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Sample records for strength force-generating capacity

  1. Level of hamstrings damage depending on force-generating capacity and creatine kinase activity

    OpenAIRE

    Carmona, Gerard; Alomar, Xavier; Mendiguchia, Jurdan; Serrano, David; Padullés, Josep Maria; Nescolarde Selva, Lexa Digna; Rodas Font, Gil; Cusso Calabuig, Roser; Guerrero, M.; Idoate, F.; Balius, Ramon; Cadefau, Joan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to categorize the eccentric exercise-induced hamstrings damage by using easy measurable markers such as force-generating capacity and serum creatine kinase activity Peer Reviewed

  2. No Neuromuscular Side-Effects of Scopolamine in Sensorimotor Control and Force-Generating Capacity Among Parabolic Fliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzmann, Ramona; Freyler, Kathrin; Krause, Anne; Gollhofer, Albert

    2016-10-01

    Scopolamine is used to counteract motion sickness in parabolic flight (PF) experiments. Although the drug's anticholinergic properties effectively impede vomiting, recent studies document other sensory side-effects in the central nervous system that may considerably influence sensorimotor performance. This study aimed to quantify such effects in order to determine if they are of methodological and operational significance for sensorimotor control. Ten subjects of a PF campaign received a weight-sex-based dose of a subcutaneous scopolamine injection. Sensorimotor performance was recorded before medication, 20min, 2h and 4h after injection in four space-relevant paradigms: balance control in one-leg stance with eyes open (protocol 1) and closed as well as force-generating capacity in countermovement jumps and hops (protocol 2). Postural sway, forces and joint angles were recorded. Neuromuscular control was assessed by electromyography and peripheral nerve stimulation; H-reflexes and M-waves were used to monitor spinal excitability of the Ia afferent reflex circuitry and maximal motor output. (1) H-reflex amplitudes, latencies and functional reflexes remained unchanged after scopolamine injection. (2) M-waves, neuromuscular activation intensities and antagonistic muscle coordination did not change with scopolamine administration. (3) Balance performance and force-generating capacity were not impeded by scopolamine. We found no evidence for changes in sensorimotor control in response to scopolamine injection. Sensory processing of daily relevant reflexes, spinal excitability, maximal motor output and performance parameters were not sensitive to the medication. We conclude that scopolamine administration can be used to counteract motion sickness in PF without methodological and operational concerns or interference regarding sensorimotor skills associated with neuromuscular control.

  3. Increased cross-bridge recruitment contributes to transient increase in force generation beyond maximal capacity in human myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani-Nejad, Nima; Chung, Jae-Hoon; Canan, Benjamin D; Fedorov, Vadim V; Whitson, Bryan A; Kilic, Ahmet; Mohler, Peter J; Janssen, Paul M L

    2018-01-01

    Cross-bridge attachment allows force generation to occur, and rate of tension redevelopment (k tr ) is a commonly used index of cross-bridge cycling rate. Tension overshoots have been observed briefly after a slack-restretch k tr maneuver in various species of animal models and humans. In this study, we set out to determine the properties of these overshoots and their possible underlying mechanism. Utilizing human cardiac trabeculae, we have found that tension overshoots are temperature-dependent and that they do not occur at resting states. In addition, we have found that myosin cross-bridge cycle is vital to these overshoots as inhibition of the cycle results in the blunting of the overshoots and the magnitude of the overshoots are dependent on the level of myofilament activation. Lastly, we show that the number of cross-bridges transiently increase during tension overshoots. These findings lead us to conclude that tension overshoots are likely due to a transient enhancement of the recruitment of myosin heads into the cross-bridge cycling, regulated by the myocardium, and with potential physiological significance in determining cardiac output. We show that isolated human myocardium is capable of transiently increasing its maximal force generation capability by increasing cross-bridge recruitment following slack-restretch maneuver. This process can potentially have important implications and significance in cardiac contraction in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Muscle strength, working capacity and effort in patients with fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, J; Bülow, P M; Lykkegaard, J J

    1997-01-01

    exercise capacity, work status and psychometric scoring (SCL-90-R) were correlated. The fibromyalgia patients exhibited significant reduction in voluntary muscle strength of the knee and elbow, flexors and extensors in the order of 20-30%. However, the coefficient of variation was higher among patients......, thus indicating lower effort. The physical performance during an ergometer test corresponded to a maximal oxygen consumption of 21 ml/kg-1 x min-1. The maximal increase in heart rate was only 63% (44-90%) of the predicted increase. Degree of effort or physical capacity did not correlate to psychometric...... scores. Work status was related to psychometric scoring, but not to physical capacity or effort. In conclusion, we found a low degree of effort but near normal physical capacity in the fibromyalgia patients....

  5. Force generation by titin folding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mártonfalvi, Zsolt; Bianco, Pasquale; Naftz, Katalin; Ferenczy, György G; Kellermayer, Miklós

    2017-07-01

    Titin is a giant protein that provides elasticity to muscle. As the sarcomere is stretched, titin extends hierarchically according to the mechanics of its segments. Whether titin's globular domains unfold during this process and how such unfolded domains might contribute to muscle contractility are strongly debated. To explore the force-dependent folding mechanisms, here we manipulated skeletal-muscle titin molecules with high-resolution optical tweezers. In force-clamp mode, after quenching the force (force trace contained rapid fluctuations and a gradual increase of average force, indicating that titin can develop force via dynamic transitions between its structural states en route to the native conformation. In 4 M urea, which destabilizes H-bonds hence the consolidated native domain structure, the net force increase disappeared but the fluctuations persisted. Thus, whereas net force generation is caused by the ensemble folding of the elastically-coupled domains, force fluctuations arise due to a dynamic equilibrium between unfolded and molten-globule states. Monte-Carlo simulations incorporating a compact molten-globule intermediate in the folding landscape recovered all features of our nanomechanics results. The ensemble molten-globule dynamics delivers significant added contractility that may assist sarcomere mechanics, and it may reduce the dissipative energy loss associated with titin unfolding/refolding during muscle contraction/relaxation cycles. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  6. Strength and stiffness capacity utilisation of timber members in roof ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    C Brand Wessels, Nils-Olaf Petersen. Abstract. The main objective of this study was to determine which property, of the six strength and stiffness properties used in structural timber design, was the most influential in the design of nail-plated roof trusses. Thirty recently completed nail-plated roof truss designs were randomly ...

  7. Effects of different strength training frequencies on maximum strength, body composition and functional capacity in healthy older individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpela, Mari; Häkkinen, Keijo; Haff, Guy Gregory; Walker, Simon

    2017-11-01

    There is controversy in the literature regarding the dose-response relationship of strength training in healthy older participants. The present study determined training frequency effects on maximum strength, muscle mass and functional capacity over 6months following an initial 3-month preparatory strength training period. One-hundred and six 64-75year old volunteers were randomly assigned to one of four groups; performing strength training one (EX1), two (EX2), or three (EX3) times per week and a non-training control (CON) group. Whole-body strength training was performed using 2-5 sets and 4-12 repetitions per exercise and 7-9 exercises per session. Before and after the intervention, maximum dynamic leg press (1-RM) and isometric knee extensor and plantarflexor strength, body composition and quadriceps cross-sectional area, as well as functional capacity (maximum 7.5m forward and backward walking speed, timed-up-and-go test, loaded 10-stair climb test) were measured. All experimental groups increased leg press 1-RM more than CON (EX1: 3±8%, EX2: 6±6%, EX3: 10±8%, CON: -3±6%, Ptraining frequency would induce greater benefit to maximum walking speed (i.e. functional capacity) despite a clear dose-response in dynamic 1-RM strength, at least when predominantly using machine weight-training. It appears that beneficial functional capacity improvements can be achieved through low frequency training (i.e. 1-2 times per week) in previously untrained healthy older participants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Isometric muscle strength and mobility capacity in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallmeijer, Annet J; Rameckers, Eugene A; Houdijk, Han; de Groot, Sonja; Scholtes, Vanessa A; Becher, Jules G

    2017-01-01

    To determine the relationship between isometric leg muscle strength and mobility capacity in children with cerebral palsy (CP) compared to typically developing (TD) peers. Participants were 62 children with CP (6-13 years), able to walk with (n = 10) or without (n = 52) walking aids, and 47 TD children. Isometric muscle strength of five muscle groups of the leg was measured using hand-held dynamometry. Mobility capacity was assessed with the 1-min walk, the 10-m walk, sit-to-stand, lateral-step-up and timed-stair tests. Isometric strength of children with CP was reduced to 36-82% of TD. When adjusted for age and height, the percentage of variance in mobility capacity that was explained by isometric strength of the leg muscles was 21-24% (walking speed), 25% (sit-to-stand), 28% (lateral-step-up) and 35% (timed-stair) in children with CP. Hip abductors and knee flexors had the largest contribution to the explained variance, while knee extensors showed the weakest correlation. Weak or no associations were found between strength and mobility capacity in TD children. Isometric strength, especially hip abductor and knee flexor strength, is moderately related to mobility capacity in children with CP, but not in TD children. To what extent training of these muscle groups will lead to better mobility capacity needs further study. Implications for Rehabilitation Strength training in children with cerebral palsy (CP) may be targeted more specifically at hip abductors and knee flexors. The moderate associations imply that large improvements in mobility capacity may not be expected when strength increases.

  9. Stereotype Strength and Attentional Bias: Preference for Confirming versus Disconfirming Information Depends on Processing Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Thomas J.; Sherman, Jeffrey W.; Conrey, Frederica R.; Stroessner, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated the relationships among stereotype strength, processing capacity, and the allocation of attention to stereotype-consistent versus stereotype-inconsistent information describing a target person. The results of both experiments showed that, with full capacity, greater stereotype strength was associated with increased attention toward stereotype-consistent versus stereotype-inconsistent information. However, when capacity was diminished, greater stereotype strength was associated with increased attention toward inconsistent versus consistent information. Thus, strong stereotypes may act as self-confirming filters when processing capacity is plentiful, but as efficient information gathering devices that maximize the acquisition of novel (disconfirming) information when capacity is depleted. Implications for models of stereotyping and stereotype change are discussed. PMID:20161043

  10. FMNL formins boost lamellipodial force generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kage, Frieda; Winterhoff, Moritz; Dimchev, Vanessa

    2017-01-01

    , without changing patterns of Arp2/3 complex incorporation. Strikingly, in melanoma cells, FMNL2/3 gene inactivation almost completely abolishes protrusion forces exerted by lamellipodia and modifies their ultrastructural organization. Consistently, CRISPR/Cas-mediated depletion of FMNL2/3 in fibroblasts...... reduces both migration and capability of cells to move against viscous media. Together, we conclude that force generation in lamellipodia strongly depends on FMNL formin activity, operating in addition to Arp2/3 complex-dependent filament branching....

  11. Is back pain during childhood or adolescence associated with muscle strength, muscle endurance or aerobic capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lardon, Arnaud; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Le Scanff, Christine

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Back pain is a common condition during childhood and adolescence. The causes of back pain are largely unknown but it seems plausible that some physical factors such as back muscle strength, back muscle endurance and aerobic capacity may play a role in its development, in particular...... aerobic capacity and back pain is not clear. CONCLUSIONS: High back muscle endurance in extension appears protective of back pain in youngsters, but the roles of high back muscle strength in extension and aerobic capacity are less clear....

  12. The association of muscle strength, aerobic capacity and swim time performance in young, competitive swimmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Peter; Knudsen, Hans Kromann; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    The association of muscle strength, aerobic capacity and swim time performance in young, competitive swimmers Introduction Swim time performance is affected by physiological factors such as muscle strength and power of the upper and lower extremities as well as aerobic capacity (Smith et al., 2002......). The association between these factors and swim time performance may plausibly identify some of the determinants for performance enhancement in swimming (Smith et al., 2002). In order to detail the individual training programme, reference values are needed. The aims of this study were firstly to determine...... the association between muscle strength and power, aerobic capacity and 100 m freestyle time (FT) in young, competitive swimmers, and secondly to determine reference values for these physiological factors. Methods In total, 119 competitive swimmers aged 11-15 years were assessed with Grip Strength (GS), Vertical...

  13. Nonparetic Knee Extensor Strength Is the Determinant of Exercise Capacity of Community-Dwelling Stroke Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Te Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the relationship among walking speed, exercise capacity, and leg strength in community dwelling stroke subjects and to evaluate which one was the leading determinant factor of them. Design. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Thirty-five chronic stroke patients who were able to walk independently in their community were enrolled. Walking speed was evaluated by using the 12-meter walking test. A maximal exercise test was used to determine the stroke subjects’ exercise capacity. Knee extensor strength, measured as isokinetic torque, was assessed by isokinetic dynamometer. Results. The main walking speed of our subjects was 0.52 m/s. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak was 1.21±0.43 L/min. Knee extensor strength, no matter whether paretic or nonparetic side, was significantly correlated to 12-meter walking speed and exercise capacity. Linear regression also showed the strength of the affected knee extensor was the determinant of walking speed and that of the nonparetic knee extensor was the determinant of exercise capacity in community dwelling stroke subjects. Conclusions. Walking speed and peak oxygen uptake were markedly decreased after stroke. Knee extensor strength of nonparetic leg was the most important determinant of exercise capacity of the community-dwelling stroke subjects. Knee extensor strengthening should be emphasized to help stroke patient to achieve optimal community living.

  14. Nonparetic knee extensor strength is the determinant of exercise capacity of community-dwelling stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Te; Huang, Ling-Tzu; Chou, Ya-Hui; Wei, Ta-Sen; Lin, Chung-Che

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the relationship among walking speed, exercise capacity, and leg strength in community dwelling stroke subjects and to evaluate which one was the leading determinant factor of them. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Thirty-five chronic stroke patients who were able to walk independently in their community were enrolled. Walking speed was evaluated by using the 12-meter walking test. A maximal exercise test was used to determine the stroke subjects' exercise capacity. Knee extensor strength, measured as isokinetic torque, was assessed by isokinetic dynamometer. The main walking speed of our subjects was 0.52 m/s. Peak oxygen uptake (VO₂ peak) was 1.21 ± 0.43 L/min. Knee extensor strength, no matter whether paretic or nonparetic side, was significantly correlated to 12-meter walking speed and exercise capacity. Linear regression also showed the strength of the affected knee extensor was the determinant of walking speed and that of the nonparetic knee extensor was the determinant of exercise capacity in community dwelling stroke subjects. Walking speed and peak oxygen uptake were markedly decreased after stroke. Knee extensor strength of nonparetic leg was the most important determinant of exercise capacity of the community-dwelling stroke subjects. Knee extensor strengthening should be emphasized to help stroke patient to achieve optimal community living.

  15. Resistance training improves muscle strength and functional capacity in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, U; Stenager, E; Jakobsen, J

    2009-01-01

    strength and functional capacity in patients with multiple sclerosis, the effects persisting after 12 weeks of self-guided physical activity. Level of evidence: The present study provides level III evidence supporting the hypothesis that lower extremity progressive resistance training can improve muscle......OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that lower extremity progressive resistance training (PRT) can improve muscle strength and functional capacity in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and to evaluate whether the improvements are maintained after the trial. METHODS: The present study was a 2-arm...... and was afterward encouraged to continue training. After the trial, the control group completed the PRT intervention. Both groups were tested before and after 12 weeks of the trial and at 24 weeks (follow-up), where isometric muscle strength of the knee extensors (KE MVC) and functional capacity (FS; combined score...

  16. Curvature recognition and force generation in phagocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prassler Jana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The uptake of particles by actin-powered invagination of the plasma membrane is common to protozoa and to phagocytes involved in the immune response of higher organisms. The question addressed here is how a phagocyte may use geometric cues to optimize force generation for the uptake of a particle. We survey mechanisms that enable a phagocyte to remodel actin organization in response to particles of complex shape. Results Using particles that consist of two lobes separated by a neck, we found that Dictyostelium cells transmit signals concerning the curvature of a surface to the actin system underlying the plasma membrane. Force applied to a concave region can divide a particle in two, allowing engulfment of the portion first encountered. The phagosome membrane that is bent around the concave region is marked by a protein containing an inverse Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (I-BAR domain in combination with an Src homology (SH3 domain, similar to mammalian insulin receptor tyrosine kinase substrate p53. Regulatory proteins enable the phagocyte to switch activities within seconds in response to particle shape. Ras, an inducer of actin polymerization, is activated along the cup surface. Coronin, which limits the lifetime of actin structures, is reversibly recruited to the cup, reflecting a program of actin depolymerization. The various forms of myosin-I are candidate motor proteins for force generation in particle uptake, whereas myosin-II is engaged only in retracting a phagocytic cup after a switch to particle release. Thus, the constriction of a phagocytic cup differs from the contraction of a cleavage furrow in mitosis. Conclusions Phagocytes scan a particle surface for convex and concave regions. By modulating the spatiotemporal pattern of actin organization, they are capable of switching between different modes of interaction with a particle, either arresting at a concave region and applying force in an attempt to sever the particle

  17. Cardiopulmonary exercise capacity, muscle strength, and physical activity in children and adolescents with achondroplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, Tim; van Bergen, Monique W. M.; Sakkers, Ralph J. B.; Helders, Paul J. M.; Engelbert, Raoul H. H.

    2007-01-01

    To study in children with achondroplasia the response to exercise and muscle strength compared with healthy peers and to describe the relation between exercise capacity, anthropometric factors, and physical activity. Patients (7 boys and 10 girls; mean age, 11.8 +/- 3.3 years) with achondroplasia

  18. Comparison of muscle strength, sprint power and aerobic capacity in adults with and without cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Sonja; Dallmeijer, Annet J.; Bessems, Paul J. C.; Lamberts, Marcel L.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.

    Objective: To compare: (i) muscle strength, sprint power and maximal aerobic capacity; and (ii) the correlations between these variables in adults with and without cerebral palsy. Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects: Twenty adults with and 24 without cerebral palsy. Methods: Isometric and

  19. Comparison of muscle strength, sprint power and aerobic capacity in adults with and without cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, S.; Dallmeijer, A.J.; Bessems, P.J.C.; Lamberts, M.L.; van der Woude, L.H.V.; Janssen, T.W.J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare: (i) muscle strength, sprint power and maximal aerobic capacity; and (ii) the correlations between these variables in adults with and without cerebral palsy. Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects: Twenty adults with and 24 without cerebral palsy. Methods: Isometric and

  20. Isometric muscle strength and mobility capacity in children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallmeijer, Annet J.; Rameckers, Eugene A.; Houdijk, Han; de Groot, Sonja; Scholtes, Vanessa A.; Becher, Jules G.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the relationship between isometric leg muscle strength and mobility capacity in children with cerebral palsy (CP) compared to typically developing (TD) peers. Method: Participants were 62 children with CP (6-13 years), able to walk with (n=10) or without (n=52) walking aids,

  1. Is Walking Capacity in Subjects with Multiple Sclerosis Primarily Related to Muscle Oxidative Capacity or Maximal Muscle Strength? A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Hansen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. Walking capacity is reduced in subjects with multiple sclerosis (MS. To develop effective exercise interventions to enhance walking capacity, it is important to determine the impact of factors, modifiable by exercise intervention (maximal muscle strength versus muscle oxidative capacity, on walking capacity. The purpose of this pilot study is to discriminate between the impact of maximal muscle strength versus muscle oxidative capacity on walking capacity in subjects with MS. Methods. From 24 patients with MS, muscle oxidative capacity was determined by calculation of exercise-onset oxygen uptake kinetics (mean response time during submaximal exercise bouts. Maximal muscle strength (isometric knee extension and flexion peak torque was assessed on dynamometer. All subjects completed a 6-minute walking test. Relationships between walking capacity (as a percentage of normal value and muscle strength (of knee flexors and extensors versus muscle oxidative capacity were assessed in multivariate regression analyses. Results. The expanded disability status score (EDSS showed a significant univariate correlation (r=-0.70, P<0.004 with walking capacity. In multivariate regression analyses, EDSS and mean response time, but not muscle strength, were independently related to walking capacity (P<0.05. Conclusions. Walking distance is, next to disability level and not taking neurologic symptoms/deficits into account, primarily related to muscle oxidative capacity in subjects with MS. Additional study is needed to further examine/verify these findings.

  2. The association of muscle strength, aerobic capacity and swim time performance in young, competitive swimmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Peter; Kromann Knudsen, Hans; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit

    Swim time performance is affected by physiological factors such as muscle strength and power of the upper and lower extremities as well as aerobic capacity (Smith et al., 2002). The association between these factors and swim time performance may plausibly identify some of the determinants...... for performance enhancement in swimming (Smith et al., 2002). In order to detail the individual training programme, reference values are needed. The aims of this study were firstly to determine the association between muscle strength and power, aerobic capacity and 100 m freestyle time (FT) in young, competitive...... swimmers, and secondly to determine reference values for these physiological factors. Methods In total, 119 competitive swimmers aged 11-15 years were assessed with Grip Strength (GS), Vertical Jump (VJ) and an intermittent running test to estimate maximal oxygen uptake, the Andersen Test (AT). Swim time...

  3. RELATION BETWEEN THE PHYSICAL WORKING CAPACITY (PWC170 AND STATIC RELATIVE STRENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla Elezi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Determining the relationship within the segments, and establish the correlation between the functional and motor areas may be important for programming load both in education and in sports and recreation. For this reason we set goals and work this year. The main objective of this research is to determine association and motor characteristics impact on functional ability (physical work capacity. The sample is defined as a sample of 263 respondents drawn from the population of secondary schools: Gymnasium Zenel Hajdini; Marin Barleti and Mehmet Isai in city of Gjilan. Nine tests were used to estimate motoric capabilities and a test of functional capacity of aerobic-type (physical work capacity. To determine the relation between the predictor (motor variables and criterion variables (physical working capacity - PWC170 it is prepared the regression analysis of the manifest space. Analyses were made to the program SPSS 12.0 for Windows. The connection of the entire system of variables static relative strength with a score of Physics working capacity (PWC170 on a bicycle ergo meter as aerobic type variable explains the coefficient of multiple correlations, which is RO 0.394. Regression analysis indicates that the better results on a bicycle ergo meter will have respondents who score better in tests of static relative strength of the leg (at the test isometric muscle contraction quadriceps thighs and static tests of the relative strength of arm and shoulder area (at the test of isometric contraction triceps muscle circumference.

  4. Functional Capacity in Adults With Cerebral Palsy: Lower Limb Muscle Strength Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, Jarred G; Lichtwark, Glen A; Boyd, Roslyn N; Barber, Lee A

    2018-05-01

    To investigate the relation between lower limb muscle strength, passive muscle properties, and functional capacity outcomes in adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Cross-sectional study. Tertiary institution biomechanics laboratory. Adults with spastic-type CP (N=33; mean age, 25y; range, 15-51y; mean body mass, 70.15±21.35kg) who were either Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level I (n=20) or level II (n=13). Not applicable. Six-minute walk test (6MWT) distance (m), lateral step-up (LSU) test performance (total repetitions), timed up-stairs (TUS) performance (s), maximum voluntary isometric strength of plantar flexors (PF) and dorsiflexors (DF) (Nm.kg -1 ), and passive ankle joint and muscle stiffness. Maximum isometric PF strength independently explained 61% of variance in 6MWT performance, 57% of variance in LSU test performance, and 50% of variance in TUS test performance. GMFCS level was significantly and independently related to all 3 functional capacity outcomes, and age was retained as a significant independent predictor of LSU and TUS test performance. Passive medial gastrocnemius muscle fascicle stiffness and ankle joint stiffness were not significantly related to functional capacity measures in any of the multiple regression models. Low isometric PF strength was the most important independent variable related to distance walked on the 6MWT, fewer repetitions on the LSU test, and slower TUS test performance. These findings suggest lower isometric muscle strength contributes to the decline in functional capacity in adults with CP. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of walking and strength training on walking capacity in individuals with claudication: meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra de Souza Miranda

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Over the past few years, several clinical trials have been performed to analyze the effects of exercise training on walking ability in patients with intermittent claudication (IC. However, it remains unclear which type of physical exercise provides the maximum benefits in terms of walking ability. OBJECTIVE: To analyze, by means of a meta-analysis, the effects of walking and strength training on the walking capacity in patients with IC. METHODS: Papers analyzing the effects of walking and strength training programs in patients with IC were browsed on the Medline, Lilacs, and Cochrane databases. Randomized clinical trials scoring >4 on the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro scale and assessing claudication distance (CD and total walking distance (TWD were included in the review. RESULTS: Walking and strength training yielded increases in CD and TWD (P < 0.05. However, walking training yielded greater increases than strength training (P = 0.02. CONCLUSION: Walking and strength training improve walking capacity in patients with IC. However, greater improvements in TWD are obtained with walking training.

  6. Lower limb explosive strength capacity in elderly women: effects of resistance training and healthy diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edholm, Peter; Strandberg, Emelie; Kadi, Fawzi

    2017-07-01

    The effects of 24 wk of resistance training combined with a healthy diet on lower limb explosive strength capacity were investigated in a population of healthy elderly women. Participants ( n = 63; 67.5 ± 0.4 yr) were randomized into three groups; resistance training (RT), resistance training and healthy diet (RT-HD), and control (CON). Progressive resistance training was performed at a load of 75-85% one-repetition maximum. A major adjustment in the healthy dietary approach was an n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio below 2. Lower limb maximal strength, explosive force capacity during dynamic and isometric movements, whole body lean mass, and physical function were assessed. Whole body lean mass significantly increased by 1.5 ± 0.5% in RT-HD only. Isometric strength performance during knee extension as well as the performance in the five sit-to-stand and single-leg-stance tests increased similarly in RT and RT-HD. Improvements in dynamic peak power and time to reach peak power (i.e shorter time) during knee extension occurred in both RT (+15.7 ± 2.6 and -11.0 ± 3.8%, respectively) and RT-HD (+24.6 ± 2.6 and -20.3 ± 2.7%, respectively); however, changes were significantly larger in RT-HD. Similarly, changes in peak force and rate of force development during squat jump were higher in RT-HD (+58.5 ± 8.4 and +185.4 ± 32.9%, respectively) compared with RT (+35.7 ± 6.9 and +105.4 ± 22.4%, respectively). In conclusion, a healthy diet rich in n-3 PUFA can optimize the effects of resistance training on dynamic explosive strength capacity during isolated lower limb movements and multijoint exercises in healthy elderly women. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Age-related decline in lower limb explosive strength leads to impaired ability to perform daily living tasks. The present randomized controlled trial demonstrates that a healthy diet rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) enhances resistance training-induced gains in dynamic explosive strength

  7. The sensory strength of voluntary visual imagery predicts visual working memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Rebecca; Pearson, Joel

    2014-10-09

    How much we can actively hold in mind is severely limited and differs greatly from one person to the next. Why some individuals have greater capacities than others is largely unknown. Here, we investigated why such large variations in visual working memory (VWM) capacity might occur, by examining the relationship between visual working memory and visual mental imagery. To assess visual working memory capacity participants were required to remember the orientation of a number of Gabor patches and make subsequent judgments about relative changes in orientation. The sensory strength of voluntary imagery was measured using a previously documented binocular rivalry paradigm. Participants with greater imagery strength also had greater visual working memory capacity. However, they were no better on a verbal number working memory task. Introducing a uniform luminous background during the retention interval of the visual working memory task reduced memory capacity, but only for those with strong imagery. Likewise, for the good imagers increasing background luminance during imagery generation reduced its effect on subsequent binocular rivalry. Luminance increases did not affect any of the subgroups on the verbal number working memory task. Together, these results suggest that luminance was disrupting sensory mechanisms common to both visual working memory and imagery, and not a general working memory system. The disruptive selectivity of background luminance suggests that good imagers, unlike moderate or poor imagers, may use imagery as a mnemonic strategy to perform the visual working memory task. © 2014 ARVO.

  8. Functional trade-off between strength and thermal capacity of dermal armor: Insights from girdled lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeckhoven, Chris; du Plessis, Anton; Hui, Cang

    2017-10-01

    The presence of dermal armor is often unambiguously considered the result of an evolutionary predator-prey arms-race. Recent studies focusing predominantly on osteoderms - mineralized elements embedded in the dermis layer of various extant and extinct vertebrates - have instead proposed that dermal armor might exhibit additional functionalities besides protection. Multiple divergent functionalities could impose conflicting demands on a phenotype, yet, functional trade-offs in dermal armor have rarely been investigated. Here, we use high-resolution micro-computed tomography and voxel-based simulations to test for a trade-off between the strength and thermal capacity of osteoderms using two armored cordylid lizards as model organisms. We demonstrate that high vascularization, associated with improved thermal capacity might limit the strength of osteoderms. These results call for a holistic, cautionary future approach to studies investigating dermal armor, especially those aiming to inspire artificial protective materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Load carrying capacity of keyed joints reinforced with high strength wire rope loops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henrik B.; Hoang, Linh Cao

    2015-01-01

    friendly shear connection can be obtained by replacing the U-bars with high strength looped wire ropes. The wire ropes have the advantage of being flexible (they have virtually no bending stiffness) which makes installation of wall elements much easier. The looped wire ropes are usually pre-installed in so......-called wire boxes which are embedded in the precast wall elements. Once the joint is grouted with mortar, the boxes will function as shear keys and the overlapping wire loops will function as transverse reinforcement that replaces the U-bars. This paper presents a rigid-plastic upper bound model to determine...... the shear capacity of wire loop connections. Tests have shown that the shear capacity of such joints – due to the relatively high tensile strength of the wire ropes - is more prone to be governed by fracture of the joint mortar in combination with yielding of the locking bar. To model this type of failure...

  10. Nonparetic Knee Extensor Strength Is the Determinant of Exercise Capacity of Community-Dwelling Stroke Survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wei-Te; Huang, Ling-Tzu; Chou, Ya-Hui; Wei, Ta-Sen; Lin, Chung-Che

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the relationship among walking speed, exercise capacity, and leg strength in community dwelling stroke subjects and to evaluate which one was the leading determinant factor of them. Design. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Thirty-five chronic stroke patients who were able to walk independently in their community were enrolled. Walking speed was evaluated by using the 12-meter walking test. A maximal exercise test was used to determine the stroke subjects...

  11. Analysis of pain, functional capacity, muscular strength and balance in young women with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camile Ludovico Zamboti

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS is associated with anterior knee pain, changes in functional capacity, balance and muscle strength disorders. Objective: To quantify pain, functional capacity, strength in quadriceps (Q, gluteus medium (GM, hip external rotator (ER muscles and balance in sedentary women with PFPS. Methods: Twenty sedentary women, aged 18 to 25 years, were divided into two groups: PFPS (N=10 and control group (N=10. All the volunteers answered the items of the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, the Lysholm Knee Score Scale, the Anterior Knee Pain Scale (AKPS, and the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS. The participants performed the following tests: maximal voluntary isometric contraction measured by dynamometry; postural balance using the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT and a force platform. Statistical analyses were performed using the Shapiro Wilk test, the Mann Whitney U test and Spearman’s correlation coefficient. Data were submitted to SPSS 20 software. Results: The PFPS group presented greater pain, balance impairment and higher average velocity of oscillation; however, no differences were observed in Q, GM and RE muscle strength and in balance analyzed by SEBT. Conclusion: Women with PFPS exhibited greater pain, worse functional capacity and body balance. Moderate correlation between both balance tests suggests the use of SEBT when the force platform is not available, which could facilitate and highlight the importance of clinical diagnosis with regard to postural balance.

  12. Dynamic plantar pressure distribution, strength capacity and postural control after Lisfranc fracture-dislocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlhorn, Alexander T; Walther, Markus; Yilmaz, Tayfun

    2017-01-01

    of life. 17 consecutive patients suffering from a Lisfranc fracture dislocation were registered, underwent open reduction and internal fixation and were followed-up for 50.5±25.7months (Mean±SDM). Biomechanical analysis of muscle strength capacities, postural control and plantar pressure distribution......Substantial progress has been made in the operative treatment of Lisfranc fractures, however, the prognosis remains poor. We hypothesized that Lisfranc injuries change the postural control and muscle strength of the lower limb. Both are suggested to correlate with the clinical outcome and quality...... correlated well with clinical outcome. Altered postural control was evident by a significant reduction in unilateral stance time, from which we calculated a strong correlation between stance time and the isokinetic strength measurement. Plantar pressure measurements revealed a significant reduction in peak...

  13. Effects of strength training on endurance capacity in top-level endurance athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Per; Andersen, Jesper L

    2010-01-01

    The effect of concurrent strength (S) and endurance (E) training on adaptive changes in aerobic capacity, endurance performance, maximal muscle strength and muscle morphology is equivocal. Some data suggest an attenuated cardiovascular and musculoskeletal response to combined E and S training......, while other data show unimpaired or even superior adaptation compared with either training regime alone. However, the effect of concurrent S and E training only rarely has been examined in top-level endurance athletes. This review describes the effect of concurrent SE training on short-term and long......-term endurance performance in endurance-trained subjects, ranging from moderately trained individuals to elite top-level athletes. It is concluded that strength training can lead to enhanced long-term (>30 min) and short-term (...

  14. Relationships between Lower Limb Muscle Strength and Locomotor Capacity in Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy Who Walk Independently

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferland, Chantale; Lepage, Celine; Moffet, Helene; Maltais, Desiree B.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to quantify relationships between lower limb muscle strength and locomotor capacity for children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) to identify key muscle groups for strength training. Fifty 6- to 16-year-olds with CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System level I or II) participated. Isometric muscle strength of hip…

  15. Effects of resistance training, detraining, and retraining on strength and functional capacity in elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakugawa, Raphael Luiz; Moura, Bruno Monteiro; Orssatto, Lucas Bet da Rosa; Bezerra, Ewertton de Souza; Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; Diefenthaeler, Fernando

    2018-05-17

    The interruption of training (detraining) results in loss of the gains acquired. Partial retention could occur after detraining, and variation in training stimuli may optimize retraining adaptations. To evaluate the effect of a resistance-retraining program on strength and functional capacity performance after a detraining period. Ten elderly men and women (63-68 years) completed 12 weeks of training, 16 weeks of detraining, and 8 weeks of retraining. One-repetition maximum (1-RM) at 45° leg press, maximum isometric knee extension torque, rate of torque development (RTD), 30-s sit-to-stand, timed up and go, and stair ascent and descent tests were assessed. The 1-RM increased after training (p training (p training period (p > 0.05). For RTD and 30-s sit-to-stand, there was an increase after retraining when compared to pre-training values (p training and post-training periods (p functional capacity at the same level obtained after a detraining period. The inclusion of an explosive strength session in retraining period improves RTD and 30-s sit-to-stand performance and can accelerate the recovery of strength after a detraining period.

  16. Relationship between muscle strength parameters and functional capacity in persons with mild to moderate degree multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølhede, Tue; Vissing, Kristian; Langeskov-Christensen, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maximal muscle strength has been shown to be an important predictor of functional capacity for persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). Another muscle strength parameter known to be important for functional capacity in other patient groups is rate of force development (RFD) in knee...... is the better predictor of walking performance in persons with mild to moderate multiple sclerosis. RFD, although also important for functional capacity, is a less strong predictor. Maximal strength of the knee extensors, rather than the knee flexors, predicted performance in the stairclimb and 5STS tests....

  17. Motor unit firing rate patterns during voluntary muscle force generation: a simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaogang; Rymer, William Z.; Suresh, Nina L.

    2014-04-01

    Objective. Muscle force is generated by a combination of motor unit (MU) recruitment and changes in the discharge rate of active MUs. There have been two basic MU recruitment and firing rate paradigms reported in the literature, which describe the control of the MUs during force generation. The first (termed the reverse ‘onion skin’ profile), exhibits lower firing rates for lower threshold units, with higher firing rates occurring in higher threshold units. The second (termed the ‘onion skin’ profile), exhibits an inverse arrangement, with lower threshold units reaching higher firing rates. Approach. Using a simulation of the MU activity in a hand muscle, this study examined the force generation capacity and the variability of the muscle force magnitude at different excitation levels of the MU pool under these two different MU control paradigms. We sought to determine which rate/recruitment scheme was more efficient for force generation, and which scheme gave rise to the lowest force variability. Main results. We found that the force output of both firing patterns leads to graded force output at low excitation levels, and that the force generation capacity of the two different paradigms diverged around 50% excitation. In the reverse ‘onion skin’ pattern, at 100% excitation, the force output reached up to 88% of maximum force, whereas for the ‘onion skin’ pattern, the force output only reached up to 54% of maximum force at 100% excitation. The force variability was lower at the low to moderate force levels under the ‘onion skin’ paradigm than with the reverse ‘onion skin’ firing patterns, but this effect was reversed at high force levels. Significance. This study captures the influence of MU recruitment and firing rate organization on muscle force properties, and our results suggest that the different firing organizations can be beneficial at different levels of voluntary muscle force generation and perhaps for different tasks.

  18. Pro-inflammatory capacity of classically activated monocytes relates positively to muscle mass and strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beenakker, Karel G M; Westendorp, Rudi G J; de Craen, Anton J M; Slagboom, Pieternella E; van Heemst, Diana; Maier, Andrea B

    2013-08-01

    In mice, monocytes that exhibit a pro-inflammatory profile enter muscle tissue after muscle injury and are crucial for clearance of necrotic tissue and stimulation of muscle progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation. The aim of this study was to test if pro-inflammatory capacity of classically activated (M1) monocytes relates to muscle mass and strength in humans. This study included 191 male and 195 female subjects (mean age 64.2 years (SD 6.4) and 61.9 ± 6.4, respectively) of the Leiden Longevity Study. Pro-inflammatory capacity of M1 monocytes was assessed by ex vivo stimulation of whole blood with Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and TLR-2/1 agonist tripalmitoyl-S-glycerylcysteine (Pam₃Cys-SK₄), both M1 phenotype activators. Cytokines that stimulate M1 monocyte response (IFN-γ and GM-CSF) as well as cytokines that are secreted by M1 monocytes (IL-6, TNF-α, IL-12, and IL-1β) were measured. Analyses were adjusted for age, height, and body fat mass. Upon stimulation with LPS, the cytokine production capacity of INF-γ, GM-CSF, and TNF-α was significantly positively associated with lean body mass, appendicular lean mass and handgrip strength in men, but not in women. Upon stimulation with Pam₃Cys-SK₄, IL-6; TNF-α; and Il-1β were significantly positively associated with lean body mass and appendicular lean in women, but not in men. Taken together, this study shows that higher pro-inflammatory capacity of M1 monocytes upon stimulation is associated with muscle characteristics and sex dependent. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and the Anatomical Society.

  19. Explosive Strength Capacity in the Lower Limbs of Primary Education School Children According to Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amador Jesús Lara Sánchez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the corporal composition and the explosive strength capacity of lower limbs in primary school students from two different schools in the locality of Martos (Jaén. One of these schools was located in a marginalized neighbourhood where families of low socioeconomic status lived and the other was near the town centre with families of medium to high socioeconomic status. The aim was to evaluate these variables at two different moments in time, i.e., at the beginning and at the end of the school year, to see if the obtained results remained the same. A total of 147 primary school students (6–12 years old participated in the study, divided into 4 subgroups, according to sex and school. Body composition and explosive strength capacity of the lower limbs were evaluated using the vertical jump test. For independent samples, T tests were performed to obtain the existing differences through the SPSS v 19.0 programme. It was found that according to the first measurement at the beginning of the year, participants from a medium-high socioeconomic background obtained better results, while the second measurement showed that results equalized and even reversed. This could have been due to the level of performed physical activity.

  20. How do NHS organisations plan research capacity development? Strategies, strengths, and opportunities for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Melanie; Cooke, Jo

    2018-03-22

    Research that is integral into a 'learning healthcare system' can promote cost effective services and knowledge creation. As such, research is defined as a 'core function' in UK health service organisations, and is often planned through research and development (R&D) strategies that aim to promote research activity and research capacity development (RCD). The discussion focuses around the content of ten R&D strategies for healthcare organisations in England and Scotland, with respect to RCD. These organisations were engaged with a research interest network called ACORN (Addressing Organisational Capacity to do Research Network) that included two Scottish Health Boards, four community and mental health trusts, two provincial district hospitals, and two teaching hospitals. We undertook a thematic documentary analysis of the R&D strategies which identified 11 'core activities' of RCD. The potential for building research capacity in these 'core activities' was established by reviewing them through the lens of a RCD framework. Core activities aimed to 'hard wire' RCD into health organisations. They demonstrated a complex interplay between developing a strong internal organisational infrastructure, and supporting individual career planning and skills development, in turn enabled by organisational processes. They also included activities to build stronger inter-organisational relationships and networks. Practitioner, manager and patient involvement was a cross cutting theme. The potential to demonstrate progress was included in plans through monitoring activity across all RCD principles. Strategies were primarily aimed at research production rather than research use. Developing 'actionable dissemination' was poorly addressed in the strategies, and represents an area for improvement. We describe strengths of RCD planning activities, and opportunities for improvement. We explore how national policy and research funders can influence health systems' engagement in research.

  1. Physical Modeling of microtubule force generation and self-organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanase, C.

    2004-01-01

    Biological systems are complex heterogeneous and far from equilibrium systems. The fundamental questions posed by the physics of such systems are what the force generation mechanisms are, and how energy is processed and distributed among the components inside them. In answering these questions we

  2. Positive effects of 1-year football and strength training on mechanical muscle function and functional capacity in elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Andersen, Lars L.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: A decline in physical capacity takes place with increasing age that negatively affects overall physical function including work ability and the ability to perform typical activities of daily living (ADL). The overall aim of the present study was to determine the neuromuscular adaptations...... to long-term (1 year) football and strength training in older untrained adults, and to assess the concurrent effect on functional ADL capacity. METHODS: Twenty-seven healthy elderly males (68.2 ± 3.2 years) were randomly assigned to 12 months of either recreational football training (FT: n = 10), strength...... training (ST: n = 9) or served as inactive controls (CON: n = 8). Recreational football training consisted of small-sided training sessions whereas strength training consisted of high intensity exercises targeting the lower extremity and upper body. Maximal thigh muscle strength and rate of force...

  3. The Effect of Mechanical Anisotropy and Heterogeneity of Shear Strength Parameters of Soils on Drained Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Jamshidi Chenari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural formation of soil deposits causes heterogeneity and anisotropy in their strength and stiffness properties. However, most soils in their natural states exhibit some anisotropy with respect to shear strength and heterogeneity with respect to the depth. In this paper, the standard Mohr- Coulomb constitutive law is generalized to anisotropic version in order to consider the effect of cohesion anisotropy of soil. Random field theory coupled with finite difference method was utilized in Monte Carlo simulations with considering the effect of auto-correlation and cross correlation between strength parameters of soil, in order to calculate the bearing capacity of shallow foundation in a strain controlled scheme. The results showed that the bearing capacity of shallow foundation decreases with increasing in variability of strength parameters and increases with increasing in anisotropy ratio.

  4. A Study on Special Characteristics of Sports Aerobics Competitor : The Capacity of Aerobic Power and Isokinetic Strength of Knee Joint

    OpenAIRE

    菊地, はるひ; 佐々木, 浩子

    2004-01-01

    Sports Aerobics is the competitive sports including the complex aerobic step combination and difficulty elements. The competition time is 1 minute and 45±5 seconds. Sports Aerobics requires mainly anaerobic energy for competitive performance. But also it is very important to get the high capacity of aerobic power for performing the perfect execution. In this study, we tried to find out the characteristics for aerobic capacity and leg muscle strength in Sports Aerobics world champions (2 males...

  5. Relation between isokinetic muscle strength and functional capacity in recreational athletes with chondromalacia patellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Y; Aydin, T; Sekir, U; Cetin, C; Ors, F; Alp Kalyon, T

    2003-12-01

    To investigate the effects of isokinetic exercise on pain and functional test scores of recreational athletes with chondromalacia patellae (CMP) and to examine the correlation between isokinetic parameters and functional tests or pain score. The functional ability of 30 recreational athletes with unilateral CMP was evaluated using six different tests. Pain scores were assessed during daily activities before and after the treatment protocol. Isokinetic exercise sessions were carried out at angular velocities of 60 degrees /s (25-90 degrees range of flexion) and 180 degrees /s (full range). These sessions were repeated three times a week for six weeks. Quadriceps and hamstring peak torque, total work, and endurance ratios had improved significantly after the treatment, as did the functional parameters and pain scores. There was a poor correlation between the extensor endurance ratio and one leg standing test. A moderate correlation between the visual analogue scale and the extensor endurance ratio or flexion endurance ratio was also found. The isokinetic exercise programme used in this study had a positive effect on muscle strength, pain score, and functional ability of knees with CMP. The improvement in the functional capacity did not correlate with the isokinetic parameters.

  6. High-capacity, high-strength trailer designs for the GA-4/GA-9 casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickard, N.D.; Kissinger, J.A.; Taylor, C.; Zimmer, A.

    1991-01-01

    General Atomics (GA) is developing final designs for two dedicated legal-weight trailers to transport the GA-4 and GA-9 Spent-Fuel Casks. The basic designs for these high-capacity, high-strength trailers are essentially identical except for small modifications to account for the differences in cask geometry. The authors are designing both trailers to carry a 55,000 lb (24,900 kg) payload and to withstand a 2.5 g vertical design load. The GA-4 and GA-9 trailers are designed for significantly higher loads than are typical commercial semitrailers, which are designed to loads in the range of 1.7 to 2.0 g. To meet the federal gross vehicle weight limit for legal-weight trucks, GA has set a target design weight for the trailers of 9000 lb (4080 kg). This weight includes the personnel barrier, cask tiedowns, and impact limiter removal and storage system. Based on the preliminary trailer designs, the final design weight will to be very close to this target weight

  7. High-capacity, high-strength trailer designs for the GA-4/GA-9 Casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kissinger, J.A.; Rickard, N.D.; Taylor, C.; Zimmer, A.

    1991-01-01

    General Atomics (GA) is developing final designs for two dedicated legal-weight trailers to transport the GA-4 and GA-9 Spent-Fuel Casks. The basic designs for these high-capacity, high-strength trailers are essentially identical except for small modifications to account for the differences in cask geometry. We are designing both trailers to carry a 55,000 lb (24,900 kg) payload and to withstand a 2.5 g vertical design load. The GA-4 and GA-9 trailers are designed for significantly higher loads than are typical commercial semitrailers, which are designed to loads in the range of 1.7 to 2.0 g. To meet the federal gross vehicle weight limit for legal-weight trucks, GA has set a target design weight for the trailers of 9000 lb (4080 kg). This weight includes the personnel barrier, cask tiedowns, and impact limiter removal and storage system. Based on the preliminary trailer designs, the final design weight is expected to be very close to this target weight. 3 refs., 3 figs

  8. Flapping motion and force generation in a viscoelastic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand, Thibaud; Lauga, Eric

    2008-12-01

    In a variety of biological situations, swimming cells have to move through complex fluids. Similarly, mucociliary clearance involves the transport of polymeric fluids by beating cilia. Here, we consider the extent to which complex fluids could be exploited for force generation on small scales. We consider a prototypical reciprocal motion (i.e., identical under time-reversal symmetry): the periodic flapping of a tethered semi-infinite plane. In the Newtonian limit, such motion cannot be used for force generation according to Purcell’s scallop theorem. In a polymeric fluid (Oldroyd-B, and its generalization), we show that this is not the case and calculate explicitly the forces on the flapper for small-amplitude sinusoidal motion. Three setups are considered: a flapper near a wall, a flapper in a wedge, and a two-dimensional scalloplike flapper. In all cases, we show that at quadratic order in the oscillation amplitude, the tethered flapping motion induces net forces, but no average flow. Our results demonstrate therefore that the scallop theorem is not valid in polymeric fluids. The reciprocal component of the movement of biological appendages such as cilia can thus generate nontrivial forces in polymeric fluid such as mucus, and normal-stress differences can be exploited as a pure viscoelastic force generation and propulsion method.

  9. The effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on muscle strength, functional capacity and body composition in haemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicent Esteve

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: (1 NMES improved muscle strength, functional capacity and quadriceps muscle composition in our patients. (2 Based on the results obtained, NMES could be a new therapeutic alternative to prevent muscle atrophy and progressive physical deterioration. (3 However, future studies are necessary to establish the potential beneficial effects of NMES in HD patients.

  10. Feasibility and reliability of measuring strength, sprint power, and aerobic capacity in athletes and non-athletes with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Sonja; Janssen, Thomas W. J.; Evers, Marijn; Van der Luijt, Pieter; Nienhuys, Kirsten N. G.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.

    Aim The aim of this study was to analyse the feasibility and reliability of the tests used to determine muscle strength, sprint power, and aerobic capacity in athletes and non-athletes with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods Twenty individuals with spastic CP (four females, 16 males; age range 1849y;

  11. Feasibility and reliability of measuring strength, sprint power, and aerobic capacity in athletes and non-athletes with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, S.; Janssen, T.W.J.; Evers, M.; Van der Luijt, P.; Nienhuys, K.N.G.; Dallmeijer, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to analyse the feasibility and reliability of the tests used to determine muscle strength, sprint power, and aerobic capacity in athletes and non-athletes with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods Twenty individuals with spastic CP (four females, 16 males; age range 18-49y;

  12. Strength and Power Training Effects on Lower Limb Force, Functional Capacity, and Static and Dynamic Balance in Older Female Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Paula Born; Pereira, Gleber; Lodovico, Angélica; Bento, Paulo C B; Rodacki, André L F

    2016-03-03

    It has been proposed that muscle power is more effective to prevent falls than muscle force production capacity, as rapid reactions are required to allow the postural control. This study aimed to compare the effects of strength and power training on lower limb force, functional capacity, and static and dynamic balance in older female adults. Thirty-seven volunteered healthy women had been allocated into the strength-training group (n = 14; 69 ± 7.3 years, 155 ± 5.6 cm, 72 ± 9.7 kg), the power-training group (n = 12; 67 ± 7.4 years, 153 ± 5.5 cm, 67.2 ± 7 kg), and control group (n = 11; 65 ± 3.1 years, 154 ± 5.6 cm, 70.9 ± 3 kg). After 12 weeks of training, the strength-training and power-training groups increased significantly maximum dynamic strength (29% and 27%), isometric strength (26% and 37%), and step total time (13% and 14%, dynamic balance), respectively. However, only the power-training group increased the rate of torque development (55%) and the functional capacity in 30-second chair stand (22%) and in time up and go tests (-10%). Empirically, power training may reduce the risk of injuries due to lower loads compared to strength training, and consequently, the physical effort demand during the training session is lower. Therefore, power training should be recommended as attractive training stimuli to improve lower limb force, functional capacity, and postural control of older female adults.

  13. Responses to LBNP in men with varying profiles of strength and aerobic capacity: Implications for flight crews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, Victor A.; Mathes, Karen L.; Lasley, Mary L.; Tomaselli, Clare Marie; Frey, Mary Anne Bassett; Hoffler, G. Wyckliffe

    1993-01-01

    Hemodynamic and hormonal responses to lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) were examined in 24 healthy men to test the hypothesis that responsiveness of reflex control of blood pressure during orthostatic stress is associated with strength and/or aerobic capacity. Subjects underwent treadmill tests to determine peak oxygen uptake (peak VO2) and isokinetic dynamo meter tests to determine leg strength. Based on predetermined criteria, the subjects were classified into one of four fitness profiles of six subjects each matched for age, height, and weight: (1) low strength/low aerobic fitness; (2) low strength/high aerobic fitness; (3) high strength/low aerobic fitness; and (4) high strength/high aerobic fitness. Following 90 min of 6 degree head-down tilt (HDT), each subject underwent graded LBNP through -50 mmHg or presyncope, with maximal duration 15 min. All groups exhibited typical hemodynamic, hormonal, and fluid shift responses during LBNP, with no intergroup differences except for catecholamines. Seven subjects, distributed among the four fitness profiles, became presyncopal. Subjects who showed greatest reduction in mean arterial pressure (MAP) during LBNP had greater elevations in vasopressin and lesser increases in heart rate and peripheral resistance. Peak VO2 nor leg strength were correlated with fall in MAP or with syncopal episodes. We conclude that neither aerobic nor strength fitness characteristics are good predictors of responses to LBNP stress.

  14. Positive effects of 1-year football and strength training on mechanical muscle function and functional capacity in elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Andersen, Lars Louis; Andersen, Thomas Rostgaard; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Helge, Jørn Wulff; Suetta, Charlotte; Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Bangsbo, Jens; Krustrup, Peter; Aagaard, Per

    2016-06-01

    A decline in physical capacity takes place with increasing age that negatively affects overall physical function including work ability and the ability to perform typical activities of daily living (ADL). The overall aim of the present study was to determine the neuromuscular adaptations to long-term (1 year) football and strength training in older untrained adults, and to assess the concurrent effect on functional ADL capacity. Twenty-seven healthy elderly males (68.2 ± 3.2 years) were randomly assigned to 12 months of either recreational football training (FT: n = 10), strength training (ST: n = 9) or served as inactive controls (CON: n = 8). Recreational football training consisted of small-sided training sessions whereas strength training consisted of high intensity exercises targeting the lower extremity and upper body. Maximal thigh muscle strength and rate of force development (RFD) were assessed with isokinetic dynamometry, while postural balance and vertical jumping performance were evaluated using force plate analysis. Furthermore, functional ability was evaluated by stair-ascent and chair-rising testing. A total of nine, nine and seven participants from FT, ST and CON, respectively, were included in the analysis. Both exercise regimens led to substantial gains in functional ability, evidenced by 24 and 18 % reduced stair-ascent time, and 32 and 21 % increased chair-rising performance in FT and ST, respectively (all P football training mainly resulted in enhanced hamstring strength (18 %, P football training mainly included enhanced strength and rapid force capacity of the hamstring muscles. Gains in functional ability were observed in response to both training regimens, evidenced by reduced stair-ascent time and increased chair-rising performance. Long-term football exercise and strength training both appear to be effective interventional strategies to improve factors of importance for ADL by counteracting the age-related decline in lower

  15. Yacht type and crew-specific differences in anthropometric, aerobic capacity, and muscle strength parameters among international Olympic class sailors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojsen-Møller, Jens; Larsson, Benny; Magnusson, S Peter; Aagaard, Per

    2007-08-01

    Physical fitness and muscular strength are important performance factors for Olympic class sailors, but the physical demands vary greatly between yacht classes, and limited information is available regarding the physical demands for the different crew positions. In the present paper, strength and aerobic capacity data from elite Olympic sailors are presented and compared with previous findings. Furthermore, a system for classification of Olympic class sailors is suggested. Peak aerobic capacity (peak oxygen uptake, VO(2peak)) and maximal isometric and isokinetic muscle strength of the knee extensors and flexors were assessed, together with the hamstring/quadriceps strength ratio (H/Q ratio). Peak aerobic capacity (ml O(2) . min(-1) . kg(-2/3)) was as follows: males - static hikers (n = 5) 215, s = 7; dynamic hikers (n = 8) 252, s = 17; trapezing helmsmen (n = 6) 234, s = 15; trapezing crew (n = 10) 239, s = 16; females - dynamic hikers (n = 6) 194, s = 16; trapezing crew (n = 2) 200, s = 13. Strength data for hikers, presented as peak moments (normalized to body weight) obtained during eccentric, isometric, and concentric contraction (Nm . kg(-1)) respectively were as follows: males - quadriceps: 3.66 (s = 0.68), 3.97 (s = 0.66), 1.82 (s = 0.34); hamstrings: 1.93 (s = 0.22), 1.38 (s = 0.41), 1.05 (s = 0.21); females - quadriceps: 3.84 (s = 0.71), 3.81 (s = 0.58), 1.60 (s = 0.28); hamstrings: 1.75 (s = 0.23), 1.10 (s = 0.16), 0.84 (s = 0.13). The peak moment based H/Q ratios for slow eccentric and concentric contractions were 0.42 (s = 0.11) and 0.39 (s = 0.04) for males and 0.43 (s = 0.06) and 0.39 (s = 0.04) for females respectively. Elite Olympic class sailors demonstrated high VO(2peak) values comparable to those observed in other non-endurance sports. The strength data revealed very high quadriceps strength for hikers, which is likely a result of the high muscle forces encountered during sailing, and a low H/Q ratio. To ensure optimal knee joint stabilization

  16. Scaling of motor cortical excitability during unimanual force generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Monica A; Cohen, Leonardo G

    2009-10-01

    During performance of a unimanual force generation task primary motor cortices (M1s) experience clear functional changes. Here, we evaluated the way in which M1s interact during parametric increases in right wrist flexion force in healthy volunteers. We measured the amplitude and the slope of motor evoked potentials (MEP) recruitment curves to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in the left and right flexor carpi radialis (FCR) muscles at rest and during 10%, 30% and 70% of maximal wrist flexion force. At rest, no differences were observed in the amplitude and slope of MEP recruitment curves in the left and right FCR muscles. With increasing right wrist flexion force, MEP amplitudes increased in both FCR muscles, with larger amplitudes in the right FCR. We found a significant correlation between the left and right MEP amplitudes across conditions. The slope of right and left FCR MEP recruitment curve was significantly steeper at 70% of force compared to rest and 10% of force. A significant correlation between the slope of left and right FCR MEP amplitudes was found at 70% of force only. Our results indicate a differential scaling of excitability in the corticospinal system controlling right and left FCR muscles at increasing levels of unimanual force generation. Specifically, these data highlights that at strong levels of unimanual force the increases in motor cortical excitability with increasing TMS stimulus intensities follow a similar pattern in both M1s, while at low levels of force they do not.

