WorldWideScience

Sample records for strength in-situ biocementation

  1. An Overview of Biocement Production from Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessy Ariyanti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The invention of microorganism’s involvement in carbonate precipitation, has lead the exploration of this process in the field of construction engineering. Biocement is a product innovation from developing bioprocess technology called biocementation. Biocement refers to CaCO3 deposit that formed due to microorganism activity in the system rich of calcium ion. The primary role of microorganism in carbonate precipitation is mainly due to their ability to create an alkaline environment (high pH and DIC increase through their various physiological activities. Three main groups of microorganism that can induce the carbonate precipitation: (i photosynthetic microorganism such as cyanobacteria and microalgae; (ii sulphate reducing bacteria; and (iii some species of microorganism involved in nitrogen cycle. Microalgae are photosynthetic microorganism and utilize urea using urease or urea amidolyase enzyme, based on that it is possible to use microalgae as media to produce biocement through biocementation. This paper overviews biocement in general, biocementation, type of microorganism and their pathways in inducing carbonate precipitation and the prospect of microalgae to be used in biocement production.  Keywords— Biocement, Biocementation, Microalgae, CaCO3 precipitation

  2. Determining the in situ concrete strength of existing structures for assessing their structural safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, R.D.J.M.; Vervuurt, A.H.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    EN 13791 applies when assessing the in situ compressive strength of structures and precast concrete components. According to the code itself, it may be adopted when doubt arises about the compressive strength of a concrete. For assessing the structural safety of existing structures, however, the

  3. Strength, Deformation and Friction of in situ Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-12-01

    Kayenta sandstone, Mixed Company site, Colorado. 30 21. Strength as a function of density for specimen cored perpendicular and parallel to bedding. 30...saturation. 33 24. Photomicrograph of Kayenta sandstone (x 30). 35 25. Stress difference as a function of density for triaxial tests up to P = 4.0...specimen size on strength for Kayenta sandstone, Mixed Company site Colorado. m Sä £ 3 s Q 3/« In, j. O 2 In. X ’ X3/4(n.ll • 2ln. II it

  4. Corn steep liquor as a nutritional source for biocementation and its impact on concrete structural properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sumit; Goyal, Shweta; Reddy, M Sudhakara

    2018-05-28

    Microbial-induced carbonate precipitation (MICP) has a potential to improve the durability properties and remediate cracks in concrete. In the present study, the main emphasis is placed upon replacing the expensive laboratory nutrient broth (NB) with corn steep liquor (CSL), an industrial by-product, as an alternate nutrient medium during biocementation. The influence of organic nutrients (carbon and nitrogen content) of CSL and NB on the chemical and structural properties of concrete structures is studied. It has been observed that cement-setting properties were unaffected by CSL organic content, while NB medium influenced it. Carbon and nitrogen content in concrete structures was significantly lower in CSL-treated specimens than in NB-treated specimens. Decreased permeability and increased compressive strength were reported when NB is replaced with CSL in bacteria-treated specimens. The present study results suggest that CSL can be used as a replacement growth medium for MICP technology at commercial scale.

  5. Effect of In-Situ Curing on Compressive Strength of Reactive Powder Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bali Ika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A development of Reactive Powder Concrete (RPC currently is the use of quartz powder as a stabilizing agent with the content to cement ratio of 30% and steam curing method in an autoclave temperature of 250ºC which produced a high compressive strength of 180 MPa. That RPC can be generated due to one reason for using the technique of steam curing in an autoclave in the laboratory. This study proposes in-situ curing method in order the curing can be applied in the field and with a reasonable compressive strength results of RPC. As the benchmarks in this study are the curing methods in laboratory that are steam curing of 90°C for 8 hours (C1, and water curing for 28 days (C2. For the in-situ curing methods that are covering with tarpaulins and flowed steam of 3 hours per day for 7 days (C3, covering with wet sacks for 28 days (C4, and covering with wet sacks for 28 days for specimen with unwashed sand as fine aggregate (C5. The comparison of compressive strength of the specimens in this study showed compressive strength of RPC with in-situ steam curing (101.64 MPa close to the compressive strength of RPC with steam curing in the laboratory with 8.2% of different. While in-situ wet curing compared with the water curing in laboratory has the different of 3.4%. These results indicated that the proposed in-situ curing methods are reasonable good in term of the compressive strength that can be achieved.

  6. Application of microbial biocementation to improve the physico-mechanical properties of cement mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Abo-El-Enein

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Calcite is one of the most common and wide spread mineral on Earth constituting 4 wt% of the Earth’s crust. It is naturally found in extensive sedimentary rock masses, as lime stone marble and calcareous sandstone in marine, fresh water and terrestrial environments. Calcium carbonate is one of the most well known mineral that bacteria deposit by the phenomenon called biocementation or microbiologically induced calcite precipitation (MICP. Such deposits have recently emerged as promising binders for protecting and consolidating various building materials. Microbially enhanced calcite precipitation on concrete or mortar has become an important area of research regarding construction materials. This study describes a method of strength and water absorption improvement of cement–sand mortar by the microbiologically induced calcium carbonate precipitation. A moderately alkalophilic aerobic Sporosarcina pasteurii was incorporated at different cell concentrations with the mixing water. The study showed that a 33% increase in 28 days compressive strength of cement mortar was achieved with the addition of about one optical density (1 OD of bacterial cells with mixing water. The strength and water absorption improvement are due to the growth of calcite crystals within the pores of the cement–sand matrix as indicated from the microstructure obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM examination.

  7. Real space in situ bond energies: toward a consistent energetic definition of bond strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez-Crespo, Daniel; Costales, Aurora; Francisco, Evelio; Martin Pendas, Angel

    2018-04-14

    A rigorous definition of intrinsic bond strength based on the partitioning of a molecule into real space fragments is presented. Using the domains provided by the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) together with the interacting quantum atoms (IQA) energetic decomposition, we show how an in situ bond strength, matching all the requirements of an intrinsic bond energy, can be defined between each pair of fragments. Total atomization or fragmentation energies are shown to be equal to the sum of these in situ bond energies (ISBEs) if the energies of the fragments are measured with respect to their in-the-molecule state. These energies usually lie above the ground state of the isolated fragments by quantities identified with the standard fragment relaxation or deformation energies, which are also provided by the protocol. Deformation energies bridge dissociation energies with ISBEs, and can be dissected using well-known tools of real space theories of chemical bonding. Similarly, ISBEs can be partitioned into ionic and covalent contributions, and this feature adds to the chemical appeal of the procedure. All the energetic quantities examined are observable and amenable, in principle, to experimental determination. Several systems, exemplifying the role of each energetic term herein presented are used to show the power of the approach. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. In situ ultrasonic examination of high-strength steam generator support bolts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jusino, A.

    1985-01-01

    Currently employed high-strength steam generator support bolting material (designed prior to ASME Section III Part NF or Component Supports), 38.1 mm in diameter, in combination with high preloads are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking because of the relatively low stress corrosion resistance (K/sub ISCC/) properties. These bolts are part of the pressurized water reactor steam generator supports at the integral support pads (three per steam generator, with each pad housing six, eight, or ten bolts depending on the design). The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission concerns for high-strength bolting were identified in NUREG-0577, ''Potential for Low Fracture Toughness and Laminar Tearing in PWR Steam Generator and Reactor Coolant Pump Supports,'' which was issued for comment on unresolved safety issue A-12. Subsequently, the bolting issues were addressed in generic issue B29. One of the issues deals specifically with high-strength bolting materials, which are vulnerable to stress corrosion cracking. A Westinghouse Owners Group funded program was established to develop in situ ultrasonic examination techniques to determine steam generator support bolting integrity at the head-to-shank and first-thread locations. This program was established in order to determine bolting integrity in place. Ultrasonic techniques were developed for both socket-head and flat-head bolt configurations. As a result of this program, in situ ultrasonic examination techniques were developed for examination of PWR steam generator support bolts. By employing these techniques utilities will be able to ensure the integrity of this in-place bolting without incurring the costs previously experienced during removal for surface examinations

  9. Analysis of in-situ rock joint strength using digital borehole scanner images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thapa, Bhaskar Bahadur [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The availability of high resolution digital images of borehole walls using the Borehole Scanner System has made it possible to develop new methods of in-situ rock characterization. This thesis addresses particularly new approaches to the characterization of in-situ joint strength arising from surface roughness. An image processing technique is used to extract the roughness profile from joints in the unrolled image of the borehole wall. A method for estimating in-situ Rengers envelopes using this data is presented along with results from using the method on joints in a borehole in porphyritic granite. Next, an analysis of the joint dilation angle anisotropy is described and applied to the porphyritic granite joints. The results indicate that the dilation angle of the joints studied are anisotropic at small scales and tend to reflect joint waviness as scale increases. A procedure to unroll the opposing roughness profiles to obtain a two dimensional sample is presented. The measurement of apertures during this process is shown to produce an error which increases with the dip of the joint. The two dimensional sample of opposing profiles is used in a new kinematic analysis of the joint shear stress-shear deformation behavior. Examples of applying these methods on the porphyritic granite joints are presented. The unrolled opposing profiles were used in a numerical simulation of a direct shear test using Discontinuous Deformation Analysis. Results were compared to laboratory test results using core samples containing the same joints. The simulated dilatancy and shear stress-shear deformation curves were close to the laboratory curves in the case of a joint in porphyritic granite.

  10. Models for Strength Prediction of High-Porosity Cast-In-Situ Foamed Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhui Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to develop a prediction model of compressive strength for three types of high-porosity cast-in-situ foamed concrete (cement mix, cement-fly ash mix, and cement-sand mix with dry densities of less than 700 kg/m3. The model is an extension of Balshin’s model and takes into account the hydration ratio of the raw materials, in which the water/cement ratio was a constant for the entire construction period for a certain casting density. The results show that the measured porosity is slightly lower than the theoretical porosity due to few inaccessible pores. The compressive strength increases exponentially with the increase in the ratio of the dry density to the solid density and increases with the curing time following the composite function A2ln⁡tB2 for all three types of foamed concrete. Based on the results that the compressive strength changes with the porosity and the curing time, a prediction model taking into account the mix constitution, curing time, and porosity is developed. A simple prediction model is put forward when no experimental data are available.

  11. PREDICTION OF GEOMAGNETIC STORM STRENGTH FROM INNER HELIOSPHERIC IN SITU OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubicka, M.; Möstl, C.; Amerstorfer, T.; Boakes, P. D.; Törmänen, O. [Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 8042 Graz (Austria); Feng, L. [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, West Beijing Road 2 Nanjing, 210008 (China); Eastwood, J. P., E-mail: christian.moestl@oeaw.ac.at [Space and Atmospheric Physics, The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-20

    Prediction of the effects of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) on Earth strongly depends on knowledge of the interplanetary magnetic field southward component, B{sub z}. Predicting the strength and duration of B{sub z} inside a CME with sufficient accuracy is currently impossible, forming the so-called B{sub z} problem. Here, we provide a proof-of-concept of a new method for predicting the CME arrival time, speed, B{sub z}, and resulting disturbance storm time ( Dst ) index on Earth based only on magnetic field data, measured in situ in the inner heliosphere (<1 au). On 2012 June 12–16, three approximately Earthward-directed and interacting CMEs were observed by the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory imagers and Venus Express (VEX) in situ at 0.72 au, 6° away from the Sun–Earth line. The CME kinematics are calculated using the drag-based and WSA–Enlil models, constrained by the arrival time at VEX , resulting in the CME arrival time and speed on Earth. The CME magnetic field strength is scaled with a power law from VEX to Wind . Our investigation shows promising results for the Dst forecast (predicted: −96 and −114 nT (from 2 Dst models); observed: −71 nT), for the arrival speed (predicted: 531 ± 23 km s{sup −1}; observed: 488 ± 30 km s{sup −1}), and for the timing (6 ± 1 hr after the actual arrival time). The prediction lead time is 21 hr. The method may be applied to vector magnetic field data from a spacecraft at an artificial Lagrange point between the Sun and Earth or to data taken by any spacecraft temporarily crossing the Sun–Earth line.

  12. In-situ tensile test of high strength nanocrystalline bainitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, Mike, E-mail: mike.haddad@uni-ulm.de [Institute of Micro and Nanomaterials, University of Ulm, Ulm (Germany); Ivanisenko, Yulia; Courtois-Manara, Eglantine [Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Fecht, Hans-Jörg [Institute of Micro and Nanomaterials, University of Ulm, Ulm (Germany)

    2015-01-03

    Because of its great importance in modern engineering and technology applications, steel continues to be highly relevant in the modern research field of nanocrystalline materials. Innovative processing methods and procedures are required for the production of such materials, which possess superior properties compared to their conventional counter parts. In this research, the original microstructure of a commercial C45 steel (Fe, 0.42–0.5 wt% C, 0.5–0.8 wt% Mn) was modified from ferritic–pearlitic to bainitic. Warm high pressure torsion for 5 rotations at 6 GPa and 350 °C was used to process the bainitic sample leading to an ultrafine/nano-scale grain size. A unique nano-crystalline microstructure consisting of equiaxed and elongated ferrite grains with a mean size smaller than 150 nm appeared in images taken by Transmission Electron Microscopy. Results of in-situ tensile testing in a scanning electron microscope showed very high tensile strength, on the order of 2100 MPa with a total elongation of 4.5% in comparison with 800 MPa and around 16% in the original state. Fracture occurred abruptly, without any sign of necking, and was typically caused by the stress concentration at a surface flaw. Also, stress concentrations near all surface defects were observed on the sample, visualized by the formation of shear bands. The fracture surface was covered with dimples, indicating ductile fracture. These properties are fully comparable with high strength, high alloyed steels.

  13. In-situ caustic generation from sewage: the impact of caustic strength and sewage composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikaar, Ilje; Rozendal, René A; Rabaey, Korneel; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2013-10-01

    Periodic caustic dosage is a commonly used method by the water industry to elevate pH levels and deactivate sewer biofilms responsible for hydrogen sulfide generation. Caustic (NaOH) can be generated in-situ from sewage using a divided electrochemical cell, which avoids the need for transport, handling and storage of concentrated caustic solutions. In this study, we investigated the impact of caustic strength in the cathode compartment and the impact of sodium concentration in sewage on the Coulombic efficiency (CE) for caustic generation. The CE was found to be independent of the caustic strength produced in the range of up to ~3 wt%. Results showed that a caustic solution of ~3 wt% could be produced directly from sewage at a CE of up to 75 ± 0.5%. The sodium concentration in sewage had a significant impact on the CE for caustic generation as well as on the energy requirements of the system, with a higher sodium concentration leading to a higher CE and lower energy consumption. The proton, calcium, magnesium and ammonium concentrations in sewage affected the CE for caustic generation, especially at low sodium concentrations. Economical assessment based on the experimental results indicated that sulfide control in sewers using electrochemically-generated caustic from sewage is an economically attractive strategy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. In-situ hydrogen in metal determination using a minimum neutron source strength and exposure time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatem, M; Agamy, S; Khalil, M Y

    2013-08-01

    Water is frequently present in the environment and is a source of hydrogen that can interact with many materials. Because of its small atomic size, a hydrogen atom can easily diffuse into a host metal, and though the metal may appear unchanged for a time, the metal will eventually abruptly lose its strength and ductility. Thus, measuring the hydrogen content in metals is important in many fields, such as in the nuclear industry, in automotive and aircraft fabrication, and particularly, in offshore oil and gas fields. It has been demonstrated that the use of nuclear methods to measure the hydrogen content in metals can achieve sensitivity levels on the order of parts per million. However, the use of nuclear methods in the field has not been conducted for two reasons. The first reason is due to exposure limitations. The second reason is due to the hi-tech instruments required for better accuracy. In this work, a new method using a low-strength portable neutron source is explored in conjunction with detectors based on plastic nuclear detection films. The following are the in-situ requirements: simplicity in setup, high reliability, minimal exposure dose, and acceptable accuracy at an acceptable cost. A computer model of the experimental setup is used to reproduce the results of a proof-of-concept experiment and to predict the sensitivity levels under optimised experimental conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. In situ study of microstructure and strength of severely predeformed pure Cu in deformation at 573 K

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blum, W.; Dvořák, Jiří; Král, Petr; Petrenec, M.; Eisenlohr, P.; Sklenička, Václav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 33 (2015), s. 3696-3711 ISSN 1478-6435 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/2260; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : ECAP * dynamic recovery * static recrystallization * dynamic recrystallization * grains * in situ observation * strength * stress relaxation Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 1.632, year: 2015

  16. In Situ Strength Model for Continuous Fibers and Multi-Scale Modeling the Fracture of C/SiC Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng; Gao, Xiguang; Song, Yingdong

    2018-04-01

    A new in situ strength model of carbon fibers was developed based on the distribution of defects to predict the stress-strain response and the strength of C/SiC composites. Different levels of defects in the fibers were considered in this model. The defects in the fibers were classified by their effects on the strength of the fiber. The strength of each defect and the probability that the defect appears were obtained from the tensile test of single fibers. The strength model of carbon fibers was combined with the shear-lag model to predict the stress-strain responses and the strengths of fiber bundles and C/SiC minicomposites. To verify the strength model, tensile tests were performed on fiber bundles and C/SiC minicomposites. The predicted and experimental results were in good agreement. Effects of the fiber length, the fiber number and the heat treatment on the final strengths of fiber bundles and C/SiC minicomposites were also discussed.

  17. In situ oxide dispersion strengthened tungsten alloys with high compressive strength and high strain-to-failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Lin; Jiang, Lin; Topping, Troy D.; Dai, Chen; Wang, Xin; Carpenter, Ryan; Haines, Christopher; Schoenung, Julie M.

    2017-01-01

    In this work a novel process methodology to concurrently improve the compressive strength (2078 MPa at a strain rate of 5 × 10"−"4 s"−"1) and strain-to-failure (over 40%) of bulk tungsten materials has been described. The process involves the in situ formation of intragranular tungsten oxide nanoparticles, facilitated by the application of a pressure of 1 GPa at a low sintering temperature of 1200 °C during spark plasma sintering (SPS). The results show that the application of a high pressure of 1 GPa during SPS significantly accelerates the densification process. Concurrently, the second phase oxide nanoparticles with an average grain size of 108 nm, which are distributed within the interiors of the W grains, simultaneously provide strengthening and plasticity by inhibiting grain growth, and generating, blocking, and storing dislocations. - Graphical abstract: In this work a novel process methodology to concurrently improve the compressive strength (2078 MPa at a strain rate of 5 × 10"−"4 s"−"1) and strain-to-failure (over 40%) of bulk W materials has been described. The process involves the in situ formation of intragranular tungsten oxide nanoparticles, facilitated by the application of a pressure of 1 GPa at a low sintering temperature of 1200 °C during spark plasma sintering (SPS).

  18. Correlation of In Situ Test Data with Shear Strength for Deep Foundation Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-16

    The project addresses drilled shaft foundation design for Nevada, especially for the population center of Las Vegas Valley. Specifically, we address overconservatism due to challenges in characterizing deformability and strength of dense, hard-to-sam...

  19. Residual Strength of Glued-in Bolts After 9 Years In Situ Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Clorius, Christian Odin; Damkilde, Lars

    1996-01-01

    In 1993 one of the wooden blades of the Nibe-B windmill was struck by lightning and subsequently demounted after 9 years of use. The mishap offered a unique opportunity to investigate the residual strength of the 28 glued-in bolts used to form the blade to rotor hub connection.The test method...

  20. On the weld strength of in situ tape placed reinforcements on weave reinforced structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grouve, Wouter Johannes Bernardus; Warnet, Laurent; Rietman, Bert; Akkerman, Remko

    2012-01-01

    Unidirectionally reinforced thermoplastic tapes were welded onto woven fabric reinforced laminates using a laser assisted tape placement process. A mandrel peel setup was used to quantify the interfacial fracture toughness between the tape and the laminate as a measure for weld strength. The tape

  1. Biocementation of Concrete Pavements Using Microbially Induced Calcite Precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jin-Hoon; Jo, Yoon-Soo; Park, Chang-Seon; Kang, Chang-Ho; So, Jae-Seong

    2017-07-28

    In this study, the feasibility of introducing calcite-forming bacteria into concrete pavements to improve their mechanical performance was investigated. Lysinibacillus sphaericus WJ-8, which was isolated in a previous study and is capable of exhibiting high urease activity and calcite production, was used. When analyzed via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction, WJ-8 showed a significant amount of calcite precipitation. The compressive strength of cement mortar mixed with WJ-8 cells and nutrient medium (urea with calcium lactate) increased by 10% compared with that of the controls. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analyses confirmed that the increase in strength was due to the calcite formed by the WJ-8 cells.

  2. In Situ Local Measurement of Austenite Mechanical Stability and Transformation Behavior in Third-Generation Advanced High-Strength Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Farha, Fadi; Hu, Xiaohua; Sun, Xin; Ren, Yang; Hector, Louis G.; Thomas, Grant; Brown, Tyson W.

    2018-05-01

    Austenite mechanical stability, i.e., retained austenite volume fraction (RAVF) variation with strain, and transformation behavior were investigated for two third-generation advanced high-strength steels (3GAHSS) under quasi-static uniaxial tension: a 1200 grade, two-phase medium Mn (10 wt pct) TRIP steel, and a 980 grade, three-phase TRIP steel produced with a quenching and partitioning heat treatment. The medium Mn (10 wt pct) TRIP steel deforms inhomogeneously via propagative instabilities (Lüders and Portevin Le Châtelier-like bands), while the 980 grade TRIP steel deforms homogenously up to necking. The dramatically different deformation behaviors of these steels required the development of a new in situ experimental technique that couples volumetric synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurement of RAVF with surface strain measurement using stereo digital image correlation over the beam impingement area. Measurement results with the new technique are compared to those from a more conventional approach wherein strains are measured over the entire gage region, while RAVF measurement is the same as that in the new technique. A determination is made as to the appropriateness of the different measurement techniques in measuring the transformation behaviors for steels with homogeneous and inhomogeneous deformation behaviors. Extension of the new in situ technique to the measurement of austenite transformation under different deformation modes and to higher strain rates is discussed.

  3. BEM-DDM modelling of rock damage and its implications on rock laboratory strength and in-situ stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Hiroya

    2008-03-01

    Within the framework of JAEA's Research and Development on deep geological environments for assessing the safety and reliability of the disposal technology for nuclear waste, this study was conducted to determine the effects of sample damage on the strength obtained from laboratory results (uniaxial compression and Brazilian test). Results of testing on samples of Toki granite taken at Shobasama and at the construction site for the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) at Mizunami, Gifu Pref., Japan, were analysed. Some spatial variation of the results along the boreholes suggested the presence of a correlation between the laboratory strength and the in-situ stresses measured by means of the hydro-fracturing method. To confirm this, numerical analyses of the drilling process in brittle rock by means of a BEM-DDM program (FRACOD 2D ) were carried out to study the induced fracture patterns. These fracture patterns were compared with similar results reported by other published studies and were found to be realistic. The correlation between strength and in-situ stresses could then be exploited to estimate the stresses and the location of core discing observed in boreholes where stress measurements were not available. A correction of the laboratory strength results was also proposed to take into account sample damage during drilling. Modelling of Brazilian tests shows that the calculated fracture patterns determine the strength of the models. This is different from the common assumption that failure occurs when the uniform tensile stress in the sample reaches the tensile strength of the rock material. Based on the modelling results, new Brazilian tests were carried out on samples from borehole MIZ-1 that confirmed the failure mechanism numerically observed. A numerical study of the fracture patterns induced by removal of the overburden on a large scale produces fracture patterns and stress distributions corresponding to observations in crystalline hard rock in

  4. Influence of chlorhexidine and/or ethanol treatment on bond strength of an etch-and-rinse adhesive to dentin: an in vitro and in situ study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, D M S; Basting, R T; Amaral, F L B; Turssi, C P; França, F M G

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a chlorhexidine and/or ethanol application on the bond strength of an etch-and-rinse, hydrophobic adhesive system either under in vitro aging or in situ cariogenic challenge. The dentin surface of 36 human third molars were flattened and allocated into four groups to be treated with chlorhexidine, ethanol, or chlorhexidine + ethanol or left unexposed to any solution (control) (n=9). Then, a resin composite restoration was made on the dentin surface and longitudinal sticks were obtained. Sticks from each tooth were assigned to three test conditions: stored in water in vitro for 24 hours, stored in water in vitro for 6 months, or worn in situ for 14 days. During in situ wear time, a high-cariogenic challenge condition was simulated. Specimens were tested for microtensile bond strength (μTBS). Multivariate analysis of variance and Tukey's test showed that chlorhexidine, ethanol, or chlorhexidine + ethanol did not affect the μTBS. The in vitro μTBS values were significantly lower for the specimens stored for 6 months than for those stored for 24 hours. Intermediate μTBS values were shown by the specimens worn in situ. Thus, use of chlorhexidine and/or ethanol was incapable of containing the degradation at the bond interface in the in vitro model. The in situ model was capable of reducing bond strength similarly to the in vitro/6 months model. Despite this, the in situ bond strength was still similar to that of the in vitro/24-hour model.

  5. Conventional compressive strength parallel to the grain and mechanical resistance of wood against pin penetration and microdrilling established by in-situ semidestructive devices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kloiber, Michal; Drdácký, Miloš; Tippner, J.; Hrivnák, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 10 (2015), s. 3217-3229 ISSN 1359-5997 R&D Projects: GA MK(CZ) DF11P01OVV001; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219 Keywords : compressive strength * density * in situ testing * non-destructive testing (NDT) * small size loading jack * wood Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage Impact factor: 2.453, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1617/s11527-014-0392-6

  6. On the importance of body posture and skin modelling with respect to in situ electric field strengths in magnetic field exposure scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Gernot; Hirtl, Rene

    2016-06-01

    The reference levels and maximum permissible exposure values for magnetic fields that are currently used have been derived from basic restrictions under the assumption of upright standing body models in a standard posture, i.e. with arms laterally down and without contact with metallic objects. Moreover, if anatomical modelling of the body was used at all, the skin was represented as a single homogeneous tissue layer. In the present paper we addressed the possible impacts of posture and skin modelling in scenarios of exposure to a 50 Hz uniform magnetic field on the in situ electric field strength in peripheral tissues, which must be limited in order to avoid peripheral nerve stimulation. We considered different body postures including situations where body parts form large induction loops (e.g. clasped hands) with skin-to-skin and skin-to-metal contact spots and compared the results obtained with a homogeneous single-layer skin model to results obtained with a more realistic two-layer skin representation consisting of a low-conductivity stratum corneum layer on top of a combined layer for the cellular epidermis and dermis. Our results clearly indicated that postures with loops formed of body parts may lead to substantially higher maximum values of induced in situ electric field strengths than in the case of standard postures due to a highly concentrated current density and in situ electric field strength in the skin-to-skin and skin-to-metal contact regions. With a homogeneous single-layer skin, as is used for even the most recent anatomical body models in exposure assessment, the in situ electric field strength may exceed the basic restrictions in such situations, even when the reference levels and maximum permissible exposure values are not exceeded. However, when using the more realistic two-layer skin model the obtained in situ electric field strengths were substantially lower and no violations of the basic restrictions occurred, which can be explained by the

  7. Strength of shock-loaded single-crystal tantalum [100] determined using in situ broadband x-ray Laue diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comley, A J; Maddox, B R; Rudd, R E; Prisbrey, S T; Hawreliak, J A; Orlikowski, D A; Peterson, S C; Satcher, J H; Elsholz, A J; Park, H-S; Remington, B A; Bazin, N; Foster, J M; Graham, P; Park, N; Rosen, P A; Rothman, S R; Higginbotham, A; Suggit, M; Wark, J S

    2013-03-15

    The strength of shock-loaded single crystal tantalum [100] has been experimentally determined using in situ broadband x-ray Laue diffraction to measure the strain state of the compressed crystal, and elastic constants calculated from first principles. The inferred strength reaches 35 GPa at a shock pressure of 181 GPa and is in excellent agreement with a multiscale strength model [N. R. Barton et al., J. Appl. Phys. 109, 073501 (2011)], which employs a hierarchy of simulation methods over a range of length scales to calculate strength from first principles.

  8. In-situ biogas sparging enhances the performance of an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) with mesh filter in low-strength wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Hu, Yi; Lu, Yong-Ze; Zeng, Raymond J; Sheng, Guo-Ping

    2016-07-01

    In the recent years, anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) technology is being considered as a very attractive alternative for wastewater treatment due to the striking advantages such as upgraded effluent quality. However, fouling control is still a problem for the application of AnMBR. This study investigated the performance of an AnMBR using mesh filter as support material to treat low-strength wastewater via in-situ biogas sparging. It was found that mesh AnMBR exhibited high and stable chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies with values of 95 ± 5 % and an average methane yield of 0.24 L CH4/g CODremoved. Variation of transmembrane pressure (TMP) during operation indicated that mesh fouling was mitigated by in-situ biogas sparging and the fouling rate was comparable to that of aerobic membrane bioreactor with mesh filter reported in previous researches. The fouling layer formed on the mesh exhibited non-uniform structure; the porosity became larger from bottom layer to top layer. Biogas sparging could not change the composition but make thinner thickness of cake layer, which might be benefit for reducing membrane fouling rate. It was also found that ultrasonic cleaning of fouled mesh was able to remove most foulants on the surface or pores. This study demonstrated that in-situ biogas sparging enhanced the performance of AnMBRs with mesh filter in low-strength wastewater treatment. Apparently, AnMBRs with mesh filter can be used as a promising and sustainable technology for wastewater treatment.

  9. In-situ measurement of bending strength of TiC whiskers in the scanning electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seino, Yutaka; Shin, Shoichiro; Nagai, Satoshi [National Research Lab. of Metrology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1995-10-01

    The three-point bending strength of TiC whiskers was measured in a scanning electron microscope. The whisker samples have {approximately} 50 {micro}m length and 2 {approximately} 4 {micro}m diameter and are commercially available as reinforcements. For composite materials. The distribution of the bending strengths of the whiskers showed a double peak around 5.2GPa and 30.4GPa, respectively. The difference in these values is attributed to differences in the cleavage strength of two crystal planes depending on whisker growth direction.

  10. Determination of in-situ strength on selected bridge element concrete girder and slab of Nagtahan bridge using rebound hammer test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uy, Bernadette Betsy B.; Banaga, Renato T.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the extent of the damage due to fire on the affected areas of the bridge structure. The need to assess the damage of the Nagtahan Bridge is very useful to provide appropriate measures in the repair or in the reinforcement of the bridge, hence will ensure its strength and integrity. The study included two (2) spans of the bridge deck/slab with specific locations of the bridge that were subjected for testing. The Rebound Hammer was used as a preliminary test in evaluating the bridge condition. Its capability is to assess the in-place uniformity of concrete, to delineate regions in a structure of poor quality or deteriorated concrete, and to estimate the in-place strength; and ultimately, for relative comparison between the different structures of the bridge. With the use of the NDT Rebound Hammer Test, the researchers were able to determine whether or not the in-situ strength of the bridge's concrete has been weakened due to fire. The DPW-Standard Specification is the government acceptable manual, containing the acceptance criteria, used as the basis for standard construction procedures in the department.(author)

  11. A Small Area In-Situ MEMS Test Structure to Accurately Measure Fracture Strength by Electrostatic Probing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitsie, Fernando; Jensen, Brian D.; de Boer, Maarten

    1999-07-15

    We have designed, fabricated, tested and modeled a first generation small area test structure for MEMS fracture studies by electrostatic rather than mechanical probing. Because of its small area, this device has potential applications as a lot monitor of strength or fatigue of the MEMS structural material. By matching deflection versus applied voltage data to a 3-D model of the test structure, we develop high confidence that the local stresses achieved in the gage section are greater than 1 GPa. Brittle failure of the polycrystalline silicon was observed.

  12. Rational design of a high-strength bone scaffold platform based on in situ hybridization of bacterial cellulose/nano-hydroxyapatite framework and silk fibroin reinforcing phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Pei; Ran, Jiabing; Yan, Pan; Zheng, Lingyue; Shen, Xinyu; Tong, Hua

    2018-02-01

    Bacterial cellulose/hydroxyapatite (BC/HAp) composite had favourable bioaffinity but its poor mechanical strength limited its widespread applications in bone tissue engineering (BTE). Silk fibroin, which possesses special crystalline structure, has been widely used as organic reinforcing material, and different SFs have different amino acid sequences, which exhibit different bioaffinity and mechanical properties. In this regard, bacterial cellulose-Antheraea yamamai silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite (BC-AYSF/HAp), bacterial cellulose-Bombyx mori silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite (BC-BMSF/HAp), and BC/HAp nano-composites were synthesized via a novel in situ hybridization method. Compared with BC/HAp and BC-BMSF/HAp, the BC-AYSF/HAp exhibited better interpenetration, which may benefit for the transportation of nutrients and wastes, the adhesion of cells as well. Additionally, the BC-AYSF/HAp also presented superior thermal stability than the other two composites revealed by differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Compression testing indicated that the mechanical strength of BC-BMSF/HAp was greatly reinforced compared with BC/HAp and was even a little higher than that of BC-AYSF/HAp. Tensile testing showed that BC-AYSF/HAp possesses extraordinary mechanical properties with a higher elastic modulus at low strain and higher fracture strength simultaneously than the other two composites. In vitro cell culture exhibited that MC3T3-E1 cells on the BC-AYSF/HAp membrane took on higher proliferative potential than those on the BC-BMSF/HAp membrane. These results suggested that compared with BC-BMSF/HAp, the BC-AYSF/HAp composite was more appropriate as an ideal bone scaffold platform or biomedical membrane to be used in BTE.

  13. In Situ Generation of Cellulose Nanocrystals in Polycaprolactone Nanofibers: Effects on Crystallinity, Mechanical Strength, Biocompatibility, and Biomimetic Mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Mahesh Kumar; Tiwari, Arjun Prasad; Pant, Hem Raj; Shrestha, Bishnu Kumar; Kim, Han Joo; Park, Chan Hee; Kim, Cheol Sang

    2015-09-09

    Post-electrospinning treatment is a facile process to improve the properties of electrospun nanofibers for various applications. This technique is commonly used when direct electrospinning is not a suitable option to fabricate a nonwoven membrane of the desired polymer in a preferred morphology. In this study, a representative natural-synthetic hybrid of cellulose acetate (CA) and polycaprolactone (PCL) in different ratios was fabricated using an electrospinning process, and CA in the hybrid fiber was transformed into cellulose (CL) by post-electrospinning treatment via alkaline saponification. Scanning electron microscopy was employed to study the effects of polymer composition and subsequent saponification on the morphology of the nanofibers. Increasing the PCL content in the PCL/CA blend solution caused a gradual decrease in viscosity, resulting in smoother and more uniform fibers. The saponification of fibers lead to pronounced changes in the physicochemical properties. The crystallinity of the PCL in the composite fiber was varied according to the composition of the component polymers. The water contact angle was considerably decreased (from 124° to less than 20°), and the mechanical properties were greatly enhanced (Young's Modulus was improved by ≈20-30 fold, tensile strength by 3-4 fold, and tensile stress by ≈2-4 fold) compared to those of PCL and PCL/CA membranes. Regeneration of cellulose chains in the nanofibers increased the number of hydroxyl groups, which increased the hydrogen bonding, thereby improving the mechanical properties and wettability of the composite nanofibers. The improved wettability and presence of surface functional groups enhanced the ability to nucleate bioactive calcium phosphate crystals throughout the matrix when exposed to a simulated body fluid solution. Experimental results of cell viability assay, confocal microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy imaging showed that the fabricated nanofibrous membranes have

  14. Effects of temperature and loading speed on interface-dominated strength in fibre/polymer composites: An evaluation for in-situ environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethi, Sanghamitra; Rathore, Dinesh Kumar; Ray, Bankim Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Some microcracks turn to potential cracks at low loading rates and cause significant reduction in interlaminar shear strength of the composite system while as the loading rate increases the time available to propagate the microcracks is less. This can be attributed to higher ILSS at higher loading rates at these above-ambient temperatures. - Highlights: • Effect of temperature and loading rate has been studied. • Three different types of fibres are used for fabrication. • Flexural and fractography behaviour were studied. • T g was affected by types of fibre and matrix used. - Abstract: The present investigation intends to study the influence of crosshead velocity and in-situ environmental conditioning i.e. high temperature and cryogenic temperature on micromechanical performance of glass fibre/epoxy, carbon fibre/epoxy and Kevlar fibre/epoxy polymer composites. 3-point short beam shear tests were conducted on the conditioned specimens to evaluate the interfacial properties and failure modes which are related to mechanical properties of the composites. The effect of crosshead velocity (within the range 1-10 3 mm/min) on the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) of all the three composite systems at different temperatures was studied. The glass transition temperature (T g ) of conditioned samples were measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in the temperature range of 25 °C to 150 °C temperature. At 1 mm/min loading rate, for both glass/epoxy and carbon/epoxy composites maximum increase in ILSS value was about 85.72% with respect to ambient, while for Kevlar/epoxy composite 31.77% reduction in ILSS was observed at -100 °C temperature

  15. An in situ evaluation of the polymerization shrinkage, degree of conversion, and bond strength of resin cements used for luting fiber posts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido, Camilo Andrés; de Oliveira Franco, Ana Paula Gebert; Gomes, Giovana Mongruel; Bittencourt, Bruna Fortes; Kalinowski, Hypolito José; Gomes, João Carlos; Gomes, Osnara Maria Mongruel

    2016-10-01

    The behavior and magnitude of the deformations that occur during polymerization and the behavior of the luting agents of glass fiber posts inside the root canal require quantification. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the in situ polymerization shrinkage, degree of conversion, and bond strength inside the root canal of resin cements used to lute fiber posts. Thirty maxillary canines were prepared to lute fiber posts. The teeth were randomly divided into 2 groups (n=15) according to the cementation system used, which included ARC, the conventional dual-polymerized resin cement RelyX ARC, and the U200 system, a self-adhesive resin cement, RelyX U200. Two fiber optic sensors with recorded Bragg gratings (FBG) were attached to each post before inserting the resin cement inside the root canal to measure the polymerization shrinkage (PS) of the cements in the cervical and apical root regions (με). Specimens were sectioned (into cervical and apical regions) to evaluate bond strength (BS) with a push-out test and degree of conversion (DC) with micro-Raman spectroscopy. Data were statistically analyzed with 2-way ANOVA and the Tukey honestly significant difference post hoc test (α=.05). The ARC and U200 system showed similar PS values (-276.4 ±129.2 με and -252.1 ±119.2 με, respectively). DC values from ARC were higher (87.5 ±2.7%) than those of U200 (55.9 ±9.7%). The cervical region showed higher DC values (74.8 ±15.2%) and PS values (-381.6 ±53.0 με) than those of the apical region (68.5 ±20.1% and -146.9 ±43.5 με, respectively) for both of the resin cements. BS was only statistically different between the cervical and apical regions for ARC (P<.05). The ARC system showed the highest PS and DC values compared with U200; and for both of the resin cements, the PS and DC values were higher at the cervical region than at the apical region of the canal root. BS was higher in the cervical region only for ARC. Copyright © 2016

  16. GSNOR Deficiency Enhances In Situ Skeletal Muscle Strength, Fatigue Resistance, and RyR1 S-Nitrosylation Without Impacting Mitochondrial Content and Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Younghye; Cao, Yenong; Zhu, Jingjing; Xu, Yuanyuan; Balkan, Wayne; Buys, Emmanuel S.; Diaz, Francisca; Kerrick, W. Glenn; Hare, Joshua M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Aim: Nitric oxide (NO) plays important, but incompletely defined roles in skeletal muscle. NO exerts its regulatory effects partly though S-nitrosylation, which is balanced by denitrosylation by enzymes such as S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR), whose functions in skeletal muscle remain to be fully deciphered. Results: GSNOR null (GSNOR−/−) tibialis anterior (TA) muscles showed normal growth and were stronger and more fatigue resistant than controls in situ. However, GSNOR−/− lumbrical muscles showed normal contractility and Ca2+ handling in vitro, suggesting important differences in GSNOR function between muscles or between in vitro and in situ environments. GSNOR−/− TA muscles exhibited normal mitochondrial content, and capillary densities, but reduced type IIA fiber content. GSNOR inhibition did not impact mitochondrial respiratory complex I, III, or IV activities. These findings argue that enhanced GSNOR−/− TA contractility is not driven by changes in mitochondrial content or activity, fiber type, or blood vessel density. However, loss of GSNOR led to RyR1 hypernitrosylation, which is believed to increase muscle force output under physiological conditions. cGMP synthesis by soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) was decreased in resting GSNOR−/− muscle and was more responsive to agonist (DETANO, BAY 41, and BAY 58) stimulation, suggesting that GSNOR modulates cGMP production in skeletal muscle. Innovation: GSNOR may act as a “brake” on skeletal muscle contractile performance under physiological conditions by modulating nitrosylation/denitrosylation balance. Conclusions: GSNOR may play important roles in skeletal muscle contractility, RyR1 S-nitrosylation, fiber type specification, and sGC activity. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 26, 165–181. PMID:27412893

  17. In-Situ Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Anders Thais; Slot, Susanne; Paltved, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    , and organisational characteristic. Therefore, it might fail to fully mimic real clinical team processes. Though research on in situ simulation in healthcare is in its infancy, literature is abundant on patient safety and team training1. Patient safety reporting systems that identify risks to patients can improve......Introduction: In situ simulation offers on-site training to healthcare professionals. It refers to a training strategy where simulation technology is integrated into the clinical encounter. Training in the simulation laboratory does not easily tap into situational resources, e.g. individual, team...... patient safety if coupled with training and organisational support. This study explored the use of critical incidents and adverse events reports for in situ simulation and short-term observations were used to create learning objectives and training scenarios. Method: This study used an interventional case...

  18. In situ groundwater bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, Terry C.

    2009-02-01

    In situ groundwater bioremediation of hydrocarbons has been used for more than 40 years. Most strategies involve biostimulation; however, recently bioaugmentation have been used for dehalorespiration. Aquifer and contaminant profiles are critical to determining the feasibility and strategy for in situ groundwater bioremediation. Hydraulic conductivity and redox conditions, including concentrations of terminal electron acceptors are critical to determine the feasibility and strategy for potential bioremediation applications. Conceptual models followed by characterization and subsequent numerical models are critical for efficient and cost effective bioremediation. Critical research needs in this area include better modeling and integration of remediation strategies with natural attenuation.

  19. Sex in situ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøgholt, Ida

    2017-01-01

    Sex er en del af vores sociale praksis og centralt for det, vi hver især er. Men bortset fra pornoindustrien, har vi ikke mange muligheder for at få adgang til billeder af sex. Teater Nordkrafts forestilling Sex in situ vil gøre seksuelle billeder til noget, der kan deles, udveksles og tales om, og...

  20. In situ reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Corey William; Blackwelder, David Bradley

    2004-01-27

    An in situ reactor for use in a geological strata, is described and which includes a liner defining a centrally disposed passageway and which is placed in a borehole formed in the geological strata; and a sampling conduit is received within the passageway defined by the liner and which receives a geological specimen which is derived from the geological strata, and wherein the sampling conduit is in fluid communication with the passageway defined by the liner.

  1. In situ health monitoring of piezoelectric sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Scott L. (Inventor); Drouant, George J. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An in situ health monitoring apparatus may include an exciter circuit that applies a pulse to a piezoelectric transducer and a data processing system that determines the piezoelectric transducer's dynamic response to the first pulse. The dynamic response can be used to evaluate the operating range, health, and as-mounted resonance frequency of the transducer, as well as the strength of a coupling between the transducer and a structure and the health of the structure.

  2. Malignant mesothelioma in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churg, Andrew; Hwang, Harry; Tan, Larry; Qing, Gefei; Taher, Altaf; Tong, Amy; Bilawich, Ana M; Dacic, Sanja

    2018-05-01

    The existence of malignant mesothelioma in situ (MIS) is often postulated, but there are no accepted morphological criteria for making such a diagnosis. Here we report two cases that appear to be true MIS on the basis of in-situ genomic analysis. In one case the patient had repeated unexplained pleural unilateral effusions. Two thoracoscopies 9 months apart revealed only visually normal pleura. Biopsies from both thoracoscopies showed only a single layer of mildly reactive mesothelial cells. However, these cells had lost BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP1) and showed loss of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2 (CDKN2A) (p16) by fluorescence in-situ hybridisation (FISH). NF2 was not deleted by FISH but 28% of the mesothelial cells showed hyperploidy. Six months after the second biopsy the patient has persisting effusions but no evidence of pleural malignancy on imaging. The second patient presented with ascites and minimal omental thickening on imaging, but no visual evidence of tumour at laparoscopy. Omental biopsy showed a single layer of minimally atypical mesothelial cells with rare tiny foci of superficial invasion of fat. BAP1 immunostain showed loss of nuclear BAP1 in all the surface mesothelial cells and the invasive cells. There was CDKN2A deletion, but no deletion of NF2 by FISH. These cases show that morphologically bland single-layered surface mesothelial proliferations with molecular alterations seen previously only in invasive malignant mesotheliomas exist, and presumably represent malignant MIS. More cases are need to understand the frequency of such changes and the time-course over which invasive tumour develops. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. In situ breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, Luis

    2004-01-01

    In situ breast cancer, particularly the ductal type, is increasing in frequency in the developed countries as well as in Ecuador, most probably. These lesions carry a higher risk of developing a subsequent invasive cancer. Treatment has changed recently due to results of randomized studies, from classical mastectomy to conservative surgery associated to radiotherapy. The Van Nuys Prognostic Index is currently the most usual instrument to guide diagnosis and treatment. Tamoxifen seems to decrease significantly the risk of tumor recurrence after initial treatment. (The author)

  4. In situ zymography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sarah J; Johnson, Jason L

    2010-01-01

    In situ zymography is a unique laboratory technique that enables the localisation of matrix-degrading metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in histological sections. Frozen sections are placed on glass slides coated with fluorescently labelled matrix proteins. After incubation MMP activity can be observed as black holes in the fluorescent background due to proteolysis of the matrix protein. Alternatively frozen sections can be incubated with matrix proteins conjugated to quenched fluorescein. Proteolysis of the substrate by MMPs leads to the release of fluorescence. This technique can be combined with immunohistochemistry to enable co-location of proteins such as cell type markers or other proteins of interest. Additionally, this technique can be adapted for use with cell cultures, permitting precise location of MMP activity within cells, time-lapse analysis of MMP activity and analysis of MMP activity in migrating cells.

  5. Modeling in situ vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mecham, D.C.; MacKinnon, R.J.; Murray, P.E.; Johnson, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    In Situ Vitrification (ISV) process is being assessed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to determine its applicability to transuranic and mixed wastes buried at INEL'S Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). This process uses electrical resistance heating to melt waste and contaminated soil in place to produce a durable glasslike material that encapsulates and immobilizes buried wastes. This paper outlines the requirements for the model being developed at the INEL which will provide analytical support for the ISV technology assessment program. The model includes representations of the electric potential field, thermal transport with melting, gas and particulate release, vapor migration, off-gas combustion and process chemistry. The modeling objectives are to help determine the safety of the process by assessing the air and surrounding soil radionuclides and chemical pollution hazards, the nuclear criticality hazard, and the explosion and fire hazards, help determine the suitability of the ISV process for stabilizing the buried wastes involved, and help design laboratory and field tests and interpret results. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  6. In-situ uranium leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dotson, B.J.

    1986-01-01

    This invention provides a method for improving the recovery of mineral values from ore bodies subjected to in-situ leaching by controlling the flow behaviour of the leaching solution. In particular, the invention relates to an in-situ leaching operation employing a foam for mobility control of the leaching solution. A foam bank is either introduced into the ore bed or developed in-situ in the ore bed. The foam then becomes a diverting agent forcing the leaching fluid through the previously non-contacted regions of the deposit

  7. In situ leaching of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, B.

    1980-01-01

    A process is described for the in-situ leaching of uranium-containing ores employing an acidic leach liquor containing peroxymonosulphuric acid. Preferably, additionally, sulphuric acid is present in the leach liquor. (author)

  8. In Situ TEM Electrical Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canepa, Silvia; Alam, Sardar Bilal; Ngo, Duc-The

    2016-01-01

    understanding of complex physical and chemical interactions in the pursuit to optimize nanostructure function and device performance. Recent developments of sample holder technology for TEM have enabled a new field of research in the study of functional nanomaterials and devices via electrical stimulation...... influence the sample by external stimuli, e.g. through electrical connections, the TEM becomes a powerful laboratory for performing quantitative real time in situ experiments. Such TEM setups enable the characterization of nanostructures and nanodevices under working conditions, thereby providing a deeper...... and measurement of the specimen. Recognizing the benefits of electrical measurements for in situ TEM, many research groups have focused their effort in this field and some of these methods have transferred to ETEM. This chapter will describe recent advances in the in situ TEM investigation of nanostructured...

  9. Triplex in-situ hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresco, Jacques R.; Johnson, Marion D.

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed are methods for detecting in situ the presence of a target sequence in a substantially double-stranded nucleic acid segment, which comprises: a) contacting in situ under conditions suitable for hybridization a substantially double-stranded nucleic acid segment with a detectable third strand, said third strand being capable of hybridizing to at least a portion of the target sequence to form a triple-stranded structure, if said target sequence is present; and b) detecting whether hybridization between the third strand and the target sequence has occured.

  10. Cryogenic in situ microcompression testing of Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupinacci, A.; Kacher, J.; Eilenberg, A.; Shapiro, A.A.; Hosemann, P.; Minor, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing plasticity mechanisms below the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature is traditionally difficult to accomplish in a systematic fashion. Here, we use a new experimental setup to perform in situ cryogenic mechanical testing of pure Sn micropillars at room temperature and at −142 °C. Subsequent electron microscopy characterization of the micropillars shows a clear difference in the deformation mechanisms at room temperature and at cryogenic temperatures. At room temperature, the Sn micropillars deformed through dislocation plasticity, while at −142 °C they exhibited both higher strength and deformation twinning. Two different orientations were tested, a symmetric (1 0 0) orientation and a non-symmetric (4 5 ¯ 1) orientation. The deformation mechanisms were found to be the same for both orientations

  11. In situ solution mining technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Learmont, R.P.

    1978-01-01

    A method of in situ solution mining is disclosed in which a primary leaching process employing an array of 5-spot leaching patterns of production and injection wells is converted to a different pattern by converting to injection wells all the production wells in alternate rows

  12. 'In situ' expanded graphite extinguishant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Qixin; Shou Yuemei; He Bangrong

    1987-01-01

    This report is concerning the development of the extinguishant for sodium fire and the investigation of its extinguishing property. The experiment result shows that 'in situ' expanded graphite developed by the authors is a kind of extinguishant which extinguishes sodium fire quickly and effectively and has no environment pollution during use and the amount of usage is little

  13. In Situ Cardiovascular Tissue Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talacua, H

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, the feasibility of in situ TE for vascular and valvular purposes were tested with the use of different materials, and animal models. First, the feasibility of a decellularized biological scaffold (pSIS-ECM) as pulmonary heart valve prosthesis is examined in sheep (Chapter 2). Next,

  14. In situ reverse transcription: the magic of strength and anonymity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ligasová, Anna; Koberna, Karel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 16 (2010), e167-e178 ISSN 0305-1048 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/09/0973; GA AV ČR KJB500390701; GA AV ČR KAN200520801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : nucleic acids * DNA-RNA Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 7.836, year: 2010

  15. In situ NiTi/Nb(Ti) composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Daqiang; Cui, Lishan; Jiang, Jiang; Zheng, Yanjun

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • In situ NiTi/Nb(Ti) composites were fabricated. • The transformation temperature was affected by the mixing Ti:Ni atomic ratios. • The NiTi component became micron-scale lamella after forging and rolling. • The composite exhibited high strength and high damping capacity. - Abstract: This paper reports on the creation of a series of in situ NiTi/Nb(Ti) composites with controllable transformation temperatures based on the pseudo-binary hypereutectic transformation of NiTi–Nb system. The composite constituent morphology was controlled by forging and rolling. It is found that the thickness of the NiTi lamella in the composite reached micron level after the hot-forging and cold-rolling. The NiTi/Nb(Ti) composite exhibited high damping capacity as well as high yield strength

  16. Polyolefin nanocomposites in situ polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galland, Griselda Barrera; Fim, Fabiana de C.; Milani, Marceo A.; Silva, Silene P. da; Forest, Tadeu; Radaelli, Gislaine, E-mail: griselda.barrera@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande de Sul - UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Basso, Nara R.S. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Quijada, Raul [Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2011-07-01

    Polyethylene and polypropylene nanocomposites using grapheme nanosheets and treated chrysotile have been synthesized by in situ polymerization using metallocene catalysts. The fillers have been submitted to acid, thermal and/ou ultrasound treatments before to introduce them into the polymerization reactor. A complete characterization of the fillers has been done. The nanocomposites have been characterized by SEM, TEM, DRX and AFM. The thermal, mechanic -dynamic, mechanical and electrical properties of the nanocomposites are discussed. (author)

  17. Polyolefin nanocomposites in situ polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galland, Griselda Barrera; Fim, Fabiana de C.; Milani, Marceo A.; Silva, Silene P. da; Forest, Tadeu; Radaelli, Gislaine; Basso, Nara R.S.; Quijada, Raul

    2011-01-01

    Polyethylene and polypropylene nanocomposites using grapheme nanosheets and treated chrysotile have been synthesized by in situ polymerization using metallocene catalysts. The fillers have been submitted to acid, thermal and/ou ultrasound treatments before to introduce them into the polymerization reactor. A complete characterization of the fillers has been done. The nanocomposites have been characterized by SEM, TEM, DRX and AFM. The thermal, mechanic -dynamic, mechanical and electrical properties of the nanocomposites are discussed. (author)

  18. Restoration of uranium in-situ leaching sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, A.D.; Silberberg, I.H.; Walsh, M.P.; Breland, W.M.; Humenick, M.J.; Schechter, R.S.

    1980-01-01

    Ammonium ions introduced into the formation during in-situ uranium leach mining must be removed by a restoration process. Ion exchange processes to strip sorbed ammonium cation from the clays have been modeled and studied experimentally. It is concluded that ammonium removal can be accomplished best by a high-ionic-strength flush. The migration of uncovered ammonium cation in groundwater also is studied. 19 refs

  19. Noise canceling in-situ detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, David O.

    2014-08-26

    Technologies applicable to noise canceling in-situ NMR detection and imaging are disclosed. An example noise canceling in-situ NMR detection apparatus may comprise one or more of a static magnetic field generator, an alternating magnetic field generator, an in-situ NMR detection device, an auxiliary noise detection device, and a computer.

