea.go.jp; Terada, Atsuhiko; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki

    2014-05-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency is conducting R and D on nuclear hydrogen production by the Iodine-Sulfur (IS) process. Since highly corrosive materials such as sulfuric and hydriodic acids are used in the IS process, it is very important to develop components made of corrosion resistant materials. Therefore, we have been developing a sulfuric acid decomposer made of a ceramic material, that is, silicon carbide (SiC), which shows excellent corrosion resistance to sulfuric acid. One of the key technological challenges for the practical use of a ceramic sulfuric acid decomposer made of SiC is to be licensed in accordance with the High Pressure Gas Safety Act for high-pressure operations of the IS process. Since the strength of a ceramic material depends on its geometric form, etc., the strength evaluation method required for a pressure design is not established. Therefore, we propose a novel strength evaluation method for SiC structures based on the effective volume theory in order to extend the range of application of the effective volume. We also developed a design method for ceramic apparatus with the strength evaluation method in order to obtain a license in accordance with the High Pressure Gas Safety Act. In this paper, the minimum strength of SiC components was calculated by Monte Carlo simulation, and the minimum strength evaluation method of SiC components was developed by using the results of simulation. The method was confirmed by fracture test of tube model and reference data.

  14. Interrelationship betwen material strength and component design under elevated temperature for FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Y.

    Structural design under elevated temperature for fast breeder reactor plant is very troublesome compared to that of for lower temperature. This difficulty can be mainly discussed from two different stand points. One is design and design code, another is material strength. Components in FBR are operated under creep regime and time dependent creep behaviour should be elevated properly. This means the number and combinations of design code and material strength are significantly large and makes these systems very complicated. Material selection is, in no words, not an easy job. This should be done by not only material development but also component design stand point. With valuable experience of construction and research on FBR, a lot of information on component design and material behaviour is available. And it is a time to choose the ''best material'' from the entire stand points of component construction. (author)

  15. Evaluation of the oxidation behavior and strength of the graphite components in the VHTR, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eto, Motokuni; Kurosawa, Takeshi; Nomura, Shinzo; Imai, Hisashi

    1987-04-01

    Oxidation experiments have been carried out mainly on a fine-grained isotropic graphite, IG-110, at temperatures between 1173 and 1473 K in a water vapor/helium mixture. In most cases water vapor concentration was 0.65 vol% and helium pressure, 1 atm. Reaction rate and burn-off profile were measured using cylindrical specimens. On the basis of the experimental data the oxidation behavior of fuel block and core support post under the condition of the VHTR operation was estimated using the first-order or Langmuir-Hinshelwood equation with regard to water vapor concentration. Strength and stress-strain relationship of the graphite components with burn-off profiles estimated above were analyzed on the basis of the model for stress-strain relationship and strength of graphite specimens with density gradients. The estimation indicated that the integrity of the components would be maintained during normal reactor operation. (author)

  16. Proof of fatigue strength of ferritic and austenitic nuclear components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, E.; Herter, K.H.; Schuler, X.; Weissenberg, T. [Materialpruefungsanstalt, Univ. Stuttgart (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    For the construction, design and operation of nuclear components and systems the appropriate technical codes and standards provide material data, detailed stress analysis procedures and a design philosophy which guarantees a reliable behaviour of the structural components throughout the specified lifetime. Especially for cyclic stress evaluation the different codes and standards provide different fatigue analyses procedures to be performed considering the various mechanical and thermal loading histories and geometric complexities of the components. For the fatigue design curves used as limiting criteria the influence of different factors like e.g., environment, surface finish and temperature must be taken into consideration in an appropriate way. Fatigue tests were performed with low alloy steels as well as with Nb- and Ti-stabilized German austenitic stainless steels in air and simulated high temperature boiling water reactor environment. The experimental results are compared and valuated with the mean data curves in air as well as with mean data curves under high temperature water environment published in the international literature. (orig.)

  17. Optimization of the compressive strength of five-component-concrete ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper presents the report of an investigation carried out to optimize some mechanical properties of a five-component-concrete mix. Mound soil (MS), randomly selected from some habitats of a common tropical specie of termites from Iyeke-Ogba, Nigeria was investigated as a fifth component in concrete. The work ...

  18. Sustaining AMEDD Professional Strength in the Reserve Components

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fetter, James

    2004-01-01

    ...% Army National Guard 34% Army Reserve and 47% active component. In 2000 concerns were raised about dwindling numbers of doctors dentists physician assistants and nurse anesthetist officers in Army Reserve and Army National Guard...

  19. Corrosion strength monitoring of NPP component residual lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, V.G.; Belous, V.N.; Arzhaev, A.I.; Shuvalov, V.A.

    1994-01-01

    Importance of corrosion and fatigue monitoring; types of corrosion determine the NPP equipment life; why automated on-line corrosion and fatigue monitoring is preferable; major stages of lifetime monitoring system development; major groups of sensors for corrosion and strength monitoring system; high temperature on-line monitoring of water chemistry and corrosion; the RBMK-1000 NPP unit automatic water chemistry and corrosion monitoring scheme; examples of pitting, crevice and general corrosion forecast calculations on the basis of corrosion monitoring data; scheme of an experimental facility for water chemistry and corrosion monitoring sensor testing. 2 figs., 4 tabs

  20. Flowchart-format emergency operating procedures-strengths and weaknesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, V.E.; Bongarra, J.P. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    An increasing number of nuclear power plant licensees are converting their text-format emergency operating procedures (EOPs) to flowcharts. Findings of a recent study of the flowchart-format EOPs indicate that the flowchart format appears to solve several significant usability problems associated with text-format EOPs, but also introduces other types of usability concerns. This paper discusses some of the strengths and weaknesses of the flowchart format for presenting EOPs

  1. Two component injection moulding: an interface quality and bond strength dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Mohammad Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tang, Peter Torben

    2008-01-01

    on quality parameters of the two component parts. Most engineering applications of two component injection moulding calls for high bond strength between the two polymers, on the other hand a sharp and well-defined interface between the two polymers are required for applications like selective metallization...... of polymers, parts for micro applications and also for the aesthetic purpose of the final product. The investigation presented in this paper indicates a dilemma between obtaining reasonably good bond strength and at the same time keeping the interface quality suitable for applications. The required process...... conditions for a sharp and well-defined interface are exactly the opposite of what is congenial for higher bond strength. So in the production of two component injection moulded parts, there is a compromise to make between the interface quality and the bond strength of the two polymers. Also the injection...

  2. Structural strength analysis of lug component for RTP fuel transfer cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Nabil Abdul Rahim; Tonny Lanyau; Mazleha Maskin

    2012-01-01

    A three decade aging PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor will soon require spent fuels to be replaced with fresh fuels. Initial procedure requires these spent fuels be cooled down due to high temperature and high radioactivity resulted from fission products activities and then transferred out of reactor tank into a spent fuel pool. Performing this task will need a fuel transfer cask (FTC) to provide sufficient radiation shielding for the workers during fuels transferring task. Currently the only economically viable route FTC to get into reactor tank is through the top of reactor tank using crane. The huge and high density lead filled FTC will be hanging throughout the task of transferring each fuel element thus FTC is subjected to tensile stress during its operation. Lug component is anticipated to be one of the main weaknesses of FTC design subjected under tensile load due to it diminutive in size but very large amount of stress to be introduced on it. Therefore lugs component requires an adequate stress analysis to prove the design reliability. This paper will discuss the structural strength using conventional engineering calculation based on best estimate approach. (author)

  3. Transistor electronics use of semiconductor components in switching operations

    CERN Document Server

    Rumpf, Karl-Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Transistor Electronics: Use of Semiconductor Components in Switching Operations presents the semiconductor components as well as their elementary circuits. This book discusses the scope of application of electronic devices to increase productivity. Organized into eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of the general equation for the representation of integer positive numbers. This text then examines the properties and characteristics of basic electronic components, which relates to an understanding of the operation of semiconductors. Other chapters consider the electronic circuit ar

  4. Accounting sodium effect in calculation of strength of nuclear reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, V.I.

    1981-01-01

    Accounting methods of liquid sodium effect on long-term strength and creep of structural materials of nuclear reactors are considered. The decrease of pearlite steel strength at the decarburization expense and the decrease of plasticity of austenitic steels at the expense of carburization are noted. The necessity to account thermal transfer of mass is shown. Values of safety factors are presented, they are recommended for the design of reactor component parts with the thickness not less than 1 mm [ru

  5. Mapping the absolute electromagnetic field strength of individual field components inside a photonic crystal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denis, T.; Reijnders, B.; Lee, J.H.H.; Vos, Willem L.; Boller, Klaus J.; van der Slot, Petrus J.M.

    2013-01-01

    We present a method to map the absolute electromagnetic field strength inside photonic crystals. We demonstrate our method by applying it to map the electric field component Ez of a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab at microwave frequencies. The slab is placed between two mirrors to create a

  6. The influence of cellular structures on flow stress of high strength components manufactured using SLM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahshid, Rasoul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Loft Højbjerre, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing has shown significant improvement in material and machines for high-quality solid freeform fabrication processes such as selective laser melting (SLM). In particular, manufacturing lattice structures using the SLM procedure is of interest. This research examines the effect...... of cellular materials on compression strength. The specimens are manufactured additively using industrial 3D printing systems from high-strength alloy. The material has the right mechanical properties for manufacturing tool components. This includes samples with solid and lattice structures. The Compression...

  7. Effect of heat treatment operations on the Rm tensile strength of silumins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pezda

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Owing to good technological properties, low weight and good corrosion resistance, aluminum-silicon alloys are widely used as a material for cast machinery components. State of macro- and microstructure of a castings manufactured from Al-Si alloys, which is determined by a shape and distribution of hardening phases, segregation of alloying constituents and impurities, as well as distribution of porosity, create conditions to obtainment of proper mechanical properties. These properties can be improved through modification of the alloy and performed heat treatment operations. The paper presents effect of modification and heat treatment process on the Rm tensile strength of a selected silumins (EN AB-AlSi9Cu3(Fe, EN AB-AlSi12CuNiMg, EN AB-AlSi17Cu1Ni1Mg. Investigated alloys were put to treatments of refining and modification, and next to heat treatment. Temperature range of the heat treatment operations was determined on base of curves from the ATD method. Obtained results illustrate registered curves of melting and solidification from the ATD method and strength tests. On base of performed initial tests one determined parameters of the heat treatment process (temperature and duration of solutionig and ageing treatments enabling obtainment of improved Rm tensile strength of the investigated alloys.

  8. Fixation strength of a polyetheretherketone femoral component in total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, Lennert; Janssen, Dennis; Briscoe, Adam; Verdonschot, Nico

    2017-11-01

    Introducing polyetheretherketone (PEEK) polymer as a material for femoral components in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) could potentially lead to a reduction of the cemented fixation strength. A PEEK implant is more likely to deform under high loads, rendering geometrical locking features less effective. Fixation strength may be enhanced by adding more undercuts or specific surface treatments. The aim of this study is to measure the initial fixation strength and investigate the associated failure patterns of three different iterations of PEEK-OPTIMA ® implants compared with a Cobalt-Chromium (CoCr) component. Femoral components were cemented onto trabecular bone analogue foam blocks and preconditioned with 86,400 cycles of compressive loading (2600 N-260 N at 1 Hz). They were then extracted while the force was measured and the initial failure mechanism was recorded. Four groups were compared: CoCr, regular PEEK, PEEK with an enhanced cement-bonding surface and the latter with additional surface primer. The mean pull-off forces for the four groups were 3814 N, 688 N, 2525 N and 2552 N, respectively. The initial failure patterns for groups 1, 3 and 4 were the same; posterior condylar foam fracture and cement-bone debonding. Implants from group 2 failed at the cement-implant interface. This study has shown that a PEEK-OPTIMA ® femoral TKA component with enhanced macro- and microtexture is able to replicate the main failure mechanism of a conventional CoCr femoral implant. The fixation strength is lower than for a CoCr implant, but substantially higher than loads occurring under in-vivo conditions. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of CuCrZr and CuCrZr/SS joint strength for different blanket components manufacturing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillia, Olivier; Briottet, Laurent; Chu, Isabelle; Lemoine, Patrick; Rigal, Emmanuel; Peacock, Alan

    2009-04-01

    This work describes studies on the strength of CuCrZr/SS joints for different manufacturing conditions foreseen for the fabrication of blanket components. In the meantime, as junction strength is expected to be strongly related to CuCrZr properties, investigation on the properties of the CuCrZr itself after the different manufacturing conditions is also presented. The initial manufacturing conditions retained were made of a HIP treatment combined with a fast cooling plus a subsequent ageing treatment. For security reasons, the HIP-quenching operation was not possible. A supplementary solutionning cycle with fast cooling has thus been inserted in the heat treatment process just after the HIP bonding treatment. The influence of solutionning temperature (1040 °C or 980 °C), the cooling rate after solutionning (70 °C/min to water quench), the ageing temperature (480 °C or 560 °C) and the HIP temperature (1040 °C or 980 °C) have been addressed. Test results show that the ageing temperature is very important for keeping high strength of material whereas elongation properties are not very sensible to the manufacturing conditions. 1040 °C HIP or solutionning temperature gives better strength properties, as well as a higher cooling rate after solutionning. Concerning samples with joints, it appears that CT test is more selective than other tests since tensile test does not give rupture at joint and KCU test eliminates a route without classifying other routes.

  10. Characterization of CuCrZr and CuCrZr/SS joint strength for different blanket components manufacturing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillia, Olivier; Briottet, Laurent; Chu, Isabelle; Lemoine, Patrick; Rigal, Emmanuel; Peacock, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This work describes studies on the strength of CuCrZr/SS joints for different manufacturing conditions foreseen for the fabrication of blanket components. In the meantime, as junction strength is expected to be strongly related to CuCrZr properties, investigation on the properties of the CuCrZr itself after the different manufacturing conditions is also presented. The initial manufacturing conditions retained were made of a HIP treatment combined with a fast cooling plus a subsequent ageing treatment. For security reasons, the HIP-quenching operation was not possible. A supplementary solutionning cycle with fast cooling has thus been inserted in the heat treatment process just after the HIP bonding treatment. The influence of solutionning temperature (1040 deg. C or 980 deg. C), the cooling rate after solutionning (70 deg. C/min to water quench), the ageing temperature (480 deg. C or 560 deg. C) and the HIP temperature (1040 deg. C or 980 deg. C) have been addressed. Test results show that the ageing temperature is very important for keeping high strength of material whereas elongation properties are not very sensible to the manufacturing conditions. 1040 deg. C HIP or solutionning temperature gives better strength properties, as well as a higher cooling rate after solutionning. Concerning samples with joints, it appears that CT test is more selective than other tests since tensile test does not give rupture at joint and KCU test eliminates a route without classifying other routes.

  11. Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) Operational Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Bradish, Martin A.; Juergens, Jeffrey R.; Lewis, Michael J.; Vrnak, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    This Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) Operational Concept document was developed as a first step in developing the Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) System Architecture (NASA/TM-2011-216956). The CLEAR operational concept defines how the system will be used by the Constellation Program and what needs it meets. The document creates scenarios for major elements of the CLEAR architecture. These scenarios are generic enough to apply to near-Earth, Moon, and Mars missions. The CLEAR operational concept involves basic assumptions about the overall program architecture and interactions with the CLEAR system architecture. The assumptions include spacecraft and operational constraints for near-Earth orbit, Moon, and Mars missions. This document addresses an incremental development strategy where capabilities evolve over time, but it is structured to prevent obsolescence. The approach minimizes flight hardware by exploiting Internet-like telecommunications that enables CLEAR capabilities to remain on Earth and to be uplinked as needed. To minimize crew time and operational cost, CLEAR exploits offline development and validation to support online teleoperations. Operational concept scenarios are developed for diagnostics, repair, and functional test operations. Many of the supporting functions defined in these operational scenarios are further defined as technologies in NASA/TM-2011-216956.

  12. Qualification of engine-mounted components due to operational vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.J.; Bayat, A.

    1994-01-01

    The Emergency Diesel Generator (EDG) in a Nuclear Power Plant is considered to be an essential component of the plant for its safe operation. Failures of auxiliary components directly mounted on the EDG creates costly repairs, and compromises the engine's availability and reliability. Although IEEE-323 and Section III of the ASME code require addressing of safety-related components due to mechanically induced vibration, very few guidelines exist in the nuclear industry to show how this may be accounted for. Most engine vendors rely on the empirical experience data as the basis of their evaluation for vibration. Upgrade of engine controls, addition of monitoring components and other engine modifications require design and installation of new mechanical and electrical components to be mounted directly on the engine. This necessitates the evaluation of such components for engine-induced vibration which is considered to be one of the most severe design parameters. This paper presents a methodology to evaluate three categories of components; structural, mechanical, and electrical under engine vibration. The discussion for the characteristics and manipulation of engine vibration profile to be used for each component evaluation is also given. In addition, the suitability of analytical verses testing approaches is discussed for each category. An example application of the methodology is presented for a typical EDG which is currently undergoing major controls upgrade and monitoring modification

  13. Evaluation of operating experience for service life of components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, H.; Sunder, R.

    1987-01-01

    The evaluation of the operating experience of German light-water reactor components based on licensee event reports indicates that a large part of the defects and failures are caused by fatigue and/or corrosion type mechanisms. Actions have been taken to eliminate the causes by redesigning systems, replacement of components and change of operating procedures. The interaction of fatigue and corrosion mechanisms are not understood in all details today, further research is still necessary. To establish a more realistic data base of the local loading and water chemistry condition for all loading conditions the application of advanced monitoring systems is proposed. The benefits of these systems are that the operating procedures can be further optimized, the actual used life time fraction can be calculated regularly and the data base can be used for life time extension. (orig.) [de

  14. Component Cooling Heat Exchanger Heat Transfer Capability Operability Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalina, M.; Djetelic, N.

    2010-01-01

    The ultimate heat sink (UHS) is of highest importance for nuclear power plant safe and reliable operation. The most important component in line from safety-related heat sources to the ultimate heat sink water body is a component cooling heat exchanger (CC Heat Exchanger). The Component Cooling Heat Exchanger has a safety-related function to transfer the heat from the Component Cooling (CC) water system to the Service Water (SW) system. SW systems throughout the world have been the root of many plant problems because the water source, usually river, lake, sea or cooling pond, are conductive to corrosion, erosion, biofouling, debris intrusion, silt, sediment deposits, etc. At Krsko NPP, these problems usually cumulate in the summer period from July to August, with higher Sava River (service water system) temperatures. Therefore it was necessary to continuously evaluate the CC Heat Exchanger operation and confirm that the system would perform its intended function in accordance with the plant's design basis, given as a minimum heat transfer rate in the heat exchanger design specification sheet. The Essential Service Water system at Krsko NPP is an open cycle cooling system which transfers heat from safety and non-safety-related systems and components to the ultimate heat sink the Sava River. The system is continuously in operation in all modes of plant operation, including plant shutdown and refueling. However, due to the Sava River impurities and our limited abilities of the water treatment, the system is subject to fouling, sedimentation buildup, corrosion and scale formation, which could negatively impact its performance being unable to satisfy its safety related post accident heat removal function. Low temperature difference and high fluid flows make it difficult to evaluate the CC Heat Exchanger due to its specific design. The important effects noted are measurement uncertainties, nonspecific construction, high heat transfer capacity, and operational specifics (e

  15. Influence of non-metallic second phases on fatigue behaviour of high strength steel components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, L.; Elvira, R.; Garcia de Andoin, A.; Pizarro, R.; Bertrand, C.

    2005-01-01

    To assess the real effect of the inclusion type on fatigue life of ultra clean high strength steels mechanical components made of 100Cr6 steel were fatigue tested and fracture surfaces analysed to determine the origin of fatigue cracks.Two heats proceedings from different steelmaking routes were taken for the tests. The material were forged into ring shape components which were fatigue tested under compression-compression loads. Failures were analysed by SFEM (Scanning field Emission Microscopy), proving that most of failures at high loads were originated by manganese sulphides of small size (10-70 micros), while less than 40% of all fatigue cracks due to inclusions were caused by titanium carbonitrides and hard oxides. It has been demonstrated that once number and size of hard inclusions have been reduced, the hazardous effect of oxides and carbonitrides on the fatigue life decreases also. However, softer inclusions as manganese sulphides, currently considered as less hazardous, play a more relevant role as direct cause of fatigue failure and they should be taken into account in a deeper way in order to balance both machinability and fatigue life requirements in high strength steel components. (Author) 11 refs

  16. Probability of inadvertent operation of electrical components in harsh environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, A.

    1989-01-01

    Harsh environment, which means humidity and high temperature, may and will affect unsealed electrical components by causing leakage ground currents in ungrounded direct current systems. The concern in a nuclear power plant is that such harsh environment conditions could cause inadvertent operation of normally deenergized components, which may have a safety-related isolation function. Harsh environment is a common cause failure, and one way to approach the problem is to assume that all the unsealed electrical components will simultaneously and inadvertently energize as a result of the environmental common cause failure. This assumption is unrealistically conservative. Test results indicated that insulating resistences of any terminal block in harsh environments have a random distribution in the range of 1 to 270 kΩ, with a mean value ∼59 kΩ. The objective of this paper is to evaluate a realistic conditional failure probability for inadvertent operation of electrical components in harsh environments. This value will be used thereafter in probabilistic safety evaluations of harsh environment events and will replace both the overconservative common cause probability of 1 and the random failure probability used for mild environments

  17. The effects of attachment components on formal-operational thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukčević Branimir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work our aim is to examine how the components of attachment influence the thinking development of adolescents in familial context. We investigated the components of attachment: unresolved family traumatisation, the use of external security base, fear of loss of external security base, negative self concept, negative other concept, capacity for mentalisation, low control of anger. We used a revised Questionnaire for Assessment of Adult and Adolescent Attachment (in original: UPIPAV-R. Formal operations were tested by Bond's Logical Operations Test. We examined the cultural-pedagogical status of the family, the parental mediation characteristic for the development of formal operations, and family property as the aspects of familial context. The sample consisted of 200 pupils aged 14 to 19. According to the attachment theory, secure attachment provides the feel of security in environment exploration, which is the ground of personality development. We assumed that components of attachment contribute formal-operational thinking development and change the influence of familial cultural-supportive tools. The findings show us that the culturalpedagogical status of the family improves formal operations development and unresolved family traumatisation has negative influence. Capacity for mentalisation has a positive indirect effect on thinking development through the influence of the cultural-pedagogical status of the family. The low control of anger has a negative indirect effect on thinking development; it increases the influence of unresolved family traumatisation. Negative self concept has indirect effects on thinking development through increasing this negative influence of unresolved family traumatisation and decreasing the role of familial cultural-supportive tools.

  18. OECD/NEA component operational experience, degradation and ageing project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gott, K.; Nevander, O.; Riznic, J.; Lydell, B.

    2015-01-01

    Several OECD Member Countries have agreed to establish the OECD/NEA 'Component Operational Experience, Degradation and Ageing Programme' (CODAP) to encourage multilateral co-operation in the collection and analysis of data relating to degradation and failure of metallic piping and non-piping metallic passive components in commercial nuclear power plants. The scope of the data collection includes service-induced wall thinning, part through-wall cracks, through-wall cracks with and without active leakage, and instances of significant degradation of metallic passive components, including piping pressure boundary integrity. CODAP is the continuation of the 2002-2011 'OECD/NEA Pipe Failure Data Exchange Project' (OPDE) and the Stress Corrosion Cracking Working Group of the 2006-2010 - OECD/NEA SCC and Cable Ageing project - (SCAP). OPDE was formally launched in May 2002. Upon completion of the 3. Term (May 2011), the OPDE project was officially closed to be succeeded by CODAP. In May 2011, 13 countries signed the CODAP first Term agreement. The first Term (2011-2014) work plan includes the development of a web-based relational event database on passive, metallic components in commercial nuclear power plants, a web-based knowledge base on material degradation, codes and standards relating to structural integrity and national practices for managing material degradation. The work plan also addresses the preparation of Topical Reports to foster technical cooperation and to deepen the understanding of national differences in ageing management. These Topical Reports are in the public domain and available for download on the NEA web site. Published in 2014, a first Topical Report addressed flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) of carbon steel and low alloy steel piping. A second Topical Report addresses operating experience with electro-hydraulic control (EHC) and instrument air (IA) system piping

  19. Structural integrity of stainless steel components exposed to neutron irradiation. Change in failure strength of cracked components due to cold working

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaya, Masayuki; Hojo, Tomohiro; Mochizuki, Masahito

    2015-01-01

    Load carrying capacity of austenitic stainless steel component is increased due to hardening caused by neutron irradiation if no crack is included in the component. On the other hand, if a crack is initiated in the reactor components, the hardening may decrease the load carrying capacity due to reduction in fracture toughness. In this paper, in order to develop a failure assessment procedure of irradiated cracked components, characteristics of change in failure strength of stainless steels due to cold working were investigated. It was experimentally shown that the proof and tensile strengths were increased by the cold working, whereas the fracture toughness was decreased. The fracture strengths of a cylinder with a circumferential surface crack were analyzed using the obtained material properties. Although the cold working altered the failure mode from plastic collapse to the unsteady ductile crack growth, it did not reduce failure strengths even if 50% cold working was applied. The increase in failure strength was caused not only by increase in flow stress but also by reduction in J-integral value, which was brought by the change in stress-strain curve. It was shown that the failure strength of the hardened stainless steel components could be derived by the two-parameter method, in which the change in material properties could be reasonably considered. (author)

  20. Diagnosis Aerobic Component of Operational Preparedness Skill Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasylyuk Vasyl

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerable importance for the control system, selection and orientation of the players on the stage long-term preparation plays a selection of effective methods of testing the various components of functional fitness athlete for timely, objective information about the players. The use of reliable scientific methods of effective monitoring of the athlete contributes to the further improvement of skills, increase athletic achievements. The purpose of this article is to describe and summarize modern methods of diagnosis and development of aerobic component of operational preparedness players qualifications. This article describes methods that actively and effectively used in leading European football teams. Specifically Yo-Yo test, test Shuttle (beep-test, Bangsbo test, test Hoff-Helgerud, test Conconi, Wingate-test. These tests have a high level of reliability and security mechanisms for assessing aerobic power players.

  1. Material Selection for an Ultra High Strength Steel Component Based on the Failure Criteria of CrachFEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, L.; Beier, Th.; Werner, H.; Horstkott, D.; Dell, H.; Gese, H.

    2005-01-01

    An increasing use of combining more than one process step is noticed for coupling crash simulations with the results of forming operations -- mostly by inheriting the forming history like plastic strain and material hardening. Introducing a continuous failure model allows a further benefit of these coupling processes; it sometimes can even be the most attractive result of such a work. In this paper the algorithm CrachFEM for fracture prediction has been used to generate more benefit of the successive forming and crash simulations -- especially for ultra high strength steels. The choice and selection of the material grade in combination with the component design can therefore be done far before the prototyping might show an unsuccessful crash result; and in an industrial applicable manner

  2. Changes in the Strength of the Polymer Concrete Used in the Electroplating Vats Under Operational Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radna Lidia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the strong and aggressive electrolyte media and thermal load, design of the electroplating vats in the copper industry often relies on the resin concrete. The article presents the results of the strength tests of the polymer concrete based on the "Derakane" resin, used in the construction of electroplating vats. Samples were taken from the real vats - both new and 17-year old. Strength tests included compression and bending tensile strength test. To assess the effect of operational conditions the tests were performed on the same-age vats, some of which were never used while others were subjected to the operational load. During the operation, the vats sustained load of the anode and cathode weights, cyclic electrolyte loading with a temperatures up to 60°C. As a result, it was noted that the operational conditions led to the increased strength of the polymer concrete material.

  3. Changes in the Strength of the Polymer Concrete Used in the Electroplating Vats Under Operational Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radna, Lidia; Sakharov, Volodymyr

    2017-12-01

    Due to the strong and aggressive electrolyte media and thermal load, design of the electroplating vats in the copper industry often relies on the resin concrete. The article presents the results of the strength tests of the polymer concrete based on the "Derakane" resin, used in the construction of electroplating vats. Samples were taken from the real vats - both new and 17-year old. Strength tests included compression and bending tensile strength test. To assess the effect of operational conditions the tests were performed on the same-age vats, some of which were never used while others were subjected to the operational load. During the operation, the vats sustained load of the anode and cathode weights, cyclic electrolyte loading with a temperatures up to 60°C. As a result, it was noted that the operational conditions led to the increased strength of the polymer concrete material.

  4. Experimental investigation of the factors influencing the polymer-polymer bond strength during two component injection moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Mohammad Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tang, Peter Torben

    2007-01-01

    Two component injection moulding is a commercially important manufacturing process and a key technology for Moulded Interconnect Devices (MIDs). Many fascinating applications of two component or multi component polymer parts are restricted due to the weak interfacial adhesion of the polymers...... effectively control the adhesion between two polymers. The effects of environmental conditions on the bond strength after moulding are also investigated. The material selections and environmental conditions were chosen based on the suitability of MID production, but the results and discussion presented....... A thorough understanding of the factors that influence the bond strength of polymers is necessary for multi component polymer processing. This paper investigates the effects of the process and material parameters on the bond strength of two component polymer parts and identifies the factors which can...

  5. Experimental investigation of the factors influencing the polymer-polymer bond strength during two-component injection moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bondo, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Two-component injection moulding is a commercially important manufacturing process and a key technology for combining different material properties in a single plastic product. It is also one of most industrially adaptive process chain for manufacturing so-called moulded interconnect devices (MIDs......). Many fascinating applications of two-component or multi-component polymer parts are restricted due to the weak interfacial adhesion of the polymers. A thorough understanding of the factors that influence the bond strength of polymers is necessary for multi-component polymer processing. This paper...... investigates the effects of the process conditions and geometrical factors on the bond strength of two-component polymer parts and identifies the factors which can effectively control the adhesion between two polymers. The effects of environmental conditions on the bond strength are also investigated...

  6. Operating experience with decommissioning of underground components, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    In the USA there has over the years been widespread use of underground piping and tank storage systems, as well as use of other storage vaults and miscellaneous underground storage systems. In most instances these systems are associated with other operating facilities such as large nuclear facilities. There has been considerable experience over the last 60 years in the design, installation, operation and decommissioning of these radioactive waste handling and storage structures and systems. Legislation was enacted in the 1980s that required extensive upgrades to existing systems, with newly installed systems being required to meet stringent installation, operation and removal requirements. This has had an impact on the use of some of these underground systems. One major problem with many of these systems is to gauge the integrity of the systems after they have been in operation for many years and to accurately determine whether they have leaked or not. Depending on the results of these investigations, the next question is whether these systems even need to be excavated or if they can be dispositioned in place rather than expending a large amount of effort to excavate them and remove the materials in question to a disposal site for final dispositioning. In some areas this is possible while in others excavation is required. Over the years that nuclear facilities have been operational in the USA, advantage has been taken of the fact that the earth serves as a good location for emplacement of otherwise obtrusive (or even less aesthetically pleasing) structures. These structures are also still clearly able to support the useful mission they were always intended to fulfil. This arrangement also serves as a structural feature favourable to minimizing radiation exposure levels emanating from systems and components containing radioactive materials. In some cases, embedding of various components such as tanks, pits, vaults, pipes and ducting was an easy way to avoid these

  7. Research and development on materials, structural strength and seismic integrity of FBR components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumikawa, Masaharu; Kirihara, Seishin; Shigeta, Masayuki; Shimoyashiki, Shigehiro; Nishioka, Akio.

    1982-01-01

    For designing high temperature structures of FBRs, highly reliable design is required on the basis of safety requirement. At the same time, it is necessary to guarantee the soundness of structures over the total design life of plants. Since the high temperature equipments are operated in a creep temperature region and show nonlinear behaviour, nonlinear structural analysis is required. Hitachi Ltd., based on the concept of verifying the latest technology to reflect it to the design along with its adoption, has progressed various research and development by organizing a project team collecting specialists in the company, independently developing and modifying the nonlinear structural analysis and evaluation program, and establishing the organization through the introduction of a general purpose large scale computer. The research and development for materials include the development of the strength standards for high temperature structural materials and the improvement of the high temperature characteristics of JIS stainless steel SUS 321. In the R and D for high temperature strength, the test on the deforming behaviour of plates due to bending creep, the thermal shock test for steam generator tube plates and others were performed. In the R and D for seismic integrity, the vibration test of piping support structure and the development of detailed seismic property evaluation program are mentioned. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  8. Characterization of CuCrZr and CuCrZr/SS junction strength for different blanket components manufacturing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillia, O.; Briottet, L.; Chu, I.; Lemoine, P.; Bucci, P.; Peacock, A.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: This work describes studies on the strength of CuCrZr/SS joint for different manufacturing conditions foreseen for the fabrication of blanket components. In the meantime, as junction strength is expected to be strongly related to CuCrZr property, investigation on the properties of the CuCrZr itself after the different manufacturing conditions is also presented. The initial manufacturing conditions retained were made of a HIP treatment combined with a fast cooling plus a subsequent ageing treatment. For security reasons, the HIP quenching operation was not possible. It is too severe for the HIP vessel. A supplementary solutioning cycle has then been inserted to the heat treatment process just after the HIP-bonding treatment in order to have a sufficient fast cooling of the CuCrZr. The manufacturing conditions thus comprise a HIP cycle (simulated for mono-material samples), a separate solutioning cycle with controlled cooling rate and an ageing treatment. The influence of solutioning temperature has been addressed (1040 deg. C or 980 deg. C) as well as that of the cooling rate after solutioning (70 deg. C/min to water quench), the ageing temperature (480 deg. C or 560 deg. C) and the HIP temperature (1040 deg. C or 980 deg. C). Test results show that the ageing temperature is very important for keeping high strength of material whereas elongation properties are not very sensible to the manufacturing conditions. 1040 deg. C HIP or solutioning temperature gives better strength properties, as well as a higher cooling rate after solutioning. Concerning samples with junctions, it appears that CT test is more selective than other tests since tensile test does not give rupture at joint and KCU test eliminates a route without classifying other routes. A minimum value of J Q for CT test is given, but as confined plasticity requirement is not satisfied for the sample geometry, this value should only be used concomitantly with the same testing

  9. FIRST INFRARED BAND STRENGTHS FOR AMORPHOUS CO{sub 2}, AN OVERLOOKED COMPONENT OF INTERSTELLAR ICES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerakines, Perry A.; Hudson, Reggie L., E-mail: Reggie.Hudson@NASA.gov [Astrochemistry Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Solid carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) has long been recognized as a component of both interstellar and solar system ices, but a recent literature search has revealed significant qualitative and quantitative discrepancies in the laboratory spectra on which the abundances of extraterrestrial CO{sub 2} are based. Here we report new infrared (IR) spectra of amorphous CO{sub 2}-ice along with band intensities (band strengths) of four mid-IR absorptions, the first such results in the literature. A possible thickness dependence for amorphous-CO{sub 2} IR band shapes and positions also is investigated, and the three discordant reports of amorphous CO{sub 2} spectra in the literature are addressed. Applications of our results are discussed with an emphasis on laboratory investigations and results from astronomical observations. A careful comparison with earlier work shows that the IR spectra calculated from several databases for CO{sub 2} ices, all ices being made near 10 K, are not for amorphous CO{sub 2}, but rather for crystalline CO{sub 2} or crystalline-amorphous mixtures.

  10. Residual-strength tests of L-1011 vertical fin components after 10 and 20 years of simulated flight service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, O. F.

    1984-01-01

    Part of the NASA/ACEE Program was to determine the effect of long-term durability testing on the residual strength of graphite-epoxy cover panel and spar components of the Lockheed L-1011 aircraft vertical stabilizer. The results of these residual strength tests are presented herein. The structural behavior and failure mode of both cover panel and spar components were addressed, and the test results obtained were compared with the static test results generated by Lockheed. The effect of damage on one of the spar specimens was described.

  11. Experimental research into operating strength and fatigue life of bodywork of buses and trolleybuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolhof, V.; Kepka, M.; Rehor, P.; Horak, V.; Sima, J.

    1992-01-01

    Operational strength and fatigue life reliability of trolleybus and bus bodies are usually assessed by computational methods in combination with selected tests. The latter include test runs of vehicles on real routes or on specially designed tracks, tests on complete vehicles under model test conditions and laboratory tests on selected materials, parts and subassemblies. This paper describes a method of experimental investigation of operational strength and reliability developed and applied at the Central Research Institute Skoda for public-transport road vehicles made in Czechoslovakia. (orig.)

  12. The influence of particles of a minor component on the matrix strength of sodium chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Veen, B.; van der Voort Maarschalk, Kees; Bolhuis, G.K; Gons, M.; Zuurman, K.; Frijlink, H.W

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with the matrix strength of sodium chloride particles in pure sodium chloride tablets and in tablets compressed from binary mixtures of sodium chloride with low concentrations of pregelatinised starch. Because this study concerns the strength of the sodium chloride matrix, the

  13. Argo workstation: a key component of operational oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Mingmei; Xu, Shanshan; Miao, Qingsheng; Yue, Xinyang; Lu, Jiawei; Yang, Yang

    2018-02-01

    Operational oceanography requires the quantity, quality, and availability of data set and the timeliness and effectiveness of data products. Without steady and strong operational system supporting, operational oceanography will never be proceeded far. In this paper we describe an integrated platform named Argo Workstation. It operates as a data processing and management system, capable of data collection, automatic data quality control, visualized data check, statistical data search and data service. After it is set up, Argo workstation provides global high quality Argo data to users every day timely and effectively. It has not only played a key role in operational oceanography but also set up an example for operational system.

  14. Characteristic compression strength of a brickwork masonry starting from the strength of its components. Experimental verification of analitycal equations of european codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando, A.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the compression strength of a clay brickwork masonry bound with cement mortar is analyzed. The target is to obtain the characteristic compression strength of unreinforced brickwork masonry. This research try to test the validity of the analytical equations in European codes, comparing the experimental strength with the analytically obtained from the strength of its components (clay brick and cement mortar.En este artículo se analiza la resistencia a compresión de una fábrica de ladrillo cerámico, asentado con mortero de cemento.El objetivo es obtener la resistencia característica a compresión de la fábrica sin armar.La investigación comprueba la fiabilidad de las expresiones analíticas existentes en la normativa europea, comparando la resistencia obtenida experimentalmente con la obtenida analíticamente, a partir de la resistencia de sus componentes (ladrillo cerámico y mortero de cemento.

  15. Austenitic stainless steels and high strength copper alloys for fusion components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowcliffe, A.F.; Zinkle, S.J.; Alexander, D.J.; Stubbins, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    An austenitic stainless steel (316LN), an oxide-dispersion-strengthened copper alloy (GlidCop A125), and a precipitation-hardened copper alloy (Cu-Cr-Zr) are the primary structural materials for the ITER first wall/blanket and divertor systems. While there is a long experience of operating 316LN stainless steel in nuclear environments, there is no prior experience with the copper alloys in neutron environments. The ITER first wall (FW) consists of a stainless steel shield with a copper alloy heat sink bonded by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). The introduction of bi-layer structural material represents a new materials engineering challenge; the behavior of the bi-layer is determined by the properties of the individual components and by the nature of the bond interface. The development of the radiation damage microstructure in both classes of materials is summarized and the effects of radiation on deformation and fracture behavior are considered. The initial data on the mechanical testing of bi-layers indicate that the effectiveness of GlidCop A125 as a FW heat sink material is compromised by its strongly anisotropic fracture toughness and poor resistance to crack growth in a direction parallel to the bi-layer interface. (orig.)

  16. Residual life and strength estimates of aircraft structural components with MSD/MED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ripudaman; Park, Jai H.; Atluri, Satya N.

    1994-01-01

    Economic and safe operation of the flight vehicles flying beyond their initial design life calls for an in-depth structural integrity evaluation of all components with potential for catastrophic damages. Fuselage panels with cracked skin and/or stiffening elements is one such example. A three level analytical approach is developed to analyze the pressurized fuselage stiffened shell panels with damaged skin or stiffening elements. A global finite element analysis is first carried out to obtain the load flow pattern through the damaged panel. As an intermediate step, the damaged zone is treated as a spatially three-dimensional structure modeled by plate and shell finite elements, with all the neighboring elements that can alter the stress state at the crack tip. This is followed by the Schwartz-Neumann alternating method for local analysis to obtain the relevant crack tip parameters that govern the onset of fracture and the crack growth. The methodology developed is generic in nature and aims at handling a large fraction of problem areas identified by the Industry Committee on Wide-Spread Fatigue Damage.

  17. Determination of the remaining operational life of power plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiden, H.; Vorwerk, K.; Graeff, D.; Hoff, E.

    1983-01-01

    The proceedings volume presents, in full wording, eight papers read at a TUEV Rheinland meeting in Johannesburg, South Africa, in August 1982. Subjects: Layout, quality assurance, service life analysis etc. of power plant components. (RW) [de

  18. The effects of attachment components on formal-operational thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Vukčević Branimir

    2010-01-01

    In this work our aim is to examine how the components of attachment influence the thinking development of adolescents in familial context. We investigated the components of attachment: unresolved family traumatisation, the use of external security base, fear of loss of external security base, negative self concept, negative other concept, capacity for mentalisation, low control of anger. We used a revised Questionnaire for Assessment of Adult and Adolescent Attachment (in original: UPIPAV-R)....

  19. Eliminating the Influence of Harmonic Components in Operational Modal Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Niels-Jørgen; Andersen, Palle; Brincker, Rune

    2007-01-01

    structures, in contrast, are subject inherently to deterministic forces due to the rotating parts in the machinery. These forces are seen as harmonic components in the responses, and their influence should be eliminated before extracting the modes in their vicinity. This paper describes a new method based...... on the well-known Enhanced Frequency Domain Decomposition (EFDD) technique for eliminating these harmonic components in the modal parameter extraction process. For assessing the quality of the method, various experiments were carried out where the results were compared with those obtained with pure stochastic...

  20. Prediction of Rowing Ergometer Performance from Functional Anaerobic Power, Strength and Anthropometric Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akça Firat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to develop different regression models to predict 2000 m rowing ergometer performance with the use of anthropometric, anaerobic and strength variables and to determine how precisely the prediction models constituted by different variables predict performance, when conducted together in the same equation or individually. 38 male collegiate rowers (20.17 ± 1.22 years participated in this study. Anthropometric, strength, 2000 m maximal rowing ergometer and rowing anaerobic power tests were applied. Multiple linear regression procedures were employed in SPSS 16 to constitute five different regression formulas using a different group of variables. The reliability of the regression models was expressed by R2 and the standard error of estimate (SEE. Relationships of all parameters with performance were investigated through Pearson correlation coefficients. The prediction model using a combination of anaerobic, strength and anthropometric variables was found to be the most reliable equation to predict 2000 m rowing ergometer performance (R2 = 0.92, SEE= 3.11 s. Besides, the equation that used rowing anaerobic and strength test results also provided a reliable prediction (R2 = 0.85, SEE= 4.27 s. As a conclusion, it seems clear that physiological determinants which are affected by anaerobic energy pathways should also get involved in the processes and models used for performance prediction and talent identification in rowing.

  1. Infrared Preheating to Enhance Interlayer Strength of Components Printed on the Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishore, Vidya [ORNL; Ajinjeru, Christine [ORNL; Duty, Chad E [ORNL; Nycz, Andrzej [ORNL; Post, Brian K [ORNL; Lindahl, John M [ORNL; Kunc, Vlastimil [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    The Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) system has the capacity to print structures on the order of several meters at a rate exceeding 50 kg/h, thereby having the potential to significantly impact the production of components in automotive, aerospace and energy sectors. However, a primary issue that limits the functional use of such parts is mechanical anisotropy. The strength of printed parts across successive layers in the build direction (z-direction) is significantly lower than the corresponding in-plane strength (x-y directions). This is largely due to poor bonding between the printed layers as the lower layers cool below the glass transition temperature (Tg) before the next layer is deposited. This work explores the use of infrared heating to increase the surface temperature of the printed layer just prior to deposition of new material to improve the interlayer strength of the components. The material used in this study was acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) reinforced with 20% chopped carbon fiber by weight. Significant improvements in z-strength were observed for the parts whose surface temperature was increased from below Tg to close to or above Tg using infrared heating. Parameters such as print speed, nozzle diameter and extrusion temperature were also found to impact the heat input required to enhance interlayer adhesion without significantly degrading the polymer and compromising on surface finish.

  2. Probabilistic Material Strength Degradation Model for Inconel 718 Components Subjected to High Temperature, Mechanical Fatigue, Creep and Thermal Fatigue Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bast, Callie Corinne Scheidt

    1994-01-01

    This thesis presents the on-going development of methodology for a probabilistic material strength degradation model. The probabilistic model, in the form of a postulated randomized multifactor equation, provides for quantification of uncertainty in the lifetime material strength of aerospace propulsion system components subjected to a number of diverse random effects. This model is embodied in the computer program entitled PROMISS, which can include up to eighteen different effects. Presently, the model includes four effects that typically reduce lifetime strength: high temperature, mechanical fatigue, creep, and thermal fatigue. Statistical analysis was conducted on experimental Inconel 718 data obtained from the open literature. This analysis provided regression parameters for use as the model's empirical material constants, thus calibrating the model specifically for Inconel 718. Model calibration was carried out for four variables, namely, high temperature, mechanical fatigue, creep, and thermal fatigue. Methodology to estimate standard deviations of these material constants for input into the probabilistic material strength model was developed. Using the current version of PROMISS, entitled PROMISS93, a sensitivity study for the combined effects of mechanical fatigue, creep, and thermal fatigue was performed. Results, in the form of cumulative distribution functions, illustrated the sensitivity of lifetime strength to any current value of an effect. In addition, verification studies comparing a combination of mechanical fatigue and high temperature effects by model to the combination by experiment were conducted. Thus, for Inconel 718, the basic model assumption of independence between effects was evaluated. Results from this limited verification study strongly supported this assumption.

  3. Semi-quantitative evaluation of texture components and anisotropy of the yield strength in 2524 T3 alloy sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Fanghua; Yi, Danqing; Wang, Bin; Liu, Huiqun; Jiang, Yong; Tang, Cong; Jiang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Decreasing the anisotropy of 2524 alloys is a key factor for their use in applications such as high-performance inertial components or space robots. Studying the interaction between sheet textures and anisotropy is a key factor to overcome this problem. In this study, the semi-quantitative approach to estimate the relation between texture and in-plane anisotropy (IPA) of yield strength has been developed. The intensity ratio between Cube and Brass texture components (F CGB ) was used as an effective variable for this purpose. This approach has been tested in 2524 T3 aluminum alloy sheets, which were investigated using X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy and tensile tests. The results show that F CGB decreased with an increase in cold reduction. The 2524 T3 sheet, dominated by Cube texture grains, possesses the lowest in-plane anisotropy for the yield strength of all texture components investigated. The alloy sheet dominated by Brass texture exhibits the highest anisotropy, while the Goss texture-led sheets fall in between them. These results agree with the trends seen in the factor F CGB , suggesting that is suited to evaluate the anisotropy of yield strength in 2524 T3 alloy sheets semi-quantitatively.

  4. Semi-quantitative evaluation of texture components and anisotropy of the yield strength in 2524 T3 alloy sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Fanghua [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Yi, Danqing, E-mail: yioffice@csu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Light Alloy Research Institute, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); National Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Nonferrous Structural Materials and Manufacturing, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Wang, Bin; Liu, Huiqun; Jiang, Yong; Tang, Cong; Jiang, Bo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2016-10-15

    Decreasing the anisotropy of 2524 alloys is a key factor for their use in applications such as high-performance inertial components or space robots. Studying the interaction between sheet textures and anisotropy is a key factor to overcome this problem. In this study, the semi-quantitative approach to estimate the relation between texture and in-plane anisotropy (IPA) of yield strength has been developed. The intensity ratio between Cube and Brass texture components (F{sub CGB}) was used as an effective variable for this purpose. This approach has been tested in 2524 T3 aluminum alloy sheets, which were investigated using X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy and tensile tests. The results show that F{sub CGB} decreased with an increase in cold reduction. The 2524 T3 sheet, dominated by Cube texture grains, possesses the lowest in-plane anisotropy for the yield strength of all texture components investigated. The alloy sheet dominated by Brass texture exhibits the highest anisotropy, while the Goss texture-led sheets fall in between them. These results agree with the trends seen in the factor F{sub CGB}, suggesting that is suited to evaluate the anisotropy of yield strength in 2524 T3 alloy sheets semi-quantitatively.

  5. Statistical properties of material strength for reliability evaluation of components of fast reactors. Austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaya, Shigeru; Sasaki, Naoto; Tomobe, Masato

    2015-03-01

    Many efforts have been made to implement the System Based Code concept of which objective is to optimize margins dispersed in several codes and standards. Failure probability is expected to be a promising quantitative index for optimization of margins, and statistical information for random variables is needed to evaluate failure probability. Material strength like tensile strength is an important random variable, but the statistical information has not been provided enough yet. In this report, statistical properties of material strength such as creep rupture time, steady creep strain rate, yield stress, tensile stress, flow stress, fatigue life and cyclic stress-strain curve, were estimated for SUS304 and 316FR steel, which are typical structural materials for fast reactors. Other austenitic stainless steels like SUS316 were also used for statistical estimation of some material properties such as fatigue life. These materials are registered in the JSME code of design and construction of fast reactors, so test data used for developing the code were used as much as possible in this report. (author)

  6. Investigation of plasma facing components in JT-60U operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masaki, K.; Ando, T.; Kodama, K.; Arai, T.; Neyatani, Y.; Yoshino, R.; Tsuji, S.; Yagyu, J.; Kaminaga, A.; Sasajima, T.; Ouchi, Y.; Koike, T.; Shimizu, M.

    1995-01-01

    The mechanical fracture of three carbon fiber composite (CFC) first wall tiles was observed. This damage was probably caused by the electromagnetic force due to halo current during disruption. The required current to break the CFC tile is estimated to be 25 kA. The broken tile was rotated poloidally around the plasma with a speed of about 10 m/s during the following discharge. A possible driving force of this rotation might be the electromagnetic force due to the scrape-off layer (SOL) current. The required current to rotate the piece of the broken tile is 1 kA. These results indicate that electromagnetic interaction between SOL plasma and the plasma facing components is important in the research on the plasma wall interactions in fusion devices. ((orig.))

  7. THE OPERATIONAL COMPONENT AND THE FORMATION OF A HISTORICAL CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lainy Rodríguez Hurtado

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation of a historical culture is a process by which the conscious appropriation of a conception allows to operate in the cognitive, attitudinal and evaluative areas is produced, illustrating in its context the demonstration of a conceptual system based on materialism and historical science, the dominion of the laws in the social field and the spiritual enrichment that emanates from the assimilation of the expressions of behavior of the human society in a diversity of spatial and temporal contexts. From this it follows that a system of actions must be deployed for its achievement binding historicism in the conceptual and the exercise of logical thinking in the dimensio ns of the argumentative, demonstrative, and evaluative, starting from the factual reconstruction as the basis of the cognitive.

  8. Determination operation Time Risk of Box Spinning Components-oe Spinning Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Slobodan Stefanovic

    2013-01-01

    Based on the constructed dependency diagram reliability of the exploitation operation time of each constituent components of the analyzed frame in the case of selected statistical distributions, areas of the operation exploitation and repair intervals are determined. This is done by determining the first inflection points. Based on these points analysis to determine the time of safety operation of frame components with allowable risk to the segmental linear function of the intensity of failur...

  9. Unique effects of energy versus estrogen deficiency on multiple components of bone strength in exercising women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southmayd, E A; Mallinson, R J; Williams, N I; Mallinson, D J; De Souza, M J

    2017-04-01

    Many female athletes are energy and/or estrogen deficient, but the independent effects on bone health have not been isolated. Energy deficiency was detrimental at the tibia while estrogen deficiency was detrimental at the radius. Nutrition must be considered alongside menstrual recovery when addressing compromised bone health in female athletes. The purpose of this study was to describe volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), bone geometry, and estimated bone strength in exercising women (n = 60) grouped according to energy status (energy replete (EnR: n = 30) vs. energy deficient (EnD: n = 30)) and estrogen status (estrogen replete (E 2 R: n = 33) vs. estrogen deficient (E 2 D: n = 27)), resulting in four distinct groups: EnR + E 2 R (n = 17), EnR + E 2 D (n = 13), EnD + E 2 R (n = 16), EnD + E 2 D (n = 14). Energy status was determined using the ratio of measured to predicted resting energy expenditure (mREE/pREE). Estrogen status was based on self-reported menstrual status confirmed by daily evaluation of urinary estrone-1-glucoronide (E1G), pregnanediol glucuronide (PdG), and luteinizing hormone (LH). Eumenorrheic women were considered E 2 R, amenorrheic women were E 2 D, and oligomenorrheic women were categorized based on history of menses in the past year. Bone was assessed using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). EnD women exhibited lower total vBMD, trabecular vBMD, cortical area, and BSI at the distal tibia and lower total vBMD, smaller cortical area and cortical thickness, and larger endosteal circumference at the proximal tibia compared to EnR women (p < 0.042). E 2 D women had lower total and cortical vBMD, larger total and trabecular area, and lower BSI at the distal radius and lower cortical vBMD at the proximal radius compared to E 2 R women (p < 0.023). Energy and estrogen interacted to affect total and trabecular area at the distal tibia (p < 0.021). Efforts to correct energy deficiency, which in turn may

  10. Optimisation of cognitive performance in rodent operant (touchscreen) testing: Evaluation and effects of reinforcer strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Benjamin U; Heath, Christopher J; Ossowska, Zofia; Bussey, Timothy J; Saksida, Lisa M

    2017-09-01

    Operant testing is a widely used and highly effective method of studying cognition in rodents. Performance on such tasks is sensitive to reinforcer strength. It is therefore advantageous to select effective reinforcers to minimize training times and maximize experimental throughput. To quantitatively investigate the control of behavior by different reinforcers, performance of mice was tested with either strawberry milkshake or a known powerful reinforcer, super saccharin (1.5% or 2% (w/v) saccharin/1.5% (w/v) glucose/water mixture). Mice were tested on fixed (FR)- and progressive-ratio (PR) schedules in the touchscreen-operant testing system. Under an FR schedule, both the rate of responding and number of trials completed were higher in animals responding for strawberry milkshake versus super saccharin. Under a PR schedule, mice were willing to emit similar numbers of responses for strawberry milkshake and super saccharin; however, analysis of the rate of responding revealed a significantly higher rate of responding by animals reinforced with milkshake versus super saccharin. To determine the impact of reinforcer strength on cognitive performance, strawberry milkshake and super saccharin-reinforced animals were compared on a touchscreen visual discrimination task. Animals reinforced by strawberry milkshake were significantly faster to acquire the discrimination than animals reinforced by super saccharin. Taken together, these results suggest that strawberry milkshake is superior to super saccharin for operant behavioral testing and further confirms that the application of response rate analysis to multiple ratio tasks is a highly sensitive method for the detection of behavioral differences relevant to learning and motivation.

