On generating counter-rotating streamwise vortices
Winoto, S H
2015-09-23
Counter-rotating streamwise vortices are known to enhance the heat transfer rate from a surface and also to improve the aerodynamic performance of an aerofoil. In this paper, some methods to generate such counter-rotating vortices using different methods or physical conditions will be briefly considered and discussed.
Effect of streamwise vortices on Tollmien-Schlichting waves
Nayfeh, A. H.
1981-01-01
The method of multiple scales is used to determine a first-order uniform expansion for the effect of counter-rotating steady streamwise vortices in growing boundary layers on oblique Tollmien-Schlichting waves. The results show that such vortices have a strong tendency to amplify oblique Tollmien-Schlichting waves having a spanwise wavelength that is twice the wavelength of the vortices. An analytical expression is derived for the growth rates of these waves. These exponential growth rates increase linearly with increasing amplitudes of the vortices. Numerical results are presented. They suggest that this mechanism may dominate the instability.
Linear and Nonlinear Evolution of Disturbances in Supersonic Streamwise Vortices
Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Chang, Chau-Lyan; Wie, Yong-Sun
1997-11-01
Effective control of compressible streamwise vortices play a significant role in both external and internal aerodynamics. In this study, evolution of disturbances in a supersonic vortex is studied by using quasi-cylindrical linear stability analysis and parabolized stability equations (PSE)footnote M. R. Malik and C.-L. Chang, AIAA Paper 97-0758. formulation. Appropriate mean-flow profilesfootnote M. K. Smart, I. M. Kalkhoran, and J. Bentson, AIAA Paper 94-2576. suitable for stability analysis were identified and modeled successfully. Using linear stability analysis, the stability characteristics of axisymmetric vortices were mapped thoroughly. The results indicate that viscosity has very little effect while increasing Mach number significantly stabilizes the disturbance. Linear PSE analysis shows that the effect of streamwise mean flow variation is small for the case considered here. Nonlinear evolution of helical modes is also studied by using PSE. The growth of the disturbances results in the appearance of coherent large scale motion and significant mean flow distortion in the axial velocity and temperature fields. In the end, nonlinear effects tend to stabilize the vortex.
Shock Wave Induced Separation Control by Streamwise Vortices
Ryszard SZWABA
2005-01-01
Control of shock wave and boundary layer interaction finds still a lot of attention. Methods of this interaction control have been especially investigated in recent decade. This research was mostly concerned with flows without separation. However, in many applications shock waves induce separation often leads to strong unsteady effects. In this context it is proposed to use streamwise vortices for the interaction control. The results of experimental investigations are presented here. The very promising results were obtained, meaning that the incipient separation was postponed and the separation size was reduced for the higher Mach numbers. The decrease of the RMS of average shock wave oscillation was also achieved.
Bouremel, Yann
2016-11-01
Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) has been used to characterize the evolution of counter-rotating streamwise vortices in a rectangular channel with one sided wavy surface. The vortices were created by a uniform set of saw-tooth carved over the leading edge of a flat plate at the entrance of a flat rectangular channel with one-sided wavy wall. PIV measurements were taken over the spanwise and streamwise planes at different locations and at Reynolds number of 2500. Two other Reynolds numbers of 2885 and 3333 have also been considered for quantification purpose. Pairs of counter-rotating streamwise vortices have been shown experimentally to be centred along the spanwise direction at the saw-tooth valley where the vorticity ωz=0ωz=0. It has also been found that the vorticity ωzωz of the pairs of counter-rotating vortices decreases along the streamwise direction, and increases with the Reynolds number. Moreover, different quantifications of such counter-rotating vortices have been discussed such as their size, boundary layer, velocity profile and vorticity. The current study shows that the mixing due to the wall shear stress of counter-rotating streamwise vortices as well as their averaged viscous dissipation rate of kinetic energy decrease over flat and adverse pressure gradient surfaces while increasing over favourable pressure gradient surfaces. Finally, it was also demonstrated that the main direction of stretching is orientated at around 45° with the main flow direction.
Rostamzadeh, N.; Hansen, K. L.; Kelso, R. M.; Dally, B. B.
2014-10-01
Wings with tubercles have been shown to display advantageous loading behavior at high attack angles compared to their unmodified counterparts. In an earlier study by the authors, it was shown that an undulating leading-edge configuration, including but not limited to a tubercled model, induces a cyclic variation in circulation along the span that gives rise to the formation of counter-rotating streamwise vortices. While the aerodynamic benefits of full-span tubercled wings have been associated with the presence of such vortices, their formation mechanism and influence on wing performance are still in question. In the present work, experimental and numerical tests were conducted to further investigate the effect of tubercles on the flow structure over full-span modified wings based on the NACA 0021 profile, in the transitional flow regime. It is found that a skew-induced mechanism accounts for the formation of streamwise vortices whose development is accompanied by flow separation in delta-shaped regions near the trailing edge. The presence of vortices is detrimental to the performance of full-span wings pre-stall, however renders benefits post-stall as demonstrated by wind tunnel pressure measurement tests. Finally, primary and secondary vortices are identified post-stall that produce an enhanced momentum transfer effect that reduces flow separation, thus increasing the generated amount of lift.
Development of Pre-set Counter-rotating Streamwise Vortices in Wavy Channel
Budiman, A.C.
2015-10-23
Development of counter-rotating streamwise vortices in a rectangular channel with one-sided wavy surface has been experimentally quantified using hot-wire anemometry. The wavy surface has fixed amplitude of 3.75 mm. The counter-rotating vortices are pre-set by means of a sawtooth pattern cut at the leading edge of the wavy surface. Variations of the central streamwise velocity Uc with a channel gap H = 35 mm and 50 mm (corresponding to a Reynolds number from 1600 to 4400) change the instability of the flow which can be distinguished from the velocity contours at a certain spanwise plane. The streamwise velocity contours and turbulence intensity for Reynolds number Re = 3100 and H = 35 mm show the disappearance of the mushroom-like vortices prior to turbulence near the second peak of the wavy surface, while for higher Re, this phenomenon occurs earlier. Under certain conditions, for example, for Re = 4400 and H = 50 mm, the splitting of the vortices can also be observed.
Heat transfer with very high free-stream turbulence and streamwise vortices
Moffat, Robert J.; Maciejewski, Paul; Eaton, John K.; Pauley, Wayne
1986-01-01
Results are presented for two experimental programs related to augmentation of heat transfer by complex flow characteristics. In one program, high free stream turbulence (up to 63 percent) was shown to increase the Stanton number by more than a factor of 5, compared with the normally expected value based on x-Reynolds number. These experiments are being conducted in a free-jet facility, near the margins of the jet. To a limited extent, the mean velocity, turbulence intensity, and integral length scale can be separately varied. The results show that scale is a very important factor in determining the augmentation. Detailed studies of the turbulence structure are being carried out using an orthogonal triple hot-wire anemometer equipped with a fourth wire for measuring temperature. The v' component of turbulence appears to be distributed differently from u' or w'. In the second program, the velocity distributions and boundary layer thicknesses associated with a pair of counter-rotating, streamwise vortices were measured. There is a region of considerably thinned boundary layer between the two vortices when they are of approximately the same strength. If one vortex is much stronger than the other, the weaker vortex may be lifted off the surface and absorbed into the stronger.
Alexander Christantho Budiman
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Two different channel entrance designs, code named Valley First (VF and Peak First (PF, were experimentally visualized by means of smoke-wire visualization technique to observe their effects towards the streamwise counter-rotating vortices generated. The spanwise wavelength of the vortices was pre-set by modifying the leading edge. The investigation was carried out on the laminar boundary-layer flow in a rectangular channel with one-sided wavy surface that has amplitude a and wavelength λ of 7.5 mm and 76 mm, respectively. The vortices in the channel with VF design preserve farther downstream than those on the PF design, which might be caused by the large favorable pressure gradient between the entrance flat plate and the first peak location. The counter-rotating vortices could still be observed at non-dimensionalized streamwise distance χ (= x/λ = 2.47 for Reynolds number Re (= UH/ν = 9900 in channel with VF design. For lower Re, the vortices could preserve further downstream. In contrast, in channel with PF design, the structures were only visible clearly up to approximately χ = 1.32 for Re = 4700 and χ = 0.39 for Re = 5200.
Accurate measurement of streamwise vortices using dual-plane PIV
Waldman, Rye M.; Breuer, Kenneth S.
2012-11-01
Low Reynolds number aerodynamic experiments with flapping animals (such as bats and small birds) are of particular interest due to their application to micro air vehicles which operate in a similar parameter space. Previous PIV wake measurements described the structures left by bats and birds and provided insight into the time history of their aerodynamic force generation; however, these studies have faced difficulty drawing quantitative conclusions based on said measurements. The highly three-dimensional and unsteady nature of the flows associated with flapping flight are major challenges for accurate measurements. The challenge of animal flight measurements is finding small flow features in a large field of view at high speed with limited laser energy and camera resolution. Cross-stream measurement is further complicated by the predominately out-of-plane flow that requires thick laser sheets and short inter-frame times, which increase noise and measurement uncertainty. Choosing appropriate experimental parameters requires compromise between the spatial and temporal resolution and the dynamic range of the measurement. To explore these challenges, we do a case study on the wake of a fixed wing. The fixed model simplifies the experiment and allows direct measurements of the aerodynamic forces via load cell. We present a detailed analysis of the wake measurements, discuss the criteria for making accurate measurements, and present a solution for making quantitative aerodynamic load measurements behind free-flyers.
Hasheminejad, S. M.
2016-01-05
A series of flow visualizations were conducted to qualitatively study the development of streamwise counter-rotating vortices over a flat plate induced by triangular patterns at the leading edge of a flat plate. The experiments were carried out for a Reynolds number based on the pattern wavelength (λ) of 3080. The results depict the onset, development and breakdown of the vortical structures within the flat plate boundary layer. Moreover, the effect of one spanwise array of holes with diameter of 0.2λ (=3 mm) was examined. This investigation was done on two different flat plates with holes placed at the location x/λ = 2 downstream of the troughs and peaks. The presence of holes after troughs does not show any significant effect on the vortical structures. However, the plate with holes after peaks noticeably delays the vortex breakdown. In this case, the “mushroom-like” vortices move away from the wall and propagate downstream with stable vortical structures. The vortex growth is halted further downstream but start to tilt aside.
Three-dimensional instability analysis of boundary layers perturbed by streamwise vortices
Martín, Juan A.; Paredes, Pedro
2016-08-01
A parametric study is presented for the incompressible, zero-pressure-gradient flat-plate boundary layer perturbed by streamwise vortices. The vortices are placed near the leading edge and model the vortices induced by miniature vortex generators (MVGs), which consist in a spanwise-periodic array of small winglet pairs. The introduction of MVGs has been experimentally proved to be a successful passive flow control strategy for delaying laminar-turbulent transition caused by Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves. The counter-rotating vortex pairs induce non-modal, transient growth that leads to a streaky boundary layer flow. The initial intensity of the vortices and their wall-normal distances to the plate wall are varied with the aim of finding the most effective location for streak generation and the effect on the instability characteristics of the perturbed flow. The study includes the solution of the three-dimensional, stationary, streaky boundary layer flows by using the boundary region equations, and the three-dimensional instability analysis of the resulting basic flows by using the plane-marching parabolized stability equations. Depending on the initial circulation and positioning of the vortices, planar TS waves are stabilized by the presence of the streaks, resulting in a reduction in the region of instability and shrink of the neutral stability curve. For a fixed maximum streak amplitude below the threshold for secondary instability (SI), the most effective wall-normal distance for the formation of the streaks is found to also offer the most stabilization of TS waves. By setting a maximum streak amplitude above the threshold for SI, sinuous shear layer modes become unstable, as well as another instability mode that is amplified in a narrow region near the vortex inlet position.
Velte, Clara Marika; Okulov, Valery; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver
2013-01-01
The current work describes the experimental parametric study of streamwise vortices generated in a boundary layer by a rectangular vane (commonly named vortex generator) mounted perpendicularly to the wall and at an angle to the oncoming flow. Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry measurements...
Development of plasma streamwise vortex generators for increased boundary layer control authority
Bowles, Patrick; Schatzman, David; Corke, Thomas; Thomas, Flint
2009-11-01
This experimental study focuses on active boundary layer flow control utilizing streamwise vorticity produced by a single dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuator. A novel plasma streamwise vortex generator (PSVG) layout is presented that mimics the passive flow control characteristics of the trapezoidal vane vortex generator. The PSVG consists of a common insulated electrode and multiple, exposed streamwise oriented electrodes used to produce counter-rotating vortical structures. Smoke and oil surface visualization of boundary layer flow over a flat plate compare the characteristics of passive control techniques and different PSVG designs. Passive and active control over a generic wall-mounted hump model, Rec = 288,000-575,000, are compared through static wall pressure measurements along the model's centerline. Different geometric effects of the PSVG electrode configuration were investigated. PSVG's with triangular exposed electrodes outperformed ordinary PSVG's under certain circumstances. The electrode arrangement produced flow control mechanisms and effectiveness similar to the passive trapezoidal vane vortex generators.
Hasheminejad, S.M.
2017-04-03
Development of streamwise counter-rotating vortices induced by leading edge patterns with different pattern shape is investigated using hot-wire anemometry in the boundary layer of a flat plate. A triangular, sinusoidal and notched patterns with the same pattern wavelength λ of 15mm and the same pattern amplitude A of 7.5mm were examined for free-stream velocity of 3m/s. The results show a good agreement with earlier studies. The inflection point on the velocity profile downstream of the trough of the patterns at the beginning of the vortex formation indicates that the vortices non-linearly propagate downstream. An additional vortex structure was also observed between the troughs of the notched pattern.
Zhong, Qiang; Chen, Qigang; Wang, Hao; Li, Danxun; Wang, Xingkui
2016-05-01
Long streamwise-elongated high- and low-speed streaks are repeatedly observed near the free surface in open channel flows in natural rivers and lab experiments. Super-streamwise vortex model has been proposed to explain this widespread phenomenon for quite some time. However, statistical evidence of the existence of the super-streamwise vortices as one type of coherent structures is still insufficient. Correlation and proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) analysis based on PIV experimental data in the streamwise-spanwise plane near the free surface in a smooth open channel flow are employed to investigate this topic. Correlation analysis revealed that the streaky structures appear frequently near the free surface and their occurrence probability at any spanwise position is equal. The spanwise velocity fluctuation usually flows from low-speed streaks toward high-speed streaks. The average spanwise width and spacing between neighboring low (or high) speed streaks are approximately h and 2h respectively. POD analysis reveals that there are streaks with different spanwise width in the instantaneous flow fields. Typical streamwise rotational movement can be sketched out directly based on the results from statistical analyses. Point-by-point analysis indicates that this pattern is consistent everywhere in the measurement window and is without any inhomogeneity in the spanwise direction, which reveals the essential difference between coherent structures and secondary flow cells. The pattern found by statistical analysis is consistent with the notion that the super-streamwise vortices exist universally as one type of coherent structure in open channel flows.
Streamwise Vortex Interaction with a Horseshoe Vortex
Piotr Doerffer; Pawel Flaszynski; Franco Magagnato
2003-01-01
Flow control in turbomachinery is very difficult because of the complexity of its fully 3-D flow structure. The authors propose to introduce streamwise vortices into the control of internal flows. A simple configuration of vortices was investigated in order to better understand the flow control methods by means of streamwise vortices.The research presented here concerns streamwise vortex interaction with a horseshoe vortex. The effects of such an interaction are significantly dependent on the relative location of the streamwise vortex in respect to the leading edge of the profile. The streamwise vortex is induced by an air jet. The horseshoe vortex is generated by the leading edge of a symmetric profile. Such a configuration gives possibility to investigate the interaction of these two vortices alone. The presented analysis is based on numerical simulations by means of N-S compressible solver with a two-equation turbulence model.
Formation Flight: Upstream Influence of a Wing on a Streamwise Vortex
McKenna, Chris; Rockwell, Donald; Lehigh University Fluids Lab Team
2015-11-01
Aircraft flying together in formation can experience aerodynamic advantages. Impingement of the tip vortex of the leader wing on the trailer wing can increase the lift to drag ratio L/D and the unsteady loading on the trailer wing. These increases are sensitive to the impingement location of the vortex on the wing. Particle image velocimetry is employed to determine patterns of velocity and vorticity on successive crossflow planes along the vortex, which lead to volume representations and thereby characterization of the streamwise evolution of the vortex structure as it approaches the trailer wing. This evolution of the incident vortex is affected by the upstream influence of the trailer wing, and is highly dependent on the location of vortex impingement. As the spanwise impingement location of the vortex moves from outboard of the wing tip to inboard, the upstream influence on the development of the vortex increases. For spanwise locations close to or intersecting the vortex core, the effects of upstream influence of the wing on the vortex are to: increase the streamwise velocity deficit; decrease the streamwise vorticity; increase the in-plane vorticity; decrease the downwash; and increase the root-mean-square of both streamwise velocity and vorticity.
Lagrangian structures and mixing in the wake of a streamwise oscillating cylinder
Cagney, N.; Balabani, S.
2016-04-01
Lagrangian analysis is capable of revealing the underlying structure and complex phenomena in unsteady flows. We present particle-image velocimetry measurements of the wake of a cylinder undergoing streamwise vortex-induced vibrations and calculate the Finite-Time Lyapunov Exponents (FTLE) in backward- and forward-time. The FTLE fields are compared to the phase-averaged vorticity fields for the four different wake modes observed while the cylinder experiences streamwise vortex-induced vibrations. The backward-time FTLE fields characterise the formation of vortices, with the roll up of spiral-shaped ridges coinciding with the roll up of the shear layers to form the vortices. Ridges in the forward-time fields tend to lie perpendicular to the flow direction and separate nearby vortices. The shedding of vortices coincides with a "peel off" process in the forward-time FTLE fields, in which a ridge connected to the cylinder splits into two strips, one of which moves downstream. Particular attention is given to the "wake breathing" process, in which the streamwise motion of the cylinder causes both shear layers to roll up simultaneously and two vortices of opposite sign to be shed into the wake. In this case, the ridges in forward-time FTLE fields are shown to define "vortex cells," in which the new vortices form, and the FTLE fields allow the wake to be decomposed into three distinct regions. Finally, the mixing associated with each wake mode is examined, and it is shown that cross-wake mixing is significantly enhanced when the vibration amplitude is large and the vortices are shed alternately. However, while the symmetric shedding induces large amplitude vibrations, no increase in mixing is observed relative to the von Kármán vortex street observed behind near-stationary bodies.
Effects of streamwise vortex breakdown on supersonic combustion.
Hiejima, Toshihiko
2016-04-01
This paper presents a numerical simulation study of the combustion structure of streamwise vortex breakdown at Mach number 2.48. Hydrogen fuel is injected into a combustor at sonic speed from the rear of a hypermixer strut that can generate streamwise vortices. The results show that the burning behavior is enhanced at the points of the shock waves that are incident on the vortex and therefore the vortex breakdown in the subsonic region occurs due to combustion. The breakdown domain in the mainstream is found to form a flame-holding region suited to combustion and to lead to a stable combustion field with detached flames. In this way, streamwise vortex breakdown has an essential role in combustion enhancement and the formation of flames that hold under supersonic inflow conditions. Finally, the combustion property defined here is shown to coincide with the produced-water mass flow. This property shows that the amount of combustion is saturated at equivalence ratios over 0.4, although there is a slight increase beyond 1.
Control of Trapped Vorticity in an Offset Diffuser
Burrows, Travis J.; Vukasinovic, Bojan; Glezer, Ari
2015-11-01
Vorticity concentrations trapped within in a recessed section in the moldline of an offset diffuser are manipulated using fluidic actuation to alter the flow evolution within the diffuser. Trapped vorticity is engendered by deliberate local flow separation owing to the aggressive moldline curvature. The strength and scale of the trapped vortex and its interaction with the cross flow are controlled by a spanwise array of streamwise, surface-integrated fluidic actuators that are placed just upstream of the recessed moldline. The local and global characteristics of the diffuser flow in the absence and presence of the actuation are investigated at Mach numbers up to M = 0 . 7 , using static pressure distributions, hot-wire anemometry, and particle image velocimetry. It is shown that flow distortion as measured by cross sectional variations of the total pressure distribution within the diffuser can be significantly modified by manipulation of the trapped vorticity, and is reduced (by over 50%) with increasing momentum of the actuation jets. The mitigation of flow distortion by trapped vorticity actuation is associated with manipulation of the evolution of streamwise secondary vortices within the diffuser. Supported by ONR.
Influence of pressure gradient on streamwise skewness factor in turbulent boundary layer
Dróżdż, Artur
2014-08-01
The paper shows an effect of favourable and adverse pressure gradients on turbulent boundary layer. The skewness factor of streamwise velocity component was chosen as a measure of the pressure gradient impact. It appears that skewness factor is an indicator of convection velocity of coherent structures, which is not always equal to the average flow velocity. The analysis has been performed based upon velocity profiles measured with hot-wire technique in turbulent boundary layer with pressure gradient corresponding to turbomachinery conditions. The results show that the skewness factor decreases in the flow region subjected to FPG and increases in the APG conditions. The changes of convection velocity and skewness factor are caused by influence of large-scale motion through the mechanism called amplitude modulation. The large-scale motion is less active in FPG and more active in APG, therefore in FPG the production of vortices is random (there are no high and low speed regions), while in the APG the large-scale motion drives the production of vortices. Namely, the vortices appear only in the high-speed regions, therefore have convection velocity higher than local mean velocity. The convection velocity affects directly the turbulent sweep and ejection events. The more flow is dominated by large-scale motion the higher values takes both the convection velocity of small-scale structures and sweep events induced by them.
Aerodynamic Applications of Boundary Layer Control Using Embedded Streamwise Vortices
2003-07-01
presents results of calculated diameters dd of droplets depending on the correlation between the consumption of gas Qgp and liquid phases Qlp= 0.37 g/s as...dimensions can be made even less provided that volatile substances are used. Table 9.1.1 d2, mm 4.0 3.0 4.0 3.0 4.0 d1, mm 0.8 0.8 2.0 2.0 1.2 Qgp , g
Accurate measurement of streamwise vortices in low speed aerodynamic flows
Waldman, Rye M.; Kudo, Jun; Breuer, Kenneth S.
2010-11-01
Low Reynolds number experiments with flapping animals (such as bats and small birds) are of current interest in understanding biological flight mechanics, and due to their application to Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) which operate in a similar parameter space. Previous PIV wake measurements have described the structures left by bats and birds, and provided insight to the time history of their aerodynamic force generation; however, these studies have faced difficulty drawing quantitative conclusions due to significant experimental challenges associated with the highly three-dimensional and unsteady nature of the flows, and the low wake velocities associated with lifting bodies that only weigh a few grams. This requires the high-speed resolution of small flow features in a large field of view using limited laser energy and finite camera resolution. Cross-stream measurements are further complicated by the high out-of-plane flow which requires thick laser sheets and short interframe times. To quantify and address these challenges we present data from a model study on the wake behind a fixed wing at conditions comparable to those found in biological flight. We present a detailed analysis of the PIV wake measurements, discuss the criteria necessary for accurate measurements, and present a new dual-plane PIV configuration to resolve these issues.
Heat transfer enhancement using tip and junction vortices
Gentry, Mark Cecil
1998-10-01
Single-phase convective heat transfer can be enhanced by modifying the heat transfer surface to passively generate streamwise vortices. The swirling flow of the vortices modifies the temperature field, thinning the thermal boundary layer and increasing surface convection. Tip vortices generated by delta wings and junction vortices generated by hemispherical protuberances were studied in laminar flat-plate and developing channel flows. Local and average convective measurements were obtained, and the structure of the vortices was studied using quantitative flow visualization and vortex strength measurements. The pressure drop penalty associated with the heat transfer enhancement was also investigated. Tip vortices generated by delta wings enhanced local convection by as much as 300% over a flat-plate boundary layer flow. Vortex strength increased with Reynolds number based on chord length, wing aspect ratio, and wing angle of attack. As the vortices were advected downstream, they decayed because of viscous interactions. In the developing channel flow, tip vortices produced a significant local heat transfer enhancement on both sides of the channel. The largest spatially averaged heat transfer enhancement was 55%; it was accompanied by a 100% increase in the pressure drop relative to the same channel flow with no delta-wing vortex generator. Junction vortices created by hemispherical surface protuberances provided local heat transfer enhancements as large as 250%. Vortex strength increased with an increasing ratio of hemisphere radius to local boundary layer thickness on a flat plate. In the developing channel flows, heat transfer enhancements were observed on both sides of the channel. The largest spatially averaged heat transfer enhancement was 50%; it was accompanied by a 90% pressure drop penalty relative to the same channel flow with no hemispherical vortex generator. This research is important in compact heat exchanger design. Enhancing heat transfer can lead to
Numerical simulation of quasi-streamwise hairpin-like vortex generation in turbulent boundary layer
ZHANG Nan; LU Li-peng; DUAN Zhen-zhen; YUAN Xiang-jiang
2008-01-01
A mechanism for generation of near wall quasi-streamwise hairpin-like vortex (QHV) and secondary quasi-streamwise vortices (SQV) is presented. The conceptual model of resonant triad in the theory of hydrodynamic instability and direct numerical simulation of a turbulent boundary layer were applied to reveal the formation of QHV and SQV. The generation procedures and the characteristics of the vortex structures are obtained, which share some similarities with previous numerical simulations. The research using resonant triad conceptual model and numerical simulation provides a possibility for investigating and controling the vortex structures, which play a dominant role in the evolution of coherent structures in the near-wall region.
Formation Flight: Modes of Interaction of a Streamwise Vortex with a Wing
McKenna, Chris; Bross, Matthew; Rockwell, Donald
2014-11-01
Aircraft flying together in an echelon or V formation experience aerodynamic advantages. Impingement of the tip vortex of the leader (upstream) wing on the follower wing can yield an increase of lift to drag ratio. This enhancement is known to be sensitive to the location of vortex impingement on the follower wing. Particle image velocimetry is employed to determine patterns of velocity and vorticity in successive crossflow planes, which characterize the streamwise evolution of the vortex structure along the chord of the follower wing and into its wake. Different modes of vortex-follower wing interaction are created by varying the spanwise location of the leader wing. These modes are defined by differences in the development of, and interaction between, the incident tip vortex from the leader wing and the tip vortex along the follower wing. Modes of development/interaction of the tip vortices include bifurcation, attenuation, and mutual induction. The bifurcation and attenuation modes decrease the strength of the follower tip vortex. In contrast, the mutual induction mode increases the strength of the follower tip vortex.
Analysis of streamwise-oriented vortex interactions for two wings in close proximity
Barnes, Caleb J.; Visbal, Miguel R.; Gordnier, Raymond E.
2015-01-01
This investigation addresses the impingement of the trailing vortex provided by a leader-wing upon a follower-wing operating in close proximity. Exploration of the relative spacing between the two wings reveals several distinct flow regimes occur within a small range of lateral positions of the incident vortex. These changes effectively alter the evolution of the follower-wing wake via mutual induction between the incident and trailing vortices. Several unsteady mechanisms impact the general flow field in each regime. The incident vortex for an inboard impingement rapidly decays over the wing due to transition to turbulence. A tip-aligned vortex results in a highly unsteady interaction and generates enhanced surface pressure fluctuations beneath the tip vortex. Placing the incident vortex outboard elicits mutual instability between the leader and follower-wing trailing vortices. While lift-enhancement was found to be dominated by an inviscid increase in effective angle of attack, viscous effects in the near-tip region alter the local surface force distribution and influence the rolling moment coefficient. These flow variations which occur over a small range of lateral positions could generate buffeting loads in the presence of a wandering streamwise vortex.
Wu, Jie-Zhi; Zhou, Ming-De
2015-01-01
This book is a comprehensive and intensive book for graduate students in fluid dynamics as well as scientists, engineers and applied mathematicians. Offering a systematic introduction to the physical theory of vortical flows at graduate level, it considers the theory of vortical flows as a branch of fluid dynamics focusing on shearing process in fluid motion, measured by vorticity. It studies vortical flows according to their natural evolution stages,from being generated to dissipated. As preparation, the first three chapters of the book provide background knowledge for entering vortical flows. The rest of the book deals with vortices and vortical flows, following their natural evolution stages. Of various vortices the primary form is layer-like vortices or shear layers, and secondary but stronger form is axial vortices mainly formed by the rolling up of shear layers. Problems are given at the end of each chapter and Appendix, some for helping understanding the basic theories, and some involving specific ap...
Laminar streak enhancement using streamwise grooves
Martel, Carlos; Martín, Juan Ángel
2011-11-01
Laminar streak promotion in a flat plate boundary layer results in an increase of the stability of the Tollmien-Schlichting waves with respect to that of the 2D Blasius profile. This stabilization delays the laminar-turbulent transition, increasing the laminar phase of the flow. The stabilization effect is stronger for higher streak amplitudes, and therefore simple ways of generating high amplitude stable streaks are sought to be used as boundary layer flow control methods. In a recent experiment [Tallamelli & Franson,AIAA 2010-4291] high amplitude stable steady streaks have been produced using Miniature Vortex Generators (MGVs), where one array of MGVs is used to excite the streak and a second array is used downstream to enhance their amplitude. In this presentation we numerically explore the possibility of enhancing the streaks using a different passive mechanism: streamwise grooves carved in the plate. We will present some numerical simulations for different values of the spanwise period of the streaks and of the grooves, and we will show the combinations that provide maximum streak amplitude.
Vortical structures responsible for delayed stall in an idealized humpback whale flipper model
Kim, Heesu; Kim, Jooha; Choi, Haecheon
2016-11-01
In this study, we investigate how the tubercles on the leading edge of an idealized humpback whale flipper model delay the stall. Oil-surface visualization is performed to see the surface flow pattern on the suction surface, and PIV is conducted in several streamwise and crossflow planes at different attack angles (α). Without tubercles, leading edge separation first occurs near the tip region and progresses inboard with increasing α. With tubercles, however, two types of vortical motions are observed at the mid-span. The first is streamwise vortex arrays which are dominant at α 9° , and these structures appear near the trailing edge. These two types of vortical motions delay flow separation at the peak regions of the mid-span, eliminating the spanwise stall progression and resulting in delayed stall. At α = 16° at which the tubercle model stalls, a large-scale streamwise vortex is originated from flow separation near the root region. This structure delays flow separation at the mid-span, leading to higher lift coefficient. Supported by NRF-2014M3C1B1033848.
Steady streamwise transpiration control in turbulent pipe flow
Gómez, F; Rudman, M; Sharma, AS; McKeon, BJ
2016-01-01
A study of the the main features of low- and high amplitude steady streamwise wall transpiration applied to pipe flow is presented. The effect of the two transpiration parameters, amplitude and wavenumber, on the flow have been investigated by means of direct numerical simulation at a moderate turbulent Reynolds number. The behaviour of the three identified mechanisms that act in the flow: modification of Reynolds shear stress, steady streaming and generation of non-zero mean streamwise gradients, have been linked to the transpiration parameters. The observed trends have permitted the identification of wall transpiration configurations able to reduce or increase the overall flow rate in -36.1% and 19.3% respectively. A resolvent analysis has been carried out to obtain a description of the reorganization of the flow structures induced by the transpiration.
POD of vorticity fields: A method for spatial characterization of coherent structures
Gurka, Roi [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London (Canada)]. E-mail: rgurka@eng.uwo.ca; Liberzon, Alexander [Institute of Environmental Engineering, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)]. E-mail: liberzon@ihw.baug.ethz.ch; Hetsroni, Gad [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel)]. E-mail: hetsroni@tx.technion.ac.il
2006-06-15
We present a method to identify large scale coherent structures, in turbulent flows, and characterize them. The method is based on the linear combination of the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) modes of vorticity. Spanwise vorticity is derived from the two-dimensional and two-component velocity fields measured by means of particle image velocimetry (PIV) in the streamwise-wall normal plane of a fully developed turbulent boundary layer in a flume. The identification method makes use of the whole data set simultaneously, through the two-point correlation tensor, providing a statistical description of the dominant coherent motions in a turbulent boundary layer. The identified pattern resembles an elongated, quasi-streamwise, vortical structure with streamwise length equal to the water height in the flume and inclined upwards in the streamwise-wall normal plane at angle of approximately 8{sup o}.
Diamessis, Peter J.; Gurka, Roi; Liberzon, Alex
2010-08-01
Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) has been applied to two-dimensional transects of vorticity obtained from numerical simulations of the stratified turbulent wake of a towed sphere at a Reynolds number Re=(UD)/ν =5×103 and Froude number Fr=2U/(ND)=4 (U and D are characteristic velocity and length scales and N is the stratification frequency). At 231 times during the interval 12
Generation and Growth of Single Hairpin Vortices
Haji-Haidari, Ahmad
The behavior of selectively generated single hairpin vortices are examined within a laminar boundary layer environment over a range of Reynolds numbers, the hairpin vortices are experimentally generated by means of controlled fluid injection from a streamwise slot. Flow visualization using both dye and hydrogen bubble wire is employed in conjunction with hot film anemometry to investigate the growth characteristics and evolution of these single hairpin vortices. Qualitatively, it is established that hairpin vortices form by local destabilization at the interface between the low-speed fluid introduced through the slot and the higher speed boundary layer flow. Kinematical considerations of the hairpin vortex are established. It is observed that a hairpin vortex generally displays visualization and velocity signatures characteristic of those observed for a turbulent boundary layer. Hydrogen-bubble wire visualization results specifically indicate that hairpin vortices generate two purely turbulent-like flow patterns. The first is a low-speed streak pattern developing immediately adjacent to the surface due to surface interaction by the counter -rotating legs of the hairpin vortex; the second pattern is a turbulent pocket-like pattern farther removed from the surface. It is determined from the visualization data that hairpin vortices manifest the necessary flow characteristics which give rise to the regenerative and sustained process required for maintenance of turbulence. The regeneration and the growth process takes place through the formation of similar hairpin-like vortices by one of two means. The first is an inviscid lateral propagation of the initial disturbance which gives rise to outboard (subsidiary), vortices which cause the lateral spreading of the structure. A more complicated and eruptive process occurs by means of viscous-inviscid interactions which give rise to trailing vortices (secondary), which cause the streamwise elongation of the disturbance. A
Moro, Antonio, E-mail: a.moro@lboro.ac.u [School of Mathematics, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)
2009-08-17
Vortices are screw phase dislocations associated with helicoidal wave-fronts. In nonlinear optics, vortices arise as singular solutions to the phase-intensity equations of geometric optics. They exist for a general class of nonlinear response functions. In this sense, vortices possess a universal character. Analysis of geometric optics equations on the hodograph plane leads to deformed vortex type solutions that are sensitive to the form of the nonlinearity. The case of a Kerr type nonlinear response is discussed as a specific example.
Lee, Jeong Min; Moon, Joo Hyun; Park, Jae Yong; Kim, Dae Yun; Lee, Seong Hyuk [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2015-02-15
This study numerically investigated the influence of spanwise pressure gradient on heat transfer of a 3D turbulent boundary layer with longitudinal vortices. A 30° bend in the passage provided the spanwise pressure gradient. The longitudinal pair vortices were generated using a pair of delta winglets. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes and energy equations based on the conventional Reynolds stress model were used. The predictions agreed well with the experimental data for the straight plate. The turbulent boundary layer was significantly perturbed with the longitudinal vortices. The spanwise pressure gradient contributed to faster degradation of the longitudinal vortices and widened the perturbed flow region. The local Stanton number distributions were asymmetric because of the difference in the evolution of the longitudinal vortices in the curved region. Moreover, comparison showed that the local Stanton number in the downstream of the straight channel increased near the surface because of the secondary re-circulating vortex. The thickness of the thermal boundary layers increased in the streamwise direction because of the significant flow mixing and heat transfer.
Dritselis, Chris D, E-mail: dritseli@mie.uth.gr [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Thessaly, Pedion Areos, 38334 Volos (Greece)
2016-02-15
The budgets of the Reynolds stress and streamwise enstrophy are evaluated through direct numerical simulations for the turbulent particle-laden flow in a vertical channel with momentum exchange between the two phases. The influence of the dispersed particles on the budgets is examined through a comparison of the particle-free and the particle-laden cases at the same Reynolds number of Re{sub b} = 5600 based on the bulk fluid velocity and the distance between the channel walls. Results are obtained for particle ensembles with four response times in simulations with and without streamwise gravity and inter-particle collisions at average mass (volume) fractions of 0.2 (2.7 × 10{sup −5}) and 0.5 (6.8 × 10{sup −5}). The particle feedback force on the flow of the carrier phase is modeled by a point-force approximation (PSIC-method). It is shown that all the terms in the budgets of the Reynolds stress components are decreased in the presence of particles. The level of reduction depends on the particle response time and it is higher under the effects of gravity and inter-particle collisions. A considerable reduction in all the terms of the streamwise enstrophy budget is also observed. In particular, all production mechanisms, and mainly vortex stretching, are inhibited in the particulate flows and thus the production of streamwise vorticity is significantly damped. A further insight into the direct particle effects on the fluid turbulence is provided by analyzing in detail the fluid–fluid, fluid–particle and particle–particle correlations, and the spectra of the fluid–particle energy exchange rate. The present results indicate that the turbulence production, dissipation and pressure–strain term are generally large quantities, but their summation is relatively small and comparable to the fluid–particle direct energy exchange rate. Consequently, the particle contribution can potentially increase or decrease the fluctuating fluid velocities and eventually
Formation and characterization of the vortices generated by a DBD plasma actuator in burst mode
Mishra, Bal Krishan; Panigrahi, P. K.
2017-02-01
The present study reports the formation and evolution characteristics of the continuously generated vortical structure and resulting flow field in quiescent air induced by a dielectric-barrier-discharge (DBD) plasma actuator in burst mode operation. A starting vortex is formed during the initial actuation period, which disappears after a small time interval for continuous mode operation of the DBD plasma actuator. A burst input signal to the actuator generates a train of self-similar vortices. The behaviour of vortices and the average flow field induced by the actuator has been studied using high speed schlieren visualization and particle image velocimetry technique for different actuation amplitude and duty cycle parameters. These repeating vortices travel faster than the starting vortex, and the vortex core velocity of these repeating vortices increases with increase in duty cycle parameter. Fuller u-velocity profile, higher v-velocity near the edge of the outer shear layer region, and higher growth of the wall jet thickness is observed due to enhanced entrainment by repeating vortices for burst mode operation. The repeating vortices travel at an angle of 21° relative to the wall surface for duty cycle parameter of 90.9% in comparison to 31° for the starting vortex. Self-similarity of the velocity profile is delayed in the streamwise direction for burst mode operation in comparison to that for the continuous mode of operation. This can be attributed to delay in attaining the maximum velocity of the wall jet profile and presence of coherent structures for the burst mode operation. The non-dimensional vortex core location and size for repeating vortices follow power law fit similar to the starting vortex with difference in value of the power law exponent. The phase difference between the input voltage and current drawn is in the range of π/12 to π/9 (in radians) for both continuous and burst mode operation indicating identical electrical behaviour of the
Features of wavy vortices in a curved channel from experimental and numerical studies
Ligrani, P. M.; Finlay, W. H.; Fields, W. A.; Fuqua, S. J.; Subramanian, C. S.
1992-01-01
Results are reported from an experimental study obtaining evidence of time-dependent, wavy vortex motions associated with undulating and twisting Dean vortices in a curved channel with 40-to-1 aspect ratio, and mild curvature (radius ratio = 0.979). The results are compared with direct numerical simulations of time-dependent 3D Navier-Stokes equations using boundary conditions in the spanwise and streamwise directions. When viewed in cross section, experimental visualizations of undulating and twisting vortex flows show rocking motion and changes in the direction of the flow between vortices that are like those observed in the simulations. Experimental spectra show that undulating vortices are replaced by the higher-frequency, shorter streamwise wavelength twisting vortices at higher Reynolds numbers. When undulating vortices are present, experimental power spectra and visualizations give frequencies that are somewhat lower than the most unstable frequencies predicted by linear stability analysis.
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYER CHARACTERISTICS OVER STREAMWISE RIBLETS
ZHAO Zhi-yong; DONG Shou-ping; DU Ya-nan
2004-01-01
Measurements of characteristics by means of a two-component Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) were carried out in turbulent boundary layers over both a symmetric V-shaped ribbed plate and a smooth one in a low speed wind tunnel. The present results clearly indicate that the logarithmic velocity profile over the riblets surface is shifted upward with a 30.9% increase in the thickness of the viscous sublayer. Also a change in the log-law region is found. And the maximum value of streamwise velocity fluctuations is reduced by approximately 17%. The skewness and flatness factors do not show any change besides those in the region of y+＜0.6. It is evident that the Reynolds shear stress over the riblets is reduced. Further more, in log-law region, the Reynolds shear stress has a larger reduction of up to 18%.
Controlled Flow Distortion in an Offset Diffuser using Hybrid Trapped Vorticity
Burrows, T. J.; Vukasinovic, B.; Glezer, A.
2016-11-01
Trapped vorticity concentration engendered by deliberate modification of the internal surface of an offset diffuser is coupled with a spanwise array of surface-integrated fluidic-oscillating jets for hybrid flow control of streamwise vorticity concentrations that dominate the base flow and give rise to flow distortions at the engine inlet. The local and global characteristics of the diffuser flow in the absence and presence of the actuation are investigated at Mach numbers up to M = 0.7, using surface oil-flow visualization and pressure distributions, and particle image velocimetry. It is shown that two sources of streamwise vorticity dominate the base flow distortion, namely, corner and a central pair of counter-rotating vortices. The present investigations demonstrate that the actuation affects the topology, strength and scale of the trapped vorticity and thereby its coupling to and interaction with the counter rotating streamwise vortices, where the central vortex pair becomes fully suppressed. As a result, the actuation significantly alters the evolution of the flow within the diffuser, and leads to significant suppression of pressure distortion at the engine inlet (by about 80%) at actuation level that is less than 0.7% of the diffuser's mass flow rate. These findings indicate the utility of hybrid trapped vorticity actuation for mitigating adverse effects of secondary vorticity concentrations formed by local separation and corner flows. Supported by ONR.
Flow interaction between a streamwise oscillating cylinder and a downstream stationary cylinder
Xu, S. J.; Gan, L.; Zhou, Y.
2016-11-01
In this paper, we present some experimental results about the physical effects of a cylinder's streamwise oscillation motion on a downstream one in a tandem arrangement. The upstream cylinder undergoes a controlled simple harmonic oscillation at amplitudes A/ d = 0.2-0.8, where d is the cylinder diameter, and the frequency ratio of f_e/f_s = 0-3.0, where f_e is the cylinder oscillation frequency and f_s is the natural frequency of vortex shedding from a single stationary cylinder. Under these conditions, the vortex shedding is locked to the controlled oscillation motion. Flow visualisation using the planar laser-induced fluorescence and qualitative measurements using hot-wire anemometry reveal three distinct flow regimes behind the downstream cylinder. For f_e/f_s > (f_e/f_s)_c, where (f_e/f_s)_c is a critical frequency ratio which depends on A/ d and Reynolds number Re, a so-called SA-mode occurs. The upstream oscillating cylinder generates binary vortices symmetrically arranged about the centreline, each containing a pair of counter-rotating vortices, and the downstream cylinder sheds vortices alternately at 0.5f_e. For 0.7-1.0 < f_e/f_s < (f_e/f_s)_c a complex vortex street that consists of two outer rows of vortices generated by the oscillating cylinder and two inner rows of vortices shed from the downstream stationary cylinder, which is referred to as AA-mode. For 0.3-0.6 < f_e/f_s< 0.8-1.0, one single staggered vortex street (A-mode) is observed. It is also found that, when f_e/f_s is near unity, the streamwise interaction of the two cylinders gives rise to the most energetic wake in the cross-stream direction, in terms of its maximum width, and the wake is AA-mode-like. The effects of other parameters such as the spacing between the two cylinders, Re and A/ d on the flow pattern are also discussed in details. The observations are further compared to the stationary tandem cylinder cases.
Bazeia, D; Marques, M A; Menezes, R; Zafalan, I
2016-01-01
We study a family of Maxwell-Higgs models, described by the inclusion of a function of the scalar field that represent generalized magnetic permeability. We search for vortex configurations which obey first-order differential equations that solve the equations of motion. We first deal with the asymptotic behavior of the field configurations, and then implement a numerical study of the solutions, the energy density and the magnetic field. We work with the generalized permeability having distinct profiles, giving rise to new models, and we investigate how the vortices behave, compared with the solutions of the corresponding standard models. In particular, we show how to build compact vortices, that is, vortex solutions with the energy density and magnetic field vanishing outside a compact region of the plane.
Bazeia, D.; Losano, L.; Marques, M.A.; Zafalan, I. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Menezes, R. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Ciencias Exatas, Rio Tinto, PB (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Departamento de Fisica, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)
2017-02-15
We study a family of Maxwell-Higgs models, described by the inclusion of a function of the scalar field that represent generalized magnetic permeability. We search for vortex configurations which obey first-order differential equations that solve the equations of motion. We first deal with the asymptotic behavior of the field configurations, and then implement a numerical study of the solutions, the energy density and the magnetic field. We work with the generalized permeability having distinct profiles, giving rise to new models, and we investigate how the vortices behave, compared with the solutions of the corresponding standard models. In particular, we show how to build compact vortices, that is, vortex solutions with the energy density and magnetic field vanishing outside a compact region of the plane. (orig.)
A streamwise constant model of turbulence in plane Couette flow
Gayme, D. F.; McKeon, B. J.; Papachristodoulou, A.; Bamieh, B; Doyle, J. C.
2010-01-01
Streamwise and quasi-streamwise elongated structures have been shown to play a significant role in turbulent shear flows. We model the mean behaviour of fully turbulent plane Couette flow using a streamwise constant projection of the Navier–Stokes equations. This results in a two-dimensional three-velocity-component (2D/3C) model. We first use a steady-state version of the model to demonstrate that its nonlinear coupling provides the mathematical mechanism that shapes the turbulent velocity p...
Footprints of funnel vortices in a turbulent boundary layer
Gurka, Roi; Liberzon, Alex; Hetsroni, Gad
2003-11-01
The topology of large scale funnel structures in a turbulent boundary layer in a flume is investigated experimentally. The large scale structure is reconstructed from the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) eigenmodes, calculated from the two-dimensional projections of the fluctuated vorticity field realizations. The instantaneous two-dimensional velocity field realizations are obtained using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique. The dominant funnel structure appears to have a longitudinal streamwise orientation, an inclination angle of 8 degrees, streamwise length of 1000 wall units, and a distance between the neighboring structures of about 100 wall units in the spanwise direction. The spatial characteristics of the funnel structure, measured in the streamwise - wall normal plane of the flume, has been found to be independent of the Reynolds number. The identification technique is based on all the data set and provide a statistical descrition of the structure footprint.
On the vorticity characteristics of lobe-forced mixer at different configurations
mao, R.; Yu, S.C.M.; Zhou, T.; Chua, L.P.
2009-01-01
Lobe-forced mixer is one typical example of the passive flow controllers owing to its corrugated trailing edge. Besides the spanwise Kelvin–Helmholtz vortex shedding, streamwise vortices are also generated within its mixing layer. The geometrical configuration of the lobe significantly affects these
Vorticity dynamics in an intracranial aneurysm
Le, Trung; Borazjani, Iman; Sotiropoulos, Fotis
2008-11-01
Direct Numerical Simulation is carried out to investigate the vortex dynamics of physiologic pulsatile flow in an intracranial aneurysm. The numerical solver is based on the CURVIB (curvilinear grid/immersed boundary method) approach developed by Ge and Sotiropoulos, J. Comp. Physics, 225 (2007) and is applied to simulate the blood flow in a grid with 8 million grid nodes. The aneurysm geometry is extracted from MRI images from common carotid artery (CCA) of a rabbit (courtesy Dr.Kallmes, Mayo Clinic). The simulation reveals the formation of a strong vortex ring at the proximal end during accelerated flow phase. The vortical structure advances toward the aneurysm dome forming a distinct inclined circular ring that connects with the proximal wall via two long streamwise vortical structures. During the reverse flow phase, the back flow results to the formation of another ring at the distal end that advances in the opposite direction toward the proximal end and interacts with the vortical structures that were created during the accelerated phase. The basic vortex formation mechanism is similar to that observed by Webster and Longmire (1998) for pulsed flow through inclined nozzles. The similarities between the two flows will be discussed and the vorticity dynamics of an aneurysm and inclined nozzle flows will be analyzed.This work was supported in part by the University of Minnesota Supercomputing Institute.
Formation mechanism of hairpin vortices in the wake of a truncated square cylinder in a duct
Dousset, Vincent
2010-01-01
We investigate the laminar shedding of hairpin vortices in the wake of a truncated square cylinder placed in a duct, for Reynolds numbers around the critical threshold of the onset of vortex shedding. We single out the formation mechanism of the hairpin vortices by means of a detailed analysis of the flow patterns in the steady regime. We show that unlike in previous studies of similar structures, the dynamics of the hairpin vortices is entwined with that of the counter-rotating pair of streamwise vortices, which we found to be generated in the bottom part of the near wake (these are usually referred to as base vortices). In particular, once the hairpin structure is released, the base vortices attach to it, forming its legs, so these are streamwise, and not spanwise as previously observed in unconfined wakes or behind cylinders of lower aspect ratios. We also single out a trail of Omega-shaped vortices, generated between successive hairpin vortices through a mechanism that is analogous to that active in near-...
A Streamwise Constant Model of Turbulence in Plane Couette Flow
Gayme, D F; Papachristodoulou, A; Bamieh, B; Doyle, J C
2010-01-01
There is a consensus that turbulent flow is characterized by coherent structures. In particular, streamwise and quasi-streamwise elongated structures have been observed in both numerical simulations and experiments. Using this idea the mean behavior of fully turbulent plane Couette flow is modeled using a streamwise constant projection of the Navier Stokes equations. This assumption results in a two dimensional, three velocity component (2D/3C) model. We first use a steady state version of this 2D/3C model to demonstrate that the nonlinear coupling in the equations provides the mathematical mechanisms associated with the shape of the turbulent velocity profile. In simulating the full model we borrow some ideas from robust control and represent uncertainty as well as modeling errors using small amplitude noise forcing. Simulations of the 2D/3C model under small amplitude Gaussian forcing of the cross stream components is compared to DNS data. The results indicate that a streamwise constant projection of the Na...
Defining Coherent Vortices Objectively from the Vorticity
Haller, George; Farazmand, Mohammad; Huhn, Florian
2015-01-01
Rotationally coherent Lagrangian vortices are formed by tubes of deforming fluid elements that complete equal bulk material rotation relative to the mean rotation of the deforming fluid volume. We show that initial positions of such tubes coincide with tubular level surfaces of the Lagrangian-Averaged Vorticity Deviation (LAVD), the trajectory integral of the normed difference of the vorticity from its spatial mean. LAVD-based vortices are objective, i.e., remain unchanged under time-dependent rotations and translations of the coordinate frame. In the limit of vanishing Rossby numbers in geostrophic flows, cyclonic LAVD vortex centers are precisely the observed attractors for light particles. A similar result holds for heavy particles in anticyclonic LAVD vortices. We also establish a relationship between rotationally coherent Lagrangian vortices and their instantaneous Eulerian counterparts. The latter are formed by tubular surfaces of equal material rotation rate, objectively measured by the Instantaneous V...
Measurements of leading edge vortices in a supersonic stream
Milanovic, Ivana Milija
Pitot, total and static pressure deficits in the vortex core. The magnitude of these deficits increase with increasing angle of attack for the same measurement plane and decrease with downstream distance from the model. Pressure deficits in the same survey station also grow spatially with the higher incidence angle. Very large swirl Mach numbers, at times reaching low supersonic values, were recorded and their distribution resembles that of the classical low speed Lamb-Oseen vortex. At the core edges, the presence of substantial radial flow directed towards the vortex center indicates the entrainment of the surrounding fluid. A decrease in the radial Mach number component confirms the change in vortex trajectory from a strong downward flow over the planform to a gradual return towards the free stream in the near-wake. The axial profiles follow the general trend exhibited in the total Mach number distribution thereby confirming the dominance of the streamwise flow. The axial Mach number profiles also demonstrated that the initially conical convection over the wing does not proceed in the wake as a uniform translation of the profiles found at the trailing edge. Most remarkably, contrary to its transonic and low speed counterparts, the axial Mach number profiles exhibit a strong wake-like behavior. Consistent with the shadowgraphs and other existing flow visualizations, measurements illustrated vortex shape adjustment in the near-wake. In the absence of the constraint from the wing surface, the primary vortices stretch in the vertical direction while convecting downstream where a more round shape is ultimately developed.
Instabilities of coherent vortices in a free shear layer
Couet, B.
The LARGE-SCALE structures observed in a shear layer can be described by a family of well-defined vortices. A Lagrangian vortex method is most appropriate to study the behavior of these vortices, provided an accurate initial representation can be obtained for the simulation. Using the vortex-in-cell method, a full three-dimensional numerical simulation of the steady-state vortices discovered by Stuart is presented here. The subharmonic pairing instability is examined both in its two-dimensional (vortex pairing) and its three-dimensional form (helical pairing) and the growth rates are compared with the stability results of Pierrehumbert and Widnall. Three-dimensionality is also generated in this flow by means of the broadband translative instability identified experimentally as the streamwise streak structure. Growth rates for the translative modes are also compared with the stability analysis.
Traveling hairpin-shaped fluid vortices in plane Couette flow.
Deguchi, K; Nagata, M
2010-11-01
Traveling-wave solutions are discovered in plane Couette flow. They are obtained when the so-called steady hairpin vortex state found recently by Gibson [J. Fluid Mech. 638, 243 (2009)] and Itano and Generalis [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 114501 (2009)] is continued to sliding Couette flow geometry between two concentric cylinders by using the radius ratio as a homotopy parameter. It turns out that in the plane Couette flow geometry two traveling waves having the phase velocities with opposite signs are associated with their appearance from the steady hairpin vortex state, where the amplitude of the phase velocities increases gradually from zero as the Reynolds number is increased. The solutions obviously inherit the streaky structure of the hairpin vortex state, but shape preserving flow patterns propagate in the streamwise direction. Other striking features of the solution are asymmetric mean flow profiles and strong quasistreamwise vortices which occupy the vicinity of only the top or bottom moving boundary, depending on the sign of the phase velocity. Furthermore, we find that the pitchfork bifurcation associated with the appearance of the solution becomes imperfect when the flow is perturbed by a Poiseuille flow component.
The near wake structure and the development of vorticity behind a model horizontal axis wind turbine
Ebert, P.; Wood, D. [The Univ. of Newcastle, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Callaghan (Australia)
1997-08-01
The wake of a two bladed model HAWT operating at zero yaw angle and in a steady flow in a wind tunnel was measured using hot wire probes. By phase locked averaging and moving the probe axially and radially the full three dimensional mean flow file was determined. All measurements were within two chord lengths of the blades and at tip speed ratios giving high turbine power output, a condition approaching runaway, and a stalled condition. For all tip speed ratios the wakes were significantly three dimensional. Large velocity variations were associated with vortex structures in the wakes, and irrotational fluctuations caused by the blade bound circulation. The vorticity clearly defined the hub and tip vortices that traced helical paths downstream, with the constant tip vortex pitch inversely proportional to tip speed ratio. Close to the blades the flow was complicated, though vortex roll-up was completed within one chord length. Considerable changes in wake structure occurred with tip speed ratio. At high power output the wake showed tip and hub vortices connected by a diffuse vortex sheet of mostly radial vorticity from the blade boundary layers; blade bound circulation was almost constant. The structure approaching runaway was similar though the hub vortex was not well defined and formed a vortex sheet around the hub which lifted away and diffused. The stalled condition was more complicated, with evidence of incomplete tip and hub vortex formation. The stream-wise velocity of the tip vortex core decreased with increasing tip speed ratio, but this was never aligned with local streamlines. The core of the tip vortex was not circular but more elliptical. A phase locked averaged angular momentum analysis was undertaken, the extra terms introduced through phase locked averaging were small. (Abstract Truncated)
Ostanek, Jason K.; Thole, Karen A.
2012-12-01
While flow across long tube bundles is considered classical data, pin-fin arrays made up of short tubes have become a growing topic of interest for use in cooling gas turbine airfoils. Data from the literature indicate that decreasing streamwise spacing increases heat transfer in pin-fin arrays; however, the specific mechanism that causes increased heat transfer coefficients remains unknown. The present work makes use of time-resolved PIV to quantify the effects of streamwise spacing on the turbulent near wake throughout various pin-fin array spacings. Specifically, proper orthogonal decomposition was used to separate the (quasi-) periodic motion from vortex shedding and the random motion from turbulent eddies. Reynolds number flow conditions of 3.0 × 103 and 2.0 × 104, based on pin-fin diameter and velocity at the minimum flow area, were considered. Streamwise spacing was varied from 3.46 pin diameters to 1.73 pin diameters while the pin-fin height-to-diameter ratio was unity and the spanwise spacing was held constant at two diameters. Results indicated that (quasi-) periodic motions were attenuated at closer streamwise spacings while the level of random motions was not strongly dependent on pin-fin spacing. This trend was observed at both Reynolds number conditions considered. Because closer spacings exhibit higher heat transfer levels, the present results imply that periodic motions may not contribute to heat transfer, although further experimentation is required.