  20. Extreme Spectroscopy: In situ nuclear materials behavior from optical data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimbretiere, G.; Canizares, A.; Raimboux, N.; Omnee, R.; Duval, F.; Ammar, M.R.; Simon, P. [CNRS - UPR3079 CEMHTI, Universite d' Orleans, 45071Orleans cedex 2 (France); Desgranges, L.; Mohun, R. [CEA, DEN, DEC, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Jegou, C.; Magnin, M. [CEA/DTCD/SECM/LMPA, Marcoule 30207 Bagnols Sur Ceze (France); Clavier, N.; Dacheux, N. [ICSM-UMR5257 CEA/CNRS/UM2/ENSCM, Marcoule, BP17171, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France)

    2015-07-01

    In the nuclear industry, materials are regularly exposed to high temperature or/and irradiation and a better knowledge and understanding of their behavior under such extreme conditions is a key-point for improvements and further developments. Nowadays, Raman spectroscopy begins to be well known as a promising technique in the post mortem and remote characterization of nuclear materials exposed to extreme conditions. On this topic, at ANIMMA 2013 conference, we have presented some results about its implementation in the study of model or real nuclear fuel. However, the strength of Raman spectroscopy as in situ characterization tool is mainly its ability to be implemented remotely through optical fibers. Aware of this, implementation of other optical techniques can be considered in order to gain information not only on the structural dynamics of materials but also on the electronic charge carrier populations. In this paper, we propose to present our last advances in Raman characterization of nuclear materials and enlarge to the in situ use of complementary optical spectroscopies. Emphasis will be made on the information that can be gained to the behavior of the model fuel depleted UO{sub 2} under extreme conditions of high temperature and ionic irradiation: - In Situ Raman identification of the radiolysis alteration products of UO{sub 2} in contact with water under ionic irradiation. - In Situ Raman recording of the damaged dynamic of UO{sub 2} under inert atmosphere. - In Situ Raman and photo-luminescence study of virgin and damaged UO2 at high temperature. - In Situ study of electronic charge carriers' behavior in U{sub x}Th{sub 1-x}O{sub 2} solid solutions by mean of Iono- and Thermo- luminescence under and post- ionic irradiation. (authors)

  1. Nuclear waste management by in-situ melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelo, J.A. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A systematic assessment of the in-situ melting concept as an ultimate waste disposal option shows that the placement of solidifed, high-level radioactive wastes in an in-situ melting cavity with a crushed rock backfill not only eliminates the major deficiencies inherent in other in-situ melting schemes, but also satisfies reasonable criteria for ultimate disposal. In-situ melting reduces the waste isolation time requirements to several hundred years. Calculated spent fuel and processing waste afterheat values assess the role of actinide and cladding material nuclides in creating the total afterheat and provide quantitative variation with time for these values for contamporary and advanced-design fission reactors. The dominant roles of 134 Cs in thermal spectrum reactor afterheats during the first decade of cooling of the actinide nuclides in all typical waste after-heats following a century or two of cooling are identified. The spatial and temporal behavior of a spherically symmetric waste repository experiencing in-situ melting in an equal density, homogeneous medium for silicate rock and salt is controlled primarily by the overall volumetric thermal source strength, the time-dependent characteristics of the high-level wastes, and the thermophysical properties of the surrounding rock environment. Calculations were verified by experimental data. The hazard index for typical high-level wastes is dominated by the fission product nuclides for the first three centuries of decay. It is then controlled by the actinides, especially americium, which dominates for 10,000 years. With in-situ melting, the hazard index for the re-solidifed rock/waste matrix deepunderground falls below the hazard index of naturally occurring uranium ore bodies within a few hundred years, whether or not the more hazardous actinide nuclides are selectively removed from the wastes prior to storage

  2. In situ measurement of diffusivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berne, F.; Pocachard, J.

    2004-01-01

    The mechanism of molecular diffusion controls the migration of contaminants in very low-permeability porous media, like underground facilities for the storage of hazardous waste. Determining of relevant diffusion coefficients is therefore of prime importance. A few techniques exist for in situ measurement of the quantity, but they suffer from many handicaps (duration, complexity and cost of the experiments). We propose here two innovative methods that have some potential to improve the situation. So far, we have found them feasible on the basis of design calculations and laboratory experiments. This work is presently protected by a patent. (author)

  3. In situ measurement of diffusivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berne, Ph.; Pocachard, J.

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism of molecular diffusion controls the migration of contaminants in very low-permeability porous media, like underground facilities for the storage of hazardous waste. Determining the relevant diffusion coefficients is, therefore, of prime importance. A few techniques exist for the in situ measurement of that quantity, but they suffer from many handicaps (duration, complexity and cost of the experiments). We propose here two innovative methods that have some potential to improve this situation. So far, we have found them feasible on the basis of design calculations and laboratory experiments. This work is presently protected by a patent. (author)

  4. In situ dehydration of yugawaralite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artioli, G.; Ståhl, Kenny; Cruciani, G.

    2001-01-01

    The structural response of the natural zeolite yugawaralite (CaAl2Si6O16. 4H(2)O) upon thermally induced dehydration has been studied by Rietveld analysis of temperature-resolved powder diffraction data collected in situ in the temperature range 315-791 K using synchrotron radiation. The room...... progressively disappearing as the dehydration proceeds. The yugawaralite structure reacts to the release of water molecules with small changes in the Ca-O bond distances and minor distortions of the tetrahedral framework up to about 695 K. Above this temperature the Ca coordination falls below 7 (four framework...

  5. Fabrication of in-situ grown graphene reinforced Cu matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yakun; Zhang, Xiang; Liu, Enzuo; He, Chunnian; Shi, Chunsheng; Li, Jiajun; Nash, Philip; Zhao, Naiqin

    2016-01-01

    Graphene/Cu composites were fabricated through a graphene in-situ grown approach, which involved ball-milling of Cu powders with PMMA as solid carbon source, in-situ growth of graphene on flaky Cu powders and vacuum hot-press sintering. SEM and TEM characterization results indicated that graphene in-situ grown on Cu powders guaranteed a homogeneous dispersion and a good combination between graphene and Cu matrix, as well as the intact structure of graphene, which was beneficial to its strengthening effect. The yield strength of 244 MPa and tensile strength of 274 MPa were achieved in the composite with 0.95 wt.% graphene, which were separately 177% and 27.4% enhancement over pure Cu. Strengthening effect of in-situ grown graphene in the matrix was contributed to load transfer and dislocation strengthening. PMID:26763313

  6. Assessing soundscape: Comparison between in situ and laboratory methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermida Cadena Luis Fernando

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of soundscape implies an interdisciplinary approach, where objective and subjective aspects are considered. For the subjective evaluation, in situ and laboratory methodologies are usually followed. Local observations allow the collection of information on the influence of different stimuli present in the environment, whereas laboratory tests present a determined quantity of controlled stimuli to the evaluator. The purpose of this work is to compare results from the different methodologies in order to understand their strengths and their weaknesses. Three urban parks in the city of Lisbon, Portugal, were evaluated. Fragments of binaural sound recordings collected in the parks were used in laboratory tests to compare with the responses in situ and of expert and nonexpert listeners. Statistically significant differences were found in several of the perceptual attributes under observation, which led to variation in the results of the main model’s components. The sound environments were found to be more pleasant and uneventful in situ than in the laboratory, a phenomenon possibly due to the influence of other stimuli such as visual in the process of assessment. The in situ tests allow a systemic and holistic evaluation of the environment under study,whereas the laboratory tests allow a specific and tightly targeted analysis of different component sound events. Therefore, the two methodologies can be useful in soundscape assessment depending on the specific application and needs. No differences were found in the assessment made by either experts or nonexperts.

  7. Four Models of In Situ Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter; Krogh, Kristian; Paltved, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In situ simulation is characterized by being situated in the clinical environment as opposed to the simulation laboratory. But in situ simulation bears a family resemblance to other types of on the job training. We explore a typology of in situ simulation and suggest that there are f......Introduction In situ simulation is characterized by being situated in the clinical environment as opposed to the simulation laboratory. But in situ simulation bears a family resemblance to other types of on the job training. We explore a typology of in situ simulation and suggest...... that there are four fruitful approaches to in situ simulation: (1) In situ simulation informed by reported critical incidents and adverse events from emergency departments (ED) in which team training is about to be conducted to write scenarios. (2) In situ simulation through ethnographic studies at the ED. (3) Using...... the following processes: Transition processes, Action processes and Interpersonal processes. Design and purpose This abstract suggests four approaches to in situ simulation. A pilot study will evaluate the different approaches in two emergency departments in the Central Region of Denmark. Methods The typology...

  8. In situ bypass og diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Leif Panduro; Schroeder, T V; Lorentzen, J E

    1993-01-01

    decreased survival rate was found in diabetics (p useful in the treatment of critical ischaemia of the lower limb in diabetic patients. The overall results in diabetic patients, whether insulin-dependent or not, were equal to those in non-diabetic......From 1986 through to 1990 a total of 483 in situ bypass procedures were performed in 444 patients. Preoperative risk-factors were equally distributed among diabetic (DM) and non-diabetic (NDM) patients, except for smoking habits (DM:48%, NDM:64%, p = 0.002) and cardiac disease (DM:45%, NDM:29%, p...... = 0.005). Critical limb-ischaemia was more often present in diabetic than non-diabetic patients (DM:57%, NDM:36%, p = 0.0002). Diabetic patients had a significantly lower distal anastomosis than non-diabetic patients (p = 0.00001). There were no differences among diabetic and non-diabetic patients...

  9. In situ treatability test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This document describes the plans for the in situ treatment zone (ISTZ) treatability test for groundwater contaminated with strontium-90. The treatability test is to be conducted at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, in a portion of the 100-N Area adjacent to the Columbia River referred to as N-Springs. The purpose of the treatability test is to evaluate the effectiveness of an innovative technology to prevent the discharge of strontium-90 contaminated groundwater into the Columbia River. The ISTZ is a passive technology that consists of placing a treatment agent in the path of the groundwater. The treatment agent must restrict target radioactive contaminants and provide time for the contaminant to decay to acceptable levels. The permeability of the treatment zone must be greater than or equal to that of the surrounding sediments to ensure that the contaminated groundwater flows through the treatment zone agent and not around the agent

  10. DOE In Situ Remediation Integrated Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yow, J.L. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISRP) supports and manages a balanced portfolio of applied research and development activities in support of DOE environmental restoration and waste management needs. ISRP technologies are being developed in four areas: containment, chemical and physical treatment, in situ bioremediation, and in situ manipulation (including electrokinetics). the focus of containment is to provide mechanisms to stop contaminant migration through the subsurface. In situ bioremediation and chemical and physical treatment both aim to destroy or eliminate contaminants in groundwater and soils. In situ manipulation (ISM) provides mechanisms to access contaminants or introduce treatment agents into the soil, and includes other technologies necessary to support the implementation of ISR methods. Descriptions of each major program area are provided to set the technical context of the ISM subprogram. Typical ISM needs for major areas of in situ remediation research and development are identified

  11. In Situ Hybridization Pada Kanker Payudara

    OpenAIRE

    Diah Witari, Ni Putu

    2014-01-01

    Kesulitan yang dijumpai pada penanganan kanker payudara adalah terjadinya kekambuhan atau relaps. Deteksi status HER2 pada pasien merupakan salah satu upaya untuk mendeteksi terjadinya relaps dan juga untuk menentukan jenis terapi yang ada diberikan. Ekspresi protein HER2 dapat dideteksi dengan immunohistochemistry (IHC), sedangkan mutasi gen HER2 dapat dideteksi dengan teknik in situ hybridization baik berupa fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) ataupun chromogenic in situ hy...

  12. Training for teamwork through in situ simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Asta; Poehlman, Jon; Bollenbacher, John; Riggan, Scott; Davis, Stan; Miller, Kristi; Ivester, Thomas; Kahwati, Leila

    2015-01-01

    In situ simulations allow healthcare teams to practice teamwork and communication as well as clinical management skills in a team's usual work setting with typically available resources and equipment. The purpose of this video is to demonstrate how to plan and conduct in situ simulation training sessions, with particular emphasis on how such training can be used to improve communication and teamwork. The video features an in situ simulation conducted at a labour and delivery unit in response to postpartum hemorrhage. PMID:26294962

  13. The SENSEI Generic In Situ Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayachit, Utkarsh [Kitware, Inc., Clifton Park, NY (United States); Whitlock, Brad [Intelligent Light, Rutherford, NJ (United States); Wolf, Matthew [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Loring, Burlen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Geveci, Berk [Kitware, Inc., Clifton Park, NY (United States); Lonie, David [Kitware, Inc., Clifton Park, NY (United States); Bethel, E. Wes [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-04-11

    The SENSEI generic in situ interface is an API that promotes code portability and reusability. From the simulation view, a developer can instrument their code with the SENSEI API and then make make use of any number of in situ infrastructures. From the method view, a developer can write an in situ method using the SENSEI API, then expect it to run in any number of in situ infrastructures, or be invoked directly from a simulation code, with little or no modification. This paper presents the design principles underlying the SENSEI generic interface, along with some simplified coding examples.

  14. PRINS and in situ PCR protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gosden, John R

    1997-01-01

    ... mapping of DNA sequences on chromosomes and location of gene expression followed the invention and refinement of in situ hybridization. Among the most recent technical developments has been the use of oligonucleotide primers to detect and amplify or extend complementary sequences in situ, and it is to this novel field that PRINS and In S...

  15. Technology assessment of in situ uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    The objective of the PNL portion of the Technology Assessment project is to provide a description of the current in situ uranium mining technology; to evaluate, based on available data, the environmental impacts and, in a limited fashion, the health effects; and to explore the impediments to development and deployment of the in situ uranium mining technology

  16. The In Situ Vitrification Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelt, J.L.

    1988-10-01

    The Columbia Section of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) is pleased to submit the In Situ Vitrification (ISV) Project to the Pacific Northwest Council for consideration as the Outstanding Civil Engineering Achievement. The ISV process, developed by Battelle-Northwest researchers beginning in 1980, converts contaminated soils and sludges to a glass and crystalline product. In this way it stabilizes hazardous chemical and radioactive wastes and makes them chemically inert. This report describes the process. A square array of four molybdenum electrodes is inserted into the ground to the desired treatment depth. Because soil is not electrically conductive when the moisture has been driven off, a conductive mixture of flaked graphite and glass frit is placed among the electrodes as a starter path. An electrical potential is applied to the electrodes to establish an electric current in the starter path. The resultant power heats the starter path and surrounding soil to 2000/degree/C, well above the initial soil-melting temperature of 1100/degree/C to 1400/degree/C. The graphite starter path is eventually consumed by oxidation, and the current is transferred to the molten soil, which is electrically conductive. As the molten or vitrified zone grows, it incorporates radionuclides and nonvolatile hazardous elements, such as heavy metals, and destroys organic components by pyrolysis. 2 figs

  17. In situ vitrification: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, L.L.; Fields, D.E.

    1989-11-01

    The in situ vitrification process (ISV) converts contaminated soils and sludges to a glass and crystalline product. The process appears to be ideally suited for on site treatment of both wet and dry wastes. Basically, the system requires four molybdenum electrodes, an electrical power system for vitrifying the soil, a hood to trap gaseous effluents, an off-gas treatment system, an off-gas cooling system, and a process control station. Mounted in three transportable trailers, the ISV process can be moved from site to site. The process has the potential for treating contaminated soils at most 13 m deep. The ISV project has won a number of outstanding achievement awards. The process has also been patented with exclusive worldwide rights being granted to Battelle Memorial Institute for nonradioactive applications. While federal applications still belong to the Department of Energy, Battelle transferred the rights of ISV for non-federal government, chemical hazardous wastes to a separate corporation in 1989 called Geosafe. This report gives a review of the process including current operational behavior and applications

  18. Distillation of shale in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Ganahl, C F

    1922-07-04

    To distill buried shale or other carbon containing compounds in situ, a portion of the shale bed is rendered permeable to gases, and the temperature is raised to the point of distillation. An area in a shale bed is shattered by explosives, so that it is in a relatively finely divided form, and the tunnel is then blocked by a wall, and fuel and air are admitted through pipes until the temperature of the shale is raised to such a point that a portion of the released hydrocarbons will burn. When distillation of the shattered area takes place and the lighter products pass upwardly through uptakes to condensers and scrubbers, liquid oil passes to a tank and gas to a gasometer while heavy unvaporized products in the distillation zone collect in a drain, flow into a sump, and are drawn off through a pipe to a storage tank. In two modifications, methods of working are set out in cases where the shale lies beneath a substantially level surface.

  19. Influence of processing factors over concrete strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, K. A.; Dolzhenko, A. V.; Zharikov, I. S.

    2018-03-01

    Construction of facilities of cast in-situ reinforced concrete poses additional requirements to quality of material, peculiarities of the construction process may sometimes lead to appearance of lamination planes and inhomogeneity of concrete, which reduce strength of the material and structure as a whole. Technology compliance while working with cast in-situ concrete has a significant impact onto the concrete strength. Such process factors as concrete curing, vibration and compaction of the concrete mixture, temperature treatment, etc., when they are countered or inadequately followed lead to a significant reduction in concrete strength. Here, the authors experimentally quantitatively determine the loss of strength in in-situ cast concrete structures due to inadequate following of process requirements, in comparison with full compliance.

  20. In situ fragmentation and rock particle sorting on arid hills

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Gavan S.; Nie, Zhengyao; Dyskin, Arcady; Byrd, Tia; Jenner, Rowan; Holbeche, Georgina; Hinz, Christoph

    2013-03-01

    Transport processes are often proposed to explain the sorting of rock particles on arid hillslopes, where mean rock particle size often decreases in the downslope direction. Here we show that in situ fragmentation of rock particles can also produce similar patterns. A total of 93,414 rock particles were digitized from 880 photographs of the surface of three mesa hills in the Great Sandy Desert, Australia. Rock particles were characterized by the projected Feret's diameter and circularity. Distance from the duricrust cap was found to be a more robust explanatory variable for diameter than the local hillslope gradient. Mean diameter decreased exponentially downslope, while the fractional area covered by rock particles decreased linearly. Rock particle diameters were distributed lognormally, with both the location and scale parameters decreasing approximately linearly downslope. Rock particle circularity distributions showed little change; only a slight shift in the mode to more circular particles was noted to occur downslope. A dynamic fragmentation model was used to assess whether in situ weathering alone could reproduce the observed downslope fining of diameters. Modeled and observed size distributions agreed well and both displayed a preferential loss of relatively large rock particles and an apparent approach to a terminal size distribution of the rocks downslope. We show this is consistent with a size effect in material strength, where large rocks are more susceptible to fatigue failure under stress than smaller rocks. In situ fragmentation therefore produces qualitatively similar patterns to those that would be expected to arise from selective transport.

  1. A novel fabrication technology of in situ TiB2/6063Al composites: High energy ball milling and melt in situ reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, S.-L.; Yang, J.; Zhang, B.-R.; Zhao, Y.-T.; Chen, G.; Shi, X.-X.; Liang, Z.-P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper presents a novel technology to fabricate the TiB 2 /6063Al composites. • The novel technology decreases in situ reaction temperature and shortens the time. • The reaction mechanism of in situ reaction at the low temperature is discussed. • Effect of ball milling time and in situ reaction time on the composites is studied. - Abstract: TiB 2 /6063Al matrix composites are fabricated from Al–TiO 2 –B 2 O 3 system by the technology combining high energy ball milling with melt in situ reaction. The microstructure and tensile properties of the composites are investigated by XRD, SEM, EDS, TEM and electronic tensile testing. The results indicate that high energy ball milling technology decreases the in situ reaction temperature and shortens the reaction time for Al–TiO 2 –B 2 O 3 system in contrast with the conventional melt in situ synthesis. The morphology of in situ TiB 2 particles is exhibited in irregular shape or nearly circular shape, and the average size of the particles is less than 700 nm, thereinto the minimum size is approximately 200 nm. In addition, the morphology and size of the reinforced particles are affected by the time of ball milling and in situ reaction. TEM images indicate that the interface between 6063Al matrix and TiB 2 particles is clear and no interfacial outgrowth is observed. Tensile testing results show that the as-cast TiB 2 /6063Al composites exhibit a much higher strength, reaching 191 MPa, which is 1.23 times as high as the as-cast 6063Al matrix. Besides, the tensile fracture surface of the composites displays the dimple-fracture character

  2. A novel fabrication technology of in situ TiB{sub 2}/6063Al composites: High energy ball milling and melt in situ reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S.-L.; Yang, J. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China); Zhang, B.-R. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan, Shandong 250022 (China); Zhao, Y.-T., E-mail: 278075525@qq.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China); Chen, G.; Shi, X.-X.; Liang, Z.-P. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China)

    2015-08-05

    Highlights: • This paper presents a novel technology to fabricate the TiB{sub 2}/6063Al composites. • The novel technology decreases in situ reaction temperature and shortens the time. • The reaction mechanism of in situ reaction at the low temperature is discussed. • Effect of ball milling time and in situ reaction time on the composites is studied. - Abstract: TiB{sub 2}/6063Al matrix composites are fabricated from Al–TiO{sub 2}–B{sub 2}O{sub 3} system by the technology combining high energy ball milling with melt in situ reaction. The microstructure and tensile properties of the composites are investigated by XRD, SEM, EDS, TEM and electronic tensile testing. The results indicate that high energy ball milling technology decreases the in situ reaction temperature and shortens the reaction time for Al–TiO{sub 2}–B{sub 2}O{sub 3} system in contrast with the conventional melt in situ synthesis. The morphology of in situ TiB{sub 2} particles is exhibited in irregular shape or nearly circular shape, and the average size of the particles is less than 700 nm, thereinto the minimum size is approximately 200 nm. In addition, the morphology and size of the reinforced particles are affected by the time of ball milling and in situ reaction. TEM images indicate that the interface between 6063Al matrix and TiB{sub 2} particles is clear and no interfacial outgrowth is observed. Tensile testing results show that the as-cast TiB{sub 2}/6063Al composites exhibit a much higher strength, reaching 191 MPa, which is 1.23 times as high as the as-cast 6063Al matrix. Besides, the tensile fracture surface of the composites displays the dimple-fracture character.

  3. Transient and steady-state erosion of in-situ reinforced silicon nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasek, K.R. [Allied Signal Research and Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Whalen, P.J. [Allied Signal, Inc., Morristown, NJ (United States); Rateick, R.G. Jr. [Allied Signal Aerospace, South Bend, IN (United States); Hamilton, A.C. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Routbort, J.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-10-01

    Relative to most other materials silicon nitride is very erosion resistant. However, the resulting surface flaws degrade strength - a serious concern for component designers. AlliedSignal Ceramic Components GS-44 in-situ reinforced silicon nitride was eroded in a slinger apparatus. Both transient (extremely low level) and steady-state erosion regimes were investigated. Alumina particles with effective average diameters of 140 Jim and 63 {mu}m were used at velocities of 50 m/s, 100 m/s, and 138 m/s. Biaxial tensile strength was measured. Strength decreased by about 15% after a very small erodent dosage and then remained virtually constant with further erosion. In-situ reinforcement produces R-curve behavior in which the fracture toughness increases with crack size. The effect of this is quite dramatic with strength loss being significantly less than expected for a normal silicon nitride with constant fracture toughness.

  4. [In Situ Polymerization and Characterization of Hydroxyapatite/polyurethane Implanted Material].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Muqing; Xiao, Fengjuan; Liang, Ye; Yue, Lin; Li, Song; Li, Lanlan; Feng, Feifei

    2015-08-01

    In order to improve the interfacial bonding strength of hydroxyapatite/polyurethane implanted material and dispersion of hydroxyapatite in the polyurethane matrix, we in the present study synthesized nano-hydroxyapatite/polyurethane composites by in situ polymerization. We then characterized and analyzed the fracture morphology, thermal stability, glass transition temperature and mechanical properties. We seeded MG63 cells on composites to evaluate the cytocompatibility of the composites. In situ polymerization could improve the interfacial bonding strength, ameliorate dispersion of hydroxyapatite in the properties of the composites. After adding 20 wt% hydroxyapatite into the polyurethane, the thermal stability was improved and the glass transition temperatures were increased. The tensile strength and maximum elongation were 6.83 MPa and 861.17%, respectively. Compared with those of pure polyurethane the tensile strength and maximum elongation increased by 236.45% and 143.30%, respectively. The composites were helpful for cell adhesion and proliferation in cultivation.

  5. Swimbladder on Fish Target Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunardi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses of target strength (TS for the Selar boops (Oxeye scad and Megalaspis cordyla (Torpedo scad, the most commercially fish in Malaysia. TS can be determined from in situ measurements and acoustic calculation of fish model. TS value, depth, and position (x-y-z of targeted fish can be viewed from echogram using FQ-80 Analyzer by in situ measurement. X-ray imaged can be deployed to develop the acoustic fish model. The percentage of length and upper surface area for swimbladder to body fish of Selar boops more than Megalaspis cordyla can be measured after X-ray process. The percentage of width and volume of swimbladders to its each body are no significantly difference for both fish. These data of swimbladder physic support the result of in situ measurement which TS of Megalaspis cordyla stronger Selar boops.

  6. HVEM in situ deformation of Al-Li-X alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crooks, R.E.; Kenik, E.A.; Starke, E.A. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Lithium additions to aluminum alloys increase both the strength and elastic modulus while decreasing the density, thereby resulting in very attractive combinations of properties. The commercial utilization of these alloys, however, has been hindered by a lack of adequate ductility at peak strength. Recent investigations have attributed the low ductility to intense, localized deformation. This is considered to be due to the promotion of planar slip by coherent, shearable, delta' (Al 3 Li) precipitates and the presence of precipitate free zones (PFZ's) at high angle grain boundaries. An Al-Cu-Li-Mg-Zr alloy, produced by rapidly solidified powder processing, was found to exhibit ductility improvements over comparable, lithium-containing alloys. Thin foils prepared from bulk tensile samples were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and no evidence of localized deformation was found. These, however, were only successfully produced from the region of uniform elongation below the neck and were thus limited to approximately 4% plastic strain. In order to observe the deformation behavior under severe strain, an in situ deformation study was conducted in a high voltage electron microscope (HVEM). Several investigators have used in situ HVEM techniques to study ductile fracture processes. The advantages of HVEM versus TEM for this purpose include: thicker specimens (due to a lower energy exchange of the electrons), a lower specimen contamination rate and a negligible increase in specimen temperature. Two lithium-containing alloys which had been previously reported to demonstrate localized, planar slip were studied for comparison

  7. In Situ Mechanical Testing of Nanostructured Bijel Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Martin F; Sharifi-Mood, Nima; Lee, Daeyeon; Stebe, Kathleen J

    2016-06-28

    Bijels are a class of soft materials with potential for application in diverse areas including healthcare, food, energy, and reaction engineering due to their unique structural, mechanical, and transport properties. To realize their potential, means to fabricate, characterize, and manipulate bijel mechanics are needed. We recently developed a method based on solvent transfer-induced phase separation (STRIPS) that enables continuous fabrication of hierarchically structured bijel fibers from a broad array of constituent fluids and nanoparticles using a microfluidic platform. Here, we introduce an in situ technique to characterize bijel fiber mechanics at initial and final stages of the formation process within a microfluidics device. By manipulation of the hydrodynamic stresses applied to the fiber, the fiber is placed under tension until it breaks into segments. Analysis of the stress field allows fracture strength to be inferred; fracture strengths can be as high as several thousand Pa, depending on nanoparticle content. These findings broaden the potential for the use of STRIPS bijels in applications with different mechanical demands. Moreover, our in situ mechanical characterization method could potentially enable determination of properties of other soft fibrous materials made of hydrogels, capillary suspensions, colloidal gels, or high internal phase emulsions.

  8. Cytochrome C Dynamics at Gold and Glassy Carbon Surfaces Monitored by in Situ Scanning Tunnel Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Møller, Per; Pedersen, Marianne Vind

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the absorption of cytochrome c on gold and glassy carbon substrates by in situ scanning tunnel microscopy under potentiostatic control of both substrate and tip. Low ionic strength and potential ranges where no Faradaic current flows were used. Cyt c aggregates into flat...

  9. Development of an in situ fatigue sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    A prototype in situ fatigue sensor has been designed, constructed and evaluated experimentally for its ability to monitor the accumulation of fatigue damage in a cyclically loaded steel structure, e.g., highway bridge. The sensor consists of multiple...

  10. In Situ Aerosol Detector, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is developing new platform systems that have the potential to benefit Earth science research activities, which include in situ instruments for atmospheric...

  11. Past In-Situ Burning Possibilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yoshioka, Gary

    1999-01-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of conducting in-situ burning (ISB) using current technology on post 1967 major oil spills over 10,00 barrels in North America and over 50,00 barrels in South America and Europe...

  12. strength characterization of foundation soils at federal university ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    used to calculate bearing capacity factors for structural footings [1]. One of in situ testing methods is the. Standard Penetration Test (SPT) that is used to identify soil type and stratigraphy along with being a relative measure of strength [2]. In this study, the SPT blow count was used as a parameter for in situ characterization of.

  13. Observatory Magnetometer In-Situ Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Marusenkov

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available An experimental validation of the in-situ calibration procedure, which allows estimating parameters of observatory magnetometers (scale factors, sensor misalignment without its operation interruption, is presented. In order to control the validity of the procedure, the records provided by two magnetometers calibrated independently in a coil system have been processed. The in-situ estimations of the parameters are in very good agreement with the values provided by the coil system calibration.

  14. In-situ characterization of heterogeneous catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Jose A; Chupas, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Helps researchers develop new catalysts for sustainable fuel and chemical production Reviewing the latest developments in the field, this book explores the in-situ characterization of heterogeneous catalysts, enabling readers to take full advantage of the sophisticated techniques used to study heterogeneous catalysts and reaction mechanisms. In using these techniques, readers can learn to improve the selectivity and the performance of catalysts and how to prepare catalysts as efficiently as possible, with minimum waste. In-situ Characterization of Heterogeneous Catalysts feat

  15. Unintended and in situ amorphisation of pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priemel, P A; Grohganz, H; Rades, T

    2016-05-01

    Amorphisation of poorly water-soluble drugs is one approach that can be applied to improve their solubility and thus their bioavailability. Amorphisation is a process that usually requires deliberate external energy input. However, amorphisation can happen both unintentionally, as in process-induced amorphisation during manufacturing, or in situ during dissolution, vaporisation, or lipolysis. The systems in which unintended and in situ amorphisation has been observed normally contain a drug and a carrier. Common carriers include polymers and mesoporous silica particles. However, the precise mechanisms by which in situ amorphisation occurs are often not fully understood. In situ amorphisation can be exploited and performed before administration of the drug or possibly even within the gastrointestinal tract, as can be inferred from in situ amorphisation observed during in vitro lipolysis. The use of in situ amorphisation can thus confer the advantages of the amorphous form, such as higher apparent solubility and faster dissolution rate, without the disadvantage of its physical instability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. In situ electric fields causing electro-stimulation from conductor contact of charged human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, T.; Hirata, A.

    2010-01-01

    Contact currents flow from/into a human body when touching an object such as a metal structure with a different electric potential. These currents can stimulate muscle and peripheral nerves. In this context, computational analyses of in situ electric fields caused by the contact current have been performed, while their effectiveness for transient contact currents has not well been investigated. In the present study, using an anatomically based human model, a dispersive finite-difference time-domain model was utilised to computed transient contact current and in situ electric fields from a charged human. Computed in situ electric fields were highly localised in the hand. In order to obtain an insight into the relationship between in situ electric field and electro-stimulation, cell-maximum and 5-mm averaged in situ electric fields were computed and compared with strength-duration curves. The comparison suggests that both measures could be larger than thresholds derived from the strength- duration curves with parameters used in previous studies. (authors)

  17. In-situ failure test in the research tunnel at Olkiluoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Autio, J.; Johansson, E.; Kirkkomaeki, T. [Saanio and Riekkola Consulting Engineers, Helsinki (Finland); Hakala, M. [Gridpoint Finland Oy (Finland); Heikkilae, E. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Rock Engineering

    2000-05-01

    A failure test suitable for execution in the Research Tunnel at Olkiluoto has been planned to study the failure of rock in-situ. The objectives of the in-situ failure test is to assess the applicability of numerical modelling codes and methods to the study of rock failure and associated crack propagation and to develop a novel technique to be used to determine the strength of rock in-situ. The objective of this study was to make a preliminary design of the failure test, assess the technical feasibility of the test and to give input information for further numerical modelling of the test. The design of the failure test is reported and results of preliminary modelling are given. The input information for future modelling includes a study of rock properties, fracture propagation in rock, in-situ stresses and the development of techniques for using the expanding agent to produce artificial stress field. The study showed that mechanical properties such as strength of gneissic tonalite, the main rock type in the Research Tunnel, depends highly on the orientation of schistocity. The in-situ failure test was shown to be technically feasible and a state of stress high enough to cause failure can be created artificially by using a proper expansive agent and design. (orig.)

  18. Reinforcement of nitrile rubber by in situ formed zinc disorbate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Zinc disorbate (ZDS was in situ formed by the reaction between sorbic acid (SA and zinc oxide (ZnO in nitrile rubber (NBR. The effects of SA amount on the curing characteristics, crosslink density and mechanical properties of peroxide- cured NBR were studied. The results showed that ZDS was generated mainly during the rubber vulcanization, rather than the open mill compounding phase. The results from the crosslink density determinations showed that the formation of ZDS significantly increased the ionic bond content in the vulcanizates. In addition, the formation of ZDS greatly enhanced the mechanical properties of NBR vulcanizates. The modulus, tensile strength, tear strength and hardness were found to be increased with the loading of ZDS. Preheating the compounds before compression moulding was beneficial to the formation of ZDS, and consequently the increases in mechanical properties. At 40 parts per hundred rubber (phr of SA and 16 phr ZnO, five to six folds of tensile strength and tear strength of the neat NBR vulcanizate were achieved. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM results confirmed the nano-dispersion structure of the polymerized ZDS in the NBR matrix.

  19. Shear strength, consolidation and drainage of colliery tailings lagoons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, J M

    1980-01-01

    The shear strength and consolidation characteristics of colliery tailings were related to the structure of the lagoon deposits. First, a theoretical investigation of vane shear tests in layered media is outlined, and then cone penetration tests are considered as an alternative tool for measuring strengths in situ. The geochemistry and sedimentology of colliery lagoons were investigated. The in-situ permeability of lagoons was also investigated and the results used to investigate the drainage characteristics. Finally, overtipping was investigated.

  20. In-situ bioremediation via horizontal wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazen, T.C.; Looney, B.B.; Enzien, M.; Franck, M.M.; Fliermans, C.B.; Eddy, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    This project is designed to demonstrate in situ bioremediation of groundwater and sediment contaminated with chlorinated solvents. Indigenous microorganisms were stimulated to degrade TCE, PCE and their daughter products in situ by addition of nutrients to the contaminated zone. In situ biodegradation is a highly attractive technology for remediation because contaminants are destroyed, not simply moved to another location or immobilized, thus decreasing costs, risks, and time, while increasing efficiency and public and regulatory acceptability. Bioremediation has been found to be among the least costly technologies in applications where it will work (Radian 1989). Subsurface soils and water adjacent to an abandoned process sewer line at the SRS have been found to have elevated levels of TCE (Marine and Bledsoe 1984). This area of subsurface and groundwater contamination is the focus of a current integrated demonstration of new remediation technologies utilizing horizontal wells. Bioremediation has the potential to enhance the performance of in situ air stripping as well as offering stand-alone remediation of this and other contaminated sites (Looney et al. 1991). Horizontal wells could also be used to enhance the recovery of groundwater contaminants for bioreactor conversions from deep or inaccessible areas (e.g., under buildings) and to enhance the distribution of nutrient or microbe additions in an in situ bioremediation

  1. Efficacy monitoring of in situ fuel bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, J.; Borchert, S.; Heard, C.

    1996-01-01

    The wide-scale, multiple-purpose use of fossil fuels throughout the industrialized world has resulted in the inadvertent contamination of myriad environments. Given the scope and magnitude of these environmental contamination problems, bioremediation often represents the only practical and economically feasible solution. This is especially true when depth of contamination, magnitude of the problem, and nature of contaminated material preclude other remedial actions, short of the no-response alternative. From the perspective, the effective, safe and scientifically valid use of in situ bioremediation technologies requires cost-efficient and effective implementation strategies in combination with unequivocal approaches for monitoring efficacy of performance. Accordingly, with support from the SERDP program, the authors are field-testing advanced in situ bioremediation strategies and new approaches in efficacy monitoring that employ techniques instable carbon and nitrogen isotope biogeochemistry. One field demonstration has been initiated at the NEX site in Port Hueneme, CA (US Navy's National Test Site). The objectives are: (1) to use stable isotopes as a biogeochemical monitoring tool for in situ bioremediation of refined petroleum (i.e., BTEX), and (2) to use vertical groundwater circulation technology to effect in situ chemical containment and enhanced in situ bioremediation

  2. ADVANTAGES/DISADVANTAGES FOR ISCO METHODS IN-SITU FENTON OXIDATION IN-SITU PERMANGANATE OXIDATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The advantages and disadvantages of in-situ Fenton oxidation and in-situ permanganate oxidation will be presented. This presentation will provide a brief overview of each technology and a detailed analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of each technology. Included in the ...

  3. In situ macromolecular crystallography using microbeams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axford, Danny; Owen, Robin L; Aishima, Jun; Foadi, James; Morgan, Ann W; Robinson, James I; Nettleship, Joanne E; Owens, Raymond J; Moraes, Isabel; Fry, Elizabeth E; Grimes, Jonathan M; Harlos, Karl; Kotecha, Abhay; Ren, Jingshan; Sutton, Geoff; Walter, Thomas S; Stuart, David I; Evans, Gwyndaf

    2012-05-01

    Despite significant progress in high-throughput methods in macromolecular crystallography, the production of diffraction-quality crystals remains a major bottleneck. By recording diffraction in situ from crystals in their crystallization plates at room temperature, a number of problems associated with crystal handling and cryoprotection can be side-stepped. Using a dedicated goniometer installed on the microfocus macromolecular crystallography beamline I24 at Diamond Light Source, crystals have been studied in situ with an intense and flexible microfocus beam, allowing weakly diffracting samples to be assessed without a manual crystal-handling step but with good signal to noise, despite the background scatter from the plate. A number of case studies are reported: the structure solution of bovine enterovirus 2, crystallization screening of membrane proteins and complexes, and structure solution from crystallization hits produced via a high-throughput pipeline. These demonstrate the potential for in situ data collection and structure solution with microbeams. © 2012 International Union of Crystallography

  4. Unintended and in situ amorphisation of pharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priemel, P A; Grohganz, H; Rades, T

    2016-01-01

    Amorphisation of poorly water-soluble drugs is one approach that can be applied to improve their solubility and thus their bioavailability. Amorphisation is a process that usually requires deliberate external energy input. However, amorphisation can happen both unintentionally, as in process......-induced amorphisation during manufacturing, or in situ during dissolution, vaporisation, or lipolysis. The systems in which unintended and in situ amorphisation has been observed normally contain a drug and a carrier. Common carriers include polymers and mesoporous silica particles. However, the precise mechanisms...... of in situ amorphisation can thus confer the advantages of the amorphous form, such as higher apparent solubility and faster dissolution rate, without the disadvantage of its physical instability....

  5. In situ vitrification: Application to buried waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callow, R.A.; Thompson, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Two in situ vitrification field tests were conducted in June and July 1990 at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In situ vitrification is a technology for in-place conversion of contaminated soils into a durable glass and crystalline waste form and is being investigated as a potential remediation technology for buried waste. The overall objective of the two tests was to assess the general suitability of the process to remediate buried waste structures found at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In particular, these tests were designed as part of a treatability study to provide essential information on field performance of the process under conditions of significant combustible and metal wastes, and to test a newly developed electrode feed technology. The tests were successfully completed, and the electrode feed technology provided valuable operational control for successfully processing the high metal content waste. The results indicate that in situ vitrification is a feasible technology for application to buried waste. 2 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Oil companies push in-situ recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, H.

    1977-01-01

    Possibly, a third Athabaska tar-sand plant using surface mining will be built in the 1980's, but future development beyond that point will probably depend on in-situ recovery. The discussion of in-situ recovery focusses on the effect it will have on the Canadian chemical industry, for example, the market for sodium hydroxide. To obtain the highest yields of oil from bitumen, an external source of hydrogen is necessary; for example Syncrude imports natural gas to make hydrogen for desulphurization. Gasification of coal is a possible source of hydrogen. Research on hydrocracking is progressing. Use of a prototype CANDU OCR reactor to raise the hot steam necessary for in-situ recovery has been suggested. Venezuela is interested in Canadian upgrading technology. (N.D.H.)

  7. In situ viscometry by optical trapping interferometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guzmán, C.; Flyvbjerg, Henrik; Köszali, R.

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate quantitative in situ viscosity measurements by tracking the thermal fluctuations of an optically trapped microsphere subjected to a small oscillatory flow. The measured power spectral density of the sphere's positions displays a characteristic peak at the driving frequency of the f......We demonstrate quantitative in situ viscosity measurements by tracking the thermal fluctuations of an optically trapped microsphere subjected to a small oscillatory flow. The measured power spectral density of the sphere's positions displays a characteristic peak at the driving frequency...

  8. In situ soil remediation using electrokinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehler, M.F.; Surma, J.E.; Virden, J.W.

    1994-11-01

    Electrokinetics is emerging as a promising technology for in situ soil remediation. This technique is especially attractive for Superfund sites and government operations which contain large volumes of contaminated soil. The approach uses an applied electric field to induce transport of both radioactive and hazardous waste ions in soil. The transport mechanisms include electroosmosis, electromigration, and electrophoresis. The feasibility of using electrokinetics to move radioactive 137 Cs and 60 Co at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, is discussed. A closed cell is used to provide in situ measurements of 137 Cs and 60 Co movement in Hanford soil. Preliminary results of ionic movement, along with the corresponding current response, are presented

  9. Recent Advances in Nb-silicide in-situ composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bewlay, B.P.; Jackson, M.R.; Subramanian, P.R.; Briant, C.L.

    2001-01-01

    In-situ composites based on Nb silicides have great potential for future high-temperature applications. These Nb-silicide composites combine a ductile Nb-based matrix with high-strength silicides. With the appropriate combination of alloying elements, such as Ti, Hf, Cr, AI, it is possible to achieve a promising balance of fracture toughness, high-temperature creep performance, and oxidation resistance. This paper will describe the effect of volume fraction of silicide on microstructure, high-temperature creep performance, and oxidation resistance. The ratio of Nb:(W+Ti) is critical in determining both creep rate and oxidation performance. If this ratio goes below ∼1.5, the creep rate increases substantially. In more complex silicide-based systems, other intermetallics, such as laves phases and a boron-rich T-2 phase, are added for oxidation resistance. To understand the role of each phase on the creep resistance and oxidation performance of these composites, we determined the creep and oxidation behavior of the individual phases and composites at temperatures up to 1200 o C. These data allow quantification of the load-bearing capability of the individual phases in the Nb-silicide based in-situ composites. (author)

  10. Use of tensiometer for in situ measurement of nitrate leaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, K.; Reddy, M.R.

    1999-07-01

    In order to monitor nitrate leaching from non-point source pollution, this study used tensiometers to measure in situ nitrate concentration and soil-moisture potential. Instead of filling the tensiometers with pure water, the study filled the tensiometers with nitrate ionic strength adjuster (ISA, 1 M (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}). After the installation of the tensiometers at various depths along soil profiles, a portable pressure transducer was used to measure the soil moisture potential, and a nitrate electrode attached to an ion analyzer was used to measure the nitrate concentration in situ. The measurement was continuous and non-destructive. To test this method in the laboratory, eight bottles filled with pure sand were treated with known nitrate solutions, and a tensiometer was placed in each bottle. Measurements were taken every day for 30 days. Laboratory test showed a linear relationship between the known nitrate concentration and the tensiometer readings (R{sup 2} = 0.9990). Then a field test was conducted in a watermelon field with green manure mulch. Field data indicated a potential of nitrate leaching below the soil depth of 100 cm when crop uptake of nutrients was low.

  11. Alginate nanobeads interspersed fibrin network as in situ forming hydrogel for soft tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Deepthi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels are a class of materials that has the property of injectability and in situ gel formation. This property of hydrogels is manipulated in this study to develop a biomimetic bioresorbable injectable system of alginate nanobeads interspersed in fibrin network. Alginate nanobeads developed by calcium cross-linking yielded a size of 200–500 nm. The alginate nanobeads fibrin hydrogel was formed using dual syringe apparatus. Characterization of the in situ injectable hydrogel was done by SEM, FTIR and Rheometer. The developed hydrogel showed mechanical strength of 19 kPa which provides the suitable compliance for soft tissue engineering. Cytocompatibility studies using human umbilical cord blood derived mesenchymal stem cells showed good attachment, proliferation and infiltration within the hydrogel similar to fibrin gel. The developed in situ forming hydrogel could be a suitable delivery carrier of stem cells for soft tissue regeneration.

  12. Alginate nanobeads interspersed fibrin network as in situ forming hydrogel for soft tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepthi, S; Jayakumar, R

    2018-06-01

    Hydrogels are a class of materials that has the property of injectability and in situ gel formation. This property of hydrogels is manipulated in this study to develop a biomimetic bioresorbable injectable system of alginate nanobeads interspersed in fibrin network. Alginate nanobeads developed by calcium cross-linking yielded a size of 200-500 nm. The alginate nanobeads fibrin hydrogel was formed using dual syringe apparatus. Characterization of the in situ injectable hydrogel was done by SEM, FTIR and Rheometer. The developed hydrogel showed mechanical strength of 19 kPa which provides the suitable compliance for soft tissue engineering. Cytocompatibility studies using human umbilical cord blood derived mesenchymal stem cells showed good attachment, proliferation and infiltration within the hydrogel similar to fibrin gel. The developed in situ forming hydrogel could be a suitable delivery carrier of stem cells for soft tissue regeneration.

  13. Cavallo's multiplier for in situ generation of high voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, S. M.; Ito, T. M.; Ramsey, J. C.; Wei, W.; Blatnik, M. A.; Filippone, B. W.; Seidel, G. M.

    2018-05-01

    A classic electrostatic induction machine, Cavallo's multiplier, is suggested for in situ production of very high voltage in cryogenic environments. The device is suitable for generating a large electrostatic field under conditions of very small load current. Operation of the Cavallo multiplier is analyzed, with quantitative description in terms of mutual capacitances between electrodes in the system. A demonstration apparatus was constructed, and measured voltages are compared to predictions based on measured capacitances in the system. The simplicity of the Cavallo multiplier makes it amenable to electrostatic analysis using finite element software, and electrode shapes can be optimized to take advantage of a high dielectric strength medium such as liquid helium. A design study is presented for a Cavallo multiplier in a large-scale, cryogenic experiment to measure the neutron electric dipole moment.

  14. Genetic predisposition to ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petridis, Christos; Brook, Mark N; Shah, Vandna

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a non-invasive form of breast cancer. It is often associated with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), and is considered to be a non-obligate precursor of IDC. It is not clear to what extent these two forms of cancer share low-risk susceptibility loci...... %) of the 76 known breast cancer predisposition loci showed an association with DCIS in the same direction as previously reported for invasive breast cancer. Case-only analysis showed no evidence for differences between associations for IDC and DCIS after considering multiple testing. Analysis by estrogen......, or whether there are differences in the strength of association for shared loci. METHODS: To identify genetic polymorphisms that predispose to DCIS, we pooled data from 38 studies comprising 5,067 cases of DCIS, 24,584 cases of IDC and 37,467 controls, all genotyped using the iCOGS chip. RESULTS: Most (67...

  15. Paleozoic in situ spores and pollen. Lycopsida

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bek, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 296, 1/6 (2017), s. 1-111 ISSN 0375-0299 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP210/12/2053 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : in situ spores * reproductive organs * Lycopsida * Paleozoic Sub ject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Paleontology Impact factor: 1.333, year: 2016

  16. Smoothsort, an alternative for sorting in situ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, E.W.

    1982-01-01

    Like heapsort - which inspired it - smoothsort is an algorithm for sorting in situ. It is of order N · log N in the worst case, but of order N in the best case, with a smooth transition between the two. (Hence its name.)

  17. Recovering uranium from coal in situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    An underground carbonaceous deposit containing other mineral values is burned in situ. The underground hot zone is cooled down to temperature below the boiling point of a leachig solution. The leaching solution is percolated through the residial ash, with the pregnant solution recovered for separation of the mineral values in surface facilities

  18. In Situ TEM Creation of Nanowire Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, Sardar Bilal

    Integration of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) as active components in devices requires that desired mechanical, thermal and electrical interfaces can be established between the nanoscale geometry of the SiNW and the microscale architecture of the device. In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM),...

  19. In Situ Flash Pyrolysis of Straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Niels

    In-Situ Flash Pyrolysis of Straw Ph.D. dissertation by Niels Bech Submitted: April 2007. Supervisors: Professor Kim Dam-Johansen, Associate Professor Peter Arendt Jensen Erfaringerne med forbrænding af halm opnået gennem et årti har vist, at en proces der kan koncentrere energien på marken, fjerne...

  20. IN SITU LEAD IMMOBILIZATION BY APATITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lead contamination is of environmental concern due to its effect on human health. The purpose of this study was to develop a technology to immobilize Pb in situ in contaminated soils and wastes using apatite. Hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(O...

  1. In Situ Cleanable Alternative HEPA Filter Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, D. J.; Terry, M. T.

    2002-01-01

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company, located at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina, is currently testing two types of filter media for possible deployment as in situ regenerable/cleanable High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters. The filters are being investigated to replace conventional, disposable, glass-fiber, HEPA filters that require frequent removal, replacement, and disposal. This is not only costly and subjects site personnel to radiation exposure, but adds to the ever-growing waste disposal problem. The types of filter media being tested, as part of a National Energy Technology Laboratory procurement, are sintered nickel metal and ceramic monolith membrane. These media were subjected to a hostile environment to simulate conditions that challenge the high-level waste tank ventilation systems. The environment promoted rapid filter plugging to maximize the number of filter loading/cleaning cycles that would occur in a specified period of time. The filters were challenged using nonradioactive simulated high-level waste materials and atmospheric dust; materials that cause filter pluggage in the field. The filters are cleaned in situ using an aqueous solution. The study found that both filter media were insensitive to high humidity or moisture conditions and were easily cleaned in situ. The filters regenerated to approximately clean filter status even after numerous plugging and in situ cleaning cycles. Air Techniques International is conducting particle retention testing on the filter media at the Oak Ridge Filter Test Facility. The filters are challenged using 0.3-mm di-octyl phthalate particles. Both the ceramic and sintered media have a particle retention efficiency > 99.97%. The sintered metal and ceramic filters not only can be cleaned in situ, but also hold great potential as a long life alternative to conventional HEPA filters. The Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board Technical Report, ''HEPA Filters Used in the Department of

  2. Contemporary management of ductal carcinoma in situ and lobular carcinoma in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeng-Gyasi, Samilia; Ong, Cecilia; Hwang, E Shelley

    2016-06-01

    The management of in situ lesions ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) continues to evolve. These diagnoses now comprise a large burden of mammographically diagnosed cancers, and with a global trend towards more population-based screening, the incidence of these lesions will continue to rise. Because outcomes following treatment for DCIS and LCIS are excellent, there is emerging controversy about what extent of treatment is optimal for both diseases. Here we review the current approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of both DCIS and LCIS. In addition, we will consider potential directions for future management of these lesions.

  3. In Situ Remediation Integrated Program: Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) was instituted out of recognition that in situ remediation could fulfill three important criteria: significant cost reduction of cleanup by eliminating or minimizing excavation, transportation, and disposal of wastes; reduced health impacts on workers and the public by minimizing exposure to wastes during excavation and processing; and remediation of inaccessible sites, including: deep subsurfaces, in, under, and around buildings. Buried waste, contaminated soils and groundwater, and containerized wastes are all candidates for in situ remediation. Contaminants include radioactive wastes, volatile and non-volatile organics, heavy metals, nitrates, and explosive materials. The ISR IP intends to facilitate development of in situ remediation technologies for hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes in soils, groundwater, and storage tanks. Near-term focus is on containment of the wastes, with treatment receiving greater effort in future years. ISR IP is an applied research and development program broadly addressing known DOE environmental restoration needs. Analysis of a sample of 334 representative sites by the Office of Environmental Restoration has shown how many sites are amenable to in situ remediation: containment--243 sites; manipulation--244 sites; bioremediation--154 sites; and physical/chemical methods--236 sites. This needs assessment is focused on near-term restoration problems (FY93--FY99). Many other remediations will be required in the next century. The major focus of the ISR EP is on the long term development of permanent solutions to these problems. Current needs for interim actions to protect human health and the environment are also being addressed.

  4. In Situ Remediation Integrated Program: Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) was instituted out of recognition that in situ remediation could fulfill three important criteria: significant cost reduction of cleanup by eliminating or minimizing excavation, transportation, and disposal of wastes; reduced health impacts on workers and the public by minimizing exposure to wastes during excavation and processing; and remediation of inaccessible sites, including: deep subsurfaces, in, under, and around buildings. Buried waste, contaminated soils and groundwater, and containerized wastes are all candidates for in situ remediation. Contaminants include radioactive wastes, volatile and non-volatile organics, heavy metals, nitrates, and explosive materials. The ISR IP intends to facilitate development of in situ remediation technologies for hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes in soils, groundwater, and storage tanks. Near-term focus is on containment of the wastes, with treatment receiving greater effort in future years. ISR IP is an applied research and development program broadly addressing known DOE environmental restoration needs. Analysis of a sample of 334 representative sites by the Office of Environmental Restoration has shown how many sites are amenable to in situ remediation: containment--243 sites; manipulation--244 sites; bioremediation--154 sites; and physical/chemical methods--236 sites. This needs assessment is focused on near-term restoration problems (FY93--FY99). Many other remediations will be required in the next century. The major focus of the ISR EP is on the long term development of permanent solutions to these problems. Current needs for interim actions to protect human health and the environment are also being addressed

  5. Strength and structure of nanocrystalline titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noskova, N.I.; Pereturina, I.A.; Elkina, O.A.; Stolyarov, V.V.