  11. Prediction of the time-dependent failure rate for normally operating components taking into account the operational history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrbanic, I.; Simic, Z.; Sljivac, D.

    2008-01-01

    The prediction of the time-dependent failure rate has been studied, taking into account the operational history of a component used in applications such as system modeling in a probabilistic safety analysis in order to evaluate the impact of equipment aging and maintenance strategies on the risk measures considered. We have selected a time-dependent model for the failure rate which is based on the Weibull distribution and the principles of proportional age reduction by equipment overhauls. Estimation of the parameters that determine the failure rate is considered, including the definition of the operational history model and likelihood function for the Bayesian analysis of parameters for normally operating repairable components. The operational history is provided as a time axis with defined times of overhauls and failures. An example for demonstration is described with prediction of the future behavior for seven different operational histories. (orig.)

  12. Competition analysis on the operating system market using principal component analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brătucu, G.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Operating system market has evolved greatly. The largest software producer in the world, Microsoft, dominates the operating systems segment. With three operating systems: Windows XP, Windows Vista and Windows 7 the company held a market share of 87.54% in January 2011. Over time, open source operating systems have begun to penetrate the market very strongly affecting other manufacturers. Companies such as Apple Inc. and Google Inc. penetrated the operating system market. This paper aims to compare the best-selling operating systems on the market in terms of defining characteristics. To this purpose the principal components analysis method was used.

  13. Terry Turbopump Expanded Operating Band Full-Scale Component and Basic Science Detailed Test Plan - Final.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, Douglas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Solom, Matthew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This document details the milestone approach to define the true operating limitations (margins) of the Terry turbopump systems used in the nuclear industry for Milestone 3 (full-scale component experiments) and Milestone 4 (Terry turbopump basic science experiments) efforts. The overall multinational-sponsored program creates the technical basis to: (1) reduce and defer additional utility costs, (2) simplify plant operations, and (3) provide a better understanding of the true margin which could reduce overall risk of operations.

  14. The components of shoulder and elbow movements as goals of primary reconstructive operation in obstetric brachial plexus lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luszawski, Jerzy; Marcol, Wiesław; Mandera, Marek

    Most of the cases of obstetric brachial plexus lesions (OBPL) show satisfactory improvement with conservative management, but in about 25% some surgical treatment is indicated. The present paper analyzes the effects of primary reconstructive surgeries in aspect of achieving delineated intraoperatively goals. Children operated before the age of 18 months with follow-up period longer than 1 year were selected. Therapeutic goals established during the operation were identified by analysis of initial clinical status and operative protocols. The elementary movement components in shoulder and elbow joints were classified by assessing range of motion, score in Active Movement Scale and modified British Medical Research Council scale of muscle strength. The effect was considered satisfactory when some antigravity movement was possible, and good when strength exceeded M3 or antigravity movement exceeded half of range of passive movement. In 13 of 19 patients most of established goals were achieved at good level, in 2 at satisfactory level. Remaining 4 patients showed improvement only in some aspects of extremity function. In 2 patients improvement in some movements was accompanied by worsening of other movements. The analysis of results separated into individual components of movements showed that goals were achieved in most of the cases, simultaneously clearly indicating which damaged structures failed to provide satisfactory function despite being addressed intraoperatively. The good results were obtained mainly by regeneration through grafts implanted after resection of neuroma in continuity, which proves that this technique is safe in spite of unavoidable temporary regression of function postoperatively. Copyright © 2017 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  15. Failure rate evaluation for different components operating in sodium, based on operating experience of the RAPSODIE and the PHENIX reactors and the test loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisseau, J.; Dorey, J.; Hedin, F.; Le Floch, C.

    1982-01-01

    The failure rates of the following components, valves operating in sodium, mechanical and electromagnetic pumps, and heat exchangers including intermediate heat exchangers, cold traps, steam generators, are evaluated by analysing the main incidents which occurred on these components. Therefore, this paper contains an evaluation of the operating experience of components working in sodium and of the reliability of these components

  16. Thermal loads on tokamak plasma-facing components during normal operation and disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, R.T.

    1990-01-01

    Power loadings experienced by tokamak plasma-facing components during normal operation and during off-normal events are discussed. A model for power and particle flow in the tokamak boundary layer is presented and model predictions are compared to infrared measurements of component heating. The inclusion of the full three-dimensional geometry of the components and of the magnetic flux surface is very important in the modeling. Experimental measurements show that misalignment of component armour tile surfaces by only a millimeter can lead to significant localized heating. An application to the design of plasma-facing components for future machines is presented. Finally, thermal loads expected during tokamak disruptions are discussed. The primary problems are surface melting and vaporization due to localized intense heating during the disruption thermal quench and volumetric heating of the component armour and structure due to localised impact of runaway electrons. (author)

  17. Industrial based volume manufacturing of lightweight aluminium alloy panel components with high-strength and complex-shape for car body and chassis structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyasodor, Gerald; Koroschetz, Christian

    2017-09-01

    To achieve the high volume manufacture of lightweight passenger cars at economic cost as required in the automotive industry, low density materials and new process route will be needed. While high strength aluminium alloy grades: AA7075 and AA6082 may provide the alternative material solution, hot stamping process used for high-strength and ultrahigh strength steels such as boron steel 22mnb5 can enable the volume manufacture of panel components with high-strength and complex-shape for car body and chassis structures. These aluminium alloy grades can be used to manufacture panel components with possible yield strengths ≥ 500 MPa. Due to the differences in material behaviors, hot stamping process of 22mnb5 cannot be directly applied to high strength aluminium alloy grades. Despite recorded successes in laboratories, researches and niche hot forming processes of high strength aluminium alloy grades, not much have been achieved for adequate and efficient volume manufacturing system applicable in the automotive industry. Due to lack of such system and based on expert knowledge in hot stamping production-line, AP&T presents in this paper a hot stamping processing route for high strength aluminium alloys been suitable for production-line development and volume manufacturing.

  18. Mechanical strength parameters of cast iron with lamellar graphite and their significance for the design of pressure-carrying reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janakiev, N.

    1977-01-01

    The tensile strength of thick-walled components in cast iron with lamellar graphite is lower by about 50 to 65% than that stated in DIN 1691. The usable compressive strength of this material under uni-axial load is about twice as high as its tensile strength. The graphite lamellae are not bonded into the metallic matrix. The width of the gaps between the graphite lamellae and the matrix increases with increasing wall thickness of the casting. In stress calculations for design purposes it is advisable to rely only on the permissible tensile stresses. It is shown that cast iron can be used as structural material for shieldings but is unsuitable for thick-walled reactor components carrying compressive and tensile stresses because its mechanical strength parameters decrease rapidly with increasing wall thickness. (orig.) [de

  19. Proof of fatigue strength of nuclear components part II: Numerical fatigue analysis for transient stratification loading considering environmental effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krätschmer, D.; Roos, E.; Schuler, X.; Herter, K.-H.

    2012-01-01

    For the construction, design and operation of nuclear components and systems the appropriate technical codes and standards provide detailed analysis procedures which guarantee a reliable behaviour of the structural components throughout the specified lifetime. Especially for cyclic stress evaluation the different codes and standards provide different fatigue analyses procedures to be performed considering the various mechanical and thermal loading histories and geometric complexities of the components. To consider effects of light water reactor coolant environments, new design curves included in report NUREG/CR-6909 for austenitic stainless steels and for low alloy steels have been presented. For the usage of these new design curves an environmental fatigue correction factor for incorporating environmental effects has to be calculated and used. The application of this environmental correction factor to a fatigue analysis of a nozzle with transient stratification loads, derived by in-service monitoring, has been performed. The results are used to compare with calculated usage factors, based on design curves without taking environmental effects particularly into account. - Highlights: ► We model an nozzle for fatigue analysis und mechanical and thermal loading conditions. ► A simplified as well as a general elastic–plastic fatigue analysis considering environmental effects is performed. ► The influence of different factors calculating the environmental factor F en are shown. ► The presented numerical evaluation methodology allows the consideration of all relevant parameters to assess lifetime.

  20. Influence of Heat-Treatment on the Adhesive Strength between a Micro-Sized Bonded Component and a Silicon Substrate under Bend and Shear Loading Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiyama, Chiemi

    2012-01-01

    Adhesive bend and shear tests of micro-sized bonded component have been performed to clarify the relationship between effects of heat-treatment on the adhesive strength and the bonded specimen shape using Weibull analysis. Multiple micro-sized SU-8 columns with four different diameters were fabricated on a Si substrate under the same fabrication condition. Heat-treatment can improve both of the adhesive bend and shear strength. The improvement rate of the adhesive shear strength is much larger than that of the adhesive bend strength, because the residual stress, which must change by heat-treatment, should effect more strongly on the shear loading. In case of bend type test, the adhesive bend strength in the smaller diameters (50 and 75 μm) widely vary, because the critical size of the natural defect (micro-crack) should vary more widely in the smaller diameters. In contrast, in case of shear type test, the adhesive shear strengths in each diameter of the columns little vary. This suggests that the size of the natural defects may not strongly influence on the adhesive shear strength. All the result suggests that both of the adhesive bend and shear strengths should be complicatedly affected by heat-treatment and the bonded columnar diameter

  1. The Effects of an Abolishing Operation Intervention Component on Play Skills, Challenging Behavior, and Stereotypy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Russell; O'Reilly, Mark; Sigafoos, Jeff; Machalicek, Wendy; Rispoli, Mandy; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Aguilar, Jeannie; Fragale, Christina

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to reduce stereotypy and challenging behavior during play skills instruction by adding an abolishing operation component (AOC) to the intervention strategy. An alternating treatments design compared one condition in which participants were allowed to engage in stereotypy freely before beginning the play skills…

  2. English as a Second Language for Automotive Component Parts Line Operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Carol

    This document is one of a series of student workbooks developed for workplace skill development courses or workshops by Mercer County Community College (New Jersey) and its partners. Designed to improve the English speaking and reading skills of non-English-speaking automotive component parts line operators, the course covers oral, written,…

  3. Modeling strength loss in wood by chemical composition. Part I, An individual component model for southern pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. E. Winandy; P. K. Lebow

    2001-01-01

    In this study, we develop models for predicting loss in bending strength of clear, straight-grained pine from changes in chemical composition. Although significant work needs to be done before truly universal predictive models are developed, a quantitative fundamental relationship between changes in chemical composition and strength loss for pine was demonstrated. In...

  4. Investigation of component failure rates for pulsed versus steady state tokamak operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1992-07-01

    This report presents component failure rate data sources applicable to magnetic fusion systems, and defines multiplicative factors to adjust these data for specific use on magnetic fusion experiment designs. The multipliers address both long pulse and steady state tokamak operation. Thermal fatigue and radiation damage are among the leading reasons for large multiplier values in pulsed operation applications. Field failure rate values for graphite protective tiles are presented, and beryllium tile failure rates in laboratory testing are also given. All of these data can be used for reliability studies, safety analyses, design tradeoff studies, and risk assessments

  5. Integrity operation of NPP-components - skills and tools to maintain competence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, H.

    2003-01-01

    For pressurised components there is a long tradition in all industrialised countries to specify requirements for the design, manufacturing and operation of pressurised equipment. Over the last 5 decades more and more of good industrial practice have been codified in detailed codes and standards which in itself represent a valuable resource regarding the characterisation of the state of the art. Many components being operated today have been manufactured to codes and standards which were less prescriptive at the time of manufacturing. It is a considerable challenge to manage the knowledge transfer necessary for updated safety analysis or root cause analysis in case of defect assessment. There are a number of helpful tools, which have been generated to support the knowledge transfer. Some of these tools and other aspects like professional training and necessary skills to cope with the gaining of knowledge are presented. In detail, the following topics are discussed: data supply, training and retraining, experts networks, and verification chains. (author)

  6. Strength and Reliability of Wood for the Components of Low-cost Wind Turbines: Computational and Experimental Analysis and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon; Freere, Peter; Sharma, Ranjan

    2009-01-01

    of experiments and computational investigations. Low cost testing machines have been designed, and employed for the systematic analysis of different sorts of Nepali wood, to be used for the wind turbine construction. At the same time, computational micromechanical models of deformation and strength of wood......This paper reports the latest results of the comprehensive program of experimental and computational analysis of strength and reliability of wooden parts of low cost wind turbines. The possibilities of prediction of strength and reliability of different types of wood are studied in the series...... are developed, which should provide the basis for microstructure-based correlating of observable and service properties of wood. Some correlations between microstructure, strength and service properties of wood have been established....

  7. Operational Maneuver from the Sea and Amphibious Command Relationships: Is It time for a Joint Force Amphibious Component Commander?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bennett, Michael

    2004-01-01

    .... In a joint community that is becoming increasingly dependant on the use of functional component commanders in the execution of major operations, the need for a Joint Force Amphibious Component Commander (JFAMCC...

  8. Operating experiences with passive systems and components in German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqua, M.

    1996-01-01

    Operating experience with passive systems and components is limited to the equipment installed in existing NPPs. In German power plants, this experience is available for equipment of the IAEA categories A, C and D. The presentation is focused on typical examples out of these three categories. An overview is given on the number of reported events and typical failure modes. Selected failures are discussed in detail. 1 ref., 6 figs, 7 tabs

  9. Operation of the multigap resistive plate chamber using a gas mixture free of flammable components

    CERN Document Server

    Akindinov, A; Antonioli, P; Arcelli, S; Basile, M; Cara Romeo, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; De Caro, A; De Pasquale, S; Di Bartolomeo, A; Fusco-Girard, M; Golovine, V; Guida, M; Hatzifotiadou, D; Kaidalov, A B; Kim, D H; Kim, D W; Kisselev, S M; Laurenti, G; Lee, K; Lee, S C; Lioublev, E; Luvisetto, M L; Margotti, A; Martemyanov, A N; Nania, R; Noferini, F; Otiougova, P; Pesci, A; Pinazza, O; Polozov, P A; Scapparone, E; Scioli, G; Sellitto, S B; Semeria, F; Smirnitsky, A V; Tchoumakov, M M; Usenko, E; Valenti, G; Voloshin, K G; Williams, M C S; Zagreev, B V; Zampolli, C; Zichichi, A

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated the operation of the multigap resistive plate chamber (MRPC) for the ALICE-TOF system with a gas mixture free of flammable components. Two different gas mixtures, with and without iso-C//4H//1//0 have been used to measure the performance of the MRPC. The efficiency, time resolution, total charge, and the fast to total charge ratio have been found to be comparable.

  10. Operating experiences with passive systems and components in German nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maqua, M [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Koeln (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    Operating experience with passive systems and components is limited to the equipment installed in existing NPPs. In German power plants, this experience is available for equipment of the IAEA categories A, C and D. The presentation is focused on typical examples out of these three categories. An overview is given on the number of reported events and typical failure modes. Selected failures are discussed in detail. 1 ref., 6 figs, 7 tabs.

  11. Experience on sodium removal from FBTR components in its operating phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jambunathan, D.; Rao, M.S.; Krishnamachari, V.S.; Kasiviswanathan, K.V.; Rajan, M.

    1997-01-01

    FBTR is a 40 MWt/13 MWe loop type, sodium cooled mixed carbide fuelled reactor. There are two primary loops, two secondary loops and a common steam-water circuit. Criticality was achieved in 1985 and during the course of the 10 years of operation phase experience has been gained on the decontamination of certain core components, primary sodium pumps, CRDM parts, handling components and cold traps. This paper deals with the decontamination aspects of these components in detail. For core subassemblies a remote sodium cleaning system was provided in the hot cell. The unique feature of this system is that it pumps alcohol into wash chamber using compressed nitrogen. During cleaning, the sub assembly is loaded into the system using master slave manipulator and compressed nitrogen gas is used to pump alcohol into the system for cleaning the outer and inner surfaces of the sub assembly in cycles. Each cycle takes about 15 minutes and around 5 to 6 cycles of cleaning were employed to remove 100 g of sodium. The level of alcohol in the tank is measured by ultrasonic level probes. The used alcohol is pumped to medium active waste storage tank. Primary and secondary sodium pumps are the large components which were cleaned off sodium using steam and water in decontamination pit. Lower part of CRDM with a failed bellow was another component cleaned in decontamination pit. An electro decontamination technique was successfully developed to remove coloration on the lower part of CRDM for reuse. A stainless steel carrier with antimony capsule was the first radio active component to undergo sodium cleaning operation in decontamination pit meant for large primary sodium circuit components after making necessary modifications. Decontamination of other components such as fingers of grippers and scrapper rings of charging and discharging flasks was carried out with alcohol under inert atmosphere. The secondary loop cold trap was successfully cleaned by hydride decomposition and vacuum

  12. A multi-component Zr alloy with comparable strength and Higher plasticity than Zr-based bulk metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, S.X.; Yin, L.X.; Ma, M.Z.; Jing, R.; Yu, P.F.; Zhang, Y.F.; Wang, B.A.; Liu, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    Zirconium (Zr)-based bulk metallic glass possesses the highest potential as a structural material among metallic glasses. Although Zr-based bulk metallic glass exhibits extremely high strength, its potential application has been restricted by a number of issues, such as fragility, small size, difficult fabrication into different shapes and poisonous beryllium content, among others. In this paper, a Zr-based crystal alloy with comparable strength and higher plasticity than Zr-based bulk metallic glass is presented. The proposed Zr-based alloy has a tensile strength greater than 1600 MPa. That value is comparable to the 1500 MPa to 2000 MPa strength of Zr-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs). The ductility in terms of elongation reached 6.2%; at the same time, the 1400 MPa tensile strength was retained. This phenomenon is not possible for Zr-based BMGs. XRD results show that the proposed ultrahigh-strength Zr-based crystal alloy has two-phase structures: an hcp-structured α phase and a bcc-structured β phase. The forged specimen exhibits a typical basket-weave microstructure, which is characterised by the interlaced plate α phase separated from the β phase matrix. Fine, short bar-shaped α phases precipitated along the original β grain boundary together with ultrafine dot-shaped α phases that presented inside the original β grain when the ageing temperature was between 500 °C and 525 °C. As the ageing temperature increased, the dot-shaped α phase grew into plate shapes, decreasing the material's strength and increasing its plasticity. The ultrafine dot-shaped and short bar-shaped α phases in the original β phase matrix are the main strengthening mechanisms of the ultrahigh-strength Zr-based crystal alloy.

  13. Intra-operative digital imaging: assuring the alignment of components when undertaking total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambright, D; Hellman, M; Barrack, R

    2018-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the rate at which the positioning of the acetabular component, leg length discrepancy and femoral offset are outside an acceptable range in total hip arthroplasties (THAs) which either do or do not involve the use of intra-operative digital imaging. A retrospective case-control study was undertaken with 50 patients before and 50 patients after the integration of an intra-operative digital imaging system in THA. The demographics of the two groups were comparable for body mass index, age, laterality and the indication for surgery. The digital imaging group had more men than the group without. Surgical data and radiographic parameters, including the inclination and anteversion of the acetabular component, leg length discrepancy, and the difference in femoral offset compared with the contralateral hip were collected and compared, as well as the incidence of altering the position of a component based on the intra-operative image. Digital imaging took a mean of five minutes (2.3 to 14.6) to perform. Intra-operative changes with the use of digital imaging were made for 43 patients (86%), most commonly to adjust leg length and femoral offset. There was a decrease in the incidence of outliers when using intra-operative imaging compared with not using it in regard to leg length discrepancy (20% versus 52%, p = 0.001) and femoral offset inequality (18% versus 44%, p = 0.004). There was also a difference in the incidence of outliers in acetabular inclination (0% versus 7%, p = 0.023) and version (0% versus 4%, p = 0.114) compared with historical results of a high-volume surgeon at the same centre. The use of intra-operative digital imaging in THA improves the accuracy of the positioning of the components at THA without adding a substantial amount of time to the operation. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100B(1 Supple A):36-43. ©2018 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  14. The Component Operational Experience Degradation and Ageing Program (CODAP). Review and lessons learned (2011-2014)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragea, Tudor; Riznic, Jovica R.

    2015-01-01

    The structural integrity of piping systems is crucial to continuous and safe operation of nuclear power plants. Across all designs, the pressure boundary and its related piping and components, form one of the many levels of defense in the continuous and safe operation of a nuclear power plant. It is therefore necessary to identify, understand, evaluate and catalogue all of the various degradation mechanisms and failures that affect various piping systems and components across all nuclear power plants (NPP's). This need was first recognized in 1994 by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) which launched a five-year Research and Development (R and D) project to explore the viability of creating an international pipe failure database (SKI-PIPE) (Riznic, 2007). The project was considered to be very successful and in 2002, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Pipe Failure Data Exchange (OPDE) was created. OPDE was operated under the umbrella of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and was created in order to produce an international database on the piping service experience applicable to commercial nuclear power plants. After the successful completion of OPDE, the OECD, as well as other international members, agreed to participate in OPDE's successor: the Component Operational Experience Degradation and Ageing Program (CODAP). The objective of CODAP is to collect information on all possible events related to the failure and degradation of passive metallic components in NPP's. With CODAP winding down to the completion of its first phase in December 2014, this report will focus on the conclusions and the lessons learned throughout the many years of CODAP's implementation. There are currently 14 countries participating in CODAP, many of whom are industry leaders (France, Canada, U.S.A., Germany, Japan, Korea etc.). This cooperation on an international scale provides a library of OPerational EXperience (OPEX) for all participating NPP

  15. Experimental determination of drift and PM10 cooling tower emissions: Influence of components and operating conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, J; Kaiser, A S; Lucas, M

    2017-11-01

    Cooling tower emissions have become an increasingly common hazard to the environment (air polluting, ice formation and salts deposition) and to the health (Legionella disease) in the last decades. Several environmental policies have emerged in recent years limiting cooling tower emissions but they have not prevented an increasing intensity of outbreaks. Since the level of emissions depends mainly on cooling tower component design and the operating conditions, this paper deals with an experimental investigation of the amount of emissions, drift and PM 10 , emitted by a cooling tower with different configurations (drift eliminators and distribution systems) and working under several operating conditions. This objective is met by the measurement of cooling tower source emission parameters by means of the sensitive paper technique. Secondary objectives were to contextualize the observed emission rates according to international regulations. Our measurements showed that the drift rates included in the relevant international standards are significantly higher than the obtained results (an average of 100 times higher) and hence, the environmental problems may occur. Therefore, a revision of the standards is recommended with the aim of reducing the environmental and human health impact. By changing the operating conditions and the distribution system, emissions can be reduced by 52.03% and 82% on average. In the case of drift eliminators, the difference ranges from 18.18% to 98.43% on average. As the emissions level is clearly influenced by operating conditions and components, regulation tests should be referred to default conditions. Finally, guidelines to perform emission tests and a selection criterion of components and conditions for the tested cooling tower are proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Inflorescence Stem Structure and Cell Wall Components on the Mechanical Strength of Inflorescence Stem in Herbaceous Peony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingping Geng

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall. is a traditional famous flower, but its poor inflorescence stem quality seriously constrains the development of the cut flower. Mechanical strength is an important characteristic of stems, which not only affects plant lodging, but also plays an important role in stem bend or break. In this paper, the mechanical strength, morphological indices and microstructure of P. lactiflora development inflorescence stems were measured and observed. The results showed that the mechanical strength of inflorescence stems gradually increased, and that the diameter of inflorescence stem was a direct indicator in estimating mechanical strength. Simultaneously, with the development of inflorescence stem, the number of vascular bundles increased, the vascular bundle was arranged more densely, the sclerenchyma cell wall thickened, and the proportion of vascular bundle and pith also increased. On this basis, cellulose and lignin contents were determined, PlCesA3, PlCesA6 and PlCCoAOMT were isolated and their expression patterns were examined including PlPAL. The results showed that cellulose was not strictly correlated with the mechanical strength of inflorescence stem, and lignin had a significant impact on it. In addition, PlCesA3 and PlCesA6 were not key members in cellulose synthesis of P. lactiflora and their functions were also different, but PlPAL and PlCCoAOMT regulated the lignin synthesis of P. lactiflora. These data indicated that PlPAL and PlCCoAOMT could be applied to improve the mechanical strength of P. lactiflora inflorescence stem in genetic engineering.

  17. Calculating the Insulated Car Roof Opening System Components and Strength Analysis of Car Design in Its Various Embodiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Kopytov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Opening roof cars can be used in transportation of a diversity of goods that require weather protection. Their operation allows us to fulfill the tasks of the Ministry of Railways that is to ensure both the qualitative and lossless transportation of various national economy and special loads and the significant improvement in the technical and economic indexes of the industry. Thus, there are three embodiment options of the opening roofs: single-leaf roof with axial of rotation along one car side; double-leaf roof with axial of rotation of its flaps along both car sides; single-leaf roof with axial of rotation along the car end wall. The work analyses and compares the first two options of the opening systems of the car roof. Analysis of various schemes of opening the roof-insulated cars is based on kinematic and force calculations. The paper defines how the changing length of hydraulic cylinders depends on the stroke and on the arm of applied force, depending on the opening roof angle for various embodiment options. To find the forces acting on the cylinders were determined the forces acting on the roof and the total applied moment of all the forces acting on them with respect to the axial of rotation. Thus, the total applied moment was considered to comprise the weighting unbalance moments of the roof and snow on it, as well as a moment of the force of wind acting on the roof (dead wind or downwind. Upon finding how the changing total moment of the force applied to the roof depends on the rotation angle and on the change of the applied force arm of hydraulic cylinders, the work determines the forces acting on the cylinders. The maximum tensile and compression force acting on the cylinders allows us to define their geometric characteristics such as piston stroke, diameter of the rod, piston-and rod-working cavity. Using a software package SADAS (developed at the Department "Rocket Launching Complexes" in BMSTU the core models were built and

  18. Limitations of the inspection and testing concepts for pressurised components from the viewpoint of operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, H.

    2001-01-01

    The role of in-service inspection and testing is to contribute to a safe and reliable operation of systems, structures and components. It is therefore the objective of inspections and tests to identify malfunctions and degradations at a stage early enough to avoid detrimental impacts on safety as well as on the reliability of the plant. Taking mostly the pressure boundary of German light-water reactors as an example, it is the intention of this paper to analyse how successful present inspection and testing requirements are and to discuss limitations. Based on a review of the world-wide operating experience the following questions of a more generic nature are addressed: - Are the relevant damage mechanisms being addressed in our codes and standards? - What are the criteria to develop a representative scope of inspection? - How to maintain a sufficient level of information for a decreasing number of nuclear power plants in operation? It can be concluded that the revision of codes and standards according to lessons learned from operating experience remains as an ongoing process. Furthermore, the criteria applied to derive a representative scope of inspection need to be addressed in more detail, specifically with respect to corrosion. The continuous evaluation of operating experience of a large number of plants is the most valuable source to identify beginning degradations. (author)

  19. Development of high thermal flux components for continuous operation in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, J.; Chappuis, P.; Coston, J.F.; Deschamps, P.; Lipa, M.

    1991-01-01

    High heat flux plasma facing components are under development and appropriate experimental evaluations have been carried out in order to operate during cycles of several hundred seconds. In Tore Supra, a large tokamak with a plasma nominal duration in excess of 30 seconds, solutions are tested that could be later applied to the NET/ITER tokamak, where peaked heat flux values of 15 MW/m 2 on the divertor plates are foreseen. The proposed concept is a swirl square tube design protected with brazed CFC flat tiles. Development programs and validation tests are presented. The tests results are compared with calculations

  20. On risk-based operation and maintenance of offshore wind turbine components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie Jessen; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    Operation and maintenance are significant contributors to the cost of energy for offshore wind turbines. Optimal planning could rationally be based on Bayesian pre-posterior decision theory, and all costs through the lifetime of the structures should be included. This paper contains a study...... of a generic case where the costs are evaluated for a single wind turbine with a single component. Costs due to inspections, repairs, and lost production are included in the model. The costs are compared for two distinct maintenance strategies, namely with and without inclusion of periodic imperfect...

  1. Thermal-structural response of EBR-II major components under reactor operational transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, L.K.; Lee, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Until recently, the LMFBR safety research has been focused primarily on severe but highly unlikely accident, such as hypothetical-core-disruptive accidents (HCDA's), and not enough attention has been given to accident prevention, which is less severe but more likely sequence. The objective of the EBR-II operational reliability testing (ORT) is to demonstrate that the reactor can be designed and operated to prevent accident. A series of mild duty cycles and overpower transients were designed for accident prevention tests. An assessment of the EBR-II major plant components has been performed to assure structural integrity of the reactor plant for the ORT program. In this paper, the thermal-structural response and structural evaluation of the reactor vessel, the reactor-vessel cover, the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) and the superheater are presented

  2. Vibration energy harvesting based on integrated piezoelectric components operating in different modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junhui; Jong, Januar; Zhao, Chunsheng

    2010-01-01

    To increase the vibration energy-harvesting capability of the piezoelectric generator based on a cantilever beam, we have proposed a piezoelectric generator that not only uses the strain change of piezoelectric components bonded on a cantilever beam, but also employs the weights at the tip of the cantilever beam to hit piezoelectric components located on the 2 sides of weights. A prototype of the piezoelectric generator has been fabricated and its characteristics have been measured and analyzed. The experimental results show that the piezoelectric components operating in the hit mode can substantially enhance the energy harvesting of the piezoelectric generator on a cantilever beam. Two methods are used and compared in the management of rectified output voltages from different groups of piezoelectric components. In one of them, the DC voltages from rectifiers are connected in series, and then the total DC voltage is applied to a capacitor. In another connection, the DC voltage from each group is applied to different capacitors. It is found that 22.3% of the harvested energy is wasted due to the series connection. The total output electric energy of our piezoelectric generator at nonresonance could be up to 43 nJ for one vibration excitation applied by spring, with initial vibration amplitude (0-p) of 18 mm and frequency of 18.5 Hz, when the rectified voltages from different groups of piezoelectric components are connected to their individual capacitors. In addition, the motion and impact of the weights at the tip of the cantilever beam are theoretically analyzed, which well explains the experimental phenomena and suggests the measures to improve the generator.

  3. High-Z plasma facing components in fusion devices: boundary conditions and operational experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neu, R.

    2006-04-01

    In present day fusion devices optimization of the performance and experimental freedom motivates the use of low-Z plasma facing materials (PFMs). However, in a future fusion reactor, for economic reasons, a sufficient lifetime of the first wall components is essential. Additionally, tritium retention has to be small to meet safety requirements. Tungsten appears to be the most realistic material choice for reactor plasma facing components (PFCs) because it exhibits the lowest erosion. But besides this there are a lot of criteria which have to be fulfilled simultaneously in a reactor. Results from present day devices and from laboratory experiments confirm the advantages of high-Z PFMs but also point to operational restrictions, when using them as PFCs. These are associated with the central impurity concentration, which is determined by the sputtering yield, the penetration of the impurities and their transport within the confined plasma. The restrictions could exclude successful operation of a reactor, but concomitantly there exist remedies to ameliorate their impact. Obviously some price has to be paid in terms of reduced performance but lacking of materials or concepts which could substitute high-Z PFCs, emphasis has to be put on the development and optimization of reactor-relevant scenarios which incorporate the experiences and measures.

  4. High-Z plasma facing components in fusion devices: boundary conditions and operational experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neu, R.

    2006-01-01

    In present day fusion devices optimization of the performance and experimental freedom motivates the use of low-Z plasma facing materials (PFMs). However, in a future fusion reactor, for economic reasons, a sufficient lifetime of the first wall components is essential. Additionally, tritium retention has to be small to meet safety requirements. Tungsten appears to be the most realistic material choice for reactor plasma facing components (PFCs) because it exhibits the lowest erosion. But besides this there are a lot of criteria which have to be fulfilled simultaneously in a reactor. Results from present day devices and from laboratory experiments confirm the advantages of high-Z PFMs but also point to operational restrictions, when using them as PFCs. These are associated with the central impurity concentration, which is determined by the sputtering yield, the penetration of the impurities and their transport within the confined plasma. The restrictions could exclude successful operation of a reactor, but concomitantly there exist remedies to ameliorate their impact. Obviously some price has to be paid in terms of reduced performance but lacking of materials or concepts which could substitute high-Z PFCs, emphasis has to be put on the development and optimization of reactor-relevant scenarios which incorporate the experiences and measures

  5. 21 CFR 111.120 - What quality control operations are required for components, packaging, and labels before use in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What quality control operations are required for..., OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control System: Requirements for Quality Control § 111.120 What quality control operations are required for components, packaging, and...

  6. On the continuous spectral component of the Floquet operator for a periodically kicked quantum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCaw, James; McKellar, B.H.J.

    2005-01-01

    By a straightforward generalization, we extend the work of Combescure [J. Stat. Phys. 59, 679 (1990)] from rank-1 to rank-N perturbations. The requirement for the Floquet operator to be pure point is established and compared to that in Combescure. The result matches that in McCaw and McKeller [J. Math. Phys. 46, 032108 (2005)]. The method here is an alternative to that work. We show that if the condition for the Floquet operator to be pure point is relaxed, then in the case of the δ-kicked Harmonic oscillator, a singularly continuous component of the Floquet operator spectrum exists. We also provide an in-depth discussion of the conjecture presented in the work of Combescure of the case where the unperturbed Hamiltonian is more general. We link the physics conjecture directly to a number-theoretic conjecture of Vinogradov [The Method of Trigonometrical Sums in the Theory of Numbers (Interscience, London, 1954)] and show that a solution of Vinogradov's conjecture solves the physics conjecture. The result is extended to the rank-N case. The relationship between our work and the work of Bourget [J. Math. Anal. Appl. 276, 28 (2002); 301, 65 (2005)], on the physics conjecture is discussed

  7. Safety significance of component ageing, exemplary for MOV, based on French and German operating experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morlent, O. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire; Michel, F. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Garching (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    An outline is given of how IPSN and GRS assess the effects of physical ageing on the safety of French and German Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) on the basis of the available knowledge and how investigations are carried out. The presentation is focused exemplary on a preliminary study illustrating approaches for the evaluation of the ageing behaviour of active components, the motor-operated valves (MOV). The results so far seems to demonstrate that the developed methodological approaches are suitable to obtain qualitative evidence with regard to the ageing behaviour of technical facilities such as MOV. The evaluation of the operating experience with French 900 MWe plants seems to reveal, for MOV of one system, a trend similar to some international findings about ageing-related events with increasing operating time; this trend will have to be confirmed. For the German NPPs so far, there appears to be no significant increase of ageing-related events concerning MOV as the plants get older. Future work on ageing scheduled at IPSN and GRS includes further cooperation on this issue, too; a deep analysis is necessary to explain the reasons of such apparent differences before any conclusion. (authors)

  8. Safety significance of component ageing, exemplary for MOV, based on French and German operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morlent, O.

    2001-01-01

    An outline is given of how IPSN and GRS assess the effects of physical ageing on the safety of French and German Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) on the basis of the available knowledge and how investigations are carried out. The presentation is focused exemplary on a preliminary study illustrating approaches for the evaluation of the ageing behaviour of active components, the motor-operated valves (MOV). The results so far seems to demonstrate that the developed methodological approaches are suitable to obtain qualitative evidence with regard to the ageing behaviour of technical facilities such as MOV. The evaluation of the operating experience with French 900 MWe plants seems to reveal, for MOV of one system, a trend similar to some international findings about ageing-related events with increasing operating time; this trend will have to be confirmed. For the German NPPs so far, there appears to be no significant increase of ageing-related events concerning MOV as the plants get older. Future work on ageing scheduled at IPSN and GRS includes further cooperation on this issue, too; a deep analysis is necessary to explain the reasons of such apparent differences before any conclusion. (authors)

  9. An operational non destructive examination for ITER divertor plasma facing components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durocher, A.; Escourbiac, F.; Farjon, J.L.; Vignal, N.; Cismondi, F. [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Merola, M. [ITER International Team, Cadarache, 13 - St Paul Lez Durance (France); Riccardi, B. [CEFDA CSU-Garching, Garching bei Munchen (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: To meet the power exhaust - heat flux of 20 MW/m{sup 2} - requirements of Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) during plasma operation requires control of their thermal and mechanical integrity. As heat exhaust capability and lifetime of PFCs during in-situ operation are linked to the manufacturing quality, it is an absolute requirement to develop reliable nondestructive examination methods, in particular of the CFC-CuCrZr joint, throughout the manufacturing process. Within the framework of Tokamak Tore Supra upgrade, a pioneering activity has been developed to evaluate the capability of the PFC to be efficiently cooled. In 1998 a test bed - so called SATIR - based on the heat transient method was developed by the CEA and is used today as an inspection tool in order to guarantee the PFCs performances. The technical procurement plan of ITER Divertor targets stated that all Cu cast layers on CFC armour should be subjected to 100% thermographic examination. Each ITER Party should demonstrate its technical capability to carry out the PFC with the required cooling efficiently. The ITER Divertor PFCs pose new challenges especially for the mono-block CFC thickness, and the number of full scale units to be tested which is higher than on any existing or under construction fusion machine. The SATIR method as functional inspection has been identified as the basis test to decide upon the final acceptance of the Divertor PFCs. In order to increase the detection sensitivity of SATIR test bed, several possibilities have been assessed i) the increase of the convective heat transfer coefficient, which improved in a significant way the sensitivity of SATIR diagnostic on ITER components. ii) the installation of a digital infrared camera and the improvement of the thermal signal processing, has led to a considerable increase of performances iii) an innovative process based on spatial image autocorrelation will allow to localize the interlayer defect

  10. Building Combat Strength through Logistics: Translating the New Air Force Logistics Concept of Operations into Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-31

    wholesale logistics systems. Rapid reprogramming , priority distribution and repair of critical logistics resources, regional logistics control networks, and...between the id, the ego, and th- superego. Ideals impact conscious and subconscious thoughts and actions that influence our values and shape our conduct...exploited under peace and wartime conditions. Rapid and effective reprogramming actions in response to changing operational needs are the key to high

  11. On risk-based operation and maintenance of offshore wind turbine components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jessen Nielsen, Jannie; Dalsgaard Sorensen, John

    2011-01-01

    Operation and maintenance are significant contributors to the cost of energy for offshore wind turbines. Optimal planning could rationally be based on Bayesian pre-posterior decision theory, and all costs through the lifetime of the structures should be included. This paper contains a study of a generic case where the costs are evaluated for a single wind turbine with a single component. Costs due to inspections, repairs, and lost production are included in the model. The costs are compared for two distinct maintenance strategies, namely with and without inclusion of periodic imperfect inspections. Finally the influence of different important parameters, e.g. failure rate, reliability of inspections, inspection interval, and decision rule for repairs, is evaluated.

  12. Automated processing of whole blood units: operational value and in vitro quality of final blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Marisa; Algora, Manuel; Garcia-Sanchez, Félix; Vico, Santiago; Rodriguez, Eva; Perez, Sonia; Barbolla, Luz

    2012-01-01

    The Community Transfusion Centre in Madrid currently processes whole blood using a conventional procedure (Compomat, Fresenius) followed by automated processing of buffy coats with the OrbiSac system (CaridianBCT). The Atreus 3C system (CaridianBCT) automates the production of red blood cells, plasma and an interim platelet unit from a whole blood unit. Interim platelet unit are pooled to produce a transfusable platelet unit. In this study the Atreus 3C system was evaluated and compared to the routine method with regards to product quality and operational value. Over a 5-week period 810 whole blood units were processed using the Atreus 3C system. The attributes of the automated process were compared to those of the routine method by assessing productivity, space, equipment and staffing requirements. The data obtained were evaluated in order to estimate the impact of implementing the Atreus 3C system in the routine setting of the blood centre. Yield and in vitro quality of the final blood components processed with the two systems were evaluated and compared. The Atreus 3C system enabled higher throughput while requiring less space and employee time by decreasing the amount of equipment and processing time per unit of whole blood processed. Whole blood units processed on the Atreus 3C system gave a higher platelet yield, a similar amount of red blood cells and a smaller volume of plasma. These results support the conclusion that the Atreus 3C system produces blood components meeting quality requirements while providing a high operational efficiency. Implementation of the Atreus 3C system could result in a large organisational improvement.

  13. Large Cryogenic Infrastructure for LHC Superconducting Magnet and Cryogenic Component Tests: Layout, Commissioning and Operational Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calzas, C.; Chanat, D.; Knoops, S.; Sanmarti, M.; Serio, L.

    2004-01-01

    The largest cryogenic test facility at CERN, located at Zone 18, is used to validate and to test all main components working at cryogenic temperature in the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) before final installation in the machine tunnel. In total about 1300 main dipoles, 400 main quadrupoles, 5 RF-modules, eight 1.8 K refrigeration units will be tested in the coming years.The test facility has been improved and upgraded over the last few years and the first 18 kW refrigerator for the LHC machine has been added to boost the cryogenic capacity for the area via a 25,000 liter liquid helium dewar. The existing 6 kW refrigerator, used for the LHC Test String experiments, will also be employed to commission LHC cryogenic components.We report on the design and layout of the test facility as well as the commissioning and the first 10,000 hours operational experience of the test facility and the 18 kW LHC refrigerator

  14. Modelling and design of undercarriage components of large-scale earthmoving equipment in tar sand operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szymanski, J.; Frimpong, S.; Sobieski, R. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Centre for Advanced Energy and Minerals Research

    2004-07-01

    This presentation described the fundamental and applied research work which has been carried out at the University of Alberta's Centre for Advanced Energy and Minerals Research to improve the undercarriage elements of large scale earthmoving equipment used in oil sands mining operations. A new method has been developed to predict the optimum curvature and blade geometry of earth moving equipment such as bulldozers and motor graders. A mathematical relationship has been found to approximate the optimum blade shape for reducing cutting resistance and fill resistance. The equation is a function of blade geometry and soil properties. It is the first model that can mathematically optimize the shape of a blade on earth moving equipment. A significant saving in undercarriage components can be achieved from reducing the amount of cutting and filling resistance for this type of equipment working on different soils. A Sprocket Carrier Roller for a Tracked Vehicle was also invented to replace the conventional cylindrical carrier roller. The new sprocket type carrier roller offers greater support for the drive track and other components of the undercarriage assembly. A unique retaining pin assembly has also been designed to detach connecting disposable wear parts from earthmoving equipment. The retaining pin assembly is easy to assemble and disassemble and includes reusable parts. 13 figs.

  15. Strength calculation of NPP equipment and pipelines during operation. Low- and high-cycle corrosion fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filatov, V.M.; Evropin, S.V.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents empirical equations and design curves for structural steels employed in nuclear power facilities with light water reactors. These equations allow to take into account the effects of cycle asymmetry, water coolant and ductility decrease during operation. The fatigue curves cover the low-cycle and high-cycle regions (up to 10 12 cycles). The equations include the mechanical characteristics of steels under static tension. The coolant effect on steel fatigue is allowed for using a model developed at the Argonne National Laboratory

  16. Corrosion in PWR stainless steel components: a TSO perspective based on operating experience and expertises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curieres, I. de

    2015-01-01

    Stainless steels are used commonly in many circuits of a nuclear power plant. Particularly, they are the prime materials for the inside surface of the primary circuit. Their operating experience has been good, though a number of cases of degradations due to corrosion have been reported the last ten years. This number of events is increasing and many studies of damaged parts become available. Based on the operating experience and these studies, IRSN will provide its perspective on the safety-related issues associated with the corrosion of stainless steel components. It appears that today's knowledge is not sufficient to define relevant criteria or to determine the exact set of parameters which leads to SCC (Stress Corrosion Cracking) of stainless steels. As a consequence, the best strategy remains an inspection and repair/replacement one. Moreover many cases show the influence of pollutants in the SCC events. This emphasizes the fact that chemistry parameters are strongly connected to safety issues, with respect to the stainless steels integrity

  17. MILITARY PERSONNEL: Reserve Components Need Guidance to Accurately and Consistently Account for Volunteers on Active Duty for Operational Support

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stewart, Derek B

    2006-01-01

    The reserve components have not consistently or accurately identified the number of reservists serving in an operational support capacity since this monthly reporting requirement was adopted in fiscal year 2005...

  18. High strength semi-active energy absorbers using shear- and mixedmode operation at high shear rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becnel, Andrew C.

    This body of research expands the design space of semi-active energy absorbers for shock isolation and crash safety by investigating and characterizing magnetorheological fluids (MRFs) at high shear rates ( > 25,000 1/s) under shear and mixed-mode operation. Magnetorheological energy absorbers (MREAs) work well as adaptive isolators due to their ability to quickly and controllably adjust to changes in system mass or impact speed while providing fail-safe operation. However, typical linear stroking MREAs using pressure-driven flows have been shown to exhibit reduced controllability as impact speed (shear rate) increases. The objective of this work is to develop MREAs that improve controllability at high shear rates by using pure shear and mixed shear-squeeze modes of operation, and to present the fundamental theory and models of MR fluids under these conditions. A proof of concept instrument verified that the MR effect persists in shear mode devices at shear rates corresponding to low speed impacts. This instrument, a concentric cylinder Searle cell magnetorheometer, was then used to characterize three commercially available MRFs across a wide range of shear rates, applied magnetic fields, and temperatures. Characterization results are presented both as flow curves according to established practice, and as an alternate nondimensionalized analysis based on Mason number. The Mason number plots show that, with appropriate correction coefficients for operating temperature, the varied flow curve data can be collapsed to a single master curve. This work represents the first shear mode characterization of MRFs at shear rates over 10 times greater than available with commercial rheometers, as well as the first validation of Mason number analysis to high shear rate flows in MRFs. Using the results from the magnetorheometer, a full scale rotary vane MREA was developed as part of the Lightweight Magnetorheological Energy Absorber System (LMEAS) for an SH-60 Seahawk helicopter

  19. Design and operation results of nitrogen gas baking system for KSTAR plasma facing components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang-Tae [National Fusion Research Institute, 113 Gwahang-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young-Jin, E-mail: k43689@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, 113 Gwahang-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Joung, Nam-Yong; Im, Dong-Seok; Kim, Kang-Pyo; Kim, Kyung-Min; Bang, Eun-Nam; Kim, Yaung-Soo [National Fusion Research Institute, 113 Gwahang-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Seong-Yeon [Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Vacuum pressure in a vacuum vessel arrived at 7.24 × 10{sup −8} mbar. • PFC temperature was reached maximum 250 °C by gas temperature at 300 °C. • PFC inlet gas temperature was changed 5 °C per hour during rising and falling. • PFC gas balancing was made temperature difference among them below 8.3 °C. • System has a pre-cooler and a three-way valve to save operation energy. -- Abstract: A baking system for the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) plasma facing components (PFCs) is designed and operated to achieve vacuum pressure below 5 × 10{sup −7} mbar in vacuum vessel with removing impurities. The purpose of this research is to prevent the fracture of PFC because of thermal stress during baking the PFC, and to accomplish stable operation of the baking system with the minimum life cycle cost. The uniformity of PFC temperature in each sector was investigated, when the supply gas temperature was varied by 5 °C per hour using a heater and the three-way valve at the outlet of a compressor. The alternative of the pipe expansion owing to hot gas and the cage configuration of the three-way valve were also studied. During the fourth campaign of the KSTAR in 2011, nitrogen gas temperature rose up to 300 °C, PFC temperature reached at 250 °C, the temperature difference among PFCs was maintained at below 8.3 °C, and vacuum pressure of up to 7.24 × 10{sup −8} mbar was achieved inside the vacuum vessel.

  20. Operating Experience of Digital, Software-based Components Used in I and C and Electrical Systems in German NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, Stefanie; Lochthofen, Andre; Quester, Claudia; Arians, Robert

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, many components in instrumentation and control (I and C) and electrical systems of nuclear power plants (NPPs) were replaced by digital, software-based components. Due to the more complex structure, software-based I and C and electrical components show the potential for new failure mechanisms and an increasing number of failure possibilities, including the potential for common cause failures. An evaluation of the operating experience of digital, software-based components may help to determine new failure modes of these components. In this paper, we give an overview over the results of the evaluation of the operating experience of digital, software-based components used in I and C and electrical systems in NPPs in Germany. (authors)

  1. Post-operative rotator cuff integrity, based on Sugaya's classification, can reflect abduction muscle strength of the shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Masahito; Collin, Phillipe; Josseaume, Thierry; Lädermann, Alexandre; Goto, Hideyuki; Sugimoto, Katumasa; Otsuka, Takanobu

    2018-01-01

    [ICC (2.1) = 0.39 and 0.49]. Although no significant correlation was found between overall post-operative constant score and Sugaya's classification, Sugaya's classification indicated significant correlation with the muscle strength score. Sugaya's classification showed repeatability and good agreement between the orthopaedist and radiologist, who are involved in the patient care for the rotator cuff tear. Common classification of rotator cuff integrity with good reliability will give appropriate information for clinicians to improve the patient care of the rotator cuff tear. This classification also would be helpful to predict the strength of arm abduction in the scapular plane. IV.

  2. Making the Most of the Operating Experience Feedback: Design of a Computerized Data Base Related to NPP Component Behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degrave, C.; Martin-Onraet, M.

    1998-01-01

    Electricite de France carries out several analyses on NPP component behavior every year. However, these analyses are conducted separately by specialists of only the kind of component and regardless of the time factor. Seven years ago, a working group from the Nuclear Operation Division completed a detailed examination of component behavior of the 50 NPP then in operation, over a ten-years period (from 1980 to 1990). These analyses have been centered on main components only. Today, another working group will integrate this operating experience in a computerized process to facilitate access to all the information contained in the data base. This system will be based on a site server allowing a user-friendly connection, and updated periodically. (author)

  3. Development of reliability database for safety-related I and C component based on operating experience of KSNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, S. C.; Han, S. H.; Min, K. R.

    2001-01-01

    Reliability database for safety-related I and C components has been developed, based on domestic operating experience of total 8.63 years from four units-Yonggwang Units 3 and 4, and Ulchin Units 3 and 4. This plant-specific data of safety-related I and C components has compared with operating experience for CE-supplied plants in U.S.A. As a results, we found that on the whole the domestic reliability data was similar to CE-supplied plants in USA, through lots of failures occurred early in the commercial operation were included in our analyses without percolation

  4. Terry Turbopump Expanded Operating Band Full-Scale Component and Basic Science Detailed Test Plan-Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solom, Matthew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Severe Accident Analysis Dept.; Ross, Kyle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Severe Accident Analysis Dept.; Cardoni, Jeffrey N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Severe Accident Analysis Dept.; Osborn, Douglas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Severe Accident Analysis Dept.

    2017-08-01

    This document details the milestone approach to define the true operating limitations (margins) of the Terry turbopump systems used in the nuclear industry for Milestone 3 (full-scale component experiments) and Milestone 4 (Terry turbopump basic science experiments) efforts. The overall multinational-sponsored program creates the technical basis to: (1) reduce and defer additional utility costs, (2) simplify plant operations, and (3) provide a better understanding of the true margin which could reduce overall risk of operations.

  5. Transient temperature response of in-vessel components due to pulsed operation in tokamak fusion experimental reactor (FER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, Akio; Tone, Tatsuzo

    1985-12-01

    A transient temperature response of the in-vessel components (first wall, blanket, divertor/limiter and shielding) surrounding plasma in Tokamak Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER) has been analysed. Transient heat load during start up/shut down and pulsed operation cycles causes the transient temperature response in those components. The fatigue lifetime of those components significantly depends upon the resulting cyclic thermal stress. The burn time affects the temperature control in the solid breeder (Li 2 O) and also affects the thermo-mechanical design of the blanket and shielding which are constructed with thick structure. In this report, results of the transient temperature response obtained by the heat transfer and conduction analyses for various pulsed operation scenarios (start up, shut down, burn and dwell times) have been investigated in view of thermo-mechanical design of the in-vessel components. (author)

  6. Data Collection for Current U.S. Wind Energy Projects: Component Costs, Financing, Operations, and Maintenance; January 2011 - September 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Tretton, M.; Reha, M.; Drunsic, M.; Keim, M.

    2012-01-01

    DNV Renewables (USA) Inc. (DNV) used an Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Cost Model to evaluate ten distinct cost scenarios encountered under variations in wind turbine component failure rates. The analysis considers: (1) a Reference Scenario using the default part failure rates within the O&M Cost Model, (2) High Failure Rate Scenarios that increase the failure rates of three major components (blades, gearboxes, and generators) individually, (3) 100% Replacement Scenarios that model full replacement of these components over a 20 year operating life, and (4) Serial Failure Scenarios that model full replacement of blades, gearboxes, and generators in years 4 to 6 of the wind project. DNV selected these scenarios to represent a broad range of possible operational experiences. Also in this report, DNV summarizes the predominant financing arrangements used to develop wind energy projects over the past several years and provides summary data on various financial metrics describing those arrangements.