Performance of a transverse vorticity probe in a turbulent channel flow
Zhou, T.; Antonia, R.A.; Zhu, Y. [Newcastle upon Tyne Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Orlandi, P. [Dipartimento di Meccanica e Aeronautica, Universita Degli Studi di Roma ``La Sapienza``, I-00184 Rome (Italy); Esposito, P. [INSEAN - Istituto Nazionale per Studi ed Esperienze di Architettura Navale, Via di Vallerano 139, I-00128 Rome (Italy)
1998-05-01
The performance of a four hot-wire transverse vorticity probe is tested by comparing measurements in a fully developed turbulent channel flow with corresponding data obtained from direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the same flow. In the inner region, the probe performs poorly, the rms vorticities being consistently smaller than the DNS values. In the outer region of the flow, there is reasonable agreement between measured and DNS vorticity statistics, especially after correcting the measurements for the effect of spatial resolution. In this region, the imbalance indicated by the vorticity form of the streamwise momentum equation is approximately constant. The magnitude of the imbalance can be reduced to an acceptable level of accuracy by considering sources of error which affect the velocity-vorticity correlations. (orig.) With 11 figs., 30 refs.
Eto, Minoru; Gudnason, Sven Bjarke; Konishi, Kenichi; Nagashima, Takayuki; Nitta, Muneto; Ohashi, Keisuke; Vinci, Walter
2009-01-01
We study what might be called fractional vortices, vortex configurations with the minimum winding from the viewpoint of their topological stability, but which are characterized by various notable substructures in the transverse energy distribution. The fractional vortices occur in diverse Abelian or non-Abelian generalizations of the Higgs model. The global and local features characterizing these are studied, and we identify the two crucial ingredients for their occurrence - the vacuum degeneracy leading to non-trivial vacuum moduli M, and the BPS nature of the vortices. Fractional vortices are further classified into two kinds. The first type of such vortices appear when M has orbifold Z_n singularities; the second type occurs in systems in which the vacuum moduli space M possesses either a deformed geometry or some singularity. These general features are illustrated with several concrete models.
Streamwise decay of localized states in channel flow
Zammert, Stefan
2016-01-01
Channel flow, the pressure driven flow between parallel plates, has exact coherent structures that show various degrees of localization. For states which are localized in streamwise direction but extended in spanwise direction, we show that they are exponentially localized, with decay constants that are different on the upstream and downstream side. We extend the analysis of Brand and Gibson, J. Fluid Mech. 750, R1 (2014), for stationary states to the case of advected structures that is needed here, and derive expressions for the decay in terms of eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of certain second order differential equations. The results are in very good agreement with observations on exact coherent structures of different transversal wave length.
Spatial characterization of the numerically simulated vorticity fields of a flow in a flume
Liberzon, Alex; Gurka, Roi; Hetsroni, Gad [Technion - IIT, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Haifa (Israel); Tiselj, Iztok [Jozef Stefan Institute, Reactor Engineering Division, Ljubljana (Slovenia)
2005-05-01
The topology of large scale structures in a turbulent boundary layer is investigated numerically. Spatial characteristics of the large scale structure are presented through an original method, proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) of the three-dimensional vorticity fields. The DNS results, obtained by Tiselj et al. [23] for a fully developed turbulent flow in a flume, are used in the present work to analyze coherent structures with the proposed methodology. In contrast to the reconstruction methods that use instantaneous flow quantities, this approach utilizes the whole dataset of the numerical simulation. The analysis uses one thousand 3D vorticity fields from 50000 time steps of the simulation for the Reynolds number of 2600 (the turbulent Reynolds number Re{sup *}=171). The computational domain is 2146 x 171 x 537 wall units and the grid resolution is 128 x 65 x 72 points (in streamwise, wall-normal and spanwise directions, respectively). Experimental results obtained by using particle image velocimetry (PIV) in a fully developed turbulent boundary layer in a flume, which were analyzed with the same statistical characterization method, are in agreement with the DNS analysis: the dominant vortical structure appears to have a longitudinal streamwise orientation, an inclination angle of about 8 , streamwise length of several hundred wall units, and a distance between the neighboring structures of about 100 wall units in the spanwise direction. (orig.)
Spatial characterization of the numerically simulated vorticity fields of a flow in a flume
Liberzon, Alex; Gurka, Roi; Tiselj, Iztok; Hetsroni, Gad
2005-05-01
The topology of large scale structures in a turbulent boundary layer is investigated numerically. Spatial characteristics of the large scale structure are presented through an original method, proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) of the three-dimensional vorticity fields. The DNS results, obtained by Tiselj et al. [23] for a fully developed turbulent flow in a flume, are used in the present work to analyze coherent structures with the proposed methodology. In contrast to the reconstruction methods that use instantaneous flow quantities, this approach utilizes the whole dataset of the numerical simulation. The analysis uses one thousand 3D vorticity fields from 50000 time steps of the simulation for the Reynolds number of 2600 (the turbulent Reynolds number Re*=171). The computational domain is 2146×171×537 wall units and the grid resolution is 128×65×72 points (in streamwise, wall-normal and spanwise directions, respectively). Experimental results obtained by using particle image velocimetry (PIV) in a fully developed turbulent boundary layer in a flume, which were analyzed with the same statistical characterization method, are in agreement with the DNS analysis: the dominant vortical structure appears to have a longitudinal streamwise orientation, an inclination angle of about 8°, streamwise length of several hundred wall units, and a distance between the neighboring structures of about 100 wall units in the spanwise direction.
Vortices as degenerate metrics
Baptista, J M
2012-01-01
We note that the Bogomolny equation for abelian vortices is precisely the condition for invariance of the Hermitian-Einstein equation under a degenerate conformal transformation. This leads to a natural interpretation of vortices as degenerate hermitian metrics that satisfy a certain curvature equation. Using this viewpoint, we rephrase standard results about vortices and make some new observations. We note the existence of a conceptually simple, non-linear rule for superposing vortex solutions, and we describe the natural behaviour of the L^2-metric on the moduli space upon certain restrictions.
Vortices and Vortical Structures in Internal Aerodynamics
RudolfDvorak
1997-01-01
The paper aims at summarizing the author's recent phenomenological study of the origin,development and identification of vortical structures in internal aerodynamics.A connection between evolution of these structures and flow separation in closed curved channels is also discussed.It has been shown that in real fluids the individual vortex cores very sonn lose their identity and merge into a new dissipative structure,the properties of which still have to be defined.
Instability of isolated hollow vortices with zero circulation
Hiejima, Toshihiko
2016-04-01
Inviscid linear stability analysis and numerical simulations are used to investigate how temporal disturbances evolve in double-annular hollow vortices with an opposite-signed vorticity (the total circulation is zero). Two extrema exist in the vorticity profile and constitute a factor of instability. The dispersion relation is expressed as a simple cubic equation. The results show that the instabilities of vortices are strongly enhanced by the hollow effect of the annular vorticity. In addition, the growth rate of the dominant modes significantly increases with decreasing negative-vorticity thickness. During the initial stage, the dominant unstable modes obtained from simulations are consistent with those obtained from the linear analysis. In nonlinear developments, the flow field stretches out in one direction depending on the motion of the plural vortex pair formed by rolling up the positive and negative vorticities. Once such structures in the vortex are generated, the vortex immediately breaks down and does not become metastable.
Investigation of Vortical Flow Patterns in the Near Field of a Dynamic Low-Aspect-Ratio Cylinder
Gildersleeve, Samantha; Amitay, Michael
2016-11-01
The flowfield and associated flow structures of a low-aspect-ratio cylindrical pin were investigated experimentally in the near-field as the pin underwent wall-normal periodic oscillations. Under dynamic conditions, the pin is driven at the natural wake shedding frequency with an amplitude of 33% of its mean height. Additionally, a static pin was also tested at various mean heights of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 times the local boundary layer thickness to explore the effect of the mean height on the flowfield. Three-dimensional flowfields were reconstructed and analyzed from SPIV measurements where data were collected along streamwise planes for several spanwise locations under static and dynamic conditions. The study focuses on the incoming boundary layer as it interacts with the pin, as well as two main vortical formations: the arch-type vortex and the horseshoe vortex. Under dynamic conditions, the upstream boundary layer is thinner, relative to the baseline, and the downwash in the wake increases, resulting in a reduced wake deficit. These results indicate enhanced strength of the aforementioned vortical flow patterns under dynamic conditions. The flow structures in the near-field of the static/dynamic cylinder will be discussed in further detail. Supported by The Boeing Company.
Mattner, Trent; Chong, Min; Joubert, Peter
2000-11-01
Vortical flow past a sphere in a constant diameter pipe was studied experimentally in a guide vane apparatus similar to those used in fundamental experimental studies of vortex breakdown. The initial effect of swirl was to shorten the downstream separation bubble. For a small range of the swirl intensity, an almost stagnant upstream separation bubble formed. As the swirl intensity was increased, the bubble became unstable and an unsteady spiral formed. At high swirl intensity there was a mean recirculation region which penetrated far upstream while the flow on the downstream hemisphere was attached. Measurements of the velocity field were obtained using laser Doppler velocimetry. Analysis of these results suggests that the onset of upstream separation is associated with the formation of a negative azimuthal vorticity component which slows the axial flow near the axis of symmetry. This is consistent with inviscid distortion of the vortex filaments in the diverging flow approaching the sphere.
Visualization of pre-set vortices in boundary layer flow over wavy surface in rectangular channel
Budiman, Alexander Christantho
2014-12-04
Abstract: Smoke-wire flow visualization is used to study the development of pre-set counter-rotating streamwise vortices in boundary layer flow over a wavy surface in a rectangular channel. The formation of the vortices is indicated by the vortical structures on the cross-sectional plane normal to the wavy surface. To obtain uniform spanwise vortex wavelength which will result in uniform vortex size, two types of spanwise disturbances were used: a series of perturbation wires placed prior and normal to the leading edge of the wavy surface, and a jagged pattern in the form of uniform triangles cut at the leading edge. These perturbation wires and jagged pattern induce low-velocity streaks that result in the formation of counter-rotating streamwise vortices that evolve downstream to form the mushroom-like structures on the cross-sectional plane of the flow. The evolution of the most amplified disturbances can be attributed to the formation of these mushroom-like structures. It is also shown that the size of the mushroom-like structures depends on the channel entrance geometry, Reynolds number, and the channel gap.Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.
Hassanzadeh, Pedram
of (barotropic) critical layer has singular stream-wise velocities and is hard to excite. In our simulations, the baroclinic critical layers in rotating stably-stratified linear shear are excited by small-volume, small-amplitude vortices or waves. The excited baroclinic critical layers then intensify by drawing energy from the background shear and roll-up into large coherent 3D vortices that excite new critical layers and vortices. The vortices self-similarly replicate to create lattices of turbulent vortices. These vortices persist for all time and are called zombie vortices because they can occur in the dead zones of protoplanetary disks. The self-replication of zombie vortices can de-stabilize the otherwise linearly and finite-amplitude stable Keplerian shear and lead to the formation of stars and planets. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)
Vortices and Jacobian varieties
Manton, Nicholas S.; M. Romão, Nuno
2011-01-01
We investigate the geometry of the moduli space of N-vortices on line bundles over a closed Riemann surface of genus g > 1, in the little explored situation where 1 = 1, the vortex metric typically degenerates as the dissolving limit is approached, the degeneration occurring precisely...
Theory of Concentrated Vortices
Alekseenko, Sergey; Kuibin, Pavel; Okulov, Valery
This book presents comprehensive and authoritative coverage of the wide field of concentrated vortices observed in nature and technique. The methods for research of their kinematics and dynamics are considered. Special attention is paid to the flows with helical symmetry. The authors have describ...
Roux, FS
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Optical vortices are always created or annihilated in pairs with opposite topological charges. However, the presence of such a vortex dipole does not directly indicate whether they are associated with a creation or an annihilation event. Here we...
Moist Potential Vorticity and Up-Sliding Slantwise Vorticity Development
GUI Xiao-Peng; GAO Shou-Ting; WU Guo-Xiong
2003-01-01
By using the moist potential vorticity equation derived from complete atmospheric equations including the effect of mass forcing, the theory of up-sliding slantwise vorticity development (USVD) is proposed based on the theory of slantwise vorticity development. When an air parcel slides up along a slantwise isentropic surface, its vertical component of relative vorticity is developed. Based on the theory of USVD, a complete vertical vorticity equation is expected with mass forcing, which explicitly includes the effect of both internal forcings and external forcings.
Study on direct measurement method of vorticity from particle images
RUAN Xiaodong; FU Xin; YANG Huayong
2007-01-01
To overcome the shortcomings of conventional methods for vorticity measurement,a new direct measurement of vorticity (DMV) method extracting vorticity from particle images was proposed.Based on the theory of fluid flow,two matched particle patterns were extracted from particle images in the DMV method.The pattern vorticity was determined from the average angular displacement of rotation between the two matched particle patterns.The method was applied on standard particle images,and was compared with the second and third order central finite difference methods.Results show that the accuracy of DMV method is independent of the spatial resolution of the sampling,and the uncertainty errors in the velocity measurement are not propagated into the vorticity.The method is applicable for measuring vorticity of a stronger rotational flow.The time interval of image sampling should be shortened to increase the measurement ranges for higher shearing distortion flows.
Mechanisms, role of vorticity, and time scales for planar liquid sheet breakup
Zandian, Arash; Sirignano, William; Hussain, Fazle
2016-11-01
The 3D, temporal instabilities on a planar liquid sheet are studied using DNS with level-set and VoF surface tracking methods. λ2 contours relate the vorticity to the surface dynamics. The breakup character depends on the Ohnesorge number (Oh). At high Oh , hairpin vortices form on the braid and overlap with the lobe hairpins, thinning the lobes, which puncture creating holes and bridges. The bridges break, creating ligaments that stretch and break into droplets by capillary action. At low Oh , lobe stretching and thinning is hindered by high surface tension and splitting of the original Kelvin-Helmholtz vortex, preventing early hole formation. Corrugations form on the lobe edges, influenced by the split vortices, and stretch to form ligaments. Both mechanisms are present in a transition region that shifts in Oh values based on the liquid/gas density ratio. Different characteristic times exist for the hole formation and the lobe and ligament stretching, related to surface tension and liquid viscosity, respectively. In the transition region, both times are of the same order. Streamwise vorticity triggers the 3D instabilities. Vorticity stretching and baroclinicity dominate, while the spanwise and cross-flow vorticity tilting are less important early in the breakup.
The Finiteness of Moffatt vortices
Kalita, Jiten C; Panda, Swapnendu; Unal, Aynur
2016-01-01
Till date, the sequence of vortices present in the solid corners of internal viscous incompressible flows, widely known as Moffatt vortices was thought to be infinite. In this paper, we propose two topological equivalence classes of Moffatt vortices in terms of orientation-preserving homeomorphism as well as critical point theory. We further quantify the centers of vortices as fixed points through Brower fixed point theorem and define boundary of a vortex as circle cell. With the aid of these new developments and some existing theorems in topology, we provide six proofs establishing that the sequence of Moffatt vortices cannot be infinite; in fact it is at most finite.
Vortices and nanostructured superconductors
2017-01-01
This book provides expert coverage of modern and novel aspects of the study of vortex matter, dynamics, and pinning in nanostructured and multi-component superconductors. Vortex matter in superconducting materials is a field of enormous beauty and intellectual challenge, which began with the theoretical prediction of vortices by A. Abrikosov (Nobel Laureate). Vortices, vortex dynamics, and pinning are key features in many of today’s human endeavors: from the huge superconducting accelerating magnets and detectors at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, which opened new windows of knowledge on the universe, to the tiny superconducting transceivers using Rapid Single Flux Quanta, which have opened a revolutionary means of communication. In recent years, two new features have added to the intrinsic beauty and complexity of the subject: nanostructured/nanoengineered superconductors, and the discovery of a range of new materials showing multi-component (multi-gap) superconductivity. In this book, leading researche...
Cropp, Bethan; Turcati, Rodrigo
2015-01-01
In the analogue gravity framework, the acoustic disturbances in a moving fluid can be described by an equation of motion identical to a relativistic scalar massless field propagating in a curved spacetime. This description is possible only when the fluid under consideration is barotropic, inviscid and irrotational. In this case, the propagation of the perturbations is governed by an acoustic metric which depends algebrically on the local speed of sound, density and the background flow velocity, the latter assumed to be vorticity free. In this work we provide an straightforward extension in order to go beyond the irrotational constraint. Using a charged --- relativistic and non-relativistic --- Bose--Einstein condensate as a physical system, we show that in the low momentum limit and performing the eikonal approximation we can derive a d'Alembertian equation of motion for the charged phonons where the emergent acoustic metric depends on a flow velocity in the presence of vorticity.
Cropp, Bethan; Liberati, Stefano; Turcati, Rodrigo
2016-06-01
In the analog gravity framework, the acoustic disturbances in a moving fluid can be described by an equation of motion identical to a relativistic scalar massless field propagating in curved space-time. This description is possible only when the fluid under consideration is barotropic, inviscid, and irrotational. In this case, the propagation of the perturbations is governed by an acoustic metric that depends algebrically on the local speed of sound, density, and the background flow velocity, the latter assumed to be vorticity-free. In this work we provide a straightforward extension in order to go beyond the irrotational constraint. Using a charged—relativistic and nonrelativistic—Bose-Einstein condensate as a physical system, we show that in the low-momentum limit and performing the eikonal approximation we can derive a d’Alembertian equation of motion for the charged phonons where the emergent acoustic metric depends on flow velocity in the presence of vorticity.
Vorticity in holographic fluids
Caldarelli, Marco M; Petkou, Anastasios C; Petropoulos, P Marios; Pozzoli, Valentina; Siampos, Konstadinos
2012-01-01
In view of the recent interest in reproducing holographically various properties of conformal fluids, we review the issue of vorticity in the context of AdS/CFT. Three-dimensional fluids with vorticity require four-dimensional bulk geometries with either angular momentum or nut charge, whose boundary geometries fall into the Papapetrou--Randers class. The boundary fluids emerge in stationary non-dissipative kinematic configurations, which can be cyclonic or vortex flows, evolving in compact or non-compact supports. A rich network of Einstein's solutions arises, naturally connected with three-dimensional Bianchi spaces. We use Fefferman--Graham expansion to handle holographic data from the bulk and discuss the alternative for reversing the process and reconstruct the exact bulk geometries.
Puffed Noncommutative Nonabelian Vortices
Bouatta, N; MacCaferri, C; Bouatta, Nazim; Evslin, Jarah; Maccaferri, Carlo
2007-01-01
We present new solutions of noncommutative gauge theories in which coincident unstable vortices expand into unstable circular shells. As the theories are noncommutative, the naive definition of the locations of the vortices and shells is gauge-dependent, and so we define and calculate the profiles of these solutions using the gauge-invariant noncommutative Wilson lines introduced by Gross and Nekrasov. We find that charge 2 vortex solutions are characterized by two positions and a single nonnegative real number, which we demonstrate is the radius of the shell. We find that the radius is identically zero in all 2-dimensional solutions. If one considers solutions that depend on an additional commutative direction, then there are time-dependent solutions in which the radius oscillates, resembling a braneworld description of a cyclic universe. There are also smooth BIon-like space-dependent solutions in which the shell expands to infinity, describing a vortex ending on a domain wall.
Vortices and Jacobian varieties
Manton, Nicholas S
2010-01-01
We investigate the geometry of the moduli space of N-vortices on line bundles over a closed Riemann surface of genus g > 1, in the little explored situation where 1 = 1, the vortex metric typically degenerates as the dissolving limit is approached, the degeneration occurring precisely on the critical locus of the Abel-Jacobi map at degree N. We describe consequences of this phenomenon from the point of view of multivortex dynamics.
Vortices around Dragonfly Wings
Kweon, Jihoon; Choi, Haecheon
2009-01-01
Dragonfly beats its wings independently, resulting in its superior maneuverability. Depending on the magnitude of phase difference between the fore- and hind-wings of dragonfly, the vortical structures and their interaction with wings become significantly changed, and so does the aerodynamic performance. In this study, we consider hovering flights of modelled dragonfly with three different phase differences (phi=-90, 90, 180 degrees). The three-dimensional wing shape is based on that of Aesch...
Martian polar vortices: Comparison of reanalyses
Waugh, D. W.; Toigo, A. D.; Guzewich, S. D.; Greybush, S. J.; Wilson, R. J.; Montabone, L.
2016-09-01
The structure and evolution of the Martian polar vortices is examined using two recently available reanalysis systems: version 1.0 of the Mars Analysis Correction Data Assimilation (MACDA) and a preliminary version of the Ensemble Mars Atmosphere Reanalysis System (EMARS). There is quantitative agreement between the reanalyses in the lower atmosphere, where Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) data are assimilated, but there are differences at higher altitudes reflecting differences in the free-running general circulation model simulations used in the two reanalyses. The reanalyses show similar potential vorticity (PV) structure of the vortices: There is near-uniform small PV equatorward of the core of the westerly jet, steep meridional PV gradients on the polar side of the jet core, and a maximum of PV located off of the pole. In maps of 30 sol mean PV, there is a near-continuous elliptical ring of high PV with roughly constant shape and longitudinal orientation from fall to spring. However, the shape and orientation of the vortex varies on daily time scales, and there is not a continuous ring of PV but rather a series of smaller scale coherent regions of high PV. The PV structure of the Martian polar vortices is, as has been reported before, very different from that of Earth's stratospheric polar vortices, but there are similarities with Earth's tropospheric vortices which also occur at the edge of the Hadley Cell, and have near-uniform small PV equatorward of the jet, and a large increase of PV poleward of the jet due to increased stratification.
Effects of Taylor-Görtler vortices on turbulent flows in a spanwise-rotating channel
Dai, Yi-Jun; Huang, Wei-Xi; Xu, Chun-Xiao
2016-11-01
Fully developed turbulent channel flow with system rotation in the spanwise direction has been studied by direct numerical simulation at Rem = 2800 and 7000 with 0 ≤ Rom ≤ 0.5. The width of the computational domain is adjusted for each case to contain two pairs of Taylor-Görtler (TG) vortices. Under a relatively low rotation rate, the turbulent vortical structures are strongly influenced by the TG vortices. A conditional average method is employed to investigate the effects of these TG vortices on turbulence. In the upwash region where the fluid is pumped away from the pressure wall by the TG vortices, turbulence is found to be enhanced, while the opposite scenario occurs in the downwash region where the fluid is shifted toward the pressure wall. The statistics along the centerlines of the two regions of a TG vortex are presented in detail. Through the budget analysis of the transport equation of vorticity fluctuations, we found that the wall-normal stretching term caused by the TG vortices plays an important role in initiating the differences of turbulence intensities between the two regions, which are further augmented by the Coriolis force term in the streamwise direction. Meanwhile, the shear stress on the suction wall is observed to fluctuate in a quasi-periodic manner at Rem = 7000 and Rom = 0.3, which is also revealed to be induced by the TG vortices. Such quasi-periodicity is not found at Rem = 2800 and Rom = 0.3, where turbulence on the suction side is strongly suppressed by rotation.
Krishna Nandan Kumar
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The present study attempts to reduce secondary flow losses by application of streamwise endwall fence. After comprehensive analysis on selection of objective function for secondary flow loss reduction, coefficient of secondary kinetic energy (CSKE is selected as the objective function in this study. A fence whose height varies linearly from the leading edge to the trailing edge and located in the middle of the flow passage produces least CSKE and is the optimum fence. The reduction in CSKE by the optimum fence is 27% compared to the baseline case. The geometry of the fence is new and is reported for the first time. Idea of this fence comes from the fact that the size of the passage vortex (which is the prime component of secondary flow increases as it travels downstream, hence the height of fence should vary as the objective of fence is to block the passage vortex from crossing the passage and impinging on suction surface of the blade. Optimum fence reduced overturning and underturning of flow by more than 50% compared to the baseline case. Magnitude and spanwise penetration of the passage vortex were reduced considerably compared to the baseline case.
A phase analysis of vorticity vectors associated with tropical convection
Cui Xiao-Peng
2008-01-01
Three new vorticity vectors have been proposed by Gao et al to study the two-dimensional tropical convection. In the present paper, phase relations between surface rain rate and the vorticity vectors are analysed with the calculations of lag correlation coefficients based on hourly zonally-averaged mass-integrated cloud-resolving simulation data. The cloud-resolving model is integrated with the vertical velocity, zonal wind, horizontal thermal and moisture advections, and sea surface temperature observed and derived from tropical ocean global atmosphere - coupled ocean atmosphere response experiment (TOGA-COARE) for 10 days. Maximum local increase of the vertical component of the convective vorticity vector leads maximum surface rain rate by 2 hours mainly due to the interaction between vorticity and zonal gradient of ice heating. While maximum local increase of the vertical component of the moist vorticity vector leads maximum surface rain rate by 2 hours mainly because of the interaction between zonal specific humidity gradient and zonal buoyancy gradient. And the maximum local decrease of the zonal component of the dynamic vorticity vector leads maximum surface rain rate by 2 hours mainly due to the interactions between vorticity and vertical pressure gradient as well as vorticity and buoyancy.
Vorticity from irrotationally forced flow
Del Sordo, Fabio
2010-01-01
In the interstellar medium the turbulence is believed to be forced mostly through supernova explosions. In a first approximation these flows can be written as a gradient of a potential being thus devoid of vorticity. There are several mechanisms that could lead to vorticity generation, like viscosity and baroclinic terms, rotation, shear and magnetic fields, but it is not clear how effective they are, neither is it clear whether the vorticity is essential in determining the turbulent diffusion acting in the ISM. Here we present a study of the role of rotation, shear and baroclinicity in the generation of vorticity in the ISM.
General vorticity conservation
Gümral, H
1998-01-01
The motion of an incompressible fluid in Lagrangian coordinates involves infinitely many symmetries generated by the left Lie algebra of group of volume preserving diffeomorphisms of the three dimensional domain occupied by the fluid. Utilizing a 1+3-dimensional Hamiltonian setting an explicit realization of this symmetry algebra and the related Lagrangian and Eulerian conservation laws are constructed recursively. Their Lie algebraic structures are inherited from the same construction. The laws of general vorticity and helicity conservations are formulated globally in terms of invariant differential forms of the velocity field.
Optimizing Spanwise & Streamwise Spacings of MHK Devices in a Trapezoidal River Channel
Roberts, J. D.; Barco, J.; Johnson, E.; James, S. C.; Jones, C. A.; Jepsen, R. A.
2011-12-01
The world is facing significant challenges meeting the energy demands for the future. Growing populations and developing economies as well as increasing energy expenditures highlight the need for a spectrum of energy sources. One promising renewable is marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) energy, which has the potential to make important contributions to future energy portfolios. Increasing interest in MHK energy has spurred to significant research on optimal placement of emerging technologies to maximize energy capture and minimize potential negative effects on the environment. Understanding changes to near- and far-field hydrodynamics is necessary to assess optimal placement. This work demonstrates a newly developed modeling tool that can be used to optimize MHK array layouts to maximize energy capture while minimizing potentially harmful environmental effects. SNL has developed and implemented modifications to an existing flow, sediment-dynamics, and water-quality code (SNL-EFDC) to qualify, quantify, and visualize the interaction and influence of MHK-device operation at a representative site using an appropriate and verified representation of momentum/energy extraction and turbulent wake generation. Various hypothetical MHK array configurations are simulated within a straight rectangular unidirectional flow conditions channel at several water column depths. Results show that the turbine-array power efficiency increased, nonlinearly, as turbine spacing was increased in both the spanwise and streamwise directions as well as when turbines were placed higher in the water column. Contour plots facilitate evaluation of tradeoffs between efficiency and spacing. In addition, results show that flow increases around and over/under the array leading to elevated velocities in the main channel, near the bank, and near the sediment bed, which may have potential implications for bank and bottom erosion, and navigation. SNL-EFDC's "MHK friendly" array-optimization tool is and will
Bullimore, Mathew; Gaiotto, Davide; Hilburn, Justin; Kim, Hee-Cheol
2016-01-01
In three-dimensional gauge theories, monopole operators create and destroy vortices. We explore this idea in the context of 3d N=4 gauge theories in the presence of an Omega-background. In this case, monopole operators generate a non-commutative algebra that quantizes the Coulomb-branch chiral ring. The monopole operators act naturally on a Hilbert space, which is realized concretely as the equivariant cohomology of a moduli space of vortices. The action furnishes the space with the structure of a Verma module for the Coulomb-branch algebra. This leads to a new mathematical definition of the Coulomb-branch algebra itself, related to that of Braverman-Finkelberg-Nakajima. By introducing additional boundary conditions, we find a construction of vortex partition functions of 2d N=(2,2) theories as overlaps of coherent states (Whittaker vectors) for Coulomb-branch algebras, generalizing work of Braverman-Feigin-Finkelberg-Rybnikov on a finite version of the AGT correspondence. In the case of 3d linear quiver gaug...
Vortices revealed: Swimming faster
van Houwelingen, Josje; van de Water, Willem; Kunnen, Rudie; van Heijst, Gertjan; Clercx, Herman
2016-11-01
Understanding and optimizing the propulsion in human swimming requires insight into the hydrodynamics of the flow around the swimmer. Experiments and simulations addressing the hydrodynamics of swimming have been conducted in studies before, including the visualization of the flow using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The main objective in this study is to develop a system to visualize the flow around a swimmer in practice inspired by this technique. The setup is placed in a regular swimming pool. The use of tracer particles and lasers to illuminate the particles is not allowed. Therefore, we choose to work with air bubbles with a diameter of 4 mm, illuminated by ambient light. Homogeneous bubble curtains are produced by tubes implemented in the bottom of the pool. The bubble motion is captured by six cameras placed in underwater casings. A first test with the setup has been conducted by pulling a cylinder through the bubbles and performing a PIV analysis. The vorticity plots of the resulting data show the expected vortex street behind the cylinder. The shedding frequency of the vortices resembles the expected frequency. Thus, it is possible to identify and follow the coherent structures. We will discuss these results and the first flow measurements around swimmers.
Bethuel, Fabrice; Helein, Frederic
2017-01-01
This book is concerned with the study in two dimensions of stationary solutions of uɛ of a complex valued Ginzburg-Landau equation involving a small parameter ɛ. Such problems are related to questions occurring in physics, e.g., phase transition phenomena in superconductors and superfluids. The parameter ɛ has a dimension of a length which is usually small. Thus, it is of great interest to study the asymptotics as ɛ tends to zero. One of the main results asserts that the limit u-star of minimizers uɛ exists. Moreover, u-star is smooth except at a finite number of points called defects or vortices in physics. The number of these defects is exactly the Brouwer degree – or winding number – of the boundary condition. Each singularity has degree one – or as physicists would say, vortices are quantized. The singularities have infinite energy, but after removing the core energy we are lead to a concept of finite renormalized energy. The location of the singularities is completely determined by minimiz...
Aerodynamic forces and vortical structures in flapping butterfly's forward flight
Yokoyama, Naoto; Senda, Kei; Iima, Makoto; Hirai, Norio
2013-02-01
Forward flights of a bilaterally symmetrically flapping butterfly modeled as a four-link rigid-body system consisting of a thorax, an abdomen, and left and right wings are numerically simulated. The joint motions of the butterflies are adopted from experimental observations. Three kinds of the simulations, distinguished by ways to determine the position and attitude of the thorax, are carried out: a tethered simulation, a prescribed simulation, and free-flight simulations. The upward and streamwise forces as well as the wake structures in the tethered simulation, where the thorax of the butterfly is fixed, reasonably agree with those in the corresponding tethered experiment. In the prescribed simulation, where the thoracic trajectories as well as the joint angles are given by those observed in a free-flight experiment, it is confirmed that the butterfly can produce enough forces to achieve the flapping flights. Moreover, coherent vortical structures in the wake and those on the wings are identified. The generation of the aerodynamic forces due to the vortical structures are also clarified. In the free-flight simulation, where only the joint angles are given as periodic functions of time, it is found that the free flight is longitudinally unstable because the butterfly cannot maintain the attitude in a proper range. Focusing on the abdominal mass, which largely varies owing to feeding and metabolizing, we have shown that the abdominal motion plays an important role in periodic flights. The necessity of control of the thoracic attitude for periodic flights and maneuverability is also discussed.
Iterative control of Görtler vortices via local wall deformations
Sescu, Adrian; Taoudi, Lamiae; Afsar, Mohammed
2017-06-01
Görtler vortices develop along concave walls as a result of the imbalance between the centrifugal force and radial pressure gradient. In this study, we introduce a simple control strategy aimed at reducing the growth rate of Görtler vortices by locally modifying the surface geometry in spanwise and streamwise directions. Such wall deformations are accounted in the boundary region equations by using a Prandtl transform of dependent and independent variables. The vortex energy is then controlled via a classical proportional control algorithm for which either the wall-normal velocity or the wall shear stress serves as the control variable. Our numerical results indicate that the control algorithm is quite effective in minimizing the wall shear stress.
Analysis of streamwise conduction in forced convection of microchannels using fin approach
Suhandran MUNIANDY; Yew Mun HUNG
2011-01-01
The effects induced by streamwise conduction on the thermal characteristics of forced convection for single-phase liquid flow in rectangular microchannel heat sinks under imposed constant wall temperature have been studied.By employing the fin approach in the first law of analysis,models with and without streamwise conduction term in the energy equation were developed for hydrodynamically and thermally fully-developed flow under local thermal non-equilibrium for the solid and fluid phases.These two models were solved to obtain closed form analytical solutions for the fluid and solid temperature distributions and the analysis emphasized details of the variations induced by the streamwise conduction on the fluid temperature distributions.The effects of the Peclet number,aspect ratio,and thermal conductivity ratio on the thermal characteristics of forced convection in microchannel heat sinks were analyzed and discussed.This study reveals the conditions under which the effect of streamwise conduction is significant and should not be neglected in the forced convective heat transfer analysis ofmicrochannel heat sinks.
Analysis of the Effects of Streamwise Lift Distribution on Sonic Boom Signature
Yoo, Paul
2013-01-01
Investigation of sonic boom has been one of the major areas of study in aeronautics due to the benefits a low-boom aircraft has in both civilian and military applications. This work conducts a numerical analysis of the effects of streamwise lift distribution on the shock coalescence characteristics. A simple wing-canard-stabilator body model is used in the numerical simulation. The streamwise lift distribution is varied by fixing the canard at a deflection angle while trimming the aircraft with the wing and the stabilator at the desired lift coefficient. The lift and the pitching moment coefficients are computed using the Missile DATCOM v. 707. The flow field around the wing-canard- stabilator body model is resolved using the OVERFLOW-2 flow solver. Overset/ chimera grid topology is used to simplify the grid generation of various configurations representing different streamwise lift distributions. The numerical simulations are performed without viscosity unless it is required for numerical stability. All configurations are simulated at Mach 1.4, angle-of-attack of 1.50, lift coefficient of 0.05, and pitching moment coefficient of approximately 0. Four streamwise lift distribution configurations were tested.
Numerical investigations of submerged vortices in a model pump sump by using Large Eddy Simulation
Yamade, Y.; Kato, C.; Nagahara, T.; Matsui, Jun
2016-11-01
Submerged vortices in a model pump sump and their flow structures were investigated numerically. The model pump sump is composed of a 2,500 mm-long water channel with rectangular cross section of 150 mm (channel width) by 100 mm (water height) and a vertical suction pipe with 100 mm diameter installed at its downstream end. At the upstream end of the channel, a uniform velocity of 0.37 m/s is given. In order to capture appearances and disappearances of submerged vortices in the pump sump, large eddy simulations (LES) are performed. The computational grids for the LES are composed of 2 billion hexahedral elements with 0.255 mm resolution. These grids can resolve the streamwise vortices in the approaching turbulent boundary layers that develops on the channel walls. However, it is not sufficiently fine to capture the vortex cores of the submerged vortices. The LES succeeded to capture appearances of the submerged vortices. By performing LES with several different sets of the wall boundary conditions, we have clearly identified, to the best of our knowledge for the first time, the origin of the submerged vortices. Computations that used a simplified computational model, where the computational domain was localized to the region close to the vortex core, were also performed to predict correctly the vortex core and to investigate dynamics of the vortices. The grid resolution in the simplified computational model was 0.03 mm. We successfully computed the size of vortex core in the simplified computational model. For this model, we also investigated the conditions under which a vortex appears by changing inlet tangential velocity.
Vorticity is a marker of right ventricular diastolic dysfunction.
Fenster, Brett E; Browning, James; Schroeder, Joyce D; Schafer, Michal; Podgorski, Chris A; Smyser, Jamie; Silveira, Lori J; Buckner, J Kern; Hertzberg, Jean R
2015-09-15
Right ventricular diastolic dysfunction (RVDD) is an important prognostic indicator in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). RV vortex rings have been observed in healthy subjects, but their significance in RVDD is unknown. Vorticity, the local spinning motion of an element of fluid, may be a sensitive measure of RV vortex dynamics. Using four-dimensional (4D) flow cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR), we investigated the relationship between right heart vorticity with echocardiographic indexes of RVDD. Thirteen (13) PAH subjects and 10 controls underwent same-day 4D flow CMR and echocardiography. RV diastolic function was assessed using trans-tricuspid valve (TV) early (E) and late (A) velocities, E/A ratio, and e' and a' tissue Doppler velocities. RV and right atrial (RA) integrated mean vorticity was calculated for E and A-wave filling periods using 4D datasets. Compared with controls, A-wave vorticity was significantly increased in RVDD subjects in both the RV [2343 (1,559-3,295) vs. 492 (267-2,649) 1/s, P = 0.028] and RA [30 (27-44) vs. 9 (5-27) 1/s, P = 0.005]. RA E vorticity was significantly decreased [13 (7-22) vs. 28 (15-31) 1/s, P = 0.038] in RVDD. E-wave vorticity correlated TV e', E-,and TV E/A (P < 0.05), and A-wave vorticity associated with both TV A and E/A (P < 0.02). RVDD is associated with alterations in E- and A-wave vorticity, and vorticity correlates with multiple echocardiographic markers of RVDD. Vorticity may be a robust noninvasive research tool for the investigation of RV fluid and tissue mechanical interactions in PAH. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.
Abelian Vortices with Singularities
Baptista, J M
2012-01-01
Let L --> X be a complex line bundle over a compact connected Riemann surface. We consider the abelian vortex equations on L when the metric on the surface has finitely many point degeneracies or conical singularities and the line bundle has parabolic structure. These conditions appear naturally in the study of vortex configurations with constraints, or configurations invariant under the action of a finite group. We first show that the moduli space of singular vortex solutions is the same as in the regular case. Then we compute the total volume and total scalar curvature of the moduli space singular vortex solutions. These numbers differ from the case of regular vortices by a very natural term. Finally we exhibit explicit non-trivial vortex solutions over the thrice punctured hyperbolic sphere.
Coherence vortices of partially coherent beams in the far field
Liu Pu-Sheng; Lü Bai-da
2007-01-01
Based on the propagation law of cross-spectral density function, studied in this paper are the coherence vortices of partially coherent, quasi-monochromatic singular beams with Gaussian envelope and Schell-model correlator in the far field, where our main attention is paid to the evolution of far-field coherence vortices into intensity vortices of fully coherent beams. The results show that, although there are usually no zeros of intensity in partially coherent beams with Gaussian envelope and Schell-model correlator, zeros of spectral degree of coherence exist. The coherence vortices of spectral degree of coherence depend on the relative coherence length, mode index and positions of pairs of points.If a point and mode index are kept fixed, the position of coherence vortices changes with the increase of the relative coherence length. For the low coherent case there is a circular phase dislocation. In the coherent limit coherence vortices become intensity vortices of fully coherent Laguerre-Gaussian beams.
Brief Analysis of Vorticity in Soil Hydrodynamics
Nader, José Jorge
2014-01-01
This note discusses basic properties of vorticity in groundwater flow theory. An evolution equation for the vorticity vector is derived to demonstrate that, when present, vorticity decreases very rapidly. In addition, it is shown how vorticity affects, though very little, the hydraulic head directional variation in the vicinity of a point.
Fresnel Lens with Embedded Vortices
Sunil Vyas
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Vortices of different charges are embedded in a wavefront that has quadratic phase variation, and the intensity distribution near the focal plane is studied. This method may be useful in realizing complicated beam profiles. We have experimentally demonstrated the generation of vortex arrays having integer as well as fractional topological charges that produce different intensity profiles at the focal plane. The phase variation realized on a spatial light modulator (SLM acts as a Fresnel lens with embedded vortices.
Numerical study of the evolution of vortices in a linearly stratified fluid
Beckers, M.; Clercx, H.J.H.; Van Heijst, G.J.F. [Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven (Netherlands). J.M. Burgers Centre fro Fluid Dynamics; Verzicco, R. [Rome Univ. La Sapienza, Rome (Italy). Dipt. di Meccanica e Aeronautica
1999-12-01
This paper presents a numerical study in which the evolution of vortices in a Stafford fluid is compared to the evolution of two-dimensional vortices. The influence of the Reynolds number and the Froude number are investigated, for the evolution of axisymmetric vortices, for their azimuthal instability and for the subsequent formation of tripoles. It is found that due to radial diffusion axisymmetric vortices with various initial vorticity profiles all evolve towards the same profile. This evolution reduces the growth of azimuthal instabilities which may lead to the formation of a tripole. For vortices in a stratified fluid the effect of the ambient stratification on the evolution of the vortices is investigated. It is found that a process of vortex stretching, which becomes more pronounced for increasing Froude numbers, leads to a weaker tripole formation.
Primordial vorticity and gradient expansion
Giovannini, Massimo; Rezaei, Zahra
2012-02-01
The evolution equations of the vorticities of the electrons, ions and photons in a pre-decoupling plasma are derived, in a fully inhomogeneous geometry, by combining the general relativistic gradient expansion and the drift approximation within the Adler-Misner-Deser decomposition. The vorticity transfer between the different species is discussed in this novel framework and a set of general conservation laws, connecting the vorticities of the three-component plasma with the magnetic field intensity, is derived. After demonstrating that a source of large-scale vorticity resides in the spatial gradients of the geometry and of the electromagnetic sources, the total vorticity is estimated to lowest order in the spatial gradients and by enforcing the validity of the momentum constraint. By acknowledging the current bounds on the tensor to scalar ratio in the (minimal) tensor extension of the ΛCDM paradigm, the maximal comoving magnetic field induced by the total vorticity turns out to be, at most, of the order of 10-37 G over the typical comoving scales ranging between 1 and 10 Mpc. While the obtained results seem to be irrelevant for seeding a reasonable galactic dynamo action, they demonstrate how the proposed fully inhomogeneous treatment can be used for the systematic scrutiny of pre-decoupling plasmas beyond the conventional perturbative expansions.
Primordial vorticity and gradient expansion
Giovannini, Massimo
2012-01-01
The evolution equations of the vorticities of the electrons, ions and photons in a pre-decoupling plasma are derived, in a fully inhomogeneous geometry, by combining the general relativistic gradient expansion and the drift approximation within the Adler-Misner-Deser decomposition. The vorticity transfer between the different species is discussed in this novel framework and a set of general conservation laws, connecting the vorticities of the three-component plasma with the magnetic field intensity, is derived. After demonstrating that a source of large-scale vorticity resides in the spatial gradients of the geometry and of the electromagnetic sources, the total vorticity is estimated to lowest order in the spatial gradients and by enforcing the validity of the momentum constraint. By acknowledging the current bounds on the tensor to scalar ratio in the (minimal) tensor extension of the $\\Lambda$CDM paradigm the maximal comoving magnetic field induced by the total vorticity turns out to be, at most, of the or...
Streamwise decrease of the 'unsteady' virtual velocity of gravel tracers
Klösch, Mario; Gmeiner, Philipp; Habersack, Helmut
2017-04-01
Gravel tracers are usually inserted and transported on top of the riverbed, before they disperse vertically and laterally due to periods of intense bedload, the passage of bed forms, lateral channel migration and storage on bars. Buried grains have a lower probability of entrainment, resulting in a reduction of overall mobility, and, on average, in a deceleration of the particles with distance downstream. As a consequence, the results derived from tracer experiments and their significance for gravel transport may depend on the time scale of the investigation period, complicating the comparison of results from different experiments. We developed a regression method, which establishes a direct link between the transport velocity and the unsteady flow variables to yield an 'unsteady' virtual velocity, while considering the tracer slowdown with distance downstream in the regression. For that purpose, the two parameters of a linear excess shear velocity formula (the critical shear velocity u*c and coefficient a) were defined as functions of the travelled distance since the tracer's insertion. Application to published RFID tracer data from the Mameyes River, Puerto Rico, showed that during the investigation period the critical shear velocity u*c of tracers representing the median bed particle diameter (0.11 m) increased from 0.36 m s-1 to 0.44 m s-1, while the coefficient a decreased from the dimensionless value of 4.22 to 3.53, suggesting a reduction of the unsteady virtual velocity at the highest shear velocity in the investigation period from 0.40 m s-1 to 0.08 m s-1. Consideration of the tracer slowdown improved the root mean square error of the calculated mean displacements of the median bed particle diameter from 8.82 m to 0.34 m. As in previous work these results suggest the need of considering the history of transport when deriving travel distances and travel velocities, depending on the aim of the tracer study. The introduced method now allows estimating the
Xu Wan-hai; Yu Jian-xing; Du Jie; CHENG An-kang; KANG Hao
2012-01-01
The streamwise flow-induced vibration of a circular cylinder with symmetric vortex shedding in the first instability range is investigated,and a wake oscillator model for the dynamic response prediction is proposed.An approach is applied to calibrate the empirical parameters in the present model; the numerical and experimental results are compared to validate the proposed model.It can be found that the present prediction model is accurate and sufficiently simple to be easily applied in practice.
Filamentation with nonlinear Bessel vortices.
Jukna, V; Milián, C; Xie, C; Itina, T; Dudley, J; Courvoisier, F; Couairon, A
2014-10-20
We present a new type of ring-shaped filaments featured by stationary nonlinear high-order Bessel solutions to the laser beam propagation equation. Two different regimes are identified by direct numerical simulations of the nonlinear propagation of axicon focused Gaussian beams carrying helicity in a Kerr medium with multiphoton absorption: the stable nonlinear propagation regime corresponds to a slow beam reshaping into one of the stationary nonlinear high-order Bessel solutions, called nonlinear Bessel vortices. The region of existence of nonlinear Bessel vortices is found semi-analytically. The influence of the Kerr nonlinearity and nonlinear losses on the beam shape is presented. Direct numerical simulations highlight the role of attractors played by nonlinear Bessel vortices in the stable propagation regime. Large input powers or small cone angles lead to the unstable propagation regime where nonlinear Bessel vortices break up into an helical multiple filament pattern or a more irregular structure. Nonlinear Bessel vortices are shown to be sufficiently intense to generate a ring-shaped filamentary ionized channel in the medium which is foreseen as opening the way to novel applications in laser material processing of transparent dielectrics.
Vorticity analysis in the Zagros orogen, Shiraz area, Iran
Sarkarinejad, Khalil; Heibati, Zahra
2016-10-01
Quantitative vorticity analyses in orogenic belts are essential for studying the kinematics of deformation and can be performed using a range of methods. The combination of microstructural analysis for vorticity with other methods creates a more rigorous analysis. In order to determine the degree of non-coaxiality and spatial pattern of vorticity during deformation in the Zagros Orogenic Belt, a study area containing the boundary of the Zagros Folded Belt and the Zagros Fold-and-Thrust Belt is selected. The study area is situated in the Shiraz region of E-Zagros in Iran. The kinematic vorticity analysis is carried out using 4 methods based on: (1) the degree of asymmetry of the calcite c-axis fabric, (2) the assumption that the orientation of the long axes of calcite within an oblique stylolite foliation delineates the direction of the instantaneous stretching axis, (3) the assumption that the tension gash tips determine the direction of the instantaneous stretching axis and (4) stylolite teeth determine the direction of the instantaneous stretching axis. C-axis data from calcite give a kinematic vorticity number between 0.68 and 0.83, and the orientation of the long axes of calcite grains yields a range between 0.5 and 0.84. Stylolites provide a kinematic vorticity number between 0.5 and 0.79, and tension gashes provide a kinematic vorticity number between 0.56 and 0.81. This range of vorticity numbers confirms the contributions of both simple (33-59%) and pure shear (41-67%). Twining of calcite also reveals that the last stage of deformation occurred at a temperature of 170-200 °C. Spatial analysis reveals an increase in the simple shear component from the SW of the Zagros Folded Belt to the NE of the Zagros Fold-and-Thrust Belt.
Superconducting vortices in semilocal models.
Forgács, Péter; Reuillon, Sébastien; Volkov, Mikhail S
2006-02-01
It is shown that the SU(2) semilocal model--the Abelian Higgs model with two complex scalars--admits a new class of stationary, straight string solutions carrying a persistent current and having finite energy per unit length. In the plane orthogonal to their direction they correspond to a nontrivial deformation of the embedded Abrikosov-Nielsen-Olesen (ANO) vortices by the current flowing through them. The new solutions bifurcate with the ANO vortices in the limit of vanishing current. They can be either static or stationary. In the stationary case, the relative phase of the two scalars rotates at constant velocity, giving rise to an electric field and angular momentum, while the energy remains finite. The new static vortex solutions have lower energy than the ANO vortices and could be of considerable importance in various physical systems (from condensed matter to cosmic strings).
王洪平; 高琪; 魏润杰; 王晋军
2016-01-01
层析PIV是一种现代激光测速技术，能实现三分量空间体内三分量（3D3C）速度场的测量。应用层析PIV测量Reτ＝1768的平板湍流边界层，得到150个瞬时速度场，测量体的大小为80mm×16mm×45mm。旋涡强度λci 准则用来进行涡识别，而旋涡强度在展向的投影λzci 被用来识别展向涡。根据λzci 的连通域得到展向涡位置后，统计了展向涡沿法向的变化规律，并给出了在流向-法向平面内高低速区域和正负展向涡空间位置的关系。统计结果表明：随着法向高度的增加，展向涡的强度逐渐降低；负展向涡的流向平均速度高于正展向涡，且流向速度与法向速度有很强的依赖性；在小尺度范围内，流向-法向平面内的高低速流动区域与正负展向涡的空间位置密切相关。%Tomographic particle image velocimetry (Tomo-PIV )is a novel laser technique that can be applied to measure a three-dimensional three-component (3D3C)velocity field.In the current work,Tomo-PIV was utilized to measure a plate turbulent boundary layer (TBL)at Reτ= 1768,and 150 velocity fields with each size of 80mm×16mm×45mm were obtained.The swirl strengthλci was used to identify the local vortex,while its proj ection on the spanwise directionλzci was used to identify the spanwise vortex.The spatial coherent structures of spanwise vortices and their population trends along the wall-normal direction were studied through swirling strengthλzci .The statistic results suggest that the strength of the spanwise vortices reduces with the in-crease of the wall-normal distance y+ .The streamwise velocity of retrograde spanwise vortices is higher than that of the prograde vortices and there is a strong dependence between the streamwise velocity and the wall-normal velocity.High or low momentum regions of small scale in the stre-amwise and wall-normal plane are highly correlated with the spatial arrangement of spanwise vor
General aspects of optical vortices
Roux, FS
2009-01-01
Full Text Available . Stef Roux CSIR National Laser Centre PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa CSIR National Laser Centre – p.1/32 Contents . Definition of an optical vortex . Topological charge and vortex morphology . How to detect a vortex — interferometry . How... to generate optical vortices CSIR National Laser Centre – p.2/32 Persistent dark spots Optical vortices CSIR National Laser Centre – p.3/32 Speckle field Amplitude Phase CSIR National Laser Centre – p.4/32 Singular phase function CSIR National Laser Centre – p...
Probe shapes that measure time-averaged streamwise momentum and cross-stream turbulence intensity
Rossow, Vernon J. (Inventor)
1993-01-01
A method and apparatus for directly measuring the time-averaged streamwise momentum in a turbulent stream use a probe which has total head response which varies as the cosine-squared of the angle of incidence. The probe has a nose with a slight indentation on its front face for providing the desired response. The method of making the probe incorporates unique design features. Another probe may be positioned in a side-by-side relationship to the first probe to provide a direct measurement of the total pressure. The difference between the two pressures yields the sum of the squares of the cross-stream components of the turbulence level.
Velocity-vorticity correlation structures in compressible turbulent boundary layer
Chen, Jun; Li, Shi-Yao; She, Zhen-Su
2016-11-01
A velocity-vorticity correlation structure (VVCS) analysis is applied to analyze data of 3-dimensional (3-D) direct numerical simulations (DNS), to investigate the quantitative properties of the most correlated vortex structures in compressible turbulent boundary layer (CTBL) at Mach numbers, Ma = 2 . 25 and 6 . 0 . It is found that the geometry variation of the VVCS closely reflects the streamwise development of CTBL. In laminar region, the VVCS captures the instability wave number of the boundary layer. The transition region displays a distinct scaling change of the dimensions of VVCS. The developed turbulence region is characterized by a constant spatial extension of the VVCS. For various Mach numbers, the maximum correlation coefficient of the VVCS presents a clear multi-layer structure with the same scaling laws as a recent symmetry analysis proposed to quantifying the sublayer, the log-layer, and the wake flow. A surprising discovery is that the wall friction coefficient, Cf, holds a "-1"-power law of the wall normal distance of the VVCS, ys. This validates the speculation that the wall friction is determined by the near-wall coherent structure, which clarifies the correlation between statistical structures and the near-wall dynamics. Project 11452002 and 11172006 supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China.
Subwavelength vortical plasmonic lattice solitons.
Ye, Fangwei; Mihalache, Dumitru; Hu, Bambi; Panoiu, Nicolae C
2011-04-01
We present a theoretical study of vortical plasmonic lattice solitons, which form in two-dimensional arrays of metallic nanowires embedded into nonlinear media with both focusing and defocusing Kerr nonlinearities. Their existence, stability, and subwavelength spatial confinement are investigated in detail.
Topological Vortices in Superfluid Films
WANGJun-Ping; DUANYi-Shi
2005-01-01
We study the topological structure of the vortex system in a superfluid film. Explicit expressions for the vortex density and velocity field as functions of the superfluid order parameter are derived. The evolution of vortices is also studied from the topological properties of the superfluid order parameter field.
The velocity shear and vorticity across redshifts and non-linear scales
Libeskind, Noam I; Gottlöber, Stefan
2013-01-01
The evolution of the large scale distribution of matter in the universe is often characterized by the density field. Here we take a complimentary approach and characterize it using the cosmic velocity field, specifically the deformation of the velocity field. The deformation tensor is decomposed into its symmetric component (known as the "shear tensor") and its anti-symmetric part (the "vorticity"). Using a high resolution cosmological simulation we examine the relative orientations of the shear and the vorticity as a function of spatial scale and redshift. The shear is found to be remarkable stable to the choice of scale, while the vorticity is found to quickly decay with increasing spatial scale or redshift. The vorticity emerges out of the linear regime randomly oriented with respect to the shear eigenvectors. Non-linear evolution drives the vorticity to lie within the plane defined by the eigenvector of the fastest collapse. Within that plane the vorticity first gets aligned with the middle eigenvector an...
Interaction of Streamwise and Wall-Normal Velocities in Combined Wave-Current Motion
Shu-Qing YANG; In-Soo KIM; Daniel S. KOH; Young-Chae SONG
2005-01-01
The aim of this paper is to present an analytical expression for the streamwise velocity distribution in a non-uniform flow in the presence of waves; the correlation between the horizontal and vertical velocity components has been comprehensively examined. Different from previous researches which attributed the deviation of velocity from the classical log-law to the wave Reynolds stress, i.e. -ρ(uv)only, this study demonstrates that the momentum flux caused by mean velocities, i.e.,(u)and(v) , is also responsible for the velocity deviation, and it is found that the streamwise velocity for a flow in the presence of non-zero wall-normal velocity does not follow the classical log-law, but the modified log-law proposed in this study based on simplified mixing-length theorem. The validity of the modified log-law has been verified by use of available experimental data from published sources for combined wave-current flows, and good agreement between the predicted and observed velocity profiles has been achieved.
Negative streamwise velocities and other rare events near the wall in turbulent flows
Lenaers, Peter; Li Qiang; Brethouwer, Geert; Schlatter, Philipp; Oerlue, Ramis, E-mail: Lenaers@mech.kth.se [Linne FLOW Centre, KTH Mechanics, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)
2011-12-22
Negative streamwise velocities, extreme wall-normal velocites and high flatness values for the wall-normal fluctuations near the wall are investigated for turbulent channel flow simulations at a series of Reynolds numbers up to Re{sub {tau}} = 1000 in this paper. Probability density functions of the wall-shear stress and velocity components are presented, as well as joint probability density functions of the velocity components and the pressure. Backflow occurs more often (0.06% at Re{sub {tau}} = 1000) and further away from the wall into the buffer layer for rising Reynolds number. An oblique vortex outside the viscous sublayer is found to cause this backflow. Extreme v events occur also more often for rising Reynolds number. Positive and negative velocity spikes appear in pairs, located on the two edges of a strong streamwise vortex: the negative spike occurring in a high speed streak indicating a sweeping motion, while the positive spike is located between a high and low speed streak. These extreme v events cause high flatness values near the wall (F(v) = 43 at Re{sub {tau}} = 1000).