    2004-01-01

    Investigation results on strength and plasticity of nanocrystalline titanium VT-1 are presented. Specific features of plastic deformation on tension of this material specimens in an electron microscope column are studied in situ. It is shown that nanocrystalline titanium strength and plasticity at room temperature are dependent on the structure and nanograin size. It is revealed that deformation processes in nanocrystalline titanium are characterized by activation of deformation rotational modes and microtwinning [ru

  6. Low Cost Al-Si Casting Alloy As In-Situ Composite for High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2000-01-01

    A new aluminum-silicon (Al-Si) alloy has been successfully developed at NASA- Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) that has significant improvement in tensile and fatigue strength at elevated temperatures (500 F-700 F). The alloy offers a number of benefits such as light weight, high hardness, low thermal expansion and high surface wear resistance. In hypereutectic form, this alloy is considered as an in-situ Al-Si composite with tensile strength of about 90% higher than the auto industry 390 alloy at 600 F. This composite is very economically produced by using either conventional permanent steel molds or die casting. The projected material cost is less than $0.90 per pound, and automotive components such as pistons can be cast for high production rate using conventional casting techniques with a low and fully accounted cost. Key Words: Metal matrix composites, In-situ composite, aluminum-silicon alloy, hypereutectic alloy, permanent mold casting, die casting.

  7. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhansl, James L; Brady, Patrick V

    2014-04-29

    An in situ recovery of uranium operation involves circulating reactive fluids through an underground uranium deposit. These fluids contain chemicals that dissolve the uranium ore. Uranium is recovered from the fluids after they are pumped back to the surface. Chemicals used to accomplish this include complexing agents that are organic, readily degradable, and/or have a predictable lifetime in an aquifer. Efficiency is increased through development of organic agents targeted to complexing tetravalent uranium rather than hexavalent uranium. The operation provides for in situ immobilization of some oxy-anion pollutants under oxidizing conditions as well as reducing conditions. The operation also artificially reestablishes reducing conditions on the aquifer after uranium recovery is completed. With the ability to have the impacted aquifer reliably remediated, the uranium recovery operation can be considered inherently safe.

  8. In situ hydrogen loading on zirconium powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maimaitiyili, Tuerdi, E-mail: tuerdi.maimaitiyili@mah.se; Blomqvist, Jakob [Malmö University, Östra Varvsgatan 11 A, Malmö, Skane 20506 (Sweden); Steuwer, Axel [Lund University, Ole Römers väg, Lund, Skane 22100 (Sweden); Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Gardham Avenue, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Bjerkén, Christina [Malmö University, Östra Varvsgatan 11 A, Malmö, Skane 20506 (Sweden); Zanellato, Olivier [Ensam - Cnam - CNRS, 151 Boulevard de l’Hôpital, Paris 75013 (France); Blackmur, Matthew S. [Materials Performance Centre, School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester M1 7HS (United Kingdom); Andrieux, Jérôme [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue J Horowitz, Grenoble 38043 (France); Université de Lyon, 43 Bd du 11 novembre 1918, Lyon 69100 (France); Ribeiro, Fabienne [Institut de Radioprotection et Sûreté Nucléaire, IRSN, BP 3, 13115 Saint-Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2015-06-26

    Commercial-grade Zr powder loaded with hydrogen in situ and phase transformations between various Zr and ZrH{sub x} phases have been monitored in real time. For the first time, various hydride phases in a zirconium–hydrogen system have been prepared in a high-energy synchrotron X-ray radiation beamline and their transformation behaviour has been studied in situ. First, the formation and dissolution of hydrides in commercially pure zirconium powder were monitored in real time during hydrogenation and dehydrogenation, then whole pattern crystal structure analysis such as Rietveld and Pawley refinements were performed. All commonly reported low-pressure phases presented in the Zr–H phase diagram are obtained from a single experimental arrangement.

  9. In situ synthesis of protein arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mingyue; Stoevesandt, Oda; Taussig, Michael J

    2008-02-01

    In situ or on-chip protein array methods use cell free expression systems to produce proteins directly onto an immobilising surface from co-distributed or pre-arrayed DNA or RNA, enabling protein arrays to be created on demand. These methods address three issues in protein array technology: (i) efficient protein expression and availability, (ii) functional protein immobilisation and purification in a single step and (iii) protein on-chip stability over time. By simultaneously expressing and immobilising many proteins in parallel on the chip surface, the laborious and often costly processes of DNA cloning, expression and separate protein purification are avoided. Recently employed methods reviewed are PISA (protein in situ array) and NAPPA (nucleic acid programmable protein array) from DNA and puromycin-mediated immobilisation from mRNA.

  10. In situ remediation of uranium contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, B.P.; Marozas, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    In an effort to develop cost-efficient techniques for remediating uranium contaminated groundwater at DOE Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) sites nationwide, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) deployed a pilot scale research project at an UMTRA site in Durango, CO. Implementation included design, construction, and subsequent monitoring of an in situ passive reactive barrier to remove Uranium from the tailings pile effluent. A reactive subsurface barrier is produced by emplacing a reactant material (in this experiment various forms of metallic iron) in the flow path of the contaminated groundwater. Conceptually the iron media reduces and/or adsorbs uranium in situ to acceptable regulatory levels. In addition, other metals such as Se, Mo, and As have been removed by the reductive/adsorptive process. The primary objective of the experiment was to eliminate the need for surface treatment of tailing pile effluent. Experimental design, and laboratory and field results are discussed with regard to other potential contaminated groundwater treatment applications

  11. In situ bioremediation of Hanford groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeen, R.S.; Roberson, K.R.; Workman, D.J.; Petersen, J.N.; Shouche, M.

    1992-04-01

    Liquid wastes containing radioactive, hazardous, and regulated chemicals have been generated throughout the 40+ years of operations at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site. Some of these wastes were discharged to the soil column and many of the waste components, including nitrate, carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ), and several radionuclides, have been detected in the Hanford groundwater. Current DOE policy prohibits the disposal of contaminated liquids directly to the environment, and remediation of existing contaminated groundwaters may be required. In situ bioremediation is one technology currently being developed at Hanford to meet the need for cost effective technologies to clean groundwater contaminated with CCl 4 , nitrate, and other organic and inorganic contaminants. This paper focuses on the latest results of an on going effort to develop effective in situ remediation strategies through the use of predictive simulations

  12. WIPP/SRL in-situ tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamsey, W.G.

    1990-01-01

    The Materials Interface Interactions Test (MIIT) is the only in-situ program involving the burial of simulated high-level waste forms operating in the United States. Fifteen glass and waste form compositions and their proposed package materials, supplied by 7 countries, are interred in salt at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. A joint effort between Sandia National Laboratories and Savannah River Laboratory, MIIT is the largest international cooperative in-situ venture yet undertaken. The objective of the current study is to document the waste form compositions used in the MIIT program and then to examine compositional correlations based on structural considerations, bonding energies, and surface layer formation. These correlations show important similarities between the many different waste glass compositions studied world wide and suggest that these glasses would be expected to perform well and in a similar manner

  13. In situ hydrogen loading on zirconium powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maimaitiyili, Tuerdi; Blomqvist, Jakob; Steuwer, Axel; Bjerkén, Christina; Zanellato, Olivier; Blackmur, Matthew S.; Andrieux, Jérôme; Ribeiro, Fabienne

    2015-01-01

    Commercial-grade Zr powder loaded with hydrogen in situ and phase transformations between various Zr and ZrH x phases have been monitored in real time. For the first time, various hydride phases in a zirconium–hydrogen system have been prepared in a high-energy synchrotron X-ray radiation beamline and their transformation behaviour has been studied in situ. First, the formation and dissolution of hydrides in commercially pure zirconium powder were monitored in real time during hydrogenation and dehydrogenation, then whole pattern crystal structure analysis such as Rietveld and Pawley refinements were performed. All commonly reported low-pressure phases presented in the Zr–H phase diagram are obtained from a single experimental arrangement

  14. Squamous cell carcinoma in situ after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kambara, Takeshi; Nishiyama, Takafumi; Yamada, Rie; Nagatani, Tetsuo; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Asami

    1997-01-01

    We report two cases with Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) in situ caused by irradiation to hand eczemas, resistant to any topical therapies. Both of our cases clinically show palmer sclerosis and flexor restriction of the fingers, compatible to chronic radiation dermatitis. Although SCC arising in chronic radiation dermatitis is usually developed ten to twenty years after irradiation, in our cases SCC were found more than forty years after irradiation. (author)

  15. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ: The Whole Truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Ujas; Chhor, Chloe M; Mercado, Cecilia L

    2018-02-01

    Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a noninvasive malignant breast disease traditionally described as a precursor lesion to invasive breast cancer. With screening mammography, DCIS now accounts for approximately 20% of newly diagnosed cancer cases. DCIS is not well understood because of its heterogeneous nature. Studies have aimed to assess prognostic factors to characterize its risk of invasive potential; however, there still remains a lack of uniformity in workup and treatment. We summarize current knowledge of DCIS and the ongoing controversies.

  16. In-Situ Burn Gaps Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This Report) UNCLAS//Public 20. Security Class (This Page) UNCLAS//Public 21. No of Pages 76 22. Price UNCLAS//Public | CG-926 RDC | Merrick...surveillance and spotting techniques/equipment to keep responders in the heaviest oil concentrations where their operation to skim , burn, or disperse...Offshore Oil Skim And Burn System For Use With Vessels Of Opportunity. UNCLAS//Public | CG-926 RDC | Merrick, et al. Public | June 2015 In-Situ Burn Gaps

  17. Irradiation-induced creep in metallic nanolaminates characterized by In situ TEM pillar nanocompression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, Shen J., E-mail: sdillon@illinois.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois Urbana-Champagin, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Bufford, Daniel C. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Jawaharram, Gowtham S.; Liu, Xuying; Lear, Calvin [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois Urbana-Champagin, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Hattar, Khalid [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Averback, Robert S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois Urbana-Champagin, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2017-07-15

    This work reports on irradiation-induced creep (IIC) measured on nanolaminate (Cu-W and Ni-Ag) and nanocrystalline alloys (Cu-W) at room temperature using a combination of heavy ion irradiation and nanopillar compression performed concurrently in situ in a transmission electron microscope. Appreciable IIC is observed in multilayers with 50 nm layer thicknesses at high stress, ≈½ the yield strength, but not in multilayers with only 5 nm layer thicknesses.

  18. In situ macromolecular crystallography using microbeams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axford, Danny; Owen, Robin L.; Aishima, Jun [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Foadi, James [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Morgan, Ann W.; Robinson, James I. [University of Leeds, Leeds LS9 7FT (United Kingdom); Nettleship, Joanne E.; Owens, Raymond J. [Research Complex at Harwell, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory R92, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Moraes, Isabel [Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Fry, Elizabeth E.; Grimes, Jonathan M.; Harlos, Karl; Kotecha, Abhay; Ren, Jingshan; Sutton, Geoff; Walter, Thomas S. [University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Stuart, David I. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Evans, Gwyndaf, E-mail: gwyndaf.evans@diamond.ac.uk [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2012-04-17

    A sample environment for mounting crystallization trays has been developed on the microfocus beamline I24 at Diamond Light Source. The technical developments and several case studies are described. Despite significant progress in high-throughput methods in macromolecular crystallography, the production of diffraction-quality crystals remains a major bottleneck. By recording diffraction in situ from crystals in their crystallization plates at room temperature, a number of problems associated with crystal handling and cryoprotection can be side-stepped. Using a dedicated goniometer installed on the microfocus macromolecular crystallography beamline I24 at Diamond Light Source, crystals have been studied in situ with an intense and flexible microfocus beam, allowing weakly diffracting samples to be assessed without a manual crystal-handling step but with good signal to noise, despite the background scatter from the plate. A number of case studies are reported: the structure solution of bovine enterovirus 2, crystallization screening of membrane proteins and complexes, and structure solution from crystallization hits produced via a high-throughput pipeline. These demonstrate the potential for in situ data collection and structure solution with microbeams.

  19. A Novel in situ Trigger Combination Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzatu, Adrian; Warburton, Andreas; Krumnack, Nils; Yao, Wei-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Searches for rare physics processes using particle detectors in high-luminosity colliding hadronic beam environments require the use of multi-level trigger systems to reject colossal background rates in real time. In analyses like the search for the Higgs boson, there is a need to maximize the signal acceptance by combining multiple different trigger chains when forming the offline data sample. In such statistically limited searches, datasets are often amassed over periods of several years, during which the trigger characteristics evolve and their performance can vary significantly. Reliable production cross-section measurements and upper limits must take into account a detailed understanding of the effective trigger inefficiency for every selected candidate event. We present as an example the complex situation of three trigger chains, based on missing energy and jet energy, to be combined in the context of the search for the Higgs (H) boson produced in association with a W boson at the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). We briefly review the existing techniques for combining triggers, namely the inclusion, division, and exclusion methods. We introduce and describe a novel fourth in situ method whereby, for each candidate event, only the trigger chain with the highest a priori probability of selecting the event is considered. The in situ combination method has advantages of scalability to large numbers of differing trigger chains and of insensitivity to correlations between triggers. We compare the inclusion and in situ methods for signal event yields in the CDF WH search.

  20. In situ rheology of yeast biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugnoni, Lorena I; Tarifa, María C; Lozano, Jorge E; Genovese, Diego

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the in situ rheological behavior of yeast biofilms growing on stainless steel under static and turbulent flow. The species used (Rhodototula mucilaginosa, Candida krusei, Candida kefyr and Candida tropicalis) were isolated from a clarified apple juice industry. The flow conditions impacted biofilm composition over time, with a predominance of C. krusei under static and turbulent flow. Likewise, structural variations occurred, with a tighter appearance under dynamic flow. Under turbulent flow there was an increase of 112 μm in biofilm thickness at 11 weeks (p < 0.001) and cell morphology was governed by hyphal structures and rounded cells. Using the in situ growth method introduced here, yeast biofilms were determined to be viscoelastic materials with a predominantly solid-like behavior, and neither this nor the G'0 values were significantly affected by the flow conditions or the growth time, and at large deformations their weak structure collapsed beyond a critical strain of about 1.5-5%. The present work could represent a starting point for developing in situ measurements of yeast rheology and contribute to a thin body of knowledge about fungal biofilm formation.

  1. In situ Raman mapping of art objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondeel, Ph.; Moens, L.; Vandenabeele, P.

    2016-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy has grown to be one of the techniques of interest for the investigation of art objects. The approach has several advantageous properties, and the non-destructive character of the technique allowed it to be used for in situ investigations. However, compared with laboratory approaches, it would be useful to take advantage of the small spectral footprint of the technique, and use Raman spectroscopy to study the spatial distribution of different compounds. In this work, an in situ Raman mapping system is developed to be able to relate chemical information with its spatial distribution. Challenges for the development are discussed, including the need for stable positioning and proper data treatment. To avoid focusing problems, nineteenth century porcelain cards are used to test the system. This work focuses mainly on the post-processing of the large dataset which consists of four steps: (i) importing the data into the software; (ii) visualization of the dataset; (iii) extraction of the variables; and (iv) creation of a Raman image. It is shown that despite the challenging task of the development of the full in situ Raman mapping system, the first steps are very promising. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Raman spectroscopy in art and archaeology’. PMID:27799424

  2. In situ macromolecular crystallography using microbeams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axford, Danny; Owen, Robin L.; Aishima, Jun; Foadi, James; Morgan, Ann W.; Robinson, James I.; Nettleship, Joanne E.; Owens, Raymond J.; Moraes, Isabel; Fry, Elizabeth E.; Grimes, Jonathan M.; Harlos, Karl; Kotecha, Abhay; Ren, Jingshan; Sutton, Geoff; Walter, Thomas S.; Stuart, David I.; Evans, Gwyndaf

    2012-01-01

    A sample environment for mounting crystallization trays has been developed on the microfocus beamline I24 at Diamond Light Source. The technical developments and several case studies are described. Despite significant progress in high-throughput methods in macromolecular crystallography, the production of diffraction-quality crystals remains a major bottleneck. By recording diffraction in situ from crystals in their crystallization plates at room temperature, a number of problems associated with crystal handling and cryoprotection can be side-stepped. Using a dedicated goniometer installed on the microfocus macromolecular crystallography beamline I24 at Diamond Light Source, crystals have been studied in situ with an intense and flexible microfocus beam, allowing weakly diffracting samples to be assessed without a manual crystal-handling step but with good signal to noise, despite the background scatter from the plate. A number of case studies are reported: the structure solution of bovine enterovirus 2, crystallization screening of membrane proteins and complexes, and structure solution from crystallization hits produced via a high-throughput pipeline. These demonstrate the potential for in situ data collection and structure solution with microbeams

  3. Human activity and rest in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roenneberg, Till; Keller, Lena K; Fischer, Dorothee; Matera, Joana L; Vetter, Céline; Winnebeck, Eva C

    2015-01-01

    Our lives are structured by the daily alternation of activity and rest, of wake and sleep. Despite significant advances in circadian and sleep research, we still lack answers to many of the most fundamental questions about this conspicuous behavioral pattern. We strongly believe that investigating this pattern in entrained conditions, real-life and daily contexts-in situ-will help the field to elucidate some of these central questions. Here, we present two common approaches for in situ investigation of human activity and rest: the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire (MCTQ) and actimetry. In the first half of this chapter, we provide detailed instructions on how to use and interpret the MCTQ. In addition, we give an overview of the main insights gained with this instrument over the past 10 years, including some new findings on the interaction of light and age on sleep timing. In the second half of this chapter, we introduce the reader to the method of actimetry and share our experience in basic analysis techniques, including visualization, smoothing, and cosine model fitting of in situ recorded data. Additionally, we describe our new approach to automatically detect sleep from activity recordings. Our vision is that the broad use of such easy techniques in real-life settings combined with automated analyses will lead to the creation of large databases. The resulting power of big numbers will promote our understanding of such fundamental biological phenomena as sleep. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Monitoring of electrokinetic in-situ-decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldmann, T. [INTUS Inst. fuer Technologie und Umweltschutz e.V., Berlin (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    The need for a monitoring system for in-situ soil decontamination is two-fold: Firstly, to ensure that remediation is attained and secondly to minimize costs and treatment time. A further reason is the potential risk of unexpected mobilization or chemical generation of hazardous compounds which could result in an extension of the contamination into other regions of soil, the ground water or the atmosphere. Electrokinetic in-situ decontamination is based on transport processes in the ground that proceed with relatively low velocity. This results in treatment times of several months. Since the transport processes can be described by a mathematical model, monitoring should always be combined with qualified mathematical processing. This makes it possible to estimate treatment time and costs to be expected. The challenge of in-situ monitoring is to identify relevant parameters describing the state of the ground. These parameters must be independent from influences like weather but they must be sensitive to changes of soil characteristics. In the case of electrokinetic soil remediation, probes and sensors must be resistant to influences of electric fields. The function of sensors or measuring systems can be disturbed or even damaged or destroyed by electric fields (for example by electro-corrosion). (orig.)

  5. Mars Oxygen In-Situ Resource Utilization Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Mars Oxygen In-Situ Resource Utilization Experiment (MOXIE) will be the first in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) technology demonstration on Mars. Competitively...

  6. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: IN SITU ELECTROKINETIC EXTRACTION SYSTEM - SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed an in situ soil remediation system that uses electrokinetic principles to remediate hexavalent chromium-contaminated unsaturated or partially saturated soils. The technology involves the in situ application of direct current to the...

  7. In Situ Poling and Imidization of Amorphous Piezoelectric Polyimides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Cheol; Ounaies, Zoubeida; Wise, Kristopher E.; Harrison, Joycelyn S.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An amorphous piezoelectric polyimide containing polar functional groups has been developed using a combination of experimental and molecular modeling for potential use in high temperature applications. This amorphous polyimide, (Beta-CN)APB/ODPA, has exhibited good thermal stability and piezoelectric response at temperatures up to 150C. Density functional calculations predicted that a partially cured amic acid (open imide ring) possesses a dipole moment four times larger than the fully imidized closed ring. In situ poling and imidization of the partially cured (Beta-CN)APB/ODPA, was studied in an attempt to maximize the degree of dipolar orientation and the resultant piezoelectric response. A positive corona poling was used to minimize localized arcing during poling and to allow use of higher poling fields without dielectric breakdown. The dielectric relaxation strength, remanent polarization, and piezoelectric response were evaluated as a function of the poling profile. The partially cured, corona poled polymers exhibited higher dielectric relaxation strength (delta varepsilon), remanent polarization (Pr) and piezoelectric strain coefficient (d33) than the fully cured, conventionally poled ones.

  8. A novel natural analog in situ stabilization agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the laboratory-scale test results on a synthetic analog of natural hematite cement for potential as an in situ treatment and stabilization agent for buried hazardous and radioactive waste. The concept is based on the principle that the ideal waste isolation materials are synthetic analogs of those natural encapsulating materials (cements), which are in equilibrium with the environment in which they occur. If equilibrium is achieved, then such materials will remain intact as long as the natural environment remains unchanged. The specific waste application is long-term stabilization of transuranic-contaminated waste pits and trenches at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Six properties of the natural analog agent and resulting wasteforms are discussed to access the agent's effectiveness and implementability: hydraulic conductivity; compressive strength; mineralogy and microstructure; compatibility with possible waste materials, nitrates, machine cutting oil, and metallic iron; leachability of hazardous metals; and field application parameters. Data indicated that the iron waste encapsulation materials tested are appropriate choices for buried waste mixed with INEL soil. Iron oxide/gypsum INEL soil wasteforms have hydraulic conductivity values close to the regulatory limit. Wasteforms with soil and wastes have compressive strength greater than the regulatory minimum. Gypsum/iron oxide removes hazardous metals from solution by adsorption and would pass Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure limits for most toxic metals. It appears to be chemically and physically inert with respect to the bulk of the waste materials likely to be found at INEL, and has properties conducive to jet grouting

  9. Novel in-situ lamella fabrication technique for in-situ TEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavan, Megan; Daly, Dermot; Rummel, Andreas; McCarthy, Eoin K; McAuley, Cathal; Nicolosi, Valeria

    2018-03-29

    In-situ transmission electron microscopy is rapidly emerging as the premier technique for characterising materials in a dynamic state on the atomic scale. The most important aspect of in-situ studies is specimen preparation. Specimens must be electron transparent and representative of the material in its operational state, amongst others. Here, a novel fabrication technique for the facile preparation of lamellae for in-situ transmission electron microscopy experimentation using focused ion beam milling is developed. This method involves the use of rotating microgrippers during the lift-out procedure, as opposed to the traditional micromanipulator needle and platinum weld. Using rotating grippers, and a unique adhesive substance, lamellae are mounted onto a MEMS device for in-situ TEM annealing experiments. We demonstrate how this technique can be used to avoid platinum deposition as well as minimising damage to the MEMS device during the thinning process. Our technique is both a cost effective and readily implementable alternative to the current generation of preparation methods for in-situ liquid, electrical, mechanical and thermal experimentation within the TEM as well as traditional cross-sectional lamella preparation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Microstructural evolution and strengthening behavior in in-situ magnesium matrix composites fabricated by solidification processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chelliah, Nagaraj M., E-mail: cmnraj.7@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Ropar, Rupnagar 140001, Punjab (India); Singh, Harpreet, E-mail: harpreetsingh@iitrpr.ac.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Ropar, Rupnagar 140001, Punjab (India); Surappa, M.K., E-mail: mirle@materials.iisc.ac.in [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru 560012, Karnataka (India)

    2017-06-15

    In-situ magnesium matrix composites with three different matrix materials (including Mg, AZ91 and AE44 Mg-alloys) were fabricated by injecting cross-linked polymer directly into the molten Mg/Mg-alloys, and having it convert to the 2.5 vol% SiCNO ceramic phase using liquid stir-casting method. In-situ chemical reaction took place within the molten slurry tending to produce 42 and 18 vol% Mg{sub 2}Si crystals in Mg and AE44 matrix composites, respectively but not in AZ91 matrix composite. Microstructural evolution of Mg{sub 2}Si crystals was discussed on the basis of availability of heterogeneous nucleation sites and amount of Al-atoms in the molten slurry. The observed micro-hardness and yield strengths are enhanced by factor of four to three as compared to their unreinforced counterparts, and Taylor strengthening was found to be the predominant strengthening mechanism in magnesium and AE44 matrix composites. Summation model predicted the yield strengths of the fabricated composites more preciously when compared to Zhang and Chen, and modified Clyne models. - Highlights: • In-situ magnesium composites were fabricated using liquid stir-casting method. • In-situ pyrolysis of cross-linked polymer has been utilized to obtain ceramic phases. • Mg{sub 2}Si crystals were formed in magnesium and AE44 matrix composites but not in AZ91 matrix composites. • The variation in size and morphology of Mg{sub 2}Si crystals with matrix materials are discussed. • Strengthening mechanisms in in-situ composites are analyzed and discussed.

  11. Voltammetric, in-situ spectroelectrochemical and in-situ electrocolorimetric characterization of phthalocyanines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koca, Atif [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Marmara University, Goeztepe, 34722 Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail: akoca@eng.marmara.edu.tr; Bayar, Serife; Dincer, Hatice A. [Department of Chemistry, Technical University of Istanbul, Maslak, 34469 Istanbul (Turkey); Gonca, Erguen [Department of Chemistry, Fatih University, TR34500 B.Cekmece, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2009-04-01

    In this work, electrochemical, and in-situ spectroelectrochemical characterization of the metallophthalocyanines bearing tetra-(1,1-(dicarbethoxy)-2-(2-methylbenzyl))-ethyl 3,10,17,24-tetra chloro groups were performed. Voltammetric and in-situ spectroelectrochemical measurements show that while cobalt phthalocyanine complex gives both metal-based and ring-based redox processes, zinc and copper phthalocyanines show only ring-based reduction and oxidation processes. The redox processes are generally diffusion-controlled, reversible and one-electron transfer processes. Differently lead phthalocyanine demetallized during second oxidation reaction while it was stable during reduction processes. An in-situ electrocolorimetric method, based on the 1931 CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage) system of colorimetry, has been applied to investigate the color of the electro-generated anionic and cationic forms of the complexes for the first time in this study.

  12. TSSM: The in situ exploration of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coustenis, A.; Lunine, J. I.; Lebreton, J. P.; Matson, D.; Reh, K.; Beauchamp, P.; Erd, C.

    2008-09-01

    The Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) mission was born when NASA and ESA decided to collaborate on two missions independently selected by each agency: the Titan and Enceladus mission (TandEM), and Titan Explorer, a 2007 Flagship study. TandEM, the Titan and Enceladus mission, was proposed as an L-class (large) mission in response to ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Call. The mission concept is to perform remote and in situ investigations of Titan primarily, but also of Enceladus and Saturn's magentosphere. The two satellites are tied together by location and properties, whose remarkable natures have been partly revealed by the ongoing Cassini-Huygens mission. These bodies still hold mysteries requiring a complete exploration using a variety of vehicles and instruments. TSSM will study Titan as a system, including its upper atmosphere, the interactions with the magnetosphere, the neutral atmosphere, surface, interior, origin and evolution, as well as the astrobiological potential of Titan. It is an ambitious mission because its targets are two of the most exciting and challenging bodies in the Solar System. It is designed to build on but exceed the scientific and technological accomplishments of the Cassini- Huygens mission, exploring Titan and Enceladus in ways that are not currently possible (full close-up and in situ coverage over long periods of time for Titan, several close flybys of Enceladus). One overarching goal of the TSSM mission is to explore in situ the atmosphere and surface of Titan. In the current mission architecture, TSSM consists of an orbiter (under NASA's responsibility) with a large host of instruments which would perform several Enceladus and Titan flybys before stabilizing in an orbit around Titan alone, therein delivering in situ elements (a Montgolfière, or hot air balloon, and a probe/lander). The latter are being studied by ESA. The balloon will circumnavigate Titan above the equator at an altitude of about 10 km for several months. The

  13. In-situ thermal testing program strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    In the past year the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project has implemented a new Program Approach to the licensing process. The Program Approach suggests a step-wise approach to licensing in which the early phases will require less site information than previously planned and necessitate a lesser degree of confidence in the longer-term performance of the repository. Under the Program Approach, the thermal test program is divided into two principal phases: (1) short-term in situ tests (in the 1996 to 2000 time period) and laboratory thermal tests to obtain preclosure information, parameters, and data along with bounding information for postclosure performance; and (2) longer-term in situ tests to obtain additional data regarding postclosure performance. This effort necessitates a rethinking of the testing program because the amount of information needed for the initial licensing phase is less than previously planned. This document proposes a revised and consolidated in situ thermal test program (including supporting laboratory tests) that is structured to meet the needs of the Program Approach. A customer-supplier model is used to define the Project data needs. These data needs, along with other requirements, were then used to define a set of conceptual experiments that will provide the required data within the constraints of the Program Approach schedule. The conceptual thermal tests presented in this document represent a consolidation and update of previously defined tests that should result in a more efficient use of Project resources. This document focuses on defining the requirements and tests needed to satisfy the goal of a successful license application in 2001, should the site be found suitable

  14. In-situ burning: NIST studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.D.

    1992-01-01

    In-situ burning of spilled oil has distinct advantages over other countermeasures. It offers the potential to convert rapidly large quantities of oil into its primary combustion products, carbon dioxide and water, with a small percentage of other unburned and residue byproducts. Because the oil is converted to gaseous products of combustion by burning, the need for physical collection, storage, and transport of recovered fluids is reduced to the few percent of the original spill volume that remains as residue after burning. Burning oil spills produces a visible smoke plume containing smoke particulate and other products of combustion which may persist for many kilometers from the burn. This fact gives rise to public health concerns, related to the chemical content of the smoke plume and the downwind deposition of particulate, which need to be answered. In 1985, a joint Minerals Management Service (MMS) and Environment Canada (EC) in-situ burning research program was begun at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). This research program was designed to study the burning of large crude oil spills on water and how this burning would affect air quality by quantifying the products of combustion and developing methods to predict the downwind smoke particulate deposition. To understand the important features of in-situ burning, it is necessary to perform both laboratory and mesoscale experiments. Finally, actual burns of spilled oil at sea will be necessary to evaluate the method at the anticipated scale of actual response operations. In this research program there is a continuing interaction between findings from measurements on small fire experiments performed in the controlled laboratory environments of NIST and the Fire Research Institute (FRI) in Japan, and large fire experiments at facilities like the USCG Fire Safety and Test Detachment in Mobile, Alabama where outdoor liquid fuel burns in large pans are possible

  15. The treatment of in situ breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fentiman, I.S.

    1989-01-01

    Carcinoma in situ is the earliest histologically recognisable form of malignancy and as such provides an opportunity to treat the disease in a curative way. The two major variants, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) will be considered separately as the two conditions have divergent natural histories. DCIS is increasing in incidence since microcalcification may be detected radiologically in the screening of asymptomatic women. The extent of microcalcification may not indicate the extent of disease. It has yet to be determined whether there is a difference in behaviour of the tumour forming and the asymptomatic types of DCIS. After a biopsy has shown DCIS there will be residual DCIS at the biopsy site in one-third of patients, and multifocal DCIS in another third. A coexistent infiltrating carcinoma may be present in up to 16%. Due to sampling problems areas of invasion may be missed. Axillary nodal metastases are found in only 1% of patients with histological DCIS. Radical surgery by total or modified mastectomy is almost curative, but 3% of patients will die of metastases. Taking results of uncontrolled trials, local relapse rates are as follows: excision alone 50%, wide excision 30%, wide excision plus radiotherapy 20%. Two prospective trials are underway run by the EORTC and NSABP in which patients with DCIS are treated by wide excision with or without external radiotherapy. LCIS is usually an incidental finding with a bilateral predisposition to subsequent infiltrating carcinomas. Curative procedures such as bilateral mastectomy with reconstruction may represent overtreatment. A systemic rather than local approach would seem appropriate and a trial is now underway run by the EORTC in which patients with histologically confirmed LCIS are randomised to observation alone or to receive tamoxifen 20 mg daily for 5 years. (orig./MG)

  16. Development of in-situ monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Bong Soo; Cho, Dong Hyun; Yoo, Wook Jae; Heo, Ji Yeon

    2010-03-01

    Development of in-situ monitoring system using an optical fiber to measure the real time temperature variation of subsurface water for the evaluation of flow characteristics. We describe the feasibility of developing a fiber-optic temperature sensor using a thermochromic material. A sensor-tip is fabricated by mixing of a thermochromic material powder. The relationships between the temperatures and the output voltages of detectors are determined to measure the temperature of water. It is expected that the fiber-optic temperature monitoring sensor using thermochromic material can be used to measure the real time temperature variation of subsurface water

  17. Reasonable assurance and in-situ testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoderick, J.E.; Nelson, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    The Department of Energy is currently preparing site characterization plans for sites being considered for the first geologic repository. The site investigations described in these plans will be aimed at providing ''reasonable assurance'' to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission that the performance objectives and criteria specified in 10 CFR Part 60 will be met. The in-situ testing being planned by the DOE for site characterization, and the subsequent testing conducted as part of performance confirmation, reflects how the basis for ''reasonable assurance'' will change through the licensing process

  18. In-Situ Wire Damage Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha K. (Inventor); Roberson, Luke B. (Inventor); Tate, Lanetra C. (Inventor); Smith, Trent M. (Inventor); Gibson, Tracy L. (Inventor); Jolley, Scott T. (Inventor); Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An in-situ system for detecting damage in an electrically conductive wire. The system includes a substrate at least partially covered by a layer of electrically conductive material forming a continuous or non-continuous electrically conductive layer connected to an electrical signal generator adapted to delivering electrical signals to the electrically conductive layer. Data is received and processed to identify damage to the substrate or electrically conductive layer. The electrically conductive material may include metalized carbon fibers, a thin metal coating, a conductive polymer, carbon nanotubes, metal nanoparticles or a combination thereof.

  19. Computer Aided in situ Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chongtay, Rocio A.; Hansen, John Paulin; Decker, Lone

    . One of the most common and successfully used treatments for phobic conditions has been Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), which helps people learn to detect thinking patterns that trigger the irrational fear and to replace them with more realistic ideas. The health and financial impacts in society...... presented here is being designed in a modular and scalable fashion. The web-based module can be accessed anywhere any time from a PC connected to the internet and can be used alone or as supplement for a location-based module for in situ gradual exposure therapy....

  20. In Situ Preservation of Historic Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, R.; Brooks, R.

    The loss of the Mir space station is shown to symbolize a new consciousness of the value of space artefacts. The reasons why such artefacts as Mir become historic objects worthy of preservation are examined. Preservation of space vehicles in situ is discussed, with particular reference to safety, monitoring and long term costs. An argument is made for a wider definition for World Heritage designations to include material beyond the surface of the Earth, and for international bodies to assess, monitor and oversee these projects. Such heritage sites are seen as an economic driver for the development of space tourism in the 21st century.

  1. PAEDIATRIC URETERIC CALCULI: IN-SITU EXTRACORPOREAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Il navait ni obstruction urétérale ni infection urinaire. De légères hématuries et coliques transitoires ont été observées après la lithotripsie. Conclusion Chez lenfant, la lithotripsie extra-corporelle in situ est une procédure efficace dans le traitement des calculs urétéraux quelque soit le siège. Il ny a aucune morbidité liée à la ...

  2. Deformation processes in functional materials studied by in situ neutron diffraction and ultrasonic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sittner, P.; Novak, V.; Landa, M.; Lukas, P.

    2007-01-01

    The unique thermomechanical functions of shape memory alloys (hysteretic stress-strain-temperature responses) not their structural properties (as strength, fatigue, corrosion resistance, etc.) are primarily utilized in engineering applications. In order to better understand and predict the functional behavior, we have recently employed two dedicated non-invasive in situ experimental methods capable to follow the deformation/transformation processes in thermomechanically loaded polycrystalline samples. The in situ neutron diffraction method takes advantage of the ability of thermal neutrons to penetrate bulk samples. As a diffraction technique sensitive to interplanar spacings in crystalline solids, it provides in situ information on the changes in crystal structure, phase composition, phase stress and texture in the transforming samples. The combined in situ ultrasonic and electric resistance method follows variations of the electric resistance as well as speed and attenuation of acoustic waves propagating through the transforming sample. The acoustic waves are mainly sensitive to changes of elastic properties accompanying the deformation/transformation processes. The latter method thus follows the changes in interatomic bonds rather than changes in the interplanar lattice spacings focused in the neutron diffraction method. The methods are thus complementary. They are briefly described and selected experimental results obtained recently on NiTi alloys are presented and discussed

  3. Disappearance of the in situ component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvet, B.; Le Pechoux, C.; Calais, G.; Reynaud-Bougnoux, A.; Bougnoux, P.; Le Floch, O.; Fetisoff, F.; Lemseffer, A.; Body, G.; Lansac, J.

    1992-01-01

    Local recurrence after conservative treatment of breast cancer is associated with a significant risk for metastasis. In order to identify criteria predictive of metastasis in this subset of women, a series of 35 patients with local relapse was analyzed among 512 consecutive patients treated with tumorectomy and radiotherapy. When relapse occurred within 2 years of initial treatment, overall 2-year survival from the time of local relapse was 39.5%. When local relapse occurred more than 2 years from initial therapy, 2-year survival was 80.5% (p<0.001). Pathological slides of both initial and recurrent tumors were reviewed and compared. In 17 patients, local relapse and initial tumor had the same morphological features, with an in-situ component either absent or present in the same proportion. Metastasis occurred in two of these patients. In contrast, 9 of 12 patients in whom the proportion of non-invasive carcinoma had decreased at the time of local recurrence developed metastasis. Overall 2-year survival from the time of relapse was significantly better in the former group of patients (93.3% versus 52.5%, p<0.05). It is concluded that early relapses have a poor prognostic significance and that disappearance of the in-situ component or increase of the invasive component at the time of relapse is a feature predictive of tumor-related death and that more intensive therapy might benefit to this subset of women. (author). 26 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  4. Enzyme Engineering for In Situ Immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Fabian B H; Chen, Shuxiong; Rehm, Bernd H A

    2016-10-14

    Enzymes are used as biocatalysts in a vast range of industrial applications. Immobilization of enzymes to solid supports or their self-assembly into insoluble particles enhances their applicability by strongly improving properties such as stability in changing environments, re-usability and applicability in continuous biocatalytic processes. The possibility of co-immobilizing various functionally related enzymes involved in multistep synthesis, conversion or degradation reactions enables the design of multifunctional biocatalyst with enhanced performance compared to their soluble counterparts. This review provides a brief overview of up-to-date in vitro immobilization strategies while focusing on recent advances in enzyme engineering towards in situ self-assembly into insoluble particles. In situ self-assembly approaches include the bioengineering of bacteria to abundantly form enzymatically active inclusion bodies such as enzyme inclusions or enzyme-coated polyhydroxyalkanoate granules. These one-step production strategies for immobilized enzymes avoid prefabrication of the carrier as well as chemical cross-linking or attachment to a support material while the controlled oriented display strongly enhances the fraction of accessible catalytic sites and hence functional enzymes.

  5. In situ bioremediation under high saline conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosshard, B.; Raumin, J.; Saurohan, B.

    1995-01-01

    An in situ bioremediation treatability study is in progress at the Salton Sea Test Base (SSTB) under the NAVY CLEAN 2 contract. The site is located in the vicinity of the Salon Sea with expected groundwater saline levels of up to 50,000 ppm. The site is contaminated with diesel, gasoline and fuel oils. The treatability study is assessing the use of indigenous heterotrophic bacteria to remediate petroleum hydrocarbons. Low levels of significant macro nutrients indicate that nutrient addition of metabolic nitrogen and Orthophosphate are necessary to promote the process, requiring unique nutrient addition schemes. Groundwater major ion chemistry indicates that precipitation of calcium phosphorus compounds may be stimulated by air-sparging operations and nutrient addition, which has mandated the remedial system to include pneumatic fracturing as an option. This presentation is tailored at an introductory level to in situ bioremediation technologies, with some emphasize on innovations in sparge air delivery, dissolved oxygen uptake rates, nutrient delivery, and pneumatic fracturing that should keep the expert's interest

  6. In situ migration experiment in argillaceous formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hidekazu

    1990-01-01

    International cooperative R and D has been performed within the five years framework of the bilateral agreement between PNC (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation) and SCK/CEN (Studiecentrum voor Kernergie/Centre D'etude de L'energie Nucleaire, Mol, Belgium) which is focused on 'The Migration Experiment in argillaceous formation.' This Tertiary argillaceous formation, called Boom clay, is located at about 230m depth in Mol-Dessel area, Belgium. The argillaceous rock is considered to have a high capability for retardation to radionuclides when they migrate in geosphere because of a high content of clay minerals and dissolved carbon-rich pore water. The main purpose of this collaboration work is to characterize the migration phenomena in sedimentary rock through understanding of the behaviour of radionuclides migration in the argillaceous formation. The present report describes the preliminary results of in situ one-dimensional migration experiment with labelled clay core emplaced in borehole under advective condition. In the experiment, radioactive tracer Sr-85 and Eu-152+154 have been used in order to determine the apparent dispersion coefficient and retardation factor of Boom clay. Finally, the following conclusions were obtained by in situ measurement and calculation based on a appropriate migration model; a) From the Sr-85 experiment, diffusive behavior is interpreted to be a dominant phenomena on radionuclides transportation. b) From the Eu-152+154 experiment, very small non-retarded fraction is observed. (author)

  7. In situ SU-8 silver nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren V. Fischer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposite materials containing metal nanoparticles are of considerable interest in photonics and optoelectronics applications. However, device fabrication of such materials always encounters the challenge of incorporation of preformed nanoparticles into photoresist materials. As a solution to this problem, an easy new method of fabricating silver nanocomposites by an in situ reduction of precursors within the epoxy-based photoresist SU-8 has been developed. AgNO3 dissolved in acetonitrile and mixed with the epoxy-based photoresist SU-8 forms silver nanoparticles primarily during the pre- and post-exposure soft bake steps at 95 °C. A further high-temperature treatment at 300 °C resulted in the formation of densely homogeneously distributed silver nanoparticles in the photoresist matrix. No particle growth or agglomeration of nanoparticles is observed at this point. The reported new in situ silver nanocomposite materials can be spin coated as homogeneous thin films and structured by using UV lithography. A resolution of 5 µm is achieved in the lithographic process. The UV exposure time is found to be independent of the nanoparticle concentration. The fabricated silver nanocomposites exhibit high plasmonic responses suitable for the development of new optoelectronic and optical sensing devices.

  8. Mitigating in situ oil sands carbon costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theriault, D.J.; Peterson, J. [Laricina Energy Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Heinrichs, H. [Canadian Chemical Technology Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    Carbon capture and sequestration is a complex problem with a variety of dimensions that need to be considered. The political, social, and regulatory pressures are forcing carbon costs on the oil sands industry in an effort to reduce the carbon footprint of oil sands operations. This paper reviewed the political, social, and regulatory pressures and obligations for the in-situ oil sands industry. It presented the views and insights of Laricina Energy on the carbon challenge. It also described the initiatives that Laricina Energy is taking to manage these imperatives and outlined the challenges the industry is facing. The purpose of the paper was to encourage dialogue and collaboration by the oil sands industry. The paper also described the dimensions of the carbon problem and how the industry can contribute to a solution. Last, the paper reviewed the parameters of carbon dioxide or greenhouse gas containment and storage issues. It was concluded that the regulatory and policy requirements need to be clarified so that industry understands the new business landscape as well as the requirements that influence the economics of in-situ oil sands development. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumhansl, James Lee; Beauheim, Richard Louis; Brady, Patrick Vane; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; McKenna, Sean Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Expansion of uranium mining in the United States is a concern to some environmental groups and sovereign Native American Nations. An approach which may alleviate some problems is to develop inherently safe in situ uranium recovery ('ISR') technologies. Current ISR technology relies on chemical extraction of trace levels of uranium from aquifers that, once mined, can still contain dissolved uranium and other trace metals that are a health concern. Existing ISR operations are few in number; however, high uranium prices are driving the industry to consider expanding operations nation-wide. Environmental concerns and enforcement of the new 30 ppb uranium drinking water standard may make opening new mining operations more difficult and costly. Here we propose a technological fix: the development of inherently safe in situ recovery (ISISR) methods. The four central features of an ISISR approach are: (1) New 'green' leachants that break down predictably in the subsurface, leaving uranium, and associated trace metals, in an immobile form; (2) Post-leachant uranium/metals-immobilizing washes that provide a backup decontamination process; (3) An optimized well-field design that increases uranium recovery efficiency and minimizes excursions of contaminated water; and (4) A combined hydrologic/geochemical protocol for designing low-cost post-extraction long-term monitoring. ISISR would bring larger amounts of uranium to the surface, leave fewer toxic metals in the aquifer, and cost less to monitor safely - thus providing a 'win-win-win' solution to all stakeholders.

  10. Alternatieve in situ bodemsaneringstechnieken; literatuuronderzoek bij het project "In Situ Biorestauratie" Asten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheuter AJ; LBG

    1997-01-01

    In developing in situ remediation most of the focus used to be on techniques using infiltration water to supply oxygen to the location. Later, techniques were developed in which soil was flushed with air to enhance the oxygen availability to microorganisms. The aim of the study reported here was to

  11. High-gravity combustion synthesis and in situ melt infiltration: A new method for preparing cemented carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Guanghua; Li, Jiangtao; Yang, Zengchao; Guo, Shibin; Chen, Yixiang

    2013-01-01

    A new method of high-gravity combustion synthesis and in situ melt infiltration is reported for preparing cemented carbides, where hot nickel melt is in situ synthesized from a highly exothermic combustion reaction and then infiltrated into tungsten carbide powder compacts. The as-prepared sample showed a homogeneous microstructure, and its relative density, hardness and flexural strength were 94.4%, 84 HRA and 1.49 GPa, respectively. Compared with conventional powder metallurgy approaches, high-gravity combustion synthesis offers a fast and furnace-free way to produce cemented carbides

  12. In-situ Planetary Subsurface Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W.; Weber, R. C.; Dimech, J. L.; Kedar, S.; Neal, C. R.; Siegler, M.

    2017-12-01

    Geophysical and seismic instruments are considered the most effective tools for studying the detailed global structures of planetary interiors. A planet's interior bears the geochemical markers of its evolutionary history, as well as its present state of activity, which has direct implications to habitability. On Earth, subsurface imaging often involves massive data collection from hundreds to thousands of geophysical sensors (seismic, acoustic, etc) followed by transfer by hard links or wirelessly to a central location for post processing and computing, which will not be possible in planetary environments due to imposed mission constraints on mass, power, and bandwidth. Emerging opportunities for geophysical exploration of the solar system from Venus to the icy Ocean Worlds of Jupiter and Saturn dictate that subsurface imaging of the deep interior will require substantial data reduction and processing in-situ. The Real-time In-situ Subsurface Imaging (RISI) technology is a mesh network that senses and processes geophysical signals. Instead of data collection then post processing, the mesh network performs the distributed data processing and computing in-situ, and generates an evolving 3D subsurface image in real-time that can be transmitted under bandwidth and resource constraints. Seismic imaging algorithms (including traveltime tomography, ambient noise imaging, and microseismic imaging) have been successfully developed and validated using both synthetic and real-world terrestrial seismic data sets. The prototype hardware system has been implemented and can be extended as a general field instrumentation platform tailored specifically for a wide variety of planetary uses, including crustal mapping, ice and ocean structure, and geothermal systems. The team is applying the RISI technology to real off-world seismic datasets. For example, the Lunar Seismic Profiling Experiment (LSPE) deployed during the Apollo 17 Moon mission consisted of four geophone instruments

  13. Radiological aspects of in situ uranium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BROWN, STEVEN H.

    2007-01-01

    In the last few years, there has been a significant increase in the demand for Uranium as historical inventories have been consumed and new reactor orders are being placed. Numerous mineralized properties around the world are being evaluated for Uranium recovery and new mining / milling projects are being evaluated and developed. Ore bodies which are considered uneconomical to mine by conventional methods such as tunneling or open pits, can be candidates for non-conventional recovery techniques, involving considerably less capital expenditure. Technologies such as Uranium in situ leaching in situ recovery (ISL / ISR), have enabled commercial scale mining and milling of relatively small ore pockets of lower grade, and may make a significant contribution to overall world wide uranium supplies over the next ten years. Commercial size solution mining production facilities have operated in the US since 1975. Solution mining involves the pumping of groundwater, fortified with oxidizing and complexing agents into an ore body, solubilizing the uranium in situ, and then pumping the solutions to the surface where they are fed to a processing plant. Processing involves ion exchange and may also include precipitation, drying or calcining and packaging operations depending on facility specifics. This paper presents an overview of the ISR process and the health physics monitoring programs developed at a number of commercial scale ISL / ISR Uranium recovery and production facilities as a result of the radiological character of these processes. Although many radiological aspects of the process are similar to that of conventional mills, conventional-type tailings as such are not generated. However, liquid and solid byproduct materials may be generated and impounded. The quantity and radiological character of these by products are related to facility specifics. Some special monitoring considerations are presented which are required due to the manner in which Radon gas is evolved in

  14. In-situ containment and stabilization of buried waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, M.L.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1993-10-01

    In FY 1993 research continued on development and testing of grout materials for in-situ containment and stabilization of buried waste. Specifically, the work was aimed at remediation of the Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, New Mexico as part of the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID). The work on grouting materials was initiated in FY 1992 and the accomplishments for that year are documented in the previous annual report (Allan, Kukacka and Heiser, 1992). The remediation plan involves stabilization of the chromium plume, placement of impermeable vertical and horizontal barriers to isolate the landfill and installation of a surface cap. The required depth of subsurface barriers is approximately 33 m (100 ft). The work concentrated on optimization of grout formulations for use as grout and soil cement barriers and caps. The durability of such materials was investigated, in addition to shrinkage cracking resistance, compressive and flexural strength and permeability. The potential for using fibers in grouts to control cracking was studied. Small scale field trials were conducted to test the practicality of using the identified formulations and to measure the long term performance. Large scale trials were conducted at Sandia as part of the Subsurface Barrier Emplacement Technology Program. Since it was already determined in FY 1992 that cementitious grouts could effectively stabilize the chromium plume at the CWL after pre-treatment is performed, the majority of the work was devoted to the containment aspect

  15. Magnetic, in situ, mineral characterization of Chelyabinsk meteorite thin section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabelek, Ladislav; Mazanec, Martin; Kdyr, Simon; Kletetschka, Gunther

    2015-06-01

    Magnetic images of Chelyabinsk meteorite's (fragment F1 removed from Chebarkul lake) thin section have been unraveled by a magnetic scanning system from Youngwood Science and Engineering (YSE) capable of resolving magnetic anomalies down to 10-3 mT range from about 0.3 mm distance between the probe and meteorite surface (resolution about 0.15 mm). Anomalies were produced repeatedly, each time after application of magnetic field pulse of varying amplitude and constant, normal or reversed, direction. This process resulted in both magnetizing and demagnetizing of the meteorite thin section, while keeping the magnetization vector in the plane of the thin section. Analysis of the magnetic data allows determination of coercivity of remanence (Bcr) for the magnetic sources in situ. Value of Bcr is critical for calculating magnetic forces applicable during missions to asteroids where gravity is compromised. Bcr was estimated by two methods. First method measured varying dipole magnetic field strength produced by each anomaly in the direction of magnetic pulses. Second method measured deflections of the dipole direction from the direction of magnetic pulses. Bcr of magnetic sources in Chelyabinsk meteorite ranges between 4 and 7 mT. These magnetic sources enter their saturation states when applying 40 mT external magnetic field pulse.

  16. In situ polymerization of polyaniline in wood veneers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trey, Stacy; Jafarzadeh, Shadi; Johansson, Mats

    2012-03-01

    The present study describes the possibility to polymerize aniline within wood veneers to obtain a semi-conducting material with solid wood acting as the base template. It was determined that it is possible to synthesize the intrinsically conductive polymer (ICP) polyaniline in situ within the wood structure of Southern yellow pine veneers, combining the strength of the natural wood structure with the conductivity of the impregnated polymer. It was found that polyaniline is uniformly dispersed within the wood structure by light microscopy and FT-IR imaging. A weight percent gain in the range of 3-12 wt % was obtained with a preferential formation in the wood structure and cell wall, rather than in the lumen. The modified wood was found to be less hydrophilic with the addition of phosphate doped polyaniline as observed by equilibrium water swelling studies. While wood itself is insulating, the modified veneers had conductivities of 1 × 10(-4) to 1 × 10(-9) S cm(-1), demonstrating the ability to tune the conductivity and allowing for materials with a wide range of applications, from anti-static to charge-dispersing materials. Furthermore, the modified veneers had lower total and peak heat releases, as determined by cone calorimetry, because of the char properties of the ICP. This is of interest if these materials are to be used in building and furniture applications where flame retardance is of importance. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  17. Reusable self-healing hydrogels realized via in situ polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivek, Balachandran; Prasad, Edamana

    2015-04-09

    In this work, a self-healing hydrogel has been prepared using in situ polymerization of acrylic acid and acrylamide in the presence of glycogen. The hydrogel was characterized using NMR, SEM, FT-IR, rheology, and dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies. The developed hydrogel exhibits self-healing properties at neutral pH, high swelling ability, high elasticity, and excellent mechanical strength. The hydrogel exhibits modulus values (G', G″) as high as 10(6) Pa and shows an exceptionally high degree of swelling ratio (∼3.5 × 10(3)). Further, the polymer based hydrogel adsorbs toxic metal ions (Cd(2+), Pb(2+), and Hg(2+)) and organic dyes (methylene blue and methyl orange) from contaminated water with remarkable efficiency (90-98%). The mechanistic analysis indicated the presence of pseudo-second-order reaction kinetics. The reusability of the hydrogel has been demonstrated by repeating the adsorption-desorption process over five cycles with identical results in the adsorption efficiency.

  18. In situ uranium stabilization by microbial metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turick, Charles E.; Knox, Anna S.; Leverette, Chad L.; Kritzas, Yianne G.

    2008-01-01

    Microbial melanin production by autochthonous bacteria was explored in this study as a means to increase U immobilization in U contaminated soil. This article demonstrates the application of bacterial physiology and soil ecology for enhanced U immobilization in order to develop an in situ, U bio-immobilization technology. We have demonstrated microbial production of a metal chelating biopolymer, pyomelanin, in U contaminated soil from the Tims Branch area of the Department of Energy (DOE), Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina, as a result of tyrosine amendments. Bacterial densities of pyomelanin producers were >10 6 cells per g wet soil. Pyomelanin demonstrated U complexing and mineral binding capacities at pH 4 and 7. In laboratory studies, in the presence of goethite or illite, pyomelanin enhanced U sequestration by these minerals. Tyrosine amended soils in a field test demonstrated increased U sequestration capacity following pyomelanin production up to 13 months after tyrosine treatments

  19. Design Games for In-Situ Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    The mobile culture has spawned a host of context-based products, like location-based and tag-based applications. This presents a new challenge for the designer. There is a need of design methods that acknowledge the context and allows it to influence the design ideas. This article focuses...... on a design problem where an in-situ design practice may further the early design process: the case of designing a pervasive game. Pervasive games are computer games, played using the city as a game board and often using mobile phones with GPS. Some contextual design methods exist, but we propose an approach...... sitestorming, is based on a game using Situationistic individual exploration of the site and different types of game cards, followed by a joint evaluation of the generated ideas. A series of evaluations showed that the designers found the method enjoyable to use, that the method motivated idea generation...