  7. Feasibility study of the cut and weld operations by RH on the cooling pipes of ITER NB components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineiro, Oscar; Fernandez, Carlos; Medrano, Mercedes; Liniers, Macarena; Botija, Jose; Alonso, Javier; Sarasola, Xabier; Damiani, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    The maintenance operations of ITER NB components inside the vessel - Beam Line Components (BLC's) involve the removal of the faulty component, its transport to the hot cell as well as the reverse operations of transport of the repaired/new component and its reinstallation inside the vessel. Prior to the removal of the BLC's the cooling pipes must be detached from the component following a procedure that applies to the cutting of the pipes and subsequent welding when the component is re-installed. The purpose of this study, conducted in the framework of EFDA, is to demonstrate the feasibility of the cut and weld operations on the water pipes of the BLC's using fully remote handling techniques. Viable technologies for the cut and weld operations have been identified within the study; in particular the following aspects will be presented in the paper: - Different strategies can be pursued in the detachment of the components depending on the number of cut and weld operations to be performed on the pipes. The selected strategy will impact on the procedure to be followed likewise on important aspects as the requirements of the flexible joints assembled on the pipes. - The existing cutting techniques have been examined in the light of the remotely performed pipe cutting at the NB cell. Modifications of commercial tools have been proposed in order to adapt them to the BLC's pipes requirements. The debris produced during the cutting process must be controlled and collected, therefore a cleaning system has been integrated in the adapted cutting tool referred above. - The existing welding techniques have been also examined and compared based on different criteria such as complexity, reliability, alignment tolerances, etc. TIG welding is the preferred technique as it stands out for its superior performance. The commercial tools identified need to be adapted to the NB environment. - The alignment of the pipes is a critical issue concerning the remote welding. A proper alignment

  8. Joint Force Cyberspace Component Command: Establishing Cyberspace Operations Unity of Effort for the Joint Force Commander

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    strengths, the United States and DoD knowledge of cyberspace combined with the United States technical prowess and spirit of entrepreneurship provide us...notes that Warden did not find it acceptable to target citizens directly with anything but psychological means. The fifth and final ring is the

  9. Problems of the Starting and Operating of Hydraulic Components and Systems in Low Ambient Temperature (Part IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasiński Ryszard

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Designers of hydraulically driven machines and devices are obliged to ensure during design process their high service life with taking into account their operational conditions. Some of the machines may be started in low ambient temperature and even in thermal shock conditions (due to delivering hot working medium to cold components. In order to put such devices into operation appropriate investigations, including experimental ones - usually very expensive and time-consuming, are carried out. For this reason numerical calculations can be used to determine serviceability of a hydraulic component or system operating in thermal shock conditions. Application of numerical calculation methods is much less expensive in comparison to experimental ones. This paper presents a numerical calculation method which makes it possible to solve issues of heat exchange in elements of investigated hydraulic components by using finite elements method. For performing the simulations the following data are necessary: ambient temperature, oil temperature, heat transfer coefficient between oil and surfaces of elements, as well as areas of surfaces being in contact with oil. By means of computer simulation method values of clearance between cooperating elements as well as ranges of parameters of correct and incorrect operation of hydraulic components have been determined. In this paper results of computer simulation of some experimentally tested hydraulic components such as axial piston pump and proportional spool valve, are presented. The computer simulation results were compared with the experimental ones and high conformity was obtained.

  10. A Three-Component Model for Magnetization Transfer. Solution by Projection-Operator Technique, and Application to Cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Ronald S.; Swanson, Scott D.; Yeung, Hong N.

    1996-01-01

    A projection-operator technique is applied to a general three-component model for magnetization transfer, extending our previous two-component model [R. S. Adler and H. N. Yeung,J. Magn. Reson. A104,321 (1993), and H. N. Yeung, R. S. Adler, and S. D. Swanson,J. Magn. Reson. A106,37 (1994)]. The PO technique provides an elegant means of deriving a simple, effective rate equation in which there is natural separation of relaxation and source terms and allows incorporation of Redfield-Provotorov theory without any additional assumptions or restrictive conditions. The PO technique is extended to incorporate more general, multicomponent models. The three-component model is used to fit experimental data from samples of human hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage. The fits of the three-component model are compared to the fits of the two-component model.

  11. COTS-based OO-component approach for software inter-operability and reuse (software systems engineering methodology)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, J.; Oyaki, A.; Hwang, C.; Hung, C.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this research and study paper is to provide a summary description and results of rapid development accomplishments at NASA/JPL in the area of advanced distributed computing technology using a Commercial-Off--The-Shelf (COTS)-based object oriented component approach to open inter-operable software development and software reuse.

  12. Investigation on structural integrity of graphite component during high temperature 950degC continuous operation of HTTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumita, Junya; Shimazaki, Yosuke; Shibata, Taiju

    2014-01-01

    Graphite material is used for internal structures in high temperature gas-cooled reactor. The core components and graphite core support structures are so designed as to maintain the structural integrity to keep core cooling capability. To confirm that the core components and graphite core support structures satisfy the design requirements, the temperatures of the reactor internals are measured during the reactor operation. Surveillance test of graphite specimens and in-service inspection using TV camera are planned in conjunction with the refueling. This paper describes the evaluation results of the integrity of the core components and graphite core support structures during the high temperature 950degC continuous operation, a high temperature continuous operation with reactor outlet temperature of 950degC for 50 days, in high temperature engineering test reactor. The design requirements of the core components and graphite core support structures were satisfied during the high temperature 950degC continuous operation. The dimensional change of graphite which directly influences the temperature of coolant was estimated considering the temperature profiles of fuel block. The magnitude of irradiation-induced dimensional change considering temperature profiles was about 1.2 times larger than that under constant irradiation temperature of 1000degC. In addition, the programs of surveillance test and ISI using TV camera were introduced. (author)

  13. Effect of operating conditions and environment on properties of materials of PWR type nuclear power plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacek, M.

    1987-01-01

    Operating reliability and service life of PWR type nuclear power plants are discussed with respect to the material properties of the plant components. The effects of the operating environment on the material properties and the methods of their determination are characterized. Discussed are core materials, such as fuel, its cladding and regulating rod materials, and the materials of pipes, steam generators and condensers. The advances in the production of pressure vessel materials and their degradation during operation are treated in great detail. (Z.M.)

  14. Main components and characteristics of landslide early warning systems operational worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piciullo, Luca; Cepeda, José

    2017-04-01

    During the last decades the number of victims and economic losses due to natural hazards are dramatically increased worldwide. The reason can be mainly ascribed to climate changes and urbanization in areas exposed at high level of risk. Among the many mitigation measures available for reducing the risk to life related to natural hazards, early warning systems certainly constitute a significant cost-effective option available to the authorities in charge of risk management and governance. The aim is to help and protect populations exposed to natural hazards, reducing fatalities when major events occur. Landslide is one of the natural hazards addressed by early warning systems. Landslide early warning systems (LEWSs) are mainly composed by the following four components: set-up, correlation laws, decisional algorithm and warning management. Within this framework, the set-up includes all the preliminary actions and choices necessary for designing a LEWS, such as: the area covered by the system, the types of landslides and the monitoring instruments. The monitoring phase provides a series of important information on different variables, considered as triggering factors for landslides, in order to define correlation laws and thresholds. Then, a decisional algorithm is necessary for defining the: number of warning levels to be employed in the system, decision making procedures, and everything else system managers may need for issuing warnings in different warning zones. Finally the warning management is composed by: monitoring and warning strategy; communication strategy; emergency plan and, everything connected to the social sphere. Among LEWSs operational worldwide, two categories can be defined as a function of the scale of analysis: "local" and "territorial" systems. The scale of analysis influences several actions and aspects connected to the design and employment of the system, such as: the actors involved, the monitoring systems, type of landslide phenomena

  15. NASA JPL Distributed Systems Technology (DST) Object-Oriented Component Approach for Software Inter-Operability and Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Laverne; Hung, Chaw-Kwei; Lin, Imin

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a description of NASA JPL Distributed Systems Technology (DST) Section's object-oriented component approach to open inter-operable systems software development and software reuse. It will address what is meant by the terminology object component software, give an overview of the component-based development approach and how it relates to infrastructure support of software architectures and promotes reuse, enumerate on the benefits of this approach, and give examples of application prototypes demonstrating its usage and advantages. Utilization of the object-oriented component technology approach for system development and software reuse will apply to several areas within JPL, and possibly across other NASA Centers.

  16. Determination of residual load-bearing capacity of concrete beams at the operation stage by the strength reinforcement and concrete criterion

    OpenAIRE

    V.S. Utkin

    2015-01-01

    An experimental theoretical method was considered for estimating the residual load-bearing capacity of an individual reinforced concrete beam at the operational stage according to the criteria of the working strength and durability of concrete reinforcement compressed zone of the beam. Integrated methods of beam testing and probabilistic methods of random variables definition were used. Ultimate load in the form of interval during the operational phase was accepted as the measure of carr...

  17. Posture for Operational Success: Create the Theater Missile Defense Component Commander

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hill, M

    1997-01-01

    .... Secondly, TBMs pose threat to the level that if it is subordinated in this manner, that critical operational decisions will he delegated down to levels of command and control that will have severe...

  18. Mechanical testing - designers need: a view at component design and operations stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, S.K.

    2007-01-01

    Mechanical design of any component requires knowledge of values of various material properties which designer(s) make(s) use in designing the component. In design of nuclear power plant components, it assumes even greater importance in view of degree of precision and accuracy with which the values of various properties are required. This is in turn demands, high accuracy in testing machines and measuring methods. In this paper, attempt has been made to bring out that even from conventional tension test, how designer today looks for availability of engineering stress-strain diagram preferably through digitally acquired data points during the test from which he can derive values of Ramberg-Osgood parameters for use in fracture mechanics based analysis. Attempt has been also made to provide account of some of important fracture mechanics related tests which have been evolved in last two decades and designers need for evolution of simple test techniques to measure many more fracture mechanics related parameters as well as cater to constraints such as shape and size of material available from the components. Nuclear power plant has been primarily kept in view and ASME. Section III NB, ASME Section XI and relevant ASTM Standards have been taken as standard references. Further pressure retaining materials of pressure vessels/Reactor Pressure Vessels have been kept in view. (author)

  19. Feasibility study of the cut and weld operations by RH on the cooling pipes of ITER NB components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineiro, Oscar; Fernandez, Carlos [TECNATOM Avda. Montes de Oca 28700 S Sebastian de los Reyes, Madrid (Spain); Medrano, Mercedes [EURATOM-CIEMAT Association for Fusion. Avda. Complutense, 22. 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: mercedes.medrano@ciemat.es; Liniers, Macarena; Botija, Jose; Alonso, Javier; Sarasola, Xabier [EURATOM-CIEMAT Association for Fusion. Avda. Complutense, 22. 28040 Madrid (Spain); Damiani, Carlo [EFDA-Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    The maintenance operations of ITER NB components inside the vessel - Beam Line Components (BLC's) involve the removal of the faulty component, its transport to the hot cell as well as the reverse operations of transport of the repaired/new component and its reinstallation inside the vessel. Prior to the removal of the BLC's the cooling pipes must be detached from the component following a procedure that applies to the cutting of the pipes and subsequent welding when the component is re-installed. The purpose of this study, conducted in the framework of EFDA, is to demonstrate the feasibility of the cut and weld operations on the water pipes of the BLC's using fully remote handling techniques. Viable technologies for the cut and weld operations have been identified within the study; in particular the following aspects will be presented in the paper: - Different strategies can be pursued in the detachment of the components depending on the number of cut and weld operations to be performed on the pipes. The selected strategy will impact on the procedure to be followed likewise on important aspects as the requirements of the flexible joints assembled on the pipes. - The existing cutting techniques have been examined in the light of the remotely performed pipe cutting at the NB cell. Modifications of commercial tools have been proposed in order to adapt them to the BLC's pipes requirements. The debris produced during the cutting process must be controlled and collected, therefore a cleaning system has been integrated in the adapted cutting tool referred above. - The existing welding techniques have been also examined and compared based on different criteria such as complexity, reliability, alignment tolerances, etc. TIG welding is the preferred technique as it stands out for its superior performance. The commercial tools identified need to be adapted to the NB environment. - The alignment of the pipes is a critical issue concerning the remote welding

  20. Operating experience in cleaning sodium-wetted components at the KNK nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stade, K.Ch.

    1978-01-01

    Since 1969, components of the KNK facility, the first sodium cooled nuclear power plant in the Federal Republic of Germany, have been cleaned both by the alcohol and the wet gas techniques. This paper outlines the experience accumulated In the application of these methods, especially in cleaning steam generators and fuel elements. Some preliminary results are indicated of the attempt to clean a cold trap from the primary circuit of the KNK facility. (author)

  1. Battle Environment Assessment for Commanders: A Concept of Support for Joint and Component Strategy and Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-14

    focused application of decision aids. These decision aids must incorporate standardized processes, computer assisted artificial intelligence, linkage...Theater Planning. A Strategic-Operational Perspective,’ by COL MIke ,or i n Olesak, John, LTC Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff, Inteligence , U S

  2. Ready, Reliable, and Relevant: The Army Reserve Component as an Operational Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    Arrival Date METL Mission Essential Task List MFO Multinational Force and Observers MOS Military Occupational Specialty NATO North Atlantic ...containing the total number of USAR Soldiers activated in Somalia is unavailable. Although US Military operations as part of the North Atlantic ...DC), the territories of Guam and the US Virgin Islands, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, mobilized to the Gulf Coast states of

  3. Citizen ’Cyber’ Airmen: Maintaining Ready and Proficient Cyberspace Operators in the Reserve Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Cisco bring the most unique and current expertise.40 Even if Air Force RC personnel do not work for those companies but work in places that implore...labor market .46 Air Force RC members who are employed in industries related to cyber operations can be tapped to provide current knowledge, tools, and

  4. Design Optimization of Mechanical Components Using an Enhanced Teaching-Learning Based Optimization Algorithm with Differential Operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Thamaraikannan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies in detail the background and implementation of a teaching-learning based optimization (TLBO algorithm with differential operator for optimization task of a few mechanical components, which are essential for most of the mechanical engineering applications. Like most of the other heuristic techniques, TLBO is also a population-based method and uses a population of solutions to proceed to the global solution. A differential operator is incorporated into the TLBO for effective search of better solutions. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, three typical optimization problems are considered in this research: firstly, to optimize the weight in a belt-pulley drive, secondly, to optimize the volume in a closed coil helical spring, and finally to optimize the weight in a hollow shaft. have been demonstrated. Simulation result on the optimization (mechanical components problems reveals the ability of the proposed methodology to find better optimal solutions compared to other optimization algorithms.

  5. Operation experience at the Neuherberg Research Reactor (FRN) with several modifications of reactor components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmeler, M; Rau, G [Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH, Neuherberg (Germany)

    1974-07-01

    Since the first full power operation in September 1972 up till now (Dec. 1973) the TRIGA Mark III reactor FRN has run more than 500 MWh in steady state operation and has been pulsed for 265 times. During startup experiments, neutron- and gamma-flux mapping has been performed with special technical devices in the core and in several irradiation positions, mainly in the thermal column and in the exposure room. Furthermore reactivity values of each fuel element have been measured at full power of 1 MW, thus enabling a more accurate burnup calculation. Troubles with the rotary specimen rack occurred at power rates above 280 kW; here, the lazy susan stuck, caused by thermal stress. Thus it will be replaced by a hydraulic-operated type, which has been developed at the TRIGA reactor Heidelberg. In order to increase irradiation capacity, a new core configuration has been set up a few months ago, replacing several fuel-reflector-elements by irradiation tubes within the grid-plate positions E-22, G-2, G-17 and G-36. Four additional fuel elements had to be inserted to compensate for the resulting reactivity losses. The original plan of regaining sufficient excess-reactivity by inserting a fuel element in grid-plate position A-l failed because of local boiling in the center of the core by 1 MW-operation. Experiments at the reactor started with the begin of routine-operation in September 1973. Up till now, a total of 450 neutron- and gamma- irradiations have been performed, mainly for neutron-activations. (author)

  6. Review of the Operability for the Components Under the Loss of the HVAC System of the Pump Room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang Mee Jeong; Yoon, Churl; Yang, Joon Eon; Park, Joo Hwan

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we estimated the temperature of the pump rooms and reviewed the operability of the components under the loss of the HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Condition) system. The issues relevant to the HVAC system in the PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) FT (Fault Tree) model are as follows: does the loss of the HVAC system bring about a function failure of other components?. Can the operator take action to reduce the temperature of the room in case of a HVAC function failure?. At present we do not know whether a component will lose its function or not under the loss of the HVAC. ASME Standard describes that a recovery action can be credited if the related recovery action is included in the procedure or there are similar recovery experiences in the plant. However, there is no description about the recovery action of the HVAC in the EOP (Emergency Operation Procedure) of the UCN3, 4 under the situation of a loss of the HVAC. Even though we consider this assumption positively, it would be limited to the rooms such as the Switchgear Room, Inverter Room, and Main Control Room etc. where a real recovery action can be performed easily. However, if we consider the HVAC failure in the PSA FT model according to the above background, the problem is that the unavailability induced from the loss of a HVAC is highly unrealistically. From a viewpoint of the PSA, it is not true that the related system always fails even though the HVAC system fails. Therefore, we reviewed the necessity of the HVAC model through the identification of the operable temperature of the components' within the pump room and the change of the temperature of the pump room under the situation of a loss of the HVAC system

  7. Results of scoping tests for open-cycle OTEC (ocean thermal energy conversion) components operating with seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zangrando, F; Bharathan, D; Green, H J; Link, H F; Parsons, B K; Parsons, J M; Pesaran, A A [Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO (USA); Panchal, C B [Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)

    1990-09-01

    This report presents comprehensive documentation of the experimental research conducted on open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) components operating with seawater as a working fluid. The results of this research are presented in the context of previous analysis and fresh-water testing; they provide a basis for understanding and predicting with confidence the performance of all components of an OC-OTEC system except the turbine. Seawater tests have confirmed the results that were obtained in fresh-water tests and predicted by the analytical models of the components. A sound technical basis has been established for the design of larger systems in which net power will be produced for the first time from OC-OTEC technology. Design and operation of a complete OC-OTEC system that produces power will provide sufficient confidence to warrant complete transfer of OC-OTEC technology to the private sector. Each components performance is described in a separate chapter written by the principal investigator responsible for technical aspects of the specific tests. Chapters have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  8. Statistical Average of Spin Operators for Calculation of Three-Component Magnetization (II): Solution of Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huaiyu; Long Yao; Chen Nanxian

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the solution of Chebyshev equation with its argument being greater than 1 is obtained. The initial value of the derivative of the solution is the expression of magnetization, which is valid for any spin quantum number S. The Chebyshev equation is transformed from an ordinary differential equation obtained when we dealt with Heisenberg model, in order to calculate all three components of magnetization, by many-body Green's function under random phase approximation. The Chebyshev functions with argument being greater than 1 are discussed. This paper shows that the Chebyshev polynomials with their argument being greater than 1 have their physical application.

  9. [Comparative study on the strength of different mechanisms of operation of multidirectionally angle-stable distal radius plates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, S; Hoffmeier, K; Gueorguiev, B G; Klos, K; Gras, F; Hofmann, G O; Mückley, T

    2011-12-01

    Polyaxial angle-stable plating is thought to be particularly beneficial in the management of complex intra-articular fractures of the distal radius. The present study was performed to investigate the strength of polyaxial locking interfaces of distal radius plates. We tested the polyaxial interfaces of 3 different distal radius plates (2.4 mm Variable Angle LCP Two-Column Volar Distal Radius Plate, Synthes, Palmar Classic, Königsee Implantate and VariAx Plate Stryker). The strength of 0° and 10° screw locking angle was obtained during static loading. The strength of Palmar Classic with a 0° locking angle is significantly the best of all tested systems. With a 10° locking angle there is no significant difference between Palmar Classic, Two column Plate and VariAx Plate. The strength of polyaxial interfaces differs between the tested systems. A reduction of ultimate strength is due to increases of screw locking angle. The design of polyaxial locking interfaces should be investigated in human bone models. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Control-limit preventive maintenance policies for components subject to imperfect preventive maintenance and variable operational conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Mingyi; Li Hongguang; Meng Guang

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops two component-level control-limit preventive maintenance (PM) policies for systems subject to the joint effect of partial recovery PM acts (imperfect PM acts) and variable operational conditions, and investigates the properties of the proposed policies. The extended proportional hazards model (EPHM) is used to model the system failure likelihood influenced by both factors. Several numerical experiments are conducted for policy property analysis, using real lifetime and operational condition data and typical characterization of imperfect PM acts and maintenance durations. The experimental results demonstrate the necessity of considering both factors when they do exist, characterize the joint effect of the two factors on the performance of an optimized PM policy, and explore the influence of the loading sequence of time-varying operational conditions on the performance of an optimized PM policy. The proposed policies extend the applicability of PM optimization techniques.

  11. Durability testing of medium speed diesel engine components designed for operating on coal/water slurry fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, R. E.; Giammarise, A. W.; Johnson, R. N.

    1994-01-01

    Over 200 operating cylinder hours were run on critical wearing engine parts. The main components tested included cylinder liners, piston rings, and fuel injector nozzles for coal/water slurry fueled operation. The liners had no visible indication of scoring nor major wear steps found on their tungsten carbide coating. While the tungsten carbide coating on the rings showed good wear resistance, some visual evidence suggests adhesive wear mode was present. Tungsten carbide coated rings running against tungsten carbide coated liners in GE 7FDL engines exhibit wear rates which suggest an approximate 500 to 750 hour life. Injector nozzle orifice materials evaluated were diamond compacts, chemical vapor deposited diamond tubes, and thermally stabilized diamond. Based upon a total of 500 cylinder hours of engine operation (including single-cylinder combustion tests), diamond compact was determined to be the preferred orifice material.

  12. Multi-level and Multi-component Bitmap Encoding for Efficient Search Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu BHAN, Department of Computer Applications

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The growing interest in data warehousing for decision makers is becoming more and more crucial to make faster and efficient decisions. On-line decision needs short response times. Many indexing techniques have been created to achieve this goal in read only environments. Indexing technique that has attracted attention in multidimensional databases is Bitmap Indexing. The paper discusses the various existing bitmap indexing techniques along with their performance characteristics. The paper proposes two new bitmap indexing techniques in the class of multi-level and multi-component encoding schemes and prove that the two techniques have better space–time performance than some of the existing techniques used for range queries. We provide an analytical model for comparing the performance of our proposed encoding schemes with that of the existing ones.

  13. Design, manufacture and initial operation of the beryllium components of the JET ITER-like wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riccardo, V., E-mail: valeria.riccardo@ccfe.ac.uk [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Lomas, P.; Matthews, G.F. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Nunes, I. [Associação EURATOM-IST, IPFN – Laboratório Associado, IST, Lisbon (Portugal); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Thompson, V. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Villedieu, E. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► 40 m{sup 2} of plasma facing surface covered with bulk Be re-using existing supports, designed for C-based tiles (hence for much lower disruption loads). ► Optimization of power handling to allow compatibility with higher (×1.5) and longer (×2) neutral beam power. ► Beryllium re-cycling. ► Machining and cleaning to ultra high vacuum standards of <350 μm thin castellations in Be. ► Quality control to minimize installation problems (proto-types, full scale jigs, inspections). -- Abstract: The aim of the JET ITER-like wall project was to provide JET with the plasma facing material combination now selected for the DT phase of ITER (bulk beryllium main chamber limiters and a full tungsten divertor) and, in conjunction with the upgraded neutral beam heating system, to achieve ITER relevant conditions. The design of the bulk Be plasma facing components had to be compatible with increased heating power and pulse length, as well as to reuse the existing tile supports originally designed to cope with disruption loads from carbon based tiles and be installed by remote handling. Risk reduction measures (prototypes, jigs, etc.) were implemented to maximize efficiency during the shutdown. However, a large number of clashes with existing components not fully captured by the configuration model occurred. Restarting the plasma on the ITER-like Wall proved much easier than for the carbon wall and no deconditioning by disruptions was observed. Disruptions have been more threatening than expected due to the reduced radiative losses compared to carbon, leaving most of the plasma magnetic energy to be conducted to the wall and requiring routine disruption mitigation. The main chamber power handling has achieved and possibly exceeded the design targets.

  14. Design, manufacture and initial operation of the beryllium components of the JET ITER-like wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riccardo, V.; Lomas, P.; Matthews, G.F.; Nunes, I.; Thompson, V.; Villedieu, E.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► 40 m 2 of plasma facing surface covered with bulk Be re-using existing supports, designed for C-based tiles (hence for much lower disruption loads). ► Optimization of power handling to allow compatibility with higher (×1.5) and longer (×2) neutral beam power. ► Beryllium re-cycling. ► Machining and cleaning to ultra high vacuum standards of <350 μm thin castellations in Be. ► Quality control to minimize installation problems (proto-types, full scale jigs, inspections). -- Abstract: The aim of the JET ITER-like wall project was to provide JET with the plasma facing material combination now selected for the DT phase of ITER (bulk beryllium main chamber limiters and a full tungsten divertor) and, in conjunction with the upgraded neutral beam heating system, to achieve ITER relevant conditions. The design of the bulk Be plasma facing components had to be compatible with increased heating power and pulse length, as well as to reuse the existing tile supports originally designed to cope with disruption loads from carbon based tiles and be installed by remote handling. Risk reduction measures (prototypes, jigs, etc.) were implemented to maximize efficiency during the shutdown. However, a large number of clashes with existing components not fully captured by the configuration model occurred. Restarting the plasma on the ITER-like Wall proved much easier than for the carbon wall and no deconditioning by disruptions was observed. Disruptions have been more threatening than expected due to the reduced radiative losses compared to carbon, leaving most of the plasma magnetic energy to be conducted to the wall and requiring routine disruption mitigation. The main chamber power handling has achieved and possibly exceeded the design targets

  15. The District Health Information System (DHIS2): A literature review and meta-synthesis of its strengths and operational challenges based on the experiences of 11 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehnavieh, Reza; Haghdoost, AliAkbar; Khosravi, Ardeshir; Hoseinabadi, Fahime; Rahimi, Hamed; Poursheikhali, Atousa; Khajehpour, Nahid; Khajeh, Zahra; Mirshekari, Nadia; Hasani, Marziyeh; Radmerikhi, Samera; Haghighi, Hajar; Mehrolhassani, Mohammad Hossain; Kazemi, Elaheh; Aghamohamadi, Saeide

    2018-01-01

    Health information systems offer many potential benefits for healthcare, including financial benefits and for improving the quality of patient care. The purpose of District Health Information Systems (DHIS) is to document data that are routinely collected in all public health facilities in a country using the system. The aim of this study was to examine the strengths and operational challenges of DHIS2, with a goal to enable decision makers in different counties to more accurately evaluate the outcomes of introducing DHIS2 into their particular country. A review of the literature combined with the method of meta-synthesis was used to source information and interpret results relating to the strengths and operational challenges of DHIS2. Databases (Embase, PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar) were searched for documents related to strengths and operational challenges of DHIS2, with no time limit up to 8 April 2017. The review and evaluation of selected studies was conducted in three stages: title, abstract and full text. Each of the selected studies was reviewed carefully and key concepts extracted. These key concepts were divided into two categories of strengths and operational challenges of DHIS2. Then, each category was grouped based on conceptual similarity to achieve the main themes and sub-themes. Content analysis was used to analyse extracted data. Of 766 identified citations, 20 studies from 11 countries were included and analysed in this study. Identified strengths in the DHIS were represented in seven themes (with 21 categories): technical features of software, proper management of data, application flexibility, networking and increasing the satisfaction of stakeholders, development of data management, increasing access to information and economic benefits. Operational challenges were identified and captured in 11 themes (with 18 categories): funds; appropriate communication infrastructure; the need for the existence of appropriate data; political, cultural

  16. Study on component interface evolution of a solid oxide fuel cell stack after long term operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiajun; Huang, Wei; Wang, Xiaochun; Li, Jun; Yan, Dong; Pu, Jian; Chi, Bo; Li, Jian

    2018-05-01

    A 5-cell solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack with external manifold structure is assembled and underwent a durability test with an output of 250 W for nearly 4400 h when current density and operating temperature are 355 mA/cm2 and 750 °C. Cells used in the stack are anode-supported cells (ASC) with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes, Ni/YSZ hydrogen electrodes, and YSZ based composite cathode. The dimension of the cell is 150 × 150 mm (active area: 130 × 130 mm). Ceramic-glass sealant is used in the stack to keep the gas tightness between cells, interconnects and manifolds. Pure hydrogen and dry air are used as fuel and oxidant respectively. The stack has a maximum output of 340 W at 562 mA/cm2 current density at 750 °C. The stack shows a degradation of 1.5% per 1000 h during the test with 2 thermal cycles to room temperature. After the test, the stack was dissembled and examined. The relationship between microstructure changes of interfaces and degradation in the stack are discussed. The microstructure evolution of interfaces between electrode, contact material and current collector are unveiled and their relationship with the degradation is discussed.

  17. Conceptual and operational definitions of the components of the nursing diagnosis Acute Pain (00132

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Dibbern Lopes Correia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to develop the operational and conceptual definitions of the defining characteristics and related factors of the nursing diagnosis Acute Pain (00132 for nonverbal critically ill patients. Method: integrative literature review in the databases/libraries: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE via Pubmed, Cochrane Library, The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL and Latin American & Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS. Results: 799 results were found in the literature, of which 80 studies were selected for full text reading and 16 were used in the elaboration of definitions for the 17 defining characteristics and three related factors of the nursing diagnosis. The gray literature, ie, thesis, dissertations, books, guidelines and dictionary was also explored to ensure the robustness needed to clarify the topics not covered by the studies. Conclusion: the definitions aim to facilitate the identification of the nursing diagnosis for nonverbal critically ill patients and to support future teaching and research on the nursing diagnosis of Acute Pain (00132.

  18. First-term Status Report for the Component Operational Experience Degradation and Ageing Programme (CODAP) - 2011-2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-04-01

    Structural integrity of piping systems is important for plant safety and operability. In recognition of this, information on degradation and failure of piping components and systems is collected and evaluated by regulatory agencies, international organisations (e.g., OECD/NEA and IAEA) and industry organisations worldwide to provide systematic feedback to reactor regulation and research and development programmes associated with non-destructive examination (NDE) technology, in-service inspection (ISI) programmes, leak-before-break evaluations, risk-informed ISI, and probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) applications involving passive component reliability. Several OECD Member Countries have agreed to establish the OECD/NEA 'Component Operational Experience, Degradation and Ageing Programme' (CODAP) to encourage multilateral co-operation in the collection and analysis of data relating to degradation and failure of metallic piping and non-piping metallic passive components in commercial nuclear power plants. The scope of the data collection includes service-induced wall thinning, part through-wall cracks, through-wall cracks with and without active leakage, and instances of significant degradation of metallic passive components, including piping pressure boundary integrity. The Project is organised under the OECD/NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI). CODAP is the continuation of the 2002-2011 'OECD/NEA Pipe Failure Data Exchange Project' (OPDE) and the Stress Corrosion Cracking Working Group of the 2006-2010 'OECD/NEA SCC and Cable Ageing project' (SCAP). OPDE was formally launched in May 2002. Upon completion of the 3. Term (May 2011), the OPDE project was officially closed to be succeeded by CODAP. SCAP was enabled by a voluntary contribution from Japan. It was formally launched in June 2006 and officially closed with an international workshop held in Tokyo in May 2010. Majority of the member organizations of the

  19. Analysis of Environmental Impact for Concrete Using LCA by Varying the Recycling Components, the Compressive Strength and the Admixture Material Mixing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taehyoung Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is a type of construction material in which cement, aggregate, and admixture materials are mixed. When cement is produced, large amounts of substances that impact the environment are emitted during limestone extraction and clinker manufacturing. Additionally, the extraction of natural aggregate causes soil erosion and ecosystem destruction. Furthermore, in the process of transporting raw materials such as cement and aggregate to a concrete production company, and producing concrete in a batch plant, substances with an environmental impact are emitted into the air and water system due to energy use. Considering the fact that the process of producing concrete causes various environmental impacts, an assessment of various environmental impact categories is needed. This study used a life cycle assessment (LCA to evaluate the environmental impacts of concrete in terms of its global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential, ozone depletion potential, photochemical ozone creation potential, and abiotic depletion potential (GWP, AP, EP, ODP, POCP, ADP. The tendency was that the higher the strength of concrete, the higher the GWP, POCP, and ADP indices became, whereas the AP and EP indices became slightly lower. As the admixture mixing ratio of concrete increased, the GWP, AP, ODP, ADP, and POCP decreased, but EP index showed a tendency to increase slightly. Moreover, as the recycled aggregate mixing ratio of concrete increased, the AP, EP, ODP, and ADP decreased, while GWP and POCP increased. The GWP and POCP per unit compressed strength (1 MPa of high strength concrete were found to be about 13% lower than that for its normal strength concrete counterpart. Furthermore, in the case of AP, EP, ODP, and ADP per unit compressed strength (1 MPa, high-strength concrete was found to be about 10%~25% lower than its normal strength counterpart. Among all the environmental impact categories, ordinary cement was found to have

  20. Strength of PLA Components Fabricated with Fused Deposition Technology Using a Desktop 3D Printer as a Function of Geometrical Parameters of the Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir E. Kuznetsov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The current paper studies the influence of geometrical parameters of the fused deposition modeling (FDM—fused filament fabrication (FFF 3D printing process on printed part strength for open source desktop 3D printers and the most popular material used for that purpose—i.e., polylactic acid (PLA. The study was conducted using a set of different nozzles (0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 mm and a range of layer heights from the minimum to maximum physical limits of the machine. To assess print strength, a novel assessment method is proposed. A tubular sample is loaded in the weakest direction (across layers in a three-point bending fixture. Mesostructure evaluation through scanning electronic microscopy (SEM scans of the samples was used to explain the obtained results. We detected a significant influence of geometric process parameters on sample mesostructure, and consequently, on sample strength.

  1. Survey of the possibilities to maintain correct measurements through increased reliability of components or through ''operational fault perceptibility''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkmann, C.U.

    1982-12-01

    Tests and requirements for the pattern approval of mechanical weighing machines are based on long-term experience and detailed regulations, whereas equivalent treatment of electronic devices of weighing machines is a new kind of task. In this field experience is still scarce, and regulations are lacking. While there is some unanimity that the sensitivity of electronic devices to any kind of electromagnetic interferences has to be judged on the grounds of some tests, there is no universally accepted guideline as to how to assure, over a few weeks of pattern approval tests, the measuring stability for a period of years. Two major concepts are being followed to this end: increased reliability of components and ''operational fault perceptibility (OFP)''. After some remarks concerning the terminology to be used, both concepts are discussed and eventually compared. (orig.)

  2. Characterization of cooling systems based on heat pipe principle to control operation temperature of high-tech electronic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobre, Tanase; Parvulescu, Oana Cristina; Stoica, Anicuta; Iavorschi, Gustav

    2010-01-01

    The use of cooling systems based on heat pipe principle to control operation temperature of electronic components is very efficient. They have an excellent miniaturizing capacity and this fact creates adaptability for more practical situations. Starting from the observation that these cooling systems are not precisely characterized from the thermal efficiency point of view, the present paper proposes a methodology of data acquisition for their thermal characterization. An experimental set-up and a data processing algorithm are shown to describe the cooling of a heat generating electronic device using heat pipes. A Thermalright SI-97 PC cooling system is employed as a case-study to determine the heat transfer characteristics of a fins cooler.

  3. The influence of microstructure and operating temperature on the fatigue endurance of hot forged Inconel{sup ®} 718 components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maderbacher, H., E-mail: hermann.maderbacher@unileoben.ac.at [Chair of Mechanical Engineering, Montanuniversität Leoben, Franz-Josef-Straße 18, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Oberwinkler, B., E-mail: bernd.oberwinkler@bohler-forging.com [Böhler Schmiedetechnik GmbH and Co KG, Mariazellerstraße 25, 8605 Kapfenberg (Austria); Gänser, H.-P., E-mail: hans-peter.gaenser@mcl.at [Materials Center Leoben Forschung GmbH, Roseggerstraße 12, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Tan, W., E-mail: wen.tan@unileoben.ac.at [Chair of Mechanical Engineering, Montanuniversität Leoben, Franz-Josef-Straße 18, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Rollett, M., E-mail: mathias.rollett@stud.unileoben.ac.at [Chair of Mechanical Engineering, Montanuniversität Leoben, Franz-Josef-Straße 18, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Stoschka, M., E-mail: michael.stoschka@stud.unileoben.ac.at [Chair of Mechanical Engineering, Montanuniversität Leoben, Franz-Josef-Straße 18, 8700 Leoben (Austria)

    2013-11-15

    The dependence of the fatigue behavior of hot-forged Inconel{sup ®} 718 aircraft components on the operating temperature and the material microstructure is investigated. To this purpose, possible correlations between a variety of tested microstructural parameters and the results from low-cycle fatigue (LCF) testing are analyzed using statistical methods. To identify the prevailing damage mechanisms, failure analyses are carried out on specimens tested at different temperatures. Optical and scanning electron microscopy are used for the inspection of surface crack networks and of the final fracture surface. In addition, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyses are performed at the crack initiation sites to track down possible accumulations of alloying elements. The results are critically reviewed and used to propose a temperature and microstructure dependent fatigue model for predicting LCF ε⧸N-curves.

  4. Fundamental principles for a nuclear design and structural analysis code for HTR components operating at temperatures above 8000C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel, H.; Schubert, F.

    1985-01-01

    With reference to the special characteristics of an HTR plant for the supply of nuclear process heat, the investigation of the fundamental principles to form the basis for a high temperature nuclear structural design code has been described. As examples, preliminary design values are proposed for the creep rupture and fatigue behaviour. The linear damage accumulation rule is for practical reasons proposed for the determination of service life, and the difficulties in using this rule are discussed. Finally, using the data obtained in structural analysis, the main areas of investigation which will lead to improvements in the utilization of the materials are discussed. Based on the current information, the working group ''Design Code'' believes that a service life of 70000 h for the heat-exchanging components operating at above 800 0 C can be. (orig.)

  5. Operant Conditioning: A Minimal Components Requirement in Artificial Spiking Neurons Designed for Bio-Inspired Robot’s Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André eCyr

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the operant conditioning (OC learning process within a basic bio-inspired robot controller paradigm, using an artificial spiking neural network (ASNN with minimal component count as artificial brain. In biological agents, OC results in behavioral changes that are learned from the consequences of previous actions, using progressive prediction adjustment triggered by reinforcers. In a robotics context, virtual and physical robots may benefit from a similar learning skill when facing unknown environments with no supervision. In this work, we demonstrate that a simple ASNN can efficiently realise many OC scenarios. The elementary learning kernel that we describe relies on a few critical neurons, synaptic links and the integration of habituation and spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP as learning rules. Using four tasks of incremental complexity, our experimental results show that such minimal neural component set may be sufficient to implement many OC procedures. Hence, with the described bio-inspired module, OC can be implemented in a wide range of robot controllers, including those with limited computational resources.

  6. When and Where Learning is Taking Place: Multisynaptic Changes in Strength During Different Behaviors Related to the Acquisition of an Operant Conditioning Task by Behaving Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Lamo, Iván; Delgado-García, José M; Gruart, Agnès

    2018-03-01

    Although it is generally assumed that brain circuits are modified by new experiences, the question of which changes in synaptic efficacy take place in cortical and subcortical circuits across the learning process remains unanswered. Rats were trained in the acquisition of an operant conditioning in a Skinner box provided with light beams to detect animals' approaches to lever and feeder. Behaviors such as pressing the lever, eating, exploring, and grooming were also recorded. Animals were chronically implanted with stimulating and recording electrodes in hippocampal, prefrontal, and subcortical sites relevant to the task. Field synaptic potentials were evoked during the performance of the above-mentioned behaviors and before, during, and after the acquisition process. Afferent pathways to the hippocampus and the intrinsic hippocampal circuit were slightly modified in synaptic strength during the performance of those behaviors. In contrast, afferent and efferent circuits of the medial prefrontal cortex were significantly modified in synaptic strength across training sessions, mostly at the moment of the largest change in the learning curve. Performance of behaviors nondirectly related to the acquisition process (exploring, grooming) also evoked changes in synaptic strength across training. This study helps to understand when and where learning is being engraved in the brain. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. The challenge of measuring emergency preparedness: integrating component metrics to build system-level measures for strategic national stockpile operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Brian A; Faith, Kay Sullivan

    2013-02-01

    Although significant progress has been made in measuring public health emergency preparedness, system-level performance measures are lacking. This report examines a potential approach to such measures for Strategic National Stockpile (SNS) operations. We adapted an engineering analytic technique used to assess the reliability of technological systems-failure mode and effects analysis-to assess preparedness. That technique, which includes systematic mapping of the response system and identification of possible breakdowns that affect performance, provides a path to use data from existing SNS assessment tools to estimate likely future performance of the system overall. Systems models of SNS operations were constructed and failure mode analyses were performed for each component. Linking data from existing assessments, including the technical assistance review and functional drills, to reliability assessment was demonstrated using publicly available information. The use of failure mode and effects estimates to assess overall response system reliability was demonstrated with a simple simulation example. Reliability analysis appears an attractive way to integrate information from the substantial investment in detailed assessments for stockpile delivery and dispensing to provide a view of likely future response performance.

  8. Demonstration of statistical approaches to identify component's ageing by operational data analysis-A case study for the ageing PSA network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodionov, Andrei; Atwood, Corwin L.; Kirchsteiger, Christian; Patrik, Milan

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents some results of a case study on 'Demonstration of statistical approaches to identify the component's ageing by operational data analysis', which was done in the frame of the EC JRC Ageing PSA Network. Several techniques: visual evaluation, nonparametric and parametric hypothesis tests, were proposed and applied in order to demonstrate the capacity, advantages and limitations of statistical approaches to identify the component's ageing by operational data analysis. Engineering considerations are out of the scope of the present study

  9. Randomized trial for superiority of high field strength intra-operative magnetic resonance imaging guided resection in pituitary surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Vivek; Raheja, Amol; Suri, Ashish; Chandra, P Sarat; Kale, Shashank S; Kumar, Rajinder; Garg, Ajay; Kalaivani, Mani; Pandey, Ravindra M; Sharma, Bhawani S

    2017-03-01

    Till date there are no randomized trials to suggest the superiority of intra-operative magnetic resonance imaging (IOMRI) guided trans-sphenoidal pituitary resection over two dimensional fluoroscopic (2D-F) guided resections. We conducted this trial to establish the superiority of IOMRI in pituitary surgery. Primary objective was to compare extent of tumor resection between the two study arms. It was a prospective, randomized, outcome assessor and statistician blinded, two arm (A: IOMRI, n=25 and B: 2D-F, n=25), parallel group clinical trial. 4 patients from IOMRI group cross-over to 2D-F group and were consequently analyzed in latter group, based on modified intent to treat method. A total of 50 patients were enrolled till completion of trial (n=25 in each study arm). Demographic profile and baseline parameters were comparable among the two arms (p>0.05) except for higher number of endoscopic procedures and experienced neurosurgeons (>10years) in arm B (p=0.02, 0.002 respectively). Extent of resection was similar in both study arms (A, 94.9% vs B, 93.6%; p=0.78), despite adjusting for experience of operating surgeon and use of microscope/endoscope for surgical resection. We observed that use of IOMRI helped optimize the extent of resection in 5/20 patients (25%) for pituitary tumor resection in-group A. Present study failed to observe superiorty of IOMRI over conventional 2D-F guided resection in pituitary macroadenoma surgery. By use of this technology, younger surgeons could validate their results intra-operatively and hence could increase EOR without causing any increase in complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Strength Training: For Overall Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Strength training is an important part of an overall fitness program. Here's what strength training can do for ... is a key component of overall health and fitness for everyone. Lean muscle mass naturally diminishes with ...

  11. Utilization of independent component analysis for accurate pathological ripple detection in intracranial EEG recordings recorded extra- and intra-operatively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamoto, Shoichi; Waldman, Zachary J; Orosz, Iren; Song, Inkyung; Bragin, Anatol; Fried, Itzhak; Engel, Jerome; Staba, Richard; Sharan, Ashwini; Wu, Chengyuan; Sperling, Michael R; Weiss, Shennan A

    2018-01-01

    To develop and validate a detector that identifies ripple (80-200 Hz) events in intracranial EEG (iEEG) recordings in a referential montage and utilizes independent component analysis (ICA) to eliminate or reduce high-frequency artifact contamination. Also, investigate the correspondence of detected ripples and the seizure onset zone (SOZ). iEEG recordings from 16 patients were first band-pass filtered (80-600 Hz) and Infomax ICA was next applied to derive the first independent component (IC1). IC1 was subsequently pruned, and an artifact index was derived to reduce the identification of high-frequency events introduced by the reference electrode signal. A Hilbert detector identified ripple events in the processed iEEG recordings using amplitude and duration criteria. The identified ripple events were further classified and characterized as true or false ripple on spikes, or ripples on oscillations by utilizing a topographical analysis to their time-frequency plot, and confirmed by visual inspection. The signal to noise ratio was improved by pruning IC1. The precision of the detector for ripple events was 91.27 ± 4.3%, and the sensitivity of the detector was 79.4 ± 3.0% (N = 16 patients, 5842 ripple events). The sensitivity and precision of the detector was equivalent in iEEG recordings obtained during sleep or intra-operatively. Across all the patients, true ripple on spike rates and also the rates of false ripple on spikes, that were generated due to filter ringing, classified the seizure onset zone (SOZ) with an area under the receiver operating curve (AUROC) of >76%. The magnitude and spectral content of true ripple on spikes generated in the SOZ was distinct as compared with the ripples generated in the NSOZ (p ripple rates and properties defined using this approach may accurately delineate the seizure onset zone. Strategies to improve the spatial resolution of intracranial EEG and reduce artifact can help improve the clinical utility of

  12. Crack growth behaviour of low alloy steels for pressure boundary components under transient light water reactor operating conditions (CASTOC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foehl, J.; Weissenberg, T.; Gomez-Briceno, D.; Lapena, J.; Ernestova, M.; Zamboch, M.; Seifert, H.P.; Ritter, S.; Roth, A.; Devrient, B.; Ehrnsten, U.

    2004-01-01

    The CASTOC project addresses environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) phenomena in low alloy steels used for pressure boundary components in both Western type boiling water reactors (BWR) and Russian type pressurised water reactors (VVER). It comprises the four work packages (WP): inter-laboratory comparison test (WP1); EAC behaviour under static load (WP2), EAC behaviour under cyclic load and load transients (WP3); evaluation of the results with regard to their relevance for components in practice (WP4). The use of sophisticated test facilities and measurement techniques for the on-line detection of crack advances have provided a more detailed understanding of the mechanisms of environmentally assisted cracking and provided quantitative data of crack growth rates as a function of loading events and time, respectively. The effect of several major parameters controlling EAC was investigated with particular emphasis on the transferability of the results to components in service. The obtained crack growth rate data were reflected on literature data and on commonly applied prediction curves as presented in the appropriate Code. At relevant stress intensity factors it could be shown that immediate cessation of growing cracks occurs after changing from cyclic to static load in high purity oxygenated BWR water and oxygen-free VVER water corresponding to steady state operation conditions. Susceptibility to environmentally assisted cracking under static load was observed for a heat affected zone material in oxygenated high purity water and also in base materials during a chloride transient representing BWR water condition below Action Level 1 of the EPRI Water Chemistry Guidelines according to the lectrical conductivity of the water but in the range of Action Level 2 according to the content of chlorides. Time based crack growth was also observed in one Russian type base material in oxygenated VVER water and in one Western type base material in oxygenated high purity BWR

  13. Influence of boronization on operation with high-Z plasma facing components in Alcator C-Mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipschultz, B.; Lin, Y.; Marmar, E.S.; Whyte, D.G.; Wukitch, S.; Hutchinson, I.H.; Irby, J.; LaBombard, B.; Reinke, M.L.; Terry, J.L.; Wright, G.

    2007-01-01

    We report the results of operation of Alcator C-Mod with all high-Z molybdenum plasma facing component (PFC) surfaces. Without boron-coated PFCs energy confinement was poor (H ITER,89 ∼ 1) due to high core molybdenum (n Mo /n e ≤ 0.1%) and radiation. After applying boron coatings, n Mo /n e was reduced by a factor of 10-20 with H ITER,89 approaching 2. Results of between-discharge boronization, localized at various major radii, point towards important molybdenum source regions being small, outside the divertor, and due to RF-sheath-rectification. Boronization also has a significant effect on the plasma startup phase lowering Z eff , radiation, and lowering the runaway electron damage. The requirement of low-Z coatings over at least a fraction of the Mo PFCs in C-Mod for best performance together with the larger than expected D retention in Mo, give impetus for further high-Z PFC investigations to better predict the performance of un-coated tungsten surfaces in ITER and beyond

  14. Lithium Coatings on NSTX Plasma Facing Components and Its Effects On Boundary Control, Core Plasma Performance, and Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.W.Kugel, M.G.Bell, H.Schneider, J.P.Allain, R.E.Bell, R Kaita, J.Kallman, S. Kaye, B.P. LeBlanc, D. Mansfield, R.E. Nygen, R. Maingi, J. Menard, D. Mueller, M. Ono, S. Paul, S.Gerhardt, R.Raman, S.Sabbagh, C.H.Skinner, V.Soukhanovskii, J.Timberlake, L.E.Zakharov, and the NSTX Research Team

    2010-01-25

    NSTX high-power divertor plasma experiments have used in succession lithium pellet injection (LPI), evaporated lithium, and injected lithium powder to apply lithium coatings to graphite plasma facing components. In 2005, following wall conditioning and LPI, discharges exhibited edge density reduction and performance improvements. Since 2006, first one, and now two lithium evaporators have been used routinely to evaporate lithium onto the lower divertor region at total rates of 10-70 mg/min for periods 5-10 min between discharges. Prior to each discharge, the evaporators are withdrawn behind shutters. Significant improvements in the performance of NBI heated divertor discharges resulting from these lithium depositions were observed. These evaporators are now used for more than 80% of NSTX discharges. Initial work with injecting fine lithium powder into the edge of NBI heated deuterium discharges yielded comparable changes in performance. Several operational issues encountered with lithium wall conditions, and the special procedures needed for vessel entry are discussed. The next step in this work is installation of a Liquid Lithium Divertor surface on the outer part of the lower divertor.

  15. Lithium coatings on NSTX plasma facing components and its effects on boundary control, core plasma performance, and operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugel, H.W., E-mail: hkugel@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Bell, M.G.; Schneider, H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Allain, J.P. [Purdue University, School of Nuclear Engineering, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Bell, R.E.; Kaita, R.; Kallman, J.; Kaye, S.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Mansfield, D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Nygren, R.E. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Maingi, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Menard, J.; Mueller, D.; Ono, M.; Paul, S.; Gerhardt, S. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Raman, R. [University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Sabbagh, S. [Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Skinner, C.H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    NSTX high power divertor plasma experiments have used in succession lithium pellet injection (LPI), evaporated lithium, and injected lithium powder to apply lithium coatings to graphite plasma facing components. In 2005, following the wall conditioning and LPI, discharges exhibited edge density reduction and performance improvements. Since 2006, first one, and now two lithium evaporators have been used routinely to evaporate lithium onto the lower divertor region at total rates of 10-70 mg/min for periods 5-10 min between discharges. Prior to each discharge, the evaporators are withdrawn behind shutters. Significant improvements in the performance of NBI heated divertor discharges resulting from these lithium depositions were observed. These evaporators are now used for more than 80% of NSTX discharges. Initial work with injecting fine lithium powder into the edge of NBI heated deuterium discharges yielded comparable changes in performance. Several operational issues encountered with lithium wall conditions, and the special procedures needed for vessel entry are discussed. The next step in this work is installation of a liquid lithium divertor surface on the outer part of the lower divertor.

  16. Hierarchthis: An Interactive Interface for Identifying Mission-Relevant Components of the Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litomisky, Krystof

    2012-01-01

    Even though NASA's space missions are many and varied, there are some tasks that are common to all of them. For example, all spacecraft need to communicate with other entities, and all spacecraft need to know where they are. These tasks use tools and services that can be inherited and reused between missions, reducing systems engineering effort and therefore reducing cost.The Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System, or AMMOS, is a collection of multimission tools and services, whose development and maintenance are funded by NASA. I created HierarchThis, a plugin designed to provide an interactive interface to help customers identify mission-relevant tools and services. HierarchThis automatically creates diagrams of the AMMOS database, and then allows users to show/hide specific details through a graphical interface. Once customers identify tools and services they want for a specific mission, HierarchThis can automatically generate a contract between the Multimission Ground Systems and Services Office, which manages AMMOS, and the customer. The document contains the selected AMMOS components, along with their capabilities and satisfied requirements. HierarchThis reduces the time needed for the process from service selections to having a mission-specific contract from the order of days to the order of minutes.