  17. Moderate-Load Muscular Endurance Strength Training Did Not Improve Peak Power or Functional Capacity in Older Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Walker

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study determined the effects of muscular endurance strength training on maximum strength and power, functional capacity, muscle activation and hypertrophy in older men and women. Eighty-one men and women acted as an intervention group while 22 acted as non-training controls (age range 64–75 y. Intervention training included super-sets (i.e., paired exercises, immediately performing the second exercises following completion of the first with short rest intervals (30–60 s between sets at an intensity of 50–60% one-repetition maximum (1-RM for 15–20 repetitions. Concentric leg press actions measured maximum strength (1-RM and concentric peak power. Functional capacity was assessed by maximum speed walking tests (i.e., forward walk, backward walk, timed-up-and-go, and stair climb tests. Quadriceps muscle activation was assessed by surface electromyogram and twitch interpolation technique. Vastus lateralis cross-sectional area was measured by panoramic ultrasound. Compared to control, the intervention groups increased maximum strength (1-RM; men: 10 ± 7% vs. 2 ± 3%, women: 14 ± 9% vs. 1 ± 6% both P < 0.01 and vastus lateralis cross-sectional area (men: 6 ± 7% vs. −3 ± 6%, women: 10 ± 10% vs. 0 ± 4% both P < 0.05. But there were no between-group differences in peak power, muscle activation or functional capacity (e.g., stair climb; men: −5 ± 7% vs. −4 ± 3%, women: −5 ± 6% vs. −2 ± 5% both P > 0.05. While benefits occurred during muscular endurance strength training, specific stimuli are probably needed to target all aspects of age-related health.

  18. Effects of eccentric-focused and conventional resistance training on strength and functional capacity of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Caroline Pieta; Toscan, Rafael; de Camargo, Mainara; Pereira, Evelyn Possobom; Griebler, Nathália; Baroni, Bruno Manfredini; Tiggemann, Carlos Leandro

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of eccentric training using a constant load with longer exposure time at the eccentric phase on knee extensor muscle strength and functional capacity of elderly subjects in comparison with a conventional resistance training program. Twenty-six healthy elderly women (age = 67 ± 6 years) were randomly assigned to an eccentric-focused training group (ETG; n = 13) or a conventional training group (CTG; n = 13). Subjects underwent 12 weeks of resistance training twice a week. For the ETG, concentric and eccentric phases were performed using 1.5 and 4.5 s, respectively, while for CTG, each phase lasted 1.5 s. Maximum dynamic strength was assessed by the one-repetition maximum (1RM) test in the leg press and knee extension exercises, and for functional capacity, subjects performed specific tests (6-m walk test, timed up-and-go test, stair-climbing test, and chair-rising test). Both groups improved knee extension 1RM (24-26 %; p = 0.021), timed up-and-go test (11-16 %; p training volume and intensity does not promote different adaptations in strength or functional capacity compared to conventional resistance training in elderly woman.

  19. artificial neural network model for low strength rc beam shear capacity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    RESEARCH PAPER. Keywords: Shear strength, reinforced concrete, Artificial Neural Network, design equations ... searchers using artificial intelligence to im- prove on theoretical ...... benefit to humanity or a waste of time?” The. Structural ...

  20. Motility, Force Generation, and Energy Consumption of Unicellular Parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstetter, Axel; Pfohl, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Motility is a key factor for pathogenicity of unicellular parasites, enabling them to infiltrate and evade host cells, and perform several of their life-cycle events. State-of-the-art methods of motility analysis rely on a combination of optical tweezers with high-resolution microscopy and microfluidics. With this technology, propulsion forces, energies, and power generation can be determined so as to shed light on the motion mechanisms, chemotactic behavior, and specific survival strategies of unicellular parasites. With these new tools in hand, we can elucidate the mechanisms of motility and force generation of unicellular parasites, and identify ways to manipulate and eventually inhibit them. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Probing cooperative force generation in collective cancer invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alobaidi, Amani A.; Xu, Yaopengxiao; Chen, Shaohua; Jiao, Yang; Sun, Bo

    2017-08-01

    Collective cellular dynamics in the three-dimensional extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a crucial role in many physiological processes such as cancer invasion. Both chemical and mechanical signaling support cell-cell communications on a variety of length scales, leading to collective migratory behaviors. Here we conduct experiments using 3D in vitro tumor models and develop a phenomenological model in order to probe the cooperativity of force generation in the collective invasion of breast cancer cells. In our model, cell-cell communication is characterized by a single parameter that quantifies the correlation length of cellular migration cycles. We devise a stochastic reconstruction method to generate realizations of cell colonies with specific contraction phase correlation functions and correlation length a. We find that as a increases, the characteristic size of regions containing cells with similar contraction phases grows. For small a values, the large fluctuations in individual cell contraction phases smooth out the temporal fluctuations in the time-dependent deformation field in the ECM. For large a values, the periodicity of an individual cell contraction cycle is clearly manifested in the temporal variation of the overall deformation field in the ECM. Through quantitative comparisons of the simulated and experimentally measured deformation fields, we find that the correlation length for collective force generation in the breast cancer diskoid in geometrically micropatterned ECM (DIGME) system is a≈ 25~μ \\text{m} , which is roughly twice the linear size of a single cell. One possible mechanism for this intermediate cell correlation length is the fiber-mediated stress propagation in the 3D ECM network in the DIGME system.

  2. Myostatin dysfunction impairs force generation in extensor digitorum longus muscle and increases exercise-induced protein efflux from extensor digitorum longus and soleus muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltusnikas, Juozas; Kilikevicius, Audrius; Venckunas, Tomas; Fokin, Andrej; Bünger, Lutz; Lionikas, Arimantas; Ratkevicius, Aivaras

    2015-08-01

    Myostatin dysfunction promotes muscle hypertrophy, which can complicate assessment of muscle properties. We examined force generating capacity and creatine kinase (CK) efflux from skeletal muscles of young mice before they reach adult body and muscle size. Isolated soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles of Berlin high (BEH) mice with dysfunctional myostatin, i.e., homozygous for inactivating myostatin mutation, and with a wild-type myostatin (BEH+/+) were studied. The muscles of BEH mice showed faster (P myostatin dysfunction leads to impairment in muscle force generating capacity in EDL and increases susceptibility of SOL and EDL to protein loss after exercise.

  3. Effects of Endurance and Endurance Strength Training on Body Composition and Physical Capacity in Women with Abdominal Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrypnik, Damian; Bogdański, Paweł; Mądry, Edyta; Karolkiewicz, Joanna; Ratajczak, Marzena; Kryściak, Jakub; Pupek-Musialik, Danuta; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2015-01-01

    Aims To compare the effects of endurance training with endurance strength training on the anthropometric, body composition, physical capacity, and circulatory parameters in obese women. Methods 44 women with abdominal obesity were randomized into groups A and B, and asked to perform endurance (A) and endurance strength training (B) for 3 months, 3 times/week, for 60 min. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and Graded Exercise Test were performed before and after training. Results Significant decreases in body mass, BMI, total body fat, total body fat mass, and waist and hip circumference were observed after both types of intervention. Marked increases in total body lean and total body fat-free mass were documented in group B. In both groups, significant increases in peak oxygen uptake, time to exhaustion, maximal work rate, and work rate at ventilatory threshold were accompanied by noticeably decreased resting heart rate, resting systolic blood pressure, and resting and exercise diastolic blood pressure. No significant differences were noticed between groups for the investigated parameters. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate evidence for a favorable and comparable effect of 3-month endurance and endurance strength training on anthropometric parameters, body composition, physical capacity, and circulatory system function in women with abdominal obesity. PMID:25968470

  4. The influence of material properties on plastic hinge rotational capacity and strength

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, H.M.G.M.; Bijlaard, F.S.K.; Daniels, B.J.

    1996-01-01

    In this article the effects of standardised material stress-strain behaviours on plastic hinge length, moment and rotational capacity are investigated using a specially developed computer program. Material properties are described using three standard post-yield stress-strain characteristics, as

  5. Load carrying capacity of shear wall t-connections reinforced with high strength wire ropes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henrik B.; Bryndom, Thor; Larsen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    -friendly solution. The wire ropes have no bending stiffness and therefore allow for an easier vertical installation of the wall elements. During the last 10 – 15 years, a number of shear tests on plane wire rope connections have been carried out. However, to the best knowledge of the authors, tests on wire rope......Traditionally, U-bar loop connections with keyed joints have been used in vertical shear connections between precast concrete wall elements. However, in the recent years, connections with looped high strength wire ropes instead of U-bar loops have proven to be a much more construction...... connections for assembly of precast elements in different planes, such as T- and L-connections, have not yet been published. This paper presents the results of a large test series recently conducted at the University of Southern Denmark to study the shear behaviour of high strength wire rope T...

  6. Performance on Functional Strength Measurement and Muscle Power Sprint Test confirm poor anaerobic capacity in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aertssen, Wendy F M; Ferguson, Gillian D; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C M

    2016-12-01

    There is little and conflicting information about anaerobic performance and functional strength in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). To investigate anaerobic capacity and functional strength in children with a clinical diagnosis of DCD (clin-DCD) and if differences were larger in older (age 7-10 years) compared to younger children (age 4-6 years). Furthermore to determine the percentage of children with clin-DCD that scored Strength Measurement. A clin-DCD group (36 boys, 11 girls, mean age: 7y 1mo, SD=2y 1mo) and a typically developing group (TD) (57 boys, 53 girls, mean age: 7y 5mo, SD=1y 10mo) were compared on Muscle Power Sprint Test (MPST) and Functional Strength Measurement (FSM). Children with clin-DCD performed poorer on the MPST and FSM, especially on the muscle endurance items of the FSM. The differences were larger in the older children compared to the younger on the cluster muscle endurance and the FSM total score. Over 50% of clin-DCD group scored tested on items requiring fast repetitive movements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Load carrying capacity of keyed joints reinforced with high strength wire rope loops

    OpenAIRE

    Jørgensen, Henrik B.; Hoang, Linh Cao

    2015-01-01

    Vertical shear connections between precast concrete wall elements are usually made as keyed joints reinforced with overlapping U-bars. The overlapping U-bars form a cylindrical core in which the locking bar is placed and the connection is subsequently grouted with mortar. A more construction friendly shear connection can be obtained by replacing the U-bars with high strength looped wire ropes. The wire ropes have the advantage of being flexible (they have virtually no bending stiffness) which...

  8. Resistance training and aerobic training improve muscle strength and aerobic capacity in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markvardsen, Lars H; Overgaard, Kristian; Heje, Karen; Sindrup, Søren H; Christiansen, Ingelise; Vissing, John; Andersen, Henning

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the effects of aerobic and resistance exercise in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Eighteen CIDP patients treated with subcutaneous immunoglobulin performed 12 weeks of aerobic exercise and 12 weeks of resistance exercise after a run-in period of 12 weeks without exercise. Three times weekly the participants performed aerobic exercise on an ergometer bike or resistance exercise with unilateral training of knee and elbow flexion/extension. Primary outcomes were maximal oxygen consumption velocity (VO 2 -max) and maximal combined isokinetic muscle strength (cIKS) of knee and elbow flexion/extension. VO 2 -max and muscle strength were unchanged during run-in (-4.9% ± 10.3%, P = 0.80 and -3.7% ± 10.1%, P = 0.17, respectively). Aerobic exercise increased VO 2 -max by 11.0% ± 14.7% (P = 0.02). Resistance exercise resulted in an increase of 13.8% ± 16.0% (P = 0.0004) in cIKS. Aerobic exercise training and resistance exercise training improve fitness and strength in CIDP patients. Muscle Nerve 57: 70-76, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Low-Budget Instrumentation of a Conventional Leg Press to Measure Reliable Isometric-Strength Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, Heiner; Groppa, Alessia Severina; Limacher, Regula; Radlinger, Lorenz

    2016-02-02

    Maximum strength and rate of force development (RFD) are 2 important strength characteristics for everyday tasks and athletic performance. Measurements of both parameters must be reliable. Expensive isokinetic devices with isometric modes are often used. The possibility of cost-effective measurements in a practical setting would facilitate quality control. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of measurements of maximum isometric strength (Fmax) and RFD on a conventional leg press. Sixteen subjects (23 ± 2 y, 1.68 ± 0.05 m, 59 ± 5 kg) were tested twice within 1 session. After warm-up, subjects performed 2 times 5 trials eliciting maximum voluntary isometric contractions on an instrumented leg press (1- and 2-legged randomized). Fmax (N) and RFD (N/s) were extracted from force-time curves. Reliability was determined for Fmax and RFD by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), the test-retest variability (TRV), and the bias and limits of agreement. Reliability measures revealed good to excellent ICCs of .80-.93. TRV showed mean differences between measurement sessions of 0.4-6.9%. The systematic error was low compared with the absolute mean values (Fmax 5-6%, RFD 1-4%). The implementation of a force transducer into a conventional leg press provides a viable procedure to assess Fmax and RFD. Both performance parameters can be assessed with good to excellent reliability allowing quality control of interventions.

  10. Load Carrying Capacity of Shear Wall T-Connections Reinforced with High Strength Wire Ropes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henrik Brøner; Bryndum, Thor; Larsen, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, U-bar loop connections with keyed joints have been used in vertical shear connections between precast concrete wall elements. However, in the recent years, connections with looped high strength wire ropes instead of U-bar loops have proven to be a much more construction-friendly so......Traditionally, U-bar loop connections with keyed joints have been used in vertical shear connections between precast concrete wall elements. However, in the recent years, connections with looped high strength wire ropes instead of U-bar loops have proven to be a much more construction......-friendly solution. The wire ropes have no bending stiffness and therefore allow for an easier vertical installation of the wall elements. During the last 10 – 15 years, a number of shear tests on plane wire rope connections have been carried out. However, to the best knowledge of the authors, tests on wire rope...... connections for assembly of precast elements in different planes, such as T- and L-connections, have not yet been published. This paper presents the results of a large test series recently conducted at the University of Southern Denmark to study the shear behaviour of high strength wire rope T...

  11. Effect of floorball training on blood lipids, body composition, muscle strength, and functional capacity of elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorup Petersen, Jacob; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Melcher, Pia Grethe Sandfeld

    2017-01-01

    Floorball training consists of intense repeated exercise and may offer a motivating and social stimulating team activity in elderly individuals. However, the effect of floorball training in elderly adults on physiological adaptations important for health is not known. Thus, this study examined...... the effect of floorball training on blood lipids, muscle strength, body composition, and functional capacity of men aged 65-76 years. Thirty-nine recreational active men were randomized into a floorball group (FG; n = 22) or petanque group (PG; n = 17), in which training was performed 1 h twice a week for 12......-IR) was reduced (P performance in four different...

  12. Evaluation of the Military Entrance Physical Strength Capacity Test (E- MEPSCAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-01

    in the weightlifting capacity distributions by gender. 2-6 VC-. .- CAA-SR-85-23 Since most females lift less than 80 pounds, females will be treated...materiel handling and injury prevention areas and research by military organizations such as ARI and the Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory show that...Evaluation of Two Methods for the Injury Risk Assessment of Lifting Jobs, Proceedings of Human Factors Society 27th AnnualMeeting, 1983 McNeese, Donald C

  13. Longitudinal association between respiratory muscle strength and cough capacity in persons with spinal cord injury: : An explorative analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Karin; Vlemmix, Lonneke Y.; Haisma, Janneke A.; de Groot, Sonja; Sluis, Tebbe A. R.; Stam, Henk J.; Bussmann, Johannes B. J.

    Objective: To assess the longitudinal association between respiratory muscle strength and cough capacity in persons with recent spinal cord injury. Design: Longitudinal analyses. Subjects: Forty persons with recent spinal cord injury and impaired pulmonary function. Methods: Measurements were

  14. Determination of Bond Capacity in Reinforced Concrete Beam and Its Influence on the Flexural Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rashidi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of an experimental investigation of actual performance of the reinforced concrete beam in bond under flexure, when reinforced with tension steel is going to consider. In this experiment four specimens of beam and a bar in the middle of the width of the beam has been used and 2.5 cm of concrete cover has been considered from the center of the bar. In addition, transverse bars have been used to reassure lack of shear yield at the two ends of the beam. Flexural bar has been put in the middle of the beam symmetrically and the length of the flexural bar in each of the samples shall be: 15, 20, 30 and 40 cm. Three cylindrical samples were made in order to determine f’c and were examined at 28 days and the compressive strength of concrete used in this study was about 35 MPa. The beam samples were examined after 28 days via two-point loading system. Based on the results, increasing the length of bar causes increase of flexural strength. The presence of longitudinal rebar resulted in the ultimate momentum to be more than the crack momentum of the cross-section in parts which have broken at the point of longitudinal bar cut.

  15. Effect of floorball training on blood lipids, body composition, muscle strength, and functional capacity of elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorup, J; Pedersen, M T; Melcher, P S; Dreier, R; Bangsbo, J

    2017-11-01

    Floorball training consists of intense repeated exercise and may offer a motivating and social stimulating team activity in elderly individuals. However, the effect of floorball training in elderly adults on physiological adaptations important for health is not known. Thus, this study examined the effect of floorball training on blood lipids, muscle strength, body composition, and functional capacity of men aged 65-76 years. Thirty-nine recreational active men were randomized into a floorball group (FG; n = 22) or petanque group (PG; n = 17), in which training was performed 1 h twice a week for 12 weeks. In FG and PG, average heart rate (HR) during training was 80% and 57%, respectively, of maximal HR. In FG, plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglycerides were 11% and 8% lower (P functional capacity tests were better (P training period. No changes were observed in PG. In conclusion, 12 weeks of floorball training resulted in a number of favorable effects important for health and functional capacity, suggesting that floorball training can be used as a health-promoting activity in elderly men. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Effects of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation During Hemodialysis on Peripheral Muscle Strength and Exercise Capacity: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, Ana Karla; Mello, Carolina Luana; Dal Pont, Tarcila; Hizume Kunzler, Deborah; Martins, Daniel Fernandes; Bobinski, Franciane; Pereira Yamaguti, Wellington; Paulin, Elaine

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation of high and low frequency and intensity, performed during hemodialysis, on physical function and inflammation markers in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Randomized clinical trial. Hemodialysis clinic. Patients with CKD (N=51) were randomized into blocks of 4 using opaque sealed envelopes. They were divided into a group of high frequency and intensity neuromuscular electrical stimulation and a group of low frequency and intensity neuromuscular electrical stimulation. The high frequency and intensity neuromuscular electrical stimulation group was submitted to neuromuscular electrical stimulation at a frequency of 50Hz and a medium intensity of 72.90mA, and the low frequency and intensity neuromuscular electrical stimulation group used a frequency of 5Hz and a medium intensity of 13.85mA, 3 times per week for 1 hour, during 12 sessions. Peripheral muscle strength, exercise capacity, levels of muscle trophism marker (insulin growth factor 1) and levels of proinflammatory (tumor necrosis factor α) and anti-inflammatory (interleukin 10) cytokines. The high frequency and intensity neuromuscular electrical stimulation group showed a significant increase in right peripheral muscle strength (155.35±65.32Nm initial vs 161.60±68.73Nm final; P=.01) and left peripheral muscle strength (156.60±66.51Nm initial vs 164.10±69.76Nm final; P=.02) after the training, which did not occur in the low frequency and intensity neuromuscular electrical stimulation group for both right muscle strength (109.40±32.08Nm initial vs 112.65±38.44Nm final; P=.50) and left muscle strength (113.65±37.79Nm initial vs 116.15±43.01Nm final; P=.61). The 6-minute walk test distance (6MWTD) increased in both groups: high frequency and intensity neuromuscular electrical stimulation group (435.55±95.81m initial vs 457.25±90.64m final; P=.02) and low frequency and intensity neuromuscular electrical stimulation group (403.80

  17. Investigations of the capacity and strength of seed germination in Allium victorialis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Winiarczyk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the strength and energy of seed germination in Allium victorialis. Despite the normal structure of seeds containing a viable embryo and compliance with all International Seed Testing Association recommendations, no germination in A. victorialis was observed. Additionally, the scarification and stratification treatments applied did not improve the dynamics of germination of A. victorialis seeds. Microbiological analyses of soil sampled from natural localities of the plant revealed a typical composition of bacteria and fungi. The high number of fungi [4.5 log10CFU (colony forming units of fungi × g−1 dry mass of soil] and various groups of bacteria (about 7.0 log10CFU of bacteria × g−1 dry mass of soil were detected in the root-free-soil around garlic roots. In the interior of A. victorialis roots, the number of microorganisms decreased 1000 to 10 000 times but all the tested microbial groups, especially copiotrophic bacteria and fungi (1.6 and 2.2, respectively, log10CFU × g−1 dry mass of roots were detected. Changes in such parameters as dehydrogenase activity, pH values, and the total organic C (TOC content in the particular parts of the rhizosphere and in comparison to the rhizosphere with root-free-soil were observed. The dehydrogenase activity and TOC content were highly positively correlated with the total number of CFU of the microorganisms.

  18. Effect of physical exercise training on muscle strength and body composition, and their association with functional capacity and quality of life in patients with atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osbak, Philip Samuel; Mourier, Malene; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Atrial fibrillation diminishes cardiac function, exercise tolerance and quality of life. The objective of this study was to determine whether exercise training in atrial fibrillation affects muscle strength, body composition, maximal exercise capacity and walking capacity positively......, thus improving quality of life. Design: Randomized clinical trial. Twelve weeks of physical exercise training or control. Patients: Forty-nine patients in permanent atrial fibrillation were randomized to training or control. Methods: Intervention consisted of aerobic training for 1 h 3 times per week...... at 70% of maximal exercise capacity vs control. Muscle strength, exercise capacity, 6-minute walk test, lean body mass, fat percentage, and quality of life were assessed. Results: Muscle strength increased in the training group (p = 0.01), but no change was observed in controls. Lean body mass...

  19. The influence of lung function and muscular strength on the functional capacity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Leite Rodrigues

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine which variable (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO2, nocturnal hypoxaemia and muscular strength of femoral quadriceps can predict the distance walked in the six-minute walk test (6MWT by COPD patients. Methods: A cross-sectional and observational study of thirty patients referred to a pulmonary rehabilita tion programme at a university hospital. Lung function was evaluated by spirometry, arterial blood gas analysis and nocturnal oximetry. Muscle function was evaluated by quadriceps strength and functional capacity by the 6MWT. Results: Bivariate regression analysis showed that quadriceps strength, was the only variable to correlate significantly with the distance walked in the 6MWT (p = 0.002, accounting for 38% of the 6MWT variance. The statistical relationship established for these variables was 1 kg of quadriceps strength equalled 5.9 metres walked in the 6MWT. Conclusions: Our results showed the importance of lower limb muscle strength in submaximal exercise testing. We conclude that femoral quadriceps muscle strength is the only one of the variables studied which can predict the distance COPD patients walk in the 6MWT. Resumo: Objectivo: Determinar que variável entre o volume expirado forçado no primeiro segundo (VEF1, a pressão parcial do oxigénio no sangue arterial (PaO2, a hipoxemia nocturna e a força muscular do quadricípite femoral pode predizer a distância percorrida no teste de caminhada de seis minutos (TC6 em doentes com DPOC. Doentes e métodos: Um estudo observacional do tipo transversal, envolvendo trinta doentes encaminhados a um programa de reabilitação pulmonar de um hospital universitário. A função pulmonar foi avaliada por espirometria, gasometria arterial e oximetria nocturna. A função muscular pela força muscular do quadricípite femoral e a avaliação da capacidade funcional pelo TC6

  20. Improved Walking Capacity and Muscle Strength After Functional Power-Training in Young Children With Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vulpen, Liesbeth F; de Groot, Sonja; Rameckers, Eugene; Becher, Jules G; Dallmeijer, Annet J

    Background. Strength training programs for children with cerebral palsy (CP) showed inconclusive evidence for improving walking, despite improvements in strength. Recent studies have suggested that strength training with high movement velocity is more effective for improving walking than traditional

  1. Computational model to investigate the relative contributions of different neuromuscular properties of tibialis anterior on force generated during ankle dorsiflexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Ariba; Poosapadi Arjunan, Sridhar; Kumar, Dinesh Kant

    2018-01-16

    This study describes a new model of the force generated by tibialis anterior muscle with three new features: single-fiber action potential, twitch force, and pennation angle. This model was used to investigate the relative effects and interaction of ten age-associated neuromuscular parameters. Regression analysis (significance level of 0.05) between the neuromuscular properties and corresponding simulated force produced at the footplate was performed. Standardized slope coefficients were computed to rank the effect of the parameters. The results show that reduction in the average firing rate is the reason for the sharp decline in the force and other factors, such as number of muscle fibers, specific force, pennation angle, and innervation ratio. The fast fiber ratio affects the simulated force through two significant interactions. This study has ranked the individual contributions of the neuromuscular factors to muscle strength decline of the TA and identified firing rate decline as the biggest cause followed by decrease in muscle fiber number and specific force. The strategy for strength preservation for the elderly should focus on improving firing rate. Graphical abstract Neuromuscular properties of Tibialis Anterior on force generated during ankle dorsiflexion.

  2. The acute effects of multi-ingredient pre-workout ingestion on strength performance, lower body power, and anaerobic capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagim, Andrew R; Jones, Margaret T; Wright, Glenn A; St Antoine, Carly; Kovacs, Attila; Oliver, Jonathan M

    2016-01-01

    Multi-ingredient pre-workout supplements (MIPS) are popular among resistance trained individuals. Previous research has indicated that acute MIPS ingestion may increase muscular endurance when using a hypertrophy-based protocol but less is known in regard to their effects on strength performance and high intensity running capacity. Therefore, the purpose was to determine if short-term, MIPS ingestion influences strength performance and anaerobic running capacity. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled, crossover design; 12 males (19 ± 1 yrs.; 180 ± 12 cm; 89.3 ± 11 kg; 13.6 ± 4.9 %BF) had their body composition assessed followed by 5-repetition maximum (5RM) determination of back squat (BS; 119.3 ± 17.7 kg) and bench press (BP; 92.1 ± 17.8 kg) exercises. On two separate occasions subjects ingested a MIPS or a placebo (P) 30-minutes prior to performing a counter movement vertical jump test, 5 sets of 5 repetitions at 85 % of 5RM of BS and BP, followed by a single set to failure, and an anaerobic capacity sprint test to assess peak and mean power. Subjective markers of energy levels and fatigue were also assessed. Subjects returned one week later for a second testing session using counter treatment. MIPS resulted in a greater number of repetitions performed in the final set to failure in the BP (MIPS, 9.8 ± 1.7 repetitions; P, 9.1 ± 2; p = 0.03, d = 0.38), which led to a greater total volume load (set x repetitions x load) in the MIPS (753 ± 211 kg) compared to P (710 ± 226 kg; p =0.03, d = .20). MIPS ingestion improved subjective markers of fatigue (p = 0.01, d = 3.78) and alertness (p = 0.048, d = 2.72) following a bout of resistance training. An increase in mean power was observed in the MIPS condition (p = 0.03, d = 0.25) during the anaerobic sprint test. Results suggest that acute ingestion of a MIPS study may increase upper body muscular endurance. In

  3. [Effect of disease severity on upper extremity muscle strength, exercise capacity, and activities of daily living in individuals with pulmonary arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan Kahraman, Buse; Özsoy, İsmail; Acar, Serap; Özpelit, Ebru; Akdeniz, Bahri; Sevinç, Can; Savcı, Sema

    2017-07-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare disease. Although muscle strength, exercise capacity, quality of life, and activities of daily living of patients with PAH are affected, it is not known how they are affected by disease severity. The purpose of the present study was to investigate effects of disease severity on upper extremity muscle strength, exercise capacity, and performance of activities of daily living in patients with PAH. Twenty-five patients with disease severity classified according to the New York Heart Association (NYHA) as functional class II (n=14) or class III (n=11) were included in the study. Upper-extremity exercise capacity and limitations in performing activities of daily living were assessed with 6-minute pegboard and ring test (6PBRT) and the Milliken activities of daily living scale (MAS), respectively. Shoulder flexion, elbow extension, elbow flexion muscle strength, and handgrip strength were measured with dynamometer. There were no significant differences in age, gender, body mass index, or mean pulmonary artery pressure between groups (p>0.05). The 6PBRT, MAS, and elbow flexion (right) and grip strength (right and left) results were significantly lower in NYHA III group than in NYHA II group (p=0.004, p=0.002, p=0.043, p=0.002 and p=0.003, respectively). There was no significant difference in shoulder flexion, elbow flexion (left), or elbow extension between groups (p>0.05). Results suggest that upper extremity exercise capacity, elbow flexion muscle strength (right), and handgrip strength decrease and that limitations in activities of daily living grow as disease severity increases in patients with PAH. When planning rehabilitation programs, disease severity should be considered and evaluations and treatments for the upper extremities should be included.

  4. In cirrhotic patients reduced muscle strength is unrelated to muscle capacity for ATP turnover suggesting a central limitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gam, Christiane Marie Bourgin; Nielsen, H B; Secher, Niels H.

    2011-01-01

      We investigated whether in patients with liver cirrhosis reduced muscle strength is related to dysfunction of muscle mitochondria.......  We investigated whether in patients with liver cirrhosis reduced muscle strength is related to dysfunction of muscle mitochondria....

  5. Low- and High-Volume Water-Based Resistance Training Induces Similar Strength and Functional Capacity Improvements in Older Women: A Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Thaís; Delevatti, Rodrigo Sudatti; Prado, Alexandre Konig Garcia; Bagatini, Natália Carvalho; Simmer, Nicole Monticelli; Meinerz, Andressa Pellegrini; Barroso, Bruna Machado; Costa, Rochelle Rocha; Kanitz, Ana Carolina; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2018-03-27

    Water-based resistance training (WRT) has been indicated to promote strength gains in elderly population. However, no study has compared different training strategies to identify the most efficient one. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 3 WRT strategies on the strength and functional capacity of older women. In total, 36 women were randomly allocated to training groups: simple set of 30 seconds [1 × 30s; 66.41 (1.36) y; n = 12], multiple sets of 10 seconds [3 × 10s; 66.50 (1.43) y; n = 11], and simple set of 10 seconds [1 × 10s; 65.23 (1.09) y; n = 13]. Training lasted for 12 weeks. The maximal dynamic strength (in kilograms) and muscular endurance (number of repetitions) of knee extension, knee flexion, elbow flexion, and bench press, as well as functional capacity (number of repetitions), were evaluated. All types of training promoted similar gains in maximal dynamic strength of knee extension and flexion as well as elbow flexion. Only the 1 × 30s and 1 × 10s groups presented increments in bench press maximal strength. All 3 groups showed increases in muscular endurance in all exercises and functional capacity. WRT using long- or short-duration simple sets promotes the same gains in strength and functional capacity in older women as does WRT using multiple sets.

  6. Effect of Elastase-induced Emphysema on the Force-generating Ability of the Diaphragm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supinski, Gerald S.; Kelsen, Steven G.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of emphysema on the ability of the diaphragm to generate force was examined in costal diaphragm muscle strips from 10 Golden hamsters killed 18 mo after intratracheal injection of pancreatic elastase in a dose producing hyperinflation (mean total lung capacity [TLC] = 163% of control) and generalized panacinar emphysema. 13 saline-injected normal animals served as controls. The time course of isometric tension and the effect of alterations in muscle fiber and sarcomere length on the isometric tension (T) generated in response to tetanizing electrical stimuli (length-tension [L-T] relationship) were examined. Elastase administration caused an increase in diaphragm muscle thickness and reduction in the length of costal diaphragm muscle fibers measured in situ. Emphysema significantly increased the maximum tetanic tension as a result of hypertrophy. Maximal tension corrected for increases in muscle cross-sectional area (T/cm2), however, was the same in emphysematous (E) and control (C) animals. Emphysema also shifted the muscle fiber L-T curve of the diaphragm but not of a control muscle, the soleus, toward shorter lengths. In contrast to the effects of E on the diaphragm muscle fiber L-T curve, the sarcomere L-T curve was the same in E and C. Since the length at which tension was maximal correlated closely with sarcomere number (r = 0.94; P < 0.001) reduction in the number of sarcomeres in series in muscles from emphysematous animals appeared to explain the shift in the muscle fiber L-T curve. We conclude that in elastase-induced emphysema adaptive changes both in diaphragm cross-sectional area and sarcomere number augment the force-generating ability of the diaphragm. We speculate that changes in sarcomere number compensate for alterations in muscle fiber length resulting from chronic hyperinflation of the thorax, while diaphragmatic muscle hypertrophy represents a response to changes in respiratory load and/or diaphragm configuration (La

  7. Shortening actin filaments cause force generation in actomyosin network to change from contractile to extensile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nitin; Gardel, Margaret

    Motor proteins in conjunction with filamentous proteins convert biochemical energy into mechanical energy which serves a number of cellular processes including cell motility, force generation and intracellular cargo transport. In-vitro experiments suggest that the forces generated by kinesin motors on microtubule bundles are extensile in nature whereas myosin motors on actin filaments are contractile. It is not clear how qualitatively similar systems can show completely different behaviors in terms of the nature of force generation. In order to answer this question, we carry out in vitro experiments where we form quasi 2D filamentous actomyosin networks and vary the length of actin filaments by adding capping protein. We show that when filaments are much shorter than their typical persistence length (approximately 10 microns), the forces generated are extensile and we see active nematic defect propagation, as seen in the microtubule-kinesin system. Based on this observation, we claim that the rigidity of rods plays an important role in dictating the nature of force generation in such systems. In order to understand this transition, we selectively label individual filaments and find that longer filaments show considerable bending and buckling, making them difficult to slide and extend along their length.

  8. Determination of residual load-bearing capacity of concrete beams at the operation stage by the strength reinforcement and concrete criterion

    OpenAIRE

    V.S. Utkin

    2015-01-01

    An experimental theoretical method was considered for estimating the residual load-bearing capacity of an individual reinforced concrete beam at the operational stage according to the criteria of the working strength and durability of concrete reinforcement compressed zone of the beam. Integrated methods of beam testing and probabilistic methods of random variables definition were used. Ultimate load in the form of interval during the operational phase was accepted as the measure of carr...

  9. The effect of pH, buffer capacity and ionic strength on quetiapine fumarate release from matrix tablets prepared using two different polymeric blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Rania; AlJanabi, Reem; Sunoqrot, Suhair; Abbas, Aiman

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the different physiological parameters of the gastrointestinal (GI) fluid (pH, buffer capacity, and ionic strength) on the in vitro release of the weakly basic BCS class II drug quetiapine fumarate (QF) from two once-a-day matrix tablet formulations (F1 and F2) developed as potential generic equivalents to Seroquel ® XR. F1 tablets were prepared using blends of high and low viscosity grades of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC K4M and K100LV, respectively), while F2 tablets were prepared from HPMC K4M and PEGylated glyceryl behenate (Compritol ® HD5 ATO). The two formulations attained release profiles of QF over 24 h similar to that of Seroquel ® XR using the dissolution medium published by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). A series of solubility and in vitro dissolution studies was then carried out using media that simulate the gastric and intestinal fluids and cover the physiological pH, buffer capacity and ionic strength range of the GIT. Solubility studies revealed that QF exhibits a typical weak base pH-dependent solubility profile and that the solubility of QF increases with increasing the buffer capacity and ionic strength of the media. The release profiles of QF from F1, F2 and Seroquel ® XR tablets were found to be influenced by the pH, buffer capacity and ionic strength of the dissolution media to varying degrees. Results highlight the importance of studying the physiological variables along the GIT in designing controlled release formulations for more predictive in vitro-in vivo correlations.

  10. A novel three-filament model of force generation in eccentric contraction of skeletal muscles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Schappacher-Tilp

    Full Text Available We propose and examine a three filament model of skeletal muscle force generation, thereby extending classical cross-bridge models by involving titin-actin interaction upon active force production. In regions with optimal actin-myosin overlap, the model does not alter energy and force predictions of cross-bridge models for isometric contractions. However, in contrast to cross-bridge models, the three filament model accurately predicts history-dependent force generation in half sarcomeres for eccentric and concentric contractions, and predicts the activation-dependent forces for stretches beyond actin-myosin filament overlap.

  11. The effects of water-based exercise in combination with blood flow restriction on strength and functional capacity in post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Joamira P; Neto, Gabriel R; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Bemben, Michael G; Laurentino, Gilberto C; Batista, Gilmário; Silva, Júlio C G; Freitas, Eduardo D S; Sousa, Maria S C

    2015-12-01

    Water-based exercise and low-intensity exercise in combination with blood flow restriction (BFR) are two methods that have independently been shown to improve muscle strength in those of advancing age. The objective of this study was to assess the long-term effect of water-based exercise in combination with BFR on maximum dynamic strength and functional capacity in post-menopausal women. Twenty-eight women underwent an 8-week water-based exercise program. The participants were randomly allocated to one of the three groups: (a) water exercise only, (b) water exercise + BFR, or (c) a non-exercise control group. Functional capacity (chair stand test, timed up and go test, gait speed, and dynamic balance) and strength testing were tested before and after the 8-week aquatic exercise program. The main findings were as follows: (1) water-based exercise in combination with BFR significantly increased the lower limb maximum strength which was not observed with water-based exercise alone and (2) water-based exercise, regardless of the application of BFR, increased functional performance measured by the timed up and go test over a control group. Although we used a healthy population in the current study, these findings may have important implications for those who may be contraindicated to using traditional resistance exercise. Future research should explore this promising modality in these clinical populations.

  12. Effects of Elevated Temperatures on the Compressive Strength Capacity of Concrete Cylinders Confined with FRP Sheets: An Experimental Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif El-Gamal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to their high strength, corrosion resistance, and durability, fiber reinforced polymers (FRP are very attractive for civil engineering applications. One of these applications is the strengthening of concrete columns with FRP sheets. The performance of this strengthening technique at elevated temperature is still questionable and needs more investigations. This research investigates the effects of exposure to high temperatures on the compressive strength of concrete cylinders wrapped with glass and carbon FRP sheets. Test specimens consisted of 30 unwrapped and 60 wrapped concrete cylinders. All specimens were exposed to temperatures of 100, 200, and 300°C for periods of 1, 2, and 3 hours. The compressive strengths of the unwrapped concrete cylinders were compared with their counterparts of the wrapped cylinders. For the unwrapped cylinders, test results showed that the elevated temperatures considered in this study had almost no effect on their compressive strength; however, the wrapped specimens were significantly affected, especially those wrapped with GFRP sheets. The compressive strength of the wrapped specimens decreased as the exposure period and the temperature level increased. After three hours of exposure to 300°C, a maximum compressive strength loss of about 25.3% and 37.9%, respectively, was recorded in the wrapped CFRP and GFRP specimens.

  13. POSTOPERATIVE EFFECT OF PHYSICAL THERAPY RELATED TO FUNCTIONAL CAPACITY AND RESPIRATORY MUSCLE STRENGTH IN PATIENTS SUBMITTED TO BARIATRIC SURGERY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Josélia Jucirema Jarschel de; Freitas, Alexandre Coutinho Teixeira de; Almeida, Andréa Adriana de

    Respiratory physiotherapy plays an important role preventing complications in bariatric surgery. To assess the effects of out-patient physiotherapy during post-operative period through respiratory pressures and functional capacity in individuals submitted to bariatric surgery. A prospective longitudinal and controlled study was done in adults with body mass index (BMI) equal or greater than 40 kg/m², who have been submitted to bariatric surgery. They were divided into two groups: intervention-group, who performed out-patient physiotherapy twice a week, from thirty to sixty days after surgery; and the control-group, who only followed home instructions. Both groups were evaluated before surgery and sixty days after surgery through manovacuometry, six-minute walk test and the Borg Scale of perceived exertion. Twenty participants were included the intervention-group and twenty-three in the control-group. Both groups had significant and similar weight loss after surgery. The manovacuometry presented no differences comparing pre- and post-surgery and in the comparison between the groups. The result of the six-minute walk test for the intervention-group increased by 10.1% in the post-operative period in relation to pre-. The Borg scale of perceived exertion in the intervention-group in pre-surgery decreased by 13.5% in the post-surgery compared to pre-surgery. In the control-group there was no difference comparing pre- and post-operative values, as in the comparison with the intervention-group. The low-intensity exercise program, carried out between the 30th and the 60th day after bariatric surgery provided better functional capacity; did not change respiratory muscle strength; and improved the perceived exertion rate. A fisioterapia respiratória tem papel importante na prevenção das complicações da cirurgia bariátrica. Avaliar os efeitos da fisioterapia ambulatorial no pós-operatório através das pressões respiratórias e da capacidade funcional dos indiv

  14. Analysis of the association between isokinetic knee strength with offensive and defensive jumping capacity in high-level female volleyball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Tine; Sekulic, Damir; Esco, Michael R; Mahmutovic, Ifet; Hadzic, Vedran

    2015-09-01

    Isokinetic-knee-strength was hypothesized to be an important factor related to jumping performance. However, studies examining this relation among elite female athletes and sport-specific jumps are lacking. This investigation determined the influence of isokinetic-knee flexor/extensor strength measures on spike-jump (offensive) and block-jump (defensive) performance among high-level female volleyball players. Cross-sectional laboratory study. Eighty-two female volleyball athletes (age = 21.3 ± 3.8 years, height = 175.4 ± 6.76 cm, and weight = 68.29 ± 8.53 kg) volunteered to participate in this study. The studied variables included spike-jump and block-jump performance and a set of isokinetic tests to evaluate the eccentric and concentric strength capacities of the knee extensors (quadriceps - Q), and flexors (hamstring - H) for both legs. Both jumping tests showed high intra-session reliability (ICC of 0.87 and 0.95 for spike-jump and block-jump, respectively). The athletes were clustered into three achievement-groups based on their spike-jump and block-jump performances. For the block-jump, ANOVA identified significant differences between achievement-groups for all isokinetic variables except the Right-Q-Eccentric-Strength. When observed for spike-jump, achievement-groups differed significantly in all tests but Right-H-Concentric-Strength. Discriminant canonical analysis showed that the isokinetic-strength variables were more associated with block-jump then spike-jump-performance. The eccentric isokinetic measures were relatively less important determinants of block-jump than for the spike-jump performance. Data support the hypothesis of the importance of isokinetic strength measures for the expression of rapid muscular performance in volleyball. The results point to the necessity of the differential approach in sport training for defensive and offensive duties. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of individualized worksite exercise training on aerobic capacity and muscle strength among construction workers - a randomized controlled intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Bibi; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The combination of high physical work demands and low physical capacity has been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and musculoskeletal disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the physical capacity of construction workers and evaluate the effect of individually...... tailored exercise programs on their physical fitness and muscular capacity. METHOD: The study was a randomized controlled trial of male constructions workers allocated to either an exercise or control group. The intervention lasted 12 weeks, and the exercise group trained 3 x 20 minutes a week....... The participants completed health checks before and after the intervention period. Data from the first health check were used to tailor the exercise in the interventions. RESULTS: At baseline, participants had maximal oxygen consumption (VO (2max)) of 2.9 [standard deviation (SD) 0.7L/min] and body mass index (BMI...

  16. Evaluation of lung volumes, vital capacity and respiratory muscle strength after cervical, thoracic and lumbar spinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Marcio Aparecido; Vidotto, Milena Carlos; Nascimento, Oliver Augusto; Almeida, Renato; Santoro, Ilka Lopes; Sperandio, Evandro Fornias; Jardim, José Roberto; Gazzotti, Mariana Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that physiopathological changes to the respiratory system can occur following thoracic and abdominal surgery. Laminectomy is considered to be a peripheral surgical procedure, but it is possible that thoracic spinal surgery exerts a greater influence on lung function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pulmonary volumes and maximum respiratory pressures of patients undergoing cervical, thoracic or lumbar spinal surgery. Prospective study in a tertiary-level university hospital. Sixty-three patients undergoing laminectomy due to diagnoses of tumors or herniated discs were evaluated. Vital capacity, tidal volume, minute ventilation and maximum respiratory pressures were evaluated preoperatively and on the first and second postoperative days. Possible associations between the respiratory variables and the duration of the operation, surgical diagnosis and smoking status were investigated. Vital capacity and maximum inspiratory pressure presented reductions on the first postoperative day (20.9% and 91.6%, respectively) for thoracic surgery (P = 0.01), and maximum expiratory pressure showed reductions on the first postoperative day in cervical surgery patients (15.3%; P = 0.004). The incidence of pulmonary complications was 3.6%. There were reductions in vital capacity and maximum respiratory pressures during the postoperative period in patients undergoing laminectomy. Surgery in the thoracic region was associated with greater reductions in vital capacity and maximum inspiratory pressure, compared with cervical and lumbar surgery. Thus, surgical manipulation of the thoracic region appears to have more influence on pulmonary function and respiratory muscle action.

  17. Nordic Walking Can Be Incorporated in the Exercise Prescription to Increase Aerobic Capacity, Strength, and Quality of Life for Elderly: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullo, Valentina; Gobbo, Stefano; Vendramin, Barbara; Duregon, Federica; Cugusi, Lucia; Di Blasio, Andrea; Bocalini, Danilo Sales; Zaccaria, Marco; Bergamin, Marco; Ermolao, Andrea

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to summarize and analyze the effects of Nordic Walking on physical fitness, body composition, and quality of life in the elderly. Keyword "Nordic Walking" associated with "elderly" AND/OR "aging" AND/OR "old subjects" AND/OR "aged" AND/OR "older adults" were used in the online database MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, and SPORTDiscus. Only studies written in English language and published in peer-reviewed journals were considered. A meta-analysis was performed and effect sizes calculated. Fifteen studies were identified; age of participants ranged from 60 to 92 years old. Comparing with a sedentary group, effect sizes showed that Nordic Walking was able to improve dynamic balance (0.30), functional balance (0.62), muscle strength of upper (0.66) and lower limbs (0.43), aerobic capacity (0.92), cardiovascular outcomes (0.23), body composition (0.30), and lipid profile (0.67). It seemed that Nordic Walking had a negative effect on static balance (-0.72). Comparing with a walking (alone) training, effect sizes showed that Nordic Walking improved the dynamic balance (0.30), flexibility of the lower body (0.47), and quality of life (0.53). Walking training was more effective in improving aerobic capacity (-0.21). Comparing Nordic Walking with resistance training, effect sizes showed that Nordic Walking improved dynamic balance (0.33), muscle strength of the lower body (0.39), aerobic capacity (0.75), flexibility of the upper body (0.41), and the quality of life (0.93). Nordic Walking can be considered as a safe and accessible form of aerobic exercise for the elderly population, able to improve cardiovascular outcomes, muscle strength, balance ability, and quality of life.

  18. The role of the cytoskeleton in cellular force generation in 2D and 3D environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraning-Rush, Casey M; Carey, Shawn P; Califano, Joseph P; Smith, Brooke N; Reinhart-King, Cynthia A

    2011-01-01

    To adhere and migrate, cells generate forces through the cytoskeleton that are transmitted to the surrounding matrix. While cellular force generation has been studied on 2D substrates, less is known about cytoskeletal-mediated traction forces of cells embedded in more in vivo-like 3D matrices. Recent studies have revealed important differences between the cytoskeletal structure, adhesion, and migration of cells in 2D and 3D. Because the cytoskeleton mediates force, we sought to directly compare the role of the cytoskeleton in modulating cell force in 2D and 3D. MDA-MB-231 cells were treated with agents that perturbed actin, microtubules, or myosin, and analyzed for changes in cytoskeletal organization and force generation in both 2D and 3D. To quantify traction stresses in 2D, traction force microscopy was used; in 3D, force was assessed based on single cell-mediated collagen fibril reorganization imaged using confocal reflectance microscopy. Interestingly, even though previous studies have observed differences in cell behaviors like migration in 2D and 3D, our data indicate that forces generated on 2D substrates correlate with forces within 3D matrices. Disruption of actin, myosin or microtubules in either 2D or 3D microenvironments disrupts cell-generated force. These data suggest that despite differences in cytoskeletal organization in 2D and 3D, actin, microtubules and myosin contribute to contractility and matrix reorganization similarly in both microenvironments

  19. Characterization of sliders for efficient force generation of electrostatically controlled linear actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, T A; Konishi, S

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the characterization of sliders for efficient force generation of an electrostatically controlled linear actuator (ECLIA) is investigated. The ECLIA consists of a piezoactuator (PZT), driving and holding electrodes, multiple sliders and a guide structure. The stepping motion of the sliders is driven by the PZT actuator via an electrostatic clutch mechanism. Thus, multiple sliders can achieve parallel, independent, precise motion, and a large stroke. Previous studies have indicated that the Si bulk slider and Si electrode created an air gap owing to the deformation of the Si electrode. Thus, the Si slider generated a low pushing force. In this study, we propose a fishbone structure mounted on a flexible slider to enhance the pushing force of the slider. The flexible slider, that can deform and fit into the Si electrode to reduce the air gap, results in highly efficient electrostatic-force generation. The fishbone structure improves the longitudinal stiffness of the flexible slider for high pushing-force generation. The results show that the pushing force created by the fishbone slider was three times greater than that of the conventional Si slider. The fishbone and flexible sliders exhibited a high performance for the ECLIA. (paper)

  20. Inpatient rehabilitation improves functional capacity, peripheral muscle strength and quality of life in patients with community-acquired pneumonia: a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson José

    2016-04-01

    inpatient rehabilitation program was greater than the improvement after standard respiratory physiotherapy. The exercise training program led to greater benefits in functional capacity, peripheral muscle strength, dyspnoea and quality of life. Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02103400 [José A, Dal Corso S (2016 Inpatient rehabilitation improves functional capacity, peripheral muscle strength and quality of life in patients with community-acquired pneumonia: a randomised trial. Journal of Physiotherapy 62: 96–102

  1. Effects of inspiratory muscle training on pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength and functional capacity in patients with atrial fibrillation: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeren, Melih; Demir, Rengin; Yigit, Zerrin; Gurses, Hulya N

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the effects of inspiratory muscle training on pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength and functional capacity in patients with atrial fibrillation. Prospective randomized controlled single-blind study. Cardiology department of a university hospital. A total of 38 patients with permanent atrial fibrillation were randomly allocated to either a treatment group (n = 19; age 66.2 years (8.8)) or a control group (n = 19; age 67.1 years (6.4)). The training group received inspiratory muscle training at 30% of maximal inspiratory pressure for 15 minutes twice a day, 7 days a week, for 12 weeks alongside the standard medical treatment. The control group received standard medical treatment only. Spirometry, maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures and 6-minute walking distance was measured at the beginning and end of the study. There was a significant increase in maximal inspiratory pressure (27.94 cmH 2 O (8.90)), maximal expiratory pressure (24.53 cmH 2 O (10.34)), forced vital capacity (10.29% (8.18) predicted), forced expiratory volume in one second (13.88% (13.42) predicted), forced expiratory flow 25%-75% (14.82% (12.44) predicted), peak expiratory flow (19.82% (15.62) predicted) and 6-minute walking distance (55.53 m (14.13)) in the training group (p  0.05). Inspiratory muscle training can improve pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength and functional capacity in patients with atrial fibrillation. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Nutritional status is related to fat-free mass, exercise capacity and inspiratory strength in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollyane Galinari Sabino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Being overweight or obese is associated with a higher rate of survival in patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. This paradoxical relationship indicates that the influence of nutritional status on functional parameters should be further investigated. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of nutritional status on body composition, exercise capacity and respiratory muscle strength in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. METHODS: Thirty-two patients (nine women were divided into three groups according to their body mass indices (BMI: overweight/obese (25 < BMI < 34.9 kg/m², n=8, normal weight (18.5 < BMI < 24.9 kg/m², n=17 and underweight (BMI <18.5 kg/m², n=7. Spirometry, bioelectrical impedance, a six-minute walking distance test and maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures were assessed. RESULTS: Airway obstruction was similar among the groups (p=0.30; however, overweight/obese patients had a higher fat-free mass (FFM index [FFMI=FFM/body weight² (mean±SEM: 17±0.3 vs. 15±0.3 vs. 14±0.5 m/kg², p<0.01], exercise capacity (90±8 vs. 79±6 vs. 57±8 m, p=0.02 and maximal inspiratory pressure (63±7 vs. 57±5 vs. 35±8 % predicted, p=0.03 in comparison to normal weight and underweight patients, respectively. In addition, on backward multiple regression analysis, FFMI was the unique independent predictor of exercise capacity (partial r=0.52, p<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients who were overweight or obese had a greater FFM, exercise capacity and inspiratory muscle strength than patients with the same degree of airflow obstruction who were of normal weight or underweight, and higher FFM was independently associated with higher exercise capacity. These characteristics of overweight or obese patients might counteract the drawbacks of excess weight and lead to an improved prognosis in COPD.

  3. Micropipette force probe to quantify single-cell force generation: application to T-cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicka, Anna; Babataheri, Avin; Dogniaux, Stéphanie; Barakat, Abdul I; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, David; Hivroz, Claire; Husson, Julien

    2017-11-07

    In response to engagement of surface molecules, cells generate active forces that regulate many cellular processes. Developing tools that permit gathering mechanical and morphological information on these forces is of the utmost importance. Here we describe a new technique, the micropipette force probe, that uses a micropipette as a flexible cantilever that can aspirate at its tip a bead that is coated with molecules of interest and is brought in contact with the cell. This technique simultaneously allows tracking the resulting changes in cell morphology and mechanics as well as measuring the forces generated by the cell. To illustrate the power of this technique, we applied it to the study of human primary T lymphocytes (T-cells). It allowed the fine monitoring of pushing and pulling forces generated by T-cells in response to various activating antibodies and bending stiffness of the micropipette. We further dissected the sequence of mechanical and morphological events occurring during T-cell activation to model force generation and to reveal heterogeneity in the cell population studied. We also report the first measurement of the changes in Young's modulus of T-cells during their activation, showing that T-cells stiffen within the first minutes of the activation process. © 2017 Sawicka et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  4. Ground Reaction Forces Generated During Rhythmical Squats as a Dynamic Loads of the Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantak, Marek

    2017-10-01

    Dynamic forces generated by moving persons can lead to excessive vibration of the long span, slender and lightweight structure such as floors, stairs, stadium stands and footbridges. These dynamic forces are generated during walking, running, jumping and rhythmical body swaying in vertical or horizontal direction etc. In the paper the mathematical models of the Ground Reaction Forces (GRFs) generated during squats have been presented. Elaborated models was compared to the GRFs measured during laboratory tests carried out by author in wide range of frequency using force platform. Moreover, the GRFs models were evaluated during dynamic numerical analyses and dynamic field tests of the exemplary structure (steel footbridge).