  20. In-situ SEM electrochemistry and radiolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Nilsen, Rolf Erling Robberstad; Norby, Poul

    are backscattered and an image is reconstructed by the microscope. But the high energy electrons are a form of ionising radiation which can significantly affect the chemistry in liquid experiments. Ionising radiation can split water, produce radicals, reduce dissolved metal ions to metal particles, and more...... experiments. During the course of these studies it has also been possible to improve on the EC-SEM system. This has resulted in pyrolysed carbon electrodes, which offer the benefit of stability at 0.75 V higher potentials than traditional gold thin-film electrodes. With the quantitative insight...... microelectrodes on the windows to enable studies of electrohcemical processes. In this way it is possible to perform in-situ electrochemical experiments such as electroplating and charge and discharge analysis of battery electrodes. In a typical liquid cell, electrons are accelerated to sufficiently high energies...

  1. Reverse osmosis membrane allows in situ regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonhomme, N.; Menjeaud, C.; Poyet, C.

    1989-01-01

    The use of mineral membranes on metallic supports has provided a novel solution to the problem of filtration by the reverse osmosis process. A new reverse osmosis membrane is described which is capable of resisting high operational temperatures (120 0 C), fluctuations in pH(3 to 12) and high pressure (100 bar), as well as significant chlorine concentrations. In addition, the membrane can be regenerated in-situ on the same porous metal support. Numerous membranes can thus be used over the multi-year life of the porous support. Moreover, accidental damage to the membrane is of no great consequence as the membrane itself can be easily replaced. The life of the installation can thus be extended and the overall cost of filtration reduced. The membrane's various applications include water and effluent treatment in the nuclear power industry. (author)

  2. In situ vitrification applications to hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liikala, S.

    1989-01-01

    In Situ Vitrification is a new hazardous waste remediation alternative that should be considered for contaminated soil matrices. According to the authors the advantages of using ISV include: technology demonstrated at field scale; applicable to a wide variety of soils and contaminants; pyrolyzer organics and encapsulates inorganics; product durable over geologic time period; no threat of harm to the public from exposure; and applications available for barrier walls and structural support. The use of ISV on a large scale basis has thus far been limited to the nuclear industry but has tremendous potential for widespread applications to the hazardous waste field. With the ever changing regulations for the disposal of hazardous waste in landfills, and the increasing positive analytical data of ISV, the process will become a powerful source for on-site treatment and hazardous waste management needs in the very near future

  3. Refractive regression after laser in situ keratomileusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Mabel K; Chang, John Sm; Chan, Tommy Cy

    2018-04-26

    Uncorrected refractive errors are a leading cause of visual impairment across the world. In today's society, laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) has become the most commonly performed surgical procedure to correct refractive errors. However, regression of the initially achieved refractive correction has been a widely observed phenomenon following LASIK since its inception more than two decades ago. Despite technological advances in laser refractive surgery and various proposed management strategies, post-LASIK regression is still frequently observed and has significant implications for the long-term visual performance and quality of life of patients. This review explores the mechanism of refractive regression after both myopic and hyperopic LASIK, predisposing risk factors and its clinical course. In addition, current preventative strategies and therapies are also reviewed. © 2018 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  4. Permaflood, formation in situ of surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapo, G

    1972-01-01

    The present paper described a new process to produce surfactants in situ in which advantage is taken of the chemical reaction of oxidation in the liquid phase. This process consists of injecting a front of oxidizing agents and reaction compounds, in order to avoid the precipitation of the reaction products and to avoid the interaction between the surfactants produced and the calcium and magnesium in the connate water. Many different types of oxidizing agents as sodium dichromate, hydrogen peroxide, potassium permanganate, sodium hypochlorite, etc., are used. Also, there is considered the use of catalyzers with these oxidizing agents and the variation of the pH of the oxidizing front (permanaganate was the first oxidant used to check the technical and economic possibilities of this process in the laboratory). The process is called Permaflood, so named because potassium permanganate was the first oxidant used to check the technical and economic possibilities of this process in the laboratory.

  5. In situ vitrification of buried waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shade, J.W.; Thompson, L.E.; Kindle, C.H.

    1991-04-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is a remedial technology initially developed to treat soils contaminated with a variety of organics, heavy metals, and/or radioactive materials. Recent tests have indicated the feasibility of applying the process to buried wastes including containers, combustibles, and buried metals. In addition, ISV is being considered for application to the emplacement of barriers and to the vitrification of underground tanks. This report provides a review of some of the recent experiences of applying ISV in engineering-scale and pilot-scale tests to wastes containing organics, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic metals buried in sealed containers, and buried ferrous metals, with emphasis on the characteristics of the vitrified product and adjacent soil. 9 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  6. In-situ trainable intrusion detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Symons, Christopher T.; Beaver, Justin M.; Gillen, Rob; Potok, Thomas E.

    2016-11-15

    A computer implemented method detects intrusions using a computer by analyzing network traffic. The method includes a semi-supervised learning module connected to a network node. The learning module uses labeled and unlabeled data to train a semi-supervised machine learning sensor. The method records events that include a feature set made up of unauthorized intrusions and benign computer requests. The method identifies at least some of the benign computer requests that occur during the recording of the events while treating the remainder of the data as unlabeled. The method trains the semi-supervised learning module at the network node in-situ, such that the semi-supervised learning modules may identify malicious traffic without relying on specific rules, signatures, or anomaly detection.

  7. IN SITU URANIUM STABILIZATION BY MICROBIAL METABOLITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turick, C; Anna Knox, A; Chad L Leverette,C; Yianne Kritzas, Y

    2006-11-29

    Soil contaminated with U was the focus of this study in order to develop in-situ, U bio-immobilization technology. We have demonstrated microbial production of a metal chelating biopolymer, pyomelanin, in U contaminated soil from the Tims Branch area of the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) as a result of tyrosine amendments. Bacterial densities of pyomelanin producers were >106 cells/g wet soil. Pyomelanin demonstrated U chelating and mineral binding capacities at pH 4 and 7. In laboratory studies, in the presence of goethite or illite, pyomelanin enhanced U sequestration by these minerals. Tyrosine amended soils in field tests demonstrated increased U sequestration capacity following pyomelanin production up to 13 months after tyrosine treatments.

  8. In situ erosion of cohesive sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, H.J.; Ockenden, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in tidal power schemes and the effect of a tidal energy barrage on the environment. A large man-made environmental change, such as a barrage, would be expected to have significant effects on the sediment distribution and stability of an estuary and these effects need to be assessed when considering a tidal barrage project. This report describes the development of apparatus for in-situ measurements of cohesive sediment erosion on inter-tidal mudflats. Development of the prototype field erosion bell and field testing was commissioned on behalf of the Department of Trade and Industry by the Energy Technology Support Unit (ETSU). This later work commenced in August 1991 and was completed in September 1992. (Author)

  9. Grout performance in support of in situ grouting of the TH4 tank sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, R.D.; Kauschinger, J.L.; Spence, R.D.

    1999-04-01

    The cold demonstration test proved that less water was required to pump the in situ grout formulation than had been previously tested in the laboratory. The previous in situ grout formulation was restandardized with the same relative amounts of dry blend ingredients, albeit adding a fluidized admixture, but specifying less water for the slurry mix that must by pumped through the nozzles at high pressure. Also, the target GAAT tank for demonstrating this is situ grouting technique has been shifted to Tank TH4. A chemical surrogate sludge for TH4 was developed and tested in the laboratory, meeting expectations for leach resistance and strenght at 35 wt % sludge loading. It addition, a sample of hot TH4 sludge was also tested at 35 wt % sludge loading and proved to have superior strength and leach resistance compared with the surrogate test.

  10. Evaluation of dynamic characteristics of hard rock based on numerical simulations of in situ rock tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagami, Yuya; Ikusada, Koji; Jiang, Yujing

    2009-01-01

    In situ rock tests of hard rock of conglomerate in which discontinuities in high angle are dominant were conducted. In this study, in order to confirm the validity of the test results and the test condition, and in order to elucidate the deformation behaviour and the mechanism of shear strength of the rock mass, the numerical simulations of the in situ rock tests by using distinct element method were performed. As a result, it was clarified that the behaviour of the rock mass strongly depends on both geometrical distribution of discontinuities and those mechanical properties. It is thought that a series of evaluation processes showed in this study contribute to improve the reliability of the dynamic characteristic evaluation of the rock mass. (author)

  11. In-situ burning of spilled oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tennyson, E.J.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation provided an overview of results from the Minerals Management Service's (MMS) funded research on in situ burning of spilled oil. The program began in 1983 to determine the limitations of this innovative response strategies. Specific physical variables evaluated were slick thickness, degree of weathering (sparging), sea state, wind velocities, air and water temperatures, degrees of emulsification and degree of ice-coverage. All of the oils tested burned with 50 to 95 percent removal ratios as long as emulsification had not occurred. Slick thickness of 3mm or thicker were required to sustain ignition and extinguishment occurred when the slick reached approximately 1mm thick. The next phase of the research involved quantitative analysis of the pollutants created by in situ burning including chemical composition of the parent oil, burn residue, and airborne constituents. These studies were conducted at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) with emphasis on particulate, and gaseous components created by the burning process. Research efforts over several years, and a variety of crude oils, yielded data which indicated that aldehydes ketones, dioxans, furans, and polyaromatic compounds (PAHS) were not formed in the burning process. The airborne pollutants reflected similar concentrations of these compounds that were present in the parent oil. Lighter molecular weight PAHs tended to be converted to higher molecular weight compounds. Heavier molecular weight compounds are considered less acutely toxic than lighter molecular weight PAHS. Predominant burn products released into the air were by weight: 75% carbon dioxide, 12% water vapor, 10% soot, 3% carbon monoxide and 0.2% other products including those listed above

  12. PERFORMANCE CONFIRMATION IN-SITU INSTRUMENTATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N.T. Raczka

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify and analyze the types of in-situ instruments and methods that could be used in support of the data acquisition portion of the Performance Confirmation (PC) program at the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The PC program will require geomechanical , geophysical, thermal, and hydrologic instrumentation of several kinds. This analysis is being prepared to document the technical issues associated with each type of measurement during the PC period. This analysis utilizes the ''Performance Confirmation Input Criteria'' (CRWMS M andO 1999a) as its starting point. The scope of this analysis is primarily on the period after the start of waste package emplacement and before permanent closure of the repository, a period lasting between 15 and 300 years after last package emplacement (Stroupe 2000, Attachment 1, p. 1). The primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Review the design criteria as presented in the ''Performance Confirmation Input Criteria'' (CRWMS M andO 1999a). The scope of this analysis will be limited to the instrumentation related to parameters that require continuous monitoring of the conditions underground. (2) Preliminary identification and listing of the data requirements and parameters as related to the current repository layout in support of PC monitoring. (3) Preliminary identification of methods and instrumentation for the acquisition of the required data. Although the ''Performance Confirmation Input Criteria'' (CRWMS M andO 1999a) defines a broad range of data that must be obtained from a variety of methods, the focus of this analysis is on instrumentation related to the performance of the rock mass and the formation of water in the repository environment, that is obtainable from in-situ observation, testing, and monitoring

  13. In Situ Field Testing of Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to update and document the data and subsequent analyses from ambient field-testing activities performed in underground drifts of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). This revision updates data and analyses presented in the initial issue of this AMR. This AMR was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' and ''Technical Work Plan for UZ Flow, Transport, and Coupled Processes Process Model Report. These activities were performed to investigate in situ flow and transport processes. The evaluations provide the necessary framework to: (1) refine and confirm the conceptual model of matrix and fracture processes in the unsaturated zone (UZ) and (2) analyze the impact of excavation (including use of construction water and effect of ventilation) on the UZ flow and transport processes. This AMR is intended to support revisions to ''Conceptual and Numerical Models for UZ Flow and Transport'' and ''Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Process Model Report''. In general, the results discussed in this AMR are from studies conducted using a combination or a subset of the following three approaches: (1) air-injection tests, (2) liquid-release tests, and (3) moisture monitoring using in-drift sensors or in-borehole sensors, to evaluate the impact of excavation, ventilation, and construction-water usage on the surrounding rocks. The liquid-release tests and air-injection tests provide an evaluation of in situ fracture flow and the competing processes of matrix imbibition. Only the findings from testing and data not covered in the ''Seepage Calibration Model and Seepage Testing Data'' are analyzed in detail in the AMR

  14. In situ permeability testing of rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, E.W.; Lagus, P.L.; Broce, R.D.; Lie, K.

    1981-04-01

    Storage of transuranic (TRU) wastes in bedded salt formations requires a knowledge of the in situ permeability of SENM rock salt. Since assumptions for safety assessments have been made in which these wastes could generate gas pressures on the order of the lithostatic pressure over geologic time scales, the permeability of the surrounding formation becomes an important parameter for determining the manner in which the gases will be contained or dispersed. This report describes the series of tests conducted in the AEC-7 borehole, located near the WIPP site, to determine the in situ gas flow characteristics of the bedded salt. In these tests, compressed air was injected into the borehole and flow into the surrounding formation measured. These measured flow rates were interpreted in terms of formation permeabilities and porosities which were, in turn, used as modeling parameters for the repository response analysis. Two series of field tests were performed. The first series consisted of a number of whole-hole flow tests conducted to provide preliminary design information required for future operation of a guarded straddle packer system capable of measuring permeabilities > or = 0.1 μdarcy. The second series of tests were conducted using the Systems, Science and Software (S-Cubed) designed guarded straddle packer system. In these interval permeability tests, 100-foot lengths of borehole were isolated and the flow characteristics of the surrounding formation examined. In this report, a complete description of the test procedures, instrumentation, and measurement techniques is first given. The analytical/numerical methods used for data interpretation are then presented, followed by results of the interval and permeability tests. (The whole-hole tests are summarized in Appendix A.) Conclusions are presented in the final section

  15. In Situ Field Testing of Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Wang

    2001-12-14

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to update and document the data and subsequent analyses from ambient field-testing activities performed in underground drifts of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). This revision updates data and analyses presented in the initial issue of this AMR. This AMR was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' and ''Technical Work Plan for UZ Flow, Transport, and Coupled Processes Process Model Report. These activities were performed to investigate in situ flow and transport processes. The evaluations provide the necessary framework to: (1) refine and confirm the conceptual model of matrix and fracture processes in the unsaturated zone (UZ) and (2) analyze the impact of excavation (including use of construction water and effect of ventilation) on the UZ flow and transport processes. This AMR is intended to support revisions to ''Conceptual and Numerical Models for UZ Flow and Transport'' and ''Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Process Model Report''. In general, the results discussed in this AMR are from studies conducted using a combination or a subset of the following three approaches: (1) air-injection tests, (2) liquid-release tests, and (3) moisture monitoring using in-drift sensors or in-borehole sensors, to evaluate the impact of excavation, ventilation, and construction-water usage on the surrounding rocks. The liquid-release tests and air-injection tests provide an evaluation of in situ fracture flow and the competing processes of matrix imbibition. Only the findings from testing and data not covered in the ''Seepage Calibration Model and Seepage Testing Data'' are analyzed in detail in the AMR.

  16. Low Temperature Regolith Bricks for In-Situ Structural Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Kevin; Sakthivel, Tamil S.; Mantovani, James; Seal, Sudipta

    2016-01-01

    Current technology for producing in-situ structural materials on future missions to Mars or the moon relies heavily on energy-intensive sintering processes to produce solid bricks from regolith. This process requires heating the material up to temperatures in excess of 1000 C and results in solid regolith pieces with compressive strengths in the range of 14000 to 28000 psi, but are heavily dependent on the porosity of the final material and are brittle. This method is currently preferred over a low temperature cementation process to prevent consumption of precious water and other non-renewable materials. A high strength structural material with low energy requirements is still needed for future colonization of other planets. To fulfill these requirements, a nano-functionalization process has been developed to produce structural bricks from regolith simulant and shows promising mechanical strength results. Functionalization of granular silicate particles into alkoxides using a simple low temperature chemical process produces a high surface area zeolite particles that are held together via inter-particle oxygen bonding. Addition of water in the resulting zeolite particles produces a sol-gel reaction called "inorganic polymerization" which gives a strong solid material after a curing process at 60 C. The aqueous solution by-product of the reaction is currently being investigated for its reusability; an essential component of any ISRU technology. For this study, two batches of regolith bricks are synthesized from JSC-1A; the first batch from fresh solvents and chemicals, the second batch made from the water solution by-product of the first batch. This is done to determine the feasibility of recycling necessary components of the synthesis process, mainly water. Characterization including BET surface area, SEM, and EDS has been done on the regolith bricks as well as the constituent particles,. The specific surface area of 17.53 sq m/g (average) of the granular regolith

  17. Solution (in situ leach) mining of uranium: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhaida, A.J. Jr.; Kelly, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    Increases in the demand for and price of uranium have made in-situ mining an attractive alternative to the open-pit and underground U mining methods. Up to 50% of the known ore-bearing sandstone in the western U.S. can be mined using the in-situ mining method. In-situ mining also offers a significant environmental advantage. Restoration of the contaminated groundwater is discussed

  18. In-situ gelling polymers for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the research involving in situ gelling polymers and can be used as a guidebook for academics, industrialists and postgraduates interested in this area. This work summaries the academic contributions from the top authorities in the field and explore the fundamental principles of in situ gelling polymeric networks, along with examples of their major applications. This book aims to provide an up-to-date resource of in situ gelling polymer research.

  19. IN-SITU TRITIUM BETA DETECTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthold, J.W.; Jeffers, L.A.

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of this three-phase project were to design, develop, and demonstrate a monitoring system capable of detecting and quantifying tritium in situ in ground and surface waters, and in water from effluent lines prior to discharge into public waterways. The tritium detection system design is based on measurement of the low energy beta radiation from the radioactive decay of tritium using a special form of scintillating optical fiber directly in contact with the water to be measured. The system consists of the immersible sensor module containing the optical fiber, and an electronics package, connected by an umbilical cable. The system can be permanently installed for routine water monitoring in wells or process or effluent lines, or can be moved from one location to another for survey use. The electronics will read out tritium activity directly in units of pico Curies per liter, with straightforward calibration. In Phase 1 of the project, we characterized the sensitivity of fluor-doped plastic optical fiber to tritium beta radiation. In addition, we characterized the performance of photomultiplier tubes needed for the system. In parallel with this work, we defined the functional requirements, target specifications, and system configuration for an in situ tritium beta detector that would use the fluor-doped fibers as primary sensors of tritium concentration in water. The major conclusions from the characterization work are: A polystyrene optical fiber with fluor dopant concentration of 2% gave best performance. This fiber had the highest dopant concentration of any fibers tested. Stability may be a problem. The fibers exposed to a 22-day soak in 120 F water experienced a 10x reduction in sensitivity. It is not known whether this was due to the build up of a deposit (a potentially reversible effect) or an irreversible process such as leaching of the scintillating dye. Based on the results achieved, it is premature to initiate Phase 2 and commit to a prototype

  20. IN-SITU TRITIUM BETA DETECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.W. Berthold; L.A. Jeffers

    1998-04-15

    The objectives of this three-phase project were to design, develop, and demonstrate a monitoring system capable of detecting and quantifying tritium in situ in ground and surface waters, and in water from effluent lines prior to discharge into public waterways. The tritium detection system design is based on measurement of the low energy beta radiation from the radioactive decay of tritium using a special form of scintillating optical fiber directly in contact with the water to be measured. The system consists of the immersible sensor module containing the optical fiber, and an electronics package, connected by an umbilical cable. The system can be permanently installed for routine water monitoring in wells or process or effluent lines, or can be moved from one location to another for survey use. The electronics will read out tritium activity directly in units of pico Curies per liter, with straightforward calibration. In Phase 1 of the project, we characterized the sensitivity of fluor-doped plastic optical fiber to tritium beta radiation. In addition, we characterized the performance of photomultiplier tubes needed for the system. In parallel with this work, we defined the functional requirements, target specifications, and system configuration for an in situ tritium beta detector that would use the fluor-doped fibers as primary sensors of tritium concentration in water. The major conclusions from the characterization work are: A polystyrene optical fiber with fluor dopant concentration of 2% gave best performance. This fiber had the highest dopant concentration of any fibers tested. Stability may be a problem. The fibers exposed to a 22-day soak in 120 F water experienced a 10x reduction in sensitivity. It is not known whether this was due to the build up of a deposit (a potentially reversible effect) or an irreversible process such as leaching of the scintillating dye. Based on the results achieved, it is premature to initiate Phase 2 and commit to a prototype

  1. Experimental Measurement of In Situ Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbo, Maria; Milkereit, Bernd; Nasseri, Farzine; Schmitt, Douglas; Young, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The World Stress Map data is determined by stress indicators including earthquake focal mechanisms, in situ measurement in mining, oil and gas boreholes as well as the borehole cores, and geologic data. Unfortunately, these measurements are not only infrequent but sometimes infeasible, and do not provide nearly enough data points with high accuracy to correctly infer stress fields in deep mines around the world. Improvements in stress measurements of Earth's crust is fundamental to several industries such as oil and gas, mining, nuclear waste management, and enhanced geothermal systems. Quantifying the state of stress and the geophysical properties of different rock types is a major complication in geophysical monitoring of deep mines. Most stress measurement techniques involve either the boreholes or their cores, however these measurements usually only give stress along one axis, not the complete stress tensor. The goal of this project is to investigate a new method of acquiring a complete stress tensor of the in situ stress in the Earth's crust. This project is part of a comprehensive, exploration geophysical study in a deep, highly stressed mine located in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, and focuses on two boreholes located in this mine. These boreholes are approximately 400 m long with NQ diameters and are located at depths of about 1300 - 1600 m and 1700 - 2000 m. Two borehole logging surveys were performed on both boreholes, October 2013 and July 2015, in order to perform a time-lapse analysis of the geophysical changes in the mine. These multi-parameter surveys include caliper, full waveform sonic, televiewer, chargeability (IP), and resistivity. Laboratory experiments have been performed on borehole core samples of varying geologies from each borehole. These experiments have measured the geophysical properties including elastic modulus, bulk modulus, P- and S-wave velocities, and density. The apparatus' used for this project are geophysical imaging cells capable

  2. Development of in-situ rock shear test under low compressive to tensile normal stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, Takashi; Shin, Koichi

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an in-situ rock shear testing method to evaluate the shear strength under low normal stress condition including tensile stress, which is usually ignored in the assessment of safety factor of the foundations for nuclear power plants against sliding. The results are as follows. (1) A new in-situ rock shear testing method is devised, in which tensile normal stress can be applied on the shear plane of a specimen by directly pulling up a steel box bonded to the specimen. By applying the counter shear load to cancel the moment induced by the main shear load, it can obtain shear strength under low normal stress. (2) Some model tests on Oya tuff and diatomaceous mudstone have been performed using the developed test method. The shear strength changed smoothly from low values at tensile normal stresses to higher values at compressive normal stresses. The failure criterion has been found to be bi-linear on the shear stress vs normal stress plane. (author)

  3. Deformation and recrystallization of Nb-10Si in-situ composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saqib, M.; Thirukkonda, M.; Cockeram, B.; Srinivasan, R.; Weiss, I.

    1993-01-01

    Materials for elevated temperature applications require a balance of strength, fracture toughness, mechanical and microstructural stability over the temperature range between room temperature and service temperatures which are expected to exceed 1,200 C, as well as oxidation and creep resistance. Recent trends indicate that Carbon/Carbon and Ceramic/Ceramic Composites do not meet all of these requirements. For example, carbon/carbon composites have good strength to density ratio, but inherently possess poor oxidation resistance, and SiC/SiC composites ha e excellent oxidation resistance, but are brittle over the entire temperature range of their stability. Ductile phase toughened composites with refractory intermetallic matrices are attractive alternatives. At service temperatures of about 1,200 C, most of the applied load will be carried by the intermetallic matrix phase, while the ductile (metallic) phase increases toughness by impeding crack propagation. As compared to other materials with potential for elevated temperature applications, mentioned above, these materials provide a better combination of elevated temperature strength and room temperature fracture toughness. Nb 10 a/o Si is a model material for ductile phase toughened in situ composites. In the as-cast condition the microstructure contains both the ductile metallic niobium phase and the continuous inter-metallic Nb 3 Si phase. The microstructure of this in situ composite can be tailored by thermomechanical processing (TMP). The changes in the morphology and spacing of the phases, and microstructural refinement following TMP, have been shown to improve the fracture toughness of the alloy. as compared to the as-cast material. Therefore, understanding of the deformation behavior and the mechanisms of recovery and recrystallization are of great importance in tailoring the microstructure of in situ composites by TMP

  4. Attitude Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Lauren C; Krosnick, Jon A

    2017-01-03

    Attitude strength has been the focus of a huge volume of research in psychology and related sciences for decades. The insights offered by this literature have tremendous value for understanding attitude functioning and structure and for the effective application of the attitude concept in applied settings. This is the first Annual Review of Psychology article on the topic, and it offers a review of theory and evidence regarding one of the most researched strength-related attitude features: attitude importance. Personal importance is attached to an attitude when the attitude is perceived to be relevant to self-interest, social identification with reference groups or reference individuals, and values. Attaching personal importance to an attitude causes crystallizing of attitudes (via enhanced resistance to change), effortful gathering and processing of relevant information, accumulation of a large store of well-organized relevant information in long-term memory, enhanced attitude extremity and accessibility, enhanced attitude impact on the regulation of interpersonal attraction, energizing of emotional reactions, and enhanced impact of attitudes on behavioral intentions and action. Thus, important attitudes are real and consequential psychological forces, and their study offers opportunities for addressing behavioral change.

  5. In situ Raman spectroscopy studies of bulk and surface metal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Wachs, I.E.; Jehng, J.M.; Deo, G.; Guliants, V.V.; Benziger, J.B.

    1996-01-01

    Bulk V-P-O and model supported vanadia catalysts were investigated with in situ Raman spectroscopy during n-butane oxidation to maleic anhydride in order to determine the fundamental molecular structure-reactivity/selectivity insights that can be obtained from such experiments. The in situ Raman

  6. In situ investigation of catalysts for alcohol synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duchstein, Linus Daniel Leonhard; Sharafutdinov, Irek; Wu, Qiongxiao

    consists of three complimentary in situ techniques: (1) Activity measurements based on a reactor connected to a gas chromatograph (GC), (2) In situ x-ray diffractometer (XRD) measurements based on a reactor cell connected to a mass spectrometer (MS), and (3) environmental TEM (ETEM) that allows...... distribution, measured both macroscopically (XRD) and microscopically (ETEM), with the catalytic activity....

  7. Development of the integrated in situ Lasagna process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, S.; Athmer, C.; Sheridan, P.

    1995-01-01

    Contamination in deep, low permeability soils poses a significant technical challenge to in-situ remediation efforts. Poor accessibility to the contaminants and difficulty in uniform delivery of treatment reagents have rendered existing in-situ methods such as bioremediation, vapor extraction, and pump and treat rather ineffective when applied to low permeability soils present at many contaminated sites

  8. Development of an in situ polymeric hydrogel implant of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To prepare and characterize in situ gel-forming implants of methylprednisolone for the treatment of spinal cord injuries. Methods: In situ hydrogels of methylprednisolone were prepared by dispersing polylactide glycolic acid (PLGA) polymer and methylprednisolone in N-methyl-pyrrolidone solvent, and subsequent ...

  9. An overview of in situ waste treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, S.; Hyde, R.A.; Piper, R.B.; Roy, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    In situ technologies are becoming an attractive remedial alternative for eliminating environmental problems. In situ treatments typically reduce risks and costs associated with retrieving, packaging, and storing or disposing-waste and are generally preferred over ex situ treatments. Each in situ technology has specific applications, and, in order to provide the most economical and practical solution to a waste problem, these applications must be understood. This paper presents an overview of thirty different in situ remedial technologies for buried wastes or contaminated soil areas. The objective of this paper is to familiarize those involved in waste remediation activities with available and emerging in situ technologies so that they may consider these options in the remediation of hazardous and/or radioactive waste sites. Several types of in situ technologies are discussed, including biological treatments, containment technologies, physical/chemical treatments, solidification/stabilization technologies, and thermal treatments. Each category of in situ technology is briefly examined in this paper. Specific treatments belonging to these categories are also reviewed. Much of the information on in situ treatment technologies in this paper was obtained directly from vendors and universities and this information has not been verified

  10. An expert support model for in situ soil remediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okx, J.P.; Stein, A.

    2000-01-01

    This article presents an expert support model for in situ soil remediation. It combines knowledge and experiences obtained from previous in situ soil remediations. The aim of this model is to optimise knowledge transfer among the various parties involved in contaminated site management. Structured

  11. Some implications of in situ uranium mining technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, C.E.; Parkhurst, M.A.; Cole, R.J.; Keller, D.; Mellinger, P.J.; Wallace, R.W.

    1980-09-01

    A technology assessment was initiated in March 1979 of the in-situ uranium mining technology. This report explores the impediments to development and deployment of this technology and evaluates the environmental impacts of a generic in-situ facility. The report is divided into the following sections: introduction, technology description, physical environment, institutional and socioeconomic environment, impact assessment, impediments, and conclusions

  12. In Situ Bioremediation of Energetic Compounds in Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    negligible. Thus, this project clearly shows that in situ bioremediation of explosives in groundwater using active-passive cosubstrate addition can...Arlington, NJ, offices), the National Research Council (NRC) Biotechnology Research Institute (Montreal, Canada) and the Environmental Technology...NDAB are unlikely to accumulate during in situ anaerobic bioremediation explosives using cheese whey as a cosubstrate. 7.4 ADEQUATE DISTRIBUTION OF

  13. Comparison of in situ nutrient degradabilities of alternative by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    level of inclusion in the concentrate portion of lactating dairy cattle diets, ... Two rumen fistulated multiparous lactating Holstein cows were used for the in situ study. ... vitamins. Feeds were offered twice daily at 09:00 and 18:00. The in situ bag ...

  14. paediatric ureteric calculi: in-situ extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective To evaluate prospectively the efficacy of in-situ extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) in the treatment of ureteric calculi in the paediatric age group. Patients and Methods Twenty children (aged 2.2 16 years) with 22 ureteric stones were evaluated and treated with in-situ ESWL using the Dornier S lithotripter ...

  15. Challenges in subsurface in situ remediation of chlorinated solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, Mette Martina; Fjordbøge, Annika Sidelmann; Christiansen, Camilla Maymann

    2014-01-01

    Chlorinated solvent source zones in the subsurface pose a continuous threat to groundwater quality at many sites worldwide. In situ remediation of these sites is particularly challenging in heterogeneous fractured media and where the solvents are present as DNAPL. In situ remediation by chemical...

  16. Incomplete copolymer degradation of in situ chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdillon, Pierre; Boissenot, Tanguy; Goldwirt, Lauriane; Nicolas, Julien; Apra, Caroline; Carpentier, Alexandre

    2018-02-17

    In situ carmustine wafers containing 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) are commonly used for the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma to overcome the brain-blood barrier. In theory, this chemotherapy diffuses into the adjacent parenchyma and the excipient degrades in maximum 8 weeks but no clinical data confirms this evolution, because patients are rarely operated again. A 75-year-old patient was operated twice for recurrent glioblastoma, and a carmustine wafer was implanted during the second surgery. Eleven months later, a third surgery was performed, revealing unexpected incomplete degradation of the wafer. 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance was performed to compare this wafer to pure BCNU and to an unused copolymer wafer. In the used wafer, peaks corresponding to hydrophobic units of the excipient were no longer noticeable, whereas peaks of the hydrophilic units and traces of BCNU were still present. These surprising results could be related to the formation of a hydrophobic membrane around the wafer, thus interfering with the expected diffusion and degradation processes. The clinical benefit of carmustine wafers in addition to the standard radio-chemotherapy remains limited, and in vivo behavior of this treatment is not completely elucidated yet. We found that the wafer may remain after several months. Alternative strategies to deal with the blood-brain barrier, such as drug-loaded liposomes or ultrasound-opening, must be explored to offer larger drug diffusion or allow repetitive delivery.

  17. Backfilling of deposition tunnels, in situ alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keto, P.

    2007-04-01

    The backfilling process described in this report is based on in situ compaction of a mixture of bentonite and ballast (30:70) into the deposition tunnel. This method has been tested in practice in various field tests by SKB, most recently in the Prototype repository test performed at Aespoe HRL. The backfill mixture is prepared above ground and transported to the repository level with a tank truck. The material is compacted into layers with an inclination of 35 deg C and a thickness of approximately 20 cm. The compaction is performed with a vibratory plate attached to a boom of an excavator. In order to keep up with the required canister installation rate determined for the Finnish repository, at least 13 layers need to be compacted daily. This means working in 2-3 shifts on the working days that are available for backfilling operations. The dry densities achieved in field tests for the wall/roof section of the backfill have been insufficient compared with the dry density criteria set for the backfill. In theory, it may be possible to reach dry densities that fulfil the criteria, although with a relatively small safety margin. Another open issue is whether the mixture of bentonite and ballast has sufficient self-healing ability to seal-off erosion channels after the tunnels have been closed and the backfill has reached full saturation. (orig.)

  18. Enhancing in situ bioremediation with pneumatic fracturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.B.; Peyton, B.M.; Liskowitz, J.L.; Fitzgerald, C.; Schuring, J.R.

    1994-04-01

    A major technical obstacle affecting the application of in situ bioremediation is the effective distribution of nutrients to the subsurface media. Pneumatic fracturing can increase the permeability of subsurface formations through the injection of high pressure air to create horizontal fracture planes, thus enhancing macro-scale mass-transfer processes. Pneumatic fracturing technology was demonstrated at two field sites at Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Tests were performed to increase the permeability for more effective bioventing, and evaluated the potential to increase permeability and recovery of free product in low permeability soils consisting of fine grain silts, clays, and sedimentary rock. Pneumatic fracturing significantly improved formation permeability by enhancing secondary permeability and by promoting removal of excess soil moisture from the unsaturated zone. Postfracture airflows were 500% to 1,700% higher than prefracture airflows for specific fractured intervals in the formation. This corresponds to an average prefracturing permeability of 0.017 Darcy, increasing to an average of 0.32 Darcy after fracturing. Pneumatic fracturing also increased free-product recovery rates of number 2 fuel from an average of 587 L (155 gal) per month before fracturing to 1,647 L (435 gal) per month after fracturing

  19. In situ vitrification on buried waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, S.O.

    1992-01-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is being evaluated as a remedial treatment technology for buried mixed and transuranic (TRU) wastes at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and can be related to buried wastes at other Department of Energy (DOE) sites. There are numerous locations around the DOE Complex where wastes were buried in the ground or stored for future burial. The Buried Waste Program (BWP) is conducting a comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the Department of Energy - Field Office Idaho (DOE-ID). As part of the RI/FS, an ISV scoping study on the treatability of the SDA mixed low-level and mixed TRU waste is being performed for applicability to remediation of the waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The ISV project being conducted at the INEL by EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc. consists of a treatability investigation to collect data to satisfy nine CERCLA criteria with regards to the SDA. This treatability investigation involves a series of experiments and related efforts to study the feasibility of ISV for remediation of mixed and TRU waste disposed of at the SDA

  20. In situ grouting of buried transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, B.P.; Lee, S.Y.

    1987-01-01

    This task is a demonstration and evaluation of the in situ hydrologic stabilization of buried transuranic waste at a humid site via grout injection. Two small trenches, containing buried transuranic waste, were filled with 34,000 liters of polyacrylamide grout. Initial field results have indicated that voids within the trenches were totally filled by the grout and that the intratrench hydraulic conductivity was reduced to below field-measurable values. The grout was also completely contained within the two trenches as no grout constituents were observed in the 12 perimeter ground water monitoring wells. Polyacrylamide grout was selected for field demonstration over polyacrylate grout because of its superior performance in laboratory degradation studies. Also supporting the selection of polyacrylamide was the difficulty of controlling the set time of the acrylate polymerization process in the presence of potassium ferricyanide. Based on preliminary degradation monitoring, polyacrylamide was estimated to have a microbiological half-life of 115 years in the test soil. However, this calculated value is likely to be conservatively low because microbial degradation of the grout set accelerator or residual monomer may be contributing most to the measured microbial respiration. Addition work, using 14 C-labeled acrylate and acrylamide grouts, is being carried out to more accurately estimate the grouts' microbiological half-life

  1. Innovative technologies for in-situ remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragaini, R.; Aines, R.; Knapp, R.; Matthews, S.; Yow, J.

    1994-06-01

    LLNL is developing several innovative remediation technologies as long-term improvements to the current pump and treat approaches to cleaning up contaminated soils and groundwater. These technologies include dynamic underground stripping, in-situ microbial filters, and remediation using bremsstrahlung radiation. Concentrated underground organic contaminant plumes are one of the most prevalent groundwater contamination sources. The solvent or fuel can percolate deep into the earth, often into water-bearing regions. Collecting as a separate, liquid organic phase called dense non-aqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLs), or light NAPLs (LNAPLs), these contaminants provide a source term that continuously compromises surrounding groundwater. This type of spill is one of the most difficult environmental problems to remediate. Attempts to remove such material requires a huge amount of water which must be washed through the system to clean it, requiring decades. Traditional pump and treat approaches have not been successful. LLNL has developed several innovative technologies to clean up NAPL contamination. Detailed descriptions of these technologies are given

  2. In Situ Immobilization of Selenium in Sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Robert C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stewart, Thomas Austin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This project focused on the use of a sorbent, carbonated apatite, to immobilize selenium in the environment. It is know that apatite will sorb selenium and based on the mechanism of sorption it is theorized that carbonated apatite will be more effective that pure apatite. Immobilization of selenium in the environment is through the use of a sorbent in a permeable reactive barrier (PRB). A PRB can be constructed by trenching and backfill with the sorbent or in the case of apatite as the sorbent formed in situ using the apatite forming solution of Moore (2003, 2004). There is very little data on selenium sorption by carbonated apatite in the literature. Therefore, in this work, the basic sorptive properties of carbonated apatite were investigated. Carbonated apatite was synthesized by a precipitation method and characterized. Batch selenium kinetic and equilibrium experiments were performed. The results indicate the carbonated apatite contained 9.4% carbonate and uptake of selenium as selenite was rapid; 5 hours for complete uptake of selenium vs. more than 100 hours for pure hydroxyapatite reported in the literature. Additionally, the carbonated apatite exhibited significantly higher distribution coefficients in equilibrium experiments than pure apatite under similar experimental conditions. The next phase of this work will be to seek additional funds to continue the research with the goal of eventually demonstrating the technology in a field application.

  3. In situ biodenitrification of nitrate surface water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, G.C.; Ballew, M.B.

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project has successfully operated a full-scale in situ biodenitrification system to treat water with elevated nitrate levels in abandoned raffinate pits. Bench- and pilot-scale studies were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of the process and to support its full-scale design and application. Bench testing evaluated variables that would influence development of an active denitrifying biological culture. The variables were carbon source, phosphate source, presence and absence of raffinate sludge, addition of a commercially available denitrifying microbial culture, and the use of a microbial growth medium. Nitrate levels were reduced from 750 mg/L NO 3 -N to below 10 mg/L NO 3 -N within 17 days. Pilot testing simulated the full-scale process to determine if nitrate levels could be reduced to less than 10 mg/L NO 3 -N when high levels are present below the sludge surface. Four separate test systems were examined along with two control systems. Nitrates were reduced from 1,200 mg/L NO 3 -N to below 2 mg/L NO 3 -N within 21 days. Full-scale operation has been initiated to denitrify 900,000-gal batches alternating between two 1-acre ponds. The process used commercially available calcium acetate solution and monosodium/disodium phosphate solution as a nutrient source for indigenous microorganisms to convert nitrates to molecular nitrogen and water

  4. In situ vitrification: Process and products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindle, C.; Koegler, S.

    1991-06-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is an electrically powered thermal treatment process that converts soil into a chemically inert and stable glass and crystalline product. It is similar in concept to bringing a simplified glass manufacturing process to a site and operating it in the ground, using the soil as a glass feed stock. Gaseous emissions are contained, scrubbed, and filtered. When the process is completed, the molten volume cools producing a block of glass and crystalline material that resembles natural obsidian commingled with crystalline phases. The product passes US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) leach resistance tests, and it can be classified as nonhazardous from a chemical hazard perspective. ISV was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) for application to contaminated soils. It is also being adapted for applications to buried waste, underground tanks, and liquid seepage sites. ISV's then-year development period has included tests on many different site conditions. As of January 1991 there have been 74 tests using PNL's ISV equipment; these tests have ranged from technology development tests using nonhazardous conditions to hazardous and radioactive tests. 2 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

  5. Assessment of a biological in situ remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuerdemann, H.; Lund, N.C.; Gudehus, G.

    1995-01-01

    A field experiment using a bioventing technique has been conducted at the center of contamination at a former gasworks site for 3 years. The emphasis of this investigation is to determine the efficiency of in situ remediation. Due to an extremely heterogeneous distribution of contamination it was impossible to satisfactorily quantify the reduction of hydrocarbons. However, a comparison of highly contaminated soil samples shows a qualitative alteration. The analyses of pollutant composition reveal a significant decrease of low condensed PAHs up to anthracene. The relative increase of high condensed PAHs in the contaminant composition indicates a PAH degradation of 54%. Soil respiration is used to assess the course of remediation. Continuous monitoring of O 2 and CO 2 in the used air leads to an amount of about 2,400 kg of decomposed organics. Large-scale elution tests show a reduction of the sum parameters for the organic pollution of the flushing water of 80%. The PAHs have dropped about 97%. The Microtox test indicates a detoxification of 98%

  6. In-situ combustion with solvent injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Silva, J.; Kakade, G. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)]|[Maharashtra Inst. of Technology, Pune (India)

    2008-10-15

    The effects of combining in situ combustion and heavy hydrocarbon naphtha vapor injection techniques in a heavy oil reservoir were investigated. Oil production rates and steam injection efficiencies were considered. The technique was also combined with toe-to-heel air injection (THAI) processes. The study showed that the modified THAI process achieved high rates of recovery for both primary production and as a follow-up technique in partially depleted reservoirs after cyclic steam and cold production. Oil produced using the modified THAI technique was also partially upgraded by the process. Results of the vapour chamber pressure calculations showed that the volume of oil produced by naphtha assisted gravity drainage was between 1 to 3 times higher than amounts of oil produced by SAGD processes during the same amount of time. The naphtha injection process produced more oil than the steam only process. However, high amounts of naphtha were needed to produce oil. Injection and production rates during the naphtha injection process were higher. Naphtha vapor was injected near the heel of a horizontal producer well. The vapor acted as a thermal and diluent mechanism in order to reduce the viscosity of the heavy oil . 9 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.

  7. Effect of Ag micro-alloying on the microstructure and properties of Cu-14Fe in situ composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, K.M.; Lu, D.P.; Zhou, H.T.; Atrens, A.; Zou, J.; Yang, Y.L.; Zeng, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper studied Ag micro-alloying in the deformation-processed Cu-14Fe in situ composite, by a comparison of Cu-14Fe and Cu-14Fe-0.06Ag. Each alloy was prepared by casting and processed into an in situ composite by hot and cold working. The microstructures were documented using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanical properties were measured with a tensile-testing machine. The electrical conductivity was measured with a micro-ohmmeter. For both alloys, the as-cast microstructure consisted of a Cu matrix and Fe dendrites; after hot and cold working the microstructure consisted of a Cu matrix containing Fe fibres elongated in the working direction. The as-cast Ag-containing alloy contained finer Fe dendrites. The Ag-containing in situ composite had thinner Fe fibres, higher tensile strength, higher ductility, and higher conductivity. The cold worked Cu-14Fe-0.06Ag in situ composite with cumulative cold deformation strain η = 7.8 (where η = ln(A 0 /A) and A 0 and A are the original and final cross-section areas, respectively), achieved a tensile strength of 930 MPa and a conductivity of 56%IACS (International Annealed Copper Standard; 17.241 nΩ m is defined as 100%IACS). The Ag micro-alloyed in situ composite had a combination of properties comparable to that of a much more expensive alloy containing much more Ag. After 1 h heat treatment at 300 deg. C, the tensile strength was increased to 950 MPa and the conductivity was increased to 56.4%IACS.

  8. PROSCARA Inc. in-situ burning summary paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    In-situ burning as a viable response tactic in the event of an oil spill, was discussed. Key factors which influence a decision to use burning were enumerated, including a detailed analysis of the environmental effects of in-situ burning on soils. The critical parameters were time, soil heating and extent of oil penetration into the soil. It was noted that on water-saturated and frozen soil in-situ burning had no adverse effects. The advantages and disadvantages of in-situ burning vis-a-vis conventional mechanical recovery were discussed. Factors that do, and factors that do not support decisions in favour of in-situ burning were listed. 4 refs., 2 tabs

  9. Comparison of Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization and Chromogenic In Situ Hybridization for Low and High Throughput HER2 Genetic Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Tim S; Espersen, Maiken Lise Marcker; Kofoed, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    cancer patients with HER2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) results scored as 0/1+, 2+, and 3+. HER2 genetic status was analysed using chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Scoring results were documented through digital image analysis. The cancer region...

  10. In situ observation and neutron diffraction of NiTi powder sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Gang; Liss, Klaus-Dieter; Cao, Peng

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated NiTi powder sintering behaviour from elemental powder mixtures of Ni/Ti and Ni/TiH 2 using in situ neutron diffraction and in situ scanning electron microscopy. The sintered porous alloys have open porosities ranging from 2.7% to 36.0%. In comparison to the Ni/Ti compact, dehydrogenation occurring in the Ni/TiH 2 compact leads to less densification yet higher chemical homogenization only after high-temperature sintering. For the first time, direct evidence of the eutectoid phase transformation of NiTi at 620 °C is reported by in situ neutron diffraction. A comparative study of cyclic stress–strain behaviours of the porous NiTi alloys made from Ni/Ti and Ni/TiH 2 compacts indicate that the samples sintered from the Ni/TiH 2 compact exhibited a much higher porosity, larger pore size, lower fracture strength, lower close-to-overall porosity ratio and lower Young’s modulus. Instead of enhanced densification by the use of TiH 2 as reported in the literature, this study shows an adverse effect of TiH 2 on powder densification in NiTi

  11. TEM in situ micropillar compression tests of ion irradiated oxide dispersion strengthened alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, K.H., E-mail: kaylayano@u.boisestate.edu [Boise State University, 1910 University Drive, Boise, ID, 83725 (United States); Swenson, M.J. [Boise State University, 1910 University Drive, Boise, ID, 83725 (United States); Wu, Y. [Boise State University, 1910 University Drive, Boise, ID, 83725 (United States); Center for Advanced Energy Studies, 995 University Blvd, Idaho Falls, ID, 83401 (United States); Wharry, J.P. [Boise State University, 1910 University Drive, Boise, ID, 83725 (United States); Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2017-01-15

    The growing role of charged particle irradiation in the evaluation of nuclear reactor candidate materials requires the development of novel methods to assess mechanical properties in near-surface irradiation damage layers just a few micrometers thick. In situ transmission electron microscopic (TEM) mechanical testing is one such promising method. In this work, microcompression pillars are fabricated from a Fe{sup 2+} ion irradiated bulk specimen of a model Fe-9%Cr oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloy. Yield strengths measured directly from TEM in situ compression tests are within expected values, and are consistent with predictions based on the irradiated microstructure. Measured elastic modulus values, once adjusted for the amount of deformation and deflection in the base material, are also within the expected range. A pillar size effect is only observed in samples with minimum dimension ≤100 nm due to the low inter-obstacle spacing in the as received and irradiated material. TEM in situ micropillar compression tests hold great promise for quantitatively determining mechanical properties of shallow ion-irradiated layers.

  12. In-Situ Characterization of Deformation and Fracture Behavior of Hot-Rolled Medium Manganese Lightweight Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zheng-zhi; Cao, Rong-hua; Liang, Ju-hua; Li, Feng; Li, Cheng; Yang, Shu-feng

    2018-02-01

    The deformation and fracture behavior of hot-rolled medium manganese lightweight (0.32C-3.85Mn-4.18Al-1.53Si) steel was revealed by an in situ tensile test. Deformed δ-ferrite with plenty of cross-parallel deformation bands during in situ tensile tests provides δ-ferrite of good plasticity and ductility, although it is finally featured by the cleavage fracture. The soft and ductile δ-ferrite and high-volume fraction of austenite contribute to the superior mechanical properties of medium manganese lightweight steel heated at 800°C, with a tensile strength of 924 MPa, total elongation of 35.2% and product of the strength and elongation of 32.5 GPa %.

  13. MENDING THE IN SITU MANIPULATION BARRIER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PETERSEN, S.W.

    2006-02-06

    In early 2004, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland and Fluor Hanford requested technical assistance from the DOE Headquarters EM-23 Technical Assistance Program to provide a team of technical experts to develop recommendations for mending the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) Barrier in the 100-D Area of the Hanford Site in Washington State. To accommodate this request, EM-23 provided support to convene a group of technical experts from industry, a national laboratory, and a DOE site to participate in a 2 1/2-day workshop with the objective of identifying and recommending options to enhance the performance of the 100-D Area reactive barrier and of a planned extension to the northeast. This report provides written documentation of the team's findings and recommendations. In 1995, a plume of dissolved hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], which resulted from operation of the D/DR Reactors at the Hanford site, was discovered along the Columbia River shoreline and in the 100-D Area. Between 1999 and 2003, a reactive barrier using the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) technology, was installed a distance of 680 meters along the river to reduce the Cr(VI) in the groundwater. The ISRM technology creates a treatment zone within the aquifer by injection of sodium dithionite, a strong reducing agent that scavenges dissolved oxygen (DO) from the aquifer and reduces ferric iron [Fe(III)], related metals, and oxy-ions. The reduction of Fe(III) to ferrous [Fe(II)] iron provides the primary reduction capacity to reduce Cr(VI) to the +3 state, which is less mobile and less toxic. Bench-scale and field-scale treatability tests were initially conducted to demonstrate proof-of principle and to provide data for estimation of barrier longevity. These calculations estimated barrier longevity in excess of twenty years. However, several years after initial and secondary treatment, groundwater in a number of wells has been found to contain elevated chromium (Cr) concentrations

  14. Environmental monitoring with in-situ gamma spectrometer; Umweltueberwachung mit in-situ-Gamma-Spektrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, S. [ENVINET GmbH, Haar (Germany)

    2014-01-20

    The in-situ gamma spectroscopy allows large area and continuous monitoring of the radio nuclides and there composition in the environment. In comparison to the gamma dose rate measurement the additional spectral information gives the possibility for a quick and effective action in the case of a man-made radiation exposition in the environment. The knowledge respectively localization of the possible nuclides, which a responsible for the increased dose rate, supports responsible organization in the quick identification of the situation, definition of the actions and tracking of the temporal and local process of the radiation exposition. Due to dedicate actions the risk for people and environment is reduced.

  15. IN SITU MEASUREMENT OF BEDROCK EROSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Rieke-Zapp

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available While long term erosion rates of bedrock material may be estimated by dating methods, current day erosion rates are – if at all available – based on rough estimates or on point measurements. Precise quantification of short term erosion rates are required to improve our understanding of short term processes, for input in landscape evolution models, as well as for studying the mechanics and efficiency of different erosion processes in varying geomorphological settings. Typical current day erosion rates in the European Alps range from sub-millimetre to several millimetres per year depending on the dominant erosion processes. The level of surveying accuracy required for recurring sub-millimetre to millimetre measurements in the field is demanding. A novel surveying setup for in-situ measurement of bedrock erosion was tested recently in three different locations in Switzerland. Natural bedrock was investigated in the Gornera gorge close to Zermatt. Further on, bedrock samples were installed in exposed locations in the Erlenbach research watershed close to Einsiedeln, and in the Illgraben debris flow channel, located in the Canton Schwyz and Valais, respectively. A twofold measurement approach was chosen for all locations. For the first setup control points providing an absolute reference frame for recurrent measurements were embedded close to the area of interest. Close range photogrammetry was applied to measure surface changes on the bedrock samples. The precision for surface measurements in the field was 0.1 mm (1 σ and thus suitable for the application. The equipment needed for the surveys can easily be carried to the field. At one field site a structured light scanner was used along with the photogrammetric setup. Although the current generation of structured light scanners appeared less suitable for field application, data acquisition was much faster and checking the data for completeness in the field was straight forward. The latest

  16. High Fidelity In Situ Shoulder Dystocia Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Pelikan, MD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Audience: Resident physicians, emergency department (ED staff Introduction: Precipitous deliveries are high acuity, low occurrence in most emergency departments. Shoulder dystocia is a rare but potentially fatal complication of labor that can be relieved by specific maneuvers that must be implemented in a timely manner. This simulation is designed to educate resident learners on the critical management steps in a shoulder dystocia presenting to the emergency department. A special aspect of this simulation is the unique utilization of the “Noelle” model with an instructing physician at bedside maneuvering the fetus through the stations of labor and providing subtle adjustments to fetal positioning not possible though a mechanized model. A literature search of “shoulder dystocia simulation” consists primarily of obstetrics and mid-wife journals, many of which utilize various mannequin models. None of the reviewed articles utilized a bedside provider maneuvering the fetus with the Noelle model, making this method unique. While the Noelle model is equipped with a remote-controlled motor that automatically rotates and delivers the baby either to the head or to the shoulders and can produce a turtle sign and which will prevent delivery of the baby until signaled to do so by the instructor, using the bedside instructor method allows this simulation to be reproduced with less mechanistically advanced and lower cost models.1-5 Objectives: At the end of this simulation, learners will: 1 Recognize impending delivery and mobilize appropriate resources (ie, both obstetrics [OB] and NICU/pediatrics; 2 Identify risk factors for shoulder dystocia based on history and physical; 3 Recognize shoulder dystocia during delivery; 4 Demonstrate maneuvers to relieve shoulder dystocia; 5 Communicate with team members and nursing staff during resuscitation of a critically ill patient. Method: High-fidelity simulation. Topics: High fidelity, in situ, Noelle model

  17. Cost performance assessment of in situ vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Showalter, W.E.; Letellier, B.C.; Booth, S.R.; Barnes-Smith, P.