  17. Lithium Coatings on NSTX Plasma Facing Components and Its Effects On Boundary Control, Core Plasma Performance, and Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.W.; Bell, M.G.; Schneider, H.; Allain, J.P.; Bell, R.E.; Kaita, R.; Kallman, J.; Kaye, S.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Mansfield, D.; Nygen, R.E.; Maingi, R.; Menard, J.; Mueller, D.; Ono, M.; Paul, S.; Gerhardt, S.; Raman, R.; Sabbagh, S.; Skinner, C.H.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Timberlake, J.; Zakharov, L.E.; NSTX Research Team

    2010-01-01

    NSTX high-power divertor plasma experiments have used in succession lithium pellet injection (LPI), evaporated lithium, and injected lithium powder to apply lithium coatings to graphite plasma facing components. In 2005, following wall conditioning and LPI, discharges exhibited edge density reduction and performance improvements. Since 2006, first one, and now two lithium evaporators have been used routinely to evaporate lithium onto the lower divertor region at total rates of 10-70 mg/min for periods 5-10 min between discharges. Prior to each discharge, the evaporators are withdrawn behind shutters. Significant improvements in the performance of NBI heated divertor discharges resulting from these lithium depositions were observed. These evaporators are now used for more than 80% of NSTX discharges. Initial work with injecting fine lithium powder into the edge of NBI heated deuterium discharges yielded comparable changes in performance. Several operational issues encountered with lithium wall conditions, and the special procedures needed for vessel entry are discussed. The next step in this work is installation of a Liquid Lithium Divertor surface on the outer part of the lower divertor.

  18. Influence of non-metallic second phases on fatigue behaviour of high strength steel components; Efecto de segundas fases no metalicas sobre el comportamiento a fatiga de componentes de acero con elevadas solicitaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, L.; Elvira, R.; Garcia de Andoin, A.; Pizarro, R.; Bertrand, C.

    2005-07-01

    To assess the real effect of the inclusion type on fatigue life of ultra clean high strength steels mechanical components made of 100Cr6 steel were fatigue tested and fracture surfaces analysed to determine the origin of fatigue cracks.Two heats proceedings from different steelmaking routes were taken for the tests. The material were forged into ring shape components which were fatigue tested under compression-compression loads. Failures were analysed by SFEM (Scanning field Emission Microscopy), proving that most of failures at high loads were originated by manganese sulphides of small size (10-70 micros), while less than 40% of all fatigue cracks due to inclusions were caused by titanium carbonitrides and hard oxides. It has been demonstrated that once number and size of hard inclusions have been reduced, the hazardous effect of oxides and carbonitrides on the fatigue life decreases also. However, softer inclusions as manganese sulphides, currently considered as less hazardous, play a more relevant role as direct cause of fatigue failure and they should be taken into account in a deeper way in order to balance both machinability and fatigue life requirements in high strength steel components. (Author) 11 refs.

  19. Principles and Application of Magnetic Rubber Testing for Crack Detection in High-Strength Steel Components: I. Active-Field Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    containing a dispersion of ferromagnetic particles to the surface of a magnetised steel component. Following curing of the rubber, any surface-breaking...concentration of black particles along the crack is clearly visible against the lighter pigments of the silicone rubber base. magnetic leakage flux due...other side of the black crack indication appear white because they contain a very low density of magnetic particles so that the underlying white pigment

  20. The use of virtual reality and intelligent database systems for procedure planning, visualisation, and real-time component tracking in remote handling operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, Edward; Sanders, Stephen; Williams, Adrian; Allan, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The organisation of remote handling (RH) operations in fusion environments is increasingly critical as the number of tasks, components and tooling that RH operations teams must deal with inexorably rises. During the recent JET EP1 RH shutdown the existing virtual reality (VR) and procedural database systems proved essential for visualisation and tracking of operations, particularly due to the increasing complexity of remote tasks. A new task planning system for RH operations is in development, and is expected to be ready for use during the next major shutdown, planned for 2009. The system will make use of information available from the remote operations procedures, the RH equipment human-machine interfaces, the on-line RH equipment control systems and also the virtual reality (VR) system to establish a complete database for the location of plant items and RH equipment as RH operations progress. It is intended that the system be used during both preparation and implementation of shutdowns. In the preparations phase the system can be used to validate procedures and overall logistics by allowing an operator to increment through each operation step and to use the VR system to visualise the location and status of all components, manipulators and RH tools. During task development the RH operations engineers can plan and visualise movement of components and tooling to examine handling concepts and establish storage requirements. In the implementation of operations the daily work schedules information will be integrated with the RH operations procedures tracking records to enable the VR system to provide a visual representation of the status of remote operations in real time. Monitoring of the usage history of items will allow estimates of radiation dosage and contaminant exposure to be made. This paper describes the overall aims, structure and use of the system, discusses its application to JET and also considers potential future developments.

  1. Improving Interagency Planning and Execution at the Operational Level: Creating a Stability and Reconstruction Component Within a Joint Task Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dombrowski, Michael P

    2006-01-01

    ...?s attempts at winning the peace. Recent operations in Afghanistan and Iraq illustrate the lack of interagency unity of effort at the operational level and cry out for an enduring solution similar to Goldwater-Nichols...

  2. 49 CFR 192.505 - Strength test requirements for steel pipeline to operate at a hoop stress of 30 percent or more...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Strength test requirements for steel pipeline to...: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Test Requirements § 192.505 Strength test requirements for steel pipeline... as provided in paragraph (e) of this section, the strength test must be conducted by maintaining the...

  3. Final environmental impact statement for the continued operation of the Pantex Plant and associated storage of nuclear weapon components. Volume 3 -- Comment response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the continued operation of Pantex Plant was published in March 1996. The document assessed the alternatives of no action, relocation of the storage of plutonium components resulting from nuclear weapon disassemble activities at Pantex Plant to another site, and the proposed action (preferred alternative) of continuing operations and increasing the quantity of pits in interim storage at Pantex Plant. This report contains the comments and responses received on the Draft EIS

  4. Evaluation of Component Failure Data of the Operating Nuclear Power Plants in Korea Based on NUREG/CR-6928

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Hojun; Na, Janghwan; Shin, Taeyoung

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on ensuring the quality of component failure data. When performing data analysis in PSA, we have customized the component failure data based on Bayesian analysis using plant specific experiences and the generic data of Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document (ALWR URD). However, ALWR URD was established by collecting US nuclear power plant (NPP) practices from mid 1980s to early 1990s. We analyzed the component failure data using the raw data of component failures in Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) plants by 2012. This paper presents the results from analyzing the component failure data based on the new generic data and the latest specific failure data. We also compare the new component failure data to the existing data of PSA models, and evaluate the risk impacts by applying the new data to the PSA models of reference NPPs in this paper. To apply the new generic data source to PSA models, we reviewed and compared NUREG/CR-6928 and the existing generic data source, ALWR URD. In addition, we analyzed the component failure data generated from 16 PWR plants by the end of 2012, and performed the Bayesian update with these raw data based on the new generic data source of NUREG/CR-6928. Also, we reviewed the PSA models of the reference NPP, and identified some important components to CDF. The failure data of the major components decreased in general by applying the new generic data and the latest plant specific data. As a result, the CDF of the reference NPP decreased over 30% compared to the value of the existing CDF

  5. Strength and durability tests of pipeline supports for the areas of above-ground routing under the influence of operational loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surikov Vitaliy Ivanovich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present article deals with integrated research works and tests of pipeline supports for the areas of above-ground routing of the pipeline system “Zapolyarye - Pur-pe” which is laid in the eternally frozen grounds. In order to ensure the above-ground routing method for the oil pipeline “Zapolyarye - Pur-pe” and in view of the lack of construction experience in case of above-ground routing of oil pipelines, the leading research institute of JSC “Transneft” - LLC “NII TNN” over the period of August, 2011 - September, 2012 performed a research and development work on the subject “Development and production of pipeline supports and pile foundation test specimens for the areas of above-ground routing of the pipeline system “Zapolyarye - Pur-pe”. In the course of the works, the test specimens of fixed support, linear-sliding and free-sliding pipeline supports DN1000 and DN800 were produced and examined. For ensuring the stable structural reliability of the supports constructions and operational integrity of the pipelines the complex research works and tests were performed: 1. Cyclic tests of structural elements of the fixed support on the test bed of JSC “Diascan” by means of internal pressure and bending moment with the application of specially prepared equipment for defining the pipeline supports strength and durability. 2. Tests of the fixed support under the influence of limit operating loads and by means of internal pressure for confirming the support’s integrity. On the test bed there were simulated all the maximum loads on the support (vertical, longitudinal, side loadings, bending moment including subsidence of the neighboring sliding support and, simultaneously, internal pressure of the carried medium. 3. Cyclic tests of endurance and stability of the displacements of sliding supports under the influence of limit operating loads for confirming their operation capacity. Relocation of the pipeline on the sliding

  6. 47 CFR 25.254 - Special requirements for ancillary terrestrial components operating in the 1610-1626.5 MHz/2483.5...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special requirements for ancillary terrestrial components operating in the 1610-1626.5 MHz/2483.5-2500 MHz bands. 25.254 Section 25.254 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical...

  7. The Analysis of Content and Operational Components of Public School Teachers' Continuing Professional Development in Great Britain, Canada and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukan, Nataliya; Kravets, Svitlana; Khamulyak, Nataliya

    2016-01-01

    In the article the content and operational components of continuing professional development of public school teachers in Great Britain, Canada, the USA have been characterized. The main objectives are defined as the theoretical analysis of scientific-pedagogical literature, which highlights different aspects of the problem under research;…

  8. A Cost Analysis of the Decision to Cannibalize Major Components of the Navy's H-60 Helicopters at the Operational Level

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kowalski, Danny

    2000-01-01

    ... often make a decision to cannibalize without considering the total cost of their decision This thesis examines the costs incurred by an operational H-6O helicopter squadron to cannibalize major...

  9. The ALMA high speed optical communication link is here: an essential component for reliable present and future operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, G.; Ibsen, J.; Jaque, S.; Liello, F.; Ovando, N.; Astudillo, A.; Parra, J.; Saldias, Christian

    2016-07-01

    Announced in 2012, started in 2013 and completed in 2015, the ALMA high bandwidth communication system has become a key factor to achieve the operational and scientific goals of ALMA. This paper summarizes the technical, organizational, and operational goals of the ALMA Optical Link Project, focused in the creation and operation of an effective and sustainable communication infrastructure to connect the ALMA Operations Support Facility and Array Operations Site, both located in the Atacama Desert in the Northern region of Chile, with the point of presence of REUNA in Antofagasta, about 400km away, and from there to the Santiago Central Office in the Chilean capital through the optical infrastructure created by the EC-funded EVALSO project and now an integral part of the REUNA backbone. This new infrastructure completed in 2014 and now operated on behalf of ALMA by REUNA, the Chilean National Research and Education Network, uses state of the art technologies, like dark fiber from newly built cables and DWDM transmission, allowing extending the reach of high capacity communication to the remote region where the Observatory is located. The paper also reports on the results obtained during the first year and a half testing and operation period, where different operational set ups have been experienced for data transfer, remote collaboration, etc. Finally, the authors will present a forward look of the impact of it to both the future scientific development of the Chajnantor Plateau, where many installations area are (and will be) located, as well as the potential Chilean scientific backbone long term development.

  10. Development of a web-based monitoring system using operation parameters for the main component in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Dong Chan; An, Kung Il; Hong, Suk Young; Lee, Jeong Soo; Jung, Duk Jin; Shin, Sun Hee; Son, So Hee

    2004-02-01

    The frequency of the damage is increasing, which is caused by the fatigue, according to the increase of running of nuclear power plants. So we need to acquire the reliance of design data to estimate the fatigue and damage of major machinery that might happen as time-dependent crack growth characterization. The research is focused on keeping operating record of nuclear power plants about major machinery which consists of a nuclear reactor pressure boarder on each excessive operating condition including normal operating and extraordinary operating by estimating fracture mechanical movements on real time and fatigue about major nuclear power plants machinery, which are acquired the pressure and temperature data. For further details about the scope and contents of R and D are following. Development of H/W that is necessary to acquire operating real time data of heating and hydraulic power. Selection of a safety variable about major system by each type (the four NPP, all unit). Communication protocol development for connecting between CARE system data base server and fatigue monitoring system data base server. Development of connecting database for controlling and storing of heating and hydraulic power operating data. Real time monitoring system development based on Web using JAVA

  11. Development of a web-based monitoring system using operation parameters for the main component in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Dong Chan; An Kang Il; Hong, Suk Young; Lee, Jeong Soo; Lee, Kwang Yeol; Shin, Sun Hee; Lee, Chun Wha; Son, So Hee [Daesang Information Technology Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-03-15

    The frequency of the damage is increasing, which is caused by the fatigue, according to the increase of running of nuclear power plants. So we need to acquire the reliance of design data to estimate the fatigue and damage of major machinery that might happen as time-dependent crack growth characterization. The research is focused on keeping operating record of nuclear power plants about major machinery which consists of a nuclear reactor pressure boarder on each excessive operating condition including normal operating and extraordinary operating by estimating fracture mechanical movements on real time and fatigue about major nuclear power plants machinery, which are acquired the pressure and temperature data. For further details about the scope and contents of R and D are following: development of H/W that is necessary to acquire operating real time data of heating and hydraulic power, selection of a safety variable about major system by each type (the fourth unit), communication protocol development for connecting between CARE system data base server and fatigue monitoring system data base server, development of connecting database for controlling and storing of heating and hydraulic power operating data, real time monitoring system development based on web using JAVA.

  12. Development of a web-based monitoring system using operation parameters for the main component in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Dong Chan; An, Kung Il; Hong, Suk Young; Lee, Jeong Soo; Jung, Duk Jin; Shin, Sun Hee; Son, So Hee [Daesang Information Technology Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    The frequency of the damage is increasing, which is caused by the fatigue, according to the increase of running of nuclear power plants. So we need to acquire the reliance of design data to estimate the fatigue and damage of major machinery that might happen as time-dependent crack growth characterization. The research is focused on keeping operating record of nuclear power plants about major machinery which consists of a nuclear reactor pressure boarder on each excessive operating condition including normal operating and extraordinary operating by estimating fracture mechanical movements on real time and fatigue about major nuclear power plants machinery, which are acquired the pressure and temperature data. For further details about the scope and contents of R and D are following. Development of H/W that is necessary to acquire operating real time data of heating and hydraulic power. Selection of a safety variable about major system by each type (the four NPP, all unit). Communication protocol development for connecting between CARE system data base server and fatigue monitoring system data base server. Development of connecting database for controlling and storing of heating and hydraulic power operating data. Real time monitoring system development based on Web using JAVA.

  13. Magnetic Fusion Energy Plasma Interactive and High Heat Flux Components: Volume 5, Technical assessment of critical issues in the steady state operation of fusion confinement devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    Critical issues for the steady state operation of plasma confinement devices exist in both the physics and technology fields of fusion research. Due to the wide range and number of these issues, this technical assessment has focused on the crucial issues associated with the plasma physics and the plasma interactive components. The document provides information on the problem areas that affect the design and operation of a steady state ETR or ITER type confinement device. It discusses both tokamaks and alternative concepts, and provides a survey of existing and planned confinement machines and laboratory facilities that can address the identified issues. A universal definition of steady state operation is difficult to obtain. From a physics point of view, steady state is generally achieved when the time derivatives approach zero and the operation time greatly exceeds the characteristic time constants of the device. Steady state operation for materials depends on whether thermal stress, creep, fatigue, radiation damage, or power removal are being discussed. For erosion issues, the fluence and availability of the machine for continuous operation are important, assuming that transient events such as disruptions do not limit the component lifetimes. The panel suggests, in general terms, that steady state requires plasma operation from 100 to 1000 seconds and an availability of more than a few percent, which is similar to the expectations for an ETR type device. The assessment of critical issues for steady state operation is divided into four sections: physics issues; technology issues; issues in alternative concepts; and devices and laboratory facilities that can address these problems.

  14. Magnetic Fusion Energy Plasma Interactive and High Heat Flux Components: Volume 5, Technical assessment of critical issues in the steady state operation of fusion confinement devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Critical issues for the steady state operation of plasma confinement devices exist in both the physics and technology fields of fusion research. Due to the wide range and number of these issues, this technical assessment has focused on the crucial issues associated with the plasma physics and the plasma interactive components. The document provides information on the problem areas that affect the design and operation of a steady state ETR or ITER type confinement device. It discusses both tokamaks and alternative concepts, and provides a survey of existing and planned confinement machines and laboratory facilities that can address the identified issues. A universal definition of steady state operation is difficult to obtain. From a physics point of view, steady state is generally achieved when the time derivatives approach zero and the operation time greatly exceeds the characteristic time constants of the device. Steady state operation for materials depends on whether thermal stress, creep, fatigue, radiation damage, or power removal are being discussed. For erosion issues, the fluence and availability of the machine for continuous operation are important, assuming that transient events such as disruptions do not limit the component lifetimes. The panel suggests, in general terms, that steady state requires plasma operation from 100 to 1000 seconds and an availability of more than a few percent, which is similar to the expectations for an ETR type device. The assessment of critical issues for steady state operation is divided into four sections: physics issues; technology issues; issues in alternative concepts; and devices and laboratory facilities that can address these problems

  15. Institutional Strength in Depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weightman, M.

    2016-01-01

    Much work has been undertaken in order to identify, learn and implement the lessons from the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident. These have mainly targeted on engineering or operational lessons. Less attention has been paid to the institutional lessons, although there have been some measures to improve individual peer reviews, particularly by the World Association of Nuclear Operators, and the authoritative IAEA report published in 2015 brought forward several important lessons for regulators and advocated a system approach. The report noted that one of the contributing factors the accident was the tendency of stakeholders not to challenge. Additionally, it reported deficiencies in the regulatory authority and system. Earlier, the root cause of the accident was identified by a Japanese independent parliamentary report as being cultural and institutional. The sum total of the institutions, the safety system, was ineffective. While it is important to address the many technical and operational lessons these may not necessary address this more fundamental lesson, and may not serve to provide robust defences against human or institutional failings over a wide variety of possible events and combinations. The overall lesson is that we can have rigorous and comprehensive safety standards and other tools in place to deliver high levels of safety, but ultimately what is important is the ability of the nuclear safety system to ensure that the relevant institutions diligently and effectively apply those standards and tools — to be robust and resilient. This has led to the consideration of applying the principles of the strength in depth philosophy to a nuclear safety system as a way of providing a framework for developing, assessing, reviewing and improving the system. At an IAEA conference in October 2013, a model was presented for a robust national nuclear safety system based on strength in depth philosophy. The model highlighted three main layers: industry, the

  16. 47 CFR 25.252 - Special requirements for ancillary terrestrial components operating in the 2000-2020 MHz/2180...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., including takeoff and landing paths. (5) Exceed an aggregate power flux density of −51.8 dBW/m2 in a 1.23 MHz bandwidth at all airport runways and aircraft stand areas, including takeoff and landing paths and...) Be located less than 820 meters from a U.S. Earth Station facility operating in the 2200-2290 MHz...

  17. A 3D visualization of the substituent effect : A brief analysis of two components of the operational formula of dual descriptor for open-shell systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Araya, Jorge I; Yepes, Diana; Jaque, Pablo

    2017-12-27

    Six organometallic compounds coming from a basic Mo-based complex were analyzed from the perspective of the dual descriptor in order to detect subtle influences that a substituent group could exert on the reactive core at a long range. Since the aforementioned complexes are open-shell systems, the used operational formula for the dual descriptor is that one defined for those aforementioned systems, which was then compared with spin density. In addition, dual descriptor was decomposed into two terms, each of which was also applied on every molecular system. The obtained results indicated that components of dual descriptor could become more useful than the operational formula of dual descriptor because differences exerted by the substituents at the para position were better detected by components of dual descriptor rather than the dual descriptor by itself.

  18. Operating experiences with heat-exchanging components of a semi-technical pilot plant for steam gasification of coal using heat from HTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchhoff, R.; Heek, K.H. van

    1984-01-01

    within the framework of the PNP- Project, a semi-technical plant for the development of a process of coal gasification by means of nuclear heat was operated. Here gasification is for the first time implemented in a fluidized bed using heat of an electrically heated helium cycle at pressure up to 40 bar and temperatures normal for HTR. The plant serves for testing and developing various components as immersion heater, insulations, dosing devices, and for compiling sound data for further planning

  19. IAEA-NULIFE VERLIFE - Procedure for integrity and lifetime assessment of components and piping in WWER NPPs during operation - Tool for LTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumovsky, M.

    2012-01-01

    VERLIFE - 'Unified Procedure for Lifetime Assessment of Components and Piping in WWER NPPs during Operation' was developed within the 5th Framework Programme of the European Union in 2003 and later upgraded within the 6th Framework Programme 'COVERS - Safety of WWER NPPs' of the European Union in 2008. This Procedure had to fill the gap in original Soviet/Russian Codes and Rules for WWER type NPPs, as these codes were developed only for design and manufacture and were not changed since their second edition in 1989. VERLIFE Procedure is based on these Russian codes but incorporates also new developments in research, mainly in fracture mechanics, and also some principal approaches used in PWR codes. To assure that VERLIFE Procedure will remain a living document, new 3-years IAEA project (in close cooperation with another project of the 6th Framework Programme of the European Union 'NULIFE - Plant Life Management of NPPs') has started in 2009. Final document, was approved by expert groups of the IAEA and NULIFE in June 28-30, 2011, and will be issued as 'IAEA/NULIFE Guidelines for Integrity and Lifetime Assessment of Components and Piping in WWER NPPs during Operation'. This document represents a necessary part for any integrity and lifetime assessment during operation that is a bases for further decision about safe and potential long term operation. To prepare documents like TLAA, it is necessary to have a tool that is able to evaluate lifetime of the main NPP components taking into account existing past operation as well as proposal for the future. (author)

  20. Do post-operative changes of neck-shaft angle and femoral component anteversion have an effect on clinical outcome following uncemented total hip arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M; Abdel, M P; Wassilew, G I; Duda, G; Perka, C

    2015-12-01

    The accurate reconstruction of hip anatomy and biomechanics is thought to be important in achieveing good clinical outcomes following total hip arthroplasty (THA). To this end some newer hip designs have introduced further modularity into the design of the femoral component such that neck-shaft angle and anteversion, which can be adjusted intra-operatively. The clinical effect of this increased modularity is unknown. We have investigated the changes in these anatomical parameters following conventional THA with a prosthesis of predetermined neck-shaft angle and assessed the effect of changes in the hip anatomy on clinical outcomes. In total, 44 patients (mean age 65.3 years (standard deviation (SD) 7); 17 male/27 female; mean body mass index 26.9 (kg/m²) (SD 3.1)) underwent a pre- and post-operative three-dimensional CT scanning of the hip. The pre- and post-operative neck-shaft angle, offset, hip centre of rotation, femoral anteversion, and stem alignment were measured. Additionally, a functional assessment and pain score were evaluated before surgery and at one year post-operatively and related to the post-operative anatomical changes. The mean pre-operative neck-shaft angle was significantly increased by 2.8° from 128° (SD 6.2; 119° to 147°) to 131° (SD 2.1; 127° to 136°) (p = 0.009). The mean pre-operative anteversion was 24.9° (SD 8; 7.9 to 39.1) and reduced to 7.4° (SD 7.3; -11.6° to 25.9°) post-operatively (p shaft angles was found with a significant decrease of the post-operative anteversion and slight increase of the neck-shaft angles, but without any impact on clinical outcome. ©2015 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  1. Statistical and time domain signal analysis of the thermal behaviour of wind turbine drive train components under dynamic operation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nienhaus, K; Baltes, R; Bernet, C; Hilbert, M

    2012-01-01

    Gearboxes and generators are fundamental components of all electrical machines and the backbone of all electricity generation. Since the wind energy represents one of the key energy sources of the future, the number of wind turbines installed worldwide is rapidly increasing. Unlike in the past wind turbines are more often positioned in arctic as well as in desert like regions, and thereby exposed to harsh environmental conditions. Especially the temperature in those regions is a key factor that defines the design and choice of components and materials of the drive train. To optimize the design and health monitoring under varying temperatures it is important to understand the thermal behaviour dependent on environmental and machine parameters. This paper investigates the behaviour of the stator temperature of the double fed induction generator of a wind turbine. Therefore, different scenarios such as start of the turbine after a long period of no load, stop of the turbine after a long period of full load and others are isolated and analysed. For each scenario the dependences of the temperature on multiple wind turbine parameters such as power, speed and torque are studied. With the help of the regression analysis for multiple variables, it is pointed out which parameters have high impact on the thermal behaviour. Furthermore, an analysis was done to study the dependences in the time domain. The research conducted is based on 10 months of data of a 2 MW wind turbine using an adapted data acquisition system for high sampled data. The results appear promising, and lead to a better understanding of the thermal behaviour of a wind turbine drive train. Furthermore, the results represent the base of future research of drive trains under harsh environmental conditions, and it can be used to improve the fault diagnosis and design of electrical machines.

  2. Randomized prospective study comparing tri-cortical iliac crest autograft to allograft in the lateral column lengthening component for operative correction of adult acquired flatfoot deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Christopher M; Henning, Jeffrey A; Anderson, John G; Bohay, Donald R; Kornmesser, Marc J; Endres, Terrence J

    2007-01-01

    Operative treatment of stage II posterior tibial tendon insufficiency (PTTI) is controversial. Many soft-tissue and bony procedures and various combinations of the two have been reported for treatment of stage II PTTI. Orthopaedists recognize the lateral column lengthening component of the procedure as a successful reconstructive technique. The use of cortical allograft for lateral column lengthening in the correction of pes planus in the pediatric patient population has been routine. In the adult population, however, tricortical iliac crest autograft has been the bone graft of choice. Harvest of this autograft can precipitate significant morbidity and cost. Therefore, we undertook this randomized controlled trial to compare graft incorporation and healing of allograft and autograft in the lateral column lengthening component of adult flatfoot reconstruction. Lateral column lengthening was done as a component of operative correction for stage II PTTI in adult patients (older than 18 years) by two surgeons using similar procedures. The patients were randomized to either the allograft or autograft procedures. The primary endpoint was graft incorporation and healing as assessed by radiographs. The study included 33 randomized feet in 31 patients. We followed 18 feet in the allograft group and 15 in the autograft group to the point of union. There were 21 women and 10 men. There were no delayed unions, nonunions, or hardware failures. All patients in both groups achieved bony union by the 12-week followup evaluation. Two superficial foot infections were successfully treated with oral antibiotics. Two patients in the autograft group continued to have hip donor site pain at 3 months. This study suggests that union rates of allograft and autograft (iliac crest bone graft) are equal. The use of allograft in the lateral column lengthening component of operative correction of adult stage II PTTI appears to be a viable alternative to the use of iliac crest autograft and

  3. Investigation of irradiation effects on highly integrated leading-edge electronic components of diagnostics and control systems for LHD deuterium operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, K.; Nishitani, T.; Isobe, M.; Murata, I.; Hatano, Y.; Matsuyama, S.; Nakanishi, H.; Mukai, K.; Sato, M.; Yokota, M.; Kobuchi, T.; Nishimura, T.; Osakabe, M.

    2017-08-01

    High-temperature and high-density plasmas are achieved by means of real-time control, fast diagnostic, and high-power heating systems. Those systems are precisely controlled via highly integrated electronic components, but can be seriously affected by radiation damage. Therefore, the effects of irradiation on currently used electronic components should be investigated for the control and measurement of Large Helical Device (LHD) deuterium plasmas. For the precise estimation of the radiation field in the LHD torus hall, the MCNP6 code is used with the cross-section library ENDF B-VI. The geometry is modeled on the computer-aided design. The dose on silicon, which is a major ingredient of electronic components, over nine years of LHD deuterium operation shows that the gamma-ray contribution is dominant. Neutron irradiation tests were performed in the OKTAVIAN at Osaka University and the Fast Neutron Laboratory at Tohoku University. Gamma-ray irradiation tests were performed at the Nagoya University Cobalt-60 irradiation facility. We found that there are ethernet connection failures of programmable logic controller (PLC) modules due to neutron irradiation with a neutron flux of 3  ×  106 cm-2 s-1. This neutron flux is equivalent to that expected at basement level in the LHD torus hall without a neutron shield. Most modules of the PLC are broken around a gamma-ray dose of 100 Gy. This is comparable with the dose in the LHD torus hall over nine years. If we consider the dose only, these components may survive more than nine years. For the safety of the LHD operation, the electronic components in the torus hall have been rearranged.

  4. Patient-specific positioning guides for total knee arthroplasty: no significant difference between final component alignment and pre-operative digital plan except for tibial rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonen, Bert; Schotanus, Martijn G M; Kerens, Bart; Hulsmans, Frans-Jan; Tuinebreijer, Wim E; Kort, Nanne P

    2017-09-01

    To assess whether there is a significant difference between the alignment of the individual femoral and tibial components (in the frontal, sagittal and horizontal planes) as calculated pre-operatively (digital plan) and the actually achieved alignment in vivo obtained with the use of patient-specific positioning guides (PSPGs) for TKA. It was hypothesised that there would be no difference between post-op implant position and pre-op digital plan. Twenty-six patients were included in this non-inferiority trial. Software permitted matching of the pre-operative MRI scan (and therefore calculated prosthesis position) to a pre-operative CT scan and then to a post-operative full-leg CT scan to determine deviations from pre-op planning in all three anatomical planes. For the femoral component, mean absolute deviations from planning were 1.8° (SD 1.3), 2.5° (SD 1.6) and 1.6° (SD 1.4) in the frontal, sagittal and transverse planes, respectively. For the tibial component, mean absolute deviations from planning were 1.7° (SD 1.2), 1.7° (SD 1.5) and 3.2° (SD 3.6) in the frontal, sagittal and transverse planes, respectively. Absolute mean deviation from planned mechanical axis was 1.9°. The a priori specified null hypothesis for equivalence testing: the difference from planning is >3 or plan in all planes, except for the tibial rotation in the transverse plane. Possible explanations for outliers are discussed and highlight the importance for adequate training surgeons before they start using PSPG in their day-by-day practise. Prospective cohort study, Level II.

  5. Validation of activity determination codes and nuclide vectors by using results from processing of retired components and operational waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, Klas; Larsson, Arne

    2012-01-01

    Decommissioning studies for nuclear power reactors are performed in order to assess the decommissioning costs and the waste volumes as well as to provide data for the licensing and construction of the LILW repositories. An important part of this work is to estimate the amount of radioactivity in the different types of decommissioning waste. Studsvik ALARA Engineering has performed such assessments for LWRs and other nuclear facilities in Sweden. These assessments are to a large content depending on calculations, senior experience and sampling on the facilities. The precision in the calculations have been found to be relatively high close to the reactor core. Of natural reasons the precision will decline with the distance. Even if the activity values are lower the content of hard to measure nuclides can cause problems in the long term safety demonstration of LLW repositories. At the same time Studsvik is processing significant volumes of metallic and combustible waste from power stations in operation and in decommissioning phase as well as from other nuclear facilities such as research and waste treatment facilities. Combining the unique knowledge in assessment of radioactivity inventory and the large data bank the waste processing represents the activity determination codes can be validated and the waste processing analysis supported with additional data. The intention with this presentation is to highlight how the European nuclear industry jointly could use the waste processing data for validation of activity determination codes. (authors)

  6. Development of K-Basin High-Strength Homogeneous Sludge Simulants and Correlations Between Unconfined Compressive Strength and Shear Strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Yasuo; Baer, Ellen BK; Chun, Jaehun; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Sande, Susan; Buchmiller, William C.

    2011-02-20

    K-Basin sludge will be stored in the Sludge Transport and Storage Containers (STSCs) at an interim storage location on Central Plateau before being treated and packaged for disposal. During the storage period, sludge in the STSCs may consolidate/agglomerate, potentially resulting in high-shear-strength material. The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) plans to use water jets to retrieve K-Basin sludge after the interim storage. STP has identified shear strength to be a key parameter that should be bounded to verify the operability and performance of sludge retrieval systems. Determining the range of sludge shear strength is important to gain high confidence that a water-jet retrieval system can mobilize stored K-Basin sludge from the STSCs. The shear strength measurements will provide a basis for bounding sludge properties for mobilization and erosion. Thus, it is also important to develop potential simulants to investigate these phenomena. Long-term sludge storage tests conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) show that high-uranium-content K-Basin sludge can self-cement and form a strong sludge with a bulk shear strength of up to 65 kPa. Some of this sludge has 'paste' and 'chunks' with shear strengths of approximately 3-5 kPa and 380-770 kPa, respectively. High-uranium-content sludge samples subjected to hydrothermal testing (e.g., 185 C, 10 hours) have been observed to form agglomerates with a shear strength up to 170 kPa. These high values were estimated by measured unconfined compressive strength (UCS) obtained with a pocket penetrometer. Due to its ease of use, it is anticipated that a pocket penetrometer will be used to acquire additional shear strength data from archived K-Basin sludge samples stored at the PNNL Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) hot cells. It is uncertain whether the pocket penetrometer provides accurate shear strength measurements of the material. To assess the bounding material strength and

  7. Strength characterization of tubular ceramic materials by flexure of semi-cylindrical specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwok, Kawai; Kiesel, Lutz; Frandsen, Henrik Lund

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical strength at elevated temperatures and operating atmospheres needs to be characterized during development of tubular ceramic components for advanced energy technologies. Typical procedures are time-consuming because a large number of tests are required for a reliable statistical strength...... characterization and every specimen has to be subjected to the process conditions individually. This paper presents an efficient strength characterization methodology for tubular ceramics. The methodology employs flexure of semi-cylindrical specimens as the strength test and implements the tests within a facility...... conducted on oxygen transport membrane materials at room temperature and 850°C....

  8. The Worker Component At The World Trade Center Cleanup: Addressing Cultural And Language Differences In Emergency Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, B.; Carpenter, C.; Blair. D.

    2003-02-24

    On September 11, 2001, the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center (WTC) caused astronomical loss of life and property. Systems in place to manage disaster response were strained to the limit because key first responders were among the casualties when the twin towers collapsed. In addition, the evolution of events required immediate response in a rapidly changing and extremely hazardous situation. Rescue, recovery, and clean up became an overpowering and sustained effort that would utilize the resources of federal, state and local governments and agencies. One issue during the response to the WTC disaster site that did not receive much attention was that of the limited and non-English speaking worker. The Operating Engineers National HAZMAT Program (OENHP), with its history of a Hispanic Outreach Program, was acutely aware of this issue with the Hispanic worker. The Hispanic population comprises approximately 27% of the population of New York City (1). The extremely unfortunate and tragic events of that day provided an opportunity to not only provide assistance for the Hispanic workers, but also to apply lessons learned and conduct studies on worker training with language barriers in a real life environment. However, due to the circumstances surrounding this tragedy, the study of these issues was conducted primarily by observation. Through partnerships with other organizations such as the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the New York Health Department, the New York Department of Design and Construction (DDC), the New York Committee for Occupational Safety and Health (NYCOSH), and private companies such as 3M and MSA, OENHP was able to provide translated information on hazards, protective measures, fit testing of respirators, and site specific safety and health training. The OENHP translated materials on hazards and how to protect workers into Spanish to assist in getting the information to the limited and non- English speaking workers.

  9. Risk factors for post-operative periprosthetic fractures following primary total hip arthroplasty with a proximally coated double-tapered cementless femoral component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromov, K; Bersang, A; Nielsen, C S

    2017-01-01

    ratio were recorded post-operatively. Periprosthetic fractures were identified and classified according to the Vancouver classification. Regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors for early periprosthetic fracture. RESULTS: The mean follow-up was 713 days (1 to 2058). A total of 48......AIMS: The aim of this study was to identify patient- and surgery-related risk factors for sustaining an early periprosthetic fracture following primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) performed using a double-tapered cementless femoral component (Bi-Metric femoral stem; Biomet Inc., Warsaw, Indiana...... periprosthetic fractures (3.0%) were identified during the follow-up and median time until fracture was 16 days, (interquartile range 10 to 31.5). Patients with femoral Dorr type C had a 5.2 times increased risk of post-operative periprosthetic fracture compared with type B, while female patients had a near...

  10. Effects of glovebox gloves on grip and key pinch strength and contact forces for simulated manual operations with three commonly used hand tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Peng-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of glovebox gloves for 11 females on maximum grip and key pinch strength and on contact forces generated from simulated tasks of a roller, a pair of tweezers and a crescent wrench. The independent variables were gloves fabricated of butyl, CSM/hypalon and neoprene materials; two glove thicknesses; and layers of gloves worn including single, double and triple gloving. CSM/hypalon and butyl gloves produced greater grip strength than the neoprene gloves. CSM/hypalon gloves also lowered contact forces for roller and wrench tasks. Single gloving and thin gloves improved hand strength performances. However, triple layers lowered contact forces for all tasks. Based on the evaluating results, selection and design recommendations of gloves for three hand tools were provided to minimise the effects on hand strength and optimise protection of the palmar hand in glovebox environments. To improve safety and health in the glovebox environments where gloves usage is a necessity, this study provides recommendations for selection and design of glovebox gloves for three hand tools including a roller, a pair of tweezers and a crescent wrench based on the results discovered in the experiments.

  11. Final environmental impact statement for the continued operation of the Pantex Plant and associated storage of nuclear weapon components. Volume 1 -- Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    This document assesses the potential environmental impacts over approximately 10 years of continued operation of Pantex Plant, including foreseeable projects and activities. For Pantex Plant, this document assesses the alternatives of No Action, Relocation of the storage of plutonium components (pits) resulting from nuclear weapon disassembly activities at Pantex Plant to another site, and the Proposed Action (Preferred Alternative) of continuing operations and increasing the quantity of pits in interim storage at Pantex Plant. For the Pit Storage Relocation Alternative, this document also assesses the potential environmental impacts to three DOE candidate sites and one Department of Defense candidate site that could be selected for the relocation of the nuclear component storage activities from Pantex Plant. Evaluations of site infrastructure, land resources, geology and soils, water resources, air quality, acoustics, biotic resources, cultural resources, socio-economic resources, intrasite transportation, waste management, human health, aircraft accidents, and environmental justice for Pantex Plant and the candidate sites are included in the assessment. The intersite transportation of nuclear and hazardous materials is also assessed

  12. Overall Key Performance Indicator to Optimizing Operation of High-Pressure Homogenizers for a Reliable Quantification of Intracellular Components in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ortega, Xavier; Reyes, Cecilia; Montesinos, José Luis; Valero, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The most commonly used cell disruption procedures may present lack of reproducibility, which introduces significant errors in the quantification of intracellular components. In this work, an approach consisting in the definition of an overall key performance indicator (KPI) was implemented for a lab scale high-pressure homogenizer (HPH) in order to determine the disruption settings that allow the reliable quantification of a wide sort of intracellular components. This innovative KPI was based on the combination of three independent reporting indicators: decrease of absorbance, release of total protein, and release of alkaline phosphatase activity. The yeast Pichia pastoris growing on methanol was selected as model microorganism due to it presents an important widening of the cell wall needing more severe methods and operating conditions than Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. From the outcome of the reporting indicators, the cell disruption efficiency achieved using HPH was about fourfold higher than other lab standard cell disruption methodologies, such bead milling cell permeabilization. This approach was also applied to a pilot plant scale HPH validating the methodology in a scale-up of the disruption process. This innovative non-complex approach developed to evaluate the efficacy of a disruption procedure or equipment can be easily applied to optimize the most common disruption processes, in order to reach not only reliable quantification but also recovery of intracellular components from cell factories of interest.

  13. IAEA Coordinated Research Project on the Establishment of a Material Properties Database for Irradiated Core Structural Components for Continued Safe Operation and Lifetime Extension of Ageing Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borio Di Tigliole, A.; Schaaf, Van Der; Barnea, Y.; Bradley, E.; Morris, C.; Rao, D. V. H. [Research Reactor Section, Vianna (Australia); Shokr, A. [Research Reactor Safety Section, Vienna (Australia); Zeman, A. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Australia)

    2013-07-01

    Today more than 50% of operating Research Reactors (RRs) are over 45 years old. Thus, ageing management is one of the most important issues to face in order to ensure availability (including life extension), reliability and safe operation of these facilities for the future. Management of the ageing process requires, amongst others, the predictions for the behavior of structural materials of primary components subjected to irradiation such as reactor vessel and core support structures, many of which are extremely difficult or impossible to replace. In fact, age-related material degradation mechanisms resulted in high profile, unplanned and lengthy shutdowns and unique regulatory processes of relicensing the facilities in recent years. These could likely have been prevented by utilizing available data for the implementation of appropriate maintenance and surveillance programmes. This IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) will provide an international forum to establish a material properties Database for irradiated core structural materials and components. It is expected that this Database will be used by research reactor operators and regulators to help predict ageing related degradation. This would be useful to minimize unpredicted outages due to ageing processes of primary components and to mitigate lengthy and costly shutdowns. The Database will be a compilation of data from RRs operators' inputs, comprehensive literature reviews and experimental data from RRs. Moreover, the CRP will specify further activities needed to be addressed in order to bridge the gaps in the new created Database, for potential follow-on activities. As per today, 13 Member States (MS) confirmed their agreement to contribute to the development of the Database, covering a wide number of materials and properties. The present publication incorporates two parts: the first part includes details on the pre-CRP Questionnaire, including the conclusions drawn from the answers received from

  14. IAEA Coordinated Research Project on the Establishment of a Material Properties Database for Irradiated Core Structural Components for Continued Safe Operation and Lifetime Extension of Ageing Research Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borio Di Tigliole, A.; Schaaf, Van Der; Barnea, Y.; Bradley, E.; Morris, C.; Rao, D. V. H.; Shokr, A.; Zeman, A.

    2013-01-01

    Today more than 50% of operating Research Reactors (RRs) are over 45 years old. Thus, ageing management is one of the most important issues to face in order to ensure availability (including life extension), reliability and safe operation of these facilities for the future. Management of the ageing process requires, amongst others, the predictions for the behavior of structural materials of primary components subjected to irradiation such as reactor vessel and core support structures, many of which are extremely difficult or impossible to replace. In fact, age-related material degradation mechanisms resulted in high profile, unplanned and lengthy shutdowns and unique regulatory processes of relicensing the facilities in recent years. These could likely have been prevented by utilizing available data for the implementation of appropriate maintenance and surveillance programmes. This IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) will provide an international forum to establish a material properties Database for irradiated core structural materials and components. It is expected that this Database will be used by research reactor operators and regulators to help predict ageing related degradation. This would be useful to minimize unpredicted outages due to ageing processes of primary components and to mitigate lengthy and costly shutdowns. The Database will be a compilation of data from RRs operators' inputs, comprehensive literature reviews and experimental data from RRs. Moreover, the CRP will specify further activities needed to be addressed in order to bridge the gaps in the new created Database, for potential follow-on activities. As per today, 13 Member States (MS) confirmed their agreement to contribute to the development of the Database, covering a wide number of materials and properties. The present publication incorporates two parts: the first part includes details on the pre-CRP Questionnaire, including the conclusions drawn from the answers received from the MS

  15. Crack growth behaviour of low-alloy steels for pressure boundary components under transient light water reactor operating conditions - CASTOC, Part I: BWR/NWC conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, S.; Seifert, H.P.; Devrient, B.; Roth, A.; Ehrnsten, U.; Ernestova, M.; Zamboch, M.; Foehl, J.; Weissenberg, T.; Gomez-Briceno, D.; Lapena, J.

    2004-01-01

    One of the ageing phenomena of pressure boundary components of light water reactors (LWR) is environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC). The project CASTOC (5. Framework Programme of the EU) was launched September 2000 with six European partners and terminated August 2003. It was focused in particular on the EAC behaviour of low-alloy steels (LAS) and to some extent to weld metal, heat affected zone and the influence of an austenitic cladding. The main objective was directed to the clarification of EAC crack growth behaviour/mechanism of LAS in high-temperature water under steady-state power operation (constant load) and transient operating conditions (e.g., start-up/shut-down, transients in water chemistry and load). Autoclave tests were performed with Western and Russian type reactor pressure vessel steels under simulated boiling water reactor (BWR)/normal water chemistry (NWC) and pressurised water reactor (VVER) conditions. The investigations were performed with fracture mechanics specimens of different sizes and geometries. The applied loading comprised cyclic loads, static loads and load spectra where the static load was periodically interrupted by partial unloading. With regard to water chemistry, the oxygen content (VVER) and impurities of sulphate and chlorides (BWR) were varied beyond allowable limits for continuous operation. The current paper summarises the most important crack growth results obtained under simulated BWR/NWC conditions. The results are discussed in the context of the current crack growth rate curves in the corresponding nuclear codes. (authors)

  16. Crack growth behaviour of low-alloy steels for pressure boundary components under transient light water reactor operating conditions - CASTOC, Part I: BWR/NWC conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, S.; Seifert, H.P. [Paul Scherrer Institute, PSI, Villigen (Switzerland); Devrient, B.; Roth, A. [Framatome ANP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Ehrnsten, U. [VTT Industrial Systems, Espoo (Finland); Ernestova, M.; Zamboch, M. [Nuclear Research Institute, NRI, Rez (Czech Republic); Foehl, J.; Weissenberg, T. [Staatliche Materialpruefungsanstalt, MPA, Stuttgart (Germany); Gomez-Briceno, D.; Lapena, J. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    One of the ageing phenomena of pressure boundary components of light water reactors (LWR) is environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC). The project CASTOC (5. Framework Programme of the EU) was launched September 2000 with six European partners and terminated August 2003. It was focused in particular on the EAC behaviour of low-alloy steels (LAS) and to some extent to weld metal, heat affected zone and the influence of an austenitic cladding. The main objective was directed to the clarification of EAC crack growth behaviour/mechanism of LAS in high-temperature water under steady-state power operation (constant load) and transient operating conditions (e.g., start-up/shut-down, transients in water chemistry and load). Autoclave tests were performed with Western and Russian type reactor pressure vessel steels under simulated boiling water reactor (BWR)/normal water chemistry (NWC) and pressurised water reactor (VVER) conditions. The investigations were performed with fracture mechanics specimens of different sizes and geometries. The applied loading comprised cyclic loads, static loads and load spectra where the static load was periodically interrupted by partial unloading. With regard to water chemistry, the oxygen content (VVER) and impurities of sulphate and chlorides (BWR) were varied beyond allowable limits for continuous operation. The current paper summarises the most important crack growth results obtained under simulated BWR/NWC conditions. The results are discussed in the context of the current crack growth rate curves in the corresponding nuclear codes. (authors)

  17. Adaptive operational modal identification for slow linear time-varying structures based on frozen-in coefficient method and limited memory recursive principal component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Guan, Wei; Wang, J. Y.; Zhong, Bineng; Lai, Xiongming; Chen, Yewang; Xiang, Liang

    2018-02-01

    To adaptively identify the transient modal parameters for linear weakly damped structures with slow time-varying characteristics under unmeasured stationary random ambient loads, this paper proposes a novel operational modal analysis (OMA) method based on the frozen-in coefficient method and limited memory recursive principal component analysis (LMRPCA). In the modal coordinate, the random vibration response signals of mechanical weakly damped structures can be decomposed into the inner product of modal shapes and modal responses, from which the natural frequencies and damping ratios can be well acquired by single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) identification approach such as FFT. Hence, for the OMA method based on principal component analysis (PCA), it becomes very crucial to examine the relation between the transformational matrix and the modal shapes matrix, to find the association between the principal components (PCs) matrix and the modal responses matrix, and to turn the operational modal parameter identification problem into PCA of the stationary random vibration response signals of weakly damped mechanical structures. Based on the theory of "time-freezing", the method of frozen-in coefficient, and the assumption of "short time invariant" and "quasistationary", the non-stationary random response signals of the weakly damped and slow linear time-varying structures (LTV) can approximately be seen as the stationary random response time series of weakly damped and linear time invariant structures (LTI) in a short interval. Thus, the adaptive identification of time-varying operational modal parameters is turned into decompositing the PCs of stationary random vibration response signals subsection of weakly damped mechanical structures after choosing an appropriate limited memory window. Finally, a three-degree-of-freedom (DOF) structure with weakly damped and slow time-varying mass is presented to illustrate this method of identification. Results show that the LMRPCA

  18. Systematics of strength function sum rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvin W. Johnson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sum rules provide useful insights into transition strength functions and are often expressed as expectation values of an operator. In this letter I demonstrate that non-energy-weighted transition sum rules have strong secular dependences on the energy of the initial state. Such non-trivial systematics have consequences: the simplification suggested by the generalized Brink–Axel hypothesis, for example, does not hold for most cases, though it weakly holds in at least some cases for electric dipole transitions. Furthermore, I show the systematics can be understood through spectral distribution theory, calculated via traces of operators and of products of operators. Seen through this lens, violation of the generalized Brink–Axel hypothesis is unsurprising: one expects sum rules to evolve with excitation energy. Furthermore, to lowest order the slope of the secular evolution can be traced to a component of the Hamiltonian being positive (repulsive or negative (attractive.

  19. Attitude Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Lauren C; Krosnick, Jon A

    2017-01-03

    Attitude strength has been the focus of a huge volume of research in psychology and related sciences for decades. The insights offered by this literature have tremendous value for understanding attitude functioning and structure and for the effective application of the attitude concept in applied settings. This is the first Annual Review of Psychology article on the topic, and it offers a review of theory and evidence regarding one of the most researched strength-related attitude features: attitude importance. Personal importance is attached to an attitude when the attitude is perceived to be relevant to self-interest, social identification with reference groups or reference individuals, and values. Attaching personal importance to an attitude causes crystallizing of attitudes (via enhanced resistance to change), effortful gathering and processing of relevant information, accumulation of a large store of well-organized relevant information in long-term memory, enhanced attitude extremity and accessibility, enhanced attitude impact on the regulation of interpersonal attraction, energizing of emotional reactions, and enhanced impact of attitudes on behavioral intentions and action. Thus, important attitudes are real and consequential psychological forces, and their study offers opportunities for addressing behavioral change.

  20. WE-AB-BRA-07: Operating Room Quality Assurance (ORQA) for Spine Surgery Using Known-Component 3D-2D Image Registration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uneri, A; De Silva, T; Goerres, J; Jacobson, M; Ketcha, M; Reaungamornrat, S; Siewerdsen, J [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Kleinszig, G [Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Bayern (Germany); Vogt, S [Siemens Healthcare, Malvern, PA (United States); Khanna, A [Johns Hopkins Health Care and Surgery Center, Bethesda, MD (United States); Wolinsky, J [The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Intraoperative x-ray radiography/fluoroscopy is commonly used to qualitatively assess delivery of surgical devices (e.g., spine pedicle screws) but can fail to reliably detect suboptimal placement (e.g., breach of adjacent critical structures). We present a method wherein prior knowledge of the patient and surgical components is leveraged to match preoperative CT and intraoperative radiographs for quantitative assessment of 3D pose. The method presents a new means of operating room quantitative quality assurance (ORQA) that could improve quality and safety, and reduce the frequency of revision surgeries. Methods: The algorithm (known-component registration, KC-Reg) uses patient-specific preoperative CT and parametrically defined surgical component models within a robust 3D-2D registration method to iteratively optimize gradient similarity using the covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy. Advances from previous work address key challenges to clinical translation: i) absolving the need for offline geometric calibration of the C-arm; and ii) solving multiple component bodies simultaneously, thereby allowing QA in a single step (e.g., spinal construct with 4–20 screws), rather than sequential QA of each component. Performance was tested in a spine phantom with 10 pedicle screws, and first results from clinical studies are reported. Results: Phantom experiments demonstrated median target registration error (TRE) of (1.0±0.3) mm at the screw tip and (0.7°±0.4°) in angulation. The simultaneous multi-body registration approach improved TRE from the previous (sequential) method by 42%, reduced outliers, and fits into the natural workflow. Initial application of KC-Reg in clinical data shows TRE of (2.5±4.5) mm and (4.7°±0.5°). Conclusion: The KC-Reg algorithm offers a potentially valuable method for quantitative QA of the surgical product, using radiographic systems that are already within the surgical arsenal. For spine surgery, the method

  1. WE-AB-BRA-07: Operating Room Quality Assurance (ORQA) for Spine Surgery Using Known-Component 3D-2D Image Registration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uneri, A; De Silva, T; Goerres, J; Jacobson, M; Ketcha, M; Reaungamornrat, S; Siewerdsen, J; Kleinszig, G; Vogt, S; Khanna, A; Wolinsky, J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Intraoperative x-ray radiography/fluoroscopy is commonly used to qualitatively assess delivery of surgical devices (e.g., spine pedicle screws) but can fail to reliably detect suboptimal placement (e.g., breach of adjacent critical structures). We present a method wherein prior knowledge of the patient and surgical components is leveraged to match preoperative CT and intraoperative radiographs for quantitative assessment of 3D pose. The method presents a new means of operating room quantitative quality assurance (ORQA) that could improve quality and safety, and reduce the frequency of revision surgeries. Methods: The algorithm (known-component registration, KC-Reg) uses patient-specific preoperative CT and parametrically defined surgical component models within a robust 3D-2D registration method to iteratively optimize gradient similarity using the covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy. Advances from previous work address key challenges to clinical translation: i) absolving the need for offline geometric calibration of the C-arm; and ii) solving multiple component bodies simultaneously, thereby allowing QA in a single step (e.g., spinal construct with 4–20 screws), rather than sequential QA of each component. Performance was tested in a spine phantom with 10 pedicle screws, and first results from clinical studies are reported. Results: Phantom experiments demonstrated median target registration error (TRE) of (1.0±0.3) mm at the screw tip and (0.7°±0.4°) in angulation. The simultaneous multi-body registration approach improved TRE from the previous (sequential) method by 42%, reduced outliers, and fits into the natural workflow. Initial application of KC-Reg in clinical data shows TRE of (2.5±4.5) mm and (4.7°±0.5°). Conclusion: The KC-Reg algorithm offers a potentially valuable method for quantitative QA of the surgical product, using radiographic systems that are already within the surgical arsenal. For spine surgery, the method

  2. An external-cavity quantum cascade laser operating near 5.2 µm combined with cavity ring-down spectroscopy for multi-component chemical sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta Banik, Gourab; Maity, Abhijit; Som, Suman; Pal, Mithun; Pradhan, Manik

    2018-04-01

    We report on the performance of a widely tunable continuous wave mode-hop-free external-cavity quantum cascade laser operating at λ ~ 5.2 µm combined with cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) technique for high-resolution molecular spectroscopy. The CRDS system has been utilized for simultaneous and molecule-specific detection of several environmentally and bio-medically important trace molecular species such as nitric oxide, nitrous oxide, carbonyl sulphide and acetylene (C2H2) at ultra-low concentrations by probing numerous rotationally resolved ro-vibrational transitions in the mid-IR spectral region within a relatively small spectral range of ~0.035 cm-1. This continuous wave external-cavity quantum cascade laser-based multi-component CRDS sensor with high sensitivity and molecular specificity promises applications in environmental sensing as well as non-invasive medical diagnosis through human breath analysis.