  5. Resistance training-induced gains in muscle strength, body composition, and functional capacity are attenuated in elderly women with sarcopenic obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Oliveira Silva A

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Alessandro de Oliveira Silva,1,2 Maurílio Tiradentes Dutra,3 Wilson Max Almeida Monteiro de Moraes,4 Silvana Schwerz Funghetto,3 Darlan Lopes de Farias,1 Paulo Henrique Fernandes dos Santos,3 Denis Cesar Leite Vieira,5 Dahan da Cunha Nascimento,4,5 Vânia Silva Macedo Orsano,4 Brad J Schoenfeld,6 Jonato Prestes4 1University Center of Brasilia (UniCEUB, Brasília, Brazil; 2Integrated Colleges of the Central Plateau Educational Union (FACIPLAC, Brasília, Brazil; 3University of Brasilia (UnB, Brasília, Brazil; 4Catholic University of Brasilia (UCB, Brasília, Brazil; 5University Center of the Federal District (UDF, Brasília, Brazil; 6Department of Health Sciences, CUNY Lehman College, Bronx, NY, United States Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of resistance training (RT on body composition, muscle strength, and functional capacity in elderly women with and without sarcopenic obesity (SO.Methods: A total of 49 women (aged ≥60 years were divided in two groups: without SO (non-SO, n=41 and with SO (n=8. Both groups performed a periodized RT program consisting of two weekly sessions for 16 weeks. All measures were assessed at baseline and postintervention, including anthropometry and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, muscle strength (one repetition maximum for chest press and 45° leg press, and functional capacity (stand up, elbow flexion, timed “up and go”.Results: After the intervention, only the non-SO group presented significant reductions in percentage body fat (-2.2%; P=0.006, waist circumference (-2.7%; P=0.01, waist-to-hip ratio (-2.3; P=0.02, and neck circumference (-1.8%; P=0.03 as compared with baseline. Muscle strength in the chest press and biceps curl increased in non-SO only (12.9% and 11.3%, respectively, while 45° leg press strength increased in non-SO (50.3% and SO (40.5% as compared with baseline. Performance in the chair stand up and timed “up and go” improved in non

  6. Change Agent – A Force Generating Resistance To Change Within An Organization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Prediscan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to identify if the change agent represents or not a force generating resistance to change within an organization. The employees affected by a change process are usually the ones who oppose to new implementations. Their opposition is bigger or smaller, depending on the extent that they are affected and also by the direction, either positive or negative. However, employee’s opposition can be potentiated or reduced, depending on the manifestation of the following forces within an organization: communications, the type of organizational structure, management style and organizational culture, forces which refer to the organizational climate. To answer our question, we have researched the current literature and discovered that the change agent can represent a force generating resistance to change within an organization in those situations when he or she identifies with a middle or top manager from the organizational pyramid. This information is valuable to researchers and practitioners, as for a long time, employees were considered the only ones manifesting resistance, the possibility that the change agent can oppose new changes being ignored.

  7. Impact of resistance exercise program on functional capacity and muscular strength of knee extensor in pre-frail community-dwelling older women: a randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustosa, Lygia P; Silva, Juscélio P; Coelho, Fernanda M; Pereira, Daniele S; Parentoni, Adriana N; Pereira, Leani S M

    2011-01-01

    Frailty syndrome in elderly people is characterized by a reduction of energy reserves and also by a decreased of resistance to stressors, resulting in an increase of vulnerability. The aim of this study was to verify the effect of a muscle-strengthening program with load in pre-frail elder women with regards to the functional capacity, knee extensor muscle strength and their correlation. Thrity-two pre-frail community-dwelling women participated in this study. Potential participants with cognitive impairment (MEEM), lower extremities orthopedic surgery, fractures, inability to walk unaided, neurological diseases, acute inflammatory disease, tumor growth, regular physical activity and current use of immunomodulators were excluded. All partcipants were evaluated by a blinded assessor using: Timed up and go (TUG), 10-Meter Walk Test (10MWT) and knee extensor muscle strength (Byodex System 3 Pro® isokinetic dynamometer at angular speeds of 60 and 180(0)/s). The intervention consisted of strengthening exercises of the lower extremities at 70% of 1RM, three times/ week for ten weeks. The statistical analysis was performed using the ANOVA and Spearman tests After the intervention, it was observed statistical significance on the work at 180(0)/s (F=12.71, p=0.02), on the power at 180(0)/s (F=15.40, p=0.02) and on the functional capacity (TUG, F=9.54, p=0.01; TC10, F=3.80, p=0.01). There was a good negative and statistically significant correlation between the TUG and work at 60(0)/s, such as the TUG and work at 180(0)/s (r=-0.65, p=0.01; r=-0.72, p=0.01). The intervention improved the muscular power and the functional capacity. The increase of the power correlated with function, which is an important variable of the quality of life in the pre-frail elders. Article registered in the ISRCT register under number ISRCTN62824599.

  8. Inpatient rehabilitation improves functional capacity, peripheral muscle strength and quality of life in patients with community-acquired pneumonia: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    José, Anderson; Dal Corso, Simone

    2016-04-01

    exercise training program led to greater benefits in functional capacity, peripheral muscle strength, dyspnoea and quality of life. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02103400. Copyright © 2016 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Test-retest repeatability of strength capacity, aerobic power and pericranial tenderness of neck and shoulder muscles in children - relevant for tension-type headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tornøe B

    2013-08-01

    -Altman Plots; and by quantifying the variability. Results: The results showed an acceptable test-retest repeatability of isometric maximal voluntary contraction (ICC 0.90-0.97. The force steadiness measurements revealed a trend of systematic changes in the direction of neck flexion and need further examination in both healthy and ill children. The rate of force development, Total Tenderness Score, and prediction of VO2 max showed repeatability, with ICC 0.80-0.87. Conclusion: The measurements of strength capacity, aerobic power, and tenderness provide acceptable repeatability, suitable for research in children. Keywords: muscle strength, intratester reliability, cardiovascular fitness

  10. Metabolic costs of force generation for constant-frequency and catchlike-inducing electrical stimulation in human tibialis anterior muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratkevicius, Aivaras; Quistorff, Bjørn

    2002-01-01

    -frequency trains, catchlike-inducing trains produced a faster force generation and were more effective in maintaining the force--time integral as well as peak force. However, ATP costs of force generation were similar for the catchlike-inducing and constant-frequency stimulation (6.7 plus/minus 1.1 and 6.6 plus......Metabolic costs of force generation were compared for constant-frequency and catchlike-inducing electrical stimulation. Repetitive catchlike-inducing trains consisted of 2 interpulse intervals (IPIs) at 12.5 ms, 1 IPI at 25 ms, and 5 IPIs at 50 ms. Constant-frequency trains consisted of 8 IPIs...... at 37.5 ms. One train was delivered to the peroneal nerve every 2.5 s for 36 times under ischemic conditions. Anaerobic adenosine triphosphate (ATP) turnover was determined using 31-phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (P-MRS) of the human tibialis anterior muscle. Compared with constant...

  11. Enhancement of contractile force generation of artificial skeletal muscle tissues by mild and transient heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Masanori; Ikeda, Kazushi; Kanno, Shota; Ito, Akira; Kawabe, Yoshinori; Kamihira, Masamichi

    2014-01-01

    Artificial skeletal muscle tissues composed of cells are expected to be used for applications of regenerative medicine and drug screening. Generally, however, the physical forces generated by tissue-engineered skeletal muscle are lower than those of skeletal muscle tissues found in the body. Local hyperthermia is used for many diseases including muscle injuries. It was recently reported that mild heat treatment improved skeletal muscle functions. In this study, we investigated the effects of mild heat treatment on the tissue-engineered skeletal muscle tissues in vitro. We used magnetite cationic liposomes to label C2C12 myoblast cells magnetically, and constructed densely packed artificial skeletal muscle tissues by using magnetic force. Cell culture at 39°C promoted the differentiation of myoblast cells into myotubes. Moreover, the mild and transient heat treatment improved the contractile properties of artificial skeletal muscle tissue constructs. These findings indicate that the culture method using heat treatment is a useful approach to enhance functions of artificial skeletal muscle tissue.

  12. LITERATURE REVIEW OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ACTUATOR FORCE GENERATION FOR DYNAMIC MODAL TESTING APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norlida Jamil

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Milling is one of the most common manufacturing processes for automotive components, but its productivity is limited by the onset of regenerative chatter. This is a form of unstable self-excited vibration that occurs when the volume of material removed is too large for a particular spindle speed. This form of chatter is undesirable because it results in premature tool wear, poor surface finish on the machined component and the possibility of serious damage to the machine itself. The chatter stability of a milling process can be determined using well-established theory, provided that the frequency response of the flexible structure can be determined. In practice this usually involves the excitation of a stationery (non-rotating milling tool with a modal hammer, and measurement of the response of the tool with a co-located accelerometer. However, this measurement is not necessarily accurate due to amplitude dependency factor consideration. There is anecdotal evidence that structural nonlinearity can have a significant effect on the chatter stability of some milling machines. This project develops non-contact electromagnetic actuators to measure the frequency response of milling tools to machine automotive parts. In addition it will describe the practical application of this approach, and discuss its amplitude dependency for current excitation during frequency response function measurement using magnetic force generation.

  13. Easy Volcanic Aerosol (EVA v1.0: an idealized forcing generator for climate simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Toohey

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stratospheric sulfate aerosols from volcanic eruptions have a significant impact on the Earth's climate. To include the effects of volcanic eruptions in climate model simulations, the Easy Volcanic Aerosol (EVA forcing generator provides stratospheric aerosol optical properties as a function of time, latitude, height, and wavelength for a given input list of volcanic eruption attributes. EVA is based on a parameterized three-box model of stratospheric transport and simple scaling relationships used to derive mid-visible (550 nm aerosol optical depth and aerosol effective radius from stratospheric sulfate mass. Precalculated look-up tables computed from Mie theory are used to produce wavelength-dependent aerosol extinction, single scattering albedo, and scattering asymmetry factor values. The structural form of EVA and the tuning of its parameters are chosen to produce best agreement with the satellite-based reconstruction of stratospheric aerosol properties following the 1991 Pinatubo eruption, and with prior millennial-timescale forcing reconstructions, including the 1815 eruption of Tambora. EVA can be used to produce volcanic forcing for climate models which is based on recent observations and physical understanding but internally self-consistent over any timescale of choice. In addition, EVA is constructed so as to allow for easy modification of different aspects of aerosol properties, in order to be used in model experiments to help advance understanding of what aspects of the volcanic aerosol are important for the climate system.

  14. Effects of in vivo-like activation frequency on the length-dependent force generation of skeletal muscle fibre bundles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, C. J.; Lee-de Groot, M. B.; van der Laarse, W. J.; Huijing, P. A.

    1998-01-01

    It is known that a range of firing frequencies can be observed during in vivo muscle activity, yet information is lacking as to how different in vivo-like frequencies may affect force generation of skeletal muscle. This study examined the effects of constant (CSF, constant within one contraction)

  15. Evaluation of the friction force generated by monocristalyne and policristalyne ceramic brackets in sliding mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Roberta Ferreira; de Oliveira, Roberto Sotto Maior Fortes; Chaves, Maria das Graças Afonso Miranda; Elias, Carlos Nelson; Gravina, Marco Abdo

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate and compare "in vitro" the maximum friction force generated by three types of esthetic brackets, two types of polycrystalline conventional ceramic brackets (20/40 and InVu) and one type of sapphire monocrystalline bracket (Radiance) in dry and artificial saliva wet settings. Also, to evaluate the influence exerted by artificial saliva on the friction forces of those brackets. Tests were performed in dry and artificial saliva wet setting (Oral Balance) by using an EMIC DL 10000 testing machine, simulating a 2 mm slide of 0.019 x 0.025-in rectangular stainless steel wires over the pre-angulated and pre-torqued (right superior canine, Roth prescription, slot 0.022 x 0.030-in) brackets (n = 18 for each bracket). In order to compare groups in dry and wet settings, the ANOVA was used. For comparisons related to the dry versus wet setting, the student t test was used for each group. The results showed that in the absence of saliva the Radiance monocrystalline brackets showed the highest friction coefficients, followed by the 20/40 and the InVu polycrystalline brackets. In tests with artificial saliva, the Radiance and the 20/40 brackets had statistically similar friction coefficients and both were greater than that presented by the InVu brackets. The artificial saliva did not change the maximum friction force of the Radiance brackets, but, for the others (20/40 and InVu), an increase of friction was observed in its presence. The InVu brackets showed, in the absence and in the presence of saliva, the lowest friction coefficient.

  16. Effect of combined actions of hip adduction/abduction on the force generation and maintenance of pelvic floor muscles in healthy women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda C Amorim

    Full Text Available Pelvic floor muscle (PFM force and coordination are related to urinary incontinence severity and to sexual satisfaction. Health professionals frequently combine classic PFM exercises with hip adduction/abduction contraction to treat these disorders, but the real benefits of this practice are still unknown. Based on a theoretical anatomy approach whereby the levator ani muscle is inserted into the obturator internus myofascia and in which force generated by hip movements should increase the contraction quality of PFMs, our aim was to investigate the effects of isometric hip adduction and abduction on PFM force generation. Twenty healthy, nulliparous women were evaluated using two strain-gauge dynamometers (one cylinder-like inside the vaginal cavity, and the other measuring hip adduction/abduction forces around both thighs while performing three different tasks: (a isolated PFM contraction; (b PFM contraction combined with hip adduction (30% and 50% maximum hip force; and (c PFM contraction combined with hip abduction (30% and 50% maximum hip force. Data were sampled at 100Hz and subtracted from the offset if existent. We calculated a gradient between the isolated PFM contraction and each hip condition (Δ Adduction and Δ Abduction for all variables: Maximum force (N, instant of maximum-force occurrence (s, mean force in an 8-second window (N, and PFM force loss (N.s. We compared both conditions gradients in 30% and 50% by paired t-tests. All variables did not differ between hip conditions both in 30% and 50% of maximum hip force (p>.05. PFM contraction combined with isometric hip abduction did not increase vaginal force in healthy and nulliparous women compared to PFM contraction combined with isometric hip adduction. Therefore, so far, the use of hip adduction or abduction in PFM training and treatments are not justified for improving PFM strength and endurance.

  17. Integrated Analysis of Contractile Kinetics, Force Generation, and Electrical Activity in Single Human Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan David Kijlstra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative analysis of cardiomyocyte function is essential for stem cell-based approaches for the in vitro study of human cardiac physiology and pathophysiology. We present a method to comprehensively assess the function of single human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte (hPSC-CMs through simultaneous quantitative analysis of contraction kinetics, force generation, and electrical activity. We demonstrate that statistical analysis of movies of contracting hPSC-CMs can be used to quantify changes in cellular morphology over time and compute contractile kinetics. Using a biomechanical model that incorporates substrate stiffness, we calculate cardiomyocyte force generation at single-cell resolution and validate this approach with conventional traction force microscopy. The addition of fluorescent calcium indicators or membrane potential dyes allows the simultaneous analysis of contractility and calcium handling or action potential morphology. Accordingly, our approach has the potential for broad application in the study of cardiac disease, drug discovery, and cardiotoxicity screening.

  18. Kinetic coupling of phosphate release, force generation and rate-limiting steps in the cross-bridge cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehle, Robert; Tesi, Chiara

    2017-08-01

    A basic goal in muscle research is to understand how the cyclic ATPase activity of cross-bridges is converted into mechanical force. A direct approach to study the chemo-mechanical coupling between P i release and the force-generating step is provided by the kinetics of force response induced by a rapid change in [P i ]. Classical studies on fibres using caged-P i discovered that rapid increases in [P i ] induce fast force decays dependent on final [P i ] whose kinetics were interpreted to probe a fast force-generating step prior to P i release. However, this hypothesis was called into question by studies on skeletal and cardiac myofibrils subjected to P i jumps in both directions (increases and decreases in [P i ]) which revealed that rapid decreases in [P i ] trigger force rises with slow kinetics, similar to those of calcium-induced force development and mechanically-induced force redevelopment at the same [P i ]. A possible explanation for this discrepancy came from imaging of individual sarcomeres in cardiac myofibrils, showing that the fast force decay upon increase in [P i ] results from so-called sarcomere 'give'. The slow force rise upon decrease in [P i ] was found to better reflect overall sarcomeres cross-bridge kinetics and its [P i ] dependence, suggesting that the force generation coupled to P i release cannot be separated from the rate-limiting transition. The reasons for the different conclusions achieved in fibre and myofibril studies are re-examined as the recent findings on cardiac myofibrils have fundamental consequences for the coupling between P i release, rate-limiting steps and force generation. The implications from P i -induced force kinetics of myofibrils are discussed in combination with historical and recent models of the cross-bridge cycle.

  19. Suction forces generated by passive bile bag drainage on a model of post-subdural hematoma evacuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenny, Steven O; Thorell, William E

    2018-05-05

    Passive drainage systems are commonly used after subdural hematoma evacuation but there is a dearth of published data regarding the suction forces created. We set out to quantify the suction forces generated by a passive drainage system. We created a model of passive drainage after subdural hematoma evacuation. We measured the maximum suction force generated with a bile bag drain for both empty drain tubing and fluid-filled drain tube causing a siphoning effect. We took measurements at varying heights of the bile bag to analyze if bile bag height changed suction forces generated. An empty bile bag with no fluid in the drainage tube connected to a rigid, fluid-filled model creates minimal suction force of 0.9 mmHg (95% CI 0.64-1.16 mmHg). When fluid fills the drain tubing, a siphoning effect is created and can generate suction forces ranging from 18.7 to 30.6 mmHg depending on the relative position of the bile bag and filled amount of the bile bag. The suction forces generated are statistically different if the bile bag is 50 cm below, level with or 50 cm above the experimental model. Passive bile bag drainage does not generate significant suction on a fluid-filled rigid model if the drain tubing is empty. If fluid fills the drain tubing then siphoning occurs and can increase the suction force of a passive bile bag drainage system to levels comparable to partially filled Jackson-Pratt bulb drainage.

  20. Evaluation of the friction force generated by monocristalyne and policristalyne ceramic brackets in sliding mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Ferreira Pimentel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare "in vitro" the maximum friction force generated by three types of esthetic brackets, two types of polycrystalline conventional ceramic brackets (20/40 and InVu and one type of sapphire monocrystalline bracket (Radiance in dry and artificial saliva wet settings. Also, to evaluate the influence exerted by artificial saliva on the friction forces of those brackets. METHODS: Tests were performed in dry and artificial saliva wet setting (Oral Balance by using an EMIC DL 10000 testing machine, simulating a 2 mm slide of 0.019 x 0.025-in rectangular stainless steel wires over the pre-angulated and pre-torqued (right superior canine, Roth prescription, slot 0.022 x 0.030-in brackets (n = 18 for each bracket. In order to compare groups in dry and wet settings, the ANOVA was used. For comparisons related to the dry versus wet setting, the student t test was used for each group. RESULTS: The results showed that in the absence of saliva the Radiance monocrystalline brackets showed the highest friction coefficients, followed by the 20/40 and the InVu polycrystalline brackets. In tests with artificial saliva, the Radiance and the 20/40 brackets had statistically similar friction coefficients and both were greater than that presented by the InVu brackets. The artificial saliva did not change the maximum friction force of the Radiance brackets, but, for the others (20/40 and InVu, an increase of friction was observed in its presence. CONCLUSION: The InVu brackets showed, in the absence and in the presence of saliva, the lowest friction coefficient.OBJETIVO: avaliar e comparar in vitro as cargas máximas de atrito geradas por três tipos de braquetes estéticos, sendo dois deles cerâmicos policristalinos convencionais (20/40 e InVu e um monocristalino de safira (Radiance, em ambientes seco e umedecido por saliva artificial. Também avaliar a influência exercida pela saliva artificial sobre as cargas de atrito dos referidos

  1. Effects of Whey Protein Supplementation Pre- or Post-Resistance Training on Muscle Mass, Muscular Strength, and Functional Capacity in Pre-Conditioned Older Women: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellen C. G. Nabuco

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with sarcopenia and dynapenia, with both processes contributing to functional dependence and mortality in older adults. Resistance training (RT and increased protein intake are strategies that may contribute to health improvements in older adults. Therefore, the aim was to investigate the effects of whey protein (WP supplementation consumed either immediately pre- or post-RT on skeletal muscle mass (SMM, muscular strength, and functional capacity in pre-conditioned older women. Seventy older women participated in this investigation and were randomly assigned to one of three groups: whey protein pre-RT and placebo post-RT (WP-PLA, n = 24, placebo pre-RT and whey protein post-RT (PLA-WP, n = 23, and placebo pre- and post-RT (PLA-PLA, n = 23. Each group ingested 35 g of WP or PLA. The RT program was carried out over 12 weeks (three times per week; 3 × 8–12 repetition maximum. Body composition, muscular strength, functional capacity, and dietary intake were assessed pre- and post-intervention. Two-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA for repeated measures, with baseline scores as covariates were used for data analysis. A time vs. group interaction (p < 0.05 was observed with WP-PLA and PLA-WP presenting greater increases compared with PLA-PLA for SMM (WP-PLA = 3.4%; PLA-WP = 4.2%; PLA-PLA = 2.0%, strength (WP-PLA = 8.1%; PLA-WP = 8.3%; PLA-PLA = 7.0%, and the 10-m walk test (WP-PLA = −10.8%; PLA-WP = −11.8%; PLA-PLA = −4.3%. Whey protein supplementation was effective in promoting increases in SMM, muscular strength, and functional capacity in pre-conditioned older women, regardless of supplementation timing. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03247192.

  2. The variation of the strength of neck extensor muscles and semispinalis capitis muscle size with head and neck position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezasoltani, A; Nasiri, R; Faizei, A M; Zaafari, G; Mirshahvelayati, A S; Bakhshidarabad, L

    2013-04-01

    Semispinalis capitis muscle (SECM) is a massive and long cervico-thoracic muscle which functions as a main head and neck extensor muscle. The aim of this study was to detect the effect of head and neck positions on the strength of neck extensor muscles and size of SECM in healthy subjects. Thirty healthy women students voluntarily participated in this study. An ultrasonography apparatus (Hitachi EUB 525) and a system of tension-meter were used to scan the right SECM at the level of third cervical spine and to measure the strength of neck extensor muscles at three head and neck positions. Neck extensor muscles were stronger in neutral than flexion or than extension positions while the size of SECM was larger in extension than neutral or than flexion position. The force generation capacity of the main neck extensor muscle was lower at two head and neck flexion and extension positions than neutral position. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Test-retest repeatability of strength capacity, aerobic power and pericranial tenderness of neck and shoulder muscles in children - relevant for tension-type headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornøe, Birte; Andersen, Lars L; Skotte, J H

    2013-01-01

    Frequent or chronic tension-type headache in children is a prevalent and debilitating condition for the child, often leading to medication overuse. To explore the relationship between physical factors and tension-type headache in children, the quality of repeated measures was examined. The aim of...... of the present study was to determine the test-retest repeatability of parameters determining isometric neck and shoulder strength and stability, aerobic power, and pericranial tenderness in children....

  4. Comparison of the effects of weight loss from a high-protein versus standard-protein energy-restricted diet on strength and aerobic capacity in overweight and obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wycherley, Thomas P; Buckley, Jonathan D; Noakes, Manny; Clifton, Peter M; Brinkworth, Grant D

    2013-02-01

    To compare the effects of two low-fat, hypoenergetic diets differing in carbohydrate-to-protein ratio, on strength and aerobic capacity measures in overweight and obese men. In a parallel design, 56 men (age, 45.5 ± 8.7 years; BMI, 33.6 ± 3.9 kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to a low-fat, energy-restricted diet (7,000 kJ/day) with either high protein (HP: protein/carbohydrate/fat % energy, 35:40:25) or standard protein (SP, 17:58:25). Body weight, body composition, muscle strength and aerobic capacity were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. Forty-two participants completed the study (HP, n = 21; SP, n = 21). Both groups experienced similar reductions in body weight (HP, -10.7 ± 5.3 kg [-9.8%]; SP, -8.7 ± 3.5 kg [-8.4%]) and fat-free mass (HP, -2.8 ± 3.6 kg; SP, -3.2 ± 2.7 kg; P 0.14 time × group interaction). There was a trend for a greater reduction in fat mass in the HP diet group, (-7.7 ± 4.3 kg [-21.2%] vs. -5.4 ± 3.3 kg [-15.1%]; P diet effect (P ≤ 0.23 time × group interaction). In overweight and obese men, both a HP and SP diet reduced body weight and improved body composition with similar effects on strength and aerobic capacity.

  5. Effect of slow release-Fampridine on muscle strength, rate of force development, functional capacity and cognitive function in an enriched population of MS patients. A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, H B; Nielsen, J L; Ravnborg, M.

    2016-01-01

    contraction (MVC) and rate of force development (RFD) of the lower extremities and 2) to replicate previously published data on the effect of slow release-Fampridine (SR-Fampridine) on the functional capacity of the lower limbs, the upper limb and cognitive function, in persons with multiple sclerosis (pw....... Furthermore, a significant effect of SR-Fampridine on T25FW, SSST and 5-STS was demonstrated. CONCLUSION: Gold standard dynamometry assessment of muscle strength showed improved MVC and RFD in persons with MS treated with SR-Fampridine compared to placebo. Furthermore, previous findings on the effects of SR...

  6. Anisotropic Concrete Compressive Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustenhoff Hansen, Søren; Jørgensen, Henrik Brøner; Hoang, Linh Cao

    2017-01-01

    When the load carrying capacity of existing concrete structures is (re-)assessed it is often based on compressive strength of cores drilled out from the structure. Existing studies show that the core compressive strength is anisotropic; i.e. it depends on whether the cores are drilled parallel...

  7. Diffusion of organic colloids in compacted bentonite. The influence of ionic strength on molecular size and transport capacity of the colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wold, S.; Eriksen, Trygve E.

    2000-09-01

    Diffusion of radionuclides in compacted bentonite can be affected by inorganic and organic colloids if the radionuclides form complexes with the colloids. Formation and mobility of the colloid-radionuclide complexes will be governed by the properties of the colloids as well as the competition between complexation and sorption of the radionuclides on bentonite. This report presents the results of experiments with organic colloids humic acid (HA) and lignosulfonate (LS). The aim of the experiments has been to describe the HA and LS properties: size distribution, acidity, sorption on bentonite, diffusivity in compacted bentonite, complexation with strontium, and diffusion of strontium in bentonite in the presence of HA. This study indicates that the diffusion of cationic radionuclides like Sr 2+ is not affected by the presence of HA in high ionic strength solution. In 0.1 M NaClO 4 solution, HA is most probably not available for complexation due to coiling and shielding of the negative sites

  8. The effect of physical training on patients with rheumatoid arthritis: changes in disease activity, muscle strength and aerobic capacity. A clinically controlled minimized cross-over study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngberg, K; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B; Halskov, O

    1988-01-01

    cross-over study the effect of graduated progressive training has been evaluated in 18 RA-patients with moderately active disease. The training was performed twice weekly with aerobic conditioning and strength exercises progressing to strenuous exercises over an 8-week period. The design was a crossover......For decades, physical training of rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-patients has been controversial, especially for patients with active disease. The aim of this study was to investigate whether RA-patients could receive graduated training without increasing the activity of the disease. In a controlled...... project with two groups obtained by minimisation. After training the patients had significantly fewer swollen joints than before. Training of the muscles acting over the swollen joints resulted in more than a 35% decrease in the number of swollen joints. The hemoglobin level increased significantly after...

  9. WIND TUNNEL RESEARCH ON THE INFLUENCE OF ACTIVE AIRFLOW ON THE LIFT FORCE GENERATED BY THE AIRFOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Magryta

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the results of wind tunnel tests of airfoils with additional active airflow applied to their upper surfaces. These studies were carried out for a range of velocities up to 28 m/s in an open wind tunnel. Several types of airfoils selected for the examination feature different geometries and are widely applied in today’s aviation industry. The changes in the lift and drag force generated by these airfoils were recorded during the study. The test bench for the tests was equipped with a compressor and a vacuum pump to enable airflow through some holes on the airfoil upper surface. A rapid prototyping method and a 3D printer based on a powder printing technique were applied to print the airfoils. All of their surfaces were subject to surface grinding to smooth their external surfaces. The wind tunnel tests with and without active airflow applied to airfoils are summarised in the paper.

  10. Protein Modifiers Generally Provide Limited Improvement in Wood Bond Strength of Soy Flour Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart; Linda Lorenz

    2013-01-01

    Soy flour adhesives using a polyamidoamine-epichlorohydrin (PAE) polymeric coreactant are used increasingly as wood adhesives for interior products. Although these adhesives give good performance, higher bond strength under wet conditions is desirable. Wet strength is important for accelerated tests involving the internal forces generated by the swelling of wood and...

  11. Technical concept and evaluation of a novel shoulder simulator with adaptive muscle force generation and free motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verjans Mark

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The human shoulder is one of the most complex joints of the human body, and due to the high range of motion and the complex soft tissue apparatus prone to injuries. Surgical therapies and joint replacements often lead to unsatisfactory results. To improve the understanding of the complex biomechanics of the shoulder, experimental investigations have to be conducted. For this purpose a new shoulder simulator with an innovative muscle force generation was developed. On the basis of a modular concept six artificial pneumatic muscles were integrated to represent the functionally most important muscles of the shoulder joint, whereby a free and controlled movement of the humerus can be conducted. For each muscle individual setpoints for muscle length control based on a user defined shoulder movement for any artificial or cadaver specimen are created by manual motion “Teach-In”. Additional to muscle forces and lengths, optical tracking and a joint force measurement is used to enable different biomechanical studies of the shoulder joint. This paper describes the technical setup as well as the control strategy and first results of its experimental functional validation.

  12. Clap and Fling Interaction of Bristled Wings: Effects of Varying Reynolds Number and Bristle Spacing on Force Generation and Flow Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasoju, Vishwa Teja

    The smallest flying insects with body lengths under 1 mm, such as thrips and fairyflies, typically show the presence of long bristles on their wings. Thrips have been observed to use wing-wing interaction via 'clap and fling' for flapping flight at low Reynolds number (Re) on the order of 10, where a wing pair comes into close contact at the end of upstroke and fling apart at the beginning of downstroke. We examined the effects of varying the following parameters on force generation and flow structures formed during clap and fling: (1) Re ranging from 5 to 15 for a bristled wing pair (G/D = 17) and a geometrically equivalent solid wing pair; and (2) ratio of spacing between bristles to bristle diameter (G/D) for Re = 10. The G/D ratio in 70 thrips species were quantified from published forewing images. Scaled-up physical models of three bristled wing pairs of varying G/D (5, 11, 17) and a solid wing pair (G/D = 0) were fabricated. A robotic model was used for this study, in which a wing pair was immersed in an aquarium tank filled with glycerin and driven by stepper motors to execute clap and fling kinematics. Dimensionless lift and drag coefficients were determined from strain gauge measurements. Phase-locked particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements were used to examine flow through the bristles. Chordwise PIV was used to visualize the leading edge vortex (LEV) and trailing edge vortex (TEV) formed over the wings during clap and fling. With increasing G/D, larger reduction was observed in peak drag coefficients as compared to reduction in peak lift coefficients. Net circulation, defined as the difference in circulation (strength) of LEV and TEV, diminished with increasing G/D. Reduction in net circulation resulted in reducing lift generated by bristled wings as compared to solid wings. Leaky, recirculating flow through the bristles provided large drag reduction during fling of a bristled wing pair. If flight efficiency is defined as the ratio of lift to drag

  13. Enhanced contractile force generation by artificial skeletal muscle tissues using IGF-I gene-engineered myoblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Masanori; Ito, Akira; Kawabe, Yoshinori; Nagamori, Eiji; Kamihira, Masamichi

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I gene delivery to myoblast cells promotes the contractile force generated by hydrogel-based tissue-engineered skeletal muscles in vitro. Two retroviral vectors allowing doxycycline (Dox)-inducible expression of the IGF-I gene were transduced into mouse myoblast C2C12 cells to evaluate the effects of IGF-I gene expression on these cells. IGF-I gene expression stimulated the proliferation of C2C12 cells, and a significant increase in the growth rate was observed for IGF-I-transduced C2C12 cells with Dox addition, designated C2C12/IGF (Dox+) cells. Quantitative morphometric analyses showed that the myotubes induced from C2C12/IGF (Dox+) cells had a larger area and a greater width than control myotubes induced from normal C2C12 cells. Artificial skeletal muscle tissues were prepared from the respective cells using hydrogels composed of type I collagen and Matrigel. Western blot analyses revealed that the C2C12/IGF (Dox+) tissue constructs showed activation of a skeletal muscle hypertrophy marker (Akt) and enhanced expression of muscle-specific markers (myogenin, myosin heavy chain and tropomyosin). Moreover, the creatine kinase activity was increased in the C2C12/IGF (Dox+) tissue constructs. The C2C12/IGF (Dox+) tissue constructs contracted in response to electrical pulses, and generated a significantly higher physical force than the control C2C12 tissue constructs. These findings indicate that IGF-I gene transfer has the potential to yield functional skeletal muscle substitutes that are capable of in vivo restoration of the load-bearing function of injured muscle or acting as in vitro electrically-controlled bio-actuators. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The effects of a muscle resistance program on the functional capacity, knee extensor muscle strength and plasma levels of IL-6 and TNF-alpha in pre-frail elderly women: a randomized crossover clinical trial--a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustosa, Lygia P; Coelho, Fernanda M; Silva, Juscelio P; Pereira, Daniele S; Parentoni, Adriana N; Dias, João M D; Dias, Rosangela C; Pereira, Leani S M

    2010-07-28

    With the increase in the elderly population, a growing number of chronic degenerative diseases and a greater dependency on caregivers have been observed. Elderly persons in states of frailty remain more susceptible to significant health complications. There is evidence of an inverse relationship between plasma levels of inflammatory mediators and levels of functionality and muscle strength, suggesting that muscle-strengthening measures can aid in inflammatory conditions. The purpose of this study will be verified the effect of a muscle-strengthening program with load during a ten-week period in pre-frail elderly women with attention to the following outcomes: (1) plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), (2) functional capacity and (3) knee extensor muscle strength. The study design is a randomized crossover clinical trial evaluating 26 elderly women (regardless of their race and/or social condition) who are community residents, older than 65, and classified as pre-frail according to the criteria previously described by Fried et al. (2004). All subjects will be assessed using the Timed up and go and 10-Meter Walk Test functional tests. The plasma levels of IL-6 and TNF-alpha will be assessed by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) with high sensitivity kits (QuantikineHS, R&D Systems Minneapolis, MN, U.S.). Knee extensor muscle strength will be assessed using the Byodex System 3 Pro(R) isokinetic dynamometer at angular speeds of 60 and 180 degrees/s. The intervention will consist of strengthening exercises of the lower extremities at 50 to 70% of 1RM (maximal resistance) three times per week for ten weeks. The volunteers will be randomized into two groups: group E, the intervention group, and group C, the control group that did not initiate any new activities during the initial study period (ten weeks). After the initial period, group C will begin the intervention and group E will maintain everyday activities without

  15. The effects of a muscle resistance program on the functional capacity, knee extensor muscle strength and plasma levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in pre-frail elderly women: a randomized crossover clinical trial - a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias João MD

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the increase in the elderly population, a growing number of chronic degenerative diseases and a greater dependency on caregivers have been observed. Elderly persons in states of frailty remain more susceptible to significant health complications. There is evidence of an inverse relationship between plasma levels of inflammatory mediators and levels of functionality and muscle strength, suggesting that muscle-strengthening measures can aid in inflammatory conditions. The purpose of this study will be verified the effect of a muscle-strengthening program with load during a ten-week period in pre-frail elderly women with attention to the following outcomes: (1 plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, (2 functional capacity and (3 knee extensor muscle strength. Methods/Design The study design is a randomized crossover clinical trial evaluating 26 elderly women (regardless of their race and/or social condition who are community residents, older than 65, and classified as pre-frail according to the criteria previously described by Fried et al. (2004. All subjects will be assessed using the Timed up and go and 10-Meter Walk Test functional tests. The plasma levels of IL-6 and TNF-α will be assessed by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with high sensitivity kits (Quantikine®HS, R&D Systems Minneapolis, MN, U.S.. Knee extensor muscle strength will be assessed using the Byodex System 3 Pro® isokinetic dynamometer at angular speeds of 60 and 180°/s. The intervention will consist of strengthening exercises of the lower extremities at 50 to 70% of 1RM (maximal resistance three times per week for ten weeks. The volunteers will be randomized into two groups: group E, the intervention group, and group C, the control group that did not initiate any new activities during the initial study period (ten weeks. After the initial period, group C will begin the intervention and group E will

  16. Associations of the stair climb power test with muscle strength and functional performance in people with COPD: A cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roig, Marc; Eng, Janice J.; MacIntyre, Donna L.

    2010-01-01

    associations of the SCPT with muscle strength (force-generating capacity) and functional performance. DESIGN: The study was a cross-sectional investigation. METHODS: Twenty-one people with COPD and a predicted mean (SD) percentage of forced expiratory volume in 1 second of 47.2 (12.9) and 21 people who were......: The observational design of the study and the use of a relatively small convenience sample limit the generalizability of the findings. CONCLUSIONS: The SCPT is a simple and safe test associated with measures of functional performance in people with COPD. People with COPD show deficits on the SCPT. However, the SCPT......BACKGROUND: The Stair Climb Power Test (SCPT) is a functional test associated with leg muscle power in older people. OBJECTIVE: The purposes of this study were to compare the results of the SCPT in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and people who were healthy and to explore...

  17. Volumes, capacidades pulmonares e força muscular respiratória no pós-operatório de gastroplastia Lung volumes, lung capacities and respiratory muscle strength following gastroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de Moraes Paisani

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A gastroplastia tem sido cada vez mais indicada no tratamento de obesos mórbidos, pacientes nos quais podemos identificar alteração pronunciada de volumes e capacidades pulmonares. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o comportamento dos volumes e capacidades pulmonares, força muscular respiratória, padrão respiratório e as possíveis complicações pulmonares pós-operatórias. MÉTODO: Vinte e um pacientes (três homens com média de idade de 39 ± 9,7 anos, média de índice de massa corpórea de 50,4 Kg/m², candidatos à gastroplastia, foram avaliados no pré-operatório, primeiro, terceiro e quinto dias de pós-operatório e submetidos a mensuração de volume corrente, capacidade vital, volume minuto, pressões máximas expiratória e inspiratória, e circunferências abdominal e torácica. Observou-se a ocorrência de complicações pulmonares pós-operatórias e mortalidade. RESULTADOS: No primeiro e terceiro dias de pós-operatório houve queda de 47% e 30,5% na capacidade vital, 18% e 12,5% no volume minuto, 28% e 21% no volume corrente, 47% e 32% no índice diafragmático, 51% e 26% na pressão inspiratória máxima, e 39,5% e 26% na pressão expiratória máxima, respectivamente (p BACKGROUND: Gastroplasty has been increasingly used in the treatment of morbidly obese patients, who typically present pronounced alterations in lung volume and capacity. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate post-gastroplasty lung volume, lung capacity, respiratory muscle strength and respiratory pattern, as well as any postoperative pulmonary complications. METHOD: 21 patients (3 of them men, with an average age of 39 ± 9.7 years and an average body mass index of 50.4 kg/m², all candidates for gastroplasty, were evaluated during the preoperative period and again on the first, third and fifth postoperative days. Tidal volume, vital capacity, minute volume, maximal expiratory pressure and maximal inspiratory pressure, as well as chest and waist circumferences, were

  18. Evaluation of the force generated by gradual deflection of orthodontic wires in conventional metallic, esthetic, and self-ligating brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisconi, Manoela Fávaro; Janson, Guilherme; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha; Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore de

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the deflection forces of Nitinol orthodontic wires placed in different types of brackets: metallic, reinforced polycarbonate with metallic slots, sapphire, passive and active self-ligating, by assessing strength values variation according to gradual increase in wire diameter and deflection and comparing different combinations in the different deflections. Specimens were set in a clinical simulation model and evaluated in a Universal Testing Machine (INSTRON 3342), using the ISO 15841 protocol. Data were subjected to One-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey tests (pbrackets presented the most similar behavior to each other. For conventional brackets there was no consistent behavior for any of the deflections studied. Self-ligating brackets presented the most consistent and predictable results while conventional brackets, as esthetic brackets, showed very different patterns of forces. Self-ligating brackets showed higher strength in all deflections when compared with the others, in 0.020-inch wires.

  19. Evaluation of the force generated by gradual deflection of orthodontic wires in conventional metallic, esthetic, and self-ligating brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoela Fávaro Francisconi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the deflection forces of Nitinol orthodontic wires placed in different types of brackets: metallic, reinforced polycarbonate with metallic slots, sapphire, passive and active self-ligating, by assessing strength values variation according to gradual increase in wire diameter and deflection and comparing different combinations in the different deflections. Material and Methods: Specimens were set in a clinical simulation model and evaluated in a Universal Testing Machine (INSTRON 3342, using the ISO 15841 protocol. Data were subjected to One-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey tests (p<0.05. Results: Self-ligating brackets presented the most similar behavior to each other. For conventional brackets there was no consistent behavior for any of the deflections studied. Conclusions: Self-ligating brackets presented the most consistent and predictable results while conventional brackets, as esthetic brackets, showed very different patterns of forces. Self-ligating brackets showed higher strength in all deflections when compared with the others, in 0.020-inch wires.

  20. Multi-Capacity Load Cell Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seif. M. OSMAN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Force measuring systems are usually used to calibrate force generated systems, it is not preferable to use load cells to measure forces less than 10 % of its nominal capacity. Several load cells are required to offer calibration facilities at sites to cover different ranges, this lead to difficulties in handling procedures, through the need for several carrying cases to carry this overweight in addition to the over cost of purchasing several load cells. This article concerns with introducing a new concept for designing a multi-capacity load cell as a new force standard in the field of measuring the force. This multi-capacity load cell will replace a set of load cells and reflects economically on the total cost and on easiness of handling procedures.

  1. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    the probability of conflicts and the minimum headway times into account. The last method analyzes how optimal platform tracks are used by examining the arrival and departure pattern of the trains. The developed methods can either be used separately to analyze specific characteristics of the capacity of a station......Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore...... for platform tracks and the probability that arriving trains will not get a platform track immediately at arrival. The third method is a scalable method that analyzes the conflicts in the switch zone(s). In its simplest stage, the method just analyzes the track layout while the more advanced stages also take...

  2. Strength Properties of Aalborg Clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Kirsten Malte; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Augustesen, Anders Hust

    glacial time are characterised by the absence of this mussel. These deposits are named Aalborg Clay and Aalborg Sand. In the city of Aalborg, a fill layer superposes Aalborg Clay. This layer is at some places found to be 6m thick. This fill layer does not provide sufficient bearing capacity, which has...... resulted in many damaged buildings in Aalborg. To provide sufficient bearing capacity it is therefore necessary either to remove the fill or to construct the building on piles. Both methods imply that the strength of Aalborg Clay is important for the construction. This paper evaluates the strength...

  3. Attitude Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Lauren C; Krosnick, Jon A

    2017-01-03

    Attitude strength has been the focus of a huge volume of research in psychology and related sciences for decades. The insights offered by this literature have tremendous value for understanding attitude functioning and structure and for the effective application of the attitude concept in applied settings. This is the first Annual Review of Psychology article on the topic, and it offers a review of theory and evidence regarding one of the most researched strength-related attitude features: attitude importance. Personal importance is attached to an attitude when the attitude is perceived to be relevant to self-interest, social identification with reference groups or reference individuals, and values. Attaching personal importance to an attitude causes crystallizing of attitudes (via enhanced resistance to change), effortful gathering and processing of relevant information, accumulation of a large store of well-organized relevant information in long-term memory, enhanced attitude extremity and accessibility, enhanced attitude impact on the regulation of interpersonal attraction, energizing of emotional reactions, and enhanced impact of attitudes on behavioral intentions and action. Thus, important attitudes are real and consequential psychological forces, and their study offers opportunities for addressing behavioral change.

  4. Carrying Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Kjærgård, Bente

    2012-01-01

    A spatial planning act was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive....../cities. Four different sectors (water, food production, waste, and forests) were selected as core areas for decentralised spatial planning. Indicators for SCC and ACC were identified and assessed with regard to relevance and quantifiability. For each of the indicators selected, a legal threshold or guiding...... was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive carrying capacity (SCC) and assimilative...

  5. Sarcopenia, dynapenia, and the impact of advancing age on human skeletal muscle size and strength; a quantitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, W Kyle; Williams, John; Atherton, Philip; Larvin, Mike; Lund, John; Narici, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Changing demographics make it ever more important to understand the modifiable risk factors for disability and loss of independence with advancing age. For more than two decades there has been increasing interest in the role of sarcopenia, the age-related loss of muscle or lean mass, in curtailing active and healthy aging. There is now evidence to suggest that lack of strength, or dynapenia, is a more constant factor in compromised wellbeing in old age and it is apparent that the decline in muscle mass and the decline in strength can take quite different trajectories. This demands recognition of the concept of muscle quality; that is the force generating per capacity per unit cross-sectional area (CSA). An understanding of the impact of aging on skeletal muscle will require attention to both the changes in muscle size and the changes in muscle quality. The aim of this review is to present current knowledge of the decline in human muscle mass and strength with advancing age and the associated risk to health and survival and to review the underlying changes in muscle characteristics and the etiology of sarcopenia. Cross-sectional studies comparing young (18-45 years) and old (>65 years) samples show dramatic variation based on the technique used and population studied. The median of values of rate of loss reported across studies is 0.47% per year in men and 0.37% per year in women. Longitudinal studies show that in people aged 75 years, muscle mass is lost at a rate of 0.64-0.70% per year in women and 0.80-00.98% per year in men. Strength is lost more rapidly. Longitudinal studies show that at age 75 years, strength is lost at a rate of 3-4% per year in men and 2.5-3% per year in women. Studies that assessed changes in mass and strength in the same sample report a loss of strength 2-5 times faster than loss of mass. Loss of strength is a more consistent risk for disability and death than is loss of muscle mass.

  6. Sarcopenia, dynapenia and the impact of advancing age on human skeletal muscle size and strength; a quantitative review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Kyle Mitchell

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Changing demographics make it ever more important to understand the modifiable risk factors for disability and loss of independence with advancing age. For more than two decades there has been increasing interest in the role of sarcopenia, the age related loss of muscle or lean mass, in curtailing active and healthy aging. There is now evidence to suggest that lack of strength, or dynapenia, is a more constant factor in compromised wellbeing in old age and it is apparent that the decline in muscle mass and the decline in strength can take quite different trajectories. This demands recognition of the concept of muscle quality; that is the force generating per capacity per unit cross-sectional area (CSA. An understanding of the impact of aging on skeletal muscle will require attention to both the changes in muscle size and the changes in muscle quality.The aim of this review is to present current knowledge of the decline in human muscle mass and strength with advancing age and the associated risk to health and survival and to review the underlying changes in muscle characteristics and the aetiology of sarcopenia. Cross-sectional studies comparing young (18-45yrs and old (>65yrs samples show dramatic variation based on the technique used and population studied. The median of values of rate of loss reported across studies is 0.47% per year in men and 0.37% per year in women. Longitudinal studies show that in people aged 75yrs, muscle mass is lost at a rate of 0.64-0.70% per year in women and 0.80-0.98% per year in men. Strength is lost more rapidly. Longitudinal studies show that at age 75yrs, strength is lost at a rate of 3-4% per year in men and 2.5-3% per year in women. Studies that assessed changes in mass and strength in the same sample report a loss of strength 2 – 5 times faster than loss of mass. Loss of strength is a more consistent risk for disability and death than is loss of muscle mass.

  7. Exerting Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, J Michael; Phillips, Carolyn A

    2017-05-01

    Patient safety has been at the forefront of nursing research since the release of the Institute of Medicine's report estimating the number of preventable adverse events in hospital settings; yet no research to date has incorporated the perspectives of bedside nurses using classical grounded theory (CGT) methodology. This CGT study explored the perceptions of bedside registered nurses regarding patient safety in adult acute care hospitals. Data analysis used three techniques unique to CGT-the constant comparative method, coding, and memoing-to explore the values, realities, and beliefs of bedside nurses about patient safety. The analysis resulted in a substantive theory, Exerting Capacity, which explained how bedside nurses balance the demands of keeping their patients safe. Exerting Capacity has implications for health care organization leaders, nursing leaders, and bedside nurses; it also has indications for future research into the concept of patient safety.

  8. Capacity Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molloy, Brian; Mallick, Shahid

    2014-01-01

    Outcomes & Recommendations: • Significant increase needed in the nuclear workforce both to replace soon-to-retire current generation and to staff large numbers of new units planned • Key message, was the importance of an integrated approach to workforce development. • IAEA and other International Organisations were asked to continue to work on Knowledge Management, Networks and E&T activities • IAEA requested to conduct Global Survey of HR needs – survey initiated but only 50% of operating countries (30% of capacity) took part, so results inconclusive

  9. Comparison of Frictional Forces Generated by a New Ceramic Bracket with the Conventional Brackets using Unconventional and Conventional Ligation System and the Self-ligating Brackets: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, Azam; Vishwakarma, Swati; Narayan, Anjali; Vinay, K; Shetty, Smitha V; Roy, Partha Pratim

    2015-09-01

    Fixed orthodontic mechanotherapy is associated with friction between the bracket - wire - ligature interfaces during the sliding mechanics. A sound knowledge of the various factors affecting the magnitude of friction is of paramount importance. The present study was done to analyze and compare the frictional forces generated by a new ceramic (Clarity Advanced) bracket with the conventional, (metal and ceramic) brackets using unconventional and conventional ligation system, and the self-ligating (metal and ceramic) brackets in the dry condition. The various bracket wire ligation combinations were tested in dry condition. The brackets used were of 0.022″ × 0.028″ nominal slot dimension of MBT prescription: Stainless steel (SS) self-ligating bracket (SLB) of (SmartClip), SS Conventional bracket (CB) (Victory series), Ceramic SLB (Clarity SL), Conventional Ceramic bracket with metal slot (Clarity Bracket), Clarity Advanced Ceramic Brackets (Clarity(™) ADVANCED, 3M Unitek). These brackets were used with two types of elastomeric ligatures: Conventional Elastomeric Ligatures (CEL) (Clear medium mini modules) and Unconventional Elastomeric Ligatures (UEL) (Clear medium slide ligatures, Leone orthodontic products). The aligning and the retraction wires were used, i.e., 0.014″ nickel titanium (NiTi) wires and 0.019″ × 0.025″ SS wires, respectively. A universal strength testing machine was used to measure the friction produced between the different bracket, archwires, and ligation combination. This was done with the use of a custom-made jig being in position. Mean, standard deviation, and range were computed for the frictional values obtained. Results were subjected to statistical analysis through ANOVA. The frictional resistance observed in the new Clarity Advanced bracket with a conventional elastomeric ligature was almost similar with the Clarity metal slot bracket with a conventional elastomeric ligature. When using the UEL, the Clarity Advanced bracket

  10. Bond strength of masonry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluijm, van der R.; Vermeltfoort, A.Th.

    1992-01-01

    Bond strength is not a well defined property of masonry. Normally three types of bond strength can be distinguished: - tensile bond strength, - shear (and torsional) bond strength, - flexural bond strength. In this contribution the behaviour and strength of masonry in deformation controlled uniaxial

  11. On the higher order derivatives in the laws of motion and their application to an active force generator and to condition monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahdelma, S.

    1995-12-31

    The current paper commences with a review of the history of classical mechanics. The problems connected with condition monitoring and the construction of high-speed machines are so difficult that a knowledge of the fundamentals of mechanics is essential for solving them. It is thus natural that careful attention should be paid to the starting points and assumptions upon which earlier measurement and calculation methods have relied, for it is only after this than one can deduce whether certain simplifications are due to inadequate measurement technology, inflexibility of ideas, a level of precision that is restricted to simple applications or efforts towards simple models merely in order to avoid calculation work. The historical section contains citations from the original sources, which will be useful for those wishing to examine the topic in more detail. The actual textual part is written in such a way that the fundamental content of the works quoted becomes clear even though not all the individual points are translated word for word. The general practice of utilizing the original notations is observed in this section. The paper contains a new way of deriving the laws of motion in classical mechanics from the fundamental law presented in Section 3. Original sources are employed in interpretations regarding terminology, particularly in the case of Lagrange`s function and Hamilton`s principle. The experimental section involves an examination of a two-particle system composed of an active force generator controlled by the first and second time derivatives of the accelerations and by the fractional time derivatives of the particles. This also enables resonance vibrations to be reduced considerably and highly stable solutions to be found

  12. The Strength Compass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledertoug, Mette Marie

    In the Ph.D-project ͚Strengths-based Learning - Children͛s character strengths as a means to their learning potential͛ 750 Danish children have assessed ͚The Strength Compass͛ in order to identify their strengths and to create awareness of strengths. This was followed by a strengths......-based intervention program in order to explore the strengths. Finally different methods to apply the strength in everyday life at school were applied. The paper presentation will show the results for strengths display for children aged 6-16 in different categories: Different age groups: Are the same strengths...... present in both small children and youths? Gender: Do the results show differences between the two genders? Danish as a mother- tongue language: Do the results show any differences in the strengths display when considering different language and cultural backgrounds? Children with Special Needs: Do...

  13. Deficiency of employability capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelse I.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Young unemployed people have comprised one of the significantly largest groups of the unemployed people in Latvia in recent years. One of the reasons why young people have difficulty integrating into the labour market is the “expectation gap” that exists in the relations between employers and the new generation of workers. Employers focus on capacity-building for employability such individual factors as strength, patience, self-discipline, self-reliance, self-motivation, etc., which having a nature of habit and are developed in a long-term work socialization process, which begins even before the formal education and will continue throughout the life cycle. However, when the socialization is lost, these habits are depreciated faster than they can be restored. Currently a new generation is entering the labour market, which is missing the succession of work socialization. Factors, such as rising unemployment and poverty in the background over the past twenty years in Latvia have created a very unfavourable employability background of “personal circumstances” and “external factors”, which seriously have impaired formation of the skills and attitudes in a real work environment. The study reveals another paradox – the paradox of poverty. Common sense would want to argue that poverty can be overcome by the job. However, the real state of affairs shows that unfavourable coincidence of the individual, personal circumstances and external factors leads to deficit of employability capacity and possibility of marked social and employment deprivation.

  14. Comparison of Thermal Stability of Dry High-strength Concrete and Wet High-strength Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musorina, Tatiana; Katcay, Aleksandr; Selezneva, Anna; Kamskov, Victor

    2018-03-01

    High-strength concrete is a modern material, which occupies it`s own niche on the construction material market. It is applicable in a large-scale high-rise construction, particularly an underground construction is a frequently used solution for a space saving. Usually underground structure is related to a wet usage environment. Though not all properties of the high-strength concrete are investigated to the full extent. Under adverse climatic conditions of the Russian Federation one of the most important properties for constructional materials is a thermal capacity. Therefore, the main purpose of the paper is to compare a thermal capacity of the high-strength concrete in humid conditions and a thermal capacity of the high-strength concrete in dry operational condition. During the study dependency between thermal capacity and design wall thickness and ambient humidity has to be proven with two experiments. As a result the theoretical relation between thermal capacity characteristic - thermal inertia and wall thickness and ambient humidity was confirmed by the experimental data. The thermal capacity of a building is in direct ratio to the construction thickness. It follows from the experiments and calculations that wet high-strength concrete has less thermal stability.