The vorticity and angular momentum budgets of Asian summer monsoon
P L S Rao; U C Mohanty; P V S Raju; M A Arain
2004-09-01
The study delineates the vorticity and angular momentum balances of Asian summer monsoon during the evolution and established phases. It also elucidates the differences between these balances in the National Centre for Environmental Prediction/National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis and the National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (NCM- RWF) analysis fields. The NCEP/NCAR reanalysis for a 40 year period (1958-97) and the NCM- RWF analysis for a three year (1994-96) period are made use of for the purpose. The time mean summer monsoon circulation is bifurcated into stable mean and transient eddy components and the mean component is elucidated. The generation of vorticity due to stretching of isobars balances most of the vorticity transported out of the monsoon domain during the evolution period. However, during the established period, the transportation by the relative and planetary vorticity components exceeds the generation due to stretching. The effective balancing mechanism is provided by vorticity generation due to sub-grid scale processes. The flux convergence of omega and relative momenta over the monsoon domain is effectively balanced by pressure torque during the evolution and established phases. Nevertheless, the balance is stronger during the established period due to the increase in the strength of circulation. Both the NCMRWF and NCEP fields indicate the mean features related to vorticity and angular momentum budgets realistically. Apart from the oceanic bias (strong circulation over oceans rather than continents), the summer monsoon circulation indicated by the NCEP is feeble compared to NCMRWF. The significant terms in the large-scale budgets of vorticity and angular momentum enunciate this aspect.
Vorticity production through rotation, shear and baroclinicity
Del Sordo, Fabio
2010-01-01
In the absence of rotation and shear, and under the assumption of constant temperature or specific entropy, purely potential forcing by localized expansion waves is known to produce irrotational flows that have no vorticity. Here we study the production of vorticity under idealized conditions when there is rotation, shear, or baroclinicity, to address the problem of vorticity generation in the interstellar medium in a systematic fashion. We use three-dimensional periodic box numerical simulations to investigate the various effects in isolation. We find that for slow rotation, vorticity production in an isothermal gas is small in the sense that the ratio of the root-mean-square values of vorticity and velocity is small compared with the wavenumber of the energy carrying motions. For Coriolis numbers above a certain level, vorticity production saturates at a value where the aforementioned ratio becomes comparable with the wavenumber of the energy carrying motions. Shear also raises the vorticity production, but...
Svizher, Alexander; Cohen, Jacob
2006-01-01
A holographic particle image velocimetry (HPIV) system is employed to study the evolution of coherent structures artificially generated in a plane Poiseuille air flow. As a first step the hot-wire technique and two-dimensional flow visualization are used to determine the generation conditions and dimensions of the coherent structures, their shedding frequency, trajectory, and convection velocity. Then, the HPIV method is utilized to obtain the instantaneous topology of the hairpin vortex and its associated three-dimensional distribution of the two (streamwise and spanwise) velocity components as well as the corresponding wall-normal vorticity. Finally, the experimental data are compared with results of related experimental and numerical studies. The present experimental results support the view that the generation of hairpins under various base flow conditions is governed by a basic mechanism, the important common elements of which are the shear of the base flow and an initial disturbance having a sufficiently large amplitude.
Numerical Simulation of Protoplanetary Vortices
2003-12-01
UNCLASSIFIED Center for Turbulence Research 81 Annual Research Briefs 2003 Numerical simulation of protoplanetary vortices By H. Lin, J.A. Barranco t AND P.S...planetesimals and planets. In earlier works ( Barranco & Marcus 2000; Barranco et al. 2000; Lin et al. 2000) we have briefly described the possible physical...transport. In particular, Barranco et al. (2000) provided a general mathe- matical framework that is suitable for the asymptotic regime of the disk
Moarref, Rashad; Tropp, Joel A; McKeon, Beverley J
2013-01-01
We study the Reynolds number scaling of a gain-based, low-rank approximation to turbulent channel flows, determined by the resolvent formulation of McKeon & Sharma (2010), in order to obtain a description of the streamwise turbulence intensity from direct consideration of the Navier-Stokes equations. Under this formulation, the velocity field is decomposed into propagating waves (with single streamwise and spanwise wavelengths and wave speed) whose wall-normal shapes are determined from the principal singular function of the corresponding resolvent operator. We establish that the resolvent formulation admits three classes of wave parameters that induce universal behavior with Reynolds number on the low-rank model, and which are consistent with scalings proposed throughout the wall turbulence literature. For the rank-1 model subject to broadband forcing, the integrated streamwise energy density takes a universal form which is consistent with the dominant near-wall turbulent motions. When the shape of the f...
Vortical structures in a flume
Gurka, R.; Liberzon, A.; Hetsroni, G.
2006-03-01
We report the results of statistical spatial characterization of coherent structures in turbulent boundary layer in a flume. The characterization approach is based on the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) of vorticity, elucidating large-scale coherent patterns in a turbulent boundary layer. The method was successfully applied to the two- and three-dimensional experimental data extracted from particle image velocimetry (PIV), and multi-plane stereoscopic PIV (XPIV) respectively, and the three-dimensional data from direct numerical simulation (DNS) in a channel flow. The large-scale structure was obtained by using linear combination of POD eigenmodes of vorticity. POD allows for methodological analysis of the properties of the educed structure in the different measurement planes (orthogonal in the case of 2D PIV and parallel in the case of XPIV) and in the different cross-sections of the DNS data. Based on the statistical approach we suggest a conceptual model of large-scale coherent structures in a turbulent boundary layer flow that incorporates the experimental and the numerical results. The proposed conceptual model is a spiral vortical structure attached to the wall and expanding in both the spanwise and the wall-normal directions. Its shape resembles a funnel structure and a `double-cone eddy' concept. The relationship of the model to the structures in the near wall region is presented.
Sutyrin, G. G.; Radko, T.
2017-03-01
Nonlinear evolution of pancake-like vortices in a uniformly rotating and stratified fluid is studied using a 3D Boussinesq numerical model at large Rossby numbers. After the initial stage of viscous decay, the simulations reveal exponential growth of toroidal circulation cells (aka Taylor vortices) at the peripheral annulus with a negative Rayleigh discriminant. At the nonlinear stage, these thin cells redistribute the angular momentum and density differently at the levels of radial outflow and inflow. Resulting layering, with a vertical stacking of sharp variations in velocity and density, enhances small-scale mixing and energy decay. Characteristic detectable stretching patterns are produced in the density field. The circulation patterns, induced by centrifugal instability, tend to homogenize the angular momentum in the vicinity of the unstable region. We demonstrate that the peak intensity of the cells and the vortex energy decay are dramatically reduced by the earth's rotation due to conservation of total absolute angular momentum. The results have important implications for better understanding the fate of pancake vortices and physical mechanisms of energy transfer in stratified fluids.
Tidal and residual flows in the western Dutch Wadden Sea III: Vorticity balances
Ridderinkhof, H.
A vorticity-dynamics approach is used to examine the origin of the small-scale residual current field in the western Dutch Wadden Sea. For a representative part of the Wadden Sea, the magnitude of vorticity and of terms in the balance equation for vorticity is determined on the basis of results from a two-dimensional numerical model. The torque from bottom friction along the side walls of the tidal channels appears to be the dominating mechanism in generating tidal relative vorticity, the magnitude of which is much larger than planetary vorticity. Especially near a tidal inlet, stretching and squeezing of fluid columns is of importance in increasing/decreasing relative vorticity. Averaging over a tidal period shows, compared to the tidal equations, an increased influence of the non-linear advective and streching/squeezing terms in the tidally-averaged balance. However, although the relative influence of these strong non-linear terms increases, the influence of the weak non-linear terms originating in bottom friction cannot be ignored. The mechanism responsible for the headland eddies near a tidal inlet and the topographical eddies in the channels of the Wadden Sea is essentially the same, viz. the transfer of vorticity from a source region where this vorticity is produced by differential bottom friction, to adjacent regions. This transfer of tidal vorticity, or advection, is most effective near a transition from straight to curved isobaths where a gradient in the production of tidal vorticity occurs. This is illustrated by showing the vorticity possessed by a particular fluid column during a tidal excursion. The dominant influence of the bathymetry on the small scale residual current pattern is used for a qualitative discussion of the residual flow field in other parts of our numerical model.
Drift and ion acoustic wave driven vortices with superthermal electrons
Ali Shan, S. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); National Centre For Physics (NCP), Shahdra Valley Road, QAU Campus, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan); Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), Islamabad (Pakistan); Haque, Q. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); National Centre For Physics (NCP), Shahdra Valley Road, QAU Campus, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan)
2012-08-15
Linear and nonlinear analysis of coupled drift and acoustic mode is presented in an inhomogeneous electron-ion plasma with {kappa}-distributed electrons. A linear dispersion relation is found which shows that the phase speed of both the drift wave and the ion acoustic wave decreases in the presence of superthermal electrons. Several limiting cases are also discussed. In the nonlinear regime, stationary solutions in the form of dipolar and monopolar vortices are obtained. It is shown that the condition for the boundedness of the solution implies that the speed of drift wave driven vortices reduces with increase in superthermality effect. Ignoring density inhomogeniety, it is investigated that the lower and upper limits on the speed of the ion acoustic driven vortices spread with the inclusion of high energy electrons. The importance of results with reference to space plasmas is also pointed out.
Numerical study of streamwise and cross flow in the presence of heat and mass transfer
Rizwan-ul-Haq; Soomro, Feroz Ahmed; Khan, Z. H.; Al-Mdallal, Qasem M.
2017-05-01
The present model is devoted to investigate the streamwise and cross flow of a viscous fluid over a heated moving surface. Viscous dissipation effects are also considered with heat and mass transfer effects and these effects with cross flow have not been explored yet in the literature. Governing boundary layer equations consist in the form of nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs). Compatible transformations are applied to change such equations into ordinary differential equations which are further solved using the Runge-Kutta technique and shooting method. Linear stability analysis is also performed over the obtained solutions to validate the results and to determine the smallest eigenvalues. Three different kinds of fluids namely: acetone, water and ethaline glycol are investigated to analyse the heat transfer rate. The problem contains important physical parameters namely: Prandtl number, Eckert numbers and Lewis number. The obtained solutions are discussed in detail against each physical parameter using graphs and tables.
Joint Stream-Wise THP Transceiver Design for the Multiuser MIMO Downlink
Miao, Wei; Chen, Xiang; Zhao, Ming; Zhou, Shidong; Wang, Jing
This paper addresses the problem of joint transceiver design for Tomlinson-Harashima Precoding (THP) in the multiuser multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) downlink under both perfect and imperfect channel state information at the transmitter (CSIT). For the case of perfect CSIT, we differ from the previous work by performing stream-wise (both inter-user and intra-user) interference pre-cancelation at the transmitter. A minimum total mean square error (MT-MSE) criterion is used to formulate our optimization problem. By some convex analysis of the problem, we obtain the necessary conditions for the optimal solution. An iterative algorithm is proposed to handle this problem and its convergence is proved. Then we extend our designed algorithm to the robust version by minimizing the conditional expectation of the T-MSE under imperfect CSIT. Simulation results are given to verify the efficacy of our proposed schemes and to show their superiorities over existing MMSE-based THP schemes.
Controlling the onset of turbulence by streamwise traveling waves. Part 1: Receptivity analysis
Moarref, Rashad
2010-01-01
We examine the efficacy of streamwise traveling waves generated by a zero-net-mass-flux surface blowing and suction for controlling the onset of turbulence in a channel flow. For small amplitude actuation, we utilize weakly nonlinear analysis to determine base flow modifications and to assess the resulting net power balance. Receptivity analysis of the velocity fluctuations around this base flow is then employed to design the traveling waves. Our simulation-free approach reveals that, relative to the flow with no control, the downstream traveling waves with properly designed speed and frequency can significantly reduce receptivity which makes them well-suited for controlling the onset of turbulence. In contrast, the velocity fluctuations around the upstream traveling waves exhibit larger receptivity to disturbances. Our theoretical predictions, obtained by perturbation analysis (in the wave amplitude) of the linearized Navier-Stokes equations with spatially periodic coefficients, are verified using full-scale...
Jing Fan; Chong Xie; Jianzheng Jiang
2007-01-01
Measured mass flow rates and streamwise pressure distributions of gas flowing through microchannels were reported by many researchers. Assessment of these data is crucial before they are used in the examination of slip models and numerical schemes, and in the design of microchannel elements in various MEMS devices. On the basis of kinetic solutions of the mass flow rates and pressure distributions in microchannel gas flows, the measured data available are properly normalized and then are compared with each other. The 69 normalized data of measured pressure distributions are in excellent agreement, and 67 of them are within 1 ± 0.05. The normalized data of mass flow-rates ranging between 0.95 and 1 agree well with each other as the inlet Knudsen number Kni ＞ 0.02, but they scat ter between 0.85 and 1.15 as Kni ＜ 0.02 with, to some extent, a very interesting bifurcation trend.
Lieu, Binh K; Jovanović, Mihailo R
2010-01-01
This work builds on and confirms the theoretical findings of Part 1 of this paper, Moarref & Jovanovi\\'c (2010). We use direct numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations to assess the efficacy of blowing and suction in the form of streamwise traveling waves for controlling the onset of turbulence in a channel flow. We highlight the effects of the modified base flow on the dynamics of velocity fluctuations and net power balance. Our simulations verify the theoretical predictions of Part 1 that the upstream traveling waves promote turbulence even when the uncontrolled flow stays laminar. On the other hand, the downstream traveling waves with parameters selected in Part 1 are capable of reducing the fluctuations' kinetic energy, thereby maintaining the laminar flow. In flows driven by a fixed pressure gradient, a positive net efficiency as large as 25 % relative to the uncontrolled turbulent flow can be achieved with downstream waves. Furthermore, we show that these waves can also relaminarize full...
Vortical sources of aerodynamic force and moment
Wu, J. Z.; Wu, J. M.
1989-01-01
It is shown that the aerodynamic force and moment can be expressed in terms of vorticity distribution (and entropy variation for compressible flow) on near wake plane, or in terms of boundary vorticity flux on the body surface. Thus the vortical sources of lift and drag are clearly identified, which is the real physical basis of optimal aerodynamic design. Moreover, these sources are highly compact, hence allowing one to concentrate on key local regions of the configuration, which have dominating effect to the lift and drag. A detail knowledge of the vortical low requires measuring or calculating the vorticity and dilatation field, which is however still a challenging task. Nevertheless, this type of formulation has some unique advantages; and how to set up a well-posed problem, in particular how to establish vorticity-dilatation boundary conditions, is addressed.
Vorticity production through rotation, shear and baroclinicity
Del Sordo, Fabio; Brandenburg, Axel
2010-01-01
In the absence of rotation and shear, and under the assumption of constant temperature or specific entropy, purely potential forcing by localized expansion waves is known to produce irrotational flows that have no vorticity. Here we study the production of vorticity under idealized conditions when there is rotation, shear, or baroclinicity, to address the problem of vorticity generation in the interstellar medium in a systematic fashion. We use three-dimensional periodic box numerical simulat...
"Explosively growing" vortices of unstably stratified atmosphere
Onishchenko, O. G.; Horton, W.; Pokhotelov, O. A.; Fedun, V.
2016-10-01
A new type of "explosively growing" vortex structure is investigated theoretically in the framework of ideal fluid hydrodynamics. It is shown that vortex structures may arise in convectively unstable atmospheric layers containing background vorticity. From an exact analytical vortex solution the vertical vorticity structure and toroidal speed are derived and analyzed. The assumption that vorticity is constant with height leads to a solution that grows explosively when the flow is inviscid. The results shown are in agreement with observations and laboratory experiments
A Vorticity-Magnetic Field Dynamo Instability
1997-01-01
We generalize the mean field magnetic dynamo to include local evolution of the mean vorticity in addition to the mean magnetic field. The coupled equations exhibit a general mean field dynamo instability that enables the transfer of turbulent energy to the magnetic field and vorticity on larger scales. The growth of the vorticity and magnetic field both require helical turbulence which can be supplied by an underlying global rotation. The dynamo coefficients are derived including the backreac...
Vitality of optical vortices (Presentation)
Roux, FS
2014-02-01
Full Text Available stream_source_info Roux3_2014.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 3018 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Roux3_2014.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Title Vitality of optical vortices F Stef... Roux Presented at Complex Light and Optical Force VIII SPIE Photonics West 2014 Moscone Center, San Francisco, California USA 5 February 2014 CSIR National Laser Centre, Pretoria, South Africa – p. 1/11 Speckle Amplitude Phase – p. 2/11 Vortex...
Separation vortices and pattern formation
Andersen, Anders Peter; Bohr, Tomas; Schnipper, Teis
2010-01-01
In this paper examples are given of the importance of flow separation for fluid patterns at moderate Reynolds numbers—both in the stationary and in the time-dependent domain. In the case of circular hydraulic jumps, it has been shown recently that it is possible to generalise the Prandtl–Kármán–P...... results for the vortex patterns behind a flapping foil in a flowing soap film, which shows the interaction and competition between the vortices shed from the round leading edge (like the von Kármán vortex street) and those created at the sharp trailing edge....
Making sound vortices by metasurfaces
Ye, Liping; Qiu, Chunyin, E-mail: cyqiu@whu.edu.cn; Lu, Jiuyang; Tang, Kun; Ke, Manzhu; Peng, Shasha [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Jia, Han [State Key Laboratory of Acoustics and Key Laboratory of Noise and Vibration Research, Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Liu, Zhengyou [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Institute for Advanced Studies, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)
2016-08-15
Based on the Huygens-Fresnel principle, a metasurface structure is designed to generate a sound vortex beam in airborne environment. The metasurface is constructed by a thin planar plate perforated with a circular array of deep subwavelength resonators with desired phase and amplitude responses. The metasurface approach in making sound vortices is validated well by full-wave simulations and experimental measurements. Potential applications of such artificial spiral beams can be anticipated, as exemplified experimentally by the torque effect exerting on an absorbing disk.
Making sound vortices by metasurfaces
Ye, Liping; Lu, Jiuyang; Tang, Kun; Jia, Han; Ke, Manzhu; Peng, Shasha; Liu, Zhengyou
2016-01-01
Based on the Huygens-Fresnel principle, a metasurface structure is designed to generate a sound vortex beam in airborne environment. The metasurface is constructed by a thin planar plate perforated with a circular array of deep subwavelength resonators with desired phase and amplitude responses. The metasurface approach in making sound vortices is validated well by full-wave simulations and experimental measurements. Potential applications of such artificial spiral beams can be anticipated, as exemplified experimentally by the torque effect exerting on an absorbing disk.
Mamori, Hiroya; Yamaguchi, Kyotaro; Sasamori, Monami; Iwamoto, Kaoru; Murata, Akira
2016-11-01
We perform a dual-plane stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (DPS-PIV) measurement to investigate vortical structure over a sinusoidal riblet surface in the turbulent channel flow. In the sinusoidal riblet surface, its lateral spacing of the adjacent walls varies in the streamwise direction and 12% of the drag reduction rate has been confirmed in the turbulent channel flow. The DPS-PIV measurement system consists of four high-speed CCD cameras and the two laser sheets. In the flat case, the profile of the velocity statistics shows a good agreement with previous data. In the ribet case, the velocity statistics decrease in the region close to the wall as compared with that of the flat case. Since all velocity components are measured on adjacent laser sheets simultaneously, vortical structures can be obtained by a second invariant of the tensor i.e. the Q value. According to an analysis for the Q value, we found that the vortical structure is shifted up and attenuated owing to the riblet. Moreover, the riblet prevents the approaching of the vortical structure: the upward and downward flows in the region near the wall are generated by the riblet; if the vortical structure approaches the wall, it is shifted away from the wall due to the upward flow.
Jiang, Chung-Hsiang; Marcus, Philip
2012-11-01
We present numerical calculations of the boundary layers and shed wake vortices behind several aerodynamic bodies and generic models of high-speed trains. Our calculations illustrate new visual diagnostics that we developed that clearly show where the separation of a boundary layer occurs and where, how, and with what angles (with respect to the stream-wise direction) the wake vortices form. The calculations also illustrate novel 3D morphing and mesh ``pushing and pulling'' techniques that allow us to change the shapes of aerodynamic bodies and models in a controlled and automated manner without spurious features appearing. Using these tools we have examined the patterns of the shed vortices behind generic bodies and trains and correlated them with the changes in the drag as well as with the effects of the shed vortices on the environment. In particular, we have applied these techniques to the end car of a next-generation, high-speed train in order to minimize the drag and to minimize the adverse effects of the shed vortices on the track ballast.
Superexchange-Driven Magnetoelectricity in Magnetic Vortices
Delaney, Kris T.; Mostovoy, Maxim; Spaldin, Nicola A.
2009-01-01
We demonstrate that magnetic vortices in which spins are coupled to polar lattice distortions via superexchange exhibit an unusually large linear magnetoelectric response. We show that the periodic arrays of vortices formed by frustrated spins on kagome lattices provide a realization of this concept
Nonquasineutral electron vortices in nonuniform plasmas
Angus, J. R.; Richardson, A. S.; Swanekamp, S. B.; Schumer, J. W. [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, District of Columbia 20375 (United States); Ottinger, P. F. [Engility Corporation, Chantilly, Virginia 20151 (United States)
2014-11-15
Electron vortices are observed in the numerical simulation of current carrying plasmas on fast time scales where the ion motion can be ignored. In plasmas with nonuniform density n, vortices drift in the B × ∇n direction with a speed that is on the order of the Hall speed. This provides a mechanism for magnetic field penetration into a plasma. Here, we consider strong vortices with rotation speeds V{sub ϕ} close to the speed of light c where the vortex size δ is on the order of the magnetic Debye length λ{sub B}=|B|/4πen and the vortex is thus nonquasineutral. Drifting vortices are typically studied using the electron magnetohydrodynamic model (EMHD), which ignores the displacement current and assumes quasineutrality. However, these assumptions are not strictly valid for drifting vortices when δ ≈ λ{sub B}. In this paper, 2D electron vortices in nonuniform plasmas are studied for the first time using a fully electromagnetic, collisionless fluid code. Relatively large amplitude oscillations with periods that correspond to high frequency extraordinary modes are observed in the average drift speed. The drift speed W is calculated by averaging the electron velocity field over the vorticity. Interestingly, the time-averaged W from these simulations matches very well with W from the much simpler EMHD simulations even for strong vortices with order unity charge density separation.
Computational simulations of vorticity enhanced diffusion
Vold, Erik L.
1999-11-01
Computer simulations are used to investigate a phenomenon of vorticity enhanced diffusion (VED), a net transport and mixing of a passive scalar across a prescribed vortex flow field driven by a background gradient in the scalar quantity. The central issue under study here is the increase in scalar flux down the gradient and across the vortex field. The numerical scheme uses cylindrical coordinates centered with the vortex flow which allows an exact advective solution and 1D or 2D diffusion using simple numerical methods. In the results, the ratio of transport across a localized vortex region in the presence of the vortex flow over that expected for diffusion alone is evaluated as a measure of VED. This ratio is seen to increase dramatically while the absolute flux across the vortex decreases slowly as the diffusion coefficient is decreased. Similar results are found and compared for varying diffusion coefficient, D, or vortex rotation time, τv, for a constant background gradient in the transported scalar vs an interface in the transported quantity, and for vortex flow fields constant in time vs flow which evolves in time from an initial state and with a Schmidt number of order unity. A simple analysis shows that for a small diffusion coefficient, the flux ratio measure of VED scales as the vortex radius over the thickness for mass diffusion in a viscous shear layer within the vortex characterized by (Dτv)1/2. The phenomenon is linear as investigated here and suggests that a significant enhancement of mixing in fluids may be a relatively simple linear process. Discussion touches on how this vorticity enhanced diffusion may be related to mixing in nonlinear turbulent flows.
Theory of concentrated vortices an introduction
Alekseenko, S V; Okulov, V L
2007-01-01
Vortex motion is one of the basic states of a flowing continuum. Intere- ingly, in many cases vorticity is space-localized, generating concentrated vortices. Vortex filaments having extremely diverse dynamics are the most characteristic examples of such vortices. Notable examples, in particular, include such phenomena as self-inducted motion, various instabilities, wave generation, and vortex breakdown. These effects are typically ma- fested as a spiral (or helical) configuration of a vortex axis. Many publications in the field of hydrodynamics are focused on vortex motion and vortex effects. Only a few books are devoted entirely to v- tices, and even fewer to concentrated vortices. This work aims to highlight the key problems of vortex formation and behavior. The experimental - servations of the authors, the impressive visualizations of concentrated vortices (including helical and spiral) and pictures of vortex breakdown primarily motivated the authors to begin this work. Later, the approach based on the hel...
Streamwise-body-force-model for rapid simulation combining internal and external flow fields
Cui Rong
2016-10-01
Full Text Available A streamwise-body-force-model (SBFM is developed and applied in the overall flow simulation for the distributed propulsion system, combining internal and external flow fields. In view of axial stage effects, fan or compressor effects could be simplified as body forces along the streamline. These body forces which are functions of local parameters could be added as source terms in Navier-Stokes equations to replace solid boundary conditions of blades and hubs. The validation of SBFM with uniform inlet and distortion inlet of compressors shows that pressure performance characteristics agree well with experimental data. A three-dimensional simulation of the integration configuration, via a blended wing body aircraft with a distributed propulsion system using the SBFM, has been completed. Lift coefficient and drag coefficient agree well with wind tunnel test results. Results show that to reach the goal of rapid integrated simulation combining internal and external flow fields, the computational fluid dynamics method based on SBFM is reasonable.
A statistical model to predict streamwise turbulent dispersion from the wall at small times
Nguyen, Quoc; Papavassiliou, Dimitrios V.
2016-12-01
Data from simulations are used to develop a statistical model that can provide the streamwise dispersion distribution of passive particles released from the wall of a turbulent flow channel. It is found that a three-point gamma probability density function is the statistical distribution that can describe the dispersion of particles with Schmidt numbers ranging from 6 to 2400 at relatively short times after the release of the particles. Scaling arguments are used to physically justify and predict the parameters of the gamma three-point distribution. The model is used to predict particle separation that can occur in turbulent flow under special conditions. Close to the channel wall, turbulent convection is not the dominant transport mechanism, but molecular diffusion can dominate transport depending on the Schmidt number of the particles. This leads to turbulence-induced separation rather than mixing, and the currently proposed model can be used to predict the level of separation. Practically, these results can be applied for separating very small particles or even macromolecules in dilute suspensions.
On the Stability of Dust-Laden Protoplanetary Vortices
Chang, Philip
2010-01-01
The formation of planetesimals via gravitational instability of the dust layer in a protoplanetary disks demands that there be local patches where dust is concentrated by a factor of $\\sim$ a few $\\times 10^3$ over the background value. Vortices in protoplanetary disks may concentrate dust to these values allowing them to be the nurseries of planetesimals. The concentration of dust in the cores of vortices increases the dust-gas ratio of the core compared to the background disk, creating a "heavy vortex." In this work, we show that these vortices are subject to an instability which we have called the heavy-core instability. Using Floquet theory, we show that this instability occurs in elliptical protoplanetary vortices when the gas-dust density of the core of the vortex is heavier than the ambient gas-dust density by a few tens of percent. The heavy-core instability grows very rapidly, with a growth timescale of a few vortex rotation periods. While the nonlinear evolution of this instability remains unknown, ...
Spatio-temporal optical vortices
Jhajj, N; Rosenthal, E W; Zahedpour, S; Wahlstrand, J K; Milchberg, H M
2016-01-01
We present the first experimental, theoretical, and numerical evidence of spatio-temporal optical vortices (STOVs). Quantized STOVs are a fundamental element of the nonlinear collapse and subsequent propagation of short optical pulses in material media. A STOV consists of a ring-shaped null in the electromagnetic field about which the phase is spiral, forming a dynamic torus which is concentric with and tracks the propagating pulse. Depending on the sign of the material dispersion, the local electromagnetic energy flow is saddle or spiral about the STOV. STOVs are born and evolve conserving topological charge; they can be simultaneously created in pairs with opposite windings, or generated from a point null. Our results, here obtained for optical pulse collapse and filamentation in air, are generalizable to a broad class of nonlinearly propagating waves.
Separation vortices and pattern formation
Andersen, Anders Peter; Bohr, Tomas; Schnipper, Teis
2010-01-01
In this paper examples are given of the importance of flow separation for fluid patterns at moderate Reynolds numbers—both in the stationary and in the time-dependent domain. In the case of circular hydraulic jumps, it has been shown recently that it is possible to generalise the Prandtl–Kármán–P...... results for the vortex patterns behind a flapping foil in a flowing soap film, which shows the interaction and competition between the vortices shed from the round leading edge (like the von Kármán vortex street) and those created at the sharp trailing edge.......-time evolution of the sand ripple pattern, which has the surprising features that it breaks the local sand conservation and has long-range interaction, features that can be underpinned by experiments. Very similar vortex dynamics takes place around oscillating structures such as wings and fins. Here, we present...
Breathers on Quantized Superfluid Vortices
Salman, Hayder
2013-01-01
We consider the propagation of breathers along a quantised superfluid vortex. Using the correspondence between the local induction approximation (LIA) and the nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation, we identify a set of initial conditions corresponding to breather solutions of vortex motion governed by the LIA. These initial conditions, which give rise to a long-wavelength modulational instability, result in the emergence of large amplitude perturbations that are localised in both space and time. The emergent structures on the vortex filament are analogous to loop solitons. Although the breather solutions we study are exact solutions of the LIA equations, we demonstrate through full numerical simulations that their key emergent attributes carry over to vortex dynamics governed by the Biot-Savart law and to quantized vortices described by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The breather excitations can lead to self-reconnections, a mechanism that can play an important role within the cross-over range of scales in superfl...
Electroweak Vortices and Gauge Equivalence
MacDowell, Samuel W.; Törnkvist, Ola
Vortex configurations in the electroweak gauge theory are investigated. Two gauge-inequivalent solutions of the field equations, the Z and W vortices, have previously been found. They correspond to embeddings of the Abelian Nielsen-Olesen vortex solution into a U(1) subgroup of SU(2)×U(1). It is shown here that any electroweak vortex solution can be mapped into a solution of the same energy with a vanishing upper component of the Higgs field. The correspondence is a gauge equivalence for all vortex solutions except those for which the winding numbers of the upper and lower Higgs components add to zero. This class of solutions, which includes the W vortex, corresponds to a singular solution in the one-component gauge. The results, combined with numerical investigations, provide an argument against the existence of other vortex solutions in the gauge-Higgs sector of the Standard Model.
Philip, Jimmy; Karp, Michael; Cohen, Jacob
2016-01-01
Streaks and hairpin-vortices are experimentally generated in a laminar plane Poiseuille crossflow by injecting a continuous jet through a streamwise slot normal to the crossflow, with air as the working media. Small disturbances form stable streaks, however, higher disturbances cause the formation of streaks which undergo instability leading to the generation of hairpin vortices. Particular emphasis is placed on the flow conditions close to the generation of hairpin-vortices. Measurements are carried out in the cases of natural and phase-locked disturbance employing smoke visualisation, particle image velocimetry, and hot-wire anemometry, which include, the dominant frequency, wavelength, and the disturbance shape (or eigenfunctions) associated with the coherent part of the velocity field. A linear stability analysis for both one- and two-dimensional base-flows is carried out to understand the mechanism of instability and good agreement of wavelength and eigenfunctions are obtained when compared to the experimental data, and a slight under-prediction of the growth-rates by the linear stability analysis consistent with the final nonlinear stages in transitional flows. Furthermore, an energy analysis for both the temporal and spatial stability analysis revels the dominance of the symmetric varicose mode, again, in agreement with the experiments, which is found to be governed by the balance of the wallnormal shear and dissipative effects rather than the spanwise shear. In all cases the anti-symmetric sinuous modes governed by the spanwise shear are found to be damped both in analysis and in our experiments.
Dynamics of Giant Planet Polar Vortices
Brueshaber, Shawn R.; Sayanagi, Kunio M.
2016-10-01
The polar atmospheres of the giant planets have come under increasing interest since a compact, warm-core, stable, cyclonic polar vortex was discovered at each of Saturn's poles. In addition, the south pole of Neptune appears to have a similar feature, and Uranus' north pole is exhibiting activity that could indicate the formation of a polar vortex. We investigate the formation and maintenance of these giant planet polar vortices by varying several key atmospheric dynamics parameters in a forced-dissipative, 1.5-layer shallow water model. Our simulations are run using the EPIC (Explicit Planetary Isentropic Coordinate) global circulation model, to which we have added a gamma-plane rectangular grid option appropriate for simulating polar atmospheric dynamics.In our numerical simulations, we vary the atmospheric deformation radius, planetary rotation rate, storm forcing intensity, and storm vorticity (cyclone-to-anticyclone) ratio to determine what combination of values favors the formation of a polar vortex. We find that forcing the atmosphere by injecting small-scale mass perturbations ("storms") to form either all cyclones, all anticyclones, or equal numbers of both, may all result in a cyclonic polar vortex. Additionally, we examine the role of eddy momentum convergence in the intensification and maintenance of a polar cyclone.Our simulation results are applicable to understanding all four of the solar system giant planets. In the future, we plan to expand our modeling effort with a more realistic 3D primitive equations model, also with a gamma-plane rectangular grid using EPIC. With our 3D primitive equations model, we will study how various vertical atmospheric stratification structures influence the formation and maintenance of a polar cyclone. While our shallow-water model only involves storms of a single layer, a 3D primitive equations model allows us to study how storms of finite vertical extent and at differing levels in the atmosphere may further favor
Stream-wise distribution of skin-friction drag reduction on a flat plate with bubble injection
Qin, Shijie; Chu, Ning; Yao, Yan; Liu, Jingting; Huang, Bin; Wu, Dazhuan
2017-03-01
To investigate the stream-wise distribution of skin-friction drag reduction on a flat plate with bubble injection, both experiments and simulations of bubble drag reduction (BDR) have been conducted in this paper. Drag reductions at various flow speeds and air injection rates have been tested in cavitation tunnel experiments. Visualization of bubble flow pattern is implemented synchronously. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method, in the framework of Eulerian-Eulerian two fluid modeling, coupled with population balance model (PBM) is used to simulate the bubbly flow along the flat plate. A wide range of bubble sizes considering bubble breakup and coalescence is modeled based on experimental bubble distribution images. Drag and lift forces are fully modeled based on applicable closure models. Both predicted drag reductions and bubble distributions are in reasonable concordance with experimental results. Stream-wise distribution of BDR is revealed based on CFD-PBM numerical results. In particular, four distinct regions with different BDR characteristics are first identified and discussed in this study. Thresholds between regions are extracted and discussed. And it is highly necessary to fully understand the stream-wise distribution of BDR in order to establish a universal scaling law. Moreover, mechanism of stream-wise distribution of BDR is analysed based on the near-wall flow parameters. The local drag reduction is a direct result of near-wall max void fraction. And the near-wall velocity gradient modified by the presence of bubbles is considered as another important factor for bubble drag reduction.
Vorticity in Heavy-Ion Collisions
Deng, Wei-Tian
2016-01-01
We study the event-by-event generation of flow vorticity in RHIC Au + Au collisions and LHC Pb + Pb collisions by using the HIJING model. Different definitions of the vorticity field and velocity field are considered. A variety of properties of the vorticity are explored, including the impact parameter dependence, the collision energy dependence, the spatial distribution, the event-by-event fluctuation of the magnitude and azimuthal direction, and the time evolution. In addition, the spatial distribution of the flow helicity is also studied.
Vorticity in heavy-ion collisions
Deng, Wei-Tian; Huang, Xu-Guang
2016-06-01
We study the event-by-event generation of flow vorticity in the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider Au +Au collisions and CERN Large Hadron Collider Pb +Pb collisions by using the hijing model. Different definitions of the vorticity field and velocity field are considered. A variety of properties of the vorticity are explored, including the impact parameter dependence, the collision energy dependence, the spatial distribution, the event-by-event fluctuation of the magnitude and azimuthal direction, and the time evolution. In addition, the spatial distribution of the flow helicity is also studied.
Correlations between Abelian monopoles and center vortices
Hosseini Nejad, Seyed Mohsen; Deldar, Sedigheh
2017-04-01
We study the correlations between center vortices and Abelian monopoles for SU(3) gauge group. Combining fractional fluxes of monopoles, center vortex fluxes are constructed in the thick center vortex model. Calculating the potentials induced by fractional fluxes constructing the center vortex flux in a thick center vortex-like model and comparing with the potential induced by center vortices, we observe an attraction between fractional fluxes of monopoles constructing the center vortex flux. We conclude that the center vortex flux is stable, as expected. In addition, we show that adding a contribution of the monopole-antimonopole pairs in the potentials induced by center vortices ruins the Casimir scaling at intermediate regime.
Pumir, Alain; Sridhar, S; Argentina, Mederic; Horning, Marcel; Filippi, Simonetta; Cherubini, Christian; Luther, Stefan; Krinsky, Valentin
2009-01-01
A free vortex in excitable media can be displaced and removed by a wave train. Topological charge conservation for waves rotating around an obstacle implies that pinned vortices cannot be removed similarly [N. Wiener & A. Rosenblueth, Arch. Inst. Cardiol. Mexico, {\\bf 16}, 205 (1946)]. We demonstrate that topological charge is not conserved when the core of the vortex is large compared to the pinning center, allowing removal of such vortices. The wave train frequency for unpinning is higher than that for removing a free vortex and increases with the size of the pinning center. Our results suggest that decreasing excitability facilitates removal of vortices in cardiac tissue.
Harrison, D. E.; Holland, W. R.
1981-01-01
A mean vorticity budget analysis is presented of Holland's (1978) numerical ocean general circulation experiment. The stable budgets are compared with classical circulation theory to emphasize the ways in which the mesoscale motions of the model alter (or leave unaltered) classical vorticity balances. The basinwide meridional transports of vorticity by the mean flow and by the mesoscale flow in the mean are evaluated to establish the role(s) of the mesoscale in the larger scale equilibrium vorticity transports. The vorticity equation for this model fluid system is presented and the budget analysis method is described. Vorticity budgets over the selected regions and on a larger scale are given, and a summary of budget results is provided along with remarks about the utility of this type of analysis.
Harrison, D. E.; Holland, W. R.
1981-01-01
A mean vorticity budget analysis is presented of Holland's (1978) numerical ocean general circulation experiment. The stable budgets are compared with classical circulation theory to emphasize the ways in which the mesoscale motions of the model alter (or leave unaltered) classical vorticity balances. The basinwide meridional transports of vorticity by the mean flow and by the mesoscale flow in the mean are evaluated to establish the role(s) of the mesoscale in the larger scale equilibrium vorticity transports. The vorticity equation for this model fluid system is presented and the budget analysis method is described. Vorticity budgets over the selected regions and on a larger scale are given, and a summary of budget results is provided along with remarks about the utility of this type of analysis.
ANALYTICAL SOLUTION OF NONLINEAR BAROTROPIC VORTICITY EQUATION
WANG Yue-peng; SHI Wei-hui
2008-01-01
The stability of nonlinear barotropic vorticity equation was proved. The necessary and sufficient conditions for the initial value problem to be well-posed were presented. Under the conditions of well-posedness, the corresponding analytical solution was also gained.
Vortices in simulations of solar surface convection
Moll, R; Schüssler, M
2011-01-01
We report on the occurrence of small-scale vortices in simulations of the convective solar surface. Using an eigenanalysis of the velocity gradient tensor, we find the subset of high vorticity regions in which the plasma is swirling. The swirling regions form an unsteady, tangled network of filaments in the turbulent downflow lanes. Near-surface vertical vortices are underdense and cause a local depression of the optical surface. They are potentially observable as bright points in the dark intergranular lanes. Vortex features typically exist for a few minutes, during which they are moved and twisted by the motion of the ambient plasma. The bigger vortices found in the simulations are possibly, but not necessarily, related to observations of granular-scale spiraling pathlines in "cork animations" or feature tracking.
LUO Zhexian; LI Chunhu
2008-01-01
Previous studies concerning the interaction of dual vortices have been made generally in the determin-istic framework. In this paper, by using an advection equation model, eight numerical experiments whose integration times are 30 h are performed in order to analyze the interaction of dual vortices and the vortex self-organization in a coexisting system of deterministic and stochastic components. The stochastic compo-nents are introduced into the model by the way that the Iwayama scheme is used to produce the randomly distributed small-scale vortices which are then added into the initial field. The different intensity of the small-scale vortices is described by parameter K being 0.0, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0, respectively. When there is no small-scale vortex (K=0.0), two initially separated meso-beta vortices rotate counterclockwise mutu-ally, and their quasi-final flow pattern is still two separated vortices; after initially incorporating small-scale vortices (K=0.8, 1.0), the two separated meso-beta vortices of initially same intensity gradually evolve into a major and a secondary vortex in time integration. The major vortex pulls the secondary one, which gradually evolves into the spiral band of the major vortex. The quasi-final flow pattern is a self-organized vortex with typhoon-like circulation, and the relative vorticity at its center increases with increasing in K value, suggesting that small-scale vortices feed the self-organized vortex with vorticity. This may be a pos-sible mechanism responsible for changes in the strength of the self-organized vortex. Results also show that the quasi-final pattern not only relates with the initial intensity of the small-scale vortices, but also with their initial distribution. In addition, three experiments are also performed in the case of various boundary conditions. Firstly, the periodic condition is used on the E-W boundary, but the fixed condition on the S-N boundary; secondly, the fixed condition is set on all the
Refutation of stability proofs for dipole vortices
Nycander, J.
1992-01-01
Five stability proofs for dipole vortices (modons) that have been presented by various authors are examined. It is shown that they are all incorrect, and that westward-propagating dipoles are in fact unstable, in contradiction to some of the proofs.......Five stability proofs for dipole vortices (modons) that have been presented by various authors are examined. It is shown that they are all incorrect, and that westward-propagating dipoles are in fact unstable, in contradiction to some of the proofs....
Chaotic vortical flows and their manifestations
Baznat, M.; Gudima, K.; Sorin, A.; Teryaev, O.
2016-11-01
We study vorticity and hydrodynamic helicity in semi-peripheral heavy-ion collisions using the kinetic model of Quark-Gluon Strings. The angular momentum, which is a source of P-odd observables, is preserved with a good accuracy. We observe formation of the specific toroidal structures of the vorticity field. Their existence, accompanied by the strange chemical potential, is mirrored in the polarization of hyperons of the percent order.
A Climatological Investigation of the Activity of Summer Subtropical Vortices
LUO Zhexian; DAI Kan
2008-01-01
By applying a new vortex detection method to the ECMWF 40-yr reanalysis (ERA40) data from 1985 to 2002, the climatology of summer vortices has been investigated in five subtropical regions, i.e., the northwestern Pacific, northeastern Pacific, northwestern Atlantic, northeastern Atlantic, and Australia-South Pacific, followed by validation with NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data. Results are as follows: (1) The spatial distributions of ERA40 vortex activities (VAC) were well consistent with those of NCEP/NCAR reanalysis (NRA) results in all regions, especially in northwestern Pacific. (2) Because of different model resolutions, both the number and intensity of vortices obtained from NRA were significantly weaker thanERA40's. (3) Vortices mainly cruised in coasts and the adjacent seas, from where to the land or the open sea vortex activities were gradually decreased. (4) There were two active centers in the northwestern Pacific:one was located in South China Sea and the other, as the largest center of the five regions, spread from the east side of the Philippines to Japan. (5) Over the northwestern Atlantic, most vortices occurred in Panama and its west-side offshore. (6) The spatial distributions of vortices were alike between the northeastern Pacific and northeastern Atlantic, both spreading from coasts to the west-side sea at 5°-20°N. (7) In the Anstralia-South Pacific, vortices were not as active as those in the other four regions, and mostly took place in the equator-side of near ocean areas. (8) Except the northwestern Pacific and northwestern Atlantic, the VAC interannual variations in the other three regions were different between ERA40 and NRA data. (9)In the northwestern Pacific and northwestern Atlantic, the VAC interannual variation could be separated to several distinct stages. (10) Since the mid 1980s, mean vortex intensity was getting increased in the northwestern Pacific, which was most significant in the subtropical areas on a global basis. In the western
Generation and propagation of optical vortices
Rozas, David
Optical vortices are singularities in phase fronts of laser beams. They are characterized by a dark core whose size (relative to the size of the background beam) may dramatically affect their behavior upon propagation. Previously, only large-core vortices have been extensively studied. The object of the research presented in this dissertation was to explore ways of generating small-core optical vortices (also called optical vortex filaments ), and to examine their propagation using analytical, numerical and experimental methods. Computer-generated holography enabled us to create arbitrary distributions of optical vortex filaments for experimental exploration. Hydrodynamic analogies were used to develop an heuristic model which described the dependence of vortex motion on other vortices and the background beam, both qualitatively and quantitatively. We predicted that pair of optical vortex filaments will rotate with angular rates inversely proportional to their separation distance (just like vortices in a fluid). We also reported the first experimental observation of this novel fluid-like effect. It was found, however, that upon propagation in linear media, the fluid-like rotation was not sustained owing to the overlap of diffracting vortex cores. Further numerical studies and experiments showed that rotation angle may be enhanced in nonlinear self-defocusing media. The results presented in this thesis offer us a better understanding of dynamics of propagating vortices which may result in applications in optical switching, optical data storage, manipulation of micro-particles and optical limiting for eye protection.
Vortices and vortex lattices in quantum ferrofluids
Martin, A. M.; Marchant, N. G.; O’Dell, D. H. J.; Parker, N. G.
2017-03-01
The experimental realization of quantum-degenerate Bose gases made of atoms with sizeable magnetic dipole moments has created a new type of fluid, known as a quantum ferrofluid, which combines the extraordinary properties of superfluidity and ferrofluidity. A hallmark of superfluids is that they are constrained to rotate through vortices with quantized circulation. In quantum ferrofluids the long-range dipolar interactions add new ingredients by inducing magnetostriction and instabilities, and also affect the structural properties of vortices and vortex lattices. Here we give a review of the theory of vortices in dipolar Bose–Einstein condensates, exploring the interplay of magnetism with vorticity and contrasting this with the established behaviour in non-dipolar condensates. We cover single vortex solutions, including structure, energy and stability, vortex pairs, including interactions and dynamics, and also vortex lattices. Our discussion is founded on the mean-field theory provided by the dipolar Gross–Pitaevskii equation, ranging from analytic treatments based on the Thomas–Fermi (hydrodynamic) and variational approaches to full numerical simulations. Routes for generating vortices in dipolar condensates are discussed, with particular attention paid to rotating condensates, where surface instabilities drive the nucleation of vortices, and lead to the emergence of rich and varied vortex lattice structures. We also present an outlook, including potential extensions to degenerate Fermi gases, quantum Hall physics, toroidal systems and the Berezinskii–Kosterlitz–Thouless transition.
Are vortices in rotating superfluids breaking the Weak Equivalence Principle?
de Matos, Clovis Jacinto
2009-01-01
Due to the breaking of gauge symmetry in rotating superfluid Helium, the inertial mass of a vortex diverges with the vortex size. The vortex inertial mass is thus much higher than the classical inertial mass of the vortex core. An equal increase of the vortex gravitational mass is questioned. The possibility that the vortices in a rotating superfluid could break the weak equivalence principle in relation with a variable speed of light in the superfluid vacuum is debated. Experiments to test this possibility are investigated on the bases that superfluid Helium vortices would not fall, under the single influence of a uniform gravitational field, at the same rate as the rest of the superfluid Helium mass.
Extreme-Ultraviolet Vortices from a Free-Electron Laser
Primož Rebernik Ribič
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Extreme-ultraviolet vortices may be exploited to steer the magnetic properties of nanoparticles, increase the resolution in microscopy, and gain insight into local symmetry and chirality of a material; they might even be used to increase the bandwidth in long-distance space communications. However, in contrast to the generation of vortex beams in the infrared and visible spectral regions, production of intense, extreme-ultraviolet and x-ray optical vortices still remains a challenge. Here, we present an in-situ and an ex-situ technique for generating intense, femtosecond, coherent optical vortices at a free-electron laser in the extreme ultraviolet. The first method takes advantage of nonlinear harmonic generation in a helical undulator, producing vortex beams at the second harmonic without the need for additional optical elements, while the latter one relies on the use of a spiral zone plate to generate a focused, micron-size optical vortex with a peak intensity approaching 10^{14} W/cm^{2}, paving the way to nonlinear optical experiments with vortex beams at short wavelengths.
Nonautonomous Vortices in (2+1)-Dimensional Graded-Index Waveguide
Lai, Xian-Jing; Cai, Xiao-Ou; Zhang, Jie-Fang
2015-05-01
With the help of self-similarity transformation, we construct and study the nonautonomous vortices with different topological charges inside a planar graded-index nonlinear waveguide, analytically, and numerically. Although these vortices are approximate, they can reflect the real properties of self-similar optical beam during a short-term propagation. Existence of these autonomous vortices require delicate balances between the system parameters such as diffraction, nonlinearity, gain, and external potential. We are concerned with some special but interesting situations, and discussing the changes of the height, width, energy, and central position of the vortices as the increase of propagation distance. Moreover, we are also interested in the azimuthal modulational instability of the system, and comparing our prediction for the modulational instability growth rates to numerical results.
Pirrung, Georg
is where the major part of the aerodynamic work is generated. The aerodynamic model is further applied to determine the critical speed of a freely rotating wind turbine rotor with respect to the aeroelastic instability classical flutter. The NREL 5MW reference turbine is used for the computations......-of-plane vibrations agrees much better with high fidelity models. Further, the trailed vorticity effects on the aerodynamic work are found to be of the same order of magnitude as the shed vorticity effects. The trailed vorticity effects are, however, mainly important close to the tip in the investigated cases, which......, but the torsional and flapwise stiffness are varied between 70% and 130% of their original value to obtain more general results. In all computed cases, the trailed vorticity increases the critical rotor speeds by four to ten percent. Future work is to compute a full load basis using the new aerodynamic model...
Chirp-driven giant phase space vortices
Trivedi, Pallavi; Ganesh, Rajaraman
2016-06-01
In a collisionless, unbounded, one-dimensional plasma, modelled using periodic boundary conditions, formation of steady state phase space coherent structures or phase space vortices (PSV) is investigated. Using a high resolution one-dimensional Vlasov-Poisson solver based on piecewise-parabolic advection scheme, the formation of giant PSV is addressed numerically. For an infinitesimal external drive amplitude and wavenumber k, we demonstrate the existence of a window of chirped external drive frequency that leads to the formation of giant PSV. The linear, small amplitude, external drive, when chirped, is shown to couple effectively to the plasma and increase both streaming of "untrapped" and "trapped" particle fraction. The steady state attained after the external drive is turned off and is shown to lead to a giant PSV with multiple extrema and phase velocities, with excess density fraction, defined as the deviation from the Maxwellian background, Δ n / n 0 ≃ 20 % - 25 % . It is shown that the process depends on the chirp time duration Δt. The excess density fraction Δn/n0, which contains both trapped and untrapped particle contribution, is also seen to scale with Δt, only inhibited by the gradient of the distribution in velocity space. Both single step drive and multistep chirp processes are shown to lead to steady state giant PSV, with multiple extrema due to embedded holes and clumps, long after the external drive is turned off.
Streamwise Evolution of Statistical Events in a Model Wind-Turbine Array
Viestenz, Kyle; Cal, Raúl Bayoán
2016-02-01
Hot-wire anemometry data, obtained from a wind-tunnel experiment containing a 3 × 3 model wind-turbine array, are used to conditionally average the Reynolds stresses. Nine profiles at the centreline behind the array are analyzed to characterize the turbulent velocity statistics of the wake flow. Quadrant analysis yields statistical events occurring in the wake of the wind farm where quadrants 2 and 4 produce ejections and sweeps, respectively. The scaled difference between these two events is expressed via the Δ R0 parameter and is based on the Δ S0 quantity as introduced by M. R. Raupach (J Fluid Mech 108:363-382, 1981). Δ R0 attains a maximum value at hub height and changes sign near the top of the rotor. The ratio of quadrant events of upward momentum flux to those of the downward flux, known as the exuberance, is examined and reveals the effect of root vortices persisting to eight rotor diameters downstream. These events are then associated with the triple correlation term present in the turbulent kinetic energy equation of the fluctuations where it is found that ejections play the dual role of entraining mean kinetic energy while convecting turbulent kinetic energy out of the turbine canopy. The development of these various quantities possesses significance in closure models, and is assessed in light of wake remediation, energy transport and power fluctuations, where it is found that the maximum fluctuation is about 30% of the mean power produced.
Stability of helical tip vortices in a rotor far wake
Okulov, Valery; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
2007-01-01
, corresponding to Rankine, Gaussian and Scully vortices, at radial extents ranging from the core radius of a tip vortex to several rotor radii. The analysis shows that the stability of tip vortices largely depends on the radial extent of the hub vorticity as well as on the type of vorticity distribution. As part......As a means of analysing the stability of the wake behind a multi-bladed rotor the stability of a multiplicity of helical vortices embedded in an assigned flow field is addressed. In the model the tip vortices in the far wake are approximated by infinitely long helical vortices with constant pitch...... and radius. The work is a further development of a model developed in Okulov (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 521, p. 319) in which the linear stability of N equally azimuthally spaced helical vortices was considered. In the present work the analysis is extended to include an assigned vorticity field due to root...
Reconstruction of Propagating Kelvin-Helmholtz Vortices at Mercury's Magnetopause
Sundberg, Torbjoern; Boardsen, Scott A.; Slavin, James A.; Blomberg, Lars G.; Cumnock, Judy A.; Solomon, Sean C.; Anderson, Brian J.; Korth, Haje
2011-01-01
A series of quasi-periodic magnetopause crossings were recorded by the MESSENGER spacecraft during its third flyby of Mercury on 29 September 2009, likely caused by a train of propagating Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) vortices. We here revisit the observations to study the internal structure of the waves. Exploiting MESSENGER s rapid traversal of the magnetopause, we show that the observations permit a reconstruction of the structure of a rolled-up KH vortex directly from the spacecraft s magnetic field measurements. The derived geometry is consistent with all large-scale fluctuations in the magnetic field data, establishes the non-linear nature of the waves, and shows their vortex-like structure. In several of the wave passages, a reduction in magnetic field strength is observed in the middle of the wave, which is characteristic of rolled-up vortices and is related to the increase in magnetic pressure required to balance the centrifugal force on the plasma in the outer regions of a vortex, previously reported in computer simulations. As the KH wave starts to roll up, the reconstructed geometry suggests that the vortices develop two gradual transition regions in the magnetic field, possibly related to the mixing of magnetosheath and magnetospheric plasma, situated at the leading edges from the perspectives of both the magnetosphere and the magnetosheath.
Vortices in Bose-Einstein condensates: A review of the experimental results
R Srinivasan
2006-01-01
Rotating dilute Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) of alkali atoms offer a testing ground for theories of vortices in weakly interacting superfluids. In a rotating superfluid, quantised vortices, with a vorticity h/m, form above a critical velocity. Such vortices have been generated in BEC of alkali atoms by different techniques such as (a) wave function engineering of a two-component BEC, (b) decay of solitons, (c) rotation of a thermal cloud before cooling it below the condensation temperature, (d) stirring with an `optical' spoon, (e) rotating a deformation in the anisotropic trap in which the condensate is trapped and (f ) by creating Berry phase by adiabatically reversing the axial magnetic field. Since the core of a vortex is a fraction of a micrometer in diameter, it cannot be directly imaged optically. The condensate with vortices is allowed to ballistically expand till the size increases by one order before the vortices are imaged. Surface wave spectroscopy and the change in aspect ratio of a rotating cloud are the other techniques used. Studies have been made on the creation and dynamics of single vortex and on systems with more than a hundred vortices. Results have been obtained on vortex nucleation, stability of vortex structures, nature of the vortex lattice and defects in such a lattice. Important results are: (a) evidence exists that vortex nucleation takes place by a surface mode instability; but this is not the only mechanism; (b) the vortex lattice is perfectly triangular right up to the edge; (c) in the initial stages of rotation of the cloud a tangled web of vortices is seen; it takes a few hundred milliseconds before the vortices arrange themselves in a lattice; this time appears to be independent of temperature; (d) the decay of vortices appears to arise from the transfer of energy to the rotating thermal component and is dependent on temperature; (e) defects in the lattices such as dislocations and grain boundaries are seen; (f) transverse
Viscous tilting and production of vorticity in homogeneous turbulence
Holzner, M.; Guala, M.; Lüthi, B.; Liberzon, A.; Nikitin, N.; Kinzelbach, W.; Tsinober, A.
2010-06-01
Viscous depletion of vorticity is an essential and well known property of turbulent flows, balancing, in the mean, the net vorticity production associated with the vortex stretching mechanism. In this letter, we, however, demonstrate that viscous effects are not restricted to a mere destruction process, but play a more complex role in vorticity dynamics that is as important as vortex stretching. Based on the results from three dimensional particle tracking velocimetry experiments and direct numerical simulation of homogeneous and quasi-isotropic turbulence, we show that the viscous term in the vorticity equation can also locally induce production of vorticity and changes of the orientation of the vorticity vector (viscous tilting).
Modulation of leading edge vorticity and aerodynamic forces in flexible flapping wings.