  3. Relationship between the edgewise compression strength of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of this study were used to determine the linear regression constants in the Maltenfort model by correlating the measured board edgewise compression strength (ECT) with the predicted strength, using the paper components' compression strengths, measured with the short-span compression test (SCT) and the ...

  4. Mitigating component performance variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan G.; Sylvester, Steve S.; Eastep, Jonathan M.; Nagappan, Ramkumar; Cantalupo, Christopher M.

    2018-01-09

    Apparatus and methods may provide for characterizing a plurality of similar components of a distributed computing system based on a maximum safe operation level associated with each component and storing characterization data in a database and allocating non-uniform power to each similar component based at least in part on the characterization data in the database to substantially equalize performance of the components.

  5. Operating Experience Insights into Pipe Failures for Electro-Hydraulic Control and Instrument Air Systems in Nuclear Power Plant. A Topical Report from the Component Operational Experience, Degradation and Ageing Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Structural integrity of piping systems is important for plant safety and operability. In recognition of this, information on degradation and failure of piping components and systems is collected and evaluated by regulatory agencies, international organisations (e.g. OECD/NEA and IAEA) and industry organisations worldwide to provide systematic feedback for example to reactor regulation and research and development programmes associated with non-destructive examination (NDE) technology, in-service inspection (ISI) programmes, leak-before-break evaluations, risk-informed ISI, and probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) applications involving passive component reliability. Several OECD member countries have agreed to establish the OECD/NEA 'Component Operational Experience, Degradation and Ageing Programme' (CODAP) to encourage multilateral co-operation in the collection and analysis of data relating to degradation and failure of metallic piping and non-piping metallic passive components in commercial nuclear power plants. The scope of the data collection includes service-induced wall thinning, part through-wall cracks, through-wall cracks with and without active leakage, and instances of significant degradation of metallic passive components, including piping pressure boundary integrity. The OECD/NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) acts as an umbrella committee of the Project. CODAP is the continuation of the 2002-2011 'OECD/NEA Pipe Failure Data Exchange Project' (OPDE) and the Stress Corrosion Cracking Working Group of the 2006-2010 'OECD/NEA Stress Corrosion Cracking and Cable Ageing Project' (SCAP). OPDE was formally launched in May 2002. Upon completion of the third term (May 2011), the OPDE project was officially closed to be succeeded by CODAP. SCAP was enabled by a voluntary contribution from Japan. It was formally launched in June 2006 and officially closed with an international workshop held in Tokyo in May

  6. A Methodology for Modeling Nuclear Power Plant Passive Component Aging in Probabilistic Risk Assessment under the Impact of Operating Conditions, Surveillance and Maintenance Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler Yigitoglu, Askin

    In the context of long operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs) (i.e., 60-80 years, and beyond), investigation of the aging of passive systems, structures and components (SSCs) is important to assess safety margins and to decide on reactor life extension as indicated within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program. In the traditional probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodology, evaluating the potential significance of aging of passive SSCs on plant risk is challenging. Although passive SSC failure rates can be added as initiating event frequencies or basic event failure rates in the traditional event-tree/fault-tree methodology, these failure rates are generally based on generic plant failure data which means that the true state of a specific plant is not reflected in a realistic manner on aging effects. Dynamic PRA methodologies have gained attention recently due to their capability to account for the plant state and thus address the difficulties in the traditional PRA modeling of aging effects of passive components using physics-based models (and also in the modeling of digital instrumentation and control systems). Physics-based models can capture the impact of complex aging processes (e.g., fatigue, stress corrosion cracking, flow-accelerated corrosion, etc.) on SSCs and can be utilized to estimate passive SSC failure rates using realistic NPP data from reactor simulation, as well as considering effects of surveillance and maintenance activities. The objectives of this dissertation are twofold: The development of a methodology for the incorporation of aging modeling of passive SSC into a reactor simulation environment to provide a framework for evaluation of their risk contribution in both the dynamic and traditional PRA; and the demonstration of the methodology through its application to pressurizer surge line pipe weld and steam generator tubes in commercial nuclear power plants. In the proposed methodology, a

  7. Crack growth behaviour of low-alloy steels for pressure boundary components under transient light water reactor operating conditions - CASTOC, Part II: WWER conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernestova, M.; Zamboch, M. [Nuclear Research Institute, NRI, Rez (Czech Republic); Devrient, B.; Roth, A. [Framatome ANP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Ehrnsten, U. [VTT Industrial Systems, Espoo (Finland); Foehl, J.; Weissenberg, T. [Staatliche Materialpruefungsanstalt, MPA, Stuttgart (Germany); Gomez-Briceno, D.; Lapena, J. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Ritter, S.; Seifert, H.P. [Paul Scherrer Institute, PSI, Villigen (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    One of the ageing phenomena of pressure boundary components of light water reactors (LWRs) is environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC). The project CASTOC (5. Framework Programme of the EU) was launched September 2000 with six European partners and terminated August 2003. It focused in particular on the EAC behaviour of low-alloy steels (LAS) and to some extent to weld metal, heat affected zone and the influence of an austenitic cladding. The main objective was directed to the clarification of crack growth behavior of LAS in high-temperature water due to EAC under constant load (steady-state power operation), to study the effect of transient conditions (during operation or start-up/shut-down of a plant) using their impact on time-based and cycle-based crack growth rates and to a more detailed understanding of the acting mechanisms. Autoclave tests were performed with Western and Russian type reactor pressure vessel steels under simulated boiling water reactor (BWR)/normal water chemistry (NWC) and pressurized water reactor (WWER) conditions. The investigations were performed with fracture mechanics specimens of different sizes and geometries. The applied loading comprised cyclic loads, static loads and load spectra where the static load was periodically interrupted by partial unloading. With regard to water chemistry, the oxygen content (WWER) and impurities of sulphate and chlorides (BWR) were varied beyond allowable limits for continuous operation. The current paper summarizes the most important crack growth results obtained under simulated WWER conditions. The influence of oxygen content and the effect of specimen size (C(T)25 versus C(T)50 specimens) on the crack growth rates are shown. The results are discussed in the context of the current crack growth rate curves in the corresponding nuclear codes. (authors)

  8. Crack growth behaviour of low-alloy steels for pressure boundary components under transient light water reactor operating conditions - CASTOC, Part II: WWER conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernestova, M.; Zamboch, M.; Devrient, B.; Roth, A.; Ehrnsten, U.; Foehl, J.; Weissenberg, T.; Gomez-Briceno, D.; Lapena, J.; Ritter, S.; Seifert, H.P.

    2004-01-01

    One of the ageing phenomena of pressure boundary components of light water reactors (LWRs) is environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC). The project CASTOC (5. Framework Programme of the EU) was launched September 2000 with six European partners and terminated August 2003. It focused in particular on the EAC behaviour of low-alloy steels (LAS) and to some extent to weld metal, heat affected zone and the influence of an austenitic cladding. The main objective was directed to the clarification of crack growth behavior of LAS in high-temperature water due to EAC under constant load (steady-state power operation), to study the effect of transient conditions (during operation or start-up/shut-down of a plant) using their impact on time-based and cycle-based crack growth rates and to a more detailed understanding of the acting mechanisms. Autoclave tests were performed with Western and Russian type reactor pressure vessel steels under simulated boiling water reactor (BWR)/normal water chemistry (NWC) and pressurized water reactor (WWER) conditions. The investigations were performed with fracture mechanics specimens of different sizes and geometries. The applied loading comprised cyclic loads, static loads and load spectra where the static load was periodically interrupted by partial unloading. With regard to water chemistry, the oxygen content (WWER) and impurities of sulphate and chlorides (BWR) were varied beyond allowable limits for continuous operation. The current paper summarizes the most important crack growth results obtained under simulated WWER conditions. The influence of oxygen content and the effect of specimen size (C(T)25 versus C(T)50 specimens) on the crack growth rates are shown. The results are discussed in the context of the current crack growth rate curves in the corresponding nuclear codes. (authors)

  9. The Effect of Special Operations Training on Testosterone, Lean Body Mass, and Strength and the Potential for Therapeutic Testosterone Replacement: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    low bone mass, and physical frailty. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2010; 58(6):1134-1143. 22. Hildreth KL, Barry DW, Moreau KL, Vande Griend J, Meacham RB, et...88PA, Case # 2016-0120, 15 Jan 2016. 14. ABSTRACT Special Operations Forces (SOF) are routinely exposed to physically demanding missions that...deprivation, and decreased testosterone. A secondary purpose is to summarize the effects of exogenous testosterone therapy in healthy males as well as to

  10. Applying Least Absolute Shrinkage Selection Operator and Akaike Information Criterion Analysis to Find the Best Multiple Linear Regression Models between Climate Indices and Components of Cow's Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marami Milani, Mohammad Reza; Hense, Andreas; Rahmani, Elham; Ploeger, Angelika

    2016-07-23

    This study focuses on multiple linear regression models relating six climate indices (temperature humidity THI, environmental stress ESI, equivalent temperature index ETI, heat load HLI, modified HLI (HLI new ), and respiratory rate predictor RRP) with three main components of cow's milk (yield, fat, and protein) for cows in Iran. The least absolute shrinkage selection operator (LASSO) and the Akaike information criterion (AIC) techniques are applied to select the best model for milk predictands with the smallest number of climate predictors. Uncertainty estimation is employed by applying bootstrapping through resampling. Cross validation is used to avoid over-fitting. Climatic parameters are calculated from the NASA-MERRA global atmospheric reanalysis. Milk data for the months from April to September, 2002 to 2010 are used. The best linear regression models are found in spring between milk yield as the predictand and THI, ESI, ETI, HLI, and RRP as predictors with p -value < 0.001 and R ² (0.50, 0.49) respectively. In summer, milk yield with independent variables of THI, ETI, and ESI show the highest relation ( p -value < 0.001) with R ² (0.69). For fat and protein the results are only marginal. This method is suggested for the impact studies of climate variability/change on agriculture and food science fields when short-time series or data with large uncertainty are available.

  11. Simulation of a heavy-duty diesel engine with electrical turbocompounding system using operating charts for turbocharger components and power turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsanos, C.O.; Hountalas, D.T.; Zannis, T.C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A diesel model was developed using charts for turbocharger and power turbine. • The maximum value of bsfc improvement is 4.1% at 100% engine load. • The generated electric power ranges from 23 kW to 62 kW. • Turbocharger turbine efficiency decreases slightly with the power turbine speed. • Turbocompounding increases the average pressure value in the exhaust manifold. - Abstract: In diesel engines, approximately 30–40% of the energy supplied by the fuel is rejected to the ambience through exhaust gases. Therefore, there is a potentiality for further considerable increase of diesel engine efficiency with the utilization of exhaust gas heat and its conversion to mechanical or electrical energy. In the present study, the operational behavior of a heavy-duty (HD) diesel truck engine equipped with an electric turbocompounding system is examined on a theoretical basis. The electrical turbocompounding configuration comprised of a power turbine coupled to an electric generator, which is installed downstream to the turbocharger (T/C) turbine. A diesel engine simulation model has been developed using operating charts for both turbocharger and power turbine. A method for introducing the operating charts into the engine model is described thoroughly. A parametric analysis is conducted with the developed simulation tool, where the varying parameter is the rotational speed of power turbine shaft. In this study, the interaction between the power turbine and the turbocharged diesel engine is examined in detail. The effect of power turbine speed on T/C components efficiencies, power turbine efficiency, exhaust pressure and temperature, engine boost pressure and air to fuel ratio is evaluated. In addition, theoretical results for the potential impact of electrical turbocompounding on the generated electric power, net engine power and relative improvement of brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) are provided. The critical evaluation of the theoretical

  12. Bond strength of masonry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluijm, van der R.; Vermeltfoort, A.Th.

    1992-01-01

    Bond strength is not a well defined property of masonry. Normally three types of bond strength can be distinguished: - tensile bond strength, - shear (and torsional) bond strength, - flexural bond strength. In this contribution the behaviour and strength of masonry in deformation controlled uniaxial

  13. Permeability recovery of fouled forward osmosis membranes by chemical cleaning during a long-term operation of anaerobic osmotic membrane bioreactors treating low-strength wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinhua; Hu, Taozhan; Wang, Zhiwei; Li, Xiufen; Ren, Yueping

    2017-10-15

    Anaerobic osmotic membrane bioreactor (AnOMBR) has gained increasing interests in wastewater treatment owing to its simultaneous recovery of biogas and water. However, the forward osmosis (FO) membrane fouling was severe during a long-term operation of AnOMBRs. Here, we aim to recover the permeability of fouled FO membranes by chemical cleaning. Specifically speaking, an optimal chemical cleaning procedure was searched for fouled thin film composite polyamide FO (TFC-FO) membranes in a novel microfiltration (MF) assisted AnOMBR (AnMF-OMBR). The results indicated that citric acid, disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA-2Na), hydrochloric acid (HCl), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) had a low cleaning efficiency of less than 15%, while hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) could effectively remove foulants from the TFC-FO membrane surface (almost 100%) through oxidizing the functional group of the organic foulants and disintegrating the colloids and microbe flocs into fine particles. Nevertheless, the damage of H 2 O 2 to the TFC-FO membrane was observed when a high cleaning concentration and a long duration were applied. In this case, the optimal cleaning conditions including cleaning concentration and time for fouled TFC-FO membranes were selected through confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and the flux recovery rate. The results suggested that the optimal cleaning procedure for fouled TFC-FO membranes was use of 0.5% H 2 O 2 at 25 °C for 6 h, and after that, the cleaned TFC-FO membrane had the same performance as a virgin one including water flux and rejection for organic matters and phosphorus during the operation of AnMF-OMBR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Association Between Maximal Bench Press Strength and Isometric Handgrip Strength Among Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Benjamin H; Brown, Justin C; Gater, David R; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2017-02-01

    To characterize the relationship between 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) bench press strength and isometric handgrip strength among breast cancer survivors. Cross-sectional study. Laboratory. Community-dwelling breast cancer survivors (N=295). Not applicable. 1-RM bench press strength was measured with a barbell and exercise bench. Isometric handgrip strength was measured using an isometric dynamometer, with 3 maximal contractions of the left and right hands. All measures were conducted by staff with training in clinical exercise testing. Among 295 breast cancer survivors, 1-RM bench press strength was 18.2±6.1kg (range, 2.2-43.0kg), and isometric handgrip strength was 23.5±5.8kg (range, 9.0-43.0kg). The strongest correlate of 1-RM bench press strength was the average isometric handgrip strength of both hands (r=.399; Pisometric handgrip strength of both hands overestimated 1-RM bench press strength by 4.7kg (95% limits of agreement, -8.2 to 17.6kg). In a multivariable linear regression model, the average isometric handgrip strength of both hands (β=.31; Pstrength (R 2 =.23). Isometric handgrip strength is a poor surrogate for 1-RM bench press strength among breast cancer survivors. 1-RM bench press strength and isometric handgrip strength quantify distinct components of muscular strength. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A Multi-mission Event-Driven Component-Based System for Support of Flight Software Development, ATLO, and Operations first used by the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Navid; Tankenson, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the architectural description of the Mission Data Processing and Control System (MPCS). MPCS is an event-driven, multi-mission ground data processing components providing uplink, downlink, and data management capabilities which will support the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) project as its first target mission. MPCS is designed with these factors (1) Enabling plug and play architecture (2) MPCS has strong inheritance from GDS components that have been developed for other Flight Projects (MER, MRO, DAWN, MSAP), and are currently being used in operations and ATLO, and (3) MPCS components are Java-based, platform independent, and are designed to consume and produce XML-formatted data

  16. Modeling of Sylgard Adhesive Strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, Ralph Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-03

    Sylgard is the name of a silicone elastomeric potting material manufactured by Dow Corning Corporation.1 Although the manufacturer cites its low adhesive strength as a feature of this product, thin layers of Sylgard do in fact have a non-negligible strength, which has been measured in recent tensile and shear debonding tests. The adhesive strength of thin layers of Sylgard potting material can be important in applications in which components having signi cantly di erent thermal expansion properties are potted together, and the potted assembly is subjected to temperature changes. The tensile and shear tractions developed on the potted surfaces of the components can cause signi cant internal stresses, particularly for components made of low-strength materials with a high area-to-volume ratio. This report is organized as follows: recent Sylgard debonding tests are rst brie y summarized, with particular attention to the adhesion between Sylgard and PBX 9501, and also between Sylgard and aluminum. Next, the type of numerical model that will be used to simulate the debonding behavior exhibited in these tests is described. Then the calibration of the debonding model will be illustrated. Finally, the method by which the model parameters are adjusted (scaled) to be applicable to other, non- tested bond thicknesses is summarized, and all parameters of the model (scaled and unscaled) are presented so that other investigators can reproduce all of the simulations described in this report as well as simulations of the application of interest.

  17. mathematical model for the optimization of compressive strength

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    cement and sand either wholly or partially without adverse effect on the strength properties of the ... sandcrete block, compressive strength, laterite, scheffe's theory. 1. Introduction ... that for the properties of a q-component mix- ture which ...

  18. Strength Tests on Hulls and Floats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthaes, K

    1942-01-01

    The present report deals with strength tests on hulls and floats intended in part for the collection of construction data for the design of these components and in part for the stress analysis of the finished hulls and floats.

  19. Steady-state operation of magnetic fusion devices: Plasma control and plasma facing components. Report on the IAEA technical committee meeting held at Fukuoka, 25-29 October 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelmann, F.

    2000-01-01

    An IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Steady-State Operation of Magnetic Fusion Devices - Plasma Control and Plasma Facing Components was held at Fukuoka, Japan, from 25 to 29 October 1999. The meeting was the second IAEA Techical Committee Meeting on the subject, following the one held at Hefei, China, a year earlier. The meeting was attended by over 150 researchers from 10 countries

  20. The Strength Compass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledertoug, Mette Marie

    In the Ph.D-project ͚Strengths-based Learning - Children͛s character strengths as a means to their learning potential͛ 750 Danish children have assessed ͚The Strength Compass͛ in order to identify their strengths and to create awareness of strengths. This was followed by a strengths......-based intervention program in order to explore the strengths. Finally different methods to apply the strength in everyday life at school were applied. The paper presentation will show the results for strengths display for children aged 6-16 in different categories: Different age groups: Are the same strengths...... present in both small children and youths? Gender: Do the results show differences between the two genders? Danish as a mother- tongue language: Do the results show any differences in the strengths display when considering different language and cultural backgrounds? Children with Special Needs: Do...

  1. Resistência ao cisalhamento de um selante associado a componentes de um sistema adesivo dental Shear bond strength of an enamel sealant using components of a dental adhesive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilda Maria MUSSOLINO

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Cilindros de selante, padronizados, foram unidos ao esmalte das superfícies vestibulares de incisivos bovinos, após serem planificadas e condicionadas, com ácido fosfórico a 37%, durante 30 segundos. Foram utilizados 40 dentes, aleatoriamente divididos em 4 grupos, cujas coroas foram secionadas, de modo a obter-se duas porções, cervical e incisal. No Grupo I, após o condicionamento, aplicou-se o selante Fluroshield; no Grupo II, antes da aplicação do selante, uma camada do "primer" do Probond foi aplicada; no Grupo III, após o "primer", aplicou-se o adesivo do Probond; e no Grupo IV, somente o adesivo foi aplicado antes do selante. Os espécimes foram armazenados em água a 37°C, durante 36 horas, e então submetidos aos ensaios de cisalhamento. A análise estatística revelou significante diminuição na resistência ao cisalhamento, quando o "primer" foi aplicado previamente ao selante, enquanto a resistência ao cisalhamento do selante foi semelhante quando o adesivo do Probond foi aplicado, com ou sem o "primer". A resistência ao cisalhamento do selante ao esmalte é maior no terço incisal que no terço cervical da coroa.Standardized cylinders of sealants were bonded to the flattened labial enamel of bovine incisor teeth that had previously been subjected to 37% phosphoric acid gel for 30 seconds. A total of 40 teeth were tested, randomly divided in four groups of 10 teeth each. In Group I, the sealant Fluroshield was applied after etching; in Group II after etching, the "primer" of Probond was used before the sealant; in Group III after etching, the bond of Probond was used after the "primer"; and in Group IV only the bond was applied before the sealant. Specimens were stored in water at 37°C during 36 hours, before shear testing using a Universal Testing Machine. There was significant reduction in shear bond strength of the sealant when only the "primer" was used previously to the application of the sealant. There were no

  2. Strength evaluation code STEP for brittle materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Masahiro; Futakawa, Masatoshi.

    1997-12-01

    In a structural design using brittle materials such as graphite and/or ceramics it is necessary to evaluate the strength of component under complex stress condition. The strength of ceramic materials is said to be influenced by the stress distribution. However, in the structural design criteria simplified stress limits had been adopted without taking account of the strength change with the stress distribution. It is, therefore, important to evaluate the strength of component on the basis of the fracture model for brittle material. Consequently, the strength evaluation program, STEP, on a brittle fracture of ceramic materials based on the competing risk theory had been developed. Two different brittle fracture modes, a surface layer fracture mode dominated by surface flaws and an internal fracture mode by internal flaws, are treated in the STEP code in order to evaluate the strength of brittle fracture. The STEP code uses stress calculation results including complex shape of structures analyzed by the generalized FEM stress analysis code, ABAQUS, so as to be possible to evaluate the strength of brittle fracture for the structures having complicate shapes. This code is, therefore, useful to evaluate the structural integrity of arbitrary shapes of components such as core graphite components in the HTTR, heat exchanger components made of ceramics materials etc. This paper describes the basic equations applying to the STEP code, code system with a combination of the STEP and the ABAQUS codes and the result of the verification analysis. (author)

  3. Report on fabrication of pin components for fuel fabrication in FUJI project (Co-operation in the research and development of advanced sphere-pac fuel among PSI, JNC, and NRG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Masahiro; Hinai, Hiroshi; Shigetome, Yoshiaki; Kono, Shusaku; Matsuzaki, Masaaki

    2003-03-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has conducted the co-operation concerning vibro-packed fuels with Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) in Switzerland and Nuclear Research and consultancy Group (NRG) in the Netherlands. The project 'Research and Development of advanced Sphere-pac Fuel' is called FUJI (FUel irradiations for JNC and PSI) Project. In this project, three types of fuels that are sphere-pac fuels, vipac fuels, and pellet fuels will be irradiated in the High Flux Reactor (HFR) to compare their performance. Based on the drawing which has been agreed among three parties, fabrication of the pin components and welding of the upper and lower connection end plugs were performed in accordance with ISO9001 in JNC. This report describes data of the fabricated pin components, results of welding qualification tests, and quality assurance of the welded components. The fabrication of pin components was successfully completed and they were delivered to PSI in October 2002. (author)

  4. A Multi-mission Event-Driven Component-Based System for Support of Flight Software Development, ATLO, and Operations first used by the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Navid; Tankenson, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper details an architectural description of the Mission Data Processing and Control System (MPCS), an event-driven, multi-mission ground data processing components providing uplink, downlink, and data management capabilities which will support the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) project as its first target mission. MPCS is developed based on a set of small reusable components, implemented in Java, each designed with a specific function and well-defined interfaces. An industry standard messaging bus is used to transfer information among system components. Components generate standard messages which are used to capture system information, as well as triggers to support the event-driven architecture of the system. Event-driven systems are highly desirable for processing high-rate telemetry (science and engineering) data, and for supporting automation for many mission operations processes.

  5. The Association between Maximal Bench Press Strength and Isometric Handgrip Strength among Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Benjamin H.; Brown, Justin C.; Gater, David R.; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective One-repetition maximum (1-RM) bench press strength is considered the gold standard to quantify upper-body muscular strength. Isometric handgrip strength is frequently used as a surrogate for 1-RM bench press strength among breast cancer (BrCa) survivors. The relationship between 1-RM bench press strength and isometric handgrip strength, however, has not been characterized among BrCa survivors. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Laboratory. Participants Community-dwelling BrCa survivors. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure 1-RM bench press strength was measured with a barbell and exercise bench. Isometric handgrip strength was measured using an isometric dynamometer with three maximal contractions of left and right hands. All measures were conducted by staff with training in clinical exercise testing. Results Among 295 BrCa survivors, 1-RM bench press strength was 18.2±6.1 kg (range: 2.2-43.0) and isometric handgrip strength was 23.5±5.8 kg (range: 9.0-43.0). The strongest correlate of 1-RM bench press strength was the average isometric handgrip strength of both hands (r=0.399; Pisometric handgrip strength of both hands overestimated 1-RM bench press strength by 4.7 kg (95% limits of agreement: −8.2 to 17.6). In a multivariable linear regression model, the average isometric handgrip strength of both hands (β=0.31; Pstrength (R2=0.23). Conclusions Isometric handgrip strength is a poor surrogate for 1-RM bench press strength among BrCa survivors. 1-RM bench press and isometric handgrip strength quantify distinct components of muscular strength. PMID:27543047

  6. PSA methodology including new design, operational and safety factors, 'Level of recognition of phenomena with a presumed dominant influence upon operational safety' (failures of conventional as well as non-conventional passive components, dependent failures, influence of operator, fires and external threats, digital control, organizational factors)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jirsa, P.

    2001-10-01

    The document represents a specific type of discussion of existing methodologies for the creation and application of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) in light of the EUR document summarizing requirements placed by Western European NPP operators on the future design of nuclear power plants. A partial goal of this discussion consists in mapping, from the PSA point of view, those selected design, operational and/or safety factors of future NPPs that may be entirely new or, at least, newly addressed. Therefore, the terms of reference for this stage were formulated as follows: Assess current level of knowledge and procedures in the analysis of factors and phenomena with a dominant influence upon operational safety of new generation reactors, especially in the following areas: (1) Phenomenology of failure types and mechanisms and reliability of conventional passive safety system components; (2) Phenomenology of failure types and mechanisms and reliability of non-conventional passive components of newly designed safety systems; (3) Phenomenology of types and mechanisms of dependent failures; (4) Human factor role in new generation reactors and its effect upon safety; (5) Fire safety and other external threats to new nuclear installations; (6) Reliability of the digital systems of the I and C system and their effect upon safety; and (7) Organizational factors in new nuclear installations. (P.A.)

  7. Research and Development (R&D) on Advanced Nonstructural Materials. Delivery Order 0001: Study of Hydraulic System Component Storage With Operational and Rust-Inhibited Hydraulic Fluids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gschwender, Lois J; Snyder Jr, Carl E; Sharma, Shashi K; Jenney, Tim; Campo, Angela

    2004-01-01

    .... Jars, containing bearings and pistons, as well as hydraulic pumps were stored for up to 3 years in a laboratory environment to determine if operational fluids would protect them from rusting during storage...

  8. Other components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This chapter includes descriptions of electronic and mechanical components which do not merit a chapter to themselves. Other hardware requires mention because of particularly high tolerance or intolerance of exposure to radiation. A more systematic analysis of radiation responses of structures which are definable by material was given in section 3.8. The components discussed here are field effect transistors, transducers, temperature sensors, magnetic components, superconductors, mechanical sensors, and miscellaneous electronic components

  9. Supply chain components

    OpenAIRE

    Vieraşu, T.; Bălăşescu, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  10. Supply chain components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieraşu, T.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  11. Invariant differential operators on H-type groups and discrete components in restrictions of complementary series of rank one semisimple groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möllers, Jan; Ørsted, Bent; Zhang, Genkai

    2016-01-01

    We explicitly construct a finite number of discrete components in the restriction of complementary series representations of rank one semisimple groups $G$ to rank one subgroups $G_1$. For this we use the realizations of complementary series representations of $G$ and $G_1$ on Sobolev spaces...

  12. Validation of BN Reactor Plant Long-Term Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilensky, O.; Vasilyev, B.; Kaidalov, V.

    2013-01-01

    The BN RP operation life time is mainly determined by resource of non-replaceable equipment. The new standard (RD) “Procedure of strength analysis for main components of sodium cooled fast neutron reactor plants” was developed to validate structure strength in view of radiation effects and degradation of material properties within the time period up to 300000 hours and under irradiation, as well as development of postulated crack-like defects. Using this RD, the extension of operation life of BN-600 reactor non-replaceable components from 30 to 45 years, as well as strength and durability of the most loaded non-replaceable components of BN-800 RP under construction were validated for the specified 45-year operation life. Wider application of steel 16Cr-11Ni-3Mo refers to new decisions in BN-1200 RP design that allow increasing of operation life of the most loaded non-replaceable components up to 60 years. High-chromium steel 12Cr-Ni-Mo-V-Nb is a new material, which was proposed for SG design to increase the operation life up to 30 years. In addition, the austenitic steels 18Cr-9Ni and 16Cr-11Ni-3Mo are now under upgrading for future application of them in commercial BN-1200 RP. To provide additional long-term reliable and safe operation of BN-1200 RP equipment and pipelines, it is planned to develop and implement the lifetime operational monitoring system

  13. The strength compass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledertoug, Mette Marie

    of agreement/disagreement. Also the child/teacher is asked whether the actual strength is important and if he or she has the possibilities to apply the strength in the school. In a PhDproject ‘Strengths-based Learning - Children’s Character Strengths as Means to their Learning Potential’ 750 Danish children......Individual paper presentation: The ‘Strength Compass’. The results of a PhDresearch project among schoolchildren (age 6-16) identifying VIAstrengths concerning age, gender, mother-tongue-langue and possible child psychiatric diagnosis. Strengths-based interventions in schools have a theoretical...... Psychological Publishing Company. ‘The Strength Compass’ is a computer/Ipad based qualitative tool to identify the strengths of a child by a self-survey or a teacher’s survey. It is designed as a visual analogue scale with a statement of the strength in which the child/teacher may declare the degree...

  14. Gluebond strength of laser cut wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles W. McMillin; Henry A. Huber

    1985-01-01

    The degree of strength loss when gluing laser cut wood as compared to conventionally sawn wood and the amount of additional surface treatment needed to improve bond quality were assessed under normal furniture plant operating conditions. The strength of laser cut oak glued with polyvinyl acetate adhesive was reduced to 75 percent of sawn joints and gum was reduced 43...

  15. Welded repair joints of boiler steels following operation in creep conditions exceeding the design time of operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrzanski, J.; Paszkowska, H.; Zielinski, A. [Institute for Ferrous Metallurgy, Gliwice (Poland)

    2010-07-01

    The assessment of suitability for further operation for materials and welded repair joints of thick-walled main steam pipeline components, made of steel 14MoV63, as well as steam superheater outlet headers made of steel X20CrMoV121 following operation in creep conditions in time periods considerably longer than the specified calculated time of operation. Strength properties, impact strength and transition temperature into brittle condition, as well as structure condition have been evaluated. On the basis of shortened creep tests, the residual life and disposable residual life of materials and welded joints have been determined. Material properties following operation and those of fabricated circumferential welded repair joints have been compared. The condition of examined components and suitability of the fabricated welded repair joints for further operation have been assessed. (orig.)

  16. Towards mouse models of perseveration: a heritable component in extinction of operant behavior in fourteen standard and recombinant inbred mouse lines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malkki, H.A.I.; Donga, L.A.B.; de Groot, S.E.; Brussaard, A.B.; Borst, J.G.G.; Elgersma, J.W.; Galjart, N.; van der Horst, G.T.; Levelt, C.N.; Pennartz, C.M.A.; Smit, A.B.; Spruijt, B.M.; Verhage, M.; de Zeeuw, C.I.; Battaglia, F.P.

    2011-01-01

    Extinction of instrumental responses is an essential skill for adaptive behavior such as foraging. So far, only few studies have focused on extinction following appetitive conditioning in mice. We studied extinction of appetitive operant lever-press behavior in six standard inbred mouse strains

  17. Legitimacy, credibility and trust as the key components of a Social Licence to operate : An analysis of BP’s projects in Georgia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanclay, Francis; Jijelava, David

    2017-01-01

    We consider the extent to which the concept of Social Licence to Operate can be applied in actual practice by considering BP's activities in Georgia, especially the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan and Southern Caucasus Pipeline projects. We adapt the model originally developed by Thomson and Boutilier,

  18. Electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  19. Development of the Sixty Watt Heat-Source hardware components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, D.C.; Wyder, W.C.

    1995-01-01

    The Sixty Watt Heat Source is a nonvented heat source designed to provide 60 thermal watts of power. The unit incorporates a plutonium-238 fuel pellet encapsulated in a hot isostatically pressed General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) iridium clad vent set. A molybdenum liner sleeve and support components isolate the fueled iridium clad from the T-111 strength member. This strength member serves as the pressure vessel and fulfills the impact and hydrostatic strength requirements. The shell is manufactured from Hastelloy S which prevents the internal components from being oxidized. Conventional drawing operations were used to simplify processing and utilize existing equipment. The deep drawing reqirements for the molybdenum, T-111, and Hastelloy S were developed from past heat source hardware fabrication experiences. This resulted in multiple step drawing processes with intermediate heat treatments between forming steps. The molybdenum processing included warm forming operations. This paper describes the fabrication of these components and the multiple draw tooling developed to produce hardware to the desired specifications. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  20. Electric quadrupole strength in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirson, M.W.

    1979-01-01

    Isoscalar electric quadrupole strength distributions in nuclei are surveyed, and it is concluded that the strength is shared, in most cases, roughly equally between low-lying transitions and the giant quadrupole state. The same is not true of the isovector case. A simple extension of the schematic model gives a remarkably successul description of the data, and emphasizes the vital importance of the coupling between high-lying and low-lying quadrupole modes. The standadrd simple representation of the giant quadrupole resonance as produced by operating on the nuclear ground state with the quadrupole transition operator is not applicable to the isoscalar case. It is suggested that giant resonances fall into broad classes of similar states, with considerable qualitative differences between the distinct classes. (author)

  1. Support to NPP operation and maintenance technology risk management. A concept for establishing criteria and procedure for the selection of components with respect to their importance. Stage 3.1. NPP equipment reliability management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stvan, F.

    2003-12-01

    A proposal was developed for a procedure using the deterministic approach to the assessment of components from the operational point of view and other aspects that cannot be directly and readily quantified and of the probabilistic approach for the assessment of component importance with respect to nuclear safety. A specific PSA study performed for the Dukovany NPP was employed. The structure of the report is as follows: (1) Aspects of component selection; (2) Introductory procedure; (3) Criteria for the selection of components with respect to their importance (4) Assessing the priority of use of the assets - effect on production, safety, and profit; (5) Assessment of the risk aspect of the assets - effect on major processes; (6) Assessment of the level of use of the assets; (7) Assessment of the structure of the assets - optimal structure for maintenance in relation to the major processes; (8) Assessment of the criteria for estimating the importance of the components; (9) Probabilistic assessment of importance from the safety aspect by means of PSA; and (10) Deterministic assessment of importance from the safety aspect. (P.A.)

  2. Equipment for the conditioning of core components in the fuel element storage pool with particular respect to the design required by the conditions for nuclear facilities in operation and the surveillance in accordance with atomic rules and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumpe, J.; Schwiertz, V.; Geiser, C.; Prucker, E.

    2001-01-01

    In nuclear power plants worn out and activated parts from the reactor core (core components) which are placed into the fuel element storage pool arise on a regular basis during the technical maintenance and the review. The disposal of these core components due to radiation protection aspects is only feasible within the fuel element storage pool during the operation of the NPP using techniques of the under water conditioning. Therefore, special GNS equipment is used for the conditioning, using under water conditioning equipment, such as UWS, BZ, and ZVA, a number of lifting and auxiliary equipment for mounting and dismantling purposes and the handling of the core components and the waste casks within the fuel element storage pool. These components must meet particular safety requirements with regard to their integrity and reliability. They are designed according to the requirements on nuclear components (KTA). The manipulating equipment must be partly redundant and the protection goals for nuclear accidents must be met. The Bavarian Ministry for Development and Environment tasked the TUeV Sueddeutschland with the surveillance and control. The conditioning equipment of GNS is therefore designed in co-ordination with the examiner of the Governmental Regulating Agency, in particular respect to all safety aspects. Furthermore the examiners perform reviews of the construction and the documentation during the design and construction phase. (orig.)

  3. Strengths-based Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledertoug, Mette Marie

    -being. The Ph.D.-project in Strength-based learning took place in a Danish school with 750 pupils age 6-16 and a similar school was functioning as a control group. The presentation will focus on both the aware-explore-apply processes and the practical implications for the schools involved, and on measurable......Strength-based learning - Children͛s Character Strengths as Means to their Learning Potential͛ is a Ph.D.-project aiming to create a strength-based mindset in school settings and at the same time introducing strength-based interventions as specific tools to improve both learning and well...

  4. On estimating the fracture probability of nuclear graphite components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, Makuteswara

    2008-01-01

    The properties of nuclear grade graphites exhibit anisotropy and could vary considerably within a manufactured block. Graphite strength is affected by the direction of alignment of the constituent coke particles, which is dictated by the forming method, coke particle size, and the size, shape, and orientation distribution of pores in the structure. In this paper, a Weibull failure probability analysis for components is presented using the American Society of Testing Materials strength specification for nuclear grade graphites for core components in advanced high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. The risk of rupture (probability of fracture) and survival probability (reliability) of large graphite blocks are calculated for varying and discrete values of service tensile stresses. The limitations in these calculations are discussed from considerations of actual reactor environmental conditions that could potentially degrade the specification properties because of damage due to complex interactions between irradiation, temperature, stress, and variability in reactor operation

  5. Shaping the Strength of Cast Rocker Arm for Special Purpose Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Żuczek R.; Pysz S.; Maj M.; Piekło J.

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses the weldment to casting conversion process of rocker arm designed for operation in a special purpose vehicle to obtain a consistency of objective functions, which assume the reduced weight of component, the reduced maximum effort of material under the impact of service loads achieved through topology modification for optimum strength distribution in the sensitive areas, and the development of rocker arm manufacturing technology. As a result of conducted studies, the unit...

  6. Personality Typology in Relation to Muscle Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Antonio; Milaneschi, Yuri; Metter, E. Jeffrey; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity plays a central role in the age-related decline in muscle strength, an important component in the process leading to disability. Personality, a significant determinant of health behaviors including physical activity, could therefore impact muscle strength throughout adulthood and affect the rate of muscle strength decline with aging. Personality typologies combining “high neuroticism” (N≥55), “low extraversion” (Epersonality types. Facet analyses suggest an important role for the N components of depression and hostility. Physical activity level appears to partly explain some of these associations. Conclusion Findings provide support for the notion that the typological approach to personality may be useful in identifying specific personality types at risk of low muscle strength and offer the possibility for more targeted prevention and intervention programs. PMID:21614452

  7. REPETITIVE STRENGTH AMONG STUDENTS OF AGE 14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besim Halilaj

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study involved 82 male students of the primary school “Qamil Ilazi” in Kaçanik-Kosovo.Four movement tests, which test the repetitive strength, were conducted: 1. Pull-up, 2. Sit-Up, 3. Back extension, 4. Push-up.The main goal of this study was to verify the actual motor status, respectively the component of the repetitive strength among students of age 14 of masculine gender. In addition to verifying the actual motor status, another objective was to verify the relationship between the variables employed.Basic statistical parameters show a distribution which is not significantly different from the normal distribution, yielded highly correlative values among the repetitive strength tests. Space factorization resulted in extracting two latent squares defined as repetitive strength of arms factor, and repetitive strength of body factor.

  8. Effect of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR on Yield and Yield Components of Sesame (Sesamum indicum l. with Emphasize on Environmental Friendly Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Rezvani Moghaddam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effects of different plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR on yield and yield components of sesame, an experiment was conducted in the form of Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications at Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in year 2009. Treatments were: 1 Nitragin (containing of Azotobacter sp., Azospirillum sp. and Pseudomonas sp., 2 Nitroxin (containing of Azotobacter sp. and Azospirillum sp., 3 Super nitro plus (containing of Azospirillum sp., Bacillus sp. and Pseudomonas sp., 4 Phosphate suloblizing bacteria (containing of Bacillus sp. and Pseudomonas sp., 5 Bio Phosphate (containing of Bacillus sp. and Pseudomonas sp., 6 Nitroxin + Phosphate suloblizing bacteria, 7 Nitroxin + Bio Phosphate and control. The results showed that seed yield affected by PGPR and Nitroxin + Phosphate suloblizing bacteria treatment had superior effect on seed yield compared to other treatments. Superior effect of Nitroxin + Phosphate suloblizing bacteria treatment also was shown on plant seed weight and harvest index. Nitragin, Nitroxin + Bio Phosphate, Nitroxin + Phosphate suloblizing bacteria, Bio Phosphate, Phosphate suloblizing bacteria, Nitroxin treatments increased dry weight of capsules per plant of 62, 53, 51, 36 and 30 percent compared to control, respectively. Although, the effect of PGPR was not significant on sesame seed oil content but Bio Phosphate and Nitragin treatments increased seed oil content by 1 and 1.5 percent, respectively. In general, results showed utilization of PGPR can improve seed yield and seed oil content, which can decrease dependence of sesame seed production to chemical fertilizer, decrease negative environmental impacts and as an ecofriendly inputs can help to produce crops and sustainable agriculture guidlines.

  9. Give Me Strength.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    维拉

    1996-01-01

    Mort had an absolutely terrible day at the office.Everythingthat could go wrong did go wrong.As he walked home he could beheard muttering strange words to himself:“Oh,give me strength,give me strength.”Mort isn’t asking for the kind of strength thatbuilds strong muscles:he’s asking for the courage or ability to

  10. Polynomial expansions and transition strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draayer, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    The subject is statistical spectroscopy applied to determining strengths and strength sums of excitation processes in nuclei. The focus will be on a ds-shell isoscalar E2 study with detailed shell-model results providing the standard for comparison; similar results are available for isovector E2 and M1 and E4 transitions as well as for single-particle transfer and ν +- decay. The present study is intended to serve as a tutorial for applications where shell-model calculations are not feasible. The problem is posed and a schematic theory for strengths and sums is presented. The theory is extended to include the effect of correlations between H, the system Hamiltonian, and theta, the excitation operator. Associated with correlation measures is a geometry that can be used to anticipate the goodness of a symmetry. This is illustrated for pseudo SU(3) in the fp-shell. Some conclusions about fluctuations and collectivity that one can deduce from the statistical results for strengths are presented

  11. Parameters governing the failure of steel components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, W.

    1977-01-01

    The most important feature of any component is the ability to carry safely the load it is designed for. The strength of the component is influenced mainly by three groups of parameters: 1. The loading of the structure; Here the possible loading cases are: normal operation, testing, emergency and faulted conditions; the kinds of loading can be divided into: internal pressure, external forces and moments, temperature loading. 2. The defects in the structure: cavities and inclusions, pores, flaws or cracks. 3. The material properties: Young's modulus, Yield - and ultimate strength, absorbed charpy energy, fracture toughness, etc. For different failure modes one has to take into account different material properties, the loading and the defects are assumed to be within certain deterministic bounds, from which deterministic safety factors can be determined with respect to any failure mode and failure criterion. However, since all parameters have a certain scatter about a mean value, there is a probability to exceed the given bounds. From the extrapolation of the distribution a value for the failure probability can be estimated. (orig.) [de

  12. GCS component development cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Jose A.; Macias, Rosa; Molgo, Jordi; Guerra, Dailos; Pi, Marti

    2012-09-01

    The GTC1 is an optical-infrared 10-meter segmented mirror telescope at the ORM observatory in Canary Islands (Spain). First light was at 13/07/2007 and since them it is in the operation phase. The GTC control system (GCS) is a distributed object & component oriented system based on RT-CORBA8 and it is responsible for the management and operation of the telescope, including its instrumentation. GCS has used the Rational Unified process (RUP9) in its development. RUP is an iterative software development process framework. After analysing (use cases) and designing (UML10) any of GCS subsystems, an initial component description of its interface is obtained and from that information a component specification is written. In order to improve the code productivity, GCS has adopted the code generation to transform this component specification into the skeleton of component classes based on a software framework, called Device Component Framework. Using the GCS development tools, based on javadoc and gcc, in only one step, the component is generated, compiled and deployed to be tested for the first time through our GUI inspector. The main advantages of this approach are the following: It reduces the learning curve of new developers and the development error rate, allows a systematic use of design patterns in the development and software reuse, speeds up the deliverables of the software product and massively increase the timescale, design consistency and design quality, and eliminates the future refactoring process required for the code.

  13. Methods for safe and economical design of components of ABS/ABR braking systems in terms of operating stability; Methodik zur sicheren und wirtschaftlichen betriebsfesten Auslegung von Komponenten in ABS/ASR-Bremssystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacher-Hoechst, M. [Robert Bosch GmbH, Technisches Zentrum Schwieberdingen (Germany); Sonsino, C.M. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Betriebsfestigkeit (LBF), Darmstadt (Germany)

    1997-05-01

    The combination of hardware-in-the-loop simulators with stress calculation in terms of operating stability at Robert Bosch GmbH, as well as experience gathered at LBF Darmstadt with component in terms of operating stability, result in optimized design of hydraulic units for antilock systems (ABS) and acceleration skid control systems (ASC). Thus, both safety demands and economic demands are met. (orig./AKF) [Deutsch] Die kombinierte Anwendung von Hardware-In-The-Loop-Simulatoren mit betriebsfestigkeitsgerechter Belastungserfassung bei der Robert Bosch GmbH und die beim LBF Darmstadt vorliegenden Erfahrungen bei der betriebsfesten Bauteilauslegung fuehren zu einer optimierten Auslegung und Absicherung von Hydraulikaggregaten fuer Antiblockier- und Antriebsschlupfregelungssyteme (ABS,ASR). Die wesentlichen Schritte dieses Vorgehens wurden gezeigt. Auf diese Weise ist es moeglich, den Sicherheitsanforderungen derartiger Bauteile einerseits und den wirtschaftlich-technischen Rahmenbedingungen andererseits zu entsprechen. (orig./AKF)

  14. Principal components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hallin, M.; Hörmann, S.; Piegorsch, W.; El Shaarawi, A.

    2012-01-01

    Principal Components are probably the best known and most widely used of all multivariate analysis techniques. The essential idea consists in performing a linear transformation of the observed k-dimensional variables in such a way that the new variables are vectors of k mutually orthogonal

  15. Anisotropic Concrete Compressive Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustenhoff Hansen, Søren; Jørgensen, Henrik Brøner; Hoang, Linh Cao

    2017-01-01

    When the load carrying capacity of existing concrete structures is (re-)assessed it is often based on compressive strength of cores drilled out from the structure. Existing studies show that the core compressive strength is anisotropic; i.e. it depends on whether the cores are drilled parallel...

  16. High strength ferritic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A high strength ferritic steel is specified in which the major alloying elements are chromium and molybdenum, with smaller quantities of niobium, vanadium, silicon, manganese and carbon. The maximum swelling is specified for various irradiation conditions. Rupture strength is also specified. (U.K.)

  17. Photon strength functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergqvist, I.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for extracting photon strength functions are briefly discussed. We follow the Brink-Axel approach to relate the strength functions to the giant resonances observed in photonuclear work and summarize the available data on the E1, E2 and M1 resonances. Some experimental and theoretical problems are outlined. (author)

  18. Interviewing to Understand Strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, Michael R.

    2018-01-01

    Interviewing clients about their strengths is an important part of developing a complete understanding of their lives and has several advantages over simply focusing on problems and pathology. Prerequisites for skillfully interviewing for strengths include the communication skills that emerge from a stance of not knowing, developing a vocabulary…

  19. Hand Strength, Handwriting, and Functional Skills in Children With Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaniz, Michele L; Galit, Eleanor; Necesito, Corina Isabel; Rosario, Emily R

    2015-01-01

    To establish hand strength development trends in children with autism and to investigate correlations between grip and pinch strength, components of handwriting, and functional activities in children with and without autism. Fifty-one children were divided into two groups: typically developing children and children on the autism spectrum. Each child completed testing for pinch and grip strength, handwriting legibility, pencil control, and independence in functional activities. The children with autism followed the same strength development trends as the typically developing children. Grip strength correlated with pencil control in both groups and with handwriting legibility in the typically developing children but not in the children with autism. Grip and pinch strength correlated with independence with functional activities in both groups. This study provides evidence that grip and pinch strength are important components in developing pencil control, handwriting legibility, and independence with functional fine motor tasks. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  20. Component Control System for a Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser-Chanpong, Nathan (Inventor); Spain, Ivan (Inventor); Dawson, Andrew D. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Waligora, Thomas M. (Inventor); Akinyode, Akinjide Akinniyi (Inventor); Reed, Ryan M. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A vehicle includes a chassis, a modular component, and a central operating system. The modular component is supported by the chassis. The central operating system includes a component control system, a primary master controller, and a secondary master controller. The component control system is configured for controlling the modular component. The primary and secondary master controllers are in operative communication with the component control system. The primary and secondary master controllers are configured to simultaneously transmit commands to the component control system. The component control system is configured to accept commands from the secondary master controller only when a fault occurs in the primary master controller.

  1. Evaluation of Creep Strength of Heterogeneous Welded Joint in HR6W Alloy and Sanicro 25 Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zieliński A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of investigations on HR6W alloy and Sanicro 25 steel and the dissimilar welded joint made of them. The characteristic images of microstructure of the investigated materials in the as-received condition and following the creep test, observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM, are shown. The X-ray analysis of phase composition of the existing precipitates was carried out. The method for evaluation of creep strength based on abridged creep tests carried out at a temperature higher than the design one is presented. The obtained results do not deviate from the values of creep strength determined in long-term creep tests. The maximum difference in creep strength of the investigated materials is ±20%, which is in compliance with the acceptable scatter band. The methodology presented can be used for verification of creep strength (life time of the material of finished components to be operated under creep conditions.

  2. Adhesion Strength of Biomass Ash Deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laxminarayan, Yashasvi; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Wu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    . Therefore, timely removal of ash deposits is essential for optimal boiler operation. In order to improve the qualitative and quantitative understanding of deposit shedding in boilers, this study investigates the shear adhesion strength of biomass ash deposits on superheater tubes. Artificial biomass ash...... deposits were prepared on superheater tubes and sintered in an oven at temperatures up to 1000 °C. Subsequently, the deposits were sheared off by an electrically controlled arm, and the corresponding adhesion strength was measured. The results reveal the effect of temperature, ash/deposit composition......, sintering duration, and steel type on the adhesion strength....

  3. Adhesion Strength of Biomass Ash Deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laxminarayan, Yashasvi; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Wu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the shear adhesion strength of biomass ash deposits on superheater tubes. Artificial biomass ash deposits were prepared on superheater tubes and sintered in an oven at temperatures up to 1000°C. Subsequently, the deposits were sheared off with the help of an electrically...... controlled arm. Higher sintering temperatures resulted in greater adhesion strengths, with a sharp increase observed near the melting point of the ash. Repetition of experiments with fixed operation conditions revealed considerable variation in the obtained adhesion strengths, portraying the stochastic...

  4. Selected solutions and design features from the design of remotely handled filters and the technology of remote filter handling. Previous operating experience with these components in the PASSAT facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannakos, K.; Lange, W.; Potgeter, G.; Furrer, J.; Wilhelm, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    In a prototype filter offgas cleaning system for reprocessing plants (PASSAT) built at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center a fullscale filter cell with remotely handled filters for aerosol and iodine removal and the corresponding remote handling systems for exchange, bagging out, packaging and disposal of spent filter elements has been installed and run in trial operation since July 1978. The filters and the replacement techniques have been tested for the past two years or so and so far have always worked satisfactory over the test period involving some 150 replacement events. Neither wear nor corrosion phenomena were found in the filter housings and the replacement systems. The seals and clamping devices were selected so that during operation the prescribed leak rates of -3 Torr l/s were always maintained on the filter lid, the seat of the filter element and the cell lock. The total clamping loads for the filter element and the filter lid amount to approx. 20 kN. The force necessary to separate the filter element from the filter housing is approx. 3.5 kN. No ruptures of seals or gaskets were to be detected. The design of the filters and of the handling systems has been found satisfactorily in the cold test operation so far and can be recommended for use in nuclear facilities. In all experiments conducted until now PASSAT has worked without any failure. All operating data required in the specifications were met in the test period. The maximum pressure loss in the system with loaded filter elements amounts to some 3000 mm of water. After operation with iodine and NO/sub x/, plant components exposed to 100% relative humidity and condensate showed corrosion

  5. Strength analyses of the bubbler condenser structure of WWER-440 model 213 nuclear power plants. Reference plant: Bohunice V2 (Slovakia). Report of the IAEA Technical Co-operation Project RER/9/004 on evaluation of safety aspects of WWER-440 model 213 nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This publication addresses the topic of mechanical strength of the bubbler condenser applied in the WWER-440 model 213 plants and is intended to assist WWER-440/213 operators in the re-assessment of the bubbler condenser performance. It is hoped that it will also be useful to anyone working in the field of WWER safety, and in particular to experts planning, executing or reviewing studies related to the subject. Refs, figs and tabs

  6. Strength analyses of the bubbler condenser structure of WWER-440 model 213 nuclear power plants. Reference plant: Bohunice V2 (Slovakia). Report of the IAEA Technical Co-operation Project RER/9/004 on evaluation of safety aspects of WWER-440 model 213 nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This publication addresses the topic of mechanical strength of the bubbler condenser applied in the WWER-440 model 213 plants and is intended to assist WWER-440/213 operators in the re-assessment of the bubbler condenser performance. It is hoped that it will also be useful to anyone working in the field of WWER safety, and in particular to experts planning, executing or reviewing studies related to the subject. Refs, figs and tabs.