    1992-01-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is a thermal treatment technology with promise for the destruction or immobilization of hazardous materials in contaminated soils. It has developed over the past decade to a level of maturity where meaningful cost effectiveness studies may be performed. The ISV process melts 4 to 25 m 2 of undisturbed soil to a maximum depth of 6 m into an obsidian-like glass waste form by applying electric current (3750 kill) between symmetrically spaced electrodes. Temperatures of approximately 2000 degree C drive off and destroy complex organics which are captured in an off-gas treatment system, while radio-nuclides are incorporated into the homogeneous glass monolith. A comparative life-cycle cost evaluation between mobile rotary kiln incineration and ISV was performed to quantitatively identify appropriate performance regimes and components of cost which are sensitive to the implementation of each technology. Predictions of melt times and power consumption were obtained from an ISV performance model over ranges of several parameters including electrode spacing, soil moisture, melt depth, electrical resistivity, and soil density. These data were coupled with manpower requirements, capitalization costs, and a melt placement optimization routine to allow interpolation over a wide variety of site characteristics. For the purpose of this study, a single site scenario representative of a mixed waste evaporation pond was constructed. Preliminary comparisons between ISV and incineration show that while operating costs are comparable, ISV avoids secondary treatment and monitored storage of radioactive waste that would be required following conventional incineration. It is the long term storage of incinerated material that is the most expensive component

  18. In-Situ Roughening of Polymeric Microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadpour, Hamed; Allbritton, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    A method to perform in-situ roughening of arrays of microstructures weakly adherent to an underlying substrate was presented. SU8, 1002F, and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microstructures were roughened by polishing with a particle slurry. The roughness and the percentage of dislodged or damaged microstructures was evaluated as a function of the roughening time for both SU8 and 1002F structures. A maximal RMS roughness of 7-18 nm for the surfaces was obtained within 15 to 30 s of polishing with the slurry. This represented a 4-9 fold increase in surface roughness relative to that of the native surface. Less than 0.8% of the microstructures on the array were removed or damage after 5 min of polishing. Native and roughened arrays were assessed for their ability to support fibronectin adhesion and cell attachment and growth. The quantity of adherent fibronectin was increased on roughened arrays by two-fold over that on native arrays. Cell adhesion to the roughened surfaces was also increased compared to native surfaces. Surface roughening with the particle slurry also improved the ability to stamp molecules onto the substrate during microcontact printing. Roughening both the PDMS stamp and substrate resulted in up to a 20-fold improvement in the transfer of BSA-Alexa Fluor 647 from the stamp to the substrate. Thus roughening of micron-scale surfaces with a particle slurry increased the adhesion of biomolecules as well as cells to microstructures with little to no damage to large scale arrays of the structures. PMID:20423129

  19. In Situ Measurement of Bedrock Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieke-Zapp, D. H.; Beer, A.; Turowski, J. M.; Campana, L.

    2012-07-01

    While long term erosion rates of bedrock material may be estimated by dating methods, current day erosion rates are - if at all available - based on rough estimates or on point measurements. Precise quantification of short term erosion rates are required to improve our understanding of short term processes, for input in landscape evolution models, as well as for studying the mechanics and efficiency of different erosion processes in varying geomorphological settings. Typical current day erosion rates in the European Alps range from sub-millimetre to several millimetres per year depending on the dominant erosion processes. The level of surveying accuracy required for recurring sub-millimetre to millimetre measurements in the field is demanding. A novel surveying setup for in-situ measurement of bedrock erosion was tested recently in three different locations in Switzerland. Natural bedrock was investigated in the Gornera gorge close to Zermatt. Further on, bedrock samples were installed in exposed locations in the Erlenbach research watershed close to Einsiedeln, and in the Illgraben debris flow channel, located in the Canton Schwyz and Valais, respectively. A twofold measurement approach was chosen for all locations. For the first setup control points providing an absolute reference frame for recurrent measurements were embedded close to the area of interest. Close range photogrammetry was applied to measure surface changes on the bedrock samples. The precision for surface measurements in the field was 0.1 mm (1 σ) and thus suitable for the application. The equipment needed for the surveys can easily be carried to the field. At one field site a structured light scanner was used along with the photogrammetric setup. Although the current generation of structured light scanners appeared less suitable for field application, data acquisition was much faster and checking the data for completeness in the field was straight forward. The latest generation of compact

  20. Subseabed Disposal Program In-Situ Heat Transfer Experiment (ISHTE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percival, C.M.

    1983-05-01

    A heat transfer experiment is being developed in support of the Subseabed Disposal Program. The primary objectives of this experiment are: to provide information on the in situ response of seabed sediment to localized heating; to provide an opportunity to evaluate theoretical models of the response and to observe any unanticipated phenomena which may occur; and to develop and demonstrate the technology necessary to perform waste isolation oriented experiments on the seafloor at depths up to 6000 m. As presently envisaged, the heat transfer experiment will be conducted at a location in the central North Pacific though it could be performed anywhere that the ocean bottom is of the type deemed suitable for the disposal of nuclear waste material. The experiment will be conducted of the seafloor from a recoverable space-frame platform at a depth of approximately 6000 m. A 400-W isotopic heat source will be implanted in the illite sediment and the subsequent response of the sediment to the induced thermal field evaluated. After remote initiation of the experiment, a permanent record of the data obtained will be recorded on board the platform, with selected information transmitted to a surface vessel by acoustic telemetry. The experiment will be operational for one year, after which the entire platform will be recovered. Current plans call for the deployment of the experiment in 1986. Specific activities which will be pursued during the course of the experiment include: measurement of the thermal field; determination of the effective thermal conductivity of the sediment; measurement of pore pressure; evaluation of radionuclide migration processes; pore water sampling; sediment chemistry studies; sediment shear strength measurements; and coring operations in the immediate vicinity of the experiment for postexperiment analysis

  1. In-situ geophysical measurements in marine sediments: Applications in seafloor acoustics and paleoceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgas, Thomas Joerg

    Acoustic in-situ sound speeds and attenuation were measured on the Eel River shelf, CA, with the Acoustic Lance between 5 and 15 kHz to 2.0 meters below seafloor (mbsf). A comparison with laboratory ultrasonic geoacoustic data obtained at 400 kHz on cored sediments showed faster in-situ and ultrasonic sound speeds in coarse-grained deposits in water depths to 60 m than in fine-grained deposits below that contour line. Ultrasonic attenuation was often greater than in-situ values and remained almost constant below 0.4 mbsf in these heterogeneous deposits. In-situ attenuation decreased with depth. These observations partly agree with results from other field studies, and with theoretical models that incorporate intergranular friction and dispersion from viscosity as main controls on acoustic wave propagation in marine sediments. Deviations among in-situ and laboratory acoustic data from the Eel Margin with theoretical studies were linked to scattering effects. Acoustic Lance was also deployed in homogeneous, fine-grained sediments on the inner shelf of SE Korea, where free gas was identified in late-September, but not in mid-September 1999. Free gas was evidenced by an abrupt decrease of in-situ sound speed and by characteristic changes in acoustic waveforms. These results suggest the presence of a gassy sediment layer as shallow as 2 mbsf along the 70 m bathymetry line, and was attributed to a variable abundance of free gas on short-term and/or small-regional scales on the SE Korea shelf. Bulk density variations in marine sediments obtained along the Walvis Ridge/Basin, SW Africa, at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Sites 1081 to 1084 were spectral-analyzed to compute high-resolution sedimentation rates (SRs) in both the time- and age domains by correctly identifying Milankovitch cycles (MCs). SRs for the ODP sites yielded age-depth models that often correlate positively with biostratigraphic data and with organic mass accumulation rates (MAR Corg), a proxy for

  2. In-situ neutron diffraction study on work-hardening behavior in a ferrite-martensite dual phase steel

    OpenAIRE

    Morooka, Satoshi; Sato, Naoko; Ojima, Mayumi; Harjo, Stefanus; Adachi, Yoshitaka; Tomota, Yo; Umezawa, Osamu

    2011-01-01

    Strength and work-hardening in steels have been discussed from the viewpoint of heterogeneous deformation. In-situ neutron diffraction techniques made clear that the misfit strains between grains accompanied with the grain-scaled internal stress (intergranular stress). In the dual phase steel, the intergranular stress was superposed on phase stress. Both long-range internal stress and short-range one like forest dislocation hardening may cause the resistance for dislocation motion in the steels.

  3. Measurement of faecal sludge in-situ shear strength and density

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-01-10

    Jan 10, 2014 ... These include studies on factors affecting pit function and fill-up rates as well as scientific tests ... anecdotal evidence and personal preference. This paper ... direct current motor coupled to a leadscrew drives the ball through the ..... Water and Sanitation Program – Africa Region, The World Bank,. Upper Hill ...

  4. Measurement of faecal sludge in-situ shear strength and density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various mechanised technologies have been developed to facilitate pit emptying, which are currently either tested on faecal sludge or an 'ad-hoc' simulant that (in the opinion of the tester) approximately replicates the behaviour of faecal sludge. This ranges from a watery consistency in some pour-flush latrines to the strong ...

  5. NOVEL IN-SITU METAL AND MINERAL EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn O' Gorman; Hans von Michaelis; Gregory J. Olson

    2004-09-22

    This white paper summarizes the state of art of in-situ leaching of metals and minerals, and describes a new technology concept employing improved fragmentation of ores underground in order to prepare the ore for more efficient in-situ leaching, combined with technology to continuously improve solution flow patterns through the ore during the leaching process. The process parameters and economic benefits of combining the new concept with chemical and biological leaching are described. A summary is provided of the next steps required to demonstrate the technology with the goal of enabling more widespread use of in-situ leaching.

  6. In Situ Elevated Temperature Testing of Fly Ash Based Geopolymer Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Les; Pan, Zhu; Tao, Zhong; van Riessen, Arie

    2016-01-01

    In situ elevated temperature investigations using fly ash based geopolymers filled with alumina aggregate were undertaken. Compressive strength and short term creep tests were carried out to determine the onset temperature of viscous flow. Fire testing using the standard cellulose curve was performed. Applying a load to the specimen as the temperature increased reduced the temperature at which viscous flow occurred (compared to test methods with no applied stress). Compressive strength increased at the elevated temperature and is attributed to viscous flow and sintering forming a more compact microstructure. The addition of alumina aggregate and reduction of water content reduced the thermal conductivity. This led to the earlier onset and shorter dehydration plateau duration times. However, crack formation was reduced and is attributed to smaller thermal gradients across the fire test specimen. PMID:28773568

  7. Enhanced performance of biodegradable poly(butylene succinate)/graphene oxide nanocomposites via in situ polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X W; Zhang, C-A; Wang, P L; Zhao, J; Zhang, W; Ji, J H; Hua, K; Zhou, J; Yang, X B; Li, X P

    2012-05-08

    Poly(butylene succinate) (PBS)/graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposites were facilely prepared via in situ polymerization. The properties of the nanocomposites were studied using FTIR, XRD, and (1)H NMR, and the state of dispersion of GO in the PBS matrix was examined by SEM. The crystallization and melting behavior of the PBS matrix in the presence of dispersed GO nanosheets have been studied by DSC and polarized optical microscopy. Through the mechnical testing machine and DMA, PBS/GO nanocomposites with 3% GO have shown a 43% increase in tensile strength and a 45% improvement in storage modulus. This high performance of the nanocomposites is mainly attributed to the high strength of graphene oxide combined with the strong interfacial interactions in the uniformly dispersed PBS/GO nanocomposites.

  8. In situ subsoil stress-strain behaviour in relation to soil precompression stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, T; Arvidsson, J; Schjønning, Per

    2012-01-01

    is assumed to be elastic and reversible as long as [sigma] work examined soil stress-strain behavior as measured in situ during wheeling experiments and related it to the stress-strain behavior and [sigma]pc measured on soil cores in uniaxial compression tests in the laboratory. The data......Soil compaction negatively influences many important soil functions, including crop growth. Compaction occurs when the applied stress, [sigma], overcomes the soil strength. Soil strength in relation to compaction is typically expressed by the soil precompression stress, [sigma]pc. Deformation...... analyzed were from a large number of wheeling experiments carried out in Sweden and Denmark on soils with a wide range of texture. Contradicting the concept of precompression stress, we observed residual strain, [Latin Small Letter Open E]res, at [sigma

  9. In Situ Elevated Temperature Testing of Fly Ash Based Geopolymer Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Les Vickers

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In situ elevated temperature investigations using fly ash based geopolymers filled with alumina aggregate were undertaken. Compressive strength and short term creep tests were carried out to determine the onset temperature of viscous flow. Fire testing using the standard cellulose curve was performed. Applying a load to the specimen as the temperature increased reduced the temperature at which viscous flow occurred (compared to test methods with no applied stress. Compressive strength increased at the elevated temperature and is attributed to viscous flow and sintering forming a more compact microstructure. The addition of alumina aggregate and reduction of water content reduced the thermal conductivity. This led to the earlier onset and shorter dehydration plateau duration times. However, crack formation was reduced and is attributed to smaller thermal gradients across the fire test specimen.

  10. Adenocarcinoma in situ of the cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoolland, Meike; Segal, Amanda; Allpress, Stephen; Miranda, Alina; Frost, Felicity A; Sterrett, Gregory F

    2002-12-25

    The current study examines 1) the sensitivity of detection and 2) sampling and screening/diagnostic error in the cytologic diagnosis of adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) of the cervix. The data were taken from public and private sector screening laboratories reporting 25,000 and 80,000 smears, respectively, each year. The study group was comprised of women with a biopsy diagnosis of AIS or AIS combined with a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) who were accessioned by the Western Australian Cervical Cytology Registry (WACCR) between 1993-1998. Cervical smears reported by the Western Australia Centre for Pathology and Medical Research (PathCentre) or Western Diagnostic Pathology (WDP) in the 36 months before the index biopsy was obtained were retrieved. A true measure of the sensitivity of detection could not be determined because to the authors' knowledge the exact prevalence of disease is unknown at present. For the current study, sensitivity was defined as the percentage of smears reported as demonstrating a possible or definite high-grade epithelial abnormality (HGEA), either glandular or squamous. Sampling error was defined as the percentage of smears found to have no HGEA on review. Screening/diagnostic error was defined as the percentage of smears in which HGEA was not diagnosed initially but review demonstrated possible or definite HGEA. Sensitivity also was calculated for a randomly selected control group of biopsy proven cases of Grade 3 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 3) accessioned at the WACCR in 1999. For biopsy findings of AIS alone, the diagnostic "sensitivity" of a single smear was 47.6% for the PathCentre and 54.3% for WDP. Nearly all the abnormalities were reported as glandular. The sampling and screening/diagnostic errors were 47.6% and 4.8%, respectively, for the PathCentre and 33.3% and 12.3%, respectively, for WDP. The results from the PathCentre were better for AIS plus HSIL than for AIS alone, but the results from WDP were

  11. satellite and in-situ measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de Jesús Salas Pérez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La distribución espacial y temporal de la circulación superficial de la Bahía de Banderas se obtuvo con el empleo de series temporales de rapidez de viento, temperatura superficial del mar (AVHR radiómetro y un termógrafo, nivel del mar y trazas ascendentes y descendentes del radar altimétrico ERS-2. El período que abarca dichos datos es de cuatro años, ya que comenzó en el verano de 1997 y finalizó en el invierno de 2002. La marea en la Bahía es mixta (F=0.25 con predominio del armónico M2. La bahía no muestra características de resonancia con la marea del mar abierto. Amplitudes promedio de 30 cms., resultan en corrientes de marea de pocos cms./s. Las bajas frecuencias (periodos mayores a tres días parecen ser los principales generadores de la circulación marina en esta área, en la que predomina el periodo estacional sobre los otros periodos. FEOs fueron aplicadas a las componentes de velocidad, calculadas con observaciones de altimetría medidas en la boca de la Bahía, las cuales mostraron dos principales distribuciones espaciales. El primer periodo de distribución, que se extendió desde febrero hasta julio, muestra un flujo de entrada por la porción norte/sur de la bahía, con un flujo de salida por su boca (distribución anticiclónica. El segundo periodo se extiende desde agosto hasta diciembre y es opuesto al primero (distribución ciclónica. Las características de la circulación aquí presentadas son hipotéticas y observaciones de velocidad medidas in-situ deben confirmarlas

  12. The effect of clustering on the mobility of dislocations during aging in Nb-microalloyed strip cast steels: In situ heating TEM observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, Sachin L.; Xie, Kelvin Y.; Ringer, Simon P.; Carpenter, Kristin R.; Smith, David R.; Killmore, Chris R.; Cairney, Julie M.

    2013-01-01

    Cluster-strengthened Nb-microalloyed strip cast steels are of interest as clustering during aging leads to an enhancement in strength without compromising ductility, resulting in desirable mechanical properties. However, the precise strengthening mechanism is not well understood. Using in situ heating transmission electron microscopy, clustering was found to impede the movement of dislocations during aging. The attractive combination of ductility and strength was attributed to the effects of recovery and the restricted movement of dislocations through clustering

  13. In situ pediatric trauma simulation: assessing the impact and feasibility of an interdisciplinary pediatric in situ trauma care quality improvement simulation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Marc; Roney, Linda; Aysseh, April; Gawel, Marcie; Koziel, Jeannette; Barre, Kimberly; Caty, Michael G; Santucci, Karen

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and measure the impact of an in situ interdisciplinary pediatric trauma quality improvement simulation program. Twenty-two monthly simulations were conducted in a tertiary care pediatric emergency department with the aim of improving the quality of pediatric trauma (February 2010 to November 2012). Each session included 20 minutes of simulated patient care, followed by 30 minutes of debriefing that focused on teamwork, communication, and the identification of gaps in care. A single rater scored the performance of the team in real time using a validated assessment instrument for 6 subcomponents of care (teamwork, airway, intubation, breathing, circulation, and disability). Participants completed a survey and written feedback forms. A trend analysis of the 22 simulations found statistically significant positive trends for overall performance, teamwork, and intubation subcomponents; the strength of the upward trend was the strongest for the teamwork (τ = 0.512), followed by overall performance (τ = 0.488) and intubation (τ = 0.433). Two hundred fifty-one of 398 participants completed the participant feedback form (response rate, 63%), reporting that debriefing was the most valuable aspect of the simulation. An in situ interdisciplinary pediatric trauma simulation quality improvement program resulted in improved validated trauma simulation assessment scores for overall performance, teamwork, and intubation. Participants reported high levels of satisfaction with the program, and debriefing was reported as the most valuable component of the program.

  14. Modeling In Situ Bioremediation of Perchlorate-Contaminated Groundwater

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Secody, Roland E

    2007-01-01

    .... An innovative technology was recently developed which uses dual-screened treatment wells to mix an electron donor into perchlorate-contaminated groundwater in order to effect in situ bioremediation...

  15. In situ vitrification program treatability investigation progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrenholz, D.A.

    1991-02-01

    This document presents a summary of the efforts conducted under the in situ vitrification treatability study during the period from its initiation in FY-88 until FY-90. In situ vitrification is a thermal treatment process that uses electrical power to convert contaminated soils into a chemically inert and stable glass and crystalline product. Contaminants present in the soil are either incorporated into the product or are pyrolyzed during treatment. The treatability study being conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory by EG ampersand G Idaho is directed at examining the specific applicability of the in situ vitrification process to buried wastes contaminated with transuranic radionuclides and other contaminants found at the Subsurface Disposal Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. This treatability study consists of a variety of tasks, including engineering tests, field tests, vitrified product evaluation, and analytical models of the in situ vitrification process. 6 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Bulk Copper Electrodeposition on Gold Imaged by In Situ STM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Bech-Nielsen, Gregers; Møller, Per

    1996-01-01

    Electrochemical measurements were carried out simultaneously with acquisition of in situ STM images of copper electrodeposition at low cathodic overpotentials and subsequent dissolution from the underlying polycrystalline gold surfaces. The morphologies of the copper deposits were examined...

  17. Cytogenetic, genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and agronomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    F3 generations of a wheat-Psathyrostachys huashanica intergeneric cross. Their agronomic traits were evaluated in the field and their meiotic behaviors and chromosome composition were analyzed by cytogenetic and GISH (genomic in situ ...

  18. In situ bioremediation of chlorinated solvent with natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabold, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    A bioremediation system for the removal of chlorinated solvents from ground water and sediments is described. The system involves the the in-situ injection of natural gas (as a microbial nutrient) through an innovative configuration of horizontal wells

  19. In situ sampling cart development engineering task plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeFord, D.K.

    1995-01-01

    This Engineering Task Plan (ETP) supports the development for facility use of the next generation in situ sampling system for characterization of tank vapors. In situ sampling refers to placing sample collection devices (primarily sorbent tubes) directly into the tank headspace, then drawing tank gases through the collection devices to obtain samples. The current in situ sampling system is functional but was not designed to provide the accurate flow measurement required by today's data quality objectives (DQOs) for vapor characterization. The new system will incorporate modern instrumentation to achieve much tighter control. The next generation system will be referred to in this ETP as the New In Situ System (NISS) or New System. The report describes the current sampling system and the modifications that are required for more accuracy

  20. Ductal carcinoma in situ: a proposal for a new classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holland, R.; Peterse, J. L.; Millis, R. R.; Eusebi, V.; Faverly, D.; van de Vijver, M. J.; Zafrani, B.

    1994-01-01

    Details of a proposed new classification for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) are presented. This is based, primarily, on cytonuclear differentiation and, secondarily, on architectural differentiation (cellular polarisation). Three categories are defined. First is poorly differentiated DCIS composed

  1. Comparison of GRACE with in situ hydrological measurement data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of GRACE with in situ hydrological measurement data shows storage depletion in Hai River basin, Northern China. ... of the world, their application in conjunction with hydrological models could improve hydrological studies.

  2. Anchoring Technology for In Situ Exploration of Small Bodie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steltzner, A.; Nasif, A.

    2000-01-01

    Comets, asteroids and other small bodies found in the solar system do not possess enough gravity to ensure spacecraft contact forces sufficient to allow many types of in situ science, such as core or surface sampling.

  3. Green Remediation Best Management Practices: Implementing In Situ Thermal Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over recent years, the use of in situ thermal technologies such as electrical resistance heating, thermal conductive heating, and steam enhanced extraction to remediate contaminated sites has notably increased.

  4. Planetary Volatiles Extractor for In Situ Resource Utilization, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) or ?living off the land relies on exploiting local resources and in turn reducing burden of transporting supplies. NASA has...

  5. Development of an in situ polymeric hydrogel implant of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All rights reserved. ... inflammatory activity (paw edema test) and in vivo motor function activity in a rat ... Conclusions: The in situ hydrogels of methylprednisolone developed may be .... in the left hind paw in all rats. .... Continuous brain-derived.

  6. In-Situ Burning of Crude Oil on Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens

    in the small scale water basin. Boilovers were also observed during the burning of a heavy crude oil with a substantial light fraction without a water layer, however, which suggests that water is not essential for boilover occurrence. Further studies are required to determine the conditions under which......The fire dynamics and fire chemistry of in-situ burning of crude oil on water was studied in order to improve predictions on the suitability of this oil spill response method. For this purpose, several operational parameters were studied to determine the factors that control the burning efficiency...... of in-situ burning, i.e. the amount of oil (in wt%) removed from the water surface by the burning process. The burning efficiency is the main parameter for expressing the oil removal effectiveness of in-situ burning as response method and is thus relevant for suitability predictions of in-situ burning...

  7. In-situ polymerization PLOT columns I: divinylbenzene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, T. C.

    1992-01-01

    A novel method for preparation of porous-layer open-tubular (PLOT) columns is described. The method involves a simple and reproducible, straight-forward in-situ polymerization of monomer directly on the metal tube.

  8. Fathead minnow whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This study demonstrates the potential of whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH), in conjunction with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QPCR)...

  9. Advanced hydraulic fracturing methods to create in situ reactive barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murdoch, L.

    1997-01-01

    This article describes the use of hydraulic fracturing to increase permeability in geologic formations where in-situ remedial action of contaminant plumes will be performed. Several in-situ treatment strategies are discussed including the use of hydraulic fracturing to create in situ redox zones for treatment of organics and inorganics. Hydraulic fracturing methods offer a mechanism for the in-situ treatment of gently dipping layers of reactive compounds. Specialized methods using real-time monitoring and a high-energy jet during fracturing allow the form of the fracture to be influenced, such as creation of assymmetric fractures beneath potential sources (i.e. tanks, pits, buildings) that should not be penetrated by boring. Some examples of field applications of this technique such as creating fractures filled with zero-valent iron to reductively dechlorinate halogenated hydrocarbons, and the use of granular activated carbon to adsorb compounds are discussed

  10. OceanSITES RAMA daily in-situ data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — OceanSITES daily in-situ data. OceanSITES Global Tropical Moored Buoy Array Research Moored Array for African-Asian-Australian Monsoon Analysis and Prediction (RAMA)...

  11. In situ Transesterification of Microalgal Oil to Produce Algal Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This research was to process whole microalgae cells for biodiesel production without first extracting lipids. The ultimate : goal is develop a novel process for algal biodiesel production directly from microalgae cells in a single step, i.e., in situ...

  12. Bond strength of masonry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluijm, van der R.; Vermeltfoort, A.Th.

    1992-01-01

    Bond strength is not a well defined property of masonry. Normally three types of bond strength can be distinguished: - tensile bond strength, - shear (and torsional) bond strength, - flexural bond strength. In this contribution the behaviour and strength of masonry in deformation controlled uniaxial

  13. Model and calculation of in situ stresses in anisotropic formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuezhi, W.; Zijun, L.; Lixin, H. [Jianghan Petroleum Institute, (China)

    1997-08-01

    In situ stresses in transversely isotropic material in relation to wellbore stability have been investigated. Equations for three horizontal in- situ stresses and a new formation fracture pressure model were described, and the methodology for determining the elastic parameters of anisotropic rocks in the laboratory was outlined. Results indicate significantly smaller differences between theoretically calculated pressures and actual formation pressures than results obtained by using the isotropic method. Implications for improvements in drilling efficiency were reviewed. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  14. A review of in situ investigations in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehn, K.

    1985-01-01

    In situ investigations for the disposal of radioactive wastes in rock salt formations have the longest history in the field. Well known names are Project Salt Vault (PSV) which was performed in the Lyons Mine, Kansas/USA, and the Asse salt mine in Germany. The overall objective for in situ investigations is twofold: 1. To produce all necessary data for the construction and operation of repositories and 2. to produce all necessary data for a performance assessment for repositories

  15. Matrix diffusion model. In situ tests using natural analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasilainen, K. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-11-01

    Matrix diffusion is an important retarding and dispersing mechanism for substances carried by groundwater in fractured bedrock. Natural analogues provide, unlike laboratory or field experiments, a possibility to test the model of matrix diffusion in situ over long periods of time. This thesis documents quantitative model tests against in situ observations, done to support modelling of matrix diffusion in performance assessments of nuclear waste repositories. 98 refs. The thesis includes also eight previous publications by author.

  16. Matrix diffusion model. In situ tests using natural analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasilainen, K.

    1997-11-01

    Matrix diffusion is an important retarding and dispersing mechanism for substances carried by groundwater in fractured bedrock. Natural analogues provide, unlike laboratory or field experiments, a possibility to test the model of matrix diffusion in situ over long periods of time. This thesis documents quantitative model tests against in situ observations, done to support modelling of matrix diffusion in performance assessments of nuclear waste repositories

  17. In-situ observation of structure formation in polymer processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murase, Hiroki

    2009-01-01

    In-situ X-ray scattering in polymer processing is a crucial method to elucidate the mechanism of structure formation in the process. Fiber spinning is one such process primarily imposing extensional deformation on polymeric melt at the spin-line during rapid cooling. In-situ small-angle X-ray scattering using synchrotron radiation on the spinning process allows direct observation of the transient structure developing in the process. (author)

  18. Numerical simulation of vertical infiltration for leaching fluid in situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jinxuan; Shi Weijun; Zhang Weimin

    1998-01-01

    Based on the analysis of movement law of leaching fluid in breaking and leaching experiment in situ, the movement of leaching fluid can be divided into two main stages in the leaching process in situ: Vertical Infiltration in unsaturation zone and horizontal runoff in saturation zone. The corresponding mathematics models are sep up, and the process of vertical infiltration of leaching fluid is numerically simulated

  19. In-Situ Bioremediation of Perchlorate in Groundwater and Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Liyan

    2012-01-01

    Historical, uncontrolled disposal practices have made perchlorate a significant threat to drinking water supplies in the United States. In-situ bioremediation (ISB) technologies are cost effective and provide an environmental friendly solution for treating contaminated groundwater and soil. In situ bioremediation was considered as an option for treatment of perchlorate in groundwater and soil in Lockheed Martin Corporation's Beaumont Site 2 (Beaumont, CA). Based on the perchlorate distribu...

  20. Characterization of VPO ammoxidation catalysts by in situ methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, A.; Luecke, B.; Brueckner, A.; Steinike, U. [Institut fuer Angewandte Chemie Berlin-Adlershof e.V., Berlin (Germany); Brzezinka, K.W. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany); Meisel, M. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Chemie

    1998-12-31

    In-situ methods are well known as powerful tools in studying catalyst formation processes, their solid state properties under working conditions and the interaction with the feed, intermediates and products to reveal reaction mechanisms. This paper gives a short overview on results of intense studies using in-situ techniques to reveal VPO catalyst generation processes, interaction of educts, intermediates and products with VPO catalyst surfaces and mechanistic insights. Catalytic data of the ammoxidation of toluene on different VPOs complete these findings. The precursor-catalyst transformation processes were preferently investigated by in-situ XRD, in-situ Raman and in-situ ESR spectroscopy. The interaction of aromatic molecules and intermediates, resp., and VPO solid surfaces was followed by in-situ ESR and in-situ FTIR spectroscopy. Mechanistic information was mainly obtained using in-situ FTIR spectroscopy and the temporal-analysis-of-products (TAP) technique. Catalytic studies were carried out in a fixed-bed microreactor on pure (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}(VO){sub 3}(P{sub 2}O{sub 7}){sub 2}, generated [(NH{sub 4}){sub 2}(VO{sub 3})(P{sub 2}O{sub 7}){sub 2}+V{sub x}O{sub y}] catalysts, having different V{sub x}O{sub y} proportions by use of VOHPO{sub 4} x 1/2H{sub 2}O (V/P=1) and recently studied (VO){sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} x 7 H{sub 2}O (V/P=1.5) precursors; the well-known (VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} was used for comparison. (orig.)

  1. Remediation of SRS Basins by In Situ Stabilization/Solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguly, A.

    1999-01-01

    In the late summer of 1998, the Savannah River Site began remediation of two radiologically contaminated basins using in situ stabilization. These two high-risk, unlined basins contain radiological contaminants, which potentially pose significant risks to human health and the environment. The selected remedy involves in situ stabilization/solidification of the contaminated wastes (basin and pipeline soils, pipelines, vegetation, and other debris) followed by installation of a low permeability soil cover

  2. Polypropylene/graphite nanocomposites by in situ polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milani, Marceo A.; Galland, Giselda B.; Quijada, Raul

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the synthesis of nanocomposites of polypropylene/graphite by in situ polymerization using metallocene catalyst and graphene nanosheets. Initially was analyzed which of the metallocene catalysts rac-Et(Ind) 2 ZrCl 2 or rac-Me 2 Si(Ind) 2 ZrCl 2 produces polypropylene with mechanical properties more relevant. Then it were performed the in situ polymerization reactions to obtain the nanocomposites. The polymeric materials were characterized by XRD, DSC, GPC and DMTA. (author)

  3. In situ leaching of uranium: Technical, environmental and economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Within the framework of its activities in nuclear raw materials the International Atomic Energy Agency has convened a series of meetings to discuss various aspects of uranium ore processing technology, recovery of uranium from non-conventional resources and development of projects for the production of uranium concentrates including economic aspects. As part of this continuing effort to discuss and document important aspects of uranium production the IAEA convened a Technical Committee Meeting on Technical, Economic and Environmental Aspects of In-Situ Leaching. Although the use of this technique is limited by geological and economic constraints, it has a significant potential to produce uranium at competitive prices. This is especially important in the current uranium market which is mainly characterised by large inventories, excess production capability and low prices. This situation is not expected to last indefinitely but it is unlikely to change drastically in the next ten years or so. This Technical Committee Meeting was held in Vienna from 3 to 6 November 1987 with the attendance of 24 participants from 12 countries. Eight papers were presented. Technical sessions covered in-situ mining research, environmental and licensing aspects and restoration of leached orebodies; the technological status of in-situ leaching, the current status and future prospects of in-situ leaching of uranium in Member States, general aspects of planning and implementation of in-situ projects and the economics of in-situ leaching. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. IN SITU FIELD TESTING OF PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.S.Y. YANG

    2004-11-08

    The purpose of this scientific analysis report is to update and document the data and subsequent analyses from ambient field-testing activities performed in underground drifts and surface-based boreholes through unsaturated zone (UZ) tuff rock units. In situ testing, monitoring, and associated laboratory studies are conducted to directly assess and evaluate the waste emplacement environment and the natural barriers to radionuclide transport at Yucca Mountain. This scientific analysis report supports and provides data to UZ flow and transport model reports, which in turn contribute to the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) of Yucca Mountain, an important document for the license application (LA). The objectives of ambient field-testing activities are described in Section 1.1. This report is the third revision (REV 03), which supercedes REV 02. The scientific analysis of data for inputs to model calibration and validation as documented in REV 02 were developed in accordance with the Technical Work Plan (TWP) ''Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167969]). This revision was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Section 1.2.4) for better integrated, consistent, transparent, traceable, and more complete documentation in this scientific analysis report and associated UZ flow and transport model reports. No additional testing or analyses were performed as part of this revision. The list of relevant acceptance criteria is provided by ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654]), Table 3-1. Additional deviations from the TWP regarding the features, events, and processes (FEPs) list are discussed in Section 1.3. Documentation in this report includes descriptions of how, and under what

  5. IN SITU FIELD TESTING OF PROCESSES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    YANG, J.S.Y.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this scientific analysis report is to update and document the data and subsequent analyses from ambient field-testing activities performed in underground drifts and surface-based boreholes through unsaturated zone (UZ) tuff rock units. In situ testing, monitoring, and associated laboratory studies are conducted to directly assess and evaluate the waste emplacement environment and the natural barriers to radionuclide transport at Yucca Mountain. This scientific analysis report supports and provides data to UZ flow and transport model reports, which in turn contribute to the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) of Yucca Mountain, an important document for the license application (LA). The objectives of ambient field-testing activities are described in Section 1.1. This report is the third revision (REV 03), which supercedes2. The scientific analysis of data for inputs to model calibration and validation as documented in2 were developed in accordance with the Technical Work Plan (TWP) ''Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167969]). This revision was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Section 1.2.4) for better integrated, consistent, transparent, traceable, and more complete documentation in this scientific analysis report and associated UZ flow and transport model reports. No additional testing or analyses were performed as part of this revision. The list of relevant acceptance criteria is provided by ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654]), Table 3-1. Additional deviations from the TWP regarding the features, events, and processes (FEPs) list are discussed in Section 1.3. Documentation in this report includes descriptions of how, and under what conditions, the tests were conducted. The descriptions and analyses

  6. A piezoelectric electrospun platform for in situ cardiomyocyte contraction analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beringer, Laura Toth

    hyperpolarized state, proving their potential use as contractile analysis microdevices. The third and final aim of this dissertation was to be able to measure contraction events from both cultured cardiomyocytes and whole tissues in situ. Rat neonatal cardiomyocytes grew on the prepared collagen/PVDF-TrFe nanogenerators and yielded a distinct signal after 8 days of growth. These contractions were verified with live cell imaging and video recording. In addition, cardiomyocyte exposure to the drug isoproterenol increased contraction strength and frequency, which was reflected in the nanogenerator recordings. Frog whole heart and heart tissue slices also were interfaced with the fabricated nanogenerators and signals were recorded. The same held true for heart slices from male Sprague-Dawley rats. These signals were determined to be statistically different compared to the control baseline nanogenerator recordings in media in the absence of cell culture. Overall the fabricated nanogenerators have demonstrated their potential to be used as in situ analysis tools for contractile events and have potential in the field of personalized medicine and drug diagnostic assays. The facile fabrication and ease of setup to obtain the electrical voltage signal corresponding to the contractile events are what sets the nanogenerator apart from any polymer based sensor available today.

  7. Strong impact of ionic strength on the kinetics of fibrilar aggregation of bovine beta-lactoglobulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnaudov, L.N.; Vries, de R.J.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the effect of ionic strength on the kinetics of heat-induced fibrilar aggregation of bovine -lactoglobulin at pH 2.0. Using in situ light scattering we find an apparent critical protein concentration below which there is no significant fibril formation for all ionic strengths studied.

  8. Survey of Processing Methods for High Strength High Conductivity Wires for High Field Magnet Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, K.; Embury, J.D.

    1998-10-01

    This paper will deal with the basic concepts of attaining combination of high strength and high conductivity in pure materials, in-situ composites and macrocomposites. It will survey current attainments, and outline where some future developments may lie in developing wire products that are close to the theoretical strength of future magnet applications.

  9. Survey of Processing Methods for High Strength High Conductivity Wires for High Field Magnet Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, K.; Embury, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    This paper will deal with the basic concepts of attaining combination of high strength and high conductivity in pure materials, in-situ composites and macrocomposites. It will survey current attainments, and outline where some future developments may lie in developing wire products that are close to the theoretical strength of future magnet applications

  10. Geochemical and Microbiological Characteristics during in Situ Chemical Oxidation and in Situ Bioremediation at a Diesel Contaminated Site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutton, N.B.; Kalisz, M.; Krupanek, J.; Marek, J.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Smidt, H.; Weert, de J.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.; Gaans, van P.; Keijzer, T.

    2014-01-01

    While in situ chemical oxidation with persulfate has seen wide commercial application, investigations into the impacts on groundwater characteristics, microbial communities and soil structure are limited. To better understand the interactions of persulfate with the subsurface and to determine the

  11. Breeding of in-situ Petroleum Degrading Bacteria in Hangzhou Bay and evaluating for the In-situ repair effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ru; Lin, Hai; Qiao, Bing; Dong, Yingbo; Zhang, Wei; Chang, Wen

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, the restoration behaviour of the in-situ microorganisms in seawater and sediments to the marine accident oil spill was researched. The experimental study on the breeding of in-situ petroleum-degrading bacteria in the seawater and sediments of Hangzhou Bay and the restoration of oil spill were carried out. Making use of the reinforced microbial flora, combined with physical and chemical methods in field environment, petroleum degrading and restoration experiment were performed, the effect of the breeding of in-situ degrading bacteria was evaluated, and the standard process of in-situ bacteria sampling, laboratory screening, domestication and degradation efficiency testing were formed. This study laid a foundation for further evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages for the petroleum-degrading bacteria of Hangzhou Bay during the process of in-situ restoration. The results showed that in-situ microbes of Hangzhou Bay could reach the growth peak in 5 days with the suitable environmental factors and sufficient nutrient elements, and the degradation efficiency could reach 65.2% (or 74.8% after acclimation). And also the microbes could adapt to the local sea water and environmental conditions, with a certain degree of degradation. The research results could provide parameter support for causal judgment and quantitative assessment of oil spill damage.

  12. Detection of denitrification genes by in situ rolling circle amplification - fluorescence in situ hybridization (in situ RCA-FISH) to link metabolic potential with identity inside bacterial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoshino, Tatsuhiko; Schramm, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    target site. Finally, the RCA product inside the cells was detected by standard fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The optimized protocol showed high specificity and signal-to-noise ratio but low detection frequency (up to 15% for single-copy genes and up to 43% for the multi-copy 16S rRNA gene...... as Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis by combining in situ RCA-FISH with 16S rRNA-targeted FISH. While not suitable for quantification because of its low detection frequency, in situ RCA-FISH will allow to link metabolic potential with 16S rRNA (gene)-based identification of single microbial cells.......). Nevertheless, multiple genes (nirS and nosZ; nirS and the 16S rRNA gene) could be detected simultaneously in P. stutzeri. Environmental application of in situ RCA-FISH was demonstrated on activated sludge by the differential detection of two types of nirS-defined denitrifiers; one of them was identified...

  13. Well-dispersed cellulose nanocrystals in hydrophobic polymers by in situ polymerization for synthesizing highly reinforced bio-nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Shiyu; Wei, Jiayuan; Aitomäki, Yvonne; Noël, Maxime; Oksman, Kristiina

    2018-04-20

    In nanocomposites, dispersing hydrophilic nanomaterials in a hydrophobic matrix using simple and environmentally friendly methods remains challenging. Herein, we report a method based on in situ polymerization to synthesize nanocomposites of well-dispersed cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc). We have also shown that by blending this PVAc/CNC nanocomposite with poly(lactic acid) (PLA), a good dispersion of the CNCs can be reached in PLA. The outstanding dispersion of CNCs in both PVAc and PLA/PVAc matrices was shown by different microscopy techniques and was further supported by the mechanical and rheological properties of the composites. The in situ PVAc/CNC nanocomposites exhibit enhanced mechanical properties compared to the materials produced by mechanical mixing, and a theoretical model based on the interphase effect and dispersion that reflects this behavior was developed. Comparison of the rheological and thermal behaviors of the mixed and in situ PVAc/CNC also confirmed the great improvement in the dispersion of nanocellulose in the latter. Furthermore, a synergistic effect was observed with only 0.1 wt% CNCs when the in situ PVAc/CNC was blended with PLA, as demonstrated by significant increases in elastic modulus, yield strength, elongation to break and glass transition temperature compared to the PLA/PVAc only material.

  14. In-situ optical and acoustical measurements of the buoyant cyanobacterium p. Rubescens: spatial and temporal distribution patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilmar Hofmann

    Full Text Available Optical (fluorescence and acoustic in-situ techniques were tested in their ability to measure the spatial and temporal distribution of plankton in freshwater ecosystems with special emphasis on the harmful and buoyant cyanobacterium P. rubescens. Fluorescence was measured with the multi-spectral FluoroProbe (Moldaenke FluoroProbe, MFP and a Seapoint Chlorophyll Fluorometer (SCF. In-situ measurements of the acoustic backscatter strength (ABS were conducted with three different acoustic devices covering multiple acoustic frequencies (614 kHz ADCP, 2 MHz ADP, and 6 MHz ADV. The MFP provides a fast and reliable technique to measure fluorescence at different wavelengths in situ, which allows discriminating between P. rubescens and other phytoplankton species. All three acoustic devices are sensitive to P. rubescens even if other scatterers, e.g., zooplankton or suspended sediment, are present in the water column, because P. rubescens containing gas vesicles has a strong density difference and hence acoustic contrast to the ambient water and other scatterers. After calibration, the combination of optical and acoustical measurements not only allows qualitative and quantitative observation of P. rubescens, but also distinction between P. rubescens, other phytoplankton, and zooplankton. As the measuring devices can sample in situ at high rates they enable assessment of plankton distributions at high temporal (minutes and spatial (decimeters resolution or covering large temporal (seasonal and spatial (basin scale scales.

  15. Remote sensed and in situ constraints on processes affecting tropical tropospheric ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sauvage

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We use a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem to evaluate the consistency of satellite measurements of lightning flashes and ozone precursors with in situ measurements of tropical tropospheric ozone. The measurements are tropospheric O3, NO2, and HCHO columns from the GOME satellite instrument, lightning flashes from the OTD and LIS satellite instruments, profiles of O3, CO, and relative humidity from the MOZAIC aircraft program, and profiles of O3 from the SHADOZ ozonesonde network. We interpret these multiple data sources with our model to better understand what controls tropical tropospheric ozone. Tropical tropospheric ozone is mainly affected by lightning NOx and convection in the upper troposphere and by surface emissions in the lower troposphere. Scaling the spatial distribution of lightning in the model to the observed flashes improves the simulation of O3 in the upper troposphere by 5–20 ppbv versus in situ observations and by 1–4 Dobson Units versus GOME retrievals of tropospheric O3 columns. A lightning source strength of 6±2 Tg N/yr best represents in situ observations from aircraft and ozonesonde. Tropospheric NO2 and HCHO columns from GOME are applied to provide top-down constraints on emission inventories of NOx (biomass burning and soils and VOCs (biomass burning. The top-down biomass burning inventory is larger than the bottom-up inventory by a factor of 2 for HCHO and alkenes, and by a factor of 2.6 for NOx over northern equatorial Africa. These emissions increase lower tropospheric O3 by 5–20 ppbv, improving the simulation versus aircraft observations, and by 4 Dobson Units versus GOME observations of tropospheric O3 columns. Emission factors in the a posteriori inventory are more consistent with a recent compilation from in situ measurements. The ozone simulation using two different dynamical schemes (GEOS-3 and GEOS-4 is evaluated versus observations; GEOS-4 better represents O3 observations by 5–15 ppbv

  16. In-Situ Ion Analysis of Fresh Waters via an ISE Multiprobe and Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, A. V.; Hemond, H.

    2010-12-01

    The ecological and geochemical sciences stand to substantially gain from capability for comprehensive, real-time, in-situ characterization of the chemical constituents of natural waters, e.g. by facilitating rapid high-resolution adaptive sampling campaigns and avoiding the potential errors and high costs related to traditional grab sample collection, transportation and in-lab analysis. In-situ chemical instrumentation also promotes the goals of large-scale monitoring networks, such as CUASHI and WATERS, by reducing the financial and human resources overhead required for traditional sampling at this scale. Problems of environmental remediation and monitoring of industrial waste waters would additionally benefit from such instrumental capacity. We have pursued in-situ measurement of all major ions contributing to the charge makeup (>99%) of oxic natural fresh waters via an instrument combining an array of ion-selective electrode (ISE) hardware with an appropriate multivariate signal processing architecture. Commercially available electrochemical sensors promote low cost and a fast development schedule, as well as easy maintenance and reproduction. Data processing techniques are adapted from artificial intelligence and chemometrics to extract accurate information from the corresponding in-situ data matrix. This architecture takes into account temperature, conductivity, and non-linearity effects, as well as taking advantage of sensor cross-selectivities traditionally considered as interferences. Chemical and mathematical constraints, e.g. charge balance and total ionic strength, provide further system-level information. Maximizing data recovery from the sensor array allows use of the instrument without the standard additions or ionic strength adjustment traditionally-required with use of ISEs. Initial work demonstrates the effectiveness of this methodology at predicting inorganic cations (sodium, potassium, calcium, and ammonium ) and hydrogen ion in a simplified

  17. In situ vitrification: application analysis for stabilization of transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oma, K.H.; Farnsworth, R.K.; Rusin, J.M.

    1982-09-01

    The in situ vitrification process builds upon the electric melter technology previously developed for high-level waste immobilization. In situ vitrification converts buried wastes and contaminated soil to an extremely durable glass and crystalline waste form by melting the materials, in place, using joule heating. Once the waste materials have been solidified, the high integrity waste form should not cause future ground subsidence. Environmental transport of the waste due to water or wind erosion, and plant or animal intrusion, is minimized. Environmental studies are currently being conducted to determine whether additional stabilization is required for certain in-ground transuranic waste sites. An applications analysis has been performed to identify several in situ vitrification process limitations which may exist at transuranic waste sites. Based on the process limit analysis, in situ vitrification is well suited for solidification of most in-ground transuranic wastes. The process is best suited for liquid disposal sites. A site-specific performance analysis, based on safety, health, environmental, and economic assessments, will be required to determine for which sites in situ vitrification is an acceptable disposal technique. Process economics of in situ vitrification compare favorably with other in-situ solidification processes and are an order of magnitude less than the costs for exhumation and disposal in a repository. Leachability of the vitrified product compares closely with that of Pyrex glass and is significantly better than granite, marble, or bottle glass. Total release to the environment from a vitrified waste site is estimated to be less than 10 -5 parts per year. 32 figures, 30 tables

  18. TiB2 reinforced aluminum based in situ composites fabricated by stir casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Fei; Chen, Zongning; Mao, Feng; Wang, Tongmin; Cao, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a new technique involving mechanical stirring at the salts/aluminum interface was developed to fabricate TiB 2 particulate reinforced aluminum based in situ composites with improved particle distribution. Processing parameters in terms of stirring intensity, stirring duration and stirring start time were optimized according to the microstructure and mechanical properties evaluation. The results show that, the first and last 15 min of the entire 60 min holding are of prime importance to the particle distribution of the final composites. When applying 180 rpm (revolutions per minute) stirring at the salts/aluminum interface in these two intervals, a more uniform microstructure can be achieved and the Al-4 wt% TiB 2 composite thus produced exhibits superior mechanical performance. Synchrotron radiation X-ray computed tomography (SR-CT) was used to give a full-scale imaging of the particle distribution. From the SR-CT results, the in situ Al–xTiB 2 composites (x=1, 4 and 7, all in wt%) fabricated by the present technique are characterized by fine and clean TiB 2 particles distributed uniformly throughout the Al matrix. These composites not only have higher yield strength (σ 0.2 ) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS), but also exhibit superior ductility, with respect to the Al–TiB 2 composites fabricated by the conventional process. The σ 0.2 and UTS of the Al–7TiB 2 composite in the present work, are 260% and 180% higher than those of the matrix. A combined mechanism was also presented to interpret the improvements in yield strength of the composites as influenced by their microstructures and processing history. The predicted values are in good agreement with the experimental results, strongly supporting the strengthening mechanism we proposed. Fractography reveals that the composites thus fabricated, follow ductile fracture mechanism in spite of the presence of stiff reinforcements

  19. The mechanism of strength and deformation in Gum Metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, T.; Kuramoto, S.; Morris, J.W.; Nagasako, N.; Withey, E.; Chrzan, D.C.

    2013-01-01

    “Gum Metal” refers to β-Ti alloys that achieve exceptional elastic elongation and, with a specific alloy composition, appear to deform via a dislocation-free mechanism involving elastic instability at the limit of strength. This paper describes the current status of research on its strength, deformation mechanism and the possible role of stress-induced martensite. The theoretical basis for deformation at ideal strength is presented. The relevant experimental data is then discussed, including ex situ nanoindentation behavior and in situ pillar compression observed by transmission electron microscopy

  20. Preparation and properties of in-situ growth of carbon nanotubes reinforced hydroxyapatite coating for carbon/carbon composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shoujie, E-mail: jlliushoujie@126.com; Li, Hejun, E-mail: lihejun@nwpu.edu.cn; Su, Yangyang, E-mail: suyangyang@mail.nwpu.edu.cn; Guo, Qian, E-mail: 1729299905@163.com; Zhang, Leilei, E-mail: zhangleilei@nwpu.edu.cn

    2017-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) possess excellent mechanical properties for their role playing in reinforcement as imparting strength to brittle hydroxyapatite (HA) bioceramic coating. However, there are few reports relating to the in-situ grown carbon nanotubes reinforced hydroxyapatite (CNTs-HA) coating. Here we demonstrate the potential application in reinforcing biomaterials by an attempt to use in-situ grown of CNTs strengthen HA coating, using a combined method composited of injection chemical vapor deposition (ICVD) and pulsed electrodeposition. The microstructure, phases and chemical compositions of CNTs-HA coatings were characterized by various advanced methods. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images indicated that CNTs-HA coatings avoided the inhomogeneous dispersion of CNTs inside HA coating. The result show that the interfacial shear strength between CNTs-HA coating and the C/C composite matrix reaches to 12.86 ± 1.43 MPa. Potenitodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies show that the content of CNTs affects the corrosion resistance of CNTs-HA coating. Cell culturing and simulated body fluid test elicit the biocompatibility with living cells and bioactivity of CNTs-HA coatings, respectively. - Highlights: • A novel bioceramic composite coating of hydroxyapatite reinforced with in-situ grown carbon nanotubes was fabricated. • The doping of carbon nanotubes had almost no impact on the biocompatibility of hydroxyapatite coatings. • The doping of carbon nanotubes improved corrosion resistance of hydroxyapatite coatings in simulated human body solution.

  1. Effect of in-situ formed Al3Ti particles on the microstructure and mechanical properties of 6061 Al alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rahul; Chaudhari, G. P.; Daniel, B. S. S.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, in situ Titanium-tri-aluminide (Al3Ti) particles reinforced Al 6061 alloy matrix composites were fabricated by the reaction of potassium hexafluorotitanate (K2TiF6) inorganic salt with molten Al 6061 alloy via liquid metallurgy route. The development of in-situ Al3Ti particles and their effects on the mechanical properties such as yield strength (YS), ductility, ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and hardness, and microstructure of Al 6061 alloy were studied. It was observed from the results that in-situ formed Al3Ti particles were blocky in morphology whose average size was around 2.6 ± 1.1 μm. Microstructure studies showed that grain size of Al matrix was reduced due to the nucleating effect of Al3Ti particles. It was observed from the mechanical properties analysis that when the volume fraction of Al3Ti particles was increased, the hardness, UTS and YS of the composites were also increased as compared to that of Al 6061 alloy. An improvement in ductility was observed with the dispersion of Al3Ti particles in base alloy which is contrary to many other composites.

  2. Characterization of Multifunctional Carbon Nanotube Yarns: In-situ Strain Sensing and Composite Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Christian David

    A large body of scientific research and development worldwide has focused on the unprecedented structural/functional properties of carbon nanotubes (CNT), yet translation of these unique properties of CNTs to macroscopic materials has been slow to develop. CNT yarns are an appealing application for CNTs; their lightweight and small diameter can allow for them to be embedded into composite materials. Since the individual nanotubes have shown to have incredibly high strength, stiffness, and strain sensitivity, CNT yarns have the potential to be highly effective for in-situ structural health monitoring of advanced materials and structures. This work identifies the sources for losses in strength and electromechanical sensitivity. This is done by first understanding the physics involved with a CNT yarn under axial strain. Since this material is not a Newtonian solid, the stress-strain relationships are dissimilar to conventional materials, exhibiting a three zone behavior. This is present in both the stress-strain and resistance-strain relationships. A tensile test performed in-situ within a scanning electron microscope showed that the diameter of the yarn reduced greatly during tension, which indicates that the volume is not constant; therefore, the intratube/intrabundle load transfer efficiency and electrical conductivity change significantly under strain. Observation of this phenomenon helps elucidate the source for loss in the translation from nanoscopic CNTs to the macroscopic CNT yarns. Following the observation that the CNT yarn is not a solid body mechanics system, investigation into the long-standing field of textile engineering helped to identify that the CNT yarn structural hierarchy should be re-evaluated. Literary review reveals that the predominant base morphology of CNT yarns is bundles of CNTs as opposed to individual CNTs. Furthermore, in conventional textiles, it is well known that the base morphology (in textiles this is the "fiber") will bundle

  3. Nanoparticles laden in situ gel for sustained ocular drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper availability of drug on to corneal surface is a challenging task. However, due to ocular physiological barriers, conventional eye drops display poor ocular bioavailability of drugs (< 1%. To improve precorneal residence time and ocular penetration, earlier our group developed and evaluated in situ gel and nanoparticles for ocular delivery. In interest to evaluate the combined effect of in situ gel and nanoparticles on ocular retention, we combined them. We are the first to term this combination as "nanoparticle laden in situ gel", that is, poly lactic co glycolic acid nanoparticle incorporated in chitosan in situ gel for sparfloxacin ophthalmic delivery. The formulation was tested for various physicochemical properties. It showed gelation pH near pH 7.2. The observation of acquired gamma camera images showed good retention over the entire precorneal area for sparfloxacin nanoparticle laden in situ gel (SNG as compared to marketed formulation. SNG formulation cleared at a very slow rate and remained at corneal surface for longer duration as no radioactivity was observed in systemic circulation. The developed formulation was found to be better in combination and can go up to the clinical evaluation and application.