Zhao, Liang; Deng, Xinyan; Sane, Sanjay P
2011-09-01
In diverse biological flight systems, the leading edge vortex has been implicated as a flow feature of key importance in the generation of flight forces. Unlike fixed wings, flapping wings can translate at higher angles of attack without stalling because their leading edge vorticity is more stable than the corresponding fixed wing case. Hence, the leading edge vorticity has often been suggested as the primary determinant of the high forces generated by flapping wings. To test this hypothesis, it is necessary to modulate the size and strength of the leading edge vorticity independently of the gross kinematics while simultaneously monitoring the forces generated by the wing. In a recent study, we observed that forces generated by wings with flexible trailing margins showed a direct dependence on the flexural stiffness of the wing. Based on that study, we hypothesized that trailing edge flexion directly influences leading edge vorticity, and thereby the magnitude of aerodynamic forces on the flexible flapping wings. To test this hypothesis, we visualized the flows on wings of varying flexural stiffness using a custom 2D digital particle image velocimetry system, while simultaneously monitoring the magnitude of the aerodynamic forces. Our data show that as flexion decreases, the magnitude of the leading edge vorticity increases and enhances aerodynamic forces, thus confirming that the leading edge vortex is indeed a key feature for aerodynamic force generation in flapping flight. The data shown here thus support the hypothesis that camber influences instantaneous aerodynamic forces through modulation of the leading edge vorticity.
What can vortices tell us about vocal fold vibration and voice production.
Khosla, Sid; Murugappan, Shanmugam; Gutmark, Ephraim
2008-06-01
Much clinical research on laryngeal airflow has assumed that airflow is unidirectional. This review will summarize what additional knowledge can be obtained about vocal fold vibration and voice production by studying rotational motion, or vortices, in laryngeal airflow. Recent work suggests two types of vortices that may strongly contribute to voice quality. The first kind forms just above the vocal folds during glottal closing, and is formed by flow separation in the glottis; these flow separation vortices significantly contribute to rapid closing of the glottis, and hence, to producing loudness and high frequency harmonics in the acoustic spectrum. The second is a group of highly three-dimensional and coherent supraglottal vortices, which can produce sound by interaction with structures in the vocal tract. Present work is also described that suggests that certain laryngeal pathologies, such as asymmetric vocal fold tension, will significantly modify both types of vortices, with adverse impact on sound production: decreased rate of glottal closure, increased broadband noise, and a decreased signal to noise ratio. Recent research supports the hypothesis that glottal airflow contains certain vortical structures that significantly contribute to voice quality.
Use of acoustic vortices in acoustic levitation
Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Santillan, Arturo Orozco; Juhl, Peter Møller
2009-01-01
Acoustic fields are known to exert forces on the surfaces of objects. These forces are noticeable if the sound pressure is sufficiently high. Two phenomena where acoustic forces are relevant are: i) acoustic levitation, where strong standing waves can hold small objects at certain positions......, counterbalancing their weight, and ii) acoustic vortices, spinning sound fields that can impinge angular momentum and cause rotation of objects. In this contribution, both force-creating sound fields are studied by means of numerical simulations. The Boundary Element Method is employed to this end. The simulation...... of acoustical vortices uses an efficient numerical implementation based on the superposition of two orthogonal sound fields with a delay of 90° between them. It is shown that acoustic levitation and the use of acoustic vortices can be combined to manipulate objects in an efficient and controlled manner without...
Vortices and vortex lattices in quantum ferrofluids
Martin, A M; O'Dell, D H J; Parker, N G
2016-01-01
The achievement of quantum-degenerate Bose gases composed of atoms with sizeable magnetic dipole moments has realized quantum ferrofluids, a form of fluid which combines the extraordinary properties of superfluidity and ferrofluidity. A hallmark of superfluids is that they are constrained to circulate through vortices with quantized circulation. These excitations underpin a variety of rich phenomena, including vortex lattices, quantum turbulence, the Berenzinksii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition and Kibble-Zurek defect formation. Here we provide a comprehensive review of the theory of vortices and vortex lattices in quantum ferrofluids created from dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates, exploring the interplay of magnetism with vorticity and contrasting this with the established behaviour in non-dipolar condensates. Our discussion is based on the mean-field theory provided by the dipolar Gross-Pitaevskii equation, from analytic treatments based on the Thomas-Fermi and variational approaches to full numerical simula...
Stability of periodic arrays of vortices
Dauxois, T; Tuckerman, L S; Dauxois, Thierry; Fauve, Stephan; Tuckerman, Laurette
1995-01-01
The stability of periodic arrays of Mallier-Maslowe or Kelvin-Stuart vortices is discussed. We derive with the energy-Casimir stability method the nonlinear stability of this solution in the inviscid case as a function of the solution parameters and of the domain size. We exhibit the maximum size of the domain for which the vortex street is stable. By adapting a numerical time-stepping code, we calculate the linear stability of the Mallier-Maslowe solution in the presence of viscosity and compensating forcing. Finally, the results are discussed and compared to a recent experiment in fluids performed by Tabeling et al.~[Europhysics Letters {\\bf 3}, 459 (1987)]. Electromagnetically driven counter-rotating vortices are unstable above a critical electric current, and give way to co-rotating vortices. The importance of the friction at the bottom of the experimental apparatus is also discussed.
Cosmological Perturbations: Vorticity, Isocurvature and Magnetic Fields
Christopherson, Adam J
2014-01-01
In this paper I review some recent, interlinked, work undertaken using cosmological perturbation theory -- a powerful technique for modelling inhomogeneities in the Universe. The common theme which underpins these pieces of work is the presence of non-adiabatic pressure, or entropy, perturbations. After a brief introduction covering the standard techniques of describing inhomogeneities in both Newtonian and relativistic cosmology, I discuss the generation of vorticity. As in classical fluid mechanics, vorticity is not present in linearized perturbation theory (unless included as an initial condition). Allowing for entropy perturbations, and working to second order in perturbation theory, I show that vorticity is generated, even in the absence of vector perturbations, by purely scalar perturbations, the source term being quadratic in the gradients of first order energy density and isocurvature, or non-adiabatic pressure perturbations. This generalizes Crocco's theorem to a cosmological setting. I then introduc...
On n-quantum vortices in superconductors
Marchenko, V I
2002-01-01
The conditions of the n-quantum vortices observation in the superconductors are discussed. It is established in the course of calculating the coefficient by the |psi| sup 6 (psi - the order parameter) in the Ginzburg-Landau theory for the BCS standard model that the sign of this coefficient is negative. This favours the possibility of observing the n-quantum vortices in the superconductors, wherein the vortex lattice with gravitation is formed. The existence of gravitation is manifested in the magnetization finite jump in the H sub 0 = H sub c sub sup 1 field. When by the temperature change the superconductor behavior changes in such a way, that its magnetization in the H sub 0 = H sub c field reduces to the zero, than the observation of the n-quantum vortices near this transition is possible
Up-Sliding Slantwise Vorticity Development and the Complete Vorticity Equation with Mass Forcing
崔晓鹏; 高守亭; 吴国雄
2003-01-01
The moist potential vorticity (MPV) equation is derived from complete atmospheric equations includingthe effect of mass forcing, with which the theory of Up-sliding Slantwise Vorticity Development (USVD)is proposed based on the theory of Slantwise Vorticity Development (SVD). When an air parcel slides upalong a slantwise isentropic surface, its vertical component of relative vorticity will develop, and the steeperthe isentropic surface is, the more violent the development will be. From the definition of MPV and theMPV equation produced here in, a complete vorticity equation is then put forward with mass forcing, whichexplicitly includes the effects of both internal forcings, such as variations of stability, baroclinicity, andvertical shear of horizontal wind, and external forcings, such as diabatic heating, friction, and mass forcing.When isentropic surfaces are flat, the complete vorticity equation matches its traditional counterpart. Thephysical interpretations of some of the items which are included in the complete vorticity equation butnot in the traditional one are studied with a simplified model of the Changjiang-Huaihe Meiyu front. A60-h simulation is then performed to reproduce a torrential rain event in the Changjiang-Huaihe regionand the output of the model is studied qualitatively based on the theory of USVD. The result shows thatthe conditions of the theory of USVD are easily satisfied immediately in front of mesoscale rainstorms inthe downwind direction, that is, the theory of USVD is important to the development and movement ofthese kinds of systems.
Vorticity Confinement Applied to Turbulent Wing Tip Vortices for Wake-Integral Drag Prediction
Pierson, Kristopher; Povitsky, Alex
2013-11-01
In the current study the vorticity confinement (VC) approach was applied to tip vortices shed by edges of stationary wings in order to predict induced drag by far-field integration in Trefftz plane. The VC parameter was evaluated first by application to convection of vortices in 2-D uniform flow and then to tip vortices shed in 3-D simulation of finite-aspect ratio rectangular wing in subsonic flight. Dependence of VC parameter on the flight Mach number and the angle of attack was evaluated. The aerodynamic drag results with application of VC to prevent numerical diffusion are much closer to analytic lifting line theory compared to integration over surface of wing while the viscous profile drag is more accurately evaluated by surface integration. To apply VC to viscous and turbulent flows, it is shown that VC does not affect the physical rate of dissipation of vortices in viscous/turbulent flows at time scales corresponding to convection of vortices from the wing to Trefftz plane of integration. To account for turbulent effects on tip vortices, VC was applied in combination with Spalart-Allmaras, k- ɛ, and six Reynolds stresses models of turbulence. The results are compared to experiments to validate the physical dissipation of tip vortex. This research was supported by The Dayton Area Graduate Studies Institute (DAGSI) and US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) grants in 2009-2013, US Army Research Office (ARO) in 2012-2013 and ASEE/AFRL summer faculty grant.
Slow light vortices in periodic waveguides
Sukhorukov, Andrey A.; Ha, Sangwoo; Desyatnikov, Anton S.
2009-01-01
We reveal that the reduction of the group velocity of light in periodic waveguides is generically associated with the presence of vortex energy flows. We show that the energy flows are gradually frozen for slow-light at the Brillouin zone edge, whereas vortices persist for slow-light states havin...... non-vanishing phase velocity inside the Brillouin zone. We also demonstrate that presence of vortices can be linked to the absence of slow-light at the zone edge, and present calculations illustrating these general results....
Slow-light vortices in periodic waveguides
Sukhorukov, Andrey A.; Ha, Sangwoo; Desyatnikov, Anton S.
2009-01-01
We reveal that the reduction of the group velocity of light in periodic waveguides is generically associated with the presence of vortex energy flows. We show that the energy flows are gradually frozen for slow-light at the Brillouin zone edge, whereas vortices persist for slow-light states havin...... non-vanishing phase velocity inside the Brillouin zone. We also demonstrate that presence of vortices can be linked to the absence of slow-light at the zone edge, and present calculations illustrating these general results....
Use of acoustic vortices in acoustic levitation
Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Santillan, Arturo Orozco; Juhl, Peter Møller
2009-01-01
Acoustic fields are known to exert forces on the surfaces of objects. These forces are noticeable if the sound pressure is sufficiently high. Two phenomena where acoustic forces are relevant are: i) acoustic levitation, where strong standing waves can hold small objects at certain positions...... of acoustical vortices uses an efficient numerical implementation based on the superposition of two orthogonal sound fields with a delay of 90° between them. It is shown that acoustic levitation and the use of acoustic vortices can be combined to manipulate objects in an efficient and controlled manner without...
Inward propagating chemical waves in Taylor vortices.
Thompson, Barnaby W; Novak, Jan; Wilson, Mark C T; Britton, Melanie M; Taylor, Annette F
2010-04-01
Advection-reaction-diffusion (ARD) waves in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction in steady Taylor-Couette vortices have been visualized using magnetic-resonance imaging and simulated using an adapted Oregonator model. We show how propagating wave behavior depends on the ratio of advective, chemical and diffusive time scales. In simulations, inward propagating spiral flamelets are observed at high Damköhler number (Da). At low Da, the reaction distributes itself over several vortices and then propagates inwards as contracting ring pulses--also observed experimentally.
Dust Devils and Convective Vortices on Mars
Ordonez-Etxeberria, I.; Hueso, R.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.
2017-03-01
Dust devils are low pressure convective vortices able to lift dust from the surface of a planet. They are a common feature on Mars and they can also be found on desertic locations on Earth. On Mars they are considered an important part of the atmospheric dust cycle. Dust in Mars is an essential ingredient of the atmosphere where it affects the radiative balance of the planet. Here we review observations of these dusty vortices from orbit, from in situ measurements on the surface of Mars and some of the models developed to simulate them.
Horizontal Roll Vortices and Crown Fires.
Haines, Donald A.
1982-06-01
Observational evidence from nine crown fires suggests that horizontal roll vortices are a major mechanism in crown-fire spread. Post-burn aerial photography indicates that unburned tree-crown streets are common with crown fire. Investigation of the understory of these crown streets after two fires showed uncharred tree trunks along a center line. This evidence supports a hypothesis of vortex action causing strong downward motion of air along the streets. Additionally, photographs of two ongoing crown fires show apparent horizontal roll vortices. Discussion also includes laboratory and numerical studies in fluid dynamics that may apply to crown fires.
Tracking Surface Cyclones with Moist Potential Vorticity
Zuohao CAO; Da-Lin ZHANG
2004-01-01
Surface cyclone tracks are investigated in the context of moist potential vorticity (MPV). A prognostic equation of surface absolute vorticity is derived which provides a basis for using negative MPV (NMPV) in the troposphere as an alternative approach to track surface cyclones. An observed case study of explosive lee cyclogenesis is performed to test the effectiveness of the MPV approach. It is shown that when a surface cyclone signal is absent due to the blocking of the Rocky Mountains, the surface cyclone can be well identified by tracing the peak NMPV.
Characterizing the formation and regeneration of hairpin vortices in a laminar boundary layer
Sabatino, Daniel R.; Maharjan, Rijan
2015-12-01
A free surface water channel is used to study hairpin vortex formation created by fluid injection through a narrow slot into a laminar boundary layer. Particle image velocimetry flow-field measurements of injections into quiescent cross-flow conditions confirm that elongated ring vortices are produced with a nondimensionalized circulation strength that is approximately linear with formation time. Unlike circular ring vortices, a limiting strength is not observed at a nondimensional formation time of 4 due to the proximity of the counter-rotating vortex pair. Identical injections are made into a laminar boundary layer at different free-stream velocities and streamwise slot positions (485 ≤ Reδ∗ ≤ 584) with average injection velocity ratios between 0.08 and 0.16. Visualizations indicate that the shear layer between the low x-momentum injected fluid and the boundary layer creates a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability that forms the hairpin vortex head which then monotonically decreases in circulation strength with downstream distance. A similar process can form, or regenerate, a secondary hairpin vortex upstream of the primary vortex with a circulation strength of the head that is comparable to the strength of the primary head at the time of regeneration. However, the legs of the primary vortex continue to strengthen up to regeneration. The peak circulation in the legs is not directly correlated to the strength of the original elongated ring vortex. However, when the circulation is scaled with the injection momentum ratio it is linearly related to scaled injection time. It is proposed that the injection momentum ratio and nondimensionalized injection time based on the wall normal penetration time can be used to identify threshold conditions which produce a secondary vortex. It is suggested that this criterion may be used to identify the minimum strength of flow structures that would be capable of regeneration and thus transition initiation.
Experimental characterization of wingtip vortices in the near field using smoke flow visualizations
Serrano-Aguilera, J. J.; García-Ortiz, J. Hermenegildo; Gallardo-Claros, A.; Parras, L.; del Pino, C.
2016-08-01
In order to predict the axial development of the wingtip vortices strength, an accurate theoretical model is required. Several experimental techniques have been used to that end, e.g. PIV or hot-wire anemometry, but they imply a significant cost and effort. For this reason, we have performed experiments using the smoke-wire technique to visualize smoke streaks in six planes perpendicular to the main stream flow direction. Using this visualization technique, we obtained quantitative information regarding the vortex velocity field by means of Batchelor's model for two chord-based Reynolds numbers, Re_c=3.33× 10^4 and 10^5. Therefore, this theoretical vortex model has been introduced in the integration of ordinary differential equations which describe the temporal evolution of streak lines as function of two parameters: the swirl number, S, and the virtual axial origin, overline{z_0}. We have applied two different procedures to minimize the distance between experimental and theoretical flow patterns: individual curve fitting at six different control planes in the streamwise direction and the global curve fitting which corresponds to all the control planes simultaneously. Both sets of results have been compared with those provided by del Pino et al. (Phys Fluids 23(013):602, 2011b. doi: 10.1063/1.3537791), finding good agreement. Finally, we have observed a weak influence of the Reynolds number on the values S and overline{z_0} at low-to-moderate Re_c. This experimental technique is proposed as a low cost alternative to characterize wingtip vortices based on flow visualizations.
刘璐璐; 张军; 翟树成; 张国平
2015-01-01
The analysis of detailed flow structure of a turbulent boundary layer is of great significance for establishing the link among the detailed flow structure characteristics, flow noise and wall friction, which can help lay the foundation for deeper research of the drag and noise reduction mechanism. PIV (particle image velocimetry) technique is applied in this paper to study the hairpin vortex signatures in the streamwise-spanwise plane in turbulent boundary layer flow on a flat plate. The experiment successfully identifies low-speed streaks from PIV instantaneous velocity field and the distributions of spanwise spacing of low-speed streaks along with wall-normal distance and Reynolds number are obtained through statistical analysis in the logarithmic layer. Meanwhile, the counter-rotating vortices surrounding the long low-speed streaks in the streamwise-spanwise plane are extracted through vortex identification criterion, which reveals the relationship between hairpin packets and long low-speed streaks. Besides, this paper performs a research about the distribution of spanwise spacing of hairpin vortex legs, considering various wall-normal distances and the effect of Reynolds numbers.%研究湍流边界层精细流动结构特征，有助于建立流动结构特征与壁面摩阻、流噪声之间的关联，从而为湍流边界层减阻降噪机理的深层次研究奠定基础。该文应用PIV（粒子图像测速）技术，对平板湍流边界层中发卡涡在流向-展向平面的涡迹特征进行研究。利用PIV瞬时速度场，捕捉到明显的低速条带，通过统计分析获得对数层范围低速条带间距随壁面法向距离的变化以及雷诺数的影响规律。同时，通过涡识别准则，提取在流向-展向平面内长低速条带两侧的反向漩涡带，揭示了发卡涡包与长低速条带的内在关系。此外，还研究了流向-展向平面发卡涡涡腿间距随壁面法向距离的变化规律以及雷诺数的影响。
Experimental Observations of Ion Phase-Space Vortices
Pécseli, Hans; Armstrong, R. J.; Trulsen, J.
1981-01-01
Experimental observations of ion phase-space vortices are reported. The ion phase-space vortices form in the region of heated ions behind electrostatic ion acoustic shocks. The results are in qualitative agreement with numerical and analytic studies....
Resolving vorticity and dissipation in a turbulent boundary layer by tomographic PTV and VIC+
Schneiders, Jan F. G.; Scarano, Fulvio; Elsinga, Gerrit E.
2017-04-01
The existing time-resolved tomographic particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements by Jodai and Elsinga (J Fluid Mech 795:611-633; Jodai, Elsinga, J Fluid Mech 795:611-633, 2016) in a turbulent boundary layer ( Re θ = 2038) are reprocessed using tomographic particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) and vortex-in-cell-plus (VIC+). The resulting small-scale flow properties, i.e. vorticity and turbulence dissipation, are compared. The VIC+ technique was recently proposed and uses the concept of pouring time into space to increase reconstruction quality of instantaneous velocity. The tomographic PTV particle track measurements are interpolated using VIC+ to a dense grid, making use of both particle velocity and Lagrangian acceleration. Comparison of the vortical structures by visualization of isosurfaces of vorticity magnitude shows that the two methods return similar coherent vortical structures, but their strength in terms of vorticity magnitude is increased when using VIC+, which suggests an improvement in spatial resolution. Further statistical evaluation shows that the root mean square (rms) of vorticity fluctuations from tomographic PIV is approximately 40% lower in comparison to a reference profile available from a DNS simulation, while the VIC+ technique returns rms vorticity fluctuations to within 10% of the reference. The dissipation rate is heavily underestimated by tomographic PIV with approximately 50% damping, whereas the VIC+ analysis yields a dissipation rate to within approximately 5% for y + > 25. The fact that dissipation can be directly measured by a volumetric experiment is novel. It differs from existing approaches that involve 2d measurements combined with isotropic turbulence assumptions or apply corrections based on sub-grid scale turbulence modelling. Finally, the study quantifies the spatial response of VIC+ with a sine-wave lattice analysis. The results indicate a twofold increase of spatial resolution with respect to cross
Cyclones and attractive streaming generated by acoustical vortices.
Riaud, Antoine; Baudoin, Michael; Thomas, Jean-Louis; Bou Matar, Olivier
2014-07-01
Acoustical and optical vortices have attracted great interest due to their ability to capture and manipulate particles with the use of radiation pressure. Here we show that acoustical vortices can also induce axial vortical flow reminiscent of cyclones, whose topology can be controlled by adjusting the properties of the acoustical beam. In confined geometry, the phase singularity enables generating "attractive streaming" with the flow directed toward the transducer. This opens perspectives for contactless vortical flow control.
Vorticity, Gyroscopic precession, and Spin-Curvature Force
Liang, Wei Chieh; Lee, Si Chen
2012-01-01
In investigating the relation between vorticity and gyroscopic precession, we calculate the vorticity vector in Godel, Kerr, Lewis, Schwarzschild, Minkowski metric and find out the vorticity vector of the specific observers is the angular velocity of gyroscopic precession. Furthermore, considering space-time torsion will flip the vorticity and spin-curvature force to opposite sign. This result is very similar to the behavior of positive and negative helicity of quantum spin in Stern-Gerlach f...
Cyclones and attractive streaming generated by acoustical vortices
Riaud, Antoine; Thomas, Jean-Louis; Matar, Olivier Bou
2014-01-01
Acoustical and optical vortices have attracted large interest due to their ability in capturing and manipulating particles with the use of the radiation pressure. Here we show that acoustical vortices can also induce axial vortical flow reminiscent of cyclones whose topology can be controlled by adjusting the properties of the acoustical beam. In confined geometry, the phase singularity enables generating attractive streaming with a flow directed toward the transducer. This opens perspectives for contact-less vortical flow control.
Confinement and fat-center-vortices model
Deldar, S
2004-01-01
In this paper I review shortly potentials obtained for SU(2), SU(3) and SU(4) static sources from fat-center-vortices model. Results confirm the confinement of quarks in all three gauge groups. Proportionality of string tensions with flux tube counting is better than Casimir scaling especially for SU(4).
Equilibration of centrifugally unstable vortices: A review
Carnevale, G.F.; Kloosterziel, R.C.; Orlandi, P.
2016-01-01
In three-dimensional flow, a vortex can become turbulent and be destroyed through a variety of instabilities. In rotating flow, however, the result of the breakup of a vortex is usually a state comprising several vortices with their axes aligned along the ambient rotation direction. This article is
Long Term Changes in the Polar Vortices
Braathen, Geir O.
2016-04-01
As the amount of halogens in the stratosphere is slowly declining and the ozone layer slowly recovers it is of interest to see how the meteorological conditions in the vortex develop over the long term since such changes might alter the foreseen ozone recovery. In conjunction with the publication of the WMO Antarctic and Arctic Ozone Bulletins, WMO has acquired the ERA Interim global reanalysis data set for several meteorological parameters. This data set goes from 1979 - present. These long time series of data can be used for several useful studies of the long term development of the polar vortices. Several "environmental indicators" for vortex change have been calculated, and a climatology, as well as trends, for these parameters will be presented. These indicators can act as yardsticks and will be useful for understanding past and future changes in the polar vortices and how these changes affect polar ozone depletion. Examples of indicators are: vortex mean temperature, vortex minimum temperature, vortex mean PV, vortex "importance" (PV*area), vortex break-up time, mean and maximum wind speed. Data for both the north and south polar vortices have been analysed at several isentropic levels from 350 to 850 K. A possible link between changes in PV and sudden stratospheric warmings will be investigated, and the results presented. The unusual meteorological conditions of the 2015 south polar vortex and the 2010/11 and 2015/16 north polar vortices will be compared to other recent years.
RENORMALIZED ENERGY WITH VORTICES PINNING EFFECT
Ding Shijin
2000-01-01
This paper is a continuation of the previous paper in the Journal of Partial Differential Equations [1]. We derive in this paper the renormalized energy to further determine the locations of vortices in some case for the variational problem related to the superconducting thin films having variable thickness.
Prometheus Induced Vorticity In Saturns F Ring
Sutton, Phil J
2016-01-01
Saturns rings are known to show remarkable real time variability in their structure. Many of which can be associated to interactions with nearby moons and moonlets. Possibly the most interesting and dynamic place in the rings, probably in the whole Solar System, is the F ring. A highly disrupted ring with large asymmetries both radially and azimuthally. Numerically non zero components to the curl of the velocity vector field (vorticity) in the perturbed area of the F ring post encounter are witnessed, significantly above the background vorticity. Within the perturbed area rich distributions of local rotations is seen located in and around the channel edges. The gravitational scattering of ring particles during the encounter causes a significant elevated curl of the vector field above the background F ring vorticity for the first 1-3 orbital periods post encounter. After 3 orbital periods vorticity reverts quite quickly to near background levels. This new found dynamical vortex life of the ring will be of grea...
Potential vorticity formulation of compressible magnetohydrodynamics.
Arter, Wayne
2013-01-04
Compressible ideal magnetohydrodynamics is formulated in terms of the time evolution of potential vorticity and magnetic flux per unit mass using a compact Lie bracket notation. It is demonstrated that this simplifies analytic solution in at least one very important situation relevant to magnetic fusion experiments. Potentially important implications for analytic and numerical modelling of both laboratory and astrophysical plasmas are also discussed.
Motion of three vortices near collapse
Leoncini, X.; Kuznetsov, L.; Zaslavsky, G. M.
2000-08-01
A system of three point vortices in an unbounded plane has a special family of self-similarly contracting or expanding solutions: during the motion, the vortex triangle remains similar to the original one, while its area decreases (grows) at a constant rate. A contracting configuration brings three vortices to a single point in a finite time; this phenomenon known as vortex collapse is of principal importance for many-vortex systems. Dynamics of close-to-collapse vortex configurations depends on the way the collapse conditions are violated. Using an effective potential representation, a detailed quantitative analysis of all the different types of near-collapse dynamics is performed when two of the vortices are identical. We discuss time and length scales, emerging in the problem, and their behavior as the initial vortex triangle is approaching an exact collapse configuration. Different types of critical behaviors, such as logarithmic or power-law divergences are exhibited, which emphasize the importance of the way the collapse is approached. Period asymptotics for all singular cases are presented as functions of the initial vortice's configurations. Special features of passive particle mixing by near-collapse flows are illustrated numerically.
Bilinear Relative Equilibria of Identical Point Vortices
Aref, H.; Beelen, Peter; Brøns, Morten
2012-01-01
-axis and n on the x-axis. We define generating polynomials q(z) and p(z), respectively, for each set of vortices. A second-order, linear ODE for p(z) given q(z) is derived. Several results relating the general solution of the ODE to relative equilibrium configurations are established. Our strongest result......A new class of bilinear relative equilibria of identical point vortices in which the vortices are constrained to be on two perpendicular lines, conveniently taken to be the x- and y-axes of a Cartesian coordinate system, is introduced and studied. In the general problem we have m vortices on the y......, obtained using Sturm’s comparison theorem, is that if p(z) satisfies the ODE for a given q(z) with its imaginary zeros symmetric relative to the x-axis, then it must have at least n−m+2 simple, real zeros. For m=2 this provides a complete characterization of all zeros, and we study this case in some detail...
A potential vorticity perspective on atmospheric blocking?
Croci Maspoli, M.; Schwierz, C.
2003-04-01
A persistent large-scale anomaly of the west to east flow in the midlatitudes with a weakening and meridional splitting of the jet can be specified as atmospheric blocking. Lifetimes last from several days up to weeks so that blocking can therefore significantly determine monthly circulation index values. The vertical range affected by this phenomenon covers the entire troposphere as mirrored in increased surface pressure as well as an elevated tropopause and is also felt in the lower-stratosphere. Here we seek to shed more light on the physical mechanisms related to blocking by adopting the PV (potential vorticity) perspective with a focus on tropopause-level dynamics. Processes such as Rossby-wave breaking and diabatic heating can modify the conservative behaviour of the PV and are therefore important features for the formation and maintenance of atmospheric blocking. This motivates the definition of a novel blocking index based upon the three-dimensional structure of the phenomenon. A vertically integrated measure (PV within the 500 - 150 hPa layer, VIPV) is calculated, underlining the quasi-barotropic nature of blocked atmospheric state. Benefits of the new index include: representation of the two-dimensional structure of the phenomenon, its lifecycle and geographical distribution. The investigation is conducted over the period 1979 to 2001 using ECMWF reanalysis data. Characteristics of the VIPV field are presented. The new VIPV index is compared to a standard blocking index (e.g. Tibaldi and Molteni (1989)) on a case study basis and also with respect to seasonal variability. Relations to climate modes/indices (NAO, AO) are also discussed.
Controlled Manipulation of Individual Vortices in a Superconductor
Straver, E.W.J.
2010-04-05
We report controlled local manipulation of single vortices by low temperature magnetic force microscope (MFM) in a thin film of superconducting Nb. We are able to position the vortices in arbitrary configurations and to measure the distribution of local depinning forces. This technique opens up new possibilities for the characterization and use of vortices in superconductors.
MacRorie, Michael
1995-01-01
The interaction between convecting spanwise vortices and a flat plate turbulent boundary layer was studied experimentally. The results are relevant to the flow downstream of unsteady airfoils or spoilers. Vortices were generated with a rapidly pitched airfoil upstream of a test plate leading edge in a low-speed wind tunnel. By varying the height of the vortex generator the degree to which the vortices interacted with the test plate was controlled. Dynamic stall vortices of both positive and negative circulation were studied with Reynolds numbers (Gamma/upsilon ) of 9300 and 7400 respectively. The free-stream velocity was 5.9 m/s for all cases and the boundary layer momentum thickness Reynolds number was 480 at the primary measurement station. The measurement techniques were hot -wire anemometry (single and cross wire) and smoke-wire visualization. The results focus on two distinct aspects of the flow, first is the decay and diffusion rates of the vortices. Only in the case where a negative circulation vortex impinges directly on the leading edge does surface interaction significantly increase the vortex decay/diffusion rate. The second aspect is the response of the turbulent boundary layer to the convecting vortices. Wall shear stress measurements show that the passage of a positive circulation vortex results in an increase in wall shear after a delay-time, while the negative circulation vortices result in a decrease in wall shear. An application of log-law scaling to the ensemble-averaged mean flow was found to produce a velocity scale which resembles one based on measured wall shear stress but is offset by a phase lag. The ratio of turbulent shear stress to the two-dimensional turbulent kinetic energy was generally not constant, although it did show a constant value across the boundary layer at different phases of the interaction.
Prometheus Induced Vorticity in Saturn's F Ring
Sutton, Phil J.; Kusmartsev, Feo V.
2016-11-01
Saturn's rings are known to show remarkable real time variability in their structure. Many of which can be associated to interactions with nearby moons and moonlets. Possibly the most interesting and dynamic place in the rings, probably in the whole Solar System, is the F ring. A highly disrupted ring with large asymmetries both radially and azimuthally. Numerically non-zero components to the curl of the velocity vector field (vorticity) in the perturbed area of the F ring post encounter are witnessed, significantly above the background vorticity. Within the perturbed area rich distributions of local rotations is seen located in and around the channel edges. The gravitational scattering of ring particles during the encounter causes a significant elevated curl of the vector field above the background F ring vorticity for the first 1-3 orbital periods post encounter. After 3 orbital periods vorticity reverts quite quickly to near background levels. This new found dynamical vortex life of the ring will be of great interest to planet and planetesimals in proto-planetary disks where vortices and turbulence are suspected of having a significant role in their formation and migrations. Additionally, it is found that the immediate channel edges created by the close passage of Prometheus actually show high radial dispersions in the order 20-50 cm/s, up to a maximum of 1 m/s. This is much greater than the value required by Toomre for a disk to be unstable to the growth of axisymmetric oscillations. However, an area a few hundred km away from the edge shows a more promising location for the growth of coherent objects.
Prometheus Induced Vorticity in Saturn's F Ring
Sutton, Phil J.; Kusmartsev, Feo V.
2016-09-01
Saturn's rings are known to show remarkable real time variability in their structure. Many of which can be associated to interactions with nearby moons and moonlets. Possibly the most interesting and dynamic place in the rings, probably in the whole Solar System, is the F ring. A highly disrupted ring with large asymmetries both radially and azimuthally. Numerically non-zero components to the curl of the velocity vector field (vorticity) in the perturbed area of the F ring post encounter are witnessed, significantly above the background vorticity. Within the perturbed area rich distributions of local rotations is seen located in and around the channel edges. The gravitational scattering of ring particles during the encounter causes a significant elevated curl of the vector field above the background F ring vorticity for the first 1-3 orbital periods post encounter. After 3 orbital periods vorticity reverts quite quickly to near background levels. This new found dynamical vortex life of the ring will be of great interest to planet and planetesimals in proto-planetary disks where vortices and turbulence are suspected of having a significant role in their formation and migrations. Additionally, it is found that the immediate channel edges created by the close passage of Prometheus actually show high radial dispersions in the order ~20-50 cm/s, up to a maximum of 1 m/s. This is much greater than the value required by Toomre for a disk to be unstable to the growth of axisymmetric oscillations. However, an area a few hundred km away from the edge shows a more promising location for the growth of coherent objects.
An eddy closure for potential vorticity
Ringler, Todd D [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2009-01-01
The Gent-McWilliams (GM) parameterization is extended to include a direct influence in the momentum equation. The extension is carried out in two stages; an analysis of the inviscid system is followed by an analysis of the viscous system. In the inviscid analysis the momentum equation is modified such that potential vorticity is conserved along particle trajectories following a transport velocity that includes the Bolus velocity in a manner exactly analogous to the continuity and tracer equations. In addition (and in contrast to traditional GM closures), the new formulation of the inviscid momentum equation results in a conservative exchange between potential and kinetic forms of energy. The inviscid form of the eddy closure conserves total energy to within an error proportional to the time derivative of the Bolus velocity. The hypothesis that the viscous term in the momentum equation should give rise to potential vorticity being diffused along isopycnals in a manner analogous to other tracers is examined in detail. While the form of the momentum closure that follows from a strict adherence to this hypothesis is not immediately interpretable within the constructs of traditional momentum closures, three approximations to this hypothesis results in a form of dissipation that is consistent with traditional Laplacian diffusion. The first two approximations are that relative vorticity, not potential vorticity, is diffused along isopyncals and that the flow is in approximate geostrophic balance. An additional approximation to the Jacobian term is required when the dissipation coefficient varies in space. More importantly, the critique of this hypothesis results in the conclusion that the viscosity parameter in the momentum equation should be identical to the tradition GM closure parameter {Kappa}. Overall, we deem the viscous form of the eddy closure for potential vorticity as a viable closure for use in ocean circulation models.
Schobeiri, M. T.; John, J.
1996-01-01
The turbomachinery wake flow development is largely influenced by streamline curvature and streamwise pressure gradient. The objective of this investigation is to study the development of the wake under the influence of streamline curvature and streamwise pressure gradient. The experimental investigation is carried out in two phases. The first phase involves the study of the wake behind a stationary circular cylinder (steady wake) in curved channels at positive, zero, and negative streamwise pressure gradients. The mean velocity and Reynolds stress components are measured using a X-hot-film probe. The measured quantities obtained in probe coordinates are transformed to a curvilinear coordinate system along the wake centerline and are presented in similarity coordinates. The results of the steady wakes suggest strong asymmetry in velocity and Reynolds stress components. However, the velocity defect profiles in similarity coordinates are almost symmetrical and follow the same distribution as the zero pressure gradient straight wake. The results of Reynolds stress distributions show higher values on the inner side of the wake than the outer side. Other quantities, including the decay of maximum velocity defect, growth of wake width, and wake integral parameters, are also presented for the three different pressure gradient cases of steady wake. The decay rate of velocity defect is fastest for the negative streamwise pressure gradient case and slowest for the positive pressure gradient case. Conversely, the growth of the wake width is fastest for the positive streamwise pressure gradient case and slowest for the negative streamwise pressure gradient. The second phase studies the development of periodic unsteady wakes generated by the circular cylinders of the rotating wake generator in a curved channel at zero streamwise pressure gradient. Instantaneous velocity components of the periodic unsteady wakes, measured with a stationary X-hot-film probe, are analyzed by the
Frewer, Michael
2016-01-01
The study by Oberlack et al. (2006) consists of two main parts: a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a turbulent plane channel flow with streamwise rotation and a preceding Lie-group symmetry analysis on the two-point correlation equation (TPC) to analytically predict the scaling of the mean velocity profiles for different rotation rates. We will only comment on the latter part, since the DNS result obtained in the former part has already been commented on by Recktenwald et al. (2009), stating that the observed mismatch between DNS and their performed experiment is possibly due to the prescription of periodic boundary conditions on a too small computational domain in the spanwise direction. By revisiting the group analysis part in Oberlack et al. (2006), we will generate more natural scaling laws describing better the mean velocity profiles than the ones proposed. However, due to the statistical closure problem of turbulence, this improvement is illusive. As we will demonstrate, any arbitrary invariant scal...
Viscous tilting and production of vorticity in homogeneous turbulence
Holzner, M; Lüthi, B; Liberzon, A; Nikitin, N; Kinzelbach, W; Tsinober, A
2010-01-01
Viscous depletion of vorticity is an essential and well known property of turbulent flows, balancing, in the mean, the net vorticity production associated with the vortex stretching mechanism. In this letter we however demonstrate that viscous effects are not restricted to a mere destruction process, but play a more complex role in vorticity dynamics that is as important as vortex stretching. Based on results from particle tracking experiments (3D-PTV) and direct numerical simulation (DNS) of homogeneous and quasi isotropic turbulence, we show that the viscous term in the vorticity equation can also locally induce production of vorticity and changes of its orientation (viscous tilting).
Vortical versus skyrmionic states in mesoscopic p -wave superconductors
Fernández Becerra, V.; Sardella, E.; Peeters, F. M.; Milošević, M. V.
2016-01-01
We investigate the superconducting states that arise as a consequence of mesoscopic confinement and a multicomponent order parameter in the Ginzburg-Landau model for p -wave superconductivity. Conventional vortices, but also half-quantum vortices and skyrmions, are found as the applied magnetic field and the anisotropy parameters of the Fermi surface are varied. The solutions are well differentiated by a topological charge that for skyrmions is given by the Hopf invariant and for vortices by the circulation of the superconducting velocity. We revealed several unique states combining vortices and skyrmions, their possible reconfiguration with varied magnetic field, as well as temporal and field-induced transitions between vortical and skyrmionic states.
Fluidic vortices generated from optical vortices in a microdroplet cavity
Bar-David, Daniel; Martin, Leoplodo L; Carmon, Tal
2016-01-01
We harness the momentum of light resonating inside a micro-droplet cavity, to experimentally generate micro-flows within the envelope of the drop. We 3D map these optically induced flows by using fluorescent nanoparticles; which reveals circular micro-streams. The flows are parametrically studied and, as expected, exhibit an increase of rotation speed with optical power. The flow is non-circular only when we intentionally break the axial symmetry of the droplet. Besides the fundamental interest in light-flow interactions including in opto-fluidic cavities, the optically controlled flows can serve in bringing analytes into the maximum-power region of the microcavity.
Vortices and Particle-banding in Granular Taylor-Couette Flow
Mahajan, Achal; Alam, Meheboob
2016-11-01
A collection of smooth inelastic hard spheres is simulated between two rotating concentric cylinders, dubbed granular Taylor-Couette flow (gTCF), using event-driven molecular dynamics simulations. The inner cylinder is rotating with rotational speed ωi and the outer cylinder is kept stationary in the absence of gravity. The onset of Taylor-like vortices is studied as functions of the inner rotation ωi, the restitution coefficient (en) and the aspect ratio of the cylinder. The strength of vortices is found to decrease with increasing dissipation. A novel banding-pattern of particle-rich and particle-depleted regions along the axial direction is found - the density-contrast between the dense and dilute regions increases with decreasing restitution coefficient. The combined effect of inelastic dissipation and compressibility seems to be responsible for the genesis of Taylor-like vortices with axial-banding of particles.
Solitonic vortices in Bose-Einstein condensates
Tylutki, M.; Donadello, S.; Serafini, S.; Pitaevskii, L. P.; Dalfovo, F.; Lamporesi, G.; Ferrari, G.
2015-04-01
We analyse, theoretically and experimentally, the nature of solitonic vortices (SV) in an elongated Bose-Einstein condensate. In the experiment, such defects are created via the Kibble-Zurek mechanism, when the temperature of a gas of sodium atoms is quenched across the BEC transition, and are imaged after a free expansion of the condensate. By using the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, we calculate the in-trap density and phase distributions characterizing a SV in the crossover from an elongated quasi-1D to a bulk 3D regime. The simulations show that the free expansion strongly amplifies the key features of a SV and produces a remarkable twist of the solitonic plane due to the quantized vorticity associated with the defect. Good agreement is found between simulations and experiments.
Vortices in Low-Dimensional Magnetic Systems
Costa, B. V.
2011-05-01
Vortices are objects that are important to describe several physical phenomena. There are many examples of such objects in nature as in a large variety of physical situations like in fluid dynamics, superconductivity, magnetism, and biology. Historically, the interest in magnetic vortex-like excitations begun in the 1960s. That interest was mainly associated with an unusual phase-transition phenomenon in two-dimensional magnetic systems. More recently, direct experimental evidence for the existence of magnetic vortex states in nano-disks was found. The interest in such model was renewed due to the possibility of the use of magnetic nano-disks as bit elements in nano-scale memory devices. The goal of this study is to review some key points for the understanding of the vortex behavior and the progress that have been done in the study of vortices in low-dimensional magnetic systems.
Statistical mechanics of vortices from field theory
Kajantie, Keijo; Neuhaus, T; Rajantie, A; Rummukainen, K
1999-01-01
We study with lattice Monte Carlo simulations the interactions and macroscopic behaviour of a large number of vortices in the 3-dimensional U(1) gauge+Higgs field theory, in an external magnetic field. We determine non-perturbatively the (attractive or repelling) interaction energy between two or more vortices, as well as the critical field strength H_c, the thermodynamical discontinuities, and the surface tension related to the boundary between the Meissner phase and the Coulomb phase in the type I region. We also investigate the emergence of vortex lattice and vortex liquid phases in the type II region. For the type I region the results obtained are in qualitative agreement with mean field theory, except for small values of H_c, while in the type II region there are significant discrepancies. These findings are relevant for superconductors and some models of cosmic strings, as well as for the electroweak phase transition in a magnetic field.
Mimicking graphene with polaritonic spin vortices
Gulevich, Dmitry R.; Yudin, Dmitry
2017-09-01
Exploring the properties of strongly correlated systems through quantum simulation with photons, cold atoms, or polaritons represents an active area of research. In fact, the latter sheds light on the behavior of complex systems that are difficult to address in the laboratory or to tackle numerically. In this study, we discuss an analog of graphene formed by exciton-polariton spin vortices arranged into a hexagonal lattice. We show how graphene-type dispersion at different energy scales arises for several types of exciton-polariton spin vortices. In contrast to previous studies of exciton polaritons in artificial lattices, the use of exciton-polariton spin vortex modes offers a richer playground for quantum simulations. In particular, we demonstrate that the sign of the nearest-neighbor coupling strength can be inverted.
Holographic Fluids with Vorticity and Analogue Gravity
Leigh, Robert G; Petropoulos, P Marios
2012-01-01
We study holographic three-dimensional fluids with vorticity in local equilibrium and discuss their relevance to analogue gravity systems. The Fefferman-Graham expansion leads to the fluid's description in terms of a comoving and rotating Papapetrou-Randers frame. A suitable Lorentz transformation brings the fluid to the non-inertial Zermelo frame, which clarifies its interpretation as moving media for light/sound propagation. We apply our general results to the Lorentzian Kerr-AdS_4 and Taub-NUT-AdS_4 geometries that describe fluids in cyclonic and vortex flows respectively. In the latter case we associate the appearance of closed timelike curves to analogue optical horizons. In addition, we derive the classical rotational Hall viscosity of three-dimensional fluids with vorticity. Our formula remarkably resembles the corresponding result in magnetized plasmas.
Analytic Modeling of Severe Vortical Storms.
1980-07-08
AD---AO86 919 TR DEFENSE AND SPACE SYSTEMS GROUP REDONDO BEACH CA -ETC F/6 4/2 ANALYTIC MODELING OF SEVERE VORTICAL, STDRMS.CW),7JUL G0 F FENDELL ...and Space Systems Group One Space 1ark ___Redondo Beach, California 90278 Francis E. Fendell , Principal Investigator for Artic and Earth Sciences... Fendell , principal investigator, and Phillip Feldman, numerical analyst, of TRW Defense and Space Systems Group, and George Carrier of Harvard University
Vortices in a Bose-Einstein Condensate
Haljan, Paul C.
2004-05-01
Since the advent of Bose-Einstein condensation in the dilute alkalis, there has been considerable interest in observing effects in atomic condensates akin to the hallmark effects associated with superfluidity and superconductivity. In particular, the study of quantized vortices and vortex lattices represents an important connection between the traditional ``super" systems such as liquid Helium and this new atomic system. This thesis explores some of the first vortex experiments in a condensate of magnetically trapped Rubidium-87. Single vortex lines and rings are created using a wavefunction engineering technique, which is an ideal starting point to study the dynamical behavior of vortices within the condensate. An entirely different approach of ``intrinsic nucleation" has been developed to create rapidly rotating condensates with large amounts of vorticity. A novel variation of forced evaporation is used to simultaneously cool and spin up an ultracold gas. In this way, condensates can be formed that are rotating in excess of 95% of the centrifugal limit and contain large, extraordinarily regular lattices of well over 100 vortices. Direct detection of the vortex cores makes it possible to study the microscopic structure of the vortex arrangements both at equilibrium and under dynamical conditions where severe applied stresses distort the lattice far from its equilibrium configuration. In conclusion, the techniques developed in this work have helped to open up a new area of rotating condensate physics and, in the future, may lead to regimes of extreme rotation and quantum Hall physics. This work was performed at the University of Colorado, Boulder, under the supervision of Prof. Eric A. Cornell.
Vorticity, Stokes' Theorem and the Gauss's Theorem
Narayanan, M.
2004-12-01
Vorticity is a property of the flow of any fluid and moving fluids acquire properties that allow an engineer to describe that particular flow in greater detail. It is important to recognize that mere motion alone does not guarantee that the air or any fluid has vorticity. Vorticity is one of four important quantities that define the kinematic properties of any fluid flow. The Navier-Stokes equations are the foundation of fluid mechanics, and Stokes' theorem is used in nearly every branch of mechanics as well as electromagnetics. Stokes' Theorem also plays a vital role in many secondary theorems such as those pertaining to vorticity and circulation. However, the divergence theorem is a mathematical statement of the physical fact that, in the absence of the creation or destruction of matter, the density within a region of space can change only by having it flow into, or away from the region through its boundary. This is also known as Gauss's Theorem. It should also be noted that there are many useful extensions of Gauss's Theorem, including the extension to include surfaces of discontinuity in V. Mathematically expressed, Stokes' theorem can be expressed by considering a surface S having a bounding curve C. Here, V is any sufficiently smooth vector field defined on the surface and its bounding curve C. Integral (Surface) [(DEL X V)] . dS = Integral (Contour) [V . dx] In this paper, the author outlines and stresses the importance of studying and teaching these mathematical techniques while developing a course in Hydrology and Fluid Mechanics. References Arfken, G. "Gauss's Theorem." 1.11 in Mathematical Methods for Physicists, 3rd ed. Orlando, FL: Academic Press, pp. 57-61, 1985. Morse, P. M. and Feshbach, H. "Gauss's Theorem." In Methods of Theoretical Physics, Part I. New York: McGraw-Hill, pp. 37-38, 1953. Eric W. Weisstein. "Divergence Theorem." From MathWorld--A Wolfram Web Resource. http://mathworld.wolfram.com/DivergenceTheorem.html
Vorticity transport and the leading-edge vortex of a plunging airfoil
Eslam Panah, Azar; Akkala, James M.; Buchholz, James H. J.
2015-08-01
The three-dimensional flow field was experimentally characterized for a nominally two-dimensional flat-plate airfoil plunging at large amplitude and reduced frequencies, using three-dimensional reconstructions of planar PIV data at a chord-based Reynolds number of 10,000. Time-resolved, instantaneous PIV measurements reveal that secondary vorticity, of opposite sign to the primary vortex, is intermittently entrained into the leading-edge vortex (LEV) throughout the downstroke, with the rate of entrainment increasing toward the end of the stroke when the leading-edge shear layer weakens. A planar vorticity transport analysis around the LEV indicated that, during the downstroke, the surface vorticity flux due to the pressure gradient is consistently about half that due to the leading-edge shear layer for all parameter values investigated, demonstrating that production and entrainment of secondary vorticity is an important mechanism regulating LEV strength. A small but non-negligible vorticity source was also attributed to spanwise flow toward the end of the downstroke. Aggregate vortex tilting is notably more significant for higher plunge frequencies, suggesting that the vortex core is more three-dimensional.
Motion of Three Vortices near Collapse
Leoncini, X; Zaslavsky, G M
2000-01-01
A system of three point vortices in an unbounded plane has a special family of self-similarly contracting or expanding solutions: during the motion, vortex triangle remains similar to the original one, while its area decreases (grows) at a constant rate. A contracting configuration brings three vortices to a single point in a finite time; this phenomenon is known as vortex collapse and is of principal importance for many-vortex systems. The self-similar motion (contracting or expanding) is not generic, it arises when vortex strengths and initial positions satisfy two special collapse conditions. Dynamics of close-to-collapse vortex configurations depends on the way the collapse conditions are violated. We show, that when two of the vortices are identical, it is possible to reduce a three-vortex system to a problem of motion of a particle in an effective potential, defined by initial conditions. Using the effective potential representation, a detailed quantitative analysis of different types of near-collapse d...
Vortices catapult droplets in atomization
Jerome, J John Soundar; Matas, Jean-Philippe; Zaleski, Stéphane; Hoepffner, Jérôme
2016-01-01
A droplet ejection mechanism in planar two-phase mixing layers is examined. Any disturbance on the gas-liquid interface grows into a Kelvin-Helmholtz wave, and the wave crest forms a thin liquid film that flaps as the wave grows downstream. Increasing the gas speed, it is observed that the film breaks up into droplets which are eventually thrown into the gas stream at large angles. In a flow where most of the momentum is in the horizontal direction, it is surprising to observe these large ejection angles. Our experiments and simulations show that a recirculation region grows downstream of the wave and leads to vortex shedding similar to the wake of a backward-facing step. The ejection mechanism results from the interaction between the liquid film and the vortex shedding sequence: a recirculation zone appears in the wake of the wave and a liquid film emerges from the wave crest; the recirculation region detaches into a vortex and the gas flow over the wave momentarily reattaches due to the departure of the vor...
Vortices catapult droplets in atomization
Jerome, J. John Soundar; Marty, Sylvain; Matas, Jean-Philippe; Zaleski, Stéphane; Hoepffner, Jérôme
2013-11-01
A droplet ejection mechanism in planar two-phase mixing layers is examined. Any disturbance on the gas-liquid interface grows into a Kelvin-Helmholtz wave, and the wave crest forms a thin liquid film that flaps as the wave grows downstream. Increasing the gas speed, it is observed that the film breaks up into droplets which are eventually thrown into the gas stream at large angles. In a flow where most of the momentum is in the horizontal direction, it is surprising to observe these large ejection angles. Our experiments and simulations show that a recirculation region grows downstream of the wave and leads to vortex shedding similar to the wake of a backward-facing step. The ejection mechanism results from the interaction between the liquid film and the vortex shedding sequence: a recirculation zone appears in the wake of the wave and a liquid film emerges from the wave crest; the recirculation region detaches into a vortex and the gas flow over the wave momentarily reattaches due to the departure of the vortex; this reattached flow pushes the liquid film down; by now, a new recirculation vortex is being created in the wake of the wave—just where the liquid film is now located; the liquid film is blown up from below by the newly formed recirculation vortex in a manner similar to a bag-breakup event; the resulting droplets are catapulted by the recirculation vortex.
Vortices catapult droplets in atomization
Jerome, J. John Soundar, E-mail: soundar@dalembert.upmc.fr; Zaleski, Stéphane; Hoepffner, Jérôme [Institut Jean Le Rond d' Alembert, UPMC Univ. Paris 06 and CNRS-UMR 7190, F-75005 Paris (France); Marty, Sylvain; Matas, Jean-Philippe [Laboratoire des Écoulements Géophysiques et Industriels (LEGI), Univ. Grenoble Alpes and CNRS - UMR 5519, F-38000 Grenoble (France)
2013-11-15
A droplet ejection mechanism in planar two-phase mixing layers is examined. Any disturbance on the gas-liquid interface grows into a Kelvin-Helmholtz wave, and the wave crest forms a thin liquid film that flaps as the wave grows downstream. Increasing the gas speed, it is observed that the film breaks up into droplets which are eventually thrown into the gas stream at large angles. In a flow where most of the momentum is in the horizontal direction, it is surprising to observe these large ejection angles. Our experiments and simulations show that a recirculation region grows downstream of the wave and leads to vortex shedding similar to the wake of a backward-facing step. The ejection mechanism results from the interaction between the liquid film and the vortex shedding sequence: a recirculation zone appears in the wake of the wave and a liquid film emerges from the wave crest; the recirculation region detaches into a vortex and the gas flow over the wave momentarily reattaches due to the departure of the vortex; this reattached flow pushes the liquid film down; by now, a new recirculation vortex is being created in the wake of the wave—just where the liquid film is now located; the liquid film is blown up from below by the newly formed recirculation vortex in a manner similar to a bag-breakup event; the resulting droplets are catapulted by the recirculation vortex.
Tropical upper tropospheric humidity variations due to potential vorticity intrusions
Sandhya, M.; Sridharan, S.; Indira Devi, M.
2015-09-01
Four cases (March 2009, May 2009, April 2010 and February 2012) are presented in which the ERA-interim relative humidity (RH) shows consistent increase by more than 50 % in the upper troposphere (200-250 hPa) over tropics at the eastward side of the potential vorticity (PV) intrusion region. The increase in RH is confirmed with the spaceborne microwave limb sounder observations and radiosonde observations over Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E) and is observed irrespective of whether the PV intrusions are accompanied by deep convection or not. It is demonstrated that the increase in RH is due to poleward advection induced by the PV intrusions in their eastward side at the upper tropospheric heights. It is suggested that the low-latitude convection, which is not necessarily triggered by the PV intrusion, might have transported water vapour to the upper tropospheric heights.
A Measure of Flow Vorticity with Helical Beams of Light
Rosales-Guzmán, Aniceto Belmonte Carmelo
2015-01-01
Vorticity describes the spinning motion of a fluid, i.e., the tendency to rotate, at every point in a flow. The interest in performing accurate and localized measurements of vorticity reflects the fact that many of the quantities that characterize the dynamics of fluids are intimately bound together in the vorticity field, being an efficient descriptor of the velocity statistics in many flow regimes. It describes the coherent structures and vortex interactions that are at the leading edge of laminar, transitional, and turbulent flows in nature. The measurement of vorticity is of paramount importance in many research fields as diverse as biology microfluidics, complex motions in the oceanic and atmospheric boundary layers, and wake turbulence on fluid aerodynamics. However, the precise measurement of flow vorticity is difficult. Here we put forward an optical sensing technique to obtain a direct measurement of vorticity in fluids using Laguerre-Gauss (LG) beams, optical beams which show an azimuthal phase vari...
Strong swirl approximation and intensive vortices in the atmosphere
Klimenko, A Y
2014-01-01
This work investigates intensive vortices, which are characterised by the existence of a converging radial flow that significantly intensifies the flow rotation. Evolution and amplification of the vorticity present in the flow play important roles in the formation of the vortex. When rotation in the flow becomes sufficiently strong - and this implies validity of the strong swirl approximation developed by Einstein and Li (1951), Lewellen (1962), Turner (1966) and Lundgren (1985) - the analysis of Klimenko (2001a-c) and of the present work determine that further amplification of vorticity is moderated by interactions of vorticity and velocity. This imposes physical constraints on the flow resulting in the so-called compensating regime, where the radial distribution of the axial vorticity is characterised by the 4/3 and 3/2 power laws. This asymptotic treatment of a strong swirl is based on vorticity equations and involves higher order terms. This treatment incorporates multiscale analysis indicating downstream...
Thick vortices in SU(2) lattice gauge theory
Cheluvaraja, Srinath
2004-01-01
Three dimensional SU(2) lattice gauge theory is studied after eliminating thin monopoles and the smallest thick monopoles. Kinematically this constraint allows the formation of thick vortex loops which produce Z(2) fluctuations at longer length scales. The thick vortex loops are identified in a three dimensional simulation. A condensate of thick vortices persists even after the thin vortices have all disappeared. The thick vortices decouple at a slightly lower temperature (higher beta) than t...
Direct observation of rectified motion of vortices by Lorentz microscopy
Yoshihiko Togawa; Ken Harada; Tetsuya Akashi; Hiroto Kasai; Tsuyoshi Matsuda; Atsutaka maeda; Akira Tonomura
2006-01-01
We have investigated the vortex dynamics for the `ratchet' operation in a niobium superconductor via a direct imaging of Lorentz microscopy. We directly observe one-directional selective motion of field-gradient-driven vortices along fabricated channels. This results from the rectification of vortices in a spatially asymmetric potential under the oscillating magnetic field in a temporally symmetric manner. Based on the observation of the individual motion of vortices, we clarify the elementary process involved in this rectification.