  7. Implementation of the structural integrity analysis for PWR primary components and piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellissier-Tanon, A.

    1982-01-01

    The trends on the definition, the assessment and the application of fracture strength evaluation methodology, which have arisen through experience in the design, construction and operation of French 900-MW plants are reviewed. The main features of the methodology proposed in a draft of Appendix ZG of the RCC-M code of practice for the design verification of fracture strength of primary components are presented. The research programs are surveyed and discussed from four viewpoints, first implementation of the LEFM analysis, secondly implementation of the fatigue crack propagation analysis, thirdly analysis of vessel integrity during emergency core cooling, and fourthly methodology for tear fracture analysis. (author)

  8. On the “missing” deep-hole strength in 115Sn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemssen, RH; Jones, WP; Jacobs, WW; Foster, CC; Miller, DW; Saber, M; Soga, F

    1981-01-01

    Evidence is found for a “new” deep hole component in 115Sn extending to about 18 MeV excitation and containing most likely strength in addition to 2p strength. With this new component, a better definition of the “background” is possible. All of the combined sum rule strength can be accounted for

  9. Strength Analysis on Ship Ladder Using Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budianto; Wahyudi, M. T.; Dinata, U.; Ruddianto; Eko P., M. M.

    2018-01-01

    In designing the ship’s structure, it should refer to the rules in accordance with applicable classification standards. In this case, designing Ladder (Staircase) on a Ferry Ship which is set up, it must be reviewed based on the loads during ship operations, either during sailing or at port operations. The classification rules in ship design refer to the calculation of the structure components described in Classification calculation method and can be analysed using the Finite Element Method. Classification Regulations used in the design of Ferry Ships used BKI (Bureau of Classification Indonesia). So the rules for the provision of material composition in the mechanical properties of the material should refer to the classification of the used vessel. The analysis in this structure used program structure packages based on Finite Element Method. By using structural analysis on Ladder (Ladder), it obtained strength and simulation structure that can withstand load 140 kg both in static condition, dynamic, and impact. Therefore, the result of the analysis included values of safety factors in the ship is to keep the structure safe but the strength of the structure is not excessive.

  10. Geometry and gravity influences on strength capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliner, Jeffrey; Wilmington, Robert P.; Klute, Glenn K.

    1994-01-01

    Strength, defined as the capability of an individual to produce an external force, is one of the most important determining characteristics of human performance. Knowledge of strength capabilities of a group of individuals can be applied to designing equipment and workplaces, planning procedures and tasks, and training individuals. In the manned space program, with the high risk and cost associated with spaceflight, information pertaining to human performance is important to ensuring mission success and safety. Knowledge of individual's strength capabilities in weightlessness is of interest within many areas of NASA, including workplace design, tool development, and mission planning. The weightless environment of space places the human body in a completely different context. Astronauts perform a variety of manual tasks while in orbit. Their ability to perform these tasks is partly determined by their strength capability as demanded by that particular task. Thus, an important step in task planning, development, and evaluation is to determine the ability of the humans performing it. This can be accomplished by utilizing quantitative techniques to develop a database of human strength capabilities in weightlessness. Furthermore, if strength characteristics are known, equipment and tools can be built to optimize the operators' performance. This study examined strength in performing a simple task, specifically, using a tool to apply a torque to a fixture.

  11. Strength of Fibrous Composites

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Zheng-Ming

    2012-01-01

    "Strength of Fibrous Composites" addresses evaluation of the strength of a fibrous composite by using its constituent material properties and its fiber architecture parameters. Having gone through the book, a reader is able to predict the progressive failure behavior and ultimate strength of a fibrous laminate subjected to an arbitrary load condition in terms of the constituent fiber and matrix properties, as well as fiber geometric parameters. The book is useful to researchers and engineers working on design and analysis for composite materials. Dr. Zheng-Ming Huang is a professor at the School of Aerospace Engineering & Applied Mechanics, Tongji University, China. Mr. Ye-Xin Zhou is a PhD candidate at the Department of Mechanical Engineering, the University of Hong Kong, China.

  12. Solid state lighting component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Thomas; Keller, Bernd; Tarsa, Eric; Ibbetson, James; Morgan, Frederick; Dowling, Kevin; Lys, Ihor

    2017-10-17

    An LED component according to the present invention comprising an array of LED chips mounted on a submount with the LED chips capable of emitting light in response to an electrical signal. The array can comprise LED chips emitting at two colors of light wherein the LED component emits light comprising the combination of the two colors of light. A single lens is included over the array of LED chips. The LED chip array can emit light of greater than 800 lumens with a drive current of less than 150 milli-Amps. The LED chip component can also operate at temperatures less than 3000 degrees K. In one embodiment, the LED array is in a substantially circular pattern on the submount.

  13. Fabricating nuclear components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Activities of the Nuclear Engineering Division of Vickers Ltd., particularly fabrication of long slim tubular components for power reactors and the construction of irradiation loops and rigs, are outlined. The processes include hydraulic forming for fabrication of various types of tubes and outer cases of fuel transfer buckets, various specialised welding operations including some applications of the TIG process, and induction brazing of specialised assemblies. (U.K.)

  14. High strength alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziasz, Phillip James [Oak Ridge, TN; Shingledecker, John Paul [Knoxville, TN; Santella, Michael Leonard [Knoxville, TN; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod Kumar [Oak Ridge, TN; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; John, Randy Carl [Houston, TX; Kim, Dong Sub [Sugar Land, TX

    2010-08-31

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tubular that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  15. Hand grip strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Henrik; Gaist, David; Petersen, Hans Christian

    2002-01-01

    in life is a major problem in terms of prevalence, morbidity, functional limitations, and quality of life. It is therefore of interest to find a phenotype reflecting physical functioning which has a relatively high heritability and which can be measured in large samples. Hand grip strength is known......-55%). A powerful design to detect genes associated with a phenotype is obtained using the extreme discordant and concordant sib pairs, of whom 28 and 77 dizygotic twin pairs, respectively, were found in this study. Hence grip strength is a suitable phenotype for identifying genetic variants of importance to mid...

  16. ITER plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, T.; Vieider, G.; Akiba, M.

    1991-01-01

    This document summarizes results of the Conceptual Design Activities (1988-1990) for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project, namely those that pertain to the plasma facing components of the reactor vessel, of which the main components are the first wall and the divertor plates. After an introduction and an executive summary, the principal functions of the plasma-facing components are delineated, i.e., (i) define the low-impurity region within which the plasma is produced, (ii) absorb the electromagnetic radiation and charged-particle flux from the plasma, and (iii) protect the blanket/shield components from the plasma. A list of critical design issues for the divertor plates and the first wall is given, followed by discussions of the divertor plate design (including the issues of material selection, erosion lifetime, design concepts, thermal and mechanical analysis, operating limits and overall lifetime, tritium inventory, baking and conditioning, safety analysis, manufacture and testing, and advanced divertor concepts) and the first wall design (armor material and design, erosion lifetime, overall design concepts, thermal and mechanical analysis, lifetime and operating limits, tritium inventory, baking and conditioning, safety analysis, manufacture and testing, an alternative first wall design, and the limiters used instead of the divertor plates during start-up). Refs, figs and tabs

  17. Cobalt: for strength and color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Maeve A.; Kropschot, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    Cobalt is a shiny, gray, brittle metal that is best known for creating an intense blue color in glass and paints. It is frequently used in the manufacture of rechargeable batteries and to create alloys that maintain their strength at high temperatures. It is also one of the essential trace elements (or "micronutrients") that humans and many other living creatures require for good health. Cobalt is an important component in many aerospace, defense, and medical applications and is a key element in many clean energy technologies. The name cobalt comes from the German word kobold, meaning goblin. It was given this name by medieval miners who believed that troublesome goblins replaced the valuable metals in their ore with a substance that emitted poisonous fumes when smelted. The Swedish chemist Georg Brandt isolated metallic cobalt-the first new metal to be discovered since ancient times-in about 1735 and identified some of its valuable properties.

  18. Recent Niobium Developments for High Strength Steel Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansto, Steven G.

    Niobium-containing high strength steel materials have been developed for oil and gas pipelines, offshore platforms, nuclear plants, boilers and alternative energy applications. Recent research and the commercialization of alternative energy applications such as windtower structural supports and power transmission gear components provide enhanced performance. Through the application of these Nb-bearing steels in demanding energy-related applications, the designer and end user experience improved toughness at low temperature, excellent fatigue resistance and fracture toughness and excellent weldability. These enhancements provide structural engineers the opportunity to further improve the structural design and performance. For example, through the adoption of these Nb-containing structural materials, several design-manufacturing companies are initiating new windtower designs operating at higher energy efficiency, lower cost, and improved overall material design performance.

  19. Probe tests microweld strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Probe is developed to test strength of soldered, brazed or microwelded joints. It consists of a spring which may be adjusted to the desired test pressure by means of a threaded probe head, and an indicator lamp. Device may be used for electronic equipment testing.

  20. Nondestructive Characterization of Aged Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panetta, Paul D.; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Garner, Francis A.; Balachov, Iouri I.

    2003-10-21

    It is known that high energy radiation can have numerous effects on materials. In metals and alloys, the effects include, but may not be limited to, mechanical property changes, physical property changes, compositional changes, phase changes, and dimensional changes. Metals and alloys which undergo high energy self-irradiation are also susceptible to these changes. One of the greatest concerns with irradiation of materials is the phenomenon of void swelling which has been observed in a wide variety of metals and alloys. Irradiation causes the formation of a high concentration point defects and microclusters of vacancies and interstitials. With the assistance of an inert atom such as helium, the vacancy-type defects can coalesce to form a stable bubble. This bubble will continue to grow through the net absorption of more vacancy-type defects and helium atoms, and upon reaching a certain critical size, the bubble will begin to grow at an accelerated rate without the assistance of inert atom absorption. The bubble is then said to be an unstably growing void. Depending on the alloy system and environment, swelling values can reach in excess of 50% !V/Vo where Vo is the initial volume of the material. Along with dimensional changes resulting from the formation of bubbles and voids comes changes in the macroscopically observed speed of sound, moduli, electrical resistivity, yield strength, and other properties. These effects can be detrimental to the designed operation of the aged components. In situations where irradiation has sufficient time to cause degradation to materials used in critical applications such as nuclear reactor core structural materials, it is advisable to regularly survey the material properties. It is common practice to use surveillance specimens, but this is not always possible. When surveillance materials are not available, other means for surveying the material properties must be utilized. Sometimes it is possible to core out a small sample which

  1. Components of laboratory accreditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, P D

    1995-12-01

    Accreditation or certification is a recognition given to an operation or product that has been evaluated against a standard; be it regulatory or voluntary. The purpose of accreditation is to provide the consumer with a level of confidence in the quality of operation (process) and the product of an organization. Environmental Protection Agency/OCM has proposed the development of an accreditation program under National Environmental Laboratory Accreditation Program for Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) laboratories as a supplement to the current program. This proposal was the result of the Inspector General Office reports that identified weaknesses in the current operation. Several accreditation programs can be evaluated and common components identified when proposing a structure for accrediting a GLP system. An understanding of these components is useful in building that structure. Internationally accepted accreditation programs provide a template for building a U.S. GLP accreditation program. This presentation will discuss the traditional structure of accreditation as presented in the Organization of Economic Cooperative Development/GLP program, ISO-9000 Accreditation and ISO/IEC Guide 25 Standard, and the Canadian Association for Environmental Analytical Laboratories, which has a biological component. Most accreditation programs are managed by a recognized third party, either privately or with government oversight. Common components often include a formal review of required credentials to evaluate organizational structure, a site visit to evaluate the facility, and a performance evaluation to assess technical competence. Laboratory performance is measured against written standards and scored. A formal report is then sent to the laboratory indicating accreditation status. Usually, there is a scheduled reevaluation built into the program. Fee structures vary considerably and will need to be examined closely when building a GLP program.

  2. Component Reification in Systems Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendisposto, Jens; Hallerstede, Stefan

    When modelling concurrent or distributed systems in Event-B, we often obtain models where the structure of the connected components is specified by constants. Their behaviour is specified by the non-deterministic choice of event parameters for events that operate on shared variables. From a certain......? These components may still refer to shared variables. Events of these components should not refer to the constants specifying the structure. The non-deterministic choice between these components should not be via parameters. We say the components are reified. We need to address how the reified components get...... reflected into the original model. This reflection should indicate the constraints on how to connect the components....

  3. Component nuclear containment structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harstead, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    The invention described is intended for use primarily as a nuclear containment structure. Such structures are required to surround the nuclear steam supply system and to contain the effects of breaks in the nuclear steam supply system, or i.e. loss of coolant accidents. Nuclear containment structures are required to withstand internal pressure and temperatures which result from loss of coolant accidents, and to provide for radiation shielding during operation and during the loss of coolant accident, as well as to resist all other applied loads, such as earthquakes. The nuclear containment structure described herein is a composite nuclear containment structure, and is one which structurally combines two previous systems; namely, a steel vessel, and a lined concrete structure. The steel vessel provides strength to resist internal pressure and accommodate temperature increases, the lined concrete structure provides resistance to internal pressure by having a liner which will prevent leakage, and which is in contact with the concrete structure which provides the strength to resist the pressure

  4. Aging management of major LWR components with nondestructive evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, V.N.; MacDonald, P.E.; Akers, D.W.; Sellers, C.; Murty, K.L.; Miraglia, P.Q.; Mathew, M.D.; Haggag, F.M.

    1997-01-01

    Nondestructive evaluation of material damage can contribute to continued safe, reliable, and economical operation of nuclear power plants through their current and renewed license period. The aging mechanisms active in the major light water reactor components are radiation embrittlement, thermal aging, stress corrosion cracking, flow-accelerated corrosion, and fatigue, which reduce fracture toughness, structural strength, or fatigue resistance of the components and challenge structural integrity of the pressure boundary. This paper reviews four nondestructive evaluation methods with the potential for in situ assessment of damage caused by these mechanisms: stress-strain microprobe for determining mechanical properties of reactor pressure vessel and cast stainless materials, magnetic methods for estimating thermal aging damage in cast stainless steel, positron annihilation measurements for estimating early fatigue damage in reactor coolant system piping, and ultrasonic guided wave technique for detecting cracks and wall thinning in tubes and pipes and corrosion damage to embedded portion of metal containments

  5. Redox Buffer Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Levie, Robert

    1999-04-01

    The proper functioning of enzymes in bodily fluids requires that the pH be maintained within rather narrow limits. The first line of defense against large pH fluctuations in such fluids is the passive control provided by the presence of pH buffers. The ability of pH buffers to stabilize the pH is indicated by the buffer value b introduced in 1922 by van Slyke. It is equally important for many enzymes that the redox potential is kept within a narrow range. In that case, stability of the potential is most readily achieved with a redox buffer. In this communication we define the redox buffer strength by analogy with acid-base buffer strength.

  6. Spin resonance strength calculation through single particle tracking for RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Dutheil, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Huang, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Meot, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ranjbar, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-03

    The strengths of spin resonances for the polarized-proton operation in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider are currently calculated with the code DEPOL, which numerically integrates through the ring based on an analytical approximate formula. In this article, we test a new way to calculate the spin resonance strengths by performing Fourier transformation to the actual transverse magnetic fields seen by a single particle traveling through the ring. Comparison of calculated spin resonance strengths is made between this method and DEPOL.

  7. Corium crust strength measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomperski, S. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4840 (United States)], E-mail: lomperski@anl.gov; Farmer, M.T. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4840 (United States)], E-mail: farmer@anl.gov

    2009-11-15

    Corium strength is of interest in the context of a severe reactor accident in which molten core material melts through the reactor vessel and collects on the containment basemat. Some accident management strategies involve pouring water over the melt to solidify it and halt corium/concrete interactions. The effectiveness of this method could be influenced by the strength of the corium crust at the interface between the melt and coolant. A strong, coherent crust anchored to the containment walls could allow the yet-molten corium to fall away from the crust as it erodes the basemat, thereby thermally decoupling the melt from the coolant and sharply reducing the cooling rate. This paper presents a diverse collection of measurements of the mechanical strength of corium. The data is based on load tests of corium samples in three different contexts: (1) small blocks cut from the debris of the large-scale MACE experiments, (2) 30 cm-diameter, 75 kg ingots produced by SSWICS quench tests, and (3) high temperature crusts loaded during large-scale corium/concrete interaction (CCI) tests. In every case the corium consisted of varying proportions of UO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, and the constituents of concrete to represent a LWR melt at different stages of a molten core/concrete interaction. The collection of data was used to assess the strength and stability of an anchored, plant-scale crust. The results indicate that such a crust is likely to be too weak to support itself above the melt. It is therefore improbable that an anchored crust configuration could persist and the melt become thermally decoupled from the water layer to restrict cooling and prolong an attack of the reactor cavity concrete.

  8. Evaluation of aging degradation of structural components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, O.K.; Shack, W.J.

    1992-03-01

    Irradiation embrittlement of the neutron shield tank (NST) A212 Grade B steel from the Shippingport reactor, as well as thermal embrittlement of CF-8 cast stainless steel components from the Shippingport and KRB reactors, has been characterized. Increases in Charpy transition temperature (CTT), yield stress, and hardness of the NST material in the low-temperature low-flux environment are consistent with the test reactor data for irradiations at 8 n/cm 2 ·s at the low operating temperature of the Shippingport NST, i.e., 55 degrees C. This suggest that radiation damage in Shippingport NST and HFIR surveillance samples may be different because of the neutron spectra and/or Cu and Ni content of the two materials. Cast stainless steel components show relatively modest decreases in fracture toughness and Charpy-impact properties and a small increase in tensile strength. Correlations for estimating mechanical properties of cast stainless steels predict accurate or slightly conservative values for Charpy-impact energy, tensile flow stress, fracture toughness J-R curve, and J IC of the materials. The kinetics of thermal embrittlement and degree of embrittlement at saturation, i.e., the minimum impact energy achieved after long-term aging, were established from materials that were aged further in the laboratory. The results were consistent with the estimates. The correlations successfully predict the mechanical properties of the Ringhals 2 reactor hot- and crossover-leg elbows (CF-8M steel) after service of ∼15 y

  9. Strength capability while kneeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslegrave, C M; Tracy, M F; Corlett, E N

    1997-12-01

    Work sometimes has to be carried out kneeling, particularly where jobs are performed in confined spaces as is common for miners, aircraft baggage handlers and maintenance workers. In order to assess the risks in performing forceful tasks under such conditions, data is needed on strength capabilities of kneeling subjects. A study was undertaken to measure isometric strength in single-handed exertions for male subjects and to investigate the effects on this of task layout factors (direction of force exertion, reach distance, height of the workpiece and orientation relative to the subject's sagittal plane). The data has been tabulated to show the degree to which strength may be reduced in different situations and analysis of the task factors showed their influence to be complex with direction of exertion and reach distance having the greatest effect. The results also suggest that exertions are weaker when subjects are kneeling on two knees than when kneeling on one knee, although this needs to be confirmed by direct experimental comparison.

  10. Determination of high-strength materials diamond grinding rational modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipov, P. V.; Lobanov, D. V.; Rychkov, D. A.; Yanyushkin, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    The analysis of methods of high-strength materials abrasive processing is carried out. This method made it possible to determine the necessary directions and prospects for the development of shaping combined methods. The need to use metal bonded diamond abrasive tools in combination with a different kind of energy is noted to improve the processing efficiency and reduce the complexity of operations. The complex of experimental research on revealing the importance of mechanical and electrical components of cutting regimes, on the cutting ability of diamond tools, as well as the need to reduce the specific consumption of an abrasive wheel as one of the important economic indicators of the processing process is performed. It is established that combined diamond grinding with simultaneous continuous correction of the abrasive wheel contributes to an increase in the cutting ability of metal bonded diamond abrasive tools when processing high-strength materials by an average of 30% compared to diamond grinding. Particular recommendations on the designation of technological factors are developed depending on specific production problems.

  11. Shaping the Strength of Cast Rocker Arm for Special Purpose Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żuczek R.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the weldment to casting conversion process of rocker arm designed for operation in a special purpose vehicle to obtain a consistency of objective functions, which assume the reduced weight of component, the reduced maximum effort of material under the impact of service loads achieved through topology modification for optimum strength distribution in the sensitive areas, and the development of rocker arm manufacturing technology. As a result of conducted studies, the unit weight of the item was reduced by 25%, and the stress limit values were reduced to a level guaranteeing safe application.

  12. 47 CFR 27.55 - Power strength limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... following bands, the predicted or measured median field strength at any location on the geographical border... predicted or measured median field strength at any location on the geographical border of a licensee's... antenna mounting structure. (c) Power flux density limit for stations operating in the 746-757 MHz, 758...

  13. predicting the compressive strength of concretes made with granite

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... computational model based on artificial neural networks for the determination of the compressive strength of concrete ... Strength being the most important property of con- ... to cut corners use low quality concrete materials in .... manner of operation of natural neurons in the human body. ... the output ai.

  14. Strengths only or strengths and relative weaknesses? A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Teri; Diessner, Rhett; Reade, Lindsay

    2009-10-01

    Does working on developing character strengths and relative character weaknesses cause lower life satisfaction than working on developing character strengths only? The present study provides a preliminary answer. After 76 college students completed the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (C. Peterson & M. E. P. Seligman, 2004), the authors randomly assigned them to work on 2 character strengths or on 1 character strength and 1 relative weakness. Combined, these groups showed significant gains on the Satisfaction With Life Scale (E. Diener, R. A. Emmons, R. J. Larsen, & S. Griffin, 1985), compared with a 32-student no-treatment group. However, there was no significant difference in gain scores between the 2-strengths group and the 1-character-strength-and-1-relative-character-weakness group. The authors discuss how focusing on relative character weaknesses (along with strengths) does not diminish-and may assist in increasing-life satisfaction.

  15. Autonomous component carrier selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Luis Guilherme Uzeda; Pedersen, Klaus; Mogensen, Preben

    2009-01-01

    management and efficient system operation. Due to the expected large number of user-deployed cells, centralized network planning becomes unpractical and new scalable alternatives must be sought. In this article, we propose a fully distributed and scalable solution to the interference management problem...... in local areas, basing our study case on LTE-Advanced. We present extensive network simulation results to demonstrate that a simple and robust interference management scheme, called autonomous component carrier selection allows each cell to select the most attractive frequency configuration; improving...... the experience of all users and not just the few best ones; while overall cell capacity is not compromised....

  16. Load assumption for fatigue design of structures and components counting methods, safety aspects, practical application

    CERN Document Server

    Köhler, Michael; Pötter, Kurt; Zenner, Harald

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the fatigue behaviour of structural components under variable load amplitude is an essential prerequisite for safe and reliable light-weight design. For designing and dimensioning, the expected stress (load) is compared with the capacity to withstand loads (fatigue strength). In this process, the safety necessary for each particular application must be ensured. A prerequisite for ensuring the required fatigue strength is a reliable load assumption. The authors describe the transformation of the stress- and load-time functions which have been measured under operational conditions to spectra or matrices with the application of counting methods. The aspects which must be considered for ensuring a reliable load assumption for designing and dimensioning are discussed in detail. Furthermore, the theoretical background for estimating the fatigue life of structural components is explained, and the procedures are discussed for numerous applications in practice. One of the prime intentions of the authors ...

  17. Safety related analysis of the application and operation of electrical components in German nuclear power plants, safeguarding and protection against safety relevant impacts from the grid and other external sources; Sicherheitstechnische Analyse zum Einsatz und Betrieb elektrotechnischer Einrichtungen in deutschen Kernkraftwerken, Ueberwachung und Schutz gegen sicherheitstechnisch bedeutsame Einwirkungen aus dem Verbundnetz sowie anderen aeusseren Quellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arians, Robert; Arnold, Simone; Blum, Stefanie; Buchholz, Marcel; Lochthofen, Andre; Quester, Claudia; Sommer, Dagmar

    2015-10-15

    In this report, results and data from examinations concerning software-based electrical components and transmitters are evaluated. As failure modes of software-based com-ponents and failure causes differ fundamentally from non-software-based components, an evaluation of the operating experience of such components was carried out. This evaluation should show whether or not existing approaches for non-software-based components can be directly transferred to software-based components, or if a different approach has to be developed. To include failures in non-safety systems, events not fulfilling the incident reporting criteria of German authorities were also included in this evaluation. The data provided by licensees of six German NPPs (different Boiling Wa-ter Reactors and Pressurized Water Reactors) was recorded for at least 8 years. The software-based components used in the NPPs are identified and their operating experience is analyzed in order to identify relevant failure modes and to establish a II knowledge base for future failure rating. In addition, the state of the art and science concerning the specific components was described.

  18. Initial Ada components evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moebes, Travis

    1989-01-01

    The SAIC has the responsibility for independent test and validation of the SSE. They have been using a mathematical functions library package implemented in Ada to test the SSE IV and V process. The library package consists of elementary mathematical functions and is both machine and accuracy independent. The SSE Ada components evaluation includes code complexity metrics based on Halstead's software science metrics and McCabe's measure of cyclomatic complexity. Halstead's metrics are based on the number of operators and operands on a logical unit of code and are compiled from the number of distinct operators, distinct operands, and total number of occurrences of operators and operands. These metrics give an indication of the physical size of a program in terms of operators and operands and are used diagnostically to point to potential problems. McCabe's Cyclomatic Complexity Metrics (CCM) are compiled from flow charts transformed to equivalent directed graphs. The CCM is a measure of the total number of linearly independent paths through the code's control structure. These metrics were computed for the Ada mathematical functions library using Software Automated Verification and Validation (SAVVAS), the SSE IV and V tool. A table with selected results was shown, indicating that most of these routines are of good quality. Thresholds for the Halstead measures indicate poor quality if the length metric exceeds 260 or difficulty is greater than 190. The McCabe CCM indicated a high quality of software products.

  19. Development of integrity evaluation technology for pressurized components in nuclear power plant and IT based integrity evaluation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Jin; Choi, Jae Boong; Shim, Do Jun

    2004-02-01

    The objective of this research is to develop on efficient integrity evaluation technology and to investigate the applicability of the newly-developed technology such as internet-based cyber platform etc. to Nuclear Power Plant(NPP) components. The development of an efficient structural integrity evaluation system is necessary for safe operation of NPP as the increase of operating periods. Moreover, material test data as well as emerging structural integrity assessment technology are also needed for the evaluation of aged components. The following five topics are covered in this project: development of the wall-thinning evaluation program for nuclear piping; development of structural integrity evaluation criteria for steam generator tubes with cracks of various shape; development of fatigue life evaluation system for major components of NPP; ingegration of internet-based cyber platform and integrity evaluation program for primary components of NPP; effects of aging on strength of dissimilar welds

  20. Development of integrity evaluation technology for pressurized components in nuclear power plant and IT based integrity evaluation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Jin; Choi, Jae Boong; Shim, Do Jun [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2004-02-15

    The objective of this research is to develop on efficient integrity evaluation technology and to investigate the applicability of the newly-developed technology such as internet-based cyber platform etc. to Nuclear Power Plant(NPP) components. The development of an efficient structural integrity evaluation system is necessary for safe operation of NPP as the increase of operating periods. Moreover, material test data as well as emerging structural integrity assessment technology are also needed for the evaluation of aged components. The following five topics are covered in this project: development of the wall-thinning evaluation program for nuclear piping; development of structural integrity evaluation criteria for steam generator tubes with cracks of various shape; development of fatigue life evaluation system for major components of NPP; ingegration of internet-based cyber platform and integrity evaluation program for primary components of NPP; effects of aging on strength of dissimilar welds.

  1. Developments of integrity evaluation technology for pressurized components in nuclear power plant and IT based integrity evaluation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Jin; Choi, Jae Boong; Shim, Do Jun [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2003-03-15

    The objective of this research is to develop an efficient evaluation technology and to investigate applicability of newly-developed technology, such as internet-based cyber platform, to operating power plants. Development of efficient evaluation systems for Nuclear Power Plant components, based on structural integrity assessment techniques, are increasingly demanded for safe operation with the increasing operating period of Nuclear Power Plants. The following five topics are covered in this project: development of assessment method for wall-thinned nuclear piping based on pipe test; development of structural integrity program for steam generator tubes with cracks of various shape; development of fatigue life evaluation system for mam components of NPP; development of internet-based cyber platform and integrity program for primary components of NPP; effect of aging on strength of dissimilar welds.

  2. Components selection for ageing management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mingiuc, C.; Vidican, D.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The paper presents a synthesis of methods and activities realized for the selection of critical components to assure plant safety and availability (as electricity supplier). There are presented main criteria for selection, screening process. For the resulted categories of components shall be applied different category of maintenance (condition oriented, scheduled or corrective), function of the importance and financial effort necessary to fulfil the task. 1. Systems and components screening for plant safety assurance For the systems selection, from Safety point of view, was necessary first, to define systems which are dangerous in case of failure (mainly by rupture/ release of radioactivity) and the safety systems which have to mitigate the effects. This is realized based on accident analysis (from Safety Report). Also where taken in to account the 4 basic Safety Principles: 'Reactor shut down; Residual heat removal; Radioactivity products confinement; NPP status monitoring in normal and accident conditions'. Following step is to establish safety support systems, which have to action to assure main safety systems operation. This could be realized based on engineering judgement, or on PSA Level I analysis. Finally shall be realized chains of the support systems, which have to work, till primary systems. For the critical components selection, was realized a Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), considering the components effects of failures, on system safety function. 2. Systems and components screening for plant availability assurance The work was realized in two steps: Systems screening; Components screening The systems screening, included: General, analyze of the plant systems list and the definition of those which clearly have to run continue to assure the nominal power; Realization of a complex diagram to define interdependence between the systems (e.g. PHT and auxiliaries, moderator and auxiliaries, plant electrical diagram); Fill of special

  3. Gaussian discriminating strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigovacca, L.; Farace, A.; De Pasquale, A.; Giovannetti, V.

    2015-10-01

    We present a quantifier of nonclassical correlations for bipartite, multimode Gaussian states. It is derived from the Discriminating Strength measure, introduced for finite dimensional systems in Farace et al., [New J. Phys. 16, 073010 (2014), 10.1088/1367-2630/16/7/073010]. As the latter the new measure exploits the quantum Chernoff bound to gauge the susceptibility of the composite system with respect to local perturbations induced by unitary gates extracted from a suitable set of allowed transformations (the latter being identified by posing some general requirements). Closed expressions are provided for the case of two-mode Gaussian states obtained by squeezing or by linearly mixing via a beam splitter a factorized two-mode thermal state. For these density matrices, we study how nonclassical correlations are related with the entanglement present in the system and with its total photon number.

  4. Component protection based automatic control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otaduy, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    Control and safety systems as well as operation procedures are designed on the basis of critical process parameters limits. The expectation is that short and long term mechanical damage and process failures will be avoided by operating the plant within the specified constraints envelopes. In this paper, one of the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) design duty cycles events is discussed to corroborate that the time has come to explicitly make component protection part of the control system. Component stress assessment and aging data should be an integral part of the control system. Then transient trajectory planning and operating limits could be aimed at minimizing component specific and overall plant component damage cost functions. The impact of transients on critical components could then be managed according to plant lifetime design goals. The need for developing methodologies for online transient trajectory planning and assessment of operating limits in order to facilitate the explicit incorporation of damage assessment capabilities to the plant control and protection systems is discussed. 12 refs

  5. Fatigue life of the plasma-facing components in PULSAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowell, J.A.; Blanchard, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    The PULSAR project is a multi-institutional effort to determine the advantages that can be gained by building a tokamak without current drive. This machine would reduce the capital and operating costs of the machine by avoiding the need for complex current drive hardware but it must compensate for this with an energy storage scheme and with increased structural requirements due to cyclic fatigue. This paper presents the results of the fatigue analysis for the plasma-facing components of PULSAR. The structural analysis is carried out using two-dimensional finite element models and a variety of boundary conditions to account for the third dimension. In some cases the temperature distribution is modified to simulate behaviors which cannot normally be modeled with two-dimensional finite element models. PULSAR features two major engineering designs: a liquid metal-cooled vanadium design and a helium-cooled SiC/SiC design. Results are given for each. It is shown that the superior thermal and strength properties of the vanadium alloy simplify the component design process significantly. The SiC composite properties cause significantly more difficulty for the designer and, in particular, no credible design is found for a divertor fabricated solely from the SiC composite. This conclusion is based on current data for the thermophysical properties and fatigue strength of SiC fiber composites, so developments in these areas could allow the fabrication of a SiC/SiC divertor for a pulsed tokamak

  6. Hybrid solar lighting distribution systems and components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Jeffrey D [Lenoir City, TN; Earl, Dennis D [Knoxville, TN; Beshears, David L [Knoxville, TN; Maxey, Lonnie C [Powell, TN; Jordan, John K [Oak Ridge, TN; Lind, Randall F [Lenoir City, TN

    2011-07-05

    A hybrid solar lighting distribution system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates all components.

  7. Compressive and flexural strength of high strength phase change mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Qingyao; Fang, Changle

    2018-04-01

    High-strength cement produces a lot of hydration heat when hydrated, it will usually lead to thermal cracks. Phase change materials (PCM) are very potential thermal storage materials. Utilize PCM can help reduce the hydration heat. Research shows that apply suitable amount of PCM has a significant effect on improving the compressive strength of cement mortar, and can also improve the flexural strength to some extent.

  8. Lifetime of superheated steam components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoklossa, K.H.; Oude-Hengel, H.H.; Kraechter, H.J.

    1974-01-01

    The current evaluation schemes in use for judging the lifetime expectations of superheated steam components are compared with each other. The influence of pressure and temperature fluctuations, the differences in the strength of the wall, and the spread band of constant-strainrates are critically investigated. The distribution of these contributory effects are demonstrated in the hight of numerous measuring results. As an important supplement to these evaluation schemes a newly developed technique is introduced which is designed to calculate failure probabilities. (orig./RW) [de

  9. On the significance of a subsequent ageing after cold working of Incoloy 800 at operational temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullrich, G.; Krompholz, K.

    1993-01-01

    The influence of cold working and subsequent ageing at operational temperatures on the long-term and short-term mechanical properties of components made from the iron-nickel-chromium base alloy Incoloy 800 are discussed. Long-term properties are time-to-rupture strengths, which are included in the design code, over a lifetime of 300,000 hours. For LWR operating temperatures of 350 o C, this is of minor importance. An operating temperature of 550 o C is possible for Incoloy 800 with up to 25% cold working and a subsequent solution annealing at 950 o C, without loss of time-to-rupture strength compared with the 'as received' state. The short-term mechanical properties are strongly influenced by cold working, in the form of increasing yield strength and rupture strength, and decreasing ductility and consequently loss in impact energies. A subsequent ageing at 550 o C leads to a decrease of the yield strength and rupture strength, and an increase of ductility as well as the impact energies. The environmental influence are discussed. (author) 3 figs., 1 tab., 8 refs

  10. Component failure data base of TRIGA reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djuricic, M.

    2004-10-01

    This compilation provides failure data such as first criticality, component type description (reactor component, population, cumulative calendar time, cumulative operating time, demands, failure mode, failures, failure rate, failure probability) and specific information on each type of component of TRIGA Mark-II reactors in Austria, Bangladesh, Germany, Finland, Indonesia, Italy, Indonesia, Slovenia and Romania. (nevyjel)

  11. Validation of Ankle Strength Measurements by Means of a Hand-Held Dynamometer in Adult Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ancillao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Uniaxial Hand-Held Dynamometer (HHD is a low-cost device widely adopted in clinical practice to measure muscle force. HHD measurements depend on operator’s ability and joint movements. The aim of the work is to validate the use of a commercial HHD in both dorsiflexion and plantarflexion ankle strength measurements quantifying the effects of HHD misplacements and unwanted foot’s movements on the measurements. We used an optoelectronic system and a multicomponent load cell to quantify the sources of error in the manual assessment of the ankle strength due to both the operator’s ability to hold still the HHD and the transversal components of the exerted force that are usually neglected in clinical routine. Results showed that foot’s movements and angular misplacements of HHD on sagittal and horizontal planes were relevant sources of inaccuracy on the strength assessment. Moreover, ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion force measurements presented an inaccuracy less than 2% and higher than 10%, respectively. In conclusion, the manual use of a uniaxial HHD is not recommended for the assessment of ankle plantarflexion strength; on the contrary, it can be allowed asking the operator to pay strong attention to the HHD positioning in ankle dorsiflexion strength measurements.

  12. Computation of radionuclide particulate finite area fugitive source strengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, D E

    1983-06-01

    Atmospheric source strengths quantifying particulate re-suspension from wind and non-wind disturbance-driven processes are computed for sites of small area. These values are useful in computing downwind air concentration values to evaluate risk to exposed populations. The net source strength for the site is the sum of the wind- and disturbance-driven components. A unified source strength approach includes both classes of re-suspension processes. More research is needed to satisfactorily express the time-dependence of re-suspension parameters, especially in non-arid climates where population densities are greater. (JMT)

  13. Effective longitudinal strength of high temperature metal-matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craddock, J.N.; Savvides, I.

    1991-01-01

    Several models for predicting the longitudinal strength of fiber composites are presented, ranging from a simple netting analysis to a model incorporating curvilinear strain hardening for all the components. Results from these models are presented for tungsten fiber reinforced superalloys, FeCrAlY and MARM200. It is shown that a simple elastic limit micromechanical model does not always adequately describe the useful strength of the composites. The methods proposed here are shown to be more appropriate for predicting the effective composite strength. 2 refs

  14. Neutron irradiation effects on mechanical properties in SA508 Gr4N high strength low alloy steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Minchul; Lee, Kihyoung; Park, Sanggyu; Choi, Kwonjae; Lee, Bongsang

    2012-01-01

    The Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) is the key component in determining the lifetime of nuclear power plants because it is subject to the significant aging degradation by irradiation and thermal aging, and there is no practical method for replacing that component. Advanced reactors with much larger capacity than current reactor require the usage of higher strength materials inevitably. The SA508 Gr.4N Ni Cr Mo low alloy steel, in which Ni and Cr contents are larger than in conventional RPV steels, could be a promising RPV material offering improved strength and toughness from its tempered martensitic microstructure. For a structural integrity of RPV, the effect of neutron irradiation on the material property is one of the key issues. The RPV materials suffer from the significant degradation of transition properties by the irradiation embrittlement when its strength is increased by a hardening mechanism. Therefore, the potential for application of SA508 Gr.4N steel as the structural components for nuclear power reactors depends on its ability to maintain adequate transition properties against the operating neutron does. However, it is not easy to fine the data on the irradiation effect on the mechanical properties of SA508 Gr.4N steel. In this study, the irradiation embrittlement of SA508 Gr.4N Ni Cr Mo low alloy steel was evaluated by using specimens irradiated in research reactor. For comparison, the variations of mechanical properties by neutron irradiation for commercial SA508 Gr.3 Mn Mo Ni low alloy steel were also evaluated

  15. Influence of prolonged service of steam turbines on the properties of materials of rotor and vessel components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anfimov, V.M.; Artamonov, V.V.; Chizhik, T.A.

    1984-01-01

    The structure and mechanical properties of steam turbine elements of 25Kh1MF, 25Kh1M1FA (rotors), 15Kh1M1FL (vessel components) steels have been investigated both in initial state and after 200 000 h operation. The structure stability and phase composition of rotor steels providing conservation of heat resistance at a required level was established. Examination of vessel components showed a decrease in the yield strength by 15-20% and durability - by 10% as compared to initial ones. The conclusion on a possible prolongation of the steam turbine service life to 200 000 h is drawn. The nominal service life equals 100 000 h

  16. APS beamline standard components handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzay, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    It is clear that most Advanced Photon Source (APS) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) members would like to concentrate on designing specialized equipment related to their scientific programs rather than on routine or standard beamline components. Thus, an effort is in progress at the APS to identify standard and modular components of APS beamlines. Identifying standard components is a nontrivial task because these components should support diverse beamline objectives. To assist with this effort, the APS has obtained advice and help from a Beamline Standardization and Modularization Committee consisting of experts in beamline design, construction, and operation. The staff of the Experimental Facilities Division identified various components thought to be standard items for beamlines, regardless of the specific scientific objective of a particular beamline. A generic beamline layout formed the basis for this identification. This layout is based on a double-crystal monochromator as the first optical element, with the possibility of other elements to follow. Pre-engineering designs were then made of the identified standard components. The Beamline Standardization and Modularization Committee has reviewed these designs and provided very useful input regarding the specifications of these components. We realize that there will be other configurations that may require special or modified components. This Handbook in its current version (1.1) contains descriptions, specifications, and pre-engineering design drawings of these standard components. In the future, the APS plans to add engineering drawings of identified standard beamline components. Use of standard components should result in major cost reductions for CATs in the areas of beamline design and construction

  17. Automated cleaning of electronic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drotning, W.; Meirans, L.; Wapman, W.; Hwang, Y.; Koenig, L.; Petterson, B.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental and operator safety concerns are leading to the elimination of trichloroethylene and chlorofluorocarbon solvents in cleaning processes that remove rosin flux, organic and inorganic contamination, and particulates from electronic components. Present processes depend heavily on these solvents for manual spray cleaning of small components and subassemblies. Use of alternative solvent systems can lead to longer processing times and reduced quality. Automated spray cleaning can improve the quality of the cleaning process, thus enabling the productive use of environmentally conscious materials, while minimizing personnel exposure to hazardous materials. We describe the development of a prototype robotic system for cleaning electronic components in a spray cleaning workcell. An important feature of the prototype system is the capability to generate the robot paths and motions automatically from the CAD models of the part to be cleaned, and to embed cleaning process knowledge into the automatically programmed operations

  18. On the operator equivalents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenet, G.; Kibler, M.

    1978-06-01

    A closed polynomial formula for the qth component of the diagonal operator equivalent of order k is derived in terms of angular momentum operators. The interest in various fields of molecular and solid state physics of using such a formula in connection with symmetry adapted operator equivalents is outlined

  19. Optimising mechanical properties of hot forged nickel superalloy 625 components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singo, Nthambe; Coles, John; Rosochowska, Malgorzata; Lalvani, Himanshu; Hernandez, Jose; Ion, William

    2018-05-01

    Hot forging and subsequent heat treatment were resulting in substandard mechanical properties of nickel superalloy, Alloy 625, components. The low strength was found to be due to inadequate deformation during forging, excessive grain growth and precipitation of carbides during subsequent heat treatment. Experimentation in a drop forging company and heat treatment facility led to the establishment of optimal parameters to minimise grain size and mitigate the adverse effects of carbide precipitation, leading to successful fulfilment of mechanical property specifications. This was achieved by reducing the number of operations, maximising the extent of deformation by changing the slug dimensions and its orientation in the die, and minimising the time of exposure to elevated temperatures in both the forging and subsequent heat treatment processes to avoid grain growth.

  20. Development of life evaluation technology for nuclear power plant components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Jin; Kim, Yun Jae; Choi, Jae Boong [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2002-03-15

    This project focuses on developing reliable life evaluation technology for nuclear power plant components, and is divided into two parts, development of a life evaluation system for nuclear pressure vessels and evaluation of applicability of emerging technology to operating plants. For the development of life evaluation system for nuclear pressure vessels, the following seven topics are covered in this project: defect assessment method for steam generator tubes, development of fatigue monitoring system, assessment of corroded pipes, domestic round robin analysis for constructing P-T limit curve for RPV, development of probabilistic integrity assessment technique, effect of aging on strength of dissimilar welds, applicability of LBB to cast stainless steel, and development of probabilistic piping fracture mechanics.

  1. Loading Conditions and Longitudinal Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Herman

    1995-01-01

    Methods for the calculation of the lightweight of the ship.Loading conditions satisfying draught, trim and intact stability requirements and analysis of the corresponding stillwater longitudinal strength.......Methods for the calculation of the lightweight of the ship.Loading conditions satisfying draught, trim and intact stability requirements and analysis of the corresponding stillwater longitudinal strength....

  2. Oscillator strengths for neutral technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garstang, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Oscillator strengths have been calculated for most of the spectral lines of TcI which are of interest in the study of stars of spectral type S. Oscillator strengths have been computed for the corresponding transitions in MnI as a partial check of the technetium calculations

  3. Empirical validation of the triple-code model of numerical processing for complex math operations using functional MRI and group Independent Component Analysis of the mental addition and subtraction of fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmithorst, Vincent J; Brown, Rhonda Douglas

    2004-07-01

    The suitability of a previously hypothesized triple-code model of numerical processing, involving analog magnitude, auditory verbal, and visual Arabic codes of representation, was investigated for the complex mathematical task of the mental addition and subtraction of fractions. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from 15 normal adult subjects were processed using exploratory group Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Separate task-related components were found with activation in bilateral inferior parietal, left perisylvian, and ventral occipitotemporal areas. These results support the hypothesized triple-code model corresponding to the activated regions found in the individual components and indicate that the triple-code model may be a suitable framework for analyzing the neuropsychological bases of the performance of complex mathematical tasks. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.

  4. A three-dimensional computerized isometric strength measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Nancy L; Das, Biman

    2007-05-01

    The three-dimensional Computerized Isometric Strength Measurement System (CISMS) reliably and accurately measures isometric pull and push strengths in work spaces of paraplegic populations while anticipating comparative studies with other populations. The main elements of the system were: an extendable arm, a vertical supporting track, a rotating platform, a force transducer, stability sensors and a computerized data collection interface. The CISMS with minor modification was successfully used to measure isometric push-up and pull-down strengths of paraplegics and isometric push, pull, push-up and pull-down strength in work spaces for seated and standing able-bodied populations. The instrument has satisfied criteria of versatility, safety and comfort, ease of operation, and durability. Results are accurate within 2N for aligned forces. Costing approximately $1,500 (US) including computer, the system is affordable and accurate for aligned isometric strength measurements.

  5. Measurements for stresses in machine components

    CERN Document Server

    Yakovlev, V F

    1964-01-01

    Measurements for Stresses in Machine Components focuses on the state of stress and strain of components and members, which determines the service life and strength of machines and structures. This book is divided into four chapters. Chapter I describes the physical basis of several methods of measuring strains, which includes strain gauges, photoelasticity, X-ray diffraction, brittle coatings, and dividing grids. The basic concepts of the electric strain gauge method for measuring stresses inside machine components are covered in Chapter II. Chapter III elaborates on the results of experim

  6. STRENGTH OF NANOMODIFIED HIGH-STRENGTH LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOZEMTСEV Alexandr Sergeevich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research aimed at development of nanomodified high-strength lightweight concrete for construction. The developed concretes are of low average density and high ultimate compressive strength. It is shown that to produce this type of concrete one need to use hollow glass and aluminosilicate microspheres. To increase the durability of adhesion between cement stone and fine filler the authors offer to use complex nanodimensinal modifier based on iron hydroxide sol and silica sol as a surface nanomodifier for hollow microspheres. It is hypothesized that the proposed modifier has complex effect on the activity of the cement hydration and, at the same time increases bond strength between filler and cement-mineral matrix. The compositions for energy-efficient nanomodified high-strength lightweight concrete which density is 1300…1500 kg/m³ and compressive strength is 40…65 MPa have been developed. The approaches to the design of high-strength lightweight concrete with density of less than 2000 kg/m³ are formulated. It is noted that the proposed concretes possess dense homogeneous structure and moderate mobility. Thus, they allow processing by vibration during production. The economic and practical implications for realization of high-strength lightweight concrete in industrial production have been justified.

  7. Comparison of Thermal Stability of Dry High-strength Concrete and Wet High-strength Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musorina, Tatiana; Katcay, Aleksandr; Selezneva, Anna; Kamskov, Victor

    2018-03-01

    High-strength concrete is a modern material, which occupies it`s own niche on the construction material market. It is applicable in a large-scale high-rise construction, particularly an underground construction is a frequently used solution for a space saving. Usually underground structure is related to a wet usage environment. Though not all properties of the high-strength concrete are investigated to the full extent. Under adverse climatic conditions of the Russian Federation one of the most important properties for constructional materials is a thermal capacity. Therefore, the main purpose of the paper is to compare a thermal capacity of the high-strength concrete in humid conditions and a thermal capacity of the high-strength concrete in dry operational condition. During the study dependency between thermal capacity and design wall thickness and ambient humidity has to be proven with two experiments. As a result the theoretical relation between thermal capacity characteristic - thermal inertia and wall thickness and ambient humidity was confirmed by the experimental data. The thermal capacity of a building is in direct ratio to the construction thickness. It follows from the experiments and calculations that wet high-strength concrete has less thermal stability.

  8. Experimental-laboratory studies of a composition based on TS-10 resin designed for insulation operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyazel' shchikov, V M; Glukhov, A M

    1979-01-01

    Results are presented from studying the technological parameters of a strengthened argillaceous solution (SAS) conducted using the method of planning partial experiments. Particular empirical relationships are found which provide a concept about the degree of influence of each of the SAS components (TS-10 resins of paraform, water, clay) on the rate of structure-formation and mechanical strength. Summary relationships are obtained: the time for viscosity to reach 500% cP-SAS composition and ultimate compression strength SAS composition which can be used in selecting the formula for the mixture for the insulation operations in an ''cold'' well.

  9. Tungsten fibre-reinforced composites for advanced plasma facing components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Neu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The European Fusion Roadmap foresees water cooled plasma facing components in a first DEMO design in order to provide enough margin for the cooling capacity and to only moderately extrapolate the technology which was developed and tested for ITER. In order to make best use of the water cooling concept copper (Cu and copper-chromium-zirconium alloy (CuCrZr are envisaged as heat sink whereas as armour tungsten (W based materials will be used. Combining both materials in a high heat flux component asks for an increase of their operational range towards higher temperature in case of Cu/CuCrZr and lower temperatures for W. A remedy for both issues- brittleness of W and degrading strength of CuCrZr- could be the use of W fibres (Wf in W and Cu based composites. Fibre preforms could be manufactured with industrially viable textile techniques. Flat textiles with a combination of 150/70 µm W wires have been chosen for layered deposition of tungsten-fibre reinforced tungsten (Wf/W samples and tubular multi-layered braidings with W wire thickness of 50 µm were produced as a preform for tungsten-fibre reinforced copper (Wf /Cu tubes. Cu melt infiltration was performed together with an industrial partner resulting in sample tubes without any blowholes. Property estimation by mean field homogenisation predicts strongly enhanced strength of the Wf/CuCrZr composite compared to its pure CuCrZr counterpart. Wf /W composites show very high toughness and damage tolerance even at room temperature. Cyclic load tests reveal that the extrinsic toughening mechanisms counteracting the crack growth are active and stable. FEM simulations of the Wf/W composite suggest that the influence of fibre debonding, which is an integral part of the toughening mechanisms, and reduced thermal conductivity of the fibre due to the necessary interlayers do not strongly influence the thermal properties of future components.

  10. Unmasking the component-general and component-specific aspects of primary and secondary memory in the immediate free recall task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Bradley S; Gondoli, Dawn M

    2018-04-01

    The immediate free recall (IFR) task has been commonly used to estimate the capacities of the primary memory (PM) and secondary memory (SM) components of working memory (WM). Using this method, the correlation between estimates of the PM and SM components has hovered around zero, suggesting that PM and SM represent fully distinct and dissociable components of WM. However, this conclusion has conflicted with more recent studies that have observed moderately strong, positive correlations between PM and SM when separate attention and retrieval tasks are used to estimate these capacities, suggesting that PM and SM represent at least some related capacities. The present study attempted to resolve this empirical discrepancy by investigating the extent to which the relation between estimates of PM and SM might be suppressed by a third variable that operates during the recall portion of the IFR task. This third variable was termed "strength of recency" (SOR) in the present study as it reflected differences in the extent to which individuals used the same experimentally-induced recency recall initiation strategy. As predicted, the present findings showed that the positive correlation between estimates of PM and SM grew from small to medium when the indirect effect of SOR was controlled across two separate sets of studies. This finding is important because it provides stronger support for the distinction between "component-general" and "component-specific" aspects of PM and SM; furthermore, a proof is presented that demonstrates a limitation of using regression techniques to differentiate general and specific aspects of these components.

  11. Stripes and honeycomb lattice of quantized vortices in rotating two-component Bose-Einstein condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasamatsu, Kenichi; Sakashita, Kouhei

    2018-05-01

    We study numerically the structure of a vortex lattice in rotating two-component Bose-Einstein condensates with equal atomic masses and equal intra- and intercomponent coupling strengths. The numerical simulations of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation show that the quantized vortices in this situation form lattice configuration accompanying vortex stripes, honeycomb lattices, and their complexes. This is a result of the degeneracy of the system for the SU(2) symmetric operation, which causes a continuous transformation between the above structures. In terms of the pseudospin representation, the complex lattice structures are identified as a hexagonal lattice of doubly winding half skyrmions.