  15. Effect of tool rotational speed on force generation, microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir welded Al–Mg–Cr–Mn (AA 5052-O) alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshwan, Raza; Yusof, Farazila; Hassan, M.A.; Rahmat, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • 3 mm thick AA 5052-O alloy plates were successfully joined by FSW process. • The joint was produced at 1000 rpm yielded a maximum tensile strength of 132 MPa. • The dissolution of β-Mg 2 Al 3 intermetallic phases of FSWed joints were reported. • Different axial forces acted on welding tool during welding were investigated. - Abstract: Friction stir welding (FSW) between 3 mm thick AA 5052-O aluminum alloy plates was investigated in the present study. Different welded specimens were produced by employing a constant tool traverse speed of 120 mm/min and by varying rotating speeds from 800 to 3000 rpm. The welded joints were characterized by its appearances, microstructural and mechanical properties at room temperature. The measurement of different forces acted on the tool during the FSW of AA 5052-O plates provided a significant insight to determine the quality of the welded joints. From the appearances of the welded joints it was evident that, except the tool rotational speed of 3000 rpm all other rotational speeds produced sound welded joints with smooth surface. The joint produced at 1000 rpm yielded a maximum tensile strength of 132 MPa which was 74% of the base material strength. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analyses on the stir zone suggested that, β-Mg 2 Al 3 intermetallic phases of the base material were mechanically fractured, smeared and mixed to different geometries due to tool stirring. The dissolution and redistribution of β-Mg 2 Al 3 second phase particles in the stir zone had a considerable effect on the reduction of the tensile strength of the welded joints. The reduction in hardness at the nugget zone (NZ) of the welded joints under different tool rotational speeds could be attributed to the dislocation of Mg-rich phases and segregation of Mg solute atoms at grain boundaries, which drew solute Mg atoms away from the α-aluminum matrix

  16. The strength compass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledertoug, Mette Marie

    of agreement/disagreement. Also the child/teacher is asked whether the actual strength is important and if he or she has the possibilities to apply the strength in the school. In a PhDproject ‘Strengths-based Learning - Children’s Character Strengths as Means to their Learning Potential’ 750 Danish children......Individual paper presentation: The ‘Strength Compass’. The results of a PhDresearch project among schoolchildren (age 6-16) identifying VIAstrengths concerning age, gender, mother-tongue-langue and possible child psychiatric diagnosis. Strengths-based interventions in schools have a theoretical...... Psychological Publishing Company. ‘The Strength Compass’ is a computer/Ipad based qualitative tool to identify the strengths of a child by a self-survey or a teacher’s survey. It is designed as a visual analogue scale with a statement of the strength in which the child/teacher may declare the degree...

  17. Capacity for work researching method in animal experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pul'nov, V.N.; Mashneva, N.I.

    1978-01-01

    The existing methods of examining the work capacity of animals are discussed with reference to extrapolation of animal data to man. A modified procedure for measuring maximal physical strength is proposed, whereby static endurance of animals at a given exercise rate can be measured. For an integrated evaluation of work capacity, a formula of absolute work capacity is suggested. The proposed procedure may be used to study the working capacity of animals exposed to unfavorable factors of radiation or nonradiation nature

  18. Elementary and advanced modelling of the splitting strength of timber connections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, J.C.M.D.

    2008-01-01

    The load-bearing capacity of a timber member loaded perpendicular-to-grain by a connection is governed by either the embedment strength, the bending yield strength of the steel fasteners, or the splitting strength of the timber. Only coarse models for predicting the splitting strength are

  19. Strengths-based Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledertoug, Mette Marie

    -being. The Ph.D.-project in Strength-based learning took place in a Danish school with 750 pupils age 6-16 and a similar school was functioning as a control group. The presentation will focus on both the aware-explore-apply processes and the practical implications for the schools involved, and on measurable......Strength-based learning - Children͛s Character Strengths as Means to their Learning Potential͛ is a Ph.D.-project aiming to create a strength-based mindset in school settings and at the same time introducing strength-based interventions as specific tools to improve both learning and well...

  20. Give Me Strength.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    维拉

    1996-01-01

    Mort had an absolutely terrible day at the office.Everythingthat could go wrong did go wrong.As he walked home he could beheard muttering strange words to himself:“Oh,give me strength,give me strength.”Mort isn’t asking for the kind of strength thatbuilds strong muscles:he’s asking for the courage or ability to

  1. Strength of Glued-in Bolts after Full Scale Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Clorius, Christian Odin; Damkilde, Lars

    1999-01-01

    with a length of 500 mm had a special hollow tapering giving them a higher load bearing capacity than solid bolts of equal dimensions. A FEM-analysis confirms the higher load bearing capacity. The mean residual strength was found to be 362 kN with a standard deviation of 37 kN, which is 95% of the predicted...

  2. Endurance and strength training in pulmonary rehabilitation for COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Daabis

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: PR is an effective intervention for the post-exacerbation management of COPD patients. It leads to significant improvements of dyspnea, HRQL and functional exercise capacity. When added to a program of ET, strength training confers additional benefits in muscle force, but not in overall exercise capacity or health status.

  3. High strength ferritic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A high strength ferritic steel is specified in which the major alloying elements are chromium and molybdenum, with smaller quantities of niobium, vanadium, silicon, manganese and carbon. The maximum swelling is specified for various irradiation conditions. Rupture strength is also specified. (U.K.)

  4. Photon strength functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergqvist, I.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for extracting photon strength functions are briefly discussed. We follow the Brink-Axel approach to relate the strength functions to the giant resonances observed in photonuclear work and summarize the available data on the E1, E2 and M1 resonances. Some experimental and theoretical problems are outlined. (author)

  5. Interviewing to Understand Strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, Michael R.

    2018-01-01

    Interviewing clients about their strengths is an important part of developing a complete understanding of their lives and has several advantages over simply focusing on problems and pathology. Prerequisites for skillfully interviewing for strengths include the communication skills that emerge from a stance of not knowing, developing a vocabulary…

  6. Total iron binding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003489.htm Total iron binding capacity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to ...

  7. Air capacity for Sydney

    OpenAIRE

    Forsyth, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Like most large cities, Sydney has an airport problem. Demand is increasing faster than supply, and additional capacity will be needed if costly rationing, and delays, are to be avoided. However, compared to many cities, the problems facing Sydney are modest. At the moment, demand is only just exceeding capacity. There is a good chance that the available capacity will be rationed efficiently. Options for expanding capacity are being evaluated well. There may be problems in the future- poor op...

  8. Responsibility and Capacities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    That responsible moral agency presupposes certain mental capacities, constitutes a widely accepted view among theorists. Moreover, it is often assumed that degrees in the development of the relevant capacities co-vary with degrees of responsibility. In this article it is argued that, the move from...... the view that responsibility requires certain mental capacities to the position that degrees of responsibility co-vary with degrees of the development of the mental capacities, is premature....

  9. CDMA systems capacity engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kiseon

    2004-01-01

    This new hands-on resource tackles capacity planning and engineering issues that are crucial to optimizing wireless communication systems performance. Going beyond the system physical level and investigating CDMA system capacity at the service level, this volume is the single-source for engineering and analyzing systems capacity and resources.

  10. PAYMENT CAPACITY SENSITIVITY FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel BRÎNDESCU – OLARIU

    2014-11-01

    The results of the study facilitate the determination and classification of the main sensitivity factors for the payment capacity at sample level, the establishment of general benchmarks for the payment capacity (as no such benchmarks currently exist in the Romanian literature and the identification of the mechanisms through which the variation of different factors impacts the payment capacity.

  11. A capacity assessment towards more resilient societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlicke, C.; Steinführer, A.

    2012-04-01

    Social capacity building for natural hazards is a topic increasingly gaining relevance not only for so-called developing countries but also for European welfare states which are continuously challenged by the social, economic and ecological impacts of natural hazards. Following an outline of recent governance changes with regard to natural hazards, we develop a heuristic model of social capacity building by taking into account a wide range of existing expertise from different fields of research. Particular attention is paid to social vulnerability and its assessment, as well as to risk communication and risk education as specific strategies of social capacity building. We propose to distinguish between interventionist and participatory approaches, thus enabling for a better understanding of existing practices of social capacity building as well as their particular strengths and weaknesses. It is from this typology the presentation will develop two kinds of operational social capacity audits; one for communities and one for organisations. These assessments aim to identify appropriate measures and strategies regarding how to enhance, develop and build different kinds of capacities. By using these assessments participants will be able to identify strong capacities and can refer to the recommendations for tips on how to improve capacities identified as weak. That way deficits and outcomes are defined by those who are most likely to be affected by a future hazard event and most likely to be implementing improvements towards resilience.

  12. Submaximal exercise capacity and maximal power output in polio subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nollet, F.; Beelen, A.; Sargeant, A. J.; de Visser, M.; Lankhorst, G. J.; de Jong, B. A.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the submaximal exercise capacity of polio subjects with postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS) and without (non-PPS) with that of healthy control subjects, to investigate the relationship of this capacity with maximal short-term power and quadriceps strength, and to evaluate

  13. Normal isometric strength of rotatorcuff muscles in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chezar, A; Berkovitch, Y; Haddad, M; Keren, Y; Soudry, M; Rosenberg, N

    2013-01-01

    The most prevalent disorders of the shoulder are related to the muscles of rotator cuff. In order to develop a mechanical method for the evaluation of the rotator cuff muscles, we created a database of isometric force generation by the rotator cuff muscles in normal adult population. We hypothesised the existence of variations according to age, gender and dominancy of limb. A total of 400 healthy adult volunteers were tested, classified into groups of 50 men and women for each decade of life. Maximal isometric force was measured at standardised positions for supraspinatus, infraspinatus and subscapularis muscles in both shoulders in every person. Torque of the force was calculated and normalised to lean body mass. The profiles of mean torque-time curves for each age and gender group were compared. Our data showed that men gradually gained maximal strength in the fifth decade, and showed decreased strength in the sixth. In women the maximal strength was gained in the fourth decade with gradual decline to the sixth decade of life. The dominant arm was stronger in most of the tested groups. The torque profiles of the rotator cuff muscles in men at all ages were significantly higher than that in women. We found previously unrecognised variations of rotator cuff muscles' isometric strength according to age, gender and dominancy in a normal population. The presented data may serve as a basis for the future studies for identification of the abnormal patterns of muscle isometric strength in patients with pathology of the rotator cuff muscles. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2013;2:214-19.

  14. Effect of concrete strength gradation to the compressive strength of graded concrete, a numerical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratama, M. Mirza Abdillah; Aylie, Han; Gan, Buntara Sthenly; Umniati, B. Sri; Risdanareni, Puput; Fauziyah, Shifa

    2017-09-01

    Concrete casting, compacting method, and characteristic of the concrete material determine the performance of concrete as building element due to the material uniformity issue. Previous studies show that gradation in strength exists on building member by nature and negatively influence the load carrying capacity of the member. A pilot research had modeled the concrete gradation in strength with controllable variable and observed that the weakest material determines the strength of graded concrete through uniaxial compressive loading test. This research intends to confirm the recent finding by a numerical approach with extensive variables of strength disparity. The finite element analysis was conducted using the Strand7 nonlinear program. The results displayed that the increase of strength disparity in graded concrete models leads to the slight reduction of models strength. A substantial difference in displacement response is encountered on the models for the small disparity of concrete strength. However, the higher strength of concrete mix in the graded concrete models contributes to the rise of material stiffness that provides a beneficial purpose for serviceability of building members.

  15. Argument Strength and the Persuasiveness of Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Constanze; Appel, Markus; Isberner, Maj-Britt; Richter, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Stories are a powerful means to change people’s attitudes and beliefs. The aim of the current work was to shed light on the role of argument strength (argument quality) in narrative persuasion. The present study examined the influence of strong versus weak arguments on attitudes in a low or high narrative context. Moreover, baseline attitudes, interindividual differences in working memory capacity, and recipients’ transportation were examined. Stories with strong arguments were more persuasive than stories with weak arguments. This main effect was qualified by a two-way interaction with baseline attitude, revealing that argument strength had a greater impact on individuals who initially were particularly doubtful toward the story claim. Furthermore, we identified a three-way interaction showing that argument strength mattered most for recipients who were deeply transported into the story world in stories that followed a typical narrative structure. These findings provide an important specification of narrative persuasion theory. PMID:29805322

  16. Strength and power of knee extensor muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Olivera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the studies of human neuromuscular function, the function of leg muscles has been most often measured, particularly the function of the knee extensors. Therefore, this review will be focused on knee extensors, methods for assessment of its function, the interdependence of strength and power, relations that describe these two abilities and the influence of various factors on their production (resistance training, stretching, movement tasks, age, etc.. Given that it consists of four separate muscles, the variability of their anatomical characteristics affects their participation in strength and power production, depending on the type of movement and motion that is performed. Since KE is active in a variety of activities it must be able to generate great strength in a large and diverse range of muscle lengths and high shortening velocities, in respect to different patterns of strength production, and thus different generation capacities within the muscle (Blazevich et al., 2006. It has been speculated that KE exerts its Pmax at workloads close to subject's own body weight or lower (Rahmani et al., 2001, which is very close to the maximum dynamic output hypothesis (MDI of Jaric and Markovic (2009. Changes under the influence of resistance training or biological age are variously manifested in muscle's morphological, physiological and neural characteristics, and thus in strength and power. Understanding the issues related to strength and power as abilities of great importance for daily activities, is also important for sports and rehabilitation. Performances improvement in sports in which leg muscles strength and power are crucial, as well as recovery after the injuries, are largely dependent on the research results regarding KE function. Also, the appropriate strength balance between knee flexors and extensors is important for the knee joint stability, so that the presence of imbalance between these two muscle groups might be a risk factor for

  17. Redox potentials of PuO{sub 2}{sup 2+}/PuO{sub 2}{sup +} and Pu{sup 4+}/Pu{sup 3+} at different ionic strengths and temperatures; entropy and heat capacity; Potentiels Redox des couples PuO{sub 2}{sup 2+}/PuO{sub 2}{sup +} et Pu{sup 4+}/Pu{sup 3+} a force ionique et temperature variables. Entropie et capacite calorifique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capdevila, H.; Vitorge, P.

    1994-05-01

    The reversible redox potentials of the Plutonium couples are measured by using cyclic voltammetry, in perchloric media at ionic strength, I from 0,5 M to 3M, and temperature, T, from 5 deg C to 65 deg C. At each T, experimental results, E(T,I), are extrapolated to I = O by applying the Specific Interaction Theory (S.I.T.) to get interaction coefficients, {Delta} is element of (T), and E(T,O) (e.g. standard potentials when T = 25 deg C). At T = 25 deg C the numerical values of the potentials of all the Pu couples are nearly the same. It is then not easy to detect a systematic error due to disproportionation or redox impurity. This can explain some discrepancy on numerical values already published. We finally propose ``recommended values`` of the reversible redox potentials. As a first approximation, the variations of these potentials seem to be quite linear versus temperature: entropy variation versus T is small. But taking into account heat capacity that is involved in the E(T,I) second order derivative, usually improves the fitting. A second order expansion of {epsilon}(T) and of the Debye Huckel term, D(T) are used to propose equations that account for simultaneous ionic strength and temperature influences on G, S, Cp, H, and lg K. These equations, in particular those modelling the ionic strength influence on {Delta}S, {Delta}Cp, and {Delta}H are first checked for published mean activity coefficients of HCI and NaCI. Small discrepancy between the numerical values of entropy changes of actinides redox couples, deduced from electrochemical and calorimetric techniques are discussed. (authors). 27 refs., 6 tabs., 10 figs.

  18. Functional capacity and muscular abnormalities in subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuters, Vaneska S; Teixeira, Patrícia de Fátima S; Vigário, Patrícia S; Almeida, Cloyra P; Buescu, Alexandre; Ferreira, Márcia M; de Castro, Carmen L N; Gold, Jaime; Vaisman, Mario

    2009-10-01

    Neuromuscular abnormalities and low exercise tolerance are frequently observed in overt hypothyroidism, but it remains controversial if they can also occur in subclinical hypothyroidism (sHT). The aim of this study is to evaluate neuromuscular symptoms, muscle strength, and exercise capacity in sHT, compared with healthy euthyroid individuals. A cross-sectional study was performed with 44 sHT and 24 euthyroid outpatients from a university hospital. Neuromuscular symptoms were questioned. Muscle strength was tested for neck, shoulder, arm, and hip muscle groups, using manual muscle testing (MMT). Quadriceps muscle strength was tested with a chair dynamometer and inspiratory muscle strength (IS) by a manuvacuometer. Functional capacity was estimated based on the peak of oxygen uptake (mL/kg/min), using the Bruce treadmill protocol. Cramps (54.8% versus 25.0%; P muscle strength by MMT and the coexistence of neuromuscular complaints in patients with sHT may indicate neuromuscular dysfunction.

  19. Capacity planning and management

    OpenAIRE

    Boydell, Briony

    2011-01-01

    After reading this chapter you should be able to: • Define and measure capacity and appreciate the factors that influence it. • Assess the difficulties of matching capacity to demand. • Evaluate and apply the different strategies for matching capacity with demand in the short, medium and long term. • Analyse the impact of constraints and bottlenecks on a process and consider the Theory of Constraints. • Outline the different strategies available for both manufacturing and service operations. ...

  20. Computer-Controlled Force Generator, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TDA Research, Inc. is developing a compact, low power, Next-Generation Exercise Device (NGRED) that can generate any force between 5 and 600 lbf. We use a closed...

  1. The French capacity mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The French capacity mechanism has been design to ensure security of supply in the context of the energy transition. This energy transition challenges the electricity market design with several features: peak load growth, the development of renewables, demand response,... To ensure security of supply in this context, a capacity mechanism is being implemented in France. It is a market wide capacity obligation on electricity suppliers, based on market principles. Suppliers are responsible for forecasting their obligation, which corresponds to their contribution to winter peak load, and must procure enough capacity certificates to meet their obligations. Capacity certificates are granted to capacities through a certification process, which assesses their contribution to security of supply on the basis of availability commitments. This certification process is technology neutral and performance based, associated with controls and penalties in case of non compliance. Demand Side is fully integrated in the market, either through the reduction of suppliers' capacity obligation or direct participation after certification. In addition to the expected benefits in terms of security of supply, the French capacity market will foster the development of demand response. The participation of foreign capacities will require adaptations which are scheduled in a road-map, and could pave the way for further European integration of energy policies. (authors)

  2. Heat Capacity Analysis Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findikakis, A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide heat capacity values for the host and surrounding rock layers for the waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The heat capacity representations provided by this analysis are used in unsaturated zone (UZ) flow, transport, and coupled processes numerical modeling activities, and in thermal analyses as part of the design of the repository to support the license application. Among the reports that use the heat capacity values estimated in this report are the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' report, the ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' report, the ''Ventilation Model and Analysis Report, the Igneous Intrusion Impacts on Waste Packages and Waste Forms'' report, the ''Dike/Drift Interactions report, the Drift-Scale Coupled Processes (DST and TH Seepage) Models'' report, and the ''In-Drift Natural Convection and Condensation'' report. The specific objective of this study is to determine the rock-grain and rock-mass heat capacities for the geologic stratigraphy identified in the ''Mineralogic Model (MM3.0) Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170031], Table 1-1). This report provides estimates of the heat capacity for all stratigraphic layers except the Paleozoic, for which the mineralogic abundance data required to estimate the heat capacity are not available. The temperature range of interest in this analysis is 25 C to 325 C. This interval is broken into three separate temperature sub-intervals: 25 C to 95 C, 95 C to 114 C, and 114 C to 325 C, which correspond to the preboiling, trans-boiling, and postboiling regimes. Heat capacity is defined as the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of material by one degree (Nimick and Connolly 1991 [DIRS 100690], p. 5). The rock-grain heat capacity is defined as the heat capacity of the rock solids (minerals), and does not include the effect of water that exists in the rock pores. By comparison, the rock-mass heat capacity considers the heat capacity of both solids and pore

  3. Strength of Fibrous Composites

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Zheng-Ming

    2012-01-01

    "Strength of Fibrous Composites" addresses evaluation of the strength of a fibrous composite by using its constituent material properties and its fiber architecture parameters. Having gone through the book, a reader is able to predict the progressive failure behavior and ultimate strength of a fibrous laminate subjected to an arbitrary load condition in terms of the constituent fiber and matrix properties, as well as fiber geometric parameters. The book is useful to researchers and engineers working on design and analysis for composite materials. Dr. Zheng-Ming Huang is a professor at the School of Aerospace Engineering & Applied Mechanics, Tongji University, China. Mr. Ye-Xin Zhou is a PhD candidate at the Department of Mechanical Engineering, the University of Hong Kong, China.

  4. Associations of maximal strength and muscular endurance test scores with cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaara, Jani P; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Niemi, Jaakko; Ohrankämmen, Olli; Häkkinen, Arja; Kocay, Sheila; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the relationships between maximal strength and muscular endurance test scores additionally to previously widely studied measures of body composition and maximal aerobic capacity. 846 young men (25.5 ± 5.0 yrs) participated in the study. Maximal strength was measured using isometric bench press, leg extension and grip strength. Muscular endurance tests consisted of push-ups, sit-ups and repeated squats. An indirect graded cycle ergometer test was used to estimate maximal aerobic capacity (V(O2)max). Body composition was determined with bioelectrical impedance. Moreover, waist circumference (WC) and height were measured and body mass index (BMI) calculated. Maximal bench press was positively correlated with push-ups (r = 0.61, p strength (r = 0.34, p strength correlated positively (r = 0.36-0.44, p test scores were related to maximal aerobic capacity and body fat content, while fat free mass was associated with maximal strength test scores and thus is a major determinant for maximal strength. A contributive role of maximal strength to muscular endurance tests could be identified for the upper, but not the lower extremities. These findings suggest that push-up test is not only indicative of body fat content and maximal aerobic capacity but also maximal strength of upper body, whereas repeated squat test is mainly indicative of body fat content and maximal aerobic capacity, but not maximal strength of lower extremities.

  5. High strength alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziasz, Phillip James [Oak Ridge, TN; Shingledecker, John Paul [Knoxville, TN; Santella, Michael Leonard [Knoxville, TN; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod Kumar [Oak Ridge, TN; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; John, Randy Carl [Houston, TX; Kim, Dong Sub [Sugar Land, TX

    2010-08-31

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tubular that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  6. Hand grip strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Henrik; Gaist, David; Petersen, Hans Christian

    2002-01-01

    in life is a major problem in terms of prevalence, morbidity, functional limitations, and quality of life. It is therefore of interest to find a phenotype reflecting physical functioning which has a relatively high heritability and which can be measured in large samples. Hand grip strength is known......-55%). A powerful design to detect genes associated with a phenotype is obtained using the extreme discordant and concordant sib pairs, of whom 28 and 77 dizygotic twin pairs, respectively, were found in this study. Hence grip strength is a suitable phenotype for identifying genetic variants of importance to mid...

  7. Prospects for OPEC capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelman, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    OPEC capacity is not exogenous, but responds to demand. Price increases have not been caused by capacity shortages. OPEC nations find it hard to set aside even very small portions of their revenues for oil investment, despite its extreme profitability. Foreign investors face high risks. Production sharing makes their after-tax return even more unstable. (author)

  8. Aerobic capacity and its correlates in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Lin-Fen; Wei, James Cheng-Chung; Lee, Hsin-Yi; Chuang, Chih-Cheng; Jiang, Jiunn-Song; Chang, Kae-Chwen

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate aerobic capacity in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and determine possible relationships between aerobic capacity, pulmonary function, and disease-related variables. Forty-two patients with AS and 42 healthy controls were recruited in the study. Descriptive data, disease-related variables (grip strength, lumbosacral mobility, occiput-to-wall distance, chest expansion, finger-to-floor distance, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Global Score, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP) and hemoglobin), and chest and thoracic spine x-rays were collected in each patient with AS. All subjects took standard pulmonary function and exercise tolerance tests, and forced vital capacity (FVC) and aerobic capacity were recorded. Both aerobic capacity and FVC in patients with AS were significantly lower than those in normal subjects (P aerobic capacity. There was significant correlation between aerobic capacity, vital capacity, chest expansion, Schober's test, cervical range of motion, and BASFI in patients with AS. Neither aerobic capacity nor vital capacity correlated with disease duration, ESR, CRP, and hemoglobin. Significantly reduced aerobic capacity and FVC were observed in patients with AS, and there was significant correlation between aerobic capacity, vital capacity, chest expansion, and BASFI. © 2014 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Uncertainty in adaptive capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neil Adger, W.; Vincent, K.

    2005-01-01

    The capacity to adapt is a critical element of the process of adaptation: it is the vector of resources that represent the asset base from which adaptation actions can be made. Adaptive capacity can in theory be identified and measured at various scales, from the individual to the nation. The assessment of uncertainty within such measures comes from the contested knowledge domain and theories surrounding the nature of the determinants of adaptive capacity and the human action of adaptation. While generic adaptive capacity at the national level, for example, is often postulated as being dependent on health, governance and political rights, and literacy, and economic well-being, the determinants of these variables at national levels are not widely understood. We outline the nature of this uncertainty for the major elements of adaptive capacity and illustrate these issues with the example of a social vulnerability index for countries in Africa. (authors)

  10. Profiled Deck Composite Slab Strength Verification: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mohammed

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present an overview on alternate profiled deck composite slab (PDCS strength verification devoid of the expensive and complex laboratory procedures in establishing its longitudinal shear capacity. Despite the several deterministic research findings leading to the development of proposals and modifications on the complex shear characteristics of PDCS that defines its strength behaviour, the laboratory performance testing stands to be the only accurate means for the PDCS strength assessment. The issue is critical and warrants much further thoughts from different perspective other than the deterministic approach that are rather expensive and time consuming. Hence, the development of a rational-based numerical test load function from longitudinal shear capacity consideration is a necessity in augmenting the previous futile attempts for strength determination of PDCS devoid of the costlier and expensive laboratory procedure.

  11. Uncertainty in Seismic Capacity of Masonry Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Augenti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Seismic assessment of masonry structures is plagued by both inherent randomness and model uncertainty. The former is referred to as aleatory uncertainty, the latter as epistemic uncertainty because it depends on the knowledge level. Pioneering studies on reinforced concrete buildings have revealed a significant influence of modeling parameters on seismic vulnerability. However, confidence in mechanical properties of existing masonry buildings is much lower than in the case of reinforcing steel and concrete. This paper is aimed at assessing whether and how uncertainty propagates from material properties to seismic capacity of an entire masonry structure. A typical two-story unreinforced masonry building is analyzed. Based on previous statistical characterization of mechanical properties of existing masonry types, the following random variables have been considered in this study: unit weight, uniaxial compressive strength, shear strength at zero confining stress, Young’s modulus, shear modulus, and available ductility in shear. Probability density functions were implemented to generate a significant number of realizations and static pushover analysis of the case-study building was performed for each vector of realizations, load combination and lateral load pattern. Analysis results show a large dispersion in displacement capacity and lower dispersion in spectral acceleration capacity. This can directly affect decision-making because both design and retrofit solutions depend on seismic capacity predictions. Therefore, engineering judgment should always be used when assessing structural safety of existing masonry constructions against design earthquakes, based on a series of seismic analyses under uncertain parameters.

  12. Probe tests microweld strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Probe is developed to test strength of soldered, brazed or microwelded joints. It consists of a spring which may be adjusted to the desired test pressure by means of a threaded probe head, and an indicator lamp. Device may be used for electronic equipment testing.

  13. OPEC future capacity expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandrea, I.

    2005-01-01

    This conference presentation examined OPEC future capacity expansions including highlights from 2000-2004 from the supply perspective and actions by OPEC; OPEC spare capacity in 2005/2006; medium-term capacity expansion and investments; long-term scenarios, challenges and opportunities; and upstream policies in member countries. Highlights from the supply perspective included worst than expected non-OPEC supply response; non-OPEC supply affected by a number of accidents and strikes; geopolitical tensions; and higher than expected demand for OPEC crude. OPEC's actions included closer relationship with other producers and consumers; capacity expansions in 2004 and 2005/2006; and OPEC kept the market well supplied with crude in 2004. The presentation also provided data using graphical charts on OPEC net capacity additions until 2005/2006; OPEC production versus spare capacity from 2003 to 2005; OPEC production and capacity to 2010; and change in required OPEC production from 2005-2020. Medium term expansion to 2010 includes over 60 projects. Medium-term risks such as project execution, financing, costs, demand, reserves, depletion, integration of Iraq, and geopolitical tensions were also discussed. The presentation concluded that in the long term, large uncertainties remain; the peak of world supply is not imminent; and continued and enhanced cooperation is essential to market stability. tabs., figs

  14. Vedr.: Military capacity building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Josefine Kühnel; Struwe, Lars Bangert

    2013-01-01

    Military capacity building has increasingly become an integral part of Danish defence. Military capacity is a new way of thinking Danish defence and poses a new set of challenges and opportunities for the Danish military and the Political leadership. On the 12th of december, PhD. Candidate Josefine...... Kühnel Larsen and researcher Lars Bangert Struwe of CMS had organized a seminar in collaboration with Royal Danish Defense Colleg and the East African Security Governance Network. The seminar focused on some of the risks involved in Military capacity building and how these risks are dealt with from...

  15. Evaluating Capacity Development

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    She also had the dubious pleasure of checking and correcting the text numerous ... Has your organization received training or other types of support for capacity ...... processors, and consumer groups in its research and development work.

  16. Revisiting Absorptive Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Araújo, Ana Luiza Lara; Ulhøi, John Parm; Lettl, Christopher

    Absorptive capacity has mostly been perceived as a 'passive' outcome of R&D investments. Recently, however, a growing interest into its 'proactive' potentials has emerged. This paper taps into this development and proposes a dynamic model for conceptualizing the determinants of the complementary...... learning processes of absorptive capacity, which comprise combinative and adaptive capabilities. Drawing on survey data (n=169), the study concludes that combinative capabilities primarily enhance transformative and exploratory learning processes, while adaptive capabilities strengthen all three learning...

  17. Redox Buffer Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Levie, Robert

    1999-04-01

    The proper functioning of enzymes in bodily fluids requires that the pH be maintained within rather narrow limits. The first line of defense against large pH fluctuations in such fluids is the passive control provided by the presence of pH buffers. The ability of pH buffers to stabilize the pH is indicated by the buffer value b introduced in 1922 by van Slyke. It is equally important for many enzymes that the redox potential is kept within a narrow range. In that case, stability of the potential is most readily achieved with a redox buffer. In this communication we define the redox buffer strength by analogy with acid-base buffer strength.

  18. Corium crust strength measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomperski, S. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4840 (United States)], E-mail: lomperski@anl.gov; Farmer, M.T. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4840 (United States)], E-mail: farmer@anl.gov

    2009-11-15

    Corium strength is of interest in the context of a severe reactor accident in which molten core material melts through the reactor vessel and collects on the containment basemat. Some accident management strategies involve pouring water over the melt to solidify it and halt corium/concrete interactions. The effectiveness of this method could be influenced by the strength of the corium crust at the interface between the melt and coolant. A strong, coherent crust anchored to the containment walls could allow the yet-molten corium to fall away from the crust as it erodes the basemat, thereby thermally decoupling the melt from the coolant and sharply reducing the cooling rate. This paper presents a diverse collection of measurements of the mechanical strength of corium. The data is based on load tests of corium samples in three different contexts: (1) small blocks cut from the debris of the large-scale MACE experiments, (2) 30 cm-diameter, 75 kg ingots produced by SSWICS quench tests, and (3) high temperature crusts loaded during large-scale corium/concrete interaction (CCI) tests. In every case the corium consisted of varying proportions of UO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, and the constituents of concrete to represent a LWR melt at different stages of a molten core/concrete interaction. The collection of data was used to assess the strength and stability of an anchored, plant-scale crust. The results indicate that such a crust is likely to be too weak to support itself above the melt. It is therefore improbable that an anchored crust configuration could persist and the melt become thermally decoupled from the water layer to restrict cooling and prolong an attack of the reactor cavity concrete.

  19. Strength capability while kneeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslegrave, C M; Tracy, M F; Corlett, E N

    1997-12-01

    Work sometimes has to be carried out kneeling, particularly where jobs are performed in confined spaces as is common for miners, aircraft baggage handlers and maintenance workers. In order to assess the risks in performing forceful tasks under such conditions, data is needed on strength capabilities of kneeling subjects. A study was undertaken to measure isometric strength in single-handed exertions for male subjects and to investigate the effects on this of task layout factors (direction of force exertion, reach distance, height of the workpiece and orientation relative to the subject's sagittal plane). The data has been tabulated to show the degree to which strength may be reduced in different situations and analysis of the task factors showed their influence to be complex with direction of exertion and reach distance having the greatest effect. The results also suggest that exertions are weaker when subjects are kneeling on two knees than when kneeling on one knee, although this needs to be confirmed by direct experimental comparison.

  20. Strengths only or strengths and relative weaknesses? A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Teri; Diessner, Rhett; Reade, Lindsay

    2009-10-01

    Does working on developing character strengths and relative character weaknesses cause lower life satisfaction than working on developing character strengths only? The present study provides a preliminary answer. After 76 college students completed the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (C. Peterson & M. E. P. Seligman, 2004), the authors randomly assigned them to work on 2 character strengths or on 1 character strength and 1 relative weakness. Combined, these groups showed significant gains on the Satisfaction With Life Scale (E. Diener, R. A. Emmons, R. J. Larsen, & S. Griffin, 1985), compared with a 32-student no-treatment group. However, there was no significant difference in gain scores between the 2-strengths group and the 1-character-strength-and-1-relative-character-weakness group. The authors discuss how focusing on relative character weaknesses (along with strengths) does not diminish-and may assist in increasing-life satisfaction.

  1. Test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change scores for sit-to-stand-to-sit tests, the six-minute walk test, the one-leg heel-rise test, and handgrip strength in people undergoing hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Ortí, Eva; Martínez-Olmos, Francisco José

    2011-08-01

    Determining the relative and absolute reliability of outcomes of physical performance tests for people undergoing hemodialysis is necessary to discriminate between the true effects of exercise interventions and the inherent variability of this cohort. The aims of this study were to assess the relative reliability of sit-to-stand-to-sit tests (the STS-10, which measures the time [in seconds] required to complete 10 full stands from a sitting position, and the STS-60, which measures the number of repetitions achieved in 60 seconds), the Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), the one-leg heel-rise test, and the handgrip strength test and to calculate minimal detectable change (MDC) scores in people undergoing hemodialysis. This study was a prospective, nonexperimental investigation. Thirty-nine people undergoing hemodialysis at 2 clinics in Spain were contacted. Study participants performed the STS-10 (n=37), the STS-60 (n=37), and the 6MWT (n=36). At one of the settings, the participants also performed the one-leg heel-rise test (n=21) and the handgrip strength test (n=12) on both the right and the left sides. Participants attended 2 testing sessions 1 to 2 weeks apart. High intraclass correlation coefficients (≥.88) were found for all tests, suggesting good relative reliability. The MDC scores at 90% confidence intervals were as follows: 8.4 seconds for the STS-10, 4 repetitions for the STS-60, 66.3 m for the 6MWT, 3.4 kg for handgrip strength (force-generating capacity), 3.7 repetitions for the one-leg heel-rise test with the right leg, and 5.2 repetitions for the one-leg heel-rise test with the left leg. Limitations A limited sample of patients was used in this study. The STS-16, STS-60, 6MWT, one-leg heel rise test, and handgrip strength test are reliable outcome measures. The MDC scores at 90% confidence intervals for these tests will help to determine whether a change is due to error or to an intervention.

  2. Capacity Maximizing Constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsoum, Maged; Jones, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Some non-traditional signal constellations have been proposed for transmission of data over the Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel using such channel-capacity-approaching codes as low-density parity-check (LDPC) or turbo codes. Computational simulations have shown performance gains of more than 1 dB over traditional constellations. These gains could be translated to bandwidth- efficient communications, variously, over longer distances, using less power, or using smaller antennas. The proposed constellations have been used in a bit-interleaved coded modulation system employing state-ofthe-art LDPC codes. In computational simulations, these constellations were shown to afford performance gains over traditional constellations as predicted by the gap between the parallel decoding capacity of the constellations and the Gaussian capacity

  3. Dual capacity reciprocating compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Robert W.

    1984-01-01

    A multi-cylinder compressor 10 particularly useful in connection with northern climate heat pumps and in which different capacities are available in accordance with reversing motor 16 rotation is provided with an eccentric cam 38 on a crank pin 34 under a fraction of the connecting rods, and arranged for rotation upon the crank pin between opposite positions 180.degree. apart so that with cam rotation on the crank pin such that the crank throw is at its normal maximum value all pistons pump at full capacity, and with rotation of the crank shaft in the opposite direction the cam moves to a circumferential position on the crank pin such that the overall crank throw is zero. Pistons 24 whose connecting rods 30 ride on a crank pin 36 without a cam pump their normal rate with either crank rotational direction. Thus a small clearance volume is provided for any piston that moves when in either capacity mode of operation.

  4. Visual attention capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Starrfelt, Randi

    2009-01-01

    Psychophysical studies have identified two distinct limitations of visual attention capacity: processing speed and apprehension span. Using a simple test, these cognitive factors can be analyzed by Bundesen's Theory of Visual Attention (TVA). The method has strong specificity and sensitivity......, and measurements are highly reliable. As the method is theoretically founded, it also has high validity. TVA-based assessment has recently been used to investigate a broad range of neuropsychological and neurological conditions. We present the method, including the experimental paradigm and practical guidelines...... to patient testing, and review existing TVA-based patient studies organized by lesion anatomy. Lesions in three anatomical regions affect visual capacity: The parietal lobes, frontal cortex and basal ganglia, and extrastriate cortex. Visual capacity thus depends on large, bilaterally distributed anatomical...

  5. Value for railway capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sameni, Melody Khadem; Preston, John M.

    2012-01-01

    to analyze the efficiency of operators in transforming inputs of allocated capacity of infrastructure and franchise payments into valuable passenger service outputs while avoiding delays. By addressing operational and economic aspects of capacity utilization simultaneously, the paper deviates from existing...... DEA work on the economic efficiency of railways by considering a new combination of input-output that also incorporates quality of service. The constant and variable returns to scale models are applied to the case study of franchised passenger operators in Great Britain. The follow-up Tobit regression...

  6. Strength Training: For Overall Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Strength training is an important part of an overall fitness program. Here's what strength training can do for ... is a key component of overall health and fitness for everyone. Lean muscle mass naturally diminishes with ...

  7. Impact of expiratory strength training in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plowman, Emily K; Watts, Stephanie A; Tabor, Lauren; Robison, Raele; Gaziano, Joy; Domer, Amanda S; Richter, Joel; Vu, Tuan; Gooch, Clifton

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the feasibility and impact of expiratory muscle strength training (EMST) on respiratory and bulbar function in persons with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Twenty-five ALS patients participated in this delayed intervention open-label clinical trial. Following a lead-in period, patients completed a 5-week EMST protocol. Outcome measures included: maximum expiratory pressure (MEP); physiologic measures of swallow and cough; and penetration-aspiration scale (PAS) scores. Of participants who entered the active phase of the study (n = 15), EMST was well tolerated and led to significant increases in MEPs and maximum hyoid displacement during swallowing post-EMST (P < 0.05). No significant differences were observed for PAS scores or cough spirometry measures. EMST was feasible and well tolerated in this small cohort of ALS patients and led to improvements in expiratory force-generating pressures and swallow kinematics. Further investigation is warranted to confirm these preliminary findings. Muscle Nerve 54: 48-53, 2016. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. strength characterization of foundation soils at federal university ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    used to calculate bearing capacity factors for structural footings [1]. One of in situ testing methods is the. Standard Penetration Test (SPT) that is used to identify soil type and stratigraphy along with being a relative measure of strength [2]. In this study, the SPT blow count was used as a parameter for in situ characterization of.

  9. Shear strength of non-shear reinforced concrete elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao linh

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with the plastic shear strength of non shear reinforced T-beams.The influence of an un-reinforced flange on the shear capacity is investigated by considering a failure mechanism involving crack sliding in the web and a kind of membrane action over an effective width of the flange...

  10. Residual Strength of In-plane Loaded Debonded Sandwich Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berggreen, Carl Christian; Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a FEM based numerical model for prediction of residual strength of damaged sandwich panels. As demonstrated, the model can predict the maximum load carrying capacity of real-life panels with debond damages, where the failure is governed by face-sheet buckling followed by debond...

  11. Shear transfer capacity of reinforced concrete exposed to fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Subhan; Bhargava, Pradeep; Chourasia, Ajay

    2018-04-01

    Shear transfer capacity of reinforced concrete elements is a function of concrete compressive strength and reinforcement yield strength. Exposure of concrete and steel to elevated temperature reduces their mechanical properties resulting in reduced shear transfer capacity of RC elements. The objective of present study is to find the effect of elevated temperature on shear transfer capacity of reinforced concrete. For this purpose pushoff specimens were casted using normal strength concrete. After curing, specimens were heated to 250°C and 500°C in an electric furnace. Cooled specimens were tested for shear transfer capacity in a universal testing machine. It was found that shear transfer capacity and stiffness (slope of load-slip curve) were reduced when the specimens were heated to 250°C and 500°C. Load level for the initiation of crack slip was found to be decreased as the temperature was increased. A simple analytical approach is also proposed to predict the shear transfer capacity of reinforced concrete after elevated temperature.

  12. Evaluation of railway capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Kaas, Anders H.; Schittenhelm, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    capacity consumptions. This paper describes the UIC 406 method and how it is expounded in Denmark. The paper describes the importance of choosing the right length of the line sections examined and how line sections with multiple track sections are examined. Furthermore, the possibility of using idle...

  13. Markets and Institutional Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingemann, Jan Holm

    2010-01-01

    Adequate explanations concerning the introduction of production and consumption of organic food in Denmark imply the necessity to engage a certain understanding of markets. Markets should subsequently not be seen as entities nor places but as complex relations between human actors. Further......, the establishment, maintenance and development of markets are depending on the capacity of the actors to enter into continuous and enhancing interplay....

  14. Evaluation of a highway bridge constructed using high strength lightweight concrete bridge girders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    The use of high performance concretes to provide longer bridge spans has been limited due to the capacity of existing infrastructure to handle the load of the girders during transportation. The use of High Strength Lightweight Concrete (HSLW) can pro...

  15. Ballistic resistance capacity of carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mylvaganam, Kausala; Zhang, L C

    2007-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes have high strength, light weight and excellent energy absorption capacity and therefore have great potential applications in making antiballistic materials. By examining the ballistic impact and bouncing-back processes on carbon nanotubes, this investigation shows that nanotubes with large radii withstand higher bullet speeds and the ballistic resistance is the highest when the bullet hits the centre of the CNT; the ballistic resistance of CNTs will remain the same on subsequent bullet strikes if the impact is after a small time interval

  16. Evaluating the capacity value of wind power considering transmission and operational constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, Esteban; Aravena, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Discussion of power system adequacy and the capacity value of wind power. • Method for estimating capacity value of wind power is proposed. • Monte Carlo simulation used to consider transmission and operational constraints. • Application of the method to the Chilean Northern Interconnected System (SING). - Abstract: This paper presents a method for estimating the capacity value of wind considering transmission and operational constraints. The method starts by calculating a metric for system adequacy by repeatedly simulating market operations in a Monte Carlo scheme that accounts for forced generator outages, wind resource variability, and operational conditions. Then, a capacity value calculation that uses the simulation results is proposed, and its application to the Chilean Northern Interconnected System (SING) is discussed. A comparison of the capacity value for two different types of wind farms is performed using the proposed method, and the results are compared with the method currently used in Chile and the method recommended by the IEEE. The method proposed in the paper captures the contribution of the variable generation resources to power system adequacy more accurately than the method currently employed in the SING, and showed capable of taking into account transmission and operational constraints

  17. Gaussian discriminating strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigovacca, L.; Farace, A.; De Pasquale, A.; Giovannetti, V.

    2015-10-01

    We present a quantifier of nonclassical correlations for bipartite, multimode Gaussian states. It is derived from the Discriminating Strength measure, introduced for finite dimensional systems in Farace et al., [New J. Phys. 16, 073010 (2014), 10.1088/1367-2630/16/7/073010]. As the latter the new measure exploits the quantum Chernoff bound to gauge the susceptibility of the composite system with respect to local perturbations induced by unitary gates extracted from a suitable set of allowed transformations (the latter being identified by posing some general requirements). Closed expressions are provided for the case of two-mode Gaussian states obtained by squeezing or by linearly mixing via a beam splitter a factorized two-mode thermal state. For these density matrices, we study how nonclassical correlations are related with the entanglement present in the system and with its total photon number.

  18. Unified strength theory and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Mao-Hong

    2004-01-01

    This is a completely new theory dealing with the yield and failure of materials under multi-axial stresses. It provides a system of yield and failure criteria adopted for most materials, from metallic materials to rocks, concretes, soils, polymers etc. The Unified Strength Theory has been applied successfully to analyse the elastic limit, plastic limit capacities, the dynamic response behavior for some structures under static and moderate impulsive load, and may be implemented in some elasto-plastic finite element computer codes. The Unified Strength Theory is described in detail and by using this theory a series of results can be obtained. The Unified Strength Theory can improve the conservative Mohr-Coulomb Theory, and since intermediate principal stress is not taken into account in the Mohr-Coulomb theory and most experimental data is not pertainable to the Mohr-Coulomb Theory, a considerable economic benefit may be obtained. The book can also increase the effect of most commercial finite element computer ...

  19. Neuronal discrimination capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Yingchun; Williams, Peter; Feng Jianfeng; Liu Feng

    2003-01-01

    We explore neuronal mechanisms of discriminating between masked signals. It is found that when the correlation between input signals is zero, the output signals are separable if and only if input signals are separable. With positively (negatively) correlated signals, the output signals are separable (mixed) even when input signals are mixed (separable). Exact values of discrimination capacity are obtained for two most interesting cases: the exactly balanced inhibitory and excitatory input case and the uncorrelated input case. Interestingly, the discrimination capacity obtained in these cases is independent of model parameters, input distribution and is universal. Our results also suggest a functional role of inhibitory inputs and correlated inputs or, more generally, the large variability of efferent spike trains observed in in vivo experiments: the larger the variability of efferent spike trains, the easier it is to discriminate between masked input signals

  20. Seismic capacity of switchgear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, K.; Hofmayer, C.; Kassir, M.; Pepper, S.

    1989-01-01

    As part of a component fragility program sponsored by the USNRC, BNL has collected existing information on the seismic capacity of switchgear assemblies from major manufacturers. Existing seismic test data for both low and medium voltage switchgear assemblies have been evaluated and the generic results are presented in this paper. The failure modes are identified and the corresponding generic lower bound capacity levels are established. The test response spectra have been used as a measure of the test vibration input. The results indicate that relays chatter at a very low input level at the base of the switchgear cabinet. This change of state of devices including relays have been observed. Breaker tripping occurs at a higher vibration level. Although the structural failure of internal elements have been noticed, the overall switchgear cabinet structure withstands a high vibration level. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Neuronal discrimination capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Yingchun [Department of Mathematics, Hunan Normal University 410081, Changsha (China); COGS, University of Sussex at Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Williams, Peter; Feng Jianfeng [COGS, University of Sussex at Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Liu Feng [COGS, University of Sussex at Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Physics Department, Nanjing University (China)

    2003-12-19

    We explore neuronal mechanisms of discriminating between masked signals. It is found that when the correlation between input signals is zero, the output signals are separable if and only if input signals are separable. With positively (negatively) correlated signals, the output signals are separable (mixed) even when input signals are mixed (separable). Exact values of discrimination capacity are obtained for two most interesting cases: the exactly balanced inhibitory and excitatory input case and the uncorrelated input case. Interestingly, the discrimination capacity obtained in these cases is independent of model parameters, input distribution and is universal. Our results also suggest a functional role of inhibitory inputs and correlated inputs or, more generally, the large variability of efferent spike trains observed in in vivo experiments: the larger the variability of efferent spike trains, the easier it is to discriminate between masked input signals.

  2. PAYMENT CAPACITY SENSITIVITY FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel BRÎNDESCU – OLARIU

    2014-01-01

    The current study focuses on the sensitivity of the corporate payment capacity. Through the nature of the subject, the research is based on simulating variations of the forecasted cash-flows of the companies included in the sample. The study employs 391 forecasted yearly cash-flows statements collected from 50 companies from Timis County (Romania), as well as the detailed hypotheses of the forecasts. The results of the study facilitate the determination and classification of the main se...

  3. Options on capacity imbalance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggen, M.

    2002-01-01

    Since the start of this year, the Dutch energy company Nuon has been using a computer system to formulate real-time responses to national capacity imbalances in the electricity supply market. The work earns Nuon a fixed fee from TenneT (Dutch Transmission System Operator) and ensures a more stable imbalance price for everyone. The key to success has been the decision to start the project from scratch [nl

  4. CSTI High Capacity Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The SP-100 program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop the technology necessary for space nuclear power systems for military and civil application. During FY-86 and 87, the NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program was devised to maintain the momentum of promising technology advancement efforts started during Phase 1 of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for future space applications. In FY-88, the Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA's new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI Program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology project, and provides a bridge to NASA Project Pathfinder. The elements of CSTI High Capacity Power development include Conversion Systems, Thermal Management, Power Management, System Diagnostics, and Environmental Interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to assure the high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall program will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems as well as allowing mission independence from solar and orbital attitude requirements. Several recent advancements in CSTI High Capacity power development will be discussed

  5. Compressive and flexural strength of high strength phase change mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Qingyao; Fang, Changle

    2018-04-01

    High-strength cement produces a lot of hydration heat when hydrated, it will usually lead to thermal cracks. Phase change materials (PCM) are very potential thermal storage materials. Utilize PCM can help reduce the hydration heat. Research shows that apply suitable amount of PCM has a significant effect on improving the compressive strength of cement mortar, and can also improve the flexural strength to some extent.

  6. Tensile strength/yield strength (TS/YS) ratios of high-strength steel (HSS) reinforcing bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavio, Anggraini, Retno; Raka, I. Gede Putu; Agustiar

    2018-05-01

    The building codes such as American Concrete Institute (ACI) 318M-14 and Standard National Indonesia (SNI) 2847:2013 require that the ratio of tensile strength (TS) and yield strength (YS) should not less than 1.25. The requirement is based on the assumption that a capability of a structural member to develop inelastic rotation capacity is a function of the length of the yield region. This paper reports an investigation on various steel grades, namely Grades 420, 550, 650, and 700 MPa, to examine the impact of different TS/YS ratios if it is less or greater than the required value. Grades 550, 650, and 700 MPa were purposely selected with the intention to examine if these higher grades are still promising to be implemented in special structural systems since they are prohibited by the building codes for longitudinal reinforcement, whereas Grade 420 MPa bars are the maximum limit of yield strength of reinforcing bars that is allowable for longitudinal reinforcement of special structural systems. Tensile tests of these steel samples were conducted under displacement controlled mode to capture the complete stress-strain curves and particularly the post-yield response of the steel bars. From the study, it can be concluded that Grade 420 performed higher TS/YS ratios and they were able to reach up to more than 1.25. However, the High Strength Still (HSS) bars (Grades 550, 600, and 700 MPa) resulted in lower TS/YS ratios (less than 1.25) compared with those of Grade 420 MPa.

  7. Competence building capacity shortage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doorman, Gerard; Wangensteen, Ivar; Bakken, Bjoern

    2005-02-01

    The objective of the project 'Competence Building Capacity Shortage' has been 'to increase knowledge about central approaches aimed at solving the peaking capacity problem in restructured power systems'. With respect to reserve markets, a model was developed in the project to analyze the relations between reserve requirements and prices in the spot and reserve markets respectively. A mathematical model was also developed and implemented, which also includes the balance market, and has a good ability to predict the relations between these markets under various assumptions. With some further development, this model can be used fore realistic analyses of these markets in a Nordic context. It was also concluded that certain system requirements with respect to frequency and time deviation can be relaxed without adverse effects. However, the requirements to system bias, Frequency Activated Operating Reserves and Frequency Activated Contingency Reserves cannot be relaxed, the latter because they must cover the dimensioning fault in the system. On the other hand, Fast Contingency Reserves can be reduced by removing requirements to national balances. Costs can furthermore be reduced by increasingly adapting a Nordic as opposed to national approach. A model for stepwise power flow was developed in the project, which is especially useful to analyze slow power system dynamics. This is relevant when analysing the effects of reserve requirements. A model for the analysis of the capacity balance in Norway and Sweden was also developed. This model is useful for looking at the future balance under various assumptions regarding e.g. weather conditions, demand growth and the development of the generation system. With respect to the present situation, if there is some price flexibility on the demand side and system operators are able to use reserves from the demand side, the probability for load shedding during the peak load hour is close to zero under the weather conditions after

  8. Institutional Strength in Depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weightman, M.

    2016-01-01

    Much work has been undertaken in order to identify, learn and implement the lessons from the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident. These have mainly targeted on engineering or operational lessons. Less attention has been paid to the institutional lessons, although there have been some measures to improve individual peer reviews, particularly by the World Association of Nuclear Operators, and the authoritative IAEA report published in 2015 brought forward several important lessons for regulators and advocated a system approach. The report noted that one of the contributing factors the accident was the tendency of stakeholders not to challenge. Additionally, it reported deficiencies in the regulatory authority and system. Earlier, the root cause of the accident was identified by a Japanese independent parliamentary report as being cultural and institutional. The sum total of the institutions, the safety system, was ineffective. While it is important to address the many technical and operational lessons these may not necessary address this more fundamental lesson, and may not serve to provide robust defences against human or institutional failings over a wide variety of possible events and combinations. The overall lesson is that we can have rigorous and comprehensive safety standards and other tools in place to deliver high levels of safety, but ultimately what is important is the ability of the nuclear safety system to ensure that the relevant institutions diligently and effectively apply those standards and tools — to be robust and resilient. This has led to the consideration of applying the principles of the strength in depth philosophy to a nuclear safety system as a way of providing a framework for developing, assessing, reviewing and improving the system. At an IAEA conference in October 2013, a model was presented for a robust national nuclear safety system based on strength in depth philosophy. The model highlighted three main layers: industry, the

  9. Mixed-Methods Resistance Training Increases Power and Strength of Young and Older Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Robert U.; Hakkinen, Keijo; Hakkinen, Arja; McCormick, Matt; Volek, Jeff; Kraemer, William J.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of a 10-week, mixed-methods resistance training program on young and older men. Although results confirmed some age-related reductions in muscle strength and power, the older men demonstrated similar capacity to the younger men for increases in muscle strength and power via an appropriate, periodized resistance training…

  10. Managing yourself. Stop overdoing your strengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert E; Kaiser, Robert B

    2009-02-01

    Although most managers can recognize an off-kilter leader (consider the highly supportive boss who cuts people too much slack), it's quite difficult to see overkill in yourself. Unfortunately, that's where leadership development tools such as 360-degree surveys fail to deliver, say Kaplan and Kaiser. Dividing qualities into "strengths" and "weaknesses" and rating them on a five-point scale will not account for strengths overplayed. The authors suggest several strategies, based on their years of consulting experience and research, for figuring out which attributes you've employed to excess and adjusting your behavior accordingly. Strengths taken too far have two consequences: First, they become weaknesses. For instance, quick-wittedness can turn into impatience with others. Second, you're at risk of becoming extremely lopsided--that is, diminishing your capacity on the opposite pole. A leader who is very good at building consensus, for example, may take too long to move into action. To strike a balance between two key leadership dualities--forceful versus enabling, and strategic versus operational--you need to see your actions and motivations clearly. That's no easy task since most leadership development tools don't spell out that you're overdoing your strengths. But there are other ways to bring that information to light. You can start with a review of the highest ratings on your most recent 360 report. Ask yourself: Is this too much of a good thing? Another technique is to make a list of the traits you most want to have as a leader. Are you going to extremes with any of them? To check for lopsidedness, you can prompt feedback from other people with a list of qualities you've composed or one you've gleaned from other sources. Once you know which attributes you're overdoing, you can recalibrate.