SIMULATION OF AIRCRAFT CONDENSATION TRAILS AND WAKE VORTICES INTERACTION
T. O. Aubakirov
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A technique of calculation of aircraft condensation trails (contrails and wake vortices interaction is described. The technique is based on a suitable for real-time applications mathematical model of far wake utilizes the method of discrete vortices. The technique is supplemented by account of the influence of axial velocities in the vortex nucleus on contrail and wake vortex location. Results of calculations of contrails and wake vortices interaction for Il-76 and B-747 aircraft are presented.
Analysis of the Caudal Vortices Evolvement around Flapping Foil
Wang Zhi-dong; Zhang Xiao-qing; Su Yu-min; Xu Yu-ru
2005-01-01
The viscous flow field around two-dimensional flapping (heaving and pitching) foils was numerically computed. The structural characteristics of caudal vortices were investigated and the contour curves at different phase angles were obtained.The relationships between the structural characteristics of the vortices and the force acting on the foil and between the widths of the caudal vortex street and of the caudal flow field were analyzed. A method to determine the shedding frequency of the vortices was proposed.
Mütze, Annekathrin, E-mail: muetzea@ethz.ch; Heunemann, Peggy; Fischer, Peter [ETH Zürich, Institute of Food, Nutrition and Health, Schmelzbergstrasse 9, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland)
2014-11-01
Wormlike micellar salt/surfactant solutions (X-salicylate, cetylpyridinium chloride) are studied with respect to the applied shear stress, concentration, temperature, and composition of the counterions (X = lithium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium) of the salicylate salt solute to determine vorticity and gradient shear bands. A combination of rheological measurements, laser technique, video analysis, and rheo-small-angle neutron scattering allow for a detailed exploration of number and types of shear bands. Typical flow curves of the solutions show Newtonian, shear-thinning, and shear-thickening flow behavior. In the shear-thickening regime, the solutions show vorticity and gradient shear bands simultaneously, in which vorticity shear bands dominate the visual effect, while gradient shear bands always coexist and predominate the rheological response. It is shown that gradient shear bands change their phases (turbid, clear) with the same frequency as the shear rate oscillates, whereas vorticity shear bands change their phases with half the frequency of the shear rate. Furthermore, we show that with increasing molecular mass of the counterions the number of gradient shear bands increases, while the number of vorticity shear bands remains constant. The variation of temperature, shear stress, concentration, and counterions results in a predictable change in the rheological behavior and therefore allows adjustment of the number of vorticity shear bands in the shear band regime.
Vorticity, gyroscopic precession, and spin-curvature force
Liang, Wei Chieh; Lee, Si Chen
2013-02-01
In investigating the relationship between vorticity and gyroscopic precession, we calculate the vorticity vector in Godel, Kerr, Lewis, Schwarzschild, and Minkowski metrics and find that the vorticity vector of the specific observers is the angular velocity of the gyroscopic precession. Furthermore, when space-time torsion is included, the vorticity and spin-curvature force change sign. This result is very similar to the behavior of the positive and negative helicities of quantum spin in the Stern-Gerlach force. It implies that the inclusion of torsion will lead to an analogous property of quantum spin even in classical treatment.
Vorticity, Gyroscopic precession, and Spin-Curvature Force
Liang, Wei Chieh
2012-01-01
In investigating the relation between vorticity and gyroscopic precession, we calculate the vorticity vector in Godel, Kerr, Lewis, Schwarzschild, Minkowski metric and find out the vorticity vector of the specific observers is the angular velocity of gyroscopic precession. Furthermore, considering space-time torsion will flip the vorticity and spin-curvature force to opposite sign. This result is very similar to the behavior of positive and negative helicity of quantum spin in Stern-Gerlach force. It implies that the inclusion of torsion will lead to analogous property of quantum spin even in classical treatment.
On relation between scalar interfaces and vorticity in inviscid flows
Ramesh, O. N.; Patwardhan, Saurabh
2013-11-01
A great variety of applications like pollutant mixing in the atmosphere, mixing of reactants in combustion highlight the importance of passive scalar dynamics in fluid flows. The other dynamically important variable in the study of fluid flow is the vorticity. Vorticity though, unlike a passive scalar, does affect the fluid motion. The dynamics of scalar (linear) and vorticity (non-linear) are governed by the equations which inherently have different characteristics. This paper addresses the question of the faithfulness of representation of vorticity by scalar marker and the motivation for this comes from the experiment of Head and Bandyopadhyay (1981) which showed the existence of coherent vortices by using smoke flow visualization in a turbulent boundary layer. We will show analytically in regions where the molecular diffusion effects are negligible, the vorticity and scalar gradients are orthogonal to each other. The iso- surface of scalar follows the vorticity in an inviscid situation. Also, we will demonstrate that in the case of unsteady burgers vortex and vortex shedding behind a finite circular cylinder, the scalar gradient is orthogonal to vorticity and inner product of vorticity and scalar gradients is zero in regions away from the wall.
Dynamics of circular arrangements of vorticity in two dimensions
Swaminathan, Rohith V; Perlekar, Prasad; Govindarajan, Rama
2015-01-01
The merger of two like-signed vortices is a well-studied problem, but in a turbulent flow, we may often have more than two like-signed vortices interacting. We study the merger of three or more identical co-rotating vortices initially arranged on the vertices of a regular polygon. At low to moderate Reynolds numbers, we find an additional stage in the merger process, absent in the merger of two vortices, where an annular vortical structure is formed and is long-lived. Vortex merger is slowed down significantly due to this. Such annular vortices are known at far higher Reynolds numbers in studies of tropical cyclones, which have been noticed to break down into individual vortices. In the pre-annular stage, vortical structures in a viscous flow tilt and realign in a manner similar to the inviscid case, but the pronounced filaments visible in the latter are practically absent in the former. Five or fewer vortices initially elongate radially, and then reorient their long axis closer to the azimuthal direction so ...
Vortices in Ionization Collisions by Positron Impact
Navarrete, F; Fiol, J; Barrachina, R O
2013-01-01
The presence of vortices in the ionisation of hydrogen atoms by positrons at intermediate impact energies is investigated. The present findings show that a previously reported minima in the fully-differential cross section is the signature of a vortex in the continuum positron-electron-proton system. The behaviour of the real and imaginary parts of the complex-valued transition matrix is studied in order to determine and characterize the vortex in momentum space. The obtained information is translated to fully-differential ionisation cross sections, feasible of being measured with currently available techniques.
Interaction of plasma vortices with resonant particles
Jovanovic, D.; Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, J.
1990-01-01
Kinetic effects associated with the electron motion along magnetic field lines in low‐beta plasmas are studied. Using the gyrokinetic description of electrons, a kinetic analog of the reduced magnetohydrodynamic equations is derived, and it is shown that in the strongly nonlinear regime they poss......Kinetic effects associated with the electron motion along magnetic field lines in low‐beta plasmas are studied. Using the gyrokinetic description of electrons, a kinetic analog of the reduced magnetohydrodynamic equations is derived, and it is shown that in the strongly nonlinear regime...... particles. The evolution equations indicate the possibility of excitation of plasma vortices by electron beams....
Internal waves and vortices in satellite images
Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina
2012-01-01
Some recent papers proposed the use of the satellite images of Google Earth in teaching physics, in particular to see some behaviours of waves. Reflection, refraction, diffraction and interference are easy to be found in these satellite maps. Besides Google Earth, other sites exist, such as Earth Observatory or Earth Snapshot, suitable for illustrating the large-scale phenomena in atmosphere and oceans In this paper, we will see some examples for teaching surface and internal sea waves, and internal waves and the K\\'arm\\'an vortices in the atmosphere. Aim of this proposal is attracting the interest of students of engineering schools to the physics of waves.
A splitting-free vorticity redistribution method
Kirchhart, M.; Obi, S.
2017-02-01
We present a splitting-free variant of the vorticity redistribution method. Spatial consistency and stability when combined with a time-stepping scheme are proven. We propose a new strategy preventing excessive growth in the number of particles while retaining the order of consistency. The novel concept of small neighbourhoods significantly reduces the method's computational cost. In numerical experiments the method showed second order convergence, one order higher than predicted by the analysis. Compared to the fast multipole code used in the velocity computation, the method is about three times faster.
Effect of Streamwise Fences on Secondary Flows and Losses in a Twod-imensional Turbine Rotor Cascade
M. Govardhan; A. Rajender; J.P. Umang
2006-01-01
To control secondary flows,streamwise fences were attached to end wall of a linear turbine rotor cascade.The cascade had 8 blades of 400 mm long and 175 mm chord.The blades deflected the flow by 120°.The fences were madeout of 0.7 mm thick brass sheet and the heights of the fences were 14 mm,18 mm respectively.The curvature of the fences was the same as that of the blade camber line.The fences were fixed normal to the end wall and at half pitch away from the blades.The experimental program consists of total pressure,static pressure measurements at the inlet and outlet of the cascade,by using five-hole probe.In addition,static pressure on the blade suction surface and pressure surface was also obtained.Fences are effective in preventing the movement of the pressure side leg of the horseshoe vortex.Consequently the accumulation of low energy fluid on the suction surface is minimised.End wall losses are reduced by the fences due to weakening of the end wall cross flow.
The effect of dust on the martian polar vortices
Guzewich, Scott D.; Toigo, A. D.; Waugh, D. W.
2016-11-01
The influence of atmospheric dust on the dynamics and stability of the martian polar vortices is examined, through analysis of Mars Climate Sounder observations and MarsWRF general circulation model simulations. We show that regional and global dust storms produce "transient vortex warming" events that partially or fully disrupt the northern winter polar vortex for brief periods. Increased atmospheric dust heating alters the Hadley circulation and shifts the downwelling branch of the circulation poleward, leading to a disruption of the polar vortex for a period of days to weeks. Through our simulations, we find this effect is dependent on the atmospheric heating rate, which can be changed by increasing the amount of dust in the atmosphere or by altering the dust optical properties (e.g., single scattering albedo). Despite this, our simulations show that some level of atmospheric dust is necessary to produce a distinct northern hemisphere winter polar vortex.
An experimental investigation of heat-transfer and flow in channels with streamwise-periodic flow
Habib, M.A. (King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)); Mobarak, A.M.; Attya, A.M.; Aly, A.Z. (Cairo Univ. (Egypt). Faculty of Engineering)
1992-11-01
We investigate the enhancement of heat transfer and the consequent conservation of energy in channels with segmented baffles. The influence of Reynolds number, baffle spacing, baffle material, and heat flux on local and average heat-transfer coefficients have been studied. Our results show that the flow must pass over three to six baffles before it becomes periodic and fully-developed. Augmentation of heat transfer was obtained with increases in Reynolds number, thermal conductivity of the baffles and decreases in baffle spacing and wall heat flux. (Author).
Dynamics of Quantized Vortices Before Reconnection
Andryushchenko, V. A.; Kondaurova, L. P.; Nemirovskii, S. K.
2016-12-01
The main goal of this paper is to investigate numerically the dynamics of quantized vortex loops, just before the reconnection at finite temperature, when mutual friction essentially changes the evolution of lines. Modeling is performed on the base of vortex filament method using the full Biot-Savart equation. It was discovered that the initial position of vortices and the temperature strongly affect the dependence on time of the minimum distance δ (t) between tips of two vortex loops. In particular, in some cases, the shrinking and collapse of vortex loops due to mutual friction occur earlier than the reconnection, thereby canceling the latter. However, this relationship takes a universal square-root form δ ( t) =√{( κ /2π ) ( t_{*}-t) } at distances smaller than the distances, satisfying the Schwarz reconnection criterion, when the nonlocal contribution to the Biot-Savart equation becomes about equal to the local contribution. In the "universal" stage, the nearest parts of vortices form a pyramid-like structure with angles which neither depend on the initial configuration nor on temperature.
Motion Equation of Vorticity for Newton Fluid
Jianhua, X
2005-01-01
The vorticity plays an important role in aerodynamics and rotational flow. Usually, they are studied with modified Navier-Stokes equation. This research will deduce the motion equation of vorticity from Navier-Stokes equation. To this propose, the velocity gradient field is decomposed as the stack of non-rotation field and pure-rotation field. By introducing the Chen S+R decomposition, the rotational flow is redefined. For elastic fluid, the research shows that for Newton fluid, the local average rotation always produces an additional pressure on the rotation plane. This item is deterministic rather than stochastic (as Reynolds stress) or adjustable. For non-elastic fluid, such as air, the research shows that the rotation will produce an additional stress along the rotation axis direction, that is on the normal direction of rotation plane. This result can be used to explain the lift force connected with vortex. The main purpose of this research is to supply a solvable mathematical model for the calculation of...
Quantum vortices and trajectories in particle diffraction
Delis, N; Contopoulos, G
2011-01-01
We investigate the phenomenon of the diffraction of charged particles by thin material targets using the method of the de Broglie-Bohm quantum trajectories. The particle wave function can be modeled as a sum of two terms $\\psi=\\psi_{ingoing}+\\psi_{outgoing}$. A thin separator exists between the domains of prevalence of the ingoing and outgoing wavefunction terms. The structure of the quantum-mechanical currents in the neighborhood of the separator implies the formation of an array of \\emph{quantum vortices}. The flow structure around each vortex displays a characteristic pattern called `nodal point - X point complex'. The X point gives rise to stable and unstable manifolds. We find the scaling laws characterizing a nodal point-X point complex by a local perturbation theory around the nodal point. We then analyze the dynamical role of vortices in the emergence of the diffraction pattern. In particular, we demonstrate the abrupt deflections, along the direction of the unstable manifold, of the quantum trajector...
KNIGHT; Donald; W
2009-01-01
Natural rivers are commonly characterized by a main channel for primary flow conveyance and a floodplain, often partially covered with vegetation such as shrubs or trees, to carry extra flow during floods. The hydraulic resistance due to vegetation on the floodplain typically causes a further reduction of flow velocity and increases the velocity difference between the main channel and the floodplain. As a consequence a strong lateral shear layer leads to the exchange of mass and momentum between the main channel and floodplain, which in turn affects the overall channel conveyance and certain fluvial processes. The prediction of the lateral velocity distribution is important for many flood alleviation schemes, as well as for studies on sediment transport and dispersion in such channels. The present paper proposes a method for predicting the depth-averaged velocity in compound channels with partially vegetated floodplains, based on an analytical solution to the depth-integrated Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equation with a term included to account for the effects of vegetation. The vegetation is modelled via an additional term in the momentum equation to account for the additional drag force. The method includes the effects of bed friction, drag force, lateral turbulence and secondary flows, via four coefficients f, CD, λ & Γ respectively. The predicted lateral distributions of depth-averaged velocity agree well with the experimental data. The analytical solutions can also be used to predict the distribution of boundary shear stresses, which adds additional weight to the method proposed.
TANG XiaoNan; KNIGHT Donald W
2009-01-01
Natural rivers are commonly characterized by a main channel for primary flow conveyance and a floodplain, often partially covered with vegetation such as shrubs or trees, to carry extra flow during floods.The hydraulic resistance due to vegetation on the floodplain typically causes a further reduction of flow velocity and increases the velocity difference between the main channel and the floodplain.As a consequence a strong lateral shear layer leads to the exchange of mass and momentum between the main channel and floodplain, which in turn affects the overall channel conveyance and certain fluvial processes.The prediction of the lateral velocity distribution is important for many flood alleviation schemes, as well as for studies on sediment transport and dispersion in such channels.The present paper proposes a method for predicting the depth-averaged velocity in compound channels with par-tially vegetated floodplains, based on an analytical solution to the depth-integrated Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equation with a term included to account for the effects of vegetation.The vegetation is modelled via an additional term in the momentum equation to account for the additional drag force.The method includes the effects of bed friction, drag force, lateral turbulence and secondary flows, via four coefficients f, C_D,λ & Г respectively.The predicted lateral distributions of depth-averaged velocity agree well with the experimental data.The analytical solutions can also be used to predict the distribu-tion of boundary shear stresses, which adds additional weight to the method proposed.
The influence of trailed vorticity on flutter speed estimations
Pirrung, Georg; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Kim, Taeseong
2014-01-01
. The influence of the near wake model on the aeroelastic stability of the blades of the NREL 5 MW turbine in overspeed conditions is investigated in the second part of the paper. The analysis is based on a runaway case in which the turbine is free to speed up without generator torque and vibrations start...... building up at a critical rotor speed. Blades with modified torsional and flapwise stiffness are also investigated. A flutter analysis is often part of the stability investigations for new blades but is normally carried out with engineering models that do not include the influence of unsteady trailed...... vorticity. Including this influence results in a slightly increased safety margin against classical flutter in all simulated cases....
Downstream Evolution of Longitudinal Embedded Vortices with Helical Structure
Velte, Clara Marika; Okulov, Valery; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver
2009-01-01
In the present work the downstream development of device induced vortices with helical symmetry embedded in wall bounded flow on a bump is studied with the aid of Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (SPIV). The downstream evolution of characteristic parameters of helical vortices is studied...
Gyrofluid potential vorticity equation and turbulent equipartion states
Madsen, Jens; Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Naulin, Volker;
2015-01-01
An equation governing potential vorticity in a magnetized plasmas is derived. The equation is analogous to Ertel's theorem. In the long wave-length limit the potential vorticity equals the ratio of the gyro-frequency plus the E × B- and diamagnetic polarization densities to the particle density...
Decay or collapse: Aircraft wake vortices in grid turbulence
Ren, M.; Elsenaar, A.; Heijst, van G.J.F.; Kuczaj, A.K.; Geurts, B.J.
2006-01-01
Trailing vortices are naturally shed by airplanes and they typically evolve into a counter-rotating vortex pair. Downstream of the aircraft, these vortices can persist for a very long time and extend for several kilometers. This poses a potential hazard to following aircraft, particularly during tak
Vorticity amplification near the stagnation point of landing gear wheels
Feltham, G.; Ekmekci, A.
2014-04-01
The vicinity near the forward stagnation point of landing-gear wheels has been found to support a mechanism for oncoming streams of weak vorticity to collect, grow, and amplify into discrete large-scale vortical structures that then shed with a distinct periodicity. To the authors' knowledge, such a flow phenomenon has never been reported before for landing gear wheels, which are in essence finite (three-dimensional) cylinders. To gain further insight into this phenomenon, a detailed experimental study has been undertaken employing the hydrogen bubble visualization and Particle Image Velocimetry techniques. A very thin platinum wire, similar to those used in hydrogen bubble visualization applications, was placed upstream of the wheel model to produce two streams of weak vorticity (with opposite sign) that convected toward the model. As the vorticity streams enter the stagnation region of the wheels, significant flow deceleration and vorticity stretching act to collect, grow, and amplify the incoming vorticity streams into large-scale vortical structures. Experiments were performed at a fixed Reynolds number, with a value of 32 500 when defined based on the diameter of the wheel and a value of 21 based on the diameter of the vorticity-generating upstream wire. First, to establish a baseline, the natural flow field (without the presence of an upstream wire) was characterized, where experimentally determined values for the stagnation boundary-layer thickness and the velocity profile along the stagnation streamline were both found to agree with the values provided in the literature for two-dimensional cylinders. Subsequently, the dynamics of vorticity collection, growth, amplification, and shedding were studied. The size, stand-off distance and the shedding frequency of the vortical structures forming near the stagnation region were all found to strongly depend on the impingement location of the inbound vorticity on the wheel. A simple relationship between the non
Generation of speckle vortices by Archimedes' spiral micro-holes
Sun, Haibin; Liu, Tingting; Chen, Jun; Sun, Ping
2016-10-01
Speckle plays an important role in the optical field. Optical vortices which exist in random speckle fields usually contain useful phase information. The distribution of speckle field is determined by these optical vortices. In order to study speckle vortices quantitatively, we established a micro-holes array model based on the law of Archimedes' spiral arrangement. Speckle vortices can be generated by the random diffuse reflection points (spiral micro-holes). In the experiments, the gray image of Archimedes' spiral micro-holes are displayed on the screen of liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LC-SLM), and the output optical field is captured by a CCD camera. The numerical simulations and experimental results show that the model can be used to generate speckle vortices.
Generation of Optical Vortices by Linear Phase Ramps
Sunil Vyas
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Generation of optical vortices using linear phase ramps is experimentally demonstrated. When two regions of a wavefront have opposite phase gradients then along the line of phase discontinuity vortices can be generated. It is shown that vortices can evolve during propagation even with the unequal magnitude of tilt in the two regions of the wavefront. The number of vortices and their location depend upon the magnitude of tilt. vortex generation is experimentally realized by encoding phase mask on spatial light modulator and their presence is detected interferometrically. Numerical simulation has been performed to calculate the diffracted intensity distribution from the phase mask, and presence of vortices in the diffracted field is detected by computational techniques.
Gyrofluid potential vorticity equation and turbulent equipartion states
Madsen, Jens; Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Naulin, Volker
2015-01-01
An equation governing potential vorticity in a magnetized plasmas is derived. The equation is analogous to Ertel's theorem. In the long wave-length limit the potential vorticity equals the ratio of the gyro-frequency plus the E × B- and diamagnetic polarization densities to the particle density....... The equation is relevant for transport barriers in magnetically confined plasmas because particle density, ion temperature and the radial electric field are mutually coupled through the potential vorticity. The potential vorticity equation is derived from an energy conserving, four-field, electrostatic, full......-F gyrofluid model. It is shown that the gyrofluid model possesses two exact Lagrangian invariants. In systems where mixing uniformly distribute the Lagrangian invariants we derive the corresponding turbulent equipartion states. It is shown that the system is driven towards constant potential vorticity. Given...
Nanoscale assembly of superconducting vortices with scanning tunnelling microscope tip
Ge, Jun-Yi; Gladilin, Vladimir N.; Tempere, Jacques; Xue, Cun; Devreese, Jozef T.; van de Vondel, Joris; Zhou, Youhe; Moshchalkov, Victor V.
2016-12-01
Vortices play a crucial role in determining the properties of superconductors as well as their applications. Therefore, characterization and manipulation of vortices, especially at the single-vortex level, is of great importance. Among many techniques to study single vortices, scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) stands out as a powerful tool, due to its ability to detect the local electronic states and high spatial resolution. However, local control of superconductivity as well as the manipulation of individual vortices with the STM tip is still lacking. Here we report a new function of the STM, namely to control the local pinning in a superconductor through the heating effect. Such effect allows us to quench the superconducting state at nanoscale, and leads to the growth of vortex clusters whose size can be controlled by the bias voltage. We also demonstrate the use of an STM tip to assemble single-quantum vortices into desired nanoscale configurations.
Decay of high order optical vortices in anisotropic nonlinear optical media
Mamaev, A.V.; Saffman, M.; Zozulya, A.A.
1997-01-01
We present an experimental and theoretical study of the decay of high order optical vortices in media with an anisotropic nonlocal nonlinearity. Vortices with charge n decay into an aligned array of n vortices of unit charge.......We present an experimental and theoretical study of the decay of high order optical vortices in media with an anisotropic nonlocal nonlinearity. Vortices with charge n decay into an aligned array of n vortices of unit charge....
Large-deviation statistics of vorticity stretching in isotropic turbulence.
Johnson, Perry L; Meneveau, Charles
2016-03-01
A key feature of three-dimensional fluid turbulence is the stretching and realignment of vorticity by the action of the strain rate. It is shown in this paper, using the cumulant-generating function, that the cumulative vorticity stretching along a Lagrangian path in isotropic turbulence obeys a large deviation principle. As a result, the relevant statistics can be described by the vorticity stretching Cramér function. This function is computed from a direct numerical simulation data set at a Taylor-scale Reynolds number of Re(λ)=433 and compared to those of the finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLE) for material deformation. As expected, the mean cumulative vorticity stretching is slightly less than that of the most-stretched material line (largest FTLE), due to the vorticity's preferential alignment with the second-largest eigenvalue of strain rate and the material line's preferential alignment with the largest eigenvalue. However, the vorticity stretching tends to be significantly larger than the second-largest FTLE, and the Cramér functions reveal that the statistics of vorticity stretching fluctuations are more similar to those of the largest FTLE. In an attempt to relate the vorticity stretching statistics to the vorticity magnitude probability density function in statistically stationary conditions, a model Kramers-Moyal equation is constructed using the statistics encoded in the Cramér function. The model predicts a stretched-exponential tail for the vorticity magnitude probability density function, with good agreement for the exponent but significant difference (35%) in the prefactor.
On stability of vortices in three-dimensional self-attractive Bose-Einstein condensates
Malomed, Boris A. [Department of Interdisciplinary Studies, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)]. E-mail: malomed@eng.tau.ac.il; Lederer, Falk [Institute of Solid State Theory and Theoretical Optics, Friedrich-Schiller Universitaet Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, D-077743 Jena (Germany); Mazilu, Dumitru [Institute of Solid State Theory and Theoretical Optics, Friedrich-Schiller Universitaet Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, D-077743 Jena (Germany); Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), 407 Atomistilor, Magurele-Bucharest 077125 (Romania); Mihalache, Dumitru [Institute of Solid State Theory and Theoretical Optics, Friedrich-Schiller Universitaet Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, D-077743 Jena (Germany); Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), 407 Atomistilor, Magurele-Bucharest 077125 (Romania)
2007-02-05
Results of accurate analysis of stability are reported for localized vortices in the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) with the negative scattering length, trapped in an anisotropic potential with the aspect ratio {omega}. The cases of {omega}-bar 1 and {omega}-bar 1 correspond to the 'pancake' (nearly-2D) and 'cigar-shaped' (nearly-1D) configurations, respectively (in the latter limit, the vortices become 'tubular' solitons). The analysis is based on the 3D Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The family of solutions with vorticity S=1 is accurately predicted by the variational approximation. The relative size of the stability area for the vortices with S=1 (which was studied, in a part, before) increases with the decrease of {omega} in terms of the number of atoms, but decreases in terms of the chemical potential. All states with S>=2 are unstable, while the stability of the ordinary solitons (S=0) obeys the Vakhitov-Kolokolov criterion. The stability predictions are verified by direct simulations of the full 3D equation.
Mie, Y. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Crooker, N.U.; Siscoe, G.L. [Boston Univ., MA (United States)
1995-05-01
Cusp currents that arise from ionospheric vorticity generated by the combined merging outflow and gasdynamic flow fields at the magnetopause are quantified and compared with those calculated from vorticity generated by mapping the solar wind electric field into a limited cusp region of the polar cap, as proposed in the synthesis view of Banks. The results are essentially identical for strong interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) B{sub Y}, thus demonstrating equivalence between mechanical and electrical descriptions of reconnection-driven convection. For southward IMF, however, the mechanical description yields weak cusp currents with dawn-dusk bipolarity, as deduced from early observations by Iijima and Potemra, whereas the electrical description yields none. The bipolar currents arise from the diverging pattern of gasdynamic flow. The currents become unipolar as B{sub Y} increases and the asymmetry of the merging outflow dominates. Additional cusp currents in both models arise at kinks in the flow contours (additional ionospheric vorticity) around the border of the cusp region, owing to limiting the area of mapping from the magnetopause. The border currents form a bipolar pair that rotates around the circumference of the cusp as the IMF rotates in clock angle. They dominate the currents arising from vorticity within the cusp. 17 refs., 3 figs.
Vorticity evolution in a rigid pipe of circular cross-section
Lam, F
2015-01-01
In this paper, we show that the spatio-temporal evolution of incompressible flows in a long circular pipe can be described by vorticity dynamics. The principal techniques to obtain solution are similar to those used for flows in the whole space. As the consideration of the Navier-Stokes equations is given in a cylindrical co-ordinates, two aspects of complication arise. One is the interaction of the velocity components in the radial and azimuthal directions due to the fictitious centrifugal force in the equations of motion. The rate of the vorticity production at pipe wall depends on the initial data at entry and hence is unknown a priori; it must be determined as part of the solution. The vorticity solution obtained defines an intricate flow field of multitudinous degrees of freedom. As the Reynolds number increases, the analytical solution predicts vorticity-scale proliferations in succession. For sufficient large initial data, pipe flows are of turbulent nature. The solution of the governing equations is g...
Dipole vortices in the Great Australian Bight
Cresswell, George R.; Lund-Hansen, Lars C.; Nielsen, Morten Holtegaard
2015-01-01
Shipboard measurements from late 2006 made by the Danish Galathea 3 Expedition and satellite sea surface temperature images revealed a chain of cool and warm mushroom' dipole vortices that mixed warm, salty, oxygen-poor waters on and near the continental shelf of the Great Australian Bight (GAB......) with cooler, fresher, oxygen-rich waters offshore. The alternating jets' flowing into the mushrooms were directed mainly northwards and southwards and differed in temperature by only 1.5 degrees C; however, the salinity difference was as much as 0.5, and therefore quite large. The GAB waters were slightly...... denser than the cooler offshore waters. The field of dipoles evolved and distorted, but appeared to drift westwards at 5km day-1 over two weeks, and one new mushroom carried GAB water southwards at 7km day(-1). Other features encountered between Cape Leeuwin and Tasmania included the Leeuwin Current...
Gradient evolution for potential vorticity flows
S. Balasuriya
2001-01-01
Full Text Available Two-dimensional unsteady incompressible flows in which the potential vorticity (PV plays a key role are examined in this study, through the development of the evolution equation for the PV gradient. For the case where the PV is conserved, precise statements concerning topology-conservation are presented. While establishing some intuitively well-known results (the numbers of eddies and saddles is conserved, other less obvious consequences (PV patches cannot be generated, some types of Lagrangian and Eulerian entities are equivalent are obtained. This approach enables an improvement on an integrability result for PV conserving flows (if there were no PV patches at time zero, the flow would be integrable. The evolution of the PV gradient is also determined for the nonconservative case, and a plausible experiment for estimating eddy diffusivity is suggested. The theory is applied to an analytical diffusive Rossby wave example.
Abrikosov Gluon Vortices in Color Superconductors
Ferrer, Efrain J
2010-01-01
In this talk I will discuss how the in-medium magnetic field can influence the gluon dynamics in a three-flavor color superconductor. It will be shown how at field strengths comparable to the charged gluon Meissner mass a new phase can be realized, giving rise to Abrikosov's vortices of charged gluons. In that phase, the inhomogeneous gluon condensate anti-screens the magnetic field due to the anomalous magnetic moment of these spin-1 particles. This paramagnetic effect can be of interest for astrophysics, since due to the gluon vortex antiscreening mechanism, compact stars with color superconducting cores could have larger magnetic fields than neutron stars made up entirely of nuclear matter. I will also discuss a second gluon condensation phenomenon connected to the Meissner instability attained at moderate densities by two-flavor color superconductors. In this situation, an inhomogeneous condensate of charged gluons emerges to remove the chromomagnetic instability created by the pairing mismatch, and as a ...
Analytical BPS Maxwell-Higgs vortices
Casana, R; da Hora, E; Santos, C dos
2014-01-01
We have established a prescription for the calculation of analytical vortex solutions in the context of generalized Maxwell-Higgs models whose overall dynamics is controlled by two positive functions of the scalar field. We have also determined a natural constraint between these functions and the Higgs potential allowing the existence of axially symmetric Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) solutions possessing finite energy. Furthermore, when the generalizing functions are chosen suitably, the nonstandard BPS equations can be solved exactly. We have studied some examples, comparing them with the usual Abrikosov-Nielsen-Olesen (ANO) solution. The overall conclusion is that the analytical self-dual vortices are well-behaved in all relevant sectors, strongly supporting the generalized models they belong themselves. In particular, our results mimic well-known properties of the usual (numerical) configurations, as localized energy density, while contributing to the understanding of topological solitons and their...
Instantons and vortices on noncommutative toric varieties
Cirio, Lucio S.; Landi, Giovanni; Szabo, Richard J.
2014-09-01
We elaborate on the quantization of toric varieties by combining techniques from toric geometry, isospectral deformations and noncommutative geometry in braided monoidal categories, and the construction of instantons thereon by combining methods from noncommutative algebraic geometry and a quantized twistor theory. We classify the real structures on a toric noncommutative deformation of the Klein quadric and use this to derive a new noncommutative four-sphere which is the unique deformation compatible with the noncommutative twistor correspondence. We extend the computation of equivariant instanton partition functions to noncommutative gauge theories with both adjoint and fundamental matter fields, finding agreement with the classical results in all instances. We construct moduli spaces of noncommutative vortices from the moduli of invariant instantons, and derive corresponding equivariant partition functions which also agree with those of the classical limit.
Vorticity Fluctuations in Plane Couette Flow
Ortiz de Zarate, Jose; Sengers, Jan V.
2010-11-01
In this presentation we evaluate the flow-induced amplification of the thermal noise in plane Couette configuration. The physical origin of the noise is the random nature of molecular collisions, that contribute with a stochastic component to the stress tensor (Landau's fluctuating hydrodynamics). This intrinsic stochastic forcing is then amplified by the mode- coupling mechanisms associated to shear flow. In a linear approximation, noise amplification can be studied by solving stochastic Orr-Sommerfeld and Squire equations. We compare the efficiency of the different mechanisms, being the most important the direct coupling between Squire and Orr-Sommerfed equations. The main effect is to amplify wall-normal vorticity fluctuations with an spanwise modulation at wave number around 1.5, a configuration that resembles the streaks that have been proposed as precursors of the flow instability.
Dynamic Assembly of Magnetic Colloidal Vortices
Mohorič, Tomaž; Kokot, Gašper; Osterman, Natan; Snezhko, Alexey; Vilfan, Andrej; Babič, Dušan; Dobnikar, Jure
2016-04-29
Magnetic colloids in external time-dependent fields are subject to complex induced many-body interactions governing their self-assembly into a variety of equilibrium and out-of-equilibrium structures such as chains, networks, suspended membranes, and colloidal foams. Here, we report experiments, simulations, and theory probing the dynamic assembly of superparamagnetic colloids in precessing external magnetic fields. Within a range of field frequencies, we observe dynamic large-scale structures such as ordered phases composed of precessing chains, ribbons, and rotating fluidic vortices. We show that the structure formation is inherently coupled to the buildup of torque, which originates from internal relaxation of induced dipoles and from transient correlations among the particles as a result of short-lived chain formation. We discuss in detail the physical properties of the vortex phase and demonstrate its potential in particle-coating applications.
How strong are the Rossby vortices?
Meheut, H; Lai, D
2013-01-01
The Rossby wave instability, associated with density bumps in differentially rotating discs, may arise in several different astrophysical contexts, such as galactic or protoplanetary discs. While the linear phase of the instability has been well studied, the nonlinear evolution and especially the saturation phase remain poorly understood. In this paper, we test the non-linear saturation mechanism analogous to that derived for wave-particle interaction in plasma physics. To this end we perform global numerical simulations of the evolution of the instability in a two-dimensional disc. We confirm the physical mechanism for the instability saturation and show that the maximum amplitude of vorticity can be estimated as twice the linear growth rate of the instability. We provide an empirical fitting formula for this growth rate for various parameters of the density bump. We also investigate the effects of the azimuthal mode number of the instability and the energy leakage in the spiral density waves. Finally, we sh...
Non-Abelian Chern-Simons Vortices
Lozano, G S; Moreno, E F; Schaposnik, F A
2007-01-01
We consider the bosonic sector of a ${\\cal N} = 2$ supersymmetric Chern-Simons-Higgs theory in 2 + 1 dimensions. The gauge group is $U(1)\\times SU(N)$ and has $N_f$ flavors of fundamental matter fields. The model supports non-Abelian (axially symmetric) vortices when $N_f \\geq N$, which have internal (orientational) moduli. When $N_f > N$, the solutions acquire additional collective coordinates parameterizing their transverse size. We solve the BPS equations numerically and obtain local ($N_f = N$) and semi-local ($N_f > N$) string solutions. A $CP^{N-1}$ low-energy effective action for the orientational moduli is obtained in both cases. In the semilocal case there is an additional term in the effective action induced by the transverse size moduli. We find such term in the limit of large transverse size, where exact solutions can be obtained analytically.
Vortices in superconducting bulk, films and SQUIDs
Ernst Helmut Brandt
2006-01-01
The properties of the ideal periodic vortex lattice in bulk superconductors and in films of any thickness can be calculated from Ginzburg-Landau theory by an iteration method using Fourier series. The London theory yields general analytic expressions for the magnetic field and energy of arbitrary arrangements of straight or curved vortex lines. The elasticity of the vortex lattice is highly nonlocal. The magnetic response of superconductors of realistic shapes like thin and thick strips and disks or thin rectangular plates or films, containing pinned vortices, can be computed within continuum theory by solving an integral equation. A useful example is a thin square with a central hole and a radial slit, used as superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID).
Vortices and hysteresis in a rotating Bose-Einstein condensate with anharmonic confinement
Jackson, A.D.; Kavoulakis, G.M.
2004-01-01
Vortices; Bose-Einstein condensation; phase diagrams; phase transformation Udgivelsesdato: 4 August......Vortices; Bose-Einstein condensation; phase diagrams; phase transformation Udgivelsesdato: 4 August...
On the link between martian total ozone and potential vorticity
Holmes, James A.; Lewis, Stephen R.; Patel, Manish R.
2017-01-01
We demonstrate for the first time that total ozone in the martian atmosphere is highly correlated with the dynamical tracer, potential vorticity, under certain conditions. The degree of correlation is investigated using a Mars global circulation model including a photochemical model. Potential vorticity is the quantity of choice to explore the dynamical nature of polar vortices because it contains information on winds and temperature in a single scalar variable. The correlation is found to display a distinct seasonal variation, with a strong positive correlation in both northern and southern winter at poleward latitudes in the northern and southern hemisphere respectively. The identified strong correlation implies variations in polar total ozone during winter are predominantly controlled by dynamical processes in these spatio-temporal regions. The weak correlation in northern and southern summer is due to the dominance of photochemical reactions resulting from extended exposure to sunlight. The total ozone/potential vorticity correlation is slightly weaker in southern winter due to topographical variations and the preference for ozone to accumulate in Hellas basin. In northern winter, total ozone can be used to track the polar vortex edge. The ozone/potential vorticity ratio is calculated for both northern and southern winter on Mars for the first time. Using the strong correlation in total ozone and potential vorticity in northern winter inside the polar vortex, it is shown that potential vorticity can be used as a proxy to deduce the distribution of total ozone where satellites cannot observe for the majority of northern winter. Where total ozone observations are available on the fringes of northern winter at poleward latitudes, the strong relationship of total ozone and potential vorticity implies that total ozone anomalies in the surf zone of the northern polar vortex can potentially be used to determine the origin of potential vorticity filaments.
A continuous-vorticity panel method for lifting surfaces
Yen, A.; Mook, D. T.; Nayfeh, A. H.
1981-01-01
A continuous-vorticity panel method is developed and utilized to predict the steady aerodynamic loads on lifting surfaces having sharp-edge separation. Triangular panels with linearly varying vorticity are used. The velocity field generated by an individual element is obtained in closed form. An optimization scheme is constructed for finding the vorticity at the nodes of the elements. The method is not restricted by aspect ratios, angles of attack, planforms, or camber. Rectangular and delta wings are presented as numerical examples. The numerical results are in good agreement with the experimental data for incompressible flows.
Migration of anticyclonic vortices in the protoplanetary disk
Surville, Clément
2012-01-01
This contribution describes the evolution of the protoplanetary disk using 2D numerical simulations. The 2D Euler equations are solved with the finite volume method. The numerical simulations are used to study the persistence and migration of anticyclonic vortices. Two cases are presented : (1) vortices produced by a Rossby wave instability, (2) a non-linear vortex model initially implemented into the disk. The migration of the vortices is due to spiral density waves excited by the vortex in the gas of the disk
Interaction of Vortices with a progressive Surface Wave
LinlinWANG; HuiyangMA
1996-01-01
Interaction of submerged vortices with a progressive surface wave is investigated by the finite-difference numerical solution of Navier-Stokes equations.The progressive wave is the surface gravity water wave in a finite depth.The initial vortex model is Oseen vortex.The numerical computations show that a special pattern of the wave surface may be observed by the interaction from the submerged vortices.The influences of Froude number,the initial geometric configuration of vortices,and the amplitude,inital phase of surface wave on the wave pattern are discussed.
Kinetic study of ion-acoustic plasma vortices
Khan, S. A. [National Centre for Physics (NCP), Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Aman-ur-Rehman, E-mail: amansadiq@gmail.com [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan); Mendonca, J. T. [IPFN, Instituto Superior Téchnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)
2014-09-15
The kinetic theory of electron plasma waves with finite orbital angular momentum has recently been introduced by Mendonca. This model shows possibility of new kind of plasma waves and instabilities. We have extended the theory to ion-acoustic plasma vortices carrying orbital angular momentum. The dispersion equation is derived under paraxial approximation which exhibits a kind of linear vortices and their Landau damping. The numerical solutions are obtained and compared with analytical results which are in good agreement. The physical interpretation of the ion-acoustic plasma vortices and their Landau resonance conditions are given for typical case of Maxwellian plasmas.
Dynamics of circular arrangements of vorticity in two dimensions
Swaminathan, Rohith V.; Ravichandran, S.; Perlekar, Prasad; Govindarajan, Rama
2016-07-01
The merger of two like-signed vortices is a well-studied problem, but in a turbulent flow, we may often have more than two like-signed vortices interacting. We study the merger of three or more identical corotating vortices initially arranged on the vertices of a regular polygon. At low to moderate Reynolds numbers, we find an additional stage in the merger process, absent in the merger of two vortices, where an annular vortical structure is formed and is long lived. Vortex merger is slowed down significantly due to this. Such annular vortices are known at far higher Reynolds numbers in studies of tropical cyclones, which have been noticed to a break down into individual vortices. In the preannular stage, vortical structures in a viscous flow are found here to tilt and realign in a manner similar to the inviscid case, but the pronounced filaments visible in the latter are practically absent in the former. Five or fewer vortices initially elongate radially, and then reorient their long axis closer to the azimuthal direction so as to form an annulus. With six or more vortices, the initial alignment is already azimuthal. Interestingly at higher Reynolds numbers, the merger of an odd number of vortices is found to proceed very differently from that of an even number. The former process is rapid and chaotic whereas the latter proceeds more slowly via pairing events. The annular vortex takes the form of a generalized Lamb-Oseen vortex (GLO), and diffuses inward until it forms a standard Lamb-Oseen vortex. For lower Reynolds number, the numerical (fully nonlinear) evolution of the GLO vortex follows exactly the analytical evolution until merger. At higher Reynolds numbers, the annulus goes through instabilities whose nonlinear stages show a pronounced difference between even and odd mode disturbances. Here again, the odd mode causes an early collapse of the annulus via decaying turbulence into a single central vortex, whereas the even mode disturbance causes a more
Image simulations of kinked vortices for transmission electron microscopy
Beleggia, Marco; Pozzi, G.; Tonomura, A.
2010-01-01
We present an improved model of kinked vortices in high-Tc superconductors suitable for the interpretation of Fresnel or holographic observations carried out with a transmission electron microscope. A kinked vortex is composed of two displaced half-vortices, perpendicular to the film plane...... observations of high-Tc superconducting films, where the Fresnel contrast associated with some vortices showed a dumbbell like appearance. Here, we show that under suitable conditions the JV segment may reveal itself in Fresnel imaging or holographic phase mapping in a transmission electron microscope....
Computer simulation studies of pulsed Doppler signals from vortices
CHEN Sizhong; WANG Yuanyuan; WANG Weiqi
2001-01-01
A computer simulation method for pulsed Doppler signals from vortices was proposed to generate simulated vortex Doppler signals under various given circumstances. The relative waveforms, such as the maximum frequency waveform, the mean frequency waveform and the bandwidth waveform, were obtained using the short time Fourier analysis of those simulated signals. The relations were studied between several spectrum parameters obtained from these waveforms and given simulation conditions, such as the position and the size of the sample volume, the distance between two vortices, the free stream velocity and the maximum tangent velocity of the vortex. The sensitive parameters were found to detect vortices using the pulsed Doppler techniques.
Quantised vortices and mutual friction in relativistic superfluids
Andersson, N; Vickers, J A
2016-01-01
We consider the detailed dynamics of an array of quantised superfluid vortices in the framework of general relativity, as required for quantitative modelling of realistic neutron star cores. Our model builds on the variational approach to relativistic (multi-) fluid dynamics, where the vorticity plays a central role. The description provides a natural extension of, and as it happens a better insight into, existing Newtonian models. In particular, we account for the mutual friction associated with scattering of a second "normal" component in the mixture off of the superfluid vortices.
Flow structure and vorticity transport on a plunging wing
Eslam Panah, Azar
The structure and dynamics of the flow field created by a plunging flat plate airfoil are investigated at a chord Reynolds number of 10,000 while varying plunge amplitude and Strouhal number. Digital particle image velocimetry measurements are used to characterize the shedding patterns and the interactions between the leading and trailing edge vortex structures (LEV and TEV), resulting in the development of a wake classification system based on the nature and timing of interactions between the leading- and trailing-edge vortices. The convection speed of the LEV and its resulting interaction with the TEV is primarily dependent on reduced frequency; however, at Strouhal numbers above approximately 0.4, a significant influence of Strouhal number (or plunge amplitude) is observed in which LEV convection is retarded, and the contribution of the LEV to the wake is diminished. It is shown that this effect is caused by an enhanced interaction between the LEV and the airfoil surface, due to a significant increase in the strength of the vortices in this Strouhal number range, for all plunge amplitudes investigated. Comparison with low-Reynolds-number studies of plunging airfoil aerodynamics reveals a high degree of consistency and suggests applicability of the classification system beyond the range examined in the present work. Some important differences are also observed. The three-dimensional flow field was characterized for a plunging two-dimensional flat-plate airfoil using three-dimensional reconstructions of planar PIV data. Whereas the phase-averaged description of the flow field shows the secondary vortex penetrating the leading-edge shear layer to terminate LEV formation on the airfoil, time-resolved, instantaneous PIV measurements show a continuous and growing entrainment of secondary vorticity into the shear layer and LEV. A planar control volume analysis on the airfoil indicated that the generation of secondary vorticity produced approximately one half the
Formation and stability of tri-polar vortices in stratified geostrophic flows
Corread, S.M.; Carton, X.J. [French Navy Oceanography Center, Brest (France)
1999-12-01
The formation, stationary and stability of tri-polar vortices are investigated in a two-layer quasi-geostrophic model. On the f-plane, these tripoles form from the barotropic and baroclinic instabilities of circular isolated vortices. Various horizontal and vertical potential vorticity distributions, both piecewise constant and continuous, are considered here for these circular vortices.
Point Vortices: Finding Periodic Orbits and their Topological Classification
Smith, Spencer A
2015-01-01
The motion of point vortices constitutes an especially simple class of solutions to Euler's equation for two dimensional, inviscid, incompressible, and irrotational fluids. In addition to their intrinsic mathematical importance, these solutions are also physically relevant. Rotating superfluid helium can support rectilinear quantized line vortices, which in certain regimes are accurately modeled by point vortices. Depending on the number of vortices, it is possible to have either regular integrable motion or chaotic motion. Thus, the point vortex model is one of the simplest and most tractable fluid models which exhibits some of the attributes of weak turbulence. The primary aim of this work is to find and classify periodic orbits, a special class of solutions to the point vortex problem. To achieve this goal, we introduce a number of algorithms: Lie transforms which ensure that the equations of motion are accurately solved; constrained optimization which reduces close return orbits to true periodic orbits; o...
On the definition of a moist-air potential vorticity
Marquet, Pascal
2014-01-01
A new potential vorticity is derived by using a specific entropy formulation expressed in terms of a moist-air entropy potential temperature. The new formulation is compared with Ertel's version and with others based on virtual and equivalent potential temperatures. The new potential vorticity is subject to conservative properties ensured by the Second Law applied to the moist-air material derivatives. It is shown that the upper tropospheric and stratospheric (dry) structures are nearly the same as those obtained with Ertel's component. Moreover, new structures are observed in the low troposphere, with negative values associated with moist frontal regions. The negative values are observed in the frontal regions where slantwise convection instabilities may take place, but they are smaller than those observed with the equivalent potential vorticity. The main purpose of the article is to diagnose the behaviour of the new potential vorticity from numerical output generated by the ARPEGE NWP model, with the help o...
Magnus and other forces on vortices in superfluids and superconductors
Stone, Michael [University of Illinois, IL (United States)
1998-07-01
I discuss some of the forces acting on vortices in charged superfluids, paying particular attention to the way that the Berry and Aharonov-Casher phases combine to reflect the classical magnetohydrodynamics. (Author). 28 refs.
Are Superfluid Vortices in Pulsars Violating the Weak Equivalence Principle?
de Matos, Clovis Jacinto
2010-01-01
In the present paper we argue that timing irregularities in pulsars, like glitches and timing noise, could be associated with the violation of the weak equivalence principle for vortices in the superfluid core of rotating neutron stars.
Stability of superfluid vortices in dense quark matter
Alford, Mark G; Vachaspati, Tanmay; Windisch, Andreas
2016-01-01
Superfluid vortices in the color-flavor-locked (CFL) phase of dense quark matter are known to be energetically disfavored relative to well-separated triplets of "semi-superfluid" color flux tubes. However, the short-range interaction (metastable versus unstable) has not been established. In this paper we perform numerical calculations using the effective theory of the condensate field, mapping the regions in the parameter space of coupling constants where the vortices are metastable versus unstable. For the case of zero gauge coupling we analytically identify a candidate for the unstable mode, and show that it agrees well with the results of the numerical calculations. We find that in the region of the parameter space that seems likely to correspond to real-world CFL quark matter the vortices are unstable, indicating that if such matter exists in neutron star cores it is very likely to contain semi-superfluid color flux tubes rather than superfluid vortices.
Propagation dynamics of vortices in Helico-Conical optical beams
Bareza, Nestor
2015-01-01
We present the dynamics of optical vortices (OVs) that came from the propagation of helico-conical optical beam. This dynamics is investigated numerically by tracking the OVs at several distances using rigorous scalar diffraction theory. To ensure that our numerical calculations are correct, we compare the intensity profiles and their corresponding interferograms taken at different propagation distances between simulations and experiments. We observe that the peripheral isopolar vortices transport radially inward, toward the optical axis along the transverse spatial space as the beam propagates. When the beam has a central vortex, these vortices have significant induced angular rates of motion about the optical axis. These propagation dynamics of vortices influence the internal energy flow and the wave profile reconstruction of the beam, which can be important when deciding their applications.
Vortical Structures in CT-based Breathing Lung Models
Choi, Jiwoong; Lee, Changhyun; Hoffman, Eric; Lin, Ching-Long
2016-11-01
The 1D-3D coupled computational fluid dynamics (CFD) lung model is applied to study vortical structures in the human airways during normal breathing cycles. During inhalation, small vortical structures form around the turbulent laryngeal jet and Taylor-Gőrtler-like vortices form near the curved walls in the supraglottal region and at airway bifurcations. On exhalation elongated vortical tubes are formed in the left main bronchus, whereas a relatively slower stream is observed in the right main bronchus. These structures result in helical motions in the trachea, producing long lasting high wall shear stress on the wall. The current study elucidates that the correct employment of image-based airway deformation and lung deflation information is crucial for capturing the physiologically consistent regional airflow structures. The pathophysiological implications of these structures in destruction of tracheal wall will be discussed.
Artificial ice using superconducting vortices (Conference Presentation)
Trastoy Quintela, Juan; Malnou, Maxime; Ulysse, Christian; Bernard, Rozenn; Bergeal, Nicolas; Faini, Giancarlo; Lesueur, Jerome; Briatico, Javier; Villegas, Javier E.
2016-10-01
We use magnetic flux quanta (superconducting vortices) on artificial energy landscapes (pinning arrays) to create a new type of artificial ice. This vortex ice shows unusual temperature effects that offer new possibilities in the study of ice systems. We have investigated the matching of the flux lattice to pinning arrays that present geometrical frustration. The pinning arrays are fabricated on YBCO films using masked O+ ion irradiation. The details of the magneto-resistance imply that the flux lattice organizes into a vortex ice. The absence of history-dependent effects suggests that the vortex ice is highly ordered. Due to the technique used for the artificial energy landscape fabrication, we have the ability to change the pinning array geometry using temperature as a control knob. In particular we can switch the geometrical frustration on and off, which opens the door to performing a new type of annealing absent in other artificial ice systems. * Work supported by the French ANR "MASTHER", and the Fundación Barrié (Galicia, Spain)
Analytical BPS Maxwell-Higgs Vortices
R. Casana
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We have established a prescription for the calculation of analytical vortex solutions in the context of generalized Maxwell-Higgs models whose overall dynamics is controlled by two positive functions of the scalar field, namely, fϕ and wϕ. We have also determined a natural constraint between these functions and the Higgs potential Uϕ, allowing the existence of axially symmetric Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS solutions possessing finite energy. Furthermore, when the generalizing functions are chosen suitably, the nonstandard BPS equations can be solved exactly. We have studied some examples, comparing them with the usual Abrikosov-Nielsen-Olesen (ANO solution. The overall conclusion is that the analytical self-dual vortices are well-behaved in all relevant sectors, strongly supporting the consistency of the respective generalized models. In particular, our results mimic well-known properties of the usual (numerical configurations, as localized energy density, while contributing to the understanding of topological solitons and their description by means of analytical methods.
Wang, Shu Meir; Geller, Marvin A.
2016-09-01
Previous works have shown that a dry, idealized general circulation model could produce many features of the extratropical Tropopause Inversion Layer (TIL). In particular, the following have been shown, but no explanations were given for these results. (1) A sharper extratropical TIL resulted more from increased horizontal resolution than from increased vertical resolution. (2) If the Equator-to-Pole temperature gradient was varied, the annual variation of the extratropical TIL found in observations could be reproduced. (3) The extratropical TIL altitude showed excellent correlation with the upper tropospheric relative vorticity, as had been previously proposed. (4) Increased horizontal model resolutions led to extratropical TILs that were at lower altitudes. We show that these conclusions follow from baroclinic mixing of high stratospheric potential vorticity into the troposphere being the principal sharpening mechanism for the extratropical TIL and the increased baroclinic activity occurring in higher horizontal resolution models. We furthermore suggest that the distance from the jet exerts a greater influence on the height and sharpness of the extratropical TIL than does the upper tropospheric relative vorticity, and this accounts for the annual behavior of the extratropical TIL found in observations and reproduced with a dry, mechanistic, global model.
Large-Eddy Simulations of Dust Devils and Convective Vortices
Spiga, Aymeric; Barth, Erika; Gu, Zhaolin; Hoffmann, Fabian; Ito, Junshi; Jemmett-Smith, Bradley; Klose, Martina; Nishizawa, Seiya; Raasch, Siegfried; Rafkin, Scot; Takemi, Tetsuya; Tyler, Daniel; Wei, Wei
2016-11-01
In this review, we address the use of numerical computations called Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) to study dust devils, and the more general class of atmospheric phenomena they belong to (convective vortices). We describe the main elements of the LES methodology. We review the properties, statistics, and variability of dust devils and convective vortices resolved by LES in both terrestrial and Martian environments. The current challenges faced by modelers using LES for dust devils are also discussed in detail.
Onishchenko, O. G., E-mail: onish@ifz.ru [Institute of Physics of the Earth, 10 B. Gruzinskaya, 123242 Moscow, Russian Federation and Space Research Institute, 84/32 Profsouznaya str., 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Pokhotelov, O. A., E-mail: pokh@ifz.ru [Institute of Physics of the Earth, 10 B. Gruzinskaya, 123242 Moscow (Russian Federation); Horton, W., E-mail: wendell.horton@gmail.com [Institute for Fusion Studies and Applied Research Laboratory, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78713 (United States); Scullion, E., E-mail: scullie@tcd.ie [School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Fedun, V., E-mail: v.fedun@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Automatic Control and Systems Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S13JD (United Kingdom)
2015-12-15
The new type of large-scale vortex structures of dispersionless Alfvén waves in collisionless plasma is investigated. It is shown that Alfvén waves can propagate in the form of Alfvén vortices of finite characteristic radius and characterised by magnetic flux ropes carrying orbital angular momentum. The structure of the toroidal and radial velocity, fluid and magnetic field vorticity, the longitudinal electric current in the plane orthogonal to the external magnetic field are discussed.
On the temperature dependence of the chiral vortical effects
Kalaydzhyan, Tigran
2014-01-01
We discuss the origins of temperature dependence of the axial vortical effect (AVE), i.e. generation of an axial current in a rotating chiral medium along the rotation axis. We show that the corresponding transport coefficient depends on the number of light weakly interacting degrees of freedom, rather than on the gravitational anomaly. We also comment on the role of low-dimensional defects in the rotating medium, and appearance of the chiral vortical effect due to them.
Onset of Vortices in Thin Superconducting Strips and Wires
Aranson, I S; Shapiro, B Y
1994-01-01
Spontaneous nucleation and the consequent penetration of vortices into thin superconducting films and wires, subjected to a magnetic field, can be considered as a nonlinear stage of primary instability of the current-carrying superconducting state. The development of the instability leads to the formation of a chain of vortices in strips and helicoidal vortex lines in wires. The boundary of instability was obtained analytically. The nonlinear stage was investigated by simulations of the time-dependent generalized Ginzburg-Landau equation.
Visualization and Quantification of Rotor Tip Vortices in Helicopter Flows
Kao, David L.; Ahmad, Jasim U.; Holst, Terry L.
2015-01-01
This paper presents an automated approach for effective extraction, visualization, and quantification of vortex core radii from the Navier-Stokes simulations of a UH-60A rotor in forward flight. We adopt a scaled Q-criterion to determine vortex regions and then perform vortex core profiling in these regions to calculate vortex core radii. This method provides an efficient way of visualizing and quantifying the blade tip vortices. Moreover, the vortices radii are displayed graphically in a plane.