  12. Statistical considerations of graphite strength for assessing design allowable stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, M.; Mogi, H.; Ioka, I.; Arai, T.; Oku, T.

    1987-01-01

    Several aspects of statistics need to be considered to determine design allowable stresses for graphite structures. These include: 1) Statistical variation of graphite material strength. 2) Uncertainty of calculated stress. 3) Reliability (survival probability) required from operational and safety performance of graphite structures. This paper deals with some statistical considerations of structural graphite for assessing design allowable stress. Firstly, probability distribution functions of tensile and compressive strengths are investigated on experimental Very High Temperature candidated graphites. Normal, logarithmic normal and Weibull distribution functions are compared in terms of coefficient of correlation to measured strength data. This leads to the adaptation of normal distribution function. Then, the relation between factor of safety and fracture probability is discussed on the following items: 1) As the graphite strength is more variable than metalic material's strength, the effect of strength variation to the fracture probability is evaluated. 2) Fracture probability depending on survival probability of 99 ∼ 99.9 (%) with confidence level of 90 ∼ 95 (%) is discussed. 3) As the material properties used in the design analysis are usually the mean values of their variation, the additional effect of these variations on the fracture probability is discussed. Finally, the way to assure the minimum ultimate strength with required survival probability with confidence level is discussed in view of statistical treatment of the strength data from varying sample numbers in a material acceptance test. (author)

  13. Material and construction of primary components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaser, A.; Wallner, F.

    1978-01-01

    The construction of SNR's requires specific properties of the materials, i.e. high strength at temperatures of 600 0 C, adequate creep rupture strength, low long-time embrittlement. Aspects are given for optimalization of the mentioned properties with regard to safe manufacture especially good weldability. The austenitic material X6CrNil811 similar the type AISI 304 SS finally was chosen. Besides the fundamental analysis of the material properties it will be reported about the experiences gained during the manufacturing of the essential components. (author)

  14. OL1/OL2 License renewal for extended life-time: Class 1 piping load and strength analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemettinen, P.

    2015-01-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oyj (TVO) operates two NPP units Olkiluoto 1 (OL1) and Olkiluoto 2 (OL2), that are identical 880 MWe BWRs. The units were originally designed for 40 years life-time. TVO is applying license renewal for extended life-time for 60 years plant life. Part of the license renewal project is to evaluate and update all Class 1 piping load and strength analyses. These analyses are done with the help of TVO's in-house Piping and Component Analysis and Monitoring System (PAMS). PAMS is basically a database system, consisting of separate geometry, material, loading, result and document databases. The thermo hydraulic analysis program RELAP5 is used to obtain temperature, pressure and mass flow for the piping loading areas. The piping strength analysis are carried out mainly with the Finnish FPIPE FEA program for all related thermal transient and dynamic load cases. The slides of the presentation have been added to the paper

  15. submitter Physical Properties of a High-Strength Austenitic Stainless Steel for the Precompression Structure of the ITER Central Solenoid

    CERN Document Server

    Sgobba, Stefano; Arauzo, Ana; Roussel, Pascal; Libeyre, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The ITER central solenoid (CS) consists of six independent coils kept together by a precompression support structure that must react vertical tensile loads and provide sufficient preload to maintain coil-to-coil contact when the solenoid is energized. The CS precompression system includes tie plates, lower and upper key blocks, load distribution and isolation plates and other attachment, support and insulating hardware. The tie plates operating at 4 K are manufactured starting from forgings in a high-strength austenitic stainless steel (FXM-19) with a stringent specification. Moreover, forged components for the lower and upper key blocks have to be provided in the same FXM-19 grade with comparably strict requirements. FXM-19 is a high-nitrogen austenitic stainless steel, featuring high strength and toughness, ready weldability, and forgeability. It features as well higher integral thermal contraction down to 4 K compared with the very high Mn steel grade selected for the CS coil jackets, hence providing an ad...

  16. Associations between personality traits, physical activity level, and muscle strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolea, Magdalena I.; Terracciano, Antonio; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Metter, E. Jeffrey; Costa, Paul T.; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Associations among personality as measured by the Five Factor Model, physical activity, and muscle strength were assessed using data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (N = 1220, age: mean = 58, SD = 16). General linear modeling with adjustment for age, sex, race, and body mass index, and bootstrapping for mediation were used. We found neuroticism and most of its facets to negatively correlate with strength. The extraversion domain and its facets of warmth, activity, and positive-emotions were positively correlated with strength, independent of covariates. Mediation analysis results suggest that these associations are partly explained by physical activity level. Findings extend the evidence of an association between personality and physical function to its strength component and indicate health behavior as an important pathway. PMID:23966753

  17. Change in working characteristics of the steam turbine metal with operating time of more than 330000 hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladshteyn, V. I.; Troitskiy, A. I.

    2017-01-01

    Research of a metal of the stop valve case (SVC) of the K-300-23.5 LMZ turbine (steel grade 15Kh1M1FL), destroyed after operation for 331000 hours, is performed. It's chemical composition and properties are determined as follows: a short-term mechanical tensile stress at 20°C and at elevated temperature, critical temperature, fragility, critical crack opening at elevated temperature, and long-term strength. Furthermore, nature of the microstructure, packing density of carbide particles and their size, and chemical composition of carbide sediment are estimated. A manifestation of metal properties for the main case components by comparison with a forecast of the respective characteristics made for the operating time of 331000 hours is tested. Property-time relationships are built for the forecast using statistical treatment of the test results for the samples cut out from more than 300 parts. Representativeness of the research results is proved: the statistical treatment of their differences are within the range of ±5%. It has been found that, after 150000 hours of operation, only the tensile strength insignificantly depends on the operating time at 20°C, whereas indicators of strength at elevated temperature significantly reduce, depending on the operating time. A brittle-to-ductile transition temperature (BDTT) raises, a critical notch opening changes in a complicated way, a long-term strength reduces. It has been found empirically that the limit of a long-term strength of the SVC metal at 540°C and the operating time of 105 hours is almost 1.6 times less than the required value in the as-delivered state. It is possible to evaluate a service life of the operating valves with the operating time of more than 330000 hours with respect to the long-term strength of the metal taking into account the actual temperature and stress. Guidelines for the control of similar parts are provided.

  18. High-strength porous carbon and its multifunctional applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtowicz, Marek A; Rubenstein, Eric P; Serio, Michael A; Cosgrove, Joseph E

    2013-12-31

    High-strength porous carbon and a method of its manufacture are described for multifunctional applications, such as ballistic protection, structural components, ultracapacitor electrodes, gas storage, and radiation shielding. The carbon is produced from a polymer precursor via carbonization, and optionally by surface activation and post-treatment.

  19. Mapping "StrengthsQuest" Themes to Holland's Vocational Personality Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Andrew D.; Evans, Karen; Gitin, Elena; Eads, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    A sample of 1,747 students attending undergraduate classes in legal education at an online university completed the "StrengthsQuest" assessment as part of a larger investigation; of this number, 117 students also completed the "Kuder Career Search". Exploratory factor analysis (principal components followed varimax rotation) of…

  20. Shear in high strength concrete bridge girders : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Prestressed Concrete (PC) I-girders are used extensively as the primary superstructure components in Texas highway bridges. : A simple semi-empirical equation was developed at the University of Houston (UH) to predict the shear strength of PC I-girde...

  1. Rock strength under explosive loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimer, N.; Proffer, W.

    1993-01-01

    This presentation emphasizes the importance of a detailed description of the nonlinear deviatoric (strength) response of the surrounding rock in the numerical simulation of underground nuclear explosion phenomenology to the late times needed for test ban monitoring applications. We will show how numerical simulations which match ground motion measurements in volcanic tuffs and in granite use the strength values obtained from laboratory measurements on small core samples of these rocks but also require much lower strength values after the ground motion has interacted with the rock. The underlying physical mechanisms for the implied strength reduction are not yet well understood, and in fact may depend on the particular rock type. However, constitutive models for shock damage and/or effective stress have been used successfully at S-Cubed in both the Geophysics Program (primarily for DARPA) and the Containment Support Program (for DNA) to simulate late time ground motions measured at NTS in many different rock types

  2. Strength Training and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in organized sports or activities such as baseball, soccer, or gymnastics usually can safely to start strength ... as biking and running, adequate hydration, and healthy nutrition. Reviewed by: Mary L. Gavin, MD Date reviewed: ...

  3. operation zitadelle (kursk)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    describe military strategy as a sub-component of a broader term, namely national or ... the allocation of the forces and resources required to achieve those objectives could be .... tactical assets, might be considered operational level actions.

  4. Characteristics of structural loess strength and preliminary framework for joint strength formula

    OpenAIRE

    Rong-jian Li; Jun-ding Liu; Rui Yan; Wen Zheng; Sheng-jun Shao

    2014-01-01

    The strength of structural loess consists of the shear strength and tensile strength. In this study, the stress path, the failure envelope of principal stress (Kf line), and the strength failure envelope of structurally intact loess and remolded loess were analyzed through three kinds of tests: the tensile strength test, the uniaxial compressive strength test, and the conventional triaxial shear strength test. Then, in order to describe the tensile strength and shear strength of structural lo...

  5. Improving Strength-Ductility Balance of High Strength Dual-Phase Steels by Addition of Vanadium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yu; Hua, M.; Uusitalo, J.; DeArdo, A. J.

    For galvanized or galvannealed steels to be commercially successful, they must exhibit several attributes: (i) easy and inexpensive processing in the hot mill, cold mill and on the coating line, (ii) high strength with good formability and spot weldability, and (iii) good corrosion resistance, especially after cold forming. For good corrosion resistance, the coating must have sufficient coverage, be of uniform thickness, and most importantly, the coating must survive the cold stamping or forming operation. The purpose of this paper is to present research aiming at improving the steel substrate, such that high strength can be obtained while maintaining good global formability (tensile ductility), local formability (sheared-edge ductility), and good spot weldability. It is well-known that the strength of DP steels is controlled by several factors, including the amount of martensite found in the final microstructure. Recent research has revealed that the amount of austenite formed during intercritical annealing can be strongly influenced by the annealing temperature and the pre-annealing conditions of the hot band (coiling temperature) and cold band (% cold reduction). Current experiments have explored the combination of pre-annealing conditions and four annealing practices to help define the best practice to optimize the strength-formability balance in these higher strength DP steels. The steels used in these experiments contained (i) low carbon content for good spot weldability, (ii) the hardenability additions Mo and Cr for strength, and (iii) V for grain refinement, precipitation hardening and temper resistance. When processed correctly, these steels exhibited UTS levels up to 1000MPa, total elongation to 25%, reduction in area to 45%, and Hole Expansion Ratios to 50%. The results of this program will be presented and discussed.

  6. Burrowing as a novel voluntary strength training method for mice: A comparison of various voluntary strength or resistance exercise methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemers, P; Mazzola, P N; De Deyn, P P; Bossers, W J; van Heuvelen, M J G; van der Zee, E A

    2018-04-15

    Voluntary strength training methods for rodents are necessary to investigate the effects of strength training on cognition and the brain. However, few voluntary methods are available. The current study tested functional and muscular effects of two novel voluntary strength training methods, burrowing (digging a substrate out of a tube) and unloaded tower climbing, in male C57Bl6 mice. To compare these two novel methods with existing exercise methods, resistance running and (non-resistance) running were included. Motor coordination, grip strength and muscle fatigue were measured at baseline, halfway through and near the end of a fourteen week exercise intervention. Endurance was measured by an incremental treadmill test after twelve weeks. Both burrowing and resistance running improved forelimb grip strength as compared to controls. Running and resistance running increased endurance in the treadmill test and improved motor skills as measured by the balance beam test. Post-mortem tissue analyses revealed that running and resistance running induced Soleus muscle hypertrophy and reduced epididymal fat mass. Tower climbing elicited no functional or muscular changes. As a voluntary strength exercise method, burrowing avoids the confounding effects of stress and positive reinforcers elicited in forced strength exercise methods. Compared to voluntary resistance running, burrowing likely reduces the contribution of aerobic exercise components. Burrowing qualifies as a suitable voluntary strength training method in mice. Furthermore, resistance running shares features of strength training and endurance (aerobic) exercise and should be considered a multi-modal aerobic-strength exercise method in mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Tritium in fusion reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, J.S.; Fisher, P.W.; Talbot, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    When tritium is used in a fusion energy experiment or reactor, several implications affect and usually restrict the design and operation of the system and involve questions of containment, inventory, and radiation damage. Containment is expected to be particularly important both for high-temperature components and for those components that are prone to require frequent maintenance. Inventory is currently of major significance in cases where safety and environmental considerations limit the experiments to very low levels of tritium. Fewer inventory restrictions are expected as fusion experiments are placed in more-remote locations and as the fusion community gains experience with the use of tritium. However, the advent of power-producing experiments with high-duty cycle will again lead to serious difficulties based principally on tritium availability; cyclic operations with significant regeneration times are the principal problems

  8. Philosophy of integrity assessment of engineering components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, Satyabrata

    2008-01-01

    Integrity assessment of engineering components in power plants and process industries has attracted global attention from the viewpoint of safety and economy for their optimum utilization. This paper describes some aspects of philosophy of component integrity such as life assessment technology, materials used and the factors limiting the serviceability of the components operating at high temperatures and pressures. Numerous investigations have been carried out all over the world to study changes in microstructure and material property due to prolonged service of the components to decide their further serviceability. This paper includes case studies on integrity assessment of service-exposed components carried out in our laboratory as well

  9. Principal component regression analysis with SPSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, R X; Kuang, J; Gong, Q; Hou, X L

    2003-06-01

    The paper introduces all indices of multicollinearity diagnoses, the basic principle of principal component regression and determination of 'best' equation method. The paper uses an example to describe how to do principal component regression analysis with SPSS 10.0: including all calculating processes of the principal component regression and all operations of linear regression, factor analysis, descriptives, compute variable and bivariate correlations procedures in SPSS 10.0. The principal component regression analysis can be used to overcome disturbance of the multicollinearity. The simplified, speeded up and accurate statistical effect is reached through the principal component regression analysis with SPSS.

  10. Methodology of strength calculation under alternating stresses using the diagram of limiting amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovodov, V. V.; Valentov, A. V.; Kukhar, I. S.; Retyunskiy, O. Yu; Baraksanov, A. S.

    2016-08-01

    The work proposes the algorithm to calculate strength under alternating stresses using the developed methodology of building the diagram of limiting stresses. The overall safety factor is defined by the suggested formula. Strength calculations of components working under alternating stresses in the great majority of cases are conducted as the checking ones. It is primarily explained by the fact that the overall fatigue strength reduction factor (Kσg or Kτg) can only be chosen approximately during the component design as the engineer at this stage of work has just the approximate idea on the component size and shape.

  11. Dynamic loads on reactor vessel components by low pressure waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkert, J.; Mika, C.; Stegemann, D.; Valero, M.

    1978-01-01

    Starting from the conservation theorems for mass and impulses the code DRUWE has been developed enabling the calculation of dynamic loads of the reactor shell on the basis of simplified assumptions for the first period shortly after rupture. According to the RSK-guidelines it can be assumed that the whole weld size is opened within 15 msec. This time-dependent opening of the fractured plane can be taken into account in the computer program. The calculation is composed in a way that for a reactor shell devided into cross and angle sections the local, chronological pressure and strength curves, the total dynamic load as well as the moments acting on the fastenings of the reactor shell can be calculated. As input data only geometrical details concerning the concept of the pressure vessel and its components as well as the effective subcooling of the fluid are needed. By means of several parameters the program can be operated in a way that the results are available in form of listings or diagrams, respectively, but also as card pile for further examinations, e.g. strength analysis. (orig./RW) [de

  12. Travelling cranes for heavy reactor component handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champeil, M.

    1977-01-01

    Structure and operating machinery of two travelling cranes (600 t and 450 t) used in the Framatome factory for handling heavy reactor components are described. When coupled, these cranes can lift loads up to 1000 t [fr

  13. ZERODUR: deterministic approach for strength design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Peter

    2012-12-01

    There is an increasing request for zero expansion glass ceramic ZERODUR substrates being capable of enduring higher operational static loads or accelerations. The integrity of structures such as optical or mechanical elements for satellites surviving rocket launches, filigree lightweight mirrors, wobbling mirrors, and reticle and wafer stages in microlithography must be guaranteed with low failure probability. Their design requires statistically relevant strength data. The traditional approach using the statistical two-parameter Weibull distribution suffered from two problems. The data sets were too small to obtain distribution parameters with sufficient accuracy and also too small to decide on the validity of the model. This holds especially for the low failure probability levels that are required for reliable applications. Extrapolation to 0.1% failure probability and below led to design strengths so low that higher load applications seemed to be not feasible. New data have been collected with numbers per set large enough to enable tests on the applicability of the three-parameter Weibull distribution. This distribution revealed to provide much better fitting of the data. Moreover it delivers a lower threshold value, which means a minimum value for breakage stress, allowing of removing statistical uncertainty by introducing a deterministic method to calculate design strength. Considerations taken from the theory of fracture mechanics as have been proven to be reliable with proof test qualifications of delicate structures made from brittle materials enable including fatigue due to stress corrosion in a straight forward way. With the formulae derived, either lifetime can be calculated from given stress or allowable stress from minimum required lifetime. The data, distributions, and design strength calculations for several practically relevant surface conditions of ZERODUR are given. The values obtained are significantly higher than those resulting from the two

  14. Managing yourself. Stop overdoing your strengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert E; Kaiser, Robert B

    2009-02-01

    Although most managers can recognize an off-kilter leader (consider the highly supportive boss who cuts people too much slack), it's quite difficult to see overkill in yourself. Unfortunately, that's where leadership development tools such as 360-degree surveys fail to deliver, say Kaplan and Kaiser. Dividing qualities into "strengths" and "weaknesses" and rating them on a five-point scale will not account for strengths overplayed. The authors suggest several strategies, based on their years of consulting experience and research, for figuring out which attributes you've employed to excess and adjusting your behavior accordingly. Strengths taken too far have two consequences: First, they become weaknesses. For instance, quick-wittedness can turn into impatience with others. Second, you're at risk of becoming extremely lopsided--that is, diminishing your capacity on the opposite pole. A leader who is very good at building consensus, for example, may take too long to move into action. To strike a balance between two key leadership dualities--forceful versus enabling, and strategic versus operational--you need to see your actions and motivations clearly. That's no easy task since most leadership development tools don't spell out that you're overdoing your strengths. But there are other ways to bring that information to light. You can start with a review of the highest ratings on your most recent 360 report. Ask yourself: Is this too much of a good thing? Another technique is to make a list of the traits you most want to have as a leader. Are you going to extremes with any of them? To check for lopsidedness, you can prompt feedback from other people with a list of qualities you've composed or one you've gleaned from other sources. Once you know which attributes you're overdoing, you can recalibrate.

  15. Reusable Component Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reusable Component Services (RCS) is a super-catalog of components, services, solutions and technologies that facilitates search, discovery and collaboration in...

  16. Software component quality evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes a software inspection process that can be used to evaluate the quality of software components. Quality criteria, process application, independent testing of the process and proposed associated tool support are covered. Early results indicate that this technique is well suited for assessing software component quality in a standardized fashion. With automated machine assistance to facilitate both the evaluation and selection of software components, such a technique should promote effective reuse of software components.

  17. 49 CFR 192.153 - Components fabricated by welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Components fabricated by welding. 192.153 Section....153 Components fabricated by welding. (a) Except for branch connections and assemblies of standard... welding, whose strength cannot be determined, must be established in accordance with paragraph UG-101 of...

  18. Reactive Strength Index: A Poor Indicator of Reactive Strength?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Robin; Kenny, Ian; Harrison, Drew

    2017-11-28

    The primary aim was to assess the relationships between reactive strength measures and associated kinematic and kinetic performance variables achieved during drop jumps. A secondary aim was to highlight issues with the use of reactive strength measures as performance indicators. Twenty eight national and international level sprinters, consisting of fourteen men and women, participated in this cross-sectional analysis. Athletes performed drop jumps from a 0.3 m box onto a force platform with dependent variables contact time (CT), landing time (TLand), push-off time (TPush), flight time (FT), jump height (JH), reactive strength index (RSI, calculated as JH / CT), reactive strength ratio (RSR, calculated as FT / CT) and vertical leg spring stiffness (Kvert) recorded. Pearson's correlation test found very high to near perfect relationships between RSI and RSR (r = 0.91 to 0.97), with mixed relationships found between RSI, RSR and the key performance variables, (Men: r = -0.86 to -0.71 between RSI/RSR and CT, r = 0.80 to 0.92 between RSI/RSR and JH; Women: r = -0.85 to -0.56 between RSR and CT, r = 0.71 between RSI and JH). This study demonstrates that the method of assessing reactive strength (RSI versus RSR) may be influenced by the performance strategies adopted i.e. whether an athlete achieves their best reactive strength scores via low CTs, high JHs or a combination. Coaches are advised to limit the variability in performance strategies by implementing upper and / or lower CT thresholds to accurately compare performances between individuals.

  19. Reactor component automatic grapple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenaway, P.R.

    1982-01-01

    A grapple for handling nuclear reactor components in a medium such as liquid sodium which, upon proper seating and alignment of the grapple with the component as sensed by a mechanical logic integral to the grapple, automatically seizes the component. The mechanical logic system also precludes seizure in the absence of proper seating and alignment. (author)

  20. Repurposing learning object components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbert, K.; Jovanovic, J.; Gasevic, D.; Duval, E.; Meersman, R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an ontology-based framework for repurposing learning object components. Unlike the usual practice where learning object components are assembled manually, the proposed framework enables on-the-fly access and repurposing of learning object components. The framework supports two

  1. Analysis of nature of brazed joints fracture under operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlov, A.V.; Gura, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    Technique establishing causes leading to brazed joint fracture in pressure boundary components, operating under heavy conditions of high temperature and corrosive medium is described. Some cases of tube brazed joint fractures in a superheater of 12Kh1MF and 08Kh18N10T steels are considered. The attention is paid on using metallography for determination of mechanical or corrosion fracture properties. The diagram is developed permitting to take into account the interrelation between the fracture area in the given zone and its strength

  2. Failure characteristic analysis of a component on standby state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Sungmin; Kang, Hyungook

    2013-01-01

    Periodic operations for a specific type of component, however, can accelerate aging effects which increase component unavailability. For the other type of components, the aging effect caused by operation can be ignored. Therefore frequent operations can decrease component unavailability. Thus, to get optimum unavailability proper operation period and method should be studied considering the failure characteristics of each component. The information of component failure is given according to the main causes of failure depending on time flow. However, to get the optimal unavailability, proper interval of operation for inspection should be decided considering the time dependent and independent causes together. According to this study, gradually shorter operation interval for inspection is better to get the optimal component unavailability than that of specific period

  3. Lifting strength in two-person teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tzu-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of lifting range, hand-to-toe distance, and lifting direction on single-person lifting strengths and two-person teamwork lifting strengths. Six healthy males and seven healthy females participated in this study. Two-person teamwork lifting strengths were examined in both strength-matched and strength-unmatched groups. Our results showed that lifting strength significantly decreased with increasing lifting range or hand-to-toe distance. However, lifting strengths were not affected by lifting direction. Teamwork lifting strength did not conform to the law of additivity for both strength-matched and strength-unmatched groups. In general, teamwork lifting strength was dictated by the weaker of the two members, implying that weaker members might be exposed to a higher potential danger in teamwork exertions. To avoid such overexertion in teamwork, members with significantly different strength ability should not be assigned to the same team.

  4. Generating material strength standards of aluminum alloys for research reactors. Pt. 1. Yield strength values Sy and tensile strength values Su

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, H.; Miya, K.

    1995-01-01

    Aluminum alloys are frequently used as structural materials for research reactors. The material strength standards, however, such as the yield strength values (S y ), the tensile strength values (S u ) and the design fatigue curve -which are needed to use aluminum alloys as structural materials in ''design by analysis'' - for those materials have not been determined yet. Hence, a series of material tests was performed and the results were statistically analyzed with the aim of generating these material strength standards. This paper, the first in a series on material strength standards of aluminum alloys, describes the aspects of the tensile properties of the standards. The draft standards were compared with MITI no. 501 as well as with the ASME codes, and the trend of the available data also was examined. It was revealed that the draft proposal could be adopted as the material strength standards, and that the values of the draft standards at and above 150 C for A6061-T6 and A6063-T6 could be applied only to the reactor operating conditions III and IV. Also the draft standards have already been adopted in the Science and Technology Agency regulatory guide (standards for structural design of nuclear research plants). (orig.)

  5. The added value of measuring thumb and finger strength when comparing strength measurements in hypoplastic thumb patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, H M Ties; Selles, Ruud W; de Kraker, Marjolein; Stam, Henk J; Hovius, Steven E R

    2013-10-01

    When interventions to the hand are aimed at improving function of specific fingers or the thumb, the RIHM (Rotterdam Intrinsic Hand Myometer) is a validated tool and offers more detailed information to assess strength of the involved joints besides grip and pinch measurements. In this study, strength was measured in 65 thumbs in 40 patients diagnosed with thumb hypoplasia. These 65 thumbs were classified according to Blauth. Longitudinal radial deficiencies were also classified. The strength measurements comprised of grip, tip, tripod and key pinch. Furthermore palmar abduction and opposition of the thumb as well as abduction of the index and little finger were measured with the RIHM. For all longitudinal radial deficiency patients, grip and pinch strength as well as palmar abduction and thumb opposition were significantly lower than reference values (P<0.001). However, strength in the index finger abduction and the little finger abduction was maintained or decreased to a lesser extent according to the degree of longitudinal radial deficiency. All strength values decreased with increasing Blauth-type. Blauth-type II hands (n=15) with flexor digitorum superficialis 4 opposition transfer including stabilization of the metacarpophalangeal joint showed a trend toward a higher opposition strength without reaching statistical significance (P=0.094),however compared to non-operated Blauth-type II hands (n=6) they showed a lower grip strength (P=0.019). The RIHM is comparable in accuracy to other strength dynamometers. Using the RIHM, we were able to illustrate strength patterns on finger-specific level, showing added value when evaluating outcome in patients with hand related problems. © 2013.

  6. THE EFFECT OF DEGREASING ON ADHESIVE JOINT STRENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rudawska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the effect of degreasing, a surface preparation methods in adhesive bonding, on adhesive joint strength. 5 types of degreasing agents were used in the study: acetone, extraction naphtha, Ultramyt, Wiko and Loctite 7061. The degreasing operation was performed by three methods: rubbing, spraying and immersion. Strength tests were performed on single-lap adhesive joints of hot-dip galvanized metal sheets made with Loctite 9466 adhesive according to the above variants of surface preparation. The experimental results demonstrate that adhesive joint strength is significantly affected by the applied degreasing agent. Moreover, the method of application of the degreasing agent is crucial, too. The results of strength testing reveal that the most effective degreasing method for hot-dip galvanized metal sheet adhesive joints is spraying using extraction naphtha. Thereby degreased samples have the highest immediate strength and shear strength. The use of extraction naph-tha is also effective in combination with degreasing by rubbing; however, it is not effective when used in combi-nation with immersion, as reflected in the lowest strength results.

  7. Energy flux determines magnetic field strength of planets and stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Ulrich R; Holzwarth, Volkmar; Reiners, Ansgar

    2009-01-08

    The magnetic fields of Earth and Jupiter, along with those of rapidly rotating, low-mass stars, are generated by convection-driven dynamos that may operate similarly (the slowly rotating Sun generates its field through a different dynamo mechanism). The field strengths of planets and stars vary over three orders of magnitude, but the critical factor causing that variation has hitherto been unclear. Here we report an extension of a scaling law derived from geodynamo models to rapidly rotating stars that have strong density stratification. The unifying principle in the scaling law is that the energy flux available for generating the magnetic field sets the field strength. Our scaling law fits the observed field strengths of Earth, Jupiter, young contracting stars and rapidly rotating low-mass stars, despite vast differences in the physical conditions of the objects. We predict that the field strengths of rapidly rotating brown dwarfs and massive extrasolar planets are high enough to make them observable.

  8. Experimental Researches on Long-Term Strength of Granite Gneiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to confirm the long-term strength of rock materials for the purpose of evaluating the long-term stability of rock engineering. In this study, a series of triaxial creep tests were conducted on granite gneiss under different pore pressures. Based on the test data, we proposed two new quantitative methods, tangent method and intersection method, to confirm the long-term strength of rock. Meanwhile, the isochronous stress-strain curve method was adopted to make sure of the accuracy and operability of the two new methods. It is concluded that the new methods are suitable for the study of the long-term strength of rock. The effect of pore pressure on the long-term strength of rock in triaxial creep tests is also discussed.

  9. Influence of the Category Discharge Processing on Strength Properties of Piezocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramazanov, M. A.

    2006-01-01

    Piezoelectric, dielectric and physicomechanical properties of polymeric piezocomposites on piezoceramics basis are one of the major operational devices of applications. During their application in various devices for a long time can be exposed to various influences for a long time. Piezoelectric, dielectric and strength properties of polymeric piezocomposites strongly depend from the interphase phenomena, and also on charges saved up on border of the unit between components of a composition. Therefore creation the preliminary centers localization for charges in a composition is an actual problem for development effective polymeric piezocomposites. In the given work results of a research preliminary discharge processing's of powders of polymer on strength properties and dielectric characteristics of polymeric compositions on a basis polyvinilidenftorid (PVDF), high density polyethylene and piezoceramic from tetragonal structure are poisoned. Piezoceramic had structure plumbum-zirconate-titanate (PZT). Powders of polymer have been subjected to discharge processing in a quartz glass tube with a diameter 15 mm which walls with 1 mm. It is earthed, from one end and to other end it is connected with high-voltage electrode. Compositions in a volumetric ratio of 90+10 % have been obtained at temperature 435Κ under pressure 15ΜΠa. After creation reception of samples they were exposed electrothermopolarization. It is experimentally established, that after discharge processing powders of polymer depending on of processing duration electric and mechanical durability, and also an accrued charge on border of the unit of phases up to the certain value increases, and then decreases. Also it is shown, hat influence of category processing on strength and dielectric characteristics of a composition on the basis of polymer PVDF is more than , has on polyethylene basis. Changes piezoelectric, dielectric it is supposed, that, and strength properties to an extreme piezocomposite

  10. Operator errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knuefer; Lindauer

    1980-01-01

    Besides that at spectacular events a combination of component failure and human error is often found. Especially the Rasmussen-Report and the German Risk Assessment Study show for pressurised water reactors that human error must not be underestimated. Although operator errors as a form of human error can never be eliminated entirely, they can be minimized and their effects kept within acceptable limits if a thorough training of personnel is combined with an adequate design of the plant against accidents. Contrary to the investigation of engineering errors, the investigation of human errors has so far been carried out with relatively small budgets. Intensified investigations in this field appear to be a worthwhile effort. (orig.)

  11. Special Operation. Module 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on special operations, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers two topics: topstitching and mitering. For each topic these components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, a student self-check, and a check-out…

  12. CANDU operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, L.G.; Woodhead, L.W.; Fanjoy, G.R.

    1982-03-01

    The CANDU Pressurized Heavy Water (CANDU-PHW) type of nuclear electric generating station has been developed jointly by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited and Ontario Hydro. This paper highlights Ontario Hydro's operating experience using the CANDU-PHW system, with a focus on the operating performance and costs, reliability of system components and nuclear safety considerations both to the workers and the public

  13. Strength and life under creeping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospishil, B.

    1982-01-01

    Certain examples of the application of the Lepin modified creep model, which are of interest from technical viewpoint, are presented. Mathematical solution of the dependence of strength limit at elevated temperatures on creep characteristics is obtained. Tensile test at elevated temperatures is a particular case of creep or relaxation and both strength limit and conventional yield strength at elevated temperatures are completely determined by parameters of state equations during creep. The equation of fracture summing during creep is confirmed not only by the experiment data when stresses change sporadically, but also by good reflection of durability curve using the system of equations. The system presented on the basis of parameters of the equations obtained on any part of durability curve, permits to forecast the following parameters of creep: strain, strain rate, life time, strain in the process of fracture. Tensile test at elevated temperature is advisable as an addition when determining creep curves (time-strain curves) [ru

  14. Withdrawal Strength and Bending Yield Strength of Stainless Steel Nails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas R. Rammer; Samuel L. Zelinka

    2015-01-01

    It has been well established that stainless steel nails have superior corrosion performance compared to carbon steel or galvanized nails in treated wood; however, their mechanical fastening behavior is unknown. In this paper, the performance of stainless steel nails is examined with respect to two important properties used in wood connection design: withdrawal strength...

  15. Strength Properties of Aalborg Clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Kirsten Malte; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Augustesen, Anders Hust

    glacial time are characterised by the absence of this mussel. These deposits are named Aalborg Clay and Aalborg Sand. In the city of Aalborg, a fill layer superposes Aalborg Clay. This layer is at some places found to be 6m thick. This fill layer does not provide sufficient bearing capacity, which has...... resulted in many damaged buildings in Aalborg. To provide sufficient bearing capacity it is therefore necessary either to remove the fill or to construct the building on piles. Both methods imply that the strength of Aalborg Clay is important for the construction. This paper evaluates the strength...

  16. Topological strength of magnetic skyrmions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D.; Ramos, J.G.G.S.; Rodrigues, E.I.B.

    2017-02-01

    This work deals with magnetic structures that attain integer and half-integer skyrmion numbers. We model and solve the problem analytically, and show how the solutions appear in materials that engender distinct, very specific physical properties, and use them to describe their topological features. In particular, we found a way to model skyrmion with a large transition region correlated with the presence of a two-peak skyrmion number density. Moreover, we run into the issue concerning the topological strength of a vortex-like structure and suggest an experimental realization, important to decide how to modify and measure the topological strength of the magnetic structure.

  17. Mechanism of the superior mechanical strength of nanometer-sized metal single crystals revealed

    KAUST Repository

    Afify, N. D.; Salem, H. G.; Yavari, A.; El Sayed, Tamer S.

    2013-01-01

    Clear understanding of the superior mechanical strength of nanometer-sized metal single crystals is required to derive advanced mechanical components retaining such superiority. Although high quality studies have been reported on nano

  18. Determining the in situ concrete strength of existing structures for assessing their structural safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, R.D.J.M.; Vervuurt, A.H.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    EN 13791 applies when assessing the in situ compressive strength of structures and precast concrete components. According to the code itself, it may be adopted when doubt arises about the compressive strength of a concrete. For assessing the structural safety of existing structures, however, the

  19. Determine bond strength by ultrasonic measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.M.

    1978-01-01

    Application of ultrasonic methods for the evaluation and measurement of bond strength has been the object of numerous investigations in the last fifteen years. Some investigators have reported good success (in limited application) while others have experienced dismal failure. One problem common to all investigations was the difficulty in extracting and isolating the many components which comprise the ultrasonic signal reflected from a bonded interface. Part of this problem was due to manually extracting individual parameters from large volumes of raw data. However, with the vast technology now available in the field of signal analysis and computerized data processing, it is feasible to isolate and analyze individual parameters within the ultrasonic signal for great volumes of raw data

  20. Structural strength of core graphite bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, K.; Futakawa, M.

    1987-01-01

    A HTR core consists of fuel, hot plenum, reflector and thermal barrier blocks. Each graphite block is supported by three thin cylindrical graphite bars called support post. Static and dynamic core loads are transmitted by the support posts to the thermal barrier blocks and a support plate. These posts are in contact with the blocks through hemispherical post seats to absorb the relative displacement caused by seismic force and the difference of thermal expansion of materials at the time of the start-up and shutdown of a reactor. The mixed fracture criterion of principal stress and modified Mohr-Coulomb's theory as well as the fracture criterion of principal stress based on elastic stress analysis was discussed in connection with the application to HTR graphite components. The buckling fracture of a support post was taken in consideration as one of the fracture modes. The effect that the length/diameter ratio of a post, small rotation and the curvature of post ends and seats exerted on the fracture strength was studied by using IG-110 graphite. Contacting stress analysis was carried out by using the structural analysis code 'COSMOS-7'. The experimental method, the analysis of buckling strength and the results are reported. The fracture of a support post is caused by the mixed mode of bending deformation, split fracture and shearing fracture. (Kako, I.)

  1. Strength analysis and optimization of welding robot mechanism in emergency stop state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Poruba

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with the strength analysis and optimization of the welding robot mechanism in emergency stop state. The common operational positioning of the welding robot is characterized by smooth course of speeds in the time. The resulting load does not differ significantly from the static loading. However the safety requirements given by the norm require the ability of emergency stop function. Since the course of speed in time is rather steep the higher values of acceleration and thus higher excitation force is expected. The dynamical simulation performed describes the response of the robot mechanism in the form of stress course in time, quantifies the peak values of the stress caused by the dynamical component of loading and highlights the potential risks associated with this phenomenon.

  2. The reliability of the repair weld joints of aged high temperature components in fossil power boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, Hiroyuki [Science Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Ohtani, Ryuichi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan); Fujii, Kazuya [Japan Power Engineering and Inspection Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Yokoyama, Tomomitsu; Nishimura, Nobuhiko [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, Komei [Japan Steel Works Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-11-01

    It is of fundamental engineering importance to be able to give reliable assessments of the effective service life of the critical components used within fossil power plants, particularly for those operating for prolonged periods. It is common practice for such assessments to have been estimated using destructive tests, typically the stress rupture test, this having been recognized as one of the most reliable evaluation methods available. Its only drawback is that it often does not permit the component to be in use following the sampling of the test specimen without repairing. The current piece of work focuses on the reliability of the repair welds of components for specimens taken from fossil power plants, having been in service for prolonged periods. Several such repairs to welds have been made to an old power boiler, in particular to a superheater header which is fabricated from 2.25Cr-1Mo steel. Under close examination the repairs to the girth weldment showed susceptibilities of weld cracking, similar to that observed in as-manufactured material. Within the repaired region of the welded joint the microstructure, tensile properties and toughness seemed to be unaffected. The hardness attained its minimum value within the heat affected zone, HAZ of the repair weld, overlapping that of original girth weld HAZ. Furthermore, the stress rupture strength achieved its minimum value at the same position taking on the same value as the strength associated with the aged girth welded joint. (orig.)

  3. Experimental validation of a kinetic multi-component mechanism in a wide HCCI engine operating range for mixtures of n-heptane, iso-octane and toluene: Influence of EGR parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machrafi, Hatim

    2008-01-01

    The parameters that are present in exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) are believed to provide an important contribution to control the auto-ignition process of the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) in an engine. For the investigation of the behaviour of the auto-ignition process, a kinetic multi-component mechanism has been developed in former work, containing 62 reactions and 49 species for mixtures of n-heptane, iso-octane and toluene. This paper presents an experimental validation of this mechanism, comparing the calculated pressure, heat release, ignition delays and CO 2 emissions with experimental data performed on a HCCI engine. The validation is performed in a broad range of EGR parameters by varying the dilution by N 2 and CO 2 from 0 to 46 vol.%, changing the EGR temperature from 30 to 120 deg. C, altering the addition of CO and NO from 0 to 170 ppmv and varying the addition of CH 2 O from 0 to 1400 ppmv. These validations were performed respecting the HCCI conditions for the inlet temperature and the equivalence ratio. The results showed that the mechanism is validated experimentally in dilution ranges going up to 21-30 vol.%, depending on the species of dilution and over the whole range of the EGR temperature. The mechanism is validated over the whole range of CO and CH 2 O addition. As for the addition of NO, the mechanism is validated quantitatively up to 50 ppmv and qualitatively up to 170 ppmv

  4. Application of new design methodologies to very high-temperature metallic components of the HTTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hada, Kazuhiko; Ohkubo, Minoru; Baba, Osamu

    1991-01-01

    The high-temperature piping and helium-to-helium intermediate heat exchanger of the High-Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) are designed to be operating at very high temperatures of about 900deg C among the class 1 components of the HTTR. At such a high temperature, mechanical strength of heat-resistant metallic materials is very low and thermal expansions of structural members are large. Therefore, innovative design methodologies are needed to reduce both mechanical and thermal loads acting on these components. To the HTTR, the design methodologies which can separate the heat-resistant function from the pressure-retaining functions and allow them to expand freely are applied to reduce pressure and thermal loads. Since these design methodologies need to verify their applicability, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been performing many design and research works on their verifications. The details of the design methodologies and their verifications are given in this paper. (orig.)

  5. Anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactors for high strength wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ersahin, M.E.; Gimenez Garcia, J.B.; Ozgun, H.; Tao, Y.; Van Lier, J.B.

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory scale external anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactor (AnDMBR) treating high strength wastewater was operated to assess the effect of gas sparging velocity and organic loading rate on removal efficiency and dynamic membrane (DM) filtration characteristics. An increase in gas sparging

  6. Gamow-Teller Strength Distributions for Some Magic Nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necla ÇAKMAK

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The total Gamow-Teller strengths and their energy distributions for 96Zr, 96Sr, 54Ca, 28O, 24C and 14C have been obtained within the framework of Random Phase Approximation (RPA. The effective interaction potential has been described by considering the commutativity of the Gamow-Teller operator with the central part of the nuclear Hamiltonian.

  7. Effect of simulated pulpal pressure on composite bond strength to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... Key words: Bond strength, laser treatment, pulpal pressure, resin composite. INTRODUCTION ... bilities for operative and esthetic dentistry (Kato and. Nakabayashi ... E-mail: kimyais@tbzmed.ac.ir. Tel: 0098411- ... pulse repetition rate of 20 pulses per second (20 Hz). ..... Stern RH, Sognnaes RF (1965).

  8. IPRDS: component histories and nuclear plant aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkowski, R.J.; Kahl, W.K.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of nuclear power plant component operating histories, maintenance histories, and design and fabrication details is essential to understanding aging phenomena. As part of the In-Plant Reliability Data System (IPRDS), an attempt is being made to collect and analyze such information from a sampling of US nuclear power plants. Utilizing the IPRDS, one can reconstruct the failure history of the components and gain new insight into the causes and modes of failures resulting from normal or premature aging. This information assembled from the IPRDS can be combined with operating histories and postservice component inspection results for cradle-to-grave assessments of component aging under operating conditions. A comprehensive aging assessment can then be used to provide guidelines for improving the detection, monitoring, and mitigation of aging-related failures

  9. Radiation damage to electronic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battisti, S.; Bossart, R.; Schoenbacher, H.; Van de Voorde, M.

    1975-01-01

    Characteristic properties are presented of some 40 different electronic components (resistors, capacitors, diodes, transistors, and integrated circuits) which were irradiated in a nuclear reactor up to 1015 n/cm 2 (E > 1 MeV). Complete circuits (e.g. RF amplifiers and detectors, mixers, differential amplifiers, voltage-to-frequency converters, oscillators, power supplies) were irradiated near the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings up to 106 rad(RPL) (dose measured with radiophotoluminescent dosimeters) under simulated operational conditions. Representative measured parameters, such as resistance, capacitance, forward voltage, reverse current, toggle frequencies, are given in graphs as a function of radiation dose. The results are discussed in detail and lead to the over-all conclusion that the operation of electronic components and circuits is seriously affected by radiation environments with doses in the order of 10 13 n/cm 2 or 10 4 rad(RPL); some components and circuits fail completely at doses of 10 14 n/cm 2 or 10 5 rad(RPL). (Author)

  10. Component failures that lead to reactor scrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, E.T.; Wilson, R.J.; Lim, E.Y.

    1980-04-01

    This report summarizes the operating experience scram data compiled from 35 operating US light water reactors (LWRs) to identify the principal components/systems related to reactor scrams. The data base utilized to identify the scram causes is developed from a EPRI-utility sponsored survey conducted by SAI coupled with recent data from the USNRC Gray Books. The reactor population considered in this evaluation is limited to 23 PWRs and 12 BWRs because of the limited scope of the program. The population includes all the US NSSS vendors. It is judged that this population accurately characterizes the component-related scrams in LWRs over the first 10 years of plant operation

  11. Pulsed Joining Of Body-In-White Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnen, John [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States)

    2014-09-30

    The objective of this project was to develop cost efficient high quality pulsed welding (PW) technology for joining 6xxx Aluminum and High Strength Steel (with tensile strength above 580MPa) components enabling broad usage of hydroformed parts and leading to substantial weight reduction of cars and trucks to reduce US demand on petroleum, lower carbon emissions and energy expenditures. In general, pulsed welding is a form of impact welding where two dissimilar metal pieces are joined by accelerating one to velocities exceeding 300m/s at which point the first piece strikes the second and forms a weld. In this work, two methods were used to accelerate the flyer material: Electro-Magnetic (EM) pulse and Electro-Hydraulic (EH) pulse launching. The advantage of pulsed welding techniques is that welds can be formed between two materials that cannot otherwise be welded: high strength aluminum and high strength steel. The technical objectives of the project included: 1) developing cost affordable production feasible tooling design for PW of 6xxx aluminum to High Strength steel with strengths above 580MPa; 2) demonstrating that fabricated joints can exceed the required service load strength initially at the coupon level and then at the component level; 3) developing fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of joint formation and conditions leading to formation of high quality PW joint; and 4) creating a numerical model predicting the tooling and electric discharge parameters necessary for the joint formation and that satisfy the targeted strength parameters. The project successfully developed: 1) EM and EH pulsed welds between high strength aluminum with tensile strengths exceeding 240MPa and steels exceeding 580MPa; 2) pulsed welds of extrusions with strengths exceeding project requirements; 3) EM and EH flyer launch models and 4) weld interface formation models. However, the grant holder, Ford Motor Company, could see no path to commercialization and the work was

  12. Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bull, J.W.; Jobstvogt, N.; Böhnke-Henrichs, A.; Mascarenhas, A.; Sitas, N.; Baulcomb, C.; Lambini, C.K.; Rawlins, M.; Baral, H.; Zähringer, J.; Carter-Silk, E.; Balzan, M.V.; Kenter, J.O.; Häyhä, T.; Petz, K.; Koss, R.

    2016-01-01

    The ecosystem services concept (ES) is becoming a cornerstone of contemporary sustainability thought. Challenges with this concept and its applications are well documented, but have not yet been systematically assessed alongside strengths and external factors that influence uptake. Such an

  13. On strength of porous material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    1999-01-01

    The question of non-destructive testing of porous materials has always been of interest for the engineering profession. A number of empirically based MOE-MOR relations between stiffness (Modulus Of Elasticity) and strength (Modulus OF Rupture) of materials have been established in order to control...

  14. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Joseph William; Jobstvogt, N.; Böhnke-Henrichs, A.

    2016-01-01

    The ecosystem services concept (ES) is becoming a cornerstone of contemporary sustainability thought. Challenges with this concept and its applications are well documented, but have not yet been systematically assessed alongside strengths and external factors that influence uptake. Such an assess...

  15. Comparing strengths of beliefs explicitly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, S.; de Jongh, D.

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by a similar use in provability logic, formulas p > B q and p ≥ B q are introduced in the existing logical framework for discussing beliefs to express that the strength of belief in p is greater than (or equal to) that in q. Besides its usefulness in studying the properties of the concept

  16. Strength training for the warfighter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, William J; Szivak, Tunde K

    2012-07-01

    Optimizing strength training for the warfighter is challenged by past training philosophies that no longer serve the modern warfighter facing the "anaerobic battlefield." Training approaches for integration of strength with other needed physical capabilities have been shown to require a periodization model that has the flexibility for changes and is able to adapt to ever-changing circumstances affecting the quality of workouts. Additionally, sequencing of workouts to limit over-reaching and development of overtraining syndromes that end in loss of duty time and injury are paramount to long-term success. Allowing adequate time for rest and recovery and recognizing the negative influences of extreme exercise programs and excessive endurance training will be vital in moving physical training programs into a more modern perspective as used by elite strength-power anaerobic athletes in sports today. Because the warfighter is an elite athlete, it is time that training approaches that are scientifically based are updated within the military to match the functional demands of modern warfare and are given greater credence and value at the command levels. A needs analysis, development of periodized training modules, and individualization of programs are needed to optimize the strength of the modern warfighter. We now have the knowledge, professional coaches and nonprofit organization certifications with continuing education units, and modern training technology to allow this to happen. Ultimately, it only takes command decisions and implementation to make this possible.

  17. Control component retainer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, L.A.; King, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus is described for retaining an undriven control component assembly disposed in a fuel assembly in a nuclear reactor of the type having a core grid plate. The first part of the mechanism involves a housing for the control component and the second part is a brace with a number of arms that reach under the grid plate. The brace and the housing are coupled together to firmly hold the control components in place even under strong flows of th coolant

  18. Component design for LMFBR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillnow, R.H.; France, L.L.; Zerinvary, M.C.; Fox, R.O.

    1975-01-01

    Just as FFTF has prototype components to confirm their design, FFTF is serving as a prototype for the design of the commercial LMFBR's. Design and manufacture of critical components for the FFTF system have been accomplished primarily using vendors with little or no previous experience in supplying components for high temperature sodium systems. The exposure of these suppliers, and through them a multitude of subcontractors, to the requirements of this program has been a necessary and significant step in preparing American industry for the task of supplying the large mechanical components required for commercial LMFBR's

  19. Hot gas path component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Kottilingam, Srikanth Chandrudu; Porter, Christopher Donald; Schick, David Edward

    2017-09-12

    Various embodiments of the disclosure include a turbomachine component. and methods of forming such a component. Some embodiments include a turbomachine component including: a first portion including at least one of a stainless steel or an alloy steel; and a second portion joined with the first portion, the second portion including a nickel alloy including an arced cooling feature extending therethrough, the second portion having a thermal expansion coefficient substantially similar to a thermal expansion coefficient of the first portion, wherein the arced cooling feature is located within the second portion to direct a portion of a coolant to a leakage area of the turbomachine component.

  20. Experimental validation of a kinetic multi-component mechanism in a wide HCCI engine operating range for mixtures of n-heptane, iso-octane and toluene: Influence of EGR parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machrafi, Hatim [LGPPTS, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris/ Universite Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris 6), 11, rue de Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2008-11-15

    The parameters that are present in exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) are believed to provide an important contribution to control the auto-ignition process of the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) in an engine. For the investigation of the behaviour of the auto-ignition process, a kinetic multi-component mechanism has been developed in former work, containing 62 reactions and 49 species for mixtures of n-heptane, iso-octane and toluene. This paper presents an experimental validation of this mechanism, comparing the calculated pressure, heat release, ignition delays and CO{sub 2} emissions with experimental data performed on a HCCI engine. The validation is performed in a broad range of EGR parameters by varying the dilution by N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} from 0 to 46 vol.%, changing the EGR temperature from 30 to 120 C, altering the addition of CO and NO from 0 to 170 ppmv and varying the addition of CH{sub 2}O from 0 to 1400 ppmv. These validations were performed respecting the HCCI conditions for the inlet temperature and the equivalence ratio. The results showed that the mechanism is validated experimentally in dilution ranges going up to 21-30 vol.%, depending on the species of dilution and over the whole range of the EGR temperature. The mechanism is validated over the whole range of CO and CH{sub 2}O addition. As for the addition of NO, the mechanism is validated quantitatively up to 50 ppmv and qualitatively up to 170 ppmv. (author)

  1. Strength of vacuum brazed joints for repair; Haallfasthet hos reparationer utfoerda med vakuumloedning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglin, Leif [Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB, Finspaang (Sweden)

    2005-04-01

    Strength data are missing for braze joints. Repaired components cannot fully make use of the strength of the braze, and lifetime will be underestimated. The goal of the project was to generate material data to be able to prolong the lifetime of the components. Two different material combinations were tested, 12% Chromium steel brazed with BNi-2, and a nickel base alloy, IN792 brazed with BNi-5. Tensile testing at room temperature and elevated temperature was performed in the project. Target group is purchasers and suppliers of repaired components. A tensile test specimen with butt joint was developed in the project. The used test specimen worked well for the 12% Chromium steel. The results from testing show that proof stress and tensile strength are strongly depending on the joint gap, particularly at room temperature. High strength, close to base material strength, was achieved with joint gaps smaller than 50{mu}m. For wider joint gaps, strength was lower. Strength was approximately 25% of base material strength for joint gaps over 100{mu}m. The results can be explained by changes in microstructure. Joint gaps wider than 50{mu}m showed evidence of two-phase structure. At 500 deg C, the results also showed a connection between joint gap, microstructure and strength. The generated strength data can be used for calculations of lifetime for repaired components. Two different process errors were discovered in the manufacturing process of the brazed IN792 test specimens. The generated material data are therefor erroneous. The reason for this was two manufacturing errors. The tack welding was done with too high heat input. The surfaces of the joint gap became oxidised and the oxide hindered wetting of the braze. The second reason was that the brazing was done without the prescribed hold time at maximum temperature. The melting of the braze was therefor not completed when cooling started. As a result, the strength of the IN792 specimens was low at both temperatures.

  2. HG ion thruster component testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantenieks, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    Cathodes, isolators, and vaporizers are critical components in determining the performance and lifetime of mercury ion thrusters. The results of life tests of several of these components are reported. A 30-cm thruster CIV test in a bell jar has successfully accumulated over 26,000 hours. The cathode has undergone 65 restarts during the life test without requiring any appreciable increases in starting power. Recently, all restarts have been achieved with only the 44 volt keeper supply with no change required in the starting power. Another ongoing 30-cm Hg thruster cathode test has successfully passed the 10,000 hour mark. A solid-insert, 8-cm thruster cathode has accumulated over 4,000 hours of thruster operation. All starts have been achieved without the use of a high voltage ignitor. The results of this test indicate that the solid impregnated insert is a viable neutralizer cathode for the 8-cm thruster.