  11. 1992 Annual Capacity Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The Standard Contract for Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and/or High-Level Radioactive Waste (10 CFR Part 961) requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to issue an Annual Capacity Report (ACR) for planning purposes. This report is the fifth in the series published by DOE. In May 1993, DOE published the 1992 Acceptance Priority Ranking (APR) that established the order in which DOE will allocate projected acceptance capacity. As required by the Standard Contract, the acceptance priority ranking is based on the date the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) was permanently discharged, with the owners of the oldest SNF, on an industry-wide basis, given the highest priority. The 1992 ACR applies the projected waste acceptance rates in Table 2.1 to the 1992 APR, resulting in individual allocations for the owners and generators of the SNF. These allocations are listed in detail in the Appendix, and summarized in Table 3.1. The projected waste acceptance rates for SNF presented in Table 2.1 are nominal and assume a site for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility will be obtained; the facility will initiate operations in 1998; and the statutory linkages between the MRS facility and the repository set forth in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended (NWPA), will be modified. During the first ten years following projected commencement of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) operation, the total quantity of SNF that could be accepted is projected to be 8,200 metric tons of uranium (MTU). This is consistent with the storage capacity licensing conditions imposed on an MRS facility by the NWPA. The annual acceptance rates provide an approximation of the system throughput and are subject to change as the program progresses

  12. Quantum reading capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirandola, Stefano; Braunstein, Samuel L; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2011-01-01

    The readout of a classical memory can be modelled as a problem of quantum channel discrimination, where a decoder retrieves information by distinguishing the different quantum channels encoded in each cell of the memory (Pirandola 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 090504). In the case of optical memories, such as CDs and DVDs, this discrimination involves lossy bosonic channels and can be remarkably boosted by the use of nonclassical light (quantum reading). Here we generalize these concepts by extending the model of memory from single-cell to multi-cell encoding. In general, information is stored in a block of cells by using a channel-codeword, i.e. a sequence of channels chosen according to a classical code. Correspondingly, the readout of data is realized by a process of ‘parallel’ channel discrimination, where the entire block of cells is probed simultaneously and decoded via an optimal collective measurement. In the limit of a large block we define the quantum reading capacity of the memory, quantifying the maximum number of readable bits per cell. This notion of capacity is nontrivial when we suitably constrain the physical resources of the decoder. For optical memories (encoding bosonic channels), such a constraint is energetic and corresponds to fixing the mean total number of photons per cell. In this case, we are able to prove a separation between the quantum reading capacity and the maximum information rate achievable by classical transmitters, i.e. arbitrary classical mixtures of coherent states. In fact, we can easily construct nonclassical transmitters that are able to outperform any classical transmitter, thus showing that the advantages of quantum reading persist in the optimal multi-cell scenario. (paper)

  13. Capacity at Railway Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    zone(s) the possible conflicts with other trains (also in the opposite direction) are taken into account leading to more trustworthy results. Although the UIC 406 methodology proposes that the railway network should be divided into line sections when trains turn around and when the train order...... is changed, this paper recommends that the railway lines are not always be divided. In case trains turn around on open (single track) line, the capacity consumption may be too low if a railway line is divided. The same can be the case if only few trains are overtaken at an overtaking station. For dead end...

  14. Physical activity and capacity at initiation of antiretroviral treatment in HIV patients in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Mette Frahm; Kæstel, Pernille; Tesfaye, M

    2015-01-01

    with combined heart rate and movement sensors. Physical capacity was assessed by grip strength, sleeping heart rate and heart rate economy. Grip strength data was also available from a sex- and age-matched HIV-negative reference group. Median PAEE was 27·9 (interquartile range 17·4-39·8) kJ/kg per day and mean...

  15. Loading Conditions and Longitudinal Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Herman

    1995-01-01

    Methods for the calculation of the lightweight of the ship.Loading conditions satisfying draught, trim and intact stability requirements and analysis of the corresponding stillwater longitudinal strength.......Methods for the calculation of the lightweight of the ship.Loading conditions satisfying draught, trim and intact stability requirements and analysis of the corresponding stillwater longitudinal strength....

  16. Oscillator strengths for neutral technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garstang, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Oscillator strengths have been calculated for most of the spectral lines of TcI which are of interest in the study of stars of spectral type S. Oscillator strengths have been computed for the corresponding transitions in MnI as a partial check of the technetium calculations

  17. Efeito de um programa de resistência muscular na capacidade funcional e na força muscular dos extensores do joelho em idosas pré-frágeis da comunidade: ensaio clínico aleatorizado do tipo crossover Impact of resistance exercise program on functional capacity and muscular strength of knee extensor in pre-frail community-dwelling older women: a randomized crossover trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lygia P. Lustosa

    2011-08-01

    vulnerability. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to verify the effect of a muscle-strengthening program with load in pre-frail elder women with regards to the functional capacity, knee extensor muscle strength and their correlation. METHODS: Thrity-two pre-frail community-dwelling women participated in this study. Potential participants with cognitive impairment (MEEM, lower extremities orthopedic surgery, fractures, inability to walk unaided, neurological diseases, acute inflammatory disease, tumor growth, regular physical activity and current use of immunomodulators were excluded. All partcipants were evaluated by a blinded assessor using: Timed up and go (TUG, 10-Meter Walk Test (10MWT and knee extensor muscle strength (Byodex System 3 Pro® isokinetic dynamometer at angular speeds of 60 and 180(0/s. The intervention consisted of strengthening exercises of the lower extremities at 70% of 1RM, three times/ week for ten weeks. The statistical analysis was performed using the ANOVA and Spearman tests RESULTS: After the intervention, it was observed statistical significance on the work at 180(0/s (F=12.71, p=0.02, on the power at 180(0/s (F=15.40, p=0.02 and on the functional capacity (TUG, F=9.54, p=0.01; TC10, F=3.80, p=0.01. There was a good negative and statistically significant correlation between the TUG and work at 60(0/s, such as the TUG and work at 180(0/s (r=-0.65, p=0.01; r=-0.72, p=0.01. CONCLUSION: The intervention improved the muscular power and the functional capacity. The increase of the power correlated with function, which is an important variable of the quality of life in the pre-frail elders. Article registered in the ISRCT register under number ISRCTN62824599.

  18. STRENGTH OF NANOMODIFIED HIGH-STRENGTH LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOZEMTСEV Alexandr Sergeevich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research aimed at development of nanomodified high-strength lightweight concrete for construction. The developed concretes are of low average density and high ultimate compressive strength. It is shown that to produce this type of concrete one need to use hollow glass and aluminosilicate microspheres. To increase the durability of adhesion between cement stone and fine filler the authors offer to use complex nanodimensinal modifier based on iron hydroxide sol and silica sol as a surface nanomodifier for hollow microspheres. It is hypothesized that the proposed modifier has complex effect on the activity of the cement hydration and, at the same time increases bond strength between filler and cement-mineral matrix. The compositions for energy-efficient nanomodified high-strength lightweight concrete which density is 1300…1500 kg/m³ and compressive strength is 40…65 MPa have been developed. The approaches to the design of high-strength lightweight concrete with density of less than 2000 kg/m³ are formulated. It is noted that the proposed concretes possess dense homogeneous structure and moderate mobility. Thus, they allow processing by vibration during production. The economic and practical implications for realization of high-strength lightweight concrete in industrial production have been justified.

  19. 1990s: High Capacity Backbones

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. 1990s: High Capacity Backbones. Backbone capacities increased from 2.5 Gb/s to 100s of Gb/s during the 1990's. Wavelength division multiplexing with 160 waves of 10 Gb/s was commercially available. Several high-capacity backbones built in the US and Europe.

  20. Competitive Capacity Investment under Uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X. Li (Xishu); R.A. Zuidwijk (Rob); M.B.M. de Koster (René); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe consider a long-term capacity investment problem in a competitive market under demand uncertainty. Two firms move sequentially in the competition and a firm’s capacity decision interacts with the other firm’s current and future capacity. Throughout the investment race, a firm can

  1. Integrated capacity and inventory decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dellaert, N.P.; Flapper, S.D.P.; Tan, T.; Jeunet, J.; Klatte, D.; Lüthi, H.-J.; Schmedders, K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the simultaneous acquisition of capacity and material in a situation with uncertain demand, with non-zero lead-times for the supply of both material and capacity. Although there is a lot of literature on the time-phased acquisition of capacity and material, most of this

  2. Landfill Construction and Capacity Expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andre, F.J.; Cerda, E.

    2003-01-01

    We study the optimal capacity and lifetime of landfills taking into account their sequential nature.Such an optimal capacity is characterized by the so-called Optimal Capacity Condition.Particular versions of this condition are obtained for two alternative settings: first, if all the landfills are

  3. Capacity Ten-Seven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-04

    The study was initiated to assemble UK solar experts who would define the parameters for the design of solar cell process plant with a capacity of about 10MWp per annum and establish the optimum substrate size, cell configuration and junction structure and show that these characteristics are suited to high volume low cost production. The study focused on proven materials and techniques rather than on innovative materials and processes. Peak production should deliver panels at a cost of less than $1 per peak watt. The study was reported under the headings of fundamental studies, front contact deposition, semiconductor deposition, rear contact deposition, cell isolation and initial design study. Since much of the work is commercially sensitive, not all findings are divulged in the report. The work, which achieved all its targets, was carried out by ICP Solar Technologies UK Ltd under contract to the DTI.

  4. A study on the damping capacity of BaTiO3-reinforced Al-matrix ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the results showed that the damping capacity of Al-matrix composites can increase greatly [3–5]. Therefore, reinforcing. Al alloy matrix with higher damping particles could be an efficient way to obtain Al-matrix composites with both high strength and high damping capacity. Ferroelectric and piezoelectric ceramics can exhibit ...

  5. Immunomodulating capacity of kefir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinderola, Celso G; Duarte, Jairo; Thangavel, Deepa; Perdigón, Gabriela; Farnworth, Edward; Matar, Chantal

    2005-05-01

    Kefir is a fermented milk produced by the action of lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and acetic acid bacteria, trapped in a complex matrix of polysaccharides and proteins. Beyond its inherent high nutritional value as a source of proteins and calcium, kefir has a long tradition of being regarded as good for health in countries where it is a staple in the diet. However, published human or animal feeding trials to substantiate this view are not numerous. The aim of this work was to determine the immunomodulating capacity of kefir on the intestinal mucosal immune response in mice and to demonstrate the importance of dose and cell viability on this response. BALB/c mice were fed with commercial kefir ad libitum (diluted 1/10, 1/50, 1/100 or 1/200) or pasteurized kefir (diluted 1/6, 1/10, 1/50, 1/100) for 2, 5 or 7 consecutive days. At the end of each feeding period, the bacterial translocation assay was performed in the liver. Small intestine structure was studied by haematoxilin-eosin staining and light microscopy. The number of IgA+ and IgG+ cells was also determined. For the functional doses chosen, cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma) were determined. Kefir and pasteurized kefir were able to modulate the mucosal immune system in a dose-dependent manner. Kefir was administred 10-times more diluted than pasteurized kefir, but it induced an immunomodulation of similar magnitude, indicating the importance of cell viabilty. The results suggest that a Th1 response was controlled by Th2 cytokines induced by kefir feeding. Pasteurized kefir would induce both Th2 and Th1 responses. This is the first study in vivo regarding the mechanisms involved in the immunomodulating capacity of the oral administration of kefir containing viable or heat-inactivated bacteria at different doses.

  6. What factors influence mitigative capacity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, Harald; Baumert, Kevin; Blanchard, Odile; Burch, Sarah; Robinson, John

    2007-01-01

    This article builds on Yohe's seminal piece on mitigative capacity, which elaborates 'determinants' of mitigative capacity, also reflected in the IPCC's third assessment report. We propose a revised definition, where mitigative capacity is a country's ability to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions or enhance natural sinks. By 'ability' we mean skills, competencies, fitness, and proficiencies that a country has attained which can contribute to GHG emissions mitigation. A conceptual framework is proposed, linking mitigative capacity to a country's sustainable development path, and grouping the factors influencing mitigative capacity into three main sets: economic factors, institutional ones, and technology. Both quantitative and qualitative analysis of factors is presented, showing how these factors vary across countries. We suggest that it is the interplay between the three economic factors-income, abatement cost and opportunity cost-that shape mitigative capacity. We find that income is an important economic factor influencing mitigative capacity, while abatement cost is important in turning mitigative capacity into actual mitigation. Technology is a critical mitigative capacity, including the ability to absorb existing climate-friendly technologies or to develop innovative ones. Institutional factors that promote mitigative capacity include the effectiveness of government regulation, clear market rules, a skilled work force and public awareness. We briefly investigate such as high abatement cost or lack of political willingness that prevent mitigative capacity from being translated into mitigation

  7. Radio-capacity of ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kultakhmedov, Yu.; Kultakhmedova-Vyshnyakova, V.

    1997-01-01

    This paper consider a universal approach to ecosystems of different types, based on representation of their radio-capacity. The concept of ecosystem includes reproduction of components (bio-productivity) and conditions such as maintaining of environment quality. Radio-capacity in the case of radionuclide pollution appears in accumulation and redistribution of radionuclides in the ecosystem. As a result the radionuclides are redistributed and buried in soil or lake bottom sediments. Estimation models for the radio-capacity of water and terrestrial ecosystems are represented. The calculations of the radio-capacity factor of water ecosystems are performed, and the high radio-capacity of a freshwater reservoir (F=0.6-0.8) and extremely high radio-capacity of a reservoir cascade (F c =0.99) is shown material from the Dnieper's cascade reservoirs. The methods of radio-capacity estimation of agroecosystems, wood and marine ecosystems are developed. (authors)

  8. Capacity building for HIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Gulis PhD

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: To integrate health impact assessment (HIA into existing decision-making processes requires not only methods and procedures but also well-trained experts, aware policy makers and appropriate institutions. Capacity building is the assistance which is provided to entities, which have a need to develop a certain skill or competence, or for general upgrading of performance ability. If a new technique is planned to be introduced there is a need for capacity building with no respect to levels (local, regional, national, international or sectors (health, environment, finance, social care, education, etc.. As such, HIA is a new technique for most of the new Member States and accession countries of the European Union.

    Methods: To equip individuals with the understanding and skills needed to launch a HIA or be aware of the availability of this methodology and to access information, knowledge and training, we focused on the organization of workshops in participating countries. The workshops served also as pilot events to test a “curriculum” for HIA; a set of basic topics and presentations had been developed to be tested during workshops. In spite of classical in-class workshops we aimed to organize e-learning events as a way to over come the “busyness” problem of decision makers.

    Results: Throughout March – October 2006 we organized and ran 7 workshops in Denmark, Turkey, Lithuania, Poland, Bulgaria, Slovak Republic and Hungary. Participants came from the public health sector (141, non-public health decision makers (113 and public health students (100. A concise curriculum was developed and tested during these workshops. Participants developed a basic understanding of HIA, skills to develop and use their own screening tools as well as scoping.Within the workshop in Denmark we tested an online, real-time Internet based training method; participants highly welcomed this

  9. Bearing Capacity of the Working Platform with Kinematic Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Białek Katarzyna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bearing capacity of the working platform for heavy tracks was analysed using Distinct Layout Optimization (DLO method. The platform layer constructed from cohesionless soils is resting on weak cohesive subgrade. Different thickness of the platform, its effective angle of internal friction and undrained shear strength of the soft soil were taken into consideration. Kinematic method permits different failure mechanisms to be analyzed. Margin of safety for a given load and subsoil conditions was determined using two approaches: increasing the load or decreasing the shear strength up to failure. The results were compared with solution proposed in BRE recommendations.

  10. Preservation of eccentric strength in older adults: Evidence, mechanisms and implications for training and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, Marc; Macintyre, Donna L; Eng, Janice J; Narici, Marco V; Maganaris, Constantinos N; Reid, W Darlene

    2010-06-01

    Overall reductions in muscle strength typically accompany the aging process. However, older adults show a relatively preserved capacity of producing eccentric strength. The preservation of eccentric strength in older adults is a well-established phenomenon, occurring indiscriminately across different muscle groups, independent of age-related architectural changes in muscle structure and velocity of movement. The mechanisms for the preservation of eccentric strength appear to be mechanical and cellular in origin and include both passive and active elements regulating muscle stiffness. The age-related accumulation of non-contractile material in the muscle-tendon unit increases passive stiffness, which might offer mechanical advantage during eccentric contractions. In addition, the preserved muscle tension and increased instantaneous stiffness of old muscle fibers during stretch increase active stiffness, which might enhance eccentric strength. The fact that the preservation of eccentric strength is present in people with chronic conditions when compared to age-matched healthy controls indicates that the aging process per se does not exclusively mediate the preservation of eccentric strength. Physical inactivity, which is common in elderly and people with chronic conditions, is a potential factor regulating the preservation of eccentric strength. When compared to concentric strength, the magnitude of preservation of eccentric strength in older adults ranges from 2% to 48% with a mean value of 21.6% from all studies. This functional reserve of eccentric strength might be clinically relevant, especially to initiate resistance training and rehabilitation programs in individuals with low levels of strength. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. ROMANIAN ADMINISTRATIVE CAPACITY OF EUROPEAN FUNDS ABSOBTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Bosie (Ungureanu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to absorb European funds is part of a state complex integrated admninistrative capacity, a component of a state as a whole. The analysis in this article starts from the theoretical development by studying the reports made by the Romanian Government, correlated with the European Union reports on funds and Romanian legislation. This analysis of the EU's structural funds, highlights the importance of accessing them and the degree to which Romania and member countries benefits of income support.European funds are meant to supplement a member of the Union funds to the extent that they are accessed through the projects. Money allocated on type of operation is distributed in amounts proportionate to that state needs. Money distributed will be justified by their realization of infrastructure projects, environment, transport, human resources development, rural and regional development.Theoretical research lay the foundation for determining administrative capacity in Romania from the first time of defining the concept until now. Empirical research reveals the degree of absorption of which is that Romania has in comparison with some EU countries, former socialist countries present democratic states.The absorption capacity of European funds determine the strength of a state administrative management issues in the management of monetary dated. Power in handling management administrative problems can be efficient in higher manner and it’s represented by cost-benefit analysis and the degree of satisfaction of citizen interest. As public services are financially supported and developed, the degree of citizen satisfaction is greater in an implemented decentralized administrative system.

  12. Fish-oil supplementation enhances the effects of strength training in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodacki, Cintia L N; Rodacki, André L F; Pereira, Gleber; Naliwaiko, Katya; Coelho, Isabela; Pequito, Daniele; Fernandes, Luiz Cléudio

    2012-02-01

    Muscle force and functional capacity generally decrease with aging in the older population, although this effect can be reversed, attenuated, or both through strength training. Fish oil (FO), which is rich in n-3 (omega-3) PUFAs, has been shown to play a role in the plasma membrane and cell function of muscles, which may enhance the benefits of training. The effect of strength training and FO supplementation on the neuromuscular system of the elderly has not been investigated. The objective was to investigate the chronic effect of FO supplementation and strength training on the neuromuscular system (muscle strength and functional capacity) of older women. Forty-five women (aged 64 ± 1.4 y) were randomly assigned to 3 groups. One group performed strength training only (ST group) for 90 d, whereas the others performed the same strength-training program and received FO supplementation (2 g/d) for 90 d (ST90 group) or for 150 d (ST150 group; supplemented 60 d before training). Muscle strength and functional capacity were assessed before and after the training period. No differences in the pretraining period were found between groups for any of the variables. The peak torque and rate of torque development for all muscles (knee flexor and extensor, plantar and dorsiflexor) increased from pre- to posttraining in all groups. However, the effect was greater in the ST90 and ST150 groups than in the ST group. The activation level and electromechanical delay of the muscles changed from pre- to posttraining only for the ST90 and ST150 groups. Chair-rising performance in the FO groups was higher than in the ST group. Strength training increased muscle strength in elderly women. The inclusion of FO supplementation caused greater improvements in muscle strength and functional capacity.

  13. An in vitro correlation of mechanical forces and metastatic capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indra, Indrajyoti; Undyala, Vishnu; Kandow, Casey; Thirumurthi, Umadevi; Beningo, Karen A; Dembo, Micah

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical forces have a major influence on cell migration and are predicted to significantly impact cancer metastasis, yet this idea is currently poorly defined. In this study we have asked if changes in traction stress and migratory properties correlate with the metastatic progression of tumor cells. For this purpose, four murine breast cancer cell lines derived from the same primary tumor, but possessing increasing metastatic capacity, were tested for adhesion strength, traction stress, focal adhesion organization and for differential migration rates in two-dimensional and three-dimensional environments. Using traction force microscopy (TFM), we were surprised to find an inverse relationship between traction stress and metastatic capacity, such that force production decreased as the metastatic capacity increased. Consistent with this observation, adhesion strength exhibited an identical profile to the traction data. A count of adhesions indicated a general reduction in the number as metastatic capacity increased but no difference in the maturation as determined by the ratio of nascent to mature adhesions. These changes correlated well with a reduction in active beta-1 integrin with increasing metastatic ability. Finally, in two dimensions, wound healing, migration and persistence were relatively low in the entire panel, maintaining a downward trend with increasing metastatic capacity. Why metastatic cells would migrate so poorly prompted us to ask if the loss of adhesive parameters in the most metastatic cells indicated a switch to a less adhesive mode of migration that would only be detected in a three-dimensional environment. Indeed, in three-dimensional migration assays, the most metastatic cells now showed the greatest linear speed. We conclude that traction stress, adhesion strength and rate of migration do indeed change as tumor cells progress in metastatic capacity and do so in a dimension-sensitive manner

  14. Benefits of pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with COPD and normal exercise capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Chou-Chin; Chu, Wen-Hua; Yang, Mei-Chen; Lee, Chih-Hsin; Wu, Yao-Kuang; Wu, Chin-Pyng

    2013-09-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is beneficial for patients with COPD, with improvement in exercise capacity and health-related quality of life. Despite these overall benefits, the responses to PR vary significantly among different individuals. It is not clear if PR is beneficial for patients with COPD and normal exercise capacity. We aimed to investigate the effects of PR in patients with normal exercise capacity on health-related quality of life and exercise capacity. Twenty-six subjects with COPD and normal exercise capacity were studied. All subjects participated in 12-week, 2 sessions per week, hospital-based, out-patient PR. Baseline and post-PR status were evaluated by spirometry, the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire, cardiopulmonary exercise test, respiratory muscle strength, and dyspnea scores. The mean FEV1 in the subjects was 1.29 ± 0.47 L/min, 64.8 ± 23.0% of predicted. After PR there was significant improvement in maximal oxygen uptake and work rate. Improvements in St George's Respiratory Questionnaire scores of total, symptoms, activity, and impact were accompanied by improvements of exercise capacity, respiratory muscle strength, maximum oxygen pulse, and exertional dyspnea scores (all P exercise after PR. Exercise training can result in significant improvement in health-related quality of life, exercise capacity, respiratory muscle strength, and exertional dyspnea in subjects with COPD and normal exercise capacity. Exercise training is still indicated for patients with normal exercise capacity.

  15. Integrated flexible capacity and inventory management under flexible capacity uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Paç, Mehmet Fazıl

    2006-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. In a manufacturing environment with volatile demand, inventory management can be coupled with dynamic capacity adjustments for handling the fluctuations more effectively. In this study we consider the integrated management of inventory and flexible capacity management under seasonal stochastic demand and uncertain labor supply. The capacity planning problem is investigated from the workforce planning perspective. We consider a manufactu...

  16. Rock strength under explosive loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimer, N.; Proffer, W.

    1993-01-01

    This presentation emphasizes the importance of a detailed description of the nonlinear deviatoric (strength) response of the surrounding rock in the numerical simulation of underground nuclear explosion phenomenology to the late times needed for test ban monitoring applications. We will show how numerical simulations which match ground motion measurements in volcanic tuffs and in granite use the strength values obtained from laboratory measurements on small core samples of these rocks but also require much lower strength values after the ground motion has interacted with the rock. The underlying physical mechanisms for the implied strength reduction are not yet well understood, and in fact may depend on the particular rock type. However, constitutive models for shock damage and/or effective stress have been used successfully at S-Cubed in both the Geophysics Program (primarily for DARPA) and the Containment Support Program (for DNA) to simulate late time ground motions measured at NTS in many different rock types

  17. Strength Training and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in organized sports or activities such as baseball, soccer, or gymnastics usually can safely to start strength ... as biking and running, adequate hydration, and healthy nutrition. Reviewed by: Mary L. Gavin, MD Date reviewed: ...

  18. Reduction of the Early Autogenous Shrinkage of High Strength Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Saje

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of a laboratory investigation on the early autogenous shrinkage of high strength concrete, and the possibilities of its reduction, are presented. Such concrete demonstrates significant autogenous shrinkage, which should, however, be limited in the early stages of its development in order to prevent the occurrence of cracks and/or drop in the load-carrying capacity of concrete structures. The following possibilities for reducing autogenous shrinkage were investigated: the use of low-heat cement, a shrinkage-reducing admixture, steel fibres, premoistened polypropylene fibres, and presoaked lightweight aggregate. In the case of the use of presoaked natural lightweight aggregate, with a fraction from 2 to 4 mm, the early autogenous shrinkage of one-day-old high strength concrete decreased by about 90%, with no change to the concrete's compressive strength in comparison with that of the reference concrete.

  19. Characteristics of structural loess strength and preliminary framework for joint strength formula

    OpenAIRE

    Rong-jian Li; Jun-ding Liu; Rui Yan; Wen Zheng; Sheng-jun Shao

    2014-01-01

    The strength of structural loess consists of the shear strength and tensile strength. In this study, the stress path, the failure envelope of principal stress (Kf line), and the strength failure envelope of structurally intact loess and remolded loess were analyzed through three kinds of tests: the tensile strength test, the uniaxial compressive strength test, and the conventional triaxial shear strength test. Then, in order to describe the tensile strength and shear strength of structural lo...

  20. Available transmission capacity assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škokljev Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective power system operation requires the analysis of vast amounts of information. Power market activities expose power transmission networks to high-level power transactions that threaten normal, secure operation of the power system. When there are service requests for a specific sink/source pair in a transmission system, the transmission system operator (TSO must allocate the available transfer capacity (ATC. It is common that ATC has a single numerical value. Additionally, the ATC must be calculated for the base case configuration of the system, while generation dispatch and topology remain unchanged during the calculation. Posting ATC on the internet should benefit prospective users by aiding them in formulating their requests. However, a single numerical value of ATC offers little for prospect for analysis, planning, what-if combinations, etc. A symbolic approach to the power flow problem (DC power flow and ATC offers a numerical computation at the very end, whilst the calculation beforehand is performed by using symbols for the general topology of the electrical network. Qualitative analysis of the ATC using only qualitative values, such as increase, decrease or no change, offers some new insights into ATC evaluation, multiple transactions evaluation, value of counter-flows and their impact etc. Symbolic analysis in this paper is performed after the execution of the linear, symbolic DC power flow. As control variables, the mathematical model comprises linear security constraints, ATC, PTDFs and transactions. The aim is to perform an ATC sensitivity study on a five nodes/seven lines transmission network, used for zonal market activities tests. A relatively complicated environment with twenty possible bilateral transactions is observed.

  1. Beam Test for Evaluating Applicabillity of High - Strength Reinforcement in Structure of Nuclear Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, Sangjun; Lee, Byungsoo; Bang, Changjoon

    2014-01-01

    The high-strength rebar which has high yield strength can reduce the amount of rebar in concrete and widen its spacing so that it has better workability and higher economic benefits for the structure. However, the maximum yield strength of rebar is limited to 420MPa in the design criteria for structure of nuclear facility in Korea and USA. Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power is progressing research to revise the limitation in the yield strength of rebar, which is suggested in the criteria of KEPIC and ACI, in order to apply 550 MPa high-strength rebar for the construction of a nuclear facility. This study is to review the applicability of high strength rebar in structure of a nuclear facility through a model beam test. After reviewing the shear capacity and reinforcement yield to assess the applicability of high-strength reinforcement in the structure of a nuclear facility, we make the following conclusions. When using high shear reinforcement with wider spacing, it has a similar shear capacity to normal reinforcement with narrower spacing. This means better workability and economic benefits can be achieved by widening the rebar spacing without brittle fracture in the elements. For future plans, the results of this test and supplementary test will be submitted to ACI349 committee as backup data to revise the standard for yield strength of high-strength rebar

  2. Beam Test for Evaluating Applicabillity of High - Strength Reinforcement in Structure of Nuclear Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yim, Sangjun; Lee, Byungsoo; Bang, Changjoon [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The high-strength rebar which has high yield strength can reduce the amount of rebar in concrete and widen its spacing so that it has better workability and higher economic benefits for the structure. However, the maximum yield strength of rebar is limited to 420MPa in the design criteria for structure of nuclear facility in Korea and USA. Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power is progressing research to revise the limitation in the yield strength of rebar, which is suggested in the criteria of KEPIC and ACI, in order to apply 550 MPa high-strength rebar for the construction of a nuclear facility. This study is to review the applicability of high strength rebar in structure of a nuclear facility through a model beam test. After reviewing the shear capacity and reinforcement yield to assess the applicability of high-strength reinforcement in the structure of a nuclear facility, we make the following conclusions. When using high shear reinforcement with wider spacing, it has a similar shear capacity to normal reinforcement with narrower spacing. This means better workability and economic benefits can be achieved by widening the rebar spacing without brittle fracture in the elements. For future plans, the results of this test and supplementary test will be submitted to ACI349 committee as backup data to revise the standard for yield strength of high-strength rebar.

  3. Individual responses to combined endurance and strength training in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavirta, Laura; Häkkinen, Keijo; Kauhanen, Antti; Arija-Blázquez, Alfredo; Sillanpää, Elina; Rinkinen, Niina; Häkkinen, Arja

    2011-03-01

    A combination of endurance and strength training is generally used to seek further health benefits or enhanced physical performance in older adults compared with either of the training modes alone. The mean change within a training group, however, may conceal a wide range of individual differences in the responses. The purpose, therefore, was to examine the individual trainability of aerobic capacity and maximal strength, when endurance and strength training are performed separately or concurrently. For this study, 175 previously untrained volunteers, 89 men and 86 women between the ages of 40 and 67 yr, completed a 21-wk period of either strength training (S) twice a week, endurance training (E) twice a week, combined training (ES) four times per week, or served as controls. Training adaptations were quantified as peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) in a bicycle ergometer test to exhaustion and maximal isometric bilateral leg extension force (MVC) in a dynamometer. A large range in training responses, similar to endurance or strength training alone, was also observed with combined endurance and strength training in both ΔVO2peak (from -8% to 42%) and ΔMVC (from -12% to 87%). There were no significant correlations between the training responses in VO2peak and MVC in the E, S, or especially in the ES group, suggesting that the same subjects did not systematically increase both aerobic capacity and maximal strength. The goal of combined endurance and strength training--increasing both aerobic capacity and maximal strength simultaneously--was only achieved by some of the older subjects. New means are needed to personalize endurance, strength, and especially combined endurance and strength training programs for optimal individual adaptations.

  4. Ultimate load capacities of expansion anchor bolts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarnecki, R.M.; Manrique, M.A.; Samaddar, S.K.

    1993-01-01

    A summary of available experimental expansion anchor bolt test data is presented. These data were collected as part of programs by the nuclear industry to address generic issues related to verification of seismic adequacy of equipment in nuclear power plants. Some of the data presented are suitable for use in seismic probabilistic risk assessments. For example, mean values of ultimate strength, along with their standard deviation and coefficients of variation, for a range of most typical expansion anchor bolt sizes are presented. Effects of interaction between shear and tension, edge distance, spacing, and cracking of the concrete are presented in a manner that is more suitable for use in deterministic evaluations. Related industry programs to derive anchor bolt capacities are briefly discussed. Recommendations for areas of further investigation are also presented

  5. Time dependent variation of carrying capacity of prestressed precast beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Tuan D.; Konečný, Petr; Matečková, Pavlína

    2018-04-01

    The article deals with the evaluation of the precast concrete element time dependent carrying capacity. The variation of the resistance is inherited property of laboratory as well as in-situ members. Thus the specification of highest, yet possible, laboratory sample resistance is important with respect to evaluation of laboratory experiments based on the test machine loading capabilities. The ultimate capacity is evaluated through the bending moment resistance of a simply supported prestressed concrete beam. The probabilistic assessment is applied. Scatter of random variables of compressive strength of concrete and effective height of the cross section is considered. Monte Carlo simulation technique is used to investigate the performance of the cross section of the beam with changes of tendons’ positions and compressive strength of concrete.

  6. Capacity competition in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crampes, Claude; Creti, Anna

    2005-01-01

    The article analyzed a two-stage game where capacity constrained electricity generators first choose how much capacity they make available and then compete in a uniform-rice auction. It is studied how capacity withholding can be used strategically to enforce market power and how uniform auctions in the price game change the results of capacity constrained competition models. The uniform auction procedure gives strong incentives to capacity restriction. At equilibrium, however, power shortage never occurs. Though auctions in electricity markets have already been studied by several economists, yet an important feature of spot trading is the capacity availability decision. In fact, for technical reasons, such as equipment maintenance or failures, the installed capacity may not work at maximum operating level and the spot market rules oblige generators to announce which plants they are willing to use and simultaneously their offer prices. Beside technical reasons, the so-called 'capacity declarations' also offer a strategic instrument for firms: by restricting capacity, operators can benefit from scarcity rents. Assessing whether generators withhold capacity is an intriguing issue for real electricity markets, though proving it is a difficult task. Several theoretical papers show that generators are able to keep wholesale prices high as compared to their generation costs. In our model, a generator is not obliged to declare all installed capacity as available, but decides on the amount of MW of electricity that is available. Hence the available capacity is an endogenous variable while the installed one is exogenous. The distinction between installed capacities and 'available' capacities allows to explain clearly whether generators exert market power by declaring unavailable some production units. Although we find multiple sub game perfect equilibria that cannot be eliminated by Pareto-dominance, all the outcomes are characterized by market price at the highest

  7. Algorithmic complexity of quantum capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskouei, Samad Khabbazi; Mancini, Stefano

    2018-04-01

    We analyze the notion of quantum capacity from the perspective of algorithmic (descriptive) complexity. To this end, we resort to the concept of semi-computability in order to describe quantum states and quantum channel maps. We introduce algorithmic entropies (like algorithmic quantum coherent information) and derive relevant properties for them. Then we show that quantum capacity based on semi-computable concept equals the entropy rate of algorithmic coherent information, which in turn equals the standard quantum capacity. Thanks to this, we finally prove that the quantum capacity, for a given semi-computable channel, is limit computable.

  8. Dementia, Decision Making, and Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, R Ryan; Dickerson, Bradford C

    After participating in this activity, learners should be better able to:• Assess the neuropsychological literature on decision making and the medical and legal assessment of capacity in patients with dementia• Identify the limitations of integrating findings from decision-making research into capacity assessments for patients with dementia ABSTRACT: Medical and legal professionals face the challenge of assessing capacity and competency to make medical, legal, and financial decisions in dementia patients with impaired decision making. While such assessments have classically focused on the capacity for complex reasoning and executive functions, research in decision making has revealed that motivational and metacognitive processes are also important. We first briefly review the neuropsychological literature on decision making and on the medical and legal assessment of capacity. Next, we discuss the limitations of integrating findings from decision-making research into capacity assessments, including the group-to-individual inference problem, the unclear role of neuroimaging in capacity assessments, and the lack of capacity measures that integrate important facets of decision making. Finally, we present several case examples where we attempt to demonstrate the potential benefits and important limitations of using decision-making research to aid in capacity determinations.

  9. Integrated capacity and inventory management with capacity acquisition lead times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mincsovics, G.Z.; Tan, T.; Alp, O.

    2009-01-01

    We model a make-to-stock production system that utilizes permanent and contingent capacity to meet non-stationary stochastic demand, where a constant lead time is associated with the acquisition of contingent capacity. We determine the structure of the optimal solution concerning both the

  10. Capacity Measurement with the UIC 406 Capacity Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Schittenhelm, Bernd; Kaas, Anders H.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the fast and effective UIC 406 method for calculating capacity consumption on railway lines. It is possible to expound the UIC 406 method in different ways which can lead to different capacity consumptions. Therefore, this article describes how the methodology is expounded...

  11. EFFECTS OF A RESPIRATORY PHYSIOTHERAPY PROTOCOL ON PULMONARY CAPACITY, FUNCTIONAL CAPACITY AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Taynara dos Santos Ribeiro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease and own dialysis can result in changes in almost all body systems. In the respiratory system, the changes affect the respiratory drive, lung mechanics, muscle strength and gas exchange. Respiratory physiotherapy may be an important strategy in improving lung function and welfare and satisfaction of patients. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of a program of respiratory physiotherapy in lung capacity, functional capacity and quality of life of patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis. The lung capacity, functional capacity and quality of life were evaluated by the manovacuometer, chest cirtometry, functional capacity's questionnaire (HAQ-20 and specific questionnaire of quality of life for kidney disease (KDOQOL-SF. Patients were evaluated before and after eight weeks of application of respiratory physiotherapy protocol, performed once a week. The study included five patients, four men and one woman, mean age 60 ± 11,29 and an average of hemodialysis treatment of 24 ± 20.35 months. The values obtained in lung capacity and functional capacity presented unchanged. It was observed that the respiratory physiotherapy influenced the improvement of the KDQOL-SF's scores, of the dimensions "Sleep", "Dialysis Staff Encouragement" and "Physical Functioning".

  12. Effects of a respiratory physiotherapy protocol on pulmonary capacity, functional capacity and quality of life in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Taynara dos Santos Ribeiro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease and own dialysis can result in changes in almost all body systems. In the respiratory system, the changes affect the respiratory drive, lung mechanics, muscle strength and gas exchange. Respiratory physiotherapy may be an important strategy in improving lung function and welfare and satisfaction of patients. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of a program of respiratory physiotherapy in lung capacity, functional capacity and quality of life of patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis. The lung capacity, functional capacity and quality of life were evaluated by the manovacuometer, chest cirtometry, functional capacity's questionnaire (HAQ-20 and specific questionnaire of quality of life for kidney disease (KDOQOL-SF. Patients were evaluated before and after eight weeks of application of respiratory physiotherapy protocol, performed once a week. The study included five patients, four men and one woman, mean age 60 ± 11,29 and an average of hemodialysis treatment of 24 ± 20.35 months. The values obtained in lung capacity and functional capacity presented unchanged. It was observed that the respiratory physiotherapy influenced the improvement of the KDQOL-SF's scores, of the dimensions "Sleep", "Dialysis Staff Encouragement" and "Physical Functioning".

  13. Reactive Strength Index: A Poor Indicator of Reactive Strength?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Robin; Kenny, Ian; Harrison, Drew

    2017-11-28

    The primary aim was to assess the relationships between reactive strength measures and associated kinematic and kinetic performance variables achieved during drop jumps. A secondary aim was to highlight issues with the use of reactive strength measures as performance indicators. Twenty eight national and international level sprinters, consisting of fourteen men and women, participated in this cross-sectional analysis. Athletes performed drop jumps from a 0.3 m box onto a force platform with dependent variables contact time (CT), landing time (TLand), push-off time (TPush), flight time (FT), jump height (JH), reactive strength index (RSI, calculated as JH / CT), reactive strength ratio (RSR, calculated as FT / CT) and vertical leg spring stiffness (Kvert) recorded. Pearson's correlation test found very high to near perfect relationships between RSI and RSR (r = 0.91 to 0.97), with mixed relationships found between RSI, RSR and the key performance variables, (Men: r = -0.86 to -0.71 between RSI/RSR and CT, r = 0.80 to 0.92 between RSI/RSR and JH; Women: r = -0.85 to -0.56 between RSR and CT, r = 0.71 between RSI and JH). This study demonstrates that the method of assessing reactive strength (RSI versus RSR) may be influenced by the performance strategies adopted i.e. whether an athlete achieves their best reactive strength scores via low CTs, high JHs or a combination. Coaches are advised to limit the variability in performance strategies by implementing upper and / or lower CT thresholds to accurately compare performances between individuals.

  14. Towards Subject-Specific Strength Training Design through Predictive Use of Musculoskeletal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Plüss

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lower extremity dysfunction is often associated with hip muscle strength deficiencies. Detailed knowledge of the muscle forces generated in the hip under specific external loading conditions enables specific structures to be trained. The aim of this study was to find the most effective movement type and loading direction to enable the training of specific parts of the hip muscles using a standing posture and a pulley system. In a novel approach to release the predictive power of musculoskeletal modelling techniques based on inverse dynamics, flexion/extension and ab-/adduction movements were virtually created. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach, three hip orientations and an external loading force that was systematically rotated around the body were simulated using a state-of-the art OpenSim model in order to establish ideal designs for training of the anterior and posterior parts of the M. gluteus medius (GM. The external force direction as well as the hip orientation greatly influenced the muscle forces in the different parts of the GM. No setting was found for simultaneous training of the anterior and posterior parts with a muscle force higher than 50% of the maximum. Importantly, this study has demonstrated the use of musculoskeletal models as an approach to predict muscle force variations for different strength and rehabilitation exercise variations.

  15. Lifting strength in two-person teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tzu-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of lifting range, hand-to-toe distance, and lifting direction on single-person lifting strengths and two-person teamwork lifting strengths. Six healthy males and seven healthy females participated in this study. Two-person teamwork lifting strengths were examined in both strength-matched and strength-unmatched groups. Our results showed that lifting strength significantly decreased with increasing lifting range or hand-to-toe distance. However, lifting strengths were not affected by lifting direction. Teamwork lifting strength did not conform to the law of additivity for both strength-matched and strength-unmatched groups. In general, teamwork lifting strength was dictated by the weaker of the two members, implying that weaker members might be exposed to a higher potential danger in teamwork exertions. To avoid such overexertion in teamwork, members with significantly different strength ability should not be assigned to the same team.

  16. Handgrip strength test as a complementary tool in monitoring asthma in daily clinical practice in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre-Román, Pedro Ángel; Navarro-Martínez, Ana Vanesa; Mañas-Bastidas, Alfonso; García-Pinillos, Felipe

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate that handgrip strength test can discriminate the presence/absence of asthma and between intermittent and moderate persistent asthma in children. 140 children (70 healthy and 70 with asthma) completed the Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ) and performed the handgrip strength test. Forty-eight hours later, subjects performed spirometry. The results showed Handgrip strength was significantly lower (pstrength test was a predictive factor for asthma (cut-off at 16.84 kg) and for severity of pathology (cut-off at 15.06 kg). Handgrip strength was reduced in children with asthma. Handgrip strength was positively associated with lung capacity and quality of life. The fact that the handgrip strength test was able to discriminate between presence/absence of asthma and between intermittent and moderate persistent asthma in children suggested that this test could be used as a complementary tool in the monitoring of asthma in daily clinical practice.

  17. Installed capacity in New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation discussed capacity issues related to the New York Independent System Operator (NYISO). The NYISO's market volume was approximately $11 billion in 2005, and it was responsible for providing 32,075 MW of electricity at peak load to its users. Regulatory uncertainty is currently discouraging investment in new generating resources. All load serving entities are required to contract for sufficient capacity in order to meet their capacity obligations. Market participants currently determine capacity and energy revenues. The NYISO market allows suppliers to recover variable costs for providing ancillary services, and the economic value of the revenue source governs decisions made in the wholesale electricity market. The installed capacity market was designed as a spot auction deficiency auction. Phased-in demand curves are used to modify the installed capacity market's design. A sloped demand curve mechanism is used to value capacity above the minimum requirement for both reliability and competition. Participation in the day-ahead market enhances competition and exerts downward pressure on energy and ancillary service market prices. It was concluded that the market structures and design features of the installed capacity markets recognize the need for system reliability in addition to encouraging robust competition and recognizing energy price caps and regulatory oversights. tabs., figs

  18. Concrete Operations and Attentional Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Michael; Lindenberger, Ulman

    1989-01-01

    To test predictions regarding the attentional capacity requirements of Piaget's stage of concrete operations, a battery of concrete operational tasks and two measures of attentional capacity were administered to 120 first-, second-, and third-graders. Findings concern class inclusion, transitivity of length and weight, and multiplication of…

  19. Fiscal Capacity Equalisation in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allers, Maarten A.; Ishemoi, Lewis J.

    2010-01-01

    Fiscal equalisation aims at enabling decentralised governments to supply similar services at similar tax rates. In order to equalise fiscal disparities, differences in both fiscal capacities and in fiscal needs have to be measured. This paper focuses on the measurement of fiscal capacity in a

  20. Association of balance, strength, and power measures in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlbauer, Thomas; Gollhofer, Albert; Granacher, Urs

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between variables of static/dynamic balance, isometric strength, and power. Twenty-seven young healthy adults (mean age: 23 ± 4 years) performed measurements of static (unperturbed)/dynamic (perturbed) balance, isometric strength (i.e., maximal isometric torque [MIT]; rate of torque development [RTD] of the plantar flexor), and power (i.e., countermovement jump [CMJ] height and power). No significant associations were found between variables of static and dynamic balance (r = -0.090 to +0.329, p > 0.05) and between measures of static/dynamic balance and isometric strength (r = +0.041 to +0.387, p > 0.05) and static/dynamic balance and power (r = -0.076 to +0.218, p > 0.05). Significant positive correlations (r) were detected between variables of power and isometric strength ranging from +0.458 to +0.689 (p balance measures and between static/dynamic balance, isometric strength, and power variables implies that these capacities may be independent of each other and may have to be tested and trained complementarily.

  1. Strength and life under creeping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospishil, B.

    1982-01-01

    Certain examples of the application of the Lepin modified creep model, which are of interest from technical viewpoint, are presented. Mathematical solution of the dependence of strength limit at elevated temperatures on creep characteristics is obtained. Tensile test at elevated temperatures is a particular case of creep or relaxation and both strength limit and conventional yield strength at elevated temperatures are completely determined by parameters of state equations during creep. The equation of fracture summing during creep is confirmed not only by the experiment data when stresses change sporadically, but also by good reflection of durability curve using the system of equations. The system presented on the basis of parameters of the equations obtained on any part of durability curve, permits to forecast the following parameters of creep: strain, strain rate, life time, strain in the process of fracture. Tensile test at elevated temperature is advisable as an addition when determining creep curves (time-strain curves) [ru

  2. Capacity Building in Land Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Williamson, I

    2004-01-01

    Capacity building increasingly seen as a key component of land administration projects in developing and countries in transition undertaken by the international development banks and individual country development assistance agencies. However, the capacity building concept is often used within...... infrastructures for implementing land policies in a sustainable way. Where a project is established to create land administration infrastructures in developing or transition countries, it is critical that capacity building is a mainstream component, not as an add-on, which is often the case. In fact such projects...... should be dealt with as capacity building projects in themselves.    The article introduces a conceptual analytical framework that provides some guidance when dealing with capacity building for land administration in support of a broader land policy agenda....

  3. Withdrawal Strength and Bending Yield Strength of Stainless Steel Nails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas R. Rammer; Samuel L. Zelinka

    2015-01-01

    It has been well established that stainless steel nails have superior corrosion performance compared to carbon steel or galvanized nails in treated wood; however, their mechanical fastening behavior is unknown. In this paper, the performance of stainless steel nails is examined with respect to two important properties used in wood connection design: withdrawal strength...

  4. Topological strength of magnetic skyrmions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D.; Ramos, J.G.G.S.; Rodrigues, E.I.B.

    2017-02-01

    This work deals with magnetic structures that attain integer and half-integer skyrmion numbers. We model and solve the problem analytically, and show how the solutions appear in materials that engender distinct, very specific physical properties, and use them to describe their topological features. In particular, we found a way to model skyrmion with a large transition region correlated with the presence of a two-peak skyrmion number density. Moreover, we run into the issue concerning the topological strength of a vortex-like structure and suggest an experimental realization, important to decide how to modify and measure the topological strength of the magnetic structure.

  5. Effects of a multimodal exercise program on the functional capacity of Parkinson's disease patients considering disease severity and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Orcioli-Silva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a multimodal exercise program (MEP on the functional capacity of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD according to disease severity and gender. Fourteen patients with PD participated in the study and were distributed into groups according to 1 stage of disease and 2 gender. Functional capacity was evaluated before and after 6 months of intervention. The overall PD patient group improved their coordination and strength. Men and women improved in strength performance after exercise. Men also improved on coordination. For severity of disease, the unilateral group improved in strength, while the bilateral group improved in strength, balance, coordination and the UPDRS-functional score. In conclusion, a MEP is efficient in improving components of functional capacity in patients with PD, especially in strength. Gender may be considered in the exercise program. Individuals in the bilateral disease group appeared to benefit more from exercise.

  6. Working with Toronto neighbourhoods toward developing indicators of community capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Suzanne F; Cleverly, Shelley; Poland, Blake; Burman, David; Edwards, Richard; Robertson, Ann

    2003-12-01

    Often the goal of health and social development agencies is to assess communities and work with them to improve community capacity. Particularly for health promoters working in community settings and to ensure consistency in the definition of health promotion, the evaluation of health promotion programmes should be based on strengths and assets, yet existing information for planning and evaluation purposes usually focuses on problems and deficits. A model and definition of community capacity, grounded in community experience and focusing on strengths and assets, was developed following a 4-year, multi-site, qualitative, action research project in four Toronto neighbourhoods. There was significant community involvement in the four Community Advisory Committees, one for each study site. Semi-structured, open-ended interviews and focus groups were conducted with 161 residents and agency workers identified by the Community Advisory Committees. The data were analyzed with the assistance of NUDIST software. Thematic analysis was undertaken in two stages: (i) within each site and (ii) across sites, with the latter serving as the basis for the development of indicators of community capacity. This paper presents a summary of the research, the model and the proposed indicators. The model locates talents and skills of community members in a larger context of socioenvironmental conditions, both inside and outside the community, which can act to enable or constrain the expression of these talents and skills. The significance of the indicators of community capacity proposed in the study is that they focus on identifying and measuring the facilitating and constraining socioenvironmental conditions.

  7. Outpatient rehabilitation as an intervention to improve employees' physical capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojala, Birgitta; Nygård, Clas-Håkan; Nikkari, Seppo T

    2016-01-01

    The aging of the workforce poses new challenges for maintaining work ability. Because of limited information on the effectiveness of vocational rehabilitation performed in traditional inpatient programs, extended interest in outpatient rehabilitation has risen in the past few years. We examined the effects of a new outpatient rehabilitation program where every participant defined their own goals to improve work ability by the aid of a goal-oriented multi-professional team. This report will focus on the employees' physical capacity during a nine-month program. A total of 605 municipal employees from different production areas of the City of Tampere took part in the outpatient rehabilitation program, implemented by the occupational health unit. Groups of 12 employees participated in eight one-day sessions at intervals of two to three weeks; the final follow-up was 9 months from the beginning. Submaximal aerobic capacity was tested by a calibrated cycle ergometer with a commercial program (Aino Fitware pro, Helsinki, Finland). Musculoskeletal tests assessed muscle strength, balance and mobility. During the 9-month follow-up of the rehabilitation program, the employees' physical capacity was improved. The follow-up test scores from a total of 329 employees were significantly higher in the submaximal aerobic capacity test (p health situation to take part in physical capacity tests; however they took part in the intervention. The new outpatient rehabilitation program organized by the occupational health unit had a positive influence on employees' physical capacity during a nine-month follow up.

  8. Unknown loads affect force production capacity in early phases of bench press throws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Davó, J L; Sabido Solana, R; Sarabia Marínm, J M; Sánchez Martos, Á; Moya Ramón, M

    2015-10-01

    Explosive strength training aims to improve force generation in early phases of movement due to its importance in sport performance. The present study examined the influence of lack of knowledge about the load lifted in explosive parameters during bench press throws. Thirteen healthy young men (22.8±2.0 years) participated in the study. Participants performed bench press throws with three different loads (30, 50 and 70% of 1 repetition maximum) in two different conditions (known and unknown loads). In unknown condition, loads were changed within sets in each repetition and participants did not know the load, whereas in known condition the load did not change within sets and participants had knowledge about the load lifted. Results of repeated-measures ANOVA revealed that unknown conditions involves higher power in the first 30, 50, 100 and 150 ms with the three loads, higher values of ratio of force development in those first instants, and differences in time to reach maximal rate of force development with 50 and 70% of 1 repetition maximum. This study showed that unknown conditions elicit higher values of explosive parameters in early phases of bench press throws, thereby this kind of methodology could be considered in explosive strength training.

  9. Parkinson's disease severity and motor subtype influence physical capacity components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Pinto Pereira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The severity of Parkinson's disease (PD and PD's motor subtypes influence the components of physical capacity. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of both PD severity and motor subtype in the performance of these components. Thirty-six PD patients were assigned into four groups: Tremor (TD initial and TD mild, akinetic-rigid (AR initial, and AR mild. Patients' strength, balance, coordination, mobility and aerobic capacity were evaluated and groups were compared using a two-way ANOVA (severity and subtype as factors. AR presents a poorer performance than TD in almost all tests. Also this performance was worsened with the advance of the disease in AR, contrary to TD. We conclude that AR and TD subgroups are different about their performance on physical capacity components, moreover, this performance worsens with the advance of the disease of the AR group, but not for TD.

  10. The Influence of Time on Bearing Capacity of Driven Piles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J. Lysebjerg; Augustesen, A.; Sørensen, Carsten S.

    2004-01-01

    In Danish engineering practice, one of the ways to determine the ultimate bearing capacity of an axially loaded pile is by means of geostatic formulas. In the equation describing the contribution from the shaft friction to the total bearing capacity for piles located entirely or partly in clay......, a regeneration factor appears. The regeneration factor accounts for effects of dissipation of pore pressure due to pile driving and true time effects such as ageing on the ultimate bearing capacity. Normally the factor is 0.4 but in this paper, the influence of the undrained shear strength and time...... on the regeneration factor is investigated. A relation between the quantities is proposed, which in the end may imply an economical benefit in the design of pile foundations....

  11. Healthy Older Adults Have Insufficient Hip Range of Motion and Plantar Flexor Strength to Walk Like Healthy Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Dennis Earl; Madigan, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Limited plantar flexor strength and hip extension range of motion (ROM) in older adults are believed to underlie common age-related differences in gait. However, no studies of age-related differences in gait have quantified the percentage of strength and ROM used during gait. We examined peak hip angles, hip torques and plantar flexor torques, and corresponding estimates of functional capacity utilized (FCU), which we define as the percentage of available strength or joint R...