The role of vortices in animal locomotion in fluids
Dvořák R.
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show the significance of vortices in animal locomotion in fluids on two deliberately chosen examples. The first example concerns lift generation by bird and insect wings, the second example briefly mentiones swimming and walking on water. In all the examples, the vortices generated by the moving animal impart the necessary momentum to the surrounding fluid, the reaction to which is the force moving or lifting the animal.
Simulating living organisms with populations of point vortices
Schmieder, R.W.
1995-07-01
The author has found that time-averaged images of small populations of point vortices can exhibit motions suggestive of the behavior of individual organisms. As an example, the author shows that collections of point vortices confined in a box and subjected to heating can generate patterns that are broadly similar to interspecies defense in certain sea anemones. It is speculated that other simple dynamical systems can be found to produce similar complex organism-like behavior.
Conditions for Two-Cell Structure in Severe Vortical Storms.
1984-02-01
SEVERE VORTICAL STORMS by G. F. Carrier, F. E. Fendell , P. S. Feldman, and S. F. Fink TRW Space and Technology Group, Redondo Beach, CA 90278 Thi...Claification Conditions for Two-Call Structure in Severe Vortical Storms (U) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Carrier. G. F. (Harvard U.): Fendell , F. E., Feldman...cell structure will occur. Very roughly, about half of all tropical storms ( Fendell 1974), and about one-quarter to one-half of meso- cyclones (Brooks
On Ginzburg-Landau Vortices of Superconducting Thin Films
Shi Jin DING; Qiang DU
2006-01-01
In this paper, we discuss the vortex structure of the superconducting thin films placed in a magnetic field. We show that the global minimizer of the functional modelling the superconducting thin films has a bounded number of vortices when the applied magnetic field hex ＜ Hc1 + K log |log ε|where Hc1 is the lower critical field of the film obtained by Ding and Du in SIAM J. Math. Anal.,2002. The locations of the vortices are also given.
Comparison between ionospheric convection vortices and the associated equivalent currents
Liang, J.; Benkevitch, L.; Sofko, G. J.; Koustov, A. V.
2004-12-01
The equivalent current pattern derived from CANOPUS, NRCAN/GSC and MACCS magnetometers has been compared with the ionospheric convection pattern observed by SuperDARN HF radars. The discrepancies between the equivalent convection (EQC) and the SuperDARN-observed convection (SDC) patterns are explained in terms of the effect of day-night photoionization conductance gradient and the coupling between field-aligned currents (FACs) and ionospheric conductances. In particular, the agreement between the EQC and SDC patterns is usually worse for a counterclockwise convection vortex than for a clockwise cell, but a consistent pattern of discrepancy for counterclockwise convection vortices has been found. We suggest that the discrepancies are due to a downward FAC-conductance coupling process. Since the counterclockwise vortices and clockwise vortices occur predominantly in the dawn and dusk sectors, respectively, in accordance with the usual 2-cell global convection pattern, the asymmetry between the EQC and SDC patterns for counterclockwise vortices and clockwise vortices would naturally lead to a dawn-dusk asymmetry as well. This is revealed by a global statistical study of the deviation of direction between the magnetic equivalent convection and the SuperDARN convection in different time sectors and latitudes. In the dawn sector, the statistical results reveal that, at lower latitudes, the EQC direction deviation is slightly counterclockwise with respect to the SDC direction, whereas the deviation is significantly clockwise at high latitudes. These deviations are consistent with the discrepancy pattern for counterclockwise convection vortices, as found in the individual vortex event studies.
JI Bin; LUO Xian-wu; PENG Xiao-xing; WU Yu-lin
2013-01-01
Large Eddy Simulation (LES) was coupled with a mass transfer cavitation model to predict unsteady 3-D turbulent cavitating flows around a twisted hydrofoil.The wall-adapting local eddy-viscosity (WALE) model was used to give the Sub-Grid Scale (SGS) stress term.The predicted 3-D cavitation evolutions,including the cavity growth,break-off and collapse downstream,and the shedding cycle as well as its frequency agree fairly well with experimental results.The mechanism for the interactions between the cavitation and the vortices was discussed based on the analysis of the vorticity transport equation related to the vortex stretching,volumetric expansion/contraction and baroclinic torque terms along the hydrofoil mid-plane.The vortical flow analysis demonstrates that cavitation promotes the vortex production and the flow unsteadiness.In non-cavitation conditions,the streamline smoothly passes along the upper wall of the hydrofoil with no boundary layer separation and the boundary layer is thin and attached to the foil except at the trailing edge.With decreasing cavitation number,the present case has r =1.07,and the attached sheet cavitation becomes highly unsteady,with periodic growth and break-off to form the cavitation cloud.The expansion due to cavitation induces boundary layer separation and significantly increases the vorticity magnitude at the cavity interface.A detailed analysis using the vorticity transport equation shows that the cavitation accelerates the vortex stretching and dilatation and increases the baroclinic torque as the major source of vorticity generation.Examination of the flow field shows that the vortex dilatation and baroclinic torque terms increase in the cavitating case to the same magnitude as the vortex stretching term,while for the non-cavitating case these two terms are zero.
Mokhov, Igor I; Chefranov, A G
2016-01-01
We get point vortices dynamics equations on a rotating sphere surface directly from the hydrodynamic equations as representing their weak exact solution contrary to the conventional case of the use of a kinematic relationship between a given singular vortex field and velocity field. It is first time that the effect of a sphere rotation on the vortices interaction is accounted for in exact form. We show that only the stream function of a vortex pair of antipodal vortices (APV), and only it satisfies the original three-dimensional hydrodynamics equations on a sphere. We prove that only APV pair with two point vortices in the diameter-conjugated points of a sphere with equal by quantity but different sign circulations may be correctly considered as an elementary (stationary, not self-affecting) singular point object on a sphere. We suggest using the axis connecting the two point vortices in an APV for describing of an axis of rotation of the global vortices introduced in (Barrett, 1958) to reflect the observed g...
Vortical structures in the wake of an undulating fin
Dewey, Peter A.; Carriou, Antoine; Smits, Alexander J.
2010-11-01
Batoid fish such as the manta ray propel themselves through the water by producing a traveling wave motion along the chord of their pectoral fin. Such a motion produces thrust through the development of an unsteady vortex street that results in a jet-like average flow. Digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) is used to characterize the vortical patterns and structures developed in the wake of a manta ray-like fin. A DC servo motor powers a gear train to produce the traveling wave motion; whose frequency and wave length can be varied. The amplitude of the traveling wave motion linearly increases along the span of the fin. Wake morphologies for a wide spectrum of oscillation frequencies and traveling wave wavelengths are identified. A bifurcation from a 2S wake structure to a 2P wake structure is observed as the traveling wave wavelength is decreased, which corresponds to a decrease in efficiency as reported by Clark and Smits (2006). Alteration of the oscillation frequency, and thus Strouhal number, affects vortex interaction and is found to significantly modify the resulting velocity profiles in the wake of the fin. Notably, increasing the Strouhal number beyond optimal conditions, reported by Clark and Smits, corresponds to a reduction in the extent that the jet-like average flow is observed downstream of the fin.
Unsteady flow phenomena associated with leading-edge vortices
Breitsamter, C.
2008-01-01
This paper presents selected results from extensive experimental investigations on turbulent flow fields and unsteady surface pressures caused by leading-edge vortices, in particular, for vortex breakdown flow. Such turbulent flows may cause severe dynamic aeroelastic problems like wing and/or fin buffeting on fighter-type aircraft. The wind tunnel models used include a generic delta wing as well as a detailed aircraft configuration of canard-delta wing type. The turbulent flow structures are analyzed by root-mean-square and spectral distributions of velocity and pressure fluctuations. Downstream of bursting local maxima of velocity fluctuations occur in a limited radial range around the vortex center. The corresponding spectra exhibit significant peaks indicating that turbulent kinetic energy is channeled into a narrow band. These quasi-periodic velocity oscillations arise from a helical mode instability of the breakdown flow. Due to vortex bursting there is a characteristic increase in surface pressure fluctuations with increasing angle of attack, especially when the burst location moves closer to the apex. The pressure fluctuations also show dominant frequencies corresponding to those of the velocity fluctuations. Using the measured flow field data, scaling parameters are derived for design purposes. It is shown that a frequency parameter based on the local semi-span and the sinus of angle of attack can be used to estimate the frequencies of dynamic loads evoked by vortex bursting.
Quantum information processing with optical vortices
Khoury, Antonio Z. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)
2012-07-01
Full text: In this work we discuss several proposals for quantum information processing using the transverse structure of paraxial beams. Different techniques for production and manipulation of optical vortices have been employed and combined with polarization transformations in order to investigate fundamental properties of quantum entanglement as well as to propose new tools for quantum information processing. As an example, we have recently proposed and demonstrated a controlled NOT (CNOT) gate based on a Michelson interferometer in which the photon polarization is the control bit and the first order transverse mode is the target. The device is based on a single lens design for an astigmatic mode converter that transforms the transverse mode of paraxial optical beams. In analogy with Bell's inequality for two-qubit quantum states, we propose an inequality criterion for the non-separability of the spin-orbit degrees of freedom of a laser beam. A definition of separable and non-separable spin-orbit modes is used in consonance with the one presented in Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 2007. As the usual Bell's inequality can be violated for entangled two-qubit quantum states, we show both theoretically and experimentally that the proposed spin-orbit inequality criterion can be violated for non-separable modes. The inequality is discussed both in the classical and quantum domains. We propose a polarization to orbital angular momentum teleportation scheme using entangled photon pairs generated by spontaneous parametric down conversion. By making a joint detection of the polarization and angular momentum parity of a single photon, we are able to detect all the Bell-states and perform, in principle, perfect teleportation from a discrete to a continuous system using minimal resources. The proposed protocol implementation demands experimental resources that are currently available in quantum optics laboratories. (author)
Complex Convective Thermal Fluxes and Vorticity Structure
Redondo, Jose M.; Tellez, Jackson; Sotillos, Laura; Lopez Gonzalez-Nieto, Pilar; Sanchez, Jesus M.; Furmanek, Petr; Diez, Margarita
2015-04-01
Local Diffusion and the topological structure of vorticity and velocity fields is measured in the transition from a homogeneous linearly stratified fluid to a cellular or layered structure by means of convective cooling and/or heating[1,2]. Patterns arise by setting up a convective flow generated by an array of Thermoelectric devices (Peltier/Seebeck cells) these are controlled by thermal PID generating a buoyant heat flux [2]. The experiments described here investigate high Prandtl number mixing using brine and fresh water in order to form density interfaces and low Prandtl number mixing with temperature gradients. The set of dimensionless parameters define conditions of numeric and small scale laboratory modeling of environmental flows. Fields of velocity, density and their gradients were computed and visualized [3,4]. When convective heating and cooling takes place the combination of internal waves and buoyant turbulence is much more complicated if the Rayleigh and Reynolds numbers are high in order to study entrainment and mixing. Using ESS and selfsimilarity structures in the velocity and vorticity fieds and intermittency [3,5] that forms in the non-homogeneous flow is related to mixing and stiring. The evolution of the mixing fronts are compared and the topological characteristics of the merging of plumes and jets in different configurations presenting detailed comparison of the evolution of RM and RT, Jets and Plumes in overall mixing. The relation between structure functions, fractal analysis and spectral analysis can be very useful to determine the evolution of scales. Experimental and numerical results on the advance of a mixing or nonmixing front occurring at a density interface due to body forces [6]and gravitational acceleration are analyzed considering the fractal and spectral structure of the fronts like in removable plate experiments for Rayleigh-Taylor flows. The evolution of the turbulent mixing layer and its complex configuration is studied
Waves and vortices in the inverse cascade regime of stratified turbulence with or without rotation
Herbert, Corentin; Rosenberg, Duane; Pouquet, Annick
2015-01-01
We study the partition of energy between waves and vortices in stratified turbulence, with or without rotation, for a variety of parameters, focusing on the behavior of the waves and vortices in the inverse cascade of energy towards the large scales. To this end, we use direct numerical simulations in a cubic box at a Reynolds number Re=1000, with the ratio between the Brunt-V\\"ais\\"al\\"a frequency N and the inertial frequency f varying from 1/4 to 20, together with a purely stratified run. The Froude number, measuring the strength of the stratification, varies within the range 0.02 < Fr < 0.32. We find that the inverse cascade is dominated by the slow quasi-geostrophic modes. Their energy spectra and fluxes exhibit characteristics of an inverse cascade, even though their energy is not conserved. Surprisingly, the slow vortices still dominate when the ratio N/f increases, also in the stratified case, although less and less so. However, when N/f increases, the inverse cascade of the slow modes becomes we...
A comparative analysis on the shed vortices from the wake of finned, foam-wrapped cylinders
Khashehchi, Morteza; Ashtiani Abdi, Iman; Hooman, Kamel
2017-08-01
The wake characteristics behind a finned and a foam-wrapped circular cylinder has been compared in a study (Khashehchi et al 2014 Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 52 328-38) done by the Authors. In this paper, the shed vortices from the wake of the same cylinders have been studied. Shedding in a bluff body has an important effect on increasing the pressure drop downstream of the object. Here, we have used particle image velocimetry to investigate the detached vortices from the wake behind a foam-wrapped and a finned cylinder. The standard case of cross-flow over a bare cylinder, i.e. no surface extension, has also been tested as a benchmark. The experiments have been performed for Reynolds numbers 2000 based on the mean air velocity and the cylinder’s outer diameter. To identify the features of each aforementioned case, linear stochastic estimation has been applied to the velocity fields. Results show that unlike the fin, adding foam to the cylinder surface increases the size of detached vortices and amplifies the core strength. Moreover, foam-wrapped cylinder in contrast to the finned one produces strong three-dimensionality. Interestingly, finned cylinder’s results show less three-dimensionality compared to the bare cylinder.
Belan, Marco
2013-01-01
The background of this work is the problem of reducing the aerodynamic turbulent friction drag, which is an important source of energy waste in innumerable technological fields. We develop a theoretical framework aimed at predicting the behaviour of existing drag reduction techniques when used at the large values of Re which are typical of applications. We focus on one recently proposed and very promising technique, which consists in creating at the wall streamwise-travelling waves of spanwise velocity. A perturbation analysis of the Navier-Stokes equations that govern the fluid motion is carried out, for the simplest wall-bounded flow geometry, i.e. the plane channel flow. The streamwise base flow is perturbed by the spanwise time-varying base flow induced by the travelling waves. An asymptotic expansion is then carried out with respect to the velocity amplitude of the travelling wave. The analysis, although based on several assumptions, leads to predictions of drag reduction that agree well with the measure...
徐万海; 杜杰; 余建星; 李敬成
2011-01-01
A wake oscillator model is presented for the stream-wise vortex-induced vibration of a circular cylinder in the second excitation region. The near wake dynamics related to the fluctuating nature of alternate vortex shedding is modeled based on the classical van der Pol equation. An appropriate approach used in cross-Sow VIV is developed to estimate the model empirical parameters. The comparison between our calculations and experiments is carried out to validate the proposed model. It is found that the present model results agree fairly well with the experimental data.%A wake oscillator model is presented for the stream-wise vortex-induced vibration of a circular cylinder in the second excitation region.The near wake dynamics related to the fluctuating nature of alternate vortex shedding is modeled based on the classical van der Pol equation.An appropriate approach used in cross-flow VIV is developed to estimate the nodel empirical parameters.The comparison between our calculations and experiments is carried out to validate the proposed model.It is found that the present model results agree fairly well with the experimental data.
Characteristics and controllability of vortices in ferromagnetics, ferroelectrics, and multiferroics
Zheng, Yue; Chen, W. J.
2017-08-01
Topological defects in condensed matter are attracting e significant attention due to their important role in phase transition and their fascinating characteristics. Among the various types of matter, ferroics which possess a switchable physical characteristic and form domain structure are ideal systems to form topological defects. In particular, a special class of topological defects—vortices—have been found to commonly exist in ferroics. They often manifest themselves as singular regions where domains merge in large systems, or stabilize as novel order states instead of forming domain structures in small enough systems. Understanding the characteristics and controllability of vortices in ferroics can provide us with deeper insight into the phase transition of condensed matter and also exciting opportunities in designing novel functional devices such as nano-memories, sensors, and transducers based on topological defects. In this review, we summarize the recent experimental and theoretical progress in ferroic vortices, with emphasis on those spin/dipole vortices formed in nanoscale ferromagnetics and ferroelectrics, and those structural domain vortices formed in multiferroic hexagonal manganites. We begin with an overview of this field. The fundamental concepts of ferroic vortices, followed by the theoretical simulation and experimental methods to explore ferroic vortices, are then introduced. The various characteristics of vortices (e.g. formation mechanisms, static/dynamic features, and electronic properties) and their controllability (e.g. by size, geometry, external thermal, electrical, magnetic, or mechanical fields) in ferromagnetics, ferroelectrics, and multiferroics are discussed in detail in individual sections. Finally, we conclude this review with an outlook on this rapidly developing field.
Slowly-growing gap-opening planets trigger weaker vortices
Hammer, Michael; Kratter, Kaitlin M.; Lin, Min-Kai
2017-04-01
The presence of a giant planet in a low-viscosity disc can create a gap edge in the disc's radial density profile sharp enough to excite the Rossby wave instability. This instability may evolve into dust-trapping vortices that might explain the 'banana-shaped' features in recently observed asymmetric transition discs with inner cavities. Previous hydrodynamical simulations of planet-induced vortices have neglected the time-scale of hundreds to thousands of orbits to grow a massive planet to Jupiter size. In this work, we study the effect of a giant planet's runaway growth time-scale on the lifetime and characteristics of the resulting vortex. For two different planet masses (1 and 5 Jupiter masses) and two different disc viscosities (α = 3 × 10-4 and 3 × 10-5), we compare the vortices induced by planets with several different growth time-scales between 10 and 4000 planet orbits. In general, we find that slowly-growing planets create significantly weaker vortices with lifetimes and surface densities reduced by more than 50 per cent. For the higher disc viscosity, the longest growth time-scales in our study inhibit vortex formation altogether. Additionally, slowly-growing planets produce vortices that are up to twice as elongated, with azimuthal extents well above 180° in some cases. These unique, elongated vortices likely create a distinct signature in the dust observations that differentiates them from the more concentrated vortices that correspond to planets with faster growth time-scales. Lastly, we find that the low viscosities necessary for vortex formation likely prevent planets from growing quickly enough to trigger the instability in self-consistent models.
MHD Flow Visualization of Magnetopause and Polar Cusps Vortices
Collado-Vega, Y. M.; Kessel, R. L.; Shao, X.; Boller, R. A.
2007-01-01
Detailed analysis of Wind, Geotail, and Cluster data shows how magnetopause boundary and polar cusps vortices associated with high speed streams can be a carrier of energy flux to the Earth's magnetosphere. For our analysis time interval, March 29 . - April 5 2002, the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) is primarily northward and MHD simulations of vortices along the flanks within nine hours of the time interval suggest that a Kelvin Helmholtz (KH) instability is likely present. Vortices were classified by solar wind input provided by the Wind satellite located 70-80 RE upstream from Earth. We present statistics for a total of 304 vortices found near the ecliptic plane on the magnetopause flanks, 273 with northward IMF and 31 with southward IMF. The vortices generated under northward IMF were more driven into the dawnside than into the duskside, being substantially more ordered on the duskside. Most of the vortices were large in scale, up to 10 RE, and with a rotation axis closely aligned with the Z(sub GSE) direction. They rotated preferentially clockwise on the dawnside, and. counter-clockwise on the duskside. Those generated under southward IMF were less ordered, fewer in number, and also smaller in diameter. Significant vortex activity occurred on the nightside region of the magnetosphere for these southward cases in contrast to the northward IMF cases on which most of the activity was driven onto the magnetopause flanks. Magnetopause crossings seen by the Geotail spacecraft for the time interval were analyzed and compared with the MHD simulation to validate our results. Vortices over the polar cusps are also being analyzed and the simulation results will be compared to the multi-point measurements of the four Cluster satellites.
Boundary effects and the onset of Taylor vortices
Rucklidge, A. M.; Champneys, A. R.
2004-05-01
It is well established that the onset of spatially periodic vortex states in the Taylor-Couette flow between rotating cylinders occurs at the value of Reynolds number predicted by local bifurcation theory. However, the symmetry breaking induced by the top and bottom plates means that the true situation should be a disconnected pitchfork. Indeed, experiments have shown that the fold on the disconnected branch can occur at more than double the Reynolds number of onset. This leads to an apparent contradiction: why should Taylor vortices set in so sharply at the Reynolds number predicted by the symmetric theory, given such large symmetry-breaking effects caused by the boundary conditions? This paper offers a generic explanation. The details are worked out using a Swift-Hohenberg pattern formation model that shares the same qualitative features as the Taylor-Couette flow. Onset occurs via a wall mode whose exponential tail penetrates further into the bulk of the domain as the driving parameter increases. In a large domain of length L, we show that the wall mode creates significant amplitude in the centre at parameter values that are O( L-2) away from the value of onset in the problem with ideal boundary conditions. We explain this as being due to a Hamiltonian Hopf bifurcation in space, which occurs at the same parameter value as the pitchfork bifurcation of the temporal dynamics. The disconnected anomalous branch remains O(1) away from the onset parameter since it does not arise as a bifurcation from the wall mode.
Vortices generation in the reactive flow on the evaporative surface
Park, Cha Ryeom; Lee, Chang Jin [Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2015-02-15
Vortices generation and flow dynamics are investigated by a numerical calculation with LES methodology on the evaporative surface including chemical reactions. For simplicity, fuel is radially injected from the surface in order to decouple pyrolysis of solid fuel from the governing equation and consideration of heat transfer balance. Nevertheless its simple treatment of chemical reactions and fuel pyrolysis, numerical results captured very fundamental understandings in terms of averaged temperature, velocity profile, and mixture fraction distribution. Results showed that a well-defined turbulent velocity profile at the inlet becomes twisted and highly wrinkled in the downstream reaching the maximum velocity at far above the surface, where the flame is located. And the thickness of boundary layer increases in the downstream due to the enhanced interaction of axial flow and mass injection from the surface. Also, chemical reaction appears highly active and partially concentrated along the plane where flow condition is in stoichiometric. In particular, flame front locates at the surface where mixture fraction Z equals to 0.07. Flame front severely wrinkles in the downstream by the interaction with turbulences in the flow. Partial reactions on the flame front contribute to produce hot spots periodically in the downstream attaining the max temperature at the center of each spot. This may take the role of additional unsteady heat generations and pressure perturbations in the downstream. Future study will focus on the evolution of hot spots and pressure perturbations in the post chamber of lab scale hybrid rocket motors.
Hawkmoth flight performance in tornado-like whirlwind vortices.
Ortega-Jimenez, Victor Manuel; Mittal, Rajat; Hedrick, Tyson L
2014-06-01
Vertical vortex systems such as tornadoes dramatically affect the flight control and stability of aircraft. However, the control implications of smaller scale vertically oriented vortex systems for small fliers such as animals or micro-air vehicles are unknown. Here we examined the flapping kinematics and body dynamics of hawkmoths performing hovering flights (controls) and maintaining position in three different whirlwind intensities with transverse horizontal velocities of 0.7, 0.9 and 1.2 m s(-1), respectively, generated in a vortex chamber. The average and standard deviation of yaw and pitch were respectively increased and reduced in comparison with hovering flights. Average roll orientation was unchanged in whirlwind flights but was more variable from wingbeat to wingbeat than in hovering. Flapping frequency remained unchanged. Wingbeat amplitude was lower and the average stroke plane angle was higher. Asymmetry was found in the angle of attack between right and left wings during both downstroke and upstroke at medium and high vortex intensities. Thus, hawkmoth flight control in tornado-like vortices is achieved by a suite of asymmetric and symmetric changes to wingbeat amplitude, stroke plane angle and principally angle of attack.
Assessing atmospheric bias correction for dynamical consistency using potential vorticity
Rocheta, Eytan; Evans, Jason P.; Sharma, Ashish
2014-12-01
Correcting biases in atmospheric variables prior to impact studies or dynamical downscaling can lead to new biases as dynamical consistency between the ‘corrected’ fields is not maintained. Use of these bias corrected fields for subsequent impact studies and dynamical downscaling provides input conditions that do not appropriately represent intervariable relationships in atmospheric fields. Here we investigate the consequences of the lack of dynamical consistency in bias correction using a measure of model consistency—the potential vorticity (PV). This paper presents an assessment of the biases present in PV using two alternative correction techniques—an approach where bias correction is performed individually on each atmospheric variable, thereby ignoring the physical relationships that exists between the multiple variables that are corrected, and a second approach where bias correction is performed directly on the PV field, thereby keeping the system dynamically coherent throughout the correction process. In this paper we show that bias correcting variables independently results in increased errors above the tropopause in the mean and standard deviation of the PV field, which are improved when using the alternative proposed. Furthermore, patterns of spatial variability are improved over nearly all vertical levels when applying the alternative approach. Results point to a need for a dynamically consistent atmospheric bias correction technique which results in fields that can be used as dynamically consistent lateral boundaries in follow-up downscaling applications.
Vortical structures in pool fires: Observation, speculation, and simulation
Tieszen, S.R.; Nicolette, V.F.; Gritzo, L.A.; Moya, J.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Holen, J.K. [SINTEF/NTH, Trondheim (Norway). Div. Thermodynamics; Murray, D. [Naval Air Warfare Center, China Lake, CA (United States)
1996-11-01
While all fires are complex and involve many phenomena, this report is limited to large, turbulent liquid-hydrocarbon pool fires. Large, liquid-hydrocarbon pool fires present a risk in petrochemical storage and processing facilities and transportation systems that contain large amounts of liquid hydrocarbons. This report describes observations, speculations, and numerical simulations of vortical structures in pool fires. Vortical structures are observed in fires with length scales ranging from those that bend millimeter-thick flame zones to those that entrain air many meters from the edge of the fire to its centerline. The authors propose that baroclinic vorticity generation is primarily responsible for production of rotational motion at small scale and that amalgamation is responsible for the production of large-scale rotational structures from the myriad of small-scale structures. Numerical simulations show that vortical structures having time-mean definitions can be resolved with a Reynolds-Average Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach. However, for vortical structures without time-mean definition, RANS is inappropriate, and another technique, such as Large Eddy Simulation (LES), should be employed. 39 refs., 52 figs., 3 tabs.
A possible theory for the interaction between convective activities and vortical flows
N. Zhao
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Theoretical studies usually attribute convections to the developments of instabilities such as the static or symmetric instabilities of the basic flows. However, the following three facts make the validities of these basic theories unconvincing. First, it seems that in most cases the basic flow with balance property cannot exist as the exact solution, so one cannot formulate appropriate problems of stability. Second, neither linear nor nonlinear theories of dynamical instability are able to describe a two-way interaction between convection and its background, because the basic state which must be an exact solution of the nonlinear equations of motion is prescribed in these issues. And third, the dynamical instability needs some extra initial disturbance to trigger it, which is usually another point of uncertainty. The present study suggests that convective activities can be recognized in the perspective of the interaction of convection with vortical flow. It is demonstrated that convective activities can be regarded as the superposition of free modes of convection and the response to the forcing induced by the imbalance of the unstably stratified vortical flow. An imbalanced vortical flow provides not only an initial condition from which unstable free modes of convection can develop but also a forcing on the convection. So, convection is more appropriately to be regarded as a spontaneous phenomenon rather than a disturbance-triggered phenomenon which is indicated by any theory of dynamical instability. Meanwhile, convection, particularly the forced part, has also a reaction on the basic flow by preventing the imbalance of the vortical flow from further increase and maintaining an approximately balanced flow.
How Do Hydrodynamic Instabilities Affect 3D Transport in Geophysical Vortices?
Wang, P.; Ozgokmen, T. M.
2014-12-01
Understanding three-dimensional (3D) transport in ocean eddies is important for processes at a variety of scales, ranging from plankton production to climate variability. It is well known that geophysical vortices are subject to various hydrodynamic instabilities. Yet the influence of these instabilities on 3D material transport in vortex systems is not well investigated. Focusing on barotropic, inertial and 3D instabilities, we analyze these instabilities with normal-mode method, and reproduce their characteristics via highly-resolved numerical simulations using a spectral element Navier-Stokes solver. By comparing the simulation results of stable and unstable vortices, we investigate the joint impacts of instabilities on 3D transport through three major aspects: (i) energy transfer, (ii) overturning transport of the secondary circulation, and (iii) rates of vertical exchange and mixing. It is found that instabilities can enhance local nonlinear interactions and cause the kinetic energy wavenumber spectrum to have slopes between the conventional -5/3 and -3 at inertial ranges. The cascade of a new quantity is proposed to explain these non-conventional slopes. One of our main results is the discovery of material exchange between the central vortex and satellite vortices through 3D pathways, called funnels. These funnels modify the concept of elliptic regions that can trap material when confined to 2D dynamics. Thus, we show that a family of vortices, created by the hydrodynamic instabilities of the initially unstable vortex, can still continue to operate in unity in order to complete the 3D transport in these systems. We also show that flow instabilities can double the magnitude of vertical velocity, increase the rate of vertical exchange by an order of magnitude and enhance mixing rate more than 100%.
Statistics of Vortical Structures in Variable-Density Turbulent Mixing Layers
Baltzer, Jon; Livescu, Daniel
2016-11-01
Direct Numerical Simulations are performed of temporal incompressible shear-driven planar mixing layers between two miscible streams of fluids with different densities. The simulations begin from thin disturbed interfaces and develop into self-similar states. We use very large domain sizes, corresponding to grids of up to 6144 x 2048 x 1536 points, to produce high-quality statistics and allow natural growth of turbulent structures. A wide range of Atwood numbers are explored, ranging from nearly constant density to A=0.87 (or a density ratio of 14). At high Atwood numbers, a variety of statistics show that variable-density effects produce significant asymmetries. Here we focus on the differences in vortical structure of the light and heavy fluid streams and the importance of non-Boussinesq effects as Atwood number increases. Detailed budgets of vorticity moments are examined in conjunction with the alignments of vorticity relative to other flow quantities. The results display the variable density effects due to compositional variations, a distinctly different mechanism from the density variations associated with compressibility in high-speed flows.
Scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy of vortices in LiFeAs
Hanaguri, T.; Kitagawa, K.; Matsubayashi, K.; Mazaki, Y.; Uwatoko, Y.; Takagi, H.
2012-06-01
We investigate vortices in LiFeAs using scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy. Zero-field tunneling spectra show two superconducting gaps without detectable spectral weight near the Fermi energy, evidencing fully gapped multiband superconductivity. We image vortices in a wide field range from 0.1 T to 11 T by mapping the tunneling conductance at the Fermi energy. A quasihexagonal vortex lattice at low field contains domain boundaries which consist of alternating vortices with unusual coordination numbers of 5 and 7. With increasing field, the domain boundaries become ill defined, resulting in a uniformly disordered vortex matter. Tunneling spectra taken at the vortex center are characterized by a sharp peak just below the Fermi energy, apparently violating particle-hole symmetry. The image of each vortex shows energy-dependent 4-fold anisotropy which may be associated with the anisotropy of the Fermi surface. The vortex radius shrinks with decreasing temperature and becomes smaller than the coherence length estimated from the upper critical field. This is direct evidence of the Kramer-Pesch effect expected in a clean superconductor.
Effect of tip vortices on membrane vibration of flexible wings with different aspect ratios
Genç Mustafa Serdar
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this study, the effect of the aspect ratio on the aerodynamics characteristic of flexible membrane wings with different aspect ratios (AR = 1 and AR = 3 is experimentally investigated at Reynolds number of 25000. Time accurate measurements of membrane deformation using Digital Image Correlation system (DIC is carried out while normal forces of the wing will be measured by helping a load-cell system and flow on the wing was visualized by means of smoke wire technic. The characteristics of high aspect ratio wings are shown to be affected by leading edge separation bubbles at low Reynolds number. It is concluded that the camber of membrane wing excites the separated shear layer and this situation increases the lift coefficient relatively more as compared to rigid wings. In membrane wings with low aspect ratio, unsteadiness included tip vortices and vortex shedding, and the combination of tip vortices and vortex shedding causes complex unsteady deformations of these membrane wings. The characteristic of high aspect ratio wings was shown to be affected by leading edge separation bubbles at low Reynolds numbers whereas the deformations of flexible wing with low aspect ratio affected by tip vortices and leading edge separation bubbles.
Effect of boundary conditions on downstream vorticity from counter-rotating swirlers
Huo Weiye; Lin Yuzhen; Zhang Chi; Sung Chih-Jen
2015-01-01
Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is utilized to measure the non-reacting flow field in a reflow combustor with multiple and single swirlers. The velocity field, vortex structure and total vorticity levels are experimentally obtained using two different boundary conditions, representing a single confined swirler and multiple swirlers in an annular combustor. The influence of the bound-ary conditions on the flow field at several locations downstream of the swirlers is experimentally investigated, showing that the central vortex in the multi-swirler case is more concentrated than in the single-swirler case. The vorticity of the central vortex and average cross-sectional vorticity are relatively low at the swirler outlet in both cases. Both of these statistics gradually increase to the maximum values near 20 mm downstream of the swirler outlet, and subsequently decrease. It is also found that the central vortex in the multi-swirler case is consistently greater than the sin-gle-swirler case. These results demonstrate the critical influence of boundary conditions on flow characteristic of swirling flow, providing insight into the difference of the experiments on test-bed combustor and the full-scale annular combustors.
Effect of boundary conditions on downstream vorticity from counter-rotating swirlers
Huo Weiye
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Particle image velocimetry (PIV is utilized to measure the non-reacting flow field in a reflow combustor with multiple and single swirlers. The velocity field, vortex structure and total vorticity levels are experimentally obtained using two different boundary conditions, representing a single confined swirler and multiple swirlers in an annular combustor. The influence of the boundary conditions on the flow field at several locations downstream of the swirlers is experimentally investigated, showing that the central vortex in the multi-swirler case is more concentrated than in the single-swirler case. The vorticity of the central vortex and average cross-sectional vorticity are relatively low at the swirler outlet in both cases. Both of these statistics gradually increase to the maximum values near 20 mm downstream of the swirler outlet, and subsequently decrease. It is also found that the central vortex in the multi-swirler case is consistently greater than the single-swirler case. These results demonstrate the critical influence of boundary conditions on flow characteristic of swirling flow, providing insight into the difference of the experiments on test-bed combustor and the full-scale annular combustors.
Stationary bathtub vortices and a critical regime of liquid discharge
Stepanyants, Yury A.; Yeoh, Guan H.
A modified Lundgren model is applied for the description of stationary bathtub vortices in a viscous liquid with a free surface. Laminar liquid flow through the circular bottom orifice is considered in the horizontally unbounded domain. The liquid is assumed to be undisturbed at infinity and its depth is taken to be constant. Three different drainage regimes are studied: (i) subcritical, where whirlpool dents are less than the fluid depth; (ii) critical, where the whirlpool tips touch the outlet orifice; and (iii) supercritical, where surface vortices entrain air into the intake pipe. Particular attention is paid to critical vortices; the condition for their existence is determined and analysed. The influence of surface tension on subcritical whirlpools is investigated. Comparison of results with known experimental data is discussed.
On the local stability of vortices in differentially rotating discs
Railton, A D
2014-01-01
In order to circumvent the loss of solid material through radial drift towards the central star, the trapping of dust inside persistent vortices in protoplanetary discs has often been suggested as a process that can eventually lead to planetesimal formation. Although a few special cases have been discussed, exhaustive studies of possible quasi-steady configurations available for dust-laden vortices and their stability have yet to be undertaken, thus their viability or otherwise as locations for the gravitational instability to take hold and seed planet formation is unclear. In this paper we generalise and extend the well known Kida solution to obtain a series of steady state solutions with varying vorticity and dust density distributions in their cores, in the limit of perfectly coupled dust and gas. We then present a local stability analysis of these configurations, considering perturbations localised on streamlines. Typical parametric instabilities found have growthrates of $~0.05\\Omega_P$, where $\\Omega_P$...
Transverse commensurability effect for vortices on periodic pinning arrays
Reichhardt, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reichhardt, Cynthia J [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2008-01-01
Using computer simulations, we demonstrate a type of commensurability that occurs for vortices moving longitudinally through periodic pinning arrays in the presence of an additional transverse driving force. As a function of vortex density, there is a series of broad maxima in the transverse critical depinning force that do not fall at the matching fields where the number of vortices equals an integer multiple of the number of pinning sites. The commensurability effects are associated with dynamical states in which evenly spaced structures consisting of one or more moving rows of vortices form between rows of pinning sites. Remarkably, the critical transverse depinning force can be more than an order of magnitude larger than the longitudinal depinning force.
Stability of model flocks in a vortical flow
Baggaley, A. W.
2016-06-01
We investigate the stability of self-propelled particle flocks in the Taylor-Green vortex, a steady vortical flow. We consider a model in which particles align themselves to a combination of the orientation and the acceleration of particles within a critical radius. We identify two distinct regimes: If alignment with orientation is dominant, the particles tend to be expelled from regions of high vorticity. In contrast, if anticipation is dominant, the particles accumulate in areas of large vorticity. In both regimes, the relative order of the flock is reduced. However, we show that there can be a critical balance of the two effects that stabilizes the flock in the presence of external fluid forcing. This strategy could provide a mechanism for animal flocks to remain globally ordered in the presence of fluid forcing, and it may also have applications in the design of flocking autonomous drones and artificial microswimmers.
Rapid expulsion of microswimmers by a vortical flow.
Sokolov, Andrey; Aranson, Igor S
2016-03-23
Interactions of microswimmers with their fluid environment are exceptionally complex. Macroscopic shear flow alters swimming trajectories in a highly nontrivial way and results in dramatic reduction of viscosity and heterogeneous bacterial distributions. Here we report on experimental and theoretical studies of rapid expulsion of microswimmers, such as motile bacteria, by a vortical flow created by a rotating microparticle. We observe a formation of a macroscopic depletion area in a high-shear region, in the vicinity of a microparticle. The rapid migration of bacteria from the shear-rich area is caused by a vortical structure of the flow rather than intrinsic random fluctuations of bacteria orientations, in stark contrast to planar shear flow. Our mathematical model reveals that expulsion is a combined effect of motility and alignment by a vortical flow. Our findings offer a novel approach for manipulation of motile microorganisms and shed light on bacteria-flow interactions.
Rapid expulsion of microswimmers by a vortical flow
Sokolov, Andrey; Aranson, Igor S.
2016-01-01
Interactions of microswimmers with their fluid environment are exceptionally complex. Macroscopic shear flow alters swimming trajectories in a highly nontrivial way and results in dramatic reduction of viscosity and heterogeneous bacterial distributions. Here we report on experimental and theoretical studies of rapid expulsion of microswimmers, such as motile bacteria, by a vortical flow created by a rotating microparticle. We observe a formation of a macroscopic depletion area in a high-shear region, in the vicinity of a microparticle. The rapid migration of bacteria from the shear-rich area is caused by a vortical structure of the flow rather than intrinsic random fluctuations of bacteria orientations, in stark contrast to planar shear flow. Our mathematical model reveals that expulsion is a combined effect of motility and alignment by a vortical flow. Our findings offer a novel approach for manipulation of motile microorganisms and shed light on bacteria–flow interactions. PMID:27005581
Vorticity production and survival in viscous and magnetized cosmologies
Dosopoulou, F; Tsagas, C G; Brandenburg, A
2011-01-01
We study the role of viscosity and the effects of a magnetic field on a rotating, self-gravitating fluid, using Newtonian theory and adopting the ideal magnetohydrodynamic approximation. Our results confirm that viscosity can generate vorticity in inhomogeneous environments, while the magnetic tension can produce vorticity even in the absence of fluid pressure and density gradients. Linearizing our equations around an Einstein-de Sitter cosmology, we find that viscosity adds to the diluting effect of the universal expansion. Typically, however, the dissipative viscous effects are confined to relatively small scales. We also identify the characteristic length bellow which the viscous dissipation is strong and beyond which viscosity is essentially negligible. In contrast, magnetism seems to favor cosmic rotation. The magnetic presence is found to slow down the standard decay-rate of linear vortices, thus leading to universes with more residual rotation than generally anticipated.
Inelastic scattering of xenon atoms by quantized vortices in superfluids
Pshenichnyuk, I A
2016-01-01
We study inelastic interactions of particles with quantized vortices in superfluids by using a semi-classical matter wave theory that is analogous to the Landau two-fluid equations, but allows for the vortex dynamics. The research is motivated by recent experiments on xenon doped helium nanodroplets that show clustering of the impurities along the vortex cores. We numerically simulate the dynamics of trapping and interactions of xenon atoms by quantized vortices in superfluid helium and the obtained results can be extended to scattering of other impurities by quantized vortices. Different energies and impact parameters of incident particles are considered. We show that inelastic scattering is closely linked to the generation of Kelvin waves along a quantized vortex during the interaction even if there is no capture. The capture criterion of an impurity is formulated in terms of the binding energy.
Vorticity and Capillaries at the Surface of a Jet
Andre, Matthieu A
2012-01-01
Shear layer instability at the free surface of a water jet is studied. The accompanying video shows experimental data recorded using measurement methods such as Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) and Particle Image Velocity (PIV). These results reveal the mechanisms leading to the formation of capillary waves on the surface due to the roll-up of the shear layer. These capillary waves eventually collide to each other, injecting vorticity in the bulk of the flow. Shear layer and injected vorticity interact to form a counter rotating vortex pair that moves down to the flow.
Observation of Solitonic Vortices in Bose-Einstein Condensates
Donadello, Simone; Serafini, Simone; Tylutki, Marek; Pitaevskii, Lev P.; Dalfovo, Franco; Lamporesi, Giacomo; Ferrari, Gabriele
2014-08-01
We observe solitonic vortices in an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) after free expansion. Clear signatures of the nature of such defects are the twisted planar density depletion around the vortex line, observed in absorption images, and the double dislocation in the interference pattern obtained through homodyne techniques. Both methods allow us to determine the sign of the quantized circulation. Experimental observations agree with numerical simulations. These solitonic vortices are the decay product of phase defects of the BEC order parameter spontaneously created after a rapid quench across the BEC transition in a cigar-shaped harmonic trap and are shown to have a very long lifetime.
Nontopological self-dual Maxwell-Higgs vortices
Bazeia, D; Ferreira, M M; da Hora, E
2015-01-01
We study the existence of self-dual nontopological vortices in generalized Maxwell-Higgs models recently introduced in Ref. \\cite{gv}. Our investigation is explicitly illustrated by choosing a sixth-order self-interaction potential, which is the simplest one allowing the existence of nontopological structures. We specify some Maxwell-Higgs models yielding BPS nontopological vortices having energy proportional to the magnetic flux, $\\Phi_{B}$, and whose profiles are numerically achieved. Particularly, we investigate the way the new solutions approach the boundary values, from which we verify their nontopological behavior. Finally, we depict the profiles numerically found, highlighting the main features they present.
Toroidal vortices as a solution to the dust migration problem
Loren-Aguilar, Pablo
2015-01-01
In an earlier letter, we reported that dust settling in protoplanetary discs may lead to a dynamical dust-gas instability that produces global toroidal vortices. In this letter, we investigate the evolution of a dusty protoplanetary disc with two different dust species (1 mm and 50 cm dust grains), under the presence of the instability. We show how toroidal vortices, triggered by the interaction of mm grains with the gas, stop the radial migration of metre-sized dust, potentially offering a natural and efficient solution to the dust migration problem.
Hamiltonian dynamics of several rigid bodies interacting with point vortices
Weissmann, Steffen
2013-01-01
We introduce a Hamiltonian description for the dynamics of several rigid bodies interacting with point vortices in an inviscid, incompressible fluid. We adopt the idea of Vankerschaver et al. (2009) to derive the Hamiltonian formulation via symplectic reduction of a canonical Hamiltonian system on a principle fibre bundle. On the reduced phase space we determine the magnetic symplectic form directly, without resorting to the machinery of mechanical connections on principle fibre bundles. We derive the equations of motion for the general case, and also for the special Lie-Poisson case of a single rigid body and zero total vorticity. Finally we give a partly degenerate Lagrangian formulation for the system.
Vortices in the Two-Dimensional Simple Exclusion Process
Bodineau, T.; Derrida, B.; Lebowitz, Joel L.
2008-06-01
We show that the fluctuations of the partial current in two dimensional diffusive systems are dominated by vortices leading to a different scaling from the one predicted by the hydrodynamic large deviation theory. This is supported by exact computations of the variance of partial current fluctuations for the symmetric simple exclusion process on general graphs. On a two-dimensional torus, our exact expressions are compared to the results of numerical simulations. They confirm the logarithmic dependence on the system size of the fluctuations of the partial flux. The impact of the vortices on the validity of the fluctuation relation for partial currents is also discussed in an Appendix.
Random organization of vortices under an anisotropic condition
Ienaga, K.; Dobroka, M.; Shirahata, Y.; Kawamura, Y.; Kaneko, S.; Okuma, S.
2017-07-01
Many colliding particles that are periodically sheared by ac drive self-organize to avoid future collisions, which is known as random organization. Recently, we have observed the random organization in the vortex system of a strip-shaped amorphous Mo x Ge1-x film, where the vortices experience periodic local shear from ac drive and the random pinning potential. In this work, we study how random organization changes in the vortex system under the tilted field, where an anisotropic vortex-vortex interaction is introduced. We find that characteristic times of random organization for the vortices driven in the tilted direction are significantly smaller than those in the untilted field.
Unfolding of Vortices into Topological Stripes in a Multiferroic Material
Wang, X.; Mostovoy, M.; Han, M. G.; Horibe, Y.; Aoki, T.; Zhu, Y.; Cheong, S.-W.
2014-06-01
Multiferroic hexagonal RMnO3 (R =rare earths) crystals exhibit dense networks of vortex lines at which six domain walls merge. While the domain walls can be readily moved with an applied electric field, the vortex cores so far have been impossible to control. Our experiments demonstrate that shear strain induces a Magnus-type force pulling vortices and antivortices in opposite directions and unfolding them into a topological stripe domain state. We discuss the analogy between this effect and the current-driven dynamics of vortices in superconductors and superfluids.
Experimental results on chiral magnetic and vortical effects
Wang, Gang
2016-01-01
Various novel transport phenomena in chiral systems result from the interplay of quantum anomalies with magnetic field and vorticity in high-energy heavy-ion collisions, and could survive the expansion of the fireball and be detected in experiments. Among them are the chiral magnetic effect, the chiral vortical effect and the chiral magnetic wave, the experimental searches for which have aroused extensive interest. The goal of this review is to describe the current status of experimental studies at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at BNL and the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, and to outline the future work in experiment needed to eliminate the existing uncertainties in the interpretation of the data.
Giant vortices in the Ginzburg-Landau model
Sørensen, Mads Peter
The time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation is solved in a region of two spatial dimensions and with complex geometry using the finite element method. The geometry has a marked influence on the vortex distribution and we have observed generation of giant vortices at boundary defects.......The time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation is solved in a region of two spatial dimensions and with complex geometry using the finite element method. The geometry has a marked influence on the vortex distribution and we have observed generation of giant vortices at boundary defects....
Intrinsic nonadiabatic topological torque in magnetic skyrmions and vortices
Akosa, Collins Ashu
2017-03-01
We propose that topological spin currents flowing in topologically nontrivial magnetic textures, such as magnetic skyrmions and vortices, produce an intrinsic nonadiabatic torque of the form Tt∼[(∂xm×∂ym)·m]∂ym. We show that this torque, which is absent in one-dimensional domain walls and/or nontopological textures, is responsible for the enhanced nonadiabaticity parameter observed in magnetic vortices compared to one-dimensional textures. The impact of this torque on the motion of magnetic skyrmions is expected to be crucial, especially to determine their robustness against defects and pinning centers.
Is the Chiral Vortical Effect Vanishing in Heavy Ion Collisions?
Landsteiner, Karl; Pena-Benitez, Francisco
2013-01-01
We study the frequency dependence of all the chiral vortical and magnetic conductivities for a relativistic chiral gas of free fermions and for a strongly coupled CFT with holographic dual in four dimensions. Both systems present gauge and gravitational anomalies and we compute their contribution to the conductivities. The chiral vortical conductivities and the chiral magnetic conductivity in the energy current show an unexpected frequency dependence in the form of a delta centered at zero frequency. We argue that this makes the CVE practically unobservable in heavy ion collisions. In the appendix we discuss why the CME seems to vanish in the consistent current for a particular implementation of the axial chemical potential.
Explosion of relativistic electron vortices in laser plasmas
Lezhnin, K V; Esirkepov, T Zh; Bulanov, S V; Gu, Y; Weber, S; Korn, G
2016-01-01
The interaction of high intensity laser radiation with underdense plasma may lead to the formation of electron vortices. Though being quasistationary on an electron timescales, these structures tend to expand on a proton timescale due to Coloumb repulsion of ions. Using a simple analytical model of a stationary vortex as initial condition, 2D PIC simulations are performed. A number of effects are observed such as vortex boundary field intensification, multistream instabilities at the vortex boundary, and bending of the vortex boundary with the subsequent transformation into smaller electron vortices.
Mokhov, Igor I; Chefranov, Alexander G
2012-01-01
It is shown for the first time that only an antipodal vortex pair (APV) is the elementary singular vortex object on the sphere compatible with the hydrodynamic equations. The exact weak solution of the absolute vorticity equation on the rotating sphere is obtained in the form of Hamiltonian dynamic system for interacting APVs. This is the first model describing interaction of Barrett vortices corresponding to atmospheric centers of action (ACA). In particular, new steady-state conditions for N=2 are obtained. These analytical conditions are used for the analysis of coupled cyclone-anticyclone ACAs over oceans in the Northern Hemisphere.
3D optical vortices generated by micro-optical elements and its novel applications
BU J.; LIN J.; K. J. Moh; B. P. S. Ahluwalia; CHEN H. L.; PENG X.; NIU H. B.; YUAN X.C.
2007-01-01
In this paper we report on recent development in the areas of optical vortices generated by micro-optical elements and applications of optical vortices, including optical manipulation, radial polarization and secure free space optical communication
Slowly-growing gap-opening planets trigger weaker vortices
Hammer, Michael; Lin, Min-Kai
2016-01-01
The presence of a giant planet in a low-viscosity disc can create a gap edge in the disc's radial density profile sharp enough to excite the Rossby Wave Instability. This instability may evolve into dust-trapping vortices that might explain the "banana-shaped" features in recently observed asymmetric transition discs with inner cavities. Previous hydrodynamical simulations of planet-induced vortices have neglected the timescale of hundreds to thousands of orbits to grow a massive planet to Jupiter-size. In this work, we study the effect of a giant planet's runaway growth timescale on the lifetime and characteristics of the resulting vortex. For two different planet masses (1 and 5 Jupiter masses) and two different disc viscosities ($\\alpha$=3$\\times 10^{-4}$ and 3$\\times10^{-5}$), we compare the vortices induced by planets with several different growth timescales between 10 and 4000 planet orbits. In general, we find that slowly-growing planets create significantly weaker vortices with lifetimes and surface d...
Hamiltonian vortices and reconnection in a magnetized plasma
Kuvshinov, B. N.; Lakhin, V. P.; Pegoraro, F.; Schep, T. J.
1998-01-01
Hamiltonian vortices and reconnection in magnetized plasmas are investigated analytically and numerically using a two-fluid model. The equations are written in the Lagrangian form of three fields that are advected with different velocities. This system can be considered as a generalization and exten
Propagation of magnetic vortices using nanocontacts as tunable attractors
Manfrini, M.; Kim, Joo-Von; Petit-Watelot, S.; van Roy, W.; Lagae, L.; Chappert, C.; Devolder, T.
2014-02-01
Magnetic vortices in thin films are in-plane spiral spin configurations with a core in which the magnetization twists out of the film plane. Vortices result from the competition between atomic-scale exchange forces and long-range dipolar interactions. They are often the ground state of magnetic dots, and have applications in medicine, microwave generation and information storage. The compact nature of the vortex core, which is 10-20 nm wide, makes it a suitable probe of magnetism at the nanoscale. However, thus far the positioning of a vortex has been possible only in confined structures, which prevents its transport over large distances. Here we show that vortices can be propagated in an unconstrained system that comprises electrical nanocontacts (NCs). The NCs are used as tunable vortex attractors in a manner that resembles the propelling of space craft with gravitational slingshots. By passing current from the NCs to a ferromagnetic film, circulating magnetic fields are generated, which nucleate the vortex and create a potential well for it. The current becomes spin polarized in the film, and thereby drives the vortex into gyration through spin-transfer torques. The vortex can be guided from one NC to another by tuning attractive strengths of the NCs. We anticipate that NC networks may be used as multiterminal sources of vortices and spin waves (as well as heat, spin and charge flows) to sense the fundamental interactions between physical objects and fluxes of the next-generation spintronic devices.
Numerical and Experimental Study of Electromagnetically Driven Vortical Flows
Kenjeres, S.; Verdoold, J.; Tummers, M.J.; Hanjalic, K.; Kleijn, C.R.
2009-01-01
The paper reports on numerical and experimental investigations of electromagnetically driven vortical flows of an electrically conductive fluid in a generic setup. Two different configurations of permanent magnets are considered: a 3-magnet configuration in which the resulting Lorentz force is focus
The vorticity budget of developing Typhoon Nuri (2008
D. J. Raymond
2010-07-01
Full Text Available The formation of west Pacific tropical cyclone Nuri (2008 was observed over four days from easterly wave to typhoon stage by aircraft using scanning Doppler radar and dropsonde data. This typhoon intensified rapidly in a significantly sheared environment. In spite of the shear, overlapping closed circulations existed in the storm frame of reference in the boundary layer and at 5 km elevation, providing a deep region protected from environmental influences. The vorticity budget was analyzed and it was found that vorticity convergence dominated vortex tilting on the storm scale in the lower troposphere. At times vorticity convergence also greatly exceeded frictional spindown in the boundary layer. Thus, the Ekman pumping hypothesis was found to be a poor approximation in the early stages of the development of this typhoon. As Nuri developed, convective sources of boundary layer vorticity became fewer but more intense, culminating in a single nascent eyewall at the tropical storm stage. A non-developing tropical wave case was also analyzed. This system started with much weaker circulations in the boundary layer and aloft, leaving it unprotected against environmental intrusion. This may explain its failure to develop.
Ionospheric travelling convection vortices observed by the Greenland magnetometer chain
Kotsiaros, Stavros; Stolle, Claudia; Friis-Christensen, Eigil
2013-01-01
The Greenland magnetometer array continuously provides geomagnetic variometer data since the early eighties. With the polar cusp passing over it almost every day, the array is suitable to detect ionospheric traveling convection vortices (TCVs), which were rst detected by Friis-Christensen et al...
Quantitative flow analysis of swimming dynamics with coherent Lagrangian vortices
Huhn, F.; van Rees, W. M.; Gazzola, M.; Rossinelli, D.; Haller, G.; Koumoutsakos, P.
2015-08-01
Undulatory swimmers flex their bodies to displace water, and in turn, the flow feeds back into the dynamics of the swimmer. At moderate Reynolds number, the resulting flow structures are characterized by unsteady separation and alternating vortices in the wake. We use the flow field from simulations of a two-dimensional, incompressible viscous flow of an undulatory, self-propelled swimmer and detect the coherent Lagrangian vortices in the wake to dissect the driving momentum transfer mechanisms. The detected material vortex boundary encloses a Lagrangian control volume that serves to track back the vortex fluid and record its circulation and momentum history. We consider two swimming modes: the C-start escape and steady anguilliform swimming. The backward advection of the coherent Lagrangian vortices elucidates the geometry of the vorticity field and allows for monitoring the gain and decay of circulation and momentum transfer in the flow field. For steady swimming, momentum oscillations of the fish can largely be attributed to the momentum exchange with the vortex fluid. For the C-start, an additionally defined jet fluid region turns out to balance the high momentum change of the fish during the rapid start.
Streaming vorticity flux from oscillating walls with finite amplitude
Wu, J. Z.; Wu, X. H.; Wu, J. M.
1993-01-01
How to describe vorticity creation from a moving wall is a long standing problem. This paper discusses relevant issues at the fundamental level. First, it is shown that the concept of 'vorticity flux due to wall acceleration' can be best understood by following fluid particles on the wall rather than observing the flow at fixed spatial points. This is of crucial importance when the time-averaged flux is to be considered. The averaged flux has to be estimated in a wall-fixed frame of reference (in which there is no flux due to wall acceleration at all); or, if an inertial frame of reference is used, the generalized Lagrangian mean (GLM) also gives the same result. Then, for some simple but typical configurations, the time-averaged vorticity flux from a harmonically oscillating wall with finite amplitude is analyzed, without appealing to small perturbation. The main conclusion is that the wall oscillation will produce an additional mean vorticity flux (a fully nonlinear streaming effect), which is partially responsible for the mechanism of vortex flow control by waves. The results provide qualitative explanation for some experimentally and/or computationally observed phenomena.
Self-similar motion of three point vortices
Aref, Hassan
2010-01-01
One of the counter-intuitive results in the three-vortex problem is that the vortices can converge on and meet at a point in a finite time for certain sets of vortex circulations and for certain initial conditions. This result was already included in Groumlbli's thesis of 1877 and has since been...