  3. Wireless Concrete Strength Monitoring of Wind Turbine Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Perry

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Wind turbine foundations are typically cast in place, leaving the concrete to mature under environmental conditions that vary in time and space. As a result, there is uncertainty around the concrete’s initial performance, and this can encourage both costly over-design and inaccurate prognoses of structural health. Here, we demonstrate the field application of a dense, wireless thermocouple network to monitor the strength development of an onshore, reinforced-concrete wind turbine foundation. Up-to-date methods in fly ash concrete strength and maturity modelling are used to estimate the distribution and evolution of foundation strength over 29 days of curing. Strength estimates are verified by core samples, extracted from the foundation base. In addition, an artificial neural network, trained using temperature data, is exploited to demonstrate that distributed concrete strengths can be estimated for foundations using only sparse thermocouple data. Our techniques provide a practical alternative to computational models, and could assist site operators in making more informed decisions about foundation design, construction, operation and maintenance.

  4. Wireless Concrete Strength Monitoring of Wind Turbine Foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Marcus; Fusiek, Grzegorz; Niewczas, Pawel; Rubert, Tim; McAlorum, Jack

    2017-12-16

    Wind turbine foundations are typically cast in place, leaving the concrete to mature under environmental conditions that vary in time and space. As a result, there is uncertainty around the concrete's initial performance, and this can encourage both costly over-design and inaccurate prognoses of structural health. Here, we demonstrate the field application of a dense, wireless thermocouple network to monitor the strength development of an onshore, reinforced-concrete wind turbine foundation. Up-to-date methods in fly ash concrete strength and maturity modelling are used to estimate the distribution and evolution of foundation strength over 29 days of curing. Strength estimates are verified by core samples, extracted from the foundation base. In addition, an artificial neural network, trained using temperature data, is exploited to demonstrate that distributed concrete strengths can be estimated for foundations using only sparse thermocouple data. Our techniques provide a practical alternative to computational models, and could assist site operators in making more informed decisions about foundation design, construction, operation and maintenance.

  5. Components of Sexual Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Michael G.; DeCecco, John P.

    1977-01-01

    This paper examines the four components of sexual identity: biological sex, gender identity, social sex-role, and sexual orientation. Theories about the development of each component and how they combine and conflict to form the individual's sexual identity are discussed. (Author)

  6. Towards Cognitive Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Ahrendt, Peter; Larsen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Cognitive component analysis (COCA) is here defined as the process of unsupervised grouping of data such that the ensuing group structure is well-aligned with that resulting from human cognitive activity. We have earlier demonstrated that independent components analysis is relevant for representing...

  7. Creep Strength of Nb-1Zr for SP-100 Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, James A.; Egner, Larry K.

    1994-07-01

    Power systems that are used to provide electrical power in space are designed to optimize conversion of thermal energy to electrical energy and to minimize the mass and volume that must be launched. Only refractory metals and their alloys have sufficient long-term strength for several years of uninterrupted operation at the required temperatures of 1200 K and above. The high power densities and temperatures at which these reactors must operate require the use of liquid-metal coolants. The alloy Nb-1 wt % Zr (Nb-lZr), which exhibits excellent corrosion resistance to alkali liquid-metals at high temperatures, is being considered for the fuel cladding, reactor structural, and heat-transport systems for the SP-100 reactor system. Useful lifetime of this system is limited by creep deformation in the reactor core. Nb-lZr sheet procured to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) specifications for reactor grade and commercial grade has been processed by several different cold work and annealing treatments to attempt to produce the grain structure (size, shape, and distribution of sizes) that provides the maximum creep strength of this alloy at temperatures from 1250 to 1450 K. The effects of grain size, differences in oxygen concentrations, tungsten concentrations, and electron beam and gas tungsten arc weldments on creep strength were studied. Grain size has a large effect on creep strength at 1450 K but only material with a very large grain size (150 μm) exhibits significantly higher creep strength at 1350 K. Differences in oxygen or tungsten concentrations did not affect creep strength, and the creep strengths of weldments were equal to, or greater than, those for base metal.

  8. Strength monitoring of bridge constructions and features of its application. Part 1. International and domestic experience of monitoring application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovchinnikov Igor Georgievich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The development trend of building systems can be characterized in the following words: sophistication of design and simplification of operation. And the main task of the engineering structure operation is to ensure stability of the functioning structures with respect to the external aggressive impacts. The article considers the strength monitoring of bridge structures proposed by Ovchinnikov I.G. in 1994. The strength monitoring is an element of the engineering structure operation system. Algorithm of structure monitoring is based on the following main tasks — establishing nature of the external impacts on the structure and evaluating capacity of structure to resist these impacts in the concrete environment of operation. The article considers the different approaches to solving problem of transport structure operation around the world. It is proposed to include the following subsystems in the system of structure operation: 1 a subsystem of the strength monitoring of structures; 2 a subsystem of the scientific research and development organization; 3 a subsystem of work automation on the structure status management; 4 a subsystem of personnel training for work in the system of structure operation, including monitoring, research, automation of works, emergency response and quality management; 5 a subsystem of actions in the case of emergencies; 6 a subsystem of the quality management of structure operation and 7 a subsystem of ecological structure monitoring. It is noted that at the stage of structure operation the active monitoring includes the solution of the following main tasks: 1 evaluation of the stress — strain state of construction components and the whole structure, as well as the kinetics of its change taking into account the existing defects and damages of local and distributed type; 2 analysis and evaluation of degree of conformity for the ultimate load-carrying capacity of structure to the external impacts during the moment under

  9. Cooling concepts for HTS components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binneberg, A.; Buschmann, H.; Neubert, J.

    1993-01-01

    HTS components require that low-cost, reliable cooling systems be used. There are no general solutions to such systems. Any cooling concept has to be tailored to the specific requirements of a system. The following has to he taken into consideration when designing cooling concepts: - cooling temperature - constancy and controllability of the cooling temperature - cooling load and refrigerating capacity - continuous or discontinuous mode - degree of automation - full serviceability or availability before evacuation -malfunctions caused by microphonic, thermal or electromagnetic effects -stationary or mobile application - investment and operating costs (orig.)

  10. Component aging evaluation with expert systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesemann, J.S.; Maguire, H.T. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The age degradation of components involves a complex relationship between a variety of variables. These relationships are typically modeled using probabilistic and deterministic analyses. These methods depend upon a formal understanding of the underlying degradation mechanisms and a database of experience which allows statistical analyses to extract numerical trends. At present, not all age degradation mechanisms are adequately modeled and available data for age degradation is in most cases insufficient. In addition, these methods tend to focus upon answers to isolated questions (e.g., What is the component failure rate?) rather than the more pertinent questions concerning operations and maintenance (e.g., should the component be replaced at the next outage). Fortunately, knowledge in the form of personal experience does exist which allows plant personnel to make decisions concerning operations and maintenance. This knowledge can be modeled using expert systems. This paper discusses CAGES (Component Aging Expert System). It combines expert rules (heuristics), probabilistic models, and deterministic models to make evaluations of component aging; predict the implications for component life extension, operational readiness, maintenance effectiveness, and safety, and make recommendations for maintenance and operation

  11. Microstructural origins of yield-strength changes in AISI 316 during fission or fusion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, F.A.; Hamilton, M.L.; Panayotou, N.F.; Johnson, G.D.

    1981-08-01

    The changes in yield strength of AISI 316 irradiated in breeder reactors have been successfully modeled in terms of concurrent changes in microstructural components. Two new insights involving the strength contributions of voids and Frank loops have been incorporated into the hardening models. Both the radiation-induced microstructure and the yield strength exhibit transients which are then followed by saturation at a level dependent on the irradiation temperature. Extrapolation to anticipated fusion behavior based on microstructural comparisons leads to the conclusion that the primary influence of transmutational differences is only to alter the transient behavior and not the saturation level of yield strength

  12. Muscle Strength and Poststroke Hemiplegia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Otto H; Stenager, Egon; Dalgas, Ulrik

    2017-01-01

    undergone peer review; and (4) were available in English or Danish. DATA EXTRACTION: The psychometric properties of isokinetic dynamometry were reviewed with respect to reliability, validity, and responsiveness. Furthermore, comparisons of strength between paretic, nonparetic, and comparable healthy muscles...... isokinetic dynamometry. DATA SOURCES: A systematic literature search of 7 databases was performed. STUDY SELECTION: Included studies (1) enrolled participants with definite poststroke hemiplegia according to defined criteria; (2) assessed muscle strength or power by criterion isokinetic dynamometry; (3) had...... were reviewed. DATA SYNTHESIS: Twenty studies covering 316 PPSH were included. High intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) inter- and intrasession reliability was reported for isokinetic dynamometry, which was independent of the tested muscle group, contraction mode, and contraction velocity...

  13. Line strengths in WN stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leep, E.M.

    1982-01-01

    The author has analyzed high-dispersion spectra of over 100 WN stars in the Galaxy and the Large Magellenic Cloud (LMC). Most of the spectra were obtained through 4-m telescopes (Conti, Leep, and Perry 1981). The measured strengths of the WN classification lines N III lambdalambda4634-41, N IV lambda4057, N V lambda4604 (Smith 1968) for stars on WN subtypes 2.5-8 are shown. The assignments of WN subtypes are based on visual estimates of ratios of line strengths according to the scheme of Smith (1968), except that stars appearing to be earlier than WN3 are classified as WN2 or WN2.5 as explained by van der Hucht et al. (1981) and by Conti, Leep and Perry (1981). (Auth.)

  14. The use of maturity method in estimating concrete strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, A.E.; Abd El-Baky, S.M.; Ali, E.E.; Ghanem, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    Prediction of the early age strength of concrete is essential for modernized concrete for construction as well as for manufacturing of structural parts. Safe and economic scheduling of such critical operations as form removal and re shoring, application of post-tensioning or other mechanical treatment, and in process transportation and rapid delivery of products all should be based upon a good grasp of the strength development of the concrete in use. For many years, it has been proposed that the strength of concrete can be related to a simple mathematical function of time and temperature so that strength could be assessed by calculation without mechanical testing. Such functions are used to compute what is called the m aturity o f concrete, and the computed value is believed to obtain a correlation with the strength of concrete. With its simplicity and low cost, the application of maturity concept as in situ testing method has received wide attention and found its use in engineering practice. This research work investigates the use of M aturity method' in estimating the concrete strength. An experimental program is designed to estimate the concrete strength by using the maturity method. Using different concrete mixes, with available local materials. Ordinary Portland Cement, crushed stone, silica fume, fly ash and admixtures with different contents are used . All the specimens were exposed to different curing temperatures (10, 25 and 40 degree C), in order to get a simplified expression of maturity that fits in with the influence of temperature. Mix designs and charts obtained from this research can be used as guide information for estimating concrete strength by using the maturity method

  15. Electronic Correlation Strength of Pu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, A.; C. Albers, R.; E. Christensen, N.

    2013-01-01

    A new electronic quantity, the correlation strength, is defined as a necessary step for understanding the properties and trends in strongly correlated electronic materials. As a test case, this is applied to the different phases of elemental Pu. Within the GW approximation we have surprisingly...... found a "universal" scaling relationship, where the f-electron bandwidth reduction due to correlation effects is shown to depend only upon the local density approximation (LDA) bandwidth and is otherwise independent of crystal structure and lattice constant....

  16. Strength and Microstructure of Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    Forex - one particular alumina ceramic, I our own detailed crack ample, the relatively large values of r, and c* for the VI observations, and those of...particularly toughness indices, 1i71", indicating that there is sonic the c° , T parameters. However, the indentation mcth- kind of trade -o1Tbetwecn...macroscopic and microsnpic odology takes us closer to the strengths of specimens toughness levels, and that this trade -off is cont’olled by with natural

  17. Long range supergravity coupling strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, I.R.

    1991-01-01

    A limit of 2x10 -13 has recently been deduced for the fractional difference between the gravitational masses of the K 0 and anti K 0 mesons. This limit is applied here to put stringent limits on the strengths of the long range vector-scalar gravitational couplings envisaged in supergravity theories. A weaker limit is inferred from the general relativistic fit to the precession of the orbit of the pulsar PSR1913+16. (orig.)

  18. Shear Strength Measurement Benchmarking Tests for K Basin Sludge Simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Carolyn A.; Daniel, Richard C.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Luna, Maria; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2009-06-10

    Equipment development and demonstration testing for sludge retrieval is being conducted by the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project (STP) at the MASF (Maintenance and Storage Facility) using sludge simulants. In testing performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (under contract with the CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company), the performance of the Geovane instrument was successfully benchmarked against the M5 Haake rheometer using a series of simulants with shear strengths (τ) ranging from about 700 to 22,000 Pa (shaft corrected). Operating steps for obtaining consistent shear strength measurements with the Geovane instrument during the benchmark testing were refined and documented.

  19. Transition-strength fluctuations and the onset of chaotic motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alhassid, Y.; Levine, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    The maximum-entropy formalism is used to characterize the fluctuations in transition strengths for a bound quantum-mechanical system. In the chaotic limit only one, ever present, sum rule is required as a constraint. The resulting distribution is that of Porter and Thomas, which can also be derived from random-matrix theory. For nonchaotic systems the distribution of transition strengths has a lower entropy. A possible additional constraint, operative during the onset of chaos, is proposed. The distribution of maximal entropy subject to both constraints accords with computed intensities in a system of two degrees of freedom

  20. 2-component heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, W

    1987-03-01

    The knowledge accumulated only recently of the damage to buildings and the hazards of formaldehyde, radon and hydrocarbons has been inducing louder calls for ventilation, which, on their part, account for the fact that increasing importance is being attached to the controlled ventilation of buildings. Two-component heating systems provide for fresh air and thermal comfort in one. While the first component uses fresh air blown directly and controllably into the rooms, the second component is similar to the Roman hypocaustic heating systems, meaning that heated outer air is circulating under the floor, thus providing for hot surfaces and thermal comfort. Details concerning the two-component heating system are presented along with systems diagrams, diagrams of the heating system and tables identifying the respective costs. Descriptions are given of the two systems components, the fast heat-up, the two-component made, the change of air, heat recovery and control systems. Comparative evaluations determine the differences between two-component heating systems and other heating systems. Conclusive remarks are dedicated to energy conservation and comparative evaluations of costs. (HWJ).

  1. INTRINSIC REGULATION OF HEMOGLOBIN EXPRESSION BY VARIABLE SUBUNIT INTERFACE STRENGTHS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, James M.; Popowicz, Anthony M.; Padovan, Julio C.; Chait, Brian T.; Manning, Lois R.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The expression of the six types of human hemoglobin subunits over time is currently considered to be regulated mainly by transcription factors that bind to upstream control regions of the gene (the “extrinsic” component of regulation). Here we describe how subunit pairing and further assembly to tetramers in the liganded state is influenced by the affinity of subunits for one another (the “intrinsic” component of regulation). The adult hemoglobin dimers have the strongest subunit interfaces and the embryonic hemoglobins are the weakest with fetal hemoglobins of intermediate strength, corresponding to the temporal order of their expression. These variable subunit binding strengths and the attenuating effects of acetylation contribute to the differences with which these hemoglobin types form functional O2-binding tetramers consistent with gene switching. PMID:22129306

  2. Corrosion of aluminum components and remedial measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, S.T.; Khalique, A.; Malik, F.A.

    2006-01-01

    Aluminum has versatile physical properties, mechanical strength, corrosion resistance, and is used in special applications like aerospace, automobiles and other strategic industries. The outdoor exposed structural components of aluminum have very good corrosion resistance due to the thick oxide layer (0.2 -0.4 micro). This study involves the corrosion of aluminum based components, though aluminum is protected by an oxide layer but due to extreme weather and environmental conditions the oxide layer was damaged. The corroded product was removed, pits or cavities formed due to the material removal were filled with epoxy resins and acrylic-based compounds containing fibreglass as reinforcement. Optimum results were obtained with epoxy resins incorporated with 5% glass fibers. The inner surface of the components was provided further protection with a cellulose nitrate compound. (author)

  3. Prospects for UK fuel cells component suppliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, C.; Tunnicliffe, M.

    2002-07-01

    This report examines the capabilities of the UK fuel cell industry in meeting the expected increase in demand, and aims to identify all UK suppliers of fuel cell components, evaluate their products and match them to fuel cell markets, and identify components where the UK is in a competitive position. Component areas are addressed along with the need to reduce costs and ensure efficient production. The well established supplier base in the UK is noted, and the car engine manufacturing base and fuel supply companies are considered. The different strengths of UK suppliers of the various types of fuel cells are listed. The future industry structure, the opportunities and dangers for business posed by fuel cells, the investment in cleaner technologies by the large fuel companies, opportunities for catalyst suppliers, and the residential combined heat and power and portable electronics battery markets are discussed.

  4. Early changes in muscle strength after total knee arthroplasty. A 6-month follow-up of 30 knees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, J S; Petersen, M M; Brot, C

    1999-01-01

    to surgery, and after 3 and 6 months, isokinetic and isometric muscle strength in both legs were measured, using a Cybex 6000 dynamometer. Isokinetic tests showed a bilateral, significant, and progressive increase (30-53%) in flexor muscle strength most pronounced in the operated legs. Isokinetic extensor...... strength increased significantly (14-18%) in the operated legs, while in the contralateral legs, a limited increase was found. Isometric flexion strength significantly decreased in the operated knees (17%). Isometric extension strength showed a temporary decrease at 3 months, which returned...... to the preoperative level. No significant change in isometric strength was observed in the contralateral legs. The knee pain during the muscle strength measurements decreased significantly from the preoperative level, which may indicate that the substantial pain relief within 3 months after a TKA is an important...

  5. Handgrip strength and physical activity in frail elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Lenardt

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between handgrip strength (HS and physical activity in physical frailty elderly. METHOD Cross-sectional quantitative study with a sample of 203 elderly calculated based on the population estimated proportion. Tests were applied to detect cognitive impairment and assessment of physical frailty. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis by binary logistic regression were used, and also Student's t-test and Fisher's exact test. RESULTS A total of 99 (64.3% elderly showed decreased handgrip strength and 90 (58.4% elderly presented decrease in physical activity levels. There was a statistically significant difference between these two components (p=0.019, in which elderly who have decreased HS have lower levels of physical activity. For low levels of physical activity and decreased HS, there was no evidence of significant difference in the probability of the classification as frail elderly (p<0.001. CONCLUSION The components handgrip strength and physical activity are associated with the frail elderly. The joint presence of low levels of physical activity and decreased handgrip strength leads to a significantly higher probability of the elderly to be categorized as frailty.

  6. А new factor effecting gel strength of pectin polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Kholov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pectin polysaccharides obtained from various raw materials have a different component composition and form gels with water, sugar and acid or calcium. In this study, an experimental approach the gelation properties of different pectin samples, varied from different sources, using new methods of hydrolysis and purification. Samples were obtained by hydrolysis of accelerated extraction of pectin and purified by diaultrfiltration, have a high gel strength. The highest gel strength have been found in series of high methoxyl (HM- pectin samples of apple, peach, orange and low methoxyl (LM- pectin samples of commercial citrus pectin and apple pectin obtained by new method. It is shown that in addition to the basic parameters (the content of galacturonic acid, degree of esterification, molecular weight and hidrodinamic radius macromolecule to affect gel strength pectins aggregation of macromolecules, which is determined by the z-average molecular weight. There were observed a clear pattern of the influence of the molecular weight on hydrodynamic parameters for both HM- and LM- pectin samples on the gel strength. It were shown that a high values of molecular weight, intrinsic viscosity, and radius of gyration of pectin samples can significantly increase gel strength, while the value of Mz oppositely influenced the gel strength. As a result, a systematic analysis of this parameter and its relationship to the average molecular weight found that indeed the ratio Mz/Mw for pectin’s is an crucial to assess the quality of pectin at the study of gel strength for pectin polysaccharides.

  7. Replaceable LMFBR core components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, E.A.; Cunningham, G.W.

    1976-01-01

    Much progress has been made in understanding material and component performance in the high temperature, fast neutron environment of the LMFBR. Current data have provided strong assurance that the initial core component lifetime objectives of FFTF and CRBR can be met. At the same time, this knowledge translates directly into the need for improved core designs that utilize improved materials and advanced fuels required to meet objectives of low doubling times and extended core component lifetimes. An industrial base for the manufacture of quality core components has been developed in the US, and all procurements for the first two core equivalents for FFTF will be completed this year. However, the problem of fabricating recycled plutonium while dramatically reducing fabrication costs, minimizing personnel exposure, and protecting public health and safety must be addressed

  8. Explosive Components Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 98,000 square foot Explosive Components Facility (ECF) is a state-of-the-art facility that provides a full-range of chemical, material, and performance analysis...

  9. Component fragility research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, N.C.; Mochizuki, G.L.; Holman, G.S.

    1989-11-01

    To demonstrate how ''high-level'' qualification test data can be used to estimate the ultimate seismic capacity of nuclear power plant equipment, we assessed in detail various electrical components tested by the Pacific Gas ampersand Electric Company for its Diablo Canyon plant. As part of our Phase I Component Fragility Research Program, we evaluated seismic fragility for five Diablo Canyon components: medium-voltage (4kV) switchgear; safeguard relay board; emergency light battery pack; potential transformer; and station battery and racks. This report discusses our Phase II fragility evaluation of a single Westinghouse Type W motor control center column, a fan cooler motor controller, and three local starters at the Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant. These components were seismically qualified by means of biaxial random motion tests on a shaker table, and the test response spectra formed the basis for the estimate of the seismic capacity of the components. The seismic capacity of each component is referenced to the zero period acceleration (ZPA) and, in our Phase II study only, to the average spectral acceleration (ASA) of the motion at its base. For the motor control center, the seismic capacity was compared to the capacity of a Westinghouse Five-Star MCC subjected to actual fragility tests by LLNL during the Phase I Component Fragility Research Program, and to generic capacities developed by the Brookhaven National Laboratory for motor control center. Except for the medium-voltage switchgear, all of the components considered in both our Phase I and Phase II evaluations were qualified in their standard commercial configurations or with only relatively minor modifications such as top bracing of cabinets. 8 refs., 67 figs., 7 tabs

  10. Refractory alloy component fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose of this report is to describe joining procedures, primarily welding techniques, which were developed to construct reliable refractory alloy components and systems for advanced space power systems. Two systems, the Nb-1Zr Brayton Cycle Heat Receiver and the T-111 Alloy Potassium Boiler Development Program, are used to illustrate typical systems and components. Particular emphasis is given to specific problems which were eliminated during the development efforts. Finally, some thoughts on application of more recent joining technology are presented. 78 figures

  11. Impact test of components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsoi, L.; Buland, P.; Labbe, P.

    1987-01-01

    Stops with gaps are currently used to support components and piping: it is simple, low cost, efficient and permits free thermal expansion. In order to keep the nonlinear nature of stops, such design is often modeled by beam elements (for the component) and nonlinear springs (for the stops). This paper deals with the validity and the limits of these models through the comparison of computational and experimental results. The experimental results come from impact laboratory tests on a simplified mockup. (orig.)

  12. Bond strength of compomers to dentin using acidic primers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, W H; You, C; Powers, J M

    1999-10-01

    To determine the in vitro bond strengths of seven compomer/bonding agent restorative systems to human dentin. Seven compomer/bonding agents were bonded to human dentin, stored in water at 37 degrees C for 24 hours, and debonded in tension. Bonding conditions were with and without phosphoric acid etching, with and without the use of combined primer/bonding agents, and under moist and wet bond interfaces. Without phosphoric acid etching, F2000/F2000 Compomer Primer/Adhesive and F2000/Single Bond Dental Adhesive System were less sensitive to dentin wetness. With moist dentin, bond strengths of Dyract/Prime & Bond 2.1, Dyract AP/Prime & Bond 2.1, Hytac/OSB light-curing, one-component bonding agent, F2000/Single Bond, and Freedom/STAE single component light-cured dentin/enamel adhesive system, were improved with phosphoric acid etching. Also, with moist dentin, the bond strength of F2000/F2000 Compomer Primer/Adhesive in the 3M Clicker dispensing system was higher without phosphoric acid etching, whereas bonds of Compoglass/Syntac Single-component were not affected by phosphoric acid etching. Bonding did not occur without primer/bonding agent, regardless of surface condition or use of phosphoric acid etching.

  13. Fusion-component lifetime analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattas, R.F.

    1982-09-01

    A one-dimensional computer code has been developed to examine the lifetime of first-wall and impurity-control components. The code incorporates the operating and design parameters, the material characteristics, and the appropriate failure criteria for the individual components. The major emphasis of the modeling effort has been to calculate the temperature-stress-strain-radiation effects history of a component so that the synergystic effects between sputtering erosion, swelling, creep, fatigue, and crack growth can be examined. The general forms of the property equations are the same for all materials in order to provide the greatest flexibility for materials selection in the code. The individual coefficients within the equations are different for each material. The code is capable of determining the behavior of a plate, composed of either a single or dual material structure, that is either totally constrained or constrained from bending but not from expansion. The code has been utilized to analyze the first walls for FED/INTOR and DEMO and to analyze the limiter for FED/INTOR

  14. Tungsten thick coatings for plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riccardi, B.; Pizzuto, A.; Orsini, A.; Libera, S.; Visca, E.; Bertamini, L.; Casadei, F.; Severini, E.; Montanari, R.; Litunovsky, N.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the R and D activity was to realize thick W coatings on CuCrZr hollow bars and to test the mock ups with respect to thermal fatigue. Eight mock ups provided of 4 mm thick W coating were finally manufactured. The bonding integrity between coating and substrate was checked by means of an Ultrasonic apparatus. Characterisation of coatings was performed in order to assess microstructure, impurity content, density, tensile strength, adhesion strength, thermal conductivity and thermal expansion coefficient. Macroscopic residual strain measurements were performed by means of 'hole drilling' technique. The activities performed demonstrated the feasibility of thick Tungsten coatings on geometries with more complex residual strain distribution. These coatings are reliable armour of medium heat flux plasma facing component. (author)

  15. Digital Components in Swedish NPP Power Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Mattias; Eriksson, Tage

    2015-01-01

    Swedish nuclear power plants have over the last 20 years of operation modernised or exchanged several systems and components of the electrical power system. Within these works, new components based on digital technology have been employed in order to realize functionality that was previously achieved by using electro-mechanical or analogue technology. Components and systems such as relay protection, rectifiers, inverters, variable speed drives and diesel-generator sets are today equipped with digital components. Several of the systems and components fulfil functions with a safety-role in the NPP. Recently, however, a number of incidents have occurred which highlight deficiencies in the design or HMI of the equipment, which warrants questions whether there are generic problems with some applications of digital components that needs to be addressed. The use of digital components has presented cost effective solutions, or even the only available solution on the market enabling a modernisation. The vast majority of systems using digital components have been operating without problems and often contribute to improved safety but the challenge of non-detectable, or non-identifiable, failure modes remain. In this paper, the extent to which digital components are used in Swedish NPP power systems will be presented including a description of typical applications. Based on data from maintenance records and fault reports, as well as interviews with designers and maintenance personnel, the main areas where problems have been encountered and where possible risks have been identified will be described. The paper intends to investigate any 'tell-tales' that could give signals of unwanted behaviour. Furthermore, particular benefits experienced by using digital components will be highlighted. The paper will also discuss the safety relevance of these findings and suggest measures to improve safety in the application of digital components in power systems. (authors)

  16. The relationship between compressive strength and flexural strength of pavement geopolymer grouting material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Han, X. X.; Ge, J.; Wang, C. H.

    2018-01-01

    To determine the relationship between compressive strength and flexural strength of pavement geopolymer grouting material, 20 groups of geopolymer grouting materials were prepared, the compressive strength and flexural strength were determined by mechanical properties test. On the basis of excluding the abnormal values through boxplot, the results show that, the compressive strength test results were normal, but there were two mild outliers in 7days flexural strength test. The compressive strength and flexural strength were linearly fitted by SPSS, six regression models were obtained by linear fitting of compressive strength and flexural strength. The linear relationship between compressive strength and flexural strength can be better expressed by the cubic curve model, and the correlation coefficient was 0.842.

  17. Inspection and repair of nuclear components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahner, K.; Poetz, F.

    1993-01-01

    Despite careful design, manufacturing and operation, some of the important safety-relevant components show deterioration with time. Because of activation and contamination of these components, their inspection and repair has to be performed with manipulators. Some sophisticated manipulators are described, built by ABB Reaktor and used for inspection, maintenance and repair of PWR steam generators, fuel alignment pins, core baffle former bolts and reactor pressure vessel head penetrations. (Z.S.) 7 figs

  18. Computerized automatic tip scanning operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, K.; Fukushima, T.; Nakai, H.; Yanagisawa, A.

    1984-01-01

    In BWR nuclear power stations the Traversing Incore Probe (TIP) system is one of the most important components in reactor monitoring and control. In previous TIP systems, however, operators have suffered from the complexity of operation and long operation time required. The system presented in this paper realizes the automatic operation of the TIP system by monitoring and driving it with a process computer. This system significantly reduces the burden on customer operators and improves plant efficiency by simplifying the operating procedure, augmenting the accuracy of the measured data, and shortening operating time. The process computer is one of the PODIA (Plant Operation by Displayed Information Automation) systems. This computer transfers control signals to the TIP control panel, which in turn drives equipment by microprocessor control. The process computer contains such components as the CRT/KB unit, the printer plotter, the hard copier, and the message typers required for efficient man-machine communications. Its operation and interface properties are described

  19. Multiscale principal component analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akinduko, A A; Gorban, A N

    2014-01-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) is an important tool in exploring data. The conventional approach to PCA leads to a solution which favours the structures with large variances. This is sensitive to outliers and could obfuscate interesting underlying structures. One of the equivalent definitions of PCA is that it seeks the subspaces that maximize the sum of squared pairwise distances between data projections. This definition opens up more flexibility in the analysis of principal components which is useful in enhancing PCA. In this paper we introduce scales into PCA by maximizing only the sum of pairwise distances between projections for pairs of datapoints with distances within a chosen interval of values [l,u]. The resulting principal component decompositions in Multiscale PCA depend on point (l,u) on the plane and for each point we define projectors onto principal components. Cluster analysis of these projectors reveals the structures in the data at various scales. Each structure is described by the eigenvectors at the medoid point of the cluster which represent the structure. We also use the distortion of projections as a criterion for choosing an appropriate scale especially for data with outliers. This method was tested on both artificial distribution of data and real data. For data with multiscale structures, the method was able to reveal the different structures of the data and also to reduce the effect of outliers in the principal component analysis

  20. Strength of mortar containing rubber tire particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusoh, M. A.; Abdullah, S. R.; Adnan, S. H.

    2018-04-01

    The main focus in this investigation is to determine the strength consist compressive and tensile strength of mortar containing rubber tire particle. In fact, from the previous study, the strength of mortar containing waste rubber tire in mortar has a slightly decreases compare to normal mortar. In this study, rubber tire particle was replacing on volume of fine aggregate with 6%. 9% and 12%. The sample were indicated M0 (0%), M6 (6%), M9 (9%) and M12 (12%). In this study, two different size of sample used with cube 100mm x 100mm x 100mm for compressive strength and 40mm x 40mm x 160mm for flexural strength. Morphology test was conducted by using Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) were done after testing compressive strength test. The concrete sample were cured for day 3, 7 and 28 before testing. Results compressive strength and flexural strength of rubber mortar shown improved compare to normal mortar.

  1. optimizing compressive strength characteristics of hollow building

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Keywords: hollow building Blocks, granite dust, sand, partial replacement, compressive strength. 1. INTRODUCTION ... exposed to extreme climate. The physical ... Sridharan et al [13] conducted shear strength studies on soil-quarry dust.

  2. Elastic buckling strength of corroded steel plates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    structural safety assessment of corroded structures, residual strength should be ... Rahbar-Ranji (2001) has proposed a spectrum for random simulation of ... The main aim of the present work is to investigate the buckling strength of simply ...

  3. Pulsed rf operation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puglisi, M.; Cornacchia, M.

    1981-01-01

    The need for a very low final amplifier output impedance, always associated with class A operation, requires a very large power waste in the final tube. The recently suggested pulsed rf operation, while saving a large amount of power, increases the inherent final amplifier non linearity. A method is presented for avoiding the large signal non linear analysis and it is shown how each component of the beam induced voltage depends upon all the beam harmonics via some coupling coefficients which are evaluated

  4. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Ionic Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the ionic strength module, when to list ionic strength as a candidate cause, ways to measure ionic strength, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for ionic strength, ionic strength module references and literature reviews.

  5. Effects of blood contamination on resin-resin bond strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiriksson, Sigurdur O; Pereira, Patricia N R; Swift, Edward J; Heymann, Harald O; Sigurdsson, Asgeir

    2004-02-01

    Incremental placement and curing of resin composites has been recommended. However, this requires longer operating time, and therefore, increased risk of contamination. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of blood contamination on microtensile bond strengths (microTBS) between resin interfaces and to determine the best decontamination method to re-establish the original resin-resin bond strength. The top surfaces of 64, 4-mm composite blocks (Z-250, Renew, APX, Pertac II) were untreated as the control, or were treated as follows: blood applied and dried on the surface (Treatment 1), blood applied, rinsed, dried (Treatment 2), blood applied, rinsed, and an adhesive applied (Single Bond, One-Step, Clearfil SE, Prompt L-Pop) (Treatment 3). Fresh composite was applied and light-cured in 2-mm increments. After 24 h storage in water, the specimens were sectioned into 0.7-mm thick slabs, trimmed to a cross-sectional area of 1 mm(2), and loaded to failure at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min using an Instron universal testing machine. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Fisher's PLSD test (pcontamination resulted in resin-resin bond strengths of only 1.0-13.1 MPa. Rinsing raised bond strengths to over 40 MPa for each material. Use of an adhesive further increased bond strengths except for Pertac II. Rinsing blood from contaminated surfaces increases the resin-resin bond strength significantly and the application of an appropriate adhesive increases the bond strength to control levels.

  6. Failure cause analysis and improvement for magnetic component cabinet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Bing

    1999-01-01

    The magnetic component cabinet is an important thermal control device fitted on the nuclear power. Because it used a self-saturation amplifier as a primary component, the magnetic component cabinet has some boundness. For increasing the operation safety on the nuclear power, the author describes a new scheme. In order that the magnetic component cabinet can be replaced, the new type component cabinet is developed. Integrate circuit will replace the magnetic components of every function parts. The author has analyzed overall failure cause for magnetic component cabinet and adopted some measures

  7. Component database development for the CBM experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akishina, E.P.; Alexandrov, E.I.; Alexandrov, I.N.; Filozova, I.A.; Ivanov, V.V.; Friese, V.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the implementation of the component database for the CBM experiment. The considered database is designed to effectively manage a large number of components for different CBM detectors during their manufacture, installation and operation. This database contains information about the production company, quality indicators, including test results, information on the whereabouts of the component and its status. A functional model, a design of the database schema, a description of tables and catalogs as well as a graphical user interface system are shown. [ru

  8. Components of the primary circuit of LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This standard is to be applied to components made of metallic materials, operated at design temperatures of up to 673 K (400 C). The primary circuit as the pressure containment of the reactor coolant comprises: Reactor pressure vessel (without internals), steam generator (primary loop), pressurizer, reactor coolant pump housing, interconnecting pipings between the components mentioned above and appropriate various valve and instrument casings, pipings branding from the above components and interconnecting pipings, including the appropriate instrument casings, up to and including the first isolating valve, pressure shielding of control rod drives. (orig.) [de

  9. Emotional stability components of human performance problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wexler, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    Over half of all significant events that occur in nuclear plants involve human performance problems. There is increasing worldwide recognition that human performance problems have a significant impact on the safety, cost, and efficiency of nuclear plant operations. Emotional stability components have an important direct and indirect impact on human performance problems. This paper examines emotional stability components that are currently incorporated into human performance evaluation systems (HPES) in nuclear plants. It describes HPES programs being developed around the world, the emotional stability components that are currently referred to in these programs, and suggestions for improving HPES programs through a greater understanding of emotion stability components. A review of emotional stability components that may hinder or promote a plant environment that encourages the voluntary reporting and correction of human error is also presented

  10. Random matrix theory for transition strengths: Applications and open questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kota, V. K. B.

    2017-12-01

    Embedded random matrix ensembles are generic models for describing statistical properties of finite isolated interacting quantum many-particle systems. A finite quantum system, induced by a transition operator, makes transitions from its states to the states of the same system or to those of another system. Examples are electromagnetic transitions (then the initial and final systems are same), nuclear beta and double beta decay (then the initial and final systems are different) and so on. Using embedded ensembles (EE), there are efforts to derive a good statistical theory for transition strengths. With m fermions (or bosons) in N mean-field single particle levels and interacting via two-body forces, we have with GOE embedding, the so called EGOE(1+2). Now, the transition strength density (transition strength multiplied by the density of states at the initial and final energies) is a convolution of the density generated by the mean-field one-body part with a bivariate spreading function due to the two-body interaction. Using the embedding U(N) algebra, it is established, for a variety of transition operators, that the spreading function, for sufficiently strong interactions, is close to a bivariate Gaussian. Also, as the interaction strength increases, the spreading function exhibits a transition from bivariate Breit-Wigner to bivariate Gaussian form. In appropriate limits, this EE theory reduces to the polynomial theory of Draayer, French and Wong on one hand and to the theory due to Flambaum and Izrailev for one-body transition operators on the other. Using spin-cutoff factors for projecting angular momentum, the theory is applied to nuclear matrix elements for neutrinoless double beta decay (NDBD). In this paper we will describe: (i) various developments in the EE theory for transition strengths; (ii) results for nuclear matrix elements for 130Te and 136Xe NDBD; (iii) important open questions in the current form of the EE theory.

  11. Optical CDMA components requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, James K.

    1998-08-01

    Optical CDMA is a complementary multiple access technology to WDMA. Optical CDMA potentially provides a large number of virtual optical channels for IXC, LEC and CLEC or supports a large number of high-speed users in LAN. In a network, it provides asynchronous, multi-rate, multi-user communication with network scalability, re-configurability (bandwidth on demand), and network security (provided by inherent CDMA coding). However, optical CDMA technology is less mature in comparison to WDMA. The components requirements are also different from WDMA. We have demonstrated a video transport/switching system over a distance of 40 Km using discrete optical components in our laboratory. We are currently pursuing PIC implementation. In this paper, we will describe the optical CDMA concept/features, the demonstration system, and the requirements of some critical optical components such as broadband optical source, broadband optical amplifier, spectral spreading/de- spreading, and fixed/programmable mask.

  12. An integrated magnetics component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to an integrated magnetics component comprising a magnetically permeable core comprising a base member extending in a horizontal plane and first, second, third and fourth legs protruding substantially perpendicularly from the base member. First, second, third...... and fourth output inductor windings are wound around the first, second, third and fourth legs, respectively. A first input conductor of the integrated magnetics component has a first conductor axis and extends in-between the first, second, third and fourth legs to induce a first magnetic flux through a first...... flux path of the magnetically permeable core. A second input conductor of the integrated magnetics component has a second coil axis extending substantially perpendicularly to the first conductor axis to induce a second magnetic flux through a second flux path of the magnetically permeable core...

  13. Cognitive Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ling

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation concerns the investigation of the consistency of statistical regularities in a signaling ecology and human cognition, while inferring appropriate actions for a speech-based perceptual task. It is based on unsupervised Independent Component Analysis providing a rich spectrum...... of audio contexts along with pattern recognition methods to map components to known contexts. It also involves looking for the right representations for auditory inputs, i.e. the data analytic processing pipelines invoked by human brains. The main ideas refer to Cognitive Component Analysis, defined...... as the process of unsupervised grouping of generic data such that the ensuing group structure is well-aligned with that resulting from human cognitive activity. Its hypothesis runs ecologically: features which are essentially independent in a context defined ensemble, can be efficiently coded as sparse...

  14. Determination of giant resonance strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serr, F.E.

    1983-01-01

    Using theoretical strength functions to describe the different giant resonances expected at excitation energies of the order of (60-85)/Asup(1/3) MeV, we calculate the double differential cross sections d 2 sigma/dΩ dE associated with the reactions 208 Pb(α, α') and 90 Zr(α, α') (Esub(α) = 152 MeV). The angular distributions for the giant quadrupole and giant monopole resonances obtained from fits to these spectra, making simple, commonly used assumptions for the peak shapes and background, are compared to the original angular distributions. The differences between them are an indication of some of the uncertainties affecting the giant resonance strengths extracted from hadron inelastic scattering data. Fits to limited angular regions lead to errors of up to 50% in the value of the energy-weighted sum rule, depending on the angles examined. While it seems possible to extract the correct EWSR for the GMR by carrying out the analyses at 0 0 , no single privileged angle seems to exist in the case of the GQR. (orig.)

  15. Strengths and Satisfaction across the Adult Lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacowitz, Derek M.; Vaillant, George E.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2003-01-01

    Positive psychology has recently developed a classification of human strengths (Peterson & Seligman, in press). We aimed to evaluate these strengths by investigating the strengths and life satisfaction in three adult samples recruited from the community (young adult, middle-aged, and older adult), as well as in the surviving men of the Grant study…

  16. Strength of Ship Plates under Combined Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, W.; Wang, Y.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2002-01-01

    Strength of ship plates plays a significant role in the ultimate strength analysis of ship structures. In recent years several authors have proposed simplified analytical methods to calculate the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates. The majority of these investigations deal with plates subjec...

  17. Strength of ship plates under combined loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Weiching; Wang, Yongjun; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2000-01-01

    Strength of ship plates plays a significant role for the ultimate strength analysis of ship structures. In recent years several authors have proposed simplified methods to calculate the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates. The majority of these investigations deal with plates subjected to lon...

  18. Investigation of Plasma Facing Components in Plasma Focus Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan, M. V.; Babazadeh, A. R.; Kiai, S. M. Sadat; Habibi, H.; Mamarzadeh, M.

    2007-09-01

    Both aspects of the plasma-wall interactions, counter effect of plasma and materials, have been considered in our experiments. The AEOI plasma focus, Dena, has Filippov-type electrodes. The experimental results verify that neutron production increases using tungsten as an anode insert material, compared to the copper one. The experiments show decrement of the hardness of Aluminum targets outward the sides, from 135 to 78 in Vickers scale. The sputtering yield is about 0.0065 for deuteron energy of 50 keV.

  19. Industrial Security – a Component of the Production Operational Management

    OpenAIRE

    Ilie GHEORGHE; Roxana STEFANESCU

    2005-01-01

    The problem of the industrial objectives security imposes as a fundamental condition of economic efficiency. This is why is necessary the elaboration of a new concept regarding industrial security. This concept must integrate quality problems, with technological and ecological characteristics of the industrial objective with the security problems of the business environment and to protect physical and informational objective against fires or natural calamities. Another role of the new industr...

  20. State, Foreign Operations Appropriations: A Guide to Component Accounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-30

    microcredit , water and sanitation, education, environment, democracy and governance, among others...that allow private banks to finance housing shelter projects, water and sanitation systems, and microcredit and small enterprise development programs

  1. Evaluation of Telerobotic Interface Components for Teaching Robot Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstain, Ofir H.; Ben-Gal, Irad; Bukchin, Yossi

    2011-01-01

    Remote learning has been an increasingly growing field in the last two decades. The Internet development, as well as the increase in PC's capabilities and bandwidth capacity, has made remote learning through the internet a convenient learning preference, leading to a variety of new interfaces and methods. In this work, we consider a remote…

  2. Electronic components and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, W H

    2013-01-01

    Electronic Components and Systems focuses on the principles and processes in the field of electronics and the integrated circuit. Covered in the book are basic aspects and physical fundamentals; different types of materials involved in the field; and passive and active electronic components such as capacitors, inductors, diodes, and transistors. Also covered in the book are topics such as the fabrication of semiconductors and integrated circuits; analog circuitry; digital logic technology; and microprocessors. The monograph is recommended for beginning electrical engineers who would like to kn

  3. FFTF Heat Transport System (HTS) component and system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, M.W.; Edwards, P.A.

    1980-01-01

    The FFTF Heat Transport Systems and Components designs have been completed and successfully tested at isothermal conditions up to 427 0 C (800 0 F). General performance has been as predicted in the design analyses. Operational flexibility and reliability have been outstanding throughout the test program. The components and systems have been demonstrated ready to support reactor powered operation testing planned later in 1980

  4. Spatial Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anda VELICANU

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains a brief description of the most important operations that can be performed on spatial data such as spatial queries, create, update, insert, delete operations, conversions, operations on the map or analysis on grid cells. Each operation has a graphical example and some of them have code examples in Oracle and PostgreSQL.

  5. Operational amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Dostal, Jiri

    1993-01-01

    This book provides the reader with the practical knowledge necessary to select and use operational amplifier devices. It presents an extensive treatment of applications and a practically oriented, unified theory of operational circuits.Provides the reader with practical knowledge necessary to select and use operational amplifier devices. Presents an extensive treatment of applications and a practically oriented, unified theory of operational circuits

  6. Operational Risk Defined Through a Complex Operating Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-26

    analysis . But the report noted that “CJTF-HOA’s presence in Africa offers benefits such as its ability to respond to contingencies, provide forces for...18 Analysis ...Development JOPP Joint Operations Planning Process NGO Non-Governmental Organization PRC Profitable Risk Control SWOT Strengths, Weaknesses

  7. Size effects in manufacturing of metallic components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollertsen, F; Biermann, D; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2009-01-01

    In manufacturing of metallic components, the size of the part plays an important role for the process behaviour. This is due to so called size effects, which lead to changes in the process behaviour even if the relationship between the main geometrical features is kept constant. The aim...... of this paper is to give a systematic review on Such effects and their potential use or remedy. First, the typology of size effects will be explained, followed by a description of size effects on strength and tribology. The last three sections describe size effects on formability, forming processes and cutting...... processes. (C) 2009 CIRP....

  8. High-strength maraging steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grachev, S.V.; Shejn, A.S.

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of data on technological and operation properties of maraging steels on Fe-Cr-Ni, Fe-Ni, Fe-Cr-Co-Mo bases is given. Their advantages and drawbacks are pointed out. The scheme of strengthening heat treatment is considered. The fields of the most effective application of maraging steels for instance, for products operating under conditions of low-cycle and shock cyclic loading are mentioned

  9. Investigations into High Temperature Components and Packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marlino, L.D.; Seiber, L.E.; Scudiere, M.B.; M.S. Chinthavali, M.S.; McCluskey, F.P.

    2007-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to document the work that was performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in support of the development of high temperature power electronics and components with monies remaining from the Semikron High Temperature Inverter Project managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). High temperature electronic components are needed to allow inverters to operate in more extreme operating conditions as required in advanced traction drive applications. The trend to try to eliminate secondary cooling loops and utilize the internal combustion (IC) cooling system, which operates with approximately 105 C water/ethylene glycol coolant at the output of the radiator, is necessary to further reduce vehicle costs and weight. The activity documented in this report includes development and testing of high temperature components, activities in support of high temperature testing, an assessment of several component packaging methods, and how elevated operating temperatures would impact their reliability. This report is organized with testing of new high temperature capacitors in Section 2 and testing of new 150 C junction temperature trench insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBTs) in Section 3. Section 4 addresses some operational OPAL-GT information, which was necessary for developing module level tests. Section 5 summarizes calibration of equipment needed for the high temperature testing. Section 6 details some additional work that was funded on silicon carbide (SiC) device testing for high temperature use, and Section 7 is the complete text of a report funded from this effort summarizing packaging methods and their reliability issues for use in high temperature power electronics. Components were tested to evaluate the performance characteristics of the component at different operating temperatures. The temperature of the component is determined by the ambient temperature (i.e., temperature surrounding the device) plus the

  10. Residual life estimation of cracked aircraft structural components

    OpenAIRE

    Maksimović, Mirko S.; Vasović, Ivana V.; Maksimović, Katarina S.; Trišović, Nataša; Maksimović, Stevan M.

    2018-01-01

    The subject of this investigation is focused on developing computation procedure for strength analysis of damaged aircraft structural components with respect to fatigue and fracture mechanics. For that purpose, here will be defined computation procedures for residual life estimation of aircraft structural components such as wing skin and attachment lugs under cyclic loads of constant amplitude and load spectrum. A special aspect of this investigation is based on using of the Strain Energy Den...

  11. Treated Coconut Coir Pith as Component of Cementitious Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Koňáková, Dana; Vejmelková, Eva; Čáchová, Monika; Siddique, Jamal Akhter; Polozhiy, Kirill; Reiterman, Pavel; Keppert, Martin; Černý, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The presented paper deals with utilization of raw and treated coir pith as potential component of cementitious composites. The studied material is coir pith originating from a coconut production. Its applicability as cement mixture component was assessed in terms of the physical properties of concrete containing different amount of coir pith. Basic physical properties, compressive and bending strength, and hygric transport characteristics as well as thermal properties belong among the studied...

  12. Validating Timed Component Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Guilly, Thibaut; Liu, Shaoying; Olsen, Petur

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a technique for testing software components with contracts that specify functional behavior, synchronization, as well as timing behavior. The approach combines elements from unit testing with model-based testing techniques for timed automata. The technique is implemented...... in an online testing tool, and we demonstrate its use on a concrete use case....

  13. Euler principal component analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liwicki, Stephan; Tzimiropoulos, Georgios; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja

    Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is perhaps the most prominent learning tool for dimensionality reduction in pattern recognition and computer vision. However, the ℓ 2-norm employed by standard PCA is not robust to outliers. In this paper, we propose a kernel PCA method for fast and robust PCA,

  14. Hybrid wars’ information component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Nevskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The war of the new generation - hybrid war, the information component which is directed not so much on the direct destruction of the enemy, how to achieve the goals without warfare. Fighting in the information field is no less important than immediate military action.

  15. Spain's nuclear components industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaibel, E.

    1985-01-01

    Spanish industrial participation in supply of components for nuclear power plants has grown steadily over the last fifteen years. The share of Spanish companies in work for the five second generation nuclear power plants increased to 50% of total capital investments. The necessity to maintain Spanish technology and production in the nuclear field is emphasized

  16. The market for components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, M.; Stoelzl, D.

    1986-01-01

    The offers of the German nuclear components industry are shown at the examples of some masterpieces of engineering and their delivery capacities. Then, the success achieved with exports up to now are referred to. The forecast includes the demand, the side conditions of the technical competition, and the pricing and financing situation. (UA) [de

  17. Bayesian Independent Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ole; Petersen, Kaare Brandt

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present an empirical Bayesian framework for independent component analysis. The framework provides estimates of the sources, the mixing matrix and the noise parameters, and is flexible with respect to choice of source prior and the number of sources and sensors. Inside the engine...

  18. Component-oriented programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, J; Szyperski, C; Weck, W; Buschmann, F; Buchmann, AP; Cilia, MA

    2003-01-01

    This report covers the eighth Workshop on Component-Oriented Programming (WCOP). WCOP has been affiliated with ECOOP since its inception in 1996. The report summarizes the contributions made by authors of accepted position papers as well as those made by all attendees of the workshop sessions.

  19. Testing compression strength of wood logs by drilling resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalny, Gerda; Rados, Kristijan; Rauch, Hans Peter

    2017-04-01

    Soil bioengineering is a construction technique using biological components for hydraulic and civil engineering solutions, based on the application of living plants and other auxiliary materials including among others log wood. Considering the reliability of the construction it is important to know about the durability and the degradation process of the wooden logs to estimate and retain the integral performance of a soil bioengineering system. An important performance indicator is the compression strength, but this parameter is not easy to examine by non-destructive methods. The Rinntech Resistograph is an instrument to measure the drilling resistance by a 3 mm wide needle in a wooden log. It is a quasi-non-destructive method as the remaining hole has no weakening effects to the wood. This is an easy procedure but result in values, hard to interpret. To assign drilling resistance values to specific compression strengths, wooden specimens were tested in an experiment and analysed with the Resistograph. Afterwards compression tests were done at the same specimens. This should allow an easier interpretation of drilling resistance curves in future. For detailed analyses specimens were investigated by means of branch inclusions, cracks and distances between annual rings. Wood specimens are tested perpendicular to the grain. First results show a correlation between drilling resistance and compression strength by using the mean drilling resistance, average width of the annual rings and the mean range of the minima and maxima values as factors for the drilling resistance. The extended limit of proportionality, the offset yield strength and the maximum strength were taken as parameters for compression strength. Further investigations at a second point in time strengthen these results.

  20. Developing a Model Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) Simulation Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI) is responsible for providing simulations to support test and verification of SCCS hardware and software. The Universal Coolant Transporter System (UCTS) was a Space Shuttle Orbiter support piece of the Ground Servicing Equipment (GSE). The initial purpose of the UCTS was to provide two support services to the Space Shuttle Orbiter immediately after landing at the Shuttle Landing Facility. The UCTS is designed with the capability of servicing future space vehicles; including all Space Station Requirements necessary for the MPLM Modules. The Simulation uses GSE Models to stand in for the actual systems to support testing of SCCS systems during their development. As an intern at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), my assignment was to develop a model component for the UCTS. I was given a fluid component (dryer) to model in Simulink. I completed training for UNIX and Simulink. The dryer is a Catch All replaceable core type filter-dryer. The filter-dryer provides maximum protection for the thermostatic expansion valve and solenoid valve from dirt that may be in the system. The filter-dryer also protects the valves from freezing up. I researched fluid dynamics to understand the function of my component. The filter-dryer was modeled by determining affects it has on the pressure and velocity of the system. I used Bernoulli's Equation to calculate the pressure and velocity differential through the dryer. I created my filter-dryer model in Simulink and wrote the test script to test the component. I completed component testing and captured test data. The finalized model was sent for peer review for any improvements. I participated in Simulation meetings and was involved in the subsystem design process and team collaborations. I gained valuable work experience and insight into a career path as an engineer.