  12. Interference and memory capacity limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Ansgar D; Szabó, Szilárd

    2017-10-01

    Working memory (WM) is thought to have a fixed and limited capacity. However, the origins of these capacity limitations are debated, and generally attributed to active, attentional processes. Here, we show that the existence of interference among items in memory mathematically guarantees fixed and limited capacity limits under very general conditions, irrespective of any processing assumptions. Assuming that interference (a) increases with the number of interfering items and (b) brings memory performance to chance levels for large numbers of interfering items, capacity limits are a simple function of the relative influence of memorization and interference. In contrast, we show that time-based memory limitations do not lead to fixed memory capacity limitations that are independent of the timing properties of an experiment. We show that interference can mimic both slot-like and continuous resource-like memory limitations, suggesting that these types of memory performance might not be as different as commonly believed. We speculate that slot-like WM limitations might arise from crowding-like phenomena in memory when participants have to retrieve items. Further, based on earlier research on parallel attention and enumeration, we suggest that crowding-like phenomena might be a common reason for the 3 major cognitive capacity limitations. As suggested by Miller (1956) and Cowan (2001), these capacity limitations might arise because of a common reason, even though they likely rely on distinct processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Impact strength and abrasion resistance of high strength concrete with rice husk ash and rubber tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Barbosa

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the application of High Strength Concrete (HSC technology for concrete production with the incorporation of Rice Husk Ash (RHA residues by replacing a bulk of the material caking and rubber tires with partial aggregate volume, assessing their influence on the mechanical properties and durability. For concrete with RHA and rubber, it was possible to reduce the brittleness by increasing the energy absorbing capacity. With respect to abrasion, the RHA and rubber concretes showed lower mass loss than the concrete without residues, indicating that this material is attractive to be used in paving. It is thus hoped that these residues may represent a technological and ecological alternative for the production of concrete in construction works.

  14. Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bull, J.W.; Jobstvogt, N.; Böhnke-Henrichs, A.; Mascarenhas, A.; Sitas, N.; Baulcomb, C.; Lambini, C.K.; Rawlins, M.; Baral, H.; Zähringer, J.; Carter-Silk, E.; Balzan, M.V.; Kenter, J.O.; Häyhä, T.; Petz, K.; Koss, R.

    2016-01-01

    The ecosystem services concept (ES) is becoming a cornerstone of contemporary sustainability thought. Challenges with this concept and its applications are well documented, but have not yet been systematically assessed alongside strengths and external factors that influence uptake. Such an

  15. Polynomial expansions and transition strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draayer, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    The subject is statistical spectroscopy applied to determining strengths and strength sums of excitation processes in nuclei. The focus will be on a ds-shell isoscalar E2 study with detailed shell-model results providing the standard for comparison; similar results are available for isovector E2 and M1 and E4 transitions as well as for single-particle transfer and ν +- decay. The present study is intended to serve as a tutorial for applications where shell-model calculations are not feasible. The problem is posed and a schematic theory for strengths and sums is presented. The theory is extended to include the effect of correlations between H, the system Hamiltonian, and theta, the excitation operator. Associated with correlation measures is a geometry that can be used to anticipate the goodness of a symmetry. This is illustrated for pseudo SU(3) in the fp-shell. Some conclusions about fluctuations and collectivity that one can deduce from the statistical results for strengths are presented

  16. On strength of porous material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    1999-01-01

    The question of non-destructive testing of porous materials has always been of interest for the engineering profession. A number of empirically based MOE-MOR relations between stiffness (Modulus Of Elasticity) and strength (Modulus OF Rupture) of materials have been established in order to control...

  17. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Joseph William; Jobstvogt, N.; Böhnke-Henrichs, A.

    2016-01-01

    The ecosystem services concept (ES) is becoming a cornerstone of contemporary sustainability thought. Challenges with this concept and its applications are well documented, but have not yet been systematically assessed alongside strengths and external factors that influence uptake. Such an assess...

  18. Comparing strengths of beliefs explicitly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, S.; de Jongh, D.

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by a similar use in provability logic, formulas p > B q and p ≥ B q are introduced in the existing logical framework for discussing beliefs to express that the strength of belief in p is greater than (or equal to) that in q. Besides its usefulness in studying the properties of the concept

  19. Strength training for the warfighter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, William J; Szivak, Tunde K

    2012-07-01

    Optimizing strength training for the warfighter is challenged by past training philosophies that no longer serve the modern warfighter facing the "anaerobic battlefield." Training approaches for integration of strength with other needed physical capabilities have been shown to require a periodization model that has the flexibility for changes and is able to adapt to ever-changing circumstances affecting the quality of workouts. Additionally, sequencing of workouts to limit over-reaching and development of overtraining syndromes that end in loss of duty time and injury are paramount to long-term success. Allowing adequate time for rest and recovery and recognizing the negative influences of extreme exercise programs and excessive endurance training will be vital in moving physical training programs into a more modern perspective as used by elite strength-power anaerobic athletes in sports today. Because the warfighter is an elite athlete, it is time that training approaches that are scientifically based are updated within the military to match the functional demands of modern warfare and are given greater credence and value at the command levels. A needs analysis, development of periodized training modules, and individualization of programs are needed to optimize the strength of the modern warfighter. We now have the knowledge, professional coaches and nonprofit organization certifications with continuing education units, and modern training technology to allow this to happen. Ultimately, it only takes command decisions and implementation to make this possible.

  20. Modeling of Sylgard Adhesive Strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, Ralph Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-03

    Sylgard is the name of a silicone elastomeric potting material manufactured by Dow Corning Corporation.1 Although the manufacturer cites its low adhesive strength as a feature of this product, thin layers of Sylgard do in fact have a non-negligible strength, which has been measured in recent tensile and shear debonding tests. The adhesive strength of thin layers of Sylgard potting material can be important in applications in which components having signi cantly di erent thermal expansion properties are potted together, and the potted assembly is subjected to temperature changes. The tensile and shear tractions developed on the potted surfaces of the components can cause signi cant internal stresses, particularly for components made of low-strength materials with a high area-to-volume ratio. This report is organized as follows: recent Sylgard debonding tests are rst brie y summarized, with particular attention to the adhesion between Sylgard and PBX 9501, and also between Sylgard and aluminum. Next, the type of numerical model that will be used to simulate the debonding behavior exhibited in these tests is described. Then the calibration of the debonding model will be illustrated. Finally, the method by which the model parameters are adjusted (scaled) to be applicable to other, non- tested bond thicknesses is summarized, and all parameters of the model (scaled and unscaled) are presented so that other investigators can reproduce all of the simulations described in this report as well as simulations of the application of interest.

  1. Large capacity temporary visual memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Ansgar D.; Potter, Mary C.

    2014-01-01

    Visual working memory (WM) capacity is thought to be limited to three or four items. However, many cognitive activities seem to require larger temporary memory stores. Here, we provide evidence for a temporary memory store with much larger capacity than past WM capacity estimates. Further, based on previous WM research, we show that a single factor — proactive interference — is sufficient to bring capacity estimates down to the range of previous WM capacity estimates. Participants saw a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of 5 to 21 pictures of familiar objects or words presented at rates of 4/s or 8/s, respectively, and thus too fast for strategies such as rehearsal. Recognition memory was tested with a single probe item. When new items were used on all trials, no fixed memory capacities were observed, with estimates of up to 9.1 retained pictures for 21-item lists, and up to 30.0 retained pictures for 100-item lists, and no clear upper bound to how many items could be retained. Further, memory items were not stored in a temporally stable form of memory, but decayed almost completely after a few minutes. In contrast, when, as in most WM experiments, a small set of items was reused across all trials, thus creating proactive interference among items, capacity remained in the range reported in previous WM experiments. These results show that humans have a large-capacity temporary memory store in the absence of proactive interference, and raise the question of whether temporary memory in everyday cognitive processing is severely limited as in WM experiments, or has the much larger capacity found in the present experiments. PMID:23937181

  2. Capacity-achieving CPM schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Perotti, Alberto; Tarable, Alberto; Benedetto, Sergio; Montorsi, Guido

    2008-01-01

    The pragmatic approach to coded continuous-phase modulation (CPM) is proposed as a capacity-achieving low-complexity alternative to the serially-concatenated CPM (SC-CPM) coding scheme. In this paper, we first perform a selection of the best spectrally-efficient CPM modulations to be embedded into SC-CPM schemes. Then, we consider the pragmatic capacity (a.k.a. BICM capacity) of CPM modulations and optimize it through a careful design of the mapping between input bits and CPM waveforms. The s...

  3. Comparing the Impact of Specific Strength Training vs General Fitness Training on Professional Symphony Orchestra Musicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard Andersen, Lotte; Mann, Stephanie; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    Musculoskeletal symptoms, especially in the upper body, are frequent among professional symphony orchestra musicians. Physical exercise may relieve pain but might also interfere with playing performance. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility and effect of "specific strength training" (SST) versus...... "general fitness training" (GFT). METHODS: A feasibility study using randomized controlled methods. Primarily, evaluations involved self-reported impact on instrument playing and satisfaction with the interventions. Secondary evaluations included pain intensity, hand-grip strength, aerobic capacity, body...

  4. Empirical Approach for Determining Axial Strength of Circular Concrete Filled Steel Tubular Columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayalekshmi, S.; Jegadesh, J. S. Sankar; Goel, Abhishek

    2018-03-01

    The concrete filled steel tubular (CFST) columns are highly regarded in recent years as an interesting option in the construction field by designers and structural engineers, due to their exquisite structural performance, with enhanced load bearing capacity and energy absorption capacity. This study presents a new approach to simulate the capacity of circular CFST columns under axial loading condition, using a large database of experimental results by applying artificial neural network (ANN). A well trained network is established and is used to simulate the axial capacity of CFST columns. The validation and testing of the ANN is carried out. The current study is focused on proposing a simplified equation that can predict the ultimate strength of the axially loaded columns with high level of accuracy. The predicted results are compared with five existing analytical models which estimate the strength of the CFST column. The ANN-based equation has good prediction with experimental data, when compared with the analytical models.

  5. Empirical Approach for Determining Axial Strength of Circular Concrete Filled Steel Tubular Columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayalekshmi, S.; Jegadesh, J. S. Sankar; Goel, Abhishek

    2018-06-01

    The concrete filled steel tubular (CFST) columns are highly regarded in recent years as an interesting option in the construction field by designers and structural engineers, due to their exquisite structural performance, with enhanced load bearing capacity and energy absorption capacity. This study presents a new approach to simulate the capacity of circular CFST columns under axial loading condition, using a large database of experimental results by applying artificial neural network (ANN). A well trained network is established and is used to simulate the axial capacity of CFST columns. The validation and testing of the ANN is carried out. The current study is focused on proposing a simplified equation that can predict the ultimate strength of the axially loaded columns with high level of accuracy. The predicted results are compared with five existing analytical models which estimate the strength of the CFST column. The ANN-based equation has good prediction with experimental data, when compared with the analytical models.

  6. World nuclear power plant capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Worldwide, there were 249 power reactors in operation at the end of 1980, with a net electrical capacity of about 142 GW. In Canada the ten reactors in operation had a combined capacity of about 5.5 GW. Another 14 under construction will produce an additional 9.9 GW. Four Canadian reactors were in the world's top ten in terms of capacity factor in 1980, and six were in the top ten in terms of lifetime performance. Data tabulated for the Canadian reactors are: location, power, operator, date of first power. For the rest of the world, a table gives the number of reactors of each type and their capacity. (N.D.H.)

  7. Building a capacity building manual

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Clinton, DD

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Organizations 2010 Building a capacity building manual Daniel D. Clinton, Jr., P.E., F.NSPE Chair, WFEO Capacity Building Committee Dr Andrew Cleland, FIPENZ, Chief Executive, IPENZ, NZ Eng David Botha, FSAICE, Executive Director, SAICE, SA Dawit... 2010 Tertiary level University curricula Coaches and mentors Facilities EXCeeD Remuneration of Academics Experiential training Outreach to Students Students chapters Young members forum World Federation of Engineering Organizations 2010 Post...

  8. Capacity Markets and Market Stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, Hoff

    2006-01-01

    The good news is that market stability can be achieved through a combination of longer-term contracts, auctions for far enough in the future to permit new entry, a capacity management system, and a demand curve. The bad news is that if and when stable capacity markets are designed, the markets may seem to be relatively close to where we started - with integrated resource planning. Market ideologues will find this anathema. (author)

  9. Resistance training and aerobic training improve muscle strength and aerobic capacity in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvardsen, Lars H; Overgaard, Kristian; Heje, Karen

    2018-01-01

    after a run-in period of 12 weeks without exercise. Three times weekly the participants performed aerobic exercise on an ergometer bike or resistance exercise with unilateral training of knee and elbow flexion/extension. Primary outcomes were maximal oxygen consumption velocity (VO2 -max) and maximal...

  10. The role of postural control in the association between aerobic capacity and walking capacity in chronic stroke: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outermans, Jacqueline C; van de Port, Ingrid; Kwakkel, Gert; Visser-Meily, Johanna M; Wittink, Harriet

    2018-03-12

    Reports on the association between aerobic capacity and walking capacity in people after stroke show disparate results. To determine (1) if the predictive validity of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) for walking capacity post stroke is different from that of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and (2) if postural control, hemiplegic lower extremity muscle strength, age and gender distort the association between aerobic capacity and walking capacity. Cross-sectional study. General community in Utrecht, the Netherlands. Community-dwelling people more than three months after stroke. Measurement of aerobic capacity were performed with cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and differentiated between the achievement of VO2peak or VO2max. Measurement of walking capacity with the Six Minute Walk Test (6MWT), postural control with the Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment (POMA) and hemiplegic lower extremity muscle strength with the Motricity Index (MI-LE). Fifty-one out of 62 eligible participants, aged 64.7 (±12.5) years were included. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) showed a nonsignificant difference between the predictive validities of VO2max (N = 22, β = 0.56; 95%CI 0.12 - 0.97) and VO2peak (N = 29, β = 0.72; 95%CI 0.38 - 0.92). Multiple regression analysis of the pooled sample showed a significant decrease in the β value of VO2peak (21.6%) for the 6MWT when adding the POMA as a covariate in the association model. VO2peak remained significantly related to 6MWT after correcting for the POMA (β = 0.56 (95%CI 0.39 - 0.75)) CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest similar predictive validity of aerobic capacity for walking capacity in participants achieving VO2max compared to those only achieving VO2peak. Postural control confounds the association between aerobic capacity and walking capacity. Aerobic capacity remains a valid predictor of walking capacity. Aerobic capacity is an important factor associated with walking capacity after stroke. However, to understand this

  11. Maximizing the optical network capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayvel, Polina; Maher, Robert; Xu, Tianhua; Liga, Gabriele; Shevchenko, Nikita A; Lavery, Domaniç; Alvarado, Alex; Killey, Robert I

    2016-03-06

    Most of the digital data transmitted are carried by optical fibres, forming the great part of the national and international communication infrastructure. The information-carrying capacity of these networks has increased vastly over the past decades through the introduction of wavelength division multiplexing, advanced modulation formats, digital signal processing and improved optical fibre and amplifier technology. These developments sparked the communication revolution and the growth of the Internet, and have created an illusion of infinite capacity being available. But as the volume of data continues to increase, is there a limit to the capacity of an optical fibre communication channel? The optical fibre channel is nonlinear, and the intensity-dependent Kerr nonlinearity limit has been suggested as a fundamental limit to optical fibre capacity. Current research is focused on whether this is the case, and on linear and nonlinear techniques, both optical and electronic, to understand, unlock and maximize the capacity of optical communications in the nonlinear regime. This paper describes some of them and discusses future prospects for success in the quest for capacity. © 2016 The Authors.

  12. The effect of concrete strength and reinforcement on toughness of reinforced concrete beams

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro, Joaquim A. O.; Jalali, Said; Teixeira, Vasco M. P.; Tomás, M.

    2005-01-01

    The objective pursued with this work includes the evaluating of the strength and the total energy absorption capacity (toughness) of reinforced concrete beams using different amounts of steel-bar reinforcement. The experimental campaign deals with the evaluation of the threshold load prior collapse, ultimate load and deformation, as well as the beam total energy absorption capacity, using a three point bending test. The beam half span displacement was measured using a displacement transducer,...

  13. Muscle Strength and Poststroke Hemiplegia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Otto H; Stenager, Egon; Dalgas, Ulrik

    2017-01-01

    undergone peer review; and (4) were available in English or Danish. DATA EXTRACTION: The psychometric properties of isokinetic dynamometry were reviewed with respect to reliability, validity, and responsiveness. Furthermore, comparisons of strength between paretic, nonparetic, and comparable healthy muscles...... isokinetic dynamometry. DATA SOURCES: A systematic literature search of 7 databases was performed. STUDY SELECTION: Included studies (1) enrolled participants with definite poststroke hemiplegia according to defined criteria; (2) assessed muscle strength or power by criterion isokinetic dynamometry; (3) had...... were reviewed. DATA SYNTHESIS: Twenty studies covering 316 PPSH were included. High intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) inter- and intrasession reliability was reported for isokinetic dynamometry, which was independent of the tested muscle group, contraction mode, and contraction velocity...

  14. Electric quadrupole strength in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirson, M.W.

    1979-01-01

    Isoscalar electric quadrupole strength distributions in nuclei are surveyed, and it is concluded that the strength is shared, in most cases, roughly equally between low-lying transitions and the giant quadrupole state. The same is not true of the isovector case. A simple extension of the schematic model gives a remarkably successul description of the data, and emphasizes the vital importance of the coupling between high-lying and low-lying quadrupole modes. The standadrd simple representation of the giant quadrupole resonance as produced by operating on the nuclear ground state with the quadrupole transition operator is not applicable to the isoscalar case. It is suggested that giant resonances fall into broad classes of similar states, with considerable qualitative differences between the distinct classes. (author)

  15. Line strengths in WN stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leep, E.M.

    1982-01-01

    The author has analyzed high-dispersion spectra of over 100 WN stars in the Galaxy and the Large Magellenic Cloud (LMC). Most of the spectra were obtained through 4-m telescopes (Conti, Leep, and Perry 1981). The measured strengths of the WN classification lines N III lambdalambda4634-41, N IV lambda4057, N V lambda4604 (Smith 1968) for stars on WN subtypes 2.5-8 are shown. The assignments of WN subtypes are based on visual estimates of ratios of line strengths according to the scheme of Smith (1968), except that stars appearing to be earlier than WN3 are classified as WN2 or WN2.5 as explained by van der Hucht et al. (1981) and by Conti, Leep and Perry (1981). (Auth.)

  16. Soil strength and forest operations

    OpenAIRE

    Beekman, F.

    1987-01-01

    The use of heavy machinery and transport vehicles is an integral part of modern forest operations. This use often causes damage to the standing trees and to the soil. In this study the effects of vehicle traffic on the soil are analysed and the possible consequences for forest management discussed. The study is largely restricted to sandy and loamy soils because of their importance for Dutch forestry.

    Soil strength, defined as the resistance of soil structure against the impa...

  17. Electronic Correlation Strength of Pu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, A.; C. Albers, R.; E. Christensen, N.

    2013-01-01

    A new electronic quantity, the correlation strength, is defined as a necessary step for understanding the properties and trends in strongly correlated electronic materials. As a test case, this is applied to the different phases of elemental Pu. Within the GW approximation we have surprisingly...... found a "universal" scaling relationship, where the f-electron bandwidth reduction due to correlation effects is shown to depend only upon the local density approximation (LDA) bandwidth and is otherwise independent of crystal structure and lattice constant....

  18. Strength and Microstructure of Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    Forex - one particular alumina ceramic, I our own detailed crack ample, the relatively large values of r, and c* for the VI observations, and those of...particularly toughness indices, 1i71", indicating that there is sonic the c° , T parameters. However, the indentation mcth- kind of trade -o1Tbetwecn...macroscopic and microsnpic odology takes us closer to the strengths of specimens toughness levels, and that this trade -off is cont’olled by with natural

  19. Long range supergravity coupling strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, I.R.

    1991-01-01

    A limit of 2x10 -13 has recently been deduced for the fractional difference between the gravitational masses of the K 0 and anti K 0 mesons. This limit is applied here to put stringent limits on the strengths of the long range vector-scalar gravitational couplings envisaged in supergravity theories. A weaker limit is inferred from the general relativistic fit to the precession of the orbit of the pulsar PSR1913+16. (orig.)

  20. Differences in Physical Capacity Between Junior and Senior Australian Footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Stephen J; Watsford, Mark L; Austin, Damien J; Spurrs, Rob W; Pine, Matthew J; Rennie, Michael J

    2017-11-01

    Kelly, SJ, Watsford, ML, Austin, DJ, Spurrs, RW, Pine, MJ, and Rennie, MJ. Differences in physical capacity between junior and senior Australian footballers. J Strength Cond Res 31(11): 3059-3066, 2017-The purpose of this study was to profile and compare anthropometric and physical capacities within elite junior and senior Australian football (AF) players of various chronological ages and stages of athletic development. Seventy-nine players, including junior and senior AF players from one professional club, were profiled using 11 assessments. Junior players were divided into 2 groups based on chronological age (under 16 and 18 years) and senior players according to years since drafted to a professional AF team (1-2 years, 3-7 years, and 8+ years). Parametric data were assessed using a 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), whereas nonparametric data were assessed using a Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA. The magnitude difference between players was measured using the Hopkins' effect size (ES). Significant differences were evident between under-16 players and all senior player groups for anthropometric (p = 0.001-0.019/ES = 1.25-2.13), absolute strength (p = 0.001-0.01/ES = 1.82-4.46), and relative strength (p = 0.001-0.027/ES = 0.84-3.55). The under-18 players displayed significantly lower absolute strength (p = 0.001-0.012/ES = 1.82-3.79) and relative strength (p = 0.001-0.027/ES = 0.85-4.00) compared with the 3-7 and 8+ players. Significant differences were evident between the under-16 players and senior player groups for explosive jumping and throwing tests (p = 0.001-0.017/ES = 1.03-2.99). Minimal differences were evident between all player groups for running assessments; however, the under-16 players were significantly slower compared with the 8+ players for the 3-km time trial (p senior AF players.

  1. Aerobic training alone or combined with strength training affects fitness in elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burich, Rasmus; Teljigović, Sanel; Boyle, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate if combined strength and aerobic training can enhance aerobic capacity in the elderly to a similar extent as aerobic training alone when training duration is matched. METHODS: Elderly men and women (age 63.2 ± 4.7) were randomized into two intervention groups: an aerobic...... on the general health dimension on the SF-36 health survey improved more than AG's score. CONCLUSION: Elderly can substitute a part of their aerobic training with strength training and still improve VO2max to a clinically significant degree when strength training is performed with large muscle groups...

  2. Application of high strength steel to nuclear reactor containment vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susukida, H.; Sato, M.; Takano, G.; Uebayashi, T.; Yoshida, K.

    1976-01-01

    Nuclear reactor containment vessels are becoming larger in size with the increase in the power generating capacity of nuclear power plants. For example, a containment vessel for a PWR power plant with an output of 1,000 MWe becomes an extremely large one if it is made of the conventional JIS SGV 49 (ASTM A 516 Gr. 70) steel plates less than 38 mm in thickness. In order to design the steel containment vessel within the conventional dimensional range, therefore, it is necessary to use a high strength steel having a higher tensile strength than SGV 49 steel, good weldability and a higher fracture toughness and moreover, possessing satisfactory properties without undergoing post-weld heat treatment. The authors conducted a series of verification tests on high strength steel developed by modifying the ASTM A 543 Grade B Class 1 steel with a view to adopting it as a material for the nuclear reactor containment vessels. As the result of evaluation of the test results from various angles, we confirmed that the high strength steel is quite suitable for the manufacture of nuclear reactor containment vessels. (auth.)

  3. Assessment of clay stiffness and strength parameters using index properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed M. Ahmed

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A new approach is developed to determine the shear wave velocity in saturated soft to firm clays using measurements of the liquid limit, plastic limit, and natural water content with depth. The shear wave velocity is assessed using the site-specific variation of the natural water content with the effective mean stress. Subsequently, an iterative process is envisaged to obtain the clay stiffness and strength parameters. The at-rest earth pressure coefficient, as well as bearing capacity factor and rigidity index related to the cone penetration test, is also acquired from the analyses. Comparisons are presented between the measured clay parameters and the results of corresponding analyses in five different case studies. It is demonstrated that the presented approach can provide acceptable estimates of saturated clay stiffness and strength parameters. One of the main privileges of the presented methodology is the site-specific procedure developed based on the relationships between clay strength and stiffness parameters, rather than adopting direct correlations. Despite of the utilized iterative processes, the presented approach can be easily implemented using a simple spreadsheet, benefiting both geotechnical researchers and practitioners. Keywords: Soft to firm clays, Atterberg limits, Shear wave velocity, Small-strain shear modulus, Constrained modulus, Undrained shear strength, Effective friction angle, Cone penetration test

  4. Compressive strength of brick masonry made with weak mortars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Erik Steen; Hansen, Klavs Feilberg

    2013-01-01

    in the joint will ensure a certain level of load-carrying capacity. This is due to the interaction between compression in the weak mortar and tension in the adjacent bricks. This paper proposes an expression for the compressive strength of masonry made with weak lime mortars (fm... of masonry depends only on the strength of the bricks. A compression failure in masonry made with weak mortars occurs as a tension failure in the bricks, as they seek to prevent the mortar from being pressed out of the joints. The expression is derived by assuming hydrostatic pressure in the mortar joints......, which is the most unfavourable stress distribution with respect to tensile stresses in bricks. The expression is compared with the results of compression tests of masonry made with weak mortars. It can take into account bricks with arbitrary dimensions as well as perforated bricks. For a stronger mortar...

  5. Absorptive capacity and smart companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Moro González

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The current competitive environment is substantially modifying the organizations’ learning processes due to a global increase of available information allowing this to be transformed into knowledge. This opportunity has been exploited since the nineties by the tools of “Business Analytics” and “Business Intelligence” but, nevertheless, being integrated in the study of new organizational capacities engaged in the process of creating intelligence inside organizations is still an outstanding task. The review of the concept of absorptive capacity and a detailed study from the perspective of this new reality will be the main objective of study of this paper.Design/methodology/approach: By comparing classical absorptive capacity and absorptive capacity from the point of view of information management tools in each one of the three stages of the organizational learning cycle, some gaps of the former are overcome/fulfilled. The academic/bibliographical references provided in this paper have been obtained from ISI web of knowledge, Scopus and Dialnet data bases, supporting the state of affairs on absorptive capacity and thereafter filtering by "Business Intelligence" and "Business Analytics". Specialized websites and Business Schools` Publications there have also been included, crowning the content on information management tools used that are currently used in the strategic consulting.Findings: Our contribution to the literature is the development of "smart absorptive capacity". This is a new capacity emerging from the reformulation of the classical concept of absorptive capacity wherein some aspects of its definition that might have been omitted are emphasized. The result of this new approach is the creation of a new Theoretical Model of Organizational Intelligence, which aims to explain, within the framework of the Resources and Capabilities Theory, the competitive advantage achieved by the so-called smart companies

  6. Collapse mechanisms and strength prediction of reinforced concrete pile caps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Uffe G.; Hoang, Linh Cao

    2012-01-01

    . Calculations have been compared with nearly 200 test results found in the literature. Satisfactory agreement has been found. The analyses are conducted on concentrically loaded caps supported by four piles. The paper briefly outlines how the approach may be extended to more complicated loadings and geometries......This paper describes an upper bound plasticity approach for strength prediction of reinforced concrete pile caps. A number of collapse mechanisms are identified and analysed. The procedure leads to an estimate of the load-carrying capacity and an identification of the critical collapse mechanism...

  7. In-plane Shear Joint Capacity of Pracast Lightweight Aggregate Concrete Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henning; Goltermann, Per; Scherfig, Søren

    1996-01-01

    The paper establishes and documents formulas for the in-plane shear capacity between precast elements of lightweight aggregate concrete with open structure. The joints investigated are rough or toothed and have all been precracked prior to the testing in order to obtain realistic test results....... The paper documents the shear force capacity for the joint strength between the most common joint types between precast LAC roof and floor elements used in Scandinavia....

  8. Anomalous heat capacity of nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhachev, V.N.; Vinogradov, G.A.; Alymov, M.I.

    2006-01-01

    The heat capacity of nanosized particles exceeds (from few to tenth percents) the same values of the corresponding bulk materials, and this difference increases with the diminishing of the sizes. In the present Letter we give an explanation of this phenomenon on an example of a nanocrystal with simple cubic lattice and an arbitrary shape. The simplest harmonic interaction potential of the nearest neighbors is used. A qualitative agreement with experimental data is obtained. The decisive role is attributed to the choice of boundary conditions: free boundaries provide the 'softening' of vibrational spectrum thus giving larger contribution to the heat capacity. The increase in heat capacity depends on the particle size, shape and sample perfection

  9. Antioxidant capacity of eugenol derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E. Hidalgo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxicity and antioxidant capacity of eugenol derivatives (E2 = 2-Methoxy-4-[1-propenylphenyl]acetate, E3 = 4-Allyl-2-methoxyphenylacetate, E4 = 4-Allyl-2-methoxy-4-nitrophenol, E5 = 5-Allyl-3-nitrobenzene-1,2-diol, E6 = 4-Allyl-2-methoxy-5-nitrophenyl acetate were evaluated in order to determine the influence of the sustituents. E2-E6 were synthesized from eugenol (E1. E1 was extracted from cloves oil, and E2-E6 were obtained through acetylation and nitration reactions. Antioxidant capacity evaluated by DPPH (1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil and ORAC fluorescein demonstrated that E1 and E5 have a higher capacity and the minor toxicity evaluated by red blood cells haemolysis and the Artemia saline test. In accordance with our results, the compound's (E1-E5 use in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and or food industries could be suggested.

  10. Seismic fragility capacity of equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iijima, Toru; Abe, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Kenichi

    2006-01-01

    Seismic probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is an available method to evaluate residual risks of nuclear plants that are designed on definitive seismic conditions. From our preliminary seismic PSA analysis, horizontal shaft pumps are important components that have significant influences on the core damage frequency (CDF). An actual horizontal shaft pump and some kinds of elements were tested to evaluate realistic fragility capacities. Our test results showed that the realistic fragility capacity of horizontal shaft pump would be at least four times as high as a current value, 1.6 x 9.8 m/s 2 , used for our seismic PSA. We are going to incorporate the fragility capacity data that were obtained from those tests into our seismic PSA analysis, and we expect that the reliability of seismic PSA should increase. (author)

  11. On risk and decisional capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checkland, D

    2001-02-01

    Limits to paternalism are, in the liberal democracies, partially defined by the concepts of decision-making capacity/incapacity (mental competence/incompetence). The paper is a response to Ian Wilks's (1997) recent attempt to defend the idea that the standards for decisional capacity ought to vary with the degree of risk incurred by certain choices. Wilks's defense is based on a direct appeal to the logical features of examples and analogies, thus attempting to by-pass earlier criticisms (e.g., Culver & Gert, 1990) of risk-based standards. Wilks's argument is found wanting on the grounds that he misconstrues the logic of such capacity, especially in accounting for conceptual and pragmatic ties with issues of decisional authority. A diagnosis is offered as to the source of Wilks's error (the assumption that mental competence is a species of wider genus of "competence"), and an alternative way of accounting for risk within the predominant contemporary legal framework is sketched.

  12. The relationship between compressive strength and flexural strength of pavement geopolymer grouting material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Han, X. X.; Ge, J.; Wang, C. H.

    2018-01-01

    To determine the relationship between compressive strength and flexural strength of pavement geopolymer grouting material, 20 groups of geopolymer grouting materials were prepared, the compressive strength and flexural strength were determined by mechanical properties test. On the basis of excluding the abnormal values through boxplot, the results show that, the compressive strength test results were normal, but there were two mild outliers in 7days flexural strength test. The compressive strength and flexural strength were linearly fitted by SPSS, six regression models were obtained by linear fitting of compressive strength and flexural strength. The linear relationship between compressive strength and flexural strength can be better expressed by the cubic curve model, and the correlation coefficient was 0.842.

  13. Capacitated dynamic lot sizing with capacity acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hongyan; Meissner, Joern

    2011-01-01

    One of the fundamental problems in operations management is determining the optimal investment in capacity. Capacity investment consumes resources and the decision, once made, is often irreversible. Moreover, the available capacity level affects the action space for production and inventory...

  14. Computational Chemistry Capacity Building in an Underprivileged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bridging the gap with the other continents requires the identification of capacity ... university in South Africa), where computational chemistry research capacity has ... testifies the feasibility of such capacity building also in conditions of limited ...

  15. THE LEGAL CAPACITY TO TRADE

    OpenAIRE

    ADELIN UNGUREANU

    2014-01-01

    Trading is a part of our society. The man has been trading from ancient times so the amount of trades and transactions around the world is huge. In order for us to initiate, organize and deploy such trades we have to have certain rules which can help regulate the social and professional or legal aspect of trades. Therefore the sole trader capacity must be obtained and used in order for the contracts to be valid. The right and obligations that come with this capacity constitute activities t...

  16. Free energy and heat capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurata, M.; Devanathan, R.

    2015-01-01

    Free energy and heat capacity of actinide elements and compounds are important properties for the evaluation of the safety and reliable performance of nuclear fuel. They are essential inputs for models that describe complex phenomena that govern the behaviour of actinide compounds during nuclear fuels fabrication and irradiation. This chapter introduces various experimental methods to measure free energy and heat capacity to serve as inputs for models and to validate computer simulations. This is followed by a discussion of computer simulation of these properties, and recent simulations of thermophysical properties of nuclear fuel are briefly reviewed. (authors)

  17. THE LEGAL CAPACITY TO TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADELIN UNGUREANU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Trading is a part of our society. The man has been trading from ancient times so the amount of trades and transactions around the world is huge. In order for us to initiate, organize and deploy such trades we have to have certain rules which can help regulate the social and professional or legal aspect of trades. Therefore the sole trader capacity must be obtained and used in order for the contracts to be valid. The right and obligations that come with this capacity constitute activities that can be reflected and analysed by obtaining and maintain the sole trader status.

  18. Building Capacity in Ethical Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglas-Jones, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    review to ensure the protection of human subjects participating in research. Drawing on fieldwork with the Forum for Ethical Review Committees in the Asian and Western Pacific Region, I explore two distinct forms taken by capacity building within that organization to support and train members of ethics...... review committees. The first, with an emphasis on standards and measurability, takes as its priority international accountability for clinical trial research. e second explores how the organization goes about persuading trainees to see and do ‘ethics’ differently. is distinction between forms of capacity...

  19. Six weeks' aerobic retraining after two weeks' immobilization restores leg lean mass and aerobic capacity but does not fully rehabilitate leg strenght in young and older men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigelsø Hansen, Andreas; Gram, Martin; Wiuff, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of aerobic retraining as rehabilitation after short-term leg immobilization on leg strength, leg work capacity, leg lean mass, leg muscle fibre type composition and leg capillary supply, in young and older men. SUBJECTS AND DESIGN: Seventeen young (23 ± 1 years...... immobilization had marked effects on leg strength, and work capacity and 6 weeks' retraining was sufficient to increase, but not completely rehabilitate, muscle strength, and to rehabilitate aerobic work capacity and leg lean mass (in the young men)....

  20. Combined strength and endurance training in competitive swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspenes, Stian; Kjendlie, Per-Ludvik; Hoff, Jan; Helgerud, Jan

    2009-01-01

    swimming force.Two weekly sessions of high-intensity endurance training did not cause improved endurance capacity.It may seem that dry land strength training can improve middle distance performance.

  1. Strength of mortar containing rubber tire particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusoh, M. A.; Abdullah, S. R.; Adnan, S. H.

    2018-04-01

    The main focus in this investigation is to determine the strength consist compressive and tensile strength of mortar containing rubber tire particle. In fact, from the previous study, the strength of mortar containing waste rubber tire in mortar has a slightly decreases compare to normal mortar. In this study, rubber tire particle was replacing on volume of fine aggregate with 6%. 9% and 12%. The sample were indicated M0 (0%), M6 (6%), M9 (9%) and M12 (12%). In this study, two different size of sample used with cube 100mm x 100mm x 100mm for compressive strength and 40mm x 40mm x 160mm for flexural strength. Morphology test was conducted by using Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) were done after testing compressive strength test. The concrete sample were cured for day 3, 7 and 28 before testing. Results compressive strength and flexural strength of rubber mortar shown improved compare to normal mortar.

  2. optimizing compressive strength characteristics of hollow building

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Keywords: hollow building Blocks, granite dust, sand, partial replacement, compressive strength. 1. INTRODUCTION ... exposed to extreme climate. The physical ... Sridharan et al [13] conducted shear strength studies on soil-quarry dust.

  3. Elastic buckling strength of corroded steel plates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    structural safety assessment of corroded structures, residual strength should be ... Rahbar-Ranji (2001) has proposed a spectrum for random simulation of ... The main aim of the present work is to investigate the buckling strength of simply ...

  4. Ego Depletion and the Strength Model of Self-Control: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagger, Martin S.; Wood, Chantelle; Stiff, Chris; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L. D.

    2010-01-01

    According to the strength model, self-control is a finite resource that determines capacity for effortful control over dominant responses and, once expended, leads to impaired self-control task performance, known as "ego depletion". A meta-analysis of 83 studies tested the effect of ego depletion on task performance and related outcomes,…

  5. Handgrip strength, functionality and plasma levels of IL-6 in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele S. Pereira

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction Aging is associated with a chronic low-grade inflammatory process characterized by an increased production of inflammatory mediators. These elevated levels are predictors for muscle function (sarcopenia and deterioration of physical performance in the elderly.Objective To investigate the correlation between sarcopenia, functional capacity, and interleukin-6 levels.Materials and methods This cross-sectional study assessed a convenience sample of elderly individuals (n = 130 using a handgrip dynamometer (JAMAR™, and the functional capacity test was performed by sitting and standing. Interleukin-6 levels were determined using high sensitivity ELISA kits. Spearman correlation coefficient was used to assess the correlation between these variables, at a significance level (α of 0.05.Results There was significant inverse correlation between strength and function (rS = -0.273, p = 0.002 such that elderly individuals with lower peak force took longer to perform the sit-to-stand test, in contrast with the relationship between plasma interleukin-6 levels and strength (rS = -0.043, p = 0.624 or functionality (rS = -0.060, p = 0.501.Conclusion The outcome measures analyzed could predict the decline in muscle strength and functional capacity, and may be indicative of sarcopenia in elderly individuals. There was no correlation between the interleukin-6 levels and the grip strength and functional capacity of the sample investigated.

  6. Effects of drought stress on seed sink strength and leaf protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assimilate availability and the capacity to utilise them in the reproductive structures to a large extent determine reproductive sink establishment and yield of crops under drought stress. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of drought stress imposed at early pod-fill stage on seed sink strength of common bean ...

  7. Memory Profiles in Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities: Strengths and Weaknesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Molen, Mariet J.; Van Luit, Johannes E. H.; Jongmans, Marian J.; Van der Molen, Maurits W.

    2009-01-01

    Strengths and weaknesses in short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM) were identified in children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID) by comparing their performance to typically developing children matched on chronological age (CA children) and to younger typically developing children with similar mental capacities (MA children).…

  8. Changes in muscle strength and morphology after muscle unloading in Special Forces missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlund, J B; Jakobsen, O; Madsen, T

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the changes in maximal muscle strength, rapid force capacity, jumping performance and muscle morphology following a Special Forces military operation involving 8 days of muscle unloading. Nine male Special Forces soldiers were tested before (pre) ...

  9. Physical capacity of rescue personnel in the mining industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunt Andrew P

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mining industry has one of the highest occupational rates of serious injury and fatality. Mine staff involved with rescue operations are often required to respond to physically challenging situations. This paper describes the physical attributes of mining rescue personnel. Methods 91 rescue personnel (34 ± 8.6 yrs, 1.79 ± 0.07 m, 90 ± 15.0 kg participating in the Queensland Mines Rescue Challenge completed a series of health-related and rescue-related fitness tasks. Health-related tasks comprised measurements of aerobic capacity (VO2max, abdominal endurance, abdominal strength, flexibility, lower back strength, leg strength, elbow flexion strength, shoulder strength, lower back endurance, and leg endurance. Rescue-related tasks comprised an incremental carry (IC, coal shovel (CS, and a hose drag (HD, completed in this order. Results Cardiovascular (VO2max and muscular endurance was average or below average compared with the general population. Isometric strength did not decline with age. The rescue-related tasks were all extremely demanding with heart rate responses averaging greater than 88% of age predicted maximal heart rates. Heart rate recovery responses were more discriminating than heart rates recorded during the tasks, indicating the hose drag as the most physically demanding of the tasks. Conclusion Relying on actual rescues or mining related work to provide adequate training is generally insufficient to maintain, let alone increase, physical fitness. It is therefore recommended that standards of required physical fitness be developed and mines rescue personnel undergo regularly training (and assessment in order to maintain these standards.

  10. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Ionic Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the ionic strength module, when to list ionic strength as a candidate cause, ways to measure ionic strength, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for ionic strength, ionic strength module references and literature reviews.

  11. Livelihood Resilience and Adaptive Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulstrup, Andreas Waaben

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the implementation and outcomes of national development programs in a mountainous commune in Vietnam. The article traces the history of State intervention and the capacity of households and the community to adapt to change. The assessment reveals unintended consequences of t...

  12. Model of clinker capacity expansion

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stylianides, T

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a model which has been applied in practice to determine an optimal plan for clinker capacity expansion. The problem was formulated as an integer linear program aiming to determine the optimal number, size and location of kilns...

  13. Research projects and capacity building

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Breen, CM

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A World Bank long-term perspective study on Sub-Saharan Africa highlighted the need to build human and institutional capacity in virtually all sectors and countries. In South Africa, establishment of a democratic government in 1994 saw increased...

  14. Outage capacity of multicarrier systems

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2010-01-01

    The probability density function and the cumulative distribution function of the product of shifted Gamma variates are obtained in terms of the generalized Fox's H function. Using these new results, the exact outage capacity of multi carrier transmission through a slow Nakagami-m fading channel is presented. Moreover, it is shown that analytical and simulation results are in perfect agreement. © 2009 IEEE.

  15. Building adaptive capacity in Assam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumyadeep Banerjee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A starting point for adapting to longer-term climate change could be adaptation to short-term climate variability and extreme events. Making more informed choices about the use of remittances can enhance the adaptive capacity of remittance-receiving households.

  16. Frequency-dependent heat capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Claus Flensted

    The frequency–dependent heat capacity of super-cooled glycerol near the glass transition is measured using the 3w detection technique. An electrical conducting thin film with a temperature–dependent electrical resistance is deposited on a substrate. The thin film is used simultaneously as a heater...

  17. Improving African health research capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Wallace, Samantha A; Liljestrand, Jerker

    2010-01-01

    The issue of strengthening local research capacity in Africa is again high on the health and development agenda. The latest initiative comes from the Wellcome Trust. But when it comes to capacity development, one of the chief obstacles that health sectors in the region must confront is the migrat......The issue of strengthening local research capacity in Africa is again high on the health and development agenda. The latest initiative comes from the Wellcome Trust. But when it comes to capacity development, one of the chief obstacles that health sectors in the region must confront...... is the migration of health professionals to countries that offer more lucrative opportunities, like those in western Europe. To combat this ''brain drain'', already back in 1984, the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida) created a training programme in which healthcare professionals from...... Africa conducted the bulk of their research in their own countries. However, the model was only partly successful. Several years ago, we assessed the preconditions for the renewal of Sida support for research and research training activities in the region. Based on our work to develop a critical mass...

  18. Capacity Planning and Leadtime management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijm, Willem H.M.; Buitenhek, R.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a framework for capacity planning and lead time management in manufacturing companies, with an emphasis on the machine shop. First we show how queueing models can be used to find approximations of the mean and the variance of manufacturing shop lead times. These quantities

  19. Antioxidant capacity and physical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Marciniak

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is a presentation of current knowledge regarding the changes of plasma antioxidant capacity observed in response to physical exercise. Human body created the enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems, which play a protective role in the harmful impact of free radicals. Those two systems constitute what is known as the plasma total antioxidant capacity. The amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS and reactive nitrogen species (NOS in combination with oxidation processes increases in some tissues during physiological response to physical exercise. These changes are observed after single bout of exercise as well as after regular training. The response of human body to physical exercise can be analysed using various models of exercise test. Application of repeated type of exhaustion allows for characterizing the ability of human body to adjust to the increased energy loss and increased oxygen consumption. This article presents the characteristics of components of plasma antioxidant capacity, the mechanisms of free radicals production and their role in human body. It discusses also the currently used methods of detecting changes in total antioxidant capacity and its individual elements in response to single bout of exercise and regular training. It presents the review of literature about research performed in groups of both regularly training and low exercise activity individuals as well as in group of healthy subjects and patients with circulation diseases.

  20. Determination of giant resonance strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serr, F.E.

    1983-01-01

    Using theoretical strength functions to describe the different giant resonances expected at excitation energies of the order of (60-85)/Asup(1/3) MeV, we calculate the double differential cross sections d 2 sigma/dΩ dE associated with the reactions 208 Pb(α, α') and 90 Zr(α, α') (Esub(α) = 152 MeV). The angular distributions for the giant quadrupole and giant monopole resonances obtained from fits to these spectra, making simple, commonly used assumptions for the peak shapes and background, are compared to the original angular distributions. The differences between them are an indication of some of the uncertainties affecting the giant resonance strengths extracted from hadron inelastic scattering data. Fits to limited angular regions lead to errors of up to 50% in the value of the energy-weighted sum rule, depending on the angles examined. While it seems possible to extract the correct EWSR for the GMR by carrying out the analyses at 0 0 , no single privileged angle seems to exist in the case of the GQR. (orig.)

  1. Vertical barriers with increased sorption capacities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradl, H.B.

    1997-01-01

    Vertical barriers are commonly used for the containment of contaminated areas. Due to the very small permeability of the barrier material which is usually in the order of magnitude of 10-10 m/s or less the advective contaminant transport can be more or less neglected. Nevertheless, there will always be a diffusive contaminant transport through the barrier which is caused by the concentration gradient. Investigations have been made to increase the sorption capacity of the barrier material by adding substances such as organoclays, zeolites, inorganic oxides and fly ashes. The contaminants taken into account where heavy metals (Pb) and for organic contaminants Toluole and Phenantrene. The paper presents results of model calculations and experiments. As a result, barrier materials can be designed 'tailor-made' depending on the individual contaminant range of each site (e.g. landfills, gasworks etc.). The parameters relevant for construction such as rheological properties, compressive strength and permeability are not affected by the addition of the sorbents

  2. Evaluating Upper-Body Strength and Power From a Single Test: The Ballistic Push-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ran; Hoffman, Jay R; Sadres, Eliahu; Bartolomei, Sandro; Muddle, Tyler W D; Fukuda, David H; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2017-05-01

    Wang, R, Hoffman, JR, Sadres, E, Bartolomei, S, Muddle, TWD, Fukuda, DH, and Stout, JR. Evaluating upper-body strength and power from a single test: the ballistic push-up. J Strength Cond Res 31(5): 1338-1345, 2017-The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of the ballistic push-up (BPU) exercise and to develop a prediction model for both maximal strength (1 repetition maximum [1RM]) in the bench press exercise and upper-body power. Sixty recreationally active men completed a 1RM bench press and 2 BPU assessments in 3 separate testing sessions. Peak and mean force, peak and mean rate of force development, net impulse, peak velocity, flight time, and peak and mean power were determined. Intraclass correlation coefficients were used to examine the reliability of the BPU. Stepwise linear regression was used to develop 1RM bench press and power prediction equations. Intraclass correlation coefficient's ranged from 0.849 to 0.971 for the BPU measurements. Multiple regression analysis provided the following 1RM bench press prediction equation: 1RM = 0.31 × Mean Force - 1.64 × Body Mass + 0.70 (R = 0.837, standard error of the estimate [SEE] = 11 kg); time-based power prediction equation: Peak Power = 11.0 × Body Mass + 2012.3 × Flight Time - 338.0 (R = 0.658, SEE = 150 W), Mean Power = 6.7 × Body Mass + 1004.4 × Flight Time - 224.6 (R = 0.664, SEE = 82 W); and velocity-based power prediction equation: Peak Power = 8.1 × Body Mass + 818.6 × Peak Velocity - 762.0 (R = 0.797, SEE = 115 W); Mean Power = 5.2 × Body Mass + 435.9 × Peak Velocity - 467.7 (R = 0.838, SEE = 57 W). The BPU is a reliable test for both upper-body strength and power. Results indicate that the mean force generated from the BPU can be used to predict 1RM bench press, whereas peak velocity and flight time measured during the BPU can be used to predict upper-body power. These findings support the potential use of the BPU as a valid method to evaluate upper-body strength and power.

  3. Strengths and Satisfaction across the Adult Lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacowitz, Derek M.; Vaillant, George E.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2003-01-01

    Positive psychology has recently developed a classification of human strengths (Peterson & Seligman, in press). We aimed to evaluate these strengths by investigating the strengths and life satisfaction in three adult samples recruited from the community (young adult, middle-aged, and older adult), as well as in the surviving men of the Grant study…

  4. Relationship between the edgewise compression strength of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of this study were used to determine the linear regression constants in the Maltenfort model by correlating the measured board edgewise compression strength (ECT) with the predicted strength, using the paper components' compression strengths, measured with the short-span compression test (SCT) and the ...

  5. Strength of Ship Plates under Combined Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, W.; Wang, Y.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2002-01-01

    Strength of ship plates plays a significant role in the ultimate strength analysis of ship structures. In recent years several authors have proposed simplified analytical methods to calculate the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates. The majority of these investigations deal with plates subjec...

  6. Strength of ship plates under combined loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Weiching; Wang, Yongjun; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2000-01-01

    Strength of ship plates plays a significant role for the ultimate strength analysis of ship structures. In recent years several authors have proposed simplified methods to calculate the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates. The majority of these investigations deal with plates subjected to lon...

  7. Effects of glovebox gloves on grip and key pinch strength and contact forces for simulated manual operations with three commonly used hand tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Peng-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of glovebox gloves for 11 females on maximum grip and key pinch strength and on contact forces generated from simulated tasks of a roller, a pair of tweezers and a crescent wrench. The independent variables were gloves fabricated of butyl, CSM/hypalon and neoprene materials; two glove thicknesses; and layers of gloves worn including single, double and triple gloving. CSM/hypalon and butyl gloves produced greater grip strength than the neoprene gloves. CSM/hypalon gloves also lowered contact forces for roller and wrench tasks. Single gloving and thin gloves improved hand strength performances. However, triple layers lowered contact forces for all tasks. Based on the evaluating results, selection and design recommendations of gloves for three hand tools were provided to minimise the effects on hand strength and optimise protection of the palmar hand in glovebox environments. To improve safety and health in the glovebox environments where gloves usage is a necessity, this study provides recommendations for selection and design of glovebox gloves for three hand tools including a roller, a pair of tweezers and a crescent wrench based on the results discovered in the experiments.

  8. Influence of radioprotectors of various chemical compounds on the dynamic performance capacity and carbohydrate metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimirov, V.G.; Golubentsev, D.A.; Merkina, T.N.; Smirnova, S.M.

    1978-01-01

    Studied is the effect of the most effective radiotectors (gammaphos, cystamine and mexamine) on some factors of carbohydrate metabolism and working capacity of rats. In the effect of preparations studied great differences are established. Decrease of glycogen storage in liver and museles increase of lactate and pyruate level in blood as compared to control, decrease of animal working capacity are observed at introducing cystamine into rats when in rest and while dosed muscular loadings. Mexamine causes great shifts in carbohydrate exchange (in combination with physical loadings), and decreases animal strength. Gammaphos does not influence carbohydrate metabolism and does not decrease animal working capacity

  9. WORKING MEMORY CAPACITY TEST REVEALS SUBJECTS DIFFICULTIES MANAGING LIMITED CAPACITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R V Ershova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Free recall consists of two separate stages: the emptying of working memory and reactivation [5]. The Tarnow Unchunkable Test (TUT, [7] uses double integer items to separate out only the first stage by making it difficult to reactivate items due to the lack of intra-item relationships.193 Russian college students were tested via the internet version of the TUT. The average number of items remembered in the 3 item test was 2.54 items. In the 4 item test, the average number of items decreased to 2.38. This, and a number of other qualitative distribution differences between the 3 and 4 item tests, indicate that the average capacity limit of working memory has been reached at 3 items. This provides the first direct measurement of the unchunkable capacity limit of number items.Difficulties in managing working memory occurred as most subjects remembered less as the number of items increased beyond capacity and failed to remember a single item in at least one out of three 4 item trials. The Pearson correlation between the total recall of 3 and 4 items was a small 38%.

  10. Study on Predicting Axial Load Capacity of CFST Columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi Kumar, H.; Muthu, K. U.; Kumar, N. S.

    2017-11-01

    This work presents an analytical study and experimental study on the behaviour and ultimate load carrying capacity of axially compressed self-compacting concrete-filled steel tubular columns. Results of tests conducted by various researchers on 213 samples concrete-filled steel tubular columns are reported and present authors experimental data are reported. Two theoretical equations were derived for the prediction of the ultimate axial load strength of concrete-filled steel tubular columns. The results from prediction were compared with the experimental data. Validation to the experimental results was made.

  11. Effect of corrosion on the buckling capacity of tubular members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øyasæter, F. H.; Aeran, A.; Siriwardane, S. C.; Mikkelsen, O.

    2017-12-01

    Offshore installations are subjected to harsh marine environment and often have damages from corrosion. Several experimental and numerical studies were performed in the past to estimate buckling capacity of corroded tubular members. However, these studies were either based on limited experimental tests or numerical analyses of few cases resulting in semi-empirical relations. Also, there are no guidelines and recommendations in the currently available design standards. To fulfil this research gap, a new formula is proposed to estimate the residual strength of tubular members considering corrosion and initial geometrical imperfections. The proposed formula is verified with results from finite element analyses performed on several members and for varying corrosion patch parameters. The members are selected to represent the most relevant Eurocode buckling curve for tubular members. It is concluded that corrosion reduces the buckling capacity significantly and the proposed formula can be easily applied by practicing engineers without performing detailed numerical analyses.

  12. Safety Criteria and Standards for Bearing Capacity of Foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanlong Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the evaluation standards of factor of safety for foundation stability analysis. The problem of foundation stability is analyzed via the methods of risk analysis of engineering structures and reliability-based design, and the factor of safety for foundation stability is determined by using bearing capacity safety-factor method (BSFM and strength safety-factor method (SSFM. Based on a typical example, the admissible factors of safety were calibrated with a target reliability index specified in relevant standards. Two safety criteria and their standards of bearing capacity of foundation for these two methods (BSFM and SSFM were established. The universality of the safety criteria and their standards for foundation reliability was verified based on the concept of the ratio of safety margin (RSM.

  13. CO2 Capacity Sorbent Analysis Using Volumetric Measurement Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Roger; Richardson, Tra-My Justine; Belancik, Grace; Jan, Darrell; Knox, Jim

    2017-01-01

    In support of air revitalization system sorbent selection for future space missions, Ames Research Center (ARC) has performed CO2 capacity tests on various solid sorbents to complement structural strength tests conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The materials of interest are: Grace Davison Grade 544 13X, Honeywell UOP APG III, LiLSX VSA-10, BASF 13X, and Grace Davison Grade 522 5A. CO2 capacity was for all sorbent materials using a Micromeritics ASAP 2020 Physisorption Volumetric Analysis machine to produce 0C, 10C, 25C, 50C, and 75C isotherms. These data are to be used for modeling data and to provide a basis for continued sorbent research. The volumetric analysis method proved to be effective in generating consistent and repeatable data for the 13X sorbents, but the method needs to be refined to tailor to different sorbents.

  14. Morphology, muscle capacity, skill, and maneuvering ability in hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakin, Roslyn; Segre, Paolo S; Straw, Andrew D; Altshuler, Douglas L

    2018-02-09

    How does agility evolve? This question is challenging because natural movement has many degrees of freedom and can be influenced by multiple traits. We used computer vision to record thousands of translations, rotations, and turns from more than 200 hummingbirds from 25 species, revealing that distinct performance metrics are correlated and that species diverge in their maneuvering style. Our analysis demonstrates that the enhanced maneuverability of larger species is explained by their proportionately greater muscle capacity and lower wing loading. Fast acceleration maneuvers evolve by recruiting changes in muscle capacity, whereas fast rotations and sharp turns evolve by recruiting changes in wing morphology. Both species and individuals use turns that play to their strengths. These results demonstrate how both skill and biomechanical traits shape maneuvering behavior. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  15. Level densities and γ-strength functions in 148,149Sm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siem, S.; Guttormsen, M.; Ingeberg, K.; Melby, E.; Rekstad, J.; Schiller, A.; Voinov, A.