Restrictions on the geometry of the periodic vorticity equation
Escher, Joachim
2010-01-01
We prove that several evolution equations arising as mathematical models for fluid motion cannot be realized as metric Euler equations on the Lie group of all smooth and orientation-preserving diffeomorphisms on the circle. These include the quasi-geostrophic model equation, the axisymmetric Euler flow in higher space dimensions, and De Gregorio's vorticity model equation.
The decay of wake vortices in the convective boundary layer
Holzaepfel, F.; Gerz, T.; Frech, M.; Doernbrack, A.
2000-03-01
The decay of three wake vortex pairs of B-747 aircraft in a convectively driven atmospheric boundary layer is investigated by means of large-eddy simulations (LES). This situation is considered as being hazardous as the updraft velocities of a thermal may compensate the induced descent speed of the vortex pair resulting in vortices stalled in the flight path. The LES results, however, illustrate that (i) the primary rectilinear vortices are rapidly deformed on the scale of the alternating updraft and downdraft regions; (ii) parts of the vortices stay on flight level but are quickly eroded by the enhanced turbulence of an updraft; (iii) longest living sections of the vortices are found in regions of relatively calm downdraft flow which augments their descent. Strip theory calculations are used to illustrate the temporal and spatial development of lift and rolling moments experienced by a following medium weight class B-737 aircraft. Characteristics of the respective distributions are analysed. Initially, the maximum rolling moments slightly exceed the available roll control of the B-737. After 60 seconds the probability of rolling moments exceeding 50% of the roll control, a value which is considered as a threshold for acceptable rolling moments, has decreased to 1% of its initial probability. (orig.)
Generalized self-dual Chern-Simons vortices
Bazeia, D.(Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, João Pessoa, PB, 58051-970, Brazil); da Hora, E.; Santos, C. dos(Centro de Física e Departamento de Física e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, 4169-007, Porto, Portugal); Menezes, R.(Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, 58109-970 Campina Grande, PB, Brazil)
2010-01-01
We search for vortices in a generalized Abelian Chern-Simons model with a nonstandard kinetic term. We illustrate our results, plotting and comparing several features of the vortex solution of the generalized model with those of the vortex solution found in the standard Chern-Simons model.
Vorticity and non-coaxiality in progressive deformations
Means, W.D.; Hobbs, B.E.; Lister, G.S.; Williams, P.F.
1980-01-01
A measure of the non-coaxiality involved in progressive deformation histories is proposed in the form of the kinematical vorticity number, Wk. This number is a measure of the relative effects of rotation of material lines (relative to the instantaneous stretching axes) and of stretching of these mat
Instability of helical tip vortices in rotor wakes
Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
2011-01-01
The conditions for the appearance of instabilities in systems of helical vortices constitute an intriguing problem that still remains partly unsolved. The experimental study of Felli, Camussi & Di Felice (J. Fluid Mech., this issue, vol. 682, 2011, pp. 5-53) has shed new light on some of the basi...
Ionospheric travelling convection vortices observed by the Greenland magnetometer chain
Kotsiaros, Stavros; Stolle, Claudia; Friis-Christensen, Eigil
2013-01-01
The Greenland magnetometer array continuously provides geomagnetic variometer data since the early eighties. With the polar cusp passing over it almost every day, the array is suitable to detect ionospheric traveling convection vortices (TCVs), which were rst detected by Friis-Christensen et al...
Quantitative flow analysis of swimming dynamics with coherent Lagrangian vortices.
Huhn, F; van Rees, W M; Gazzola, M; Rossinelli, D; Haller, G; Koumoutsakos, P
2015-08-01
Undulatory swimmers flex their bodies to displace water, and in turn, the flow feeds back into the dynamics of the swimmer. At moderate Reynolds number, the resulting flow structures are characterized by unsteady separation and alternating vortices in the wake. We use the flow field from simulations of a two-dimensional, incompressible viscous flow of an undulatory, self-propelled swimmer and detect the coherent Lagrangian vortices in the wake to dissect the driving momentum transfer mechanisms. The detected material vortex boundary encloses a Lagrangian control volume that serves to track back the vortex fluid and record its circulation and momentum history. We consider two swimming modes: the C-start escape and steady anguilliform swimming. The backward advection of the coherent Lagrangian vortices elucidates the geometry of the vorticity field and allows for monitoring the gain and decay of circulation and momentum transfer in the flow field. For steady swimming, momentum oscillations of the fish can largely be attributed to the momentum exchange with the vortex fluid. For the C-start, an additionally defined jet fluid region turns out to balance the high momentum change of the fish during the rapid start.
Vortices as Nurseries for Planetesimal Formation in Protoplanetary Discs
Heng, Kevin
2010-01-01
Turbulent, two-dimensional, hydrodynamic flows are characterized by the emergence of coherent, long-lived vortices without a need to invoke special initial conditions. Vortices have the ability to sequester particles, with typical radii from about 1 mm to 10 cm, that are slightly decoupled from the gas. A generic feature of discs with surface density and effective temperature profiles that are decreasing, power-law functions of radial distance is that four vortex zones exist for a fixed particle size. In particular, two of the zones form an annulus at intermediate radial distances within which small particles reside. Particle capture by vortices occurs on a dynamical time scale near and at the boundaries of this annulus. As the disc ages and the particles grow via coagulation, the size of the annulus shrinks. Older discs prefer to capture smaller particles, a phenomenon we term "vortex aging". More viscous, more dust-opaque and/or less massive discs can have vortices that age faster and trap a broader range o...
Data Mining for Vortices on the Earth's Magnetosphere
Collado-Vega, Y. M.; Kalb, V.; Sibeck, D. G.
2016-12-01
This research validates a method to detect and characterize vortices based on velocity from simulation data. The current algorithm involves systematically searching the 3-dimensional velocity fields to identify critical points, points where the magnitude of the velocity vector field vanishes, making these points candidates for vortex centers. We utilize the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) run on request capability to create a series of model runs initialized from the conditions observed by the Cluster mission in the Hwang et al., 2011 analysis of Kelvin Helmholtz vortices observed during southward IMF. The fast data characterization and vortex detection will permit the scientist to focus in on different magnetosphere locations for further investigation in large data sets. This not only saves time to scientist, but also diminishes the potential for missing features of interest. We also analyze further the properties of the vortices found including the velocity changes within their motion across the magnetosheath, and the potential of our tool to characterize transient features (e.g. Flux Transfer Event (FTEs)) with vortical internal structures.
Tip vorticity reduction and optimization of lifting surfaces
Sparenberg, JA
2001-01-01
In linearized optimization theory, lifting surfaces, moving in an inviscid and incompressible fluid, shed tip vorticity of which the strength has infinite square-root singularities. Here we discuss that an optimization procedure can be coupled to constraints so that the strength of the shed vorticit
Streaming vorticity flux from oscillating walls with finite amplitude
Wu, J. Z.; Wu, X. H.; Wu, J. M.
1993-01-01
How to describe vorticity creation from a moving wall is a long standing problem. This paper discusses relevant issues at the fundamental level. First, it is shown that the concept of 'vorticity flux due to wall acceleration' can be best understood by following fluid particles on the wall rather than observing the flow at fixed spatial points. This is of crucial importance when the time-averaged flux is to be considered. The averaged flux has to be estimated in a wall-fixed frame of reference (in which there is no flux due to wall acceleration at all); or, if an inertial frame of reference is used, the generalized Lagrangian mean (GLM) also gives the same result. Then, for some simple but typical configurations, the time-averaged vorticity flux from a harmonically oscillating wall with finite amplitude is analyzed, without appealing to small perturbation. The main conclusion is that the wall oscillation will produce an additional mean vorticity flux (a fully nonlinear streaming effect), which is partially responsible for the mechanism of vortex flow control by waves. The results provide qualitative explanation for some experimentally and/or computationally observed phenomena.
On the evaluation of vorticity using cardiovascular magnetic resonance velocity measurements.
Garcia, J; Larose, E; Pibarot, P; Kadem, L
2013-12-01
Vorticity and vortical structures play a fundamental role affecting the evaluation of energetic aspects (mainly left ventricle work) of cardiovascular function. Vorticity can be derived from cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging velocity measurements. However, several numerical schemes can be used to evaluate the vorticity field. The main objective of this work is to assess different numerical schemes used to evaluate the vorticity field derived from CMR velocity measurements. We compared the vorticity field obtained using direct differentiation schemes (eight-point circulation and Chapra) and derivate differentiation schemes (Richardson 4* and compact Richardson 4*) from a theoretical velocity field and in vivo CMR velocity measurements. In all cases, the effect of artificial spatial resolution up-sampling and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on vorticity computation was evaluated. Theoretical and in vivo results showed that the eight-point circulation method underestimated vorticity. Up-sampling evaluation showed that the artificial improvement of spatial resolution had no effect on mean absolute vorticity estimation but it affected SNR for all methods. The Richardson 4* method and its compact version were the most accurate and stable methods for vorticity magnitude evaluation. Vorticity field determination using the eight-point circulation method, the most common method used in CMR, has reduced accuracy compared to other vorticity schemes. Richardson 4* and its compact version showed stable SNR using both theoretical and in vivo data.
Fundamental interactions of vortical structures with boundary layers in two-dimensional flows
Coutsias, E.A.; Lynov, Jens-Peter
1991-01-01
in the vorticity-stream function representation for bounded geometries. Fundamental processes connected to vorticity detachment from the boundary layers caused by the proximity of vortical structures are described. These processes include enstrophy enhancement of the main flow during bursting events, and pinning...
Internal and vorticity waves in decaying stratified flows
Matulka, A.; Cano, D.
2009-04-01
Most predictive models fail when forcing at the Rossby deformation Radius is important and a large range of scales have to be taken into account. When mixing of reactants or pollutants has to be accounted, the range of scales spans from hundreds of Kilometers to the Bachelor or Kolmogorov sub milimiter scales. We present some theoretical arguments to describe the flow in terms of the three dimensional vorticity equations, using a lengthscale related to the vorticity (or enstrophy ) transport. Effect of intermittent eddies and non-homogeneity of diffusion are also key issues in the environment because both stratification and rotation body forces are important and cause anisotropy/non-homogeneity. These problems need further theoretical, numerical and observational work and one approach is to try to maximize the relevant geometrical information in order to understand and therefore predict these complex environmental dispersive flows. The importance of the study of turbulence structure and its relevance in diffusion of contaminants in environmental flows is clear when we see the effect of environmental disasters such as the Prestige oil spill or the Chernobil radioactive cloud spread in the atmosphere. A series of Experiments have been performed on a strongly stratified two layer fluid consisting of Brine in the bottom and freshwater above in a 1 square meter tank. The evolution of the vortices after the passage of a grid is video recorded and Particle tracking is applied on small pliolite particles floating at the interface. The combination of internal waves and vertical vorticity produces two separate time scales that may produce resonances. The vorticity is seen to oscilate in a complex way, where the frecuency decreases with time.
A numerical method of tracing a vortical axis along local topological axis line
Nakayama, Katsuyuki; Hasegawa, Hideki
2016-06-01
A new numerical method is presented to trace or identify a vortical axis in flow, which is based on Galilean invariant flow topology. We focus on the local flow topology specified by the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the velocity gradient tensor, and extract the axis component from its flow trajectory. Eigen-vortical-axis line is defined from the eigenvector of the real eigenvalue of the velocity gradient tensor where the tensor has the conjugate complex eigenvalues. This numerical method integrates the eigen-vortical-axis line and traces a vortical axis in terms of the invariant flow topology, which enables to investigate the feature of the topology-based vortical axis.
Free-space propagation of guided optical vortices excited in an annular core fiber.
Yan, Hongwei; Zhang, Entao; Zhao, Baoyin; Duan, Kailiang
2012-07-30
The analytical expression for the propagation of guided optical vortices through free space is derived and used to study the dynamic evolution of guided optical vortices after passing through the free space, and the dependence of guided optical vortices on the control parameters where the effect of propagation distance is stressed. It is shown that the motion, pair creation and annihilation of guided optical vortices may take place. In particular, the creation and annihilation of a pair of guided optical vortices do not take place by varying fiber length.
ASYMMETRIC VORTICES FLOW OVER SLENDER BODY AND ITS ACTIVE CONTROL AT HIGH ANGLE OF ATTACK
DENG Xueying; WANG Yankui
2004-01-01
The studies of asymmetric vortices flow over slender body and its active control at high angles of attack have significant importance for both academic field and engineering area. This paper attempts to provide an update state of art to the investigations on the fields of forebody asymmetric vortices. This review emphasizes the correlation between micro-perturbation on the model nose and its response and evolution behaviors of the asymmetric vortices. The critical issues are discussed,which include the formation and evolution mechanism of asymmetric multi-vortices; main behaviors of asymmetric vortices flow including its deterministic feature and vortices flow structure; the evolution and development of asymmetric vortices under the perturbation on the model nose; forebody vortex active control especially discussed micro-perturbation active control concept and technique in more detail. However present understanding in this area is still very limited and this paper tries to identify the key unknown problems in the concluding remarks.
Ganesh, Rajaraman; Charan, Harish
2016-07-01
Understanding vortical flows under external forcing in two dimensional (2D) fluids is a fundamental paradigm for structure formation in driven, dissipative systems. Considering Yukawa liquid as a prototype for strongly correlated or strongly coupled plasmas characterized by coupling strength (Γ, the ratio of average potential to kinetic energy per particle) and screening parameter (κ, ratio of mean inter-particle distance to shielding length), we address two important problems: 1. Onset of Rayleigh Benard convection cell (RBCC) in 2D Yukawa liquids subject to gravity and external temperature gradient 2. Onset of von Karman vortices in 2D Yukawa liquid under external pressure head, using large scale, first principles molecular dynamics simulations. For typical values of (Γ,κ), existence of a critical external temperature difference is demonstrated, beyond which RBCC are seen to set in. Beyond this critical external temperature difference, the strength of the maximum convective flow velocity is shown to exhibit a new, hitherto unsuspected linear relationship with external temperature difference and with a slope independent of (Γ,κ). The time taken for the transients to settle down to a steady state RBCC τ_s, is found to be maximum close to the above said critical external temperature difference and is seen to reduce with increasing external temperature difference. For the range of values of (Γ, κ) considered here, τ_s ≃ 10 000-20 000;ω^{-1}_{pd}, where ω_{pd} is dust plasma frequency. As Γ is increased to very high values, due to strong coupling effects, RBC cells are seen to be in a transient state without attaining a steady state for as long as 100 000;ω^{-1}_{pd}, even for a very high external temperature difference. In the second part, we address the existence of universal relation between Strouhal (St) and Rayleigh (Ry) numbers for Yukawa liquid using first principles based classical molecular dynamics. The flow past an obstacle is seen to indeed
Vortex Identification from Local Properties of the Vorticity Field
Elsas, J H
2016-01-01
A number of systematic procedures for the identification of coherent structures have been developed as a way to address their possible kinematical and dynamical roles in structural formulations of turbulence. It has been broadly acknowledged, however, that vortex detection algorithms, usually based on linear-algebraic properties of the velocity gradient tensor, are plagued with severe shortcomings and are also dependent on the choice of subjective threshold parameters in their implementations. In two-dimensions, a large class of standard vortex identification prescriptions turn out to be equivalent to the "swirling strength criterion", which is critically revisited in this work. We classify the instances where the $\\lambda_{ci}$-criterion blatantly fails and propose an alternative vortex detection scheme based on the local curvature properties of the vorticity graph -- the "vorticity curvature criterion" -- which improves over the results obtained with the $\\lambda_{ci}$-criterion in controlled Monte-Carlo te...
On the refracted patterns produced by liquid vortices
Yasser Aboelkassem; Georgios H.Vatistas
2007-01-01
A theoretical analysis of the refracted shad-ows produced by steady and time-decaying liquid vor-tices under uniform illumination from above is givenin this article.An expression for the induced shadowintensity is derived and found to be a function of thevortex's free surface profile,i.e.,function of the staticpressure distribution.The patterns for different focus-ing depth are given and compared with previous visu-alization results from the literature.The phenomenonis examined and illustrated as a bench mark case byusing both steady and time-decaying algebraic vortexmodels.However,this study can be extended to checkthe feasibility of recovering the main flow properties byanalyzing the luminous image intensity of the refractedpatterns.The present analysis is valid only when the swirlvelocity is order of magnitude higher than the meridi-onal flow components and the vorticity is concentratedwithin the core region and of intense conditions.
A study of optical vortices inside the Talbot interferometer
Panthong, Pituk; Pattanaporkratana, Apichart; Chiangga, Surasak; Deachapunya, Sarayut
2015-01-01
The optical Talbot interferometer has been used to explore the topological charges of optical vortices. We recorded the self-imaging of a diffraction grating in the near-field regime with the optical vortex of several topological charges. Our twisted light was generated by a spatial light modulator (SLM). Previous studies showed that interferometric methods can determine the particular orbital angular momentum (OAM) states, but a large number of OAM eigenvalues are difficult to distinguish from the interference patterns. Here, we show that the Talbot patterns can distinguish the charges as well as the OAM of the vortices with high orders. Owing to high sensitivity and self-imaging of Talbot effect, several OAM eigenvalues can be distinguished by direct measurement. We assure the experimental results with our theory. The present results are useful for classical and quantum metrology as well as future implementations of quantum communications.
Mechanism for Influence of Nose Bluntness on Asymmetric Vortices
WANG Gang; LIANG Xin-Gang
2004-01-01
@@ Pressure distributions on slender bodies are measured at various roll angles; it is found that the side loads on the blunted-nose slender body are as small as one-third of that on a pointed-nose one, or even zero at some roll angles. Numerical simulation shows that different flow structures are generated on the leeside of the bodies with different noses. The results confirm that a structure of U-shaped horseshoe vortex develops on the top of the blunted nose due to the closed type of surface flow separation. The shear layer separated from the nose is entrapped into the horseshoe vortex core and forms two main vortices on the two sides of the body. The function of this structure is to hold in the two main nose vortices and to restrict the emergence of asymmetry.
Supersymmetry Breaking on Gauged Non-Abelian Vortices
Konishi, Kenichi; Vinci, Walter
2012-01-01
There are a large number of systems characterized by a completely broken gauge symmetry, but with an unbroken global color-flavor diagonal symmetry, i.e., systems in the so-called color-flavor locked phase. If the gauge symmetry breaking supports vortices, the latter develop non-Abelian orientational zero-modes and become non-Abelian vortices, a subject of intense study in the last several years. In this paper we consider the effects of weakly gauging the full exact global flavor symmetry in such systems, deriving an effective description of the light excitations in the presence of a vortex. Surprising consequences are shown to follow. The fluctuations of the vortex orientational modes get diffused to bulk modes through tunneling processes. When our model is embedded in a supersymmetric theory, the vortex is still 1/2 BPS saturated, but the vortex effective action breaks supersymmetry.
Nontopological self-dual Maxwell-Higgs vortices
Bazeia, D.; Casana, R.; Ferreira, M. M., Jr.; da Hora, E.
2015-01-01
We study the existence of self-dual nontopological vortices in generalized Maxwell-Higgs models recently introduced in Bazeia D. et al., Eur. Phys. J. C, 71 (2001) 1833. Our investigation is explicitly illustrated by choosing a sixth-order self-interaction potential, which is the simplest one allowing the existence of nontopological structures. We specify some Maxwell-Higgs models yielding BPS nontopological vortices having energy proportional to the magnetic flux, Φ B , and whose profiles are numerically achieved. Particularly, we investigate the way the new solutions approach the boundary values, from which we verify their nontopological behavior. Finally, we depict the numerically found profiles, highlighting the main features they present.
Interactions and excitations of non-Abelian vortices
Alford, M.G.; Benson, K.; Coleman, S.; March-Russell, J. (Lyman Laboratory of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (USA)); Wilczek, F. (Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (USA))
1990-04-02
We examine bosonic zero modes of vortices formed in the gauge breaking {ital G}{r arrow}{ital H}. For non-Abelian {ital G}, zero modes are generic. Their solutions depend on global symmetry structure. Vortices render the embedding {ital H}{contained in}{ital G} space dependent, with a dynamically determined subgroup {ital {tilde H}} single valued. They Aharonov-Bohm scatter gauge bosons associated with multivalued generators. Alice strings ({ital H}=O(2), {ital {tilde H}}={ital openZ}{sub 2}) attract charges and scatter SO(2) photons,'' and a two-string system has zero modes with unlocalizable Cheshire'' charge. The resulting superconductivity has novel electrodynamics.
Temporally optimized spanwise vorticity sensor measurements in turbulent boundary layers
Morrill-Winter, C.; Klewicki, J.; Baidya, R.; Marusic, I.
2015-12-01
Multi-element hot-wire anemometry was used to measure spanwise vorticity fluctuations in turbulent boundary layers. Smooth wall boundary layer profiles, with very good spatial and temporal resolution, were acquired over a Kármán number range of 2000-12,700 at the Melbourne Wind Tunnel at the University of Melbourne and the University of New Hampshire's Flow Physics Facility. A custom hot-wire probe was necessary to simultaneously obtain velocity and spanwise vorticity measurements centered at a fixed point in space. A custom calibration/processing scheme was developed to utilize single-wall-parallel wires to optimize the accuracy of the measured wall-normal velocity fluctuations derived from the sensor's ×-array.
Mass deformed world-sheet action of semi local vortices
Jiang, Yunguo [School of Space Science and Physics, Shandong University at Weihai,264209 Weihai (China); Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment,264209 Weihai (China)
2014-02-10
The mass deformed effective world-sheet theory of semi local vortices was constructed via the field theoretical method. By Euler-Lagrangian equations, the Ansatze for both the gauge field and the adjoint scalar were solved, this ensures that zero modes of vortices are minimal excitations of the system. Up to the 1/g{sup 2} order, all profiles are solved. The mass deformed effective action was obtained by integrating out the transverse plane of the vortex string. The effective theory interpolates between the local vortex and the lump. Respecting certain normalization conditions, the effective theory shows a Seiberg-like duality, which agrees with the result of the Kähler quotient construction.
Experimental Results on Chiral Magnetic and Vortical Effects
Gang Wang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Various novel transport phenomena in chiral systems result from the interplay of quantum anomalies with magnetic field and vorticity in high-energy heavy-ion collisions and could survive the expansion of the fireball and be detected in experiments. Among them are the chiral magnetic effect, the chiral vortical effect, and the chiral magnetic wave, the experimental searches for which have aroused extensive interest. The goal of this review is to describe the current status of experimental studies at Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider at BNL and the Large Hadron Collider at CERN and to outline the future work in experiment needed to eliminate the existing uncertainties in the interpretation of the data.
Clustering of heavy particles in vortical flows: a selective review
S RAVICHANDRAN; P DEEPU; RAMA GOVINDARAJAN
2017-04-01
Heavy particles in a turbulent flow tend to leave regions of high vorticity and cluster into regions of high strain. The consequences of such clustering have been studied in a variety of situations over the past few decades, and this problem has seen several review papers already. Our objectives in this paper are three-fold. (i) We introduce the reader to the basic ideas, and explain why the problem is interesting. (ii) Using an N-vortex system we present an interesting case where particles are attracted to the vicinity of vortices. A new scaling forthe critical Stokes number of attraction is obtained. (iii) We review a number of papers, which are related to cloud physics in this context.
Characterization of vortical gusts produced by a heaving plate
Hufstedler, Esteban; McKeon, Beverley J.
2016-11-01
To experimentally investigate the interaction between a wing and a spanwise vortical gust, a simple gust generator has been built and tested. This consists of a transversely heaving flat plate that changes direction to release a vortex, which then convects downstream to interact with a wing. Previous experiments have shown that, immediately downstream of the plate, the circulation of the generated vortex is proportional to the heaving speed of the plate. The forces that the gusts exert on a downstream wing were shown to be strongly repeatable and consistent with a passing vortex. This presentation will discuss the properties of the vortical gusts as they move downstream, and relate those properties to the important dimensionless parameters of the flow. These properties include the convection speed and circulation of the vortex, as well as the enstrophy due to the wake of the plate. This research is funded by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation through Grant GBMF#2645 to the California Institute of Technology.
Stretching vortices as a basis for the theory of turbulence
Sirota, V A
2014-01-01
Turbulent flows play an important role in many aspects of nature and technics from sea storms to transport of particles or chemicals. Transport of energy from large scales to small fluctuations is the essential feature of three-dimensional turbulence. What mechanism is responsible for this transport and how do the small fluctuations appear? The conventional conception implies a cascade of breaking vortices. But it faces crucial problems in explaining the mechanism of the breaking, and fails to explain the observed long-living structures in turbulent flows. We suggest a new concept based on recent analysis of stochastic Navier-Stokes equation: stretching of vortices instead of their breaking may be the main mechanism of turbulence. This conception is free of the disadvantages of the cascade paradigm; it also does not need finite-time singularities to explain the observed statistical properties of turbulent flows. Moreover, the introduction of the new conception allows immediately to get velocity scaling parame...
Charge redistribution from anomalous magneto-vorticity coupling
Hattori, Koichi
2016-01-01
We investigate novel transport phenomena in a chiral fluid originated from an interplay between a vorticity and strong magnetic field, which induces a redistribution of vector charges in the system and an axial current along the magnetic field. The corresponding transport coefficients are obtained from an energy-shift argument for the chiral fermions in the lowest Landau level (LLL) due to a spin-vorticity coupling and also from diagrammatic computations on the basis of the linear response theory. Based on consistent results from the both methods, we observe that the transport coefficients are proportional to the anomaly coefficient and are independence of temperature and chemical potential. We therefore speculate that these transport phenomena are connected to quantum anomaly.
Sunspots are in many ways similar to terrestrial vortices
Vatistas, Georgios H
2011-01-01
In this letter we identify similarities amongst sunspots and terrestrial vortices. The dark appearance of the central part of any sunspot is currently justified by an anticipated cooling effect experienced by the ionized gas. However, it cannot single-handedly reconcile the halo that surrounds the penumbra, the subsequent second dim ring that could be possibly followed by a second halo. In antithesis, light refraction due to density variations in a compressible whirl can give reason for all of these manifestations. Certain data of Wilson's depression fit better the geometric depth profile of a two-celled vortex. The last provides a hurricane equivalent manifestation for the normal and reverse Evershed effect. There is compelling evidence that alike to atmospheric vortices sunspots do also spawn meso-cyclones.
Spiral density wave generation by vortices in Keplerian flows
Bodo, G; Murante, G; Tevzadze, A; Rossi, P; Ferrari, A
2005-01-01
We perform a detailed analytical and numerical study of the dynamics of perturbations (vortex/aperiodic mode, Rossby and spiral-density waves) in 2D compressible disks with a Keplerian law of rotation. We draw attention to the process of spiral-density wave generation from vortices, discussing, in particular, the initial, most peculiar stages of wave emission. We show that the linear phenomenon of wave generation by vortices in smooth (without inflection points) shear flows found by using the so-called non-modal approach, is directly applicable to the present case. After an analytical non-modal description of the physics and characteristics of the spiral-density wave generation/propagation in the local shearing-sheet model, we follow the process of wave generation by small amplitude coherent circular vortex structures, by direct global numerical simulation, describing the main features of the generated waves.
The Solar Vortex: Electric Power Generation using Anchored, Buoyancy-Induced Columnar Vortices
Glezer, Ari
2015-04-01
Naturally-occurring, buoyancy-driven columnar vortices (``dust devils'') that are driven by the instability of thermally stratified air layers and sustained by the entrainment of ground- heated air, occur spontaneously in the natural environment with core diameters of 1-50 m and heights up to 1 km. These vortices convert low-grade waste heat in the air layer overlying the warm surface into a solar-induced wind with significant kinetic energy. Unlike dust devil vortices that are typically free to wander laterally, the Solar Vortex (SoV) is deliberately triggered and anchored within a cylindrical domain bounded by an azimuthal array of stationary ground-mounted vertical vanes and sustained by continuous entrainment of the ground-heated air through these vanes. The mechanical energy of the anchored vortex is exploited for power generation by coupling the vortex to a vertical-axis turbine. This simple, low-cost electric power generating unit is competitive in cost, intermittency, and capacity factor with traditional solar power technologies. The considerable kinetic energy of the vortex column cannot be explained by buoyancy alone, and the fundamental mechanisms associated with the formation, evolution, and dynamics of an anchored, buoyancy-driven columnar vortex were investigated experimentally and numerically with specific emphasis on flow manipulation for increasing the available kinetic energy and therefore the generated power. These investigations have also considered the dependence of the vortex scaling and strength on the thermal resources and on the flow enclosure in the laboratory and in the natural environment. Preliminary outdoor tests of a two-meter scale prototype successfully demonstrated the ability to engender and anchor a columnar vortex using only solar radiation and couple the flow to a vertical axis wind turbine. A kilowatt-scale outer door prototype will be tested during the summer of 2015.
Can Wing Tip Vortices Be Accurately Simulated?
2011-07-01
additional tail buffeting.2 In commercial applications, winglets have been installed on passenger aircraft to minimize vortex formation and reduce lift...air. In military applications, wing tip In commercial applications, winglets have been installed on passenger aircraft to minimize increases with downstream distances.
Haque, Q. [Theoretical Physics Division, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Zakir, U. [Department of Physics, University of Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtun Khwa 25000 (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Malakand, Khyber Pakhtun Khwa 18800 (Pakistan); Qamar, A. [Department of Physics, University of Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtun Khwa 25000 (Pakistan)
2015-12-15
Linear and nonlinear dynamics of electron temperature gradient mode along with parallel electron dynamics is investigated by considering hydrodynamic electrons and non-Maxwellian ions. It is noticed that the growth rate of η{sub e}-mode driven linear instability decreases by increasing the value of spectral index and increases by reducing the ion/electron temperature ratio along the magnetic field lines. The eigen mode dispersion relation is also found in the ballooning mode limit. Stationary solutions in the form of dipolar vortices are obtained for both circular and elliptic boundary conditions. It is shown that the dynamics of both circular and elliptic vortices changes with the inclusion of inhomogeneity and non-Maxwellian effects.
The Finiteness of vortices in steady incompressible viscous fluid flow
Kalita, Jiten C; Panda, Swapnendu
2016-01-01
In this work, we provide two novel approaches to show that incompressible fluid flow in a finite domain contains at most a finite number vortices. We use a recently developed geometric theory of incompressible viscous flows along with an existing mathematical analysis concept to establish the finiteness. We also offer a second proof of finiteness by roping in the Kolmogorov's length scale criterion in conjunction with the notion of diametric disks.
Helicity and topology of a small region of quantum vorticity
Mesgarnezhad, M; Baggaley, A W; Barenghi, C F
2016-01-01
We numerically study the evolution of a small turbulent region of quantised vorticity in superfluid helium, a regime which can be realised in the laboratory. We show that the turbulence achieves a fluctuating steady-state in terms of dynamics (energy), geometry (length, writhing) and topology (linking). After defining the knot spectrum, we show that, at any instant, the turbulence consists of many unknots and few large loops of great geometrical and topological complexity.
Bianco, Vincenzo; Borreani, Walter; Lomonaco, Guglielmo
2017-06-01
The present paper reports a numerical investigation of a forced convection water flow within a two-dimensional ribbed channel. A uniform heat flux is applied on the external walls. The flow regime is turbulent and Reynolds numbers are in the range 10·103÷100·103. Square and chamfered rib shapes with different arrangements are analyzed in terms of various dimensionless heights and pitches of elements. The investigation is accomplished by using a CFD code and its aim consists in finding of arrangements to obtain a high Performance Evaluation Criterion (PEC). Results are presented in terms of temperature and velocity fields, profiles of average Nusselt number, average heat transfer coefficients and required pumping power. Heat transfer enhancement increases with the ribs presence, but it is accompanied by an increasing pumping power. In particular, the best performances in terms of Nusselt are shown for p/e = 4 and 12 for both the square and chamfered cases. The heat transfer improves as Reynolds number raises, but a substantial increase of pumping power is also observed. The utilization of chamfered ribs allows to increase the PEC, especially at low Re. The maximum PEC is equal to 1.3 and it is obtained for Re = 104 and p/e = 4.
Numerical evaluation of gas core length in free surface vortices
Cristofano, L.; Nobili, M.; Caruso, G.
2014-11-01
The formation and evolution of free surface vortices represent an important topic in many hydraulic intakes, since strong whirlpools introduce swirl flow at the intake, and could cause entrainment of floating matters and gas. In particular, gas entrainment phenomena are an important safety issue for Sodium cooled Fast Reactors, because the introduction of gas bubbles within the core causes dangerous reactivity fluctuation. In this paper, a numerical evaluation of the gas core length in free surface vortices is presented, according to two different approaches. In the first one, a prediction method, developed by the Japanese researcher Sakai and his team, has been applied. This method is based on the Burgers vortex model, and it is able to estimate the gas core length of a free surface vortex starting from two parameters calculated with single-phase CFD simulations. The two parameters are the circulation and the downward velocity gradient. The other approach consists in performing a two-phase CFD simulation of a free surface vortex, in order to numerically reproduce the gas- liquid interface deformation. Mapped convergent mesh is used to reduce numerical error and a VOF (Volume Of Fluid) method was selected to track the gas-liquid interface. Two different turbulence models have been tested and analyzed. Experimental measurements of free surface vortices gas core length have been executed, using optical methods, and numerical results have been compared with experimental measurements. The computational domain and the boundary conditions of the CFD simulations were set consistently with the experimental test conditions.
Hilbert Statistics of Vorticity Scaling in Two-Dimensional Turbulence
Tan, H S; Meng, Jianping
2014-01-01
In this paper, the scaling property of the inverse energy cascade and forward enstrophy cascade of the vorticity filed $\\omega(x,y)$ in two-dimensional (2D) turbulence is analyzed. This is accomplished by applying a Hilbert-based technique, namely Hilbert-Huang Transform, to a vorticity field obtained from a $8192^2$ grid-points direct numerical simulation of the 2D turbulence with a forcing scale $k_f=100$ and an Ekman friction. The measured joint probability density function $p(C,k)$ of mode $C_i(x)$ of the vorticity $\\omega$ and instantaneous wavenumber $k(x)$ is separated by the forcing scale $k_f$ into two parts, which corresponding to the inverse energy cascade and the forward enstrophy cascade. It is found that all conditional pdf $p(C\\vert k)$ at given wavenumber $k$ has an exponential tail. In the inverse energy cascade, the shape of $p(C\\vert k)$ does collapse with each other, indicating a nonintermittent cascade. The measured scaling exponent $\\zeta_{\\omega}^I(q)$ is linear with the statistical ord...
Ricci magnetic geodesic motion of vortices and lumps
Alqahtani, L S
2014-01-01
Ricci magnetic geodesic (RMG) motion in a k\\"ahler manifold is the analogue of geodesic motion in the presence of a magnetic field proportional to the ricci form. It has been conjectured to model low-energy dynamics of vortex solitons in the presence of a Chern-Simons term, the k\\"ahler manifold in question being the $n$-vortex moduli space. This paper presents a detailed study of RMG motion in soliton moduli spaces, focusing on the cases of hyperbolic vortices and spherical $\\mathbb{C}P^1$ lumps. It is shown that RMG flow localizes on fixed point sets of groups of holomorphic isometries, but that the flow on such submanifolds does not, in general, coincide with their intrinsic RMG flow. For planar vortices, it is shown that RMG flow differs from an earlier reduced dynamics proposed by Kim and Lee, and that the latter flow is ill-defined on the vortex coincidence set. An explicit formula for the metric on the whole moduli space of hyperbolic two-vortices is computed (extending an old result of Strachan's), an...
Magnetorheological effect in the magnetic field oriented along the vorticity
Kuzhir, P., E-mail: pavel.kuzhir@unice.fr; Magnet, C.; Fezai, H.; Meunier, A.; Bossis, G. [Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, CNRS UMR7336, University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, 28 Avenue Joseph Vallot, 06100 Nice (France); Rodríguez-Arco, L.; López-López, M. T. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Granada, Campus de Fuentenueva, 18071 Granada (Spain); Zubarev, A. [Department of Mathematical Physics, Ural Federal University, 51 Prospekt Lenina, 620083 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)
2014-11-01
In this work, we have studied the magnetorheological (MR) fluid rheology in the magnetic field parallel to the fluid vorticity. Experimentally, the MR fluid flow was realized in the Couette coaxial cylinder geometry with the magnetic field parallel to the symmetry axis. The rheological measurements were compared to those obtained in the cone-plate geometry with the magnetic field perpendicular to the lower rheometer plate. Experiments revealed a quasi-Bingham behavior in both geometries with the stress level being just a few dozens of percent smaller in the Couette cylindrical geometry at the same internal magnetic field. The unexpectedly high MR response in the magnetic field parallel to the fluid vorticity is explained by stochastic fluctuations of positions and orientations of the particle aggregates. These fluctuations are induced by magnetic interactions between them. Once misaligned from the vorticity direction, the aggregates generate a high stress independent of the shear rate, and thus assimilated to the suspension apparent (dynamic) yield stress. Quantitatively, the fluctuations of the aggregate orientation are modeled as a rotary diffusion process with a diffusion constant proportional to the mean square interaction torque. The model gives a satisfactory agreement with the experimental field dependency of the apparent yield stress and confirms the nearly quadratic concentration dependency σ{sub Y}∝Φ{sup 2.2}, revealed in experiments. The practical interest of this study lies in the development of MR smart devices with the magnetic field nonperpendicular to the channel walls.
Seismometer Detection of Dust Devil Vortices by Ground Tilt
Lorenz, Ralph D; Murdoch, Naomi; Lognonné, Philippe; Kawamura, Taichi; Mimoun, David; Banerdt, W Bruce
2015-01-01
We report seismic signals on a desert playa caused by convective vortices and dust devils. The long-period (10-100s) signatures, with tilts of ~10$^{-7}$ radians, are correlated with the presence of vortices, detected with nearby sensors as sharp temporary pressure drops (0.2-1 mbar) and solar obscuration by dust. We show that the shape and amplitude of the signals, manifesting primarily as horizontal accelerations, can be modeled approximately with a simple quasi-static point-load model of the negative pressure field associated with the vortices acting on the ground as an elastic half space. We suggest the load imposed by a dust devil of diameter D and core pressure {\\Delta}Po is ~({\\pi}/2){\\Delta}PoD$^2$, or for a typical terrestrial devil of 5 m diameter and 2 mbar, about the weight of a small car. The tilt depends on the inverse square of distance, and on the elastic properties of the ground, and the large signals we observe are in part due to the relatively soft playa sediment and the shallow installatio...
Jovian Vortices and Barges: HST observations 1994-1998
Morales, R.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.; Lecacheux, J.; Colas, F.; Miyazaki, I.
2000-10-01
We have used the HST-WFPC2 archived images of Jupiter in the period 1994-1998 to study the zonal and meridional distributions, long-term motions, lifetimes, interactions and other properties of the vortices larger than 2 degrees. The latitude range covered spans from +75 to -75 degrees. High-resolution images obtained with the 890nm, 410nm and 953nm wavelength filters allowed us to make a morphological classification based on their appearance in each filter. The vortices are anticyclones, and their long-term motions have been completed with ground-based images and are compared to the mean Jovian zonal wind profile. Significant differences are found between the vortex velocities and the mean zonal winds. Some vortices exhibited important drift changes in short period times. We analyze a possible correlation between their size and zonal wind velocity. On the other hand, the "barges" lie in the cyclone domains of the wind-profile and have been identified in several latitudes. Their latitudinal size is similar in all of them (typically 1.6 degrees) but their longitudinal size ranges from 1 to 32 degrees. We discuss the temporal evolution of some of these cyclonic regions. The Spanish team was supported by Gobierno Vasco PI 034/97. The French team was supported by the "Programme National de Planetologie." RM acknowledges a fellowship from Universidad Pais Vasco.
Some exact BPS solutions for exotic vortices and monopoles
Ramadhan, Handhika S
2015-01-01
We present several analytical solutions of BPS vortices and monopoles in the generalized Abelian Maxwell-Higgs and Yang-Mills-Higgs theories, respectively. These models have recently been extensively studied and several exact solutions have already been obtained in~\\cite{Casana:2014qfa, Casana:2013lna}. In each theory, the dynamics is controlled by the additional two positive scalar-field-dependent functions, $f(|\\phi|)$ and $w(|\\phi|)$. For the case of vortices, we work in the ordinary symmetry-breaking Higgs potential, while for the case of monopoles we have the ordinary condition of the Prasad-Sommerfield limit. Our results generalize that of exact solutions found previously. We also present solutions for BPS vortices with higher winding number. These solutions suffer from the condition that $w(|\\phi|)$ has negative value at some finite range of $r$, but we argue that since it satisfies the weaker positive-value conditions then the corresponding energy density is still positive-definite and, thus, they are...
Lagrangian structures in time-periodic vortical flows
S. V. Kostrykin
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The Lagrangian trajectories of fluid particles are experimentally studied in an oscillating four-vortex velocity field. The oscillations occur due to a loss of stability of a steady flow and result in a regular reclosure of streamlines between the vortices of the same sign. The Eulerian velocity field is visualized by tracer displacements over a short time period. The obtained data on tracer motions during a number of oscillation periods show that the Lagrangian trajectories form quasi-regular structures. The destruction of these structures is determined by two characteristic time scales: the tracers are redistributed sufficiently fast between the vortices of the same sign and much more slowly transported into the vortices of opposite sign. The observed behavior of the Lagrangian trajectories is quantitatively reproduced in a new numerical experiment with two-dimensional model of the velocity field with a small number of spatial harmonics. A qualitative interpretation of phenomena observed on the basis of the theory of adiabatic chaos in the Hamiltonian systems is given. The Lagrangian trajectories are numerically simulated under varying flow parameters. It is shown that the spatial-temporal characteristics of the Lagrangian structures depend on the properties of temporal change in the streamlines topology and on the adiabatic parameter corresponding to the flow. The condition for the occurrence of traps (the regions where the Lagrangian particles reside for a long time is obtained.
A study of vorticity formation in high energy nuclear collisions
Becattini, F. [Universita di Firenze, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Sesto F.no (Firenze) (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Firenze, Sesto F.no (Firenze) (Italy); Inghirami, G. [Universita di Firenze, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Sesto F.no (Firenze) (Italy); Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Rolando, V.; Pagliara, G. [Universita di Ferrara, Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Ferrara (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); Beraudo, A.; De Pace, A.; Nardi, M. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Turin (Italy); Del Zanna, L. [Universita di Firenze, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Sesto F.no (Firenze) (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Firenze, Sesto F.no (Firenze) (Italy); INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Florence (Italy); Chandra, V. [Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar, Ahmedabad, Gujrat (India)
2015-09-15
We present a quantitative study of vorticity formation in peripheral ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions at √(s{sub NN}) = 200 GeV by using the ECHO-QGP numerical code, implementing relativistic dissipative hydrodynamics in the causal Israel-Stewart framework in 3 + 1 dimensions with an initial Bjorken flow profile. We consider different definitions of vorticity which are relevant in relativistic hydrodynamics. After demonstrating the excellent capabilities of our code, which proves to be able to reproduce Gubser flow up to 8 fm/c, we show that, with the initial conditions needed to reproduce the measured directed flow in peripheral collisions corresponding to an average impact parameter b = 11.6 fm and with the Bjorken flow profile for a viscous Quark Gluon Plasma with η/s = 0.1 fixed, a vorticity of the order of some 10{sup -2} c/fm can develop at freeze-out. The ensuing polarization of Λ baryons does not exceed 1.4 % at midrapidity. We show that the amount of developed directed flow is sensitive to both the initial angular momentum of the plasma and its viscosity. (orig.)
Nonabelian Superconductors: Vortices and Confinement in ${\\cal N}=2$ SQCD
Auzzi, R; Evslin, J; Konishi, K; Yung, A; Auzzi, Roberto; Bolognesi, Stefano; Evslin, Jarah; Konishi, Kenichi; Yung, Alexei
2003-01-01
We study nonabelian vortices (flux tubes) in SU(N) gauge theories, which are responsible for the confinement of (nonabelian) magnetic monopoles. In particular a detailed analysis is given of ${\\cal N}=2$ SQCD with gauge group SU(3) deformed by a small adjoint chiral multiplet mass. Tuning the bare quark masses (which we take to be large) to a common value $m$, we consider a particular vacuum of this theory in which an SU(2) subgroup of the gauge group remains unbroken. We consider $5 \\ge N_f \\ge 4$ flavors so that the SU(2) sub-sector remains non asymptotically free: the vortices carrying nonabelian fluxes may be reliably studied in a semi-classical regime. We show that the vortices indeed acquire exact zero modes which generate global rotations of the flux in an $SU(2)_{C+F}$ group. We study an effective world-sheet theory of these orientational zero modes which reduces to an ${\\cal N}=2$ O(3) sigma model in (1+1) dimensions. Mirror symmetry then teaches us that the dual SU(2) group is not dynamically broken...
The impact of intraglottal vortices on vocal fold dynamics
Erath, Byron; Pirnia, Alireza; Peterson, Sean
2016-11-01
During voiced speech a critical pressure is produced in the lungs that separates the vocal folds and creates a passage (the glottis) for airflow. As air passes through the vocal folds the resulting aerodynamic loading, coupled with the tissue properties of the vocal folds, produces self-sustained oscillations. Throughout each cycle a complex flow field develops, characterized by a plethora of viscous flow phenomena. Air passing through the glottis creates a jet, with periodically-shed vortices developing due to flow separation and the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the shear layer. These vortices have been hypothesized to be a crucial mechanism for producing vocal fold vibrations. In this study the effect of vortices on the vocal fold dynamics is investigated experimentally by passing a vortex ring over a flexible beam with the same non-dimensional mechanical properties as the vocal folds. Synchronized particle image velocimetry data are acquired in tandem with the beam dynamics. The resulting impact of the vortex ring loading on vocal fold dynamics is discussed in detail. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation Grant CBET #1511761.
Sensing and exploitation of vortices for a schooling fish
Gao, Amy; Maertens, Audrey; Triantafyllou, Michael
2016-11-01
The question of whether fish are capable of actively sensing and using individual vortices while schooling has long been debated. Prior research has shown that fish can gain a hydrodynamic benefit when swimming in the wake of another fish. However, it remains unclear if lateral line feedback is necessary, and if so, how a fish may adjust its motion to maximize its energy savings. To begin to address this, we study though numerical simulations the hydrodynamic interactions between two fish swimming in tandem, focusing on the interaction of individual vortices with the following fish. Using a potential flow model, we show that the pressure sensed by the following fish can be captured with a low number of states, which provide information that allows the fish to locate near-field vortices and phase its undulating motion accordingly. We will discuss how vortex interactions along the fish can be beneficial, the signals they induce, and which strategies a fish may use to save the most energy.
Some exact BPS solutions for exotic vortices and monopoles
Ramadhan, Handhika S.
2016-07-01
We present several analytical solutions of BPS vortices and monopoles in the generalized Abelian Maxwell-Higgs and Yang-Mills-Higgs theories, respectively. These models have recently been extensively studied and several exact solutions have already been obtained in [1,2]. In each theory, the dynamics is controlled by the additional two positive scalar-field-dependent functions, f (| ϕ |) and w (| ϕ |). For the case of vortices, we work in the ordinary symmetry-breaking Higgs potential, while for the case of monopoles we have the ordinary condition of the Prasad-Sommerfield limit. Our results generalize the exact solutions found previously. We also present solutions for BPS vortices with higher winding number. These solutions suffer from the condition that w (| ϕ |) has negative value at some finite range of r, but we argue that since it satisfies the weaker positive-value conditions then the corresponding energy density is still positive-definite and, thus, they are acceptable BPS solutions.
Dust-trapping Rossby vortices in protoplanetary disks
Meheut, H; Varniere, P; Benz, W
2012-01-01
One of the most challenging steps in planet formation theory is the one leading to the formation of planetesimals of kilometre size. A promising scenario involves the existence of vortices able to concentrate a large amount of dust and grains in their centres. Up to now this scenario has been studied mostly in 2D razor thin disks. A 3D study including, simultaneously, the formation and resulting dust concentration of the vortices with vertical settling, was still missing. The Rossby wave instability self-consistently forms 3D vortices, which have the unique quality of presenting a large scale vertical velocity in their centre. Here we aim to study how this newly discovered effect can alter the dynamic evolution of the dust. We perform global 3D simulations of the RWI in a radially and vertically stratified disk using the code MPI-AMRVAC. After the growth phase of the instability, the gas and solid phases are modelled by a bi-fluid approach, where the dust is considered as a fluid without pressure. Both the dr...
Models of Vortices and Spirals in White Dwarf's Accretion Binaries
Boneva, Daniela
2010-11-01
The main aim in the current survey is to suggest models of the development of structures, such as vortices and spirals, in accretion white dwarf's binaries. On the base of hydrodynamical analytical considerations it is applied numerical methods and simulations. It is suggested in the theoretical model the perturbation's parameters of the accretion flow, caused by the influences of the tidal wave over the flux of accretion matter around the secondary star. To examine such disturbed flow, the numerical code has involved in the calculations. The results reveal us an appearing of structure with spiral shape due to the tidal interaction in the close binaries. Our further simulations give the solution, which expresses the formation of vortical configurations in the accretion disc's zone. The evolution of vortices in areas of the flow's interaction is explored using single vortex and composite vortex models. Gas in the disc matter is considered to be compressible and non-ideal. The longevity of all these structures is different and each depends of time period of the rotation, density and velocity of the accretion matter.
Gurka, R.; Diamessis, P.; Liberzon, A.
2009-04-01
the reconstructed vorticity and horizontal divergence fields based on the linear combination of the eigenfunctions. Similar to applications of POD to the characterization of coherent structures in turbulent boundary layers, characteristic geometrical features for each eigenmode of vorticity and horizontal divergence are deduced. The results show that in the Oxz plane at the wake centerline the first, most energetic, modes of vorticity reveal a structure similar of the forward-inclined vertical shear layers typical of late-time stratified wakes. In Oxz planes, off-set from the wake centerline, the signature of internal waves in the form of forward-inclined coherent beams extending into the ambient becomes evident. The angle of inclination becomes progressively vertical with increasing POD mode. Lower POD modes on the Oyz planes show a layered structure in the wake core with coherent beams radiating out into the ambient at angles spanning 0 to 75 degrees. The POD analysis of horizontal divergence on the Oxz and Oyz planes reveals similar features with the results for the vorticity field. Two notable exceptions at lower modes are the less organized structure of the wake core and the predominance of beam-like structures in laterally offset Oxz planes. Furthermore, these differences are confirmed through the relative energy spectra distribution of the eigenmodes for the vorticity and the horizontal divergence. Qualitative comparison of the reconstructed low-order velocity gradient fields and the computed flow fields shows the relative contribution of the different mode combinations, to the various flow features such as internal waves and vorticity. It is shown that POD analysis has provided a statistical description of the geometrical features previously observed in instantaneous flow fields of stratified turbulent wake.
Y. D. Chashechkin
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The flow of continuously stratified fluids past obstacles was studied analytically, numerically, and experimentally. The obstacles discussed here include a flat strip, aligned with the flow, inclined or transverse to the flow and a horizontal cylinder. In the flow pattern, transient and attached (lee internal waves, downstream wakes with submerged interfaces and vortices, soaring singular interfaces, soaring vortices and vortex systems are distinguished. New components of laminar flow past a horizontally towed strip are presented. Fine transverse streaky structures on the strip in the downstream wake were visualized. Soaring isolated interfaces, which are internal boundary layers forming inside the downstream attached wave field past bluff bodies were observed. With increasing of the body velocity a vortex pair was formed directly at the leading edge of this interface.
Diamessis, P.; Gurka, R.; Liberzon, A.
2008-11-01
Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is applied to 2-D slices of vorticity and horizontal divergence obtained from the 3-D DNS of the stratified turbulent wake of a towed sphere at Re=5x10^3 and Fr=4. Slices are sampled along the stream-depth (Oxz) and stream-span planes (Oxy) at 231 times during the interval Nt[12,35]. POD was chosen amongst the available statistical tools due to its advantage in characterization of simulated and experimentally measured velocity gradient fields, as previously demonstrated for turbulent boundary layers. In the Oxz planes, at the wake centerline, the higher most energetic modes reveal a structure similar of the structure of late-time stratified wakes. Off-set from centerline, the signature of internal waves in the form of forward-inclined coherent beams extending into the ambient becomes evident. The angle of inclination becomes progressively vertical with increasing POD mode. Lower POD modes on the Oyz planes show a layered structure in the wake core with coherent beams radiating out into the ambient over a broad range of angles. Further insight is provided through the relative energy spectra distribution of the vorticity eigenmodes. POD analysis has provided a statistical description of the geometrical features previously observed in instantaneous flow fields of stratified turbulent wakes.
Experimental Study on Effects of Ground Roughness on Flow Characteristics of Tornado-Like Vortices
Wang, Jin; Cao, Shuyang; Pang, Weichiang; Cao, Jinxin
2017-02-01
The three-dimensional wind velocity and dynamic pressure for stationary tornado-like vortices that developed over ground of different roughness categories were investigated to clarify the effects of ground roughness. Measurements were performed for various roughness categories and two swirl ratios. Variations of the vertical and horizontal distributions of velocity and pressure with roughness are presented, with the results showing that the tangential, radial, and axial velocity components increase inside the vortex core near the ground under rough surface conditions. Meanwhile, clearly decreased tangential components are found outside the core radius at low elevations. The high axial velocity inside the vortex core over rough ground surface indicates that roughness produces an effect similar to a reduced swirl ratio. In addition, the pressure drop accompanying a tornado is more significant at elevations closer to the ground under rough compared with smooth surface conditions. We show that the variations of the flow characteristics with roughness are dependent on the vortex-generating mechanism, indicating the need for appropriate modelling of tornado-like vortices.
Reichhardt, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reichhardt, Cynthia [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2008-01-01
We show using numerical simulations that vortices in honeycomb pinning arrays can exhibit a remarkable variety of dynamical phases that are distinct from those found for triangular and square pinning arrays. In the honeycomb arrays, it is possible for the interstitial vortices to form dimer or higher n-mer states which have an additional orientational degree of freedom that can lead to the formation of vortex molecular crystals. For filling fractions where dimer states appear, a dynamical symmetry breaking can occur when the dimers flow in one of two possible alignment directions. This leads to transport in the direction transverse to the applied drive. We show that dimerization produces distinct types of moving phases which depend on the direction of the driving force with respect to the pinning lattice symmetry. When the dimers are driven along certain directions, a reorientation of the dimers can produce a jamming phenomenon which results in a strong enhancement in the critical depinning force. The jamming can also cause unusual effects such as an increase in the critical depinning force when the size of the pinning sites is reduced.
Effect of Fluid Viscoelasticity on Turbulence and Large-Scale Vortices behind Wall-Mounted Plates
Takahiro Tsukahara
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Direct numerical simulations of turbulent viscoelastic fluid flows in a channel with wall-mounted plates were performed to investigate the influence of viscoelasticity on turbulent structures and the mean flow around the plate. The constitutive equation follows the Giesekus model, valid for polymer or surfactant solutions, which are generally capable of reducing the turbulent frictional drag in a smooth channel. We found that turbulent eddies just behind the plates in viscoelastic fluid decreased in number and in magnitude, but their size increased. Three pairs of organized longitudinal vortices were observed downstream of the plates in both Newtonian and viscoelastic fluids: two vortex pairs were behind the plates and the other one with the longest length was in a plate-free area. In the viscoelastic fluid, the latter vortex pair in the plate-free area was maintained and reached the downstream rib, but its swirling strength was weakened and the local skin-friction drag near the vortex was much weaker than those in the Newtonian flow. The mean flow and small spanwise eddies were influenced by the additional fluid force due to the viscoelasticity and, moreover, the spanwise component of the fluid elastic force may also play a role in the suppression of fluid vortical motions behind the plates.
Magnetic vortices in gauge/gravity duality
Strydom, Migael
2014-07-18
We study strongly-coupled phenomena using gauge/gravity duality, with a particular focus on vortex solutions produced by magnetic field and time-dependent problems in holographic models. The main result is the discovery of a counter-intuitive effect where a strong non-abelian magnetic field induces the formation of a triangular vortex lattice ground state in a simple holographic model. Gauge/gravity duality is a powerful theoretical tool that has been used to study strongly-coupled systems ranging from the quark-gluon plasma produced at particle colliders to condensed matter theories. The most important idea is that of duality: a strongly coupled quantum field theory can be studied by investigating the properties of a particular gravity background described by Einstein's equations. One gravity background we study in this dissertation is AdS-Schwarzschild with an SU(2) gauge field. We switch on the gauge field component that gives the field theory an external magnetic field. When the magnetic field is above a critical value, we find that the system is unstable, indicating a superconducting phase transition. We find the instability in two ways. Firstly, we do a quasinormal mode analysis, studying fluctuations about the background. Secondly, we rewrite the equations in Schroedinger form and numerically find that, as the magnetic field is increased, the potential deepens until it is capable of supporting a bound state. Next we show that the resulting superconducting ground state is a triangular vortex lattice. This is done by performing a perturbative expansion in a small parameter proportional to the condensate size. After solving the equations to third order, we use the holographic dictionary to calculate the total energy of different lattice solutions and identify the minimum energy state. In addition, we show that the result holds in an AdS-hard wall model as well, which is dual to a confining theory. Next we extend the simple gravity model to include a
Towards laboratory detection of topological vortices in superfluid phases of QCD
Das, Arpan; De, Somnath; Srivastava, Ajit M
2016-01-01
Topological defects arise in a variety of systems, e.g. vortices in superfluid helium to cosmic strings in the early universe. There is an indirect evidence of neutron superfluid vortices from glitches in pulsars. One also expects that topological defects may arise in various high baryon density phases of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), e.g. superfluid topological vortices in the color flavor locked (CFL) phase. We investigate the possibility of detecting these topological superfluid vortices in laboratory experiments, namely heavy-ion collisions. Using hydrodynamic simulations, we show that vortices can qualitatively affect the power spectrum of flow fluctuations. This can give unambiguous signal for superfluid transition resulting in vortices, allowing for check of defect formation theories in a relativistic quantum field theory system.