  4. Feasibility of in situ beta ray measurements in underwater environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye Min; Park, Ki Hyun; Kang, Sung Won; Joo, Koan Sik

    2017-09-01

    We describe an attempt at the development of an in situ detector for beta ray measurements in underwater environment. The prototype of the in situ detector is based on a CaF2: Eu scintillator using crystal light guide and Si photomultiplier. Tests were conducted using various reference sources for evaluating the linearity and stability of the detector in underwater environment. The system is simple and stable for long-term monitoring, and consumes low power. We show here an effective detection distance of 7 mm and a 2.273 MeV end-point energy spectrum of 90 Sr/ 90 Y when using the system underwater. The results demonstrate the feasibility of in situ beta ray measurements in underwater environment and can be applied for designing an in situ detector for radioactivity measurement in underwater environment. The in situ detector can also have other applications such as installation on the marine monitoring platform and quantitative analysis of radionuclides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Management of Adenocarcinoma In Situ of Cervix in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Abidi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Adenocarcinoma in situ is one of the premalignant lesions of the cervix and its incidence is believed to be increasing while the pathogenesis of the disease is not clearly understood. Management of Adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS unlike carcinoma in situ (CIS has not been clearly described in the current literature. Here we describe conservative management and serial colposcopy of two pregnant women with adenocarcinoma in situ of the cervix. Both of the cases were diagnosed initially with abnormal Pap smears and were confirmed by colposcopic directed biopsy. None of the patients agreed with any invasive procedure during pregnancy and both of them were followed with serial colposcopy. None of the lesions showed any evidence of progression. All cases underwent cold knife cone biopsies in their postpartum period. Hysterectomy as the final treatment has been done in both cases with no evidence of progression of the disease during pregnancy. We concluded that adenocarcinoma in situ of the cervix during pregnancy could be managed conservatively with definite treatment postponed till after delivery.

  6. In situ viscosity of oil sands using low field NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, J.; Moon, D.; Kantzas, A.

    2005-01-01

    In heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs, oil viscosity is a vital piece of information that will have great bearing on the chosen EOR scheme and the recovery expected. Prediction of in situ viscosity with a logging tool would he very beneficial in reservoir characterization and exploitation design. Low field NMR is a technology that has shown great potential as a tool for characterizing hydrocarbon properties in heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs. An oil viscosity correlation has previously been developed that is capable of providing order of magnitude viscosity estimates for a wide range of oils taken from various fields in Alberta. This paper presents tuning procedures to improve the NMR predictions for different viscosity ranges, and extends the NMR viscosity model to in situ heavy oil in unconsolidated sands. The results of this work show that the NMR oil peak can be de-convoluted from the in situ signals of the oil and water, and the bulk viscosity correlation that was developed for bulk oils can he applied to predict the in situ oil viscosity. These results can be translated to an NMR logging tool algorithm, allowing for in situ measurements of oil viscosity at the proper reservoir conditions. (author)

  7. Nanoparticles laden in situ gelling system for ocular drug targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Designing an ophthalmic drug delivery system is one of the most difficult challenges for the researchers. The anatomy and physiology of eye create barriers like blinking which leads to the poor retention time and penetration of drug moiety. Some conventional ocular drug delivery systems show shortcomings such as enhanced pre-corneal elimination, high variability in efficiency, and blurred vision. To overcome these problems, several novel drug delivery systems such as liposomes, nanoparticles, hydrogels, and in situ gels have been developed. In situ-forming hydrogels are liquid upon instillation and undergo phase transition in the ocular cul-de-sac to form viscoelastic gel and this provides a response to environmental changes. In the past few years, an impressive number of novel temperature, pH, and ion-induced in situ-forming systems have been reported for sustain ophthalmic drug delivery. Each system has its own advantages and drawbacks. Thus, a combination of two drug delivery systems, i.e., nanoparticles and in situ gel, has been developed which is known as nanoparticle laden in situ gel. This review describes every aspects of this novel formulation, which present the readers an exhaustive detail and might contribute to research and development.

  8. In situ Measurements of Phytoplankton Fluorescence Using Low Cost Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana L. Wright

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophyll a fluorometry has long been used as a method to study phytoplankton in the ocean. In situ fluorometry is used frequently in oceanography to provide depth-resolved estimates of phytoplankton biomass. However, the high price of commercially manufactured in situ fluorometers has made them unavailable to some individuals and institutions. Presented here is an investigation into building an in situ fluorometer using low cost electronics. The goal was to construct an easily reproducible in situ fluorometer from simple and widely available electronic components. The simplicity and modest cost of the sensor makes it valuable to students and professionals alike. Open source sharing of architecture and software will allow students to reconstruct and customize the sensor on a small budget. Research applications that require numerous in situ fluorometers or expendable fluorometers can also benefit from this study. The sensor costs US$150.00 and can be constructed with little to no previous experience. The sensor uses a blue LED to excite chlorophyll a and measures fluorescence using a silicon photodiode. The sensor is controlled by an Arduino microcontroller that also serves as a data logger.

  9. Development of high-speed reactive processing system for carbon fiber-reinforced polyamide-6 composite: In-situ anionic ring-opening polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang-Woo; Seong, Dong Gi; Yi, Jin-Woo; Um, Moon-Kwang

    2016-01-01

    In order to manufacture carbon fiber-reinforced polyamide-6 (PA-6) composite, we optimized the reactive processing system. The in-situ anionic ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactam was utilized with proper catalyst and initiator for PA-6 matrix. The mechanical properties such as tensile strength, inter-laminar shear strength and compressive strength of the produced carbon fiber-reinforced PA-6 composite were measured, which were compared with the corresponding scanning electron microscope (SEM) images to investigate the polymer properties as well as the interfacial interaction between fiber and polymer matrix. Furthermore, kinetics of in-situ anionic ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactam will be discussed in the viewpoint of increasing manufacturing speed and interfacial bonding between PA-6 matrix and carbon fiber during polymerization.

  10. Development of high-speed reactive processing system for carbon fiber-reinforced polyamide-6 composite: In-situ anionic ring-opening polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang-Woo; Seong, Dong Gi; Yi, Jin-Woo; Um, Moon-Kwang [Composites Research Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science (KIMS), Changwon, Gyeongnam, 642–831 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-18

    In order to manufacture carbon fiber-reinforced polyamide-6 (PA-6) composite, we optimized the reactive processing system. The in-situ anionic ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactam was utilized with proper catalyst and initiator for PA-6 matrix. The mechanical properties such as tensile strength, inter-laminar shear strength and compressive strength of the produced carbon fiber-reinforced PA-6 composite were measured, which were compared with the corresponding scanning electron microscope (SEM) images to investigate the polymer properties as well as the interfacial interaction between fiber and polymer matrix. Furthermore, kinetics of in-situ anionic ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactam will be discussed in the viewpoint of increasing manufacturing speed and interfacial bonding between PA-6 matrix and carbon fiber during polymerization.

  11. Landscape Erosion Assessment using the {sup 137}Cs-based Method through Laboratory and in-situ Gamma Spectrometry: An Update of On-going Research and Progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonsalves, B. C.; Toloza, A.; Augustin, F.; Dercon, G.; Mabit, L. [Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition Laboratory (SWMCNL), Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Seibersdorf (Austria); Darby, I. G.; Kaiser, R. B. [Nuclear Science and Instrumentation Laboratory (NSIL), Division of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Seibersdorf (Austria)

    2014-07-15

    The objective of this research is to compare in-situ {sup 137}Cs measurements using an on-site lanthanum bromide (LaBr{sub 3} (Ce)) scintillation detector with those from a conventional laboratory-based HPGe detector to assess soil erosion. We aimed to establish (i) the strength of the relationship between in-situ and laboratory based measurements, and (ii) to develop improved tools for landscape-based soil erosion assessments in our continuing research, reported in the January 2013 Soils Newsletter.

  12. In-situ nitrite analysis in high level waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Rourke, P.E.; Prather, W.S.; Livingston, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    The Savannah River Site produces special nuclear materials used in the defense of the United States. Most of the processes at SRS are primarily chemical separations and purifications. In-situ chemical analyses help improve the safety, efficiency and quality of these operations. One area where in situ fiberoptic spectroscopy can have a great impact is the management of high level radioactive waste. High level radioactive waste at SRS is stored in more than 50 large waste tanks. The waste exists as a slurry of nitrate salts and metal hydroxides at pH's higher than 10. Sodium Nitrite is added to the tanks as a corrosion inhibitor. In-situ fiberoptic probes are being developed to measure the nitrate, nitrite and hydroxide concentrations in both liquid and solid fractions. Nitrite levels can be measured between 0.01M and 1M in a 1mm pathlength optical cell

  13. In Situ Magnetic Separation for Extracellular Protein Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappler, T.; Cerff, Martin; Ottow, Kim Ekelund

    2009-01-01

    A new approach for in situ product removal from bioreactors is presented in which high-gradient magnetic separation is used. This separation process was used for the adsorptive removal of proteases secreted by Bacillus licheniformis. Small, non-porous bacitracin linked magnetic adsorbents were...... was not influenced by the in situ product removal step. Protease production also remained the same after the separation step. Furthermore, degradation of the protease, which followed first order kinetics, was reduced by using the method. Using a theoretical modeling approach, we Could show that protease yield...... in total was enhanced by using in situ magnetic separation. The process described here is a promising technique to improve overall yield in No production processes which are often limited due to weak downstream operations, Potential limitations encountered during a bioprocess can be overcome...

  14. Robot-Assisted Antegrade In-Situ Fenestrated Stent Grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riga, Celia V.; Bicknell, Colin D.; Wallace, Daniel; Hamady, Mohamad; Cheshire, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    To determine the technical feasibility of a novel approach of in-situ fenestration of aortic stent grafts by using a remotely controlled robotic steerable catheter system in the porcine model. A 65-kg pig underwent robot-assisted bilateral antegrade in-situ renal fenestration of an abdominal aortic stent graft with subsequent successful deployment of a bare metal stent into the right renal artery. A 16-mm iliac extension covered stent served as the porcine aortic endograft. Under fluoroscopic guidance, the graft was punctured with a 20-G customized diathermy needle that was introduced and kept in place by the robotic arm. The needle was exchanged for a 4 x 20 mm cutting balloon before successful deployment of the renal stent. Robot-assisted antegrade in-situ fenestration is technically feasible in a large mammalian model. The robotic system enables precise manipulation, stable positioning, and minimum instrumentation of the aorta and its branches while minimizing radiation exposure.

  15. In situ protocol for butterfly pupal wings using riboprobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Diane; Monteiro, Antonia

    2007-01-01

    Here we present, in video format, a protocol for in situ hybridizations in pupal wings of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana using riboprobes. In situ hybridizations, a mainstay of developmental biology, are useful to study the spatial and temporal patterns of gene expression in developing tissues at the level of transcription. If antibodies that target the protein products of gene transcription have not yet been developed, and/or there are multiple gene copies of a particular protein in the genome that cannot be differentiated using available antibodies, in situs can be used instead. While an in situ technique for larval wing discs has been available to the butterfly community for several years, the current protocol has been optimized for the larger and more fragile pupal wings.

  16. Applications of in situ hybridization to plant-improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, F.M.

    2004-01-01

    In situ hybridization is a powerful method for characteristic alien addition and substitution lines. RFLP analysis can identify the presence of a particular individual chromosome, but whether they are as a pair or as a single chromosome cannot be determined. In situ hybridization has become established as an essential method in cell and molecular biology. It is able to link DNA sequences with their organization and physical position. The rate of technology-development in the field of in situ hybridization has been rapid: radioactive probes are now rarely used, while labeling methods, fluorochromes, chromosomes and tissue-preparation methods, microscope and imaging technology have all useful in functional genomics and localization of transgenes on the chromosomes. (author)

  17. Detector calibration for in-situ gamma ray spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Balea, G

    2002-01-01

    The power in the technique of in-situ spectrometry lies in the fact that a detector placed on ground measures gamma radiation from sources situated over an area of several hundred square meters. The 'field of view' for the detector would be larger for high energy radiation sources and for sources closer to the soil surface. In contrast, a soil sample would represent an area of a few tens of hundreds of square centimeters. In practice, an effective characterization of a site would involve in-situ gamma ray spectrometry in conjunction with soil sampling. As part of an overall program, in-situ gamma ray spectrometry provides a means to assess the degree of contamination in areas during the course of operations in the field, thus guiding the investigator on where to collect samples. It can also substantially reduce the number of samples need to be collected and subsequently analyzed. (author)

  18. Development of portable HPGe spectrometer for in situ measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kail Artjoms

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In situ applications require a very high level of portability of high-resolution spectrometric equipment. Usage of HPGe detectors for radioactivity measurements in the environment or for nuclear safeguard applications, to combat illicit trafficking of nuclear materials or uranium and plutonium monitoring in nuclear wastes, has become a norm in the recent years. Portable HPGe-based radionuclide spectrometer with electrical cooling has lately appeared on the market for in situ applications. At the same time deterioration of energy resolution associated with vibrations produced by cryocooler or high weight of the instrument, short time of autonomous operation and high price of these spectrometers are limiting their usage in many cases. In this paper we present development results of ultra compact hand held all-in-one spectrometer for in situ measurements based on HPGe detector cooled by liquid nitrogen without listing the above disadvantages.

  19. In situ deposition of thallium-containing oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, K.E.

    1996-01-01

    The number and variety of thallium based materials that can be made by in situ methods have grown consistently since the first report of successful thallium cuprate deposition by Face and Nestlerode in 1992. Processes for the deposition of superconductors, normal metals, and insulators have been developed. Most work to date has been done on the Tl-1212 phases, TlBa 2 CaCu 2 O 7 and (Tl,Pb)Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 7 . Recently however, the in situ thallium technique has been extended to other materials. For example, epitaxial thin films of thallium tantalate, an insulator of the pyrochlore structure and a potential buffer layer for thallium cuprate films, have been grown. Multilayers, important in the fabrication of Josephson junctions, have been demonstrated with the thallium lead cuprates. This paper reviews progress in the area of in situ thallium deposition technology which will make more complex thallium cuprate multilayer structures and devices possible

  20. In Situ Atom Probe Deintercalation of Lithium-Manganese-Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Björn; Maier, Johannes; Arlt, Jonas; Nowak, Carsten

    2017-04-01

    Atom probe tomography is routinely used for the characterization of materials microstructures, usually assuming that the microstructure is unaltered by the analysis. When analyzing ionic conductors, however, gradients in the chemical potential and the electric field penetrating dielectric atom probe specimens can cause significant ionic mobility. Although ionic mobility is undesirable when aiming for materials characterization, it offers a strategy to manipulate materials directly in situ in the atom probe. Here, we present experimental results on the analysis of the ionic conductor lithium-manganese-oxide with different atom probe techniques. We demonstrate that, at a temperature of 30 K, characterization of the materials microstructure is possible without measurable Li mobility. Also, we show that at 298 K the material can be deintercalated, in situ in the atom probe, without changing the manganese-oxide host structure. Combining in situ atom probe deintercalation and subsequent conventional characterization, we demonstrate a new methodological approach to study ionic conductors even in early stages of deintercalation.

  1. Master of Puppets: Cooperative Multitasking for In Situ Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozov, Dmitriy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lukic, Zarija [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Modern scientific and engineering simulations track the time evolution of billions of elements. For such large runs, storing most time steps for later analysis is not a viable strategy. It is far more efficient to analyze the simulation data while it is still in memory. Here, we present a novel design for running multiple codes in situ: using coroutines and position-independent executables we enable cooperative multitasking between simulation and analysis, allowing the same executables to post-process simulation output, as well as to process it on the fly, both in situ and in transit. We present Henson, an implementation of our design, and illustrate its versatility by tackling analysis tasks with different computational requirements. This design differs significantly from the existing frameworks and offers an efficient and robust approach to integrating multiple codes on modern supercomputers. The techniques we present can also be integrated into other in situ frameworks.

  2. The ultrasonic technique for in situ investigations on stones: suggestions for uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellopede, R.; Marini, P.

    2012-04-01

    The Ultrasound Pulse Velocity (UPV) is one of the main non destructive techniques to detect both in laboratory and in situ the stone decay and many international papers of the recent years deal with its application. This technique is often executed in laboratory, where the possibility to keep constant the environmental and test conditions are a guarantee of the reliability of the results. It is known in fact the UPV are mainly conditioned by the following factors: - the characteristics of the stone tested (not only petrographic properties such as texture and structure, but even specimen dimension and water content); - the transducers features such as frequency, divergence angle , near field and wavelength; - external climate factors such as environmental temperature, humidity. In spite of the many factors affecting the measurements, UPV performed in laboratory is well correlated with mechanical strength of the stone , with its porosity and, as consequence, it is a reliable technique to detect the durability of a stone. On the other side, for in situ UPV test it is important to take into account that the measurement uncertainty is affected by the unknown water content in the stone. From tests performed on different rocks (marble, limestones, travertines, granites, gneiss, schists , sandstones) , the ratios between UPV tested in dry and saturated conditions can be > 1 or stone in order to choose the suitable measurement frequency; the correct choice of transducers frequencies; the use of a reference slab, with a known UPV in dry conditions, to be exposed in the investigated site some days before the in situ tests, in order to appreciate the UPV variation due to climate factors.

  3. Using the Coronal Evolution to Successfully Forward Model CMEs' In Situ Magnetic Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, C.; Gopalswamy, N.

    2017-12-01

    Predicting the effects of a coronal mass ejection (CME) impact requires knowing if impact will occur, which part of the CME impacts, and its magnetic properties. We explore the relation between CME deflections and rotations, which change the position and orientation of a CME, and the resulting magnetic profiles at 1 AU. For 45 STEREO-era, Earth-impacting CMEs, we determine the solar source of each CME, reconstruct its coronal position and orientation, and perform a ForeCAT (Forecasting a CME's Altered Trajectory) simulation of the coronal deflection and rotation. From the reconstructed and modeled CME deflections and rotations, we determine the solar cycle variation and correlations with CME properties. We assume no evolution between the outer corona and 1 AU and use the ForeCAT results to drive the ForeCAT In situ Data Observer (FIDO) in situ magnetic field model, allowing for comparisons with ACE and Wind observations. We do not attempt to reproduce the arrival time. On average FIDO reproduces the in situ magnetic field for each vector component with an error equivalent to 35% of the average total magnetic field strength when the total modeled magnetic field is scaled to match the average observed value. Random walk best fits distinguish between ForeCAT's ability to determine FIDO's input parameters and the limitations of the simple flux rope model. These best fits reduce the average error to 30%. The FIDO results are sensitive to changes of order a degree in the CME latitude, longitude, and tilt, suggesting that accurate space weather predictions require accurate measurements of a CME's position and orientation.

  4. Construction of in-situ creep strain test facility for the SFR fuel cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Gyu; Heo, Hyeong Min; Kim, Jun Hwan; Kim, Sung Ho [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this study, in-situ laser inspection creep test machine was developed for the measuring the creep strain of SFR fuel cladding materials. Ferritic-martensitic steels are being considered as an attractive candidate material for a fuel cladding of a SFR due to their low expansion coefficients, high thermal conductivities and excellent irradiation resistances to a void swelling. HT9 steel (12CrMoVW) is initially developed as a material for power plants in Europe in the 1960. This steel has experienced to expose up to 200dpa in FFTE and EBR-II. Ferritic-Martensitic steel's maximum creep strength in existence is 180Mpa for 106 hour 600 .deg., but HT9 steel is 60Mpa. Because SFR is difficult to secure in developing and applying materials, HT9 steel has accumulated validated data and is suitable for SFR component. And also, because of its superior dimensional stability against fast neutron irradiation, Ferritic-martensitic steel of 9Cr and 12Cr steels, such as HT9 and FC92(12Cr-2W) are preferable to utilize in the fuel cladding of an SFR in KAERI. The pressurized thermal creep test of HT9 and FC92 claddings are being conducted in KAERI, but the change of creep strain in cladding is not easy to measure during the creep test due to its pressurized and closed conditions. In this paper, in-situ laser inspection pressurized creep test machine developed for SFR fuel cladding specimens is described. Moreover, the creep strain rate of HT9 at 650 .deg. C was examined from the in-situ laser inspection pressurized creep test machine.

  5. In-situ Observation of Fracture Behavior on Nano Structure in NITE SiC/SiC Composite by HVEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibayama, Tamaki; Hamada, Kouichi; Watanabe, Seiichi; Matsuo, Genichiro; Kishimoto, Hirotatsu

    2011-01-01

    We have been successfully done in situ observation on the sequence of fracture event at the interface of NITE SiC/SiC composite examined by using miniaturized double notched shear specimen for TEM prepared by Focused Ion Beam method. In this study, we used nano-mechanics TEM experimental apparatus to investigate not only microstructure evolution and but also load and displacement curve at once in High Voltage Electron Microscope. Our results summarize as follows. Cracks were initiated at the interface between carbon coating layer on the SiC fiber and SiC matrices, and propagated along the interface. Load drop in the load and displacement curve during in-situ TEM was clearly observed at the crack initiation. The shear strength by using the miniaturized specimen is about ten times higher than that obtained by the standard testing.

  6. A comparative study of the character and complexation properties of in-situ and extracted humic and fulvic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warwick, P.; Hall, A.; Patterson, M.

    1992-12-01

    The character and complexation properties of humic and fulvic acids, derived from a moorland water, have been studied, both under ''in-situ'' conditions and also after extraction. The characterisation studies involved determinations of UV-visible properties, fluorescence properties. size ranges, molecular weights and proton capacities. Complexation studies were conducted using High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography, Fluorescence Reduction and the Schubert Ion Exchange Method. A strong and weak site ligand model was used to interpret the data. The effects of pH, ionic strength, side reactions, ligand type, purity and nature of the cation were considered. No major differences in the character or complexation properties of the in-situ and extracted materials were found. (Author)

  7. In situ determination of pipelines mechanical properties; Determinacao de propriedades mecanicas in situ de dutos terrestres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paes, Marcelo Torres Piza [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Souza Filho, Byron Goncalves de [PETROBRAS Transportes S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ramos Neto, Francisco F.; Franco, Vera Lucia D.S.; Franco, Sinesio Domingues [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Cardoso, Flavia Cristina; Soares, Alcimar Barbosa [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica

    2005-07-01

    The possibility of having technical data regarding pipeline mechanical properties (yield strength, engineering ultimate strength and real stress-strain curve) may be of great importance for pipeline operators specially for old pipes from which there are seldom precise information. The use of portable equipment based on the ball indentation technique offers the possibility of having such properties with high accuracy and speed, without the necessity of pipe specimen removal, being only necessary a ball indentation with a maximum depth of 300{mu}m, and totally nondestructive. This paper presents the calculation methodology used for obtaining the related properties trough use of the ball indentation technique as well as the final version of portable equipment with such features, named 'Propinsitu', developed by a government-company-university partnership. Finally, initial results comparing the ball indentation tests with those derived from tension test are presented for typical API steel X42 and X60. (author)

  8. Experimental investigation of in situ cleanable HEPA filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company located at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina is currently testing the feasibility of developing an in situ cleanable high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter system. Sintered metal filters are being tested for regenerability or cleanability in simulated conditions found in a high level waste (HLW) tank ventilation system. The filters are being challenged using materials found in HLW tanks. HLW simulated salt, HLW simulated sludge and South Carolina road dust. Various cleaning solutions have been used to clean the filters in situ. The tanks are equipped with a ventilation system to maintain the tank contents at negative pressure to prevent the release of radioactive material to the environment. This system is equipped with conventional disposable glass-fiber HEPA filter cartridges. Removal and disposal of these filters is not only costly, but subjects site personnel to radiation exposure and possible contamination. A test apparatus was designed to simulate the ventilation system of a HLW tank with an in situ cleaning system. Test results indicate that the Mott sintered metal HEPA filter is suitable as an in situ cleanable or regenerable HEPA filter. Data indicates that high humidity or water did not effect the filter performance and the sintered metal HEPA filter was easily cleaned numerous times back to new filter performance by an in situ spray system. The test apparatus allows the cleaning of the soiled HEPA filters to be accomplished without removing the filters from process. This innovative system would eliminate personnel radiation exposure associated with removal of contaminated filters and the high costs of filter replacement and disposal. The results of these investigations indicate that an in situ cleanable HEPA filter system for radioactive and commercial use could be developed and manufactured

  9. In situ measurement of conductivity during nanocomposite film deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blattmann, Christoph O.; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Flame-made nanosilver dynamics are elucidated in the gas-phase & on substrates. • The resistance of freshly depositing nanosilver layers is monitored. • Low T g polymers facilitate rapid synthesis of conductive films. • Conductive nanosilver films form on top of or within the polymer depending on MW. - Abstract: Flexible and electrically conductive nanocomposite films are essential for small, portable and even implantable electronic devices. Typically, such film synthesis and conductivity measurement are carried out sequentially. As a result, optimization of filler loading and size/morphology characteristics with respect to film conductivity is rather tedious and costly. Here, freshly-made Ag nanoparticles (nanosilver) are made by scalable flame aerosol technology and directly deposited onto polymeric (polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate)) films during which the resistance of the resulting nanocomposite is measured in situ. The formation and gas-phase growth of such flame-made nanosilver, just before incorporation onto the polymer film, is measured by thermophoretic sampling and microscopy. Monitoring the nanocomposite resistance in situ reveals the onset of conductive network formation by the deposited nanosilver growth and sinternecking. The in situ measurement is much faster and more accurate than conventional ex situ four-point resistance measurements since an electrically percolating network is detected upon its formation by the in situ technique. Nevertheless, general resistance trends with respect to filler loading and host polymer composition are consistent for both in situ and ex situ measurements. The time lag for the onset of a conductive network (i.e., percolation) depends linearly on the glass transition temperature (T g ) of the host polymer. This is attributed to the increased nanoparticle-polymer interaction with decreasing T g . Proper selection of the host polymer in combination with in situ resistance monitoring

  10. Location specific in situ TEM straining specimens made using FIB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, R.D.; Papin, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    A method has been devised and demonstrated for producing in situ straining specimens for the transmission electron microscope (TEM) from specific locations in a sample using a dual-beam focused ion beam (FIB) instrument. The specimen is removed from a polished surface in the FIB using normal methods and then attached to a pre-fabricated substrate in the form of a modified TEM tensile specimen. In this manner, specific features of the microstructure of a polished optical mount can be selected for in situ tensile straining. With the use of electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD), this technique could be extended to select specific orientations of the specimen as well

  11. Progress and applications of in situ transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Rongming; Liu Jialong; Song Yuanjun

    2015-01-01

    Recent progress in the application of in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is briefly reviewed. It is emphasized that the development of advanced in situ TEM techniques makes it possible to investigate the evolution of materials under heat, strain, magnetic field, electric field or chemical reaction environments on the atomic scale. The mechanism of the microstructure evolution under various conditions and the relationship between the atomic structures and their properties can be obtained, which is beneficial for the design of new materials with tailored properties. The clarification of the structure-property relationship will help to develop new materials and solve related basic problems in the field of condensed matter physics. (authors)

  12. In situ observation techniques of protective oxide layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Takashi; Adachi, Takeharu; Usuki, Noriaki

    2015-01-01

    In situ analyzing techniques for investigating a surface and interface change during corrosion and oxidation of metals by using Raman scattering spectroscopy (Raman), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) are present. The Raman spectra revealed that a crystal structure and distribution of corrosion products varied during corrosion progress at elevated temperature and high pressure electrolyte. Time dependent XRD measurements made clear the behavior of the electrochemical reduction of a rust and the iso thermal transformation of a scale on a steel. It was demonstrated that XPS was capable of the in-situ measurements for initial stage of high temperature oxidation. (author)

  13. An introduction to in-situ produced cosmogenic nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, K.P.

    2012-01-01

    Cosmogenic nuclides are produced through interactions between cosmic rays and target nuclei in Earth's atmosphere and surface materials. Those which are produced in Earth's atmosphere are termed 'meteoric' while the nuclides produced in surface material are known as in-situ cosmogenic nuclides. The past two decades have seen a proliferation of applications for cosmogenic nuclides. This is primarily due to a revolution in accelerator mass spectrometry, AMS, measurement techniques which has allowed the measurement of very small amounts of nuclides. The following is a brief introduction to the theory and application of in-situ produced cosmogenic nuclide methods. (author). 17 refs., figs., 1 tab.

  14. In situ lake pollutant survey using prompt-gamma probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiunnhsing Chao; Chien Chung

    1991-01-01

    An aluminium-made neutron-gamma probe, consisting of a 1.5 μg 252 Cf neutron source and a high purity germanium detector, was mounted on a mobile floating platform to survey chlorine pollutant concentration in lake water in situ. Laboratory tests for determining the probe operating depth and in situ field trials of a polluted lake were conducted; evaluation of radiation exposure to workers on board was carried out. The polluted chlorine concentration in lake water was found to be 86 ppm, with minimal radiation exposure for the operating crew on board. (author)

  15. Cell In Situ Zymography: Imaging Enzyme-Substrate Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Aastha; Rani, Vibha

    2017-01-01

    Zymography has long been used for the detection of substrate-specific enzyme activity. In situ zymography (ISZ), an adaptation from the conventional substrate zymography, is a widely employed technique useful for the detection, localization, and estimation of enzyme-substrate interactions in tissues. Here, we describe a protocol to detect 'in position' matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in cells utilizing H9c2 cardiomyoblasts as a model. This technique is primarily adopted from the method used for histological sections and is termed as 'Cell in situ Zymography'. It is a simple, sensitive, and quantifiable methodology to assess the functional activity of an enzyme 'on site/in position' in cell culture.

  16. In situ remediation integrated program: Success through teamwork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, M.E.

    1994-08-01

    The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP), managed under the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Technology Development, focuses research and development efforts on the in-place treatment of contaminated environmental media, such as soil and groundwater, and the containment of contaminants to prevent the contaminants from spreading through the environment. As described here, specific ISR IP projects are advancing the application of in situ technologies to the demonstration point, providing developed technologies to customers within DOE. The ISR IP has also taken a lead role in assessing and supporting innovative technologies that may have application to DOE

  17. Portable in situ NaI(Tl) γ spectroscopy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bairong; Dong Binjiang; Zeng Liping; Shen Tingyun

    2000-01-01

    The author describes a portable in situ NaI(Tl) γ spectroscopy system, which consists of a NaI (Tl) scintillation detector, an integrative spectroscopy card, a notebook computer and spectroscopy software. The spectrometer addresses applications in environmental or nuclear accident in situ γ spectroscopy measurements, and gives valid quantitative results of radionuclide concentrations per unit volume (Bq/kg) or unit area (Bq/cm 2 ) in the soil and absorbed dose rate in air at 1 m above ground (Gy/h)

  18. In situ monitoring of the electrochemical dissolution of tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebsz, Melinda [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Combinatorial Oxide Chemistry at ICTAS, Johannes Kepler University Linz (Austria); Kollender, Jan Philipp [Institute for Chemical Technology of Inorganic Materials (ICTAS), Johannes Kepler University Linz (Austria); Hassel, Achim Walter [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Combinatorial Oxide Chemistry at ICTAS, Johannes Kepler University Linz (Austria); Institute for Chemical Technology of Inorganic Materials (ICTAS), Johannes Kepler University Linz (Austria)

    2017-09-15

    In the present work, which is aimed to monitor in situ the electrochemical dissolution of tungsten by using a Flow-Type Scanning Droplet Cell Microscope (FT-SDCM) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), novel results are reported. The anodic oxide growth and its dissolution on the surface of W have been monitored in situ. The results of this current study show the importance of coupling electrochemical experiments to ICP-MS. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Analysis of in situ stress at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, S.J.; Holland, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been developed to initialize far-field finite element models such that the measured in situ stress state appears to be reproduced well. The method includes use of the mechanical stratigraphy, mechanical effect of pore pressure, gravity loading, a horizontal ''tectonic'' component of stress, and use of a jointed rock model to calculate the mechanical response. Topographic effects and effects related to the vertical variation in mechanical properties are predicted for repository depths (∼ 300 m). Gravity loading with a small horizontal compression is used to calculate a minimum horizontal stress similar in magnitude to that measured in situ. 8 refs., 5 figs

  20. In situ polymerization of monomers for polyphenylquinoxaline/graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, T. T.; Delvigs, P.; Vannucci, R. D.

    1973-01-01

    Methods currently used to prepare fiber reinforced, high temperature resistant polyphenylquinoxaline (PPQ) composites employ extremely viscous, low solids content solutions of high molecular weight PPQ polymers. An improved approach, described in this report, consists of impregnating the fiber with a solution of the appropriate monomers instead of a solution of previously synthesized high molecular weight polymer. Polymerization of the monomers occurs in situ on the fiber during the solvent removal and curing stages. The in situ polymerization approach greatly simplifies the fabrication of PPQ graphite fiber composites. The use of low viscosity monomeric type solutions facilitates fiber wetting, permits a high solids content, and eliminates the need for prior polymer synthesis.

  1. PPLA-cellulose nanocrystals nanocomposite prepared by in situ polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paula, Everton L. de; Pereirea, Fabiano V.; Mano, Valdir

    2011-01-01

    This work reports the preparation and and characterization of a PLLA-cellulose nanocrystals nanocomposite obtained by in situ polymerization. The nanocomposite was prepared by ring opening polymerization of the lactide dimer in the presence of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and the as-obtained materials was characterized using FTIR, DSC, XRD and TGA measurements. The incorporation of cellulose nanocrystals in PLLA using this method improved the thermal stability and increased the crystallinity of PLLA. These results indicate that the incorporation of CNCs by in situ polymerization improve thermal properties and has potential to improve also mechanical properties of this biodegradable polymer. (author)

  2. Demonstration testing and evaluation of in situ heating of soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This document describes the Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) for IITRI Project C06787 entitled open-quotes Demonstration Testing and Evaluation of In Situ Heating of Soilclose quotes. A work plan for the above mentioned work was previously submitted. This QAPP describes the sampling and analysis of soil core-samples obtained from the K-25 Site (Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant) where an in-situ heating and soil decontamination demonstration experiment will be performed. Soil samples taken before and after the experiment will be analyzed for selected volatile organic compounds. The Work Plan mentioned above provides a complete description of the demonstration site, the soil sampling plan, test plan, etc

  3. Contribution of fluorescence in situ hybridization to biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorokine-Durm, I.; Roy, L.; Durand, V.; Voisin, P.

    1995-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization with composite whole chromosome specific DNA probes for human chromosomes 2, 4 and 12 an α-satellite centromeric DNA probe labelled with biotin were used to measure symmetrical and terminal translocations (dose rate 0.5 Gy/min) and dicentrics (0.1 Gy/min) induced in vitro by 60 Co γ-irradiation (0-5 Gy). The suitability of fluorescence in situ hybridization (F.I.S.H.) technique for dicentrics detection is compared with the conventional technique. Dose-response curves for γ-rays ( 60 Co) for two dose rates are shown (dicentrics and translocations). (authors). 10 refs., 2 figs

  4. The formulation of a nasal nanoemulsion zaleplon in situ gel for the treatment of insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosny, Khaled Mohamed; Banjar, Zainy Mohammed

    2013-08-01

    Zaleplon is a drug used for the treatment of insomnia and is available in tablet form; however, it has two major problems. First, the drug undergoes extensive first pass metabolism, resulting in only 30% bioavailability, and second, the drug has a poor aqueous solubility, which delays the onset of action. The objective of this study is to utilise nanotechnology to formulate zaleplon into a nasal in situ nanoemulsion gel (NEG) to provide a solution for the previously mentioned problems. The solubility of zaleplon in various oils, surfactants and co-surfactants was estimated. Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were developed and various nanoemulsion (NE) formulations were prepared; these formulations were subjected to visual characterisation, thermodynamic stability study and droplet size and conductivity measurements. Carbopol 934 was used as an in situ gelling agent. The gel strength, pH, gelation time, in vitro release and ex vivo nasal permeation were determined. The pharmacokinetic study of the NEG was carried out in rabbits. Stable NEs were successfully developed with a droplet size range of 35 to 73 nm. A NEG composed of 15% Miglyol, 30% Labrasol and 10% PEG 200 successfully provided the maximum in vitro and ex vivo permeation and enhanced the bioavailability in the rabbits by eightfold, when compared with the marketed tablets. The nasal NEG is a promising novel formula for zaleplon that has higher nasal tissue permeability and enhanced systemic bioavailability.

  5. In-situ stabilization of TRU/mixed waste project at the INEEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milian, L.W.; Heiser, J.H.; Adams, J.W.; Rutenkroeger, S.P.

    1997-08-01

    Throughout the DOE complex, buried waste poses a threat to the environment by means of contaminant transport. Many of the sites contain buried waste that is untreated, prior to disposal, or insufficiently treated, by today's standards. One option to remedy these disposal problems is to stabilize the waste in situ. This project was in support of the Transuranic/Mixed Buried Waste - Arid Soils product line of the Landfill Focus Area, which is managed currently by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (BNL) provided the analytical laboratory and technical support for the various stabilization activities that will be performed as part of the In Situ Stabilization of TRU/Mixed Waste project at the INEL. More specifically, BNL was involved in laboratory testing that included the evaluation of several grouting materials and their compatibility, interaction, and long-term durability/performance, following the encapsulation of various waste materials. The four grouting materials chosen by INEL were: TECT 1, a two component, high density cementious grout, WAXFIX, a two component, molten wax product, Carbray 100, a two component elastomeric epoxy, and phosphate cement, a two component ceramic. A simulated waste stream comprised of sodium nitrate, Canola oil, and INEL soil was used in this study. Seven performance and durability tests were conducted on grout/waste specimens: compressive strength, wet-dry cycling, thermal analysis, base immersion, solvent immersion, hydraulic conductivity, and accelerated leach testing

  6. Silica in situ enhanced PVA/chitosan biodegradable films for food packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhen; Li, Baoqiang; Chu, Jiayu; Zhang, Peifeng

    2018-03-15

    Non-degradable plastic food packages threaten the security of environment. The cost-effective and biodegradable polymer films with good mechanical properties and low permeability are very important for food packages. Among of biodegradable polymers, PVA/chitosan (CS) biodegradable films have attracted considerable attention because of feasible film forming ability. However, PVA/CS biodegradable films suffered from poor mechanical properties. To improve mechanical properties of PVA/CS biodegradable films, we developed SiO 2 in situ to enhance PVA/CS biodegradable films via hydrolysis of sodium metasilicate in presence of PVA and chitosan solution. The tensile strength of PVA/CS biodegradable films was improved 45% when 0.6 wt.% SiO 2 was incorporated into the films. Weight loss of PVA/CS biodegradable films was 60% after 30 days in the soil. The permeability of oxygen and moisture of PVA/CS biodegradable films was reduced by 25.6% and 10.2%, respectively. SiO 2 in situ enhanced PVA/CS biodegradable films possessed not only excellent mechanical properties, but also barrier of oxygen and water for food packages to extend the perseveration time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. In situ biosensing of the nanomechanical property and electrochemical spectroscopy of Streptococcus mutans-containing biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haochih Liu, Bernard; Li, Kun-Lin; Kang, Kai-Li; Huang, Wen-Ke; Liao, Jiunn-Der

    2013-07-01

    This work presents in situ biosensing approaches to study the nanomechanical and electrochemical behaviour of Streptococcus mutans biofilms under different cultivation conditions and microenvironments. The surface characteristics and sub-surface electrochemistry of the cell wall of S. mutans were measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) based techniques to monitor the in situ biophysical status of biofilms under common anti-pathogenic procedures such as ultraviolet (UV) radiation and alcohol treatment. The AFM nanoindentation suggested a positive correlation between nanomechanical strength and the level of UV radiation of S. mutans; scanning impedance spectroscopy of dehydrated biofilms revealed reduced electrical resistance that is distinctive from that of living biofilms, which can be explained by the discharge of cytoplasm after alcohol treatment. Furthermore, the localized elastic moduli of four regions of the biofilm were studied: septum (Z-ring), cell wall, the interconnecting area between two cells and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) area. The results indicated that cell walls exhibit the highest elastic modulus, followed by Z-ring, interconnect and EPS. Our approach provides an effective alternative for the characterization of the viability of living cells without the use of biochemical labelling tools such as fluorescence dyeing, and does not rely on surface binding or immobilization for detection. These AFM-based techniques can be very promising approaches when the conventional methods fall short.

  8. Short-Term Behavior of Slag Concretes Exposed to a Real In Situ Mediterranean Climate Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, José Marcos; Sánchez, Isidro; Cabeza, Marta; Climent, Miguel Ángel

    2017-08-08

    At present, one of the most suitable ways to get a more sustainable cement industry is to reduce the CO₂ emissions generated during cement production. In order to reach that goal, the use of ground granulated blast-furnace slag as clinker replacement is becoming increasingly popular. Although the effects of this addition in the properties of cementitious materials are influenced by their hardening conditions, there are not too many experimental studies in which slag concretes have been exposed to real in situ environments. Then, the main objective of this research is to study the short-term effects of exposure to real Mediterranean climate environment of an urban site, where the action of airborne chlorides from sea water and the presence of CO₂ are combined, in the microstructure and service properties of a commercial slag cement concrete, compared to ordinary Portland cement (OPC). The microstructure was studied with mercury intrusion porosimetry. The effective porosity, capillary suction coefficient, chloride migration coefficient, carbonation front depth, and compressive strength were also analyzed. Considering the results obtained, slag concretes exposed to a real in situ Mediterranean climate environment show good service properties in the short-term (180 days), in comparison with OPC.

  9. In-situ observations of Eyjafjallajökull ash particles by hot-air balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petäjä, T.; Laakso, L.; Grönholm, T.; Launiainen, S.; Evele-Peltoniemi, I.; Virkkula, A.; Leskinen, A.; Backman, J.; Manninen, H. E.; Sipilä, M.; Haapanala, S.; Hämeri, K.; Vanhala, E.; Tuomi, T.; Paatero, J.; Aurela, M.; Hakola, H.; Makkonen, U.; Hellén, H.; Hillamo, R.; Vira, J.; Prank, M.; Sofiev, M.; Siitari-Kauppi, M.; Laaksonen, A.; lehtinen, K. E. J.; Kulmala, M.; Viisanen, Y.; Kerminen, V.-M.

    2012-03-01

    The volcanic ash cloud from Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption seriously distracted aviation in Europe. Due to the flight ban, there were only few in-situ measurements of the properties and dispersion of the ash cloud. In this study we show in-situ observations onboard a hot air balloon conducted in Central Finland together with regional dispersion modelling with SILAM-model during the eruption. The modeled and measured mass concentrations were in a qualitative agreement but the exact elevation of the layer was slightly distorted. Some of this discrepancy can be attributed to the uncertainty in the initial emission height and strength. The observed maximum mass concentration varied between 12 and 18 μg m -3 assuming a density of 2 g m -3, whereas the gravimetric analysis of the integrated column showed a maximum of 45 μg m -3 during the first two descents through the ash plume. Ion chromatography data indicated that a large fraction of the mass was insoluble to water, which is in qualitative agreement with single particle X-ray analysis. A majority of the super-micron particles contained Si, Al, Fe, K, Na, Ca, Ti, S, Zn and Cr, which are indicative for basalt-type rock material. The number concentration profiles indicated that there was secondary production of particles possibly from volcano-emitted sulfur dioxide oxidized to sulfuric acid during the transport.

  10. In situ biosensing of the nanomechanical property and electrochemical spectroscopy of Streptococcus mutans-containing biofilms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Bernard Haochih; Li, Kun-Lin; Kang, Kai-Li; Huang, Wen-Ke; Liao, Jiunn-Der

    2013-01-01

    This work presents in situ biosensing approaches to study the nanomechanical and electrochemical behaviour of Streptococcus mutans biofilms under different cultivation conditions and microenvironments. The surface characteristics and sub-surface electrochemistry of the cell wall of S. mutans were measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) based techniques to monitor the in situ biophysical status of biofilms under common anti-pathogenic procedures such as ultraviolet (UV) radiation and alcohol treatment. The AFM nanoindentation suggested a positive correlation between nanomechanical strength and the level of UV radiation of S. mutans; scanning impedance spectroscopy of dehydrated biofilms revealed reduced electrical resistance that is distinctive from that of living biofilms, which can be explained by the discharge of cytoplasm after alcohol treatment. Furthermore, the localized elastic moduli of four regions of the biofilm were studied: septum (Z-ring), cell wall, the interconnecting area between two cells and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) area. The results indicated that cell walls exhibit the highest elastic modulus, followed by Z-ring, interconnect and EPS. Our approach provides an effective alternative for the characterization of the viability of living cells without the use of biochemical labelling tools such as fluorescence dyeing, and does not rely on surface binding or immobilization for detection. These AFM-based techniques can be very promising approaches when the conventional methods fall short. (paper)

  11. The Strength Compass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledertoug, Mette Marie

    In the Ph.D-project ͚Strengths-based Learning - Children͛s character strengths as a means to their learning potential͛ 750 Danish children have assessed ͚The Strength Compass͛ in order to identify their strengths and to create awareness of strengths. This was followed by a strengths......-based intervention program in order to explore the strengths. Finally different methods to apply the strength in everyday life at school were applied. The paper presentation will show the results for strengths display for children aged 6-16 in different categories: Different age groups: Are the same strengths...... present in both small children and youths? Gender: Do the results show differences between the two genders? Danish as a mother- tongue language: Do the results show any differences in the strengths display when considering different language and cultural backgrounds? Children with Special Needs: Do...

  12. In situ mesophase transformation by zirconium chloride in fabrication of carbon/carbon composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Bo; Song, Huaihe; Chen, Xiaohong; Ma, Zhaokun; Yang, Xiaoguang; Xu, Zhenghui

    2012-01-01

    Carbon/carbon (C/C) composites were prepared using multiple cycle in situ mesophase densification in the presence of zirconium chloride. The mesophase transformation and the performance of C/C composites were investigated in detail. The results show that higher amount of ZrCl 4 and longer soaking time accelerate the condensation of aromatic hydrocarbons. Additionally, the XRD pattern and ash contents show that the ZrCl 4 is retained in the samples and transformed to t-ZrO 2 and m-ZrO 2 after carbonization. In all the composites, the bulk density increases with cycle times, and the flexural strength increases with bulk density. However, a decrease of flexural strength for low density composites was observed when increasing ZrCl 4 concentrations. This tendency is attributed to more ZrO 2 formation in the composites using 20 wt.% ZrCl 4 . Subsequently, these ZrO 2 particles produce interface defects in the matrix which decreases its strength. Attributed to the very low content of ZrO 2 in high density composites, there is no difference between the samples using 13 wt.% and 20 wt.% ZrCl 4 .

  13. The deformation of Gum Metal through in situ compression of nanopillars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Withey, E.A.; Minor, A.M.; Chrzan, D.C.; Morris, J.W.; Kuramoto, S.

    2010-01-01

    The name 'Gum Metal' has been given to a set of β-Ti alloys that achieve exceptional elastic elongation and, with appropriate preparation, appear to deform by a dislocation-free mechanism triggered by elastic instability at the limit of strength. We have studied the compressive deformation of these materials with in situ nanocompression in a quantitative stage in a transmission electron microscope. The samples studied are cylindrical nanopillars 80-250 nm in diameter. The deformation pattern is monitored in real time using bright-field microscopy, dark-field microscopy or electron diffraction. Interesting results include the following: (i) nanopillars approach, and in several examples appear to reach, ideal strength; (ii) in contrast to conventional crystalline materials, there is no substantial 'size effect' in pillar strength; (iii) the deformation mode is fine-scale with respect to the sample dimension, even in pillars of 100 nm size; (iv) shear bands ('giant faults') do form in some tests, but only after yield and plastic deformation; and (v) a martensitic transformation to the base-centered orthorhombic α'' phase is sometimes observed, but is an incidental feature of the deformation rather than a significant cause of it.

  14. Diagnosis of In Situ Metabolic State and Rates of Microbial Metabolism During In Situ Uranium Bioremediation with Molecular Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovley, Derek R. [University of Massachusetts, Amherst

    2012-11-28

    The goal of these projects was to develop molecule tools to tract the metabolic activity and physiological status of microorganisms during in situ uranium bioremediation. Such information is important in able to design improved bioremediation strategies. As summarized below, the research was highly successful with new strategies developed for estimating in situ rates of metabolism and diagnosing the physiological status of the predominant subsurface microorganisms. This is a first not only for groundwater bioremediation studies, but also for subsurface microbiology in general. The tools and approaches developed in these studies should be applicable to the study of microbial communities in a diversity of soils and sediments.

  15. Fiber-optic pH sensor for in-situ applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michels, M.H.; Dureault, B.

    1992-01-01

    An evaluation of the feasibility of a fiber-optic pH sensor was carried out. The pH sensor is composed of an optode connected to the transmitter-receiver apparatus (Optolec H) through a 100 m-long fiber. Three diodes of carefully chosen wavelengths are located in the Optolec H and emit through a bundle of nine fibers to the end of the optode where the oncoming light is reflected on an immobilized pH-indicator-based spherical bead of resin and sent back for analysis to the Optolec H through a central fiber. The influence of ionic strength as well as precision, response time, and lifetime have been determined. This device is to be used for routine in-situ measurements in an underground laboratory devoted to studies in connection with nuclear waste repositories where harsh conditions are encountered for direct collection of waters and traditional post-determination with a pH-meter

  16. In situ electromagnetic field diagnostics with an electron plasma in a Penning-Malmberg trap

    CERN Document Server

    Amole, C; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Bertsche, W.; Butler, E.; Capra, A.; Cesar, C.L.; Charlton, M.; Deller, A.; Evetts, N.; Eriksson, S.; Fajans, J.; Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M.C.; Gill, D.R.; Gutierrez, A.; Hangst, J.S.; Hardy, W.N.; Hayden, M.E.; Isaac, C.A.; Jonsell, S.; Kurchaninov, L.; Little, A.; Madsen, N.; McKenna, J.T.K.; Menary, S.; Napoli, S.C.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Pusa, P.; Rasmussen, C.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Silveira, D.M.; So, C.; Stracka, S.; Tharp, T.; Thompson, R.I.; van der Werf, D.P.; Wurtele, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel detection method for the cyclotron resonance frequency of an electron plasma in a Penning-Malmberg trap. With this technique, the electron plasma is used as an in situ diagnostic tool for measurement of the static magnetic field and the microwave electric field in the trap. The cyclotron motion of the electron plasma is excited by microwave radiation and the temperature change of the plasma is measured non-destructively by monitoring the plasma's quadrupole mode frequency. The spatially-resolved microwave electric field strength can be inferred from the plasma temperature change and the magnetic field is found through the cyclotron resonance frequency. These measurements were used extensively in the recently reported demonstration of resonant quantum interactions with antihydrogen.

  17. Solid oxide electrode kinetics in light of in situ surface studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2014-01-01

    The combination of in situ and in particular in operando characterization methods such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) on both technical and model electrode are well known ways to gain some practical insight in electrode reaction kinetics. Yet, is has become clear that in spite...... of the strengths it is not sufficient to reveal much details of the electrode mechanisms mainly because it provide average values only. Therefore it has to be combined with surface science methods in order to reveal the interface structure and composition. Ex situ methods have been very useful over the latest....... Furthermore, it seems that detailed mathematical modeling using new tools like COMSOL is necessary for the synthesis of the large amount of data for a well-characterized electrode into one physical meaningful picture. A brief review of literature an own data will be presented with a practical example of SOFC...

  18. Reactive molecular beam epitaxial growth and in situ photoemission spectroscopy study of iridate superlattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Fan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available High-quality (001-oriented perovskite [(SrIrO3m/(SrTiO3] superlattices (m=1/2, 1, 2, 3 and ∞ films have been grown on SrTiO3(001 epitaxially using reactive molecular beam epitaxy. Compared to previously reported superlattices synthesized by pulsed laser deposition, our superlattices exhibit superior crystalline, interface and surface structure, which have been confirmed by high-resolution X-ray diffraction, scanning transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, respectively. The transport measurements confirm a novel insulator-metal transition with the change of dimensionality in these superlattices, and our first systematic in situ photoemission spectroscopy study indicates that the increasing strength of effective correlations induced by reducing dimensionality would be the dominating origin of this transition.

  19. Nondestructive test for estimating strength of concrete in structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, Yoshitsugu; Soshiroda, Tomozo

    1997-01-01

    Evaluation of the quality of concrete in structures, especially strength estimation is said to be one of the most important problem and needed to establish test method especial tv for non-destructive method in situ. The paper describes the nondestructive test to estimate strength of concrete. From experimental study using full scale model wall, strength estimating equations are proposed by ultra-sonic pulse velocity, rebound hardness of Schmidt hammer and combined with two methods. From statistical study of the results of experiments, errors of estimated strength by the proposed equations are suggested. The validity of the equations are verified by investigation for existing reinforced concrete buildings aged 20 - 50 years. And it was found from the statistical study that the strength estimating equations need to be corrected in applying to tons aged concrete, and correction factor to those squat ions were suggested. Furthermore the corrected proposed equations were verified by applying to buildings investigated the other case.