    2002-01-01

    The level densities and γ-strength functions of the weakly deformed 148 Sm and 149 Sm nuclei have been extracted. The temperature versus excitation energy curve, derived within the framework of the microcanonical ensemble, shows structures, which we associate with the breakup of Cooper pairs. The nuclear heat capacity is deduced within the framework of both the microcanonical and canonical ensembles. We observe negative heat capacity in the microcanonical ensemble whereas the canonical heat capacity exhibits an S shape as a function of temperature, both signals of a phase transition. The structures in the γ-strength functions are discussed in terms of the pygmy resonance and the scissors mode built on excited states. The samarium results are compared with data for the well-deformed 161,162 Dy, 166,167 Er, and 171,172 Yb isotopes and with data from (n,γ) experiments and giant dipole resonance studies

  16. The effects of strength training on cognitive performance in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolarek, André de Camargo; Ferreira, Luis Henrique Boiko; Mascarenhas, Luis Paulo Gomes; McAnulty, Steven R; Varela, Karla Daniele; Dangui, Mônica C; de Barros, Marcelo Paes; Utter, Alan C; Souza-Junior, Tácito P

    2016-01-01

    Aging is a degenerative process marked by recognized functional, physiological, and metabolic impairments, such as dynapenia and diminished cognitive capacity. Therefore, the search for innovative strategies to prevent/delay these physiological and cognitive disorders is essential to guarantee the independence and life quality of an elderly population. The aim of this work is to verify the effect of a 12-week resistance exercise program on the general physical aptitude and cognitive capacities of elderly and sedentary women. Twenty-nine women (65.87±5.69 years) were divided into two groups. The control group was composed of eight elderly women who met the same inclusion criteria of the study and the strength training group was composed of 29 elderly women who were subjected to a resistance exercise program defined by 12 upper and lower limb exercises combined in 3×10 repetitions with 1-minute interval between repetitions and two resting minutes between exercises (three times/week). Weight loads were fixed between 60% and 75% of the apparent 1 repetition maximum, which was estimated by the test of 10 maximum repetitions. The direct curl was performed for upper body strength evaluation with 2.3 kg dumbbells for 30 seconds, whereas the chair test was used for lower body evaluation (total sit-stand movements in 30 seconds). The cognitive capacities of subjects were evaluated by "The Montreal Cognitive Assessment" questionnaire. After 12 weeks, the elderly group showed significant increases in the average upper body strength (58%), lower body strength (68%), and cognitive capacity (19%). The present study demonstrated that regular resistance exercises could provide significant gains on the upper and lower body strength concomitant to positive improvements on cognitive capacities of elderly women, bringing enhanced life quality.

  17. Strength-ductility relationships in intermediate purity hot-pressed beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stonehouse, A.J.; Bielawski, C.A.; Paine, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    The strength of vacuum hot-pressed, intermediate purity beryllium may be substantially increased without sacrifice of the strain capacity of the present grade (S-65) through decrease in the average grain size. Tensile strength of 517 MPa, 0.2% offset yield strength of 414 MPa with minimum 3% tensile elongation in all test directions could be commercially achieved. The tangent modulus of such material is quite attractive and suffers only about 10% degradation from room temperature to 260 0 C. The tangent modulus is dramatically enhanced by the presence of a yield point. The ductility of the materials studied did not appear to be affected by the BeO content across the range of 0.5 to 2.0% using nominal -44 to -15 μm powder particle sizes. All fine-grained pressings exhibited yield points in the as-pressed condition. Either full-density or sub-density hot-pressed billets given a hot isostatic pressing treatment without the use of cans showed only slight yield points after the HIP treatment with essentially the same strength and ductility factors as in the pressed condition. A plot of grain size vs yield strength in the as-pressed condition projects to an intercept with the fracture strength line at about 3 μm grain size. A similar plot after the HIP treatment shows a yield strength line parallel to the fracture strength line with no projected intercept predicting a completely brittle material. (author)

  18. Alkyl chitosan film-high strength, functional biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Li; Xing, Cao; Xin, Shen; Shitao, Yu; Feng, Su; Shiwei, Liu; Fusheng, Liu; Congxia, Xie

    2017-11-01

    Biofilm with strong tensile strength is a topic item in the area of tissue engineering, medicine engineering, and so forth. Here we introduced an alkyl chitosan film with strong tensile strength and its possibility for an absorbable anticoagulation material in vivo was tested in the series of blood test, such as dynamic coagulation time, plasma recalcification time and hemolysis. Alkyl chitosan film was a better biomaterial than traditional chitosan film in the anticoagulation, tissue compatibility and cell compatibility. The unique trait of alkyl chitosan film may be for its greater contact angle and hydrophobicity ability to reduce the adsorption capacity for the blood component and the activity of fibrinolytic enzymes, enhance the antibacterial capacity than chitosan film. Moreover, none of chitosan film or butyl chitosan film exhibited quick inflammation or other disadvantage and degraded quickly by implanted test. Therefore, Alkyl chitosan film is of prospective properties as an implantable, absorbable agent for tissue heals, and this material need further research. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 3034-3041, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Cobalt: for strength and color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Maeve A.; Kropschot, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    Cobalt is a shiny, gray, brittle metal that is best known for creating an intense blue color in glass and paints. It is frequently used in the manufacture of rechargeable batteries and to create alloys that maintain their strength at high temperatures. It is also one of the essential trace elements (or "micronutrients") that humans and many other living creatures require for good health. Cobalt is an important component in many aerospace, defense, and medical applications and is a key element in many clean energy technologies. The name cobalt comes from the German word kobold, meaning goblin. It was given this name by medieval miners who believed that troublesome goblins replaced the valuable metals in their ore with a substance that emitted poisonous fumes when smelted. The Swedish chemist Georg Brandt isolated metallic cobalt-the first new metal to be discovered since ancient times-in about 1735 and identified some of its valuable properties.

  20. High-strength beryllium block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, N.P.; Keith, G.H.

    1977-01-01

    Beryllium billets hot isopressed using fine powder of high purity have exceptionally attractive properties; average tensile ultimate, 0.2% offset yield strength and elongation are 590 MPa, 430 MPa and 4.0% respectively. Properties are attributed to the fine grain size (about 4.0 μm average diameter) and the relatively low levels of BeO present as fine, well-dispersed particles. Dynamic properties, e.g., fracture toughness, are similar to those of standard grade, high-purity beryllium. The modulus of beryllium is retained to very high stress levels, and the microyield stress or precision elastic limit is higher than for other grades, including instrument grades. Limited data for billets made from normal-purity fine powders show similar room temperature properties. (author)

  1. Swimbladder on Fish Target Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunardi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses of target strength (TS for the Selar boops (Oxeye scad and Megalaspis cordyla (Torpedo scad, the most commercially fish in Malaysia. TS can be determined from in situ measurements and acoustic calculation of fish model. TS value, depth, and position (x-y-z of targeted fish can be viewed from echogram using FQ-80 Analyzer by in situ measurement. X-ray imaged can be deployed to develop the acoustic fish model. The percentage of length and upper surface area for swimbladder to body fish of Selar boops more than Megalaspis cordyla can be measured after X-ray process. The percentage of width and volume of swimbladders to its each body are no significantly difference for both fish. These data of swimbladder physic support the result of in situ measurement which TS of Megalaspis cordyla stronger Selar boops.

  2. Preparation, mechanical strengths, and thermal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, A.; Furukawa, S.; Hagiwara, M.; Masumoto, T.

    1987-05-01

    Ni-based amorphous wires with good bending ductility have been prepared for Ni75Si8B17 and Ni78P12B10 alloys containing 1 to 2 at. pct Al or Zr by melt spinning in rotating water. The enhancement of the wire-formation tendency by the addition of Al has been clarified to be due to the increase in the stability of the melt jet through the formation of a thin A12O3 film on the outer surface. The maximum wire diameter is about 190 to 200 μm for the Ni-Si (or P)-B-Al alloys and increases to about 250 μm for the Ni-Si-B-Al-Cr alloys containing 4 to 6 at. pct Cr. The tensile fracture strength and fracture elongation are 2730 MPa and 2.9 pct for (Ni0.75Si0.08B0.17 99Al1) wire and 2170 MPa and 2.4 pct for (Ni0.78P0.12B0.1)99Al1 wire. These wires exhibit a fatigue limit under dynamic bending strain in air with a relative humidity of 65 pct; this limit is 0.50 pct for a Ni-Si-B-Al wire, which is higher by 0.15 pct than that of a Fe75Si10B15 amorphous wire. Furthermore, the Ni-base wires do not fracture during a 180-deg bending even for a sample annealed at temperatures just below the crystallization temperature, in sharp contrast to high embrittlement tendency for Fe-base amorphous alloys. Thus, the Ni-based amorphous wires have been shown to be an attractive material similar to Fe- and Co-based amorphous wires because of its high static and dynamic strength, high ductility, high stability to thermal embrittlement, and good corrosion resistance.

  3. An information capacity limitation of visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, David K; Lilburn, Simon D; Smith, Philip L

    2014-12-01

    Research suggests that visual short-term memory (VSTM) has both an item capacity, of around 4 items, and an information capacity. We characterize the information capacity limits of VSTM using a task in which observers discriminated the orientation of a single probed item in displays consisting of 1, 2, 3, or 4 orthogonally oriented Gabor patch stimuli that were presented in noise for 50 ms, 100 ms, 150 ms, or 200 ms. The observed capacity limitations are well described by a sample-size model, which predicts invariance of ∑(i)(d'(i))² for displays of different sizes and linearity of (d'(i))² for displays of different durations. Performance was the same for simultaneous and sequentially presented displays, which implicates VSTM as the locus of the observed invariance and rules out explanations that ascribe it to divided attention or stimulus encoding. The invariance of ∑(i)(d'(i))² is predicted by the competitive interaction theory of Smith and Sewell (2013), which attributes it to the normalization of VSTM traces strengths arising from competition among stimuli entering VSTM. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. The work ability index and functional capacity among older workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosimeire S. Padula

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Decreases in functional ability due to aging can impair work capacity and productivity among older workers. OBJECTIVE: This study compares the sociodemographics, health conditions, and physical functioning abilities of young and old workers as well as correlates of physical functioning capacity with the work ability index (WAI. METHOD: This exploratory, cross-sectional study examined employees of a higher education institution (HEI and those of a metallurgical industry. Older workers (50 years old or above were matched for gender and occupation type with younger workers (less than 50 years old. The following evaluations were applied: the multidimensional assessment questionnaire (which included sociodemographic, clinical, health perception, and physical health indices, the WAI, and a battery of physical functional tests. RESULTS: Diseases and regularly used medications were more common among the group of aging workers. The WAI did not differ between groups (p=0.237. Both groups showed similar physical functional capacity performances with regard to walking speed, muscle strength, and lower limb physical functioning. Aging workers showed a poorer performance on a test of right-leg support (p=0.004. The WAI was moderately correlated with the sit-to-stand test among older female workers (r=0.573, p=0.051. CONCLUSIONS: Unfavorable general health conditions did not affect the assessment of work ability or most of the tests of physical functional capacity in the aging group.

  5. Distributed leadership to mobilise capacity for accreditation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, David; Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Pawsey, Marjorie; Johnson, Brian; Robinson, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    Inquiries into healthcare organisations have highlighted organisational or system failure, attributed to poor responses to early warning signs. One response, and challenge, is for professionals and academics to build capacity for quality and safety research to provide evidence for improved systems. However, such collaborations and capacity building do not occur easily as there are many stakeholders. Leadership is necessary to unite differences into a common goal. The lessons learned and principles arising from the experience of providing distributed leadership to mobilise capacity for quality and safety research when researching health care accreditation in Australia are presented. A case study structured by temporal bracketing that presents a narrative account of multi-stakeholder perspectives. Data are collected using in-depth informal interviews with key informants and ethno-document analysis. Distributed leadership enabled a collaborative research partnership to be realised. The leadership harnessed the relative strengths of partners and accounted for, and balanced, the interests of stakeholder participants involved. Across three phases, leadership and the research partnership was enacted: identifying partnerships, bottom-up engagement and enacting the research collaboration. Two principles to maximise opportunities to mobilise capacity for quality and safety research have been identified. First, successful collaborations, particularly multi-faceted inter-related partnerships, require distributed leadership. Second, the leadership-stakeholder enactment can promote reciprocity so that the collaboration becomes mutually reinforcing and beneficial to partners. The paper addresses the need to understand the practice and challenges of distributed leadership and how to replicate positive practices to implement patient safety research.

  6. Force generation of bio-inspired hover kinematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenheede, R.B.R.; Bernal, L.P.; Morrison, C.L.; Humbert, S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study of the aerodynamics of an elliptical flap plate wing in pitch-plunge motion. Several wing motion kinematics are derived from the kinematics of the Agrius Convolvuli (hawk moth) in hover. The experiments are conducted at a Reynolds number of 4,

  7. A study on fixing force generation mechanism of ER gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, H; Kakinuma, Y; Aoyama, T; Anzai, H

    2009-01-01

    Electro-rheological Gel (ERG) is a new functional elastomer which changes its surface frictional and adhesive property according to the intensity of applied electrical field. This unique property is called ERG effect. The upper sliding electrode placed on the surface of ERG is fixed by the adhesive effect of ERG under electrical field. Variable fixing forces due to adhesion are generated by this effect. However, relationship between physical factors and generated fixing force has not yet been clarified. In this study, physical mechanism of fixing phenomenon is elucidated experimentally from the view point of frictional force and adhesive force. From the results, empirical equation of generated fixing force is originally derived to establish the theory of ERG effect.

  8. Field measurement of basal forces generated by erosive debris flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, S.W.; Tucker, G.E.; Kean, J.W.; Coe, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    It has been proposed that debris flows cut bedrock valleys in steeplands worldwide, but field measurements needed to constrain mechanistic models of this process remain sparse due to the difficulty of instrumenting natural flows. Here we present and analyze measurements made using an automated sensor network, erosion bolts, and a 15.24 cm by 15.24 cm force plate installed in the bedrock channel floor of a steep catchment. These measurements allow us to quantify the distribution of basal forces from natural debris‒flow events that incised bedrock. Over the 4 year monitoring period, 11 debris‒flow events scoured the bedrock channel floor. No clear water flows were observed. Measurements of erosion bolts at the beginning and end of the study indicated that the bedrock channel floor was lowered by 36 to 64 mm. The basal force during these erosive debris‒flow events had a large‒magnitude (up to 21 kN, which was approximately 50 times larger than the concurrent time‒averaged mean force), high‒frequency (greater than 1 Hz) fluctuating component. We interpret these fluctuations as flow particles impacting the bed. The resulting variability in force magnitude increased linearly with the time‒averaged mean basal force. Probability density functions of basal normal forces were consistent with a generalized Pareto distribution, rather than the exponential distribution that is commonly found in experimental and simulated monodispersed granular flows and which has a lower probability of large forces. When the bed sediment thickness covering the force plate was greater than ~ 20 times the median bed sediment grain size, no significant fluctuations about the time‒averaged mean force were measured, indicating that a thin layer of sediment (~ 5 cm in the monitored cases) can effectively shield the subjacent bed from erosive impacts. Coarse‒grained granular surges and water‒rich, intersurge flow had very similar basal force distributions despite differences in appearance and bulk‒flow density. These results demonstrate that debris flows can have strong control on rates of steepland evolution and contribute to a foundation needed for modeling debris‒flow incision stochastically.

  9. Does dynamic stability govern propulsive force generation in human walking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Michael G; Franz, Jason R

    2017-11-01

    Before succumbing to slower speeds, older adults may walk with a diminished push-off to prioritize stability over mobility. However, direct evidence for trade-offs between push-off intensity and balance control in human walking, independent of changes in speed, has remained elusive. As a critical first step, we conducted two experiments to investigate: (i) the independent effects of walking speed and propulsive force ( F P ) generation on dynamic stability in young adults, and (ii) the extent to which young adults prioritize dynamic stability in selecting their preferred combination of walking speed and F P generation. Subjects walked on a force-measuring treadmill across a range of speeds as well as at constant speeds while modulating their F P according to a visual biofeedback paradigm based on real-time force measurements. In contrast to improvements when walking slower, walking with a diminished push-off worsened dynamic stability by up to 32%. Rather, we find that young adults adopt an F P at their preferred walking speed that maximizes dynamic stability. One implication of these findings is that the onset of a diminished push-off in old age may independently contribute to poorer balance control and precipitate slower walking speeds.

  10. A study on fixing force generation mechanism of ER gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, H; Kakinuma, Y; Aoyama, T [School of Integrated Design Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Anzai, H [Fujikura kasei Co., Ltd., 2-6-15 Shibakouen, Minato-ku, Tokyo (Japan)], E-mail: h-tanaka@ina.sd.keio.ac.jp

    2009-02-01

    Electro-rheological Gel (ERG) is a new functional elastomer which changes its surface frictional and adhesive property according to the intensity of applied electrical field. This unique property is called ERG effect. The upper sliding electrode placed on the surface of ERG is fixed by the adhesive effect of ERG under electrical field. Variable fixing forces due to adhesion are generated by this effect. However, relationship between physical factors and generated fixing force has not yet been clarified. In this study, physical mechanism of fixing phenomenon is elucidated experimentally from the view point of frictional force and adhesive force. From the results, empirical equation of generated fixing force is originally derived to establish the theory of ERG effect.

  11. Association Between Maximal Bench Press Strength and Isometric Handgrip Strength Among Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Benjamin H; Brown, Justin C; Gater, David R; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2017-02-01

    To characterize the relationship between 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) bench press strength and isometric handgrip strength among breast cancer survivors. Cross-sectional study. Laboratory. Community-dwelling breast cancer survivors (N=295). Not applicable. 1-RM bench press strength was measured with a barbell and exercise bench. Isometric handgrip strength was measured using an isometric dynamometer, with 3 maximal contractions of the left and right hands. All measures were conducted by staff with training in clinical exercise testing. Among 295 breast cancer survivors, 1-RM bench press strength was 18.2±6.1kg (range, 2.2-43.0kg), and isometric handgrip strength was 23.5±5.8kg (range, 9.0-43.0kg). The strongest correlate of 1-RM bench press strength was the average isometric handgrip strength of both hands (r=.399; Pisometric handgrip strength of both hands overestimated 1-RM bench press strength by 4.7kg (95% limits of agreement, -8.2 to 17.6kg). In a multivariable linear regression model, the average isometric handgrip strength of both hands (β=.31; Pstrength (R 2 =.23). Isometric handgrip strength is a poor surrogate for 1-RM bench press strength among breast cancer survivors. 1-RM bench press strength and isometric handgrip strength quantify distinct components of muscular strength. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Reference Values of Grip Strength, Prevalence of Low Grip Strength, and Factors Affecting Grip Strength Values in Chinese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ruby; Ong, Sherlin; Cheung, Osbert; Leung, Jason; Woo, Jean

    2017-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to update the reference values of grip strength, to estimate the prevalence of low grip strength, and to examine the impact of different aspects of measurement protocol on grip strength values in Chinese adults. A cross-sectional survey of Chinese men (n = 714) and women (n = 4014) aged 18-102 years was undertaken in different community settings in Hong Kong. Grip strength was measured with a digital dynamometer (TKK 5401 Grip-D; Takei, Niigata, Japan). Low grip strength was defined as grip strength 2 standard deviations or more below the mean for young adults. The effects of measurement protocol on grip strength values were examined in a subsample of 45 men and women with repeated measures of grip strength taken with a hydraulic dynamometer (Baseline; Fabrication Enterprises Inc, Irvington, NY), using pair t-tests, intraclass correlation coefficient, and Bland and Altman plots. Grip strength was greater among men than among women (P values than the Baseline hydraulic dynamometer (P values were also observed when the measurement was performed with the elbow extended in a standing position, compared with that with the elbow flexed at 90° in a sitting position, using the same dynamometer (P values of grip strength and estimated the prevalence of low grip strength among Chinese adults spanning a wide age range. These findings might be useful for risk estimation and evaluation of interventions. However, grip strength measurements should be interpreted with caution, as grip strength values can be affected by type of dynamometer used, assessment posture, and elbow position. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. High capacity carbon dioxide sorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Steven Dean; Alptekin, Gokhan; Jayaraman, Ambalavanan

    2015-09-01

    The present invention provides a sorbent for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a CO.sub.2 capacity of at least 9 weight percent when measured at 22.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; an H.sub.2O capacity of at most 15 weight percent when measured at 25.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; and an isosteric heat of adsorption of from 5 to 8.5 kilocalories per mole of CO.sub.2. The invention also provides a carbon sorbent in a powder, a granular or a pellet form for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a carbon content of at least 90 weight percent; a nitrogen content of at least 1 weight percent; an oxygen content of at most 3 weight percent; a BET surface area from 50 to 2600 m.sup.2/g; and a DFT micropore volume from 0.04 to 0.8 cc/g.

  14. Capacity Building in Land Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Ahene, Rexford

    2003-01-01

    There is a significant need for capacity building in the interdisciplinary area of land management especially in developing countries and countries in transition, to deal with the complex issues of building efficient land information systems and sustainable institutional infrastructures. Capacity...... building in land management is not only a question of establishing a sufficient technological level or sufficient economic resources. It is mainly a question of understanding the interdisciplinary and cross-sectoral nature of land administration systems, and understanding the need for human resource...... and professionals for implementing the new land policy. The curriculum combines the diploma and the bachelor level and it combines the key areas of land surveying, land management and physical planning....

  15. Capacity Utilization in European Railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khadem Sameni, Melody; Landex, Alex

    2013-01-01

    and unprecedented approach for this aim. Relative operational efficiency of 24 European railways in capacity utilization is studied for the first time by data envelopment analysis (DEA). It deviates from previous applications of DEA in the railway industry that are conducted to analyze cost efficiency of railways....... Six DEA models quantify various aspects of micro, macro and quality of railway capacity utilization in these countries. New inputs like gross domestic product, population and area of the country help to provide a better picture of the status of railways. Passenger satisfaction data about different...... aspects of railway services in European countries has recently been quantified by European commission and are used for the first time in the literature. Invaluable insights can be inferred from the results which can provide a ground basis for railway practitioners and policy makers....

  16. The Importance of Muscular Strength: Training Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchomel, Timothy J; Nimphius, Sophia; Bellon, Christopher R; Stone, Michael H

    2018-04-01

    This review covers underlying physiological characteristics and training considerations that may affect muscular strength including improving maximal force expression and time-limited force expression. Strength is underpinned by a combination of morphological and neural factors including muscle cross-sectional area and architecture, musculotendinous stiffness, motor unit recruitment, rate coding, motor unit synchronization, and neuromuscular inhibition. Although single- and multi-targeted block periodization models may produce the greatest strength-power benefits, concepts within each model must be considered within the limitations of the sport, athletes, and schedules. Bilateral training, eccentric training and accentuated eccentric loading, and variable resistance training may produce the greatest comprehensive strength adaptations. Bodyweight exercise, isolation exercises, plyometric exercise, unilateral exercise, and kettlebell training may be limited in their potential to improve maximal strength but are still relevant to strength development by challenging time-limited force expression and differentially challenging motor demands. Training to failure may not be necessary to improve maximum muscular strength and is likely not necessary for maximum gains in strength. Indeed, programming that combines heavy and light loads may improve strength and underpin other strength-power characteristics. Multiple sets appear to produce superior training benefits compared to single sets; however, an athlete's training status and the dose-response relationship must be considered. While 2- to 5-min interset rest intervals may produce the greatest strength-power benefits, rest interval length may vary based an athlete's training age, fiber type, and genetics. Weaker athletes should focus on developing strength before emphasizing power-type training. Stronger athletes may begin to emphasize power-type training while maintaining/improving their strength. Future research should

  17. Outage capacity of multicarrier systems

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan

    2010-01-01

    The probability density function and the cumulative distribution function of the product of shifted Gamma variates are obtained in terms of the generalized Fox\\'s H function. Using these new results, the exact outage capacity of multi carrier transmission through a slow Nakagami-m fading channel is presented. Moreover, it is shown that analytical and simulation results are in perfect agreement. © 2009 IEEE.

  18. Retention capacity of correlated surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrenk, K J; Araújo, N A M; Ziff, R M; Herrmann, H J

    2014-06-01

    We extend the water retention model [C. L. Knecht et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 045703 (2012)] to correlated random surfaces. We find that the retention capacity of discrete random landscapes is strongly affected by spatial correlations among the heights. This phenomenon is related to the emergence of power-law scaling in the lake volume distribution. We also solve the uncorrelated case exactly for a small lattice and present bounds on the retention of uncorrelated landscapes.

  19. Retention capacity of correlated surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Schrenk, K. J.; Araújo, N. A. M.; Ziff, R. M.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2014-01-01

    We extend the water retention model [C. L. Knecht et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 045703 (2012)] to correlated random surfaces. We find that the retention capacity of discrete random landscapes is strongly affected by spatial correlations among the heights. This phenomenon is related to the emergence of power-law scaling in the lake volume distribution. We also solve the uncorrelated case exactly for a small lattice and present bounds on the retention of uncorrelated landscapes.

  20. Capacity glut grows despite cancellations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sioshansi, Fereidoon P.

    2001-01-01

    Recent developments in the US electricity sector have created a challenging business environment for many players. The factors contributing to the current crisis include excess capacity in many regions amidst a sluggish economy, resulting in low wholesale prices. The situation has been aggravated by lack of investor confidence in the sector following the fall of Enron and subsequent disclosures about accounting and reporting irregularities in major trading companies. (Author)

  1. Health Reform Requires Policy Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Gerlier Forest

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Among the many reasons that may limit the adoption of promising reform ideas, policy capacity is the least recognized. The concept itself is not widely understood. Although policy capacity is concerned with the gathering of information and the formulation of options for public action in the initial phases of policy consultation and development, it also touches on all stages of the policy process, from the strategic identification of a problem to the actual development of the policy, its formal adoption, its implementation, and even further, its evaluation and continuation or modification. Expertise in the form of policy advice is already widely available in and to public administrations, to well-established professional organizations like medical societies and, of course, to large private-sector organizations with commercial or financial interests in the health sector. We need more health actors to join the fray and move from their traditional position of advocacy to a fuller commitment to the development of policy capacity, with all that it entails in terms of leadership and social responsibility

  2. Heat capacity of solid parahydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagatskij, M I; Minchina, I Ya; Manzhelij, V G [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kharkov. Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Inst. Nizkikh Temperatur

    1984-10-01

    A vacuum adiabatic calorimeter has been developed to investigate cryocrystals and their solutions in the range 0.4-300 K. Heat capacity of hydrogen with the orthomodification concentration 5 x 10/sup -3/ at.% between 0.5 and 8 K has been investigated. The limiting Debye temperature at T ..-->.. 0 has been obtained: (THETA/sub 0/=118.5 +- 0.5 K). It has been shown that heat capacity of solid parahydrogen, as that of other cryocrystals with the central interaction and closely packed lattices (/sup 4/He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe), low temperatures is given by the universal relation proposed by Barron and Morrison Csub(V) AT/sup 3/(1+..cap alpha../sub 1/(T/THETA/sub 0/)/sup 2/ + ..cap alpha../sub 2/(T/THETA/sub 0/)/sup 4/ ...). The effect of the sample time prehistory on the experimental heat capacity values of hydrogen with g.21 at.% orthomodification has been studied, and the times during which configurational equilibration in this solution is reached have been estimated.

  3. Correlation of single-breath count test and neck flexor muscle strength with spirometry in myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikh, Bakri; Arnold, W David; Gharibshahi, Shahram; Reynolds, Jerold; Freimer, Miriam; Kissel, John T

    2016-01-01

    Although formal spirometry is the gold standard for monitoring respiratory function in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG), such testing is often delayed or unavailable. There is a need for a simple bedside test that can accurately measure respiratory function. We conducted a prospective, cross-sectional, single-blind study in adults with acetylcholine receptor antibody positive MG. Participants performed the single breath count test (SBCT) and underwent manual muscle strength testing, and a respiratory therapist performed spirometry blinded to SBCT and strength results. Thirty-one patients, aged 57 ± 19 years participated. SBCT showed significant correlations with forced vital capacity (FVC), negative inspiratory force, and neck flexor strength (P strength (P = 0.02) but no correlation with shoulder abductor strength. These data suggest that the SBCT and neck flexor strength testing are valuable tools for bedside assessment of respiratory function in MG patients. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Effects of hippotherapy on mobility, strength and balance in elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Thais Borges; de Oliveira, Ricardo Jacó; Martins, Wagner Rodrigues; de Moura Pereira, Marcio; Copetti, Fernando; Safons, Marisete Peralta

    2013-01-01

    To assess the chronic effects of hippotherapy on functional mobility, muscle strength and balance in elderly. 28 volunteers, between the age of 60 and 84, were randomly recruited and divided in experimental group (EG), with 12 individuals (8 women and 4 men) and control group (CG), with 16 individuals (14 women and 2 men). The EG group participated in an 8-week hippotherapy program. Before and after the study period functional mobility was assessed and measured by Time Up and Go Test (TUG), muscle strength of the lower limbs was measured by 30s Chair Stand Test (30CST) and performance in balance was measured by the Berg Balance Scale (BBS). A mixed ANOVA model (group×testing time) was applied to establish the effect of the different groups on the functional variables. The functional capacity of the EG group was increased if compared to CG group after the intervention of the BBS (p=0.003) and 30CST (p=0.032), but not of the TUG (p=0.063). The results indicated that hippotherapy improves the lower limb strength and balance in elderly. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Strength and stiffness reduction factors for infilled frames with openings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decanini, Luis D.; Liberatore, Laura; Mollaioli, Fabrizio

    2014-09-01

    Framed structures are usually infilled with masonry walls. They may cause a significant increase in both stiffness and strength, reducing the deformation demand and increasing the energy dissipation capacity of the system. On the other hand, irregular arrangements of the masonry panels may lead to the concentration of damage in some regions, with negative effects; for example soft story mechanisms and shear failures in short columns. Therefore, the presence of infill walls should not be neglected, especially in regions of moderate and high seismicity. To this aim, simple models are available for solid infills walls, such as the diagonal no-tension strut model, while infilled frames with openings have not been adequately investigated. In this study, the effect of openings on the strength and stiffness of infilled frames is investigated by means of about 150 experimental and numerical tests. The main parameters involved are identified and a simple model to take into account the openings in the infills is developed and compared with other models proposed by different researchers. The model, which is based on the use of strength and stiffness reduction factors, takes into account the opening dimensions and presence of reinforcing elements around the opening. An example of an application of the proposed reduction factors is also presented.

  6. THE EFFECT OF PHASE CHANGE MATERIALS ON THE TENSILE STRENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HERROELEN Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available PCM’s need some important properties to have use such as high heat storage capacity, easy availability and low cost and can have different effects such as flavour, softness or exchange of heat. They are put inside of microcapsules, so they can be inbedded inside the strain, otherwise it wouldn’t be so effective. So basically the microcapsules consist of a core that’s the PCM and a polymer shell. This shell needs to be strong enough to hold the PCM and also withstand up to a certain level of heat and mechanical damage. This study investigates the tensile strength of fabrics composed by fibres, some of these fibres have benn inbedded phase change microcapsules (PCM’s. The investigated fabrics are divided by composition and by structure. By knitting the fabrics in different structures you could be able to investigate which knitting way could be the most effective to have a high tensile strength. Tensile strength tests are performed on specimens with different structures but also with different compositions which could indicate that some strains are tougher then others and more specifically if the PCM’s have a different effect on them.

  7. Traditional versus functional strength training: Effects on muscle strength and power in the elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Seiler, Hilde Lohne; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Anderssen, Sigmund A.

    2013-01-01

    Published versiom of an article in the journal:Journal of Aging and Physical Activity. Also available from Human Kinetics: http://http://journals.humankinetics.com/japa-back-issues/japa-volume-21-issue-1-january/traditional-versus-functional-strength-training-effects-on-muscle-strength-and-power-in-the-elderly The aim was to determine whether strength training with machines vs. functional strength training at 80% of one-repetition maximum improves muscle strength and power among the elderl...

  8. Institutional capacity for health systems research in East and Central African schools of public health: experiences with a capacity assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessani, Nasreen; Lewy, Daniela; Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth; Bennett, Sara

    2014-06-02

    Despite significant investments in health systems research (HSR) capacity development, there is a dearth of information regarding how to assess HSR capacity. An alliance of schools of public health (SPHs) in East and Central Africa developed a tool for the self-assessment of HSR capacity with the aim of producing institutional capacity development plans. Between June and November 2011, seven SPHs across the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda implemented this co-created tool. The objectives of the institutional assessments were to assess existing capacities for HSR and to develop capacity development plans to address prioritized gaps. A mixed-method approach was employed consisting of document analysis, self-assessment questionnaires, in-depth interviews, and institutional dialogues aimed at capturing individual perceptions of institutional leadership, collective HSR skills, knowledge translation, and faculty incentives to engage in HSR. Implementation strategies for the capacity assessment varied across the SPHs. This paper reports findings from semi-structured interviews with focal persons from each SPH, to reflect on the process used at each SPH to execute the institutional assessments as well as the perceived strengths and weaknesses of the assessment process. The assessment tool was robust enough to be utilized in its entirety across all seven SPHs resulting in a thorough HSR capacity assessment and a capacity development plan for each SPH. Successful implementation of the capacity assessment exercises depended on four factors: (i) support from senior leadership and collaborators, (ii) a common understanding of HSR, (iii) adequate human and financial resources for the exercise, and (iv) availability of data. Methods of extracting information from the results of the assessments, however, were tailored to the unique objectives of each SPH. This institutional HSR capacity assessment tool and the process for its utilization

  9. Isometric shoulder strength in young swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaine, Sally J; Ginn, Karen A; Fell, James W; Bird, Marie-Louise

    2018-01-01

    The prevalence of shoulder pain in young swimmers is high. Shoulder rotation strength and the ratio of internal to external rotation strength have been reported as potential modifiable risk factors associated with shoulder pain. However, relative strength measures in elevated positions, which include flexion and extension, have not been established for the young swimmer. The aim of this study was to establish clinically useful, normative shoulder strength measures and ratios for swimmers (14-20 years) without shoulder pain. Cross-sectional, observational study. Swimmers (N=85) without a recent history of shoulder pain underwent strength testing of shoulder flexion and extension (in 140° abduction); and internal and external rotation (in 90° abduction). Strength tests were performed in supine using a hand-held dynamometer and values normalised to body weight. Descriptive statistics were calculated for strength and strength ratios (flexion:extension and internal:external rotation). Differences between groups (based on gender, history of pain, test and arm dominance) were explored using independent and paired t tests. Normative shoulder strength values and ratios were established for young swimmers. There was a significant difference (pdifferences in strength ratios. Relative strength of the dominant and non-dominant shoulders (except for extension); and for swimmers with and without a history of shoulder pain was not significantly different. A normal shoulder strength profile for the young swimmer has been established which provides a valuable reference for the clinician assessing shoulder strength in this population. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of Bending Strength of Carburized Gears Based on Inferential Identification of Principal Surface Layer Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuyama, Tomoya; Inoue, Katsumi; Yamanaka, Masashi; Kitamura, Kenichi; Saito, Tomoyuki

    High load capacity of carburized gears originates mainly from the hardened layer and induced residual stress. On the other hand, surface decarburization, which causes a nonmartensitic layer, and inclusions such as oxides and segregation act as latent defects which considerably reduce fatigue strength. In this connection, the authors have proposed a formula of strength evaluation by separately quantifying defect influence. However, the principal defect which limits strength of gears with several different defects remains unclarified. This study presents a method of inferential identification of principal defects based on test results of carburized gears made of SCM420 clean steel, gears with both an artificial notch and nonmartensitic layer at the tooth fillet, and so forth. It clarifies practical uses of presented methods, and strength of carburized gears can be evaluated by focusing on principal defect size.

  11. Influence of cracks and pitting corrosion on residual ultimate strength of stiffened plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Jing

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] Ships and offshore platforms serve in the harsh sea environment for a long time. Cracks and pitting corrosion will occur in such a structure and the damage will affect its ultimate strength.[Methods] To investigate the influence of cracks and pitting corrosion on ultimate bearing capacity, the ultimate strength of a structure under axial compression is studied by using a nonlinear finite element. The mesh size of a stiffened plate with cracks and pitting corrosion is first discussed. Then the influence of the relative positions of cracks and pitting corrosion, number of corrosion points and crack length impact on the residual ultimate strength of damaged stiffened plates is discussed via a series of calculations.[Results] The results indicate that the increase in crack length and pitting corrosion significantly decreases the ultimate strength of a stiffened plate. [Conclusions] This provides a useful reference for designing and maintaining ships and offshore structures in their life cycles.

  12. Greater Strength Gains after Training with Accentuated Eccentric than Traditional Isoinertial Loads in Already Strength-Trained Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Simon; Blazevich, Anthony J.; Haff, G. Gregory; Tufano, James J.; Newton, Robert U.; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2016-01-01

    As training experience increases it becomes more challenging to induce further neuromuscular adaptation. Consequently, strength trainers seek alternative training methods in order to further increase strength and muscle mass. One method is to utilize accentuated eccentric loading, which applies a greater external load during the eccentric phase of the lift as compared to the concentric phase. Based upon this practice, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 10 weeks of accentuated eccentric loading vs. traditional isoinertial resistance training in strength-trained men. Young (22 ± 3 years, 177 ± 6 cm, 76 ± 10 kg, n = 28) strength-trained men (2.6 ± 2.2 years experience) were allocated to concentric-eccentric resistance training in the form of accentuated eccentric load (eccentric load = concentric load + 40%) or traditional resistance training, while the control group continued their normal unsupervised training program. Both intervention groups performed three sets of 6-RM (session 1) and three sets of 10-RM (session 2) bilateral leg press and unilateral knee extension exercises per week. Maximum force production was measured by unilateral isometric (110° knee angle) and isokinetic (concentric and eccentric 30°.s−1) knee extension tests, and work capacity was measured by a knee extension repetition-to-failure test. Muscle mass was assessed using panoramic ultrasonography and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Surface electromyogram amplitude normalized to maximum M-wave and the twitch interpolation technique were used to examine maximal muscle activation. After training, maximum isometric torque increased significantly more in the accentuated eccentric load group than control (18 ± 10 vs. 1 ± 5%, p < 0.01), which was accompanied by an increase in voluntary activation (3.5 ± 5%, p < 0.05). Isokinetic eccentric torque increased significantly after accentuated eccentric load training only (10 ± 9%, p < 0.05), whereas concentric torque

  13. Exercise training programs to improve hand rim wheelchair propulsion capacity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwinkels, Maremka; Verschuren, Olaf; Janssen, Thomas Wj; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Takken, Tim

    2014-09-01

    An adequate wheelchair propulsion capacity is required to perform daily life activities. Exercise training may be effective to gain or improve wheelchair propulsion capacity. This review investigates whether different types of exercise training programs are effective in improving wheelchair propulsion capacity. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched from their respective inceptions in October 2013. Exercise training studies with at least one outcome measure regarding wheelchair propulsion capacity were included. In this study wheelchair propulsion capacity includes four parameters to reflect functional wheelchair propulsion: cardio-respiratory fitness (aerobic capacity), anaerobic capacity, muscular fitness and mechanical efficiency. Articles were not selected on diagnosis, training type or mode. Studies were divided into four training types: interval, endurance, strength, and mixed training. Methodological quality was rated with the PEDro scale, and the level of evidence was determined. The 21 included studies represented 249 individuals with spinal-cord injury (50%), various diagnoses like spina bifida (4%), cerebral palsy (2%), traumatic injury, (3%) and able-bodied participants (38%). All interval training studies found a significant improvement of 18-64% in wheelchair propulsion capacity. Three out of five endurance training studies reported significant effectiveness. Methodological quality was generally poor and there were only two randomised controlled trials. Exercise training programs seem to be effective in improving wheelchair propulsion capacity. However, there is remarkably little research, particularly for individuals who do not have spinal-cord injury. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. The Association between Maximal Bench Press Strength and Isometric Handgrip Strength among Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Benjamin H.; Brown, Justin C.; Gater, David R.; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective One-repetition maximum (1-RM) bench press strength is considered the gold standard to quantify upper-body muscular strength. Isometric handgrip strength is frequently used as a surrogate for 1-RM bench press strength among breast cancer (BrCa) survivors. The relationship between 1-RM bench press strength and isometric handgrip strength, however, has not been characterized among BrCa survivors. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Laboratory. Participants Community-dwelling BrCa survivors. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure 1-RM bench press strength was measured with a barbell and exercise bench. Isometric handgrip strength was measured using an isometric dynamometer with three maximal contractions of left and right hands. All measures were conducted by staff with training in clinical exercise testing. Results Among 295 BrCa survivors, 1-RM bench press strength was 18.2±6.1 kg (range: 2.2-43.0) and isometric handgrip strength was 23.5±5.8 kg (range: 9.0-43.0). The strongest correlate of 1-RM bench press strength was the average isometric handgrip strength of both hands (r=0.399; Pisometric handgrip strength of both hands overestimated 1-RM bench press strength by 4.7 kg (95% limits of agreement: −8.2 to 17.6). In a multivariable linear regression model, the average isometric handgrip strength of both hands (β=0.31; Pstrength (R2=0.23). Conclusions Isometric handgrip strength is a poor surrogate for 1-RM bench press strength among BrCa survivors. 1-RM bench press and isometric handgrip strength quantify distinct components of muscular strength. PMID:27543047

  15. Experimental and simulated strength of spot welds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Bennedbæk, Rune A.K.; Larsen, Morten B.

    2014-01-01

    Weld strength testing of single spots in DP600 steel is presented for the three typical testing procedures, i.e. tensile-shear, cross-tension and peel testing. Spot welds are performed at two sets of welding parameters and strength testing under these conditions is presented by load......-elongation curves revealing the maximum load and the elongation at break. Welding and strength testing is simulated by SORPAS® 3D, which allows the two processes to be prepared in a combined simulation, such that the simulated welding properties are naturally applied to the simulation of strength testing. Besides...... the size and shape of the weld nugget, these properties include the new strength of the material in the weld and the heat affected zone based on the predicted hardness resulting from microstructural phase changes simulated during cooling of the weld before strength testing. Comparisons between overall...

  16. Elastic stability and the limit of strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris Jr., J.W.; Krenn, C.R.; Roundy, D.; Cohen, Marvin L.

    2002-01-01

    The upper limit of strength (the ''theoretical strength'') has been an active subject of research and speculation for the better part of a century. The subject has recently become important, for two reasons. First, given recent advances in ab initio techniques and computing machines, the limits of strength can be calculated with considerable accuracy, making this one of the very few problems in mechanical behavior that can actually be solved. Second, given recent advances in materials engineering, the limits of strength are being approached in some systems, such as hardened or defect-free films, and their relevance is becoming recognized in others. The present paper discusses some interesting results from recent research on the limits of strength, with an intermixture of speculations based on those results. Topics include the inherent nature of {100} cleavage and ''pencil slip'' in bcc metals, the inherent ductility of fcc metals, the anomalous properties of Al, and the possibility of measuring ideal strength with nanoindentation

  17. Prediction of concrete strength in massive structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, T.; Makino, H.; Nakane, S.; Kawaguchi, T.; Ohike, T.

    1989-01-01

    Reinforced concrete structures of a nuclear power plant are mostly of mass concrete with cross-sectional dimensions larger than 1.0 m. The temperature of concrete inside after placement rises due to heat of hydration of cement. It is well known that concrete strengths of mass concrete structure subjected to such temperature hysteresis are generally not equal to strengths of cylinders subjected to standard curing. In order to construct a mass concrete structure of high reliability in which the specified concrete strength is satisfied by the specified age, it is necessary to have a thorough understanding of the strength gain property of concrete in the structure and its relationships with the water-cement ratio of the mix, strength of standard-cured cylinders and the internal temperature hysteresis. This report describes the result of studies on methods of controlling concrete strength in actual construction projects

  18. Experimental knee pain reduces muscle strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Mortensen, Sara Rosager; Aaboe, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Pain is the principal symptom in knee pathologies and reduced muscle strength is a common observation among knee patients. However, the relationship between knee joint pain and muscle strength remains to be clarified. This study aimed at investigating the changes in knee muscle strength following...... experimental knee pain in healthy volunteers, and if these changes were associated with the pain intensities. In a crossover study, 18 healthy subjects were tested on 2 different days. Using an isokinetic dynamometer, maximal muscle strength in knee extension and flexion was measured at angular velocities 0....... Knee pain reduced the muscle strength by 5 to 15% compared to the control conditions (P knee extension and flexion at all angular velocities. The reduction in muscle strength was positively correlated to the pain intensity. Experimental knee pain significantly reduced knee extension...

  19. Mechanical response tissue analyzer for estimating bone strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Sara B.; Steele, Charles; Mauriello, Anthony

    1991-01-01

    One of the major concerns for extended space flight is weakness of the long bones of the legs, composed primarily of cortical bone, that functions to provide mechanical support. The strength of cortical bone is due to its complex structure, described simplistically as cylinders of parallel osteons composed of layers of mineralized collagen. The reduced mechanical stresses during space flight or immobilization of bone on Earth reduces the mineral content, and changes the components of its matrix and structure so that its strength is reduced. Currently, the established clinical measures of bone strength are indirect. The measures are based on determinations of mineral density by means of radiography, photon absorptiometry, and quantitative computer tomography. While the mineral content of bone is essential to its strength, there is growing awareness of the limitations of the measurement as the sole predictor of fracture risk in metabolic bone diseases, especially limitations of the measurement as the sole predictor of fracture risk in metabolic bone diseases, especially osteoporosis. Other experimental methods in clinical trials that more directly evaluate the physical properties of bone, and do not require exposure to radiation, include ultrasound, acoustic emission, and low-frequency mechanical vibration. The last method can be considered a direct measure of the functional capacity of a long bone since it quantifies the mechanical response to a stimulus delivered directly to the bone. A low frequency vibration induces a response (impedance) curve with a minimum at the resonant frequency, that a few investigators use for the evaluation of the bone. An alternative approach, the method under consideration, is to use the response curve as the basis for determination of the bone bending stiffness EI (E is the intrinsic material property and I is the cross-sectional moment of inertia) and mass, fundamental mechanical properties of bone.

  20. The reliabilty of isokinetic strength measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Kadlec, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Title: Reliability of isometric and isokinetic strength testing in the knee flexion and extension Objectives: To compare the reliability of isometric and isokinetic testing of the knee strength in flexion and extension Methods: I used intraclass correlation coefficient and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: I have discovered that the reliability measured on isokinetic and isometric dynamometer is high. Furthermore the reliability of the maximum strength measurement was higher with-us...

  1. Strength and failure modes of ceramic multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Toftegaard, Helmuth Langmaack; Linderoth, Søren

    2012-01-01

    A model was developed for the prediction of the tensile strength of thin, symmetric 3-layer sandwich specimens. The model predictions rationalize the effect of heat-treatment temperature on the strength of sandwich specimens consisting of an YSZ (Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia) substrate coated with ...... and propagating into the substrate. These predictions are consistent with microstructural observations of the fracture surfaces. A good agreement was found between the measured strength values and model predictions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  2. Virginia Power's capacity acquisition program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carney, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Virginia Power is a utility with a growing demand for electricity. To meet that growth it has embarked on an aggressive program to encourage the construction of privately-owned generating plants. In 1988 it conducted the largest competitive acquisition program by any utility to date. Virginia Power has retained the option to build plants if the bids it receives are too costly or do not meet the needs of its customers. This paper describes the situation at Virginia Power, the program it has implemented, and the capacity additions which are scheduled between 1989 and 1995

  3. Implementing Estimation of Capacity for Freeway Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-qiao Shao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the stochastic concept for freeway capacity, the procedure of capacity estimation is developed. Due to the fact that it is impossible to observe the value of the capacity and to obtain the probability distribution of the capacity, the product-limit method is used in this paper to estimate the capacity. In order to implement estimation of capacity using this technology, the lifetime table based on statistical methods for lifetime data analysis is introduced and the corresponding procedure is developed. Simulated data based on freeway sections in Beijing, China, were analyzed and the results indicate that the methodology and procedure are applicable and validated.

  4. Accounting for the Strengths of MNC Subsidiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsgren, Mats; Pedersen, Torben; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    1999-01-01

    that organizational strength can to some extent be proxied by strength in the market place. Based on analysis of data on foreign-owned production firms in Denmark, we test three hypotheses: 1) that internal factors (capabilities, patents....) are positively related to the organizational strengths of MNC subsidiaries......This paper links up with recent work on the role of subsidiaries in multinational corporations as well as with recent work in the strategy and business network literature. We discuss the sources of organizational strengths of subsidiaries in the larger multinational corporation, and argue...

  5. Accelerated Strength Testing of Thermoplastic Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, J. R.; Allen, D. H.; Bradley, W. L.

    1998-01-01

    Constant ramp strength tests on unidirectional thermoplastic composite specimens oriented in the 90 deg. direction were conducted at constant temperatures ranging from 149 C to 232 C. Ramp rates spanning 5 orders of magnitude were tested so that failures occurred in the range from 0.5 sec. to 24 hrs. (0.5 to 100,000 MPa/sec). Below 204 C, time-temperature superposition held allowing strength at longer times to be estimated from strength tests at shorter times but higher temperatures. The data indicated that a 50% drop in strength might be expected for this material when the test time is increased by 9 orders of magnitude. The shift factors derived from compliance data applied well to the strength results. To explain the link between compliance and strength, a viscoelastic fracture model was investigated. The model, which used compliance as input, was found to fit the strength data only if the critical fracture energy was allowed to vary with temperature reduced stress rate. This variation in the critical parameter severely limits its use in developing a robust time-dependent strength model. The significance of this research is therefore seen as providing both the indication that a more versatile acceleration method for strength can be developed and the evidence that such a method is needed.

  6. Leg strength and lean mass symmetry influences kicking performance in Australian football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Nicolas H; Nimphius, Sophia; Spiteri, Tania; Newton, Robert U

    2014-01-01

    Differential loading patterns during game-based participation may produce or exacerbate strength imbalances between the lower limbs. It is currently unknown whether such imbalances are functionally beneficial or detrimental to performance. This study assessed the influence of lower limb strength and lean mass symmetry on kicking accuracy in Australian Football. Thirty-one Australian footballers were required to perform a kicking assessment, producing ten drop punt kicks over twenty metres to a player target. Athletes were subsequently separated into accurate (n = 15) and inaccurate (n = 16) groups, with lower-body lean mass assessed using whole body DXA scans, and lower-body strength assessed using an isometric protocol. Accurate kickers demonstrated significantly higher relative lean mass (~8% to 16%; p = 0. 001 to 0.004) and significantly lower relative fat mass (~21% to 40%; p = 0.001 to 0.024) than inaccurate kickers. Accurate kickers did not contain any significant difference in lean mass or unilateral strength between lower limbs. Inaccurate kickers displayed significant asymmetry in lean mass (~3%; p ≤ 0.003), producing significant imbalances in strength (~8%; p ≤ 0.002) highlighting a deficiency in their support leg. Greater relative strength and improved lower limb symmetry in strength and muscularity could increase the capacity of an athlete to be technically proficient in favour of greater accuracy. Key PointsStrength deficits in the support leg may lead to inaccurate kicking outcomes.An asymmetry of 3% in lean mass generated an 8% imbalance in leg strength.Greater levels of relative lower-body strength and muscle mass are associated with improved kicking accuracy performance.

  7. Enhancement of shear strength and ductility for reinforced concrete wide beams due to web reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Said

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The shear behavior of reinforced concrete wide beams was investigated. The experimental program consisted of nine beams of 29 MPa concrete strength tested with a shear span-depth ratio equal to 3.0. One of the tested beams had no web reinforcement as a control specimen. The flexure mode of failure was secured for all of the specimens to allow for shear mode of failure. The key parameters covered in this investigation are the effect of the existence, spacing, amount and yield stress of the vertical stirrups on the shear capacity and ductility of the tested wide beams. The study shows that the contribution of web reinforcement to the shear capacity is significant and directly proportional to the amount and spacing of the shear reinforcement. The increase in the shear capacity ranged from 32% to 132% for the range of the tested beams compared with the control beam. High grade steel was more effective in the contribution of the shear strength of wide beams. Also, test results demonstrate that the shear reinforcement significantly enhances the ductility of the wide beams. In addition, shear resistances at failure recorded in this study are compared to the analytical strengths calculated according to the current Egyptian Code and the available international codes. The current study highlights the need to include the contribution of shear reinforcement in the Egyptian Code requirements for shear capacity of wide beams.

  8. [Association of muscle strength with early markers of cardiovascular risk in sedentary adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triana-Reina, Héctor Reynaldo; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2013-10-01

    To assess the association between muscle strength and early cardiovascular risk (CVR) markers in sedentary adults. A total of 176 sedentary subjects aged 18-30 years were enrolled. Body mass index and fat percentage were calculated, and waist circumference, grip strength by dynamometry, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, and maximal oxygen uptake by VO2max were measured as CVR markers. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations between muscle strength and CVR markers. Inverse correlations were found between muscle strength and adiposity (r=-.317; P=.001), waist circumference (r=-.309; P=.001), systolic blood pressure (r=-.401; P=.001), and mean arterial pressure (r=-.256; P=.001). Subjects with lower levels of muscle strength had a 5.79-fold (95% CI 1.57 to 9.34; P=.008) risk of having higher adiposity levels (≥25%) and a 9.67-fold (95% CI=3.86 to 19.22; P<.001) risk of having lower physical capacity values for VO2max (≤31.5mL/kg/min(-1)). In sedentary adults, muscle strength is associated to early manifestations of CVR. It is suggested that muscle strength testing is added to routine measurement of VO2max and traditional risk factors for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. On the performance of circular concrete-filled high strength steel columns under axial loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mahmoud El-Heweity

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a numerical study to investigate the performance of circular high-strength steel tubes filled with concrete (CFT under monotonic axial loading. A model is developed to implement the material constitutive relationships and non-linearity. Calibration against previous experimental data shows good agreement. A parametric study is then conducted using the model and compared with codes provisions. Strength and ductility of confined concrete are of primary concern. Variables considered are yield stress of steel tube and column diameter. The assessment of column performance is based on axial load carrying capacities and enhancements of both strength and ductility due to confinement. Two parameters namely strength enhancement factor (Kf and ductility index (μ are clearly defined and introduced for assessment. Results indicate that both concrete strength and ductility of CFT columns are enhanced but to different extents. The ductile behaviors are significantly evident. The increase in yield stress of steel tube has a minimal effect on concrete strength but pronounced effect on concrete ductility. However, reduction in ductility is associated with using high-tensile steel of Grade 70. The overall findings indicate that the use of high-strength tube in CFT columns is not promising. This finding may seriously be considered in seismic design.

  10. Residual Tensile Strength and Bond Properties of GFRP Bars after Exposure to Elevated Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devon S. Ellis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP bars in reinforced concrete members enhances corrosion resistance when compared to traditional steel reinforcing bars. Although there is ample research available on the behavior of FRP bars and concrete members reinforced with FRP bars under elevated temperatures (due to fire, there is little published information available on their post-fire residual load capacity. This paper reports residual tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, and bond strength (to concrete of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP bars after exposure to elevated temperatures of up to 400 °C and subsequent cooling to an ambient temperature. The results showed that the residual strength generally decreases with increasing temperature exposure. However, as much as 83% of the original tensile strength and 27% of the original bond strength was retained after the specimens were heated to 400 °C and then cooled to ambient temperature. The residual bond strength is a critical parameter in post-fire strength assessments of GFRP-reinforced concrete members.