Half-plane diffraction of Gaussian beams carrying two vortices of equal charges
He De; Gao Zeng-Hui; Lü Bai-Da
2011-01-01
This paper derives explicit expressions for the propagation of Ganssian beams carrying two vortices of equal charges m =±1 diffracted at a half-plane screen,which enables the study of the dynamic evolution of vortices in the diffraction field.It shows that there may be no vortices,a pair or several pairs of vortices of opposite charges m =+l,-1 in the diffraction field.Pair creation,annihilation and motion of vortices may appear upon propagation.The off-axis distance additionally affects the evolutionary behaviour.In the process the total topological charge is equal to zero,which is unequal to that of the vortex beam at the source plane.A comparison with the free-space propagation of two vortices of equal charges and a further extension are made.
Sharp asymptotic estimates for vorticity solutions of the 2D Navier-Stokes equation
Yuncheng You
2008-12-01
Full Text Available The asymptotic dynamics of high-order temporal-spatial derivatives of the two-dimensional vorticity and velocity of an incompressible, viscous fluid flow in $mathbb{R}^2$ are studied, which is equivalent to the 2D Navier-Stokes equation. It is known that for any integrable initial vorticity, the 2D vorticity solution converges to the Oseen vortex. In this paper, sharp exterior decay estimates of the temporal-spatial derivatives of the vorticity solution are established. These estimates are then used and combined with similarity and $L^p$ compactness to show the asymptotical attraction rates of temporal-spatial derivatives of generic 2D vorticity and velocity solutions by the Oseen vortices and velocity solutions respectively. The asymptotic estimates and the asymptotic attraction rates of all the derivatives obtained in this paper are independent of low or high Reynolds numbers.
Conservation of Total Vorticity for a 2D Stochastic Navier Stokes Equation
Peter M. Kotelenez
2011-01-01
Full Text Available We consider point vortices whose positions satisfy a stochastic ordinary differential equation on ℝ2 perturbed by spatially correlated Brownian noise. The associated signed point measure-valued empirical process turns out to be a weak solution to a stochastic Navier-Stokes equation (SNSE with a state-dependent stochastic term. As the number of vortices tends to infinity, we obtain a smooth solution to the SNSE, and we prove the conservation of total vorticity in this continuum limit.
A numerical study of the stabilitiy of helical vortices using vortex methods
Walther, J H [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Guenot, M [Enginering College in Industrial Systems, FR-17041, La Rochelle (France); Machefaux, E [Enginering College in Industrial Systems, FR-17041, La Rochelle (France); Rasmussen, J T [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Chatelain, P [Computational Laboratory, ETH Zurich, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Okulov, V L [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Soerensen, J N [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Bergdorf, M [Computational Laboratory, ETH Zurich, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Koumoutsakos, P [Computational Laboratory, ETH Zurich, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland)
2007-07-15
We present large-scale parallel direct numerical simulations using particle vortex methods of the instability of the helical vortices. We study the instability of a single helical vortex and find good agreement with inviscid theory. We outline equilibrium configurations for three double helical vortices-similar to those produced by three blade wind turbines. The simulations confirm the stability of the inviscid model, but predict a breakdown of the vortical system due to viscosity.
Velocity-vorticity formulation of three-dimensional, steady, viscous, incompressible flows
Meir, A.J. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)
1994-12-31
In this work we discuss some aspects of the velocity-vorticity formulation of three-dimensional, steady, viscous, incompressible flows. We describe reasonable boundary conditions that should be imposed on the vorticity and a compatibility condition that the vorticity must satisfy. This formulation may give rise to efficient numerical algorithms for approximating solutions of the Stokes problem, which in turn yields an iterative method for approximating solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations.
Parallel numerical simulations for quantized vortices in Bose-Einstein condensates
Huang Zhao-Hui; Wang De-Sheng
2007-01-01
We employ the parallel computing technology to study numerically the three-dimensional structure of quantized vortices of Bose-Einstein condensates. For anisotropic cases, the bending process of vortices is described in detail by the decrease of Gross-Pitaevskii energy. A completely straight vortex and the steady and symmetrical multiple-vortex configurations are obtained. We analyse the effect of initial conditions and angular velocity on the number and shape of vortices.
Buoyancy in tropical cyclones and other rapidly rotating atmospheric vortices
Smith, Roger K.; Montgomery, Michael T.; Zhu, Hongyan
2005-07-01
Motivated primarily by its application to understanding tropical-cyclone intensification and maintenance, we re-examine the concept of buoyancy in rapidly rotating vortices, distinguishing between the buoyancy of the symmetric balanced vortex or system buoyancy, and the local buoyancy associated with cloud dynamics. The conventional definition of buoyancy is contrasted with a generalized form applicable to a vortex, which has a radial as well as a vertical component. If, for the special case of axisymmetric motions, the balanced density and pressure distribution of a rapidly rotating vortex are used as the reference state, the buoyancy field then characterizes the unbalanced density perturbations, i.e. the local buoyancy. We show how to determine such a reference state without approximation. The generation of the toroidal circulation of a vortex, which is necessary for vortex amplification, is characterized in the vorticity equation by the baroclinicity vector. This vector depends, inter-alia, on the horizontal (or radial) gradient of buoyancy evaluated along isobaric surfaces. We show that for a tropical-cyclone-scale vortex, the buoyancy so calculated is significantly different from that calculated at constant height or on surfaces of constant σ ( σ = ( p - p*)/( ps - p*), where p is the actual pressure, p* some reference pressure and ps is the surface pressure). Since many tropical-cyclone models are formulated using σ-coordinates, we examine the calculation of buoyancy on σ-surfaces and derive an expression for the baroclinicity vector in σ-coordinates. The baroclinic forcing term in the azimuthal vorticity equation for an axisymmetric vortex is shown to be approximately equal to the azimuthal component of the curl of the generalized buoyancy. A scale analysis indicates that the vertical gradient of the radial component of generalized buoyancy makes a comparatively small contribution to the generation of toroidal vorticity in a tropical cyclone, but may be
Polar Vortex Oscillation Viewed in an Isentropic Potential Vorticity Coordinate
无
2006-01-01
The stratospheric polar vortex oscillation (PVO) in the Northern Hemisphere is examined in a semiLagrangian θ-PVLAT coordinate constructed by using daily isentropic potential vorticity maps derived from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis Ⅱ dataset covering the period from 1979 to 2003. In the semi-Lagrangian θ-PVLAT coordinate, the variability of the polar vortex is solely attributed to its intensity change because the changes in its location and shape would be naturally absent by following potential vorticity contours on isentropic surfaces. The EOF and regression analyses indicate that the PVO can be described by a pair of poleward and downward propagating modes. These two modes together account for about 82% variance of the daily potential vorticity anomalies over the entire Northern Hemisphere. The power spectral analysis reveals a dominant time scale of about 107 days in the time series of these two modes,representing a complete PVO cycle accompanied with poleward propagating heating anomalies of both positive and negative signs from the equator to the pole. The strong polar vortex corresponds to the arrival of cold anomalies over the polar circle and vice versa. Accompanied with the poleward propagation is a simultaneous downward propagation. The downward propagation time scale is about 20 days in high and low latitudes and about 30 days in mid-latitudes. The zonal wind anomalies lag the poleward and downward propagating temperature anomalies of the opposite sign by 10 days in low and high latitudes and by 20 days in mid-latitudes. The time series of the leading EOF modes also exhibit dominant time scales of 8.7, 16.9, and 33.8 months. They approximately follow a double-periodicity sequence and correspond to the 3-peak extratropical Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) signal.
Distributional Enstrophy Dissipation Via the Collapse of Three Point Vortices
Gotoda, Takeshi; Sakajo, Takashi
2016-10-01
Dissipation of enstrophy in 2D incompressible flows in the zero viscous limit is considered to play a significant role in the emergence of the inertial range corresponding to the forward enstrophy cascade in the energy spectrum of 2D turbulent flows. However, since smooth solutions of the 2D incompressible Euler equations conserve the enstrophy, we need to consider non-smooth inviscid and incompressible flows so that the enstrophy dissipates. Moreover, it is physically uncertain what kind of a flow evolution gives rise to such an anomalous enstrophy dissipation. In this paper, in order to acquire an insight about the singular phenomenon mathematically as well as physically, we consider a dispersive regularization of the 2D Euler equations, known as the Euler-α equations, for the initial vorticity distributions whose support consists of three points, i.e., three α -point vortices, and take the α → 0 limit of its global solutions. We prove with mathematical rigor that, under a certain condition on their vortex strengths, the limit solution becomes a self-similar evolution collapsing to a point followed by the expansion from the collapse point to infinity for a wide range of initial configurations of point vortices. We also find that the enstrophy always dissipates in the sense of distributions at the collapse time. This indicates that the triple collapse is a mechanism for the anomalous enstrophy dissipation in non-smooth inviscid and incompressible flows. Furthermore, it is an interesting example elucidating the emergence of the irreversibility of time in a Hamiltonian dynamical system.
Prescribed Velocity Gradients for Highly Viscous SPH Fluids with Vorticity Diffusion.
Peer, Andreas; Teschner, Matthias
2016-12-06
Working with prescribed velocity gradients is a promising approach to efficiently and robustly simulate highly viscous SPH fluids. Such approaches allow to explicitly and independently process shear rate, spin, and expansion rate. This can be used to, e.g., avoid interferences between pressure and viscosity solvers. Another interesting aspect is the possibility to explicitly process the vorticity, e.g. to preserve the vorticity. In this context, this paper proposes a novel variant of the prescribed-gradient idea that handles vorticity in a physically motivated way. In contrast to a less appropriate vorticity preservation that has been used in a previous approach, vorticity is diffused. The paper illustrates the utility of the vorticity diffusion. Therefore, comparisons of the proposed vorticity diffusion with vorticity preservation and additionally with vorticity damping are presented. The paper further discusses the relation between prescribed velocity gradients and prescribed velocity Laplacians which improves the intuition behind the prescribed-gradient method for highly viscous SPH fluids. Finally, the paper discusses the relation of the proposed method to a physically correct implicit viscosity formulation.
Effect of thin film on the generation of vorticity by surface waves
Parfenyev, V M; Lebedev, V V
2016-01-01
Recently a theoretical scheme explaining the vorticity generation by surface waves in liquids was developed [S. Filatov et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 054501 (2016)]. Here we study how a thin (monomolecular) film presented at the surface of liquid affects the generated vorticity. We demonstrate that the vorticity becomes parametrically larger than for the case with a clean surface and now it depends on viscosity of the liquid. We also discuss the motion of particles passively advected by the generated surface flow. The results can be used in different applications: from the analysis of pollutants' diffusion on the ocean surface till the reconstruction of vorticity based on the particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements.
Imaging of trapped vortices in YBCO coated conductor by scanning SQUID microscope
Inoue, M. [Department of EESE, Kyushu University, Hakozaki 6-10-1, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)]. E-mail: inoue@ees.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Kiss, T. [Department of EESE, Kyushu University, Hakozaki 6-10-1, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Koyanagi, S. [Department of EESE, Kyushu University, Hakozaki 6-10-1, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Imamura, K. [Department of EESE, Kyushu University, Hakozaki 6-10-1, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Takeo, M. [Department of EESE, Kyushu University, Hakozaki 6-10-1, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Iijima, Y. [Fujikura Ltd., Tokyo 135-8512 (Japan); Kakimoto, K. [Fujikura Ltd., Tokyo 135-8512 (Japan); Saitoh, T. [Fujikura Ltd., Tokyo 135-8512 (Japan); Matsuda, J. [Superconductivity Research Laboratory, Tokyo 130-0062 (Japan); Tokunaga, Y. [Superconductivity Research Laboratory, Tokyo 130-0062 (Japan); Izumi, T. [Superconductivity Research Laboratory, Tokyo 130-0062 (Japan); Shiohara, Y. [Superconductivity Research Laboratory, Tokyo 130-0062 (Japan)
2005-10-01
We investigated trapped vortices in Y{sub 1}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} (YBCO) coated conductor by using a scanning SQUID microscope (SSM). Several peculiar properties of the vortices were observed such as a large bundle of vortices at a certain position and a coexistence of positive- and negative-sign vortices. Comparing the SSM images with that of low temperature scanning laser microscopy (LTSLM) and SEM, we identified the relationship between local dissipation and position of current blocking defect. Furthermore, regular vortex images were also observed by the SSM in the region where higher J {sub c} has been identified by the LTSLM.
Spin vortices in the Abelian-Higgs model with cholesteric vacuum structure
Peterson, Adam J.; Shifman, Mikhail; Tallarita, Gianni
2015-12-01
We continue the study of U(1) vortices with cholesteric vacuum structure. A new class of solutions is found which represent global vortices of the internal spin field. These spin vortices are characterized by a non-vanishing angular dependence at spatial infinity, or winding. We show that despite the topological Z2 behavior of SO(3) windings, the topological charge of the spin vortices is of the Z type in the cholesteric. We find these solutions numerically and discuss the properties derived from their low energy effective field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions.
Spin vortices in the Abelian-Higgs model with cholesteric vacuum structure
Peterson, Adam; Tallarita, Gianni
2015-01-01
We continue the study of $U(1)$ vortices with cholesteric vacuum structure. A new class of solutions is found which represent global vortices of the internal spin field. These spin vortices are characterized by a non-vanishing angular dependence at spatial infinity, or winding. We show that despite the topological $\\mathbb{Z}_2$ behavior of $SO(3)$ windings, the topological charge of the spin vortices is of the $\\mathbb{Z}$ type in the cholesteric. We find these solutions numerically and discuss the properties derived from their low energy effective field theory in $1+1$ dimensions.
Yoon, Min; Ahn, Junsun; Hwang, Jinyul; Sung, Hyung Jin
2016-08-01
The relationship between the frictional drag and the velocity-vorticity correlations in wall-bounded turbulent flows is derived from the mean vorticity equation. A formula for the skin friction coefficient is proposed and evaluated with regards to three canonical wall-bounded flows: turbulent boundary layer, turbulent channel flow, and turbulent pipe flow. The frictional drag encompasses four terms: advective vorticity transport, vortex stretching, viscous, and inhomogeneous terms. Drag-reduced channel flow with the slip condition is used to test the reliability of the formula. The advective vorticity transport and vortex stretching terms are found to dominate the contributions to the frictional drag.
Fine tuned vortices in lattice SU(2) gluodynamics
Gubarev, F V; Polikarpov, M I; Syritsyn, S N; Zakharov, V I
2003-01-01
We report measurements of the action associated with center vortices in the lattice SU(2) pure gauge theory. In the lattice units the excess of the action on the plaquettes belonging to the vortex is approximately a constant, independent on the lattice spacing 'a'. Therefore the action of the center vortex is of order A/a^2, where 'A' is its area. Since the area A is known to scale in the physical units, the observation suggests that the suppression due to the surface action is balanced, or fine tuned to the entropy factor which is to be an exponential of A/a^2.
Topological charge algebra of optical vortices in nonlinear interactions.
Zhdanova, Alexandra A; Shutova, Mariia; Bahari, Aysan; Zhi, Miaochan; Sokolov, Alexei V
2015-12-28
We investigate the transfer of orbital angular momentum among multiple beams involved in a coherent Raman interaction. We use a liquid crystal light modulator to shape pump and Stokes beams into optical vortices with various integer values of topological charge, and cross them in a Raman-active crystal to produce multiple Stokes and anti-Stokes sidebands. We measure the resultant vortex charges using a tilted-lens technique. We verify that in every case the generated beams' topological charges obey a simple relationship, resulting from angular momentum conservation for created and annihilated photons, or equivalently, from phase-matching considerations for multiple interacting beams.
A Probe of Primordial Gravity Waves and Vorticity
Kamionkowski, M. [Department of Physics, Columbia University, 538 West 120th Street, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Kosowsky, A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)]|[and Department of Physics, Lyman Laboratory, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Stebbins, A. [NASA/Fermilab Astrophysics Center, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510-0500 (United States)
1997-03-01
A formalism for describing an all-sky map of the polarization of the cosmic microwave background is presented. The polarization pattern on the sky can be decomposed into two geometrically distinct components. One of these components is not coupled to density inhomogeneities. A nonzero amplitude for this component of polarization can only be caused by tensor or vector metric perturbations. This allows unambiguous identification of long-wavelength gravity waves or large-scale vortical flows at the time of last scattering. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Close pairs of relative equilibria for identical point vortices
Dirksen, Tobias; Aref, Hassan
2011-01-01
Numerical solution of the classical problem of relative equilibria for identical point vortices on the unbounded plane reveals configurations that are very close to the analytically known, centered, symmetrically arranged, nested equilateral triangles. New numerical solutions of this kind are found...... also has this property, and new relative equilibria close to the nested, symmetrically arranged, regular heptagons have been found. The centered regular nonagon is also marginally stable. Again, a new family of close relative equilibria has been found. The closest relative equilibrium pairs occur...
Quantized Vortices and Four-Component Superfluidity of Semiconductor Excitons.
Anankine, Romain; Beian, Mussie; Dang, Suzanne; Alloing, Mathieu; Cambril, Edmond; Merghem, Kamel; Carbonell, Carmen Gomez; Lemaître, Aristide; Dubin, François
2017-03-24
We study spatially indirect excitons of GaAs quantum wells, confined in a 10 μm electrostatic trap. Below a critical temperature of about 1 K, we detect macroscopic spatial coherence and quantized vortices in the weak photoluminescence emitted from the trap. These quantum signatures are restricted to a narrow range of density, in a dilute regime. They manifest the formation of a four-component superfluid, made by a low population of optically bright excitons coherently coupled to a dominant fraction of optically dark excitons.
Sound Generation in the Interaction of Two Isentropic Vortices
2012-02-02
difference in their spacial scales. Mu = −0.8, Md = 0.25, d = 2.2, rcu = 1 and rcd = 0.2. 11 X S o u n d P re ss u re -200 -100 0 100 200 -0.0004 -0.0002 0...counter-rotating vortices in the case of Mu = −0.5, Md = 0.5, d = 2.2, rcu = 1 and rcd = 0.2. References [1] Lighthill M. J. (1952). On sound generated
The numerical solution of the vorticity transport equation
Dennis, S C R
1973-01-01
A method of approximating the two-dimensional vorticity transport equation in which the matrix associated with the difference equations is diagonally dominant and the truncation error is the same as that of the fully central-difference approximation, is discussed. An example from boundary layer theory is given by calculating the viscous stagnation point flow at the nose of a cylinder. Some new solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations are obtained for symmetrical flow past a flat plate of finite length. (16 refs).
Nonlinear modes in the hollow-cores of liquid vortices
Amaouche, Mustapha
2013-09-01
In this paper we show that the wave patterns observed on the interfacial contours of hollow-core vortices, produced within a shallow layer of fluid contained in stationary cylinder and driven by a rotating disk at the bottom [G.H. Vatistas, H.A. Abderrahmane, M.H. Kamran Siddiqui, Experimental confirmation of Kelvin\\'s equilibria, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 (2008) 174503-174504], can be described as travelling cnoidal waves. These rotating stationary waves are obtained as solutions of a Korteweg-de Vries type equation, in accordance with the geometrical and kinematic characteristics of the observed polygonal patterns. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Spins in the vortices of a high-temperature superconductor
Lake, B.; Aeppli, G.; Clausen, K.N.
2001-01-01
Neutron scattering is used to characterize the magnetism of the vortices for the optimally doped high-temperature superconductor La2-xSrxCuO4 (x = 0.163) in an applied magnetic field. As temperature is reduced, Low-frequency spin fluctuations first disappear with the loss of vortex mobility......, but then reappear. We find that the vortex state can be regarded as an inhomogeneous mixture of a superconducting spin fluid and a material containing a nearly ordered antiferromagnet. These experiments show that as for many other properties of cuprate superconductors, the important underlying microscopic forces...
Dynamical properties of vortical structures on the beta-plane
Sutyrin, G.G.; Hesthaven, J.S.; Lynov, Jens-Peter;
1994-01-01
into a rotating tripole. A critical value of the vortex intensity is found, below which the tripolar structure does not appear even in the case of an initially shielded vortex. Weak monopolar vortices are able to trap particles and provide some west-meridional fluid transport, even in the case when they decay...... with a decaying amplitude (meridional case), thereby carrying trapped particles predominantly eastward. A steady state is not reached if the dipole intensity is below a critical value which depends on the initial direction of propagation. Weak dipoles either decay and shrink owing to Rossby wave radiation...
Vortices and ring dark solitons in nonlinear amplifying waveguides
Zhang, Jie-Fang; Li, Lu; Mihalache, Dumitru; Malomed, Boris A
2010-01-01
We consider the generation and propagation of (2+1)-dimensional beams in a nonlinear waveguide with the linear gain. Simple self-similar evolution of the beams is achieved at the asymptotic stage, if the input beams represent the fundamental mode. On the contrary, if they carry vorticity or amplitude nodes (or phase slips), vortex tori and ring dark solitons (RDSs) are generated, featuring another type of the self-similar evolution, with an exponentially shrinking vortex core or notch of the RDS. Numerical and analytical considerations reveal that these self-similar structures are robust entities in amplifying waveguides, being \\emph{stable} against azimuthal perturbations.
How can vorticity be produced in irrotationally forced flows?
Del Sordo, Fabio
2010-01-01
A spherical hydrodynamical expansion flow can be described as the gradient of a potential. In that case no vorticity should be produced, but several additional mechanisms can drive its production. Here we analyze the effects of baroclinicity, rotation and shear in the case of a viscous fluid. Those flows resemble what happens in the interstellar medium. In fact in this astrophysical environment supernovae explosion are the dominant flows and, in a first approximation, they can be seen as spherical. One of the main difference is that in our numerical study we examine only weakly supersonic flows, while supernovae explosions are strongly supersonic.
First characterization of coherent optical vortices from harmonic undulator radiation.
Hemsing, E; Dunning, M; Hast, C; Raubenheimer, T; Xiang, Dao
2014-09-26
We describe the experimental generation and measurement of coherent light that carries orbital angular momentum from a relativistic electron beam radiating at the second harmonic of a helical undulator. The measured helical phase of the light is shown to be in agreement with predictions of the sign and magnitude of the phase singularity and is more than 2 orders of magnitude greater than the incoherent signal. Our setup demonstrates that such optical vortices can be produced in modern free-electron lasers in a simple afterburner arrangement for novel two-mode pump-probe experiments.
Energy Density of Vortices in the Schroedinger Picture
Laenge, J D; Reinhardt, H
2003-01-01
The one-loop energy density of an infinitely thin static magnetic vortex in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory is evaluated using the Schroedinger picture. Both the gluonic fluctuations as well as the quarks in the vortex background are included. The energy density of the magnetic vortex is discussed as a function of the magnetic flux. The center vortices correspond to local minima in the effective potential. These minima are degenerated with the perturbative vacuum if the fermions are ignored. Inclusion of fermions lifts this degeneracy, raising the vortex energy above the energy of the perturbative vacuum.
Targeted mixing in an array of alternating vortices.
Bachelard, R; Benzekri, T; Chandre, C; Leoncini, X; Vittot, M
2007-10-01
Transport and mixing properties of passive particles advected by an array of vortices are investigated. Starting from the integrable case, it is shown that a special class of perturbations allows one to preserve separatrices which act as effective transport barriers, while triggering chaotic advection. In this setting, mixing within the two dynamical barriers is enhanced while long range transport is prevented. A numerical analysis of mixing properties depending on parameter values is performed; regions for which optimal mixing is achieved are proposed. Robustness of the targeted mixing properties regarding errors in the applied perturbation are considered, as well as slip/no-slip and/or boundary conditions for the flow.
Auralization of CFD Vorticity Using an Auditory Illusion
Volpe, C. R.
2005-12-01
One way in which scientists and engineers interpret large quantities of data is through a process called visualization, i.e. generating graphical images that capture essential characteristics and highlight interesting relationships. Another approach, which has received far less attention, is to present complex information with sound. This approach, called ``auralization" or ``sonification", is the auditory analog of visualization. Early work in data auralization frequently involved directly mapping some variable in the data to a sound parameter, such as pitch or volume. Multi-variate data could be auralized by mapping several variables to several sound parameters simultaneously. A clear drawback of this approach is the limited practical range of sound parameters that can be presented to human listeners without exceeding their range of perception or comfort. A software auralization system built upon an existing visualization system is briefly described. This system incorporates an aural presentation synchronously and interactively with an animated scientific visualization, so that alternate auralization techniques can be investigated. One such alternate technique involves auditory illusions: sounds which trick the listener into perceiving something other than what is actually being presented. This software system will be used to present an auditory illusion, known for decades among cognitive psychologists, which produces a sound that seems to ascend or descend endlessly in pitch. The applicability of this illusion for presenting Computational Fluid Dynamics data will be demonstrated. CFD data is frequently visualized with thin stream-lines, but thicker stream-ribbons and stream-tubes can also be used, which rotate to convey fluid vorticity. But a purely graphical presentation can yield drawbacks of its own. Thicker stream-tubes can be self-obscuring, and can obscure other scene elements as well, thus motivating a different approach, such as using sound. Naturally
Fujita, Norio; Kato, Masaru [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1, Gakuencho, Nakaku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Ishida, Takekazu [Department of Physics and Electronics, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1, Gakuencho, Nakaku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan)
2015-11-15
Highlights: • A d-dot is a nano-scaled composite structure that consists of a d- and s-wave SC. • Two-components GL equations with anisotropic effective mass of electrons are derived. • Anisotropic effective mass suppress spontaneous half-quantized vortices in d-dot’s. • Thin junctions are good for spontaneous half-quantized vortices in d-dot’s. - Abstract: We investigate effects of anisotropy of an orthorhombic structure in twin domains on spontaneous half-quantized vortices (SHQVs) in a d-dot, which is a nano-scaled composite structure that consists of a d-wave superconductor embedded in an s-wave matrix. Since YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7−δ} (YBCO) has the orthorhombic structure, there are twin domains separated by twin boundaries (TBs). In order to analyze effects of TBs on SHQVs, we derive two-component Ginzburg–Landau equations, in which electrons in YBCO have anisotropic effective mass. It is found that the magnitude of field around SHQVs is monotonically decreasing with increasing anisotropy of effective mass and finally peak values of the fields become zero. This means that anisotropy of the effective mass suppresses SHQVs and when the anisotropy is too large, SHQVs do not appear in d-dot’s.
Non-linear vorticity upsurge in Burgers flow
Lam, F
2016-01-01
We demonstrate that numerical solutions of Burgers' equation can be obtained by a scale-totality algorithm for fluids of small viscosity (down to one billionth). Two sets of initial data, modelling simple shears and wall boundary layers, are chosen for our computations. Most of the solutions are carried out well into the fully turbulent regime over finely-resolved scales in space and in time. It is found that an abrupt spatio-temporal concentration in shear constitutes an essential part during the flow evolution. The vorticity surge has been instigated by the non-linearity complying with instantaneous enstrophy production while ad hoc disturbances play no role in the process. In particular, the present method predicts the precipitous vorticity re-distribution and accumulation, predominantly over localised regions of minute dimension. The growth rate depends on viscosity and is a strong function of initial data. Nevertheless, the long-time energy decay is history-independent and is inversely proportional to ti...
Survival and Structure of Dusty Vortices in Protoplanetary Discs
Crnkovic-Rubsamen, Ivo; Stone, James M
2015-01-01
We have studied the impact of dust feedback on the survival and structure of vortices in protoplanetary discs using 2-D shearing box simulations with Lagrangian dust particles. We consider dust with a variety of sizes (stopping time $t_s = 10^{-2}\\Omega^{-1} - 10^{2}\\Omega^{-1}$, from fully coupled with the gas to the decoupling limit. We find that a vortex is destroyed by dust feedback when the total dust-to-gas mass ratio within the vortex is larger than 30-50%, independent of the dust size. The dust distribution can still be asymmetric in some cases after the vortex has been destroyed. With smaller amounts of dust, a vortex can survive for at least 100 orbits, and the maximum dust surface density within the vortex can be more than 100 times larger than the gas surface density, potentially facilitating planetesimal formation. On the other hand, in these stable vortices, small ($t_s \\Omega^{-1}$) dust grains concentrate differently and affect the gas dynamics in different ways. The distribution of large dus...
Hamiltonian Dynamics of Several Rigid Bodies Interacting with Point Vortices
Weißmann, Steffen
2014-04-01
We derive the dynamics of several rigid bodies of arbitrary shape in a two-dimensional inviscid and incompressible fluid, whose vorticity is given by point vortices. We adopt the idea of Vankerschaver et al. (J. Geom. Mech. 1(2): 223-226, 2009) to derive the Hamiltonian formulation via symplectic reduction from a canonical Hamiltonian system. The reduced system is described by a noncanonical symplectic form, which has previously been derived for a single circular disk using heavy differential-geometric machinery in an infinite-dimensional setting. In contrast, our derivation makes use of the fact that the dynamics of the fluid, and thus the point vortex dynamics, is determined from first principles. Using this knowledge we can directly determine the dynamics on the reduced, finite-dimensional phase space, using only classical mechanics. Furthermore, our approach easily handles several bodies of arbitrary shape. From the Hamiltonian description we derive a Lagrangian formulation, which enables the system for variational time integrators. We briefly describe how to implement such a numerical scheme and simulate different configurations for validation.
Helical vortices generated by flapping wings of bumblebees
Farge, Marie; Engels, Thomas; Kolomenskiy, Dmitry; Schneider, Kai; Lehmann, Fritz; Sesterhenn, Jörn
2016-11-01
We analyze high resolution numerical simulation data of a bumblebee with fixed body and prescribed wing motion, flying in a numerical wind tunnel, presented in. The inflow condition of the tunnel varies from unperturbed laminar to strongly turbulent. The flow generated by the flapping wings indicates the important role of the leading edge vortex (LEV), responsible for elevated lift production and which is not significantly altered by the inflow turbulence. The LEV has a conical structure due to the three-dimensional motion of the wings. This flow configuration produces strong vorticity on the sharp leading edge and the outwards velocity (from the root to the tip of the wing) in the spanwise direction. Flow visualizations show that the generated vortical structures are characterized by a strong helicity. We study the evolution of the mean helicity for each wing and analyze the impact of turbulent inflow. We thankfully acknowledge financial support from the French-German AIFIT project funded by DFG and ANR (Grant 15-CE40-0019). DK gratefully acknowledges financial support from the JSPS postdoctoral fellowship.
Optical vortices as potential indicators of biophysical dynamics
Majumdar, Anindya; Kirkpatrick, Sean J.
2017-03-01
Laser speckle patterns are granular patterns produced as a result of random interference of light waves. Optical vortices (OVs) are phase singularities in such speckle fields, characterized by zero intensity and an undefined phase. Decorrelation of the speckle fields causes these OVs to move in both time and space. In this work, a variety of parameters of these OVs have been studied. The speckle fields were simulated to undergo three distinct decorrelation behaviors- Gaussian, Lorentzian and constant decorrelations. Different decorrelation behaviors represent different dynamics. For example, Lorentzian and Gaussian decorrelations represent Brownian and ordered motions, respectively. Typical dynamical systems in biophysics are generally argued to be a combination of these. For each of the decorrelation behaviors under study, the vortex trails were tracked while varying the rate of decorrelation. Parameters such as the decorrelation length, average trail length and the deviation of the vortices as they traversed in the speckle field, were studied. Empirical studies were also performed to define the distinction between trails arising from different speckle decorrelation behaviors. The initial studies under stationary speckle fields were followed up by similar studies on shifting fields. A new idea to employ Poincaŕe plots in speckle analysis has also been introduced. Our studies indicate that tracking OVs can be a potential method to study cell and tissue dynamics.
Borneo Vortices: A case study and its relation to climatology
Braesicke, P.; Ooi, S. H.; Samah, A. A.
2012-04-01
Borneo vortices (BVs) develop over the South China Sea and are main drivers for the formation of deep convection and heavy rainfall in East Malaysia. We present a case study of a cold-surge-induced BV during January 2010 in which the export of potential energy lead to a strengthening of the subtropical jet. Potential vorticity (PV) and water vapour analyses confirm a significant impact of the BV on upper tropospheric composition. Dry, high PV air is found far below 100 hPa in the vicinty of the vortex. Using a PV threshold analysis of ERA-Interim data we construct a climatological composite of similar events and characterise the thermal, dynamical and composition structure of a 'typical' BV. We note the preferential formation of BVs during ENSO cold conditions and show that two effects contribute to the formation of the dry upper layer above a BV: Air is vertically transported upwards in the BV whilst precipitating and the large scale flow in which the BV is embedded advect dry, ozone rich air from the equatorial TTL over the BV. Thus the occurence frequency of BVs is important for the regional variability of upper tropospheric/lower stratospheric composition.
Metastable States of Josepshon Vortices: Thermal Processes and Quantum Effects
Wallraff, A.; Kemp, A.; Koval, Yu.; Ustinov, A. V.; Fistul, M. V.
2001-03-01
We experimentally study the dynamics of a single Josephson vortex in a tilted periodic potential. In the presence of a bias current applied uniformly to a long Josephson junction, metastable vortex-states are induced by the interaction of the vortex with an artificially formed inhomogeneity in the junction, or by shaping the junction subject to a small external magnetic field [1]. At high temperatures, we observe the thermal escape of the vortex out of the metastable state. As temperature and damping is reduced, the macroscopic quantum properties of Josephson vortices, such as energy level quantization and quantum tunneling, are expected to manifest themselves [2,3]. We report on our current experimental work to observe these effects. Our interest in this macroscopic quantum system is related to the possibility of using quantum states of Josephson vortices for performing quantum computation. We have suggested that a vortex trapped in a double-well potential in a narrow long junction can be used as a scalable and well-controllable qubit [1]. [1] A. Wallraff et al. , J. Low Temp. Phys. J. Low Temp. Phys. 188, 543 (2000). [2] T. Kato and M. Imada, J. Phys. Soc. Japan 65, 2963 (1996). [3] A. Shnirman, E. Ben-Jacob, and B. Malomed, Phys. Rev. B 56, 14677 (1997).
Hydrodynamic Model of Desalination by "Overlimiting" Electrodialysis with Electroconvective Vortices
Kwak, Rhokyun; Pham, Van Sang; Han, Jongyoon
2016-11-01
In 1968, Sonin and Probstein developed a hydrodynamic theory of desalination by electrodialysis. Under a laminar flow between ion exchange membranes, linear ion concentration gradients are developed near the membranes by ion concentration polarization (ICP) in Ohmic-limiting current regimes. This linear ICP determines the relations between current, voltage, and desalting performance. Here, we revisit the hydrodynamic model with nonlinear ICP phenomenon at overlimiting currents. In this regime, electroconvective vortices on the membrane induce flat and extremely low concentration zones. Based on the previous prediction of the vortex height under shear flow, we verify that the height directly represents the amount of the removed salt because there is almost no ion in the vortices. Next, from the mass continuity of ions, the amount of the removed salts is equal to the ion flux through the membrane (i.e. current); as a result, we can develop the relations between current, voltage, and salt removal. Lastly, from these relations, power consumption and desalination cost can be calculated to find the optimal operating condition of overlimiting electrodialysis.
Management of Vortices Trailing Flapped Wings via Separation Control
Greenblatt, David
2005-01-01
A pilot study was conducted on a flapped semi-span model to investigate the concept and viability of near-wake vortex management via separation control. Passive control was achieved by means of a simple fairing and active control was achieved via zero mass-flux blowing slots. Vortex sheet strength, estimated by integrating surface pressure ports, was used to predict vortex characteristics by means of inviscid rollup relations. Furthermore, vortices trailing the flaps were mapped using a seven-hole probe. Separation control was found to have a marked effect on vortex location, strength, tangential velocity, axial velocity and size over a wide range of angles of attack and control conditions. In general, the vortex trends were well predicted by the inviscid rollup relations. Manipulation of the separated flow near the flap edges exerted significant control over both outboard and inboard edge vortices while producing negligible lift excursions. Dynamic separation and attachment control was found to be an effective means for dynamically perturbing the vortex from arbitrarily long wavelengths down to wavelengths less than a typical wingspan. In summary, separation control has the potential for application to time-independent or time-dependent wake alleviation schemes, where the latter can be deployed to minimize adverse effects on ride-quality and dynamic structural loading.
Formation And Ingestion Of Vortices Into Jet Engines During Operation
Hua, Ho Wei; Jermy, Mark
2009-01-01
Vortices can be produced and ingested into the intake of a turbofan and turbojet aero engine during high power operation near solid surfaces. This can happen either on the runway during take-off or during engine test runs in a test cell. The vortex can throw debris into the intake or cause the compressor to stall causing significant damage to the engine and may require major overhaul. The ability to predict the onset of a vortex is therefore extremely valuable to the industry and could potentially save millions of dollars in overhaul costs. The factors that determines whether or not a vortex forms include engine thrust level, geometric factors such as the distance between the engine core and the ground and the size of the engine core, and flow conditions such as ambient vorticity and height of boundary layer. Computational fluid dynamic studies have been carried out by the authors to attempt to predict the effects that these factors have on the threshold of vortex formation. These works include the first reported studies of numerical predictions of the vortex formation threshold on both the runway or test cell scenarios and include factors that have not been previously studied either numerically or experimentally.
Geometric phase mediated topological transport of sound vortices
Wang, Shubo; Chan, C T
2016-01-01
When a physical system undergoes a cyclic evolution, a non-integrable phase can arise in addition to the normal dynamical phase. This phase, depending only on the geometry of the path traversed in the parameter space and hence named geometric phase, has profound impact in both classical and quantum physics, leading to exotic phenomena such as electron weak anti-localization and light spin-Hall effect. Experimental observations of the geometric phase effect in classical system are typically realized using vector waves such as light characterized by a polarization. We show here that such an effect can also be realized in scalar wave systems such as sound wave. Using a helical hollow waveguide, we show that the geometric phase effect associated with the transportation of sound vortices, i.e. sound wave carrying intrinsic orbital angular momentum, can serve as a potential mechanism to control the flow of sound vortices with different topological charges, resulting in geometric phase-based sound vortex filters.
Thermoconvective vortices in a cylindrical annulus with varying inner radius.
Castaño, D; Navarro, M C; Herrero, H
2014-12-01
This paper shows the influence of the inner radius on the stability and intensity of vertical vortices, qualitatively similar to dust devils and cyclones, generated in a cylindrical annulus non-homogeneously heated from below. Little relation is found between the intensity of the vortex and the magnitude of the inner radius. Strong stable vortices can be found for both small and large values of the inner radius. The Rankine combined vortex structure, that characterizes the tangential velocity in dust devils, is clearly observed when small values of the inner radius and large values of the ratio between the horizontal and vertical temperature differences are considered. A contraction on the radius of maximum azimuthal velocity is observed when the vortex is intensified by thermal mechanisms. This radius becomes then nearly stationary when frictional force balances the radial inflow generated by the pressure drop in the center, despite the vortex keeps intensifying. These results connect with the behavior of the radius of the maximum tangential wind associated with a hurricane.
Melt pool vorticity in deep penetration laser material welding
N Kumar; S Dash; A K Tyagi; Baldev Raj
2011-04-01
In the present study, the vorticity of melt motion in the keyhole and weld pool has been evaluated in case of high power CO2 laser beam welding. The circulation of vorticity is obtained as a function of Reynolds number for a given keyhole volume which is linked to Mach number variation. The shear stress and thermal ﬂuxes present in the turbulent pool are linked to diffusivity and Prandtl number variation. It was shown that below a critical value of Rayleigh number, the conduction mode of melt transfer signifying beam absorption becomes dominant. Above this value, convective heat transfer indicates melting and evaporation occurring in the weld pool during laser welding. The evaporative recoil pressure expels the liquid while surface tension and hydrostatic pressure help to retain the melt in the keyhole cavity in this high power laser beam welding. The understanding of several hydrodynamic phenomena occuring in the weld pool is valuable not only for understanding basic mechanistic aspects but also for process optimization involved in laser beam welding.
Scanning Tunnelling Spectroscopy of Vortices with Normal and Superconducting tips
Rodrigo, J. G.; Suderow, H.; Vieira, S.
Scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM/S) has proved to be a powerful tool to study superconductivity down to atomic level. Vortex lattice studies require characterizing areas of enough size to contain a large number of vortices. On the other hand, it is necessary to combine this capability with high spectroscopic and microscopic resolution. This is a fundamental aspect to measure and detect the subtle changes appearing inside and around a single vortex. We report in this chapter our approach to the use of STM/S, using normal and superconducting tips, to observe the lattice of vortices in several compounds, and the information acquired inside these fascinating entities. The combination of superconducting tips and scanning tunneling spectroscopy, (ST)2S, presents advantages for the study of superconducting samples. It allows to distinguish relevant features of the sample density of states, which manifest itself as small changes in the Josephson coupling between sample and tip condensates, and it has also shown to be very efficient in the study of the ferromagnetic-superconductor transition in the re-entrant superconductor ErRh4B4.
On the Stability of Elliptical Vortices in Accretion Discs
Lesur, G
2009-01-01
(Abriged) The existence of large-scale and long-lived 2D vortices in accretion discs has been debated for more than a decade. They appear spontaneously in several 2D disc simulations and they are known to accelerate planetesimal formation through a dust trapping process. However, the issue of the stability of these structures to the imposition of 3D disturbances is still not fully understood, and it casts doubts on their long term survival. Aim: We present new results on the 3D stability of elliptical vortices embedded in accretion discs, based on a linear analysis and several non-linear simulations. Methods: We derive the linearised equations governing the 3D perturbations in the core of an elliptical vortex, and we show that they can be reduced to a Floquet problem. We solve this problem numerically in the astrophysical regime and we present several analytical limits for which the mechanism responsible for the instability can be explained. Finally, we compare the results of the linear analysis to some high ...
EFT for Vortices with Dilaton-dependent Localized Flux
Burgess, C P; Williams, M
2015-01-01
We study how codimension-two objects like vortices back-react gravitationally with their environment in theories (such as 4D or higher-dimensional supergravity) where the bulk is described by a dilaton-Maxwell-Einstein system. We do so both in the full theory, for which the vortex is an explicit classical `fat brane' solution, and in the effective theory of `point branes' appropriate when the vortices are much smaller than the scales of interest for their back-reaction (such as the transverse Kaluza-Klein scale). We extend the standard Nambu-Goto description to include the physics of flux-localization wherein the ambient flux of the external Maxwell field becomes partially localized to the vortex, generalizing the results of a companion paper to include dilaton-dependence for the tension and localized flux. In the effective theory, such flux-localization is described by the next-to-leading effective interaction, and the boundary conditions to which it gives rise are known to play an important role in how (and...
Axisymmetrically Tropical Cyclone-like Vortices with Secondary Circulations
Sun, Liang
2013-01-01
The secondary circulation of the tropical cyclone (TC) is related to its formation and intensification, thus becomes very important in the studies. The analytical solutions have both the primary and secondary circulation in a three-dimensionally nonhydrostatic and adiabatic model. We prove that there are three intrinsic radiuses for the axisymmetrically ideal incompressible flow. The first one is the radius of maximum primary circular velocity $r_m$. The second one is radius of the primary kernel $r_k>r_m$, across which the vorticity of the primary circulation changes sign and the vertical velocity changes direction. The last one is the radius of the maximum primary vorticity $r_d$, at which the vertical flow of the secondary circulation approaches its maximum, and across which the radius velocity changes sign. The first TC-like vortex solution has universal inflow or outflow. The relations between the intrinsic length scales are $r_k=\\sqrt{2}r_m$ and $r_d=2r_m$. The second one is a multi-planar solution, per...
Classification of hemispheric monthly mean stratospheric potential vorticity fields
R. Huth
Full Text Available Monthly mean NCEP reanalysis potential vorticity fields at the 650 K isentropic level over the Northern and Southern Hemispheres between 1979 and 1997 were studied using multivariate analysis tools. Principal component analysis in the T-mode was applied to demonstrate the validity of such statistical techniques for the study of stratospheric dynamics and climatology. The method, complementarily applied to both the raw and anomaly fields, was useful in determining and classifying the characteristics of winter and summer PV fields on both hemispheres, in particular, the well-known differences in the behaviour and persistence of the polar vortices. It was possible to identify such features as sudden warming events in the Northern Hemisphere and final warming dates in both hemispheres. The stratospheric impact of other atmospheric processes, such as volcanic eruptions, also identified though the results, must be viewed at this stage as tentative. An interesting change in behaviour around 1990 was detected over both hemispheres.
Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; general circulation; climatology
Ishimatsu, K.; Shinohara, T.; Kage, K.; Okubayashi, T. [Oita University, Oita (Japan). Faculty of Engineering
1995-01-25
Considerations have been given on the effects of shed vortices on running performance based on a drawing of the flow fields around a Savonius rotor with semi-circular blades (a drawing depicting the result of calculations using the finite volume method based on two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations). A drawing of time-based change in the flow field using a relative velocity vector and an equivalent vorticity line, and a drawing of pressure distribution on the surface of and around the blades were used to indicate that the vortex behavior and the pressure field differ respectively because of increase in the circumferential speed ratio and the existence of blade clearance. The following matters are indicated: the reduction in the torque coefficient in association with increase in the circumferential speed ratio is caused importantly by the separation vortices from the rear face of a leading side blade entering into a concave portion in a return side blade; and the reason for the torque coefficient growing larger above a certain circumferential speed ratio in the case of having blade clearance than the case not having the blade clearance is because the separation vortices from the rear face of the blade become more difficult of entering into the concave portion due to a flow passing through the clearance. 4 refs., 11 figs.
Effect of Interactions on Vortices in a Non-equilibrium Polariton Condensate
Krizhanovskii, D N; Bradley, R A; Guda, K; Sarkar, D; Sanvitto, D; Vina, L; Cerda, E; Santos, P; Biermann, K; Hey, R; Skolnick, M S
2013-01-01
We demonstrate the creation of vortices in a macroscopically occupied polariton state formed in a semiconductor microcavity. A weak external laser beam carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) is used to imprint a vortex on the condensate arising from the polariton optical parametric oscillator (OPO). The vortex core radius is found to decrease with increasing pump power, and is determined by polariton-polariton interactions. As a result of OAM conservation in the parametric scattering process, the excitation consists of a vortex in the signal and a corresponding anti-vortex in the idler of the OPO. The experimental results are in good agreement with a theoretical model of a vortex in the polariton OPO.
Multiply quantized vortices and finite temperature effects in the BEC/BCS crossover regime
Tempere, Jacques [TFVS, Universiteit Antwerpen (UIA), Universiteitsplein 1, B2610 Antwerpen (Belgium); Lyman Laboratory of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Devreese, Jozef T. [TFVS, Universiteit Antwerpen (UIA), Universiteitsplein 1, B2610 Antwerpen (Belgium)]. E-mail: jozef.devreese@ua.ac.be
2006-05-15
The interatomic interaction strength in ultracold fermionic gases can be manipulated using Feshbach resonances, allowing to probe both the regime where atoms form molecules that Bose condense (BEC) and the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) regime. We use a path-integral formalism to investigate the properties of multiply quantized vortices in these systems. Although the vortex core region expands when more quanta of circulation are present, the qualitative result is the same: in the BEC regime, the atoms do not penetrate into the vortex core, whereas in the BCS regime they do. The system undergoes a smooth crossover between the two regimes. When the temperature is increased, the penetration of atoms into the vortex core becomes more pronounced.
Wilczek, M; Friedrich, R [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Muenster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Str. 9, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Kadoch, B [Aix-Marseille Universite and M2P2-CNRS Ecole Centrale de Marseille, 38 Rue Joliot-Curie, 13451 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Schneider, K [M2P2-CNRS and CMI, Universite de Provence, 39 Rue Joliot-Curie, 13453 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Farge, M, E-mail: mwilczek@uni-muenster.de [LMD-CNRS, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 Rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 5 (France)
2011-12-22
We study the conditional balance of vortex stretching and vorticity diffusion of fully developed three-dimensional homogeneous isotropic turbulence with respect to coherent and incoherent flow contributions. This decomposition is achieved by the Coherent Vorticity Extraction based on orthogonal wavelets applied to DNS data, which yields insights into the influence of the different contributions as well as their interaction.
Imparting small vorticity to a Bianchi type-VIh empty spacetime
Batakis, Nikos A.
1981-04-01
We present and briefly discuss a Bianchi type-VIh empty spacetime. The field equations have been solved after being linearized with respect to a parameter which imparts vorticity to the model. The limit of zero vorticity is an already known solution.
Potential Vorticity Evolution in the Co-orbital Region of Embedded Protoplanets
Koller, J. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)
2004-04-01
This thesis presents two-dimensional hydrodynamic disk simulations with embedded protoplanets, emphasizing the non-linear dynamics in the co-orbital region. In particular, it demonstrates how a protoplanetary disk responds to embedded low mass planets at the inviscid limit. Since the potential vorticity (PV) flow is not conserved, due to the spiral shocks and possibly boundary layer effects emanating from the planet, the PV profile develops inflection points which eventually render the flow unstable. Vortices are produced in association with the potential vorticity minima. Born in the separatrix region, these vortices experience close encounters with the planet, consequently exerting strong torques on the planet. The existence of these vortices, if confirmed, have important implications on planetary migration rates. The formation of vortices is discussed in more detail and a key parameter is found which depends solely on planet mass and sound speed. With this key parameter, one can predict the disk evolution, PV growth rates, and threshold conditions for forming vortices in the co-orbital region. An analytical estimate for the change of PV due to shocks is compared to the actual change in PV in the hydrodynamic simulations. They match well except in the inner region where vortices form. In addition, extensive resolution tests were carried out but uncertainties remain about the physics of this particular region.
Evidence for the movement of macro-vortices on high critical temperature superconductors
Galán, Guillermo Briones; Quelle, Iria; Gonzalez-Jorge, Higinio; Romani, Luis; Domarco, Gerardo
2016-10-01
In this work, a procedure for inserting currents in rings and their respective vortices was developed. The current circulating around the ring was determined by measuring the magnetic field in its axis. Current and vortices were separated by eliminating the current using a resistor placed in the section through which the whole current circulates. The vortices undergo a Lorentz force traveling over the superconducting net and it dissipate energy. This movement is interrupted by the obstacles found on their way (pinning) and can be seen on the decaying curves especially toward the end of the experiment when the forces get weaker due to the decreasing vortices. This movement of vortices was evidenced by resorting to a long time, during which the vortices have come to a stop. The vortices amount was manipulated by means of the injection of anti-vortices that allowed us to eliminate part of them. This allowed us to observe the decrease in travel speed and the dissipation of energy.
Potential Vorticity Evolution in the Co-orbital Region of Embedded Protoplanets
J. Koller
2004-09-01
This thesis presents two-dimensional hydrodynamic disk simulations with embedded protoplanets, emphasizing the non-linear dynamics in the co-orbital region. In particular, it demonstrates how a protoplanetary disk responds to embedded low mass planets at the inviscid limit. Since the potential vorticity (PV) flow is not conserved, due to the spiral shocks and possibly boundary layer effects emanating from the planet, the PV profile develops inflection points which eventually render the flow unstable. Vortices are produced in association with the potential vorticity minima. Born in the separatrix region, these vortices experience close encounters with the planet, consequently exerting strong torques on the planet. The existence of these vortices, if confirmed, have important implications on planetary migration rates. The formation of vortices is discussed in more detail and a key parameter is found which depends solely on planet mass and sound speed. With this key parameter, one can predict the disk evolution, PV growth rates, and threshold conditions for forming vortices in the co-orbital region. An analytical estimate for the change of PV due to shocks is compared to the actual change in PV in the hydrodynamic simulations. They match well except in the inner region where vortices form. In addition, extensive resolution tests were carried out but uncertainties remain about the physics of this particular region.
Gaber, Tobias
2007-07-01
In this thesis static and dynamic properties of fractional vortices in long Josephson junctions are investigated. Fractional vortices are circulating supercurrents similar to the well-known Josephson fluxons. Yet, they show the distinguishing property of carrying only a fraction of the magnetic flux quantum. Fractional vortices are interesting non-linear objects. They spontaneously appear and are pinned at the phase discontinuity points of so called 0-{kappa} junctions but can be bend or flipped by external forces like bias currents or magnetic fields. 0-{kappa} junctions and fractional vortices are generalizations of the well-known 0-{pi} junctions and semifluxons, where not only phase jumps of pi but arbitrary values denoted by kappa are considered. By using so-called artificial 0-{kappa} junctions that are based on standard Nb-AlO{sub x}-Nb technology the classical dynamics of fractional vortices has been investigated experimentally for the very first time. Here, half-integer zero field steps could be observed. These voltage steps on the junction's current-voltage characteristics correspond to the periodic flipping/hopping of fractional vortices. In addition, the oscillatory eigenmodes of fractional vortices were investigated. In contrast to fluxons fractional vortices have an oscillatory eigenmode with a frequency within the plasma gap. Using resonance spectroscopy the dependence of the eigenmode frequency on the flux carried by the vortex and an applied bias current was determined. (orig.)
Energy and vorticity decay in Haloclines and Thermoclines
Redondo, Jose M.; Matulka, Annia M.; Peco, Cristian
2010-05-01
Experiments at different Reynolds numbers on the vertical and horizontal mixing structure and efficiency of mixing across a thermocline or halocline are used to investigate the decay of the turbulence [1-3]. Vertical and horizontal grids are used to mix an initialy sharp density interface (mostly made up with brine). Visualization methods are used to derive the velocity and vorticity horizontal fields and density probes allow to evaluate mixing. The vortex behavior is analyzed in detail as well as the process of energy decay and the transfer from kinetic to potential energy.By using the multi-fractal "Box counting Algorithm" [1] on the kinetic energy and vorticity fields and a suitable non dimensional Damkholer type of decay time, based on the local dissipation in the experiments that model ocean haloclines and surface ROFI, it is possible to relate certain patterns to physical processes similar to those in the ocean as in[4]. Diffusion, Spectral variations, Intermittency and higher order estimations of local mixing are presented as functions of the Richardson number and these predictions are compared with practical ocean flows and pollution situations[5]. [1] Redondo J.M. and Garzon G."Multifractal structure and intermittency in Rayleigh-Taylor Driven Fronts". Ed. S. Dalziel www.damtp.cam.ac.uk/iwpctm9/proceedings/IWPCTM9/Papers/Programme.htm. 2004. [2] Redondo, J.M. and Cantalapiedra I.R. "Mixing in Horizontally Heterogeneous Flows". Jour. Flow Turbulence and Combustion. 51. 217-222. 1993. [3] Castilla R, Redondo J.M., Gamez P.J., Babiano A. "Coherent vortices and Lagrangian Dynamics in 2D Turbulence". Non-Linear Processes in Geophysics 14. 139-151. 2007. [4] Bezerra,M.O. M. Diez, C. Medeiros, A. Rodriguez, E. Bahia., A. Sanchez-Arcilla and J.M. Redondo. "Study on the influence of waves on coastal diffusion using image analysis". Jour. Flow Turbulence and Combustion 59,.191-204. 1998. [5] Peco, C. "Mixing in the Thermocline and Halocline Ms". Thesis, ETSECCPB
Diagnostic study on the relation between ozone and vorticity potential
Abdel Basset, H. [Department of Astronomy and Meteorology, Faculty of Science, Al Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); Gahein, A. [Egyptian Meteorological Authority, Cairo (Egypt)
2003-04-01
A diagnostic analysis of a Mediterranean system and the associated tropopause folding for the period 27 February to 10 March, 1987 is presented. Geopotential height, potential vorticity (PV) and relative humidity distributions were diagnosed. The analysis indicates clear correlation between the development of the cut-off low and the tropopause folding. A series of vertical cross-sections at the ends of the jet streaks demonstrated that a fold could be captured using potential vorticity and relative humidity. Q-vectors were employed to investigate vertical motion in the vicinity of the fold and showed the exact positions of descent corresponding to the fold along the entire length of the jet streak. The analysis also shows that the strong correlation between total ozone and column integrated vorticity potential holds well for all levels. As both quantities are integrals through the atmosphere, this result is consistent with, but does not prove, a high independent linear dependence between ozone and PV. More case studies are needed to assure the high linear dependence between ozone and PV. The maximum transport of ozone from the stratosphere to the troposphere is coinciding with the maximum developing system, and also with the maximum values of PV. [Spanish] Se presenta un analisis diagnostico de un Sistema mediterraneo y del pliegue de la tropopausa asociado durante el periodo del 27 de febrero al 10 de marzo de 1987. Se diagnosticaron la altitud neopotencial, el potencial de vorticidad y la distribucion de la humedad relativa. El analisis indica una correlacion clara entre el desarrollo de la baja segregada y el pliegue de la tropopausa. Una serie de cortes verticales en los extremos de las trazas del chorro demostraron que el pliegue puede ser capturado utilizando el potencial de vorticidad y la humedad relativa. Para investigar la movilidad vertical en la vecindad del pliegue se utilizaron vectores Q, y se demostraron las posiciones exactas de descenso