  20. In situ TEM electromechanical testing of nanowires and nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Horacio D; Bernal, Rodrigo A; Filleter, Tobin

    2012-11-05

    The emergence of one-dimensional nanostructures as fundamental constituents of advanced materials and next-generation electronic and electromechanical devices has increased the need for their atomic-scale characterization. Given its spatial and temporal resolution, coupled with analytical capabilities, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been the technique of choice in performing atomic structure and defect characterization. A number of approaches have been recently developed to combine these capabilities with in-situ mechanical deformation and electrical characterization in the emerging field of in-situ TEM electromechanical testing. This has enabled researchers to establish unambiguous synthesis-structure-property relations for one-dimensional nanostructures. In this article, the development and latest advances of several in-situ TEM techniques to carry out mechanical and electromechanical testing of nanowires and nanotubes are reviewed. Through discussion of specific examples, it is shown how the merging of several microsystems and TEM has led to significant insights into the behavior of nanowires and nanotubes, underscoring the significant role in-situ techniques play in the development of novel nanoscale systems and materials. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Supernumerary ring chromosome 20 characterized by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Langen, Irene M.; Otter, Mariëlle A.; Aronson, Daniël C.; Overweg-Plandsoen, W.C.G.; Hennekam, Raoul C.M.; Leschot, Nico J.; Hoovers, Jan M.N.

    1996-01-01

    We report on a boy with mild dysmorphic features and developmental delay, in whom karyotyping showed an additional minute ring chromosome in 60% of metaphases. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a centromere specific probe demonstrated that the ring chromosome contained the centromeric

  2. Repurposing CRISPR/Cas9 for in situ functional assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malina, Abba; Mills, John R; Cencic, Regina; Yan, Yifei; Fraser, James; Schippers, Laura M; Paquet, Marilène; Dostie, Josée; Pelletier, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    RNAi combined with next-generation sequencing has proven to be a powerful and cost-effective genetic screening platform in mammalian cells. Still, this technology has its limitations and is incompatible with in situ mutagenesis screens on a genome-wide scale. Using p53 as a proof-of-principle

  3. Experimental investigation of in situ cleanable HEPA filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), High Level Waste Division, Tanks Focus Area, and the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) have been investigating high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters which can be regenerated or cleaned in situ as an alternative to conventional disposable HEPA filters. This technical report documents concerns pertaining to conventional HEPA filters

  4. In-Situ Determination Of Actual Evapotranspiration Using Zero Flux ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a method of determining in-situ actual evapotranspiration using water balance method in the case of maize crop grown for two seasons at the Experimental Farm of the Department of Agricultural Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Akure in a non-saturated soil condition. The crop was ...

  5. Needs of in-situ materials testing under neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, K.; Hishinuma, A.; Kiuchi, K.

    1989-01-01

    Under neutron irradiation, the component atoms of materials are displaced as primary knock-on atoms, and the energy of the primary knock-on atoms is consumed by electron excitation and nuclear collision. Elementary irradiation defects accumulate to form damage structure including voids and bubbles. In situ test under neutron irradiation is necessary for investigating into the effect of irradiation on creep behavior, the electric properties of ceramics, transport phenomena and so on. The in situ test is also important to investigate into the phenomena related to the chemical reaction with environment during irradiation. Accelerator type high energy neutron sources are preferable to fission reactors. In this paper, the needs and the research items of in situ test under neutron irradiation using a D-Li stripping type high energy neutron source on metallic and ceramic materials are described. Creep behavior is one of the most important mechanical properties, and depends strongly on irradiation environment, also it is closely related to microstructure. Irradiation affects the electric conductibity of ceramics and also their creep behavior. In this way, in situ test is necessary. (K.I.)

  6. Oxygen-free in situ scanning tunnelling microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingdong; Ulstrup, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy under full electrochemical potential control (in situ STM) has been used extensively as an efficient method to characterize microstructures at solid/liquid interfaces at the atomic and molecular levels. However, under ambient conditions oxygen may interfere in open i...

  7. Simulation of salt behavior using in situ response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, W.T.

    1986-01-01

    The time-dependent nonlinear structural behavior in a salt formation around the openings can be obtained by either performing computational analysis of measuring in situ responses. However, analysis using laboratory test data may often deviate from the actual in situ conditions and geomechanical instruments can provide information only up to the time when the measurements were taken. A method has been suggested for simulating the salt behavior by utilizing the steady-state portion of in situ response history. Governing equations for computational analysis were normalized to the creep constant, the equations were solved, and the analytical response history was then computed in terms of normalized time. By synchronizing the response history obtained from the analysis to the one measured at the site, the creep constant was determined. Then the structural response of the salt was computed. This paper presents an improved method for simulating the salt behavior. In this method, the governing equations are normalized to the creep function, which represents the transient and the steady-state creep behavior. Both the transient and the steady-state portions of in situ response history are used in determining the creep function. Finally, a nonlinear mapping process relating the normalized and real time domains determines the behavior of the salt

  8. In situ spectrophotometric measurement of dissolved inorganic carbon in seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liua, Xuewu; Byrne, Robert H.; Adornato, Lori; Yates, Kimberly K.; Kaltenbacher, Eric; Ding, Xiaoling; Yang, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Autonomous in situ sensors are needed to document the effects of today’s rapid ocean uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide (e.g., ocean acidification). General environmental conditions (e.g., biofouling, turbidity) and carbon-specific conditions (e.g., wide diel variations) present significant challenges to acquiring long-term measurements of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) with satisfactory accuracy and resolution. SEAS-DIC is a new in situ instrument designed to provide calibrated, high-frequency, long-term measurements of DIC in marine and fresh waters. Sample water is first acidified to convert all DIC to carbon dioxide (CO2). The sample and a known reagent solution are then equilibrated across a gas-permeable membrane. Spectrophotometric measurement of reagent pH can thereby determine the sample DIC over a wide dynamic range, with inherent calibration provided by the pH indicator’s molecular characteristics. Field trials indicate that SEAS-DIC performs well in biofouling and turbid waters, with a DIC accuracy and precision of ∼2 μmol kg–1 and a measurement rate of approximately once per minute. The acidic reagent protects the sensor cell from biofouling, and the gas-permeable membrane excludes particulates from the optical path. This instrument, the first spectrophotometric system capable of automated in situ DIC measurements, positions DIC to become a key parameter for in situ CO2-system characterizations.

  9. Mixing and In situ product removal in micro-bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Of the thesis :’ Mixing and In-situ product removal in micro bioreactors’ by Xiaonan Li The work presented in this thesis is a part of a large cluster project, which was formed between DSM, Organon, Applikon and two university groups (TU Delft and University of Twente), under the ACTS and

  10. In situ studies of NO reduction by H

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roobol, S. B.; Onderwaater, W. G.; van Spronsen, M. A.; Carla, F; Balmes, O; Navarro-Paredes, V; Vendelbo, S.B.; Kooyman, P.J.; Elkjær, C. F.; Helveg, S; Felici, R; Frenken, J. W.M.; Groot, I.M.N.

    2017-01-01

    In situ surface X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy at 1 bar show massive material transport of platinum during high-temperature NO reduction with H2. A Pt(110) single-crystal surface shows a wide variety of surface reconstructions and extensive faceting of the

  11. Designing in situ simulation in the emergency department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paltved, Charlotte; Bjerregaard, Anders Thais; Krogh, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    Baggrund: Dette interventionsstudie har til formål at forbedre patientsikkerheden gennem design af in situ simulation. Undersøgelsen fandt sted på en akut medicinsk stue i den centrale region i Danmark. Forskning tyder på, at mangelfuld handover kommunikation kan øge sandsynligheden for kritiske ...

  12. Magnesium bicarbonate as an in situ uranium lixiviant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibert, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    In the subsurface solution mining of mineral values, especially uranium, in situ, magnesium bicarbonate leaching solution is used instead of sodium, potassium and ammonium carbonate and bicarbonates. The magnesium bicarbonate solution is formed by combining carbon dioxide with magnesium oxide and water. The magnesium bicarbonate lixivant has four major advantages over prior art sodium, potassium and ammonium bicarbonates

  13. In-situ thermeolectric stabilization of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouns, R.A.; Timmerman, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    Current analysis indicates that in situ vitrification is applicable to many wastes and soil types at a cost an order of magnitude less than exhumation, processing, and transportation to a deep geological disposal site. Once the waste materials have been solidified, future ground subsidence, wind erosion and plant or animal intrusion are virtually eliminated. Furthermore, the waste form is extremely durable

  14. In-Situ Investigation of Local Boundary Migration During Recrystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yubin; Godfrey, Andy; Juul Jensen, Dorte

    2014-01-01

    A combination of electron channeling contrast (ECC) and electron backscatter diffraction pattern (EBSP) techniques has been used to follow in situ the migration during annealing at 323 K (50 A degrees C) of a recrystallizing boundary through the deformed matrix of high-purity aluminum rolled to 8...

  15. In situ quantification of membrane foulant accumulation by reflectometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Roosjen, A.; Tang, K.; Norde, W.; Boom, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present laser light reflectometry [1] (not to be mistaken with ultrasound reflectometry [2] that uses ultrasound waves) as a tool for quantitative investigation of (the initial stages of) fouling on membrane-like surfaces. Reflectometry allows in situ investigation of adsorption

  16. Process for in-situ leaching of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espenscheid, W.F.; Yan, F.Y.

    1983-01-01

    The present invention relates to the recovery of uranium from subterranean ore deposits, and more particularly to an in-situ leaching operation employing an aqueous solution of sulfuric acid and carbon dioxide as the lixiviant. Uranium is solubilized in the lixiviant as it traverses the subterranean uranium deposit. The lixiviant is subsequently recovered and treated to remove the uranium

  17. An introduction to three algorithms for sorting in situ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, E.W.; Gasteren, van A.J.M.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give a crisp introduction to three algorithms for sorting in situ, viz. insertion sort, heapsort and smoothsort. The more complicated the algorithm, the more elaborate the justification for the design decisions embodied by it. In passing we offer a style for the

  18. In-situ biogas upgrading process: modeling and simulations aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lovato, Giovanna; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Kovalovszki, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Biogas upgrading processes by in-situ hydrogen (H2) injection are still challenging and could benefit from a mathematical model to predict system performance. Therefore, a previous model on anaerobic digestion was updated and expanded to include the effect of H2 injection into the liquid phase of...

  19. Isolation of cancer cells by "in situ" microfluidic biofunctionalization protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Vitis, Stefania; Matarise, Giuseppina; Pardeo, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is the development of a microfluidic immunosensor for the immobilization of cancer cells and their separation from healthy cells by using "in situ" microfluidic biofunctionalization protocols. These protocols allow to link antibodies on microfluidic device surfaces and can be...

  20. In-situ deposition of hydroxyapatite on graphene nanosheets

    OpenAIRE

    Neelgund, Gururaj M.; Oki, Aderemi; Luo, Zhiping

    2013-01-01

    Graphene nanosheets were effectively functionalized by in-situ deposition of hydroxyaptite through a facile chemical precipitation method. Prior to grafting of hydroxyapatite, chemically modified graphene nanosheets were obtained by the reduction of graphene oxide in presence of ethylenediamine. The resulting hydroxyapatite functionalized graphene nanosheets were characterized by attenuated total reflection IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, trans...

  1. In situ measurements of Merensky pillar behaviour at Impala Platinum

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Watson, BP

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available to stabilize the stoping excavations. This paper describes the in situ measurement, of stress within a Merensky pillar from Impala Platinum. These measurements were used to derive a stress-strain curve that includes pre and post failure behaviour. 2D FLAC...

  2. In situ analytical techniques for battery interface analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Alok M; Su, Wei-Nien; Hwang, Bing Joe

    2018-02-05

    Lithium-ion batteries, simply known as lithium batteries, are distinct among high energy density charge-storage devices. The power delivery of batteries depends upon the electrochemical performances and the stability of the electrode, electrolytes and their interface. Interfacial phenomena of the electrode/electrolyte involve lithium dendrite formation, electrolyte degradation and gas evolution, and a semi-solid protective layer formation at the electrode-electrolyte interface, also known as the solid-electrolyte interface (SEI). The SEI protects electrodes from further exfoliation or corrosion and suppresses lithium dendrite formation, which are crucial needs for enhancing the cell performance. This review covers the compositional, structural and morphological aspects of SEI, both artificially and naturally formed, and metallic dendrites using in situ/in operando cells and various in situ analytical tools. Critical challenges and the historical legacy in the development of in situ/in operando electrochemical cells with some reports on state-of-the-art progress are particularly highlighted. The present compilation pinpoints the emerging research opportunities in advancing this field and concludes on the future directions and strategies for in situ/in operando analysis.

  3. In situ rumen degradability characteristics of rice straw, soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In situ rumen degradability characteristics of rice straw, soybean curd residue and peppermint (Mentha piperita) in Hanwoo steer (Bos Taurus coreanae). Byong Tae Jeon, KyoungHoon Kim, Sung Jin Kim, Na Yeon Kim, Jae Hyun Park, Dong Hyun Kim, Mi Rae Oh, Sang Ho Moon ...

  4. A microfluidic membrane chip for in situ fouling characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngene, I.S.; Lammertink, Rob G.H.; Wessling, Matthias; van der Meer, Walterus Gijsbertus Joseph

    2010-01-01

    A new method for non-invasive in situ monitoring of a microfiltration process is described. In microfiltration systems, local information on the deposition characteristics can be used to determine the cake behavior during a filtration run. Typically, non-invasive methods of fouling study are

  5. In situ TEM observation of solid-gas reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishita, K; Kamino, T; Watabe, A; Kuroda, K; Saka, H

    2008-01-01

    Under a gaseous atmosphere at high temperatures, almost all the materials (metal, catalysts, etc.) change their structures and properties. For the research and development of materials, it is of vital importance to clarify mechanisms of solid-gas and liquid-gas reactions. Recently an in situ TEM system combined with an environmental holder, which has a gas injection nozzle close to a specimen-heating element, has been developed. The gas injection nozzle permits gas to flow around the specimens sitting on the heating element made of a fine W filament. The newly developed in situ TEM has a differential pumping system; therefore, the pressure in the specimen chamber is maintained in the range of higher than 1 Pa, while the pressure in the electron gun chamber can be kept in the range of 10 -5 Pa. This system was applied to in situ observation of chemical reactions of metals with gases: Observation of oxidation and reduction under a gas pressure ranging from 10 -5 Pa to 1 Pa at high temperatures (room temperature to ∼1473 K) were successfully carried out on pure metal and rare metal catalysts at near-atomic resolution. This in situ environmental TEM system is promising for clarifying mechanisms of many solid-gas and liquid-gas reactions that take place at high temperatures under a gas atmosphere.

  6. In Situ burning of Arctic marine oil spills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne

    experiments where the ignitability of oil spill as a function of oil type and weathering conditions (time/ice) was tested. The results show that the composition of the oil and the ice cover is important for the in situ burning time-window. The results were used to develop an algorithm that was implemented...

  7. In-situ crack repair by laser cladding

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Rooyen, C

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Laser cladding crack repair of austenitic stainless steel vessels subjected to internal water pressure was evaluated. The purpose of this investigation was to develop process parameters for in-situ repair of through-wall cracks in components...

  8. In situ atomic force microscope imaging of supported lipid bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaasgaard, Thomas; Leidy, Chad; Ipsen, John Hjorth

    2001-01-01

    In situ AFM images of phospholipase A/sub 2/ (PLA/sub 2/) hydrolysis of mica-supported one- and two-component lipid bilayers are presented. For one-component DPPC bilayers an enhanced enzymatic activity is observed towards preexisting defects in the bilayer. Phase separation is observed in two-co...

  9. In-situ Calibration of Ground -based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva Yankova, Ginka; Villanueva, Héctor

    This report presents the result of the lidar in-situ calibration performed at DTU’s test site for large wind turbine at Østerild, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement uncertainties provided by mea...

  10. In situ gas treatment technology demonstration test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, E.C.; Miller, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    This document defines the objectives and requirements associated with undertaking a field demonstration of an in situ gas treatment appoach to remediation chromate-contaminated soil. The major tasks presented in this plan include the design and development of the surface gas treatment system, performance of permitting activities, and completion of site preparation and field testing activities

  11. Design of a fast in situ infrared diagnostic tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hest, van M.F.A.M.; Klaver, A.; Schram, D.C.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    Conventional Fourier transform IR (FTIR) spectroscopes cannot be used to perform real time in situ IR reflection absorption spectroscopy at monolayer sensitivity for high deposition rates (a couple of tens to hundreds of nm/s) which can be obtained when using an expanding thermal deposition plasma.

  12. Light-emission from in-situ grown organic nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira Hansen, Roana Melina de; Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob; Rubahn, Horst-Günter

    2011-01-01

    Organic crystalline nanofibers made from phenylene-based molecules exhibit a wide range of extraordinary optical properties such as intense, anisotropic and polarized luminescence that can be stimulated either optically or electrically, waveguiding and random lasing. For lighting and display...... of morphological characterization and demonstrate how appropriate biasing with an AC gate voltage enables electroluminescence from these in-situ grown organic nanostructures....

  13. OceanSITES TAO daily in-situ data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This file contains daily real-time and delayed-mode in-situ data from one of the flux reference mooring sites in the tropical oceans. Included in this file are sea...

  14. OceanSITES PAPA daily in-situ data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This file contains daily real-time and delayed-mode in-situ data from station Papa at 50N,145W in the North Pacific. This taut-line mooring has been instrumented...

  15. ENGINEERING ISSUE: IN SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED UNSATURATED SUBSURFACE SOILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    An emerging technology for the remediation of unsaturated subsurface soils involves the use of microorganisms to degrade contaminants which are present in such soils. Understanding the processes which drive in situ bioremediation, as well as the effectiveness and efficiency of th...

  16. Ortho lithiation-in situ borylation of substituted morpholine benzamides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cederbalk, Anna; Lysén, Morten; Kehler, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Morpholine amides are cheap and safe alternative to Weinreb amides as acylating agents of organometallic species. Herein, the in-situ lithiation/borylation of 18 ortho- meta- and para-substituted morpholine benzamides has been investigated. 10 of the 18 substrates provided the desired boronic est...

  17. 78 FR 47427 - AUC, LLC Reno Creek, In Situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 040-09092; NRC-2013-0164] AUC, LLC Reno Creek, In Situ... October 3, 2012, AUC submitted a license application to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC... provided the first time that a document is referenced. The AUC License Application request and additional...

  18. Product evaluation of in situ vitrification engineering, Test 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loehr, C.A.; Weidner, J.R.; Bates, S.O.

    1991-09-01

    This report is one of several that evaluates the In Situ Vitrification (ISV) Engineering-Scale Test 4 (ES-4). This document describes the chemical and physical composition, microstructure, and leaching characteristics of ES-4 product samples; these data provide insight into the expected performance of a vitrified product in an ISV buried waste application similar to that studied in ES-4

  19. In?situ permeability from integrated poroelastic reflection coefficients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dalen, K.N.; Ghose, R.; Drijkoningen, C.G.; Smeulders, D.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    A reliable estimate of the in?situ permeability of a porous layer in the subsurface is extremely difficult to obtain. We have observed that at the field seismic frequency band the poroelastic behavior for different seismic wavetypes can differ in such a way that their combination gives unique

  20. In-situ measurements in Vesivehmaa air field - STUK team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markkanen, M.; Honkamaa, T.; Niskala, P. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Nineteen in-situ gamma-ray spectrometric measurements were performed in Vesivehmaa air field on 17th August 1995. The results for {sup 137}Cs and natural radionuclides are in good agreement with the results from soil sampling and laboratory analyses. (au).

  1. AFM cantilever with in situ renewable mercury microelectrode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schön, Peter Manfred; Geerlings, J.; Tas, Niels Roelof; Sarajlic, Edin

    2013-01-01

    We report here first results obtained on a novel, in situ renewable mercury microelectrode integrated into an atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilever. Our approach is based on a fountain pen probe with appropriate dimensions enabling reversible filling with(nonwetting) mercury under changing the

  2. OceanSITES KEO daily in-situ data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This file contains daily real-time and delayed-mode in-situ data from the Kuroshio Extension Observatory (KEO) site nominally at 32.3N,144.6E, in the Kuroshio...

  3. In situ XAS of the solvothermal decomposition of dithiocarbamate complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Islam, H.-U.; Roffey, A.; Hollingsworth, N.; Catlow, R.; Wolthers, M.; de Leeuw, N.H.; Bras, W.; Sankar, G.; Hogarth, G.

    2012-01-01

    An in situ XAS study of the solvothermal decomposition of iron and nickel dithiocarbamate complexes was performed in order to gain understanding of the decomposition mechanisms. This work has given insight into the steps involved in the decomposition, showing variation in reaction pathways between

  4. In situ study on the formation of FeTe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude; Wulff, Anders Christian; Yue, Zhao

    2011-01-01

    The formation of the FeTe compound from a mixture of Fe and Te powders was studied in situ by means of high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction. FeTe does not form directly from the starting elements; instead, FeTe2 forms as an intermediate product. During a 2 °C/min heating ramp, Te first reacts...

  5. In situ research and investigations in OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report explains why deep geological disposal is the most favoured option for the disposal of high level waste and spent fuel, as well as some alpha bearing wastes. It also gives an overview of the main aim and elements of in-situ research and investigation activities in OECD countries, as well as of initiatives taken at an international level

  6. OceanSITES PIRATA daily in-situ data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This file contains daily real-time and delayed-mode in-situ data from one of the Tropical Atmosphere/Ocean (TAO)/TRITON, Pilot Research Moored Array in the Tropical...

  7. Genetic predisposition to ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Petridis (Christos); R.H. Brook; V. Shah (Vandna); K. Kohut (Kelly); P. Gorman (Patricia); M. Caneppele (Michele); D. Levi (Dina); E. Papouli (Efterpi); N. Orr (Nick); A. Cox (Angela); S.S. Cross (Simon); I. dos Santos Silva (Isabel); J. Peto (Julian); A.J. Swerdlow (Anthony ); M. Schoemaker (Minouk); M.K. Bolla (Manjeet); Q. Wang (Qing); J. Dennis (Joe); K. Michailidou (Kyriaki); J. Benítez (Javier); A. González-Neira (Anna); D.C. Tessier (Daniel C.); D. Vincent (Daniel); J. Li (Jingmei); J.D. Figueroa (Jonine); V. Kristensen (Vessela); A.-L. Borresen-Dale (Anne-Lise); P. Soucy (Penny); J. Simard (Jacques); R.L. Milne (Roger); G.G. Giles (Graham); S. Margolin (Sara); A. Lindblom (Annika); T. Brüning (Thomas); H. Brauch (Hiltrud); M.C. Southey (Melissa); J.L. Hopper (John); T. Dörk (Thilo); N.V. Bogdanova (Natalia); M. Kabisch (Maria); U. Hamann (Ute); R.K. Schmutzler (Rita); A. Meindl (Alfons); H. Brenner (Hermann); V. Arndt (Volker); R. Winqvist (Robert); K. Pykäs (Katri); P.A. Fasching (Peter); M.W. Beckmann (Matthias); J. Lubinski (Jan); A. Jakubowska (Anna); A.M. Mulligan (Anna Marie); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); R.A.E.M. Tollenaar (Rob); P. Devilee (Peter); L. Le Marchand (Loic); C.A. Haiman (Christopher); A. Mannermaa (Arto); V-M. Kosma (Veli-Matti); P. Radice (Paolo); P. Peterlongo (Paolo); F. Marme (Federick); B. Burwinkel (Barbara); C.H.M. van Deurzen (Carolien); A. Hollestelle (Antoinette); N. Miller (Nicola); M. Kerin (Michael); D. Lambrechts (Diether); O.A.M. Floris; J. Wesseling (Jelle); H. Flyger (Henrik); S.E. Bojesen (Stig); S. Yao (Song); C.B. Ambrosone (Christine); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); T. Truong (Thérèse); P. Guénel (Pascal); A. Rudolph (Anja); J. Chang-Claude (Jenny); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); C. Blomqvist (Carl); K. Czene (Kamila); J.S. Brand (Judith S.); J.E. Olson (Janet); F.J. Couch (Fergus); A.M. Dunning (Alison); P. Hall (Per); D.F. Easton (Douglas); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul); S. Pinder (Sarah); M.K. Schmidt (Marjanka); I.P. Tomlinson (Ian); R. Roylance (Rebecca); M. García-Closas (Montserrat); E.J. Sawyer (Elinor)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a non-invasive form of breast cancer. It is often associated with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), and is considered to be a non-obligate precursor of IDC. It is not clear to what extent these two forms of cancer share low-risk

  8. In-situ testing methods using radioactive tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauzay, G.

    1976-01-01

    Some typical applications of tracer techniques in hydrology are presented: study of the extraction of sands and gravels in a estuary; in-situ study of the transport of sediments by the swell at a depth ranging from 8 to 22m; study of the transport of sands on the site Bonne Anse - Saint Palais [fr

  9. Assessment of In-Situ Natural Dendroremediation Capability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of In-Situ Natural Dendroremediation Capability of Rhizophora racemosa in a Heavy Metal Polluted Mangrove Forest, Rivers State, Nigeria. ... Many of these noxious substances have been noted to be removable from polluted environment through proper application of phytoremediation techniques, particularly ...

  10. In Situ Study of Noncatalytic Metal Oxide Nanowire Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rackauskas, Simas; Jiang, Hua; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    2014-01-01

    a catalyst is still widely disputed and unclear. Here, we show that the nanowire growth during metal oxidation is limited by a nucleation of a new layer. On the basis of in situ transmission electron microscope investigations we found that the growth occurs layer by layer at the lowest specific surface...

  11. In-situ measurements in Vesivehmaa air field - STUK team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markkanen, M; Honkamaa, T; Niskala, P [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Nineteen in-situ gamma-ray spectrometric measurements were performed in Vesivehmaa air field on 17th August 1995. The results for {sup 137}Cs and natural radionuclides are in good agreement with the results from soil sampling and laboratory analyses. (au).

  12. Manual of acid in situ leach uranium mining technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-08-01

    In situ leaching (ISL) technology recovers uranium using two alternative chemical leaching systems - acid and alkaline. This report brings together information from several technical disciplines that are an essential part of ISL technology. They include uranium geology, geohydrology, chemistry as well as reservoir engineering and process engineering. This report provides an extensive description of acid ISL uranium mining technology

  13. Manual of acid in situ leach uranium mining technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-08-01

    In situ leaching (ISL) technology recovers uranium using two alternative chemical leaching systems - acid and alkaline. This report brings together information from several technical disciplines that are an essential part of ISL technology. They include uranium geology, geohydrology, chemistry as well as reservoir engineering and process engineering. This report provides an extensive description of acid ISL uranium mining technology.

  14. In situ detection of horizontal transfer of mobile genetic elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Janus Anders Juul; Hansen, Susse Kirkelund; Johansen, Tove

    2002-01-01

    . The obtained data show that the several different types of fluorescent reporters, which are now available, allow more informative in situ investigations of horizontal gene transfer to be carried out, and by combining these genes with various expression systems it is possible to simultaneously monitor donor...

  15. IN-SITU FENTON OXIDATION: A CRITICAL ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In-situ Fenton oxidation (ISFO) is a rapidly emerging technology which involves the injection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and other chemical reagents into the subsurface for the purpose of oxidizing and transforming contaminants. ISFO is being applied at an increasing number of ...

  16. Silk sericin/polyacrylamide in situ forming hydrogels for dermal reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Banani; Kundu, Subhas C

    2012-10-01

    In situ forming tissue sealants are advantageous due to ease in application, complete coverage of defect site and assured comfort levels to patients. The interconnected three-dimensional hydrophilic networks perfectly manage typical dermal wounds by suitably scaffolding skin fibroblast, diffusing the nutrients, therapeutics and exudates while still maintaining an adequately moist environment. We evaluate the cell homing ability of semi-interpenetrating non-mulberry tropical tasar silk sericin/polyacrylamide hydrophilic network with a keen understanding of its network characteristics and correlation of protein concentration with the performance as cell scaffold. Interconnectivity of porous networks observed through scanning electron micrograph revealed pore sizes ranging from 23 to 52 μm. The enhanced β-sheet content with the increasing sericin concentration in far red spectroscopy study supported their corresponding improved compressive strength. These semi-interpenetrating networks were found to possess a maximum fluid uptake of 112% of its weight, hence preventing the accumulation of exudates at the wound area. The present systems appear to possess characteristics like rapid gelation (~5min) at 37 °C, 98% porosity enabling the migration of fibroblasts during healing (observed through confocal and scanning electron micrographs), cell adhesion together with the absence of any cyto-toxic effect suggesting its potential as in situ tissue sealants. The compressive strength up to 61 kPa ensured ease in handling even when wet. The results prove the suitability to use non-mulberry tasar cocoon silk sericin/polyacrylamide semi-interpenetrating network as a reconstructive dermal sealant. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Stability of silver nanoparticle monolayers determined by in situ streaming potential measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morga, Maria; Adamczyk, Zbigniew; Oćwieja, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    A silver particle suspension obtained by a chemical reduction was used in this work. Monolayers of these particles (average size 28 nm) on mica modified by poly(allylamine hydrochloride) were produced under diffusion-controlled transport. Monolayer coverages, quantitatively determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and SEM, was regulated by adjusting the nanoparticle deposition time and the suspension concentration. The zeta potential of the monolayers was determined by streaming potential measurements carried out under in situ (wet) conditions. These measurements performed for various ionic strengths and pH were interpreted in terms of the three-dimensional (3D) electrokinetic model. The stability of silver monolayers was also investigated using streaming potential and the AFM methods. The decrease in the surface coverage of particles as a function of time and ionic strength varied between 10 −1 and 10 −4  M was investigated. This allowed one to determine the equilibrium adsorption constant K a and the binding energy of silver particles (energy minima depth). Energy minima depth were calculated that varied between −18 kT for I = 10 −1  M and −19 kT for I = 10 −4 for pH 5.5 and T = 298 K. Our investigations suggest that the interactions between surface and nanoparticles are controlled by the electrostatic interactions among ion pairs. It was also shown that the in situ electrokinetic measurements are in accordance with those obtained by more tedious ex situ AFM measurements. This confirmed the utility of the streaming potential method for direct kinetic studies of nanoparticle deposition/release processes.Graphical Abstract

  18. Polyurethane nanofiber strain sensors via in situ polymerization of polypyrrole and application to monitoring joint flexion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Inhwan; Cho, Gilsoo

    2018-07-01

    Strain sensors made of intrinsically conductive polymers (ICPs) and nanofibers were fabricated and tested for suitability for use in wearable technology. The sensors were fabricated and evaluated based on their surface appearances, and electrical, tensile, and chemical/thermal properties. Polypyrrole (PPy) was in situ polymerized onto polyurethane (PU) nanofiber substrates by exposing pyrrole monomers to ammonium persulfate as oxidant and 2,6-naphthalenedisulfonic acid disodium salt as doping agents in an aqueous bath. The PPy treated PU nanofibers were then coated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Both pyrrole concentrations and layer numbers were significantly related to change in electrical conductivity. Specimen treated with 0.1 M of PPy and having three layered structure showed the best electrical conductivity. Regarding tensile strength, the in situ polymerization process decreased tensile strength because the oxidant chemically degraded the PU fibers. Adding layers and PDMS treatment generally improved tensile properties while adding layers created fracture parts in the stress–strain curves. The treatment condition of 0.1 M of PPy, two layered, and PDMS treated specimen showed the best tensile properties as a strain sensor. The chemical property evaluation with Fourier transform infrared and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy tests showed successful PPy polymerization and PDMS treatments. The functional groups and chemical bonds in polyol, urethane linkage, backbone ring structure in PPy, silicon-based functional groups in PDMS, and elemental content changes by treatment at each stage were characterized. The real-time data acquired from the dummy and five human subjects with repetition of motion at three different speeds of 0.16, 0.25 and 0.5 Hz generated similar trends and tendencies. The PU nanofiber sensors based on PPy and PDMS treatments in this study point to the possibility of developing textiles based wearable strain sensors developed using ICPs.

  19. In-situ ultrasonic characterisation of M250 grade maraging steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakthipandi, K.; Rajesh Kanna, R.; Lenin, N.; Ahilandeswari, E.

    2016-01-01

    The excellent mechanical properties such as ultrahigh strength combined with good fracture toughness, hardness, ductility and corrosion resistance of maraging steels makes these steels the most preferred materials for nuclear power plants. The high strength and high fracture toughness of these maraging steels are characterised by intermetallic precipitation in iron-nickel martensite. The temperature dependent in-situ microstructural characterisation of maraging steel over wide range of temperatures is used to explore the microstructural changes in maraging steels during aging. An indigenous experimental set-up was used for in-situ measurements of ultrasonic longitudinal velocity (UL) over a wide range of temperatures from 300 to 1200 K at a heating rate of 1 K min -1 . The measured UL as a function of temperature is represented. Zone A (300-735 K) shows a gradual decrease with an increase in temperature and Zone B (735-785 K) are attributed to recovery of martensite i.e., reduction in point defects induced by quenching process. Zone C (785-835 K) is attributed to nucleation and formation of Ni 3 (Ti,Mo) coherent intermetallic precipitates. Coarsening and subsequent dissolution process of Ni 3 (Ti,Mo) intermetallic precipitates with increase in temperature is observed from 835 to 905 K (Zone D). The coarsening and partial dissolution of globular precipitation of Fe 2 Mo occurs during aging of maraging steel in the temperature region connecting to Zone E (905-1005 K). At 1005 K, the maraging steel gets transformed to austenite from martensite state, and hence, the velocity takes rapid decrease instead of taking a gradual decrease as marked by double dotted line. (author)

  20. Report on in-situ studies of flash sintering of uranium dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raftery, Alicia Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-24

    Flash sintering is a novel type of field assisted sintering that uses an electric field and current to provide densification of materials on very short time scales. The potential for field assisted sintering techniques to be used in producing nuclear fuel is gaining recognition due to the potential economic benefits and improvements in material properties. The flash sintering behavior has so far been linked to applied and material parameters, but the underlying mechanisms active during flash sintering have yet to be identified. This report summarizes the efforts to investigate flash sintering of uranium dioxide using dilatometer studies at Los Alamos National Laboratory and two separate sets of in-situ studies at Brookhaven National Laboratory’s NSLS-II XPD-1 beamline. The purpose of the dilatometer studies was to understand individual parameter (applied and material) effects on the flash behavior and the purpose of the in-situ studies was to better understand the mechanisms active during flash sintering. As far as applied parameters, it was found that stoichiometry, or oxygen-to-metal ratio, has a significant effect on the flash behavior (time to flash and speed of flash). Composite systems were found to have degraded sintering behavior relative to pure UO2. The critical field studies are complete for UO2.00 and will be analyzed against an existing model for comparison. The in-situ studies showed that the strength of the field and current are directly related to the sample temperature, with temperature-driven phase changes occurring at high values. The existence of an ‘incubation time’ has been questioned, due to a continuous change in lattice parameter values from the moment that the field is applied. Some results from the in-situ experiments, which should provide evidence regarding ion migration, are still being analyzed. Some preliminary conclusions can be made from these results with regard to using field assisted sintering to

  1. Extraction of in situ cosmogenic 14C from olivine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigati, J.S.; Lifton, N.A.; Timothy, Jull A.J.; Quade, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Chemical pretreatment and extraction techniques have been developed previously to extract in situ cosmogenic radiocarbon (in situ 14C) from quartz and carbonate. These minerals can be found in most environments on Earth, but are usually absent from mafic terrains. To fill this gap, we conducted numerous experiments aimed at extracting in situ 14C from olivine ((Fe,Mg)2SiO4). We were able to extract a stable and reproducible in situ 14C component from olivine using stepped heating and a lithium metaborate (LiBO2) flux, following treatment with dilute HNO3 over a variety of experimental conditions. However, measured concentrations for samples from the Tabernacle Hill basalt flow (17.3 ?? 0.3 ka4) in central Utah and the McCarty's basalt flow (3.0 ?? 0.2 ka) in western New Mexico were significantly lower than expected based on exposure of olivine in our samples to cosmic rays at each site. The source of the discrepancy is not clear. We speculate that in situ 14C atoms may not have been released from Mg-rich crystal lattices (the olivine composition at both sites was ~Fo65Fa35). Alternatively, a portion of the 14C atoms released from the olivine grains may have become trapped in synthetic spinel-like minerals that were created in the olivine-flux mixture during the extraction process, or were simply retained in the mixture itself. Regardless, the magnitude of the discrepancy appears to be inversely proportional to the Fe/(Fe+Mg) ratio of the olivine separates. If we apply a simple correction factor based on the chemical composition of the separates, then corrected in situ 14C concentrations are similar to theoretical values at both sites. At this time, we do not know if this agreement is fortuitous or real. Future research should include measurement of in situ 14C concentrations in olivine from known-age basalt flows with different chemical compositions (i.e. more Fe-rich) to determine if this correction is robust for all olivine-bearing rocks. ?? 2010 by the Arizona

  2. Assessment of microbial in situ activity in contaminated aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaestner, M. [UFZ-Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Department Bioremediation, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Fischer, A.; Nijenhuis, I.; Stelzer, N.; Bombach, P.; Richnow, H.H. [UFZ-Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Department Isotopenbiogeochemie, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Geyer, R. [UFZ-Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Department Umweltmikrobiologie, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Tebbe, C.C. [Institut fuer Agraroekologie, Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft (FAL), D-38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2006-06-15

    Microbial ecologists and environmental engineers share the interest in identifying the key microorganisms responsible for compound turnover in the environment and in estimating the respective transformation rates. For the successful application of Natural Attenuation processes, a reliable assessment of the in situ turnover of a contaminant in an aquifer is essential. Here, we review and present new details of two recently developed approaches concerning the assessment of in situ biodegradation: (i) determination of biodegradation caused by microbial metabolism in a contamination plume by stable isotope fractionation analysis (SIFA) and (ii) determination of the actual degradation under the respective environmental conditions in the aquifer by using in situ microcosms (BACTRAPS registered) amended with {sup 13}C-labeled substrates as tracer compounds. Based on stable isotope fractionation analysis, the degradation occurring under anoxic biogeochemical conditions at a respective site can be calculated for the entire plume. This has been shown for benzene and toluene at the Zeitz site and partly for chlorobenzene at the Bitterfeld site. By use of the in situ microcosm approach with {sup 13}C-labeled compounds, the microbial in situ degradation under strictly anaerobic conditions could be proven for benzene and toluene in Zeitz and for chlorobenzene in Bitterfeld. The transformation of {sup 13}C-carbon of the labeled substrate into microbial fatty acids confirmed the assimilation of the pollutant resulting in the formation of biomass. In addition, metabolites such as benzylsuccinic acid were found in the toluene-amended microcosms indicating anaerobic degradation of toluene. This result corresponds to the geochemical conditions found at the field site and therefore, the microcosm approach with {sup 13}C-labeled compounds can be used to assign the predominant in situ degradation pathways in a contaminated aquifer. Since fatty acids profiles alone are often too

  3. EM-54 Technology Development In Situ Remediation Integrated Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of Technology Development (EM-50) as an element of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) in November 1989. EM manages remediation of all DOE sites as well as wastes from current operations. The goal of the EM program is to minimize risks to human health, safety and the environment, and to bring all DOE sites into compliance with Federal, state, and local regulations by 2019. EM-50 is charged with developing new technologies that are safer, more effective and less expensive than current methods. The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (the subject of this report) is part of EM-541, the Environmental Restoration Research and Development Division of EM-54. The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) was instituted out of recognition that in situ remediation could fulfill three important criteria: Significant cost reduction of cleanup by eliminating or minimizing excavation, transportation, and disposal of wastes; reduced health impacts on workers and the public by minimizing exposure to wastes during excavation and processing; and remediation of inaccessible sites, including: deep subsurfaces; in, under, and around buildings. Buried waste, contaminated soils and groundwater, and containerized wastes are all candidates for in situ remediation. Contaminants include radioactive wastes, volatile and non-volatile organics, heavy metals, nitrates, and explosive materials. The ISR IP tends to facilitate development of in situ remediation technologies for hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes in soils, groundwater, and storage tanks. Near-term focus is on containment of the wastes, with treatment receiving greater effort in future years

  4. Additive manufacturing for in situ repair of osteochondral defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Daniel L; Lipton, Jeffrey I; Bonassar, Lawrence J; Lipson, Hod

    2010-01-01

    Tissue engineering holds great promise for injury repair and replacement of defective body parts. While a number of techniques exist for creating living biological constructs in vitro, none have been demonstrated for in situ repair. Using novel geometric feedback-based approaches and through development of appropriate printing-material combinations, we demonstrate the in situ repair of both chondral and osteochondral defects that mimic naturally occurring pathologies. A calf femur was mounted in a custom jig and held within a robocasting-based additive manufacturing (AM) system. Two defects were induced: one a cartilage-only representation of a grade IV chondral lesion and the other a two-material bone and cartilage fracture of the femoral condyle. Alginate hydrogel was used for the repair of cartilage; a novel formulation of demineralized bone matrix was used for bone repair. Repair prints for both defects had mean surface errors less than 0.1 mm. For the chondral defect, 42.8 ± 2.6% of the surface points had errors that were within a clinically acceptable error range; however, with 1 mm path planning shift, an estimated ∼75% of surface points could likely fall within the benchmark envelope. For the osteochondral defect, 83.6 ± 2.7% of surface points had errors that were within clinically acceptable limits. In addition to implications for minimally invasive AM-based clinical treatments, these proof-of-concept prints are some of the only in situ demonstrations to-date, wherein the substrate geometry was unknown a priori. The work presented herein demonstrates in situ AM, suggests potential biomedical applications and also explores in situ-specific issues, including geometric feedback, material selection and novel path planning techniques.

  5. Groundwater restoration with in situ uranium leach mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbeneau, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    In situ leach mining of uranium has developed into a major mining technology. Since 1975, when the first commercial mine was licensed in the United States, the percentage or uranium produced by in situ mining has steadily grown from 0.6 to 10 percent in 1980. Part of the reason for this growth is that in situ mining offers less initial capital investment, shorter start-up times, greater safety, and less labor than conventional mining methods. There is little disturbance of the surface terrain or surface waters, no mill tailings piles, and no large open pits, but in situ leaching mining does have environmental disadvantages. During the mining, large amounts of ground water are cirulated and there is some withdrawal from an area where aquifers constitute a major portion of the water supply for other purposes. When an ammonia-based leach system is used, the ammonium ion is introduced into an area where cation exchange on clays (and some production of nitrate) may occur. Also, injection of an oxidant with the leach solution causes valence and phase changes of indigenous elements such as As, Cu, Fe, Mo, Se, S, and V as well as U. Furthermore, the surrounding ground water can become contaminated by escape of the leach solution from the mining zone. This chapter presents an overview of the in situ mining technology, including uranium deposition, mining techniques, and ground water restoration alternatives. The latter part of the chapter covers the situation in South Texas. Economics and development of the industry, groundwater resources, regulation, and restoration activities are also reviewed

  6. Use of combined destructive and non-destructive test methods to assess the strength of concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arioz, O. [Optimizing Consultancy, Izmir (Turkey); Kilinc, K. [Kirklareli University, Department of Civil Engineering, Kirklareli (Turkey); Ramyar, K. [Ege University, Department of Civil Engineering, Ismir (Turkey); Tuncan, M.; Tuncan, A. [Anadolu University, Department of Civil Engineering, Eskişehir (Turkey)

    2013-07-01

    The compressive strength test applied on standard samples is one of the most important tests indicating the quality of concrete in structures. The results of the standard tests are compared with the values used in design calculations and the quality of concrete is controlled. Although the standard tests are well accepted by the construction industry, they may not represent the in-situ strength of concrete due to the differences between the degree of compaction and curing conditions of concrete and those of standard samples. In-situ strength is also important for the efficient planning of the construction works in huge projects. In the present study, the results obtained from standard tests, core tests, ultrasonic pulse velocity tests, and rebound hammer tests were extensively analysed for the assessment of concrete strength. Key words: Concrete strength, standard tests, core test, ultrasonic pulse velocity, rebound number.

  7. Formulation and development of ophthalmic in situ gel for the treatment ocular inflammation and infection using application of quality by design concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nirav; Thakkar, Vaishali; Metalia, Viral; Baldaniya, Lalji; Gandhi, Tejal; Gohel, Mukesh

    2016-09-01

    The conventional liquid ophthalmic delivery systems exhibit short pre-corneal residence time and the relative impermeability to the cornea which leads to poor ocular bioavailability. The aim of this study was to apply quality by design (QbD) for development of dexamethasone sodium phosphate (DSP) and tobramycin sulfate (TS)-loaded thermoresponsive ophthalmic in situ gel containing Poloxamer 407 and hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) K4M for prolonging the pre-corneal residence time, ocular bioavability and decreases the frequency of administration of dosage form. The material attributes and the critical quality attributes (CQA) of the in situ gel were identified. Central composite design (CCD) was adopted to optimize the formulation. The ophthalmic in situ forming gels were prepared by cold method. Materials attributes were the amount of Poloxamer 407 and HPMC and CQA identified were Gel strength, mucoadhesive index, gelation temperature and % of drug release of both drug. Optimized batch (F*) containing 16.75% poloxamer 407 and 0.54% HPMC K4M were exhibited all results in acceptable limits. Compared with the marketed formulation, optimized in situ gel showed delayed Tmax, improved Cmax and AUC in rabbit aqueous humor, suggesting the sustained drug release and better corneal penetration and absorption. According to the study, it could be concluded that DSP and TS would be successfully formulated as in situ gelling mucoadhesive system for the treatment of steroid responsive eye infections with the properties of sustained drug release, prolonged ocular retention and improved corneal penetration.

  8. Influence of in situ formed ZrB2 particles on microstructure and mechanical properties of AA6061 metal matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinaharan, I.; Murugan, N.; Parameswaran, Siva

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → In situ fabrication of aluminium metal matrix composite reinforced ZrB 2 particles. → Colour metallography of composites. → Improvement of matrix properties by ZrB 2 particles. → Sliding wear behaviour of in situ composites. - Abstract: Particulate reinforced metal matrix composites (PMMCs) have gained considerable amount of research emphasis and attention in the present era. Research is being carried out across the globe to produce new combination of PMMCs. PMMCs are prepared by adding a variety of ceramic particles with monolithic alloys using several techniques. An attempt has been made to produce aluminium metal matrix composites reinforced with zirconium boride (ZrB 2 ) particles by the in situ reaction of K 2 ZrF 6 and KBF 4 salts with molten aluminium. The influence of in situ formed ZrB 2 particles on the microstructure and mechanical properties of AA6061 alloy was studied in this work. The in situ formed ZrB 2 particles significantly refined the microstructure and enhanced the mechanical properties of AA6061 alloy. The weight percentage of ZrB 2 was varied from 0 to 10 in steps of 2.5. Improvement of hardness, ultimate tensile strength and wear resistance of AA6061 alloy was observed with the increase in ZrB 2 content.

  9. Tomato genome mapping by fluorescence in situ hybridisation = Kartering van het tomatengenoom met behulp van fluorescentie in situ hybridisatie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhong, X.B.

    1998-01-01

    The general introduction reviews the progress in tomato genome mapping using classical genetics, cytogenetics, and molecular genetics, emphasising the great potential of fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) techniques.

    Chapter 2 describes how to

  10. Application of hydraulic fracturing to determine virgin in situ stress state around Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - in situ measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wawersik, W.R.; Stone, C.M.

    1985-10-01

    Hydraulic fracturing tests were carried out in horizontal drillholes in rock salt in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, NM. It was determined that the virgin in situ stress field is isotropic or nearly isotropic. The inferred magnitude of the isotropic in situ stress falls between bounds of 14.28 MPa and 17.9 MPa for the average breakdown/reopening pressures and driving pressures. The best estimate from instantaneous shut-in pressures is 16.61 MPa. Given some uncertainties about the interpretation of hydraulic fracturing data in salt, all of the foregoing values are in acceptable agreement with an average calculated isotropic in situ stress of 14.9 MPa at an average depth of 657 m below surface. Interpretations of breakdown and reopening pressures are based on finite element analyses of the relaxed stress field around a borehole in salt. This stress field varies little between approximately 50 and 200 days after drilling. The finite element analyses were also used to interpret the observed stable pressure-time signatures with little or no pressure drops during primary breakdown of the salt formation. The conclusion about the isotropic nature of the virgin in situ stress field is supported by observations of the induced fracture patterns. The report includes a comparison of the hydrofrac data in the WIPP with the published results of hydraulic fracturing tests in salt at three other locations. 75 refs., 21 figs., 4 tabs

  11. X-231B technology demonstration for in situ treatment of contaminated soil: Laboratory evaluation of chemical oxidation using hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, D.D.; Siegrist, R.L.

    1993-09-01

    Treatability studies were conducted as part of a comprehensive research project initiated to demonstrate as well as evaluate in situ treatment technologies for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and radioactive substances in wet, slowly permeable soils. The site of interest for this project was the X-231B Oil Biodegradation unit at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility in southern Ohio. This report describes the treatability studies that investigated the feasibility of the application of low-strength hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) solutions to treat trichloroethylene (TCE)-contaminated soil

  12. A simple stir casting technique for the preparation of in situ Fe-aluminides reinforced Al-matrix composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanta K. Pradhan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a simple stir casting technique for the development of Fe-aluminides particulate reinforced Al-matrix composites. It has been demonstrated that stirring of super-heated Al-melt by a mild steel plate followed by conventional casting and hot rolled results in uniform dispersion of in situ Al13Fe4 particles in the Al matrix; the amount of reinforcement is found to increase with increasing melt temperature. With reference to base alloy, the developed composite exhibits higher hardness and improved tensile strength without much loss of ductility; since, composite like base alloy undergoes ductile mode of fracture.

  13. Microstructure and mechanical properties of in situ casting TiC/Ti6Al4V composites through adding multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ya, Bin; Zhou, Bingwen; Yang, Hongshuo; Huang, Bingkun; Jia, Fei; Zhang, Xingguo, E-mail: zxgwj@dlut.edu.cn

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Adding MWCNTs in situ casting fabricating TiC/Ti6Al4V composites is first reported. • The solidification process of in situ casting TiC/Ti6Al4V composites is discussed. • Microstructure shows remarkable correlations with adding MWCNTS. • Strength and plasticity show remarkable correlations with adding MWCNTs. - Abstract: In this study, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were added as carbon sources to fabricate in situ casting TiC/Ti6Al4V (TC4) composites. The effects of MWCNTs on the microstructure and mechanical properties are studied. The composites are analyzed by X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscope and electron probe microanalysis. The fracture behavior of TiC/TC4 composites are also studied. Smaller size of TiC particles and grain compared with TC4-graphite composites can be observed. The tensile strength of TC4-MWCNTs composites is about 1110.1 MPa, which is higher than that of TC4-graphite composites, about 1003.6 MPa. Fracture behavior also was changed by adding MWCNTs in situ casting TiC/TC4 composites.

  14. In-situ electric field in human body model in different postures for wireless power transfer system in an electrical vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimamoto, Takuya; Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa

    2015-01-01

    The in-situ electric field of an adult male model in different postures is evaluated for exposure to the magnetic field leaked from a wireless power transfer system in an electrical vehicle. The transfer system is located below the centre of the vehicle body and the transferred power and frequency are 7 kW and 85 kHz, respectively. The in-situ electric field is evaluated for a human model (i) crouching near the vehicle, (ii) lying on the ground with or without his arm stretched, (iii) sitting in the driver’s seat, and (iv) standing on a transmitting coil without a receiving coil. In each scenario, the maximum in-situ electric fields are lower than the allowable limit prescribed by international guidelines, although the local magnetic field strength in regions of the human body is higher than the allowable external magnetic field strength. The highest in-situ electric field is observed when the human body model is placed on the ground with his arm extended toward the coils, because of a higher magnetic field around the arm. (paper)

  15. In-situ electric field in human body model in different postures for wireless power transfer system in an electrical vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamoto, Takuya; Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa

    2015-01-07

    The in-situ electric field of an adult male model in different postures is evaluated for exposure to the magnetic field leaked from a wireless power transfer system in an electrical vehicle. The transfer system is located below the centre of the vehicle body and the transferred power and frequency are 7 kW and 85 kHz, respectively. The in-situ electric field is evaluated for a human model (i) crouching near the vehicle, (ii) lying on the ground with or without his arm stretched, (iii) sitting in the driver's seat, and (iv) standing on a transmitting coil without a receiving coil. In each scenario, the maximum in-situ electric fields are lower than the allowable limit prescribed by international guidelines, although the local magnetic field strength in regions of the human body is higher than the allowable external magnetic field strength. The highest in-situ electric field is observed when the human body model is placed on the ground with his arm extended toward the coils, because of a higher magnetic field around the arm.

  16. Electrocatalytic oxygen reduction and hydrogen evolution reactions on phthalocyanine modified electrodes: Electrochemical, in situ spectroelectrochemical, and in situ electrocolorimetric monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koca, Atif, E-mail: akoca@eng.marmara.edu.tr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Marmara University, Goeztepe, 34722 Istanbul (Turkey); Kalkan, Ayfer; Bayir, Zehra Altuntas [Department of Chemistry, Technical University of Istanbul, Maslak, 34469 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2011-06-30

    Highlights: > Electrochemical and in situ spectroelectrochemical characterizations of the metallophthalocyanines were performed. > The presence of O{sub 2} influences both oxygen reduction reaction and the electrochemical behaviors of the complexes. > Homogeneous catalytic ORR process occurs via an 'inner sphere' chemical catalysis process. > CoPc and CuPc coated on a glassy carbon electrode decrease the overpotential of the working electrode for H{sup +} reduction. - Abstract: This study describes electrochemical, in situ spectroelectrochemical, and in situ electrocolorimetric monitoring of the electrocatalytic reduction of molecular oxygen and hydronium ion on the phthalocyanine-modified electrodes. For this purpose, electrochemical and in situ spectroelectrochemical characterizations of the metallophthalocyanines (MPc) bearing tetrakis-[4-((4'-trifluoromethyl)phenoxy)phenoxy] groups were performed. While CoPc gives both metal-based and ring-based redox processes, H{sub 2}Pc, ZnPc and CuPc show only ring-based electron transfer processes. In situ electrocolorimetric method was applied to investigate the color of the electrogenerated anionic and cationic forms of the complexes. The presence of O{sub 2} in the electrolyte system influences both oxygen reduction reaction and the electrochemical and spectral behaviors of the complexes, which indicate electrocatalytic activity of the complexes for the oxygen reduction reaction. Perchloric acid titrations monitored by voltammetry represent possible electrocatalytic activities of the complexes for hydrogen evolution reaction. CoPc and CuPc coated on a glassy carbon electrode decrease the overpotential of the working electrode for H{sup +} reduction. The nature of the metal center changes the electrocatalytic activities for hydrogen evolution reaction in aqueous solution. Although CuPc has an inactive metal center, its electrocatalytic activity is recorded more than CoPc for H{sup +} reduction in aqueous

  17. The strength compass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledertoug, Mette Marie

    of agreement/disagreement. Also the child/teacher is asked whether the actual strength is important and if he or she has the possibilities to apply the strength in the school. In a PhDproject ‘Strengths-based Learning - Children’s Character Strengths as Means to their Learning Potential’ 750 Danish children......Individual paper presentation: The ‘Strength Compass’. The results of a PhDresearch project among schoolchildren (age 6-16) identifying VIAstrengths concerning age, gender, mother-tongue-langue and possible child psychiatric diagnosis. Strengths-based interventions in schools have a theoretical...... Psychological Publishing Company. ‘The Strength Compass’ is a computer/Ipad based qualitative tool to identify the strengths of a child by a self-survey or a teacher’s survey. It is designed as a visual analogue scale with a statement of the strength in which the child/teacher may declare the degree...