  11. Residual Tensile Strength and Bond Properties of GFRP Bars after Exposure to Elevated Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Devon S; Tabatabai, Habib; Nabizadeh, Azam

    2018-02-27

    The use of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) bars in reinforced concrete members enhances corrosion resistance when compared to traditional steel reinforcing bars. Although there is ample research available on the behavior of FRP bars and concrete members reinforced with FRP bars under elevated temperatures (due to fire), there is little published information available on their post-fire residual load capacity. This paper reports residual tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, and bond strength (to concrete) of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars after exposure to elevated temperatures of up to 400 °C and subsequent cooling to an ambient temperature. The results showed that the residual strength generally decreases with increasing temperature exposure. However, as much as 83% of the original tensile strength and 27% of the original bond strength was retained after the specimens were heated to 400 °C and then cooled to ambient temperature. The residual bond strength is a critical parameter in post-fire strength assessments of GFRP-reinforced concrete members.

  12. Experimental Investigation into Corrosion Effect on Mechanical Properties of High Strength Steel Bars under Dynamic Loadings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The tensile behaviors of corroded steel bars are important in the capacity evaluation of corroded reinforced concrete structures. The present paper studies the mechanical behavior of the corroded high strength reinforcing steel bars under static and dynamic loading. High strength reinforcing steel bars were corroded by using accelerated corrosion methods and the tensile tests were carried out under different strain rates. The results showed that the mechanical properties of corroded high strength steel bars were strain rate dependent, and the strain rate effect decreased with the increase of corrosion degree. The decreased nominal yield and ultimate strengths were mainly caused by the reduction of cross-sectional areas, and the decreased ultimate deformation and the shortened yield plateau resulted from the intensified stress concentration at the nonuniform reduction. Based on the test results, reduction factors were proposed to relate the tensile behaviors with the corrosion degree and strain rate for corroded bars. A modified Johnson-Cook strength model of corroded high strength steel bars under dynamic loading was proposed by taking into account the influence of corrosion degree. Comparison between the model and test results showed that proposed model properly describes the dynamic response of the corroded high strength rebars.

  13. World nuclear power plant capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report provides the background information for statistics and analysis developed by NUKEM in its monthly Market Report on the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. The assessments in this Special Report are based on the continuous review of individual nuclear power plant projects. This Special Report begins with tables summarizing a variety of nuclear power generating capacity statistics for 1990. It continues with a brief review of the year's major events regarding each country's nuclear power program. The standard NUKEM Market Report tables on nuclear plant capacity are given on pages 24 and 25. Owing to space limitations, the first year shown is 1988. Please refer to previous Special Reports for data covering earlier years. Detailed tables for each country list all existing plants as well as those expected by NUKEM to be in commercial operation by the end of 2005. An Appendix containing a list of abbreviations can be found starting on page 56. Only nuclear power plants intended for civilian use are included in this Special Report. Reactor lifetimes are assumed to be 35 years for all light water reactors and 30 years for all other reactor types, unless other data or definite decommissioning dates have been published by the operators. (orig./UA) [de

  14. UN OPEN GIS CAPACITY BUILDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Albertella

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The UN Open GIS Initiative is to identify and develop, under UN guidance, an Open Source GIS bundle that meets the requirements of UN operations, taking full advantage of the expertise of mission partners (partner nations, technology contributing countries, international organizations, academia, NGO’s, private sector. The project, started in 2016, is composed by 4 working groups. One of the working group is specifically related to Capacity Building, given its importance for the success of the project. UN Open GIS will be based on some existing open source geospatial software (packages and libraries with many extensions specifically developed. The users of the platform will be the UN staff supporting with mapping and GIS the peacekeeping missions. Therefore, they are generally expert of this specific domain, even if they are currently using proprietary software. UN Open GIS Capacity Building is specifically thought for covering this gap, providing them the suitable background about open source geospatial software in general and the education tailored to the solution that has been being developed within the project itself.

  15. Integrity and As-built capacity of bored pile group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, D.E.; Kissenpfennig, J.F.; Huemmer, M.R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of statistical methods to the reliability evaluation of cast-in-place concrete piles. The difficulties associated with pile construction can lead to larger uncertainties than would be associated with normal reinforced concrete structures both due to uncertainty in concrete quality and end bearing capacity. These uncertainties can be dealt with through the use of statistical methods. A statistical model of an individual pile is formulated along with a methodology for determining necessary statistical parameters from results of concrete batch tests, core strength tests and visual logs, sonic geophysical testing methods, and proof tests. Strength models for both static vertical and seismic horizontal loadings are discussed. The overall safety of a pile foundation is dependent upon the distribution of individual pile strength as well as the additional reliability due to the use of a large number of parallel load paths provided by a pile group foundation. The paper presents a mechanical model of global pile behavior which accounts for individual pile ductility along with the possibility of redistribution of loads from weaker to stronger piles. The use of the Monte Carlo method to determine the overall reliability of the pile foundation is discussed. Numerical results for both individual pile behavior as well as overall foundation behavior are presented. (orig.)

  16. Normal isometric strength of rotator cuff muscles in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Chezar, A.; Berkovitch, Y.; Haddad, M.; Keren, Y.; Soudry, M.; Rosenberg, N.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The most prevalent disorders of the shoulder are related to the muscles of rotator cuff. In order to develop a mechanical method for the evaluation of the rotator cuff muscles, we created a database of isometric force generation by the rotator cuff muscles in normal adult population. We hypothesised the existence of variations according to age, gender and dominancy of limb. Methods A total of 400 healthy adult volunteers were tested, classified into groups of 50 men and women for e...

  17. Enriching Absorptive Capacity through Social Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hotho, Jasper J.; Becker-Ritterspach, Florian; Saka-Helmhout, Ayse

    Absorptive capacity is frequently highlighted as a key determinant of knowledge transfer within multinational enterprises. But how individual behaviour translates into absorptive capacity at the subsidiary level, and how this is contingent on subsidiaries' social context, remains under-addressed.

  18. Mentoring approach improves evaluation capacity of ICTD ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-09

    Jun 9, 2016 ... ... initiative is improving evaluation capacities of researchers studying Information and ... Capacity in ICTD (DECI) provides researchers from five IDRC-funded projects in ... Using technology to deliver quality education in Asia.

  19. Flying Training Capacity Model: Initial Results

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lynch, Susan

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: (1) Determine the flying training capacity for 6 bases: * Sheppard AFB * Randolph AFB * Moody AFB * Columbus AFB * Laughlin AFB * Vance AFB * (2) Develop versatile flying training capacity simulation model for AETC...

  20. Network capacity auctions: promise and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newbery, David M.

    2003-01-01

    Well-designed auctions work favorably for allocating idiosyncratic properties efficiently. Auctions are used to allocate entry capacity for United Kingdom gas and inter-connector capacity for electricity in several European Union countries and can work well for allocating existing capacity, though careful auction design is needed to mitigate potential market power. Using auction prices to guide investment decisions in networks is problematic if bidders fear that sub-optimal investment will be compensated by regulatory fiat, lowering future capacity values. (Author)

  1. Why Are We Talking About Capacity Markets?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frew, Bethany

    2017-06-28

    Revenue sufficiency or 'missing money' concerns in wholesale electricity markets are important because they could lead to resource (or capacity) adequacy shortfalls. Capacity markets or other capacity-based payments are among the proposed solutions to remedy these challenges. This presentation provides a high-level overview of the importance of and process for ensuring resource adequacy, and then discusses considerations for capacity markets under futures with high penetrations of variable resources such as wind and solar.

  2. Hydrolysis, formation and ionization constants at 250C, and at high temperature-high ionic strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.L.; Phillips, C.A.; Skeen, J.

    1985-02-01

    Thermochemical data for nuclear waste disposal are compiled. The resulting computerized database consists of critically evaluated data on Gibbs energy of formation, enthalpy of formation, entropy and heat capacity of selected substances for about 16 elements at 25 0 C and zero ionic strength. Elements covered are Am, As, Br, C, Cl, F, I, Mo, Np, N, O, P, Pu, Si, Sr, S, and U. Values of these thermodynamic properties were used to calculate equilibrium quotients for hydrolysis, complexation and ionization reactions up to 300 0 C and 3 ionic strength, for selected chemical reactions

  3. Performance and scaling of a novel locomotor structure: adhesive capacity of climbing gobiid fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maie, Takashi; Schoenfuss, Heiko L; Blob, Richard W

    2012-11-15

    Many species of gobiid fishes adhere to surfaces using a sucker formed from fusion of the pelvic fins. Juveniles of many amphidromous species use this pelvic sucker to scale waterfalls during migrations to upstream habitats after an oceanic larval phase. However, adults may still use suckers to re-scale waterfalls if displaced. If attachment force is proportional to sucker area and if growth of the sucker is isometric, then increases in the forces that climbing fish must resist might outpace adhesive capacity, causing climbing performance to decline through ontogeny. To test for such trends, we measured pressure differentials and adhesive suction forces generated by the pelvic sucker across wide size ranges in six goby species, including climbing and non-climbing taxa. Suction was achieved via two distinct growth strategies: (1) small suckers with isometric (or negatively allometric) scaling among climbing gobies and (2) large suckers with positively allometric growth in non-climbing gobies. Species using the first strategy show a high baseline of adhesive capacity that may aid climbing performance throughout ontogeny, with pressure differentials and suction forces much greater than expected if adhesion were a passive function of sucker area. In contrast, large suckers possessed by non-climbing species may help compensate for reduced pressure differentials, thereby producing suction sufficient to support body weight. Climbing Sicyopterus species also use oral suckers during climbing waterfalls, and these exhibited scaling patterns similar to those for pelvic suckers. However, oral suction force was considerably lower than that for pelvic suckers, reducing the ability for these fish to attach to substrates by the oral sucker alone.

  4. Energy modelling and capacity building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Planning and Economic Studies Section of the IAEA's Department of Nuclear Energy is focusing on building analytical capacity in MS for energy-environmental-economic assessments and for the elaboration of sustainable energy strategies. It offers a variety of analytical models specifically designed for use in developing countries for (i) evaluating alternative energy strategies; (ii) assessing environmental, economic and financial impacts of energy options; (iii) assessing infrastructure needs; (iv) evaluating regional development possibilities and energy trade; (v) assessing the role of nuclear power in addressing priority issues (climate change, energy security, etc.). These models can be used for analysing energy or electricity systems, and to assess possible implications of different energy, environmental or financial policies that affect the energy sector and energy systems. The models vary in complexity and data requirements, and so can be adapted to the available data, statistics and analytical needs of different countries. These models are constantly updated to reflect changes in the real world and in the concerns that drive energy system choices. They can provide thoughtfully informed choices for policy makers over a broader range of circumstances and interests. For example, they can readily reflect the workings of competitive energy and electricity markets, and cover such topics as external costs. The IAEA further offers training in the use of these models and -just as important- in the interpretation and critical evaluation of results. Training of national teams to develop national competence over the full spectrum of models, is a high priority. The IAEA maintains a broad spectrum of databanks relevant to energy, economic and environmental analysis in MS, and make these data available to analysts in MS for use in their own analytical work. The Reference Technology Data Base (RTDB) and the Reference Data Series (RDS-1) are the major vehicles by which we

  5. Revealing the Maximum Strength in Nanotwinned Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, L.; Chen, X.; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2009-01-01

    boundary–related processes. We investigated the maximum strength of nanotwinned copper samples with different twin thicknesses. We found that the strength increases with decreasing twin thickness, reaching a maximum at 15 nanometers, followed by a softening at smaller values that is accompanied by enhanced...

  6. Maximal Strength Testing in Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Milliken, Laurie A.; Westcott, Wayne L.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluated the safety and efficacy of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) strength testing in healthy children age 6-12 years. Data were collected on 96 children who performed a 1RM test on one upper body and one lower body exercise using child-sized weight machines. Findings indicated that children could safely perform 1RM strength tests provided…

  7. Impact of Hydrodynamics on Oral Biofilm Strength

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paramonova, E.; Kalmykowa, O. J.; van der Mei, H. C.; Busscher, H. J.; Sharma, P. K.

    2009-01-01

    Mechanical removal of oral biofilms is ubiquitously accepted as the best way to prevent caries and periodontal diseases. Removal effectiveness strongly depends on biofilm strength. To investigate the influence of hydrodynamics on oral biofilm strength, we grew single- and multi-species biofilms of

  8. Crushing strength of HTGR fuel particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lackey, W.J.; Stinton, D.P.; Davis, L.E.; Beatty, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    The whole-particle crushing strengths of High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor fertile and fissile coated particles were measured and correlated with fabrication procedures. The crushing strength of Biso-coated fertile particles was increased by the following factors: (1) increasing the outer coating thickness by 10 μm increased strengths by 0.3 lb (1.3 N) for annealed particles and by 0.5 lb (2.2 N) for unannealed particles. (2) An 1800 0 C postcoating anneal increased strengths by 1 lb (4.4 N) for particles with thick outer coatings and by 2 lb (8.9 N) for particles having thin coatings. (3) Increasing the inner coating density by 0.1 g/cm 3 increased strength by 0.6 lb (2.7 N). The crushing strength of Triso-coated fissile particles was proportional to the thickness of the SiC coatings, and strength decreased on annealing by about 0.2 lb (0.9 N) when a porous plate was used to distribute the coating gas and by about 1.5 lb (6.7 N) when a conical gas distributor was used. The strengths of fertile and fissile coated particles as well as uncoated kernels appear adequate to allow fuel fabrication without excessive particle damage

  9. Tools for Building on Youth Strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    While rhetoric about strength-based approaches abounds, this perspective has not penetrated the front lines of practice. Many programs serving troubled youngsters are still mired in a deficit and deviance orientation. This article provides practical strategies for assessing the strengths of children and developing interventions to tap their assets…

  10. Restorative Justice as Strength-Based Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Robert

    2003-01-01

    This article compares strength-based and restorative justice philosophies for young people and their families. Restorative justice provides ways to respond to crime and harm that establish accountability while seeking to reconcile members of a community. Restorative approaches are an important subset of strength-based interventions.

  11. Asymmetry of Muscle Strength in Elite Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drid, Patrik; Drapsin, Miodrag; Trivic, Tatjana; Lukac, Damir; Obadov, Slavko; Milosevic, Zoran

    2009-01-01

    "Study aim": To determine muscle strength variables in elite judoists and wrestlers since thigh muscle strength and bilaterally balanced flexor-to-extensor ratio minimise injury risk and are desirable for achieving sport successes. "Material and methods": Judoists, wrestlers and untrained subjects, 10 each, were subjected to isokinetic strength…

  12. Gluebond strength of laser cut wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles W. McMillin; Henry A. Huber

    1985-01-01

    The degree of strength loss when gluing laser cut wood as compared to conventionally sawn wood and the amount of additional surface treatment needed to improve bond quality were assessed under normal furniture plant operating conditions. The strength of laser cut oak glued with polyvinyl acetate adhesive was reduced to 75 percent of sawn joints and gum was reduced 43...

  13. Enhancing paper strength by optimizing defect configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.M. Considine; W. Skye; W. Chen; D. Matthys; David W. Vahey; K. Turner; R. Rowlands

    2009-01-01

    Poor formation in paper, as denoted by large local variation of mass, tends to reduce maximum tensile strength but has not been well characterized. The effect of grammage variation on tensile strength was studied by introducing carefully placed holes in tensile specimens made of three different paper materials. Previous researchers demonstrated that the point-stress...

  14. Strength optimized designs of thermoelastic structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pauli; Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2010-01-01

    For thermoelastic structures the same optimal design does not simultaneously lead to minimum compliance and maximum strength. Compliance may be a questionable objective and focus for the present paper is on the important aspect of strength, quantified as minimization of the maximum von Mises stre...... loads are appended....

  15. Capacitated Dynamic Lot Sizing with Capacity Acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hongyan; Meissner, Joern

    One of the fundamental problems in operations management is to determine the optimal investment in capacity. Capacity investment consumes resources and the decision is often irreversible. Moreover, the available capacity level affects the action space for production and inventory planning decisions...

  16. The product of capacities and belief functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendon, Ebbe; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen; Sloth, Birgitte

    1996-01-01

    Capacities (monotone, non-additive set functions) have been suggested to describe situations of uncertainty. We examine the question of how to define the product of two independent capacities. In particular, for the product of two belief functions (totally monotone capacities), there is a unique...... minimal product belief function. This is characterized in several ways...

  17. The product of capacities and belief functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendon, Ebbe; Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen; Sloth, Birgitte

    1996-01-01

    Capacities (monotone, non-additive set functions) have been suggested to describe situations of uncertainty. We examine the question of how to define the product of two independent capacities. In particular, for the product of two belief functions (totally monotone capacities), there is a unique...... minimal product belief function. This is characterized in several ways....

  18. Specific cooling capacity of liquid nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgore, R. A.; Adcock, J. B.

    1977-01-01

    The assumed cooling process and the method used to calculate the specific cooling capacity of liquid nitrogen are described, and the simple equation fitted to the calculated specific cooling capacity data, together with the graphical form calculated values of the specific cooling capacity of nitrogen for stagnation temperatures from saturation to 350 K and stagnation pressures from 1 to 10 atmospheres, are given.

  19. Serotonin and Histamine Therapy Increases Tetanic Forces of Myoblasts, Reduces Muscle Injury, and Improves Grip Strength Performance of Dmdmdx Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Gurel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is a recessive X-linked fatal disorder caused by a mutation in the dystrophin gene. Although several therapeutic approaches have been studied, none has led to substantial long-term effects in patients. The aim of this study was to test a serotonin and histamine (S&H combination on human skeletal myoblasts and Dmdmdx mice for its effects on muscle strength and injury. Normal human bioartificial muscles (BAMs were treated, and muscle tetanic forces and muscle injury tests were performed using the MyoForce Analysis System. Dmdmdx mice, the murine model of DMD, were administered serotonin, histamine, or S&H combination twice daily for 6 weeks, and functional performance tests were conducted once a week. The S&H combination treatment caused significant increases in tetanic forces at all time points and concentrations tested as compared to the saline controls. Dose response of the BAMs to the treatment demonstrated a significant increase in force generation at all concentrations compared to the controls after 3 to 4 days of drug treatment. The highest 3 concentrations had a significant effect on lowering contractile-induced injury as measured by a reduction in the release of adenylate kinase. Histamine-only and S&H treatments improved grip strength of Dmdmdx mice, whereas serotonin-only treatment resulted in no significant improvement in muscle strength. The results of this study indicate that S&H therapy might be a promising new strategy for muscular dystrophies and that the mechanism should be further investigated.

  20. Soil Phosphorus Storage Capacity for Environmental Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimala D. Nair

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable techniques must be developed to predict phosphorus (P storage and release from soils of uplands, ditches, streams, and wetlands in order to better understand the natural, anthropogenic, and legacy sources of P and their impact on water quality at a field/plot as well as larger scales. A concept called the “safe” soil phosphorus storage capacity (SPSC that is based on a threshold phosphorus saturation ratio (PSR has been developed; the PSR is the molar ratio of P to Fe and Al, and SPSC is a PSR-based calculation of the remaining soil P storage capacity that captures risks arising from previous loading as well as inherently low P sorption capacity of a soil. Zero SPSC amounts to a threshold value below which P runoff or leaching risk increases precipitously. In addition to the use of the PSR/SPSC concept for P risk assessment and management, and its ability to predict isotherm parameters such as the Langmuir strength of bonding, KL, and the equilibrium P concentration, EPC0, this simple, cost-effective, and quantitative approach has the potential to be used as an agronomic tool for more precise application of P for plant uptake.

  1. Lung function study and diffusion capacity in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, T; Boland, B; Beguin, C; Veriter, C; Stanescu, D; Frans, A; Lambert, M

    2000-08-01

    In humans, malnutrition alters the respiratory system in different ways. It impairs the ventilatory drive, decreases respiratory muscle strength and reduces immune competence. In addition, typical emphysema-like changes were demonstrated in starved animals. The presence of emphysema has never been demonstrated in starved humans. Our objective was to investigate whether pulmonary emphysema occurs in anorexia nervosa by means of a pulmonary function study. We examined 24 women aged between 14 and 38 years (nine smokers). We studied the lung function including lung volumes, ventilatory capacity, maximal respiratory pressures and transfer factor, as well as PaO2. All respiratory tests were within normal limits with the exception of decreased maximal inspiratory (59% of predicted values) and expiratory pressures (35%), and increased residual volume (162%). Diffusion capacity (98.1 +/- 16.2%) and transfer coefficient (98.4 +/- 16.2%) were also normal. The diffusion coefficient was lower in current smokers than in those who had never smoked (P anorexia nervosa, pulmonary function tests are within normal limits with the exception of maximal pressures and residual volume. Diffusion capacity is not decreased. The present results within the limitations of the used method are not compatible with the hypothesis of starvation-induced pulmonary emphysema.

  2. Future High Capacity Backbone Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jiayuan

    are proposed. The work focuses on energy efficient routing algorithms in a dynamic optical core network environment, with Generalized MultiProtocol Label Switching (GMPLS) as the control plane. Energy ef- ficient routing algorithms for energy savings and CO2 savings are proposed, and their performance...... aiming for reducing the dynamic part of the energy consumption of the network may increase the fixed part of the energy consumption meanwhile. In the second half of the thesis, the conflict between energy efficiency and Quality of Service (QoS) is addressed by introducing a novel software defined......This thesis - Future High Capacity Backbone Networks - deals with the energy efficiency problems associated with the development of future optical networks. In the first half of the thesis, novel approaches for using multiple/single alternative energy sources for improving energy efficiency...

  3. Large-capacity current leads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballarino, A.

    2008-01-01

    Feeding superconducting magnets with reliable low-loss devices is a key issue for any cryo-electrical system. Conventional or HTS current leads can be used, and cooling methods, materials, and geometries can be chosen to optimize the thermo-electrical performance of the system. The LHC magnets are powered via more than 3000 current leads transporting altogether about 3 MA of current. With thousands of leads, the LHC lead project represents today the largest project of its kind ever undertaken. Following a review of the LHC lead project, an overview of the choices that can be made for the optimization of large capacity current leads is presented. Examples are given of other leads for large scale magnet systems for which the use of HTS is being envisaged

  4. High current capacity electrical connector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettis, E.S.; Watts, H.L.

    1976-01-01

    An electrical connector is provided for coupling high current capacity electrical conductors such as copper busses or the like. The connector is arranged in a ''sandwiched'' configuration in which a conductor plate contacts the busses along major surfaces clamped between two stainless steel backing plates. The conductor plate is provided with contact buttons in a spaced array such that the caps of the buttons extend above the conductor plate surface to contact the busses. When clamping bolts provided through openings in the sandwiched arrangement are tightened, Belleville springs provided under the rim of each button cap are compressed and resiliently force the caps into contact with the busses' contacting surfaces to maintain a predetermined electrical contact area provided by the button cap tops. The contact area does not change with changing thermal or mechanical stresses applied to the coupled conductors

  5. Community Capacity Building for Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Traverso-Yepez

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a great deal of literature examining the benefits and relevance of community participation and community capacity building in health promotion and disease prevention endeavors. Academic literature embracing principles and commitment to community participation in health promotion practices often neglects the complexities involved and the flexibility required to work within this approach. This article addresses some of these challenges through a case study of two projects funded by Provincial Wellness Grants in Newfoundland and Labrador, a province in Canada with a strong tradition of community ties and support systems. In addition to addressing the unique circumstances of the community groups, this research allowed the authors to examine the situational context and power relations involved in the provision of services as well as the particular forms of subjectivity and citizenship that the institutional practices support. Recognizing this complex interdependency is an important step in creating more effective intervention practices.

  6. Nuclear threshold effects and neutron strength function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hategan, Cornel; Comisel, Horia

    2003-01-01

    One proves that a Nuclear Threshold Effect is dependent, via Neutron Strength Function, on Spectroscopy of Ancestral Neutron Threshold State. The magnitude of the Nuclear Threshold Effect is proportional to the Neutron Strength Function. Evidence for relation of Nuclear Threshold Effects to Neutron Strength Functions is obtained from Isotopic Threshold Effect and Deuteron Stripping Threshold Anomaly. The empirical and computational analysis of the Isotopic Threshold Effect and of the Deuteron Stripping Threshold Anomaly demonstrate their close relationship to Neutron Strength Functions. It was established that the Nuclear Threshold Effects depend, in addition to genuine Nuclear Reaction Mechanisms, on Spectroscopy of (Ancestral) Neutron Threshold State. The magnitude of the effect is proportional to the Neutron Strength Function, in their dependence on mass number. This result constitutes also a proof that the origins of these threshold effects are Neutron Single Particle States at zero energy. (author)

  7. Imaging Shear Strength Along Subduction Faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bletery, Quentin; Thomas, Amanda M.; Rempel, Alan W.; Hardebeck, Jeanne L.

    2017-11-01

    Subduction faults accumulate stress during long periods of time and release this stress suddenly, during earthquakes, when it reaches a threshold. This threshold, the shear strength, controls the occurrence and magnitude of earthquakes. We consider a 3-D model to derive an analytical expression for how the shear strength depends on the fault geometry, the convergence obliquity, frictional properties, and the stress field orientation. We then use estimates of these different parameters in Japan to infer the distribution of shear strength along a subduction fault. We show that the 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku earthquake ruptured a fault portion characterized by unusually small variations in static shear strength. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that large earthquakes preferentially rupture regions with relatively homogeneous shear strength. With increasing constraints on the different parameters at play, our approach could, in the future, help identify favorable locations for large earthquakes.

  8. Testosterone Replacement, Muscle Strength, and Physical Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Seon Nam

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Muscle strength and physical function decrease in older men, as do testosterone levels. Nonetheless, the effects of testosterone replacement therapy on muscle strength and physical function remain inconclusive and equivocal. We conducted a rapid systematic review, the results of which showed that testosterone replacement does not affect muscle strength (measured by hand grip strength and leg muscle strength, although it may increase physical function (measured by the 6-minute walk test, Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly score, and other physical performance tests. However, most of the studies were conducted in the United States or Europe and did not include participants from Asian or other ethnic backgrounds; therefore, further studies are needed to evaluate the effects of testosterone replacement in a broader population.

  9. REPETITIVE STRENGTH AMONG STUDENTS OF AGE 14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besim Halilaj

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study involved 82 male students of the primary school “Qamil Ilazi” in Kaçanik-Kosovo.Four movement tests, which test the repetitive strength, were conducted: 1. Pull-up, 2. Sit-Up, 3. Back extension, 4. Push-up.The main goal of this study was to verify the actual motor status, respectively the component of the repetitive strength among students of age 14 of masculine gender. In addition to verifying the actual motor status, another objective was to verify the relationship between the variables employed.Basic statistical parameters show a distribution which is not significantly different from the normal distribution, yielded highly correlative values among the repetitive strength tests. Space factorization resulted in extracting two latent squares defined as repetitive strength of arms factor, and repetitive strength of body factor.

  10. Imaging shear strength along subduction faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bletery, Quentin; Thomas, Amanda M.; Rempel, Alan W.; Hardebeck, Jeanne L.

    2017-01-01

    Subduction faults accumulate stress during long periods of time and release this stress suddenly, during earthquakes, when it reaches a threshold. This threshold, the shear strength, controls the occurrence and magnitude of earthquakes. We consider a 3-D model to derive an analytical expression for how the shear strength depends on the fault geometry, the convergence obliquity, frictional properties, and the stress field orientation. We then use estimates of these different parameters in Japan to infer the distribution of shear strength along a subduction fault. We show that the 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku earthquake ruptured a fault portion characterized by unusually small variations in static shear strength. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that large earthquakes preferentially rupture regions with relatively homogeneous shear strength. With increasing constraints on the different parameters at play, our approach could, in the future, help identify favorable locations for large earthquakes.

  11. Human skeletal muscle mitochondrial capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, U F; Rasmussen, H N

    2000-04-01

    Under aerobic work, the oxygen consumption and major ATP production occur in the mitochondria and it is therefore a relevant question whether the in vivo rates can be accounted for by mitochondrial capacities measured in vitro. Mitochondria were isolated from human quadriceps muscle biopsies in yields of approximately 45%. The tissue content of total creatine, mitochondrial protein and different cytochromes was estimated. A number of activities were measured in functional assays of the mitochondria: pyruvate, ketoglutarate, glutamate and succinate dehydrogenases, palmitoyl-carnitine respiration, cytochrome oxidase, the respiratory chain and the ATP synthesis. The activities involved in carbohydrate oxidation could account for in vivo oxygen uptakes of 15-16 mmol O2 min-1 kg-1 or slightly above the value measured at maximal work rates in the knee-extensor model of Saltin and co-workers, i.e. without limitation from the cardiac output. This probably indicates that the maximal oxygen consumption of the muscle is limited by the mitochondrial capacities. The in vitro activities of fatty acid oxidation corresponded to only 39% of those of carbohydrate oxidation. The maximal rate of free energy production from aerobic metabolism of glycogen was calculated from the mitochondrial activities and estimates of the DeltaG or ATP hydrolysis and the efficiency of the actin-myosin reaction. The resultant value was 20 W kg-1 or approximately 70% of the maximal in vivo work rates of which 10-20% probably are sustained by the anaerobic ATP production. The lack of aerobic in vitro ATP synthesis might reflect termination of some critical interplay between cytoplasm and mitochondria.

  12. Experimental knee joint pain during strength training and muscle strength gain in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, T J; Langberg, Henning; Hodges, P W

    2012-01-01

    Knee joint pain and reduced quadriceps strength are cardinal symptoms in many knee pathologies. In people with painful knee pathologies, quadriceps exercise reduces pain, improves physical function, and increases muscle strength. A general assumption is that pain compromises muscle function...... and thus may prevent effective rehabilitation. This study evaluated the effects of experimental knee joint pain during quadriceps strength training on muscle strength gain in healthy individuals....

  13. Percentage Level of Tannin fur Rabbit for Leather Concerning Stitch Tearing Strength, Tearing Strength and Flexibility

    OpenAIRE

    Mustakim Mustakim; Aris Sri Widati; Lisa Purnaningtyas

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out the appropriate of tannin level for rabbit fur leather concerning stitch tearing strength, tearing strength, and flexibility. The result were expected to contribute good information for the society, leather craftsman, and further researchers about fur leather tanning especially rabbit fur leather with tannin concerning stitch tearing strength, tearing strength and flexibility. The material that used were 12 pieces of four months of rabbit skin. The re...

  14. Development of K-Basin High-Strength Homogeneous Sludge Simulants and Correlations Between Unconfined Compressive Strength and Shear Strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Yasuo; Baer, Ellen BK; Chun, Jaehun; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Sande, Susan; Buchmiller, William C.

    2011-02-20

    K-Basin sludge will be stored in the Sludge Transport and Storage Containers (STSCs) at an interim storage location on Central Plateau before being treated and packaged for disposal. During the storage period, sludge in the STSCs may consolidate/agglomerate, potentially resulting in high-shear-strength material. The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) plans to use water jets to retrieve K-Basin sludge after the interim storage. STP has identified shear strength to be a key parameter that should be bounded to verify the operability and performance of sludge retrieval systems. Determining the range of sludge shear strength is important to gain high confidence that a water-jet retrieval system can mobilize stored K-Basin sludge from the STSCs. The shear strength measurements will provide a basis for bounding sludge properties for mobilization and erosion. Thus, it is also important to develop potential simulants to investigate these phenomena. Long-term sludge storage tests conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) show that high-uranium-content K-Basin sludge can self-cement and form a strong sludge with a bulk shear strength of up to 65 kPa. Some of this sludge has 'paste' and 'chunks' with shear strengths of approximately 3-5 kPa and 380-770 kPa, respectively. High-uranium-content sludge samples subjected to hydrothermal testing (e.g., 185 C, 10 hours) have been observed to form agglomerates with a shear strength up to 170 kPa. These high values were estimated by measured unconfined compressive strength (UCS) obtained with a pocket penetrometer. Due to its ease of use, it is anticipated that a pocket penetrometer will be used to acquire additional shear strength data from archived K-Basin sludge samples stored at the PNNL Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) hot cells. It is uncertain whether the pocket penetrometer provides accurate shear strength measurements of the material. To assess the bounding material strength and

  15. Detection of rock strength at Branisko massif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarová Edita

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available When monitoring and optimizing the driving proces of the exploratory gallery by a computer system, conditions for verification of the interaction between desintegrating head of driving machine and rock massif were created. One of the output values of this mathematical model is the model strength at a simple pressure ótlH, which is defined as a pressure at the discus and the massif contact during the desintigration (a near limit of massif strength. By geological and geological engineering exploration, the section of length 2340 m was divided into fourty-two geological sections and five quasi-homogeneous massif enviroments. In the article, results of scleroscopic strength óCI , the strength in a simple pressure determined from the point load test and the strength at simple pressure ótlH are confronted . The main advance of the electronic geomechanical monitoring is the density of gained information. The two-seconds sample period of input and output data during the driving process makes it possible to describe driving circumstances in an almost continual way for each millimeter of the built tunnel. Then the information about changes of disintegrated rock properties, have the same density (frequency. By comparing a quantity of data gained by examining the index of point strength, scleroscopic strength and the model strength in a simple pressure from the monitoring process of driving process it is obvious that during the driving of exploratory gallery of motorway tunnel Branisko, a proportion of data number from the three “type examinations” of strength was reached and it was approximately 1:7:5000. Approximately in the same proportion, there were determined values for the 42 geologic sections (I. – XLII., which were defined in detail by the geologic, engineering geologic, hydrogeologic and geotechnic research.. The presented quantity values of presented rock mass strength for each geologic section are presented by their arithmetic average

  16. The Character Strengths of Class Clowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willibald F. Ruch

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Class clowns traditionally were studied as a type concept and identified via sociometric procedures. In the present study a variable-centered approach was favored and class clown behaviors were studied in the context of character strengths, orientations to happiness and satisfaction with life. A sample of 672 Swiss children and adolescents filled in an 18 item self-report instrument depicting class clown behaviors. A hierarchical model of class clown behaviors was developed distinguishing a general factor and the four positively correlated dimensions of identified as a class clown, comic talent, disruptive rule-breaker, and subversive joker. Analysis of the general factor showed that class clowns were primarily male, and tended to be seen as class clowns by the teacher. Analyses of the 24 character strengths of the VIA-Youth (Park & Peterson, 2006 showed that class clowns were high in humor and leadership, and low in strengths like prudence, self-regulation, modesty, honesty, fairness, perseverance, and love of learning. An inspection of signature strengths revealed that 75% of class clowns had humor as a signature strength. Furthermore, generally class clown behaviors were shown by students indulging in a life of pleasure, but low life of engagement. The four dimensions yielded different character strengths profiles. While all dimensions of class clowns behaviors were low in temperance strengths, the factors identified as the class clown and comic talent were correlated with leadership strengths and the two negative factors (disruptive rule-breaker, subversive joker were low in other directed strengths. The disruptive rule breaking class clown was additionally low in intellectual strengths. While humor predicted life satisfaction, class clowning tended to go along with diminished satisfaction with life. It is concluded that different types of class clowns need to be kept apart and need different attention by teachers.

  17. The character strengths of class clowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruch, Willibald; Platt, Tracey; Hofmann, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Class clowns traditionally were studied as a type concept and identified via sociometric procedures. In the present study a variable-centered approach was favored and class clown behaviors were studied in the context of character strengths, orientations to happiness and satisfaction with life. A sample of 672 Swiss children and adolescents filled in an 18 item self-report instrument depicting class clown behaviors. A hierarchical model of class clown behaviors was developed distinguishing a general factor and the four positively correlated dimensions of "identified as a class clown," "comic talent," "disruptive rule-breaker," and "subversive joker." Analysis of the general factor showed that class clowns were primarily male, and tended to be seen as class clowns by the teacher. Analyses of the 24 character strengths of the VIA-Youth (Park and Peterson, 2006) showed that class clowns were high in humor and leadership, and low in strengths like prudence, self-regulation, modesty, honesty, fairness, perseverance, and love of learning. An inspection of signature strengths revealed that 75% of class clowns had humor as a signature strength. Furthermore, class clown behaviors were generally shown by students indulging in a life of pleasure, but low life of engagement. The four dimensions yielded different character strengths profiles. While all dimensions of class clowns behaviors were low in temperance strengths, the factors "identified as the class clown" and "comic talent" were correlated with leadership strengths and the two negative factors ("disruptive rule-breaker," "subversive joker") were low in other directed strengths. The disruptive rule breaking class clown was additionally low in intellectual strengths. While humor predicted life satisfaction, class clowning tended to go along with diminished satisfaction with life. It is concluded that different types of class clowns need to be kept apart and need different attention by teachers.

  18. The Strengths Assessment Inventory: Reliability of a New Measure of Psychosocial Strengths for Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazeau, James N.; Teatero, Missy L.; Rawana, Edward P.; Brownlee, Keith; Blanchette, Loretta R.

    2012-01-01

    A new measure, the Strengths Assessment Inventory-Youth self-report (SAI-Y), was recently developed to assess the strengths of children and adolescents between the ages of 10 and 18 years. The SAI-Y differs from similar measures in that it provides a comprehensive assessment of strengths that are intrinsic to the individual as well as strengths…

  19. Is grip strength a predictor for total muscle strength in healthy children, adolescents, and young adults?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wind, Anne E.; Takken, Tim; Helders, Paul J. M.; Engelbert, Raoul H. H.

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine whether grip strength is related to total muscle strength in children, adolescents, and young adults. The second purpose was to provide reference charts for grip strength, which could be used in the clinical and research setting. This cross-sectional

  20. Development of bearing capacity of fine grained permafrost deposits in western greenland urban areas subject to soil temperature changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Frederik Ancker; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The bearing capacity of frozen soils is high, compared to non-frozen soils of same composition. Projected climatic warming in the Arctic will increase the soil temperature, thus affecting the bearing capacity and the deformation properties. Western Greenland temperatures are projected to increase...... free samples. Unfrozen water contents are seen to be directly inversely proportional to the undrained shear strength when both are normalized, which may reduce costs for establishing reliable soil strength parameters. It is suggested that a relation to deformation parameters are investigated as well...

  1. Effects of resistance training on endurance capacity and muscle fiber composition in young top-level cyclists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, P; Andersen, J L; Bennekou, M

    2011-01-01

    Equivocal findings exist on the effect of concurrent strength (S) and endurance (E) training on endurance performance and muscle morphology. Further, the influence of concurrent SE training on muscle fiber-type composition, vascularization and endurance capacity remains unknown in top......-level endurance athletes. The present study examined the effect of 16 weeks of concurrent SE training on maximal muscle strength (MVC), contractile rate of force development (RFD), muscle fiber morphology and composition, capillarization, aerobic power (VO(2max) ), cycling economy (CE) and long....../short-term endurance capacity in young elite competitive cyclists (n=14). MVC and RFD increased 12-20% with SE (P...

  2. Effects of resistance training on endurance capacity and muscle fiber composition in young top-level cyclists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, P; Andersen, J L; Bennekou, M

    2011-01-01

    Equivocal findings exist on the effect of concurrent strength (S) and endurance (E) training on endurance performance and muscle morphology. Further, the influence of concurrent SE training on muscle fiber-type composition, vascularization and endurance capacity remains unknown in top......-level endurance athletes. The present study examined the effect of 16 weeks of concurrent SE training on maximal muscle strength (MVC), contractile rate of force development (RFD), muscle fiber morphology and composition, capillarization, aerobic power (VO2max), cycling economy (CE) and long/short-term endurance...... capacity in young elite competitive cyclists (n=14). MVC and RFD increased 12-20% with SE (P...

  3. Physical capacity and risk for long-term sickness absence: a prospective cohort study among 8664 female health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Charlotte Diana Nørregaard; Andersen, Lars Louis; Clausen, Thomas; Strøyer, Jesper; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Holtermann, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    To assess the prospective associations between self-reported physical capacity and risk of long-term sickness absence among female health care workers. Female health care workers answered a questionnaire about physical capacity and were followed in a national register of sickness absence lasting for two or more consecutive weeks during 1-year follow-up. Using Cox regression hazard ratio analyses adjusted for age, smoking, body mass index, physical workload, job seniority, psychosocial work conditions, and previous sickness absence, we modeled risk estimates for sickness absence from low and medium physical capacity. Low and medium aerobic fitness, low muscle strength, low flexibility, and low overall physical capacity significantly increased the risk for sickness absence with 20% to 34% compared with health care workers with high capacity. Low physical capacity increases the risk of long-term sickness absence among female health care workers.

  4. Big Data and Health Economics: Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brendan

    2016-02-01

    'Big data' is the collective name for the increasing capacity of information systems to collect and store large volumes of data, which are often unstructured and time stamped, and to analyse these data by using regression and other statistical techniques. This is a review of the potential applications of big data and health economics, using a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) approach. In health economics, large pseudonymized databases, such as the planned care.data programme in the UK, have the potential to increase understanding of how drugs work in the real world, taking into account adherence, co-morbidities, interactions and side effects. This 'real-world evidence' has applications in individualized medicine. More routine and larger-scale cost and outcomes data collection will make health economic analyses more disease specific and population specific but may require new skill sets. There is potential for biomonitoring and lifestyle data to inform health economic analyses and public health policy.

  5. Capacity analysis of vehicular communication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Ning

    2013-01-01

    This SpringerBrief focuses on the network capacity analysis of VANETs, a key topic as fundamental guidance on design and deployment of VANETs is very limited. Moreover, unique characteristics of VANETs impose distinguished challenges on such an investigation. This SpringerBrief first introduces capacity scaling laws for wireless networks and briefly reviews the prior arts in deriving the capacity of VANETs. It then studies the unicast capacity considering the socialized mobility model of VANETs. With vehicles communicating based on a two-hop relaying scheme, the unicast capacity bound is deriv

  6. Pile Load Capacity – Calculation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wrana Bogumił

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is a review of the current problems of the foundation pile capacity calculations. The article considers the main principles of pile capacity calculations presented in Eurocode 7 and other methods with adequate explanations. Two main methods are presented: α – method used to calculate the short-term load capacity of piles in cohesive soils and β – method used to calculate the long-term load capacity of piles in both cohesive and cohesionless soils. Moreover, methods based on cone CPTu result are presented as well as the pile capacity problem based on static tests.

  7. Mammalian cell culture capacity for biopharmaceutical manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Dawn M; Ransohoff, Thomas C

    2014-01-01

    : With worldwide sales of biopharmaceuticals increasing each year and continuing growth on the horizon, the manufacture of mammalian biopharmaceuticals has become a major global enterprise. We describe the current and future industry wide supply of manufacturing capacity with regard to capacity type, distribution, and geographic location. Bioreactor capacity and the use of single-use products for biomanufacturing are also profiled. An analysis of the use of this capacity is performed, including a discussion of current trends that will influence capacity growth, availability, and utilization in the coming years.

  8. Auctions of capacity in network industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, J.; Turvey, R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides an introduction to the key issues arising for auctions of network capacity including (i) the ability of auctions to handle long-run capacity expansion issues as well as short run capacity allocation; (ii) the definition of 'capacity' on networks; (iii) auction revenues and revenue reallocation to regulated network operators; and (iv) alternative market-based mechanisms to provide signals for capacity expansion. The paper covers some simple analytics before introducing various complications such as the use of auctions in complex networks. The paper discusses implications and provides a context within which to consider the other papers in this issue of Utilities Policy. (Author)

  9. Suture holding capacity of the Achilles tendon during the healing period: an in vivo experimental study in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Yakup; Kara, Hasan; Cabukoglu, Cengiz; Esemenli, Tanil

    2006-02-01

    Early motion and weightbearing is known to promote the healing of Achilles tendon repair. It is important to be informed about the repair strength for a secure rehabilitation. There are reports about the initial repair strength of Achilles tendons; however, they are mainly in vitro studies that represent the time zero strength of the repair. Softening of the tendon observed during the biological process of the tendon healing, which may effect the suture holding capacity and in turn the repair strength of the tendon has not been evaluated before. In the current study, the suture holding capacity of rabbit Achilles tendon was observed at various times during the healing period. The suture holding capacity of the tendon at the end of the first and third weeks after surgery was found to be similar within 30% of the control tendon. However, at the end of the fourth week it was doubled reaching 65% of the control tendon. Intrinsic tendon insufficiency which causes a decrease in the suture holding capacity of the tendon may lead to pull-out of the suture material during the postoperative third week. This period is precarious for early motion and weightbearing since the suture holding capacity of the tendon doubled relative to the previous three weeks.

  10. MUSCLE STRENGTH AND DAMAGE FOLLOWING TWO MODES OF VARIABLE RESISTANCE TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saied Jalal Aboodarda

    2011-12-01

    lower external force generation during ER. The importance of these findings is underlined by the fact that exercise-induced muscle damage has been shown to be the underlying mechanism of further muscle hypertrophy

  11. Motor skill training and strength training are associated with different plastic changes in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Lundbye; Marstrand, Peter C.D.; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2005-01-01

    Changes in corticospinal excitability induced by 4 wk of heavy strength training or visuomotor skill learning were investigated in 24 healthy human subjects. Measurements of the input-output relation for biceps brachii motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation...... decreased significantly at rest but not during contraction in the strength-trained subjects (P = 0.01). No significant changes were observed in a control group. A significant correlation between changes in neurophysiological parameters and motor performance was observed for skill learning but not strength...... were obtained at rest and during voluntary contraction in the course of the training. The training paradigms induced specific changes in the motor performance capacity of the subjects. The strength training group increased maximal dynamic and isometric muscle strength by 31% (P

  12. Simulations of floor cooling system capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odyjas, Andrzej; Górka, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Floor cooling system capacity depends on its physical and operative parameters. Using numerical simulations, it appears that cooling capacity of the system largely depends on the type of cooling loads occurring in the room. In the case of convective cooling loads capacity of the system is small. However, when radiation flux falls directly on the floor the system significantly increases productivity. The article describes the results of numerical simulations which allow to determine system capacity in steady thermal conditions, depending on the type of physical parameters of the system and the type of cooling load occurring in the room. Moreover, the paper sets out the limits of system capacity while maintaining a minimum temperature of the floor surface equal to 20 °C. The results are helpful for designing system capacity in different type of cooling loads and show maximum system capacity in acceptable thermal comfort condition. -- Highlights: ► We have developed numerical model for simulation of floor cooling system. ► We have described floor system capacity depending on its physical parameters. ► We have described floor system capacity depending on type of cooling loads. ► The most important in the obtained cooling capacities is the type of cooling loads. ► The paper sets out the possible maximum cooling floor system capacity

  13. Recovery of shoulder strength and proprioception after open surgery for recurrent anterior instability: a comparison of two surgical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokito, Andrew S; Birdzell, Maureen Gallagher; Cuomo, Frances; Di Paola, Matthew J; Zuckerman, Joseph D

    2010-06-01

    Previous studies have documented a decrease in proprioceptive capacity in the unstable shoulder. The degree to which surgical approach affects recovery of strength and proprioception is unknown. The recovery of strength and proprioception after open surgery for recurrent anterior glenohumeral instability was compared for 2 surgical procedures. A prospective analysis of 55 consecutive patients with posttraumatic unilateral recurrent anterior glenohumeral instability was performed. Thirty patients (group 1) underwent an open inferior capsular shift with detachment of the subscapularis, and 25 (group 2) underwent an anterior capsulolabral reconstruction. Mean preoperative proprioception and strength values were significantly lower for the affected shoulders in both groups. At 6 months after surgery, there were no significant differences for mean strength and proprioception values between the unaffected and operative sides for group 2 patients. In group 1 patients, however, there were still significant deficits in mean position sense and strength values. Complete restoration of proprioception and strength, however, was evident by 12 months in group 1. This study demonstrates that there are significant deficits in both strength and proprioception in patients with posttraumatic, recurrent anterior glenohumeral instability. Although both are completely restored by 1 year after surgery, a subscapularis-splitting approach allows for complete recovery of strength and position sense as early as 6 months postoperatively. Detachment of the subscapularis delays recovery of strength and position sense for up to 12 months after surgery. Copyright 2010 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Measuring Relative Coupling Strength in Circadian Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmal, Christoph; Herzog, Erik D; Herzel, Hanspeter

    2018-02-01

    Modern imaging techniques allow the monitoring of circadian rhythms of single cells. Coupling between these single cellular circadian oscillators can generate coherent periodic signals on the tissue level that subsequently orchestrate physiological outputs. The strength of coupling in such systems of oscillators is often unclear. In particular, effects on coupling strength by varying cell densities, by knockouts, and by inhibitor applications are debated. In this study, we suggest to quantify the relative coupling strength via analyzing period, phase, and amplitude distributions in ensembles of individual circadian oscillators. Simulations of different oscillator networks show that period and phase distributions become narrower with increasing coupling strength. Moreover, amplitudes can increase due to resonance effects. Variances of periods and phases decay monotonically with coupling strength, and can serve therefore as measures of relative coupling strength. Our theoretical predictions are confirmed by studying recently published experimental data from PERIOD2 expression in slices of the suprachiasmatic nucleus during and after the application of tetrodotoxin (TTX). On analyzing the corresponding period, phase, and amplitude distributions, we can show that treatment with TTX can be associated with a reduced coupling strength in the system of coupled oscillators. Analysis of an oscillator network derived directly from the data confirms our conclusions. We suggest that our approach is also applicable to quantify coupling in fibroblast cultures and hepatocyte networks, and for social synchronization of circadian rhythmicity in rodents, flies, and bees.

  15. Strength evaluation code STEP for brittle materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Masahiro; Futakawa, Masatoshi.

    1997-12-01

    In a structural design using brittle materials such as graphite and/or ceramics it is necessary to evaluate the strength of component under complex stress condition. The strength of ceramic materials is said to be influenced by the stress distribution. However, in the structural design criteria simplified stress limits had been adopted without taking account of the strength change with the stress distribution. It is, therefore, important to evaluate the strength of component on the basis of the fracture model for brittle material. Consequently, the strength evaluation program, STEP, on a brittle fracture of ceramic materials based on the competing risk theory had been developed. Two different brittle fracture modes, a surface layer fracture mode dominated by surface flaws and an internal fracture mode by internal flaws, are treated in the STEP code in order to evaluate the strength of brittle fracture. The STEP code uses stress calculation results including complex shape of structures analyzed by the generalized FEM stress analysis code, ABAQUS, so as to be possible to evaluate the strength of brittle fracture for the structures having complicate shapes. This code is, therefore, useful to evaluate the structural integrity of arbitrary shapes of components such as core graphite components in the HTTR, heat exchanger components made of ceramics materials etc. This paper describes the basic equations applying to the STEP code, code system with a combination of the STEP and the ABAQUS codes and the result of the verification analysis. (author)

  16. Geometry and gravity influences on strength capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliner, Jeffrey; Wilmington, Robert P.; Klute, Glenn K.

    1994-01-01

    Strength, defined as the capability of an individual to produce an external force, is one of the most important determining characteristics of human performance. Knowledge of strength capabilities of a group of individuals can be applied to designing equipment and workplaces, planning procedures and tasks, and training individuals. In the manned space program, with the high risk and cost associated with spaceflight, information pertaining to human performance is important to ensuring mission success and safety. Knowledge of individual's strength capabilities in weightlessness is of interest within many areas of NASA, including workplace design, tool development, and mission planning. The weightless environment of space places the human body in a completely different context. Astronauts perform a variety of manual tasks while in orbit. Their ability to perform these tasks is partly determined by their strength capability as demanded by that particular task. Thus, an important step in task planning, development, and evaluation is to determine the ability of the humans performing it. This can be accomplished by utilizing quantitative techniques to develop a database of human strength capabilities in weightlessness. Furthermore, if strength characteristics are known, equipment and tools can be built to optimize the operators' performance. This study examined strength in performing a simple task, specifically, using a tool to apply a torque to a fixture.

  17. Strength training for children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigenbaum, A D

    2000-10-01

    The potential benefits of youth strength training extend beyond an increase in muscular strength and may include favorable changes in selected health- and fitness-related measures. If appropriate training guidelines are followed, regular participation in a youth strength-training program has the potential to increase bone mineral density, improve motor performance skills, enhance sports performance, and better prepare our young athletes for the demands of practice and competition. Despite earlier concerns regarding the safety and efficacy of youth strength training, current public health objectives now aim to increase the number of boys and girls age 6 and older who regularly participate in physical activities that enhance and maintain muscular fitness. Parents, teachers, coaches, and healthcare providers should realize that youth strength training is a specialized method of conditioning that can offer enormous benefit but at the same time can result in serious injury if established guidelines are not followed. With qualified instruction, competent supervision, and an appropriate progression of the volume and intensity of training, children and adolescents cannot only learn advanced strength training exercises but can feel good about their performances, and have fun. Additional clinical trails involving children and adolescents are needed to further explore the acute and chronic effects of strength training on a variety of anatomical, physiological, and psychological parameters.

  18. A combination of resistance and endurance training increases leg muscle strength in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iepsen, Ulrik Winning; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl; Ringbæk, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Resistance training (RT) is thought to be effective in preventing muscle depletion, whereas endurance training (ET) is known to improve exercise capacity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our objectives were to assess the efficiency...... improvements in HRQoL, walking distance and exercise capacity. However, we found moderate quality evidence of a significant increase in leg muscle strength favouring a combination of RT and ET (standardized mean difference of 0.69 (95% confidence interval: 0.39-0.98). In conclusion, we found significantly...... increased leg muscle strength favouring a combination of RT with ET compared with ET alone. Therefore, we recommend that RT should be incorporated in rehabilitation of COPD together with ET....

  19. Factors controlling strength of structures, and anticipated overstrength for seismic load conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, A.K.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses how the safe shutdown earthquake level, the ratio of operating basis earthquake to safe shutdown earthquake level, the shape of the earthquake spectra and the modeling of the structure affect the seismic overstrength of structures. The relationship between actual mean strength and the minimum specified strength of concrete and structural steel is also presented. The paper identifies which concrete and steel structures are generally sized for earthquake loads and which are generally sized for other factors, e.g., tornado missiles, loss of coolant accident pressure loads, equipment laydown loads and radiation shielding. The results of a study evaluating the mean ultimate capacity of a pressurized water reactor containment are presented to show that in terms of a ground motion, the seismic capacity may be four to five times the design safe shutdown earthquake level

  20. Behaviour and strength assessment of masonry prisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassif Nazeer Thaickavil

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a case study presenting the cracking behavior and assessment of the compressive strength of masonry prisms. The compressive strength of masonry was determined by performing laboratory tests on 192 masonry prism specimens corresponding to 3 specimens each in 64 groups. The variables considered in the experimental program are type of brick, strength of masonry and height-to-thickness (h/t ratio of the prism specimen. Pressed earth bricks and burnt clay bricks were used for the preparation of masonry prisms. A mathematical model is also proposed for the estimation of compressive strength of masonry prisms by performing a statistical multiple regression analysis on 232 data sets, which includes 64 test data from the present study and 168 test data published in the literature. The model was developed based on the regression analysis of test data of prisms made of a variety of masonry units namely clay bricks, pressed earth bricks, concrete blocks, calcium silicate bricks, stone blocks, perforated bricks and soft mud bricks. The proposed model not only accounts for the wide ranges of compressive strengths of masonry unit and mortar, but also accounts for the influence of volume fractions of masonry unit and mortar in addition to the height-to-thickness ratio. The predicted compressive strength of prisms using the proposed model is compared with 14 models available in published literature. The predicted strength was found to be in good agreement with the corresponding experimental data. Keywords: Prism strength, Stack bonded masonry, Running bonded masonry, Masonry unit strength, Cracking