  18. In situ hybridization; principles and applications: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Nozhat

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In situ hybridization (ISH is a method that uses labeled complementary single strand DNA or RNA to localize specific DNA or RNA sequences in an intact cell or in a fixed tissue section. The main steps of ISH consist of: probe selection, tissue or sample preparation, pre-hybridization treatment, hybridization and washing, detection and control procedure. Probe selection is one of the important aspects of successful hybridization. ISH sensitivity and specificity can be influenced by: probe construct, efficiency of labeling, percentage of GC, probe length and signal detection systems. Different methods such as nick translation, random priming, end tailing and T4 DNA polymerase replacement are used for probe generation. Both radioactive and non-radioactive labels can be used in order to probe labeling. Nucleic acid maintenance in samples, prevention of morphological changes of samples and probe penetration into tissue section are the main aims of sample preparation step. Then, a small amount of solution containing probe, is added on slides containing tissue sections for hybridization process, then slides are incubated overnight. Next day, washes are carried out to remove the probes which are not bound to target DNA or RNA. Finally, in order to be sure that the observed labeling is specific to the target sequence, using several control procedures is very important. Various techniques based on ISH consist of: Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH, genomic in situ hybridization (GISH, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH, spectral karyotyping (SKY and multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization (MFISH. One of the most common techniques of ISH is fluorescence in situ hybridization. FISH can be used to: 1 detect small deletions and duplications that are not visible using microscope analysis, 2 detect how many chromosomes of a certain type are present in each cell and 3 confirm rearrangements that are

  19. In-situ Polymerization-modification Process and Foaming of Poly(ethylene terephthalate)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仲华; 奚桢浩; 刘涛; 赵玲

    2013-01-01

    Most of traditional linear poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) resins of relatively low molecular mass and narrow molecular mass distribution have low melt strength at foaming temperatures, which are not enough to support and keep cells. An in-situ polymerization-modification process with esterification and polycondensation stages was performed in a 2 L batch stirred reactor using pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) or pentaerythritol (PENTA) as modifying monomers to obtain PETs with high melt strength. The influence of amounts of modifying monomers on the properties of modified PET was investigated. It was found that the selected modifying monomers could effectively introduce branched structures into the modified PETs and improve their melt strength. With in-creasing the amount of the modifying monomer, the melt strength of the modified PET increased. But when the amount of PENTA reached 0.35%or PMDA reached 0.9%, crosslinking phenomenon was observed in the modified PET. Supercritical carbon dioxide (ScCO2) was employed as physical foaming agent to evaluate the foaming ability of modified PETs. The modified PETs had good foaming properties at 14 MPa of CO2 pressure with foaming tem-perature ranging from 265 °C to 280 °C. SEM micrographs demonstrated that both modified PET foams had ho-mogeneous cellular structures, with cell diameter ranging from 35 μm to 49 μm for PENTA modified PETs and 38μm to 57μm for PMDA modified ones. Correspondingly, the cell density had a range of 3.5×107 cells·cm-3 to 7×106 cells·cm-3 for the former and 2.8×107 cells·cm-3 to 5.8×106 cells·cm-3 for the latter.

  20. Preparation and Evaluation of Novel In Situ Gels Containing Acyclovir for the Treatment of Oral Herpes Simplex Virus Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binu Chaudhary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop an oral mucosal drug delivery system to facilitate the local and systemic delivery of acyclovir for the treatment of oral herpes infection caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV. An in situ gelling system was used to increase the residence time and thus the bioavailability of acyclovir in oral mucosa. Temperature and pH trigged in situ gel formulations were prepared by cold method using polymers like poloxamer 407, carbopol 934, and HPMC. Glycerin and a mixture of tween 80 and ethanol (1 : 2 ratio were used as the drug dissolving solvent. The pH of carbopol containing formulation was adjusted to pH 5.8 while the pH of poloxamer solution was adjusted to pH 7. These formulations were evaluated for sol-gel transition temperature, gelling capacity, pH, viscosity, spreadability, gel strength, drug content, ex-vitro permeation, and mucoadhesion. The gelation temperatures of all the formulations were within the range of 28–38°C. All the formulations exhibited fairly uniform drug content (98.15–99.75%. Drug release study of all the formulations showed sustained release properties. The release of drug through these in situ gel formulations followed the Higuchi model and Korsmeyer peppas model mechanism.

  1. Mechanisms and FEM Simulation of Chip Formation in Orthogonal Cutting In-Situ TiB₂/7050Al MMC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yifeng; Wang, Wenhu; Jiang, Ruisong; Lin, Kunyang; Shao, Mingwei

    2018-04-15

    The in-situ TiB₂/7050Al composite is a new kind of Al-based metal matrix composite (MMC) with super properties, such as low density, improved strength, and wear resistance. This paper, for a deep insight into its cutting performance, involves a study of the chip formation process and finite element simulation during orthogonal cutting in-situ TiB₂/7050Al MMC. With chips, material properties, cutting forces, and tool geometry parameters, the Johnson-Cook (J-C) constitutive equation of in-situ TiB₂/7050Al composite was established. Then, the cutting simulation model was established by applying the Abaqus-Explicit method, and the serrated chip, shear plane, strain rate, and temperature were analyzed. The experimental and simulation results showed that the obtained material's constitutive equation was of high reliability, and the saw-tooth chips occurred commonly under either low or high cutting speed and small or large feed rate. From result analysis, it was found that the mechanisms of chip formation included plastic deformation, adiabatic shear, shearing slip, and crack extension. In addition, it was found that the existence of small, hard particles reduced the ductility of the MMC and resulted in segmental chips.

  2. Investigation of properties of polyethylene/clay nanocomposites prepared by new in situ Ziegler-Natta catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikkhah, S. Javan; Ramazani, S.A.; Baniasadi, H.; Tavakolzadeh, F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is devoted to investigation of morphological and physical-mechanical properties of polyethylene (PE)/clay nanocomposites prepared via in situ polymerization method using bi-supported Ziegler-Natta catalyst. Bentonite type clay and MgCl 2 (ethoxide type) were used as the support of TiCl 4 . Catalyst support and polymerization process have been done in slurry phase using Triisobutylaluminum as the co-catalyst. The microstructure of the nanocomposites was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). XRD and TEM indicated that almost fully exfoliated PE/clay nanocomposites were produced successfully using this method. According to permeability measurements, it was found that oxygen permeability values of the nanocomposite samples prepared with in situ polymerization method were dropped more than 200% introducing only 1 wt% clay to polymeric matrix. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results indicated that the crystallization temperatures of samples are significantly higher than that of virgin PE. Moderate thermal stability enhancement of in situ polymerized nanocomposites was confirmed using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).The storage modulus, Young's modulus and tensile strength of prepared samples were increased where the toughness was declined slightly. It seems that good dispersion and exfoliation of clay during polymerization should be responsible to get more effective reinforcing properties for clay in this method comparing to melt blending method for preparation of polyethylene nanocomposites.

  3. Preparation and mechanical properties of in situ TiC{sub x}–Ni (Si, Ti) alloy composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wenjuan [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Mechanical, Electronic and Control Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Zhai, Hongxiang, E-mail: hxzhai@sina.com [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Mechanical, Electronic and Control Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Chen, Lin; Huang, Zhenying [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Mechanical, Electronic and Control Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Bei, Guoping; Baumgärtner, Christoph; Greil, Peter [Department of Materials Science (Glass and Ceramics), University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Martensstr. 5, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-10-20

    Novel in situ TiC{sub x} reinforced Ni (Si, Ti) alloy composites with superior mechanical properties were prepared at 1250 °C for 30 min by pressureless sintering Ti{sub 3}SiC{sub 2} (10 and 20 vol%) and Ni as precursors. The Ti{sub 3}SiC{sub 2} particles decomposed into substoichiometric TiC{sub x} phase, while the additional Si and partial Ti atoms derived from Ti{sub 3}SiC{sub 2} diffused into Ni matrix to form Ni (Si, Ti) alloy. The in situ formed TiC{sub x} phases are mainly dispersed on the grain boundaries of the Ni (Si, Ti) alloying, forming a strong skeleton and refining the microstructures of the metal matrix. The hardness, the yield stress σ{sub 0.2%} and ultimate compressive strength of 20.6 vol%TiC{sub x}–Ni(Si, Ti) composite can reach 2.15±0.04 GPa, 466.8±55.8 MPa and 733.3±78.4 MPa, respectively. The enhanced mechanical properties of TiC{sub x}–Ni(Si, Ti) composites are due to the in situ formation of TiC{sub x} skeleton, the refined microstructures of Ni (Si, Ti) alloys and solid solution effects as well as good wettability between TiC{sub x} and Ni (Si, Ti) matrix.

  4. Grain Nucleation and Growth in Deformed NiTi Shape Memory Alloys: An In Situ TEM Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burow, J.; Frenzel, J.; Somsen, C.; Prokofiev, E.; Valiev, R.; Eggeler, G.

    2017-12-01

    The present study investigates the evolution of nanocrystalline (NC) and ultrafine-grained (UFG) microstructures in plastically deformed NiTi. Two deformed NiTi alloys were subjected to in situ annealing in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) at 400 and 550 °C: an amorphous material state produced by high-pressure torsion (HPT) and a mostly martensitic partly amorphous alloy produced by wire drawing. In situ annealing experiments were performed to characterize the microstructural evolution from the initial nonequilibrium states toward energetically more favorable microstructures. In general, the formation and evolution of nanocrystalline microstructures are governed by the nucleation of new grains and their subsequent growth. Austenite nuclei which form in HPT and wire-drawn microstructures have sizes close to 10 nm. Grain coarsening occurs in a sporadic, nonuniform manner and depends on the physical and chemical features of the local environment. The mobility of grain boundaries in NiTi is governed by the local interaction of each grain with its microstructural environment. Nanograin growth in thin TEM foils seems to follow similar kinetic laws to those in bulk microstructures. The present study demonstrates the strength of in situ TEM analysis and also highlights aspects which need to be considered when interpreting the results.

  5. Geotechnical site assessment methodologies relevant to potential deep underground disposal facilities: with particular reference to the determination of in situ rock stress by the hydraulic fracturing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monaghan, B.G.; Richards, L.R.

    1986-10-01

    A final report summarizing the research conducted on geotechnical site assessment methodologies relevant to Land 3/4 sites. Two areas of research have been investigated; in situ stress determination by the hydraulic fracturing method in basic volcanics and sediments and the laboratory determination of hydraulic fracture tensile strength. The analysis and interpretation of the hydraulic fracturing test data from a programme of testing in the Vale of Belvoir is discussed in detail particularly in respect of the effects of pore water pressure and fluid diffusion in the rocks being tested. The regional stress regime of the Vale of Belvoir is discussed with respect to the results of the in situ stress determination. A method for determining the hydraulic fracture tensile strength in the laboratory is described. The results of a series of laboratory tests on rock core are reported. (author)

  6. Ultrahigh-strength submicron-sized metallic glass wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.B.; Lee, C.C.; Yi, J.; An, X.H.; Pan, M.X.; Xie, K.Y.; Liao, X.Z.; Cairney, J.M.; Ringer, S.P.; Wang, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    In situ deformation experiments were performed in a transmission electron microscope to investigate the mechanical properties of submicron-sized Pd 40 Cu 30 Ni 10 P 20 metallic glass (MG) wires. Results show that the submicron-sized MG wires exhibit intrinsic ultrahigh tensile strength of ∼2.8 GPa, which is nearly twice as high as that in their bulk counterpart, and ∼5% elastic strain approaching the elastic limits. The tensile strength, engineering strain at failure and deformation mode of the submicron-sized MG wires depend on the diameter of the wires

  7. In situ transmission electron microscopy for magnetic nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Duc-The; Kuhn, Luise Theil

    2016-01-01

    Nanomagnetism is a subject of great interest because of both application and fundamental aspects in which understanding of the physical and electromagnetic structure of magnetic nanostructures is essential to explore the magnetic properties. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a powerful tool...... that allows understanding of both physical structure and micromagnetic structure of the thin samples at nanoscale. Among TEM techniques, in situ TEM is the state-of-the-art approach for imaging such structures in dynamic experiments, reconstructing a real-time nanoscale picture of the properties......-structure correlation. This paper aims at reviewing and discussing in situ TEM magnetic imaging studies, including Lorentz microscopy and electron holography in TEM, applied to the research of magnetic nanostructures....

  8. MR angiography of in situ and transplanted renal arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.J.; Bakke, S.J.

    1993-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) time-of-flight (TOF) MR angiography (MRA) was performed in 34 patients with suspected renal artery disease. In situ (i.e., nontransplanted) renal arteries were studied with MRA in 14 patients. Of these, 12 had conventional angiography for comparison. Twenty-four MRAs of transplanted renal arteries were obtained in 20 patients; 8 of these had angiography as well. Significant stenoses of in situ renal arteries were diagnosed with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 95%. The stenoses were all proximal; 3D TOF MRA proved inadequate for depiction of peripheral renal arteries. MRA and angiography showed good agreement between findings in 7 of 8 patients with renal transplants. In one patient with a renal transplant, MRA showed a significant stenosis of the arterial anastomosis which appeared completely normal at i.a. DSA, indicating that findings at MRA still need to be confirmed by more established alternative methods. (orig.)

  9. In situ vitrification laboratory-scale test work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, P.K.; Smith, N.L.

    1991-05-01

    The Buried Waste Program was established in October 1987 to accelerate the studies needed to develop a long-term management plan for the buried mixed waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at Idaho Engineering Laboratory. The In Situ Vitrification Project is being conducted in a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act feasibility study format to identify methods for the long-term management of mixed buried waste. To support the overall feasibility study, the situ vitrification treatability investigations are proceeding along the three parallel paths: laboratory-scale tests, intermediate field tests, and field tests. Laboratory-scale tests are being performed to provide data to mathematical modeling efforts, which, in turn, will support design of the field tests and to the health and safety risk assessment. This laboratory-scale test work plan provides overall testing program direction to meet the current goals and objectives of the in situ vitrification treatability investigation. 12 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs

  10. In situ bioremediation using horizontal wells. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    In Situ Bioremediation (ISB) is the term used in this report for Gaseous Nutrient Injection for In Situ Bioremediation. This process (ISB) involves injection of air and nutrients (sparging and biostimulation) into the ground water and vacuum extraction to remove Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from the vadose zone concomitant with biodegradation of the VOCs. This process is effective for remediation of soils and ground water contaminated with VOCs both above and below the water table. A full-scale demonstration of ISB was conducted as part of the Savannah River Integrated Demonstration: VOCs in Soils and Ground Water at Nonarid Sites. This demonstration was performed at the Savannah River Site from February 1992 to April 1993

  11. Particle size alterations of feedstuffs during in situ NDF incubation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krämer, Monika; Nørgaard, P.; Lund, Peter

    2013-01-01

    feedstuffs with a decrease of 74 % between 24 h and 288 h in situ rumen incubation. Together with the highest mass proportion (20 %) of particles in the critical zone for escape (smaller than 0.005 mm2 in area) for late cut grass silage after 288 h in situ rumen incubation, this imposes a risk for particle...... evaluated in terms of particle size for a broad range of feedstuffs which typically serve as NDF sources in dairy cow rations. Early and late cut grass silages, corn silage, alfalfa silage, rapeseed meal and dried distillers grains were examined. Treatments were I) drying and grinding of forage samples...... and grinding of concentrates, II) neutral detergent soluble (NDS) extraction, III) machine-washing and NDS extraction, IV) 24 h rumen incubation, machine-washing and NDS extraction, and V) 288 h rumen incubation, machine-washing and NDS extraction. Degradation profiles for potentially degradable NDF were...

  12. Groundwater restoration of in-situ uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    In-situ leaching is a relatively new uranium production technology that is expected to account for a growing share of future output. Depending upon the leaching solution used, the process may have considerable impact on the ground water. Since restoration of ground water quality is required in most countries and since this restoration is by far the most costly aspect of reclamation of an in-situ mine, it is necessary to utilize a process that lends itself both to the efficiency of the leaching process and the restoration process. This article examines a number of techniques that may be used in the restoration efforts. These include: (1) groundwater sweep, (2) reverse osmosis, (3) chemical restoration, and (4) electrodialysis. The article also discusses disposal of the excess fluids used in the restoration process

  13. OpenMC In Situ Source Convergence Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, Garrett Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Dutta, Soumya [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Woodring, Jonathan Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-07

    We designed and implemented an in situ version of particle source convergence for the OpenMC particle transport simulator. OpenMC is a Monte Carlo based-particle simulator for neutron criticality calculations. For the transport simulation to be accurate, source particles must converge on a spatial distribution. Typically, convergence is obtained by iterating the simulation by a user-settable, fixed number of steps, and it is assumed that convergence is achieved. We instead implement a method to detect convergence, using the stochastic oscillator for identifying convergence of source particles based on their accumulated Shannon Entropy. Using our in situ convergence detection, we are able to detect and begin tallying results for the full simulation once the proper source distribution has been confirmed. Our method ensures that the simulation is not started too early, by a user setting too optimistic parameters, or too late, by setting too conservative a parameter.

  14. Treatment of heavy metal contaminated soils by in situ vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Contaminated soil site remediation objectives call for the destruction, removal, and/or immobilization of contaminant species. Destruction is applicable to hazardous compounds (e.g., hazardous organics such as PCBs; hazardous inorganics such as cyanide); however, it is not applicable to hazardous elements such as the heavy metals. Removal and/or immobilization are typical objectives for heavy metal contaminants present in soil. Many technologies have been developed specifically to meet these needs. One such technology is In Situ Vitrification (ISV), an innovative mobile, onsite, in situ solids remediation technology that has been available on a commercial basis for about two years. ISV holds potential for the safe and permanent treatment/remediation of previously disposed or current process solids waste (e.g., soil, sludge, sediment, tailings) contaminated with hazardous chemical and/or radioactive materials. This paper focuses on the application of ISV to heavy metal-contaminated soils

  15. Recent developments for in situ treatment of metal contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Metals contamination is a common problem at hazardous waste sites. This report assists the remedy selection process by providing information on four in situ technologies for treating soil contaminated with metals. The four approaches are electrokinetic remediation, phytoremediation, soil flushing, and solidification/stabilization. Electrokinetic remediation separates contaminants from soil through selective migration upon application of an electric current. Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that uses plants to isolate or stabilize contaminants. Soil flushing techniques promote mobility and migration of metals by solubilizing contaminants so that they can be recovered. Two types of in situ solidification/stabilization (S/S) techniques are discussed, one based on addition of reagents and the other based on the use of energy. The report discusses different techniques currently in practice or under development, identifies vendors and summarizes performance data, and discusses technology attributes that should be considered during early screening of potential remedies. 8 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs., 2 apps.

  16. Treatment of hazardous metals by in situ vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koegler, S.S.; Buelt, J.L.

    1989-02-01

    Soils contaminated with hazardous metals are a significant problem to many Defense Program sites. Contaminated soils have ranked high in assessments of research and development needs conducted by the Hazardous Waste Remedial Action Program (HAZWRAP) in FY 1988 and FY 1989. In situ vitrification (ISV) is an innovative technology suitable for stabilizing soils contaminated with radionuclides and hazardous materials. Since ISV treats the material in place, it avoids costly and hazardous preprocessing exhumation of waste. In situ vitrification was originally developed for immobilizing radioactive (primarily transuranic) soil constituents. Tests indicate that it is highly useful also for treating other soil contaminants, including hazardous metals. The ISV process produces an environmentally acceptable, highly durable glasslike product. In addition, ISV includes an efficient off-gas treatment system that eliminates noxious gaseous emissions and generates minimal hazardous byproducts. This document reviews the Technical Basis of this technology. 5 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  17. First use of in situ vitrification on radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowlds, L.

    1992-01-01

    A high-temperature method for containing hazardous wastes, which was first developed in the 1980s, is being adapted for the in situ treatment of buried radioactive wastes by the US DOE's Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), following its recent report on successful preliminary tests. The method, called in situ vitrification (ISV), is an electrically induced thermal process that melts and fuses soil and wastes into a glass-like material at least as strong as natural obsidian or granite. Gases released during the process are captured and treated by an off-gas treatment system. After the wastes are vitrified, they could be left in place, or the mass could be broken up and transported to a disposal site. The glass-like substance would be chemically and physically similar to obsidian and from 4 to 10 times more durable than typical borosilicate glasses used to immobolize high-level nuclear wastes

  18. In situ Transmission Electron Microscopy of catalyst sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeLaRiva, Andrew T.; Hansen, Thomas Willum; Challa, Sivakumar R.

    2013-01-01

    Recent advancements in the field of electron microscopy, such as aberration correctors, have now been integrated into Environmental Transmission Electron Microscopes (TEMs), making it possible to study the behavior of supported metal catalysts under operating conditions at atomic resolution. Here......, we focus on in situ electron microscopy studies of catalysts that shed light on the mechanistic aspects of catalyst sintering. Catalyst sintering is an important mechanism for activity loss, especially for catalysts that operate at elevated temperatures. Literature from the past decade is reviewed...... along with our recent in situ TEM studies on the sintering of Ni/MgAl2O4 catalysts. These results suggest that the rapid loss of catalyst activity in the earliest stages of catalyst sintering could result from Ostwald ripening rather than through particle migration and coalescence. The smallest...

  19. Some implications of in situ uranium mining technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, C.E.; Parkhurst, M.A.; Cole, R.J.; Keller, D.; Mellinger, P.J.; Wallace, R.W.

    1980-09-01

    The assessment indicates that there do not appear to be any significant demonstrated negative environmental impacts. Moreover, the impacts of in situ mining compare favorably with those impacts expected from conventional mining techniques. Exposure to radioactive elements is less, atmospheric emissions of radioactive and nonradioactive materials are generally less and socioeconomic impacts are decreased. In fact, because of the generally small and unskilled labor forces associated with in-situ mining, development has provided much needed economic stimulus to economically depressed areas of Texas. There are still, however, several areas of unknowns and several areas of inadequate information that will need to be addressed before a complete quantification evaluation of impacts can be made. These areas include levels of radon emissions and groundwater restoration methods and impacts. Several issues mostly relating to the interaction of industry with state and Federal regulators need to be addressed

  20. Geothermal in situ experiments in the Asse salt-mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopietz, J.; Jung, R.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents design and results of in situ experiments carried out by the Bundesanstat fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, F.R. of Germany) in the Asse salt-mine. With reference to model calculations of the temperature field which is produced in salt formations by radioactive waste, temperature measurements in the area of electrical heating elements and in situ measurements of thermal conductivity have been performed. The measured temperatures are in good accordance with the theoretical prediction. Preliminary results of the thermal conductivity measurements correspond with the data of single NaCl crystals published by Birch and Clark. At present a heating experiment is being conducted in the Asse mine to investigate thermo-mechanical effects of a cylindrical heat source upon the surrounding rock salt. Possible thermal induced fractures monitored by permeability changes and seismoacoustical phenomena are the main objects of this experiment

  1. Development of in-situ visualization tool for PIC simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Nobuaki; Ohtani, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    As the capability of a supercomputer is improved, the sizes of simulation and its output data also become larger and larger. Visualization is usually carried out on a researcher's PC with interactive visualization software after performing the computer simulation. However, the data size is becoming too large to do it currently. A promising answer is in-situ visualization. For this case a simulation code is coupled with the visualization code and visualization is performed with the simulation on the same supercomputer. We developed an in-situ visualization tool for particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation and it is provided as a Fortran's module. We coupled it with a PIC simulation code and tested the coupled code on Plasma Simulator supercomputer, and ensured that it works. (author)

  2. High Throughput In Situ XAFS Screening of Catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsapatsaris, Nikolaos; Beesley, Angela M.; Weiher, Norbert; Tatton, Helen; Schroeder, Sven L. M.; Dent, Andy J.; Mosselmans, Frederick J. W.; Tromp, Moniek; Russu, Sergio; Evans, John; Harvey, Ian; Hayama, Shu

    2007-01-01

    We outline and demonstrate the feasibility of high-throughput (HT) in situ XAFS for synchrotron radiation studies. An XAS data acquisition and control system for the analysis of dynamic materials libraries under control of temperature and gaseous environments has been developed. The system is compatible with the 96-well industry standard and coupled to multi-stream quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS) analysis of reactor effluents. An automated analytical workflow generates data quickly compared to traditional individual spectrum acquisition and analyses them in quasi-real time using an HT data analysis tool based on IFFEFIT. The system was used for the automated characterization of a library of 91 catalyst precursors containing ternary combinations of Cu, Pt, and Au on γ-Al2O3, and for the in situ characterization of Au catalysts supported on Al2O3 and TiO2

  3. In Situ Formation of Carbon Nanomaterials on Bulk Metallic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Y. Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanomaterials were synthesized in situ on bulk 316L stainless steel, pure cobalt, and pure nickel by hybrid surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT. The microstructures of the treated samples and the resulted carbon nanomaterials were investigated by SEM and TEM characterizations. Different substrates resulted in different morphologies of products. The diameter of carbon nanomaterials is related to the size of the nanograins on the surface layer of substrates. The possible growth mechanism was discussed. Effects of the main parameters of the synthesis, including the carbon source and gas reactant composition, hydrogen, and the reaction temperature, were studied. Using hybrid SMAT is proved to be an effective way to synthesize carbon nanomaterials in situ on surfaces of metallic materials.

  4. In situ nanocalorimetry of thin glassy organic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Gutierrez, E.; Garcia, G.; Lopeandía, A. F.; Fraxedas, J.; Clavaguera-Mora, M. T.; Rodríguez-Viejo, J.

    2008-11-01

    In this work, we describe the design and first experimental results of a new setup that combines evaporation of liquids in ultrahigh vacuum conditions with in situ high sensitivity thermal characterization of thin films. Organic compounds are deposited from the vapor directly onto a liquid nitrogen cooled substrate, permitting the preparation and characterization of glassy films. The substrate consists of a microfabricated, membrane-based nanocalorimeter that permits in situ measurements of heat capacity under ultrafast heating rates (up to 105 K/s) in the temperature range of 100-300 K. Three glass forming liquids—toluene, methanol, and acetic acid—are characterized. The spikes in heat capacity related to the glass-transition temperature, the fictive temperature and, in some cases, the onset temperature of crystallization are determined for several heating rates.

  5. Methods and systems for in-situ electroplating of electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappi, Guillermo Daniel; Zarnoch, Kenneth Paul; Huntley, Christian Andrew; Swalla, Dana Ray

    2015-06-02

    The present techniques provide electrochemical devices having enhanced electrodes with surfaces that facilitate operation, such as by formation of a porous nickel layer on an operative surface, particularly of the cathode. The porous metal layer increases the surface area of the electrode, which may result in increasing the efficiency of the electrochemical devices. The formation of the porous metal layer is performed in situ, that is, after the assembly of the electrodes into an electrochemical device. The in situ process offers a number of advantages, including the ability to protect the porous metal layer on the electrode surface from damage during assembly of the electrochemical device. The enhanced electrode and the method for its processing may be used in any number of electrochemical devices, and is particularly well suited for electrodes in an electrolyzer useful for splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen.

  6. In-situ measurements of soil-water conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.E.

    1978-01-01

    Radionuclides and other environmentally important materials often move in association with water. In terrestrial ecosystems, the storage and movement of water in the soil is of prime importance to the hydrologic cycle of the ecosystem. The soil-water conductivity (the rate at which water moves through the soil) is a necessary input to models of soil-water movement. In situ techniques for measurement of soil-water conductivity have the advantage of averaging soil-water properties over larger areas than most laboratory methods. The in situ techniques also cause minimum disturbance of the soil under investigation. Results of measurements using a period of soil-water drainage after initial wetting indicate that soil-water conductivity and its variation with soil-water content can be determined with reasonable accuracy for the plot where the measurements were made. Further investigations are being carried out to look at variability between plots within a soil type

  7. Open Source AV solution supporting In Situ Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Kristian; Pociunas, Gintas; Dahl, Mads Ronald

    the software to meet our expectations for a portable AV system for VAD. The system would make use of “off the shelf” hardware components which are widely available and easily replaced or expanded. The developed AV software and coding is contracted to be available as Copyleft Open Source to ensure low cost...... a stable AV software that has be developed and implemented for an in situ simulation initiative. This version (1.3) is the first on released as Open Source (Copyleft) software (see QR tag). We have found that it is possible to deliver multi-camera video assisted debriefing in a mobile, in situ simulation...... environment using an AV system constructed from “off the shelf” components and Open Source software....

  8. In situ bioventing in deep soils at arid sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frishmuth, R.A.; Ratz, J.W.; Blicker, B.R.; Hall, J.F.; Downey, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    In situ bioventing has been shown to be a cost-effective remedial alternative for vadose zone soils. The success of the technology relies on the ability of indigenous soil microorganisms to utilize petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants as a primary metabolic substrate. Soil microbial populations are typically elevated in shallow soils due to an abundance of naturally occurring substrates and nutrients, but may be limited at greater depths due to a lack of these constituents. Therefore, the effectiveness of in situ bioventing is questionable in contaminated soil zones that extend far below the ground surface. Also, because the soil microbial population relies on soil moisture to sustain hydrocarbon degradation, the viability of bioventing is questionable in arid climates, where the soil moisture content is suspected to be minimal

  9. Application of Genomic In Situ Hybridization in Horticultural Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Ramzan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular cytogenetic techniques, such as in situ hybridization methods, are admirable tools to analyze the genomic structure and function, chromosome constituents, recombination patterns, alien gene introgression, genome evolution, aneuploidy, and polyploidy and also genome constitution visualization and chromosome discrimination from different genomes in allopolyploids of various horticultural crops. Using GISH advancement as multicolor detection is a significant approach to analyze the small and numerous chromosomes in fruit species, for example, Diospyros hybrids. This analytical technique has proved to be the most exact and effective way for hybrid status confirmation and helps remarkably to distinguish donor parental genomes in hybrids such as Clivia, Rhododendron, and Lycoris ornamental hybrids. The genome characterization facilitates in hybrid selection having potential desirable characteristics during the early hybridization breeding, as this technique expedites to detect introgressed sequence chromosomes. This review study epitomizes applications and advancements of genomic in situ hybridization (GISH techniques in horticultural plants.

  10. Deploying in situ bioremediation at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truex, M.J.; Johnson, C.D.; Newcomer, D.R.; Doremus, L.A.; Hooker, B.S.; Peyton, B.M.; Skeen, R.S.; Chilakapati, A.

    1994-11-01

    An innovative in-situ bioremediation technology was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to destroy nitrate and carbon tetrachloride (CC1 4 ) in the Hanford ground water. The goal of this in-situ treatment process is to stimulate native microorganisms to degrade nitrate and CCl 4 . Nutrient solutions are distributed in the contaminated aquifer to create a biological treatment zone. This technology is being demonstrated at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site to provide the design, operating, and cost information needed to assess its effectiveness in contaminated ground water. The process design and field operations for demonstration of this technology are influenced by the physical, chemical, and microbiological properties observed at the site. A description of the technology is presented including the well network design, nutrient injection equipment, and means for controlling the hydraulics and microbial reactions of the treatment process

  11. In-situ leach mining: the next quantum leap?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, S.

    1988-01-01

    The opportunities and problems which in-situ leach mining technology presents to the mining industry are considered. These are exemplified by concerns addressed in the development of a proposal to mine uranium by in-situ leach techniques at Beverley in South Australia. The technique proposed at Beverley will use sulphuric acid with hydrogen peroxide or dissolved oxygen as the lixivient. Pre-treatment of the aquifer will be necessary to remove excess calcium carbonate, and the system will employ a slightly overpumped output of fluid through the wellfield to reduce the risk of excursions of mining solutions. The input and output patterns will also be varied to take account of the hydrogeological conditions such as confining bed thickness and permeability. Much study has been directed towards the post mining condition of the ore zone and the threat it may pose to the water resources of the region. 10 refs., 1 fig

  12. Signal processing methods for in-situ creep specimen monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guers, Manton J.; Tittmann, Bernhard R.

    2018-04-01

    Previous work investigated using guided waves for monitoring creep deformation during accelerated life testing. The basic objective was to relate observed changes in the time-of-flight to changes in the environmental temperature and specimen gage length. The work presented in this paper investigated several signal processing strategies for possible application in the in-situ monitoring system. Signal processing methods for both group velocity (wave-packet envelope) and phase velocity (peak tracking) time-of-flight were considered. Although the Analytic Envelope found via the Hilbert transform is commonly applied for group velocity measurements, erratic behavior in the indicated time-of-flight was observed when this technique was applied to the in-situ data. The peak tracking strategies tested had generally linear trends, and tracking local minima in the raw waveform ultimately showed the most consistent results.

  13. Armaduras de cosido entre hormigones prefabricados y ejecutados in situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solas, Andrés

    1988-04-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the study of seam reinforcements between two concretes of different types which make up a compound element prefabricated and made in situ. The advantage of this type of construction is that the individual units can be made, transported and erected more easily, although some problems may arise. These facts receive special reference throughout the article.

    Este artículo trata sobre el estudio de las armaduras de cosido entre dos hormigones, de distinta naturaleza, que componen un elemento compuesto prefabricado y ejecutado in situ. La ventaja de este tipo de construcciones es que unidades individuales pueden ser hechas, transportadas y erigidas con mayor facilidad, pudiéndose derivar también algún problema. De todo ello se hace especial referencia a lo largo del artículo.

  14. In situ measurement of tritium permeation through stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luscher, Walter G., E-mail: walter.luscher@pnnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Senor, David J., E-mail: david.senor@pnnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Clayton, Kevin K., E-mail: kevin.clayton@inl.gov [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 Fremont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Longhurst, Glen R., E-mail: glenlonghurst@suu.edu [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 Fremont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► In situ tritium permeation measurements collected over broad pressure range. ► Test conditions relevant to 316 SS in commercial light water reactors. ► Comparisons between in- and ex-reactor measurements provided. ► Correlation between tritium permeation, temperature, and pressure developed. -- Abstract: The TMIST-2 irradiation experiment was conducted in the Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory to evaluate tritium permeation through Type 316 stainless steel (316 SS). The interior of a 316 SS seamless tube specimen was exposed to a {sup 4}He carrier gas mixed with a specified quantity of tritium (T{sub 2}) to yield partial pressures of 0.1, 5, and 50 Pa at 292 °C and 330 °C. In situ tritium permeation measurements were made by passing a He–Ne sweep gas over the outer surface of the specimen to carry the permeated tritium to a bubbler column for liquid scintillation counting. Results from in situ permeation measurements were compared with predictions based on an ex-reactor permeation correlation in the literature. In situ permeation data were also used to derive an in-reactor permeation correlation as a function of temperature and pressure over the ranges considered in this study. In addition, the triton recoil contribution to tritium permeation, which results from the transmutation of {sup 3}He to T, was also evaluated by introducing a {sup 4}He carrier gas mixed with {sup 3}He at a partial pressure of 1013 Pa at 330 °C. Less than 3% of the tritium resulting from {sup 3}He transmutation contributed to tritium permeation.

  15. Meiosis in hematological malignancies. In situ cytogenetic morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Logothetou-Rella, H.

    1996-01-01

    This is the first study on the in situ cytogenetic morphology and analysis of malignant bone marrow cells, growing attached on a culture vessel surface. It was documented that bone marrow cells, in different types of hematological malignancies, divide by meiosis giving rise to a non-repetitive aneuploidy. Male and female gametes are formed by meiosis and fertilization occurs in a life cycle of: Fertilization Meiosis Gametes - Embryo - Gametes Immature a...

  16. Process for the in-situ leaching of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, E.T.; Vogt, T.C.

    1982-01-01

    Process for the in-situ leaching of uranium employing an alkaline lixiviant and an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent. The use of the hypochlorite oxidant results in significantly higher uranium recoveries and leaching rates than those attained by the use of conventional oxidants. The invention is particularly suitable for use in subterranean deposits in which the uranium mineral is associated with carbonaceous material which retards access to the uranium by the lixiviant

  17. In situ observation of the formation of FeSe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude; Wulff, Anders Christian; Yue, Zhao

    2011-01-01

    The formation of the FeSe compound from a mixture of Fe and Se powders encased in a composite Cu/Nb sheath was studied in situ by means of high-energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction. Tetragonal beta-FeSe does not seem to form directly from the starting elements. Instead, a sequence of FeSe2, Fe3Se...

  18. Long-Lived In-Situ Solar System Explorer (LLISSE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremic, Tibor; Hunter, Gary; Rock, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    This presentation provides an update on development of the Long-Lived In-situ Solar System Explorer (LLISSE). LLISSE is a small probe being developed to provide long-term measurements of simple but important scientific parameters from the surface of Venus. High level summary of recent activities and progress is provided. LLISSE is a small and completely independent probe for Venus surface applications

  19. (FSP) of Al–TiC in situ composite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An Al-5 wt% TiC composite was processed in situ using K2TiF6 and graphite in Al melt and subjected to FSP. Processing parameters for FSP were optimized to get a defect free stir zone and homogenize the particle distribution. It was found that a rotation speed > 800 rpm is needed. A rotation speed of 1000 rpm and a ...

  20. Stabilization of contaminated soils by in situ vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmerman, C.L.

    1984-01-01

    In Situ Vitrification is an emerging technology developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for potential in-place immobilization of radioactive wastes. The contaminated soil is stabilized and converted to an inert glass form. This conversion is accomplished by inserting electrodes in the soil and establishing an electric current between the electrodes. The electrical energy causes a joule heating effect that melts the soil during processing. Any contaminants released from the melt are collected and routed to an off-gas treatment system. A stable and durable glass block is produced which chemically and physically encapsulates any residual waste components. In situ vitrification has been developed for the potential application to radioactive wastes, specifically, contaminated soil sites; however, it could possibly be applied to hazardous chemical and buried munitions waste sites. The technology has been developed and demonstrated to date through a series of 21 engineering-scale tests [producing 50 to 1000 kg (100 to 2000 lb) blocks] and seven pilot-scale tests [producing 9000 kg (20,000 lb) blocks], the most recent of which illustrated treatment of actual radioactively contaminated soil. Testing with some organic materials has shown relatively complete thermal destruction and incineration. Further experiments have documented the insensitivity of in situ vitrification to soil characteristics such as fusion temperature, specific heat, thermal conductivity, electrical resistivity, and moisture content. Soil inclusions such as metals, cements, ceramics, and combustibles normally present only minor process limitations. Costs for hazardous waste applications are estimated to be less than $175/m 3 ($5.00/ft 3 ) of material vitrified. For many applications, in situ vitrification can provide a cost-effective alternative to other disposal options. 13 references, 4 figures, 1 table

  1. Oxygen dependence of respiration in rat spinotrapezius muscle in situ

    OpenAIRE

    Golub, Aleksander S.; Pittman, Roland N.

    2012-01-01

    The oxygen dependence of respiration in striated muscle in situ was studied by measuring the rate of decrease of interstitial Po2 [oxygen disappearance curve (ODC)] following rapid arrest of blood flow by pneumatic tissue compression, which ejected red blood cells from the muscle vessels and made the ODC independent from oxygen bound to hemoglobin. After the contribution of photo-consumption of oxygen by the method was evaluated and accounted for, the corrected ODCs were converted into the Po...

  2. In-Situ Air Sparaing: Engineering and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-31

    removal (Adams and Reddy 2000). The potential for remediation of less volatile LNAPLs (e.g., diesel or fuel oils) is less promising, relying more on...pure nitrogen, or nitrous oxide) may enhance the speed at which bioremediation proceeds or alter the conditions under which it occurs. The USDOE Sa...region below the water table is directly related to in- situ bioremediation . IAS can be an alternative to other means of introducing oxygen into the

  3. In situ NMR studies of reactions on catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haw, James F [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1994-12-31

    Zeolites are useful in the synthesis of fine chemicals. The systematic understanding of organic chemistry of zeolite catalysis may contribute to: the elucidation of reaction mechanisms of existing catalytic processes; the discovery of new catalytic reactions; the application of zeolite catalysis to the synthesis of fine chemicals. This work presents species of zeolites identified by in situ NMR; reactions of organic chemicals on zeolites and proposes mechanisms as well as reactivity trends 3 refs., 7 tabs.

  4. In-situ neutron diffraction during biaxial deformation

    OpenAIRE

    Van Petegem, S.; Wagner, J.; Panzner, T.; Upadhyay, M.V.; Trang, T.T.T.; Van Swygenhoven, H.

    2016-01-01

    A change in strain path may have a significant effect on the mechanical response of metals. In order to understand or even predict the macroscopic behaviour under such conditions a detailed knowledge on the microstructural evolution is crucial. Yet relatively little work has been done to quantify and understand how the inter- and intragranular strains are affected during a change in strain path. In this work we present a new multiaxial deformation rig that allows performing in situ proportion...

  5. Demonstration testing and evaluation of in situ soil heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sresty, G.C.

    1994-01-01

    A Treatability Study planned for the demonstration of the in situ electromagnetic (EM) heating process to remove organic solvents is described in this Work Plan. The treatability study will be conducted by heating subsurface vadose-zone soils in an organic plume adjacent to the Classified Burial Ground K-1070-D located at K-25 Site, Oak Ridge. The test is scheduled to start during the fourth quarter of FY94 and will be completed during the first quarter of FY95. The EM heating process for soil decontamination is based on volumetric heating technologies developed during the '70s for the recovery of fuels from shale and tar sands by IIT Research Institute (IITRI) under a co-operative program with the US Department of Energy (DOE). Additional modifications of the technology developed during the mid '80s are currently used for the production of heavy oil and waste treatment. Over the last nine years, a number of Government agencies (EPA, Army, AF, and DOE) and industries sponsored further development and testing of the in situ heating and soil decontamination process for the remediation of soils containing hazardous organic contaminants. In this process the soil is heated in situ using electrical energy. The contaminants are removed from the soil due to enhanced vaporization, steam distillation and stripping. IITRI will demonstrate the EM Process for in situ soil decontamination at K-25 Site under the proposed treatability study. Most of the contaminants of concern are volatile organics which can be removed by heating the soil to a temperature range of 85 to 95 C. The efficiency of the treatment will be determined by comparing the concentration of contaminants in soil samples. Samples will be obtained before and after the demonstration for a measurement of the concentration of contaminants of concern

  6. Development of in-situ radon sensor using plastic scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shitashima, Kiminori

    2009-01-01

    Underwater in-situ radon measurement is important scientific priority for oceanography, especially for survey and monitoring of submarine groundwater discharge (SDG). The high sensitivity and lightweight underwater in-situ radon sensor using NaI(Tl) doped plastic scintillator was developed for application to SDG research. Because NaI(Tl) doped plastic scintillator contacts seawater directly, the plastic scintillator can expect high sensitivity in comparison with NaI(Tl) crystal sealed in a container. In order to improve condensation efficiency of scintillation, the plastic scintillator was processed in funnel form and coated by light-resistant paint. This sensor consists of plastic scintillator, photomultiplier tube, preamplifier unit, high-voltage power supply, data logger and lithium-ion battery, and all parts are stored in a pressure housing (200φx300L). The newly developed underwater in-situ radon sensor was tested at hydrothermal area (underwater hot springs) that the hydrothermal fluid containing high concentration of radon is discharged into seawater. The sensor was operated by a diver, and sensitivity tests and mapping survey for estimation of radon diffusion were carried out. The signals of the radon sensor ranged from 20 to 65 mV, and these signals corresponded with radon concentration of 2 to 12 becquerels per liter. The sensor was able to detect radon to 20 m above the hydrothermal point (seafloor). Since the sensor is small and light-weight, measurement, monitoring and mapping can perform automatically by installing the sensor to an AUV (autonomous underwater vehicle). Furthermore, underwater in-situ radon sensor is expected an application to earthquake prediction and volcanic activity monitoring as well as oceanography and hydrology. (author)

  7. A gamma-spectrometer determining equilibrium factor in situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Weiheng

    1992-01-01

    The author expounds main function, scientific value and practical significance of Model SY500 gamma-spectrometer, which can determine radioactive factor equilibrium (k p ) in-situ. Accuracy, steadiness and differential of the technology has been proved on the models of Radiometric Measurement Station of China Nuclear Industry Corporation. The author enumerates several examples such as k p survey at gold-bearing glebe, at uranium-bearing glebe, at the ground above ground water and 21 stations of Beijing subway

  8. Scaling considerations for modeling the in situ vitrification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langerman, M.A.; MacKinnon, R.J.

    1990-09-01

    Scaling relationships for modeling the in situ vitrification waste remediation process are documented based upon similarity considerations derived from fundamental principles. Requirements for maintaining temperature and electric potential field similarity between the model and the prototype are determined as well as requirements for maintaining similarity in off-gas generation rates. A scaling rationale for designing reduced-scale experiments is presented and the results are assessed numerically. 9 refs., 6 figs

  9. Ignition technique for an in situ oil shale retort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Chang Y.

    1983-01-01

    A generally flat combustion zone is formed across the entire horizontal cross-section of a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles formed in an in situ oil shale retort. The flat combustion zone is formed by either sequentially igniting regions of the surface of the fragmented permeable mass at successively lower elevations or by igniting the entire surface of the fragmented permeable mass and controlling the rate of advance of various portions of the combustion zone.

  10. Towards an Autonomous Space In-Situ Marine Sensorweb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, S.; Doubleday, J.; Tran, D.; Thompson, D.; Mahoney, G.; Chao, Y.; Castano, R.; Ryan, J.; Kudela, R.; Palacios, S.; hide

    2009-01-01

    We describe ongoing efforts to integrate and coordinate space and marine assets to enable autonomous response to dynamic ocean phenomena such as algal blooms, eddies, and currents. Thus far we have focused on the use of remote sensing assets (e.g. satellites) but future plans include expansions to use a range of in-situ sensors such as gliders, autonomous underwater vehicles, and buoys/moorings.

  11. Selection of electron acceptors and strategies for in situ bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    The most critical aspect of designing in situ bioremediation systems is, typically, the selection and method of delivery of the electron acceptor. Nitrate, sulfate, and several forms of oxygen can be introduced, depending on the contaminants and the site conditions. Oxygen can be added as air, pure oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, or an oxygen release compound. Simplistic cost calculations can illustrate the advantages of some methods over others, providing technical requirements can be met

  12. TRIO-01 experiment: in-situ tritium-recovery results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemmer, R.G.; Finn, P.A.; Billone, M.C.

    1983-08-01

    The TRIO-01 experiment is a test of in-situ tritium recovery from γ-LiAlO 2 with test conditions chosen to simulate those anticipated in fusion power reactors. A status report is presented which describes qualitatively the results observed during the irradiation phase of the experiment. Both the rate of tritium release and the chemical forms of tritium were measured using a helium sweep gas which flowed past the breeder material to a gas analysis system

  13. TRIO-01 experiment: in-situ tritium recovery results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemmer, R.G.; Finn, P.A.; Billone, M.C.

    1983-10-01

    The TRIO-01 experiment is a test of in-situ tritium recovery from γ-LiAlO 2 with test conditions chosen to simulate those anticipated in fusion power reactors. A status report is presented which describes qualitatively the results observed during the irradiation phase of the experiment. Both the rate of tritium release and the chemical forms of tritium were measured using a helium sweep gas which flowed past the breeder material to a gas analysis system

  14. Aquifer restoration techniques for in-situ leach uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, W.J.; Bell, N.E.; Mercer, B.W.; Serne, R.J.; Shade, J.W.; Tweeton, D.R.

    1984-02-01

    In-situ leach uranium mines and pilot-scale test facilities are currently operating in the states of Wyoming, Texas, New Mexico and Colorado. This report summarizes the technical considerations involved in restoring a leached ore zone and its aquifer to the required level. Background information is provided on the geology and geochemistry of mineralized roll-front deposits and on the leaching techniques used to extract the uranium. 13 references, 13 figures, 4 tables

  15. In situ measurement of tritium permeation through stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luscher, Walter G.; Senor, David J.; Clayton, Kevin K.; Longhurst, Glen R.

    2013-06-01

    The TMIST-2 irradiation experiment was conducted in the Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory to evaluate tritium permeation through Type 316 stainless steel (316 SS). The interior of a 316 SS seamless tube specimen was exposed to a 4He carrier gas mixed with a specified quantity of tritium (T2) to yield partial pressures of 0.1, 5, and 50 Pa at 292 °C and 330 °C. In situ tritium permeation measurements were made by passing a He-Ne sweep gas over the outer surface of the specimen to carry the permeated tritium to a bubbler column for liquid scintillation counting. Results from in situ permeation measurements were compared with predictions based on an ex-reactor permeation correlation in the literature. In situ permeation data were also used to derive an in-reactor permeation correlation as a function of temperature and pressure over the ranges considered in this study. In addition, the triton recoil contribution to tritium permeation, which results from the transmutation of 3He to T, was also evaluated by introducing a 4He carrier gas mixed with 3He at a partial pressure of 1013 Pa at 330 °C. Less than 3% of the tritium resulting from 3He transmutation contributed to tritium permeation.

  16. In situ vitrification program treatability investigation progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrenholz, D.A.

    1990-12-01

    This document presents a summary of the efforts conducted under the in situ vitrification treatability study during the period from its initiation in FY-88 until FY-90. In situ vitrification is a thermal treatment process that uses electrical power to convert contaminated soils into a chemically inert and stable glass and crystalline product. Contaminants present in the soil are either incorporated into the product or are pyrolyzed during treatment. The treatability study being conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory by EG ampersand G Idaho is directed at examining the specific applicability of the in situ vitrification process to buried wastes contaminated with transuranic radionuclides and other contaminants found at the Subsurface Disposal Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. This treatability study consists of a variety of tasks, including engineering tests, field tests, vitrified product evaluation, and analytical models of the ISV process. The data collected in the course of these efforts will address the nine criteria set forth in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, which will be used to identify and select specific technologies to be used in the remediation of the buried wastes at the Subsurface Disposal Area. 6 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  17. In-situ dismantling of plutonium-contaminated glove box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numata, Koji; Watanabe, Hisashi; Ishikawa, Hisashi; Miyo, Hiroaki; Ohtsuka, Katsuyuki

    1980-01-01

    A plutonium-contaminated glove box was dismantled along with the development of the treatment techniques for plutonium-bearing wastes. The objectives of this in-situ dismantling of the glove box are to reuse the Plutonium Fuel Fabrication Facility more efficiently, to reduce the volume of wastes generated during the dismantling, and to acquire dismantling techniques for decommissioning the Plutonium Fuel Fabrication Facility in the future. Prior to the dismantling works, a greenhouse for decontamination was installed, and the decontamination with surfactants was performed. Unremovable contamination was coated with paint. After this greenhouse was removed, the main greenhouse for dismantling and three greenhouses for contamination control were assembled. The main workers wearing protective devices engaged in dismantling works in the greenhouse. As the protective devices, anorak type PVC suits with air line masks, Howell type pressurized suits, and respirators were used. The tools used for the dismantling are a plasma cutter, an electric nibbler, an electric disk grinder, an electric circular saw and an electric jig saw. The results of the dismantling in-situ were compared with two previous cases of dismantling carried out by different procedures. In the case of in-situ dismantling, the volume of wastes was 1.6 - 1.8 m 3 /m 3 of glove box, and considerable reduction was realized. (Kako, I.)

  18. In-situ bioremediation of TCE-contaminated groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travis, B.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Rosenberg, N.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). A barrier to wider use of in situ bioremediation technology is that results are often variable and difficult to predict. In situ bioremediation has shown some very notable and well publicized successes, but implementation of the technology is complex. An incomplete understanding of the effects of variable site characteristics and the lack of adequate tools to predict and measure success have made the design, control and validation of bioremediation more empirical than desired. The long-term objective of this project is to improve computational tools used to assess and optimize the expected performance of bioremediation at a site. An important component of the approach is the explicit inclusion of uncertainties and their effect on the end result. The authors have extended their biokinetics model to include microbial competition and predation processes. Predator species can feed on the microbial species that degrade contaminants, and the simulation studies show that species interactions must be considered when designing in situ bioremediation systems. In particular, the results for TCE indicate that protozoan grazing could reduce the amount of biodegradation by about 20%. These studies also indicate that the behavior of barrier systems can become complex due to predator grazing.

  19. In situ conditioning for proton storage ring vacuum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blechschmidt, D.

    1978-01-01

    Average pressure and vacuum-stability limit as expected in the presence of a proton beam were measured after in situ treatments such as bakeout under various conditions, argon glow-discharge cleaning and sputter deposition of titanium. Measurements were carried out for test pipes made of stainless steel (untreated, electropolished, or cooled to 77 K), pure titanium and aluminum alloy. The measurement method used to obtain the vacuum-stability limit in the laboratory and in a prototype system is described. The results can be applied also to other systems of different geometry by use of scaling laws. In situ conditioning generally has a stronger influence on vacuum performance than a particular choice of material. Bakeout gives low average pressures and rather good vacuum stability. Glow discharges also increase the vacuum stability but have only a small effect on the static pressure. Coating the beam-pipe wall with titanium by in situ sputtering provides large linear pumping, thus a lower pressure and an extremely good vacuum stability

  20. In situ visualization and data analysis for turbidity currents simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camata, Jose J.; Silva, Vítor; Valduriez, Patrick; Mattoso, Marta; Coutinho, Alvaro L. G. A.

    2018-01-01

    Turbidity currents are underflows responsible for sediment deposits that generate geological formations of interest for the oil and gas industry. LibMesh-sedimentation is an application built upon the libMesh library to simulate turbidity currents. In this work, we present the integration of libMesh-sedimentation with in situ visualization and in transit data analysis tools. DfAnalyzer is a solution based on provenance data to extract and relate strategic simulation data in transit from multiple data for online queries. We integrate libMesh-sedimentation and ParaView Catalyst to perform in situ data analysis and visualization. We present a parallel performance analysis for two turbidity currents simulations showing that the overhead for both in situ visualization and in transit data analysis is negligible. We show that our tools enable monitoring the sediments appearance at runtime and steer the simulation based on the solver convergence and visual information on the sediment deposits, thus enhancing the analytical power of turbidity currents simulations.